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Sample records for medial preoptic areas

  1. Hyperglycemia decreased medial amygdala projections to medial preoptic area in experimental model of Diabetes Mellitus.

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    Yousef Mohamadi; Seyed Behnam-edin Jameie; Mohammad Akbari; Masumeh Staji; Fatemeh Moradi; Tahmineh Mokhtari; Maryam Khanehzad; Gholamreza Hassanzadeh

    2015-01-01

    In Wistar rats, reproductive behavior is controlled in a neural circuit of ventral forebrain including the medial amygdala (Me), bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) and medial preoptic area (MPOA) via perception of social odors. Diabetes Mellitus (DM) is a widespread metabolic disease that affects many organs in a variety of levels. DM can cause central neuropathies such as neuronal apoptosis, dendritic atrophy, neurochemical alterations and also causes reproductive dysfunctions. So we...

  2. Hyperglycemia decreased medial amygdala projections to medial preoptic area in experimental model of Diabetes Mellitus.

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    Yousef Mohamadi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In Wistar rats, reproductive behavior is controlled in a neural circuit of ventral forebrain including the medial amygdala (Me, bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST and medial preoptic area (MPOA via perception of social odors. Diabetes Mellitus (DM is a widespread metabolic disease that affects many organs in a variety of levels. DM can cause central neuropathies such as neuronal apoptosis, dendritic atrophy, neurochemical alterations and also causes reproductive dysfunctions. So we hypothesized damage to the nuclei of this circuit can cause reproductive dysfunctions. Therefore in this project we assessed diabetic effect on these nuclei. For this purpose neuron tracing technique and TUNEL assay were used. We injected HRP in the MPOA and counted labeled cells in the Me and BNST to evaluate the reduction of neurons in diabetic animals. Also, coronal sections were analyzed with the TMB histochemistry method. Animals in this study were adult male Wistar rats (230 ± 8g divided to control and 10-week streptozotocin-induced diabetic groups. After data analysis by SPSS 16 software, a significant reduction of HRP-labeled neurons was shown in both Me and BNST nuclei in the diabetic group. Moreover, apoptotic cells were significantly observed in diabetic animals in contrast to control the group. In conclusion, these alterations of the circuit as a result of diabetes might be one of the reasons for reproductive dysfunctions.

  3. Antisense mRNA for NPY-Y1 receptor in the medial preoptic area increases prolactin secretion

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    N.A. Silveira

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the participation of neuropeptide Y-Y1 receptors within the medial preoptic area in luteinizing hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone and prolactin release. Four bilateral microinjections of sense (control or antisense 18-base oligonucleotides of messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA (250 ng corresponding to the NH2-terminus of the neuropeptide Y1 receptor were performed at 12-h intervals for two days into the medial preoptic area of ovariectomized Wistar rats (N = 16, weighing 180 to 200 g, treated with estrogen (50 µg and progesterone (25 mg two days before the experiments between 8.00 and 10:00 a.m. Blockade of Y1 receptor synthesis in the medial preoptic area by the antisense mRNA did not change plasma luteinizing hormone or follicle-stimulating hormone but did increase prolactin from 19.6 ± 5.9 ng/ml in the sense group to 52.9 ± 9.6 ng/ml in the antisense group. The plasma hormones were measured by radioimmunoassay and the values are reported as mean ± SEM. These data suggest that endogenous neuropeptide Y in the medial preoptic area has an inhibitory action on prolactin secretion through Y1 receptors.

  4. Neonatal handling reduces the number of cells in the medial preoptic area of female rats.

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    Camozzato, Tatiane S C; Winkelmann-Duarte, Elisa C; Padilha, Camila B; Miguel, Sandro P R; Bonzanini, Laisa; Anselmo-Franci, Janete A; Fernandes, Marilda C; Lucion, Aldo B

    2009-01-09

    Early-life events may induce alterations in neuronal function in adulthood. A crucial aspect in studying long-lasting effects induced by environmental interventions imposed to the animal several weeks before is finding a stable change that could be causally related to the phenotype observed in adulthood. In order to explain an adult trait, it seems necessary to look back to early life and establish a temporal line between events. The neonatal handling procedure is an experimental tool to analyze the long-lasting impact of early-life events. Aside from the neuroendocrine response to stress, neonatal handling also alters the functionality of the hypothalamus-pituitary-gonad (HPG) axis. Reductions in ovulation and surge of the luteinizing hormone (LH) on the proestrous day were shown in female rats. Considering the importance of the medial preoptic area (MPA) for the control of ovulation, the present study aimed to verify the effects of neonatal handling on the numerical density and cell size in the MPA in 11-day-old and 90-day-old female rats. Cellular proliferation was also assessed using BrdU (5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine) in 11-day-old pups. Results showed that neonatal handling induces a stable reduction in the number of cells and in the size of the cell soma, which were lower in handled females than in nonhandled ones at both ages. Cellular proliferation in the MPA was also reduced 24 h after the last manipulation. The repeated mother-infant disruption imposed by the handling procedure "lesioned" the MPA. The dysfunction in the ovulation mechanisms induced by the handling procedure could be related to that neuronal loss. The study also illustrates the impact of an environmental intervention on the development of the brain.

  5. Activation of organum vasculosum of lamina terminalis, median preoptic nucleus, and medial preoptic area in anticipation of nursing in rabbit pups.

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    Moreno, María Luisa; Meza, Enrique; Morgado, Elvira; Juárez, Claudia; Ramos-Ligonio, Angel; Ortega, Arturo; Caba, Mario

    2013-12-01

    Rhythmic feeding in rabbit pups is a natural model to study food entrainment because, similar to rodents under a schedule of food restriction, these animals show food-anticipatory activity (FAA) prior to daily nursing. In rodents, several brain systems, including the orexinergic system, shift their activity to the restricted feeding schedule, and remain active when subjects are hungry. As the lamina terminalis and regions of the preoptic area participate in the control of behavioral arousal, it was hypothesized that these brain regions are also activated during FAA. Thus, the effects of daily milk ingestion on FOS protein expression in the organum vasculosum of lamina terminalis (OVLT), median preoptic nucleus (MnPO), and medial preoptic area (MPOA) were examined using immunohistochemistry before and after scheduled time of nursing in nursed and fasted subjects. Additionally, FOS expression was explored in orexin (ORX) cells in the lateral hypothalamic area and in the supraoptic nucleus (SON) because of their involvement in arousal and fluid ingestion, respectively. Pups were entrained by daily nursing, as indicated by a significant increase in locomotor behavior before scheduled time of nursing in both nursed and fasted subjects. FOS was significantly higher in the OVLT, MnPO, and MPOA at the time of nursing, and decreased 8 h later in nursed pups. In fasted subjects, this effect persisted in the OVLT, whereas in the MnPO and MPOA, values did not drop at 8 h later, but remained at the same level or higher than those at the time of scheduled nursing. In addition, FOS was significantly higher in ORX cells during FAA in nursed pups in comparison with 8 h later, but in fasted subjects it remained high during most fasting time points. Additionally, OVLT, SON, and ORX cells were activated 1.5 h after nursing. We conclude that the OVLT, MnPO, and MPOA, but not SON, may participate in FAA, as they show activation before suckling of periodic milk ingestion, and that

  6. GFAP expression in astrocytes of suprachiasmatic nucleus and medial preoptic area are differentially affected by malnutrition during rat brain development.

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    Mendonça, João Esmeraldo Frota; Vilela, Maria Cristina Ramos; Bittencourt, Heitor; Lapa, Raíssa Maria; Oliveira, Francisco Gilberto; Alessio, Maria Luíza Martins; Guedes, Rubem Carlos Araújo; De Oliveira Costa, Miriam Stela Maris; Da Costa, Belmira Lara da Silveira Andrade

    2004-08-01

    The aim of the present study was investigate, in young rats, the effects of malnutrition on astrocyte distribution of two hypothalamic regions, the circadian pacemaker suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) and the medial preoptic area (MPA). Control rats were born from mothers fed on commercial diet since gestation and malnourished rats from mothers fed on multideficient diet, from the beginning of gestation (GLA group) or from the onset of lactation (LA group). After weaning, pups received ad libitum the same diet as their mothers, and were maintained under a 12/12 h light/dark cycle. The animals were analyzed either at 30-33, or 60-63 days of life. Brain coronal sections (50 microm) were processed to visualize glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) immunoreactivity. Compared to control rats, both malnourished groups of 30 and 60 days exhibited a reduced number of GFAP-immunoreactive astrocytes in the SCN. The total GFAP-immunoreactive area in the SCN of the GLA group differed from the control group at both age ranges analyzed. The GFAP expression as measured by the relative optical density (ROD) exhibited a 50-60% reduction in the MPA in both malnourished groups, compared to controls. The results suggest that malnutrition early in life leads to alterations in gliogenesis or glial cell proliferation in both nuclei, being these alterations greater in the MPA. Compensatory plasticity mechanisms in the GFAP-expression seem to be developed in the astrocyte differentiation process in the SCN, especially when the malnutrition is installed from the lactation.

  7. Expression of glutamic acid decarboxylase messenger RNA in rat medial preoptic area neurones during the oestrous cycle and after ovariectomy.

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    Herbison, A E; Augood, S J; McGowan, E M

    1992-08-01

    Evidence suggests that medial preoptic area (MPOA) neurones containing gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) are modulated directly by oestrogen. We have used an alkaline phosphatase-labelled antisense oligonucleotide probe to examine glutamic acid decarboxylase67 (GAD) mRNA expression within individual cells of the MPOA, diagonal band of Broca (DBB) and parietal cortex in rats killed at noon on each day of the oestrous cycle and after ovariectomy (n = 4-5). As a fall in extracellular GABA concentrations occurs in the MPOA on the afternoon of proestrus, the GAD67 mRNA content of cells was also examined in proestrous rats at 15:00h immediately prior to the preovulatory luteinising hormone (LH) surge. The MPOA was found to have an intermediate number of GAD67 mRNA-containing cells compared with the DBB and cortex (P less than 0.01) but expressed the lowest mean hybridisation signal (P less than 0.01). The parietal cortex had significantly fewer (P less than 0.01) GAD mRNA-containing cells than either the MPOA or DBB but these contained higher mean density of signal (P less than 0.01). The hybridisation signal for GAD mRNA was abolished by either ribonuclease pre-treatment or the use of excess non-labelled probe. No significant (P greater than 0.05) differences in GAD67 mRNA were detected in animals killed at noon throughout the oestrous cycle or after ovariectomy. On the afternoon of proestrus (15:00h) there was a significant 40% reduction in mean GAD67 mRNA content within cells of only the MPOA compared with noon (P less than 0.05). The numbers of cells in the MPOA expressing GAD67 mRNA were not significantly different.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  8. Moxd1 Is a Marker for Sexual Dimorphism in the Medial Preoptic Area, Bed Nucleus of the Stria Terminalis and Medial Amygdala

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    Tsuneoka, Yousuke; Tsukahara, Shinji; Yoshida, Sachine; Takase, Kenkichi; Oda, Satoko; Kuroda, Masaru; Funato, Hiromasa

    2017-01-01

    The brain shows various sex differences in its structures. Various mammalian species exhibit sex differences in the sexually dimorphic nucleus of the preoptic area (SDN-POA) and parts of the extended amygdala such as the principal nucleus of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNSTpr) and posterodorsal part of the medial amygdala (MePD). The SDN-POA and BNSTpr are male-biased sexually dimorphic nuclei, and characterized by the expression of calbindin D-28K (calbindin 1). However, calbindin-immunoreactive cells are not restricted to the SDN-POA, but widely distributed outside of the SDN-POA. To find genes that are more specific to sexually dimorphic nuclei, we selected candidate genes by searching the Allen brain atlas and examined the detailed expressions of the candidate genes using in situ hybridization. We found that the strong expression of monooxygenase DBH-like 1 (Moxd1) was restricted to the SDN-POA, BNSTpr and MePD. The numbers of Moxd1-positive cells in the SDN-POA, BNSTpr and MePD in male mice were larger than those in female mice. Most of the Moxd1-positive cells in the SDN-POA and BNSTpr expressed calbindin. Neonatal castration of male mice reduced the number of Moxd1-positive cells in the SDN-POA, whereas gonadectomy in adulthood did not change the expression of the Moxd1 gene in the SDN-POA in both sexes. These results suggest that the Moxd1 gene is a suitable marker for sexual dimorphic nuclei in the POA, BNST and amygdala, which enables us to manipulate sexually dimorphic neurons to examine their roles in sex-biased physiology and behaviors.

  9. Effects of electrical lesions of the medial preoptic area and the ventral pallidum on mate-dependent paternal behavior in mice.

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    Akther, Shirin; Fakhrul, Azam A K M; Higashida, Haruhiro

    2014-06-06

    In laboratory animals, less is known about the neural circuits that mediate paternal behavior than those that influence maternal behavior. In mice, we recently reported that when sires are separated with their mate dams from their pups, ultrasound and pheromonal signals from the dams can evoke and initiate maternal-like retrieval behavior in the sires upon reunion with the offspring; this is termed mate-dependent paternal care. We used electrolytic brain lesion (EBL) methods to identify the potential roles of the medial preoptic area (mPOA) and ventral pallidum (VP) regions in regulating paternal care, areas known to be critical for the expression of maternal behavior. Electrolytic lesions of the mPOA or VP disrupted mate-dependent paternal care; latencies to initiate pup retrieval, grooming and crouching were longer in the EBL-treated sires relative to the sham-operated mice. The number of grooming episodes and duration of crouching were also lower in sires with the EBL in both areas. These results indicate that the mPOA and VP regions are essential for mate-dependent paternal care in mice.

  10. Seasonal changes of androgen receptor, estrogen receptors and aromatase expression in the medial preoptic area of the wild male ground squirrels (Citellus dauricus Brandt

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    F. Zhang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The wild ground squirrel is a typical seasonal breeder. In this study, using RT-PCR, western blot and immunohistochemistry, we investigated the mRNA and protein expressions of androgen receptor (AR, estrogen receptors α and β (ERα and ERβ and aromatase cytochrome P450 (P450arom in the medial preoptic area (MPOA of hypothalamus of the wild male ground squirrel during the breeding season (April, the non-breeding season (June and pre-hibernation (September. AR, ERα, ERβ and P450arom protein/mRNA were present in the MPOA of all seasons detected. The immunostaining of AR and ERα showed no significant changes in different periods, whereas ERβ and P450arom had higher immunoreactivities during the breeding season and pre-hibernation when compared to those of the non-breeding season. Consistently, both the protein and mRNA levels of P450arom and ERβ were higher in the MPOA of pre-hibernation and the breeding season than in the non-breeding season, whereas no significant difference amongst the three periods was observed for AR and ERα levels. These findings suggested that the MPOA of hypothalamus may be a direct target of androgen and estrogen. Androgen may play important regulatory roles through its receptor and/or the aromatized estrogen in the MPOA of hypothalamus of the wild male ground squirrels.

  11. The effects of nitric oxide-cGMP pathway stimulation on dopamine in the medial preoptic area and copulation in DHT-treated castrated male rats.

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    Sato, Satoru M; Wersinger, Scott R; Hull, Elaine M

    2007-08-01

    Dopamine (DA) in the medial preoptic area (MPOA) provides important facilitative influence on male rat copulation. We have shown that the nitric oxide-cGMP (NO-cGMP) pathway modulates MPOA DA levels and copulation. We have also shown that systemic estradiol (E(2)) maintains neuronal NO synthase (nNOS) immunoreactivity in the MPOA of castrates, as well as relatively normal DA levels. This effect of E(2) on nNOS probably accounts for at least some of the previously demonstrated behavioral facilitation by intra-MPOA E(2) administration in castrates. Therefore, we hypothesized that stimulation of the MPOA NO-cGMP pathway in dihydrotestosterone (DHT)-treated castrates should restore DA levels and copulatory behaviors. Reverse-dialysis of a NO donor, sodium nitroprusside (SNP), increased extracellular DA in the MPOA of DHT-treated castrates and restored the ability to copulate to ejaculation in half of the animals. A cGMP analog, 8-Br-cGMP, also increased extracellular DA, though not as robustly, but did not restore copulatory ability. The effectiveness of the NO donor in restoring copulation and MPOA DA levels is consistent with our hypothesis. However, the lack of behavioral effects of 8-Br-cGMP, despite its increase in MPOA DA, suggests that NO may have additional mediators in the MPOA in the regulation of copulation. Furthermore, the suboptimal copulation seen in the NO donor-treated animals suggests the importance of extra-MPOA systems in the regulation of copulation.

  12. Effects of NMDA and non-NMDA ionotropic glutamate receptors in the medial preoptic area on body temperature in awake rats.

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    Sengupta, Trina; Jaryal, Ashok Kumar; Mallick, Hruda Nanda

    2016-10-01

    Glutamate when microinjected at the medial preoptic area (mPOA) influences brain temperature (Tbr) and body temperature (Tb) in rats. Glutamate and its various receptors are present at the mPOA. The aim of this study was to identify the contribution of each of the ionotropic glutamatergic receptors at the mPOA on changes in Tbr and Tb in freely moving rats. Adult male Wistar rats (n=40) were implanted with bilateral guide cannula with indwelling styli above the mPOA. A telemetric transmitter was implanted at the peritoneum to record Tb and locomotor activity (LMA). A precalibrated thermocouple wire implanted near the hypothalamus was used to assess Tbr. Specific agonist for each ionotropic glutamate receptor was microinjected into the mPOA and its effects on temperature and LMA were measured in the rats. The rats were also microinjected with the respective ionotropic receptor antagonists, 15min prior to the microinjection of each agonist. Amongst amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA), N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) and kainic acid, AMPA increased Tb and LMA when injected at the mPOA. Specific antagonists for AMPA receptors was able to attenuate this increase (ptemperature.

  13. Colocalization of Mating-Induced Fos and D2-Like Dopamine Receptors in the Medial Preoptic Area: Influence of Sexual Experience

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    Victoria L Nutsch

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Dopamine in the medial preoptic area (mPOA stimulates sexual activity in males. This is evidenced by microdialysis and microinjection experiments revealing that dopamine receptor antagonists in the mPOA inhibit sexual activity, whereas agonists facilitate behavior. Microdialysis experiments similarly show a facilitative role for dopamine, as levels of dopamine in the mPOA increase with mating. While the majority of evidence suggests an important role for dopamine receptors in the mPOA in the regulation of male sexual behaviors, whether sexual activity or sexual experience influence dopamine receptor function in the mPOA has not been previously shown. Here, we used immunohistochemical assays to determine whether varying levels of sexual activity or experience influence the number of cells containing Fos or D2 receptor immunoreactivity. Results show that sexual experience facilitated subsequent behavior, namely experience decreased latencies. Moreover, the number of cells with immunoreactivity for Fos or D2 correlated with levels of sexual experience and sexual activity. Sexual activity increased Fos immunoreactivity. Sexually experienced animals also had significantly more D2-positive cells. Sexually inexperienced animals copulating for the first time had a larger percentage of D2-positive cells containing Fos, when compared to sexually experienced animals. Finally, regardless of experience, animals that had sex prior to sacrifice had significantly more D2-positive cells that contained Fos, versus animals that did not copulate. These findings are noteworthy because sexually experienced animals display increased sexual efficiency. The differences in activation of D2 and changes in receptor density may play a role in this efficiency and other behavioral changes across sexual experience.

  14. Effects of ghrelin on Kisspeptin mRNA expression in the hypothalamic medial preoptic area and pulsatile luteinising hormone secretion in the female rat.

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    Forbes, Sarah; Li, Xiao Feng; Kinsey-Jones, James; O'Byrne, Kevin

    2009-08-28

    The orexigenic gut peptide ghrelin negatively modulates the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis. Hyperghrelinaemia results during negative energy balance, a state often associated with delayed puberty and disrupted fertility, whilst exogenous ghrelin suppresses pulsatile luteinising hormone (LH) secretion. The recent identification of kisspeptin (Kiss1) and its G protein-coupled receptor (GPR)54 (Kiss1r) as an essential component of the HPG axis controlling gonadotrophin secretion raises the possibility that kisspeptin-Kiss1r signalling may play a critical role in the transduction of ghrelin-induced suppression of LH. Ovariectomised oestrogen-replaced rats were implanted with intravenous catheters and blood samples collected for detection of LH pulses prior to and after intravenous administration of ghrelin (3nM/250 microl) or saline (250 microl) during ad libitum feeding or after overnight fasting. Quantitative RT-PCR was used to determine Kiss1 and Kiss1r mRNA levels in brain punches of the key hypothalamic sites regulating gonadotrophin secretion, the medial preoptic area (mPOA) and arcuate nucleus (ARC), collected 6h following administration of ghrelin. Ghrelin significantly lowered LH pulse frequency in fed rats, an effect significantly enhanced by food deprivation. Fasting, ghrelin or their combination down-regulated Kiss1, without affecting Kiss1r, expression in the mPOA, and affected the expression of neither in the ARC. Considering the pivotal role for kisspeptin signalling in the activation of the HPG axis, the ability of ghrelin to down-regulate Kiss1 expression in mPOA may be a contributing factor in ghrelin-related suppression of pulsatile LH secretion.

  15. Evidence that gonadal steroids modulate nitric oxide efflux in the medial preoptic area: effects of N-methyl-D-aspartate and correlation with luteinizing hormone secretion.

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    Pu, S; Xu, B; Kalra, S P; Kalra, P S

    1996-05-01

    Several lines of evidence suggest that nitric oxide (NO) is involved in the neuroendocrine control of reproductive function. This study was undertaken to determine 1) NO activity in the medial preoptic area (MPOA) where LHRH- and NO synthase-containing neurons are coextensive; 2) whether N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor activation, which stimulates LHRH release, augments NO activity in the MPOA; and 3) whether NO activation in the MPOA underlies the steroid dependency of NMDA-induced pituitary LH release. As extracellular levels of cGMP in discrete brain sites are a reliable index of basal and stimulated activity of NO, extracellular cGMP levels in the MPOA of freely moving, awake rats were measured by microdialysis in the current study. In the first experiment, the MPOA of intact and castrated male rats were microdialyzed with artificial cerebrospinal fluid at a rate of 5 microliters/min. The basal level of cGMP efflux was determined from the initial seven samples collected at 20-min intervals. The NO response to a single i.v. injection of NMDA (10 mg/kg) or saline was assessed in the next five samples. In the second experiment, the basal and NMDA-evoked NO effluxes in the MPOA of ovariectomized (ovx) and estrogen-treated ovx rats were examined. Results showed that in both sexes, the absence of gonadal steroids resulted in significantly lower basal cGMP levels. Additionally, the cGMP response to NMDA was steroid dependent. Whereas in castrated rats it failed to affect cGMP efflux, NMDA in intact male rats promptly raised cGMP levels at 20 min, and these elevated levels were maintained through the duration of the experiment. This NMDA-induced cGMP response, observed selectively in intact rats, was also associated with stimulation of plasma LH levels. In female rats, NMDA similarly enhanced MPOA cGMP efflux and pituitary LH secretion in estradiol benzoate-treated, but not in oil-treated, ovx rats. The NMDA receptor antagonist D,L-amino-5-phosphoropentanoic acid

  16. Preoptic hypnogenic area and reticular activating system.

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    Bremer, F

    1973-06-01

    The stimulation, in the encéphale isolé cat, of the basal preoptic hypnogenic area be brief electrical pulses evokes bilaterally an extracellular positive (P) field potential of 20 to 60 msec duration in the brain stem and thalamic activating ascending reticular system. The properties of this P wave have led to consider it as the extracellular and abbreviated counterpart of an hyperpolarizing postsynaptic inhibitory process which, by the functional depression it exerts on the arousal system, would be instrumental in the induction and maintenance of synchronized sleep. The positive field potential response of the reticular system shows the same recruiting build-up and amplitude modulation, and the same sensibility to amphetamine and to barbiturates, as the cortical potential of diffuse distribution which is evoked simultaneously. It is strychnine--and picrotoxin--resistant. Preoptic stimulation exerts, within a 100 msec interval, a strong suppressive effect on the excitatory response evoked in the n. centromedian by a mesencephalic reticular testing shock. On the other hand, the application of the latter as a conditioning stimulus results in a marked increase of the amplitude of the P wave response of the CM to a testing preoptic shock. A negative feedback interpretation of this interaction is suggested. No clear evidence of a tonic functioning of the preoptic hypnogenic structure could be found in experiments involving the production of small bilateral lesions in the basal preoptic area in the encéphale isolé cat. Reasons limiting the interpretation of this negative result are given. The functional significance, on the basis of experimental data, of the diffuse cortical synchronization produced by the low frequency stimulation of the basal preoptic area and of other hypnogenic structures is discussed.

  17. Topological and histological description of preoptic area and hypothalamus in cardinal tetra Paracheirodon axelrodi (Characiformes: Characidae)

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    Rincón,Laura; Martha J Obando; Tovar,Mario O.; Pandolfi, Matías; Hurtado,Hernan

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Topological and histological descriptions of the preoptic area and hypothalamus of the cardinal tetra Paracheirodon axelrodi were performed. Standard histological paraffin sections were used and stained with Nissl technique, and plastic sections for high-resolution optic microscopy (HROM). The preoptic area showed some differences related to the location of the magnocellular preoptic nucleus (PM) and the size of the neurons in this region, as they were the biggest in all the preoptic...

  18. Both olfactory epithelial and vomeronasal inputs are essential for activation of the medial amygdala and preoptic neurons of male rats.

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    Dhungel, S; Masaoka, M; Rai, D; Kondo, Y; Sakuma, Y

    2011-12-29

    Chemosensory inputs signaling volatile and nonvolatile molecules play a pivotal role in sexual and social behavior in rodents. We have demonstrated that olfactory preference in male rats, that is, attraction to receptive female odors, is regulated by the medial amygdala (MeA), the cortical amygdala (CoA), and the preoptic area (POA). In this paper, we investigated the involvement of two chemosensory organs, the olfactory epithelium (OE) and the vomeronasal organ (VNO), in olfactory preference and copulatory behavior in male rats. We found that olfactory preferences were impaired by zinc sulfate lesion of the OE but not surgical removal of the VNO. Copulatory behaviors, especially intromission frequency and ejaculation, were also suppressed by zinc sulfate treatment. Neuronal activation in the accessory olfactory bulb (AOB), the MeA, the CoA, and the POA was analyzed after stimulation by airborne odors or soiled bedding of estrous females using cFos immunohistochemistry. Although the OE and VNO belong to different neural systems, the main and accessory olfactory systems, respectively, both OE lesion and VNO removal almost equally suppressed the number of cFos-immunoreactive cells in those areas that regulate olfactory preference. These results suggest that signals received by the OE and VNO interact and converge in the early stage of olfactory processing, in the AOB and its targets, although they have distinct roles in the regulation of social behaviors.

  19. Electrophysiological characterization of male goldfish (Carassius auratus ventral preoptic area neurons receiving olfactory inputs

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    Wudu E. Lado

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Chemical communication via sex pheromones is critical for successful reproduction but the underlying neural mechanisms are not well-understood. The goldfish is a tractable model because sex pheromones have been well-characterized in this species. We used male goldfish forebrain explants in vitro and performed whole-cell current clamp recordings from single neurons in the ventral preoptic area (vPOA to characterize their membrane properties and synaptic inputs from the olfactory bulbs (OB. Principle component and cluster analyses based on intrinsic membrane properties of vPOA neurons (N = 107 revealed five (I-V distinct cell groups. These cells displayed differences in their input resistance (Rinput: I II = IV > III = V. Evidence from electrical stimulation of the OB and application of receptor antagonists suggests that vPOA neurons receive monosynaptic glutamatergic inputs via the medial olfactory tract, with connectivity varying among neuronal groups [I (24%, II (40%, III (0%, IV (34% and V (2%].

  20. Regulation of progesterone receptor messenger ribonucleic acid in the rat medial preoptic nucleus by estrogenic and antiestrogenic compounds: an in situ hybridization study.

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    Shughrue, P J; Lane, M V; Merchenthaler, I

    1997-12-01

    Progesterone receptor (PR) messenger RNA (mRNA) is concentrated in neurons of the preoptic area and other regions of the rat hypothalamus where it is colocalized with the estrogen receptor and regulated by changes in the steroid hormonal milieu. To date, little is known about the regulation of PR mRNA by estrogens and whether antiestrogenic compounds are capable of modulating its expression. The present studies used in situ hybridization to ascertain the time course of PR mRNA regulation in the medial preoptic nucleus by 17beta-estradiol, determine the effective dose required to elicit a response, and compare the efficacy of 17beta-estradiol with a variety of estrogenic or antiestrogenic compounds. The first series of studies revealed that the treatment of ovariectomized rats with 17beta-estradiol resulted in an increase in PR expression within 2 h, after which it remained elevated until 10 h postinjection and then returned to baseline levels. When ovariectomized rats were injected with 25-1000 ng/kg of 17beta-estradiol and euthanized 6 h later, a dose-dependent increase in the level of PR mRNA was observed, with a maximal response at 1000 ng/kg and an EC50 of 93.5 ng/kg. Subsequent studies evaluated the efficacy of a variety of estrogenic and antiestrogenic compounds in the rat preoptic nucleus. 17Beta-estradiol, diethylstilbestrol, and 17alpha-estradiol all significantly increased the level of PR mRNA, although the degree of induction varied with each compound. The injection of tamoxifen, raloxifene, toremifene, droloxifene, clomiphene, GW 5638, or ICI 182,780 had no significant estrogenic effect on PR gene expression at the dose evaluated. In contrast, when tamoxifen or raloxifene, but not ICI 182,780, was administered in the antagonist mode, a significant dose-related decrease in the estradiol-induced level of PR mRNA was seen in the preoptic area. The results of these studies clearly demonstrate that PR mRNA expression in the rat preoptic area is rapidly

  1. The medial preoptic nucleus as a site of the thermogenic and metabolic actions of melanotan II in male rats.

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    Monge-Roffarello, Boris; Labbe, Sebastien M; Lenglos, Christophe; Caron, Alexandre; Lanfray, Damien; Samson, Pierre; Richard, Denis

    2014-07-15

    The present study was designed to investigate the role of the medial preoptic nucleus (MPO) as a site of the thermogenic and metabolic effects of the α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone analog melanotan II (MTII). We also assessed the involvement of the dorsomedial hypothalamic nucleus (DMH) by investigating the effects of the MPO infusion of MTII in rats with DMH lesions produced by kainic acid. Infusion of MTII in the MPO led to increases in interscapular brown adipose tissue (iBAT) temperature and iBAT uptake of 14C-bromopalmitate. Both increases were blocked by DMH lesions. iBAT temperature increase (area under curve) and 14C-bromopalmitate uptake emerged as two correlated variables (r = 0.63, P < 0.001). DMH lesions also blocked MTII-induced expression of mRNAs coding for proteins involved in 1) thermogenesis [type II iodothyronine deiodinase (Dio2) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-α (Pgc1α)], 2) lipolysis [hormone-sensitive lipase (Hsl)], and 3) lipogenesis [diacylglycerol-O-acyltransferase 2 (Dgat2), fatty acid synthase (Fas)], in iBAT of rats killed 1 h after MPO infusion of MTII. MTII also stimulated expression of genes in iWAT but only in rats with DMH lesions. These genes included glucose transporter member 4 (Glut4), glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase 3 (Gpat3), Dgat1, Dgat2, triglyceride lipase (Atgl), Hsl, and carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1β (Cpt1β). Altogether, the present results reveal the MPO as a site of the thermogenic and metabolic actions of MTII. They also contribute to establish the MPO-DMH duet as a significant target for melanocortins to modulate energy homeostasis.

  2. Electrical stimulation of the preoptic area in Eigenmannia: evoked interruptions in the electric organ discharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, C J

    2000-01-01

    The functional role of the basal forebrain and preoptic regions in modulating the normally regular electric organ discharge was determined by focal brain stimulation in the weakly electric fish, Eigenmannia. The rostral preoptic area, which is connected with the diencephalic prepacemaker nucleus, was examined physiologically by electrical stimulation in a curarized fish. Electrical stimulation of the most rostral region of the preoptic area with trains of relatively low intensity current elicits discrete bursts of electric organ discharge interruptions in contrast to other forebrain loci. These responses were observed primarily as after-responses following the termination of the stimulus train and were relatively immune to variations in the stimulus parameters. As the duration and rate of these preoptic-evoked bursts of electric organ discharge interruptions (approximately 100 ms at 2 per s) are similar to duration and rate of natural interruptions, it is proposed that these bursts might be precursors to natural interruptions. These data suggest that the preoptic area, consistent with its role in controlling reproductive behaviors in vertebrates, may be influencing the occurrence of electric organ discharge courtship signals by either direct actions on the prepacemaker nucleus or through other regions that are connected with the diencephalic pre-pacemaker nucleus.

  3. Leptin Responsive and GABAergic Projections to the Rostral Preoptic Area in Mice.

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    Zuure, W A; Quennell, J H; Anderson, G M

    2016-03-01

    The adipocyte-derived hormone leptin plays a critical role in the control of reproduction via signalling in hypothalamic neurones. The drivers of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis, the gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurones, do not have the receptors for leptin. Therefore, intermediate leptin responsive neurones must provide leptin-to-GnRH signalling. We investigated the populations of leptin responsive neurones that provide input to the rostral preoptic area (rPOA) where GnRH cell bodies reside. Fluorescent retrograde tracer beads (RetroBeads; Lumafluor Inc., Naples, FL, USA) were injected into the rPOA of transgenic leptin receptor enhanced green fluorescent protein (Lepr-eGFP) reporter mice. Uptake of the RetroBeads by Lepr-eGFP neurones was assessed throughout the hypothalamus. RetroBead uptake was most evident in the medial arcuate nucleus (ARC), the dorsomedial nucleus (DMN) and the ventral premammillary nucleus (PMV) of the hypothalamus. The uptake of RetroBeads specifically by Lepr-eGFP neurones was highest in the medial ARC (18% of tracer-labelled neurones Lepr-eGFP-positive). Because neurones that are both leptin responsive and GABAergic play a critical role in the regulation of fertility by leptin, we next focussed on the location of these populations. To address whether GABAergic neurones in leptin-responsive hypothalamic regions project to the rPOA, the experiment was repeated in GABA neurone reporter mice (Vgat-tdTomato). Between 10% and 45% of RetroBead-labelled neurones in the ARC were GABAergic, whereas uptake of tracer by GABAergic neurones in the DMN and PMV was very low (leptin responsive and GABAergic neurones from the ARC project to the region of the GnRH cell bodies. Our findings suggest that LEPR-expressing GABA neurones from the ARC may be mediators of leptin-to-GnRH signalling.

  4. Development of the sexually dimorphic nucleus of the preoptic area and the influence of estrogen-like compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Zhen; Ferguson, Sherry Ann; Cui, Li; Greenfield, Lazar John; Paule, Merle Gale

    2013-10-15

    One of the well-defined sexually dimorphic structures in the brain is the sexually dimorphic nucleus, a cluster of cells located in the preoptic area of the hypothalamus. The rodent sexually dimorphic nucleus of the preoptic area can be delineated histologically using conventional Nissl staining or immunohistochemically using calbindin D28K immunoreactivity. There is increasing use of the bindin D28K-delineated neural cluster to define the sexually dimorphic nucleus of the preoptic area in rodents. Several mechanisms are proposed to underlie the processes that contribute to the sexual dimorphism (size difference) of the sexually dimorphic nucleus of the preoptic area. Recent evidence indicates that stem cell activity, including proliferation and migration presumably from the 3(rd) ventricle stem cell niche, may play a critical role in the postnatal development of the sexually dimorphic nucleus of the preoptic area and its distinguishing sexually dimorphic feature: a signifi-cantly larger volume in males. Sex hormones and estrogen-like compounds can affect the size of the sexually dimorphic nucleus of the preoptic area. Despite considerable research, it remains un-clear whether estrogen-like compounds and/or sex hormones increase size of the sexually dimor-phic nucleus of the preoptic area via an increase in stem cell activity originating from the 3(rd) ventricle stem cell niche.

  5. Morphological changes of gonadotropin-releasing hormone neurons in the rat preoptic area across puberty

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Haogang Xue; Xiaodong Gai; Weiqi Sun; Chun Li; Quan Liu

    2014-01-01

    Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons in the preoptic area may undergo mor-phological changes during the pubertal period when their activities are upregulated. To clarify the regulatory mechanism of puberty onset, this study aimed to investigate the morphological changes of GnRH neurons in the preoptic area of GnRH-enhanced green lfuorescent protein transgenic rats. Under confocal laser microscopy, pubertal GnRH neurons exhibited an inverted Y distribution pattern. Prepubertal GnRH neurons were generally unipolar and bipolar, and were distinguished as smooth type cells with few small processes or irregular type cells with many spine-like processes in the proximal dendrites. The number of GnRH neurons in the preoptic area and spine-like processes were increased during the course of reproductive matu-ration. There was no signiifcant difference between male and female rats. Immunolfuorescence staining revealed synaptophysin punctae close to the distal end of GnRH neurons, indicating that some presynaptic terminals may form a synaptic linkage with these neurons.

  6. Sexual phenotype differences in zic2 mRNA abundance in the preoptic area of a protogynous teleost, Thalassoma bifasciatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCaffrey, Katherine; Hawkins, Mary Beth; Godwin, John

    2011-01-01

    The highly conserved members of the zic family of zinc-finger transcription factors are primarily known for their roles in embryonic signaling pathways and regulation of cellular proliferation and differentiation. This study describes sexual phenotype differences in abundances of zic2 mRNA in the preoptic area of the hypothalamus, a region strongly implicated in sexual behavior and function, in an adult teleost, Thalassoma bifasciatum. The bluehead wrasse (Thalassoma bifasciatum) is a valuable model for studying neuroendocrine processes because it displays two discrete male phenotypes, initial phase (IP) males and territorial, terminal phase (TP) males, and undergoes socially-controlled protogynous sex change. Previously generated microarray-based comparisons suggested that zic2 was upregulated in the brains of terminal phase males relative to initial phase males. To further explore this difference, we cloned a 727 bp sequence for neural zic2 from field-collected animals. Riboprobe-based in situ hybridization was employed to localize zic2 signal in adult bluehead brains and assess the relative abundance of brain zic2 mRNA across sexual phenotypes. We found zic2 mRNA expression was extremely abundant in the granular cells of the cerebellum and widespread in other brain regions including in the thalamus, hypothalamus, habenula, torus semicircularis, torus longitudinalis, medial longitudinal fascicle and telencephalic areas. Quantitative autoradiography and phosphorimaging showed zic2 mRNA hybridization signal in the preoptic area of the hypothalamus was significantly higher in terminal phase males relative to both initial phase males and females, and silver grain analysis confirmed this relationship between phenotypes. No significant difference in abundance was found in zic2 signal across phenotypes in the habenula, a brain region not implicated in the control of sexual behavior, or cerebellum.

  7. Sexual phenotype differences in zic2 mRNA abundance in the preoptic area of a protogynous teleost, Thalassoma bifasciatum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine McCaffrey

    Full Text Available The highly conserved members of the zic family of zinc-finger transcription factors are primarily known for their roles in embryonic signaling pathways and regulation of cellular proliferation and differentiation. This study describes sexual phenotype differences in abundances of zic2 mRNA in the preoptic area of the hypothalamus, a region strongly implicated in sexual behavior and function, in an adult teleost, Thalassoma bifasciatum. The bluehead wrasse (Thalassoma bifasciatum is a valuable model for studying neuroendocrine processes because it displays two discrete male phenotypes, initial phase (IP males and territorial, terminal phase (TP males, and undergoes socially-controlled protogynous sex change. Previously generated microarray-based comparisons suggested that zic2 was upregulated in the brains of terminal phase males relative to initial phase males. To further explore this difference, we cloned a 727 bp sequence for neural zic2 from field-collected animals. Riboprobe-based in situ hybridization was employed to localize zic2 signal in adult bluehead brains and assess the relative abundance of brain zic2 mRNA across sexual phenotypes. We found zic2 mRNA expression was extremely abundant in the granular cells of the cerebellum and widespread in other brain regions including in the thalamus, hypothalamus, habenula, torus semicircularis, torus longitudinalis, medial longitudinal fascicle and telencephalic areas. Quantitative autoradiography and phosphorimaging showed zic2 mRNA hybridization signal in the preoptic area of the hypothalamus was significantly higher in terminal phase males relative to both initial phase males and females, and silver grain analysis confirmed this relationship between phenotypes. No significant difference in abundance was found in zic2 signal across phenotypes in the habenula, a brain region not implicated in the control of sexual behavior, or cerebellum.

  8. Ventromedial and medial preoptic hypothalamic ibotenic acid lesions potentiate systemic morphine analgesia in female, but not male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cataldo, Giuseppe; Lovric, Jelena; Chen, Chia-Chien; Pytte, Carolyn L; Bodnar, Richard J

    2010-12-25

    Sex differences in systemic morphine analgesia occur with male rodents displaying significantly greater analgesic magnitudes and potencies than females. Neonatal androgenization, and to a lesser degree, adult ovariectomy enhance systemic morphine analgesia in female rats, implicating both organizational and activational effects of gonadal hormones. The neuroanatomical circuits sensitive to sex-related hormones by which females display a smaller opiate analgesic effect is not clear, but the ventromedial (VMH) and medial preoptic (MPOA) hypothalamic nuclei are critical in the monitoring of estradiol and other sex hormone levels. To assess the contribution of these nuclei to sex and adult gonadectomy differences in systemic morphine analgesia, intact male, intact female and adult ovariectomized (OVEX) female rats received bilateral saline (SAL) or ibotenic acid (IBO) microinjections into either the VMH or MPOA. Following surgeries, baseline tail-flick latencies over 120 minutes (min) were assessed over 4 days in all nine groups with intact females tested in the estrus phase of their cycle. All animals then received an ascending series of morphine (1.0, 2.5, 5.0, 7.5, 10.0mg/kg) injections 30min prior to the tail-flick test time course with 8-12 day inter-injection intervals between doses. Baseline latencies failed to differ between SAL-treated intact males and females, but were significantly higher in SAL-treated OVEX females. Both VMH IBO and MPOA IBO lesions increased baseline latencies in intact male and female rats, but not in OVEX females. SAL-treated intact males (ED(50)=4.0mg/kg) and SAL-treated OVEX females (ED(50)=3.5mg/kg) displayed significantly greater potencies of systemic morphine analgesia than SAL-treated intact females (ED(50)=6.3mg/kg), confirming previous gender and gonadectomy differences. Neither VMH IBO (ED(50)=3.7 mg/kg) nor MPOA IBO (ED(50)=4.1mg/kg) males differed from SAL-treated males in the potency of systemic morphine analgesia. In

  9. Early histone modifications in the ventromedial hypothalamus and preoptic area following oestradiol administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagnidze, K; Weil, Z M; Faustino, L C; Schaafsma, S M; Pfaff, D W

    2013-10-01

    Expression of the primary female sex behaviour, lordosis, in laboratory animals depends on oestrogen-induced expression of progesterone receptor (PgR) within a defined cell group in the ventrolateral portion of the ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus (VMH). The minimal latency from oestradiol administration to lordosis is 18 h. During that time, ligand-bound oestrogen receptors (ER), members of a nuclear receptor superfamily, recruit transcriptional coregulators, which induce covalent modifications of histone proteins, thus leading to transcriptional activation or repression of target genes. The present study aimed to investigate the early molecular epigenetic events underlying oestrogen-regulated transcriptional activation of the Pgr gene in the VMH of female mice. Oestradiol (E₂) administration induced rapid and transient global histone modifications in the VMH of ovariectomised female mice. Histone H3 N-terminus phosphorylation (H3S10phK14Ac), acetylation (H3Ac) and methylation (H3K4me3) exhibited distinct temporal patterns facilitative to the induction of transcription. A transcriptional repressive (H3K9me3) modification showed a different temporal pattern. Collectively, this should create a permissive environment for the transcriptional activity necessary for lordosis, within 3-6 h after E₂ treatment. In the VMH, changes in the H3Ac and H3K4me3 levels of histone H3 were also detected at the promoter region of the Pgr gene within the same time window, although they were delayed in the preoptic area. Moreover, examination of histone modifications associated with the promoter of another ER-target gene, oxytocin receptor (Oxtr), revealed gene- and brain-region specific effects of E₂ treatment. In the VMH of female mice, E₂ treatment resulted in the recruitment of ERα to the oestrogen-response-elements-containing putative enhancer site of Pgr gene, approximately 200 kb upstream of the transcription start site, although it failed to increase ER

  10. Hypoxia-induced hypothermia mediated by the glutamatergic transmission in the lateral preoptic area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osaka, T

    2012-12-13

    Hypoxia evokes a regulated decrease in the body core temperature, which response is mediated, at least in part, by noradrenaline (NA) and nitric oxide (NO) in the rostromedial preoptic area (POA) of the hypothalamus. In the accompanying paper, it was shown that glutamatergic activation of the lateral POA also evokes hypothermic responses. Here, I tested the hypothesis that the glutamatergic transmission in the lateral POA is critically involved in the neural mechanism of hypoxia-induced hypothermia. Hypoxic ventilation (10% O(2)-90% N(2), 5 min) as well as a single microinjection of NA (50 pmol) or the NO donor sodium nitroprusside (8.4 nmol) into the rostromedial POA evoked an increase in the tail skin temperature and a decrease in the colonic temperature in urethane-chloralose-anesthetized, neuromuscularly blocked, artificially ventilated rats. All of these responses were greatly attenuated by pretreatment with multiple microinjections of kynurenic acid (10 nmol, four locations), a nonselective glutamate receptor antagonist, but not by those with saline solution, in the bilateral rostral and central parts of the lateral POA. These results suggest that the NA- and NO-sensitive structure in the rostromedial POA activated the glutamatergic transmission in the lateral POA to mediate hypoxia-induced hypothermia.

  11. Cold-induced thermogenesis mediated by GABA in the preoptic area of anesthetized rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osaka, Toshimasa

    2004-08-01

    Bilateral microinjections of GABA (300 mM, 100 nl) or the GABA(A) receptor agonist muscimol (100 microM, 100 nl) into the preoptic area (POA) of the hypothalamus increased the rate of whole body O(2) consumption (VO(2)) and the body core (colonic) temperature of urethane-chloralose-anesthetized, artificially ventilated rats. The most sensitive site was the dorsomedial POA at the level of the anterior commissure. The GABA-induced thermogenesis was accompanied by a tachycardic response and electromyographic (EMG) activity recorded from the femoral or neck muscles. Pretreatment with muscle relaxants (1 mg/kg pancuronium bromide + 4 mg/kg vecuronium bromide i.v.) prevented GABA-induced EMG activity but had no significant effect on GABA-induced thermogenesis. However, pretreatment with the beta-adrenoceptor propranolol (5 mg/kg i.v.) greatly attenuated the GABA-induced increase in VO(2) and tachycardic responses. Accordingly, the GABA-induced increase in VO(2) reflected mainly nonshivering thermogenesis. On the other hand, cooling of the shaved back of the rat by contact with a plastic bag containing 28 degrees C water also elicited thermogenic, tachycardic, and EMG responses. Bilateral microinjections of the GABA(A) receptor antagonist bicuculline (500 microM, 100 nl), but not the vehicle saline, into the POA blocked these skin cooling-induced responses. These results suggest that GABA and GABA(A) receptors in the POA mediate cold information arising from the skin for eliciting cold-induced thermogenesis.

  12. Coexpression analysis of nine neuropeptides in the neurosecretory preoptic area of larval zebrafish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrich eHerget

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The paraventricular nucleus (PVN of the hypothalamus in mammals coordinates neuroendocrine, autonomic and behavioral responses pivotal for homeostasis and the stress response. A large amount of studies in rodents has documented that the PVN contains diverse neuronal cell types which can be identified by the expression of distinct secretory neuropeptides. Interestingly, PVN cell types often coexpress multiple neuropeptides whose relative coexpression level are subject to environment-induced plasticity.Due to their small size and transparency, zebrafish larvae offer the possibility to comprehensively study the development and plasticity of the PVN in large groups of intact animals, yet important anatomical information about the larval zebrafish PVN-homologous region has been missing. Therefore we recently defined the location and borders of the larval neurosecretory preoptic area (NPO as the PVN-homologous region in larval zebrafish based on transcription factor expression and cell type clustering. To identify distinct cell types present in the larval NPO, we also generated a comprehensive 3D map of 9 zebrafish homologs of typical neuropeptides found in the mammalian PVN (arginine vasopressin, corticotropin-releasing hormone, proenkephalin a/b, neurotensin, oxytocin, vasoactive intestinal peptide, cholecystokinin, and somatostatin. Here we extend this chemoarchitectural map to include the degrees of coexpression of two neuropeptides in the same cell by performing systematic pairwise comparisons. Our results allowed the subclassification of NPO cell types, and differences in variability of coexpression profiles suggest potential targets of biochemical plasticity. Thus, this work provides an important basis for the analysis of the development, function, and plasticity of the primary neuroendocrine brain region in larval zebrafish.

  13. Reward associated with singing behavior correlates with opioid-related gene expression in the medial preoptic nucleus in male European starlings.

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    Lauren V Riters

    Full Text Available Birdsong consists of species-specific learned vocal sequences that are used primarily to attract mates and to repel competitors during the breeding season. However, many birds continue to sing at times when vocal production has no immediate or obvious impact on conspecific behavior. The mechanisms that ensure that animals produce important behaviors in contexts in which the function of these behaviors is not immediate or obvious are not known. One possibility is that animals engage in such behaviors because they are associated with pleasure. Here we examined the hypothesis that male European starlings sing outside of the breeding season in part because the act of singing in this context is facilitated and/or maintained by opioid-mediated reward. We measured song-associated reward using a conditioned place preference (CPP test in male starlings producing fall, non-breeding season-typical song. We used quantitative real time PCR to measure expression of the enkephalin opioid precursor preproenkephalin (PENK and mu opioid receptors (MOR in the medial preoptic nucleus (POM; a region in which opioids are implicated in both reward and starling fall song and additionally the song control region HVC as a control. Starlings developed a strong preference for a place that had been paired previously with the act of producing fall-typical song, indicating that fall song production was associated with a positive affective state. Both PENK and MOR mRNA expression in the POM, but not HVC, correlated positively with both individual reward state (as reflected in CPP and undirected singing behavior. These results suggest that singing induces opioid receptor and enkephalin expression in the POM and consequent reward, and/or that opioid release in the POM induced by individual or environmental factors (e.g., the presence of food, safety of a flock or the absence of predators induces a positive affective state which then facilitates singing behavior.

  14. Disrupted Sleep in Narcolepsy: Exploring the Integrity of Galanin Neurons in the Ventrolateral Preoptic Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavrilov, Yury V; Ellison, Brian A; Yamamoto, Mihoko; Reddy, Hasini; Haybaeck, Johannes; Mignot, Emmanuel; Baumann, Christian R; Scammell, Thomas E; Valko, Philipp O

    2016-05-01

    To examine the integrity of sleep-promoting neurons of the ventrolateral preoptic nucleus (VLPO) in postmortem brains of narcolepsy type 1 patients. Postmortem examination of five narcolepsy and eight control brains. VLPO galanin neuron count did not differ between narcolepsy patients (11,151 ± 3,656) and controls (13,526 ± 9,544). A normal number of galanin-immunoreactive VLPO neurons in narcolepsy type 1 brains at autopsy suggests that VLPO cell loss is an unlikely explanation for the sleep fragmentation that often accompanies the disease. © 2016 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  15. Ageing and Chronic Administration of Serotonin-Selective Reuptake Inhibitor Citalopram Upregulate Sirt4 Gene Expression in the Preoptic Area of Male Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wong eDutt Way

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Sexual dysfunction and cognitive deficits are markers of the ageing process. Mammalian sirtuins (SIRT, encoded by sirt 1-7 genes, are known as ageing molecules which are sensitive to serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT. Whether the 5-HT system regulates SIRT in the preoptic area (POA, which could affect reproduction and cognition has not been examined. Therefore, this study was designed to examine the effects of citalopram (CIT, 10mg/kg for 4 weeks, wk, a potent selective-serotonin reuptake inhibitor and ageing on SIRT expression in the POA of male mice using real-time PCR and immunocytochemistry. Age-related increases of sirt1, sirt4, sirt5, and sirt7 mRNA levels were observed in the POA of 52 wk old mice. Furthermore, 4 wk of chronic CIT treatment started at 8 wk of age also increased sirt2 and sirt4 mRNA expression in the POA. Moreover, the number of SIRT4 immuno-reactive neurons increased with ageing in the medial septum area (12 wk = 1.00±0.15 vs 36 wk = 1.68±0.14 vs 52 wk = 1.54±0.11, p<0.05. In contrast, the number of sirt4-immunopositive cells did not show a statistically significant change with CIT treatment, suggesting that the increase in sirt4 mRNA levels may occur in cells in which sirt4 is already being expressed. Taken together, these studies suggest that CIT treatment and the process of ageing utilize the serotonergic system to up-regulate SIRT4 in the POA as a common pathway to deregulate social cognitive and reproductive functions.

  16. The preoptic-suprachiasmatic nuclei though morphologically heterogeneous are equally affected by streptozotocin diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bestetti, G; Hofer, R; Rossi, G L

    1987-01-01

    Pituitary and gonadal disorders consistent with abnormal LHRH and LH secretion occur in streptozotocin-diabetic rats. A key role in the synthesis and regulation of LHRH and in the phasic LH release is played by the preoptic-suprachiasmatic region which is mainly formed by the medial preoptic area, the sexually dimorphic nucleus of the medial preoptic area, and the suprachiasmatic nucleus. Therefore we have studied this region by morphology and morphometry in normal and streptozotocin-diabetic rats. In normal animals, the neurons of the above mentioned nuclei were morphologically and morphometrically dissimilar. Independent of their localization, reduced cytoplasmic and nuclear areas were observed in the neurons of diabetic animals. These lesions are consistent with hypotrophied neurons. Consequently, diabetes may impair both synthesis and regulation of LHRH and may therefore account for pituitary disorders, testicular atrophy, and lacking preovulatory LH peaks. The structural differences of the neurons of the three nuclei in normal animals underline their different physiological role. Yet, the similarity of the changes found in all three nuclei suggests a generalized hypofunction of the whole preoptic-suprachiasmatic region under diabetic condition.

  17. Human v6: the medial motion area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitzalis, S; Sereno, M I; Committeri, G; Fattori, P; Galati, G; Patria, F; Galletti, C

    2010-02-01

    Cortical-surface-based functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging mapping techniques and wide-field retinotopic stimulation were used to verify the presence of pattern motion sensitivity in human area V6. Area V6 is highly selective for coherently moving fields of dots, both at individual and group levels and even with a visual stimulus of standard size. This stimulus is a functional localizer for V6. The wide retinotopic stimuli used here also revealed a retinotopic map in the middle temporal cortex (area MT/V5) surrounded by several polar-angle maps that resemble the mosaic of small areas found around macaque MT/V5. Our results suggest that the MT complex (MT+) may be specialized for the analysis of motion signals, whereas area V6 may be more involved in distinguishing object and self-motion.

  18. Serotonin promotes feminization of the sexually dimorphic nucleus of the preoptic area, but not the calbindin cell group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madden, Amanda M K; Paul, Alexandria T; Pritchard, Rory A; Michel, Rebecca; Zup, Susan L

    2016-11-01

    Testosterone and its metabolites masculinize the brain during a critical perinatal window, including the relative volume of sexually dimorphic brain areas such as the sexually dimorphic nucleus of the preoptic area (SDN), which is larger in males than females. Serotonin (5HT) may mediate this hormone action, since 5HT given during the second week of life decreases (i.e., feminizes) SDN volume in males and testosterone-treated females. Although previous work indicates that the 5HT2A/2C receptor is sufficient to induce feminization, it is unclear whether other serotonin receptors are required and which subpopulation(s) of SDN cells are specifically organized by 5HT. Therefore, we injected male and female Sprague-Dawley rat pups with saline, a nonselective 5HTR agonist, a 5HT2A/2C agonist, or a 5HT2A/2C antagonist over several timecourses in early life, and measured the Nissl-SDN as well as a calbindin+ subdivision of the SDN, the CALB-SDN. When examined on postnatal day 18 or early adulthood, the size of the Nissl-SDN was feminized in males treated with any of the serotonergic drugs, eliminating the typical sex difference. In contrast, the sex difference in CALB-SDN size was maintained regardless of serotoninergic drug treatment. This pattern suggests that although gonadal hormones shape the whole SDN, individual cellular phenotypes respond to different intermediary signals to become sexually dimorphic. Specifically, 5HT mediates sexual differentiation of non-calbindin population(s) within the SDN. The results also caution against using measurement of the CALB-SDN in isolation, as the absence of an effect on the CALB-SDN does not preclude an effect on the overall nucleus. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Develop Neurobiol 76: 1241-1253, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Release of norepinephrine in the preoptic area activates anteroventral periventricular nucleus neurons and stimulates the surge of luteinizing hormone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szawka, Raphael E; Poletini, Maristela O; Leite, Cristiane M; Bernuci, Marcelo P; Kalil, Bruna; Mendonça, Leonardo B D; Carolino, Ruither O G; Helena, Cleyde V V; Bertram, Richard; Franci, Celso R; Anselmo-Franci, Janete A

    2013-01-01

    The role of norepinephrine (NE) in regulation of LH is still controversial. We investigated the role played by NE in the positive feedback of estradiol and progesterone. Ovarian-steroid control over NE release in the preoptic area (POA) was determined using microdialysis. Compared with ovariectomized (OVX) rats, estradiol-treated OVX (OVX+E) rats displayed lower release of NE in the morning but increased release coincident with the afternoon surge of LH. OVX rats treated with estradiol and progesterone (OVX+EP) exhibited markedly greater NE release than OVX+E rats, and amplification of the LH surge. The effect of NE on LH secretion was confirmed using reverse microdialysis. The LH surge and c-Fos expression in anteroventral periventricular nucleus neurons were significantly increased in OVX+E rats dialyzed with 100 nm NE in the POA. After Fluoro-Gold injection in the POA, c-Fos expression in Fluoro-Gold/tyrosine hydroxylase-immunoreactive neurons increased during the afternoon in the A2 of both OVX+E and OVX+EP rats, in the locus coeruleus (LC) of OVX+EP rats, but was unchanged in the A1. The selective lesion of LC terminals, by intracerebroventricular N-(2-chloroethyl)-N-ethyl-2-bromobenzylamine, reduced the surge of LH in OVX+EP but not in OVX+E rats. Thus, estradiol and progesterone activate A2 and LC neurons, respectively, and this is associated with the increased release of NE in the POA and the magnitude of the LH surge. NE stimulates LH secretion, at least in part, through activation of anteroventral periventricular neurons. These findings contribute to elucidation of the role played by NE during the positive feedback of ovarian steroids.

  20. Suckling induces a daily rhythm in the preoptic area and lateral septum but not in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis in lactating rabbit does.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meza, Enrique; Aguirre, Juan; Waliszewski, Stefan; Caba, Mario

    2015-01-01

    Maternal behavior in the rabbit is restricted to a brief nursing period every day. Previously, we demonstrated that this event induces daily rhythms of Period1 (PER1) protein, the product of the clock gene Per1, in oxytocinergic and dopaminergic populations in the hypothalamus of lactating rabbit does. This is significant for the periodic production and ejection of milk, but the activation of other areas of the brain has not been explored. Here, we hypothesised that daily suckling would induce a rhythm in the preoptic area, lateral septum, and bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, which are important areas for the expression of maternal behavior in mammals, including the rabbit. To this end, we analysed PER1 expression in those areas through a complete 24-h cycle at lactation day 7. Does were scheduled to nurse during either the day at 10:00 h [zeitgeber time (ZT)03] or the night at 02:00 h (ZT19). Non-pregnant, non-lactating females were used as controls. In contrast to control females, lactating does showed a clear, significant rhythm of PER1 that shifted in parallel with the timing of nursing in the preoptic area and lateral septum. We determined that the maximal expression of PER1 at 8 h after scheduled nursing decreased significantly at 24 and 48 h after the absence of suckling. This effect was more pronounced in the lateral septum than in the preoptic area. We conclude that daily suckling is a powerful stimulus inducing rhythmic activity in brain structures in the rabbit that appear to form part of a maternal entrainable circuit. © 2014 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Effects of Prolactin and Lactation on A15 Dopamine Neurones in the Rostral Preoptic Area of Female Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, R S E; Herbison, A E; Grattan, D R

    2015-09-01

    There are several distinct populations of dopamine neurones in the hypothalamus. Some of these, such as the A12 tuberoinfundibular dopamine neurones and the A14 periventricular dopamine neurones, are known to be regulated by the anterior pituitary hormone prolactin, whereas others, such as the A13 zona incerta dopaminergic neurones, are not. The present study aimed to investigate the role of prolactin in the regulation of a fourth population of hypothalamic dopamine neurones: the A15 dopamine population in the rostral hypothalamus. These neurones may play a role in the regulation of gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) secretion, and we hypothesised that they might contribute to the suppression of GnRH release and infertility caused by hyperprolactinaemia. Under basal (low prolactin) conditions, only 8% of A15 dopamine neurones in the anteroventral periventricular nucleus (AVPV) of vehicle-treated dioestrous mice expressed phosphorylated signal transducer and activator of transcription 5 (pSTAT5), as labelled by immunohistochemistry. We have previously shown that this transcription factor can be used as an index of prolactin-receptor activation. Following acute prolactin administration, 35% of AVPV dopamine neurones co-expressed pSTAT5, whereas, during lactation, when endogenous prolactin levels are chronically elevated, 55% of AVPV dopamine neurones expressed pSTAT5. There was also a significant increase in dopamine turnover in the rostral hypothalamus, both in the diagonal band of Broca at the level of the organum vasculosum of the lamina terminalis and in the rostral preoptic area during lactation, with the 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid/dopamine ratio increasing from 0.28 ± 0.04 and 0.14 ± 0.01 in dioestrous mice to 0.82 ± 0.06 and 0.38 ± 0.03, respectively, in day 7 lactating mice. It is not yet known whether this change is driven by the hyperprolactinaemia of lactation, or another lactation-specific signal. These data demonstrate that the A15

  2. The median preoptic nucleus exhibits circadian regulation and is involved in food anticipatory activity in rabbit pups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, María Luisa; Meza, Enrique; Ortega, Arturo; Caba, Mario

    2014-05-01

    Rabbit pups are a natural model to study food anticipatory activity (FAA). Recently, we reported that three areas in the forebrain - the organum vasculosum of lamina terminalis, median preoptic nucleus (MnPO) and medial preoptic area - exhibit activation during FAA. Here, we examined the PER1 protein profile of these three forebrain regions in both nursed and fasted subjects. We found robust PER1 oscillations in the MnPO in nursed subjects, with high PER1 levels during FAA that persisted in fasted subjects. In conclusion, our data indicate that periodic nursing is a strong signal for PER1 oscillations in MnPO and future experiments are warranted to explore the specific role of this area in FAA.

  3. Effect of Testosterone on Neuronal Morphology and Neuritic Growth of Fetal Lamb Hypothalamus-Preoptic Area and Cerebral Cortex in Primary Culture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radhika C Reddy

    Full Text Available Testosterone plays an essential role in sexual differentiation of the male sheep brain. The ovine sexually dimorphic nucleus (oSDN, is 2 to 3 times larger in males than in females, and this sex difference is under the control of testosterone. The effect of testosterone on oSDN volume may result from enhanced expansion of soma areas and/or dendritic fields. To test this hypothesis, cells derived from the hypothalamus-preoptic area (HPOA and cerebral cortex (CTX of lamb fetuses were grown in primary culture to examine the direct morphological effects of testosterone on these cellular components. We found that within two days of plating, neurons derived from both the HPOA and CTX extend neuritic processes and express androgen receptors and aromatase immunoreactivity. Both treated and control neurites continue to grow and branch with increasing time in culture. Treatment with testosterone (10 nM for 3 days significantly (P < 0.05 increased both total neurite outgrowth (35% and soma size (8% in the HPOA and outgrowth (21% and number of branch points (33% in the CTX. These findings indicate that testosterone-induced somal enlargement and neurite outgrowth in fetal lamb neurons may contribute to the development of a fully masculine sheep brain.

  4. 腹外侧视前区微量注射组胺对大鼠睡眠-觉醒周期的影响%Effects of Microinjection of Histamine in Ventrolateral Preoptic Area on Rat Sleep-Wakefulness Cycle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘宇炜; 若剑; 陈晓青; 易卉玲; 黄丹

    2015-01-01

    Objective To study the effect of histamine in rat ventrolateral preoptic area on sleep-wakeful⁃ness cycle. Methods Histamine was microinjected into ventrolateral preoptic area through stereotaxic technique,sleeping and waking time phases were recorded and analyzed by electroencephalograph. Results Microinjection of 50 μmol/L histamine had no significant effect ,but 100 μmol/L histamine de⁃creased sleeping time and increased waking time significantly. Conclusion Histamine is involved in reg⁃ulation of sleep-waking cycle and promotes wakefulness significantly in the ventrolateral preoptic area.%目的:研究组胺作用于腹外侧视前区对大鼠睡眠-觉醒周期的影响。方法通过脑立体定位、腹外侧视前区微量注射组胺,脑电图仪记录及分析睡眠、觉醒时相。结果微量注射50μmol/L组胺无明显影响,而100μmol/L组胺显著减少大鼠睡眠,增加觉醒。结论组胺在腹外侧视前区对大鼠睡眠-觉醒周期发挥重要的调节作用,具有明显的促觉醒作用。

  5. Efferent connections from the lateral hypothalamic region and the lateral preoptic area to the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus of the rat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, P J; Hay-Schmidt, Anders; Mikkelsen, J D

    1994-01-01

    area within the lateral hypothalamic region that consistently innervated magnocellular perikarya of the PVN. Finally, all areas of the lateral hypothalamic region contributed substantially to fibres terminating in the perinuclear shell of the PVN. These results demonstrate that anatomically distinct...

  6. Muscarinic Receptors Types 1 and 2 in the Preoptic-Anterior Hypothalamic Areas Regulate Ovulation Unequally in the Rat Oestrous Cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yadira L. López-Ramírez

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Muscarinic receptors types 1 (m1AChR and 2 (m2AChR in the preoptic and anterior hypothalamus areas (POA-AHA were counted, and the effects of blocking these receptors on spontaneous ovulation were analysed throughout the rat oestrous cycle. Rats in each phase of the oestrous cycle were assigned to the following experiments: (1 an immunohistochemical study of the number of cells expressing m1AChR or m2AChR in the POA-AHA and (2 analysis of the effects of the unilateral blockade of the m1AChR (pirenzepine, PZP or m2AChR (methoctramine, MTC on either side of the POA-AHA on the ovulation rate. The number of m2AChR-immunoreactive cells was significantly higher at 09:00 h on each day of the oestrous cycle in the POA-AHA region, while no changes in the expression profile of m1AChR protein were observed. The ovulation rate in rats treated with PZP on the oestrous day was lower than that in the vehicle group. Animals treated on dioestrous-1 with PZP or MTC had a higher ovulation rate than those in the vehicle group. In contrast, on dioestrous-2, the MTC treatment decreased the ovulation rate. These results suggest that m1AChR or m2AChR in the POA-AHA could participate in the regulation of spontaneous ovulation in rats.

  7. Identification of preoptic sleep neurons using retrograde labelling and gene profiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Shinjae; Weber, Franz; Zhong, Peng; Tan, Chan Lek; Nguyen, Thuc Nghi; Beier, Kevin T; Hörmann, Nikolai; Chang, Wei-Cheng; Zhang, Zhe; Do, Johnny Phong; Yao, Shenqin; Krashes, Michael J; Tasic, Bosiljka; Cetin, Ali; Zeng, Hongkui; Knight, Zachary A; Luo, Liqun; Dan, Yang

    2017-05-25

    In humans and other mammalian species, lesions in the preoptic area of the hypothalamus cause profound sleep impairment, indicating a crucial role of the preoptic area in sleep generation. However, the underlying circuit mechanism remains poorly understood. Electrophysiological recordings and c-Fos immunohistochemistry have shown the existence of sleep-active neurons in the preoptic area, especially in the ventrolateral preoptic area and median preoptic nucleus. Pharmacogenetic activation of c-Fos-labelled sleep-active neurons has been shown to induce sleep. However, the sleep-active neurons are spatially intermingled with wake-active neurons, making it difficult to target the sleep neurons specifically for circuit analysis. Here we identify a population of preoptic area sleep neurons on the basis of their projection target and discover their molecular markers. Using a lentivirus expressing channelrhodopsin-2 or a light-activated chloride channel for retrograde labelling, bidirectional optogenetic manipulation, and optrode recording, we show that the preoptic area GABAergic neurons projecting to the tuberomammillary nucleus are both sleep active and sleep promoting. Furthermore, translating ribosome affinity purification and single-cell RNA sequencing identify candidate markers for these neurons, and optogenetic and pharmacogenetic manipulations demonstrate that several peptide markers (cholecystokinin, corticotropin-releasing hormone, and tachykinin 1) label sleep-promoting neurons. Together, these findings provide easy genetic access to sleep-promoting preoptic area neurons and a valuable entry point for dissecting the sleep control circuit.

  8. Effects of gamma-aminobutyric acid A-receptor antagonist on sleep-wakefulness cycles following lesion to the ventrolateral preoptic area in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xin Zhang; Yina Sun; Peng Xie; Xuguang Yang; Yiping Hou

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Neurons expressing gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) play an important role in the regulation of wakefulness to sleep, as well as the maintenance of sleep. However, the role of GABAergic neurons in the tuberomammillary nucleus (TMn), with regard to the sleep-wakefulness cycle, is poorly understood.OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of GABAergic neurons in the TMn on the sleep-wakefulness cycle.DESIGN, TIME AND SETTING: Randomized controlled study, performed at the Laboratory of Neurobiology, Department of Anatomy, Histology and Embryology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Lanzhou University from July 2007 to February 2008.MATERIALS: Fifteen healthy, adult, male, Sprague Dawley rats were randomly divided into three groups(n = 5): control, ventrolateral preoptic area (VLPO) lesion, and VLPO lesion plus GABAA receptor antagonist-treated. Ibotenic acid and bicuculline were provided by Sigma (St. Louis, USA). METHODS: Four electroencephalogram screw electrodes were implanted into the skull at a frontal region (two) and parietal bones (two) on each side. Three flexible electromyogram wire electrodes were placed into the nuchal muscles. On day 8, a fine glass micropipette (10-20 mm tip diameter) containing ibotenic acid solution (10 nmol/L) was injected into the VLPO in both hemispheres following bone wax removal under anesthesia. One week after the second surgery, sleep-wakefulness states were recorded in rats from the VLPO lesion group. On day 10 after VLPO lesion, bicuculline (10 nmol/L), a GABAA-receptor antagonist, was microinjected into the TMn and sleep-wakefulness states were recorded for 24 hours.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Duration of the sleep-wakefulness cycle in each group using a Data acquisition unit (Micro1 401 mk2) and Data collection software (Spike Ⅱ). RESULTS: VLPO lesion induced an increased duration of wakefulness (W, 13.17%) and light slow-wave sleep (SWS1, 28.9%), respectively. Deep slow-wave sleep (SWS2, 43.74%) and paradoxical sleep (PS

  9. The Increase in Signaling by Kisspeptin Neurons in the Preoptic Area and Associated Changes in Clock Gene Expression That Trigger the LH Surge in Female Rats Are Dependent on the Facilitatory Action of a Noradrenaline Input.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalil, Bruna; Ribeiro, Aline B; Leite, Cristiane M; Uchôa, Ernane T; Carolino, Ruither O; Cardoso, Thais S R; Elias, Lucila L K; Rodrigues, José A; Plant, Tony M; Poletini, Maristela O; Anselmo-Franci, Janete A

    2016-01-01

    In rodents, kisspeptin neurons in the rostral periventricular area of the third ventricle (RP3V) of the preoptic area are considered to provide a major stimulatory input to the GnRH neuronal network that is responsible for triggering the preovulatory LH surge. Noradrenaline (NA) is one of the main modulators of GnRH release, and NA fibers are found in close apposition to kisspeptin neurons in the RP3V. Our objective was to interrogate the role of NA signaling in the kisspeptin control of GnRH secretion during the estradiol induced LH surge in ovariectomized rats, using prazosin, an α1-adrenergic receptor antagonist. In control rats, the estradiol-induced LH surge at 17 hours was associated with a significant increase in GnRH and kisspeptin content in the median eminence with the increase in kisspeptin preceding that of GnRH and LH. Prazosin, administered 5 and 3 hours prior to the predicted time of the LH surge truncated the LH surge and abolished the rise in GnRH and kisspeptin in the median eminence. In the preoptic area, prazosin blocked the increases in Kiss1 gene expression and kisspeptin content in association with a disruption in the expression of the clock genes, Per1 and Bmal1. Together these findings demonstrate for the first time that NA modulates kisspeptin synthesis in the RP3V through the activation of α1-adrenergic receptors prior to the initiation of the LH surge and indicate a potential role of α1-adrenergic signaling in the circadian-controlled pathway timing of the preovulatory LH surge.

  10. Lonicera japonica-induced inhibition of interleukin-1 beta thermogenesis and E-type prostaglandin receptor-3 expression in the preoptic area of rabbits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun Dong; Rongbo Tu; Rui Pan; Xinhua Xie

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND:It has been shown that interleukin-1β(IL-I β)can induce fever by activating vascular endothelial cells and macrophages of the supraoptic crest to generate prostaglandin E2,which binds with receptors of the thermo-sensitive hypothalamic neurons.Lonicera japonica is one of the medicinal plants used widely in Asia for its antipyretic properties.However,these mechanisms have not yet been intensively studied.OBJECTIVE:To investigate the antipyretic effect and mechanisms of Lonicera japonica on IL-1 β-induced febrile New Zealand rabbits by observing expression changes of E-type prostaglandin receptor-3 (EP3)mRNA in the preoptic anterior hypothalamus(POAH). DESIGN:A randomized controlled study. SETTING:Electrophysiological Laboratory at the Department of Pathophysiology,Medical College of Jinan University; Department of Orthopaedics,First Hospital Affiliated to Medical College of Jinan University. MATERIALS:The experiment was performed from April to December 2005,using a total of 32 New Zealand white rabbits of both sexes,weighing 1.5-2.0 kg.All the animal experiments were performed according to the internationally accepted ethical guidelines.Lonicera japonica injection was purchased from Huanghe pharmaceutical factory of Xi'an,China.IL-1 β was purchased from Sigma,USA.METHODS:A total of 32 rabbits were divided randomly into four groups:①Normal saline(NS)control group; ②Lonicerajaponica treatment group;③IL-1 β treatment group; and ④Lonicerajaponica plus IL-1 β treatment group.In the first 3 groups,the rabbits were given separate intravenous(I.v.)injections of 1 mL NS,1 mL l.Lonicera japonica,and 100 ng IL-1 β(dissolved in 0.9% NS without pyrogen).In the lonicera japonica plus IL-I βgroup each rabbit was given I.v.injections of l mL NS and,30 minutes later, 100 ng IL-I β. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:Colonic temperature of each rabbit was measured at 0,10,20,30,40,50, 60,and 70 minutes after injection and the maximum temperature rise( △ T)and the

  11. Discovering the somatotopic organization of the motor areas of the medial wall using low-frequency BOLD fluctuations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cauda, Franco; Geminiani, Giuliano; Giuliano, Geminiani; D'Agata, Federico; Federico, D'Agata; Duca, Sergio; Sergio, Duca; Sacco, Katiuscia; Katiuscia, Sacco

    2011-10-01

    This study explored the somatotopy of the motor areas of the medial wall of the cerebral hemisphere, in the human brain. In a sample of 16 healthy participants, we drew 9 regions of interest (ROI) over the primary motor area (M1), each corresponding to a well-known somatic representation. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we investigated the resting state functional connectivity between each selected ROI and the motor areas of the medial wall. The main finding was the identification of a rostrocaudal gradient of connectivity in which the more we move from cranial to caudal body representation areas in M1, the more the corresponding connected area in the medial wall is shifted rostrocaudally, confirming the somatotopic schema found in the SMA. We also reanalyzed data obtained in a previous experiment, we performed using hand and foot motor tasks; the reanalysis consisted in traditional BOLD and functional connectivity analyses. Finally, we performed a meta-analysis of 28 studies of hand and foot motor tasks, mapping their cerebral representations using the tools provided by the Brainmap database. All data converge in confirming a somatotopic representation of the medial wall motor areas, with hand representation placed more rostrally and ventrally than that of the foot.

  12. A dual role of EphB1/ephrin-B3 reverse signaling on migrating striatal and cortical neurons originating in the preoptic area: should I stay or go away ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith eRudolph

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available During embryonic development the preoptic area (POA gives rise to two populations of neurons which are generated at the same time, cortical interneurons and striatal cells. POA-derived cortical interneurons take a superficial path and avoid the developing striatum when they migrate to their target region. We found that EphB1, which is expressed in the striatal anlage, prevents cortical interneurons from entering the striatum via ephrin-B3 reverse signaling. In contrast, for striatal neurons which also express ephrin-B3, EphB1 acts as a stop signal. This dual role of EphB1 is due to differences in ephrin-B3 reverse signaling cascades. For striatal neurons, binding of EphB1 to ephrin-B3 reduces endogenously high levels of pSrc and pFAK, which then causes the cells to stop migration. In contrast, in cortical interneurons EphB1-ephrin-B3 reverse signaling leads to phosphorylation of Src and FAK which then mediates repulsion. Consistent with these in vitro findings, in an ephrin-B3 knockout mouse line, we discovered misrouted cortical interneurons in the striatum and an over-migration of striatal neurons in their target region. Thus, EphB1/ephrin-B3 reverse signaling has a different impact on two sets of neurons which are generated at the same time and place: it can act as a repulsive cue for migrating neurons or it can terminate neuronal migration, a novel role of the Eph/ephrin system.

  13. Moxonidine and rilmenidine injected into the medial septal area reduces the salivation induced by pilocarpine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saad, Wilson Abrão; de Arruda Camargo, Luis Antonio; Simões, Silvio; Saad, William Abrão; Guarda, Renata Saad; Guarda, Ismael Francisco Mota Siqueira

    2004-05-31

    We determined the effects of moxonidine and rilmenidine 20 nmol (alpha(2)-adrenergic and imidazoline receptor agonists) injected into the medial septal area (MSA) on the pilocarpine-induced salivation, when injected intraperitoneally (i.p.), of male Holtzman rats weighing 250-300 g, with stainless-steel cannula implanted into the MSA. The rats were anesthetized with zoletil 50 mg kg(-1) b.wt. (tiletamine chloridrate 125.0 mg and zolazepan chloridrate 125.0 mg) into quadriceps muscle intramuscularly (IM), saliva was collected using pre-weighed small cotton balls inserted in the animal's mouth. The pre-treatment with moxonidine injected into the MSA reduced the salivation induced by pilocarpine (1 mg kg(-1)) injected i.p. (12+/-3 mg min(-1)) vs. control (99+/-9 mg min(-1)). The pre-treatment with rilmenidine 40 nmol also reduced the salivation induce by pilocarpine injected i.p. (20+/-5 mg min(-1)) vs. control (94+/-7 mg min(-1)). Idazoxan 40 nmol (imidazoline receptor antagonist) injected into the MSA previous to moxonidine and rilmenidine partially blocked the effect of moxonidine and totally blocked the rilmenidine effect in pilocarpine-induced salivation injected i.p. (60+/-8 and 95+/-10 mg min(-1), respectively). Yohimbine 40 nmol (alpha(2)-adrenergic receptor antagonist) injected into the MSA previously to moxonidine and rilmenidine partially blocked the moxonidine effect but produced no change on the rilmenidine effect on i.p. pilocarpine-induced salivation (70+/-6 and 24+/-6 mg min(-1), respectively). Injection of these alpha(2)-adrenergic and imidazoline agonists and antagonists agents i.p. produced no change on i.p. pilocarpine-induced salivation. These results show that central, but not peripheral, injection of alpha(2)-adrenergic and imidazoline agonists' agents inhibit pilocarpine-induced salivation. Idazoxan, an imidazoline receptor antagonist, totally inhibits the rilmenidine effect and partially inhibits the moxonidine effect on pilocarpine

  14. Increased neuronal firing in resting and sleep in areas of the macaque medial prefrontal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabbott, Paul L; Rolls, Edmund T

    2013-06-01

    The medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) of humans and macaques is an integral part of the default mode network and is a brain region that shows increased activation in the resting state. A previous paper from our laboratory reported significantly increased firing rates of neurons in the macaque subgenual cingulate cortex, Brodmann area (BA) 25, during disengagement from a task and also during slow wave sleep [E.T. Rolls et al. (2003) J. Neurophysiology, 90, 134-142]. Here we report the finding that there are neurons in other areas of mPFC that also increase their firing rates during disengagement from a task, drowsiness and eye-closure. During the neurophysiological recording of single mPFC cells (n = 249) in BAs 9, 10, 13 m, 14c, 24b and especially pregenual area 32, populations of neurons were identified whose firing rates altered significantly with eye-closure compared with eye-opening. Three types of neuron were identified: Type 1 cells (28.1% of the total population) significantly increased (mean + 329%; P ≪ 0.01) their average firing rate with eye-closure, from 3.1 spikes/s when awake to 10.2 spikes/s when asleep; Type 2 cells (6.0%) significantly decreased (mean -68%; P areas of mPFC, implicated in the anterior default mode network, there is a substantial population of neurons that significantly increase their firing rates during periods of eye-closure. Such neurons may be part of an interconnected network of distributed brain regions that are more active during periods of relaxed wakefulness than during attention-demanding tasks. © 2013 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  15. Ontology-based approach for in vivo human connectomics: the medial Brodmann area 6 case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreau, Tristan; Gibaud, Bernard

    2015-01-01

    Different non-invasive neuroimaging modalities and multi-level analysis of human connectomics datasets yield a great amount of heterogeneous data which are hard to integrate into an unified representation. Biomedical ontologies can provide a suitable integrative framework for domain knowledge as well as a tool to facilitate information retrieval, data sharing and data comparisons across scales, modalities and species. Especially, it is urgently needed to fill the gap between neurobiology and in vivo human connectomics in order to better take into account the reality highlighted in Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and relate it to existing brain knowledge. The aim of this study was to create a neuroanatomical ontology, called "Human Connectomics Ontology" (HCO), in order to represent macroscopic gray matter regions connected with fiber bundles assessed by diffusion tractography and to annotate MRI connectomics datasets acquired in the living human brain. First a neuroanatomical "view" called NEURO-DL-FMA was extracted from the reference ontology Foundational Model of Anatomy (FMA) in order to construct a gross anatomy ontology of the brain. HCO extends NEURO-DL-FMA by introducing entities (such as "MR_Node" and "MR_Route") and object properties (such as "tracto_connects") pertaining to MR connectivity. The Web Ontology Language Description Logics (OWL DL) formalism was used in order to enable reasoning with common reasoning engines. Moreover, an experimental work was achieved in order to demonstrate how the HCO could be effectively used to address complex queries concerning in vivo MRI connectomics datasets. Indeed, neuroimaging datasets of five healthy subjects were annotated with terms of the HCO and a multi-level analysis of the connectivity patterns assessed by diffusion tractography of the right medial Brodmann Area 6 was achieved using a set of queries. This approach can facilitate comparison of data across scales, modalities and species.

  16. Ontology-based approach for in vivo human connectomics: the medial Brodmann area 6 case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tristan eMoreau

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Different non-invasive neuroimaging modalities and multi-level analysis of human connectomics datasets yield a great amount of heterogeneous data which are hard to integrate into an unified representation. Biomedical ontologies can provide a suitable integrative framework for domain knowledge as well as a tool to facilitate information retrieval, data sharing and data comparisons across scales, modalities and species. Especially, it is urgently needed to fill the gap between neurobiology and in vivo human connectomics in order to better take into account the reality highlighted in Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI and relate it to existing brain knowledge. The aim of this study was to create a neuroanatomical ontology, called Human Connectomics Ontology (HCO, in order to represent macroscopic gray matter regions connected with fiber bundles assessed by diffusion tractography and to annotate MRI connectomics datasets acquired in the living human brain. First a neuroanatomical view called NEURO-DL-FMA was extracted from the reference ontology Foundational Model of Anatomy (FMA in order to construct a gross anatomy ontology of the brain. HCO extends NEURO-DL-FMA by introducing entities (such as MR_Node and MR_Route and object properties such as tracto_connects pertaining to MR connectivity. The Web Ontology Language Description Logics (OWL DL formalism was used in order to enable reasoning with common reasoning engines. Moreover, an experimental work was achieved in order to demonstrate how the HCO could be effectively used to address complex queries concerning in vivo MRI connectomics datasets. Indeed, neuroimaging datasets of five healthy subjects were annotated with terms of the HCO and a multi-level analysis of the connectivity patterns assessed by diffusion tractography of the right medial Brodmann Area 6 was achieved using a set of queries. This approach can facilitate comparison of data across scales, modalities and species.

  17. Increased Intrinsic Activity of Medial-Temporal Lobe Subregions is Associated with Decreased Cortical Thickness of Medial-Parietal Areas in Patients with Alzheimer's Disease Dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasquini, Lorenzo; Scherr, Martin; Tahmasian, Masoud; Myers, Nicholas E; Ortner, Marion; Kurz, Alexander; Förstl, Hans; Zimmer, Claus; Grimmer, Timo; Akhrif, Atae; Wohlschläger, Afra M; Riedl, Valentin; Sorg, Christian

    2016-01-01

    In Alzheimer's disease (AD), disrupted connectivity between medial-parietal cortices and medial-temporal lobes (MTL) is linked with increased MTL local functional connectivity, and parietal atrophy is associated with increased MTL memory activation. We hypothesized that intrinsic activity in MTL subregions is increased and associated with medial-parietal degeneration and impaired memory in AD. To test this hypothesis, resting-state-functional and structural-MRI was assessed in 22 healthy controls, 22 mild cognitive impairment patients, and 21 AD-dementia patients. Intrinsic activity was measured by power-spectrum density of blood-oxygenation-level-dependent signal, medial-parietal degeneration by cortical thinning. In AD-dementia patients, intrinsic activity was increased for several right MTL subregions. Raised intrinsic activity in dentate gyrus and cornu ammonis 1 was associated with cortical thinning in posterior cingulate cortices, and at-trend with impaired delayed recall. Critically, increased intrinsic activity in the right entorhinal cortex was associated with ipsilateral posterior cingulate degeneration. Our results provide evidence that in AD, intrinsic activity in MTL subregions is increased and associated with medial-parietal atrophy. Results fit a model in which medial-parietal degeneration contributes to MTL dysconnectivity from medial-parietal cortices, potentially underpinning disinhibition-like changes in MTL activity.

  18. Medial vestibular connections with the hypocretin (orexin) system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horowitz, Seth S.; Blanchard, Jane; Morin, Lawrence P.

    2005-01-01

    The mammalian medial vestibular nucleus (MVe) receives input from all vestibular endorgans and provides extensive projections to the central nervous system. Recent studies have demonstrated projections from the MVe to the circadian rhythm system. In addition, there are known projections from the MVe to regions considered to be involved in sleep and arousal. In this study, afferent and efferent subcortical connectivity of the medial vestibular nucleus of the golden hamster (Mesocricetus auratus) was evaluated using cholera toxin subunit-B (retrograde), Phaseolus vulgaris leucoagglutinin (anterograde), and pseudorabies virus (transneuronal retrograde) tract-tracing techniques. The results demonstrate MVe connections with regions mediating visuomotor and postural control, as previously observed in other mammals. The data also identify extensive projections from the MVe to regions mediating arousal and sleep-related functions, most of which receive immunohistochemically identified projections from the lateral hypothalamic hypocretin (orexin) neurons. These include the locus coeruleus, dorsal and pedunculopontine tegmental nuclei, dorsal raphe, and lateral preoptic area. The MVe itself receives a projection from hypocretin cells. CTB tracing demonstrated reciprocal connections between the MVe and most brain areas receiving MVe efferents. Virus tracing confirmed and extended the MVe afferent connections identified with CTB and additionally demonstrated transneuronal connectivity with the suprachiasmatic nucleus and the medial habenular nucleus. These anatomical data indicate that the vestibular system has access to a broad array of neural functions not typically associated with visuomotor, balance, or equilibrium, and that the MVe is likely to receive information from many of the same regions to which it projects.

  19. [The medial temporal area and parietal lobe are involved in epileptic polyopia and palinopsia: A case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toma, Keiichiro; Taguchi, Keiko; Ikeda, Akio; Nishinaka, Kazuto; Udaka, Fukashi; Kameyama, Masakuni

    2012-01-01

    This report presents the case of an 83-year-old female with a tumor in the right temporal lobe. She experienced various epileptic visual auras including visual perseveration. Visual perseveration is classified into polyopia and palinopsia. Epileptic visual perseveration is a rare phenomenon, and the mechanism has not been fully explained. MRI revealed a tumor in the right temporal lobe with edema in the occipital white matter. To reveal mechanisms of epileptic polyopia and palinopsia, we recorded EEG and (123)I-IMP-SPECT when she experienced epileptic attacks. EEG showed epileptic discharges beginning at the occipital area, which spread to the temporal and parietal areas. During the EEG recording, the main symptom was an unformed hallucination. SPECT showed that blood flow increased in the right medial temporal and parietal lobes and, to a slightly lesser extent, in the right occipito-temporal area when the polyopia and palinopsia frequently appeared. Involvement of the multiple foci may have caused the different kinds of visual symptoms. The medial temporal and parietal areas were likely responsible for polyopia and palinopsia at least for this patient.

  20. Imiquimod 5% cream for the treatment of large nodular basal cell carcinoma at the medial canthal area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karabulut, Gamze Ozturk; Kaynak, Pelin; Ozturker, Can; Fazil, Korhan; Ocak, Osman Bulut; Taskapılı, Muhittin

    2017-01-01

    Context (Background): Imiquimod (IMQ) 5% cream is an immunomodulatory and antitumorigenic agent, which was used as a topical treatment regimen, who had periocular basal cell carcinoma (BCC). Aim: This study aims to present three cases with large BCC at the medial canthal area treated with IMQ 5% cream. Materials and Methods: IMQ 5% cream was used in three patients with ages 45, 49, and 73 who preferred medical treatment over surgery. Following incisional biopsy IMQ cream was used once a day, 5 times a week and the patients were followed up weekly during 12 week treatment period and monthly after the clearance of the lesion. Results: Erythema and erosion on the surface of the lesion, injection of conjunctiva, burning and itching sensation, epiphora and punctate keratitis were seen in all patients during the treatment period. The ophthalmic side effects could be managed by topical lubricating eye drops and the inflammatory reactions resolved within 1 month after cessation of therapy. The patients were followed up for at least 3 years without tumor recurrence and the biopsies taken from the suspected area were found to be tumor free. Conclusion: Surgical excision of carcinoma of the eyelid at medial canthal area can be difficult without causing damage to the lacrimal system and reconstruction of the defect may need grafts or flaps. IMQ may provide an alternative therapy to surgery in certain cases. PMID:28300740

  1. Imidacloprid toxicity impairs spatial memory of echolocation bats through neural apoptosis in hippocampal CA1 and medial entorhinal cortex areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, Chun-Jen; Lin, Ching-Lung; Lin, Tian-Yu; Wang, Sheue-Er; Wu, Chung-Hsin

    2016-04-13

    It has been reported that the decimation of honey bees was because of pesticides of imidacloprid. The imidacloprid is a wildly used neonicotinoid insecticide. However, whether imidacloprid toxicity interferes with the spatial memory of echolocation bats is still unclear. Thus, we compared the spatial memory of Formosan leaf-nosed bats, Hipposideros terasensis, before and after chronic treatment with a low dose of imidacloprid. We observed that stereotyped flight patterns of echolocation bats that received chronic imidacloprid treatment were quite different from their originally learned paths. We further found that neural apoptosis in hippocampal CA1 and medial entorhinal cortex areas of echolocation bats that received imidacloprid treatment was significantly enhanced in comparison with echolocation bats that received sham treatment. Thus, we suggest that imidacloprid toxicity may interfere with the spatial memory of echolocation bats through neural apoptosis in hippocampal CA1 and medial entorhinal cortex areas. The results provide direct evidence that pesticide toxicity causes a spatial memory disorder in echolocation bats. This implies that agricultural pesticides may pose severe threats to the survival of echolocation bats.

  2. Increased CRF signalling in a ventral tegmental area-interpeduncular nucleus-medial habenula circuit induces anxiety during nicotine withdrawal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao-Shea, Rubing; DeGroot, Steven R; Liu, Liwang; Vallaster, Markus; Pang, Xueyan; Su, Qin; Gao, Guangping; Rando, Oliver J; Martin, Gilles E; George, Olivier; Gardner, Paul D; Tapper, Andrew R

    2015-04-21

    Increased anxiety is a prominent withdrawal symptom in abstinent smokers, yet the neuroanatomical and molecular bases underlying it are unclear. Here we show that withdrawal-induced anxiety increases activity of neurons in the interpeduncular intermediate (IPI), a subregion of the interpeduncular nucleus (IPN). IPI activation during nicotine withdrawal was mediated by increased corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) receptor-1 expression and signalling, which modulated glutamatergic input from the medial habenula (MHb). Pharmacological blockade of IPN CRF1 receptors or optogenetic silencing of MHb input reduced IPI activation and alleviated withdrawal-induced anxiety; whereas IPN CRF infusion in mice increased anxiety. We identified a mesointerpeduncular circuit, consisting of ventral tegmental area (VTA) dopaminergic neurons projecting to the IPN, as a potential source of CRF. Knockdown of CRF synthesis in the VTA prevented IPI activation and anxiety during nicotine withdrawal. These data indicate that increased CRF receptor signalling within a VTA-IPN-MHb circuit triggers anxiety during nicotine withdrawal.

  3. Multiple telencephalic and extratelencephalic embryonic domains contribute neurons to the medial extended amygdala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bupesh, Munisamy; Legaz, Isabel; Abellán, Antonio; Medina, Loreta

    2011-06-01

    Dysfunctions in emotional control and social behavior are behind human neuropsychiatric disorders, some of which are associated with an alteration of amygdalar development. The medial extended amygdala is a key telencephalic center for control of social behavior, but very little is known about its development. We used in vitro migration assays for analyzing the origin of the neurons of the medial extended amygdala in mouse embryos (E13.5-E16.5). We compared the migration assays with immunofluorescence/immunohistochemistry for calbindin and radial glial fibers and with mRNA expression of several genetic markers of distinct forebrain subdivisions. We provide experimental evidence for multiple embryonic origins of the principal neurons of the medial extended amygdala. In particular, we provide novel evidence indicating that a major part of the neurons derives from a caudoventral pallidal subdivision (previously called or included as part of the anterior peduncular area), forming a cell corridor with similar molecular features (expression of Lhx6 and calbindin), connectivity, and function, which relates to reproductive behavior. We also provide novel experimental evidence indicating that the ventral pallium produces some neurons for the medial amygdala, which correlates with data from Lhx9 expression. Our results also confirm that some neurons of the medial extended amygdala originate in the preoptic area (our results indicate that these cells specifically originate in its commissural subdivision) and the supraoptoparaventricular domain of the hypothalamus. Our study helps to set up the foundations for a better understanding of medial amygdalar control of behavior in normal and abnormal conditions.

  4. Timescales of sensory- and decision-related activity in the middle temporal and medial superior temporal areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Nicholas S C; Born, Richard T

    2010-10-20

    The contribution of sensory neurons to perceptual decisions about external stimulus events has received much attention, but it is less clear how sensory responses are integrated over time to produce decisions that are both rapid and reliable. To address this issue, we recorded from middle temporal area and medial superior temporal area neurons in rhesus macaques performing a task requiring the detection and discrimination of unpredictable speed changes. We examined how neuronal activity encoded the sign of the speed change and predicted the animals' behavioral judgments and reaction times, with a focus on the timescales over which neuronal activity is informative. False detection trials, on which animals reported a speed change even though none had occurred, were grouped according to the animals' discrimination judgment. By comparing the neuronal responses between the two groups of false detection trials, we were able to predict the animals' choices from the sensory activity of single neurons at levels significantly better than chance. These choice probability measurements were strongest using spike counts in an 80 ms window ending 150 ms before a choice saccade began, but significant choice probabilities were observed in windows as short as 10 ms. While the maximum deviation in spiking rate following a speed change is evident in the transient response, averaging neuronal activity in longer time windows can be more informative about both the stimulus and the animals' behavioral judgments. Thus the timescales found in this study represent a trade-off between producing rapid reactions and overcoming the noise inherent in short time windows.

  5. The control of preoptic aromatase activity by afferent inputs in Japanese quail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Absil, P; Baillien, M; Ball, G F; Panzica, G C; Balthazart, J

    2001-11-01

    This review summarizes current knowledge on the mechanisms that control aromatase activity in the quail preoptic area, a brain region that plays a key role in the control of reproduction. Aromatase and aromatase mRNA synthesis in the preoptic area are enhanced by testosterone and its metabolite estradiol, but estradiol receptors of the alpha subtype are not regularly colocalized with aromatase. Estradiol receptors of the beta subtype are present in the preoptic area but it is not yet known whether these receptors are colocalized with aromatase. The regulation by estrogen of aromatase activity may be, in part, trans-synaptically mediated, in a manner that is reminiscent of the ways in which steroids control the activity of gonadotropic hormone releasing hormone neurons. Aromatase-immunoreactive neurons are surrounded by dense networks of vasotocin-immunoreactive and tyrosine hydroxylase-immunoreactive fibers and punctate structures. These inputs are in part steroid-sensitive and could therefore mediate the effects of steroids on aromatase activity. In vivo pharmacological experiments indicate that catecholaminergic depletions significantly affect aromatase activity presumably by modulating aromatase transcription. In addition, in vitro studies on brain homogenates or on preoptic-hypothalamic explants show that aromatase activity can be rapidly modulated by a variety of dopaminergic compounds. These effects do not appear to be mediated by the membrane dopamine receptors and could involve changes in the phosphorylation state of the enzyme. Together, these results provide converging evidence for a direct control of aromatase activity by catecholamines consistent with the anatomical data indicating the presence of a catecholaminergic innervation of aromatase cells. These dopamine-induced changes in aromatase activity are observed after several hours or days and presumably result from changes in aromatase transcription but rapid non-genomic controls have also been

  6. Differential efferent projections of the anterior, posteroventral and posterodorsal subdivisions of the medial amygdala in mice

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    Cecília ePardo-Bellver

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The medial amygdaloid nucleus (Me is a key structure in the control of sociosexual behaviour in mice. It receives direct projections from the main and accessory olfactory bulbs, as well as an important hormonal input. To better understand its behavioural role, in this work we investigate the structures receiving information from the Me, by analysing the efferent projections from its anterior (MeA, posterodorsal (MePD and posteroventral (MePV subdivisions, using anterograde neuronal tracing with biotinylated and tetrametylrhodamine-conjugated dextranamines.The Me is strongly interconnected with the rest of the chemosensory amygdala, but shows only moderate projections to the central nucleus and light projections to the associative nuclei of the basolateral amygdaloid complex. In addition, the MeA originates a strong feedback projection to the deep mitral cell layer of the accessory olfactory bulb, whereas the MePV projects to its granule cell layer. The medial amygdaloid nucleus (especially the MeA has also moderate projections to different olfactory structures, including the piriform cortex. The densest outputs of the Me target the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BST and the hypothalamus. The MeA and MePV project to key structures of the circuit involved in the defensive response against predators (medial posterointermediate BST, anterior hypothalamic area, dorsomedial aspect of the ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus, although less dense projections also innervate reproductive-related nuclei. In contrast, the MePD projects mainly to structures that control reproductive behaviours (medial posteromedial BST, medial preoptic nucleus, and ventrolateral aspect of the ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus, although less dense projections to defensive-related nuclei also exist. These results confirm and extend previous results in other rodents and suggest that the medial amygdala is anatomically and functionally compartmentalized.

  7. Neuronal activity in the preoptic hypothalamus during sleep deprivation and recovery sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Md Aftab; Kumar, Sunil; McGinty, Dennis; Alam, Md Noor; Szymusiak, Ronald

    2014-01-01

    The preoptic hypothalamus is implicated in sleep regulation. Neurons in the median preoptic nucleus (MnPO) and the ventrolateral preoptic area (VLPO) have been identified as potential sleep regulatory elements. However, the extent to which MnPO and VLPO neurons are activated in response to changing homeostatic sleep regulatory demands is unresolved. To address this question, we continuously recorded the extracellular activity of neurons in the rat MnPO, VLPO and dorsal lateral preoptic area (LPO) during baseline sleep and waking, during 2 h of sleep deprivation (SD) and during 2 h of recovery sleep (RS). Sleep-active neurons in the MnPO (n = 11) and VLPO (n = 13) were activated in response to SD, such that waking discharge rates increased by 95.8 ± 29.5% and 59.4 ± 17.3%, respectively, above waking baseline values. During RS, non-rapid eye movement (REM) sleep discharge rates of MnPO neurons initially increased to 65.6 ± 15.2% above baseline values, then declined to baseline levels in association with decreases in EEG delta power. Increase in non-REM sleep discharge rates in VLPO neurons during RS averaged 40.5 ± 7.6% above baseline. REM-active neurons (n = 16) in the LPO also exhibited increased waking discharge during SD and an increase in non-REM discharge during RS. Infusion of A2A adenosine receptor antagonist into the VLPO attenuated SD-induced increases in neuronal discharge. Populations of LPO wake/REM-active and state-indifferent neurons and dorsal LPO sleep-active neurons were unresponsive to SD. These findings support the hypothesis that sleep-active neurons in the MnPO and VLPO, and REM-active neurons in the LPO, are components of neuronal circuits that mediate homeostatic responses to sustained wakefulness.

  8. Increased CRF signaling in a ventral tegmental area-interpeduncular nucleus-medial habenula circuit induces anxiety during nicotine withdrawal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao-Shea, Rubing; DeGroot, Steven R.; Liu, Liwang; Vallaster, Markus; Pang, Xueyan; Su, Qin; Gao, Guangping; Rando, Oliver J.; Martin, Gilles E.; George, Olivier; Gardner, Paul D.; Tapper, Andrew R.

    2015-01-01

    Increased anxiety is a predominant withdrawal symptom in abstinent smokers, yet the neuroanatomical and molecular bases underlying it are unclear. Here, we show that withdrawal-induced anxiety increases activity of neurons in the interpeduncular intermediate (IPI), a subregion of the interpeduncular nucleus (IPN). IPI activation during nicotine withdrawal was mediated by increased corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) receptor-1 expression and signaling, which modulated glutamatergic input from the medial habenula (MHb). Pharmacological blockade of IPN CRF1 receptors or optogenetic silencing of MHb input reduced IPI activation and alleviated withdrawal-induced anxiety; whereas IPN CRF infusion in mice increased anxiety. We identified a meso-interpeduncular circuit, consisting of ventral tegmental area (VTA) dopaminergic neurons projecting to the IPN, as a potential source of CRF. Knock-down of CRF synthesis in the VTA prevented IPI activation and anxiety during nicotine withdrawal. These data indicate that increased CRF receptor signaling within a VTA-IPN-MHb circuit triggers anxiety during nicotine withdrawal. PMID:25898242

  9. rKv1.2 overexpression in the central medial thalamic area decreases caffeine-induced arousal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cazzin, C; Piccoli, L; Massagrande, M; Garbati, N; Michielin, F; Knaus, H-G; Ring, C J A; Morrison, A D; Merlo-Pich, E; Rovo, Z; Astori, S; Lüthi, A; Corti, C; Corsi, M

    2011-11-01

    The voltage-gated potassium channel Kv1.2 belongs to the shaker-related family and has recently been implicated in the control of sleep profile on the basis of clinical and experimental evidence in rodents. To further investigate whether increasing Kv1.2 activity would promote sleep occurrence in rats, we developed an adeno-associated viral vector that induces overexpression of rat Kv1.2 protein. The viral vector was first evaluated in vitro for its ability to overexpress rat Kv1.2 protein and to produce functional currents in infected U2OS cells. Next, the adeno-associated Kv1.2 vector was injected stereotaxically into the central medial thalamic area of rats and overexpression of Kv1.2 was showed by in situ hybridization, ex vivo electrophysiology and immunohistochemistry. Finally, the functional effect of Kv1.2 overexpression on sleep facilitation was investigated using telemetry system under normal conditions and following administration of the arousing agent caffeine, during the light phase. While no differences in sleep profile were observed between the control and the treated animals under normal conditions, a decrease in the pro-arousal effect of caffeine was seen only in the animals injected with the adeno-associated virus-Kv1.2 vector. Overall, our data further support a role of the Kv1.2 channel in the control of sleep profile, particularly under conditions of sleep disturbance.

  10. Adrenoceptors of the medial septal area modulate water intake and renal excretory function induced by central administration of angiotensin II

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    Saad W.A.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the role of alpha-adrenergic antagonists and clonidine injected into the medial septal area (MSA on water intake and the decrease in Na+, K+ and urine elicited by ANGII injection into the third ventricle (3rdV. Male Holtzman rats with stainless steel cannulas implanted into the 3rdV and MSA were used. ANGII (12 nmol/µl increased water intake (12.5 ± 1.7 ml/120 min. Clonidine (20 nmol/µl injected into the MSA reduced the ANGII-induced water intake (2.9 ± 0.5 ml/120 min. Pretreatment with 80 nmol/µl yohimbine or prazosin into the MSA also reduced the ANGII-induced water intake (3.0 ± 0.4 and 3.1 ± 0.2 ml/120 min, respectively. Yohimbine + prazosin + clonidine injected into the MSA abolished the ANGII-induced water intake (0.2 ± 0.1 and 0.2 ± 0.1 ml/120 min, respectively. ANGII reduced Na+ (23 ± 7 µEq/120 min, K+ (27 ± 3 µEq/120 min and urine volume (4.3 ± 0.9 ml/120 min. Clonidine increased the parameters above. Clonidine injected into the MSA abolished the inhibitory effect of ANGII on urinary sodium. Yohimbine injected into the MSA also abolished the inhibitory effects of ANGII. Yohimbine + clonidine attenuated the inhibitory effects of ANGII. Prazosin injected into the MSA did not cause changes in ANGII responses. Prazosin + clonidine attenuated the inhibitory effects of ANGII. The results showed that MSA injections of alpha1- and alpha2-antagonists decreased ANGII-induced water intake, and abolished the Na+, K+ and urine decrease induced by ANGII into the 3rdV. These findings suggest the involvement of septal alpha1- and alpha2-adrenergic receptors in water intake and electrolyte and urine excretion induced by central ANGII.

  11. Posterior medial frontal cortex activity predicts post-error adaptations in task-related visual and motor areas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Danielmeier, C.; Eichele, T.; Forstmann, B.U.; Tittgemeyer, M.; Ullsperger, M.

    2011-01-01

    As Seneca the Younger put it, "To err is human, but to persist is diabolical." To prevent repetition of errors, human performance monitoring often triggers adaptations such as general slowing and/or attentional focusing. The posterior medial frontal cortex (pMFC) is assumed to monitor performance pr

  12. Timed Up and Go test, atrophy of medial temporal areas and cognitive functions in community-dwelling older adults with normal cognition and mild cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kose, Yujiro; Ikenaga, Masahiro; Yamada, Yosuke; Morimura, Kazuhiro; Takeda, Noriko; Ouma, Shinji; Tsuboi, Yoshio; Yamada, Tatsuo; Kimura, Misaka; Kiyonaga, Akira; Higaki, Yasuki; Tanaka, Hiroaki

    2016-12-01

    This study aimed to ascertain if performance on the Timed Up and Go (TUG) test is associated with indicators of brain volume and cognitive functions among community-dwelling older adults with normal cognition or mild cognitive impairment. Participants were 80 community-dwelling older adults aged 65-89years (44 men, 36 women), including 20 with mild cognitive impairment. Participants completed the TUG and a battery of cognitive assessments, including the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), the Logical Memory I and II (LM-I, LM-II) subtests of the Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised; and the Trail Making Test A and B (TMT-A, TMT-B). Bilateral, right- and left-side medial temporal area atrophy as well as whole gray and white matter indices were determined with the Voxel-based Specific Regional Analysis System for Alzheimer's Disease. We divided participants into three groups based on TUG performance: "better" (≤6.9s); "normal" (7-10s); and "poor" (≥10.1s). Worse TMT-A and TMT-B performance showed significant independent associations with worse TUG performance (P<0.05, P<0.01 for trend, respectively). After adjusting for covariates, severe atrophy of bilateral, right-, and left-side medial temporal areas were significantly independently associated with worse TUG performance (P<0.05 for trend). However, no significant associations were found between MMSE, LM-I, LM-II, whole gray and white matter indices, and TUG performance. Worse TUG performance is related to poor performance on TMT-A and TMT-B, and is independently associated with severe medial temporal area atrophy in community-dwelling older adults. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Epileptic seizure propagation from the second somatic sensory area to the fronto-medial region, by insular redistribution. A case report and a connectome description

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    Balogh Attila

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The seizure propagation phenomenon by inducing remote symptoms brings several difficulties in finding the seizure onset and delineating the epileptic network which should be taken into consideration in epilepsy surgery. By demonstrating a difficult (MRI negative epilepsy surgery case explored with invasive presurgical evaluation we highlight the importance to recognise the secondary sensory area and to explore the the parieto-opercular-insular-medial frontal network in certain cases. A further conclusion is the consideration of the redistributory role of the insula as a special structure in the cerebral connectome, having a role in epileptic network organisation.

  14. Preoptic neuronal nitric oxide synthase induction by testosterone is consistent with a role in gating male copulatory behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanderson, Nicholas S. R.; Le, Brandon; Zhou, Zifei; Crews, David

    2008-01-01

    Copulatory behaviors are generally dependent on testicular androgens in male vertebrates, being eliminated by castration and re-instated by testosterone administration. It is postulated that a critical factor in this hormonal gating is up-regulation of neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) in the preoptic area, and consequent enhanced nitric oxide synthesis in response to stimuli associated with a receptive female. Previous studies have suggested that nNOS protein is more abundant in behaviorally relevant preoptic regions of testosterone-exposed animals than in hormone-deprived controls. This study sought to elucidate the molecular events underlying this apparent up-regulation by examining preoptic nNOS mRNA abundance at several time points following testosterone administration in a castration and replacement paradigm. Castrated male whiptails (Cnemidophorus inornatus) were implanted with testosterone, and at four time points over the subsequent 18 days their sexual behavior was tested. A rostral periventricular area previously implicated in hormonal gating of male-typical copulatory behavior was then excised by laser microdissection, and nNOS transcript abundance was assessed by quantitative PCR. As neither this technique nor nNOS mRNA measurements have previously been performed in this area of the brain, expression was concommitantly assayed on adjacent sections by in situ hybridization or NADPH diaphorase histochemistry. Results are consistent with transcriptional up-regulation of nNOS by testosterone and a central role for the enzyme in mediating hormonal gating of copulatory behavior. PMID:18184320

  15. Neuropeptides in the hypothalamo-hypophyseal system: lateral retrochiasmatic area as a common gate for neuronal fibers towards the median eminence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palkovits, M

    1984-01-01

    The source and topography of neuropeptide-containing axons in the median eminence are summarized. Several of these neuropeptide-containing neurons (thyrotropin-releasing hormone, corticotropin-releasing hormone, vasopressin, oxytocin, cholecystokinin) are localized in the paraventricular nucleus. The periventricular and medial preoptic nuclei constitute the main sources of somatostatin and luteinizing hormone releasing hormone axons in the median eminence, respectively. Dynorphins and alpha-neo-endorphin-synthetizing neurons in the supraoptic nucleus also project to the median eminence. Wherever they originate, the projections may follow a common organization pattern and use a common gate--the lateral retrochiasmatic area--to enter the median eminence.

  16. A setup for administering TMS to medial and lateral cortical areas during whole-brain FMRI recording

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weijer, A.D. de; Sommer, I.E.C.; Bakker, E.J.; Bloemendaal, M.; Bakker, C.J.; Klomp, D.W.J.; Bestmann, S.; Neggers, S.F.W.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY: Stimulating brain areas with transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) while concurrently and noninvasively recording brain activity changes through functional MRI enables a new range of investigations about causal interregional interactions in the human brain. However, standard head-coil arr

  17. Influence of angiotensin II receptor subtypes of the paraventricular nucleus on the physiological responses induced by angiotensin II injection into the medial septal area

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    Saad Wilson Abrão

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: We determined the effects of losartan and PD 123319 (antagonists of the AT1 and AT2 angiotensin receptors, respectively, and [Sar¹, Ala8] ANG II (a relatively peptide antagonist of angiotensin receptors injected into the paraventricular nucleus (PVN on water and 3% NaCl intake, and the diuretic, natriuretic, and pressor effects induced by administration of angiotensin II (ANG II into the medial septal area (MSA of conscious rats. METHODS: Holtzman rats were used . Animals were anesthetized with tribromoethanol (20 mg per 100 grams of body weight, ip. A stainless steel guide cannula was implanted into the MSA and PVN. All drugs were injected in 0.5-mul volumes for 10-15 seconds. Seven days after brain surgery, water and 3% NaCl intake, urine and sodium excretion, and arterial blood pressure were measured. RESULTS: Losartan (40 nmol and [Sar¹, Ala8] ANG II (40 nmol completely eliminated whereas PD 123319 (40 nmol partially blocked the increase in water and sodium intake and the increase in arterial blood pressure induced by ANG II (10 nmol injected into the MSA. The PVN administration of PD 123319 and [Sar¹, Ala8] ANG II blocked whereas losartan attenuated the diuresis and natriuresis induced by MSA administration of ANG II. CONCLUSION: MSA involvement with PVN on water and sodium homeostasis and arterial pressure modulation utilizing ANGII receptors is suggested.

  18. Characterization of cognitive deficits in rats overexpressing human alpha-synuclein in the ventral tegmental area and medial septum using recombinant adeno-associated viral vectors.

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    Hélène Hall

    Full Text Available Intraneuronal inclusions containing alpha-synuclein (a-syn constitute one of the pathological hallmarks of Parkinson's disease (PD and are accompanied by severe neurodegeneration of A9 dopaminergic neurons located in the substantia nigra. Although to a lesser extent, A10 dopaminergic neurons are also affected. Neurodegeneration of other neuronal populations, such as the cholinergic, serotonergic and noradrenergic cell groups, has also been documented in PD patients. Studies in human post-mortem PD brains and in rodent models suggest that deficits in cholinergic and dopaminergic systems may be associated with the cognitive impairment seen in this disease. Here, we investigated the consequences of targeted overexpression of a-syn in the mesocorticolimbic dopaminergic and septohippocampal cholinergic pathways. Rats were injected with recombinant adeno-associated viral vectors encoding for either human wild-type a-syn or green fluorescent protein (GFP in the ventral tegmental area and the medial septum/vertical limb of the diagonal band of Broca, two regions rich in dopaminergic and cholinergic neurons, respectively. Histopathological analysis showed widespread insoluble a-syn positive inclusions in all major projections areas of the targeted nuclei, including the hippocampus, neocortex, nucleus accumbens and anteromedial striatum. In addition, the rats overexpressing human a-syn displayed an abnormal locomotor response to apomorphine injection and exhibited spatial learning and memory deficits in the Morris water maze task, in the absence of obvious spontaneous locomotor impairment. As losses in dopaminergic and cholinergic immunoreactivity in both the GFP and a-syn expressing animals were mild-to-moderate and did not differ from each other, the behavioral impairments seen in the a-syn overexpressing animals appear to be determined by the long term persisting neuropathology in the surviving neurons rather than by neurodegeneration.

  19. Role of reuniens nucleus projections to the medial prefrontal cortex and to the hippocampal pyramidal CA1 area in associative learning.

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    Lyndell Eleore

    Full Text Available We studied the interactions between short- and long-term plastic changes taking place during the acquisition of a classical eyeblink conditioning and following high-frequency stimulation (HFS of the reuniens nucleus in behaving mice. Synaptic changes in strength were studied at the reuniens-medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC and the reuniens-CA1 synapses. Input/output curves and a paired-pulse study enabled determining the functional capabilities of the two synapses and the optimal intensities to be applied at the reuniens nucleus during classical eyeblink conditioning and for HFS applied to the reuniens nucleus. Animals were conditioned using a trace paradigm, with a tone as conditioned stimulus (CS and an electric shock to the trigeminal nerve as unconditioned stimulus (US. A single pulse was presented to the reuniens nucleus to evoke field EPSPs (fEPSPs in mPFC and CA1 areas during the CS-US interval. No significant changes in synaptic strength were observed at the reuniens-mPFC and reuniens-CA1 synapses during the acquisition of eyelid conditioned responses (CRs. Two successive HFS sessions carried out during the first two conditioning days decreased the percentage of CRs, without evoking any long-term potentiation (LTP at the recording sites. HFS of the reuniens nucleus also prevented the proper acquisition of an object discrimination task. A subsequent study revealed that HFS of the reuniens nucleus evoked a significant decrease of paired-pulse facilitation. In conclusion, reuniens nucleus projections to prefrontal and hippocampal circuits seem to participate in the acquisition of associative learning through a mechanism that does not required the development of LTP.

  20. Comparison of the Calcaneal Pitch Angle and Modified Projection Area Per Length Squared Method for Medial Longitudinal Arch Evaluation of the Foot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esat Kıter2

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To compare the calcaneal pitch angle (CPA values measured on direct lateral radiographs of feet, and the modified projection area per length squared (PAL, which was calculated as a new method for the evaluation of the medial longitudinal arch (MLA of the foot.Material and Methods: Direct lateral radiographs of patients who had weightbearing feet radiographies for any reason except trauma were retrospectively obtained from the archives. Direct lateral radiographs of the feet were printed and a transparent sheet was placed on it. A straight line was drawn between the most plantar process of the calcaneus and the head of the first metatarsal bone for the calculation of the PAL of the MLA. Two semilunar arcs were drawn upon this straight line. PAL1 and PAL2 were estimated using a point-counting technique. The CPA, lateral talo-calcaneal angles (LTCA, and talo-first metatarsal angles (TFMA were measured. The correlations between PAL1, PAL2 of right and left feet and CPA, LTCA, and TFMA were explored.Results: Fifty patients (27 females, 23 males with a mean age of 40.12 (4-78 years were evaluated. Significant correlations were detected between PAL1, PAL2 and CPA, and TFMA for both right and left feet (p<0.05. Conclusion: A significant correlation was detected between the modified PAL method as a new technique and the standard CPA method for MLA evaluation. The PAL method is suggested as a simple and practical method for MLA evaluation.

  1. A case of double depressor palsy followed by pursuit deficit due to sequential infarction in bilateral thalamus and right medial superior temporal area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Su Jin; Yeom, Myeong In; Lee, Seung Uk

    2016-12-05

    We present a unique case of a patient who suffered two rare events affecting the supranuclear control, first of the vertical and second of the horizontal eye movements. The first event involved bilateral thalamic infarcts that resulted in double depressor palsy. The second event occurred 1 year later and it involved supranuclear control of horizontal eye movements creating pursuit deficit. A 47-year-old male presented with complaints of diplopia upon awakening. He had atrial fibrillation, mitral valve regurgitation, aortic valve regurgitation, and a history of spleen infarction 1 year ago. His right eye was hypertrophic and right eye downgaze was limited unilaterally of equal degree in adduction and abduction. The patient was diagnosed with double depressor palsy of the right eye. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain showed an old infarction of the left thalamus, and diffusion MRI showed acute infarction of the right thalamus. The patient's daily warfarin dose was 2 mg and it was increased to 5 mg with cilostazol 75 mg twice a day. Seven weeks later, the patient's ocular movement revealed near normal muscle action, and subjectively, the patient was diplopia free. At follow-up 12 months later, the patient revisited the hospital because of sudden onset of blurred vision on right gaze. He was observed to have smooth pursuit deficit to the right side, and orthophoric position of the eyes in primary gaze. MRI of the brain showed an acute infarction in the right medial superior temporal area. The patient experienced very rare abnormal eyeball movements twice. This case highlights the importance of evaluating vertical movement of the eyes and vascular supplies when patients present with depressor deficit and supports the theory of a supranuclear function in patients who present with pursuit deficit.

  2. Novelty, but not operant aversive learning, enhances Fos and Egr-1 expression in the medial prefrontal cortex and hippocampal areas of rats.

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    Yochiy, Angélica; Britto, Luiz R G; Hunziker, Maria H L

    2012-12-01

    Immediate early genes (IEG) are presumed to be activated in response to stress, novelty, and learning. Evidence supports the involvement of prefrontal and hippocampal areas in stress and learning, but also in the detection of novel events. This study examined whether a previous experience with shocks changes the pattern of Fos and Egr-1 expression in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), the hippocampal cornus ammonis 1 (CA1), and dentate gyrus (DG) of adult male Wistar rats that learned to escape in an operant aversive test. Subjects previously exposed to inescapable footshocks that learned to escape from shocks were assigned to the treated group (EXP). Subjects from Group Novelty (NOV) rested undisturbed during treatment and also learned to escape in the test. The nonshock group (NSH) rested undisturbed in both sessions. Standard immunohistochemistry procedures were used to detect the proteins in brain sections. The results show that a previous experience with shocks changed the pattern of IEG expression, then demonstrating c-fos and egr-1 induction as experience-dependent events. Compared with NSH and EXP an enhanced Fos expression was detected in the mPFC and CA1 subfield of Group NOV, which also exhibited increased Egr-1 expression in the mPFC and DG in comparison to NSH. No differences were found in the DG for Fos, or in the CA1 for Egr-1. Novelty, and not the operant aversive escape learning, seems to have generated IEG induction. The results suggest novel stimuli as a possible confounding factor in studies on Fos and/or Egr-1 expression in aversive conditions.

  3. Projections from the 'cingular' vocalization area in the squirrel monkey.

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    Müller-Preuss, P; Jürgens, U

    1976-02-13

    In 5 squirrel monkeys the anatomical projections from the 'cingular' vocalization area were studied by the autoradiographic tracing technique. The 'cingular' vocalization area lies around the sulcus cinguli at the level of the genu of the corpus callosum; its electrical stimulation yields purring and cackling calls. The following efferent connections were found: corticocortical fibers could be traced into the orbital cortex (areas 10 and 11), dorsomedial frontal cortex (areas 9, 8 and 6), limbic cortex (areas 25, 24 and 23), Broca's area (area 44), frontal operculum (area 50), insula (areas 13 and 14), and auditory association cortex (area 22). Subcortical terminal fields within the telencephalon were found in the nucleus caudatus, putamen, claustrum, globus pallidus, olfactory tubercle, preoptic region and nucleus centralis and basolateralis amygdalae. Fibers reached most of these structures along different trajectories. In the diencephalon terminal fields lay in the dorsal hypothalamus, the subthalamus, lateral habenular nucleus, and the following thalamic nuclei: nucleus reticularis, ventralis anterior, centralis medialis, centralis superior lateralis, centralis inferior, submedius, medialis dorsalis and centrum medianum. In the midbrain, the periaqueductal gray was the only projection area, extending into the parabrachial nuclei at the pontomesencephalic transition. The most caudal terminal field was found in the medial pontine gray. No terminals were detected in the nucleus ambiguus, nucleus n. hypoglossi or in any other cranial motor nucleus involved in phonation processes. A comparison of this projection system with the whole of structures producing vocalization when electrically stimulated yielded only partial overlap. Not all vocalization areas lie within the 'cingular' projection system, and inversely, not the whole projection system yielded vocalization. Overlap took place in the anterior limbic cortex, preoptic region, central amygdaloid nucleus

  4. EphA/ephrin A reverse signaling promotes the migration of cortical interneurons from the medial ganglionic eminence.

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    Steinecke, André; Gampe, Christin; Zimmer, Geraldine; Rudolph, Judith; Bolz, Jürgen

    2014-01-01

    Inhibitory interneurons control the flow of information and synchronization in the cerebral cortex at the circuit level. During embryonic development, multiple subtypes of cortical interneurons are generated in different regions of the ventral telencephalon, such as the medial and caudal ganglionic eminence (MGE and CGE), as well as the preoptic area (POA). These neurons then migrate over long distances towards their cortical target areas. Diverse families of diffusible and cell-bound signaling molecules, including the Eph/ephrin system, regulate and orchestrate interneuron migration. Ephrin A3 and A5, for instance, are expressed at the borders of the pathway of MGE-derived interneurons and prevent these cells from entering inappropriate regions via EphA4 forward signaling. We found that MGE-derived interneurons, in addition to EphA4, also express ephrin A and B ligands, suggesting Eph/ephrin forward and reverse signaling in the same cell. In vitro and in vivo approaches showed that EphA4-induced reverse signaling in MGE-derived interneurons promotes their migration and that this effect is mediated by ephrin A2 ligands. In EphA4 mutant mice, as well as after ephrin A2 knockdown using in utero electroporation, we found delayed interneuron migration at embryonic stages. Thus, besides functions in guiding MGE-derived interneurons to the cortex through forward signaling, here we describe a novel role of the ephrins in driving these neurons to their target via reverse signaling.

  5. Role of angiotensin II and vasopressin receptors within the supraoptic nucleus in water and sodium intake induced by the injection of angiotensin II into the medial septal area

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    Antunes V.R.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study we investigated the effects of the injection into the supraoptic nucleus (SON of non-peptide AT1- and AT2-angiotensin II (ANG II receptor antagonists, DuP753 and PD123319, as well as of the arginine-vasopressin (AVP receptor antagonist d(CH25-Tyr(Me-AVP, on water and 3% NaCl intake induced by the injection of ANG II into the medial septal area (MSA. The effects on water or 3% NaCl intake were assessed in 30-h water-deprived or in 20-h water-deprived furosemide-treated adult male rats, respectively. The drugs were injected in 0.5 ml over 30-60 s. Controls were injected with a similar volume of 0.15 M NaCl. Antagonists were injected at doses of 20, 80 and 180 nmol. Water and sodium intake was measured over a 2-h period. Previous administration of the AT1 receptor antagonist DuP753 into the SON decreased water (65%, N = 10, P<0.01 and sodium intake (81%, N = 8, P<0.01 induced by the injection of ANG II (10 nmol into the MSA. Neither of these responses was significantly changed by injection of the AT2-receptor antagonist PD123319 into the SON. On the other hand, while there was a decrease in water intake (45%, N = 9, P<0.01, ANG II-induced sodium intake was significantly increased (70%, N = 8, P<0.01 following injection of the V1-type vasopressin antagonist d(CH25-Tyr(Me-AVP into the SON. These results suggest that both AT1 and V1 receptors within the SON may be involved in water and sodium intake induced by the activation of ANG II receptors within the MSA. Furthermore, they do not support the involvement of MSA AT2 receptors in the mediation of these responses.

  6. Armodafinil-induced wakefulness in animals with ventrolateral preoptic lesions

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    Vetrivelan R

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Ramalingam Vetrivelan, Clifford B Saper, Patrick M Fuller Department of Neurology, Harvard Medical School and Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, MA, USA Abstract: Armodafinil is the pharmacologically active R-enantiomer of modafinil, a widely prescribed wake-promoting agent used to treat several sleep-related disorders including excessive daytime sleepiness associated with narcolepsy, shift work sleep disorder, and obstructive sleep apnea/hypopnea syndrome. Remarkably, however, the neuronal circuitry through which modafinil exerts its wake-promoting effects remains unresolved. In the present study, we sought to determine if the wake-promoting effects of armodafinil are mediated, at least in part, by inhibiting the sleep-promoting neurons of the ventrolateral preoptic (VLPO nucleus. To do so, we measured changes in waking following intraperitoneal administration of armodafinil (200 mg/kg or the psychostimulant methamphetamine (1 mg/kg in rats with cell-body specific lesion of the VLPO. Rats with histologically confirmed lesions of the VLPO demonstrated a sustained increase in wakefulness at baseline, but the increase in wakefulness following administration of both armodafinil and methamphetamine was similar to that of intact animals. These data suggest that armodafinil increases wakefulness by mechanisms that extend beyond inhibition of VLPO neurons. Keywords: EEG, sleep, orexin-saporin, methamphetamine

  7. Armodafinil-induced wakefulness in animals with ventrolateral preoptic lesions.

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    Vetrivelan, Ramalingam; Saper, Clifford B; Fuller, Patrick M

    2014-01-01

    Armodafinil is the pharmacologically active R-enantiomer of modafinil, a widely prescribed wake-promoting agent used to treat several sleep-related disorders including excessive daytime sleepiness associated with narcolepsy, shift work sleep disorder, and obstructive sleep apnea/hypopnea syndrome. Remarkably, however, the neuronal circuitry through which modafinil exerts its wake-promoting effects remains unresolved. In the present study, we sought to determine if the wake-promoting effects of armodafinil are mediated, at least in part, by inhibiting the sleep-promoting neurons of the ventrolateral preoptic (VLPO) nucleus. To do so, we measured changes in waking following intraperitoneal administration of armodafinil (200 mg/kg) or the psychostimulant methamphetamine (1 mg/kg) in rats with cell-body specific lesion of the VLPO. Rats with histologically confirmed lesions of the VLPO demonstrated a sustained increase in wakefulness at baseline, but the increase in wakefulness following administration of both armodafinil and methamphetamine was similar to that of intact animals. These data suggest that armodafinil increases wakefulness by mechanisms that extend beyond inhibition of VLPO neurons.

  8. Multiparametric characterization of neuronal subpopulations in the ventrolateral preoptic nucleus.

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    Dubourget, Romain; Sangare, Aude; Geoffroy, Hélène; Gallopin, Thierry; Rancillac, Armelle

    2017-04-01

    The characterization of neuronal properties is a necessary first step toward understanding how the ventrolateral preoptic nucleus (VLPO) neuronal network regulates slow-wave sleep (SWS). Indeed, the electrophysiological heterogeneity of VLPO neurons suggests the existence of subtypes that could differently contribute in SWS induction and maintenance. The aim of the present study was to define cell classes in the VLPO using an unsupervised clustering classification method. Electrophysiological features extracted from 289 neurons recorded in whole-cell patch-clamp allowed the identification of three main classes of VLPO neurons subdivided into five distinct subpopulations (cluster 1, 2a, 2b, 3a and 3b). The high occurrence of a low-threshold calcium spike (LTS) was one of the most distinctive features of cluster 1 and 3. Since sleep-promoting neurons are generally identified by their ability to generate an LTS and by their inhibitory response to noradrenaline (NA), 189 neurons from our dataset were also tested for this neurotransmitter. Neurons from cluster 3 were the most frequently inhibited by NA. Biocytin labeling and Neurolucida reconstructions of 112 neurons furthermore revealed a small dendritic arbor of cluster 3b neurons compared, in particular, to cluster 2b neurons. Altogether, we performed an exhaustive characterization of VLPO neuronal subtypes that is a crucial step toward a better understanding of the neuronal network within the VLPO and thereby sleep physiology.

  9. Muscarinic M1 receptors regulate propofol modulation of GABAergic transmission in rat ventrolateral preoptic neurons.

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    Zhang, Yu; Yu, Tian; Liu, Yang; Qian, Kun; Yu, Bu-Wei

    2015-04-01

    GABAergic neurons within the ventrolateral preoptic area (VLPO) play an important role in sleep-wakefulness regulation. Propofol, a widely used systemic anesthetic, has lately been reported to excite noradrenaline (NA)-inhibited type of VLPO neurons. Present study tested if acetylcholine system takes part in the propofol modulation of GABAergic spontaneous miniature inhibitory postsynaptic currents (mIPSCs) in mechanically dissociated rat VLPO neurons using a conventional whole-cell patch clamp technique. Propofol reversibly decreased mIPSC frequency without affecting the current amplitude, indicating that propofol acts presynaptically to decrease the probability of spontaneous GABA release. The propofol action on GABAergic mIPSC frequency was completely blocked by atropine, a nonselective muscarinic acetylcholine (mACh) receptor antagonist, and pirenzepine, a selective M1 receptor antagonist. These results suggest that propofol acts on M1 receptors on GABAergic nerve terminals projecting to VLPO neurons to inhibit spontaneous GABA release. The M1 receptor-mediated modulation of GABAergic transmission onto VLPO neurons may contribute to the regulation of loss of consciousness induced by propofol.

  10. Expression of PGE2 EP3 receptor subtypes in the mouse preoptic region.

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    Vasilache, Ana Maria; Andersson, Josefin; Nilsberth, Camilla

    2007-08-23

    Inflammatory-induced fever is dependent on prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) binding to its EP(3) receptor in the thermoregulatory region of the hypothalamus, but it is not known which EP(3) receptor isoform(s) that is/are involved. We identified the EP(3) receptor expression in the mouse preoptic region by in situ hybridization and isolated the corresponding area by laser capture microdissection. Real-time RT-PCR analysis of microdissected tissue revealed a predominant expression of the EP(3alpha) isoform, but there was also considerable expression of EP(3gamma), corresponding to approximately 15% of total EP(3) receptor expression, whereas EP(3beta) was sparsely expressed. This distribution was not changed by immune challenge induced by peripheral administration of LPS, indicating that EP(3) receptor splicing and distribution is not activity dependent. Considering that EP(3alpha) and EP(3gamma) are associated with inhibitory and stimulatory G-proteins, respectively, the present data demonstrate that the PGE(2) response of the target neurons is intricately regulated.

  11. Embryonic transcription factor expression in mice predicts medial amygdala neuronal identity and sex-specific responses to innate behavioral cues

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    Lischinsky, Julieta E; Sokolowski, Katie; Li, Peijun; Esumi, Shigeyuki; Kamal, Yasmin; Goodrich, Meredith; Oboti, Livio; Hammond, Timothy R; Krishnamoorthy, Meera; Feldman, Daniel; Huntsman, Molly; Liu, Judy; Corbin, Joshua G

    2017-01-01

    The medial subnucleus of the amygdala (MeA) plays a central role in processing sensory cues required for innate behaviors. However, whether there is a link between developmental programs and the emergence of inborn behaviors remains unknown. Our previous studies revealed that the telencephalic preoptic area (POA) embryonic niche is a novel source of MeA destined progenitors. Here, we show that the POA is comprised of distinct progenitor pools complementarily marked by the transcription factors Dbx1 and Foxp2. As determined by molecular and electrophysiological criteria this embryonic parcellation predicts postnatal MeA inhibitory neuronal subtype identity. We further find that Dbx1-derived and Foxp2+ cells in the MeA are differentially activated in response to innate behavioral cues in a sex-specific manner. Thus, developmental transcription factor expression is predictive of MeA neuronal identity and sex-specific neuronal responses, providing a potential developmental logic for how innate behaviors could be processed by different MeA neuronal subtypes. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.21012.001 PMID:28244870

  12. Geochemical characteristics of amphibole in the gabbroic rocks of the medial area of the Godzilla Megamullion, Parece Vela Basin, Philippine Sea

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    Harigane, Y.; Morishita, T.; Snow, J. E.; Tamura, A.; Michibayashi, K.; Ohara, Y.; Arai, S.

    2011-12-01

    The oceanic core complexes (OCCs) are found on most slow spreading ridges proposed by Escartin et al. (2008), which has been suggested that OCC along a spreading axis represent the megamullion in morphological structure and the oceanic detachment fault in formation process by analogy of continental metamorphic core complex. The Godzilla Megamullion (GM), the largest OCC in the world, is located at the extinct Parece Vela Basin spreading ridge in the Philippine Sea (Ohara et al., 2001). Fault rocks are common on the surface of the GM, indicating the presence of a detachment fault exposed on the seafloor (Harigane et al., 2011). Harigane et al. (2008) reported that the hydrothermal metamorphism occurred retrogressively at the gabbroic rocks during the deformation related to the detachment fault. However, the origins of fluids and the fluid-rock interaction during deformation for the detachment fault are still unsolved. In this study, we present trace element geochemical analyses of amphibole and clinopyroxene of the gabbroic rocks sampled from the medial area of the GM using LA-ICP-MS at Kanazawa University and University of Houston. Most of the gabbroic rocks show a porphyroclastic texture that consist of plagioclase/clinopyroxene porphyroclasts and a fine-grained plagioclase/clinopyroxene/amphibole matrix. The amphibole compositions consist of pargasite and magnesio-hornblende (i.e. brown hornblende) with minor actinolite (i.e. green hornblende). These brown hornblendes have two distinct types in microstructure: bleb type and rim type. The bleb type occurs in the cores of clinopyroxene porphyroclasts and has no evidence of deformation. The rim type occurs as fine grains at the rim of clinopyroxene porphyroclasts. All green hornblende grains show no evidence of deformation and occur at the rim of brown hornblende and clinopyroxene grains. All chondrite-normalized REE patterns of clinopyroxene in the gabbroic rocks are characterized by flat heavy-REE and light

  13. Medial prefrontal cortex: genes linked to bipolar disorder and schizophrenia have altered expression in the highly social maternal phenotype.

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    Eisinger, Brian E; Driessen, Terri M; Zhao, Changjiu; Gammie, Stephen C

    2014-01-01

    The transition to motherhood involves CNS changes that modify sociability and affective state. However, these changes also put females at risk for post-partum depression and psychosis, which impairs parenting abilities and adversely affects children. Thus, changes in expression and interactions in a core subset of genes may be critical for emergence of a healthy maternal phenotype, but inappropriate changes of the same genes could put women at risk for post-partum disorders. This study evaluated microarray gene expression changes in medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), a region implicated in both maternal behavior and psychiatric disorders. Post-partum mice were compared to virgin controls housed with females and isolated for identical durations. Using the Modular Single-set Enrichment Test (MSET), we found that the genetic landscape of maternal mPFC bears statistical similarity to gene databases associated with schizophrenia (5 of 5 sets) and bipolar disorder (BPD, 3 of 3 sets). In contrast to previous studies of maternal lateral septum (LS) and medial preoptic area (MPOA), enrichment of autism and depression-linked genes was not significant (2 of 9 sets, 0 of 4 sets). Among genes linked to multiple disorders were fatty acid binding protein 7 (Fabp7), glutamate metabotropic receptor 3 (Grm3), platelet derived growth factor, beta polypeptide (Pdgfrb), and nuclear receptor subfamily 1, group D, member 1 (Nr1d1). RT-qPCR confirmed these gene changes as well as FMS-like tyrosine kinase 1 (Flt1) and proenkephalin (Penk). Systems-level methods revealed involvement of developmental gene networks in establishing the maternal phenotype and indirectly suggested a role for numerous microRNAs and transcription factors in mediating expression changes. Together, this study suggests that a subset of genes involved in shaping the healthy maternal brain may also be dysregulated in mental health disorders and put females at risk for post-partum psychosis with aspects of schizophrenia

  14. Medial prefrontal cortex: genes linked to bipolar disorder and schizophrenia have altered expression in the highly social maternal phenotype

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian E Eisinger

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The transition to motherhood involves CNS changes that modify sociability and affective state. However, these changes also put females at risk for postpartum depression and psychosis, which impairs parenting abilities and adversely affects children. Thus, changes in expression and interactions in a core subset of genes may be critical for emergence of a healthy maternal phenotype, but inappropriate changes of the same genes could put women at risk for postpartum disorders. This study evaluated microarray gene expression changes in medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC, a region implicated in both maternal behavior and psychiatric disorders. Postpartum mice were compared to virgin controls housed with females and isolated for identical durations. Using the Modular Single-set Enrichment Test (MSET, we found that the genetic landscape of maternal mPFC bears statistical similarity to gene databases associated with schizophrenia (5 of 5 sets and bipolar disorder (BPD, 3 of 3 sets. In contrast to previous studies of maternal lateral septum and medial preoptic area, enrichment of autism and depression-linked genes was not significant (2 of 9 sets, 0 of 4 sets. Among genes linked to multiple disorders were fatty acid binding protein 7 (Fabp7, glutamate metabotropic receptor 3 (Grm3, platelet derived growth factor, beta polypeptide (Pdgfrb, and nuclear receptor subfamily 1, group D, member 1 (Nr1d1. RT-qPCR confirmed these gene changes as well as FMS-like tyrosine kinase 1 (Flt1 and proenkephalin (Penk. Systems-level methods revealed involvement of developmental gene networks in establishing the maternal phenotype and indirectly suggested a role for numerous microRNAs and transcription factors in mediating expression changes. Together, this study suggests that a subset of genes involved in shaping the healthy maternal brain may also be dysregulated in mental health disorders and put females at risk for postpartum psychosis with aspects of schizophrenia and BPD.

  15. Application of medial upper arm flap in the treatment of large area of scar and black nevus on face%上臂内侧扩张皮瓣修复面部大面积瘢痕和黑痣

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于燕; 徐红霞; 邹曰坤

    2012-01-01

    Objective To introduce the application of medial upper arm flap in the treatment of large area of scar and black nevus on face. Methods From December 2009 to July 2011, 16 patients with large area of scar and black nevus on face were performed face reconstruction using medial upper arm flap. Of all the cases, 14 patients were diagnosed as scar on face,2 patients were diagnosed as black nevus on face. 13 patients were male,3 patients were female, ranging in age from 18 to 36. A tissue expander was placed in the medial arm region and serially inflated for approximately 3 months. Second,delaying of skin flap was performed. Then.the pedicle skin flap was transferred to the face. The pedicle was divided 3 weeks later, and the flap was used to resurface the facial defect. Results All the flap were safely transferred. The color of the flap was close to the surrounding skin. The dragging deformity by scar were corrected. With 6 to 12 months' follow-up, the appearance were good. Conclusion Medial upper arm flap was a good option for reconstruction of massive facial defects.%目的:介绍上臂内侧扩张皮瓣修复面部瘢痕、黑痣的方法.方法:2009年12月~2011年7月,共16例面部大面积瘢痕或黑痣患者采用上臂内侧皮瓣进行修复,其中面部瘢痕患者14例,面部黑痣2例,男性13例,女性3例,年龄18 ~ 36岁.手术分三期进行,一期在面部病变同侧上臂植入扩张器,持续注水约3个月,二期行皮瓣延迟术,三期将上臂内侧皮瓣带蒂转移,病变切除.四期断蒂.结果:16例患者皮瓣均成活良好,皮瓣颜色接近面部周围皮肤,局部瘢痕牵拉畸形者亦改善明显,随访6~12个月,修复效果满意.结论:上臂内侧皮瓣为修复面部大面积皮肤病变的良好选择.

  16. Arthroscopic partial medial meniscectomy

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    Dašić Žarko

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Meniscal injuries are common in professional or recreational sports as well as in daily activities. If meniscal lesions lead to physical impairment they usually require surgical treatment. Arthroscopic treatment of meniscal injuries is one of the most often performed orthopedic operative procedures. Methods. The study analyzed the results of arthroscopic partial medial meniscectomy in 213 patients in a 24-month period, from 2006, to 2008. Results. In our series of arthroscopically treated medial meniscus tears we noted 78 (36.62% vertical complete bucket handle lesions, 19 (8.92% vertical incomplete lesions, 18 (8.45% longitudinal tears, 35 (16.43% oblique tears, 18 (8.45% complex degenerative lesions, 17 (7.98% radial lesions and 28 (13.14% horisontal lesions. Mean preoperative International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC score was 49.81%, 1 month after the arthroscopic partial medial meniscectomy the mean IKDC score was 84.08%, and 6 months after mean IKDC score was 90.36%. Six months after the procedure 197 (92.49% of patients had good or excellent subjective postoperative clinical outcomes, while 14 (6.57% patients subjectively did not notice a significant improvement after the intervention, and 2 (0.93% patients had no subjective improvement after the partial medial meniscectomy at all. Conclusion. Arthroscopic partial medial meniscetomy is minimally invasive diagnostic and therapeutic procedure and in well selected cases is a method of choice for treatment of medial meniscus injuries when repair techniques are not a viable option. It has small rate of complications, low morbidity and fast rehabilitation.

  17. Effect of Physical Exercise on the Febrigenic Signaling is Modulated by Preoptic Hydrogen Sulfide Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira, Jonatas E.; Soriano, Renato N.; Fernandez, Rodrigo A. R.; Francescato, Heloísa D. C.; Saia, Rafael S.; Coimbra, Terezila M.; Antunes-Rodrigues, José; Branco, Luiz G. S.

    2017-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that the neuromodulator hydrogen sulfide (H2S) in the preoptic area (POA) of the hypothalamus modulates the febrigenic signaling differently in sedentary and trained rats. Besides H2S production rate and protein expressions of H2S-related synthases cystathionine β-synthase (CBS), 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase (3-MPST) and cystathionine γ-lyase (CSE) in the POA, we also measured deep body temperature (Tb), circulating plasma levels of cytokines and corticosterone in an animal model of systemic inflammation. Rats run on a treadmill before receiving an intraperitoneal injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 100 μg/kg) or saline. The magnitude of changes of Tb during the LPS-induced fever was found to be similar between sedentary and trained rats. In sedentary rats, H2S production was not affected by LPS. Conversely, in trained rats LPS caused a sharp increase in H2S production rate that was accompanied by an increased CBS expression profile, whereas 3-MPST and CSE expressions were kept relatively constant. Sedentary rats showed a significant LPS-induced release of cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α) which was virtually abolished in the trained animals. Correlation between POA H2S and IL-6 as well as TNF-α was observed. Corticosterone levels were augmented after LPS injection in both groups. We found correlations between H2S and corticosterone, and corticosterone and IL-1β. These data are consistent with the notion that the responses to systemic inflammation are tightly regulated through adjustments in POA H2S production which may play an anti-inflammatory role downmodulating plasma cytokines levels and upregulating corticosterone release. PMID:28118407

  18. Effect of Physical Exercise on the Febrigenic Signaling is Modulated by Preoptic Hydrogen Sulfide Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira, Jonatas E; Soriano, Renato N; Fernandez, Rodrigo A R; Francescato, Heloísa D C; Saia, Rafael S; Coimbra, Terezila M; Antunes-Rodrigues, José; Branco, Luiz G S

    2017-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that the neuromodulator hydrogen sulfide (H2S) in the preoptic area (POA) of the hypothalamus modulates the febrigenic signaling differently in sedentary and trained rats. Besides H2S production rate and protein expressions of H2S-related synthases cystathionine β-synthase (CBS), 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase (3-MPST) and cystathionine γ-lyase (CSE) in the POA, we also measured deep body temperature (Tb), circulating plasma levels of cytokines and corticosterone in an animal model of systemic inflammation. Rats run on a treadmill before receiving an intraperitoneal injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 100 μg/kg) or saline. The magnitude of changes of Tb during the LPS-induced fever was found to be similar between sedentary and trained rats. In sedentary rats, H2S production was not affected by LPS. Conversely, in trained rats LPS caused a sharp increase in H2S production rate that was accompanied by an increased CBS expression profile, whereas 3-MPST and CSE expressions were kept relatively constant. Sedentary rats showed a significant LPS-induced release of cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α) which was virtually abolished in the trained animals. Correlation between POA H2S and IL-6 as well as TNF-α was observed. Corticosterone levels were augmented after LPS injection in both groups. We found correlations between H2S and corticosterone, and corticosterone and IL-1β. These data are consistent with the notion that the responses to systemic inflammation are tightly regulated through adjustments in POA H2S production which may play an anti-inflammatory role downmodulating plasma cytokines levels and upregulating corticosterone release.

  19. Consolidation of Associative and Item Memory Is Related to Post-Encoding Functional Connectivity between the Ventral Tegmental Area and Different Medial Temporal Lobe Subregions during an Unrelated Task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tompary, Alexa; Duncan, Katherine; Davachi, Lila

    2015-05-13

    It is well established that the hippocampus and perirhinal cortex (PrC) encode associative and item representations, respectively. However, less is known about how item and associative memories are consolidated. We used high-resolution fMRI in humans to measure how functional connectivity between these distinct medial temporal lobe regions with the ventral tegmental area (VTA) after a paired associate encoding task is related to both immediate and 24 h item and associative memory performance. We found that the strength of post-encoding functional connectivity between the VTA and CA1 selectively correlated with long-term associative memory, despite subjects actively engaging in an unrelated task during this period. Conversely, VTA-PrC functional connectivity during the same period correlated with long-term item memory. Critically, connectivity between VTA and these MTL regions were only related to memory tested at a 24 h delay, implicating midbrain connectivity in the consolidation of distinct forms of memory.

  20. Radial and tangential migration of telencephalic somatostatin neurons originated from the mouse diagonal area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puelles, Luis; Morales-Delgado, N; Merchán, P; Castro-Robles, B; Martínez-de-la-Torre, M; Díaz, C; Ferran, J L

    2016-07-01

    The telencephalic subpallium is the source of various GABAergic interneuron cohorts that invade the pallium via tangential migration. Based on genoarchitectonic studies, the subpallium has been subdivided into four major domains: striatum, pallidum, diagonal area and preoptic area (Puelles et al. 2013; Allen Developing Mouse Brain Atlas), and a larger set of molecularly distinct progenitor areas (Flames et al. 2007). Fate mapping, genetic lineage-tracing studies, and other approaches have suggested that each subpallial subdivision produces specific sorts of inhibitory interneurons, distinguished by differential peptidic content, which are distributed tangentially to pallial and subpallial target territories (e.g., olfactory bulb, isocortex, hippocampus, pallial and subpallial amygdala, striatum, pallidum, septum). In this report, we map descriptively the early differentiation and apparent migratory dispersion of mouse subpallial somatostatin-expressing (Sst) cells from E10.5 onward, comparing their topography with the expression patterns of the genes Dlx5, Gbx2, Lhx7-8, Nkx2.1, Nkx5.1 (Hmx3), and Shh, which variously label parts of the subpallium. Whereas some experimental results suggest that Sst cells are pallidal, our data reveal that many, if not most, telencephalic Sst cells derive from de diagonal area (Dg). Sst-positive cells initially only present at the embryonic Dg selectively populate radially the medial part of the bed nucleus striae terminalis (from paraseptal to amygdaloid regions) and part of the central amygdala; they also invade tangentially the striatum, while eschewing the globus pallidum and the preoptic area, and integrate within most cortical and nuclear pallial areas between E10.5 and E16.5.

  1. Kv4.2 mediates histamine modulation of preoptic neuron activity and body temperature.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasmine Sethi

    Full Text Available Histamine regulates arousal, circadian rhythms, and thermoregulation. Activation of H3 histamine receptors expressed by preoptic GABAergic neurons results in a decrease of their firing rate and hyperthermia. Here we report that an increase in the A-type K⁺ current in preoptic GABAergic neurons in response to activation of H3 histamine receptors results in decreased firing rate and hyperthermia in mice. The Kv4.2 subunit is required for these actions in spite of the fact that Kv4.2⁻/⁻ preoptic GABAergic neurons display A-type currents and firing characteristics similar to those of wild-type neurons. This electrical remodeling is achieved by robust upregulation of the expression of the Kv4.1 subunit and of a delayed rectifier current. Dynamic clamp experiments indicate that enhancement of the A-type current by a similar amount to that induced by histamine is sufficient to mimic its robust effect on firing rates. These data indicate a central role played by the Kv4.2 subunit in histamine regulation of body temperature and its interaction with pERK1/2 downstream of the H3 receptor. We also reveal that this pathway provides a mechanism for selective modulation of body temperature at the beginning of the active phase of the circadian cycle.

  2. Cytoarchitecture and probability maps of the human medial orbitofrontal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henssen, Anton; Zilles, Karl; Palomero-Gallagher, Nicola; Schleicher, Axel; Mohlberg, Hartmut; Gerboga, Fatma; Eickhoff, Simon B; Bludau, Sebastian; Amunts, Katrin

    2016-02-01

    Previous architectonical studies of human orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) provided divergent maps regarding number, location, and extent of areas. To solve this controversy, an observer-independent cytoarchitectonical mapping of medial OFC (mOFC) was performed. Borders of cortical areas were detected in histological sections of ten human post-mortem brains using a quantitative, statistically testable method, and their stereotaxic localization and intersubject variability were determined. Three areas were identified: granular Fo1 mainly on the rostral Gyrus rectus and medial of the olfactory sulcus; granular to dysgranular Fo2, mainly on the posterior part of the ventromedial Gyrus rectus and the medial and lateral banks of the olfactory sulcus; granular Fo3 between the olfactory and medial or intermediate orbital sulci. Fo3 was bordered medially by Fo1 and Fo2 and laterally by the lateral OFC (lOFC). A cluster analysis of the cytoarchitectonical features of Fo1-Fo3, subgenual cingulate areas, BA12, lateral and medial areas of the frontopolar cortex, lOFC and areas of Broca's region demonstrated the cytoarchitectonical similarity between the mOFC areas in contrast to all other frontal areas. Probabilistic maps of mOFC areas show a considerable intersubject variability in extent and position in stereotaxic space, and provide spatial templates for anatomical localization of in vivo neuroimaging data via the JuBrain atlas and the Anatomy Toolbox.

  3. Medial canthus retiform hemangioendothelioma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasser H Al-Faky

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Retiform hemangioendothelioma (RH is a distinct entity in the spectrum of vascular tumors with a high local recurrence rate. It is considered a low-grade, well-differentiated cutaneous angiosarcoma with low metastatic potential. We report here for the first time a case of medial canthus recurrent RH. It may be helpful in our practice to include RH as a differential diagnosis of eyelid lesions. It is noteworthy that the progressive course and recurrence tendency of RH might be misdiagnosed as angiosarcoma or basal cell carcinoma (BCC, if not expected and carefully evaluated by the pathologist.

  4. Dynamic process of biosorption of long-chain fatty acids by anaerobic granular sludge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hwu, C.S.; Tseng, S.K.; Lettinga, G.

    1994-01-01

    The preoptic area is anatomically divided into medial and lateral portions and both are involved in the regulation of sleep-wakefulness and body temperature. We have recently reported the specific role of the adrenoceptors, present in the medial preoptic area, in the regulation of those functions.

  5. Dynamic process of biosorption of long-chain fatty acids by anaerobic granular sludge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hwu, C.S.; Tseng, S.K.; Lettinga, G.

    1994-01-01

    The preoptic area is anatomically divided into medial and lateral portions and both are involved in the regulation of sleep-wakefulness and body temperature. We have recently reported the specific role of the adrenoceptors, present in the medial preoptic area, in the regulation of those functions. I

  6. Variant attachments of the anterior horn of the medial meniscus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakubowicz, Marian; Ratajczak, Wojciech; Pytel, Andrzej

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyse the occurrence of variants of anomalous insertions of the anterior horn of the medial meniscus in human knee joints. The study was carried out on 78 human lower limbs of both sexes (42 males and 36 females). Out of 78 knee joints, 10 knee joints (12.82%) presented atypical attachments of the anterior horn of the medial meniscus. In 9 cases we found that the anterior horn of the medial meniscus was attached to the transverse ligament of the knee and in 1 case it was attached to the coronary ligament. In the remaining cases the anterior horn of the medial meniscus was attached to the anterior intercondylar area of the tibia.

  7. Electrical remodeling of preoptic GABAergic neurons involves the Kv1.5 subunit.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iustin V Tabarean

    Full Text Available The electrogenic machinery of an excitable cell can adapt in response to changes in input, genetic deficit or in pathological conditions, however the underlying molecular mechanisms are not understood. In cases of genetic deletion it is commonly observed that a channel subunit from the same family replaces the missing one. We have previously reported that Kv4.2-/- preoptic GABAergic neurons display identical firing characteristics to those of wild-type neurons despite having reduced A-type currents, and that, surprisingly, they present a robust upregulation of a delayed rectifier current, the nature of which is unknown. Here, using pharmacology, qPCR and Western blots we report that, although the wild-type neurons express several Kv subunits, the upregulated current is conducted by the Kv1.5 subunit exclusively. Thus, this study reveals the molecular nature of a novel mechanism of electrical remodeling in central neurons.

  8. Synaptic contact between median preoptic neurons and subfornical organ neurons projecting to the paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawano, Hitoshi

    2017-04-01

    It is known that the median preoptic nucleus (POMe) sends dense projections to the subfornical organ (SFO). However, the functional significance of these projections have not been well discussed. In this electron microscopic study, we investigated the presence of synapses between POMe-derived axon terminals and SFO neurons that project to the paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus (PVN). After injection of a retrograde tracer, wheat germ agglutinin-conjugated horseradish peroxidase-colloidal gold complex, into the PVN, many labeled neurons were found in the SFO. In contrast, after injection of an anterograde tracer, biotinylated dextran amine, in the POMe, abundant labeled axon varicosities were observed in the SFO. Using electron microscopy, synapses were identified between retrogradely labeled dendrites and cell bodies, and anterogradely labeled axon terminals, indicating that POMe neurons innervate SFO neurons projecting to the PVN. The possibility that POMe neurons play multiple roles in the neuronal circuit responsible for vasopressin release and/or cardiovascular regulation is also discussed.

  9. Consenso SECOT artrosis femorotibial medial.

    OpenAIRE

    A. Moreno; Silvestre Muñoz, Antonio; Carpintero, P.

    2013-01-01

    Se presenta un consenso elaborado por SECOT sobre la actuación en la artrosis del compartimento medial de la rodilla para establecer criterios y recomendaciones clínicas orientadas a unificar criterios en su manejo, abordando los factores implicados en la patogenia de la artrosis femorotibial medial de rodilla, la utilidad de las técnicas diagnósticas por la imagen y la utilidad de la artroscopia. También se analizarán los tratamientos conservadores y el tratamiento quirúrgico. Los expertos c...

  10. Injerto libre braquial medial Free medial arm graft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Martos Díaz

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Introducción. Entre las reconstrucciones de defectos titulares de cabeza y cuello, el injerto libre microvascularizado braquial medial no ha adquirido mucha popularidad debido a las variaciones anatómicas que se reflejan en la vascularización de éste. Nuestro objetivo es realizar una descripción de la anatomía y técnica quirúrgica, así como una revisión de la literatura describiendo las ventajas y desventajas de este tipo de injerto. Material y método. Presentamos el caso de una paciente con carcinoma epidermoide de mucosa yugal izquierda con afectación ganglionar ipsilateral. Se procedió a su resección con márgenes más disección cervical funcional. La reconstrucción del defecto se llevó a cabo mediante un injerto libre microvascularizado braquial medial de brazo izquierdo. Discusión. Pensamos que el injerto libre braquial medial de brazo se trata de una opción más segura a la hora de la reconstrucción de defectos cervicofaciales, aportando una serie de ventajas entre las que destacan: no sacrificio de una arteria terminal, cierre primario de la zona donante, mínimo defecto estético, y poseer una piel fina, elástica y sin vello.Introduction. Free medial microvascularized arm grafts have not become very popular for the reconstruction of head and neck defects due to anatomic variations in their vascularization. Our objective was to describe the anatomy and surgical technique and to review the literature on the advantages and disadvantages of free medial arm grafts. Material and methods. We report the case of a patient with squamous cell carcinoma of the left jugal mucosa with same-side lymph node involvement. The tumor was resected with margins and a functional cervical dissection was performed. The defect was reconstructed using a free medial microvascularized graft from the left arm. Discussion. We believe that free medial arm grafts are a safer option for the reconstruction of cervicofacial defects and that they offer

  11. Lateral-Medial Dissociation in Orbitofrontal Cortex-Hypothalamus Connectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirose, Satoshi; Osada, Takahiro; Ogawa, Akitoshi; Tanaka, Masaki; Wada, Hiroyuki; Yoshizawa, Yasunori; Imai, Yoshio; Machida, Toru; Akahane, Masaaki; Shirouzu, Ichiro; Konishi, Seiki

    2016-01-01

    The orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) is involved in cognitive functions, and is also closely related to autonomic functions. The OFC is densely connected with the hypothalamus, a heterogeneous structure controlling autonomic functions that can be divided into two major parts: the lateral and the medial. Resting-state functional connectivity has allowed us to parcellate the cerebral cortex into putative functional areas based on the changes in the spatial pattern of connectivity in the cerebral cortex when a seed point is moved from one voxel to another. In the present high spatial-resolution fMRI study, we investigate the connectivity-based organization of the OFC with reference to the hypothalamus. The OFC was parcellated using resting-state functional connectivity in an individual subject approach, and then the functional connectivity was examined between the parcellated areas in the OFC and the lateral/medial hypothalamus. We found a functional double dissociation in the OFC: the lateral OFC (the lateral orbital gyrus) was more likely connected with the lateral hypothalamus, whereas the medial OFC (the medial orbital and rectal gyri) was more likely connected with the medial hypothalamus. These results demonstrate the fundamental heterogeneity of the OFC, and suggest a potential neural basis of the OFC-hypothalamic functional interaction.

  12. Lateral–Medial Dissociation in Orbitofrontal Cortex–Hypothalamus Connectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirose, Satoshi; Osada, Takahiro; Ogawa, Akitoshi; Tanaka, Masaki; Wada, Hiroyuki; Yoshizawa, Yasunori; Imai, Yoshio; Machida, Toru; Akahane, Masaaki; Shirouzu, Ichiro; Konishi, Seiki

    2016-01-01

    The orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) is involved in cognitive functions, and is also closely related to autonomic functions. The OFC is densely connected with the hypothalamus, a heterogeneous structure controlling autonomic functions that can be divided into two major parts: the lateral and the medial. Resting-state functional connectivity has allowed us to parcellate the cerebral cortex into putative functional areas based on the changes in the spatial pattern of connectivity in the cerebral cortex when a seed point is moved from one voxel to another. In the present high spatial-resolution fMRI study, we investigate the connectivity-based organization of the OFC with reference to the hypothalamus. The OFC was parcellated using resting-state functional connectivity in an individual subject approach, and then the functional connectivity was examined between the parcellated areas in the OFC and the lateral/medial hypothalamus. We found a functional double dissociation in the OFC: the lateral OFC (the lateral orbital gyrus) was more likely connected with the lateral hypothalamus, whereas the medial OFC (the medial orbital and rectal gyri) was more likely connected with the medial hypothalamus. These results demonstrate the fundamental heterogeneity of the OFC, and suggest a potential neural basis of the OFC–hypothalamic functional interaction. PMID:27303281

  13. Anatomical segmentation of the human medial prefrontal cortex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corcoles-Parada, M.; Muller, N.C.J.; Ubero, M.; Serrano-Del-Pueblo, V.M.; Mansilla, F.; Marcos-Rabal, P.; Artacho-Perula, E.; Dresler, M.; Insausti, R.; Fernandez, G.; Munoz-Lopez, M.

    2017-01-01

    The medial prefrontal areas 32, 24, 14, and 25 (mPFC) form part of the limbic memory system, but little is known about their functional specialization in humans. To add anatomical precision to structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data, we aimed to identify these mPFC subareas i

  14. Activation of Strychnine-Sensitive Glycine Receptors by Shilajit on Preoptic Hypothalamic Neurons of Juvenile Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattarai, Janardhan Prasad; Cho, Dong Hyu; Han, Seong Kyu

    2016-02-29

    Shilajit, a mineral pitch, has been used in Ayurveda and Siddha system of medicine to treat many human ailments, and is reported to contain at least 85 minerals in ionic form. This study examined the possible mechanism of Shilajit action on preoptic hypothalamic neurons using juvenile mice. The hypothalamic neurons are the key regulator of many hormonal systems. In voltage clamp mode at a holding potential of -60 mV, and under a high chloride pipette solution, Shilajit induced dose-dependent inward current. Shilajit-induced inward currents were reproducible and persisted in the presence of 0.5 μM tetrodotoxin (TTX) suggesting a postsynaptic action of Shilajit on hypothalamic neurons. The currents induced by Shilajit were almost completely blocked by 2 μM strychnine (Stry), a glycine receptor antagonist. In addition, Shilajit-induced inward currents were partially blocked by bicuculline. Under a gramicidin-perforated patch clamp mode, Shilajit induced membrane depolarization on juvenile neurons. These results show that Shilajit affects hypothalamic neuronal activities by activating the Stry-sensitive glycine receptor with α₂/α₂β subunit. Taken together, these results suggest that Shilajit contains some ingredients with possible glycine mimetic activities and might influence hypothalamic neurophysiology through activation of Stry-sensitive glycine receptor-mediated responses on hypothalamic neurons postsynaptically.

  15. Injerto libre braquial medial Free medial arm graft

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    Introducción. Entre las reconstrucciones de defectos titulares de cabeza y cuello, el injerto libre microvascularizado braquial medial no ha adquirido mucha popularidad debido a las variaciones anatómicas que se reflejan en la vascularización de éste. Nuestro objetivo es realizar una descripción de la anatomía y técnica quirúrgica, así como una revisión de la literatura describiendo las ventajas y desventajas de este tipo de injerto. Material y método. Presentamos el caso de una paciente con ...

  16. The medial gastrocnemius muscle with an achilles tendon sheath extension flap as a versatile myo-tendon sheath flap for coverage of the upper two-thirds of the tibia and pre-tibial area: a preliminary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elghamry, Ashraf Hussein

    2014-02-01

    The idea of using the leg tendon sheath as a pedicled fascial flap was first described by the author in April 2003. To extend this new idea, the author studied the blood supply and gross features of the outer layer of the Achilles tendon sheath. The findings of that study supported the feasibility of using the medial gastrocnemius muscle with an Achilles tendon sheath extension flap to cover defects over the upper two-thirds of the tibia. Six flaps of the Achilles tendon sheath survived, and the split skin grafts over the tibia took; but, in one flap, the distal 1 cm was lost. The length of follow-up was 3 years for all cases. The results demonstrated safe elevation of up to 8 cm of distal extension.

  17. Scene-Selectivity and Retinotopy in Medial Parietal Cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silson, Edward H.; Steel, Adam D.; Baker, Chris I.

    2016-01-01

    Functional imaging studies in human reliably identify a trio of scene-selective regions, one on each of the lateral [occipital place area (OPA)], ventral [parahippocampal place area (PPA)], and medial [retrosplenial complex (RSC)] cortical surfaces. Recently, we demonstrated differential retinotopic biases for the contralateral lower and upper visual fields within OPA and PPA, respectively. Here, using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we combine detailed mapping of both population receptive fields (pRF) and category-selectivity, with independently acquired resting-state functional connectivity analyses, to examine scene and retinotopic processing within medial parietal cortex. We identified a medial scene-selective region, which was contained largely within the posterior and ventral bank of the parieto-occipital sulcus (POS). While this region is typically referred to as RSC, the spatial extent of our scene-selective region typically did not extend into retrosplenial cortex, and thus we adopt the term medial place area (MPA) to refer to this visually defined scene-selective region. Intriguingly MPA co-localized with a region identified solely on the basis of retinotopic sensitivity using pRF analyses. We found that MPA demonstrates a significant contralateral visual field bias, coupled with large pRF sizes. Unlike OPA and PPA, MPA did not show a consistent bias to a single visual quadrant. MPA also co-localized with a region identified by strong differential functional connectivity with PPA and the human face-selective fusiform face area (FFA), commensurate with its functional selectivity. Functional connectivity with OPA was much weaker than with PPA, and similar to that with face-selective occipital face area (OFA), suggesting a closer link with ventral than lateral cortex. Consistent with prior research, we also observed differential functional connectivity in medial parietal cortex for anterior over posterior PPA, as well as a region on the lateral

  18. Acute Medial Plantar Fascia Tear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascoe, Stephanie C; Mazzola, Timothy J

    2016-06-01

    A 32-year-old man who participated in competitive soccer came to physical therapy via direct access for a chief complaint of plantar foot pain. The clinical examination findings and mechanism of injury raised a concern for a plantar fascia tear, so the patient was referred to the physician and magnetic resonance imaging was obtained. The magnetic resonance image confirmed a high-grade, partial-thickness, proximal plantar fascia tear with localized edema at the location of the medial band. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2016;46(6):495. doi:10.2519/jospt.2016.0409.

  19. Variant position of the medial plantar nerve

    OpenAIRE

    Astik RB; Dave UH; Gajendra KS

    2011-01-01

    Knowledge of variation of position of the medial plantar nerve is important for the forefoot surgeon for plantar reconstruction, local injection therapy and an excision of interdigital neuroma. During routine dissection of 50-year-old female cadaver, we found the medial plantar nerve and vessels variably located between plantar aponeurosis and the muscles of the first layer of the sole of the right foot. Due to this variant position, the medial plantar nerve and vessels lose their protection ...

  20. Estradiol Valerate and Remifemin ameliorate ovariectomy-induced decrease in a serotonin dorsal raphe-preoptic hypothalamus pathway in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenjuan; Cui, Guangxia; Jin, Biao; Wang, Ke; Chen, Xing; Sun, Yu; Qin, Lihua; Bai, Wenpei

    2016-11-01

    Perimenopausal syndromes begin as ovarian function ceases and the most common symptoms are hot flushes. Data indicate that the projections of serotonin to hypothalamus may be involved in the mechanism of hot flushes. Therefore, the aim of this study is to investigate the potential role of the serotonin dorsal raphe-preoptic hypothalamus pathway for hot flushes in an animal model of menopause. We determined the changes in serotonin expression in the dorsal raphe (DR) and preoptic anterior hypothalamus (POAH) in ovariectomized rats. We also explored the therapeutical effects of estradiol valerate and Remifemin in this model. Eighty female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to sham-operated (SHAM) group, ovariectomy (OVX) group with vehicle, ovariectomy with estradiol valerate treatment (OVX+E) group and ovariectomy with Remifemin (OVX+ICR) group. Serotonin expression was evaluated in the DR and POAH using immunofluorescence and quantified in the DR using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Apoptosis was analyzed in the DR by TUNEL assay. The number of serotonin immunoreactive neurons and the level of serotonin expression in the DR decreased significantly following OVX compared to the SHAM group. No TUNEL-positive cells were detected in the DR in any group. In addition, following OVX, the number of serotonin-positive fibers decreased significantly in the ventromedial preoptic nucleus (VMPO), especially in the ventrolateral preoptic nucleus (VLPO). Treatment with either estradiol or Remifemin for 4 weeks countered the OVX-induced decreases in serotonin levels in both the DR and the hypothalamus, with levels in the treated rats similar to those in the SHAM group. A fluorescently labeled retrograde tracer was injected into the VLPO at the 4-week time point. A significantly lower percentage of serotonin with CTB double-labeled neurons in CTB-labeled neurons was demonstrated after ovariectomy, and both estradiol and Remifemin countered this OVX

  1. Snapping Knee Caused by Medial Meniscal Cyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsuyoshi Ohishi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Snapping phenomenon around the medial aspect of the knee is rare. We present this case of snapping knee caused by the sartorius muscle over a large medial meniscal cyst in a 66-year-old female. Magnetic resonance images demonstrated a large medial meniscal cyst with a horizontal tear of the medial meniscus. Arthroscopic cyst decompression with limited meniscectomy resulted in the disappearance of snapping, and no recurrence of the cyst was observed during a 2-year follow-up period.

  2. Medial Patella Subluxation: Diagnosis and Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Mark A.; Bollier, Mathew J.

    2015-01-01

    Medial patella subluxation is a disabling condition typically associated with previous patellofemoral instability surgery. Patients often describe achy pain with painful popping episodes. They often report that the patella shifts laterally, which occurs as the medial subluxed patella dramatically shifts into the trochlear groove during early knee flexion. Physical examination is diagnostic with a positive medial subluxation test. Nonoperative treatment, such as focused physical therapy and patellofemoral stabilizing brace, is often unsuccessful. Primary surgical options include lateral retinacular repair/imbrication or lateral reconstruction. Prevention is key to avoid medial patella subluxation. When considering patellofemoral surgery, important factors include appropriate lateral release indications, consideration of lateral retinacular lengthening vs release, correct MPFL graft placement and tension, and avoiding excessive medialization during tubercle transfer. This review article will analyze patient symptoms, diagnostic exam findings and appropriate treatment options, as well as pearls to avoid this painful clinical entity. PMID:26361441

  3. Different amounts of ejaculatory activity, a natural rewarding behavior, induce differential mu and delta opioid receptor internalization in the rat's ventral tegmental area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garduño-Gutiérrez, René; León-Olea, Martha; Rodríguez-Manzo, Gabriela

    2013-12-06

    Opioid receptors internalize upon specific agonist stimulation. The in vivo significance of receptor internalization is not well established, partly due to the limited in vivo models used to study this phenomenon. Ejaculation promotes endogenous opioid release which activates opioid receptors at the brain, including the mesolimbic system and medial preoptic area. The objective of the present work was to analyze if there was a correlation between the degree of in vivo mu (MOR) and delta opioid receptor (DOR) internalization in the ventral tegmental area and the execution of different amounts of ejaculatory behavior of male rats. To this aim, we analyzed the brains of rats that ejaculated once or six successive times and of sexually exhausted rats with an established sexual inhibition, using immunofluorescence and confocal microscopy. Results showed that MOR and DOR internalization increased as a consequence of ejaculation. There was a relationship between the amount of sexual activity executed and the degree of internalization for MOR, but not for DOR. MOR internalization was larger in rats that ejaculated repeatedly than in animals ejaculating only once. Significant DOR internalization was found only in animals ejaculating once. Changes in MOR, DOR and beta arrestin2 detection, associated to sexual activity, were also found. It is suggested that copulation to satiety might be useful as a model system to study the biological significance of receptor internalization.

  4. Variant position of the medial plantar nerve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Astik RB

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of variation of position of the medial plantar nerve is important for the forefoot surgeon for plantar reconstruction, local injection therapy and an excision of interdigital neuroma. During routine dissection of 50-year-old female cadaver, we found the medial plantar nerve and vessels variably located between plantar aponeurosis and the muscles of the first layer of the sole of the right foot. Due to this variant position, the medial plantar nerve and vessels lose their protection from the muscles of the first layer of the sole of the foot and became vulnerable for compression.

  5. Medial talo-calcaneal coalition. Case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daly, B.D.; Towers, M.J.; Hamilton, S.

    1988-11-01

    Medial talo-calcaneal coalition is an uncommon developmental anomaly consisting of a bony projection arising from the postero-medial aspect of the sustentaculum tali, which may articulate with another bony projection from the medial aspect of the talus. Fibrous, cartilaginous or bony ankylosis may occur. It usually presents in adolescents, and causes pain following exercise. It may cause a lump, and can predispose to flat foot and early osteoarthrosis. This condition is easily overlooked on routine views of the ankle, and may require oblique views and tomography for its detection and clarification.

  6. Downregulation of the posterior medial frontal cortex prevents social conformity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klucharev, Vasily; Munneke, Moniek A M; Smidts, Ale; Fernández, Guillén

    2011-08-17

    We often change our behavior to conform to real or imagined group pressure. Social influence on our behavior has been extensively studied in social psychology, but its neural mechanisms have remained largely unknown. Here we demonstrate that the transient downregulation of the posterior medial frontal cortex by theta-burst transcranial magnetic stimulation reduces conformity, as indicated by reduced conformal adjustments in line with group opinion. Both the extent and probability of conformal behavioral adjustments decreased significantly relative to a sham and a control stimulation over another brain area. The posterior part of the medial frontal cortex has previously been implicated in behavioral and attitudinal adjustments. Here, we provide the first interventional evidence of its critical role in social influence on human behavior.

  7. [Tibial periostitis ("medial tibial stress syndrome")].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fournier, Pierre-Etienne

    2003-06-01

    Medial tibial stress syndrome is characterised by complaints along the posteromedial tibia. Runners and athletes involved in jumping activities may develop this syndrome. Increased stress to stabilize the foot especially when excessive pronation is present explain the occurrence this lesion.

  8. Medial and Lateral Plantar Nerve Entrapment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Foot Problems Overview of Foot Problems Achilles Tendon Bursitis Achilles Tendon Enthesopathy Bunion Corns and Calluses Damage ... the Foot Freiberg Disease Hammer Toe Inferior Calcaneal Bursitis Medial and Lateral Plantar Nerve Entrapment Metatarsal Joint ...

  9. Clinical and surgical implications regarding morphometric variations of the medial wall of the orbit in relation to age and gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales-Avalos, Rodolfo; Santos-Martínez, Arlette Gabriela; Ávalos-Fernández, Cesia Gisela; Mohamed-Noriega, Karim; Sánchez-Mejorada, Gabriela; Montemayor-Alatorre, Adolfo; Martínez-Fernández, David A; Espinosa-Uribe, Abraham G; Mohamed-Noriega, Jibran; Cuervo-Lozano, Edgar E; Mohamed-Hamsho, Jesús; Quiroga-García, Oscar; Lugo-Guillen, Roberto A; Guzmán-López, Santos; Elizondo-Omaña, Rodrigo E

    2016-09-01

    The ethmoidal foramens are located on the medial wall of the orbit and are key reference points for intraoperative orientation. Detailed knowledge of the anatomy, bony landmarks and morphometric characteristics of the medial wall of the orbit is essential for various surgical procedures. The aim of this study was to determine the morphometric variations in the medial wall of the orbit and establish significant variations regarding age and gender. A total of 110 orbits were analyzed and subdivided by age (over or under 40 years) and gender. The distances of the medial wall of the orbit between the anterior lacrimal crest, the ethmoidal foramen, the optic canal and the interforamina were determined. Safe surgical areas were sought. Statistical tests were used to determine the differences between groups. In men, there is a safe surgical area proximal to the anterior and posterior ethmoidal foramen. In women, this area is in the posterior third of the medial wall of the orbit between the posterior ethmoidal foramen and the optic canal. Regarding variation according to age, the results of this study suggested that the anteroposterior diameter of the medial wall increases with age. This study showed that the anteroposterior total length of the medial orbit wall is similar between genders of similar age, increases with age, and has significant variations in the distances between the various structures that make up the medial orbit wall with regard to gender and age.

  10. UMAPRM: Uniformly sampling the medial axis

    KAUST Repository

    Yeh, Hsin-Yi Cindy

    2014-05-01

    © 2014 IEEE. Maintaining clearance, or distance from obstacles, is a vital component of successful motion planning algorithms. Maintaining high clearance often creates safer paths for robots. Contemporary sampling-based planning algorithms That utilize The medial axis, or The set of all points equidistant To Two or more obstacles, produce higher clearance paths. However, They are biased heavily Toward certain portions of The medial axis, sometimes ignoring parts critical To planning, e.g., specific Types of narrow passages. We introduce Uniform Medial Axis Probabilistic RoadMap (UMAPRM), a novel planning variant That generates samples uniformly on The medial axis of The free portion of Cspace. We Theoretically analyze The distribution generated by UMAPRM and show its uniformity. Our results show That UMAPRM\\'s distribution of samples along The medial axis is not only uniform but also preferable To other medial axis samplers in certain planning problems. We demonstrate That UMAPRM has negligible computational overhead over other sampling Techniques and can solve problems The others could not, e.g., a bug Trap. Finally, we demonstrate UMAPRM successfully generates higher clearance paths in The examples.

  11. MRI parcellation of ex vivo medial temporal lobe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augustinack, Jean C; Magnain, Caroline; Reuter, Martin; van der Kouwe, André J W; Boas, David; Fischl, Bruce

    2014-06-01

    Recent advancements in radio frequency coils, field strength and sophisticated pulse sequences have propelled modern brain mapping and have made validation to biological standards - histology and pathology - possible. The medial temporal lobe has long been established as a pivotal brain region for connectivity, function and unique structure in the human brain, and reveals disconnection in mild Alzheimer's disease. Specific brain mapping of mesocortical areas affected with neurofibrillary tangle pathology early in disease progression provides not only an accurate description for location of these areas but also supplies spherical coordinates that allow comparison between other ex vivo cases and larger in vivo datasets. We have identified several cytoarchitectonic features in the medial temporal lobe with high resolution ex vivo MRI, including gray matter structures such as the entorhinal layer II 'islands', perirhinal layer II-III columns, presubicular 'clouds', granule cell layer of the dentate gyrus as well as lamina of the hippocampus. Localization of Brodmann areas 28 and 35 (entorhinal and perirhinal, respectively) demonstrates MRI based area boundaries validated with multiple methods and histological stains. Based on our findings, both myelin and Nissl staining relate to contrast in ex vivo MRI. Precise brain mapping serves to create modern atlases for cortical areas, allowing accurate localization with important applications to detecting early disease processes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Medial meniscal cyst: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spina, Mauro; Sabbioni, Giacomo; Tigani, Domenico

    2008-12-01

    Meniscal cysts are a rare disease constantly combined with a horizontal meniscal lesion. Currently, nuclear magnetic resonance (MRI) is the main diagnostic tool, because of its high sensitivity and specificity, and decompression arthroscopy combined with selective meniscectomy is the treatment of choice. The Authors report a case of a voluminous medial meniscal cyst where instrumental examination, MRI, was fundamental for the preoperative diagnosis of the horizontal meniscal lesion causing the cystic degeneration of the meniscus. The treatment performed was selective meniscectomy of the body and posterior horn of the medial meniscus and decompression of the voluminous cyst by arthroscopy. Physical examination after six months showed the complete resolution of swelling at the medial hemirima, no walking pain and normal range of motion.

  13. The JCR:LA-cp rat: a novel rodent model of cystic medial necrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pung, Yuh Fen; Chilian, William M; Bennett, Martin R; Figg, Nichola; Kamarulzaman, Mohd Hamzah

    2017-03-01

    Although there are multiple rodent models of the metabolic syndrome, very few develop vascular complications. In contrast, the JCR:LA-cp rat develops both metabolic syndrome and early atherosclerosis in predisposed areas. However, the pathology of the normal vessel wall has not been described. We examined JCR:LA control (+/+) or cp/cp rats fed normal chow diet for 6 or 18 mo. JCR:LA-cp rats developed multiple features of advanced cystic medial necrosis including "cysts," increased collagen formation and proteoglycan deposition around cysts, apoptosis of vascular smooth muscle cells, and spotty medial calcification. These appearances began within 6 mo and were extensive by 18 mo. JCR:LA-cp rats had reduced medial cellularity, increased medial thickness, and vessel hypoxia that was most marked in the adventitia. In conclusion, the normal chow-fed JCR:LA-cp rat represents a novel rodent model of cystic medial necrosis, associated with multiple metabolic abnormalities, vascular smooth muscle cell apoptosis, and vessel hypoxia.NEW & NOTEWORTHY Triggers for cystic medial necrosis (CMN) have been difficult to study due to lack of animal models to recapitulate the pathologies seen in humans. Our study is the first description of CMN in the rat. Thus the JCR:LA-cp rat represents a useful model to investigate the underlying molecular changes leading to the development of CMN. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  14. Histaminergic H1 and H2 Receptors Mediate the Effects of Propofol on the Noradrenalin-Inhibited Neurons in Rat Ventrolateral Preoptic Nucleus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Zhang, Yu; Qian, Kun; Zhang, Lin; Yu, Tian

    2017-02-09

    The ventrolateral preoptic nucleus is a sleep-promoting nucleus located in the basal forebrain. A commonly used intravenous anesthetic, propofol, had been reported to induce sleep spindles and augment the firing rate of neurons in ventrolateral preoptic nucleus, but the underlining mechanism is yet to be known. By using patch clamp recording on neuron in acute brain slice, present study tested if histaminergic H1 and H2 receptors play a role in the effect of propofol on the noradrenalin-inhibited neurons in ventrolateral preoptic nucleus. We found that the firing rate of noradrenalin-inhibited neurons were significantly augmented by propofol; the frequency of inhibitory postsynaptic currents of noradrenalin-inhibited neuron were evidently attenuated by propofol; such inhibition effect was suppressed by histamine; and both triprolidine (antagonist for H1 histamine receptor) and ranitidine (antagonist for H2 histamine receptor) were able to increase the inhibition rate of propofol in presence of histamine. Present study demonstrated that propofol-induced inhibition of inhibitory postsynaptic currents on noradrenalin-inhibited neurons were mediated by histaminergic H1 and H2 receptors.

  15. Medial branch neurotomy in low back pain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masala, Salvatore; Mammucari, Matteo; Simonetti, Giovanni [Interventional Radiology and Radiotherapy University ' ' Tor Vergata' ' , Department of Diagnostic and Molecular Imaging, Rome (Italy); Nano, Giovanni [Interventional Radiology and Radiotherapy University ' ' Tor Vergata' ' , Department of Diagnostic and Molecular Imaging, Rome (Italy); University ' ' Tor Vergata' ' , Department of Radiology, Rome (Italy); Marcia, Stefano [S. Giovanni di Dio Hospital, Department of Diagnostic and Molecular Imaging, Cagliari (Italy)

    2012-07-15

    This study aimed to assess the effectiveness of pulsed radiofrequency medial branch dorsal ramus neurotomy in patients with facet joint syndrome. From January 2008 to April 2010, 92 patients with facet joint syndrome diagnosed by strict inclusion criteria and controlled diagnostic blocks undergone medial branch neurotomy. We did not exclude patients with failed back surgery syndrome (FBSS). Electrodes (20G) with 5-mm active tip were placed under fluoroscopy guide parallel to medial branch. Patients were followed up by physical examination and by Visual Analog Scale and Oswestry Disability Index at 1, 6, and 12 months. In all cases, pain improvement was statistically significant and so quality of life. Three non-FBSS patients had to undergo a second neurotomy because of non-satisfactory pain decrease. Complications were reported in no case. Medial branch radiofrequency neurotomy has confirmed its well-established effectiveness in pain and quality of life improvement as long as strict inclusion criteria be fulfilled and nerve ablation be accomplished by parallel electrode positioning. This statement can be extended also to FBSS patients. (orig.)

  16. Hierarchical error representation in medial prefrontal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarr, Noah; Brown, Joshua W

    2016-01-01

    The medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) is reliably activated by both performance and prediction errors. Error signals have typically been treated as a scalar, and it is unknown to what extent multiple error signals may co-exist within mPFC. Previous studies have shown that lateral frontal cortex (LFC) is arranged in a hierarchy of abstraction, such that more abstract concepts and rules are represented in more anterior cortical regions. Given the close interaction between lateral and medial prefrontal cortex, we explored the hypothesis that mPFC would be organized along a similar rostro-caudal gradient of abstraction, such that more abstract prediction errors are represented further anterior and more concrete errors further posterior. We show that multiple prediction error signals can be found in mPFC, and furthermore, these are arranged in a rostro-caudal gradient of abstraction which parallels that found in LFC. We used a task that requires a three-level hierarchy of rules to be followed, in which the rules changed without warning at each level of the hierarchy. Task feedback indicated which level of the rule hierarchy changed and led to corresponding prediction error signals in mPFC. Moreover, each identified region of mPFC was preferentially functionally connected to correspondingly anterior regions of LFC. These results suggest the presence of a parallel structure between lateral and medial prefrontal cortex, with the medial regions monitoring and evaluating performance based on rules maintained in the corresponding lateral regions.

  17. [Arthritis of the Medial Knee Joint Compartment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matziolis, G; Röhner, E

    2015-10-01

    23 % of all persons older than 65 years suffer from osteoarthritis of the medial compartment of the knee joint, a very common situation in orthopaedic practice 1. As a result of the demographic trend the number of patients is expected to increase in the future. Based on specific joint biomechanics and kinematics the medial knee joint compartment is more frequently affected than the lateral. Only an understanding of the functional anatomy and underlying pathology allows a critical evaluation of different available conservative and operative treatment options. This article gives an overview of diagnostic and therapeutic strategies of osteoarthritis of the medial knee joint. Frequently performed surgeries, e.g. high tibial osteotomy (HTO), unicompartmental knee arthroplasty (UKA) and total knee arthroplasty (TKA) will be presented in a comparative manner. The actual scientific evidence will be given with the goal of an evidence based therapy that is adopted to stage and pathology of osteoarthritis of the medial compartment of the knee joint. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  18. Rheo: Japanese Sound Art Interrogating Digital Mediality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vandsø, Anette

    2014-01-01

    THe article asks in what way the Japanese sound artist Ryoichi Kurokawa's audiovisual installation Rheo 5 Horisonz (2010) is 'digital'. Using Professor Lars Elleströms concept of 'mediality, the main claim in this article is that Rheo no only uses digital tehcnology, but also interrogates digital...

  19. Chemical Topography of Efferent Projections from the Median Preoptic Nucleus to Pontine Monoaminergic Cell Groups in the Rat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zardetto-Smith, Andrea M.; Johnson, Alan Kim

    1995-01-01

    This study examined efferent output from the median preoptic nucleus (MNPO) to pontine noradrenergic and serotonergic cell groups using an anterograde tracing technique (Phaseolus vulgaris leucoagglutinin, PHA-L) combined with glucose oxidase immunocytochemistry to serotonin (5-HT) or to dopamine-beta-hydroxylase (DBH). Injections of PHA-L into the ventral MNPO resulted in moderate axonal labeling within the region of the B7 and B8 serotonergic groups in the dorsal raphe. PHA-L labeled fibers and punctate processes were observed in close apposition to many of the 5-HT immunoreactive neurons in these regions. In contrast, sparse terminal labeling was found within the B5 group in the raphe pontis nucleus, and only trace fiber labeling observed in the B3 and B6 groups. Efferents from the MNPO also provided moderate innervation to the A6 and A7 noradrenergic groups. PHA-L labeled punctate processes were found most frequently in close apposition to DBH-immunoreactive neurons at mid- to caudal levels of the locus coeruleus. Some labeled axons were also present within the A7 and A5 groups. Additionally, a close apposition between labeled MNPO efferents and 5-HT fibers within the lateral parabrachial nucleus was observed. The results indicate the MNPO provides a topographic innervation of monoaminergic groups in the upper brainstem.

  20. Activation of angiotensin II type 1 receptors in the median preoptic nucleus induces a diuretic and natriuretic response in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuan Gao; Lei Luo; Hong Liu

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effect of activation of angiotensin II (AngII) type 1 (ATI) receptors in the median preoptic nucleus (MnPO) of rats on renal sodium excretion. Methods: After anesthesia, the rats were injected into the MnPO via an implanted cannula. Urine samples were collected via a bladder cannula, and the urine sodium concentration was assayed with flame spectrophotometry. The serum level of endogenous digitalis-like factor (EDLF) and Na+,K+-ATPase activity in the renal cortex tissue were assayed respectively with a radioimmunoassay and with an ammonium molybdophosphate-based kit. Results: Both the urinary volume and the sodium excretion peaked 60 min after Angll was administered into the MnPO. The responses were accompanied by an increase in serum EDLF and a decrease in Na+,K+-ATPase activity in the renal cortex. The responses of diuresis and natriuresis, as well as an increase in serum EDLF and a decrease in Na+,K+-ATPase activity in the renal cortex induced by MnPO adminstration with AngII were inhibited by pior treatment with the AngII receptor blocking agent losartan into the MnPO. Conclusion: These results suggest that activation of ATI receptors in the MnPO of rat induces diuretic and natriuretic responses. The responses are associated with an increase release of EDLF and with the inhibition of Na+,K+-ATPase activity in renal cortex tissue.

  1. Foot medial longitudinal-arch deformation during quiet standing and gait in subjects with medial tibial stress syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bandholm, Thomas Quaade; Boysen, Lisbeth; Haugaard, Stine

    2008-01-01

    ). There was no correlation between medial longitudinal-arch deformation during quiet standing and gait in either of the 2 groups (r .653). The subjects with medial tibial stress syndrome in this study demonstrated increased navicular drop and medial longitudinal-arch deformation during quiet standing......The objective of this study was to investigate (1) if subjects with medial tibial stress syndrome demonstrate increased navicular drop and medial longitudinal-arch deformation during quiet standing and gait compared with healthy subjects, and (2) the relationship between medial longitudinal......-arch deformation during quiet standing and gait. Thirty subjects aged 20 to 32 years were included (15 with medial tibial stress syndrome and 15 controls). Navicular drop and medial longitudinal-arch deformation were measured during quiet standing with neutral and loaded foot using a ruler and digital photography...

  2. Reduced medial temporal lobe functionality in stroke patients: a functional magnetic resonance imaging study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snaphaan, Liselore; Rijpkema, Mark; van Uden, Inge; Fernández, Guillén; de Leeuw, Frank-Erik

    2009-07-01

    Stroke is a leading cause of disability, not only because of motor limitations, but also because of the frequent occurrence of post-stroke cognitive impairment. This is illustrated by the fact that the risk of post-stroke dementia is reportedly higher than a recurrent stroke. The loss of subcortical and cortical functions in the post-stroke cognitive dysfunction spectrum is usually well explained by the size and location of the infarction. However, this does not apply for post-stroke memory dysfunction (especially episodic memory dysfunction), as there is almost never an infarction in the medial temporal lobe. Involvement of the medial temporal lobe in post-stroke memory dysfunction seems likely since this structure is essential for memory encoding and retrieval. For a proper episodic memory function, the medial temporal lobe depends on intact connections with virtually the whole brain. Disconnection from other brain areas due to the infarction could lead to a reduced medial temporal lobe function and the attendant reduced episodic memory function. We investigated medial temporal lobe functionality in 28 'first-ever' stroke patients and 22 healthy controls with the aid of functional magnetic resonance imaging. Stroke patients with a reduced episodic memory function 6-8 weeks after infarction had reduced medial temporal lobe functionality. Post-stroke reduced medial temporal lobe functionality may be responsible for the frequent observation of impaired post-stroke episodic memory function. Insight into this mechanism could be helpful in identifying which stroke patients may be at increased risk for developing post-stroke dementia and those who could benefit from early cognitive rehabilitation.

  3. Medial Cochlear Efferent Function: A Theoretical Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mountain, David C.

    2011-11-01

    Since the discovery of the cochlear efferent system, many hypotheses have been put forth for its function. These hypotheses for its function range from protecting the cochlea from over stimulation to improving the detection of sounds in noise. It is known that the medial efferent system innervates the outer hair cells and that stimulation of this system reduces basilar membrane and auditory nerve sensitivity which suggests that this system acts to decrease the gain of the cochlear amplifier. Here I present modeling results as well as analysis of published experimental data that suggest that the function of the medial efferent reflex is to decrease the cochlear amplifier gain by just the right amount so that the nonlinearity in the basilar membrane response lines up perfectly with the inner hair cell nonlinear transduction process to produce a hair cell receptor potential that is proportional to the logarithm of the sound pressure level.

  4. [SECOT consensus on medial femorotibial osteoarthritis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, A; Silvestre, A; Carpintero, P

    2013-01-01

    A consensus, prepared by SECOT, is presented on the management of medial knee compartment osteoarthritis, in order to establish clinical criteria and recommendations directed at unifying the criteria in its management, dealing with the factors involved in the pathogenesis of medial femorotibial knee osteoarthritis, the usefulness of diagnostic imaging techniques, and the usefulness of arthroscopy. Conservative and surgical treatments are also analysed. The experts consulted showed a consensus (agreed or disagreed) in 65.8% of the items considered, leaving 14items where no consensus was found, which included the aetiopathogenesis of the osteoarthritis, the value of NMR in degenerative disease, the usefulness of COX-2 and the chondroprotective drugs, as well as on the ideal valgus tibial osteotomy technique. © 2013 SECOT. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  5. Masseter and medial pterygoid muscle hypertrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guruprasad, R; Rishi, Sudhirkumar; Nair, Preeti P; Thomas, Shaji

    2011-09-26

    Hypertrophy refers to an enlargement caused by an increase in the size but not in the number of cells. Generalised masticatory muscle hypertrophy may affect the temporalis muscle, masseters and medial pterygoids in a variety of combinations. Masseteric hypertrophy may present as either unilateral or bilateral painless swelling of unknown origin in the region of angle of mandible. It is a relatively rare condition and presents a diagnostic dilemma. While the history and clinical examination are important in differentiating this benign condition from parotid or dental pathology, they cannot necessarily exclude rare malignant lesion within the muscle. Advanced imaging modalities like CT and MRI are essential to confirm the diagnosis. Here the authors are reporting a unique case of masseter muscle hypertrophy along with medial pterygoid hypertrophy which was missed clinically but confirmed using CT and MRI.

  6. The relationship between patellofemoral and tibiofemoral morphology and gait biomechanics following arthroscopic partial medial meniscectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dempsey, Alasdair R.; Wang, Yuanyuan; Thorlund, Jonas Bloch

    2013-01-01

    with decreased patella cartilage volume (B = −17.9 (95 % CI −35.4, −0.4) p = 0.045) while knee adduction moment impulse was associated with increased medial tibial plateau area (B = 7.7 (95 % CI 0.9, 13.3) p = 0.025). A number of other variables approached significance. Conclusions Knee joint biomechanics...

  7. Masseter and medial pterygoid muscle hypertrophy

    OpenAIRE

    R, Guruprasad; Rishi, Sudhirkumar; Nair, Preeti P; Thomas, Shaji

    2011-01-01

    Hypertrophy refers to an enlargement caused by an increase in the size but not in the number of cells. Generalised masticatory muscle hypertrophy may affect the temporalis muscle, masseters and medial pterygoids in a variety of combinations. Masseteric hypertrophy may present as either unilateral or bilateral painless swelling of unknown origin in the region of angle of mandible. It is a relatively rare condition and presents a diagnostic dilemma. While the history and clinical examination ar...

  8. Functional bundles of the medial patellofemoral ligament.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Hui Jun; Wang, Fei; Chen, Bai Cheng; Su, Yan Ling; Zhang, Zhan Chi; Yan, Chang Bao

    2010-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the anatomy and evaluate the function of the medial patellofemoral ligament (MPFL). Anatomical dissection was performed on 12 fresh-frozen knee specimens. The MPFL is a condensation of capsular fibers, which originates at the medial femoral condyle. It runs transversely and inserts to the medial edge of the patella. With the landmark of the medial femur epicondyle (MFE), the femoral origination was located: just 8.90 ± 3.27 mm proximally and 13.47 ± 3.68 mm posteriorly to the MFE. The most interesting finding in present study was functional bundles of its patellar insertion. Approximately from the femoral origination point, fibers of the MPFL form two relatively concentrated fiber bundles: the inferior-straight bundle and the superior-oblique bundle. The whole length of each was 71.78 ± 5.51 and 73.67 ± 5.40 mm, respectively. The included angle between bundles was 15.1° ± 2.1°. Although the superior-oblique bundle and the inferior-straight bundle run on the patellar MPFL inferiorly and superiorly, respectively, as their name indicates, the two bundles are not entirely separated, which make MPFL one intact structure. The inferior-straight bundle is the main static soft tissue restraints where the superior-oblique bundle associated with vastus medialis obliquus (VMO) is to serve as the main dynamic soft tissue restraints. So this finding may provide the theoretical foundation for the anatomical reconstruction of the MPFL and shed lights on the future researchers.

  9. Treatment of the lacrimal excretory system after resection of medial canthal and eyelid tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Older, J J

    1979-06-01

    A simplified method of lacrimal excretory system repair is presented. If part of a canaliculus is resected during removal of an eyelid tumor, the remaining section of the canaliculus can be exteriorized to the lacrimal lake. A silicone tube is threaded into the canaliculus and allowed to remain in place for one to two weeks. If both canaliculi and the common canaliculus are removed during resection for a medial canthal tumor, a silicone tube can be threaded into the nasolacrimal duct and brought out the area of the medial canthal angle. Conjunctiva which is wrapped around the tube can then form a new drainage canal into the remainder of the lacrimal excretory system.

  10. Indications for the microvascular medial femoral condylar flap in craniomaxillofacial surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiele, Oliver Christian; Kremer, Thomas; Kneser, Ulrich; Mischkowski, Robert Andreas

    2014-07-01

    The medial femoral condylar flap makes it possible to reconstruct bone, cartilage, and skin, but elongation of the pedicle is usually required to bridge the distances to the vascular connections in the neck. The indications in the maxillofacial area include reconstruction of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ), pseudarthrosis of the jaws, osteonecrosis of the jaws and skull, and augmentation of bone in irradiated or otherwise compromised tissue. If small bony defects require safe and reliable osseous, osteochondral, or osteocutaneous reconstruction, the medial femoral condylar flap can be used to fill the gap between small avascular, and larger microvascular, bone transplants.

  11. Medial accumbens lesions attenuate testosterone-dependent aggression in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, D J; Petrovic, D M; Walsh, M L; Jonik, R H

    1989-10-01

    Male hooded rats were castrated and implanted with testosterone-filled Silastic tubes appropriate for maintaining a normal average serum testosterone concentration. They were then given lesions of the medial accumbens nucleus or sham lesions. Twenty-four hours postoperatively each male was housed with a female. Beginning 7 days following pairing and continuing once each week for 4 weeks, each lesioned or sham-lesioned male was observed for aggression toward an unfamiliar male intruder. On the day following each test of aggression toward an unfamiliar male, each lesioned and sham-lesioned male was assessed for defensiveness toward an experimenter. Rats with medial accumbens lesions displayed significantly less aggression toward an unfamiliar male intruder during each of the weekly tests than did sham-lesioned animals. The attenuation was most pronounced in animals with lesions damaging the posterior part of the medial accumbens nucleus (also designated as anterior portion of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis) in the region of the crossover of the anterior commissure. Although medial accumbens lesions are known to make individually housed rats hyperdefensive toward an experimenter, lesion-induced hyperdefensiveness was not observed in the pair-housed animals in the present experiment. It is argued that the medial accumbens/bed nucleus of the stria terminalis area is an important region in the anterior forebrain for the modulation of hormone-dependent aggression.

  12. Medial Orbitofrontal Cortex Is Associated with Fatigue Sensation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seiki Tajima

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Fatigue is an indispensable bioalarm to avoid exhaustive state caused by overwork or stresses. It is necessary to elucidate the neural mechanism of fatigue sensation for managing fatigue properly. We performed H2O  15 positron emission tomography scans to indicate neural activations while subjects were performing 35-min fatigue-inducing task trials twice. During the positron emission tomography experiment, subjects performed advanced trail-making tests, touching the target circles in sequence located on the display of a touch-panel screen. In order to identify the brain regions associated with fatigue sensation, correlation analysis was performed using statistical parametric mapping method. The brain region exhibiting a positive correlation in activity with subjective sensation of fatigue, measured immediately after each positron emission tomography scan, was located in medial orbitofrontal cortex (Brodmann's area 10/11. Hence, the medial orbitofrontal cortex is a brain region associated with mental fatigue sensation. Our findings provide a new perspective on the neural basis of fatigue.

  13. Group I metabotropic glutamate receptors in the medial prefrontal cortex: role in mesocorticolimbic glutamate release in cocaine sensitization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmer, Kristin M; Steketee, Jeffery D

    2013-12-01

    Cocaine sensitization is associated with increased excitability of pyramidal projection neurons in the medial prefrontal cortex. Such hyperexcitability is presumed to increase glutamatergic input to the nucleus accumbens and ventral tegmental area. This study examined the effects of medial prefrontal cortex Group I metabotropic glutamate receptor activation on glutamate levels in the medial prefrontal cortex, nucleus accumbens, and ventral tegmental area in sensitized and control animals. Male Sprague-Dawley rats received four daily injections of cocaine (15 mg/kg, i.p.) or saline (1 mL/kg i.p.). One, 7, or 21 days from the fourth injection, dual-probe microdialysis experiments were performed wherein Group I metabotropic glutamate receptor agonist DHPG was infused into the medial prefrontal cortex and glutamate levels in this region as well as the nucleus accumbens or ventral tegmental area were examined. Intra-mPFC DHPG infusion increased glutamate levels in the medial prefrontal cortex at 1 and 7 days withdrawal, and in the nucleus accumbens at 21 days withdrawal in sensitized rats. These results suggest Group I metabotropic glutamate receptor activation may contribute to the increased excitability of medial prefrontal cortex pyramidal neurons in sensitized animals.

  14. Caloric restriction reduces cell loss and maintains estrogen receptor-alpha immunoreactivity in the pre-optic hypothalamus of female B6D2F1 mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaghmaie, Farzin; Saeed, Omar; Garan, Steven A; Freitag, Warren; Timiras, Paola S; Sternberg, Hal

    2005-06-01

    Life-long calorie restriction (CR) remains the most robust and reliable means of extending life span in mammals. Among the several theories to explain CR actions, one variant of the neuroendocrine theories of aging postulates that changing hypothalamic sensitivity to endocrine feedback is the clock that times phenotypic change over the life span. If the feedback sensitivity hypothesis is correct, CR animals should display a significantly different pattern of hormone-sensitive cell density and distribution in the hypothalamus. Of the many endocrine signal receptors that may be involved in maintaining hypothalamic feedback sensitivity, our study has selected to begin mapping those for estrogen (E). Altered hypothalamic sensitivity to E is known to schedule reproductive maturation and influence reproductive senescence. Taking estrogen receptor-alpha (ERalpha) immunoreactivity as an index of sensitivity to E, we counted ERalpha immunoreactive and non-immunoreactive cells in the pre-optic hypothalamus of young (6 weeks), ad-libitum (Old-AL) fed old (22 months), and calorie restricted (Old-CR) old (22 months) female B6D2F1 mice. An automated imaging microscopy system (AIMS) was used to generate cell counts for each sampled section of pre-optic hypothalamus. Results show a 38% reduction in ERalpha immunoreactive cells and an 18% reduction in total cell numbers in AL-old mice in comparison to young mice. However, CR mice only show a 19% reduction in ERalpha immunoreactive cells and a 13% reduction in total cell numbers in comparison to young mice. This indicates CR prevents age-related cell loss and maintains estrogen sensitivity in the pre-optic hypothalamus of old female B6D2F1 mice.

  15. Sleep is related to neuron numbers in the ventrolateral preoptic/intermediate nucleus in older adults with and without Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Andrew S P; Ellison, Brian A; Wang, Joshua L; Yu, Lei; Schneider, Julie A; Buchman, Aron S; Bennett, David A; Saper, Clifford B

    2014-10-01

    Fragmented sleep is a common and troubling symptom in ageing and Alzheimer's disease; however, its neurobiological basis in many patients is unknown. In rodents, lesions of the hypothalamic ventrolateral preoptic nucleus cause fragmented sleep. We previously proposed that the intermediate nucleus in the human hypothalamus, which has a similar location and neurotransmitter profile, is the homologue of the ventrolateral preoptic nucleus, but physiological data in humans were lacking. We hypothesized that if the intermediate nucleus is important for human sleep, then intermediate nucleus cell loss may contribute to fragmentation and loss of sleep in ageing and Alzheimer's disease. We studied 45 older adults (mean age at death 89.2 years; 71% female; 12 with Alzheimer's disease) from the Rush Memory and Aging Project, a community-based study of ageing and dementia, who had at least 1 week of wrist actigraphy proximate to death. Upon death a median of 15.5 months later, we used immunohistochemistry and stereology to quantify the number of galanin-immunoreactive intermediate nucleus neurons in each individual, and related this to ante-mortem sleep fragmentation. Individuals with Alzheimer's disease had fewer galaninergic intermediate nucleus neurons than those without (estimate -2872, standard error = 829, P = 0.001). Individuals with more galanin-immunoreactive intermediate nucleus neurons had less fragmented sleep, after adjusting for age and sex, and this association was strongest in those for whom the lag between actigraphy and death was Alzheimer's disease, and similar associations were not seen for two other cell populations near the intermediate nucleus. These data are consistent with the intermediate nucleus being the human homologue of the ventrolateral preoptic nucleus. Moreover, they demonstrate that a paucity of galanin-immunoreactive intermediate nucleus neurons is accompanied by sleep fragmentation in older adults with and without Alzheimer's disease.

  16. Feasibility of the Medial Temporal lobe Atrophy index (MTAi and derived methods for measuring atrophy of the medial temporal lobe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco eConejo Bayón

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: the Medial Temporal-lobe Atrophy index (MTAi, 2D-Medial Temporal Atrophy (2D-MTA, yearly rate of MTA (yrRMTA and yearly rate of relative MTA (yrRMTA are simple protocols for measuring the relative extent of atrophy in the MTL in relation to the global brain atrophy. Albeit preliminary studies showed interest of these methods in the diagnosis of AD, FTLD and correlation with cognitive impairment in PD, formal feasibility and validity studies remained pending. As a first step, we aimed to assess the feasibility. Mainly, we aimed to assess the reproducibility of measuring the areas needed to compute these indices. We also aimed to assess the efforts needed to start using these methods correctly. Methods: a series of 290 1.5T-MRI studies from 230 subjects ranging 65-85 years old who had been studied for cognitive impairment were used in this study. Six inexperienced tracers (IT plus one experienced tracer (ET traced the three areas needed to compute the indices. Finally, tracers underwent a short survey on their experience learning to compute the MTAi and experience of usage, including items relative to training time needed to understand and apply the MTAi, time to perform a study after training and overall satisfaction. Results: learning to trace the areas needed to compute the MTAi and derived methods is quick and easy. Results indicate very good intrarater ICC for the MTAi, good intrarater ICC for the 2D-MTA, yrMTA and yrRMTA and also good interrater ICC for the MTAi, 2D-MTA, yrMTA and yrRMTA.Conclusion: our data support that MTAi and derived methods (2D-MTA, yrMTA and yrRTMA have good to very good intrarater and interrater reproducibility and may be easily implemented in clinical practice even if new users have no experience tracing the area of regions of interest.

  17. Post-ablative reconstruction of the medial canthus and medial orbital wall using conchal cartilage graft with three illustrative cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagregorio, G; Darsonval, V

    2005-12-01

    When the medial third of the upper or lower eyelid has to be reconstructed after full-thickness tumour excision, we usually use Hübner tarsomarginal grafts, but when medial canthal lesions spread to the medial orbital wall without invading the orbital margin, conchal graft becomes our first surgical option. Previously reported solutions to this difficult problem are few and concern more directly medial orbital wall fractures. We found no article dealing specifically with the use of conchal graft in post-ablative reconstruction of the medial orbital wall. Nevertheless the concha presents great advantages over bone grafting or rib cartilage, because it is more flexible and malleable. And it is less prone to extrusion or infection as may be allografts implants. It is a very effective way to repair medial orbital defects, but graft reorientation must be perfect to match exactly the medial orbital wall concavity.

  18. Microsurgical treatment of medial sphenoid ridge meningioma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-qi HE

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective To explore the microsurgical technique of medial sphenoid ridge meningioma resectional therapy.Methods The clinical data were retrospectively analyzed of 29 patients(13 males and 16 females;aged 18-68 years with average of 42 years;duration of disease was 5 months to 8 years,averaged 28 months with medial sphenoidal ridge meningioma and admitted from Jan.2005 to Jan.2010.The anatomical relationship of the tumor to surrounding structures was assessed intraoperatively,the tumor was then completely resected through cutting off the tumor supplying vessels,shrinking the tumor volume and separating the tumors from adjacent vessels and nerves.All the patients were followed up for 4 months to 4 years.Results Of the 29 cases,20 got total tumor removal,7 got subtotal and 2 got partial tumor removal.Of the 20 patients with obviously preoperative visual impairment,12 were obviously relieved,6 showed no improvement and 2 got symptoms aggravation.Hemiplegia occurred in 2 cases and oculomoter nerve palsy in 6 cases.There was no death after surgery.A 6 months to 4 years follow-up showed that no recurrence was found in 27 patients with tumor resection level of Simpson I and II,2 patients with tumor resection level of Simpson III received postoperative radiotherapy or gamma knife surgery,and 1 recurred and received reoperation.Conclusions Fine intraoperative assessment of the anatomical relationship of the tumor to surrounding structures,separating and excising tumor according to the assessed result is the key of medial sphenoid ridge meningioma resection,and the tumor resection is favorable to visual rehabilitation and tumor control.

  19. Functional connectivity based parcellation of the human medial temporal lobe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shao-Fang; Ritchey, Maureen; Libby, Laura A; Ranganath, Charan

    2016-10-01

    Regional differences in large-scale connectivity have been proposed to underlie functional specialization along the anterior-posterior axis of the medial temporal lobe (MTL), including the hippocampus (HC) and the parahippocampal gyrus (PHG). However, it is unknown whether functional connectivity (FC) can be used reliably to parcellate the human MTL. The current study aimed to differentiate subregions of the HC and the PHG based on patterns of whole-brain intrinsic FC. FC maps were calculated for each slice along the longitudinal axis of the PHG and the HC. A hierarchical clustering algorithm was then applied to these data in order to group slices according to the similarity of their connectivity patterns. Surprisingly, three discrete clusters were identified in the PHG. Two clusters corresponded to the parahippocampal cortex (PHC) and the perirhinal cortex (PRC), and these regions showed preferential connectivity with previously described posterior-medial and anterior-temporal networks, respectively. The third cluster corresponded to an anterior PRC region previously described as area 36d, and this region exhibited preferential connectivity with auditory cortical areas and with a network involved in visceral processing. The three PHG clusters showed different profiles of activation during a memory-encoding task, demonstrating that the FC-based parcellation identified functionally dissociable sub-regions of the PHG. In the hippocampus, no sub-regions were identified via the parcellation procedure. These results indicate that connectivity-based methods can be used to parcellate functional regions within the MTL, and they suggest that studies of memory and high-level cognition need to differentiate between PHC, posterior PRC, and anterior PRC.

  20. Biomechanical consequences of patellar component medialization in total knee arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anglin, Carolyn; Brimacombe, Jill M; Wilson, David R; Masri, Bassam A; Greidanus, Nelson V; Tonetti, Jérôme; Hodgson, Antony J

    2010-08-01

    The optimal amount of patellar component medialization in knee arthroplasty is unknown. We measured the impact, on patellofemoral kinematics and contact force distribution, of 0.0-, 2.5-, and 5.0-mm patellar component medialization in 7 cadaveric specimens implanted with knee arthroplasty components. The knees were flexed dynamically in a weight-bearing rig. Medialization led to lateral shift of the patellar bone, slight medial shift of the patellar component in the femoral groove, lateral tilt of the patella, reduced patellofemoral contact force in later flexion, and lateral shift of the center of pressure in early flexion. Effects on shift and tilt were proportional to the amount of medialization. As a result of this investigation, we recommend medializing the patellar component slightly-on the order of 2.5 mm. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. The medial tibial stress syndrome. A cause of shin splints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mubarak, S J; Gould, R N; Lee, Y F; Schmidt, D A; Hargens, A R

    1982-01-01

    The medial tibial stress syndrome is a symptom complex seen in athletes who complain of exercise-induced pain along the distal posterior-medial aspect of the tibia. Intramuscular pressures within the posterior compartments of the leg were measured in 12 patients with this disorder. These pressures were not elevated and therefore this syndrome is a not a compartment syndrome. Available information suggests that the medial tibial stress syndrome most likely represents a periostitis at this location of the leg.

  2. Ligament balancing in total knee arthroplasty—Medial stabilizing technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuichi Matsuda

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Ligament balancing is one of the most important surgical techniques for successful total knee arthroplasty. It has traditionally been recommended that medial and lateral as well as flexion and extension gaps are equal. This article reviews the relevant literature and discusses the clinical importance of the aforementioned gaps. Current evidence indicates that achieving medial stability throughout the range of motion should be a high priority in ligament balancing in total knee arthroplasty. Finally, the medial stabilising surgical technique, which aims to achieve good medial stability in posterior cruciate-retaining total knee arthroplasty, is introduced.

  3. Medialized repair for retracted rotator cuff tears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young-Kyu; Jung, Kyu-Hak; Won, Jun-Sung; Cho, Seung-Hyun

    2017-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the functional outcomes of medialized rotator cuff repair and the continuity of repaired tendon in chronic retracted rotator cuff tears. Thirty-five consecutive patients were selected from 153 cases that underwent arthroscopic rotator cuff repair for more than medium-sized posterosuperior rotator cuff tears between July 2009 and July 2012 performed with the medialized repair. All cases were available for at least 2 years of postoperative follow-up. The visual analog scale of pain, muscle strength, Constant score, American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons (ASES) score, and University of California-Los Angeles score were evaluated. At the final follow-up, all clinical outcomes were significantly improved. The visual analog scale score for pain improved from 6 ± 1 preoperatively to 2 ± 1 postoperatively. The range of motion increased from preoperatively to postoperatively: active forward elevation, from 134° ± 49° to 150° ± 16°; active external rotation at the side, from 47° ± 15° to 55° ± 10°; and active internal rotation, from L3 to L1. The shoulder score also improved: Constant score, from 53.5 ± 16.7 to 79 ± 10; American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons score, from 51 ± 15 to 82 ± 8; and University of California-Los Angeles score, from 14 ± 4 to 28 ± 4. The retear cases at the final follow-up were 6 (17%). Medialized repair may be useful in cases in which anatomic bone-to-tendon repair would be difficult because of the excessive tension of the repaired tendon and a torn tendon that does not reach the anatomic insertion. Copyright © 2016 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Infrared Thermal Imaging in Patients with Medial Collateral Ligament Injury of the Knee - A Retrospective Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HyunJung Yang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Digital infrared thermographic imaging (DITI has been used widely for various inflammatory diseases, circulatory diseases, skin diseases, musculoskeletal diseases and cancers. In cases of ligament injury, obviously the temperature of the damaged area increases due to local inflammation; however, whether the temperature also increases due to DITI has not been determined. The purpose of the present study was to identify whether or not the changes of temperature in patient’s with medial collateral ligament injury were really due to infrared thermography and to determine the applicability of DITI for assessing ligament injuries. Methods: Twenty patient’s who underwent DITI for a medial collateral ligament injury from September 2012 to June 2014 were included in the current study. The thermographic images from the patient’s knees were divided to cover seven sub-areas: the middle of the patella, and the inferomedial, the inferolateral, the superomedial, the superolateral, the medial, and the lateral regions of patella. The temperatures of the seven regions were measured, and the temperature differences between affected and unaffected regions were analyzed by using the Wilcoxon signed rank test. Results: The 20 patient’s were composed of 14 women (70% and 6 men (30%, with a mean age of 62.15 ± 15.71 (mean ± standard deviation (SD years. The temperature of the affected side, which included the middle of the patella, and the inferomedial, the superomedial, the superolateral, and the medial regions, showed a significant increase compared to that of the unaffected side (P < 0.05. The inferolateral and the lateral regions showed no significant changes. Conclusion: Our study results suggest that DITI can show temperature changes if a patient has a ligament injury and that it can be applied in the evaluation of a medial collateral ligament injury.

  5. Revision Gore-Tex medialization laryngoplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Jacob T; Bates, Dwight D; Postma, Gregory N

    2004-09-01

    To evaluate the indications, results, and safety of revision Gore-Tex medialization laryngoplasty (GML). A retrospective chart review of 156 patients that underwent GML procedures between the years 1998-2002. Study population consisted of those patients who required revision surgery for any reason. Sixteen patients required 22 revision procedures. Indications for revision were divided into 2 groups, complications and glottal closure problems. Complications included extruded or displaced implants (n = 4). The most common glottal closure problem was undercorrection (n = 9). Others included anterior overcorrection (n = 1) and persistent posterior glottal gap (n = 2). Revision procedures included GML (n = 9), injection augmentation (n = 9), endoscopic implant removal (n = 2), and arytenoid adduction (n = 2). In patients with glottal closure problems, the GCI improved in all 10 and the voice rating scale improved in 9. Reasons for revision of GML are variable, the most common being undercorrection. A variety of safe, effective revision techniques are available with a high success rate.

  6. Neuromuscular Exercise Post Partial Medial Meniscectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hall, Michelle; Hinman, Rana S; Wrigley, Tim V

    2015-01-01

    outcomes included additional measures of knee joint load distribution, patient-reported outcomes, maximal knee and hip muscle strength, and physical function measures. RESULTS: 60 out of 62 randomized participants (97%) completed the trial. There were no significant between-group differences in the change......PURPOSE: To evaluate the effects of a 12-week, home-based, physiotherapist-guided neuromuscular exercise program on the knee adduction moment (an indicator of mediolateral knee load distribution) in people with a medial arthroscopic partial meniscectomy within the past 3-12 months. METHODS...... or a control group with no exercise. The exercise program included eight individual sessions with one of seven physiotherapists in private clinics, together with home exercises. Primary outcomes were the peak external knee adduction moment during normal pace walking and during a one-leg sit-to-stand. Secondary...

  7. Associative Plasticity in the Medial Auditory Thalamus and Cerebellar Interpositus Nucleus During Eyeblink Conditioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halverson, Hunter E.; Lee, Inah; Freeman, John H.

    2010-01-01

    Eyeblink conditioning, a type of associative motor learning, requires the cerebellum. The medial auditory thalamus is a necessary source of stimulus input to the cerebellum during auditory eyeblink conditioning. Nothing is currently known about interactions between the thalamus and cerebellum during associative learning. In the current study, neuronal activity was recorded in the cerebellar interpositus nucleus and medial auditory thalamus simultaneously from multiple tetrodes during auditory eyeblink conditioning to examine the relative timing of learning-related plasticity within these interconnected areas. Learning-related changes in neuronal activity correlated with the eyeblink conditioned response were evident in the cerebellum before the medial auditory thalamus over the course of training and within conditioning trials, suggesting that thalamic plasticity may be driven by cerebellar feedback. Short-latency plasticity developed in the thalamus during the first conditioning session and may reflect attention to the conditioned stimulus. Extinction training resulted in a decrease in learning-related activity in both structures and an increase in inhibition within the cerebellum. A feedback projection from the cerebellar nuclei to the medial auditory thalamus was identified, which may play a role in learning by facilitating stimulus input to the cerebellum via the thalamo-pontine projection. PMID:20592200

  8. Lateral and medial ventral occipitotemporal regions interact during the recognition of images revealed from noise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara eNordhjem

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Several studies suggest different functional roles for the medial and the lateral ventral sections in object recognition. Texture and surface information is processed in medial regions, while shape information is processed in lateral sections. This begs the question whether and how these functionally specialized sections interact with each other and with early visual cortex to facilitate object recognition. In the current research, we set out to answer this question. In an fMRI study, thirteen subjects viewed and recognized images of objects and animals that were gradually revealed from noise while their brains were being scanned. We applied dynamic causal modeling (DCM – a method to characterize network interactions – to determine the modulatory effect of object recognition on a network comprising the primary visual cortex (V1, the lingual gyrus (LG in medial ventral cortex and the lateral occipital cortex (LO. We found that object recognition modulated the bilateral connectivity between LG and LO. Moreover, the feed-forward connectivity from V1 to LG and LO was modulated, while there was no evidence for feedback from these regions to V1 during object recognition. In particular, the interaction between medial and lateral areas supports a framework in which visual recognition of objects is achieved by networked regions that integrate information on image statistics, scene content and shape – rather than by a single categorically specialized region – within the ventral visual cortex.

  9. Medial humeral epicondylitis in clinically affected cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streubel, Ronny; Bilzer, Thomas; Grest, Paula; Damur, Daniel; Montavon, Pierre M

    2015-10-01

    To describe the clinical signs and histologic changes in cats clinically affected with medial humeral epicondylitis (MHE) and evaluate long-term outcome after either conservative or surgical treatment. Prospective cohort study. Client-owned cats (n = 17) with MHE. Cats diagnosed with MHE, based on clinical signs, radiographs and computed tomography (CT), were prospectively recruited. Cats were treated conservatively for an initial 4 weeks, followed by either surgery or continued conservative treatment. Followup examinations were performed at 6 and 12 weeks and at 6-49 months. Cats had a mean age of 10.3 years and presented for chronic lameness. Examination revealed pain on palpation caudodistal to the medial epicondyle and by exerting antebrachial supination/pronation with elbow and carpal flexion. Lameness was restricted to 1 limb although CT revealed bilateral disease in 11/17 cats. Free mineralized joint bodies were identified in 9/17 cats. Nine cats were treated surgically and 8 cats were treated conservatively. Intraoperative findings included new bone formation at the origin of the humeral head of the flexor carpi ulnaris muscle with displacement and adhesions of the ulnar nerve. Microscopic examination revealed neurogenic myopathy in 4/9 cats treated surgically. Seven of 9 cats treated surgically were free from lameness by 12 weeks. Seven of 8 cats treated conservatively were chronically lame throughout the study. Cats with forelimb lameness should be evaluated for MHE. This condition is associated with free joint bodies and neurogenic myopathy. Surgical treatment is associated with excellent outcome in the majority of cats. © Copyright 2015 by The American College of Veterinary Surgeons.

  10. Medial patellofemoral ligament and medial patellotibial ligament reconstruction in children: preliminary results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadigursky, David; Garcia, Lucas Cortizo; Armede, Maurício; Oliveira, Lucas Rodrigues de; Carneiro, Rogério Jamil Fernandes; Colavolpe, Paulo Oliveira

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the reconstruction of the medial patellofemoral ligament associated with the medial patellotibial ligament in skeletally immature patients. This is a case series study in patients with patellar instability with open physis. In total, seven patients were evaluated: four males and three females were operated using the proposed technique. Patients with open physis who had more than two episodes of recurring patellar dislocation were included. No patients underwent additional procedures. The distance from the anterior tibial tuberosity to the trochlea grove (TT-TG) was measured in all patients. On physical examination, the inverted J-sign, the apprehension sign, and the knee range of motion parameters were used in the pre- and post-operative period. In addition, the Kujala and Lysholm scores were applied before and 12 months after surgery. The results were analyzed with the Wilcoxon test. The mean age of the patients was 11.28 in both genders. Comparing the data of the pre- and post-operative period, the inverted J-sign was present in six patients (85.7%) vs. absent in one (14.3%). The apprehension sign was absent in cases in the postoperative period; the range of motion was 117.85 ± 8.09 vs. 148.57 ± 3.77. The Kujala score was 42.57 ± 8.9 vs. 88.57 ± 5.09 and the Lysholm scores were classified as excellent or good in 28.6% and 71.4%, respectively. The combined reconstruction of the medial patellofemoral ligament combined with the medial patellotibial ligament in skeletally immature patients with predisposing factors, presents satisfactory results without episodes of recurrence or residual subluxation; according to these preliminary results, it should be considered as a treatment option.

  11. Integrity of medial temporal structures may predict better improvement of spatial neglect with prism adaptation treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Peii; Goedert, Kelly M; Shah, Priyanka; Foundas, Anne L; Barrett, A M

    2014-09-01

    Prism adaptation treatment (PAT) is a promising rehabilitative method for functional recovery in persons with spatial neglect. Previous research suggests that PAT improves motor-intentional "aiming" deficits that frequently occur with frontal lesions. To test whether presence of frontal lesions predicted better improvement of spatial neglect after PAT, the current study evaluated neglect-specific improvement in functional activities (assessment with the Catherine Bergego Scale) over time in 21 right-brain-damaged stroke survivors with left-sided spatial neglect. The results demonstrated that neglect patients' functional activities improved after two weeks of PAT and continued improving for four weeks. Such functional improvement did not occur equally in all of the participants: Neglect patients with lesions involving the frontal cortex (n = 13) experienced significantly better functional improvement than did those without frontal lesions (n = 8). More importantly, voxel-based lesion-behavior mapping (VLBM) revealed that in comparison to the group of patients without frontal lesions, the frontal-lesioned neglect patients had intact regions in the medial temporal areas, the superior temporal areas, and the inferior longitudinal fasciculus. The medial cortical and subcortical areas in the temporal lobe were especially distinguished in the "frontal lesion" group. The findings suggest that the integrity of medial temporal structures may play an important role in supporting functional improvement after PAT.

  12. The medial scaffold of 3D unorganized point clouds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leymarie, Frederic F; Kimia, Benjamin B

    2007-02-01

    We introduce the notion of the medial scaffold, a hierarchical organization of the medial axis of a 3D shape in the form of a graph constructed from special medial curves connecting special medial points. A key advantage of the scaffold is that it captures the qualitative aspects of shape in a hierarchical and tightly condensed representation. We propose an efficient and exact method for computing the medial scaffold based on a notion of propagation along the scaffold itself, starting from initial sources of the flow and constructing the scaffold during the propagation. We examine this method specifically in the context of an unorganized cloud of points in 3D, e.g., as obtained from laser range finders, which typically involve hundreds of thousands of points, but the ideas are generalizable to data arising from geometrically described surface patches. The computational bottleneck in the propagation-based scheme is in finding the initial sources of the flow. We thus present several ideas to avoid the unnecessary consideration of pairs of points which cannot possibly form a medial point source, such as the "visibility" of a point from another given a third point and the interaction of clusters of points. An application of using the medial scaffold for the representation of point samplings of real-life objects is also illustrated.

  13. Optogenetic dissection of medial prefrontal cortex circuitry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danai eRiga

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC is critically involved in numerous cognitive functions, including attention, inhibitory control, habit formation, working memory and long-term memory. Moreover, through its dense interconnectivity with subcortical regions (e.g. thalamus, striatum, amygdala and hippocampus, the mPFC is thought to exert top-down executive control over the processing of aversive and appetitive stimuli. Because the mPFC has been implicated in the processing of a wide range of cognitive and emotional stimuli, it is thought to function as a central hub in the brain circuitry mediating symptoms of psychiatric disorders. New optogenetics technology enables anatomical and functional dissection of mPFC circuitry with unprecedented spatial and temporal resolution. This provides important novel insights in the contribution of specific neuronal subpopulations and their connectivity to mPFC function in health and disease states. In this review, we present the current knowledge obtained with optogenetic methods concerning mPFC function and dysfunction and integrate this with findings from traditional intervention approaches used to investigate the mPFC circuitry in animal models of cognitive processing and psychiatric disorders.

  14. Optogenetic dissection of medial prefrontal cortex circuitry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riga, Danai; Matos, Mariana R; Glas, Annet; Smit, August B; Spijker, Sabine; Van den Oever, Michel C

    2014-01-01

    The medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) is critically involved in numerous cognitive functions, including attention, inhibitory control, habit formation, working memory and long-term memory. Moreover, through its dense interconnectivity with subcortical regions (e.g., thalamus, striatum, amygdala and hippocampus), the mPFC is thought to exert top-down executive control over the processing of aversive and appetitive stimuli. Because the mPFC has been implicated in the processing of a wide range of cognitive and emotional stimuli, it is thought to function as a central hub in the brain circuitry mediating symptoms of psychiatric disorders. New optogenetics technology enables anatomical and functional dissection of mPFC circuitry with unprecedented spatial and temporal resolution. This provides important novel insights in the contribution of specific neuronal subpopulations and their connectivity to mPFC function in health and disease states. In this review, we present the current knowledge obtained with optogenetic methods concerning mPFC function and dysfunction and integrate this with findings from traditional intervention approaches used to investigate the mPFC circuitry in animal models of cognitive processing and psychiatric disorders.

  15. Medial plica after reconstruction of anterior cruciate ligament

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YIN Yu; WANG Jian-quan; HE Zhen-ming

    2009-01-01

    Background The medial plica may be caused by direct trauma or joint degeneration,which also could be iatrogenic.There have been few reports in the literature discussing incidence of the medial plica caused by an operation on the knee joint,specifically after the reconstruction of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL).In this study,we aimed to evaluate and analyze the relationship between the incidence of the medial plica and reconstruction of the ACL.Methods A retrospective case series study was conducted to review the findings of 1085 patients between 2003 and 2007,who underwent second-look arthroscopy after reconstruction of the ACL (between 2002 and 2006).The correlation of the incidence of medial plica with the stability of the knee joint,the time from onset of injury to reconstruction surgery,the associated injuries,and the rate of progress during postoperative rehabilitation were analyzed.Results We found that 722 patients had the structure of a medial plica.The incidence after reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament (66.5%) was significantly higher than usually reported.All these medial plica had avascular fibrotic and thickened edges.An excision of pathologic medial plica and fat pad synovial fringes were done.The incidences were significantly different between the two groups with their reconstruction operation time,from onset of injury to surgery (less than one month or over 2 years),and the progress rate of postoperative rehabilitation (knee flexion could not be over 90° in four weeks).The incidence was not different between the groups with knee stable conditions.Conclusions Medial plica is more common in patients after reconstruction of ACL.More associated injuries and more rehabilitation difficulties can increase the medial plica incidence.

  16. Medial Femoral Condyle Degeneration Associated with a Mediopatellar Plica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Balik

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Sixty-years-old female patient complaining from knee pain since 15 years. The patient could not localize the pain at first. Since 10 years, she experiences a temporary pain localized at the medial side of tibiofemoral joint during twisting her knee. Also, pain persists at the medial patellar region at semi-flexed position of her knee. The patient did not benefit from conversative treatment with the diagnosis of gonarthrosis. We performed knee artrhroplasty. During arthroplasty, we observed that the medial femoral condyle was damaged due to long term mediopatellar plica impingement.

  17. Temporal Dynamics of Acute Stress-Induced Dendritic Remodeling in Medial Prefrontal Cortex and the Protective Effect of Desipramine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nava, Nicoletta; Treccani, Giulia; Alabsi, Abdelrahman;

    2015-01-01

    Stressful events are associated with increased risk of mood disorders. Volumetric reductions have been reported in brain areas critical for the stress response, such as medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), and dendritic remodeling has been proposed as an underlying factor. Here, we investigated...

  18. Medial tibial stress syndrome: a critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moen, Maarten H; Tol, Johannes L; Weir, Adam; Steunebrink, Miriam; De Winter, Theodorus C

    2009-01-01

    Medial tibial stress syndrome (MTSS) is one of the most common leg injuries in athletes and soldiers. The incidence of MTSS is reported as being between 4% and 35% in military personnel and athletes. The name given to this condition refers to pain on the posteromedial tibial border during exercise, with pain on palpation of the tibia over a length of at least 5 cm. Histological studies fail to provide evidence that MTSS is caused by periostitis as a result of traction. It is caused by bony resorption that outpaces bone formation of the tibial cortex. Evidence for this overloaded adaptation of the cortex is found in several studies describing MTSS findings on bone scan, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), high-resolution computed tomography (CT) scan and dual energy x-ray absorptiometry. The diagnosis is made based on physical examination, although only one study has been conducted on this subject. Additional imaging such as bone, CT and MRI scans has been well studied but is of limited value. The prevalence of abnormal findings in asymptomatic subjects means that results should be interpreted with caution. Excessive pronation of the foot while standing and female sex were found to be intrinsic risk factors in multiple prospective studies. Other intrinsic risk factors found in single prospective studies are higher body mass index, greater internal and external ranges of hip motion, and calf girth. Previous history of MTSS was shown to be an extrinsic risk factor. The treatment of MTSS has been examined in three randomized controlled studies. In these studies rest is equal to any intervention. The use of neoprene or semi-rigid orthotics may help prevent MTSS, as evidenced by two large prospective studies.

  19. Medial temporal lobe and topographical memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urgolites, Zhisen J; Hopkins, Ramona O; Squire, Larry R

    2017-08-08

    There has been interest in the idea that medial temporal lobe (MTL) structures might be especially important for spatial processing and spatial memory. We tested the proposal that the MTL has a specific role in topographical memory as assessed in tasks of scene memory where the viewpoint shifts from study to test. Building on materials used previously for such studies, we administered three different tasks in a total of nine conditions. Participants studied a scene depicting four hills of different shapes and sizes and made a choice among four test images. In the Rotation task, the correct choice depicted the study scene from a shifted perspective. MTL patients succeeded when the study and test images were presented together but failed the moment the study scene was removed (even at a 0-s delay). In the No-Rotation task, the correct choice was a duplicate of the study scene. Patients were impaired to the same extent in the No-Rotation and Rotation tasks after matching for difficulty. Thus, an inability to accommodate changes in viewpoint does not account for patient impairment. In the Nonspatial-Perceptual task, the correct choice depicted the same overall coloring as the study scene. Patients were intact at a 2-s delay but failed at longer, distraction-filled delays. The different results for the spatial and nonspatial tasks are discussed in terms of differences in demand on working memory. We suggest that the difficulty of the spatial tasks rests on the neocortex and on the limitations of working memory, not on the MTL.

  20. Medial Meniscus Posterior Root Tear: A Comprehensive Review

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lee, Dhong Won; Ha, Jeong Ku; Kim, Jin Goo

    2014-01-01

    Damage to the medial meniscus root, for example by a complete radial tear, destroys the ability of the knee to withstand hoop strain, resulting in contact pressure increases and kinematic alterations...

  1. Safe Zone for Neural Structures in Medial Displacement Calcaneal Osteotomy: A Cadaveric and Radiographic Investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talusan, Paul G; Cata, Ezequiel; Tan, Eric W; Parks, Brent G; Guyton, Gregory P

    2015-12-01

    We aimed to define reference lines on standard lateral ankle radiographs that could be used intraoperatively to minimize iatrogenic nerve injury risk in medial displacement calcaneal osteotomy. Forty cadaveric specimens were used. In 20 specimens, the sural, medial plantar (MP), and lateral plantar (LP) nerves were sutured to radiopaque wire, and a lateral ankle radiograph was obtained. On the radiograph, a line was drawn from the posterior superior apex of the calcaneal tuberosity to the origin of the plantar fascia and labeled as the "landmark line." A parallel line was drawn 2 mm posterior to the most posterior nerve, and the area between these lines was defined as the safe zone. In 20 additional specimens, an osteotomy was performed 1 cm anterior to the landmark line using a percutaneous or open technique. Dissection was performed to assess for laceration of the sural, MP, LP, medial calcaneal (MC), or lateral calcaneal (LC) nerves. The safe zone was determined to be within the area 11.2 ± 2.7 mm anterior to the landmark line. After open osteotomy, lacerations were found in 3 of 10 MC nerves and 3 of 10 LC nerves. After percutaneous osteotomy, lacerations were found in 2 of 10 MC nerves and 1 of 10 LC nerves. No lacerations of the sural, MP, or LP nerves were found with either osteotomy. The safe zone extended 11.2 ± 2.7 mm anterior to the described landmark line. The MC and LC nerves were always at risk during medial displacement calcaneal osteotomy. Nerve injury to both major and minor sensory nerves is likely underrecognized as a source of morbidity after calcaneal osteotomy. The current study provides a ready intraoperative guideline for minimizing this risk. © The Author(s) 2015.

  2. GABAergic Projections from the Medial Septum Selectively Inhibit Interneurons in the Medial Entorhinal Cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Sulser, Alfredo; Parthier, Daniel; Candela, Antonio; McClure, Christina; Pastoll, Hugh; Garden, Derek; Sürmeli, Gülşen

    2014-01-01

    The medial septum (MS) is required for theta rhythmic oscillations and grid cell firing in the medial entorhinal cortex (MEC). While GABAergic, glutamatergic, and cholinergic neurons project from the MS to the MEC, their synaptic targets are unknown. To investigate whether MS neurons innervate specific layers and cell types in the MEC, we expressed channelrhodopsin-2 in mouse MS neurons and used patch-clamp recording in brain slices to determine the response to light activation of identified cells in the MEC. Following activation of MS axons, we observed fast monosynaptic GABAergic IPSPs in the majority (>60%) of fast-spiking (FS) and low-threshold-spiking (LTS) interneurons in all layers of the MEC, but in only 1.5% of nonstellate principal cells (NSPCs) and in no stellate cells. We also observed fast glutamatergic responses to MS activation in a minority (<5%) of NSPCs, FS, and LTS interneurons. During stimulation of MS inputs at theta frequency (10 Hz), the amplitude of GABAergic IPSPs was maintained, and spike output from LTS and FS interneurons was entrained at low (25–60 Hz) and high (60–180 Hz) gamma frequencies, respectively. By demonstrating cell type-specific targeting of the GABAergic projection from the MS to the MEC, our results support the idea that the MS controls theta frequency activity in the MEC through coordination of inhibitory circuits. PMID:25505326

  3. Medial rectus muscle anchoring in complete oculomotor nerve palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Si Hyung; Chang, Jee Ho

    2015-10-01

    The management of exotropia resulting from complete oculomotor nerve palsy is challenging. Conventional therapeutic interventions, including supramaximal resection and recession, superior oblique tendon resection and transposition, and several ocular anchoring procedures have yielded less-than-adequate results. Here we describe a novel surgical technique of anchoring the medial rectus muscle to the medial orbital wall in combination with lateral rectus disinsertion and reattachment to the lateral orbital wall.

  4. Lesions in canine stifle joints due to trochleoplasties as treatment for medial patellar luxation

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    Johannes Hans van der Zee

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Lesions in canine stifle joints after previous trochleoplasty surgery were documented. Infour clinical cases arthrotomies were performed due to stifle pain after previous trochleardeepening procedures. A small area of hyaline cartilage remained in the groove of the stiflesin cases where previous wedge trochleoplasties had been performed. All of the stifles hadsignificant areas of eburnation on the axial aspect of the medial trochlear ridge. The stifle jointsof a dog that was euthanased due to severe irreversible osteo-arthritis were photographed.The dog had undergone previous surgery for patellar luxation and cranial cruciate ligamentruptures. The trochlear grooves in this dog had almost no visible articular cartilage left.

  5. Interplay Between Grip and Vision in the Monkey Medial Parietal Lobe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breveglieri, Rossella; De Vitis, Marina; Bosco, Annalisa; Galletti, Claudio; Fattori, Patrizia

    2017-05-03

    We aimed at understanding the relative contribution of visual information and hand shaping to the neuronal activity of medial posterior parietal area V6A, a newly added area in the monkey cortical grasping circuit. Two Macaca fascicularis performed a Reach-to-Grasp task in the dark and in the light, grasping objects of different shapes. We found that V6A contains Visual cells, activated only during grasping in the light; Motor neurons, equally activated during grasping in the dark and in the light; Visuomotor cells, differently activated while grasping in the dark and in the light. Visual, Motor, and Visuomotor neurons were moderately or highly selective during grasping, whereas they reduced their selectivity during object observation without performing grasping. The use of the same experimental design employed in the dorsolateral grasping area AIP by other authors allowed us to compare the grasp-related properties of V6A and AIP. From these data and from the literature a frame emerges with many similarities between medial grasping area V6A and lateral grasping area AIP: both areas update and control prehension, with V6A less sensitive than AIP to fine visual details of the objects to be grasped, but more involved in coordinating reaching and grasping. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Medial thalamic 18-FDG uptake following inescapable shock correlates with subsequent learned helpless behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mirrione,M.M.; Mirrione, M.M.; Schulz, D.; Dewey, S.L.; Henn, F.A.

    2009-12-06

    The learned helplessness paradigm has been repeatedly shown to correlate with neurobiological aspects of depression in humans. In this model, rodents are exposed inescapable foot-shock in order to reveal susceptibility to escape deficit, defined as 'learned helplessness' (LH). Few methods are available to probe the neurobiological aspects underlying the differences in susceptibility in the living animal, thus far being limited to studies examining regional neurochemical changes with microdialysis. With the widespread implementation of small animal neuroimaging methods, including positron emission tomography (PET), it is now possible to explore the living brain on a systems level to define regional changes that may correlate with vulnerability to stress. In this study, 12 wild type Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to 40 minutes of inescapable foot-shock followed by metabolic imaging using 2-deoxy-2[{sup 18}F]fluoro-D-glucose (18-FDG) 1 hour later. The escape test was performed on these rats 48 hours later (to accommodate radiotracer decay), where they were given the opportunity to press a lever to shut off the shock. A region of interest (ROI) analysis was used to investigate potential correlations (Pearson Regression Coefficients) between regional 18-FDG uptake following inescapable shock and subsequent learned helpless behavior (time to finish the test; number of successful lever presses within 20 seconds of shock onset). ROI analysis revealed a significant positive correlation between time to finish and 18-FDG uptake, and a negative correlation between lever presses and uptake, in the medial thalamic area (p=0.033, p=0.036). This ROI included the paraventricular thalamus, mediodorsal thalamus, and the habenula. In an effort to account for possible spillover artifact, the posterior thalamic area (including ventral medial and lateral portions) was also evaluated but did not reveal significant correlations (p=0.870, p=0.897). No other significant

  7. Morphology of the medial collateral ligament of the knee

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gill Thomas J

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Quantitative knowledge on the anatomy of the medial collateral ligament (MCL is important for treatment of MCL injury and for MCL release during total knee arthroplasty (TKA. The objective of this study was to quantitatively determine the morphology of the MCL of human knees. Methods 10 cadaveric human knees were dissected to investigate the MCL anatomy. The specimens were fixed in full extension and this position was maintained during the dissection and morphometric measurements. The outlines of the insertion sites of the superficial MCL (sMCL and deep MCL (dMCL were digitized using a 3D digitizing system. Results The insertion areas of the superficial MCL (sMCL were 348.6 ± 42.8 mm2 and 79.7 ± 17.6 mm2 on the tibia and femur, respectively. The insertion areas of the deep MCL (dMCL were 63.6 ± 13.4 mm2 and 71.9 ± 14.8 mm2 on the tibia and femur, respectively. The distances from the centroids of the tibial and femoral insertions of the sMCL to the tibial and femoral joint line were 62.4 ± 5.5 mm and 31.1 ± 4.6 mm, respectively. The distances from the centroids of dMCL in the tibial insertion and the femoral insertion to the tibial and femoral joint line were 6.5 ± 1.3 mm and 20.5 ± 4.2 mm, respectively. The distal portion of the dMCL (meniscotibial ligament - MTL was approximately 1.7 times wider than the proximal portion of the dMCL (meniscofemoral ligament - MFL, whereas the MFL was approximately 3 times longer than the MTL. Conclusions The morphologic data on the MCL may provide useful information for improving treatments of MCL-related pathology and performing MCL release during TKA.

  8. Liposuction-assisted medial thigh lift in obese and non obese patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelmohsen Khalaf Aboueldahab

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The abdomen, thighs and buttocks are often the areas of greatest concern to patients following massive weight loss due to bariatric surgery. The typical appearance of the patient who has lost a massive amount of weight derives from a combination of factors, including gender-dependent body morphology and a change in body mass index, which lead to skin and soft-tissue excess and poor skin tone. Thigh laxity and redundancy represents a great challenge to both patients and surgeons. Not only because of the difficulty to satisfy the patients, but also due to the higher incidence of complications especially, with those obese patients who have not undergone bariatric surgery before. The problems with such patients are due to the heavy thighs that require both debulking and tight anchorage to prevent scar migration or labial distortion. Aim of the Work: The aim of the present study is to improve the aesthetic outcome and avoid the complications of medial thigh lifting with simultaneous liposuction in obese and non-obese. Patients and Methods: A total of 25 female patients presented during the period from January 2007 to July 2011 complaining of moderate to severe thigh laxity with or without lipodystrophy. In 20 patients medial transverse thigh lift was performed, to treat medial thigh friction and laxity particularly in the upper half. Whereas, in the other five patients were suffering from upper and lower medial thigh bulkiness, vertical thigh lift was performed. Results: All patients recovered well in 2 weeks and showed improvement of thigh contour. Scar downward displacement in one patient. No skin necrosis or seroma. No labial distortion or separation encountered. Conclusion: Simultaneous liposuction and thigh lift gave good results provided proper patients selection, appropriate technique to each patient, meticulous, cautious liposuction and handling of the tissues and most importantly is the deep tight anchorage sutures to guard

  9. Synaptic Targets of Medial Septal Projections in the Hippocampus and Extrahippocampal Cortices of the Mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unal, Gunes; Joshi, Abhilasha; Viney, Tim J; Kis, Viktor; Somogyi, Peter

    2015-12-02

    Temporal coordination of neuronal assemblies among cortical areas is essential for behavioral performance. GABAergic projections from the medial septum and diagonal band complex exclusively innervate GABAergic interneurons in the rat hippocampus, contributing to the coordination of neuronal activity, including the generation of theta oscillations. Much less is known about the synaptic target neurons outside the hippocampus. To reveal the contribution of synaptic circuits involving the medial septum of mice, we have identified postsynaptic cortical neurons in wild-type and parvalbumin-Cre knock-in mice. Anterograde axonal tracing from the septum revealed extensive innervation of the hippocampus as well as the subiculum, presubiculum, parasubiculum, the medial and lateral entorhinal cortices, and the retrosplenial cortex. In all examined cortical regions, many septal GABAergic boutons were in close apposition to somata or dendrites immunopositive for interneuron cell-type molecular markers, such as parvalbumin, calbindin, calretinin, N-terminal EF-hand calcium-binding protein 1, cholecystokinin, reelin, or a combination of these molecules. Electron microscopic observations revealed septal boutons forming axosomatic or axodendritic type II synapses. In the CA1 region of hippocampus, septal GABAergic projections exclusively targeted interneurons. In the retrosplenial cortex, 93% of identified postsynaptic targets belonged to interneurons and the rest to pyramidal cells. These results suggest that the GABAergic innervation from the medial septum and diagonal band complex contributes to temporal coordination of neuronal activity via several types of cortical GABAergic interneurons in both hippocampal and extrahippocampal cortices. Oscillatory septal neuronal firing at delta, theta, and gamma frequencies may phase interneuron activity.

  10. Medial reward and lateral non-reward orbitofrontal cortex circuits change in opposite directions in depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Wei; Rolls, Edmund T; Qiu, Jiang; Liu, Wei; Tang, Yanqing; Huang, Chu-Chung; Wang, XinFa; Zhang, Jie; Lin, Wei; Zheng, Lirong; Pu, JunCai; Tsai, Shih-Jen; Yang, Albert C; Lin, Ching-Po; Wang, Fei; Xie, Peng; Feng, Jianfeng

    2016-12-01

    The first brain-wide voxel-level resting state functional connectivity neuroimaging analysis of depression is reported, with 421 patients with major depressive disorder and 488 control subjects. Resting state functional connectivity between different voxels reflects correlations of activity between those voxels and is a fundamental tool in helping to understand the brain regions with altered connectivity and function in depression. One major circuit with altered functional connectivity involved the medial orbitofrontal cortex Brodmann area 13, which is implicated in reward, and which had reduced functional connectivity in depression with memory systems in the parahippocampal gyrus and medial temporal lobe, especially involving the perirhinal cortex Brodmann area 36 and entorhinal cortex Brodmann area 28. The Hamilton Depression Rating Scale scores were correlated with weakened functional connectivity of the medial orbitofrontal cortex Brodmann area 13. Thus in depression there is decreased reward-related and memory system functional connectivity, and this is related to the depressed symptoms. The lateral orbitofrontal cortex Brodmann area 47/12, involved in non-reward and punishing events, did not have this reduced functional connectivity with memory systems. Second, the lateral orbitofrontal cortex Brodmann area 47/12 had increased functional connectivity with the precuneus, the angular gyrus, and the temporal visual cortex Brodmann area 21. This enhanced functional connectivity of the non-reward/punishment system (Brodmann area 47/12) with the precuneus (involved in the sense of self and agency), and the angular gyrus (involved in language) is thus related to the explicit affectively negative sense of the self, and of self-esteem, in depression. A comparison of the functional connectivity in 185 depressed patients not receiving medication and 182 patients receiving medication showed that the functional connectivity of the lateral orbitofrontal cortex Brodmann

  11. Medial collateral ligament reconstruction in the baseball Pitcher's elbow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erne, Holger C; Zouzias, Ioannis C; Rosenwasser, Melvin P

    2009-08-01

    Pitchers are prone to elbow injuries because of high and repetitive valgus stresses on the elbow. The anterior bundle of the medial ulnar collateral ligament (MCL) of the elbow is the primary restraint and is often attenuated with time, leading to functional incompetence and ultimate failure. Pitchers with a history of medial elbow pain, reduced velocity, and loss of command may have an MCL injury in evolution. Physical examination and imaging can confirm the diagnosis. Treatment begins with rest and activity modification. All medial elbow pain is not MCL injury. Surgery is considered only for talented athletes who wish to return to competitive play and may include elite scholastic and other collegiates and professionals. The technique for MCL reconstruction was first described in 1986. Many variations have been offered since then, which can result in predictable outcomes, allowing many to return to the same level of competitive play.

  12. Isolated medial foot compartment syndrome after ankle sprain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortina, Josep; Amat, Carles; Selga, Jordi; Corona, Pablo Salvador

    2014-03-01

    Foot compartment syndrome is a serious potential complication of foot crush injury, fractures, surgery, and vascular injury. An acute compartment syndrome isolated to the medial compartment of the foot after suffering an ankle sprain is a rare complication. We report the case of a 31-year-old man who developed a medial foot compartment syndrome after suffering a deltoid ligament rupture at ankle while playing football. The patient underwent a medial compartment fasciotomy with resolution of symptoms. Compartment syndromes of the foot are rare and have been reported to occur after severe trauma. But, there are some reports in the literature of acute exertional compartment syndrome. In our case, the compartment syndrome appeared after an ankle sprain without vascular injuries associated. Copyright © 2013 European Foot and Ankle Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Traumatic fragmented medial coronoid process in a Chihuahua.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadley, H S; Wheeler, J L; Manley, P A

    2009-01-01

    Fragmented medial coronoid process (FMCP) is a disease process that has not previously been reported in toy-breed dogs. This report describes a presumptive case of FMCP in a 14-month-old Chihuahua that was presented for evaluation approximately four weeks following acute onset of moderate lameness in the left forelimb. Definitive diagnosis of a fragmented medial coronoid process was based upon computed tomography (CT) scan. A CT scan also demonstrated moderate joint incongruity in the affected elbow. Surgical removal of the fragment and subtotal coronoidectomy were performed via a medial arthrotomy. An ulnar ostectomy was also performed to address joint incongruity. Histology of specimens removed at surgery did not demonstrate evidence of microdamage as characteristic of FMCP in large breed dogs, and instead, suggested that the fracture was acute and traumatic in nature. Rapid return to function was observed following surgery.

  14. Gore-Tex medialization laryngoplasty for treatment of dysphagia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendricker, Ryan M; deSilva, Brad W; Forrest, L Arick

    2010-04-01

    Gore-Tex medialization laryngoplasty is a well described procedure for the management of glottal incompetence with associated phonatory disturbance. Limited literature exists describing the use of this procedure in the management of dysphagia. We describe our experience with Gore-Tex medialization laryngoplasty and the treatment of dysphagia. Case series with chart review. Tertiary referral center. Between April 2000 and September 2008, 189 Gore-Tex medialization laryngoplasties were performed on 180 patients by the senior author. Complete records and analysis were available for and performed on 121 procedures for 113 patients. The main outcome measures were discontinuation of gastrostomy tube (g-tube) use or avoidance of g-tube, as well as clinical subjective improvement in swallowing function. Fifty-seven of 113 (50%) patients had complaints of dysphagia at presentation, with 47 of 57 (82%) having an objective swallowing evaluation. Thirty-two of 47 (68%) had documented penetration and/or aspiration. Twenty of 57 (35%) patients with dysphagia required g-tubes for alimentation. Eleven of 20 (55%) patients were able to discontinue g-tube use after Gore-Tex medialization laryngoplasty, and an additional five patients with aspiration were able to avoid need for g-tubes with Gore-Tex medialization laryngoplasty and swallowing therapy. Gore-Tex medialization laryngoplasty is a well tolerated and well described treatment for the management of glottal incompetence. The procedure is an appropriate adjunct in dysphagia management for the appropriate patient population. Copyright 2010 American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery Foundation. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Efficiency of Medial Rectus Advancement Surgery in Consecutive Exotropia

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    Kemal Yar

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To evaluate the efficiency of medial rectus advancement surgery in consecutive exotropia. Material and Methods: The study group consisted of 20 cases, 10 male, 10 female, who were diagnosed as consecutive exotropia and underwent surgery between 2008-2013 at Cukurova University Medical Faculty Ophthalmology Department. Records of the patients were investigated retrospectively. We evaluated best corrected visual acuity, existence of ambliopia, postoperative duration following the first surgery and applied surgical procedures. Postoperative deviation lower than 10 PD were assesed as successful. Mean follow up period was 29,8 +/- 21,36 (8-80 months, patients with inadequate follow up period were dismissed from the study group. Results: We only applied bilateral medial rectus advancement surgery to 6 and unilateral medial rectus advancement surgery to 5 patients and obtained intended surgical result in these 11 cases. The other patients underwent lateral rectus recession or/and medial rectus resection operations inorder to reach projected deviation degrees. Deviation was found to be 46,4+/-9,24 (40-70 PD in cases who only underwent advancement surgery and was 65,56 +/- 18,78 (40-90 PD in cases who underwent additional surgical procedure. 16 (%80 of the cases had hypermetropi various dioptries and 7 (%35 had ambliopia. Discussion: Consecutive exotropia can appear years after surgery and is an important late period complication. In this study achievement of %55 success with medial rectus advancement surgery indicates that this is a preferable procedure. But in wide angle deviations additional lateral rectus recession or/and medial rectus resection operations can be applied inorder to reach intended adjustment. Accurrate prediction of the propotion of advancement surgery and adjustment is not always possible because of intensive fybrosis in operated muscles and enviroment tissue. [Cukurova Med J 2015; 40(4.000: 707-713

  16. MORPHOLOGICAL STUDY OF MEDIAL CIRCUMFLEX FEMORAL ARTERY IN HUMAN CADAVERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brijesh R. Aghera

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Medial circumflex femoral artery is an important branch of Profunda femoris artery. It is an important artery in supplying blood to the head and neck of the femur, the adductor muscles and form anastomosis around head of femur. So study of variation of medial circumflex femoral artery great value for surgeon and orthopaedic surgeries. Materials and Methods: The present study includes 102 lower limbs of adult formalin fixed human cadavers used for the routine dissection procedure for under graduate and post graduate students in the department of Anatomy, M.R. Medical College, KBN Medical college and H K E Homeopathic College, Gulbarga (India during 2011-2014.The study was done by dissection method as per Cunningham’s manual of practical Anatomy. Result: In present study, we found that 25 extremities (25.49% medial circumflex femoral artery was originated directly from femoral artery. In 10 extremities (9.80% a common trunk was observed form medial circumflex femoral with femoral artery. Normal study was observed in 66 extremities (64.70%. Conclusion: In present study and other past studies we conclude that knowledge of variation in this artery is very important to preventing injury to vessels during surgical procedures around hip joint and also has important value in plastic surgery operations as the vascular pedicle of grafts such as the transverse upper gracilis (TUG flap, medial thigh flap and medial circumflex femoral (gracilis perforator free flap. During case of selective arteriography in ischaemic necrosis of the femoral head to know the arterial supply of the femoral head it is used.

  17. Medial circumflex femoral artery flap for ischial pressure sore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palanivelu, S.

    2009-01-01

    A new axial pattern flap based on the terminal branches of the medial circumflex femoral artery is described for coverage of ischial pressure sore. Based on the terminal branches of the transverse branch of medial circumflex femoral artery, which exit through the gap between the quadratus femoris muscle above and the upper border of adductor magnus muscle below, this fascio cutaneous flap is much smaller than the posterior thigh flap but extremely useful to cover ischeal pressure sores. The skin redundancy below the gluteal fold allows a primary closure of the donor defect. It can also be used in combination with biceps femoris muscle flap. PMID:19881020

  18. Direct and indirect parieto-medial temporal pathways for spatial navigation in humans: evidence from resting-state functional connectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boccia, Maddalena; Sulpizio, Valentina; Nemmi, Federico; Guariglia, Cecilia; Galati, Gaspare

    2017-05-01

    Anatomical and functional findings in primates suggest the existence of a dedicated parieto-medial temporal pathway for spatial navigation, consisting of both direct and indirect projections from the caudal inferior parietal lobe (cIPL) to the hippocampus and the parahippocampal cortex, with indirect projections relaying through the posterior cingulate and retrosplenial cortex. This neural network is largely unexplored in humans. This study aimed at testing the existence of a parieto-medial temporal pathway for spatial navigation in humans. We explored the cortical connectivity patterns of the parahippocampal place area (PPA), the retrosplenial cortex (RSC), and the hippocampus (HC) using resting-state functional connectivity MRI. Our results demonstrate the existence of connections between the medial temporal lobe structures, i.e., PPA and HC, and the angular gyrus (AG), the human homologue of cIPL, as well as between RSC and AG. These connectivity patterns seem to reflect the direct and the indirect projections found in primates from cIPL to the medial temporal lobe. Such a result deserves feasible considerations to better understand the brain networks underpinning human spatial navigation.

  19. The dragonfly splint: a new disposable device designed to prevent both medial and lateral turbinate synechiae after sinonasal surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantovani, Mario; Rinaldi, Vittorio; Torretta, Sara; Sigismund, Paolo Enrico; Cappadona, Maurizio; Minetti, Andrea; Pignataro, Lorenzo

    2014-03-01

    Periturbinal adhesions are among the most frequent and challenging complications of sinonasal surgery. Endonasal paraseptal splints have proved to be very efficient in preventing "medial synechiae," that is, adhesions located between the medial faces of the middle/inferior turbinates and the septum. However, none of these devices for guiding mucosal healing can prevent "lateral synechiae" (adhesions between the lateral face of the middle turbinate and the lateral nasal wall) inside the middle meatal cleft, which is a very critical area for the physiology of the anterior sinus system. For this reason, if followed by the formation of lateral synechiae, the surgical maneuvers used to treat sinus diseases could paradoxically become a cause of persistent functional impairment and lead to iatrogenic sinusitis or mucocele.We describe our preliminary experience with a new endonasal splint called "Dragonfly" (because of its shape), which has been designed to prevent both medial and lateral postsurgical synechiae. This device has a long lateral wing designed to separate the mucosal surfaces of the middle meatal/ethmoid cavities and prevent adhesions during the postoperative process of healing. The device must be kept in situ for 3 to 4 weeks to permit the re-epithelialization of the internal nasal surfaces. Our experience shows that the splints are well tolerated and highly efficient, preventing both medial and lateral synechiae in 100% of cases. A randomized controlled study has now been started to confirm these positive preliminary findings in a larger patient population.

  20. Cardiovascular responses of the anterior claustrum; its mechanism; contribution of medial prefrontal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatam, Masoumeh; Sheybanifar, Mehrnoosh; Nasimi, Ali

    2013-12-01

    The anterior claustrum (CLa) has bilateral connections with the areas involved in cardiovascular regulation, though its role in cardiovascular control is not yet understood. This study was performed to find the cardiovascular responsive region of the CLa by stimulating all parts of the CLa with l-glutamate, and to find the possible mechanisms mediating its responses in urethane-anesthetized rats. We also investigated the possible involvement of the medial prefrontal cortex in the cardiovascular responses of the CLa. The effect of microinjection of l-glutamate (50-100 nl, 0.25 M) was tested throughout the Cla and only in one area at 2.7 mm rostral to bregma, 1.8-2.0 midline and 4.5-5.6mm vertical, significant decreases in arterial pressure were elicited (-21.71±2.1 mmHg, P<0.001, t-test) with no significant change in heart rate. Administration (i.v.) of the muscarinic receptor blocker, atropine, had no effect on the change in mean arterial pressure in response to glutamate stimulation, suggesting that the parasympathetic system was not involved in this response. However, administration (i.v.) of the nicotinic receptor blocker, hexamethonium dichloride abolished the depressor response to glutamate, suggesting that CLa stimulation decreases sympathetic outflow to the cardiovascular system. In addition, microinjection of the reversible synaptic blocker, cobalt chloride, into the medial prefrontal cortex greatly attenuated the depressor response elicited by microinjection of glut into the CLa. Thus for the first time, we found the cardiovascular responsive region of the anterior claustrum. Also we showed that its response is mediated through the medial prefrontal cortex. © 2013.

  1. Stiffness of the healing medial collateral ligament of the mouse.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gijssen, Y.; Sierevelt, I.N.; Kooloos, J.G.M.; Blankevoort, L.

    2004-01-01

    The knee joints of mice can serve as a model for studying knee ligament properties. The goal of our study was to measure the structural stiffness of the medial collateral ligament (MCL) of the murine knee. A tensile test was developed for this purpose. First 84 femur-MCL-tibia complexes of

  2. Aetiology, imaging and treatment of medial tibial stress syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moen, M.H.

    2012-01-01

    The work contained is this thesis discusses aetiology, imaging and treatment of a common leg injury: medial tibial stress syndrome (MTSS). Although a common injury, the number of scientific articles on this topic is relatively low as is explained in chapter 1. This chapter also highlights that the m

  3. Robust Segmentation of Voxel Shapes using Medial Surfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reniers, Dennie; Telea, Alexandru

    2008-01-01

    We present a new patch-type segmentation method for 3D voxel shapes based on the medial surface, also called surface skeleton. The boundaries of the simplified fore- and background skeletons map one-to-one to increasingly fuzzy, soft convex, respectively concave, edges of the shape. Using this prope

  4. Downregulation of the posterior medial frontal cortex prevents social conformity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klucharev, V.; Munneke, M.; Smidts, A.; Fernandez, G.S.E.

    2011-01-01

    We often change our behavior to conform to real or imagined group pressure. Social influence on our behavior has been extensively studied in social psychology, but its neural mechanisms have remained largely unknown. Here we demonstrate that the transient downregulation of the posterior medial front

  5. Internal Mammary and Medial Supraclavicular Irradiation in Breast Cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poortmans, P.M.P.; Collette, S.; Kirkove, C.; Limbergen, E. van; Budach, V.; Struikmans, H.; Collette, L.; Fourquet, A.; Maingon, P.; Valli, M.; Winter, K. De; Marnitz, S.; Barillot, I.; Scandolaro, L.; Vonk, E.; Rodenhuis, C.; Marsiglia, H.; Weidner, N.; Tienhoven, G. van; Glanzmann, C.; Kuten, A.; Arriagada, R.; Bartelink, H.; Bogaert, W. Van den

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The effect of internal mammary and medial supraclavicular lymph-node irradiation (regional nodal irradiation) added to whole-breast or thoracic-wall irradiation after surgery on survival among women with early-stage breast cancer is unknown. METHODS: We randomly assigned women who had a

  6. Temporary Medial Upper Eyelid Lagophthalmos after External Dacryocystorhinostomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haefliger, I O; Meienberg, O; Pimentel de Figueiredo, A R

    2016-04-01

    Background. Report of three cases of medial upper eyelid lagophthalmos as complication of external dacryocystorhinostomy. History and Signs. Shortly after dacryocystorhinostomy (skin incision on the side of the nose), three of ten consecutive patients (28 ± 4 years; mean ± standard deviation), presented with an ipsilateral lagophthalmos of 4 ± 1 mm in voluntary eyelid closure and 6 ± 1 mm in spontaneous blink. The lagophthalmos was due to a selective paresis of the medial part of the orbicularis oculi muscle of the upper eyelid. Patient 1 complained bitterly of dry eye symptoms and of her lagophthalmos. Patient 2 had mild symptoms but became very concerned after peers made her aware of her asymmetric blink. Patient 3 was asymptomatic and did not notice anything particular. Therapy and Outcome. Lagophthalmos resolved spontaneously within three months after surgery, first by improvement of voluntary eyelid closure and then of spontaneous blinking. Conclusions. Temporary lagophthalmos can occur as a complication of external dacryocystorhinostomy, most likely due to damage of the (only recently described) superficial buccal and/or zygomatic branches of the facial nerve that run upward to cross over the medial ligament and innervate the medial part of the orbicularis oculi muscle. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  7. Proactive and Reactive Control by the Medial Frontal Cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veit eStuphorn

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Adaptive behavior requires the ability to flexibly control actions. This can occur either proactively to anticipate task requirements, or reactively in response to sudden changes. In this article, we describe the behavioral and physiological evidence for dual mechanisms of control in response inhibition in the medial frontal cortex in the context of the stop signal or countermanding task.

  8. Tendon sheath fibroma of the medial canthal tendon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew, Nicholas; Dodd, Tom; Selva, Dinesh; Davis, Garry

    2013-01-01

    Fibromas of the tendon sheath are slow-growing, benign tumors most commonly found on the hands and wrist. A fibroma of the tendon sheath arising from the medial canthal tendon presented as an enlarging nodule that had been present for 40 years. The fibroma was identified by microscopy and immunohistochemistry, and surgical resection appears to have been curative.

  9. [Medial unicompartmental knee prosthesis for patients with unicompartmental gonarthrosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kort, N.P.; Deutman, R.; Raay, J.J. van; Horn, J.R. van

    2004-01-01

    The function and survival time of unicompartmental knee prostheses for patients with severe gonarthrosis have been improved the past few years by developments in their design, the instrumentarium and the surgical technique. A medial unicompartmental knee prosthesis may be indicated in patients with

  10. Medial Patellofemoral Ligament Reconstruction in a Below-Knee Amputee

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sherif El-Tawil

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Patellar instability is a common finding in patients with below-knee amputation and yet management options are not commonly described in the literature. We describe the first reported case of a medial patellofemoral ligament reconstruction using allograft in a patient with a below-knee amputation. Clinical outcome at two-year follow-up remains very good.

  11. Arthroscopic Treatment of Medial Femoral Condylar Coronal Fractures and Nonunions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ercin, Ersin; Bilgili, M. Gokhan; Basaran, S. Hakan; Baca, Emre; Kural, Cemal; Avkan, M. Cevdet

    2013-01-01

    Nonunion of medial femoral condylar coronal fractures are uncommon. In neglected Hoffa fractures despite nonunion, there is a risk of missing accompanying ligamentous and intra-articular injuries. Neither preoperative clinical examination nor magnetic resonance imaging showed these injuries before arthroscopy. Arthroscopy before internal fixation gives additional information and changes the surgical protocol for these fractures and nonunions. PMID:24400191

  12. MR imaging findings of medial tibial crest friction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klontzas, Michail E., E-mail: miklontzas@gmail.com; Akoumianakis, Ioannis D., E-mail: ioannis.akoumianakis@gmail.com; Vagios, Ilias, E-mail: iliasvagios@gmail.com; Karantanas, Apostolos H., E-mail: akarantanas@gmail.com

    2013-11-01

    Objective: Medial tibial condyle bone marrow edema (BME), associated with soft tissue edema (STe) surrounding the medial collateral ligament, was incidentally observed in MRI examinations of young and athletic individuals. The aim of the present study was to 1. Prospectively investigate the association between these findings and coexistence of localized pain, and 2. Explore the possible contribution of the tibial morphology to its pathogenesis. Methods: The medial tibial condyle crest was evaluated in 632 knee MRI examinations. The angle and depth were measured by two separate evaluators. The presence of STe and BME was recorded. A third evaluator blindly assessed the presence of pain at this site. Results: BME associated with STe was found in 24 patients (with no history of previous trauma, osteoarthritis, tumor or pes anserine bursitis). The mean crest angle was 151.3° (95%CI 147.4–155.3°) compared to 159.4° (95%CI 158.8–160°) in controls (Mann–Whitney test, P < 0.0001). MRI findings were highly predictive of localized pain (sensitivity 92% specificity 99%, Fisher's exact test, P < 0.0001). Conclusion: Friction at the medial tibial condyle crest is a painful syndrome. MRI is a highly specific and sensitive imaging modality for its diagnosis.

  13. Medial supracondylar stress fracture in an adolescent pitcher

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Eric Y.; Chung, Christine B. [VA San Diego Healthcare System, San Diego, CA (United States); University of California, San Diego Medical Center, San Diego, CA (United States); Fronek, Jan [Scripps Healthcare, La Jolla, CA (United States)

    2014-01-15

    We report the occurrence of a medial supracondylar stress fracture in an adolescent pitcher. To our knowledge, this fracture has not been described in the literature, and awareness of this entity allows initiation of therapy and precludes further unnecessary work-up. The radiographic, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging appearances are reviewed and the mechanism of injury is discussed. (orig.)

  14. Over-Expression of Copper/Zinc Superoxide Dismutase in the Median Preoptic Nucleus Attenuates Chronic Angiotensin II-Induced Hypertension in the Rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John P. Collister

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The brain senses circulating levels of angiotensin II (AngII via circumventricular organs, such as the subfornical organ (SFO, and is thought to adjust sympathetic nervous system output accordingly via this neuro-hormonal communication. However, the cellular signaling mechanisms involved in these communications remain to be fully understood. Previous lesion studies of either the SFO, or the downstream median preoptic nucleus (MnPO have shown a diminution of the hypertensive effects of chronic AngII, without providing a clear explanation as to the intracellular signaling pathway(s involved. Additional studies have reported that over-expressing copper/zinc superoxide dismutase (CuZnSOD, an intracellular superoxide (O2·− scavenging enzyme, in the SFO attenuates chronic AngII-induced hypertension. Herein, we tested the hypothesis that overproduction of O2·− in the MnPO is an underlying mechanism in the long-term hypertensive effects of chronic AngII. Adenoviral vectors encoding human CuZnSOD (AdCuZnSOD or control vector (AdEmpty were injected directly into the MnPO of rats implanted with aortic telemetric transmitters for recording of arterial pressure. After a 3 day control period of saline infusion, rats were intravenously infused with AngII (10 ng/kg/min for ten days. Rats over-expressing CuZnSOD (n = 7 in the MnPO had a blood pressure increase of only 6 ± 2 mmHg after ten days of AngII infusion while blood pressure increased 21 ± 4 mmHg in AdEmpty-infected rats (n = 9. These results support the hypothesis that production of O2·− in the MnPO contributes to the development of chronic AngII-dependent hypertension.

  15. The effect of medial arch support over the plantar pressure and triceps surae muscle strength after prolonged standing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hindun Saadah

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: The activity with prolonged standing position is one of the causes of abnormalities in the lower leg and foot. The aim of this study is to discover the effect of medial arch support over the distribution of plantar pressure when standing and walking.Methods: This was an experimental study with pre- and post-design the strength of triceps surae muscle after prolonged standing, was also evaluated in an experimental study with pre- and post-design. Variables of plantar pressure measurement are the contact area and pressure peak were measured by using the Mat-scan tool. The measurement of the triceps surae muscle strength was done with a hand-held dynamometer, before and after using the medial arch support. Measurement was performed before and after working with prolonged standing position which took place about seven hours using the medial arch support inserted in the shoes. Data was analyzed using paired T-test.Results: There was a significant difference of peak pressure between standing (p = 0.041 and walking (p = 0.001. Whereas the contact area showed a significant decrease in the width of the contact area when standing (104.12 ± 12.42 vs 99.08 ± 10.21 p = 0.023. Whereas, the triceps surae muscle strength pre- and post-standing prolonged did not indicate a significant difference.Conclusion: There was decrease in peak pressure when standing and walking and decrease in contact area when standing on plantar after used of the medial arch support after prolonged standing.

  16. Free Medial Plantar Flap Connection with a Posterior Tibial Artery Flap in Reconstruction of Fore–Mid Foot Skin Defect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hao; Sheng, Jia-Gen

    2016-01-01

    Background: Although there are many surgical treatments for covering the skin defect of the fore–mid foot, how to reconstruct the weight-bearing region remains a challenge. The weight-bearing region of the sole needs to withstand the pressure and shearing stresses of walking, so the plantar skin is anatomically different from other skins in the areas of texture, thickness, subcutaneous tissue, etc. Medial plantar flaps that are harvested from the instep region are regarded as the first choice for weight-bearing region reconstruction because of their excellent functional and aesthetic long-term result. However, when facing an extensive skin defect on a weight-bearing area such as a fore–mid foot avulsion, the application of this flap is limited because if we put the flap in a weight-bearing area of the forefoot, the set of vessels will be exposed to outside. Methods: We suggest 2 connected free flaps (posterior tibial artery flap and medial plantar flap) pedicled with 1 set of vessels. The medial plantar flap was used to cover the skin defect of the weight-bearing area in the forefoot. The dorsal skin defect of the injured foot was covered with a posterior tibial artery flap and supplied the medial plantar flap with the posterior tibial vessel. The midfoot skin defect was repaired by a full-skin grafting. Results: Long-term follow-up results showed that the shape and function of the injured limbs recovered almost entirely. Conclusion: This method of connected flaps is suitable for repairing large skin defects of the fore–mid foot. PMID:27975013

  17. Formation of median nerve without the medial root of medial cord and associated variations of the brachial plexus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhanu SP

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The anatomical variations in the formation, course and termination of brachial plexus are well documented and have clinical significance to surgeons, neurologists and anatomists. The present case report describes the unusual origin of median nerve, arising directly from the lateral cord without the union of lateral and medial roots of brachial plexus. A communicating branch existed between the ulnar nerve and anterior division of middle trunk. The lateral pectoral nerve was arising from anterior divisions of upper and middle trunks as two separate branches instead from lateral cord. The branches then joined together to form the lateral pectoral nerve. The medial cord instead of its five terminal branches, had only three branches, the ulnar nerve, medial pectoral nerve and a single trunk for the medial cutaneous nerve of arm and forearm which got separated at the middle of the arm. The variations of the lateral cord and its branches make it a complicated clinical and surgical approach which is discussed with the developmental background.

  18. Two Cases of Lower Body Contouring with a Spiral and Vertical Medial Thigh Lift

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang Wha Kim

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Massive weight loss results in skin excess, leading to an unsatisfying body contour. Various thigh lift procedures can correct flabby skin in the lower leg. We present a lower body contouring technique with a report on two patients. The procedure is determined by the body contour of the patient. As the skin excess in the thigh area tended to appear mostly on the medial side, a vertical medial thigh lift was considered. Moreover, for patients with a pear/guitar-shaped body contour, we added the spiral thigh lift for skin excess in the buttocks and the lateral thigh area. The extent of tissue to excise was determined by pinching the patient in a standing position. The inferior skin flap was fixed to non-movable tissue, which was helpful for lifting the tissue and preventing the widening of the scar. After the operation, a drain was kept for 3 to 4 days. A compressive garment was used after removing the drain. There were no complications. The patients were discharged 6 to 8 days after the operation. In conclusion, skin excess, especially in the lower body, can be corrected by a thigh lift combining several procedures, varying from person to person.

  19. Attention, emotion, and deactivation of default activity in inferior medial prefrontal cortex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geday, Jacob; Gjedde, Albert

    2008-01-01

    Attention deactivates the inferior medial prefrontal cortex (IMPC), but it is uncertain if emotions can attenuate this deactivation. To test the extent to which common emotions interfere with attention, we measured changes of a blood flow index of brain activity in key areas of the IMPC with posi......Attention deactivates the inferior medial prefrontal cortex (IMPC), but it is uncertain if emotions can attenuate this deactivation. To test the extent to which common emotions interfere with attention, we measured changes of a blood flow index of brain activity in key areas of the IMPC...... with positron emission tomography (PET) of labeled water (H(15)2O) uptake in brain of 14 healthy subjects. The subjects performed either a less demanding or a more demanding task of attention while they watched neutral and emotive images of people in realistic indoor or outdoor situations. In the less demanding...... task, subjects used the index finger to press any key when a new image appeared. In the more demanding task, subjects chose the index or middle finger to press separate keys for outdoor and indoor scenes. Compared to the less demanding task, in a global search of all gray matter, the more demanding...

  20. The Prevalence of Medial Epicondylitis Among Patients With C6 and C7 Radiculopathy

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Background: Medial epicondylitis, or golfer’s/pitcher’s elbow, develops as a result of medial stress overload on the flexor muscles at the elbow and presents as pain at the medial epicondyle. Cervical radiculopathy has been associated with lateral epicondylitis, but few associations between the cervical spine and medial epicondylitis have been made. Researchers propose that there is an association, suggesting that the weakness and imbalance in the elbow flexor and extensor muscles from C6 and...

  1. Social appraisal in chronic psychosis: Role of medial frontal and occipital networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Stephan F.; Chen, Ashley C.; Tso, Ivy F.; Liberzon, Israel; Welsh, Robert C.

    2010-01-01

    Persons with schizophrenia often appraise other individuals as threatening or persecutory. To evaluate social appraisal in schizophrenia, we probed brain networks with a task in which subjects judged whether or not they liked face stimuli with emotional expressions. We predicted that appraising negative expressions would engage patients, more than controls, and negative faces would be related to higher levels of negative affect and produce increased activity in the medial frontal cortex, an area involved in social appraisal. Twenty-one stable outpatients with chronic non-affective psychosis (16 schizophrenic, 5 schizoaffective) and 21 healthy subjects underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging. Compared with the control subjects, patients were slower to respond, but particularly slow when they judged negatively-valenced faces, a slowness correlated with negative affect in the psychosis patients. Appraisal activated the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) across all face valences. For negative expressions, patients exhibited greater activation of the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC). A psychophysiological interaction analysis of the dACC revealed co-modulation of the mPFC in controls, significantly less in patients, and a trend for co-modulation of occipital cortex in the patients. Activity in occipital cortex correlated with poor social adjustment and impaired social cognition, and co-modulation of the occipital gyrus by the dACC was correlated with poorer social cognition. The findings link appraisal of negative affect with aberrant activation of the medial frontal cortex, while early sensory processing of this social cognitive task was linked with poor social function, reflecting either top down or bottom up influences. PMID:20797730

  2. Posterior horn medial meniscal root tear: the prequel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Umans, H. [Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY (United States); Lenox Hill Radiology and Imaging Associates, New York, NY (United States); Morrison, W. [Thomas Jefferson University Hospital, Philadelphia, PA (United States); DiFelice, G.S. [Hospital for Special Surgery, New York, NY (United States); Vaidya, N. [Crystal Run Healthcare, Middletown, NY (United States); Winalski, C.S. [Cleveland Clinic, Imaging Institute, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Lerner Research Institute, Cleveland, OH (United States)

    2014-06-15

    To determine whether subarticular marrow changes deep to the posterior horn medial meniscal root anchor might predict subsequent medial meniscal root tear. Fifteen patients with MR-diagnosed posterior horn medial meniscal root (PHMMR) tear and a knee MRI antecedent to the tear were identified at three imaging centers over a 7-year period. The pre- and post-tear MR images were evaluated for marrow signal changes deep to the root anchor, meniscal root signal intensity, medial compartment articular cartilage thinning, and meniscal body extrusion. Images of 29 age- and gender-matched individuals with two MRIs of the same knee were reviewed as a control group. MRI in 11 of 15 (73 %) cases with subsequent PHMMR tear demonstrated linear subcortical marrow edema deep to the meniscal root anchor on the antecedent MRI compared to only 1 of 29 (3 %) non-tear controls (p < 0.0001). The abnormal signal resolved on post-tear MRI in all but two patients. Cyst-like changes deep to the PHMMR were present on initial MRI in three of 15 (23 %) cases and three of 29 (10 %) controls, persisting in all but one case on follow-up imaging. The PHMMR was gray on the initial MRI in seven of 15 (47 %) of cases that developed tears compared to four of 29 (14 %) controls (p < 0.0001). There was medial meniscal extrusion (MME) prior to tear in two of 15 (13 %) patients and in ten of 15 (67 %) patients after PHMMR failure. In the control group, MME was present in one (3 %) and three (10 %) of 29 subjects on the initial and follow-up MRIs, respectively. Articular cartilage loss was noted in two of 15 (15 %) cases before tear and nine of 15 (69 %) on follow-up imaging, as compared to one (3 %) and four (14 %) of 29 subjects in the control group. Subcortical marrow edema deep to the PHMMR may result from abnormal stresses and thus be a harbinger of meniscal root failure. This hypothesis is supported by resolution of these marrow signal changes after root tear. Following tear, extrusion of the

  3. An extensive posterior approach of the elbow with osteotomy of the medial epicondyle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, de M.J.; Wagener, M.L.; Verdonschot, N.J.J.; Eygendaal, D.

    2014-01-01

    Background This study describes a posterior approach to the elbow for placement of a total elbow prosthesis. Methods Release of the medial collateral ligament is achieved by performing an osteotomy of the medial epicondyle. This allows anatomic refixation of the origin of the medial collateral liga

  4. An extensive posterior approach of the elbow with osteotomy of the medial epicondyle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, M.J. de; Wagener, M.L.; Verdonschot, N.J.J.; Eygendaal, D.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This study describes a posterior approach to the elbow for placement of a total elbow prosthesis. METHODS: Release of the medial collateral ligament is achieved by performing an osteotomy of the medial epicondyle. This allows anatomic refixation of the origin of the medial collateral lig

  5. Dynamic Changes in Acetylcholine Output in the Medial Striatum during Place Reversal Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragozzino, Michael E.; Choi, Daniel

    2004-01-01

    The present studies explored the role of the medial striatum in learning when task contingencies change. Experiment 1 examined whether the medial striatum is involved in place reversal learning. Testing occurred in a modified cross-maze across two consecutive sessions. Injections of the local anesthetic, bupivacaine, into the medial striatum, did…

  6. Basal forebrain thermoregulatory mechanism modulates auto-regulated sleep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hruda N Mallick

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Regulation of body temperature and sleep are two physiological mechanisms that are vital for our survival. Interestingly neural structures implicated in both these functions are common. These areas include the medial preoptic area, the lateral preoptic area, the ventrolateral preoptic area, the median preoptic nucleus and the medial septum, which form part of the basal forebrain.When given a choice, rats prefer to stay at an ambient temperature of 270C, though the maximum sleep was observed when they were placed at 300C. Ambient temperature around 270C should be considered as the thermoneutral temperature for rats in all sleep studies. At this temperature the diurnal oscillations of sleep and body temperature are properly expressed. The warm sensitive neurons of the preoptic area mediate the increase in sleep at 300C. Promotion of sleep during the rise in ambient temperature from 270C to 300C, serve a thermoregulatory function. Autonomous thermoregulatory changes in core body temperature and skin temperature could act as an input signal to modulate neuronal activity in sleep-promoting brain areas. The studies presented here show that the neurons of the basal forebrain play a key role in regulating sleep. Basal forebrain thermoregulatory system is a part of the global homeostatic sleep regulatory mechanism, which is auto-regulated.

  7. Dopaminergic Activity in the Medial Prefrontal Cortex Modulates Fear Conditioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parvin Babaei

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available "nThe purpose of the present study was to determine the role of medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC dopaminergic system in fear conditioning response considering individual differences. Animals were initially counterbalanced and classified based on open field test, and then were given a single infusion of the dopamine agonist, amphetamine (AMPH and antagonist, clozapine (CLZ into the medial prefrontal cortex. Rats received tone-shock pairing in a classical fear conditioning test and then exposed to the tone alone. Freezing responses were measured as conditioned fear index. The results showed that both AMPH and CLZ infusion in mPFC reduced the expression of conditioned fear. This finding indicates that elevation or reduction in the dopaminergic activity is associated with the decrease of fear responses, despite preexisting individual-typological differences.

  8. Risk Factors of Medial Tibial Stress Syndrome(MTSS)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sae Yong Lee

    2009-01-01

    @@ Background According to Mubarak[1,2],who first coined the term medial tibial stress syndrome (MTSS)in 1982,the definition of MTSS is " a symptom complex in athletes who experience exercise-induced pain along thedistalposteromedialaspectofthetibia."Previous studies have shown that MTSS accounts for 6 to 15 percent of running related injuries [3-9] and has an incidence among certain populations (ie,military recruits) of up to 35 percent [10].The etiology of MTSS is not well known,but it is commonly believed that the cause is inflammation and possibly an avulsion of the origins of the posterior tibialis and/or the soleus from the periosteum of the posteromedial tibia [10].Traction at the periosteal interface is thought to lead to inflammation and pain at the periosteal-fascial junction.The location of the pain is usually localized over the posterior medial edge of the distal third of the tibia.

  9. Medial shoe-ground pressure and specific running injuries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brund, René Korsgaard; Rasmussen, Sten; Nielsen, Rasmus O.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Achilles tendinitis, plantar fasciopathy and medial tibial stress syndrome injuries (APM-injuries) account for approximately 25% of the total number of running injuries amongst recreational runners. Reports on the association between static foot pronation and APM-injuries...... are contradictory. Possibly, dynamic measures of pronation may display a stronger relationship with the risk of APM-injuries. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to investigate if running distance until the first APM-injury was dependent on the foot balance during stance phase in recreational male...... foot balance groups. Results Compared with the LP-group (n = 59), the proportion of APM-injuries was greater in the MP-group (n = 99) after 1500 km of running, resulting in a cumulative risk difference of 16%-points (95% CI = 3%-point; 28%-point, p = 0.011). Conclusions Runners displaying a more medial...

  10. Medial patellofemoral ligament reconstruction: patient selection and perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baer MR

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Michael R. Baer, Jeffrey A. Macalena Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, USA Abstract: Patellofemoral instability is a painful and often recurring disorder with many negative long-term consequences. After a period of failed nonoperative management, surgical intervention has been used to reduce the incidence of patellar subluxation and dislocations. Medial patellofemoral ligament (MPFL reconstruction successfully addresses patellofemoral instability by restoring the deficient primary medial patellar soft tissue restraint. When planning MPFL reconstruction for instability, it is imperative to consider the patient’s unique anatomy including the tibial tuberosity–trochlear groove (TT–TG distance, trochlear dysplasia, and patella alta. Additionally, it is important to individualize surgical treatment in the skeletally immature, hypermobile, and athletic populations. Keywords: MPFL, indications, considerations, contraindications

  11. Medial prefrontal D1 dopamine neurons control food intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Land, Benjamin B; Narayanan, Nandakumar S; Liu, Rong-Jian; Gianessi, Carol A; Brayton, Catherine E; Grimaldi, David M; Sarhan, Maysa; Guarnieri, Douglas J; Deisseroth, Karl; Aghajanian, George K; DiLeone, Ralph J

    2014-02-01

    Although the prefrontal cortex influences motivated behavior, its role in food intake remains unclear. Here, we demonstrate a role for D1-type dopamine receptor-expressing neurons in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) in the regulation of feeding. Food intake increases activity in D1 neurons of the mPFC in mice, and optogenetic photostimulation of D1 neurons increases feeding. Conversely, inhibition of D1 neurons decreases intake. Stimulation-based mapping of prefrontal D1 neuron projections implicates the medial basolateral amygdala (mBLA) as a downstream target of these afferents. mBLA neurons activated by prefrontal D1 stimulation are CaMKII positive and closely juxtaposed to prefrontal D1 axon terminals. Finally, photostimulating these axons in the mBLA is sufficient to increase feeding, recapitulating the effects of mPFC D1 stimulation. These data describe a new circuit for top-down control of food intake.

  12. Sudden death in a captive meerkat (Suricata suricatta with arterial medial and myocardial calcification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Bongiovann

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available A 1-year-old male meerkat was found dead by the owner. The animal was clinically healthy and was regularly vaccinated for distemper virus. Necropsy revealed multifocal to confluent dry white areas in the myocardium, pneumonia and congestive hepatopathy. All the other organs, including gross vessels, were macroscopically normal. The heart showed histologically large, multifocal to confluent areas of mineralization of the myocardium and the wall of small coronary artery. Vascular calcifications were also observed in the hepatic portal tracts and kidneys arteries of small/medium sizes. The arterial lumen appeared narrowed and the wall thickened due to the calcification of the tunica media. In veterinary medicine, arterial mineralization is regarded as a metastatic calcification, as the result of hypercalcemia and/or hyperphosphatemia. However, today, the pathogenesis of medial artery calcification in humans seems to be the results of an active process resembling embryonic osteogenesis, rather than a mere passive process.

  13. Glutamate Receptor Antagonist Infusions into the Basolateral and Medial Amygdala Reveal Differential Contributions to Olfactory vs. Context Fear Conditioning and Expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, David L.; Paschall, Gayla Y.; Davis, Michael

    2005-01-01

    The basolateral amygdala's involvement in fear acquisition and expression to visual and auditory stimuli is well known. The involvement of the basolateral and other amygdala areas in fear acquisition and expression to stimuli of other modalities is less certain. We evaluated the contribution of the basolateral and medial amygdala to olfactory and…

  14. ULTRASONOGRAPHIC EVALUATION OF THE RUPTURED MEDIAL HEAD OF GASTROCNEMIUS MUSCLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damir Lukac

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Introduction: Tennis leg, a common injury of the medial head of gastrocnemius muscle in the muscle-tendon junction, is usually reported in men during recreational sports. Sudden pain is the main symptom accompanied by the feeling of rupture in the calf. Clinical examination followed by ultrasound is the standard diagnostic procedure. Objective: The main objectives of this study are to compare clinical and ultrasonographic findings in cases of tennis leg, evaluate the location and type of lesion in the medial head of gastrocnemius muscle, and evaluate the edema volume and the presence of deep vein thrombosis (DVT. Second, the healing process was monitored with ultrasound to distinguish the level of recovery and to record the presence of chronic sequelae. Methods: Eighty-one subjects with clinical symptoms of rupture of the medial head of gastrocnemius muscle participated in the study. A linear probe (7-12 MHz was used for ultrasonographic (US and a Doppler was used to verify the presence of DVT. Results: In 78 of 81 subjects examined, we found obvious US changes (96.3% and three of them had no positive findings. In 67 of them, we diagnosed rupture of the medial head of the gastrocnemius muscle. Most of them had partial rupture (73.13% and the remaining had total rupture (26.87%. The edema (30.84% was found in the space between the aponeurosis of the gastrocnemius and soleus muscles. DVT with the clinical signs of tennis leg was observed in 5 of 81 patients (6.17%. Conclusion: Our findings indicate that ultrasound is very important for early diagnosis of muscle-tendon injuries in the leg. In addition, monitoring the healing process and assessing the chosen treatment showed a high efficiency. Ultrasonography is an effective method to identify and differentiate the sequelae of the injured muscles and vascular complications.

  15. Aetiology, imaging and treatment of medial tibial stress syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Moen, M.H.

    2012-01-01

    The work contained is this thesis discusses aetiology, imaging and treatment of a common leg injury: medial tibial stress syndrome (MTSS). Although a common injury, the number of scientific articles on this topic is relatively low as is explained in chapter 1. This chapter also highlights that the most probable cause of MTSS is bone overload and not traction induced periostitis. In chapter 2 a review of the literature on MTSS is provided until 2009. Chapters 3 and 4 discuss different common a...

  16. Acutely calcified hematoma mimicking a displaced medial epicondyle fracture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majed Addie

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We present an interesting and unusual case of an acutely calcified pin-site infection hematoma mimicking a displaced cartilaginous medial epicondyle, in a child with a Gartland type III fracture. The treatment of such pathology could be confusing and may interfere with the correct clinical decision-making process. To our knowledge, this is the first presentation of such a case.

  17. Medial canthopexy using Y-V epicanthoplasty incision in the correction of telecanthus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae-Gon; Chung, Kyu-Jin; Kim, Yong-Ha; Lim, Jong-Hyo; Lee, Jun-Ho

    2014-02-01

    Telecanthus occurs because of the disruption of the medial canthal tendon (MCT). The deformity of medial canthus can result from nasoorbitoethmoid fractures, tumor resection, craniofacial exposure, congenital malposition, or aging. Repair of the MCT using transnasal wiring is regarded as a method of choice to treat telecanthus. We have introduced an oblique transnasal wiring using Y-V epicanthoplasty incision rather than the well-known classical bicoronal approach. Eight patients with telecanthus were treated with this method. Through the medial canthal horizontal and periciliary incision, we could have an access to the medial orbital wall and the MCT. An oblique transnasal wiring was performed with the following steps: (1) after slit skin incision on the nasal recession of the contralateral frontoglabella area, 2 drill holes were made from this point to the superior and posterior region of the lacrimal fossa of the affected orbit; (2) a 2-0 wire was passed through the MCT and the holes; (3) the wire was pulled and tightened until the MCT was ensured and was twisted in the contralateral side. After the repositioning of the MCT, the skin was simply sutured. The excess skin was trimmed, and then the skin was sutured with nylon 7-0. The remaining "dog ear" in the lateral portion can be removed by additional periciliary skin incision and excision. All the patients achieved an improvement and a prompt recovery. The interepicanthal distance was decreased by 6.3 mm on average compared with that in the preoperative condition. All patients had no complication associated with surgeries. Of posttraumatic telecanthus, 5 patients were much satisfied with the outcomes, and 1 patient had recurrence on postoperative month 3. In cases of congenital anomaly or neoplasm, the telecanthus was also improved. An oblique transnasal wiring using Y-V epicanthoplasty incision could be a simple, safe method to correct the telecanthus with the following advantages: first, we could fix the MCT

  18. Bilateral Medial Medullary Stroke: A Challenge in Early Diagnosis

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    Amir M. Torabi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Bilateral medial medullary stroke is a very rare type of stroke, with catastrophic consequences. Early diagnosis is crucial. Here, I present a young patient with acute vertigo, progressive generalized weakness, dysarthria, and respiratory failure, who initially was misdiagnosed with acute vestibular syndrome. Initial brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI that was done in the acute phase was read as normal. Other possibilities were excluded by lumbar puncture and MRI of cervical spine. MR of C-spine showed lesion at medial medulla; therefore a second MRI of brain was requested, showed characteristic “heart appearance” shape at diffusion weighted (DWI, and confirmed bilateral medial medullary stroke. Retrospectively, a vague-defined hyperintense linear DWI signal at midline was noted in the first brain MRI. Because of the symmetric and midline pattern of this abnormal signal and similarity to an artifact, some radiologists or neurologists may miss this type of stroke. Radiologists and neurologists must recognize clinical and MRI findings of this rare type of stroke, which early treatment could make a difference in patient outcome. The abnormal DWI signal in early stages of this type of stroke may not be a typical “heart appearance” shape, and other variants such as small dot or linear DWI signal at midline must be recognized as early signs of stroke. Also, MRI of cervical spine may be helpful if there is attention to brainstem as well.

  19. Medial blepharosynechioplasty: a new surgical concept for severe dry eye

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    Sasaki T

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Tsugihisa Sasaki,1,2 Taeko Ota,3 Youko Ookura,4 Kazuhisa Sugiyama11Department of Ophthalmology, Kanazawa University School of Medicine, Kanazawa, Ishikawa; 2Department of Ophthalmology, Fukui Prefectural Hospital, Fukui; 3Department of Ophthalmology, Tonami General Hospital, Tonami-city, Toyama; 4Department of Ophthamology, Saiseikai Kanazawa Hospital, Kanazawa, Ishikawa, JapanBackground: The purpose of this work was to report on the performance of medial blepharosynechioplasty (MBSP, a newly devised technique for treating severe dry eye.Methods: In this retrospective, nonrandomized clinical trial, three cases with severe dry eye (Sjögren’s syndrome associated with repeated punctal plug loss were treated using MBSP to create a synechia between the upper and lower lid medial borders of the puncta to suppress the lacrimal pump.Results: Postoperative follow-up showed improvement in the corneal condition in all three cases that persisted for 12–35 months. None of the patients had visual impairment.Conclusion: MBSP is a promising treatment for severe dry eye and merits further study.Keywords: dry eye, lacrimal pump suppression, medial blepharosynechioplasty

  20. MARRT: Medial Axis biased rapidly-exploring random trees

    KAUST Repository

    Denny, Jory

    2014-05-01

    © 2014 IEEE. Motion planning is a difficult and widely studied problem in robotics. Current research aims not only to find feasible paths, but to ensure paths have certain properties, e.g., shortest or safest paths. This is difficult for current state-of-the-art sampling-based techniques as they typically focus on simply finding any path. Despite this difficulty, sampling-based techniques have shown great success in planning for a wide range of applications. Among such planners, Rapidly-Exploring Random Trees (RRTs) search the planning space by biasing exploration toward unexplored regions. This paper introduces a novel RRT variant, Medial Axis RRT (MARRT), which biases tree exploration to the medial axis of free space by pushing all configurations from expansion steps towards the medial axis. We prove that this biasing increases the tree\\'s clearance from obstacles. Improving obstacle clearance is useful where path safety is important, e.g., path planning for robots performing tasks in close proximity to the elderly. Finally, we experimentally analyze MARRT, emphasizing its ability to effectively map difficult passages while increasing obstacle clearance, and compare it to contemporary RRT techniques.

  1. Dopamine in the medial amygdala network mediates human bonding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touroutoglou, Alexandra; Rudy, Tali; Salcedo, Stephanie; Feldman, Ruth; Hooker, Jacob M.; Dickerson, Bradford C.; Catana, Ciprian; Barrett, Lisa Feldman

    2017-01-01

    Research in humans and nonhuman animals indicates that social affiliation, and particularly maternal bonding, depends on reward circuitry. Although numerous mechanistic studies in rodents demonstrated that maternal bonding depends on striatal dopamine transmission, the neurochemistry supporting maternal behavior in humans has not been described so far. In this study, we tested the role of central dopamine in human bonding. We applied a combined functional MRI-PET scanner to simultaneously probe mothers’ dopamine responses to their infants and the connectivity between the nucleus accumbens (NAcc), the amygdala, and the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), which form an intrinsic network (referred to as the “medial amygdala network”) that supports social functioning. We also measured the mothers’ behavioral synchrony with their infants and plasma oxytocin. The results of this study suggest that synchronous maternal behavior is associated with increased dopamine responses to the mother’s infant and stronger intrinsic connectivity within the medial amygdala network. Moreover, stronger network connectivity is associated with increased dopamine responses within the network and decreased plasma oxytocin. Together, these data indicate that dopamine is involved in human bonding. Compared with other mammals, humans have an unusually complex social life. The complexity of human bonding cannot be fully captured in nonhuman animal models, particularly in pathological bonding, such as that in autistic spectrum disorder or postpartum depression. Thus, investigations of the neurochemistry of social bonding in humans, for which this study provides initial evidence, are warranted. PMID:28193868

  2. Voice Outcome after Gore-Tex Medialization Thyroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elnashar, Ismail; El-Anwar, Mohammad; Amer, Hazem; Quriba, Amal

    2015-07-01

    Introduction Although medialization thyroplasty utilizing Gore-Tex (Gore and Associates, Newark, Delaware, United States) has been discussed in the literature, few reports have assessed voice quality afterward, and they did not use a full assessment protocol. Objective To assess the improvement in voice quality after medialization thyroplasty utilizing Gore-Tex in patients with glottic insufficiency of variable etiology. Methods Eleven patients with glottic insufficiency of different etiologies that failed compensation were operated by type 1 thyroplasty utilizing Gore-Tex. Pre- and postoperative (1 week, 3 months, and 6 months) voice assessment was done and statistical analysis was performed on the results. Results In all postoperative assessments, there was significant improvement in the grade of dysphonia (p Gore-Tex medialization provides reliable results for both subjective and objective voice parameters. It leads to a satisfactory restoration of voice whatever the etiology of glottic incompetence is. This technique is relatively easy and does not lead to major complications. Further studies with larger number of patients and more extended periods of follow-up are still required to assess the long-term results of the technique regarding voice quality and implant extrusion.

  3. Medial Epicondyle Fractures in the Pediatric Overhead Athlete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Aristides I; Steere, Joshua T; Lawrence, J Todd R

    2016-06-01

    The medial epicondyle serves as the proximal attachment of the medial ulnar collateral ligament and the origin of the flexor pronator musculature and as such it is responsible for resisting the main static and dynamic restraints to valgus force at the elbow. Fractures through the physis in the developing elbow are common and treatment remains controversial. Biomechanical modeling predicts that anterior should be the direction of greatest displacement. Anatomic considerations predict that anterior displacement should have the greatest effect on elbow stability and range of motion making the ulnar collateral ligament too loose in flexion and too tight in extension and potentially leading to valgus laxity in flexion and a block to full extension. In the elite overhead athlete, where elbow stability is critical both for sports performance and the long-term health of the elbow, assessment of anterior displacement is thus theoretically an important consideration. Standard radiographic views cannot adequately assess anterior displacement. Specialized radiographs and 3-dimensional modalities such as computerized tomography and magnetic resonance imaging can adequately assess anterior displacement and in the overhead athlete can sometimes aid in the decision-making process. Here, we present a review of the current literature and the rationale for a treatment algorithm for medial epicondyle fractures in the skeletally immature overhead athlete.

  4. The Fate of Old Memories after Medial Temporal Lobe Damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayley, Peter J.; Hopkins, Ramona O.; Squire, Larry R.

    2008-01-01

    Damage to the hippocampal region and related medial temporal lobe structures (perirhinal, entorhinal, and parahippocampal cortices) impairs new learning (anterograde amnesia) as well as memory for information that was acquired before the damage occurred (retrograde amnesia). We assessed retrograde amnesia with the Autobiographical Memory Interview (AMI) and with a news events test in six patients with damage limited primarily to the hippocampal region (H group) and two patients with large medial temporal lobe lesions (MTL group). On the news event test, the H group exhibited temporally limited retrograde amnesia covering ∼5 years. On the same test, the MTL group exhibited an extensive retrograde amnesia covering decades. Nevertheless, performance was relatively spared for very remote time periods. On the AMI, all patients had intact remote autobiographical memory. Because our patients with hippocampal lesions, as well as our patients with large MTL lesions, performed normally on the AMI, patients who perform poorly on the same test presumably have damage beyond the hippocampus and related structures in the medial temporal lobe. The findings emphasize the difference in the extent of retrograde amnesia associated with hippocampal lesions and large MTL lesions. PMID:17182781

  5. Biomechanics of medial unicondylar in combination with patellofemoral knee arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyse, Thomas J; El-Zayat, Bilal F; De Corte, Ronny; Scheys, Lennart; Chevalier, Yan; Fuchs-Winkelmann, Susanne; Labey, Luc

    2014-01-01

    Modular bicompartmental knee arthroplasty (BKA) for treatment of medio-patellofemoral osteoarthritis (OA) should allow for close to normal kinematics in comparison with unicondylar knee arthroplasty (UKA) and the native knee. There is so far no data to support this. Six fresh frozen full leg cadaver specimens were prepared and mounted in a kinematic rig with six degrees of freedom for the knee joint. Three motion patterns were applied with the native knee and after sequential implantation of medial UKA and patellofemoral joint replacement (PFJ): passive flexion-extension, open chain extension, and squatting. During the loaded motions, quadriceps and hamstrings muscle forces were applied. Infrared cameras continuously recorded the trajectories of marker frames rigidly attached to femur, tibia and patella. Prior computer tomography allowed identification of coordinate frames of the bones. Strains in the collateral ligaments were calculated from insertion site distances. UKA led to a less adducted and internally rotated tibia and a more strained medial collateral ligament (MCL). Addition of a patellofemoral replacement led to a more posterior position of both femoral condyles, a more dorsally located tibiofemoral contact point and higher MCL strain with squatting. In comparison to UKA modular BKA leads to a more dorsal tibial contact point, a medial femoral condyle being located more posteriorly, and more MCL strain. Mainly the changes to the trochlear anatomy as introduced by PFJ may account for these differences. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. An Isolated Medial Patellofemoral Ligament Reconstruction with Patellar Tendon Autograft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dariusz Witoński

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the results of the medial patellofemoral ligament reconstruction with a medial strip of patellar tendon autograft after a minimum 2-year followup. Ten patients (10 knees were operated on by one surgeon, according to the modified technique, described by Camanho, without any bone plug at free graft end. The mean age of the patients was 27.2 years (ranging from 18 to 42 years. The mean follow-up period was 3 years and 7 months. All patients were reviewed prospectively. At the last follow-up visit, all the patients demonstrated a significant improvement in terms of patellofemoral joint stability, all aspects of the KOOS questionnaire, and Kujala et al.’s score (59.7 points preoperatively and 84.4 points at the last followup. No patient revealed recurrent dislocation. The SF-36 score revealed a significant improvement in bodily pain, general health, physical role functioning, social role functioning, and physical functioning domains. The described MPFL reconstruction with the use of the medial 1/3rd of patella tendon is an effective procedure that gives satisfactorily patellofemoral joint functions, improves the quality of life, and provides much pain relief. It is relatively simple, surgically not extensive, and economically cost-effective procedure.

  7. Bottom-up Visual Integration in the Medial Parietal Lobe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pflugshaupt, Tobias; Nösberger, Myriam; Gutbrod, Klemens; Weber, Konrad P; Linnebank, Michael; Brugger, Peter

    2016-03-01

    Largely based on findings from functional neuroimaging studies, the medial parietal lobe is known to contribute to internally directed cognitive processes such as visual imagery or episodic memory. Here, we present 2 patients with behavioral impairments that extend this view. Both had chronic unilateral lesions of nearly the entire medial parietal lobe, but in opposite hemispheres. Routine neuropsychological examination conducted >4 years after the onset of brain damage showed little deficits of minor severity. In contrast, both patients reported persistent unusual visual impairment. A comprehensive series of tachistoscopic experiments with lateralized stimulus presentation and comparison with healthy participants revealed partial visual hemiagnosia for stimuli presented to their contralesional hemifield, applying inferential single-case statistics to evaluate deficits and dissociations. Double dissociations were found in 4 experiments during which participants had to integrate more than one visual element, either through comparison or formation of a global gestalt. Against the background of recent neuroimaging findings, we conclude that of all medial parietal structures, the precuneus is the most likely candidate for a crucial involvement in such bottom-up visual integration. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Associative learning beyond the medial temporal lobe: many actors on the memory stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulio ePergola

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Decades of research have established a model that includes the medial temporal lobe, and particularly the hippocampus, as a critical node for episodic memory. Neuroimaging and clinical studies have shown the involvement of additional cortical and subcortical regions. Among these areas, the thalamus, the retrosplenial cortex and the prefrontal cortices have been consistently related to episodic memory performance.This article provides evidences that these areas are in different forms and degrees critical for human memory function rather than playing only an ancillary role. First we briefly summarize findings on the involvement of the hippocampus and the medial temporal lobe in recognition memory and recall. We then focus on the clinical and neuroimaging evidence available on thalamo-frontal and thalamo-retrosplenial networks. The role of these networks in episodic memory has been considered secondary, partly because disruption of these areas does not always lead to severe impairments; to account for this evidence, we discuss methodological issues related to the investigation of these regions. We propose that these networks contribute differently to recognition memory and recall, and also that the memory stage of their contribution shows specificity to encoding or retrieval in recall tasks. We note that the same mechanisms may be in force when humans perform non-episodic tasks, e.g., semantic retrieval and mental time travel. Functional disturbance of these networks is related to cognitive impairments not only in neurological disorders, but also in psychiatric medical conditions, such as schizophrenia. Finally we discuss possible mechanisms for the contribution of these areas to memory, including regulation of oscillatory rhythms and long-term potentiation. We conclude that integrity of the thalamo-frontal and the thalamo-retrosplenial networks is necessary for the manifold features of episodic memory.

  9. Bipartite Medial Cuneiform: Case Report and Retrospective Review of 1000 Magnetic Resonance (MR Imaging Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraldine H. Chang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To present a unique case report of a Lisfranc fracture in a patient with a bipartite medial cuneiform and to evaluate the prevalence of the bipartite medial cuneiform in a retrospective review of 1000 magnetic resonance (MR imaging studies of the foot. Materials and Methods. Case report followed by a retrospective review of 1000 MR imaging studies of the foot for the presence or absence of a bipartite medial cuneiform. Results. The incidence of the bipartite medial cuneiform is 0.1%. Conclusion. A bipartite medial cuneiform is a rare finding but one with both clinical and surgical implications.

  10. Combination of Nasolabial V-Y Advancement Flap and Glabellar Subcutaneous Pedicled Flap for Reconstruction of Medial Canthal Defect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiromichi Matsuda

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available A 77-year-old woman presented with a 1-year history of a right medial canthal tumor, which was histopathologically diagnosed as a basal cell carcinoma. After removal of the tumor with a 4-mm safety margin, the defect occupied the areas superior and inferior to the medial canthal tendon. We first reconstructed the lower part of the defect using a nasolabial V-Y advancement flap to make an elliptic defect in the upper part. We then created a glabellar subcutaneous pedicled flap to match the residual upper elliptic defect with the major axis set along a relaxed skin tension line. The pedicled glabellar flap was passed through a subcutaneous tunnel to the upper residual defect. At 6 months postoperatively, the patient showed no tumor recurrence and a good cosmetic outcome.

  11. Fetal check ligament connected between the conjunctiva and the medial and lateral recti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osanai, Hajime; Rodríguez-Vázquez, Jose Francisco; Abe, Hiroshi; Murakami, Gen; Ohguro, Hiroshi; Fujimiya, Mineko

    2011-09-09

    There seems to be little or no information about the morphology of the fetal eye check ligament. The authors examined longitudinal and cross-histologic sections from the large collection of human fetuses at Universidad Complutense, Madrid. In longitudinal sections from 20 fetuses (four at each of 12, 15, 20, 25, and 30 weeks of gestation), a distinct connective tissue band was found connecting the medial and lateral recti and the limbus of the conjunctiva (sites at and around the lateral and medial angles of the conjunctival space). Silver impregnation revealed that the muscle endomysium (type 4 collagen dominant) was connected with composite fibers of the band (type 1 collagen). The cross-sections from three fetuses (20 weeks) exhibited a site-dependent difference in the rectus sheaths: the orbital-sided sheath suddenly increased in thickness when it tightly attached to the muscle bundles. The attaching orbital-sided muscle bundles reached 14% to 15% (or 18%-20%) in the cross-sectional area of the MR (or the LR). Taken together, the distinct connective tissue band extending to the conjunctiva was "originated from" the MR and LR rather than from a part of the muscles inserting into the connective tissue band. This band was most likely a primitive form of the check ligament. The authors hypothesize that the primitive check ligament conducts muscle tension to the conjunctiva to coordinate growth patterns between the anterior and posterior sides of the eyeball. This hypothesis may support en bloc recession for infantile esotropia.

  12. Ventral medial prefrontal functional connectivity and emotion regulation in chronic schizophrenia: A pilot study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng-Mei Fan; Shu-Ping Tan; Fu-De Yang; Yun-Long Tan; Yan-Li Zhao; Nan Chen; Bin-Bin Li

    2013-01-01

    People with schizophrenia exhibit impaired social cognitive functions,particularly emotion regulation.Abnormal activations of the ventral medial prefrontal cortex (vMPFC) during emotional tasks have been demonstrated in schizophrenia,suggesting its important role in emotion processing in patients.We used the resting-state functional connectivity approach,setting a functionally relevant region,the vMPFC,as a seed region to examine the intrinsic functional interactions and communication between the vMPFC and other brain regions in schizophrenic patients.We found hypo-connectivity between the vMPFC and the medial frontal cortex,right middle temporal lobe (MTL),right hippocampus,parahippocampal cortex (PHC) and amygdala.Further,there was a decreased strength of the negative connectivity (or anticorrelation) between the vMPFC and the bilateral dorsal lateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and pre-supplementary motor areas.Among these connectivity alterations,reduced vMPFCDLPFC connectivity was positively correlated with positive symptoms on the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale,while vMPFC-right MTL/PHC/amygdala functional connectivity was positively correlated with the performance of emotional regulation in patients.These findings imply that communication and coordination throughout the brain networks are disrupted in schizophrenia.The emotional correlates of vMPFC connectivity suggest a role of the hypo-connectivity between these regions in the neuropathology of abnormal social cognition in chronic schizophrenia.

  13. Impaired executive function following ischemic stroke in the rat medial prefrontal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordova, Chris A; Jackson, Danielle; Langdon, Kristopher D; Hewlett, Krista A; Corbett, Dale

    2014-01-01

    Small (lacunar) infarcts frequently arise in frontal and midline thalamic regions in the absence of major stroke. Damage to these areas often leads to impairment of executive function likely as a result of interrupting connections of the prefrontal cortex. Thus, patients experience frontal-like symptoms such as impaired ability to shift ongoing behavior and attention. In contrast, executive dysfunction has not been demonstrated in rodent models of stroke, thereby limiting the development of potential therapies for human executive dysfunction. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (n=40) underwent either sham surgery or bilateral endothelin-1 injections in the mediodorsal nucleus of the thalamus or in the medial prefrontal cortex. Executive function was assessed using a rodent attention set shifting test that requires animals to shift attention to stimuli in different stimulus dimensions. Medial prefrontal cortex ischemia impaired attention shift performance between different stimulus dimensions while sparing stimulus discrimination and attention shifts within a stimulus dimension, indicating a selective attention set-shift deficit. Rats with mediodorsal thalamic lacunar damage did not exhibit a cognitive impairment relative to sham controls. The selective attention set shift impairment observed in this study is consistent with clinical data demonstrating selective executive disorders following stroke within specific sub-regions of frontal cortex. These data contribute to the development and validation of a preclinical animal model of executive dysfunction, that can be employed to identify potential therapies for ameliorating cognitive deficits following stroke.

  14. Arthroscopic trans-portal deep medial collateral ligament pie-crusting release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atoun, Ehud; Debbi, Ronen; Lubovsky, Omri; Weiler, Andreas; Debbi, Eytan; Rath, Ehud

    2013-02-01

    Arthroscopic treatments of meniscal injuries of the knee are among the most common orthopaedic procedures performed. Adequate visualization of the posterior horn of the medial meniscus might be challenging, especially in patients with tight medial compartments. In these cases instrument manipulation in an attempt to reach the posterior horn of the meniscus can cause an iatrogenic chondral injury because of the narrow medial joint space. A transcutaneous medial collateral ligament (MCL) pie-crusting release facilitates expansion of the medial joint space in a case of a tight medial compartment. Nevertheless, it might cause injury to the superficial MCL, infection, and pain and injury to the saphenous nerve because of multiple needle punctures of the skin. We describe an inside-out, arthroscopic deep MCL pie-crusting release, which allows access to the medial meniscus through the anterior approach to provide good visualization of the footprint and sufficient working space.

  15. Multimodal intervention in older adults improves resting-state functional connectivity between the medial prefrontal cortex and medial temporal lobe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Rui; Zhu, Xinyi; Yin, Shufei; Niu, Yanan; Zheng, Zhiwei; Huang, Xin; Wang, Baoxi; Li, Juan

    2014-01-01

    The prefrontal cortex and medial temporal lobe are particularly vulnerable to the effects of aging. The disconnection between them is suggested to be an important cause of cognitive decline in normal aging. Here, using multimodal intervention training, we investigated the functional plasticity in resting-state connectivity of these two regions in older adults. The multimodal intervention, comprised of cognitive training, Tai Chi exercise, and group counseling, was conducted to explore the regional connectivity changes in the default-mode network, as well as changes in prefrontal-based voxel-wise connectivity in the whole brain. Results showed that the intervention selectively affected resting-state functional connectivity between the medial prefrontal cortex and medial temporal lobe. Moreover, the strength of resting-state functional connectivity between these regions correlated with individual cognitive performance. Our results suggest that multimodal intervention could postpone the effects of aging and improve the function of the regions that are most heavily influenced by aging, as well as play an important role in preserving the brain and cognition during old age.

  16. Multimodal intervention in older adults improves resting-state functional connectivity between the medial prefrontal cortex and medial temporal lobe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui eLi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The prefrontal cortex and medial temporal lobe are particularly vulnerable to the effects of aging. The disconnection between them is suggested to be an important cause of cognitive decline in normal aging. Here, using multimodal intervention training, we investigated the functional plasticity in resting-state connectivity of these two regions in older adults. The multimodal intervention, comprised of cognitive training, Tai Chi exercise, and group counseling, was conducted to explore the regional connectivity changes in the default-mode network, as well as changes in prefrontal-based voxel-wise connectivity in the whole brain. Results showed that the intervention selectively affected resting-state functional connectivity between the medial prefrontal cortex and medial temporal lobe. Moreover, the strength of resting-state functional connectivity between these regions correlated with individual cognitive performance. Our results suggest that multimodal intervention could postpone the effects of aging and improve the function of the regions that are most heavily influenced by aging, as well as play an important role in preserving the brain and cognition during old age.Clinical Trial Registration: This trial was registered in the Chinese Clinical Trial Registry (ChiCTR (http://www.chictr.org: ChiCTR-PNRC-13003813.

  17. Fracture of an unossified humeral medial epicondyle: use of magnetic resonance imaging for diagnosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanabe, Katsuhisa; Miyamoto, Nao [Nishinomiya Municipal Central Hospital, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Nishinomiya (Japan)

    2016-10-15

    Fracture of the humeral medial epicondyle is a relatively common injury in children. Surgery is a good option for treatment, but correct diagnosis is important. Most fractures occur after the ossification of the medial epicondylar apophysis. If a fracture occurs before the ossification of the medial epicondyle, it is undetectable by radiographs. Here we report a case of an unossified medial epicondyle fracture of the humerus. A 9-year-old boy had persistent pain in the medial side of the right elbow after a fall. Despite his pain, he could move his injured elbow with a range from 60 to 90 . Radiographs and computed tomography showed neither fracture nor dislocation in the injured elbow, and soft tissue swelling was the only finding. Neither the trochlea nor the medial epicondyle was ossified. Magnetic resonance imaging showed that the medial epicondyle was separated from the medial metaphysis and displaced. This clear finding led us to surgical fixation. Under general anesthesia, valgus stress showed gross instability of the injured elbow. Two years after the operation, he had no complaints and could play sports with the same range of motion as the left elbow. It is important to keep in mind that medial epicondylar fractures may be hidden in a normal radiograph before the ossification of the medial epicondylar apophysis. (orig.)

  18. Arthroscopic decompressive medial release of the varus arthritic knee: Expanding the functional envelope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leon, H O; Blanco, C E; Guthrie, T B

    2001-05-01

    We present the rationale and technique for treating medial knee osteoarthritis by dynamically unloading the medial compartment of the knee. Recent advances in kinematic studies indicate a dynamic linkage between differing degrees of freedom in the knee joint. Both the adduction moment and the foot progression angle are important determinants of medial compartment loading. The medially osteoarthritic knee has progressive compromise of free motion in more than 1 plane. Arthroscopic decompressive medial release unloads the medial compartment by release of the medial capsule and medial collateral ligament in the presence of intact cruciate ligaments, which may allow a decreased adduction moment and decrease of the external rotation restraint in extension found in more severely osteoarthritic knees. A case series of 38 patients with medial gonarthrosis was treated by this technique at the Hermanos Ameijeiras Hospital in Havana, Cuba. All patients had good results without postoperative valgus instability or significant complications. We feel that this technique warrants further clinical and biomechanical study for its use in isolation or in combination with high tibial osteotomy or minimally invasive selective osteotomy for the treatment of medial gonarthrosis of the knee. A minimally invasive, selective approach to biomechanical factors in osteoarthritis may be combined with other modulating techniques in efforts to forestall or prevent the need for total joint replacement.

  19. Medial patellar ossification after patellar instability: a radiographic finding indicative of prior patella subluxation/dislocation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jerabek, Seth A. [Harvard Combined Orthopaedic Surgery Residency Program, Boston, MA (United States); Asnis, Peter D.; Poon, Steven K.; Gill, Thomas J. [Massachusetts General Hospital, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Boston, MA (United States); Bredella, Miriam A.; Ouellette, Hugue A. [Massachusetts General Hospital, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States)

    2009-08-15

    To describe the correlation between medial patellar ossification and prior patella subluxation and/or dislocation. A retrospective billing database search identified 544 patients who had been diagnosed with patellar instability over a 13-year period. One hundred twenty-eight patients met the inclusion criteria. After review by a staff orthopedic surgeon and two musculoskeletal radiologists, 28 patients were found to have medial patellar ossification. The size and location of medial patellar ossification was recorded. Of the 28 patients (20 males, eight females, age 13-66 years, mean 28 years) who were found to have medial patellar ossification, 22 had radiographs, 16 had magnetic resonance imaging, and ten had both. The medial patellar ossification ranged in size from 2 to 18 mm with an average of 6.8 mm. Twelve were located in the medial patellofemoral ligament (MPFL), 14 in the medial joint capsule, and two in both the MPFL and joint capsule. Twenty-seven of 28 patients had a single ossification, and one patient had two ossifications. The timing from injury to first imaging of the lesion ranged from 10 days to a chronic history ({>=}35 years) of patellar instability. Medial patellar ossification correlates with a history of prior patella subluxation and/or dislocation. The medial ossification can be seen within the MPFL or the medial joint capsule, suggesting remote injury to these structures. The presence of this lesion will prompt physicians to evaluate for patellar instability. (orig.)

  20. The effect of different depths of medial heel skive on plantar pressures

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    Bonanno Daniel R

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Foot orthoses are often used to treat lower limb injuries associated with excessive pronation. There are many orthotic modifications available for this purpose, with one being the medial heel skive. However, empirical evidence for the mechanical effects of the medial heel skive modification is limited. This study aimed to evaluate the effect that different depths of medial heel skive have on plantar pressures. Methods Thirty healthy adults (mean age 24 years, range 18–46 with a flat-arched or pronated foot posture and no current foot pain or deformity participated in this study. Using the in-shoe pedar-X® system, plantar pressure data were collected for the rearfoot, midfoot and forefoot while participants walked along an 8 metre walkway wearing a standardised shoe. Experimental conditions included a customised foot orthosis with the following 4 orthotic modifications: (i no medial heel skive, (ii a 2 mm medial heel skive, (iii a 4 mm medial heel skive and (iv a 6 mm medial heel skive. Results Compared to the foot orthosis with no medial heel skive, statistically significant increases in peak pressure were observed at the medial rearfoot – there was a 15% increase (p = 0.001 with the 4 mm skive and a 29% increase (p  Conclusions This study found that a medial heel skive of 4 mm or 6 mm increases peak pressure under the medial rearfoot in asymptomatic adults with a flat-arched or pronated foot posture. Plantar pressures at the midfoot and forefoot were not altered by a medial heel skive of 2, 4 or 6 mm. These findings provide some evidence for the effects of the medial heel skive orthotic modification.

  1. Medial tibial pain: a dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattila, K T; Komu, M E; Dahlström, S; Koskinen, S K; Heikkilä, J

    1999-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the sensitivity of different magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) sequences to depict periosteal edema in patients with medial tibial pain. Additionally, we evaluated the ability of dynamic contrast-enhanced imaging (DCES) to depict possible temporal alterations in muscular perfusion within compartments of the leg. Fifteen patients with medial tibial pain were examined with MRI. T1-, T2-weighted, proton density axial images and dynamic and static phase post-contrast images were compared in ability to depict periosteal edema. STIR was used in seven cases to depict bone marrow edema. Images were analyzed to detect signs of compartment edema. Region-of-interest measurements in compartments were performed during DCES and compared with controls. In detecting periosteal edema, post-contrast T1-weighted images were better than spin echo T2-weighted and proton density images or STIR images, but STIR depicted the bone marrow edema best. DCES best demonstrated the gradually enhancing periostitis. Four subjects with severe periosteal edema had visually detectable pathologic enhancement during DCES in the deep posterior compartment of the leg. Percentage enhancement in the deep posterior compartment of the leg was greater in patients than in controls. The fast enhancement phase in the deep posterior compartment began slightly slower in patients than in controls, but it continued longer. We believe that periosteal edema in bone stress reaction can cause impairment of venous flow in the deep posterior compartment. MRI can depict both these conditions. In patients with medial tibial pain, MR imaging protocol should include axial STIR images (to depict bone pathology) with T1-weighted axial pre and post-contrast images, and dynamic contrast enhanced imaging to show periosteal edema and abnormal contrast enhancement within a compartment.

  2. Voice Outcome after Gore-Tex Medialization Thyroplasty

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    Elnashar, Ismail

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Although medialization thyroplasty utilizing Gore-Tex (Gore and Associates, Newark, Delaware, United States has been discussed in the literature, few reports have assessed voice quality afterward, and they did not use a full assessment protocol. Objective To assess the improvement in voice quality after medialization thyroplasty utilizing Gore-Tex in patients with glottic insufficiency of variable etiology. Methods Eleven patients with glottic insufficiency of different etiologies that failed compensation were operated by type 1 thyroplasty utilizing Gore-Tex. Pre- and postoperative (1 week, 3 months, and 6 months voice assessment was done and statistical analysis was performed on the results. Results In all postoperative assessments, there was significant improvement in the grade of dysphonia (p < 0.004 and highly significant reduction in the size of glottic gap and prolongation of maximum phonation time (p < 0.0001. The difference in voice parameters in the early (1 week and the late (3 and 6 months postoperative period was not significant. None of the patients developed stridor or shortness of breath necessitating tracheotomy, and there was no implant extrusion in any patient during the study period. Conclusion Gore-Tex medialization provides reliable results for both subjective and objective voice parameters. It leads to a satisfactory restoration of voice whatever the etiology of glottic incompetence is. This technique is relatively easy and does not lead to major complications. Further studies with larger number of patients and more extended periods of follow-up are still required to assess the long-term results of the technique regarding voice quality and implant extrusion.

  3. Clinical Outcomes After Suture Anchor Repair of Recalcitrant Medial Epicondylitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grawe, Brian M; Fabricant, Peter D; Chin, Christopher S; Allen, Answorth A; DePalma, Brian J; Dines, David M; Altchek, David W; Dines, Joshua S

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated clinical and patient-reported outcomes and return to sport after surgical treatment of medial epicondylitis with suture anchor fixation. Consecutive patients were evaluated after undergoing debridement and suture anchor repair of the flexor-pronator mass for the treatment of medial epicondylitis. Demographic variables, a short version of the Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (QuickDASH) score, Oxford Elbow Score (OES), and 10-point pain and satisfaction scales were collected. Ability and time to return to sport after surgery were evaluated, and the relationship between predictor variables and both elbow function and return to sport was investigated. Median age at the time of surgery was 55 years (range, 29-65 years), with median follow-up of 40 months (range, 12-67 months). Median QuickDASH score and OES at final follow-up were 2.3 (range, 0-38.6) and 45 (range, 22-48), respectively. Most patients returned to premorbid sporting activities at a median of 4.5 months (range, 2.5-12 months), whereas 4 patients (14%) reported significant limitations at final follow-up. Older age at the time of surgery was predictive of better QuickDASH score and OES (P=.05 and P=.02, respectively). Patients who underwent surgery after a shorter duration of symptoms had better outcomes, but the difference did not reach statistical significance (QuickDASH, P=.09; OES, P=.10). Surgical treatment of recalcitrant medial epicondylitis with suture anchor fixation offers good pain relief and patient satisfaction, with little residual disability. Older age at the time of surgery predicts a better outcome.

  4. Isolated medial incisional approach to subtalar and talonavicular arthrodesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinraub, Glenn M; Schuberth, John M; Lee, Michael; Rush, Shannon; Ford, Lawrence; Neufeld, Jason; Yu, Jenny

    2010-01-01

    Triple arthrodesis is commonly used to correct complex deformity with hindfoot valgus. The authors use an isolated medial incisional approach for subtalar and talonavicular joint arthrodesis to correct hindfoot deformity, including high degrees of hindfoot valgus. To assess outcomes achieved with this approach, we reviewed the records of 45 patients from the practices of 5 surgeons. Independent variables evaluated included patient age, primary pathology, use of biologic agents, operative time, time to union, and complications. The median patient age was 57 years (range, 14-78 years). Pathology leading to fusion included 27 (60%) posterior tibial tendon dysfunction, 6 (13.3%) tarsal coalition, 7 (5.5%) degenerative joint disease, 2 (4.4%) rheumatoid arthritis, and 1 (2.2%) each, with Charcot neuroarthropathy, multiple sclerosis, and poliomyelitis. Orthobiological materials were used in 27 (60.0%) of the patients. The median duration of surgery was 87 minutes (range, 65-164 minutes), and the median time to successful arthrodesis was 8 weeks (range, 6-20 weeks). A complication was observed in 6 (13.3%) of the patients, including 1 each of the following: painful calcaneal-cuboid joint, talar fracture, incision dehiscence, poor exposure that required abandonment of the procedure, elevated first ray, and painful fixation. None of the patients experienced a nonunion or an adverse event related to the medial neurovascular structures. Based on our experience with the procedure, the single medial-incision subtalar and talonavicular joint arthrodesis is a useful alternative to triple arthrodesis for the correction of hindfoot valgus deformity. Copyright 2010 American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. The soleus syndrome. A cause of medial tibial stress (shin splints).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael, R H; Holder, L E

    1985-01-01

    Radionuclide bone scans have demonstrated linear uptake along the posterior medial border of the tibia in patients with shin splints. This area was investigated by anatomical dissection (14 human cadavers), electromyographic (EMG) and muscle stimulation studies (10 patients), and open biopsy (1 patient). Histologically, the increased metabolic activity manifested on the radionuclide scan is due to a periostitis with new bone formation. The soleus muscle and its investing fascia are anatomically and biomechanically implicated in the production of these stress changes, particularly when the heel is in the pronated position. The soleus muscle and fascia form a tough "soleus bridge" over the deep compartment which is thought to be important in patients requiring surgical decompression.

  6. Lack of spatial segregation in the representation of pheromones and kairomones in the mouse medial amygdala.

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    Vinicius Miessler de Andrade Carvalho

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The nervous system is organized to detect, internally represent and process sensory information to generate appropriate behaviors. Despite the crucial importance of odors that elicit instinctive behaviors, such as pheromones and kairomones, their neural representation remains little characterized in the mammalian brain. Here we used expression of the immediate early gene product c-Fos as a marker of neuronal activity to find that a wide range of pheromones and kairomones produces activation in the medial nucleus of the amygdala, a brain area anatomically connected with the olfactory sensory organs. We see that activity in this nucleus depends on vomeronasal organ input, and that distinct vomeronasal stimuli activate a dispersed ensemble of cells, without any apparent spatial segregation. This activity pattern does not reflect the chemical category of the stimuli, their valence or the induced behaviors. These findings will help build a complete understanding of how odor information is processed in the brain to generate instinctive behaviors.

  7. [Chondropathy of the patella. Experiences with 100 medializations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villiger, K J

    1976-10-01

    After a brief reference to the biomechanics of the patellofemoral joint, the anamnesis and the clinical and the radiologic symptomatology of chondropathia and the possibilities of its therapy are described. Patellofemoral arthrography is very helpful for the diagnosis. The technique of our operation is also described. After close study of current available literature and careful control of our 100 medialization cases, the results after 6, 12, 24, and 36 months are shown in tabular form. The operation is recommended for primary chondropathia patellae with lateroposition or lateral-tipped patella.

  8. Visualization of the medial forebrain bundle using diffusion tensor imaging

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    Ardian eHana

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Diffusion tensor imaging is a technique that enables physicians the portrayal of white matter tracts in vivo. We used this technique in order to depict the medial forebrain bundle in 15 consecutive patients between 2012 and 2015. Men and women of all ages were included. There were 6 women and 9 men. The mean age was 58,6 years (39-77. Nine patients were candidates for an eventual deep brain stimulation. Eight of them suffered from Parkinson`s disease and one had multiple sclerosis. The remaining 6 patients suffered from different lesions which were situated in the frontal lobe. These were 2 metastasis, 2 meningiomas, 1 cerebral bleeding and 1 glioblastoma. We used a 3DT1-sequence for the navigation. Furthermore T2- and DTI- sequences were performed. The FOV was 200 x 200 mm², slice thickness 2 mm, and an acquisition matrix of 96 x 96 yielding nearly isotropic voxels of 2 x 2 x 2 mm. 3-Tesla-MRI was carried out strictly axial using 32 gradient directions and one b0-image. We used Echo-Planar-Imaging (EPI and ASSET parallel imaging with an acceleration factor of 2. b-value was 800 s/mm². The maximal angle was 50°. Additional scanning time was less than 9 minutes. We were able to visualize the medial forebrain bundle in 12 of our patients bilaterally and in the remaining 3 patients we depicted the medial forebrain bundle on one side. It was the contralateral side of the lesion. These were 2 meningiomas and one metastasis. Portrayal of the medial forebrain bundle is possible for everyday routine for neurosurgical interventions. As part of the reward circuitry it might be of substantial importance for neurosurgeons during deep brain stimulation in patients with psychiatric disorders. Furthermore it might explain at a certain extent character changes in patients with lesions in the frontal lobe. Surgery in this part of the brain should always take the preservation of this white matter tract into account.

  9. Foot posture in people with medial compartment knee osteoarthritis

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    Feller Julian A

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Foot posture has long been considered to contribute to the development of lower limb musculoskeletal conditions as it may alter the mechanical alignment and dynamic function of the lower limb. This study compared foot posture in people with and without medial compartment knee osteoarthritis (OA using a range of clinical foot measures. The reliability of the foot measures was also assessed. Methods The foot posture of 32 patients with clinically and radiographically-confirmed OA predominantly in the medial compartment of the knee and 28 asymptomatic age-matched healthy controls was investigated using the foot posture index (FPI, vertical navicular height and drop, and the arch index. Independent t tests and effect size (Cohen's d were used to investigate the differences between the groups in the foot posture measurements. Results Significant differences were found between the control and the knee OA groups in relation to the FPI (1.35 ± 1.43 vs. 2.46 ± 2.18, p = 0.02; d = 0.61, medium effect size, navicular drop (0.02 ± 0.01 vs. 0.03 ± 0.01, p = 0.01; d = 1.02, large effect size and the arch index (0.22 ± 0.04 vs. 0.26 ± 0.04, p = 0.04; d = 1.02, large effect size. No significant difference was found for vertical navicular height (0.24 ± 0.03 vs. 0.23 ± 0.03, p = 0.54; d = 0.04, negligible effect size. Conclusion People with medial compartment knee OA exhibit a more pronated foot type compared to controls. It is therefore recommended that the assessment of patients with knee OA in clinical practice should include simple foot measures, and that the potential influence of foot structure and function on the efficacy of foot orthoses in the management of medial compartment knee OA be further investigated.

  10. Considerations for the Management of Medial Orbital Wall Blowout Fracture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Youngsoo; Chung, Kyu Jin

    2016-01-01

    Recently, diagnoses of and operations for medial orbital blowout fracture have increased because of the development of imaging technology. In this article, the authors review the literature, and overview the accumulated knowledge about the orbital anatomy, fracture mechanisms, surgical approaches, reconstruction materials, and surgical methods. In terms of surgical approaches, transcaruncular, transcutaneous, and transnasal endoscopic approaches are discussed. Reconstruction methods including onlay covering, inlay implantation, and repositioning methods are also discussed. Consideration and understanding of these should lead to more optimal outcomes. PMID:27218019

  11. Modulation of neuronal microcircuit activities within the medial prefrontal cortex by mGluR5 positive allosteric modulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollard, Marie; Bartolome, Jose Manuel; Conn, P Jeffrey; Steckler, Thomas; Shaban, Hamdy

    2014-10-01

    Suppressing anxiety and fear memory relies on bidirectional projections between the medial prefrontal cortex and the amygdala. Positive allosteric modulators of mGluR5 improve cognition in animal models of schizophrenia and retrieval of newly formed associations such as extinction of fear-conditioned behaviour. The increase in neuronal network activities of the medial prefrontal cortex is influenced by both mGluR1 and mGluR5; however, it is not well understood how they modulate network activities and downstream information processing. To map mGluR5-mediated network activity in relation to its emergence as a viable cognitive enhancer, we tested group I mGluR compounds on medial prefrontal cortex network activity via multi-electrode array neuronal spiking and whole-cell patch clamp recordings. Results indicate that mGluR5 activation promotes feed-forward inhibition that depends on recruitment of neuronal activity by carbachol-evoked up states. The rate of neuronal spiking activity under the influence of carbachol was reduced by the mGluR5 positive allosteric modulator, N-(1,3-Diphenyl-1H-pyrazolo-5-yl)-4-nitrobenzamide (VU-29), and enhanced by the mGluR5 negative allosteric modulator, 3-((2-methyl-1,3-thiazol-4-yl)ethynyl)pyridine hydrochloride (MTEP). Spontaneous inhibitory post-synaptic currents were increased upon application of carbachol and in combination with VU-29. These results emphasize a bias towards tonic mGluR5-mediated inhibition that might serve as a signal-to-noise enhancer of sensory inputs projected from associated limbic areas onto the medial prefrontal cortex neuronal microcircuit.

  12. Lipopolysaccharide increases degradation of central monoamines: an in vivo microdialysis study in the nucleus accumbens and medial prefrontal cortex of mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Heesch, Floor; Prins, Jolanda; Konsman, Jan Pieter; Korte-Bouws, Gerdien A H; Westphal, Koen G C; Rybka, Joanna; Olivier, Berend; Kraneveld, Aletta D; Korte, S Mechiel

    2014-02-15

    Peripheral administration of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in rodents induces anhedonia, i.e. the inability to experience pleasure. Recently, we reported that serotonin transporter (SERT) function is required for LPS-induced anhedonia. Less is known about the effect of LPS on the biological activity of dopamine transporters (DAT) and norepinephrine transporters (NET). Therefore, in vivo microdialysis was performed in the nucleus accumbens and medial prefrontal cortex of C57BL6/J mice exposed to saline or LPS (133 µg/kg i.p.). To investigate the possible involvement of different monoamine transporters, the triple reuptake inhibitor DOV 216,303 or saline was i.p. injected 30 min before the saline/LPS injection. The dose of LPS, shown to decrease responding for brain stimulation reward in mice, significantly increased extracellular levels of monoamine metabolites (5-HIAA, DOPAC and HVA) in the nucleus accumbens and medial prefrontal cortex. Remarkably, DOV 216,303 abolished LPS-induced DOPAC and HVA formation in the nucleus accumbens, suggesting that LPS increases DAT activity in this brain area. DOV 216,303 also inhibited LPS-induced DOPAC and HVA formation in the medial prefrontal cortex. Since DAT density is very low in this brain structure, reuptake of DA predominantly takes place via NET, suggesting that LPS increases DAT and NET activity in the medial prefrontal cortex. Furthermore, DOV 216,303 pretreatment prevented LPS-induced 5-HIAA formation only in the medial prefrontal cortex, indicating that LPS increases prefrontal SERT activity. In conclusion, the present findings suggest that peripheral LPS increases DAT activity in the nucleus accumbens and increases NET and SERT activity in the medial prefrontal cortex of mice.

  13. Open Wedge High Tibial Osteotomy and Combined Arthroscopic Surgery in Severe Medial Osteoarthritis and Varus Malalignment: Minimum 5-Year Results

    OpenAIRE

    Yoo, Moon-Jib; Shin, Yong-Eun

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the radiologic and functional outcomes of medial open wedge high tibial osteotomy (HTO) combined with arthroscopic procedure in patients with medial osteoarthritis. Materials and Methods From June 1996 to March 2010, 26 patients (32 knees) who underwent medial open wedge osteotomy and arthroscopic operation for medial osteoarthritis were retrospectively reviewed. Measurements included hip-knee-ankle (HKA) angle, femorotibial angle, medial proximal tibial angle, posterior t...

  14. Reconstruction of medial patellofemoral ligament using quadriceps tendon combined with reconstruction of medial patellotibial ligament using patellar tendon: initial experience☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinckel, Betina Bremer; Gobbi, Riccardo Gomes; Bonadio, Marcelo Batista; Demange, Marco Kawamura; Pécora, José Ricardo; Camanho, Gilberto Luis

    2016-01-01

    Objective To describe a surgical technique for anatomical reconstruction of the medial patellofemoral ligament using the quadriceps tendon, combined with reconstruction of the medial patellotibial ligament using the patellar tendon; and to present the initial results from a case series. Method The proposed technique was used on a series of cases of patients with diagnoses of patellofemoral instability and indications for surgical treatment, who were attended by the Knee Group of HC-IOT, University of São Paulo. The following were evaluated before and after the operation: range of motion (ROM), apprehension test, lateral translation test, patellar inclination test, inverted J sign, subluxation upon extension, pain from compression of the patella and pain from contraction of the quadriceps. After the operation, the patients were asked whether any new episode of dislocation had occurred, what their degree of satisfaction with the surgery was (on a scale from 0 to 10) and whether they would be prepared to go through this operation again. Results Seven knees were operated, in seven patients, with a mean follow-up of 5.46 months (±2.07). Four patients who presented apprehension before the operation did not show this after the operation. The lateral translation test became normal for all the patients, while the patellar inclination test remained positive for two patients. The patients with an inverted J sign continued to be positive for this sign. Five patients were positive for subluxation upon extension before the operation, but all patients were negative for this after the operation. None of the patients presented any new episode of dislocation of the patella. All of them stated that they were satisfied: five gave a satisfaction score of 9 and two, a score of 10. All of them said that they would undergo the operation again. Only one patient presented a postoperative complication: dehiscence of the wound. Conclusion Reconstruction of the medial patellofemoral ligament

  15. Reconstruction of medial patellofemoral ligament using quadriceps tendon combined with reconstruction of medial patellotibial ligament using patellar tendon: initial experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betina Bremer Hinckel

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE: To describe a surgical technique for anatomical reconstruction of the medial patellofemoral ligament using the quadriceps tendon, combined with reconstruction of the medial patellotibial ligament using the patellar tendon; and to present the initial results from a case series. METHOD: The proposed technique was used on a series of cases of patients with diagnoses of patellofemoral instability and indications for surgical treatment, who were attended by the Knee Group of HC-IOT, University of São Paulo. The following were evaluated before and after the operation: range of motion (ROM, apprehension test, lateral translation test, patellar inclination test, inverted J sign, subluxation upon extension, pain from compression of the patella and pain from contraction of the quadriceps. After the operation, the patients were asked whether any new episode of dislocation had occurred, what their degree of satisfaction with the surgery was (on a scale from 0 to 10 and whether they would be prepared to go through this operation again. RESULTS: Seven knees were operated, in seven patients, with a mean follow-up of 5.46 months (±2.07. Four patients who presented apprehension before the operation did not show this after the operation. The lateral translation test became normal for all the patients, while the patellar inclination test remained positive for two patients. The patients with an inverted J sign continued to be positive for this sign. Five patients were positive for subluxation upon extension before the operation, but all patients were negative for this after the operation. None of the patients presented any new episode of dislocation of the patella. All of them stated that they were satisfied: five gave a satisfaction score of 9 and two, a score of 10. All of them said that they would undergo the operation again. Only one patient presented a postoperative complication: dehiscence of the wound. CONCLUSION: Reconstruction of the

  16. Modified endoscopic medial maxillectomy for zygomatic implant salvage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajudeen, Bobby A.; Adappa, Nithin D.; Palmer, James N.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Odontogenic chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) is an epidemiologically important disease process due, in part, to the increasingly commonplace use of dental restorative procedures such as zygomatic implantation. Traditional management of this clinical entity typically entails extraction of the infected hardware via an open or endoscopic approach. We describe a novel management strategy of odontogenic CRS following bilateral zygomatic implantation for oral rehabilitation that we surgically salvaged via a modified endoscopic medial maxillectomy. Methods: We describe the presentation and management of a case of metachronous development of bilateral CRS subsequent to zygomatic implantation. Results: The patient's postoperative course was characterized by marked endoscopic, radiologic, and symptomatic improvement as measured by the 22-item Sino-Nasal Outcome Test. Conclusion: We describe a novel treatment strategy for the management of odontogenic sinusitis resulting from erroneous zygomatic implant placement. Modified endoscopic medial maxillectomy in this clinical context facilitates mucosal normalization of the affected sinus, while permitting preservation of oral function through salvage of the displaced implant. PMID:28107147

  17. Function of the medial meniscus in force transmission and stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Peter S; Arno, Sally; Bell, Christopher; Salvadore, Gaia; Borukhov, Ilya; Oh, Cheongeun

    2015-06-01

    We studied the combined role of the medial meniscus in distributing load and providing stability. Ten normal knees were loaded in combinations of compressive and shear loading as the knee was flexed over a full range. A digital camera tracked the motion, from which femoral-tibial contacts were determined by computer modelling. Load transmission was determined from the Tekscan for the anterior horn, central body, posterior horn, and the uncovered cartilage in the centre of the meniscus. For the three types of loading; compression only, compression and anterior shear, compression and posterior shear; between 40% and 80% of the total load was transmitted through the meniscus. The overall average was 58%, the remaining 42% being transmitted through the uncovered cartilage. The anterior horn was loaded only up to 30 degrees flexion, but played a role in controlling anterior femoral displacement. The central body was loaded 10-20% which would provide some restraint to medial femoral subluxation. Overall the posterior horn carried the highest percentage of the shear load, especially after 30 degrees flexion when a posterior shear force was applied, where the meniscus was estimated to carry 50% of the shear force. This study added new insights into meniscal function during weight bearing conditions, particularly its role in early flexion, and in transmitting shear forces.

  18. Role of the oblique ligament in the integrity of the medial collateral ligament of the canine elbow joint Papel do ligamento oblíquo na integridade do ligamento colateral medial da articulação do cotovelo de cães

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Oliveira

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available It was studied the arrangement of the collagen fibrils of the medial collateral ligament of the canine elbow joint and evaluated its diameter, when it was isolated or associated to the oblique ligament and loaded in tension until failure. Eighteen joints were divided in three groups. The first group had the medial collateral ligament collected and not loaded, the second group had the medial collateral ligament tested separately and the third group had both ligaments associately tested. Medial collateral ligament not submitted to strain presented a wavy and reticular pattern of the collagen fibers, which was not totally destroyed when it was loaded associated to the oblique ligament, and totally loses the reticular pattern when stretched separately. When the medial collateral ligament was loaded in tension separately, the mean collagen fibrils diameter increased in relation to the group not submitted to the tensile strain. Associated to the oblique ligament, the mean collagen fibrils diameter was the largest in the insertion area and the smallest in the mid-substance, in relation to the other groups. It was concluded that the oblique ligament could favor the integrity of the medial collateral ligament insertion area, facilitating its reconstruction after lesion with larger efficiency.Foram estudados o arranjo e o diâmetro médio das fibrilas colágenas do ligamento colateral medial da articulação do cotovelo do cão, isolado ou associado ao ligamento oblíquo e tracionado até a ruptura. Dezoito articulações foram divididas em três grupos. O primeiro grupo teve o ligamento colateral medial coletado, mas não tracionado; o segundo grupo teve o ligamento colateral medial tracionado isoladamente; o terceiro grupo teve os ligamentos colateral medial e oblíquo tracionados associadamente. O ligamento colateral medial não submetido ao ensaio de tração apresentou um padrão ondulado das fibras colágenas, o qual não foi totalmente destru

  19. Medial Elbow Exposure for Coronoid Fractures: FCU-Split Versus Over-the-Top

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    margin of the mass anteriorly) was split and the pronator teres was released from the medial epicondyle and reflected off the anterior elbow capsule and...ORIGINAL ARTICLE Medial Elbow Exposure for Coronoid Fractures: FCU-Split Versus Over-the-Top Jeannie Huh, MD,* Chad A. Krueger, MD,* Michael J...fractures is unknown. The purpose of this study was to quantitatively compare the osseous and ligamentous exposure of the medial elbow using the flexor

  20. Comparison Of Medial Arch-Supporting Insoles And Heel Pads In The Treatment Of Plantar Fasciitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malkoc Melih

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Plantar fasciitis is a disorder caused by inflammation of the insertion point of the plantar fascia over the medial tubercle of the calcaneus. Foot orthotics are used to treat plantar fasciitis. Heel pads medialise the centre of force, whereas medial arch supporting insoles lateralise the force. We assessed the clinical results of the treatment of plantar fasciitis with silicone heel pads and medial arch-supported silicone insoles.

  1. The mechanical benefit of medial support screws in locking plating of proximal humerus fractures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen Zhang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the biomechanical advantages of medial support screws (MSSs in the locking proximal humeral plate for treating proximal humerus fractures. METHODS: Thirty synthetic left humeri were randomly divided into 3 subgroups to establish two-part surgical neck fracture models of proximal humerus. All fractures were fixed with a locking proximal humerus plate. Group A was fixed with medial cortical support and no MSSs; Group B was fixed with 3 MSSs but without medial cortical support; Group C was fixed with neither medial cortical support nor MSSs. Axial compression, torsional stiffness, shear stiffness, and failure tests were performed. RESULTS: Constructs with medial support from cortical bone showed statistically higher axial and shear stiffness than other subgroups examined (P<0.0001. When the proximal humerus was not supported by medial cortical bone, locking plating with medial support screws exhibited higher axial and torsional stiffness than locking plating without medial support screws (P ≤ 0.0207. Specimens with medial cortical bone failed primarily by fracture of the humeral shaft or humeral head. Specimens without medial cortical bone support failed primarily by significant plate bending at the fracture site followed by humeral head collapse or humeral head fracture. CONCLUSIONS: Anatomic reduction with medial cortical support was the stiffest construct after a simulated two-part fracture. Significant biomechanical benefits of MSSs in locking plating of proximal humerus fractures were identified. The reconstruction of the medial column support for proximal humerus fractures helps to enhance mechanical stability of the humeral head and prevent implant failure.

  2. Simultaneous MPFL and LPFL reconstruction for recurrent lateral patellar dislocation with medial patellofemoral instability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masashi Kusano

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We report an extremely rare case of both recurrent lateral patella dislocation and medial patellofemoral instability, following prior operations to correct patella maltracking. Manual translation of the patella revealed medial and lateral instability with a positive apprehension sign. 3-D computer modelling of kinematics based on MRI data demonstrated that the patella deviated laterally at full extension and translated medially with knee flexion. The medial and lateral patellofemoral ligaments were reconstructed simultaneously with hamstring tendons, alleviating peripatellar pain and patellar instability in both directions.

  3. Medial tibial pain. A prospective study of its cause among military recruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milgrom, C; Giladi, M; Stein, M; Kashtan, H; Margulies, J; Chisin, R; Steinberg, R; Swissa, A; Aharonson, Z

    1986-12-01

    In a prospective study of 295 infantry recruits during 14 weeks of basic training, 41% had medial tibial pain. Routine scintigraphic evaluation in cases of medial tibial bone pain showed that 63% had abnormalities. A stress fracture was found in 46%. Only two patients had periostitis. None had ischemic medial compartment syndrome. Physical examination could not differentiate between cases with medial tibial bone pain secondary to stress fractures and those with scintigraphically normal tibias. When both pain and swelling were localized in the middle one-third of the tibia, the lesion most likely proved to be a stress fracture.

  4. Missed Medial Malleolar Fracture Associated With Achilles Tendon Rupture: A Case Report and Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, Koji; Taketomi, Shuji; Inui, Hiroshi; Nakamura, Kensuke; Sanada, Takaki; Tanaka, Sakae

    2016-01-01

    A 45-year-old man sustained an Achilles tendon rupture while playing futsal. A concomitant medial malleolar fracture was not diagnosed until the patient underwent an operation for Achilles tendon repair. A routine postoperative radiograph showed a minimally displaced medial malleolar fracture. Conservative treatment was chosen for the fracture. The function of the Achilles tendon recovered well, and the fracture was united. A medial malleolar fracture can be missed when an Achilles tendon rupture occurs simultaneously. Thus, surgeons should consider the possibility of medial malleolar fracture associated with an Achilles tendon rupture. Copyright © 2016 American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. The effects of neuromuscular exercise on medial knee joint load post-arthroscopic partial medial meniscectomy: 'SCOPEX', a randomised control trial protocol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hall, Michelle; Hinman, Rana S; Wrigley, Tim V

    2012-01-01

    Meniscectomy is a risk factor for knee osteoarthritis, with increased medial joint loading a likely contributor to the development and progression of knee osteoarthritis in this group. Therefore, post-surgical rehabilitation or interventions that reduce medial knee joint loading have the potential...... to reduce the risk of developing or progressing osteoarthritis. The primary purpose of this randomised, assessor-blind controlled trial is to determine the effects of a home-based, physiotherapist-supervised neuromuscular exercise program on medial knee joint load during functional tasks in people who have...

  6. Chronic stress effects in contralateral medial pterygoid muscle of rats with occlusion alteration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loyola, Bruno Melo; Nascimento, Glauce Crivelaro; Fernández, Rodrigo Alberto Restrepo; Iyomasa, Daniela Mizusaki; Pereira, Yamba Carla Lara; Leite-Panissi, Christie Ramos Andrade; Issa, João Paulo Mardegan; Iyomasa, Mamie Mizusaki

    2016-10-01

    Temporomandibular disorder (TMD) has a high prevalence in our society, characterized by a severe pain condition of the masticatory muscles and temporomandibular joint. Despite the indication of multiple factor initiators of TMD, there is still controversy about its etiology and its pathophysiology is poorly understood. Using rats as experimental animals we investigated the effect of unpredictable chronic stress with or without unilateral molar extraction on the contralateral medial pterygoid muscle. Our hypothesis is that these two factors induce changes in morphology, oxidative metabolism and oxidative stress of muscle fibers. Young adult male Wistar rats (±200g) were divided into four groups: a group with extraction and unpredictable chronic stress (E+US); with extraction and without stress (E+C); without extraction and with unpredictable chronic stress (NO+US); and a control group without either extraction or stress (NO+C). The animals were subjected to unilateral extraction of the upper left molars, under intraperitoneal anesthesia with 4% Xylazine (10mg/kg) and 10% Ketamine (80mg/kg) on day zero. The rats of groups E+US and NO+US were submitted to different protocols of stress, from the 14th day after the extraction. The protocols were different every day for five consecutive days, which were repeated from the 6th day for five days more. Contralateral medial pterygoid muscles were obtained on the 24th day after the start of the experiment for morphological, metabolic, capillary density, and oxidative stress analysis. The data from capillary density showed a decrease of capillaries in animals subjected to dental extraction, compared with those without extraction and an increase of laminin expression in the group submitted to the unpredictable chronic stress when compared to the unexposed to stress. SDH test revealed a decrease of light fibers in the group submitted to unilateral extraction of molars, compared with this area in the control group. In E+US and NO

  7. Familial Discoid Medial Meniscus Tear in Three Members of a Family: A Case Report and Review of Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raheel Ahmed Ali

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. A discoid meniscus is a thickened variant of the normal C-shaped meniscus prone to injury. Discoid medial meniscal tears have rarely been reported within families and may suggest familial or developmental origins. Methods. We report the cases of two Caucasian brothers with symptomatic discoid medial meniscus tears. A literature review was conducted addressing discoid medial meniscus and cases of familial meniscus tears. Case Presentation. Physically active brothers presented with progressively worsening knee pain. MRI revealed medial meniscus tears in both brothers. The family history of medial meniscus tears in their mother and the discoid medial meniscus injuries found on arthroscopy suggested evidence for familial discoid medial meniscus tears. Conclusions. Discoid medial meniscus tears within a family have not been previously reported. Two cases of families with discoid lateral meniscus tears have been reported. Discoid medial meniscus is rare relative to the discoid lateral meniscus and predisposes children to symptomatic tears.

  8. Comparison of Medial and Lateral Meniscus Root Tears.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Hyun Koo

    Full Text Available The meniscus root plays an essential role in maintaining the circumferential hoop tension and preventing meniscal displacement. Studies on meniscus root tears have investigated the relationship of osteoarthritis and an anterior cruciate ligament tear. However, few studies have directly compared the medial and lateral root tears. To assess the prevalence of meniscal extrusion and its relationship with clinical features in medial and lateral meniscus root tears, we performed a retrospective review of the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI results of 42 knee patients who had meniscus posterior horn root tears and who had undergone arthroscopic operations. The presence of meniscal extrusion was evaluated and the exact extent was measured from the tibial margin. The results were correlated with arthroscopic findings. Clinical features including patients' ages, joint abnormalities, and previous trauma histories were evaluated. Twenty-two patients had medial meniscus root tears (MMRTs and twenty patients had lateral meniscus root tears (LMRTs. Meniscal extrusion was present in 18 MMRT patients and one LMRT patient. The mean extent of extrusion was 4.2mm (range, 0.6 to 7.8 in the MMRT group and 0.9mm (range, -1.9 to 3.4 in the LMRT group. Five patients with MMRT had a history of trauma, while 19 patients with LMRT had a history of trauma. Three patients with MMRT had anterior cruciate ligament (ACL tears, while 19 patients with LMRT had ACL tears. The mean age of the patients was 52 years (range: 29-71 years and 30 years (range: 14-62 years in the MMRT and LMRT group, respectively. There was a significant correlation between a MMRT and meniscal extrusion (p<0.0001, and between an ACL tear and LMRT (p<0.0001. A history of trauma was significantly common in LMRT (p<0.0001. LMRT patients were significantly younger than MMRT patients (p<0.0001. Kellgren-Lawrence (K-L grade differed significantly between MMRT and LMRT group (p<0.0001. Meniscal extrusion is

  9. Beyond the Medial Regions of Prefrontal Cortex in the Regulation of Fear and Anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiba, Yoshiro; Santangelo, Andrea M; Roberts, Angela C

    2016-01-01

    Fear and anxiety are adaptive responses but if left unregulated, or inappropriately regulated, they become biologically and socially maladaptive. Dysregulated emotions are manifest in a wide variety of psychiatric and neurological conditions but the external expression gives little indication of the underlying causes, which are inevitably multi-determined. To go beyond the overt phenotype and begin to understand the causal mechanisms leading to conditions characterized by anxiety and disorders of mood, it is necessary to identify the base psychological processes that have become dysregulated, and map them on to their associated neural substrates. So far, attention has been focused primarily on the medial regions of prefrontal cortex (PFC) and in particular their contribution to the expression and extinction of conditioned fear. However, functional neuroimaging studies have shown that the sphere of influence within the PFC is not restricted to its medial regions, but extends into dorsal, ventrolateral (vlPFC) and orbitofrontal (OFC) regions too; although the causal role of these other areas in the regulation of fear and anxiety remains to be determined and in the case of the OFC, existing findings are conflicting. Here, we review the evidence for the contribution of these other regions in negative emotion regulation in rodents and old world and new world monkeys. We consider a variety of different contexts, including conditioned and innate fear, learned and unlearned anxiety and cost-benefit decision-making, and a range of physiological and behavioral measures of emotion. It is proposed that both the OFC and vlPFC contribute to emotion regulation via their involvement, respectively, in the prediction of future outcomes and higher-order attentional control. The fractionation of these neurocognitive and neurobehavioral systems that regulate fear and anxiety opens up new opportunities for diagnostic stratification and personalized treatment strategies.

  10. Noise-induced cell death in the mouse medial geniculate body and primary auditory cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basta, Dietmar; Tzschentke, Barbara; Ernst, Arne

    Noise-induced effects within the inner ear have been well investigated for several years. However, this peripheral damage cannot fully explain the audiological symptoms in noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL), e.g. tinnitus, recruitment, reduced speech intelligibility, hyperacusis. There are few reports on central noise effects. Noise can induce an apoptosis of neuronal tissue within the lower auditory pathway. Higher auditory structures (e.g. medial geniculate body, auditory cortex) are characterized by metabolic changes after noise exposure. However, little is known about the microstructural changes of the higher auditory pathway after noise exposure. The present paper was therefore aimed at investigating the cell density in the medial geniculate body (MGB) and the primary auditory cortex (AI) after noise exposure. Normal hearing mice were exposed to noise (10 kHz center frequency at 115 dB SPL for 3 h) at the age of 21 days under anesthesia (Ketamin/Rompun, 10:1). After 1 week, auditory brainstem response recordings (ABR) were performed in noise exposed and normal hearing animals. After fixation, the brain was microdissected and stained (Kluever-Barrera). The cell density in the MGB subdivisions and the AI were determined by counting the cells within a grid. Noise-exposed animals showed a significant ABR threshold shift over the whole frequency range. Cell density was significantly reduced in all subdivisions of the MGB and in layers IV-VI of AI. The present findings demonstrate a significant noise-induced change of the neuronal cytoarchitecture in central key areas of auditory processing. These changes could contribute to the complex psychoacoustic symptoms after NIHL.

  11. Extensive sonographic ulnar nerve enlargement above the medial epicondyle is a characteristic sign in Hansen's neuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bathala, Lokesh; N Krishnam, Venkataramana; Kumar, Hari Kishan; Neladimmanahally, Vivekananda; Nagaraju, Umashankar; Kumar, Himanshu M; Telleman, Johan A; Visser, Leo H

    2017-07-01

    Earlier studies have shown sonographic enlargement of the ulnar nerve in patients with Hansen's neuropathy. The present study was performed to determine whether sonography or electrophysiological studies can detect the specific site of ulnar nerve pathology in leprosy. Eighteen patients (thirty arms) with Hansen's disease and an ulnar neuropathy of whom 66% had borderline tuberculoid (BT), 27% lepromatous leprosy (LL) and 7% mid-borderline (BB) leprosy were included in the study. Cross-sectional area (CSA) of ulnar nerve was measured every two centimeters from wrist to medial epicondyle and from there to axilla. All patients underwent standard motor and sensory nerve conduction studies of the ulnar nerve. Thirty age and sex matched controls underwent similar ulnar nerve CSA measurements and conduction studies. Ulnar nerve was clinically palpable in 19 of the 30 arms of patients. Motor and sensory nerve conduction studies of the ulnar nerve showed a reduced compound motor action potential and sensory nerve action potential amplitude in all patients. Motor Conduction Velocity (MCV) in patients were slower in comparison to controls, especially at the elbow and upper arm, but unable to exactly locate the site of the lesion. In comparison to controls the ulnar nerveCSA was larger in the whole arm in patients and quite specific the maximum enlargement was seen between nulnar sulcus and axilla, peaking at four centimeters above the sulcus. A unique sonographic pattern of nerve enlargement is noted in patients with ulnar neuropathy due to Hansen's disease, while this was not the case for the technique used until now, the electrodiagnostic testing. The enlargement starts at ulnar sulcus and is maximum four centimeters above the medial epicondyle and starts reducing further along the tract. This characteristic finding can help especially in diagnosing pure neuritic type of Hansen's disease, in which skin lesions are absent, and alsoto differentiate leprosy from other

  12. Beyond the Medial Regions of Prefrontal Cortex in the Regulation of Fear and Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiba, Yoshiro; Santangelo, Andrea M.; Roberts, Angela C.

    2016-01-01

    Fear and anxiety are adaptive responses but if left unregulated, or inappropriately regulated, they become biologically and socially maladaptive. Dysregulated emotions are manifest in a wide variety of psychiatric and neurological conditions but the external expression gives little indication of the underlying causes, which are inevitably multi-determined. To go beyond the overt phenotype and begin to understand the causal mechanisms leading to conditions characterized by anxiety and disorders of mood, it is necessary to identify the base psychological processes that have become dysregulated, and map them on to their associated neural substrates. So far, attention has been focused primarily on the medial regions of prefrontal cortex (PFC) and in particular their contribution to the expression and extinction of conditioned fear. However, functional neuroimaging studies have shown that the sphere of influence within the PFC is not restricted to its medial regions, but extends into dorsal, ventrolateral (vlPFC) and orbitofrontal (OFC) regions too; although the causal role of these other areas in the regulation of fear and anxiety remains to be determined and in the case of the OFC, existing findings are conflicting. Here, we review the evidence for the contribution of these other regions in negative emotion regulation in rodents and old world and new world monkeys. We consider a variety of different contexts, including conditioned and innate fear, learned and unlearned anxiety and cost-benefit decision-making, and a range of physiological and behavioral measures of emotion. It is proposed that both the OFC and vlPFC contribute to emotion regulation via their involvement, respectively, in the prediction of future outcomes and higher-order attentional control. The fractionation of these neurocognitive and neurobehavioral systems that regulate fear and anxiety opens up new opportunities for diagnostic stratification and personalized treatment strategies. PMID:26941618

  13. Beyond the medial regions of prefrontal cortex in the regulation of fear and anxiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshiro eShiba

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Fear and anxiety are adaptive responses but if left unregulated, or inappropriately regulated, they become biologically and socially maladaptive. Dysregulated emotions are manifest in a wide variety of psychiatric and neurological conditions but the external expression gives little indication of the underlying causes, which are inevitably multi-determined. To go beyond the overt phenotype and begin to understand the causal mechanisms leading to conditions characterized by anxiety and disorders of mood, it is necessary to identify the base psychological processes that have become dysregulated, and map them on to their associated neural substrates. So far, attention has been focused primarily on the medial regions of prefrontal cortex (PFC and in particular their contribution to the expression and extinction of conditioned fear. However, functional neuroimaging studies have shown that the sphere of influence within the PFC is not restricted to its medial regions, but extends into dorsal, ventrolateral (vlPFC and orbitofrontal (OFC regions too; although the causal role of these other areas in the regulation of fear and anxiety remains to be determined and in the case of the OFC, existing findings are conflicting. Here we review the evidence for the contribution of these other regions in negative emotion regulation in rodents and old world and new world monkeys. We consider a variety of different contexts, including conditioned and innate fear, learned and unlearned anxiety and cost-benefit decision-making, and a range of physiological and behavioral measures of emotion. It is proposed that both the OFC and vlPFC contribute to emotion regulation via their involvement, respectively, in the prediction of future outcomes and higher-order attentional control. The fractionation of these neurocognitive and neurobehavioral systems that regulate fear and anxiety opens up new opportunities for diagnostic stratification and personalized treatment strategies.

  14. Bucket handle tears of the medial meniscus: meniscal intrusion rather than meniscal extrusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlossberg, S. [Jacobi Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Bronx, NY (United States); Umans, H. [Jacobi Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Bronx, NY (United States); Jacobi Medical Center, Department of Surgery Division of Orthopedic Surgery, Bronx, NY (United States); Flusser, G. [Tel Aviv Sourasky Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Tel Aviv (Israel); DiFelice, G.S. [Jacobi Medical Center, Department of Surgery Division of Orthopedic Surgery, Bronx, NY (United States); Lerer, D.B. [Montefiore Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Bronx, NY (United States)

    2007-01-15

    To determine the frequency of medial meniscal extrusion (MME) versus ''medial meniscal intrusion'' in the setting of bucket handle tears. Images were evaluated for previously reported risk factors for MME, including: medial meniscal root tear, radial tear, degenerative joint disease and joint effusion. Forty-one consecutive cases of bucket handle tear of the medial meniscus were reviewed by consensus by two musculoskeletal radiologists. Imaging was performed using a 1.5 GE Signa MR unit. Patient age, gender, medial meniscal root integrity, MME, medial meniscal intrusion, degenerative joint disease, effusion and anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tear were recorded. Thirteen females and 27 males (age 12-62 years, median=30 years) were affected; one had bucket handle tear of each knee. Effusion was small in 13, moderate in 9 and large in 18. Degenerative joint disease was mild in three, moderate in two and severe in one. 26 ACL tears included three partial and three chronic. Medial meniscal root tear was complete in one case and partial thickness in two. None of the 40 cases with an intact or partially torn medial meniscal root demonstrated MME. MME of 3.1 mm was seen in the only full-thickness medial meniscal root tear, along with chronic ACL tear, moderate degenerative joint disease and large effusion. Medial meniscal intrusion of the central bucket handle fragment into the intercondylar notch was present in all 41 cases. Given an intact medial meniscal root in the setting of a ''pure'' bucket handle tear, there is no MME. (orig.)

  15. Tratamento cirúrgico da ginecomastia com pedículos lateral e medial Surgical treatment of the gynecocomastia with lateral and medial pedicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Modolin

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available Ginecomastia é o aumento da mama masculina que pode acometer até 65% dos indivíduos deste sexo na fase infanto-puberal, compreendida entre 13 e 16 anos. Tem como principais causas hepatite ou cirrose hepática, carcinoma ou doenças inflamatórias pulmonares crônicas, carcinomas ou disfunções testiculares, tumores glandulares (pituitária, supra-renal, alterações dos níveis séricos de testosterona, síndromes genéticas (síndrome de Klinefelter, p.ex., uso de drogas como heroína, maconha ou anabolizantes e hanseníase. Podemos classificar a ginecomastia quanto ao volume, quanto aos tecidos que a compõem (gordurosa ou pseudoginecomastia, glandular e mista, ou quanto ao tratamento necessário para sua correção cirúrgica (pequena, moderada e grave. O tratamento das formas mais graves de ginecomastia é muito diferente daquele aplicado às formas mais suaves, pois nas formas graves, além da ressecção dos tecidos gorduroso e glandular, existe a necessidade de ressecção da pele em excesso e o reposicionamento do complexo aréolo-mamilar. O objetivo deste trabalho é descrever uma técnica cirúrgica específica para estes pacientes portadores de formas graves de ginecomastia, através de dois pedículos dermogordurosos, um lateral e um medial, com aproximadamente 2cm de espessura, mantendo assim a nutrição do complexo aréolo-mamilar. Esses pedículos são delimitados entre as bissetrizes dos quadrantes súpero-lateral e ínfero-lateral, e súpero-medial e ínfero-medial, tendo o mamilo como vértice. Na área de pele excessiva periareolar, obtida através do pinçamento interdigital, é realizada a desepidermização dos pedículos lateral e medial e ressecção de toda pele e tecido celular subcutâneo até a fáscia peitoral nas regiões superior e inferior aos pedículos; a síntese é realizada em dois planos, sendo periareolar a cicatriz resultante. Foram operados com esta técnica vinte pacientes com forma grave de

  16. Isolated cystic tuberculosis of medial cuneiform: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadeem Ali

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Isolated tuberculosis of foot is a rare entity. Plenty of literature is available on osteoarticular tuberculosis but literature on tuberculosis of foot is limited. Additionally the condition mimics variety of other foot pathologies which can delay diagnosis and add to morbidity. We present a twelve year old boy who presented clinically with swelling, pain and discharging sinus of foot with a cystic lesion in medial cuneiform on radiography. Though histopathology and Ziehl Nielsen staining later on established the diagnosis, but initially it was mistaken as a case of mycotic osteomyelitis. Tuberculosis of foot, though rare, should always be one of the differential diagnoses in a patient presenting with bony lesion on radiography irrespective of absence of constitutional symptoms and negative tests for tuberculosis. If battery of tests fails to establish diagnosis, open biopsy with curettage and histopathology should be considered to work out the final diagnosis. [Int J Res Med Sci 2013; 1(4.000: 592-595

  17. Watching cartoons activates the medial prefrontal cortex in children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) of human adults is involved in attributing mental states to real human agents but not to virtual artificial characters. This study examined whether such differential MPFC activity can be observed in children who are more fascinated by cartoons than adults. We measured brain activity using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) while 10-year-old children watched movie and cartoon clips, simulating real and virtual visual worlds, respectively. We showed neuroimaging evidence that, in contrast to adults, the MPFC of children was activated when perceiving both human agents and artificial characters in coherent visual events. Our findings suggest that, around the age of 10 years, the MPFC activity in children is different from that in adults in that it can be spontaneously activated by non-human agents in a virtual visual world.

  18. MORPHOMETRIC STUDY OF MEDIAL COLLATERAL LIGAMENTS OF ANKLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neelu Prasad

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND The ankle joint is one of the most frequently injured joint. A sprained ankle results due to tear of anterior talofibular and calcaneofibular ligaments when the foot is twisted in lateral direction. In forcible eversion of the foot, the deltoid ligament may be torn. At times, the deltoid ligament pulls the medial malleolus thereby causing avulsion fracture of the malleolus. The strong eversion pull on the deltoid ligament causes transverse fracture of medial malleolus. If the tibia is carried anteriorly, the posterior margin of the distal end of the tibia is also broken by the talus producing a trimalleolar fracture. The talocrural joint is a major weight bearing joint of the body. The weight of the body is transmitted from the tibia and fibula to the talus which distributes the weight anteriorly and posteriorly within the foot. One sixth of the static load of the leg is carried by the fibula at the tibiofibular joint. These require a high degree of stability which is determined by the passive and dynamic factors. A sprained ankle results due to tear of anterior talofibular and calcaneofibular ligaments when the foot is twisted in lateral direction. In forcible eversion of the foot, the deltoid ligament may be torn. At times, the deltoid ligament pulls the medial malleolus thereby causing avulsion fracture of the malleolus. The strong eversion pull on the deltoid ligament causes transverse fracture of medial malleolus. If the tibia is carried anteriorly, the posterior margin of the distal end of the tibia is also broken by the talus producing a trimalleolar fracture. Conventionally, X-ray techniques have been used to diagnose ligament injuries. Magnetic resonance (MR imaging has opened new horizons in the diagnosis and treatment of many musculoskeletal diseases of the ankle and foot. It demonstrates abnormalities in the bones and soft tissues before they become evident at other imaging modalities. The anatomy of the deltoid ligament

  19. Sports injury to a bipartite medial cuneiform in a child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eves, Timothy B; Ahmad, Mudussar A; Oddy, Michael J

    2014-01-01

    We report the case of an 11-year-old boy who had sustained a soccer injury to his mid-foot. Plain radiography did not reveal any fracture to account for the severity of his symptoms or his inability to bear weight. Magnetic resonance imaging was undertaken and demonstrated the medial cuneiform to be a bipartite bone consisting of 2 ossicles connected by a synchondrosis. No acute fracture or diastasis of the bipartite bone was demonstrated; however, significant bone marrow edema was noted, corresponding to the site of the injury and his clinical point bony tenderness. This anatomic variant should be considered as a rare differential diagnosis in the skeletally immature foot. The injury was treated nonoperatively with a non-weightbearing cast and pneumatic walker immobilization, with successful resolution of his symptoms and a return to sports activity by 4 months after injury.

  20. The Vascularized Medial Femoral Corticoperiosteal Flap for Thumb Reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Kavit; Darhouse, Nagham; Sivakumar, Bran; Floyd, David

    2015-01-01

    Summary: We present an interesting method of shaping a vascularized medial femoral condyle (MFC) flap into a “neophalanx” for phalangeal reconstruction. Our patient presented with limited strength and function secondary to fracture nonunion of the proximal phalanx of the dominant thumb. Following excision of the pseudarthrosis, an MFC corticoperiosteal flap was harvested, sculpted into a prism shape and inset. The superomedial genicular pedicle was anastomosed to the princeps pollicis artery and a cephalic tributary. On follow-up, new bone growth was seen on radiographs and the patient had substantially improved function, with full metacarpophalangeal extension, a Kapandji score of 9, and a markedly reduced Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand score of 2.68. The MFC flap is useful for reconstruction of bony defects, with minimal donor morbidity. This versatile vascularized flap can be crafted to requisite shapes and is useful for small defects in the hand, including phalangeal reconstruction. PMID:26495205

  1. Lateral and medial epicondylitis: role of occupational factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiri, Rahman; Viikari-Juntura, Eira

    2011-02-01

    Epicondylitis is a common upper-extremity musculoskeletal disorder. It is most common at the age of 40-60 years. Epicondylitis seems to affect women more frequently than men. Diagnosis of epicondylitis is clinical and based on symptoms and findings of physical examination. The prevalence of lateral epicondylitis in the general populations is approximately 1.0-1.3% in men and 1.1-4.0% in women and that of medial epicondylitis is nearly 0.3-0.6% in men and 0.3-1.1% in women. The incidence rate of medical consultations has been estimated at 0.3-1.1 for lateral and 0.1 for medial epicondylitis per year per 100 subjects of general practice populations. Of occupational risk factors, forceful activities, high force combined with high repetition or awkward posture and awkward postures are associated with epicondylitis. The number of studies is limited to work-related psychosocial factors and the effects are not as consistent as those of physical load factors. Topical non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, corticosteroid injections and acupuncture provide short-term beneficial effects. Workload modification should be considered, especially in manually strenuous jobs. According to clinical case series, surgical treatment has shown fair to good results; however, the efficacy of surgical treatment has not been evaluated in randomised controlled trials. Poorer prognosis of epicondylitis has been reported for individuals with high level of physical strain at work, non-neutral wrist postures during work activity and for those with the condition on the dominant elbow. Modification of physical factors could reduce the risk or improve the prognosis of epicondylitis.

  2. Perfusion network shift during seizures in medial temporal lobe epilepsy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen M Sequeira

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Medial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE is associated with limbic atrophy involving the hippocampus, peri-hippocampal and extra-temporal structures. While MTLE is related to static structural limbic compromise, it is unknown whether the limbic system undergoes dynamic regional perfusion network alterations during seizures. In this study, we aimed to investigate state specific (i.e. ictal versus interictal perfusional limbic networks in patients with MTLE. METHODS: We studied clinical information and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT images obtained with intravenous infusion of the radioactive tracer Technetium- Tc 99 m Hexamethylpropyleneamine Oxime (Tc-99 m HMPAO during ictal and interictal state confirmed by video-electroencephalography (VEEG in 20 patients with unilateral MTLE (12 left and 8 right MTLE. Pair-wise voxel-based analyses were used to define global changes in tracer between states. Regional tracer uptake was calculated and state specific adjacency matrices were constructed based on regional correlation of uptake across subjects. Graph theoretical measures were applied to investigate global and regional state specific network reconfigurations. RESULTS: A significant increase in tracer uptake was observed during the ictal state in the medial temporal region, cerebellum, thalamus, insula and putamen. From network analyses, we observed a relative decreased correlation between the epileptogenic temporal region and remaining cortex during the interictal state, followed by a surge of cross-correlated perfusion in epileptogenic temporal-limbic structures during a seizure, corresponding to local network integration. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that MTLE is associated with a state specific perfusion and possibly functional organization consisting of a surge of limbic cross-correlated tracer uptake during a seizure, with a relative disconnection of the epileptogenic temporal lobe in the interictal period. This

  3. Fractures of the Medial Column of the Distal Humerus in Adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K.M. Brouwer; T.G. Guitton; J.N. Doornberg; P. Kloen; J.B. Jupiter; D. Ring

    2009-01-01

    Purpose Medial column fractures of the distal humerus are uncommon in adults. Among 26 patients identified in the English language literature, only 2 had articular fragmentation. We reviewed the experience of 2 trauma centers with isolated medial column fractures to evaluate our impression that thes

  4. Case report - curved femoral osteotomy for management of medial patellar luxation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Allpass, Maja; Miles, James Edward

    2015-01-01

    Medial patellaluxation kan forårsages af femoral varus hos hund. Førhen har patienter med excessiv femoralvarus været korrigeret ved en lateralt placeret femoral kile-ostektomi. Her præsenteres en case, hvor en buet osteotomi blev anvendt til behandling af medial patellaluxation....

  5. Analysis of medial deviation of center of pressure after initial heel contact in forefoot varus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Li Hsi

    2016-03-01

    Conclusion: The most medial CoP of the row and CoP% detected increased medial CoP deviation in FV ≥ 8°, and may be applied to other clinical conditions where rearfoot angle and CoP of the array after initial heel contact cannot detect significant differences.

  6. Releasing the circumferential fixation of the medial meniscus does not affect its kinematics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrancken, A.C.T.; Tienen, van T.G.; Hannink, G.; Janssen, D.; Verdonschot, N.J.J.; Buma, P.

    2014-01-01

    Background Meniscal functioning depends on the fixation between the meniscal horns and the surrounding tissues. It is unknown, however, whether the integration between the outer circumference of the medial meniscus and the knee capsule/medial collateral ligament also influences the biomechanical beh

  7. Correlation between the knee adduction torque and medial contact force for a variety of gait patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Dong; Banks, Scott A; Mitchell, Kim H; D'Lima, Darryl D; Colwell, Clifford W; Fregly, Benjamin J

    2007-06-01

    The external knee adduction torque has been proposed as a surrogate measure for medial compartment load during gait. However, a direct link between these two quantities has not been demonstrated using in vivo measurement of medial compartment load. This study uses in vivo data collected from a single subject with an instrumented knee implant to evaluate this link. The subject performed five different overground gait motions (normal, fast, slow, wide, and toe-out) with simultaneous collection of instrumented implant, video motion, and ground reaction data. For each trial, the knee adduction torque was measured externally while the total axial force applied to the tibial insert was measured internally. Based on data collected from the same subject performing treadmill gait under fluoroscopic motion analysis, a regression equation was developed to calculate medial contact force from the implant load cell measurements. Correlation analyses were performed for the stance phase and entire gait cycle to quantify the relationship between the knee adduction torque and both the medial contact force and the medial to total contact force ratio. When the entire gait cycle was analyzed, R(2) for medial contact force was 0.77 when all gait trials were analyzed together and between 0.69 and 0.93 when each gait trial was analyzed separately (p knee adduction torque is highly correlated with medial compartment contact force and medial to total force ratio during gait.

  8. Increased medial foot loading during drop jump in subjects with patellofemoral pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rathleff, Michael S; Richter, Camilla; Brushøj, Christoffer

    2014-01-01

    pressure distribution was collected during drop jump and single leg squat using pressure-sensitive Pedar insoles, inserted into a standard flat shoe. The primary outcome was the medial-to-lateral force, quantified as the peak force under the medial forefoot as the percentage of force under the total...

  9. Impact of occupational mechanical exposures on risk of lateral and medial inguinal hernia requiring surgical repair

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vad, Marie Vestergaard; Frost, Poul; Bay-Nielsen, Morten;

    2012-01-01

    We undertook a register-based cohort study to evaluate exposure-response relations between cumulative occupational mechanical exposures, and risk of lateral and medial inguinal hernia repair.......We undertook a register-based cohort study to evaluate exposure-response relations between cumulative occupational mechanical exposures, and risk of lateral and medial inguinal hernia repair....

  10. Increased medial foot loading during drop jump in subjects with patellofemoral pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathleff, Michael S; Richter, Camilla; Brushøj, Christoffer; Bencke, Jesper; Bandholm, Thomas; Hölmich, Per; Thorborg, Kristian

    2014-10-01

    To compare medial-to-lateral plantar forces during drop jump and single leg squat in individuals with and without patellofemoral pain. This cross-sectional study compared 23 young adults with patellofemoral pain to 20 age- and sex-matched controls without knee pain. The plantar pressure distribution was collected during drop jump and single leg squat using pressure-sensitive Pedar insoles, inserted into a standard flat shoe. The primary outcome was the medial-to-lateral force, quantified as the peak force under the medial forefoot as the percentage of force under the total forefoot during drop jump. Secondary outcomes included peak medial-to-lateral force during single leg squat and mean forces during drop jump and single leg squat. The primary outcome showed that individuals with patellofemoral pain had a 22% higher medial-to-lateral peak force during drop jump, (p=0.03). Secondary outcomes showed 32% higher medial-to-lateral peak force during single leg squat (p=0.01) and 19-23% higher medial-to-lateral mean force during drop jump and single leg squat (p=0.02-0.04). These findings indicate that individuals with patellofemoral pain display a more medially oriented loading pattern of the forefoot compared to individuals without knee pain. This loading pattern may be associated with the distribution of forces acting on the patellofemoral joint and suggest treatment of PFP should consider interventions that target normalisation of foot loading. III.

  11. Multiple unilateral variations in medial and lateral cords of brachial plexus and their branches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goel, Shivi; Rustagi, Shaifaly Madan; Kumar, Ashwani; Mehta, Vandana; Suri, Rajesh Kumar

    2014-03-01

    During routine dissection of the upper extremity of an adult male cadaver, multiple variations in branches of medial and lateral cords of brachial plexus were encountered. Three unique findings were observed. First, intercordal neural communications between the lateral and medial cords were observed. Second, two lateral pectoral nerves and one medial pectoral nerve were seen to arise from the lateral and medial cord respectively. The musculocutaneous nerve did not pierce the coracobrachialis. Finally, the ulnar nerve arose by two roots from the medial cord. Knowledge of such variations is of interest to anatomists, radiologists, neurologists, anesthesiologists, and surgeons. The aim of our study is to provide additional information about abnormal brachial plexus and its clinical implications.

  12. Reverse Evans peroneus brevis medial ankle stabilization for balancing valgus ankle contracture during total ankle replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roukis, Thomas S; Prissel, Mark A

    2014-01-01

    Medial ankle instability secondary to deltoid ligament insufficiency is frequently encountered when performing total ankle replacement and remains a challenge. In the present techniques report, we describe a "reverse" Evans peroneus brevis tendon nonanatomic deltoid ligament reconstruction for medial ankle stabilization harvested through limited incisions using simple topographic anatomic landmarks. The harvested peroneus brevis tendon is brought through a drill hole in the talus from laterally to medially, aiming for the junction of the talar neck and body plantar to the midline. The tendon is the brought superiorly and obliquely to the anterior medial aspect of the distal tibia where it is secured under a plate and screw construct. This modified Evans peroneus brevis tendon nonanatomic deltoid ligament reconstruction is useful in providing medial ankle stability during or after primary and revision total ankle replacement.

  13. Differential effects of unilateral lesions in the medial amygdala on spontaneous and induced ovulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, M A; Dominguez, R

    1995-01-01

    The possible existence of asymmetry in the control of ovulation by the medial amygdala was explored. Unilateral lesions of the medial amygdala were performed on each day of the estrous cycle. The estral index diminished in almost all animals with a lesion in the right side of medial amygdala. Lesions of the right medial amygdala, when performed on diestrus-1, resulted in a significant decrease in the number of rats ovulating compared to controls (4/8 vs. 8/8, p rats with lesions of the right medial amygdala. However, sequential injections of PMSG-hCG did result in ovulation by all members of a group of lesioned animals. In this last condition a significant decrease in the number of ova shed by the right ovary was found compared to animals in the lesion-only condition (1.5 +/- 0.5 vs. 6.0 +/- 1.5, p cycle.

  14. Neurochemical metabolites in the medial prefrontal cortex in bipolar disorder A proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Osman (O)zdel; Demet Kalayci; Gülfizar S(o)zeri-Varma; Yilmaz Kiro(g)lu; Selim Tümkaya; Tu(g)(c)e Toker-U(g)urlu

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy metabolite values in the medial prefrontal cortex of individuals with euthymic bipolar disorder. The subjects consisted of 15 patients with euthymic bipolar disorder type I and 15 healthy controls. We performed proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy of the bilateral medial prefrontal cortex and measured levels of N-acetyl aspartate, choline and creatine. Levels of these three metabolites in the medial prefrontal cortex were found to be lower in patients with bipolar disorder compared with healthy controls. A positive correlation was found between illness duration and choline levels in the right medial prefrontal cortex. Our study suggests that during the euthymic period, there are abnormalities in cellular energy and membrane phospholipid metabolism in the medial prefrontal cortex, and that this may impair neuronal activity and integrity.

  15. Coding Odorant Concentration through Activation Timing between the Medial and Lateral Olfactory Bulb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhishang Zhou

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In mammals, each olfactory bulb (OB contains a pair of mirror-symmetric glomerular maps organized to reflect odorant receptor identity. The functional implication of maintaining these symmetric medial-lateral maps within each OB remains unclear. Here, using in vivo multielectrode recordings to simultaneously detect odorant-induced activity across the entire OB, we reveal a timing difference in the odorant-evoked onset latencies between the medial and lateral halves. Interestingly, the latencies in the medial and lateral OB decreased at different rates as odorant concentration increased, causing the timing difference between them to also diminish. As a result, output neurons in the medial and lateral OB fired with greater synchrony at higher odorant concentrations. Thus, we propose that temporal differences in activity between the medial and lateral OB can dynamically code odorant concentration, which is subsequently decoded in the olfactory cortex through the integration of synchronous action potentials.

  16. rTMS of medial parieto-occipital cortex interferes with attentional reorienting during attention and reaching tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciavarro, Marco; Ambrosini, Ettore; Tosoni, Annalisa; Committeri, Giorgia; Fattori, Patrizia; Galletti, Claudio

    2013-09-01

    Unexpected changes in the location of a target for an upcoming action require both attentional reorienting and motor planning update. In both macaque and human brain, the medial posterior parietal cortex is involved in both phenomena but its causal role is still unclear. Here we used on-line rTMS over the putative human V6A (pV6A), a reach-related region in the dorsal part of the anterior bank of the parieto-occipital sulcus, during an attention and a reaching task requiring covert shifts of attention and planning of reaching movements toward cued targets in space. We found that rTMS increased RTs to invalidly cued but not to validly cued targets during both the attention and reaching task. Furthermore, we found that rTMS induced a deviation of reaching endpoints toward visual fixation and that this deviation was larger for invalidly cued targets. The results suggest that reorienting signals are used by human pV6A area to rapidly update the current motor plan or the ongoing action when a behaviorally relevant object unexpectedly occurs in an unattended location. The current findings suggest a direct involvement of the action-related dorso-medial visual stream in attentional reorienting and a more specific role of pV6A area in the dynamic, on-line control of reaching actions.

  17. Melanin concentrating hormone induces hippocampal acetylcholine release via the medial septum in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Zhi-Hong; Fukuda, Satoru; Minakawa, Yoichi; Yasuda, Atsushi; Sakamoto, Hidetoshi; Sawamura, Shigehito; Takahashi, Hidenori; Ishii, Noriko

    2013-06-01

    Among various actions of melanin concentrating hormone (MCH), its memory function has been focused in animal studies. Although MCH neurons project to various areas in the brain, one main target site of MCH is hippocampal formation for memory consolidation. Recent immunohistochemical study shows that MCH neurons directly project to the hippocampal formation and may indirectly affect the hippocampus through the medial septum nucleus (MS). It has been reported that sleep is necessary for memory and that hippocampal acetylcholine (ACh) release is indispensable for memory consolidation. However, there is no report how MCH actually influences the hippocampal ACh effluxes in accordance with the sleep-wake cycle changes. Thus, we investigated the modulatory function of intracerebroventricular (icv) injection of MCH on the sleep-wake cycle and ACh release using microdialysis techniques. Icv injection of MCH significantly increased the rapid eye movement (REM) and non-REM episode time and the hippocampal, not cortical, ACh effluxes. There was a significant correlation between REM episode time and hippocampal ACh effluxes, but not between REM episode time and cortical ACh effluxes. Microinjection of MCH into the MS increased the hippocampal ACh effluxes with no influence on the REM episode time. It appears that the effect sites of icv MCH for prolongation of REM episode time may be other neuronal areas than the cholinergic neurons in the MS. We conclude that MCH actually increases the hippocampal ACh release at least in part through the MS in rats.

  18. Sudden death in a captive meerkat(Suricata suricatta) with arterial medial and myocardial calcification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Laura Bongiovann; Nicola Di Girolamo; Leonardo Della Salda; Marcella Massimi; Mariarita Romanucci; Paolo Selleri

    2016-01-01

    A 1-year-old male meerkat was found dead by the owner.The animal was clinically healthy and was regularly vaccinated for distemper virus.Necropsy revealed multifocal to confluent dry white areas in the myocardium,pneumonia and congestive hepatopathy.All the other organs,including gross vessels,were macroscopically normal.The heart showed histologically large,multifocal to confluent areas of mineralization of the myocardium and the wall of small coronary artery.Vascular calcifications were also observed in the hepatic portal tracts and kidneys arteries of small/medium sizes.The arterial lumen appeared narrowed and the wall thickened due to the calcification of the tunica media.In veterinary medicine,arterial mineralization is regarded as a metastatic calcification,as the result of hypercalcemia and/or hyperphosphatemia.However,today,the pathogenesis of medial artery calcification in humans seems to be the results of an active process resembling embryonic osteogenesis,rather than a mere passive process.

  19. Location and tension of the medial palpebral ligament.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Kun; Huan, Fan; Nam, Yong Seok; Han, Seung Ho; Kim, Dae Joong

    2013-11-01

    The aim of this study was to elucidate the precise anatomic location and tension of the medial palpebral ligament (MPL). Eleven hemifaces of 10 fresh Korean adult cadavers were used in this study. Nine specimens were used for measurement of dissection and tension, and 2 were used for histologic study. Measurements of tensile strength of each part of the MPL and Horner muscle were performed using a force gauge.The MPL consisted of 2 layers in all specimens dissected. The superficial layer of the palpebral ligament (SMPL) was observed from the anterior lacrimal crest to the upper and lower tarsal plates. The deep layer of the palpebral ligament (DMPL) lay from the anterior lacrimal crest to the posterior lacrimal crest, covering the lacrimal sac. The Horner muscle was observed at the posterior lacrimal crest just lateral to the attachment of the DMPL and ran laterally to the tarsal plate deep to the SMPL. The SMPL began at 4.5 ± 2.3 mm lateral to the nasomaxillary suture line to the upper and lower tarsal plates. Its transverse length was 9.6 ± 1.5 mm, and vertical width was 2.4 ± 0.7 mm, and its thickness was 4.5 ± 2.3 mm. The transverse length of the DMPL was 3.7 ± 0.4 mm, and its vertical width was 2.9 ± 1.3 mm, with a thickness of 0.3 ± 0.1 mm. The transverse length of the Horner muscle was 7.6 ± 1.9 mm, and its vertical width was 4.06 ± 1.5 mm, with a thickness of 0.4 ± 0.1 mm. The tensile strength of the SMPL was 13.4 ± 3.2 N, that of the DMPL was 4.1 ± 1.7 N, and that for Horner muscle was 9.0 ± 3.1 N. The tensile strength of the SMPL was significantly higher than that of the DMPL (P = 0.003).We reconfirmed that the MPL consisted of 2 layers: superficial layer and deep layer. Our results might be of use in surgeries of the medial canthi.

  20. Effects of different medial arch support heights on rearfoot kinematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Frank; Baur, Heiner

    2017-01-01

    Background Foot orthoses are usually assumed to be effective by optimizing mechanically dynamic rearfoot configuration. However, the effect from a foot orthosis on kinematics that has been demonstrated scientifically has only been marginal. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of different heights in medial arch-supported foot orthoses on rear foot motion during gait. Methods Nineteen asymptomatic runners (36±11years, 180±5cm, 79±10kg; 41±22km/week) participated in the study. Trials were recorded at 3.1 mph (5 km/h) on a treadmill. Athletes walked barefoot and with 4 different not customized medial arch-supported foot orthoses of various arch heights (N:0 mm, M:30 mm, H:35 mm, E:40mm). Six infrared cameras and the `Oxford Foot Model´ were used to capture motion. The average stride in each condition was calculated from 50 gait cycles per condition. Eversion excursion and internal tibia rotation were analyzed. Descriptive statistics included calculating the mean ± SD and 95% CIs. Group differences by condition were analyzed by one factor (foot orthoses) repeated measures ANOVA (α = 0.05). Results Eversion excursion revealed the lowest values for N and highest for H (B:4.6°±2.2°; 95% CI [3.1;6.2]/N:4.0°±1.7°; [2.9;5.2]/M:5.2°±2.6°; [3.6;6.8]/H:6.2°±3.3°; [4.0;8.5]/E:5.1°±3.5°; [2.8;7.5]) (p>0.05). Range of internal tibia rotation was lowest with orthosis H and highest with E (B:13.3°±3.2°; 95% CI [11.0;15.6]/N:14.5°±7.2°; [9.2;19.6]/M:13.8°±5.0°; [10.8;16.8]/H:12.3°±4.3°; [9.0;15.6]/E:14.9°±5.0°; [11.5;18.3]) (p>0.05). Differences between conditions were small and the intrasubject variation high. Conclusion Our results indicate that different arch support heights have no systematic effect on eversion excursion or the range of internal tibia rotation and therefore might not exert a crucial influence on rear foot alignment during gait. PMID:28257426

  1. Resolution of long standing tinnitus following radiofrequency ablation of C2-C3 medial branches--a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gritsenko, Karina; Caldwell, William; Shaparin, Naum; Vydyanathan, Amaresh; Kosharskyy, Boleslav

    2014-01-01

    Tinnitus is described as an auditory phantom perception analogous to central neuropathic pain. Despite the high prevalence of this debilitating symptom, no intervention is recognized that reliably eliminates tinnitus symptoms; a cause has yet to be determined. A 65-year-old healthy man presented with a 3 year history of left-sided tinnitus. Full workup performed by the primary care physician including blood tests for electrolyte imbalance, consultations by 2 independent otholaryngologists, and imaging did not reveal abnormalities to provide etiology of the tinnitus. No other complaints were noted except for occasional minimal left sided neck pain. Cervical spine x-ray showed degenerative changes with facet hypertrophy more pronounced on the left side. Subsequently, the patient underwent diagnostic left-sided C2-C3 medial branch block, resulting in complete resolution of tinnitus for more than 6 hours. After successful radiofrequency ablation of left C2-C3 medial branches, the patient became asymptomatic. At one year follow-up, he continued to be symptom free. Sparce studies have shown interaction between the somatosensory and auditory system at dorsal cochlear nucleus (DCN), inferior colliculus, and parietal association areas. Upper cervical nerve (C2) electrical stimulation evokes potentials in the DCN, eliciting strong patterns of inhibition and weak excitation of the DCN principal cells. New evidence demonstrated successful transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) of upper cervical nerve (C2) for treatment of somatic tinnitus in 240 patients. This case indicates that C2-C3 facet arthropathy may cause tinnitus and radiofrequency ablation of C2-C3 medial branches can provide an effective approach not previously considered.

  2. [Hyperlexia in an adult patient with lesions in the left medial frontal lobe].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, K; Yamadori, A; Kumabe, T; Endo, K; Fujii, T; Yoshimoto, T

    2000-04-01

    A 69-year-old right-handed woman developed a transcortical motor aphasia with hyperlexia following resection of a glioma in the left medial frontal lobe. Neurological examination revealed grasp reflex in the right hand and underutilization of the right upper extremity. An MRI demonstrated lesions in the left medial frontal lobe including the supplementary motor area and the anterior part of the cingulate gyrus, which extended to the anterior part of the body of corpus callosum. Neuropsychologically she was alert and cooperative. She demonstrated transcortical motor aphasia. Her verbal output began with echolalia. Furthermore hyperlexia was observed in daily activities and during examinations. During conversation she suddenly read words written on objects around her which were totally irrelevant to the talk. When she was walking in the ward with an examiner she read words written on a trash bag that passed by and signboards which indicated a name of a room. Her conversation while walking was intermingled with reading words, which was irrelevant to the conversation. She also read time on analog clocks, which were hung on a wall in a watch store. In a naming task, she read words written on objects first and named them upon repeated question about their names. When an examiner opened a newspaper in front of her without any instructions she began reading until the examiner prohibited it. Then she began reading again when an examiner turned the page, although she remembered that she should not read it aloud. She showed mild ideomotor apraxia of a left hand. Utilization behavior, imitation behavior, hypergraphia, or compulsive use of objects was not observed throughout the course. Hyperlexic tendency is a prominent feature of this patient's language output. Hyperlexia was often reported in children with pervasive developmental disorders including autism. There are only a few reports about hyperlexia in adults and some of them were related to diffuse brain dysfunction

  3. Haptic perception and body representation in lateral and medial occipito-temporal cortices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costantini, Marcello; Urgesi, Cosimo; Galati, Gaspare; Romani, Gian Luca; Aglioti, Salvatore M

    2011-04-01

    Although vision is the primary sensory modality that humans and other primates use to identify objects in the environment, we can recognize crucial object features (e.g., shape, size) using the somatic modality. Previous studies have shown that the occipito-temporal areas dedicated to the visual processing of object forms, faces and bodies also show category-selective responses when the preferred stimuli are haptically explored out of view. Visual processing of human bodies engages specific areas in lateral (extrastriate body area, EBA) and medial (fusiform body area, FBA) occipito-temporal cortex. This study aimed at exploring the relative involvement of EBA and FBA in the haptic exploration of body parts. During fMRI scanning, participants were asked to haptically explore either real-size fake body parts or objects. We found a selective activation of right and left EBA, but not of right FBA, while participants haptically explored body parts as compared to real objects. This suggests that EBA may integrate visual body representations with somatosensory information regarding body parts and form a multimodal representation of the body. Furthermore, both left and right EBA showed a comparable level of body selectivity during haptic perception and visual imagery. However, right but not left EBA was more activated during haptic exploration than visual imagery of body parts, ruling out that the response to haptic body exploration was entirely due to the use of visual imagery. Overall, the results point to the existence of different multimodal body representations in the occipito-temporal cortex which are activated during perception and imagery of human body parts. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Fratura avulsão do planalto tibial medial (Segond reverso Avulsion fracture of the medial tibial plateau (reverse Segond injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Janson Angelini

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Descreve-se neste artigo um padrão de lesão descrito na literatura apenas duas vezes, num total de quatro casos, denominado Segond reverso por apresentar achados clínicos e radiológicos exatamente opostos aos da clássica lesão de Segond. Semelhantemente aos casos previamente descritos, apresentou fratura avulsão do planalto tibial medial, na inserção do ligamento colateral medial profundo, associada a lesão do ligamento cruzado posterior. Assim como em um dos casos prévios, foi constatada lesão do ligamento cruzado anterior. Entretanto, diferiu dos anteriormente relatados por não apresentar lesão do menisco medial.This article reports an injury pattern described only twice in literature, totaling four cases, and referred to as reverse Segond injury for its clinical and radiological findings are precisely opposite to those observed in the classical Segond injury. Similarly to the previously described cases, our case reported avulsion fracture of the medial tibial plateau at the insertion of the deep tibial collateral ligament, associated to posterior cruciate ligament injury. Similarly to one of the previous cases, anterior cruciate ligament injury was found in our case, although it differs from the previous ones because it does not show medial meniscal injury.

  5. The effect of different types of insoles or shoe modifications on medial loading of the knee in persons with medial knee osteoarthritis: a randomised trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Richard K; Chapman, Graham J; Parkes, Matthew J; Forsythe, Laura; Felson, David T

    2015-11-01

    Many conservative treatments exist for medial knee osteoarthritis (OA) which aims to reduce the external knee adduction moment (EKAM). The objective of this study was to determine the difference between different shoes and lateral wedge insoles on EKAM, knee adduction angular impulse (KAAI), external knee flexion moment, pain, and comfort when walking in individuals with medial knee OA. Seventy individuals with medial knee OA underwent three-dimensional walking gait analysis in five conditions (barefoot, control shoe, typical wedge, supported wedge, and mobility shoe) with pain and comfort recorded concurrently. The change in EKAM, KAAI, external knee flexion moment, pain, and comfort were assessed using multiple linear regressions and pairwise comparisons. Compared with the control shoe, lateral wedge insoles and barefoot walking significantly reduced early stance EKAM and KAAI. The mobility shoe showed no effect. A significant reduction in latter stance EKAM was seen in the lateral wedge insoles compared to the other conditions, with only the barefoot condition reducing the external knee flexion moment. However, the mobility shoe showed significant immediate knee pain reduction and improved comfort scores. Different lateral wedge insoles show comparable reductions in medial knee loading and in our study, the mobility shoe did not affect medial loading.

  6. Autonoetic Consciousness in Autobiographical Memories after Medial Temporal Lobe Resection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noulhiane, M.; Piolino, P.; Hasboun, D.; Clemenceau, S.; Baulac, M.; Samson, S.

    2008-01-01

    This study aims to investigate autonoetic consciousness associated with episodic autobiographical memory in patients who had undergone unilateral medial temporal lobe resection for intractable epilepsy. Autonoetic consciousness, defined as the conscious feeling of mentally travelling back in time to relive a specific event, was assessed using the Remember/Know (R/K) paradigm across different time periods as proposed in the autobiographical memory task developed by Piolino et al. (TEMPau task). Results revealed that the two patient groups (left and right temporal resection) gave reduced sense of reliving (R) responses and more familiarity (K) responses than healthy controls. This poor autonoetic consciousness was highlighted when patients were asked to justify their Remember responses by recalling sensory-perceptive, affective or spatiotemporal specific details across all life periods. These results support the bilateral MTL contribution to episodic autobiographical memory covering the entire lifespan, which is consistent with the multiple trace theory of MTL function [7,9]. This study also demonstrates the bilateral involvement of MTL structures in recalling specific details of personal events characterized by autonoetic consciousness. PMID:18413911

  7. A general role for medial prefrontal cortex in event prediction

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    William H Alexander

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available A recent computational neural model of medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC, namely the PRO model (Alexander & Brown, 2011, suggests that mPFC learns to predict the outcomes of actions. The model accounted for a wide range of data on the mPFC. Nevertheless, numerous recent findings suggest that mPFC may signal predictions and prediction errors even when the predicted outcomes are not contingent on prior actions. Here we show that the existing PRO model can learn to predict outcomes in a general sense, and not only when the outcomes are contingent on actions. A series of simulations show how this generalized PRO model can account for an even broader range of findings in the mPFC, including human ERP, fMRI, and macaque single-unit data. The results suggest that the mPFC learns to predict salient events in general and provides a theoretical framework that links mPFC function to model-based reinforcement learning, Bayesian learning, and theories of cognitive control.

  8. Medial Amygdalar Aromatase Neurons Regulate Aggression in Both Sexes

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    Elizabeth K. Unger

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Aromatase-expressing neuroendocrine neurons in the vertebrate male brain synthesize estradiol from circulating testosterone. This locally produced estradiol controls neural circuits underlying courtship vocalization, mating, aggression, and territory marking in male mice. How aromatase-expressing neuronal populations control these diverse estrogen-dependent male behaviors is poorly understood, and the function, if any, of aromatase-expressing neurons in females is unclear. Using targeted genetic approaches, we show that aromatase-expressing neurons within the male posterodorsal medial amygdala (MeApd regulate components of aggression, but not other estrogen-dependent male-typical behaviors. Remarkably, aromatase-expressing MeApd neurons in females are specifically required for components of maternal aggression, which we show is distinct from intermale aggression in pattern and execution. Thus, aromatase-expressing MeApd neurons control distinct forms of aggression in the two sexes. Moreover, our findings indicate that complex social behaviors are separable in a modular manner at the level of genetically identified neuronal populations.

  9. Medial amygdalar aromatase neurons regulate aggression in both sexes.

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    Unger, Elizabeth K; Burke, Kenneth J; Yang, Cindy F; Bender, Kevin J; Fuller, Patrick M; Shah, Nirao M

    2015-02-03

    Aromatase-expressing neuroendocrine neurons in the vertebrate male brain synthesize estradiol from circulating testosterone. This locally produced estradiol controls neural circuits underlying courtship vocalization, mating, aggression, and territory marking in male mice. How aromatase-expressing neuronal populations control these diverse estrogen-dependent male behaviors is poorly understood, and the function, if any, of aromatase-expressing neurons in females is unclear. Using targeted genetic approaches, we show that aromatase-expressing neurons within the male posterodorsal medial amygdala (MeApd) regulate components of aggression, but not other estrogen-dependent male-typical behaviors. Remarkably, aromatase-expressing MeApd neurons in females are specifically required for components of maternal aggression, which we show is distinct from intermale aggression in pattern and execution. Thus, aromatase-expressing MeApd neurons control distinct forms of aggression in the two sexes. Moreover, our findings indicate that complex social behaviors are separable in a modular manner at the level of genetically identified neuronal populations.

  10. Diffusion tensor imaging in medial temporal lobe epilepsy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Ai-hong; LI Kun-cheng; YU Chun-shui; WANG Yu-ping; XUE Su-fang

    2006-01-01

    Background Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is a noninvasive imaging technique for the assessment of theintegrity of cerebral tissues. This study was undertaken to assess the changes of diffusion indices of hippocampalformation (HF) in patients with medial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE).Methods Fourteen patients with MTLE and 14 healthy subjects were evaluated. Mean diffusivity (MD) andfractional anisotropy (FA) from the symmetrical-voxel sampling regions of the anterior HF were calculated in allsubjects. The MD and FA values were compared across the groups.Results No significant differences of MD and FA values were noted between right and left HF in the controls.In the patient group, MD significantly increased in the HF ipsilateral to the lesioned side [(9.27±1.09)×10-4mm2/s], compared with the values in the contralateral HF [(8.20±0.59)×10-4 mm2/s] (t = 4.479, P = 0.001) andhealthy subjects [(7.58±0.51)×10-4 mm2/s] (P<0.001), but no significant differences were found in FA. Whencompared with the controls, patients had a significantly higher MD inthe contralateral HF (P<0.05), but thedifference in FA was not statistically significant.Conclusions DTI could detect hippocampal abnormality in patients with MTLE. This technique may be helpfulfor preoperative evaluation of such patients.

  11. Medial displacement calcaneal osteotomy using minimally invasive technique.

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    Kheir, Ehab; Borse, Vishal; Sharpe, Jon; Lavalette, David; Farndon, Mark

    2015-03-01

    Medial displacement calcaneal osteotomy is a common procedure often used as part of pes planovalgus deformity correction. Traditionally the osteotomy is performed using a direct lateral or extended lateral approach, which may carry the risk of wound problems, infection and neurovascular injury. The authors describe a minimally invasive technique to perform the osteotomy and achieve the desired correction. The article illustrates our experience and learning curve with the use of this technique as an option for calcaneal osteotomy. We retrospectively reviewed the records of a sequential series of patients since 2011 whose calcaneal osteotomies were performed by 2 surgeons, after cadaveric training using a minimally invasive operative approach. Prior to 2011, similar surgeries, performed by the senior authors, were undertaken using a direct lateral approach. Thirty cases were identified; 29 had tibialis posterior reconstruction coupled with calcaneal osteotomy for acquired flexible planovalgus deformity and 1 patient had surgery for a malunited calcaneal fracture. Radiological and clinical union occurred in all 30 cases (100%). The radiographs of all cases were reviewed by a specialist musculoskeletal radiologist. There were no neurovascular or wound complications. All patients had restoration of neutral hindfoot alignment. One patient required screw removal after union, resolving all symptoms. This series suggests that minimally invasive calcaneal osteotomy surgery can achieve excellent union rates aiding correction of deformity with no observed neurovascular or soft tissue complications. For surgeons experienced in open surgery, there is a short learning curve after appropriate training. © The Author(s) 2014.

  12. Correlating Function and Imaging Measures of the Medial Longitudinal Fasciculus.

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    Ken Sakaie

    Full Text Available To test the validity of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI measures of tissue injury by examining such measures in a white matter structure with well-defined function, the medial longitudinal fasciculus (MLF. Injury to the MLF underlies internuclear ophthalmoparesis (INO.40 MS patients with chronic INO and 15 healthy controls were examined under an IRB-approved protocol. Tissue integrity of the MLF was characterized by DTI parameters: longitudinal diffusivity (LD, transverse diffusivity (TD, mean diffusivity (MD and fractional anisotropy (FA. Severity of INO was quantified by infrared oculography to measure versional disconjugacy index (VDI.LD was significantly lower in patients than in controls in the medulla-pons region of the MLF (p < 0.03. FA was also lower in patients in the same region (p < 0.0004. LD of the medulla-pons region correlated with VDI (R = -0.28, p < 0.05 as did FA in the midbrain section (R = 0.31, p < 0.02.This study demonstrates that DTI measures of brain tissue injury can detect injury to a functionally relevant white matter pathway, and that such measures correlate with clinically accepted evaluation indices for INO. The results validate DTI as a useful imaging measure of tissue integrity.

  13. Autobiographical memory, future imagining, and the medial temporal lobe.

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    Dede, Adam J O; Wixted, John T; Hopkins, Ramona O; Squire, Larry R

    2016-11-22

    In two experiments, patients with damage to the medial temporal lobe (MTL) and healthy controls produced detailed autobiographical narratives as they remembered past events (recent and remote) and imagined future events (near and distant). All recent events occurred after the onset of memory impairment. The first experiment aimed to replicate the methods of Race et al. [Race E, Keane MM, Verfaellie M (2011) J Neurosci 31(28):10262-10269]. Transcripts from that study were kindly made available for independent analysis, which largely reproduced the findings from that study. Our patients produced marginally fewer episodic details than controls. Patients from the earlier study were more impaired than our patients. Patients in both groups had difficulty in returning to their narratives after going on tangents, suggesting that anterograde memory impairment may have interfered with narrative construction. In experiment 2, the experimenter used supportive questioning to help keep participants on task and reduce the burden on anterograde memory. This procedure increased the number of details produced by all participants and rescued the performance of our patients for the distant past. Neither of the two patient groups had any special difficulty in producing spatial details. The findings suggest that constructing narratives about the remote past and the future does not depend on MTL structures, except to the extent that anterograde amnesia affects performance. The results further suggest that different findings about the status of autobiographical memory likely depend on differences in the location and extent of brain damage in different patient groups.

  14. Map reading, navigating from maps, and the medial temporal lobe.

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    Urgolites, Zhisen J; Kim, Soyun; Hopkins, Ramona O; Squire, Larry R

    2016-12-13

    We administered map-reading tasks in which participants navigated an array of marks on the floor by following paths on hand-held maps that made up to nine turns. The burden on memory was minimal because the map was always available. Nevertheless, because the map was held in a fixed position in relation to the body, spatial computations were continually needed to transform map coordinates into geographical coordinates as participants followed the maps. Patients with lesions limited to the hippocampus (n = 5) performed similar to controls at all path lengths (experiment 1). They were also intact at executing single moves to an adjacent location, even when trials began by facing in a direction that put the map coordinates and geographical coordinates into conflict (experiment 2). By contrast, one patient with large medial temporal lobe (MTL) lesions performed poorly overall in experiment 1 and poorly in experiment 2 when trials began by facing in the direction that placed the map coordinates and geographical coordinates in maximal conflict. Directly after testing, all patients were impaired at remembering factual details about the task. The findings suggest that the hippocampus is not needed to carry out the spatial computations needed for map reading and navigating from maps. The impairment in map reading associated with large MTL lesions may depend on damage in or near the parahippocampal cortex.

  15. Medial temporal lobe roles in human path integration.

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    Naohide Yamamoto

    Full Text Available Path integration is a process in which observers derive their location by integrating self-motion signals along their locomotion trajectory. Although the medial temporal lobe (MTL is thought to take part in path integration, the scope of its role for path integration remains unclear. To address this issue, we administered a variety of tasks involving path integration and other related processes to a group of neurosurgical patients whose MTL was unilaterally resected as therapy for epilepsy. These patients were unimpaired relative to neurologically intact controls in many tasks that required integration of various kinds of sensory self-motion information. However, the same patients (especially those who had lesions in the right hemisphere walked farther than the controls when attempting to walk without vision to a previewed target. Importantly, this task was unique in our test battery in that it allowed participants to form a mental representation of the target location and anticipate their upcoming walking trajectory before they began moving. Thus, these results put forth a new idea that the role of MTL structures for human path integration may stem from their participation in predicting the consequences of one's locomotor actions. The strengths of this new theoretical viewpoint are discussed.

  16. Processing Chinese hand-radicals activates the medial frontal gyrus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qing-Lin Wu; Yu-Chen Chan; Joseph P. Lavallee; Hsueh-Chin Chen; Kuo-En Chang; Yao-Ting Sung

    2013-01-01

    Embodied semantics theory asserts that the meaning of action-related words is neural y represented through networks that overlap with or are identical to networks involved in sory-motor processing. While some studies supporting this theory have focused on Chinese cha-racters, less attention has been paid to their semantic radicals. Indeed, there is stil disagreement about whether these radicals are processed independently. The present study investigated whether radicals are processed separately and, if so, whether this processing occurs in sensory-motor gions. Materials consisted of 72 high-frequency Chinese characters, with 18 in each of four ries:hand-action verbs with and without hand-radicals, and verbs not related to hand actions, with and without hand-radicals. Twenty-eight participants underwent functional MRI scans while reading the characters. Compared to characters without hand-radicals, reading characters with hand-radicals activated the right medial frontal gyrus. Verbs involving hand-action activated the left inferior parietal lobule, possibly reflecting integration of information in the radical with the semantic meaning of the verb. The findings may be consistent with embodied semantics theory and suggest that neural representation of radicals is indispensable in processing Chinese characters.

  17. False positives to confusable objects predict medial temporal lobe atrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kivisaari, Sasa L; Monsch, Andreas U; Taylor, Kirsten I

    2013-09-01

    Animal models agree that the perirhinal cortex plays a critical role in object recognition memory, but qualitative aspects of this mnemonic function are still debated. A recent model claims that the perirhinal cortex is required to recognize the novelty of confusable distractor stimuli, and that damage here results in an increased propensity to judge confusable novel objects as familiar (i.e., false positives). We tested this model in healthy participants and patients with varying degrees of perirhinal cortex damage, i.e., amnestic mild cognitive impairment and very early Alzheimer's disease (AD), with a recognition memory task with confusable and less confusable realistic object pictures, and from whom we acquired high-resolution anatomic MRI scans. Logistic mixed-model behavioral analyses revealed that both patient groups committed more false positives with confusable than less confusable distractors, whereas healthy participants performed comparably in both conditions. A voxel-based morphometry analysis demonstrated that this effect was associated with atrophy of the anteromedial temporal lobe, including the perirhinal cortex. These findings suggest that also the human perirhinal cortex recognizes the novelty of confusable objects, consistent with its border position between the hierarchical visual object processing and medial temporal lobe memory systems, and explains why AD patients exhibit a heightened propensity to commit false positive responses with inherently confusable stimuli.

  18. The role of medial frontal gyrus in action anticipation in professional badminton players

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    Huan Xu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Some studies show that the medial frontal cortex is associated with more skilled action anticipation, while similar findings are not observed in some other studies, possibly due to the stimuli employed and the participants used as the control group. In addition, no studies have investigated whether there is any functional connectivity between the medial frontal cortex and other brain regions in more skilled action anticipation. Therefore, the present study aimed to re-investigate how the medial frontal cortex is involved in more skilled action anticipation by circumventing the limitations of previous research and to investigate that the medial frontal cortex functionally connected with other brain regions involved in action processing in more skilled action anticipation. To this end, professional badminton players and novices were asked to anticipate the landing position of the shuttlecock while watching badminton match videos or to judge the gender of the players in the matches. The video clips ended right at the point that the shuttlecock and the racket came into contact to reduce the effect of information about the trajectory of the shuttlecock. Novices who lacked training and watching experience were recruited for the control group to reduce the effect of sport-related experience on the medial frontal cortex. Blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD activation was assessed by means of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI. Compared to novices, badminton players exhibited stronger activation in the left medial frontal cortex during action anticipation and greater functional connectivity between left medial frontal cortex and some other brain regions (e.g., right posterior cingulate cortex. Therefore, the present study supports the position that the medial frontal cortex plays a role in more skilled action anticipation and that there is a specific brain network for more skilled action anticipation that involves right posterior cingulate

  19. Prevalence and cognitive impact of medial temporal atrophy in a hospital stroke service: retrospective cohort study.

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    Kebets, Valeria; Gregoire, Simone M; Charidimou, Andreas; Barnes, Josephine; Rantell, Khadija; Brown, Martin M; Jäger, Hans R; Cipolotti, Lisa; Werring, David J

    2015-08-01

    Cerebrovascular disease and neurodegeneration cause cognitive impairment and frequently coexist. Our objectives were to investigate the prevalence and cognitive impact of medial temporal lobe atrophy - a radiological marker often associated with Alzheimer's disease - in a hospital stroke service. Retrospective cohort study of patients from a hospital stroke service. Patients assessed for suspected ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack, irrespective of final diagnosis, underwent neuropsychological testing and magnetic resonance imaging. medial temporal lobe atrophy, white matter hyperintensities, lacunes, and cerebral microbleeds were rated using established criteria and validated scales. The associations between medial temporal lobe atrophy and cognition were tested using multivariable logistic regression analyses, adjusted for age and imaging markers of cerebrovascular disease. Three hundred and ninety-three patients were included, of whom 169 (43%; 95% confidence interval: 38·1-48·1%) had medial temporal lobe atrophy; in 38 patients (9·7%), medial temporal lobe atrophy was severe (mean score ≥2). In unadjusted logistic regression analyses in the whole cohort, mean medial temporal lobe atrophy score was associated with verbal memory, nominal and perceptual skills, executive function, and speed and attention. After adjustment for age, white matter hyperintensities, number of lacunes, presence of cerebral microbleeds, previous ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack, and premorbid intelligence quotient, mean medial temporal lobe atrophy score remained associated with impairment in verbal memory (odds ratio: 1·64; 95% confidence interval 1·04-2·58) and nominal skills (odds ratio: 1·61; 95% confidence interval 1·04-2·48). Medial temporal lobe atrophy is common and has an independent impact on cognitive function in a stroke service population, independent of confounding factors including age and magnetic resonance imaging markers of

  20. Symptomatic Os Subtibiale Associated with Chronic Pain Around the Medial Malleolus in a Young Athlete

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    Iliev Alexandar A.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available An os subtibiale is a rare accessory bone located below or behind the medial malleolus. Herein we present a rare case of a painful os subtibiale in a young triathlete who presented with pain, redness and swelling below his left medial malleolus. Plain radiographs and three-dimensional computed tomography revealed a well-defined oval bone distal to the left medial malleolus. After conservative treatment failed, the ossicle was excised in an open surgery with complete resolution of symptoms. This case report emphasizes the need for clinical awareness of different anatomical variations of the bones of the foot.

  1. Anatomical study of the arrangement and attachments of the human medial pterygoid muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Haddioui, Aziz; Bravetti, P; Gaudy, J-F

    2007-03-01

    The authors have studied the medial pterygoid muscle on 179 fresh cadavers using anatomical dissection and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The aim of this study was to define the general morphology and architectural organisation of the human medial pterygoid. Plane by plane dissection, anatomical sections in different spatial planes on half heads and isolated blocks demonstrated that the medial pterygoid has different architectural disposition and insertional zones from those which are normally described. The study has shown that the muscle has a typical penniform structure made up of seven alternating muscular/aponeurotic layers and that the tendinous intramuscular sheets were particularly well developed. This allows supporting a future functional study.

  2. Somatotopic organization of the medial wall of the cerebral hemispheres: a 3 Tesla fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, A R; Zimbelman, J L; Watanabe, Y; Rao, S M

    2001-12-04

    Somatotopic organization of the human medial wall of the cerebral hemispheres was studied using functional MRI conducted at high field strength (3 T) with fine spatial resolution ( approximately 2 mm). Healthy subjects performed paced, repetitive movements of the fingers and toes. Within the supplementary motor area (SMA), two regions were identified: finger movements activated a region rostral and superior to that for toe movements. Two activation foci were also identified in the cingulate motor area: toe movements activated a region rostral and ventral to that activated by finger movements. All foci were located between the anterior and posterior commissures. Our results confirm previous human and non-human primate studies regarding the rostral-caudal organization of the SMA and CMA. The dorsal-ventral organization of the CMA, however, appears to be divergent from results derived from cortical stimulation studies conducted in non-human primates.

  3. Colgajo sural medial: un nuevo colgajo de perforantes para la reconstrucción del territorio maxilofacial Medial sural flap: a new flap for maxillofacial reconstruction

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    Ignacio Arribas-García

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: La reconstrucción microquirúrgica de defectos mucocutáneos craneofaciales se realiza con técnicas descritas desde hace muchos años y se basan fundamentalmente en el colgajo radial, el anterolateral de muslo y el lateral de brazo, entre otros. Se presenta un nuevo colgajo microvascularizado fasciocutáneo para la reconstrucción de defectos en el territorio de cabeza y cuello, el colgajo de perforantes dependiente de la arteria sural medial. Material y métodos: Se presentan 4 pacientes con carcinoma epidermoide de cavidad oral, donde se realizaron 4 colgajos dependientes de la arteria sural medial para la reconstrucción de sus defectos tras la cirugía ablativa de la lesión tumoral. Resultados: El colgajo sural medial presentó una excelente adaptabilidad y una adecuada viabilidad en todos los casos, con unos buenos resultados funcionales, estéticos y con escasa morbilidad de la zona donante. Conclusión: Se presenta una nueva técnica reconstructiva en defectos de cabeza y cuello.Introduction: Microsurgical reconstruction of craniofacial mucocutaneous defects have been performed for many years using well-known techniques, that are mainly based on flaps from the radial forearm, the anterolateral thigh and lateral arm, among others. We present the medial sural artery perforator flap, a new vascularized fasciocutaneous flap for head and neck reconstruction. Material and methods: We present four patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma. A medial sural artery flap was performed for the oral reconstruction after tumour ablation surgery. Results: The medial sural flap showed excellent adaptability and adequate viability in all cases, with good functional and aesthetic results and low donor site morbidity. Conclusion: We present a new reconstructive technique in head and neck defects.

  4. The Impact of Density and Ratio on Object-Ensemble Representation in Human Anterior-Medial Ventral Visual Cortex.

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    Cant, Jonathan S; Xu, Yaoda

    2015-11-01

    Behavioral research has demonstrated that observers can extract summary statistics from ensembles of multiple objects. We recently showed that a region of anterior-medial ventral visual cortex, overlapping largely with the scene-sensitive parahippocampal place area (PPA), participates in object-ensemble representation. Here we investigated the encoding of ensemble density in this brain region using fMRI-adaptation. In Experiment 1, we varied density by changing the spacing between objects and found no sensitivity in PPA to such density changes. Thus, density may not be encoded in PPA, possibly because object spacing is not perceived as an intrinsic ensemble property. In Experiment 2, we varied relative density by changing the ratio of 2 types of objects comprising an ensemble, and observed significant sensitivity in PPA to such ratio change. Although colorful ensembles were shown in Experiment 2, Experiment 3 demonstrated that sensitivity to object ratio change was not driven mainly by a change in the ratio of colors. Thus, while anterior-medial ventral visual cortex is insensitive to density (object spacing) changes, it does code relative density (object ratio) within an ensemble. Object-ensemble processing in this region may thus depend on high-level visual information, such as object ratio, rather than low-level information, such as spacing/spatial frequency.

  5. The Role of the Medial Prefrontal Cortex-Amygdala Circuit in Stress Effects on the Extinction of Fear

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    Irit Akirav

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Stress exposure, depending on its intensity and duration, affects cognition and learning in an adaptive or maladaptive manner. Studies addressing the effects of stress on cognitive processes have mainly focused on conditioned fear, since it is suggested that fear-motivated learning lies at the root of affective and anxiety disorders. Inhibition of fear-motivated response can be accomplished by experimental extinction of the fearful response to the fear-inducing stimulus. Converging evidence indicates that extinction of fear memory requires plasticity in both the medial prefrontal cortex and the amygdala. These brain areas are also deeply involved in mediating the effects of exposure to stress on memory. Moreover, extensive evidence indicates that gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA transmission plays a primary role in the modulation of behavioral sequelae resulting from a stressful experience, and may also partially mediate inhibitory learning during extinction. In this review, we present evidence that exposure to a stressful experience may impair fear extinction and the possible involvement of the GABA system. Impairment of fear extinction learning is particularly important as it may predispose some individuals to the development of posttraumatic stress disorder. We further discuss a possible dysfunction in the medial prefrontal cortex-amygdala circuit following a stressful experience that may explain the impaired extinction caused by exposure to a stressor.

  6. Morphometric differences between the medial and lateral meniscus in healthy men - a three-dimensional analysis using magnetic resonance imaging.

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    Bloecker, K; Wirth, W; Hudelmaier, M; Burgkart, R; Frobell, R; Eckstein, F

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this work was to characterize tibial plateau coverage and morphometric differences of the medial (MM) and lateral meniscus (LM) in a male reference cohort using three-dimensional imaging. Coronal multiplanar reconstructions of a sagittal double-echo steady state with water excitation magnetic resonance sequence (slice thickness: 1.5 mm, and in-plane resolution: 0.37 × 0.70 mm) were analyzed in 47 male participants without symptoms, signs or risk factors of knee osteoarthritis of the reference cohort of the Osteoarthritis Initiative. The medial and lateral tibial (LT) plateau cartilage area and the tibial, femoral and external surfaces of the MM and LM were manually segmented throughout the entire knee. This process was assisted by parallel inspection of a coronal intermediately weighted turbo spin echo sequence. Measures of tibial coverage, meniscus size, and meniscus position were computed three-dimensionally for the total menisci, the body, and the anterior and the posterior horn. The LM was found to cover a significantly greater (p engineering and transplantation aiming to restore normal joint conditions.

  7. Three-Dimensional Eye Position Signals Shape Both Peripersonal Space and Arm Movement Activity in the Medial Posterior Parietal Cortex.

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    Kostas eHadjidimitrakis

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Research conducted over the last decades has established that the medial part of posterior parietal cortex is crucial for controlling visually guided actions in human and non-human primates. Within this cortical sector there is area V6A, a crucial node of the parietofrontal network involved in arm movement control in both monkeys and humans. However, the encoding of action-in-depth by V6A cells had been not studied till recently. Recent neurophysiological studies show the existence in V6A neurons of signals related to the distance of targets from the eyes. These signals are integrated, often at the level of single cells, with information about the direction of gaze, thus encoding spatial location in 3D space. Moreover, 3D eye position signals seem to be further exploited at two additional levels of neural processing: a in determining whether targets are located in the peripersonal space or not, and b in shaping the spatial tuning of arm movement related activity towards reachable targets. These findings are in line with studies in putative homolog regions in humans and together point to a role of medial posterior parietal cortex in encoding both the vergence angle of the eyes and peripersonal space. Besides this role in spatial encoding also in depth, several findings demonstrate the involvement of this cortical sector in non-spatial processes.

  8. Altered activity in the central medial thalamus precedes changes in the neocortex during transitions into both sleep and propofol anesthesia.

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    Baker, Rowan; Gent, Thomas C; Yang, Qianzi; Parker, Susan; Vyssotski, Alexei L; Wisden, William; Brickley, Stephen G; Franks, Nicholas P

    2014-10-01

    How general anesthetics cause loss of consciousness is unknown. Some evidence points toward effects on the neocortex causing "top-down" inhibition, whereas other findings suggest that these drugs act via subcortical mechanisms, possibly selectively stimulating networks promoting natural sleep. To determine whether some neuronal circuits are affected before others, we used Morlet wavelet analysis to obtain high temporal resolution in the time-varying power spectra of local field potentials recorded simultaneously in discrete brain regions at natural sleep onset and during anesthetic-induced loss of righting reflex in rats. Although we observed changes in the local field potentials that were anesthetic-specific, there were some common changes in high-frequency (20-40 Hz) oscillations (reductions in frequency and increases in power) that could be detected at, or before, sleep onset and anesthetic-induced loss of righting reflex. For propofol and natural sleep, these changes occur first in the thalamus before changes could be detected in the neocortex. With dexmedetomidine, the changes occurred simultaneously in the thalamus and neocortex. In addition, the phase relationships between the low-frequency (1-4 Hz) oscillations in thalamic nuclei and neocortical areas are essentially the same for natural sleep and following dexmedetomidine administration, but a sudden change in phase, attributable to an effect in the central medial thalamus, occurs at the point of dexmedetomidine loss of righting reflex. Our data are consistent with the central medial thalamus acting as a key hub through which general anesthesia and natural sleep are initiated.

  9. A comprehensive protocol for manual segmentation of the medial temporal lobe structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Matthew; Hu, Yifan; Woo, Sarah; O'Hearn, Dylan; Iordan, Alexandru D; Dolcos, Sanda; Dolcos, Florin

    2014-07-02

    The present paper describes a comprehensive protocol for manual tracing of the set of brain regions comprising the medial temporal lobe (MTL): amygdala, hippocampus, and the associated parahippocampal regions (perirhinal, entorhinal, and parahippocampal proper). Unlike most other tracing protocols available, typically focusing on certain MTL areas (e.g., amygdala and/or hippocampus), the integrative perspective adopted by the present tracing guidelines allows for clear localization of all MTL subregions. By integrating information from a variety of sources, including extant tracing protocols separately targeting various MTL structures, histological reports, and brain atlases, and with the complement of illustrative visual materials, the present protocol provides an accurate, intuitive, and convenient guide for understanding the MTL anatomy. The need for such tracing guidelines is also emphasized by illustrating possible differences between automatic and manual segmentation protocols. This knowledge can be applied toward research involving not only structural MRI investigations but also structural-functional colocalization and fMRI signal extraction from anatomically defined ROIs, in healthy and clinical groups alike.

  10. Chronic stress-like syndrome as a consequence of medial site subthalamic stimulation in Parkinson's disease.

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    Růžička, Filip; Jech, Robert; Nováková, Lucie; Urgošík, Dušan; Bezdíček, Ondřej; Vymazal, Josef; Růžička, Evžen

    2015-02-01

    Considering the functional organization of the subthalamic nucleus (STN), we hypothesized that subthalamic deep brain stimulation (STN-DBS) in Parkinson's disease might have a differential impact on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in relation to the position of active stimulating contact within the STN. In addition, we searched for any STN-DBS-related morning plasma cortisol changes in association with postoperative anxiety and weight gain. A plasma cortisol measurement was performed on the day of initiation of bilateral STN-DBS and repeated after 1 and 17 months in twenty patients with advanced Parkinson's disease. The body weight change and anxiety scores following the implantation were assessed as well. The electrode positions in the STN were determined on T1-weighted magnetic resonance images. After initiation of stimulation, cortisol levels significantly decreased and the cortisol changes after 1 and 17 months strongly correlated with the position of active contact in the subthalamic area. Patients with at least one contact located more medially in the STN experienced a significantly greater decrease of cortisol than those with one or both active contacts more laterally. Furthermore, the lower cortisol levels were strongly associated with higher trait anxiety and weight gain. These changes mimicked the effects of chronic stress and suggest the disturbing impact of STN-DBS on limbic and motivational systems.

  11. Melatonin receptor activation increases glutamatergic synaptic transmission in the rat medial lateral habenula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evely, Katherine M; Hudson, Randall L; Dubocovich, Margarita L; Haj-Dahmane, Samir

    2016-05-01

    Melatonin (MLT) is secreted from the pineal gland and mediates its physiological effects through activation of two G protein-coupled receptors, MT1 and MT2 . These receptors are expressed in several brain areas, including the habenular complex, a pair of nuclei that relay information from forebrain to midbrain and modulate a plethora of behaviors, including sleep, mood, and pain. However, so far, the precise mechanisms by which MLT control the function of habenula neurons remain unknown. Using whole cell recordings from male rat brain slices, we examined the effects of MLT on the excitability of medial lateral habenula (MLHb) neurons. We found that MLT had no significant effects on the intrinsic excitability of MLHb neurons, but profoundly increased the amplitude of glutamate-mediated evoked excitatory post-synaptic currents (EPSC). The increase in strength of glutamate synapses onto MLHb neurons was mediated by an increase in glutamate release. The MLT-induced increase in glutamatergic synaptic transmission was blocked by the competitive MT1 /MT2 receptor antagonist luzindole (LUZ). These results unravel a potential cellular mechanism by which MLT receptor activation enhances the excitability of MLHb neurons. The MLT-mediated control of glutamatergic inputs to the MLHb may play a key role in the modulation of various behaviors controlled by the habenular complex.

  12. Phasic dopamine release in the medial prefrontal cortex enhances stimulus discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popescu, Andrei T; Zhou, Michael R; Poo, Mu-Ming

    2016-05-31

    Phasic dopamine (DA) release is believed to guide associative learning. Most studies have focused on projections from the ventral tegmental area (VTA) to the striatum, and the action of DA in other VTA target regions remains unclear. Using optogenetic activation of VTA projections, we examined DA function in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). We found that mice perceived optogenetically induced DA release in mPFC as neither rewarding nor aversive, and did not change their previously learned behavior in response to DA transients. However, repetitive temporal pairing of an auditory conditioned stimulus (CS) with mPFC DA release resulted in faster learning of a subsequent task involving discrimination of the same CS against unpaired stimuli. Similar results were obtained using both appetitive and aversive unconditioned stimuli, supporting the notion that DA transients in mPFC do not represent valence. Using extracellular recordings, we found that CS-DA pairings increased firing of mPFC neurons in response to CSs, and administration of D1 or D2 DA-receptor antagonists in mPFC during learning impaired stimulus discrimination. We conclude that DA transients tune mPFC neurons for the recognition of behaviorally relevant events during learning.

  13. Intracerebroventricular administration of ouabain alters synaptic plasticity and dopamine release in rat medial prefrontal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sui, Li; Song, Xiao-Jin; Ren, Jie; Ju, Li-Hua; Wang, Yan

    2013-08-01

    Intracerebroventricular (ICV) administration of ouabain, a specific Na-K-ATPase inhibitor, in rats mimics the manic phenotypes of bipolar disorder and thus has been proposed as one of the best animal models of mania. Bipolar mania has been known to be associated with dysfunctions of medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), a brain area critically involved in mental functions; however, the exact mechanism underlying these dysfunctions is not yet clear. The present study investigated synaptic transmission, synaptic plasticity, and dopamine release in Sprague-Dawley rat mPFC following ICV administration of ouabain (5 μl of 1 mM ouabain). The electrophysiological results demonstrated that ouabain depressed the short- and the long-term synaptic plasticity, represented by paired-pulse facilitation and long-term potentiation, respectively, in the mPFC. These ouabain-induced alterations in synaptic plasticity can be prevented by pre-treatment with lithium (intraperitoneal injection of 47.5 mg/kg lithium, twice a day, 7 days), which acts as an effective mood stabilizer in preventing mania. The electrochemical results demonstrated that ICV administration of ouabain enhanced dopamine release in the mPFC, which did not be affected by pre-treatment with lithium. These findings suggested that alterations in synaptic plasticity and dopamine release in the mPFC might underlie the dysfunctions of mPFC accompanied with ouabain administration-induced bipolar mania.

  14. Enduring medial perforant path short-term synaptic depression at high pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adolfo E Talpalar

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The high pressure neurological syndrome develops during deep diving (> 1.1 MPa involving impairment of cognitive functions, alteration of synaptic transmission and increased excitability in cortico-hippocampal areas. The medial perforant path (MPP, connecting entorhinal cortex with the hippocampal formation, displays synaptic frequency-dependent-depression (FDD under normal conditions. Synaptic FDD is essential for specific functions of various neuronal networks. We used rat cortico-hippocampal slices and computer simulations for studying the effects of pressure and its interaction with extracellular Ca2+ ([Ca2+]o on FDD at the MPP synapses. At atmospheric pressure, high [Ca2+]o (4-6 mM saturated single MPP field EPSP (fEPSP and increased FDD in response to short trains at 50 Hz. High pressure (HP; 10.1 MPa depressed single fEPSPs by 50 %. Increasing [Ca2+]o to 4 mM at HP saturated synaptic response at a subnormal level (only 20 % recovery of single fEPSPs, but generated a FDD similar to atmospheric pressure. Mathematical model analysis of the fractions of synaptic resources used by each fEPSP during trains (normalized to their maximum and the total fraction utilized within a train indicate that HP depresses synaptic activity also by reducing synaptic resources. This data suggest that MPP synapses may be modulated, in addition to depression of single events, by reduction of synaptic resources and then may have the ability to conserve their dynamic properties under different conditions.

  15. Self-awareness and the medial temporal lobe in neurodegenerative diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavoix, Chantal; Insausti, Ricardo

    2017-07-01

    Accurate self-awareness is essential for adapting one's behaviour to one's actual abilities, to avoid risky behaviour. Impaired self-awareness of deficits is common in neurodegenerative diseases. Numerous studies show an involvement of midline cortical areas in impaired self-awareness. Among the other brain regions implicated stand the medial temporal lobe (MTL) structures (i.e. hippocampus, amygdala, and temporopolar, entorhinal, perirhinal and posterior parahippocampal cortices). This review aims at evaluating the role of those structures in self-awareness in neurodegenerative diseases. To this aim, we briefly review impaired self-awareness in neurodegenerative diseases, give a neuroanatomical background on the MTL structures, and report those identified in neuroimaging studies on self-awareness. The MTL shows neuropathological, and structural or functional changes in patients who overestimate their abilities in the cognitive, socio-emotional or daily life activities domains. The structures implicated differ depending on the domain considered, suggesting a modality-specific involvement. The functional significance of the findings is discussed in view of the neuroanatomical networks of the MTL and in the context of theoretical models of self-awareness. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Differentiating functions of the lateral and medial prefrontal cortex in motor response inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    H Rodrigo, Achala; Domenico, Stefano I Di; Ayaz, Hasan; Gulrajani, Sean; Lam, Jaeger; Ruocco, Anthony C

    2014-01-15

    The right inferior frontal gyrus is generally considered a critical region for motor response inhibition. Recent studies, however, suggest that the role of this cortical area in response inhibition may be overstated and that the contributions of other aspects of the prefrontal cortex are often overlooked. The current study used optical imaging to identify regions of the prefrontal cortex beyond the right inferior frontal gyrus which may serve to support motor response inhibition. Forty-three right-handed healthy adults completed a manual Go/No-Go task while evoked oxygenation of the prefrontal cortex was measured using 16-channel functional near-infrared spectroscopy. During motor response inhibition, the right inferior frontal gyrus, and to a lesser extent the homologous contralateral region, showed increased activation relative to a baseline task. Conversely, the medial prefrontal cortex was significantly deactivated, and the extent of reduced activity in this region was associated with fewer errors on the response inhibition task. These findings suggest a more substantial role of the left inferior frontal gyrus in response inhibition and possibly a distinct function of the middle frontal gyrus subserving error detection on manual motor control tasks.

  17. Cross-modal sensory processing in the anterior cingulate and medial prefrontal cortices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurienti, Paul J; Wallace, Mark T; Maldjian, Joseph A; Susi, Christina M; Stein, Barry E; Burdette, Jonathan H

    2003-08-01

    One of the principal functions of the nervous system is to synthesize information from multiple sensory channels into a coherent behavioral and perceptual gestalt. A critical feature of this multisensory synthesis is the sorting and coupling of information derived from the same event. One of the singular features of stimuli conveying such information is their contextual or semantic congruence. Illustrating this fact, subjects are typically faster and more accurate when performing tasks that include congruent compared to incongruent cross-modal stimuli. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we demonstrate that activity in select brain areas is sensitive to the contextual congruence among cross-modal cues and to task difficulty. The anterior cingulate gyrus and adjacent medial prefrontal cortices showed significantly greater activity when visual and auditory stimuli were contextually congruent (i.e., matching) than when they were nonmatching. Although activity in these regions was also dependent on task difficulty, showing decreased activity with decreasing task difficulty, the activity changes associated with stimulus congruence predominated.

  18. A functional MRI study of language networks in left medial temporal lobe epilepsy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu Aihong, E-mail: yuaihong163@tom.com [Department of Radiology, the 4th Medical College of Peking University, Beijing Jishuitan Hospital, Beijing 100035 (China); Wang Xiaoyi; Xu Guoqing [Beijing Normal University, State Key Laboratory of Cognitive Neuroscience and Learning, Beijing 100875 (China); Li Yongjie [Beijing Institute of Functional Neurosurgery, Xuanwu Hospital, Capital University of Medical Sciences, Beijing 100053 (China); Qin Wen; Li Kuncheng [Department of Radiology, Xuanwu Hospital, Capital University of Medical Sciences (China); Wang, Yuping [Department of Neurology, Xuanwu Hospital, Capital University of Medical Sciences (China)

    2011-11-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the abnormality of language networks in left medial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE) using fMRI. Materials and methods: Eight patients with left MTLE and 15 healthy subjects were evaluated. An auditory semantic judgment (AJ) paradigm was used. The fMRI data were collected on a 3T MR system and analyzed by AFNI (analysis of functional neuroimages) to generate the activation map. Results: Behavioral data showed that the reaction time of the left MTLE patients was significantly longer than that of controls on the AJ task (t = -3.396, P < 0.05). The left MTLE patients also exhibited diffusively decreased activation in the AJ task. Right hemisphere dominance of Broca's and Wernicke's areas was demonstrated in left MTLE patients. Conclusions: Long-term activation of spikes in left MTLE patients results in language impairment, which is associated with an abnormality of the brain neural network.

  19. Heterogeneous electrophysiological and morphological properties of neurons in the mouse medial amygdala in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niimi, Keita; Horie, Shinichiro; Yokosuka, Makoto; Kawakami-Mori, Fumiko; Tanaka, Koichi; Fukayama, Haruhisa; Sahara, Yoshinori

    2012-10-22

    Neurons in the medial nucleus of the amygdala (MeA) play a key role in the innate maternal, reproductive, defensive, and social behaviors. However, it is unclear how activation of the vomeronasal system leads to the behavioral outputs that are associated with pheromones. Here, we characterized the electrophysiological and morphological properties of MeA neurons using whole-cell recordings in mice slice preparations. Biocytin labeling revealed that MeA neurons possessed bipolar to multipolar cell bodies and dendritic fields covering projection areas from the accessory olfactory bulb. In 70% of recorded MeA neurons, monosynaptic excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs) were evoked from the accessory olfactory bulb afferent in which the α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionate component was dominant and was rarely followed by the N-methyl-d-aspartic acid component. Norepinephrine increased the frequency of spontaneous inhibitory postsynaptic currents in some neurons, whereas α-methyl-5-hydroxytryptamine increased spontaneous EPSCs in other neurons. Morphologically and physiologically, heterogeneous MeA neurons appear likely to produce multiplex outputs of instinctive behaviors.

  20. Segregation of the human medial prefrontal cortex in social cognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo eBzdok

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available While the human medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC is widely believed to be a key node of neural networks relevant for socio-emotional processing, its functional subspecialization is still poorly understood. We thus revisited the often assumed differentiation of the mPFC in social cognition along its ventral-dorsal axis. Our neuroinformatic analysis was based on a neuroimaging meta-analysis of perspective-taking that yielded two separate clusters in the ventral and dorsal mPFC, respectively. We determined each seed region’s brain-wide interaction pattern by two complementary measures of functional connectivity: co-activation across a wide range of neuroimaging studies archived in the BrainMap database and correlated signal fluctuations during unconstrained (resting cognition. Furthermore, we characterized the functions associated with these two regions using the BrainMap database. Across methods, the ventral mPFC was more strongly connected with the nucleus accumbens, hippocampus, posterior cingulate cortex, and retrosplenial cortex, while the dorsal mPFC was more strongly connected with the inferior frontal gyrus, temporo-parietal junction, and middle temporal gyrus. Further, the ventral mPFC was selectively associated with action execution, olfaction, and reward related tasks, while the dorsal mPFC was selectively associated with perspective-taking and episodic memory retrieval. The ventral mPFC is therefore predominantly involved in sensory-driven, approach/avoidance-modulating, and evaluation-related processing, whereas the dorsal mPFC is predominantly involved in internally driven, memory-informed, and metacognition-related processing in social cognition.

  1. Medial olivocochlear efferent reflex inhibition of human cochlear nerve responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichtenhan, J T; Wilson, U S; Hancock, K E; Guinan, J J

    2016-03-01

    Inhibition of cochlear amplifier gain by the medial olivocochlear (MOC) efferent system has several putative roles: aiding listening in noise, protection against damage from acoustic overexposure, and slowing age-induced hearing loss. The human MOC reflex has been studied almost exclusively by measuring changes in otoacoustic emissions. However, to help understand how the MOC system influences what we hear, it is important to have measurements of the MOC effect on the total output of the organ of Corti, i.e., on cochlear nerve responses that couple sounds to the brain. In this work we measured the inhibition produced by the MOC reflex on the amplitude of cochlear nerve compound action potentials (CAPs) in response to moderate level (52-60 dB peSPL) clicks from five, young, normal hearing, awake, alert, human adults. MOC activity was elicited by 65 dB SPL, contralateral broadband noise (CAS). Using tympanic membrane electrodes, approximately 10 h of data collection were needed from each subject to yield reliable measurements of the MOC reflex inhibition on CAP amplitudes from one click level. The CAS produced a 16% reduction of CAP amplitude, equivalent to a 1.98 dB effective attenuation (averaged over five subjects). Based on previous reports of efferent effects as functions of level and frequency, it is possible that much larger effective attenuations would be observed at lower sound levels or with clicks of higher frequency content. For a preliminary comparison, we also measured MOC reflex inhibition of DPOAEs evoked from the same ears with f2's near 4 kHz. The resulting effective attenuations on DPOAEs were, on average, less than half the effective attenuations on CAPs.

  2. Medial Temporal Lobe Activity Predicts Successful Relational Memory Binding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannula, Deborah E.; Ranganath, Charan

    2009-01-01

    Previous neuropsychological findings have implicated medial temporal lobe (MTL) structures in retaining object-location relations over the course of short delays, but MTL effects have not always been reported in neuroimaging investigations with similar short-term memory requirements. Here, we used event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging to test the hypothesis that the hippocampus and related MTL structures support accurate retention of relational memory representations, even across short delays. On every trial, four objects were presented, each in one of nine possible locations of a three-dimensional grid. Participants were to mentally rotate the grid and then maintain the rotated representation in anticipation of a test stimulus: a rendering of the grid, rotated 90° from the original viewpoint. The test stimulus was either a “match” display, in which object-location relations were intact, or a “mismatch” display, in which one object occupied a new, previously unfilled location (mismatch position), or two objects had swapped locations (mismatch swap). Encoding phase activation in anterior and posterior regions of the left hippocampus, and in bilateral perirhinal cortex, predicted subsequent accuracy on the short-term memory decision, as did bilateral posterior hippocampal activity after the test stimulus. Notably, activation in these posterior hippocampal regions was also sensitive to the degree to which object-location bindings were preserved in the test stimulus; activation was greatest for match displays, followed by mismatch-position displays, and finally mismatch-swap displays. These results indicate that the hippocampus and related MTL structures contribute to successful encoding and retrieval of relational information in visual short-term memory. PMID:18171929

  3. Lateralizing value of semiology in medial temporal lobe epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupont, S; Samson, Y; Nguyen-Michel, V-H; Zavanone, C; Navarro, V; Baulac, M; Adam, C

    2015-12-01

    Analysing the clinical characteristics of seizures constitutes a fundamental aspect of the presurgical evaluation of patients with medial temporal lobe epilepsy and unilateral hippocampal sclerosis (MTLE-HS), the most frequent form of focal epilepsy accessible to surgery. We sought to retrospectively determine whether objective manifestations could have a reliable lateralizing value in a large population of MTLE-HS patients and if their presence could help to identify those patients who would be seizure free after surgery. We analysed the frequency and predictive lateralizing value of objective ictal and postictal signs in 391 patients with MTLE-HS (183 left/208 right). Data were derived from chart review and not from blinded videoEEG analysis. Correlation between the presence of reliable lateralizing signs and postoperative outcome was performed in a subgroup of 302 patients who underwent surgery. Contralateral dystonic posturing was the most frequent and reliable lateralizing sign that correctly lateralized the focus in 96% of patients. Unilateral head/eye deviation was noted in 42% of the patients and predicted unilateral focus in 67%. Ipsilateral postictal nose wiping, contralateral clonus and hypokinesia correctly lateralized the focus in 75%, 81%, respectively, and 100 of patients but were less frequently depicted. Postictal aphasia was a strong lateralizing sign for left MLE-HS. The presence of reliable lateralizing signs was not a predictor of seizure freedom. Seizure semiology is a simple tool that may permit reliable lateralization of the seizure focus in MTLE-HS. The presence of reliable lateralizing signs is not associated with a better postoperative outcome. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Development of the subchondral bone layer of the medial coronoid process of the canine ulna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolschrijn, Claudia F; Weijs, Wim A

    2005-05-01

    The medial coronoid process (MCP) of the ulna takes part in the weight-bearing function of the elbow in quadrupedal animals. In this study, the timing of development of a solid subchondral bone layer (SBL) of the MCP in the dog is investigated, as this might be important in the pathogenesis of the fractured medial coronoid process, a common disease in young dogs of larger breeds. The SBL is considered to make an important contribution to the strength of the MCP. In this study, the SBL is visualized at the humeral articular side (H-side) and in the radial notch (RN) via three-dimensional reconstructions of micro-CT scans (34 mum voxel size) in nine young golden retrievers. After micro-CT scanning, the area was investigated histologically. Gradually, the appearance of the SBL on the H-side changes from a trabecular aspect to an even surface with gaps and finally to a completely even surface. The surface in the RN is still rough at 24 weeks after birth, although some consolidation has occurred. Initially, the enchondral ossification activity, as observed in the histological sections, is high, but later, when the intertrabecular spaces are filled in with calcified cartilage and bone, activity is less evident. Some vessels penetrated the SBL, but it is unclear if they account for all the gaps in the surface seen in micro-CT. In addition, the formation of a cortical structure of the proximal ulnar shaft could be visualized. The bony cortex is already even at the mediocaudal side of the proximal ulna 4 weeks after birth, but remains trabecular at the dorsal side until 6 weeks later. We hypothesize that the observed differences in the formation of an even SBL or cortex can be explained by mechanical factors. A smooth cortical layer has an even thickness and will be stronger than a cortex with varying thickness. In the MCP, compressive forces exerted by the humerus may be responsible for the early smoothening on the H-side. In the proximal ulna, the resistance to bending in

  5. Anterolateral Versus Medial Plating of Distal Extra-articular Tibia Fractures: A Biomechanical Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirolo, Joseph M; Behn, Anthony W; Abrams, Geoffrey D; Bishop, Julius A

    2015-09-01

    Both medial and anterolateral plate applications have been described for the treatment of distal tibia fractures, each with distinct advantages and disadvantages. The objective of this study was to compare the biomechanical properties of medial and anterolateral plating constructs used to stabilize simulated varus and valgus fracture patterns of the distal tibia. In 16 synthetic tibia models, a 45° oblique cut was made to model an Orthopedic Trauma Association type 43-A1.2 distal tibia fracture in either a varus or valgus injury pattern. Each fracture was then reduced and plated with a precontoured medial or anterolateral distal tibia plate. The specimens were biomechanically tested in axial and torsional loading, cyclic axial loading, and load to failure. For the varus fracture pattern, medial plating showed less fracture site displacement and rotation and was stiffer in both axial and torsional loading (Ptibia fractures.

  6. Imaging demonstration of fistulous gas communication between joint and ganglion of medial malleolus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coulier, B. [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Namur (Belgium); Devyver, B. [Orthopedic Surgery, Namur (Belgium); Hamels, J. [Institute of Pathology and Genetics, Gerpinnes (Belgium)

    2002-01-01

    We report an unusual demonstration of a fistulous gas communication between the ankle joint and ganglion of the medial malleolus. The imaging findings support the mechanical hypothesis for the genesis of intraosseous ganglion cysts. (orig.)

  7. Impact of Partial and complete rupture of anterior cruciate ligament on medial meniscus: A cadavaric study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Jiang

    2012-01-01

    Conclusions: Similar to complete rupture, partial rupture of ACL can also trigger strain concentration on medial meniscus, especially posterior horn, which may be a more critical reason for meniscus injury associated with chronic ACL deficiency.

  8. Biomechanical validation of medial pie-crusting for soft-tissue balancing in knee arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihalko, William M; Woodard, Erik L; Hebert, Casey T; Crockarell, John R; Williams, John L

    2015-02-01

    Balancing a varus knee is traditionally accomplished by releasing the medial soft-tissue sleeve off the tibia. Recently, "pie-crusting" (PC) medial structures has been described. In a biomechanical cadaver study we compared PC to traditional release (TR) to determine their effects on flexion and extension gaps. PC was done in five specimens along the anterior half of the medial soft-tissue sleeve and five along the posterior half, followed by a traditional release. In 90° flexion, valgus laxity after TR was significantly greater than after PC alone. PC of the anterior or posterior aspect of the medial soft-tissue sleeve can effect changes more in flexion than in extension, respectively. Complete TR did not provide more gap opening than PC in extension, but produced more effect in flexion.

  9. Distal arterial occlusive disease in diabetes is related to medial arterial calcification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chantelau, E; Lee, K M; Jungblut, R

    1997-01-01

    In diabetes mellitus, peripheral arterial occlusive disease predominantly affects the lower leg (tibial and peroneal vessel disease). Our study suggests that this feature is related to the presence of forefoot medial arterial calcification.

  10. MR imaging of edematous anconeus epitrochlearis: another cause of medial elbow pain?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeon, In-Ho; Neumann, Lars; Wallace, W. Angus [Nottingham City Hospital, Nottingham Shoulder and Elbow Unit, Nottingham (United Kingdom); Fairbairn, K. Julia [Nottingham City Hospital NHS Trust, Department of Radiology, Nottingham (United Kingdom)

    2005-02-01

    Two patients with unusual medial elbow pain had MRI scans performed that revealed edema of the aberrant muscle of the anconeus epitrochlearis. MRI of this anconeus epitrochlearis muscle are presented. (orig.)

  11. Post traumatic osteoma of tibial insertion of medial collateral ligament of knee joint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanker, V S; Gadikoppula, S; Loeffler, M D

    1998-03-01

    Two cases are presented of post traumatic para-articular osteoma developing at the site of tibial attachment of the medial collateral ligament of knee joint. These occurred after injuries sustained while playing football and in one case the ossified mass was treated with surgical excision for unresolved symptoms after conservative measures. A comparison is made with Pellegrini Stieda disease, which is a similar affection of the femoral insertion of the medial ligament of the knee joint.

  12. Post traumatic osteoma of tibial insertion of medial collateral ligament of knee joint

    OpenAIRE

    Shanker, V. S.; Gadikoppula, S.; Loeffler, M. D.

    1998-01-01

    Two cases are presented of post traumatic para-articular osteoma developing at the site of tibial attachment of the medial collateral ligament of knee joint. These occurred after injuries sustained while playing football and in one case the ossified mass was treated with surgical excision for unresolved symptoms after conservative measures. A comparison is made with Pellegrini Stieda disease, which is a similar affection of the femoral insertion of the medial ligament of the knee joint....

  13. Posttraumatic pseudoaneurysm of medial plantar artery in a child: treatment with percutaneous thrombin injection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrício Neto Ladeira

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Pseudoaneurysms of the medial plantar artery are rare. The authors describe a case of a pseudoaneurysm of the medial plantar artery of a child who had suffered a penetrating laceration injury. Diagnosis can be confirmed using Doppler ultrasound and magnetic resonance angiography. As an alternative to the conventional surgery technique, percutaneous Doppler ultrasound-guided thrombin injection is a safe and effective treatment.

  14. Sagittal osteotomy inclination in medial open-wedge high tibial osteotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seung-Yup; Lim, Hong-Chul; Bae, Ji Hoon; Kim, Jae Gyoon; Yun, Se-Hyeok; Yang, Jae-Hyuk; Yoon, Jung-Ro

    2017-03-01

    Unlike postoperative changes in posterior tibial slope after medial open-wedge high tibial osteotomy, sagittal osteotomy inclination has not been examined. It has been recommended that the osteotomy line in the sagittal plane be parallel to the medial posterior tibial slope. The purpose of this study was to determine the frequency of parallel osteotomy in medial open-wedge high tibial osteotomy. To determine the sagittal osteotomy inclination, the angle between the medial joint line and the osteotomy line was measured in the lateral radiograph. A positive angle value indicates that the osteotomy is anteriorly inclined relative to the medial posterior tibial slope. Correlation between the sagittal osteotomy inclination and posterior tibial slope was also evaluated. The mean sagittal osteotomy inclination was 15.1 ± 7.5°. The majority 87.1 % of knees showed an anterior-inclined osteotomy. There was a significantly positive correlation between the postoperative posterior tibial slope and the sagittal osteotomy inclination (r, 0.33; 95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.19-0.46; P osteotomy inclination (r, 0.35; 95 % CI 0.21-0.47; P osteotomy in the sagittal plane relative to the medial joint line was planned, only 12.9 % of cases achieved osteotomy parallel to the medial posterior tibial slope in the sagittal plane. Because of high rate of the anterior-inclined osteotomy and their correlations with posterior tibial slope, surgeons should make all efforts to perform parallel osteotomy relative to medial posterior tibial slope. IV.

  15. On the isomorphism between the medial axis and a dual of the Delaunay graph

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharma, Ojaswa; Anton, François; Mioc, Darka

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we show a graph isomorphism between a dual graph of the Delaunay graph of the sampled points and the medial axis of the sampled features. This dual graph captures the fact that two Delaunay triangles share two vertices or an edge. Then, we apply it to the computation of the medial ...... of (satellite) imagery and scanned maps. Applications include coastline extraction, extraction of fields, clear cuts, clouds, as well as heating or pollution monitoring and dense forest mapping among others....

  16. Sexual experience enhances cognitive flexibility and dendritic spine density in the medial prefrontal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glasper, Erica R; LaMarca, Elizabeth A; Bocarsly, Miriam E; Fasolino, Maria; Opendak, Maya; Gould, Elizabeth

    2015-11-01

    The medial prefrontal cortex is important for cognitive flexibility, a capability that is affected by environmental conditions and specific experiences. Aversive experience, such as chronic restraint stress, is known to impair performance on a task of cognitive flexibility, specifically attentional set-shifting, in rats. Concomitant with this performance decrement, chronic stress reduces the number of dendritic spines on pyramidal neurons in the medial prefrontal cortex. No previous studies have examined whether a rewarding experience, namely mating, affects cognitive flexibility and dendritic spines in the medial prefrontal cortex of male rats. To test this possibility, we exposed adult male rats to sexual receptive females once daily for one week, assessed attentional set-shifting performance, and then analyzed their brains for changes in dendritic spines. We found that sexual experience improved performance on extradimensional set-shifting, which is known to require the medial prefrontal cortex. Additionally, we observed increased dendritic spine density on apical and basal dendrites of pyramidal neurons in the medial prefrontal cortex, but not the orbitofrontal cortex, after sexual experience. We also found that sexual experience enhanced dendritic spine density on granule neurons of the dentate gyrus. The ventral hippocampus sends a direct projection to the medial prefrontal cortex, raising the possibility that experience-dependent changes in the hippocampus are necessary for alterations in medial prefrontal cortex structure and function. As a first attempt at investigating this, we inactivated the ventral hippocampus with the GABA agonist muscimol, after each daily bout of sexual experience to observe whether the beneficial effects on cognitive flexibility were abolished. Contrary to our hypothesis, blocking hippocampal activity after sexual experience had no impact on enhanced cognitive flexibility. Taken together, these findings indicate that sexual

  17. The Effect of Hip Bracing on Gait in Patients with Medial Knee Osteoarthritis

    OpenAIRE

    David Wallace; Christa Barr

    2012-01-01

    Objective. Impaired hip motion has been associated with heightened medial knee joint loading in patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA). A hip external rotation strap designed to pull the femur into external rotation and abduction may serve as one protective mechanism. The primary aim of our study is to determine if the strap decreases medial knee joint loading during level walking in people with knee OA. Design. This study is a single-day repeated measures design. Methods. 15 volunteers with ...

  18. Regional divergence of palate medial edge epithelium along the anterior to posterior axis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Jiu-Zhen; Warner, Dennis R; Ding, Jixiang

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that mouse palatal mesenchymal cells undergo regional specification along the anterior-posterior (A-P) axis defined by anterior Shox2 and Msx1 expression and posterior Meox2 expression. A-P regional specification of the medial edge epithelium, which is directly responsible for palate fusion, has long been proposed, but it has not yet been demonstrated due to the lack of regional specific markers. In this study, we have demonstrated that the palate medial edge epithelium is regionalized along the A-P axis, similar to that for the underlying mesenchyme. Mmp13, a medial edge epithelium specific marker, was uniformly expressed from anterior to posterior in wild-type mouse palatal shelves. Previous studies demonstrated that medial edge epithelium expression of Mmp13 was regulated by TGF-beta3. We have found that the changes in Mmp13 expression in TGF-beta3 knockouts varied along the A-P axis, and can be broken down into three distinct regions. These regions correlated with regional specification of the underlying medial edge mesenchymal cells and timing of palate fusion. Mouse palate medial edge epithelium along the A-P axis can be divided into different regions according to the differential response to the loss of TGF-beta3.

  19. Anconeus epitrochlearis as a source of medial elbow pain in baseball pitchers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xinning; Dines, Joshua S; Gorman, Matthew; Limpisvasti, Orr; Gambardella, Ralph; Yocum, Lou

    2012-07-01

    Medial elbow pain is reported in 18% to 69% of baseball players aged of 9 and 19 years. This is due to the large valgus stresses focused on the medial side of the elbow during overhead activities. In overhead throwers and pitchers, pain can be attributed to valgus extension overload with resultant posteromedial impingement, overuse of the flexor-pronator musculature resulting in medial epicondylitis, or occasional muscle tears or ruptures. The anconeus epitrochlearis is a known cause of cubital tunnel syndrome and has been postulated as a source of medial elbow pain in overhead athletes. This article describes the cases of 3 right-handed baseball pitchers with persistent right-sided medial elbow pain during throwing despite a prolonged period of rest, physical therapy, and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Two patients had symptoms of cubital tunnel syndrome as diagnosed by electromyogram and nerve conduction studies and the presence of the anconeus epitrochlearis muscle per magnetic resonance imaging. All patients underwent isolated release of the anconeus muscle without ulnar nerve transposition and returned to their previous levels of activity. The diagnosis and treatment of pitchers who present with medial-sided elbow pain can be complex. The differential should include an enlarged or inflamed anconeus epitrochlearis muscle as a possible cause. Conservative management should be the first modality. However, surgical excision with isolated release of the muscle can be successful in returning patients with persistent pain despite a trial of conservative management to their previous levels of function.

  20. Sensitivity of medial and lateral knee contact force predictions to frontal plane alignment and contact locations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saliba, Christopher M; Brandon, Scott C E; Deluzio, Kevin J

    2017-03-12

    Musculoskeletal models are increasingly used to estimate medial and lateral knee contact forces, which are difficult to measure in vivo. The sensitivity of contact force predictions to modeling parameters is important to the interpretation and implication of results generated by the model. The purpose of this study was to quantify the sensitivity of knee contact force predictions to simultaneous errors in frontal plane knee alignment and contact locations under different dynamic conditions. We scaled a generic musculoskeletal model for N=23 subjects' stature and radiographic knee alignment, then perturbed frontal plane alignment and mediolateral contact locations within experimentally-possible ranges of 10° to -10° and 10 to -10mm, respectively. The sensitivity of first peak, second peak, and mean medial and lateral knee contact forces to knee adduction angle and contact locations was modeled using linear regression. Medial loads increased, and lateral loads decreased, by between 3% and 6% bodyweight for each degree of varus perturbation. Shifting the medial contact point medially increased medial loads and decreased lateral loads by between 1% and 4% bodyweight per millimeter. This study demonstrates that realistic measurement errors of 5mm (contact distance) or 5° (frontal plane alignment) could result in a combined 50% BW error in subject specific contact force estimates. We also show that model sensitivity varies between subjects as a result of differences in gait dynamics. These results demonstrate that predicted knee joint contact forces should be considered as a range of possible values determined by model uncertainty.

  1. Object and spatial mnemonic interference differentially engage lateral and medial entorhinal cortex in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reagh, Zachariah M; Yassa, Michael A

    2014-10-07

    Recent models of episodic memory propose a division of labor among medial temporal lobe cortices comprising the parahippocampal gyrus. Specifically, perirhinal and lateral entorhinal cortices are thought to comprise an object/item information pathway, whereas parahippocampal and medial entorhinal cortices are thought to comprise a spatial/contextual information pathway. Although several studies in human subjects have demonstrated a perirhinal/parahippocampal division, such a division among subregions of the human entorhinal cortex has been elusive. Other recent work has implicated pattern separation computations in the dentate gyrus and CA3 subregions of the hippocampus as a mechanism supporting the resolution of mnemonic interference. However, the nature of contributions of medial temporal lobe cortices to downstream hippocampal computations is largely unknown. We used high-resolution fMRI during a task selectively taxing mnemonic discrimination of object identity or spatial location, designed to differentially engage the two information pathways in the medial temporal lobes. Consistent with animal models, we demonstrate novel evidence for a domain-selective dissociation between lateral and medial entorhinal cortex in humans, and between perirhinal and parahippocampal cortex as a function of information content. Conversely, hippocampal dentate gyrus/CA3 demonstrated signals consistent with resolution of mnemonic interference across domains. These results provide insight into the information processing capacities and hierarchical interference resolution throughout the human medial temporal lobe.

  2. [A case of crossed aphasia with echolalia after the resection of tumor in the right medial frontal lobe].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endo, K; Suzuki, K; Yamadori, A; Kumabe, T; Seki, K; Fujii, T

    2001-03-01

    We report a right-handed woman, who developed a non-fluent aphasia after resection of astrocytoma (grade III) in the right medial frontal lobe. On admission to the rehabilitation department, neurological examination revealed mild left hemiparesis, hyperreflexia on the left side and grasp reflex on the left hand. Neuropsychologically she showed general inattention, non-fluent aphasia, acalculia, constructional disability, and mild buccofacial apraxia. No other apraxia, unilateral spatial neglect or extinction phenomena were observed. An MRI demonstrated resected areas in the right superior frontal gyrus, subcortical region in the right middle frontal gyrus, anterior part of the cingulate gyrus, a part of supplementary motor area. Surrounding area in the right frontal lobe showed diffuse signal change. She demonstrated non-fluent aprosodic speech with word finding difficulty. No phonemic paraphasia, or anarthria was observed. Auditory comprehension was fair with some difficulty in comprehending complex commands. Naming was good, but verbal fluency tests for a category or phonemic cuing was severely impaired. She could repeat words but not sentences. Reading comprehension was disturbed by semantic paralexia and writing words was poor for both Kana (syllabogram) and Kanji(logogram) characters. A significant feature of her speech was mitigated echolalia. In both free conversation and examination setting, she often repeated phrases spoken to her which she used to start her speech. In addition, she repeated words spoken to others which were totally irrelevant to her conversation. She was aware of her echoing, which always embarrassed her. She described her echolalic tendency as a great nuisance. However, once echoing being forbidden, she could not initiate her speech and made incorrect responses after long delay. Thus, her compulsive echolalia helped to start her speech. Only four patients with crossed aphasia demonstrated echolalia in the literature. They showed severe

  3. Aneurisma verdadeiro de artéria plantar medial: relato de caso True aneurysm of medial plantar artery: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavio Renato de Almeida Senefonte

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Os aneurismas periféricos merecem atenção pela sua baixa frequência e associação com outros aneurismas arteriais, principalmente o de aorta abdominal. O aneurisma de artéria plantar verdadeiro é ainda mais raro. A escassa literatura disponível concentra-se nos casos de pseudoaneurisma pós-traumático dessa artéria. Relata-se o caso de uma paciente do sexo feminino, 85 anos, com queixa de dor no pé direito ao deambular durante um ano, acompanhada de nódulo pulsátil em região plantar, próximo da base do primeiro pododáctilo. Não havia história prévia de trauma ou cirurgia na região plantar acometida. Realizou-se ecografia vascular e angiorressonância, que diagnosticaram aneurisma de artéria plantar. A paciente foi então submetida à aneurismectomia com ligadura das artérias nutricionais, apresentando boa evolução pós- operatória.Peripheral aneurysms deserve attention because of their low frequency and potential association with other aneurysms, especially of the abdominal aorta. The true aneurysm of the plantar artery is even less frequent. The literature available is scarce and focuses on cases of post-traumatic arterial pseudoaneurysms. In this paper, we report the case of an 85-year-old female patient with a one-year history of pain on the right foot when walking associated with a pulsatile tumor in the plantar region at the base of the big toe. The patient had no history of trauma or foot surgery. Vascular ultrasonography and MR angiography showed a plantar artery aneurysm. Aneurysmectomy with ligation of the medial plantar artery was performed. The patient had a good postoperative course.

  4. Cyclic Testing of 3 Medial Patellofemoral Ligament Reconstruction Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Vishal; Mandala, Cassie; Akhter, Ahmed

    2017-01-01

    Background: Several techniques are available to secure the graft to the patella during medial patellofemoral ligament (MPFL) reconstruction. The biomechanical properties of these techniques remain unknown. Purpose: To compare the biomechanical properties of 3 MPFL patellar fixation techniques: bone tunnels (BT), PushLock anchors (PL), and tenodesis screws (TS). Study Design: Controlled laboratory study. Methods: Forty-five MPFL reconstructions were performed using 3 different reconstruction techniques (BT, PL, and TS). The specimens were randomly assigned, with 15 specimens in each of the 3 groups. Cyclic loading (500 cycles) and load-to-failure testing were performed. Gap formation after 100 and 500 cycles, ultimate load to failure, and stiffness were measured. Results: Six constructs failed during cyclic loading, 5 in the PL group (33%) and 1 in the TS group (6.7%). After 100 cycles, differences in gap formation were found between the PL and BT groups (4.48 vs 3.62 mm, P < .03) and between the PL and TS groups (4.48 vs 2.28 mm, P < .0001). After 500 cycles, differences in gap formation were found between the BT and TS groups (6.63 vs 4.16 mm, P < .002) and between the PL and TS groups (7.89 vs 4.16 mm, P < .005). The PL group was found to have a lower ultimate load to failure when compared with the BT group (161.4 vs 258.3 N, P = .019) and the TS group (161.4 vs 237.1 N, P = .009). Group differences in stiffness did not reach statistical significance among the 3 groups (PL, 33.72 N/mm; BT, 37.50 N/mm; TS, 43.00 N/mm). Conclusion: The TS and BT groups have more ideal biomechanical properties than the PL group, as demonstrated by less displacement during cyclic loading and a higher load to failure. Clinical Relevance: Fixation of the patellar limbs during MPFL reconstruction may be optimized with the use of TS or BT over a PL technique. PMID:28680899

  5. The effects of neuromuscular exercise on medial knee joint load post-arthroscopic partial medial meniscectomy: ‘SCOPEX’ a randomised control trial protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hall Michelle

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Meniscectomy is a risk factor for knee osteoarthritis, with increased medial joint loading a likely contributor to the development and progression of knee osteoarthritis in this group. Therefore, post-surgical rehabilitation or interventions that reduce medial knee joint loading have the potential to reduce the risk of developing or progressing osteoarthritis. The primary purpose of this randomised, assessor-blind controlled trial is to determine the effects of a home-based, physiotherapist-supervised neuromuscular exercise program on medial knee joint load during functional tasks in people who have recently undergone a partial medial meniscectomy. Methods/design 62 people aged 30–50 years who have undergone an arthroscopic partial medial meniscectomy within the previous 3 to 12 months will be recruited and randomly assigned to a neuromuscular exercise or control group using concealed allocation. The neuromuscular exercise group will attend 8 supervised exercise sessions with a physiotherapist and will perform 6 exercises at home, at least 3 times per week for 12 weeks. The control group will not receive the neuromuscular training program. Blinded assessment will be performed at baseline and immediately following the 12-week intervention. The primary outcomes are change in the peak external knee adduction moment measured by 3-dimensional analysis during normal paced walking and one-leg rise. Secondary outcomes include the change in peak external knee adduction moment during fast pace walking and one-leg hop and change in the knee adduction moment impulse during walking, one-leg rise and one-leg hop, knee and hip muscle strength, electromyographic muscle activation patterns, objective measures of physical function, as well as self-reported measures of physical function and symptoms and additional biomechanical parameters. Discussion The findings from this trial will provide evidence regarding the effect of a home

  6. Recognition memory and the medial temporal lobe: from monkey research to human pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meunier, M; Barbeau, E

    2013-01-01

    This review provides a historical overview of decades of research on recognition memory, the process that allows both humans and animals to tell familiar from novel items. The emphasis is put on how monkey research improved our understanding of the medial temporal lobe (MTL) role and how tasks designed for monkeys influenced research in humans. The story starts in the early 1950s. Back then, memory was not a fashionable scientific topic. It was viewed as a function of the whole brain and not of specialized brain areas. All that changed in 1957-1958 when Brenda Milner, a neuropsychologist from Montreal, described patient H.M. He forgot all events as he lived them despite a fully preserved intelligence. He had received a MTL resection to relieve epilepsy. H.M. (1926-2008) would become the most influential patient in brain science. Which structures among those included in H.M.'s large lesion were important for recognition memory could not be evaluated in humans. It was gradually understood only after the successful development of a monkey model of human amnesia by Mishkin in 1978. Selective lesions and two behavioral tasks, delayed nonmatching-to-sample and visual paired comparison, were used to distinguish the contribution of the hippocampus from that of adjacent cortical areas. Driven by findings in non-human primates, human research on recognition memory is now trying to solve the question of whether the different structures composing MTL contributes to familiarity and recollection, the two possible forms taken by recognition. We described in particular two French patients, FRG and JMG, whose deficits support the currently dominant model attributing to the perirhinal cortex a critical role in recognition memory. Research on recognition memory has implications for the clinician as it may help understanding the cognitive deficits observed in different diseases. An illustration of such approach, linking basic and applied research, is provided for Alzheimer's disease.

  7. Nicotine induction of theta frequency oscillations in rodent medial septal diagonal band in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cheng-biao LU; Cheng-zhang LI; Dong-liang LI; Zaineb HENDERSON

    2013-01-01

    Aim:This study aimed to examine the role of the nicotinic receptor (nAChR) in the generation of theta oscillations (4-12 Hz) in vitro.Methods:Electrophysiological studies were performed on medial septal diagonal band area (MSDB) slices to measure theta oscillation.Immunofluorescence and confocal microscopy studies were carried out to detect α4 nAChR and β2 nAChR subunits in perfused-fixed tissue from VGluT2-GFP and GAD67-GFP transgenic mice.Results:Application of nicotine to MSDB slices produced persistent theta oscillations in which area power increased in a doseresponsive manner.This activity was inhibited by GABAA receptor antagonists and partially by ionotropic glutamate receptor antagonists,indicating the involvement of local GABAergic and glutamatergic neurons in the production of the rhythmic activity.The nicotineinduced theta activity was also inhibited selectively by non-α7*nAChR antagonists,suggesting the presence of these receptor types on GABAergic and glutamatergic neuron populatjons in the MSDB.This was confirmed by immunofluorescence and confocal microscopy studies in transgenic mice in which the GABAergic and glutamatergic neurons express green fluorescent protein (GFP),showing Iocalisation of β2 nAChR and α4 nAChR subunits,the most common constituents of non-α7*nAChRs,in both cell types in the MSDB.Conclusion:Theta activity in the MSDB may be generated by tonic stimulation of non-α7*nAChRs.

  8. The relationship between prevalent medial meniscal intrasubstance signal changes and incident medial meniscal tears in women over a 1-year period assessed with 3.0 T MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crema, Michel D. [Boston University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Quantitative Imaging Center, Boston, MA (United States); Ribeirao Preto School of Medicine, University of Sao Paulo (USP), Department of Biomechanics, Medicine and Rehabilitation of the Locomotor Apparatus, and Department of Internal Medicine, Radiology Division, Ribeirao Preto (Brazil); Institute of Diagnostic Imaging (IDI), Ribeirao Preto (Brazil); Hunter, David J. [The University of Sydney, Sydney School of Medicine, Sydney (Australia); Roemer, Frank W. [Boston University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Quantitative Imaging Center, Boston, MA (United States); Klinikum Augsburg, Department of Radiology, Augsburg (Germany); Li, Ling [New England Baptist Hospital, Division of Research, Boston, MA (United States); Marra, Monica D. [Boston University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Quantitative Imaging Center, Boston, MA (United States); Institute of Diagnostic Imaging (IDI), Ribeirao Preto (Brazil); Nogueira-Barbosa, Marcello H. [Ribeirao Preto School of Medicine, University of Sao Paulo (USP), Department of Biomechanics, Medicine and Rehabilitation of the Locomotor Apparatus, and Department of Internal Medicine, Radiology Division, Ribeirao Preto (Brazil); Hellio Le Graverand, Marie-Pierre; Wyman, Bradley T. [Pfizer Global Research and Development, New London, CT (United States); Guermazi, Ali [Boston University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Quantitative Imaging Center, Boston, MA (United States)

    2011-08-15

    Intrasubstance meniscal signal changes not reaching the articular surface on fast spin echo (FSE) sequences are considered to represent mucoid degeneration on MRI. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association of prevalent intrasubstance signal changes with incident tears of the medial meniscus detected on 3.0 T MRI over a 1-year period. A total of 161 women aged {>=}40 years participated in a longitudinal 1-year observational study of knee osteoarthritis. MRI (3.0 T) was performed at baseline and 12-month follow-up. The anterior horn, body, and posterior horn of the medial meniscus were scored by two experienced musculoskeletal radiologists using the Boston-Leeds Osteoarthritis Knee Score (BLOKS) system. Four grades were used to describe the meniscal morphology: grade 0 (normal), grade 1 (intrasubstance signal changes not reaching the articular surface), grade 2 (single tears), and grade 3 (complex tears and maceration). Fisher's exact test and the Cochran-Armitage trend test were performed to evaluate whether baseline intrasubstance signal changes (grade 1) predict incident meniscal tears/maceration (grades 2 and/or 3) in the same subregion of the medial meniscus, when compared to subregions without pathology as the reference group (grade 0). Medial meniscal intrasubstance signal changes at baseline did not predict tears at follow-up when evaluating the anterior and posterior horns (left-sided p-values 0.06 and 0.59, respectively). No incident tears were detected in the body. We could not demonstrate an association between prevalent medial meniscal intrasubstance signal changes with incident tears over a 1-year period. (orig.)

  9. Dysregulation of Autophagy, Mitophagy, and Apoptotic Genes in the Medial Temporal Lobe Cortex in an Ischemic Model of Alzheimer’s Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ułamek-Kozioł, Marzena; Kocki, Janusz; Bogucka-Kocka, Anna; Petniak, Alicja; Gil-Kulik, Paulina; Januszewski, Sławomir; Bogucki, Jacek; Jabłoński, Mirosław; Furmaga-Jabłońska, Wanda; Brzozowska, Judyta; Czuczwar, Stanisław J.; Pluta, Ryszard

    2016-01-01

    Ischemic brain damage is a pathological incident that is often linked with medial temporal lobe cortex injury and finally its atrophy. Post-ischemic brain injury associates with poor prognosis since neurons of selectively vulnerable ischemic brain areas are disappearing by apoptotic program of neuronal death. Autophagy has been considered, after brain ischemia, as a guardian against neurodegeneration. Consequently, we have examined changes in autophagy (BECN 1), mitophagy (BNIP 3), and apoptotic (caspase 3) genes in the medial temporal lobe cortex with the use of quantitative reverse-transcriptase PCR following transient 10-min global brain ischemia in rats with survival 2, 7, and 30 days. The intense significant overexpression of BECN 1 gene was noted on the 2nd day, while on days 7–30 the expression of this gene was still upregulated. BNIP 3 gene was downregulated on the 2nd day, but on days 7–30 post-ischemia, there was a significant reverse tendency. Caspase 3 gene, associated with apoptotic neuronal death, was induced in the same way as BNIP 3 gene after brain ischemia. Thus, the demonstrated changes indicate that the considerable dysregulation of expression of BECN 1, BNIP 3, and caspase 3 genes may be connected with a response of neuronal cells in medial temporal lobe cortex to transient complete brain ischemia. PMID:27472881

  10. Repair of a soft tissue defect of medial malleolus with cross-leg bridge free transfer of anterolateral thigh muscle flap: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHANG Gong-lin

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available 【Abstract】A 38-year-old man sustained a traffic accident injury to his right medial malleolus and leg. It was an open fracture of the right tibia and fibula accompanied by a large soft tissue defect of the right medial malleolus sized 12 cm×4 cm. Doppler examination revealed that the tibialis posterior vessel was occluded due to thrombosis. The anterior tibial artery was patent. Three weeks after injury, the left anterolateral thigh muscle flap was harvested and transplanted to the right medial malleolus defect area for repair of the soft tissue defect, and an end-to-side anasto-mosis was performed between the posterior tibial vessel of the contralateral leg and the muscle flap’s vascular pedicle. A split thickness free skin graft was used to cover the muscle flap and around the flap’s vascular pedicle. The vascular pedicle was cut off after 28 days and the muscle flap sur-vived completely. After 3-year follow-up postoperatively, the right tibia and fibula fractures were confirmed healing radiologically. The posterior tibial artery of contralateral leg was patent by clinical and Doppler examinations. This tech-nique can be used to preserve the flow and patency of re-cipient arteries. Key words: Surgical flaps; Soft tissue injuries; Leg injuries; Wound healing

  11. Fix your eyes in the space you could reach: neurons in the macaque medial parietal cortex prefer gaze positions in peripersonal space.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kostas Hadjidimitrakis

    Full Text Available Interacting in the peripersonal space requires coordinated arm and eye movements to visual targets in depth. In primates, the medial posterior parietal cortex (PPC represents a crucial node in the process of visual-to-motor signal transformations. The medial PPC area V6A is a key region engaged in the control of these processes because it jointly processes visual information, eye position and arm movement related signals. However, to date, there is no evidence in the medial PPC of spatial encoding in three dimensions. Here, using single neuron recordings in behaving macaques, we studied the neural signals related to binocular eye position in a task that required the monkeys to perform saccades and fixate targets at different locations in peripersonal and extrapersonal space. A significant proportion of neurons were modulated by both gaze direction and depth, i.e., by the location of the foveated target in 3D space. The population activity of these neurons displayed a strong preference for peripersonal space in a time interval around the saccade that preceded fixation and during fixation as well. This preference for targets within reaching distance during both target capturing and fixation suggests that binocular eye position signals are implemented functionally in V6A to support its role in reaching and grasping.

  12. Repair of a soft tissue defect of medial malleolus with cross-leg bridge free transfer of anterolateral thigh muscle flap: a case report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Gong-lin; CHEN Ke-ming; ZHANG Jun-hua; WANG Shi-yong

    2012-01-01

    A 38-year-old man sustained a traffic accident injury to his right medial malleolus and leg.It was an open fracture of the right tibia and fibula accompanied by a large soft tissue defect of the right medial malleolus sized 12 cm×4 cm.Doppler examination revealed that the tibialis posterior vessel was occluded due to thrombosis.The anterior tibial artery was patent.Three weeks after injury,the left anterolateral thigh muscle flap was harvested and transplanted to the right medial malleolus defect area for repair of the soft tissue defect,and an end-to-side anastomosis was performed between the posterior tibial vessel of the contralateral leg and the muscle flap's vascular pedicle.A split thickness free skin graft was used to cover the muscle flap and around the flap's vascular pedicle.The vascular pedicle was cut off after 28 days and the muscle flap survived completely.After 3-year follow-up postoperatively,the right tibia and fibula fractures were confirmed healing radiologically.The posterior tibial artery of contralateral leg was patent by clinical and Doppler examinations.This technique can be used to preserve the flow and patency of recipient arteries.

  13. Involvement of serotonin 2A receptor activation in modulating medial prefrontal cortex and amygdala neuronal activation during novelty-exposure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hervig, Mona El-Sayed; Jensen, Nadja Cecilie Hvid; Rasmussen, Nadja Bredo

    2017-01-01

    -field arena affects medial PFC activation and basolateral amygdala (BLA) reactivity. We used c-Fos immunoreactivity (IR) as a marker of neuronal activation and stereological quantification for obtaining the total number of c-Fos-IR neurons as a measure of regional activation. We further examined the impact...... of 5-HT2AR blockade on the striatal-projecting BLA neurons. Systemic administration of ketanserin (0.5 mg/kg) prior to novel open-field exposure resulted in reduced total numbers of c-Fos-IR cells in dorsomedial PFC areas and the BLA. Moreover, there was a positive correlation between the relative time......-treated animals, upholding its involvement in modulating averseness. Ketanserin did not affect the number of activated striatal-projecting BLA neurons (measured by number of Cholera Toxin b (CTb) retrograde labelled neurons also being c-Fos-IR) following CTb injection in the ventral striatum. These results...

  14. Nonabsorbable versus absorbable sutures in large, hang-back medial rectus muscle recessions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awadein, Ahmed; Marsh, Justin D; Guyton, David L

    2016-06-01

    To investigate the value of nonabsorbable sutures in reducing the incidence of consecutive exotropia after large, "hang-back" medial rectus recessions. The medical records of patients who underwent medial rectus recession of ≥6.5 mm in individuals ≤2 years of age, or ≥7.0 mm in those >2 years were retrospectively reviewed. Patients were divided into two groups based on suture material used: absorbable, polyglactin 910 sutures (44 patients); nonabsorbable, polyester sutures (50 patients). Preoperative measurements, ductions, strabismus surgery, and postoperative results were analyzed. Inadequate anchoring of the medial rectus muscle was suspected when consecutive exotropia developed 4-7 weeks after surgery after initial satisfactory alignment and was confirmed if during reoperation the medial rectus muscle appeared recessed >2 mm beyond the originally intended recession. Consecutive exotropia due to inadequate anchoring of the medial rectus muscle occurred in 11 of 66 muscles (17%) in the absorbable suture group. The muscle was found 6-10 mm posterior to the intended recession. Limited duction in the field of action of the involved medial rectus muscle occurred in 9 of the 11 muscles (82%). None of the eyes with nonabsorbable sutures showed inadequate anchoring. The incidence of consecutive exotropia was higher in the absorbable suture group (30%) than in the nonabsorbable suture group (6%) (P < 0.005). Using nonabsorbable suture for large, hang-back medial rectus recessions greatly reduces the incidence of consecutive exotropia that can occur when absorbable suture dissolves. Copyright © 2016 American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Postburn shoulder medial-adduction contracture: anatomy and treatment with trapeze-flap plasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grishkevich, Viktor M

    2013-03-01

    Shoulder-adduction contractures after burn, most frequent among big joints, cause functional deficiency of the upper limb and, therefore, benefits from surgical correction. Many reconstructive techniques and flaps have been suggested for contracture treatment, but the problem in choosing an adequate reconstructive technique based on the anatomy of the contracture remains. Shoulder-adduction contracture has been given less emphasis in research than any other type and its surgical reconstructive technique remains of concern. Anatomic features of scar shoulder-adduction contractures were studied in 346 patients, personally operated upon. This allowed us to classify all contractures into three types: edge, medial and total. New surgical techniques specifically for medial contractures were developed. Eighty percent of patients had edge contractures in which the axillary fossa was spared. In 20% of patients, axilla, including the hairy dome, was involved. These cases were anatomically classified into two types: medial, making up 30% of the cases, when contracted scars involved only axilla, and total caused by scars, tightly surrounding the shoulder joint. The scars, causing medial contracture, form a crescent-shaped fold along the medial axillary line. The fold's sheets are scars in which there is skin surface surplus in width, which allows the contracture release with local tissues. Surface deficiency in length has a trapezoid form. Medial contracture can be successfully treated with opposite transposition of trapezoid adipose-scar flaps prepared from both sheets of the fold. Medial shoulder-adduction contracture is a newly described type with specific anatomic features. Contracture can be successfully treated with local tissues using trapeze-flap plasty. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  16. Medial Translation of the Hip Joint Center Associated with the Bernese Periacetabular Osteotomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clohisy, John C; Barrett, Susan E; Gordon, J Eric; Delgado, Eliana D; Schoenecker, Perry L

    2004-01-01

    This study assessed medial translation of the hip joint achieved by the Bernese periacetabular osteotomy (PAO) in correcting residual acetabular dysplasia deformities. 86 hips in 75 patients with an average age of 25 years (range, 12-50) were treated for symptomatic acetabular dysplasia with a periacetabular osteotomy. Radiographic analysis was performed to assess correction of the acetabular deformity with specific attention to the horizontal position of the hip joint center. All hips were followed until bony union of the iliac osteotomy and the average follow-up was 28 months. The lateral center edge angle improved an average 31.6° (-0.4° preoperative, 31.2° at follow-up). Anterior center edge angle improved 39.3° (-4.5° to 34.8°). The acetabular roof obliquity improved an average 21.8° (25.1° to 3.3°). Preoperatively, the average distance from the medial aspect of the femoral head to the ilioischial line was 17.6 mm. This distance was decreased to an average 7.8 mm postoperatively. This change resulted in an average medial translation of the hip joint center of 9.8 mm, (range -6 to 31mm). Overall, some degree of medial translation of the hip joint center was obtained in 79 (92%) of the hips. 4 (5%) were maintained in the same horizontal position, and 3 (3%) had slight lateral repositioning. For the hips translated medially, the average change was 10.0 mm, and 72% of all hips had an optimal correction with the distance between the medial aspect of the femoral head and the ilioischial line being between 0 and 10 mm. This study demonstrates that in addition to optimizing femoral head coverage, a major and distinct advantage of the periacetabular osteotomy is reproducible and consistent medial translation of the hip joint center. PMID:15296205

  17. Medial Malleoli Fractures: Clinical Comparison Between Newly Designed Sled Device and Conventional Screws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maniar, Hemil; Kempegowda, Harish; Tawari, Akhil A; Rutter, Michael R; Borade, Amrut; Cush, Gerard; Horwitz, Daniel S

    2017-08-01

    The Trimed Medial Malleolar Sled is a newer device designed to treat medial malleolus fracture. The purpose of this study was to compare the outcome of medial malleolar fractures treated with the sled and conventional malleolar screws. After obtaining an institutional review board approval, we conducted a retrospective study to identify all skeletally mature patients who sustained an ankle fracture with medial malleolar involvement treated with the sled and we identified a matched cohort treated with conventional malleolar screws. The patients were divided into 2 groups: group A included patients treated with malleolar screws and group B included patients treated with the sled device. The outcomes measured included rate of union, implant removal, and pain over the implant site. Eighty-five medial malleolar ankle fractures were divided into 2 groups: group A included patients (n = 64) treated with malleolar screws and group B included patients (n = 21) treated with the sled device. In group A (n = 64), 62 patients (96.8%) achieved radiological union with a mean union rate of 11 weeks and 10 (15%) patients underwent repeat surgery for implant removal of which 3 patients (4.6%) had pain specifically over the medial implant. In group B (n = 21), all of the patients (100%) achieved radiological union with a mean union rate of 10.8 weeks and 3 patients (14.2%) underwent repeat surgery of which 1 (4.7%) was related to the medial pain. There is no significant difference between the groups for the outcomes measured, including rate of union (  P = .93), visual analog scale score for pain (  P = .07), implant removal (  P = .41), and pain over the implant site (  P = .88). Based on the data from our study, we conclude that there are no major differences between the sled devices and conventional screws relating to union rate and complications. Level III: Observational study.

  18. Forebrain medial septum region facilitates nociception in a rat formalin model of inflammatory pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Andy Thiam-Huat; Ariffin, Mohammed Zacky; Zhou, Mingyi; Ye, Jenn Zhou; Moochhala, Shabbir M; Khanna, Sanjay

    2011-11-01

    The medial septum is anatomically and functionally linked to the hippocampus, a region implicated in nociception. However, the role of medial septum in nociception remains unclear. To investigate the role of the region in nociception in rats, muscimol, a GABA agonist, or zolpidem, a positive allosteric modulator of GABA(A) receptors, was microinjected into medial septum to attenuate the activity of neurons in the region. Electrophysiological studies in anesthetized rats indicated that muscimol evoked a stronger and longer-lasting suppression of medial septal-mediated activation of hippocampal theta field activity than zolpidem. Similarly, microinjection of muscimol (1 or 2 μg/0.5 μl) into the medial septum of awake rats suppressed both licking and flinching behaviors in the formalin test of inflammatory pain, whereas only the latter behavior was affected by zolpidem (8 or 12 μg/0.5 μl) administered into the medial septum. Interestingly, both drugs selectively attenuated nociceptive behaviors in the second phase of the formalin test that are partly driven by central plasticity. Indeed, muscimol reduced the second phase behaviors by 30% to 60%, which was comparable to the reduction seen with systemic administration of a moderate dose of the analgesic morphine. The reduction was accompanied by a decrease in formalin-induced expression of spinal c-Fos protein that serves as an index of spinal nociceptive processing. The drug effects on nociceptive behaviors were without overt sedation and were distinct from the effects observed after septal lateral microinjections. Taken together, these findings suggest that the activation of medial septum is pro-nociceptive and facilitates aspects of central neural processing underlying nociception.

  19. How Tibiofemoral Alignment and Contact Locations Affect Predictions of Medial and Lateral Tibiofemoral Contact Forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerner, Zachary F.; DeMers, Matthew S.; Delp, Scott L.; Browning, Raymond C.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding degeneration of biological and prosthetic knee joints requires knowledge of the in-vivo loading environment during activities of daily living. Musculoskeletal models can estimate medial/lateral tibiofemoral compartment contact forces, yet anthropometric differences between individuals make accurate predictions challenging. We developed a full-body OpenSim musculoskeletal model with a knee joint that incorporates subject-specific tibiofemoral alignment (i.e. knee varus-valgus) and geometry (i.e. contact locations). We tested the accuracy of our model and determined the importance of these subject-specific parameters by comparing estimated to measured medial and lateral contact forces during walking in an individual with an instrumented knee replacement and post-operative genu valgum (6°). The errors in the predictions of the first peak medial and lateral contact force were 12.4% and 11.9%, respectively, for a model with subject-specific tibiofemoral alignment and contact locations determined via radiographic analysis, vs. 63.1% and 42.0%, respectively, for a model with generic parameters. We found that each degree of tibiofemoral alignment deviation altered the first peak medial compartment contact force by 51N (r2=0.99), while each millimeter of medial-lateral translation of the compartment contact point locations altered the first peak medial compartment contact force by 41N (r2=0.99). The model, available at www.simtk.org/home/med-lat-knee/, enables the specification of subject-specific joint alignment and compartment contact locations to more accurately estimate medial and lateral tibiofemoral contact forces in individuals with non-neutral alignment. PMID:25595425

  20. Knee Moment-Angle Characteristics and Semitendinosus Muscle Morphology in Children with Spastic Paresis Selected for Medial Hamstring Lengthening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haberfehlner, Helga; Jaspers, Richard T; Rutz, Erich; Becher, Jules G; Harlaar, Jaap; van der Sluijs, Johannes A; Witbreuk, Melinda M; Romkes, Jacqueline; Freslier, Marie; Brunner, Reinald; Maas, Huub; Buizer, Annemieke I

    2016-01-01

    To increase knee range of motion and improve gait in children with spastic paresis (SP), the semitendinosus muscle (ST) amongst other hamstring muscles is frequently lengthened by surgery, but with variable success. Little is known about how the pre-surgical mechanical and morphological characteristics of ST muscle differ between children with SP and typically developing children (TD). The aims of this study were to assess (1) how knee moment-angle characteristics and ST morphology in children with SP selected for medial hamstring lengthening differ from TD children, as well as (2) how knee moment-angle characteristics and ST morphology are related. In nine SP and nine TD children, passive knee moment-angle characteristics and morphology of ST (i.e. fascicle length, muscle belly length, tendon length, physiological cross-sectional area, and volume) were assessed by hand-held dynamometry and freehand 3D ultrasound, respectively. At net knee flexion moments above 0.5 Nm, more flexed knee angles were found for SP compared to TD children. The measured knee angle range between 0 and 4 Nm was 30% smaller in children with SP. Muscle volume, physiological cross-sectional area, and fascicle length normalized to femur length were smaller in SP compared to TD children (62%, 48%, and 18%, respectively). Sixty percent of the variation in knee angles at 4 Nm net knee moment was explained by ST fascicle length. Altered knee moment-angle characteristics indicate an increased ST stiffness in SP children. Morphological observations indicate that in SP children planned for medial hamstring lengthening, the longitudinal and cross-sectional growth of ST muscle fibers is reduced. The reduced fascicle length can partly explain the increased ST stiffness and, hence, a more flexed knee joint in these SP children.

  1. A Technique of Improved Medial Meniscus Visualization by Anterior Cruciate Ligament Graft Placement in Chronic Anterior Cruciate Deficient Knees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vertullo, Christopher J; Wijenayake, Lahann; Grayson, Jane E

    2016-04-01

    It is customary to perform medial meniscus repair before anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) graft placement when undertaken as a combined procedure. However, in chronic ACL-deficient knees, intraoperative anterior tibiofemoral translation can cause the medial meniscus repair to be more technically challenging. Intraoperative anterior tibiofemoral translation can both reduce the visualization of the medial meniscus and make its reduction unstable. An operative sequence alteration of ACL graft placement and tensioning before medial meniscal repair improves medial meniscus visualization in chronically ACL-deficient knees by using the ACL graft's ability to prevent anterior tibiofemoral translation. The technique sequence is as follows: (a) the medial meniscus is reduced, (b) ACL reconstruction is undertaken using a hamstring graft without final tibia fixation,

  2. Effect of center of pressure modulation on knee adduction moment in medial compartment knee osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haim, Amir; Wolf, Alon; Rubin, Guy; Genis, Yulya; Khoury, Mona; Rozen, Nimrod

    2011-11-01

    The knee adduction moment (KAM) provides a major contribution to the elevated load in the medial compartment of the knee. An abnormally high KAM has been linked with the progression of knee osteoarthritis (OA). Footwear-generated biomechanical manipulations reduce the magnitude of this moment by conveying a more laterally shifted trajectory of the foot's center of pressure (COP), reducing the distance between the ground reaction force and the center of the knee joint, thus lowering the magnitude of the torque. We sought to examine the outcome of a COP shift in a cohort of female patients suffering from medial knee OA. Twenty-two female patients suffering from medial compartment knee OA underwent successive gait analysis testing and direct pedobarographic examination of the COP trajectory with a foot-worn biomechanical device allowing controlled manipulation of the COP. Modulation of the COP coronal trajectory from medial to lateral offset resulted in a significant reduction of the KAM. This trend was demonstrated in subjects with mild-to-moderate OA and in patients suffering from severe stages of the disease. Our results indicate that controlled manipulation of knee coronal kinetics in individuals suffering from medial knee OA can be facilitated by customized COP modification.

  3. Displaced Medial and Lateral Bucket Handle Meniscal Tears With Intact ACL and PCL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boody, Barrett S; Omar, Imran M; Hill, James A

    2015-08-01

    Bucket handle lesions are vertical longitudinal tears in the meniscus that may displace centrally into the respective medial or lateral compartment, frequently causing mechanical symptoms, including pain, perceived instability, and mechanical locking. Bucket handle meniscal tears are most commonly from a traumatic etiology and are frequently found with concomitant anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries. Multiple imaging signs and associations have been described for the diagnosis of bucket handle meniscus tears, including coronal truncation, absent bow tie sign, double posterior cruciate ligament (PCL), double ACL, displacement of the bucket handle fragment, and disproportionate posterior horn signs. Among meniscal pathology encountered on magnetic resonance imaging or during arthroscopy, bucket handle meniscal tears are infrequent occurrences. Furthermore, the occurrence of displaced medial and lateral bucket handle tears found on imaging and during arthroscopy is very uncommon and is only sparsely reported in the literature. When displaced medial and lateral bucket handle meniscal segments are visualized within the intercondylar notch along with the ACL and PCL, the radiologic findings are referred to as the "quadruple cruciate" sign or the "Jack and Jill lesion." Of the few case reports described in the literature, only one noted displaced medial and lateral bucket handle meniscus tears with an intact ACL and PCL. The current case report outlines a similar rare case of the quadruple cruciate sign: displaced medial and lateral bucket handle meniscal tears located within the intercondylar notch and an intact ACL and PCL.

  4. EFFECTIVENESS OF MEDIAL TO LATERAL TAPING WITH EXERCISE PROGRAMME IN SUBJECTS WITH LATERAL EPICONDYLITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhavana Dattaram Desai

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Medial to lateral tapping and exercise programme has been found to be effective in Lateral epicondylitis. The purpose to find the combined effect of Medial to lateral tapping with exercise programme for subjects with lateral epicondylitis on pain intensity and functional ability. Method: An experimental study design, selected 40 subjects with Lateral epicondylitis randomized 20 subjects each into Study and Control group. Control group received only exercise programme while study group received combined medial to lateral tapping with exercise programme thrice a week for 4 weeks. Pain intensity was measured using Visual analogue scale and functional ability was measured using Patient Rated Tennis Elbow Evaluation questionnaire before and after 4 weeks of treatment. Results: When the post-intervention means were compared between Study and Control group after 4 weeks of treatment found statistically significant difference in the improvement in outcomes measures in means of VAS and PRTEE before and after intervention within the groups. Conclusion: It is concluded that the Medial to lateral tapping with exercise programme is more effective than the exercise programme in reduction of pain and improve functional abilities for subjects with Lateral epicondylitis. Key Words: Lateral epicondylitis, Medial to lateral tapping, Exercise programme, Pain, Functional ability, Tennis Elbow.

  5. Clinical Anatomy and Measurement of the Medial Branch of the Spinal Dorsal Ramus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuang, Feng; Hou, Shu-Xun; Zhu, Jia-Liang; Liu, Yan; Zhou, Ying; Zhang, Chun-Li; Tang, Jia-Guang

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Percutaneous block and neurotomy of the medial branch of the spinal dorsal ramus has shown excellent results in treating facet joint-mediated low back pain. This study aimed to describe the clinical anatomy of the medial branch and its measurements. We dissected the lumbar spine of 12 adult cadavers (24 sides) and measured the distances between the medial branch and various anatomical landmarks. The distances were compared between L1 and L5 vertebrae. The distance between the dorsal ramus bifurcation and the superior border of the root of the transverse process was 3.52 ± 1.15 mm, 3.63 ± 1.36 mm, 3.46 ± 1.31 mm, 3.38 ± 1.24 mm, and 1.87 ± 0.88 for L1 to L5, respectively. The medial branch of the dorsal ramus is enclosed in a fibro-osseous canal bounded by the accessory process, the mammillary process, and the mammilloaccessory ligament. For the percutaneous treatment of block and neurotomy, the first choice of target is the medial branch fibro-osseous canal near to the accessory process. The accessory process is not displayed in x-ray films; therefore, the junction of the superior articular process and the root of the transverse process can be targeted. PMID:26717379

  6. The medial habenula contains a specific nonstellate subtype of astrocyte expressing the ectonucleotidase NTPDase2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gampe, Kristine; Hammer, Klaus; Kittel, Ágnes; Zimmermann, Herbert

    2012-12-01

    ATP-mediated synaptic transmission represents the only transmitter-gated Ca(2+)-entry pathway in neurons of the rodent medial habenula. In addition to direct purinergic receptor-mediated synaptic inputs, the medial habenula contains purinergic systems that modulate synaptic transmission. Purinergic signaling is modulated or terminated by ectonucleotidase, nucleotide-hydrolyzing enzymes of the cell surface. Here we identify the major ectonucleotidase responsible for the hydrolysis of extracellular ATP in the mouse medial habenula as ectonucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase 2 (NTPDase2), using immunostaining and enzyme histochemistry. Double labeling experiments reveal that the enzyme is expressed by astrocytes enwrapping the densely packed neurons and also the myelinated fiber bundles of the stria medullaris. NTPDase2 immunoreactivity is absent from the lateral habenula. The analysis of mice expressing enhanced green fluorescent protein under the promoter of glial fibrillary acidic protein revealed that the medial habenula harbors a highly polar type of astrocytes with very long laminar cellular processes, untypical for grey matter astrocytes. Its morphology strongly differs from that of the stellate astrocytes in the adjacent lateral habenula. Our results suggest that the mouse medial habenula contains a specific perineuronal nonstellate subtype of astrocyte that expresses the ectonucleotidase NTPDase2 and is in a strategic position to modulate purinergic transmission in this subnucleus.

  7. Hindbrain lactate regulates preoptic gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neuron GnRH-I protein but not AMPK responses to hypoglycemia in the steroid-primed ovariectomized female rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, P K; Briski, K P

    2015-07-09

    Steroid positive-feedback activation of the gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH)-pituitary luteinizing hormone (LH) neuroendocrine axis propagates the pre ovulatory LH surge, a crucial component of female reproduction. Our work shows that this key event is restrained by inhibitory metabolic input from hindbrain A2 noradrenergic neurons. GnRH neurons express the ultra-sensitive energy sensor adenosine 5'-monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK); here, we investigated the hypothesis that GnRH nerve cell AMPK and peptide neurotransmitter responses to insulin-induced hypoglycemia are controlled by hindbrain lack of the oxidizable glycolytic end-product L-lactate. Data show that hypoglycemic inhibition of LH release in steroid-primed ovariectomized female rats was reversed by coincident caudal hindbrain lactate infusion. Western blot analyses of laser-microdissected A2 neurons demonstrate hypoglycemic augmentation [Fos, estrogen receptor-beta (ER-β), phosphoAMPK (pAMPK)] and inhibition (dopamine-beta-hydroxylase, GLUT3, MCT2) of protein expression in these cells, responses that were normalized by insulin plus lactate treatment. Hypoglycemia diminished rostral preoptic GnRH nerve cell GnRH-I protein and pAMPK content; the former, but not the latter response was reversed by lactate. Results implicate caudal hindbrain lactoprivic signaling in hypoglycemia-induced suppression of the LH surge, demonstrating that lactate repletion of that site reverses decrements in A2 catecholamine biosynthetic enzyme and GnRH neuropeptide precursor protein expression. Lack of effect of lactate on hypoglycemic patterns of GnRH AMPK activity suggests that this sensor is uninvolved in metabolic-inhibition of positive-feedback-stimulated hypophysiotropic signaling to pituitary gonadotropes.

  8. Contrasting medial moraine development at adjacent temperate, maritime glaciers: Fox and Franz Josef Glaciers, South Westland, New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brook, Martin; Hagg, Wilfried; Winkler, Stefan

    2017-08-01

    Medial moraines form important pathways for sediment transportation in valley glaciers. Despite the existence of well-defined medial moraines on several glaciers in the New Zealand Southern Alps, medial moraines there have hitherto escaped attention. The evolving morphology and debris content of medial moraines on Franz Josef Glacier and Fox Glacier on the western flank of the Southern Alps is the focus of this study. These temperate maritime glaciers exhibit accumulation zones of multiple basins that feed narrow tongues flowing down steep valleys and terminate 400 m above sea level. The medial moraines at both glaciers become very prominent in the lower ablation zones, where the medial moraines widen, and develop steeper flanks coeval with an increase in relative relief. Medial moraine growth appears somewhat self-limiting in that relief and slope angle increase eventually lead to transport of debris away from the medial moraine by mass-movement-related processes. Despite similarities in overall morphologies, a key contrast in medial moraine formation exists between the two glaciers. At Fox Glacier, the medial moraine consists of angular rockfall-derived debris, folded to varying degrees along flow-parallel axes throughout the tongue. The debris originates above the ELA, coalesces at flow-unit boundaries, and takes a medium/high level transport pathway before subsequently emerging at point-sources aligned with gently dipping fold hinges near the snout. In contrast at Franz Josef Glacier, the medial moraine emerges farther down-glacier immediately below a prominent rock knob. Clasts show a mix of angular to rounded shapes representing high level transport and subglacially transported materials, the latter facies possibly also elevated by supraglacial routing of subglacial meltwater. Our observations confirm that a variety of different debris sources, transport pathways, and structural glaciological processes can interact to form medial moraines within New Zealand

  9. Concurrent or sequential tibial subchondral cystic lesions in 4 horses with medial femoral condyle subchondral cystic lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonilla, Alvaro G; Bertone, Alicia L; Brokken, Matthew T; Santschi, Elizabeth M

    2016-12-01

    CASE DESCRIPTION 4 horses were examined because of signs of chronic hind limb lameness. CLINICAL FINDINGS 3 horses had a history of lameness for > 6 months; specific duration was unknown for 1 horse. On initial evaluation, grade 3 to 4 (on a scale from 1 to 5) hind limb lameness was present in all 4 horses. Radiography of the stifle joint of the affected limb revealed medial femoral condyle subchondral lucencies or subchondral cystic lesions (SCLs) in all 4 horses, medial femorotibial osteoarthritis in 3 horses, and medial tibial condyle SCLs in 3 horses. TREATMENT AND OUTCOME 2 horses were treated medically (stall rest and oral NSAID administration), and 2 horses were treated surgically by means of medial femoral transcondylar lag screw placement through the medial femoral condyle SCLs. The 2 horses treated medically did not improve and were euthanized. Necropsy confirmed the presence of medial femoral condyle and medial tibial condyle SCLs. Surgical treatment did not resolve the lameness in 1 horse with SCLs in the medial tibial condyle and medial femoral condyle, and euthanasia was performed 150 days after surgery. In the second horse, a medial tibial condyle SCL was evident on radiographs obtained 3 months after surgery; however, this was not addressed surgically, and signs of lameness resolved 11 months after surgery. CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results of this small case series suggested that SCLs in the medial tibial condyle can occur in association with SCLs of the medial femoral condyle, with a poor prognosis for return to athletic function in affected horses. Further investigation is indicated.

  10. 腹外侧视前区5-羟色胺对大鼠睡眠-觉醒周期的作用%The role of serotonin in ventrolateral preoptic area on sleep-wakefulness cycle of rat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    章功良; 何延龙; 王烈成; 赵乐章; 张瑾; 钟明奎; 张景行

    2003-01-01

    目的通过腹外侧视前区(VLPO)微量注射5-羟色胺酸(5-HTP)、非特异性5-HT受体阻断剂麦角新碱(MS)和5-HT再摄取抑制剂氟西汀观察5-HT在VLPO对大鼠睡眠-觉醒周期的影响.方法采用脑立体定位、核团微量注射和多导睡眠描记技术.结果 VLPO双侧分别微量注射小剂量5-HTP(0.5 μg,0.1 μl)对大鼠睡眠-觉醒周期无明显影响;而双侧注射大剂量5-HTP(1.0 μg,0.1 μl)使大鼠睡眠减少,觉醒增加;VLPO双侧注射5-HT再摄取抑制剂氟西汀(6.0 μg,0.1 μl)可产生与大剂量5-HTP类似的作用;而VLPO双侧微量注射非特异性5-HT受体阻断剂麦角新碱(MS,1.0 μg,0.1 μl)使大鼠睡眠增加,觉醒减少.大剂量5-HTP和MS对觉醒,睡眠成分改变具有明显的时间相关性.结论 5-HT在VLPO参与睡眠-觉醒周期调节且有促觉醒作用,其促觉醒作用可能与突触后物质表达有关.

  11. The roles of the medial prefrontal cortex and hippocampus in a spatial paired-association task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Inah; Solivan, Frances

    2008-05-01

    Although the roles of both the hippocampus and the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) have been suggested in a spatial paired-associate memory task, both areas were investigated separately in prior studies. The current study investigated the relative contributions of the hippocampus and mPFC to spatial paired-associate learning within a single behavioral paradigm. In a novel behavioral task, a pair of different objects appeared repeatedly across trials, but in different arms in a radial maze, and different rules were associated with those arms for reward. Specifically, in an "object-in-place" arm, the rat was required to choose a particular object associated with the arm. In a "location-in-place" arm, the animal was required to choose a certain within-arm location (ignoring the object occupying the location). Compared to normal animals, rats with ibotenic acid-based lesions in the hippocampus showed an irrecoverable impairment in performance in both object-in-place and location-in-place arms. When the mPFC was inactivated by muscimol (GABA(A) receptor agonist) in the normal animals with intact hippocampi, they showed the same severe impairment as seen in the hippocampal lesioned rats only in object-in-place arms. The results confirm that the hippocampus is necessary for a biconditional paired-associate task when space is a critical component. The mPFC, however, is more selectively involved in the object-place paired-associate task than in the location-place paired-associate task. The current task powerfully demonstrates an experimental situation in which both the hippocampus and mPFC are required and may serve as a useful paradigm for investigating the neural mechanisms of object-place association.

  12. Differential roles of medial prefrontal subregions in the regulation of drug seeking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moorman, David E.; James, Morgan H.; McGlinchey, Ellen M.; Aston-Jones, Gary

    2014-01-01

    The prefrontal cortex plays an important role in shaping cognition and behavior. Many studies have shown that medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) plays a key role in seeking, extinction, and reinstatement of cocaine seeking in rodent models of relapse. Subregions of mPFC appear to play distinct roles in these behaviors, such that the prelimbic cortex (PL) is proposed to drive cocaine seeking and the infralimbic cortex (IL) is proposed to suppress cocaine seeking after extinction. This dichotomy of mPFC function may be a general attribute, as similar dorsal-ventral distinctions exist for expression vs. extinction of fear conditioning. However, other results indicate that the role of mPFC neurons in reward processing is more complex than a simple PL-seek vs. IL-extinguish dichotomy. Both PL and IL have been shown to drive and inhibit drug seeking (and other types of behaviors) depending on a range of factors including the behavioral context, the drug-history of the animal, and the type of drug investigated. This heterogeneity of findings may reflect multiple subcircuits within each of these PFC areas supporting unique functions. It may also reflect the fact that the mPFC plays a multifaceted role in shaping cognition and behavior, including those overlapping with cocaine seeking and extinction. Here we discuss research leading to the hypothesis that dorsal and ventral mPFC differentially control drug seeking and extinction. We also present recent results calling the absolute nature of a PL vs. IL dichotomy into question. Finally, we consider alternate functions for mPFC that correspond less to response execution and inhibition and instead incorporate the complex cognitive behavior for which the mPFC is broadly appreciated. PMID:25529632

  13. The Role of the Medial Prefrontal Cortex in the Generalization of Conditioned Fear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spalding, Kelsey N

    2017-08-31

    Fear generalization, the generalization of fear to innocuous stimuli, is a characteristic component of pathological anxiety. Neural models of fear generalization suggest the involvement of the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). However, conflicting empirical findings complicate our understanding of the role of the mPFC in pathological anxiety. To address important unanswered questions in this area, a detailed review and synthesis of results from human and nonhuman animal investigations of conditioned fear generalization was conducted. Empirical articles were identified through March 2017 and selected if they used fear conditioning, measured fear generalization, and included a measure of activity in the mPFC or manipulation of mPFC functioning. In human cued fear conditioning, the ventral mPFC plays an important role in the inhibition of fear generalization, whereas dorsal mPFC is important for the activation of generalized fear. This pattern remains to be further investigated in nonhuman animal models. Nonhuman animal research suggests an interaction between the neural correlates of contextual fear generalization and timing, such that the mPFC appears to increase fear generalization at remote time points and reduce generalization at recent time points following acquisition. The literature suggests a key role for the mPFC in fear generalization, but empirical details vary depending on specific regions within the mPFC, the animal model used, and the timing of the generalization test. Further research is needed to elucidate the role of the mPFC in fear generalization, which could in turn facilitate more effective pharmacological interventions for pathological anxiety. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. Elevated dopamine in the medial prefrontal cortex suppresses cocaine seeking via D1 receptor overstimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devoto, Paola; Fattore, Liana; Antinori, Silvia; Saba, Pierluigi; Frau, Roberto; Fratta, Walter; Gessa, Gian Luigi

    2016-01-01

    Previous investigations indicate that the dopamine-β-hydroxylase (DBH) inhibitors disulfiram and nepicastat suppress cocaine-primed reinstatement of cocaine self-administration behaviour. Moreover, both inhibitors increase dopamine release in the rat medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and markedly potentiate cocaine-induced dopamine release in this region. This study was aimed to clarify if the suppressant effect of DBH inhibitors on cocaine reinstatement was mediated by the high extracellular dopamine in the rat mPFC leading to a supra-maximal stimulation of D1 receptors in the dorsal division of mPFC, an area critical for reinstatement of cocaine-seeking behaviour. In line with previous microdialysis studies in drug-naïve animals, both DBH inhibitors potentiated cocaine-induced dopamine release in the mPFC, in the same animals in which they also suppressed reinstatement of cocaine seeking. Similar to the DBH inhibitors, L-DOPA potentiated cocaine-induced dopamine release in the mPFC and suppressed cocaine-induced reinstatement of cocaine-seeking behaviour. The bilateral microinfusion of the D1 receptor antagonist SCH 23390 into the dorsal mPFC not only prevented cocaine-induced reinstatement of cocaine seeking but also reverted both disulfiram- and L-DOPA-induced suppression of reinstatement. Moreover, the bilateral microinfusion of the D1 receptor agonist chloro-APB (SKF 82958) into the dorsal mPFC markedly attenuated cocaine-induced reinstatement of cocaine seeking. These results suggest that stimulation of D1 receptors in the dorsal mPFC plays a crucial role in cocaine-induced reinstatement of cocaine seeking, whereas the suppressant effect of DBH inhibitors and L-DOPA on drug-induced reinstatement is mediated by a supra-maximal stimulation of D1 receptors leading to their inactivation.

  15. Ultrastructure of the myotendinous junction of the medial pterygoid muscle of adult and aged Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciena, Adriano Polican; Luques, Isabela Ugo; Dias, Fernando José; Yokomizo de Almeida, Sonia Regina; Iyomasa, Mamie Mizusaki; Watanabe, Ii-Sei

    2010-12-01

    The myotendon junction (MTJ) is a specialised area into the muscle fibers where the sarcoplasmic membranes connect to the collagen fibers bundles. There are few data about plasticity of the MTJ in aging processes. The aim of this study is to analyse the ultrastructure characteristics of MTJ of medial pterygoid muscle of adult and aged rats. Employing the transmission electron microscopy method, twenty male rats Wistar (Rattus norvegicus) were divided into two groups: A (n=10) with 12 months of age; B (n=10) 24 months of age. The animals were anaesthetised with overdose the urethane (3g/kg, i.p.) and sacrified during the perfusion with modified Karnovsky solution. The specimens were post-fixed in a 1% osmium tetroxide solution, dehydrated in ascending concentration of ethanol and embedded in Spurr resin. The thin sections, of 90 nm thick, were counterstained with uranyl acetate and lead citrate solution, and examined in a Jeol 1010 transmission electron microscope. The fine structure of the MTJ of group A revealed the defined interdigitations and disposed in several levels of deep formations containing the collagen fibers. In the group B, such structures did not observed, detecting the projections irregular in shape, and large of extra matrix with in aspect of remodelling. In conclusion it was possible to identify the plasticity of MTJ in the group B which presented several morphological alterations comparing to the adult animals. These data of group B suggested the occurrence of aging processes in the MTJ in rats. Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Catecholaminergic depletion within the prelimbic medial prefrontal cortex enhances latent inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, A J D; Thur, K E; Marsden, C A; Cassaday, H J

    2010-09-29

    Latent inhibition (LI) refers to the reduction in conditioning to a stimulus that has received repeated non-reinforced pre-exposure. Investigations into the neural substrates of LI have focused on the nucleus accumbens (NAc) and its inputs from the hippocampal formation and adjacent cortical areas. Previous work has suggested that lesions to the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), another major source of input to the NAc, do not disrupt LI. However, a failure to observe disrupted LI does not preclude the possibility that a particular brain region is involved in the expression of LI. Moreover, the mPFC is a heterogeneous structure and there has been no investigation of a possible role of different regions within the mPFC in regulating LI under conditions that prevent LI in controls. Here, we tested whether 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-induced lesions of dopamine (DA) terminals within the prelimbic (PL) and infralimbic (IL) mPFC would lead to the emergence of LI under conditions that do produce LI in controls (weak pre-exposure). LI was measured in a thirst motivated conditioned emotional response procedure with 10 pre-exposures to a noise conditioned stimulus (CS) and two conditioning trials. Sham-operated and IL-lesioned animals did not show LI and conditioned to the pre-exposed CS at comparable levels to the non-pre-exposed controls. 6-OHDA lesions to the PL, however, produced potentiation of LI. These results provide the first demonstration that the PL mPFC is a component of the neural circuitry underpinning LI.

  17. Neural growth hormone: regional regulation by estradiol and/or sex chromosome complement in male and female mice

    OpenAIRE

    Quinnies, Kayla M; Bonthuis, Paul J.; Harris, Erin P; Shetty, Savera RJ; Rissman, Emilie F.

    2015-01-01

    Background Sex differences in pituitary growth hormone (GH) are well documented and coordinate maturation and growth. GH and its receptor are also produced in the brain where they may impact cognitive function and synaptic plasticity, and estradiol produces Gh sex differences in rat hippocampus. In mice, circulating estradiol increases Gh mRNA in female but not in male medial preoptic area (mPOA); therefore, additional factors regulate sexually dimorphic Gh expression in the brain. Thus, we h...

  18. Near-linear time medial axis approximation of smooth curves in $\\mathbb{R}^3$

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Scheffer

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available We present the first algorithm to approximate the medial axis $M_{\\gamma}$ of a smooth, closed curve $\\gamma \\subset \\mathbb{R}^3$ in near-linear time. Our algorithm works on a sufficiently dense \\eps-sample and comes with a convergence guarantee for the non-discrete, but continuous approximation object.  As our approach also works correctly for a set of curves, we discuss the following application of the medial axis: The medial axis of two curves $\\gamma_1$ and $\\gamma_2$ can be applied to compute piecewise-linear simplifications of $\\gamma_1$ and $\\gamma_2$. In particular, a controllable tradeoff between the degree of simplification and the degree of falsification of the summed Fr\\'{e}chet distance between $\\gamma_1$ and $\\gamma_2$ is obtained. Finally, we show that for simplifying $\\gamma_1$ and $\\gamma_2$, our approximation, instead of $M_{\\gamma}$, can be applied while guaranteeing the same result.

  19. Anchor proximal migration in the medial patellofemoral ligament reconstruction in skeletally immature patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiano Kupczik

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The medial patellofemoral ligament (MPFL injury has been considered instrumental in lateral patellar instability after patellar dislocation. Consequently, the focus on the study of this ligament reconstruction has increased in recent years. The MPFL femoral anatomical origin point has great importance at the moment of reconstruction surgery, because a graft fixation in a non anatomical position may result in medial overload, medial subluxation of the patella or excessive tensioning of the graft with subsequent failure. In the pediatric population, the location of this point is highlighted by the presence of femoral physis. The literature is still controversial regarding the best placement of the graft. We describe two cases of skeletally immature patients in whom LPFM reconstruction was performed. The femoral fixation was through anchors that were placed above the physis. With the growth and development of the patients, the femoral origin point of the graft moved proximally, resulting in failure in these two cases.

  20. Reconstruction of lateral forefoot using reversed medial plantar flap with free anterolateral thigh flap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujioka, Masaki; Hayashida, Kenji; Senju, Chikako

    2014-01-01

    Skin defects of the heel have frequently been reconstructed using the medial plantar flap; however, forefoot coverage has remained a challenge, because the alternatives for flap coverage have been very limited. We describe a case of malignant melanoma on the lateral forefoot that was radically removed and reconstructed successfully with a distally based medial plantar flap, together with a free anterolateral thigh flap. The advantages of this flap include that it does not reduce the vascular supply to the foot owing to reconstruction of the medial plantar vascular systems, reduces the risk of flap congestion, minimizes donor site morbidity, and enables the transport of structurally similar tissues to the plantar forefoot. We believe this technique is a reasonable reconstructive option for large lateral plantar forefoot defects.

  1. Medial opening wedge distal femoral osteotomy for post-traumatic secondary knee osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsui, Gen; Akiyama, Takenori; Ikemura, Satoshi; Mawatari, Taro

    2014-04-30

    Osteoarthritis of the knee secondary to femoral fracture is difficult to treat. There are some surgical options, such as total knee arthroplasty or correction osteotomy. Opening wedge high tibial osteotomy is an established treatment of gonarthrosis. However, few reports are available on the effectiveness of a medial opening wedge distal femoral osteotomy. We present a case of a medial opening wedge distal femoral osteotomy on gonarthrosis secondary to a malunited femoral fracture with varus deformity and leg length discrepancy. This osteotomy was performed at the deformed femur, with locking plate fixation and autologous bone graft. Six months after the surgery, the osteotomy site was filled with bridging callus. Two years later, the Knee Society Score improved from 45 to 90 points. Medial opening wedge distal femoral osteotomy can be a useful method to treat knee osteoarthritis associated with distal femoral deformity.

  2. [Medial closing wedge osteotomy for correction of genu valgum and torsional malalignment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, W; Forkel, P

    2013-12-01

    Femoral medial closing wedge osteotomy for the correction of valgus malalignment to unload the cartilage in the lateral compartment and/or correction of symptomatic torsional malalignment. Lateral unicompartmental osteoarthritis of the knee with genu valgum in young patients. Symptomatic torsional malalignement of > 30° and genu valgum with medial closing osteotomy of the distal femur (6 men and 17 women). After 3.5-years follow-up, the KOOS increased from 48.4 points to 84.9 points. In one case, there was an early loss of correction, with subsequent revision with bone grafting and lateral osteosynthesis. No peri-or postoperative complications such as infection, thrombosis, and embolism occurred. In 5 cases a torsional osteotomy was performed. The torsional osteotomy was performed 4 times due to chronic patellofemoral instability, and once due to a medial tibiofemoral instability. Healing complications were not observed in this population. Recurrent instability was not observed.

  3. Transient medial patellar dislocation: injury patterns at US and MR imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Corroller, Thomas; Champsaur, Pierre [Hopital Sainte-Marguerite, Radiology Department, Marseille (France); Faculte de Medecine de Marseille, Anatomy Department, Marseille (France); Dediu, Melania [Hopital Sainte-Marguerite, Radiology Department, Marseille (France)

    2009-05-15

    Medial dislocation of the patella is an unusual entity. It is usually an iatrogenic complication of surgical lateral retinacular release. We describe the clinical, ultrasound (US), and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging features of a transient medial patellar dislocation in a 19-year-old patient with trochlear groove dysplasia presenting no surgical history. US showed acute injury to the lateral patellar retinaculum with complete avulsion at its patellar insertion. MR imaging confirmed the complete tear of the lateral patellar retinaculum and disclosed contusion of the anteromedial portion of the medial femoral condyle and lateral patella. This case is noteworthy because the injury patterns of patellar soft tissue restraints differ markedly from the classical features of lateral patellar dislocation. (orig.)

  4. Ankle inversion taping using kinesiology tape for treating medial ankle sprain in an amateur soccer player.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sun-Min; Lee, Jung-Hoon

    2015-07-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to report the effects of ankle inversion taping using kinesiology tape in a patient with a medial ankle sprain. [Subject] A 28-year-old amateur soccer player suffered a Grade 2 medial ankle sprain during a match. [Methods] Ankle inversion taping was applied to the sprained ankle every day for 2 months. [Results] His symptoms were reduced after ankle inversion taping application for 2 months. The self-reported function score, the reach distances in the Star Excursion Balance Test, and the weight-bearing ankle dorsiflexion were increased. [Conclusion] This study showed that ankle inversion taping using kinesiology tape may be an effective therapy for a patient with a medial ankle sprain.

  5. Medial prefrontal cortex involvement in the expression of extinction and ABA renewal of instrumental behavior for a food reinforcer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eddy, Meghan C; Todd, Travis P; Bouton, Mark E; Green, John T

    2016-02-01

    Instrumental renewal, the return of extinguished instrumental responding after removal from the extinction context, is an important model of behavioral relapse that is poorly understood at the neural level. In two experiments, we examined the role of the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (dmPFC) and the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) in extinction and ABA renewal of instrumental responding for a sucrose reinforcer. Previous work, exclusively using drug reinforcers, has suggested that the roles of the dmPFC and vmPFC in expression of extinction and ABA renewal may depend at least in part on the type of drug reinforcer used. The current experiments used a food reinforcer because the behavioral mechanisms underlying the extinction and renewal of instrumental responding are especially well worked out in this paradigm. After instrumental conditioning in context A and extinction in context B, we inactivated dmPFC, vmPFC, or a more ventral medial prefrontal cortex region by infusing baclofen/muscimol (B/M) just prior to testing in both contexts. In rats with inactivated dmPFC, ABA renewal was still present (i.e., responding increased when returned to context A); however responding was lower (less renewal) than controls. Inactivation of vmPFC increased responding in context B (the extinction context) and decreased responding in context A, indicating no renewal in these animals. There was no effect of B/M infusion on rats with cannula placements ventral to the vmPFC. Fluorophore-conjugated muscimol was infused in a subset of rats following test to visualize infusion spread. Imaging suggested that the infusion spread was minimal and mainly constrained to the targeted area. Together, these experiments suggest that there is a region of medial prefrontal cortex encompassing both dmPFC and vmPFC that is important for ABA renewal of extinguished instrumental responding for a food reinforcer. In addition, vmPFC, but not dmPFC, is important for expression of extinction of

  6. Medial Prefrontal Cortex Involvement in the Expression of Extinction and ABA Renewal of Instrumental Behavior for a Food Reinforcer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eddy, Meghan C.; Todd, Travis P.; Bouton, Mark E.; Green, John T.

    2015-01-01

    Instrumental renewal, the return of extinguished instrumental responding after removal from the extinction context, is an important model of behavioral relapse that is poorly understood at the neural level. In two experiments, we examined the role of the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (dmPFC) and the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) in extinction and ABA renewal of instrumental responding for a sucrose reinforcer. Previous work, exclusively using drug reinforcers, has suggested that the roles of the dmPFC and vmPFC in expression of extinction and ABA renewal may depend at least in part on the type of drug reinforcer used. The current experiments used a food reinforcer because the behavioral mechanisms underlying the extinction and renewal of instrumental responding are especially well worked out in this paradigm. After instrumental conditioning in context A and extinction in context B, we inactivated dmPFC, vmPFC, or a more ventral medial prefrontal cortex region by infusing baclofen/muscimol (B/M) just prior to testing in both contexts. In rats with inactivated dmPFC, ABA renewal was still present (i.e., responding increased when returned to context A); however responding was lower (less renewal) than controls. Inactivation of vmPFC increased responding in context B (the extinction context) and decreased responding in context A, indicating no renewal in these animals. There was no effect of B/M infusion on rats with cannula placements ventral to the vmPFC. Fluorophore-conjugated muscimol was infused in a subset of rats following test to visualize infusion spread. Imaging suggested that the infusion spread was minimal and mainly constrained to the targeted area. Together, these experiments suggest that there is a region of medial prefrontal cortex encompassing both dmPFC and vmPFC that is important for ABA renewal of extinguished instrumental responding for a food reinforcer. In addition, vmPFC, but not dmPFC, is important for expression of extinction of

  7. Avaliação artroscópica e macroscópica da faceta medial do semilunar Arthroscopic and macroscopic evaluation of the lunate medial facet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgard de Novaes França Bisneto

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: avaliar a correlação entre a presença de uma faceta medial do semilunar e a incidência de lesões ligamentares e artrose do pólo proximal do hamato. MÉTODOS: Avaliação artroscópica e dissecação dos punhos foram efetuados em cadáveres. RESULTADOS: Houve uma correlação clara, estatisticamente significativa entre artrose do pólo proximal do hamato e a presença da faceta medial do semilunar. CONCLUSÃO: Artrose do pólo proximal do hamato está correlacionada com a presença do tipo II semilunar. Nível de Evidência III, Estudo de pacientes nãoconsecutivos; sem padrão de referência "ouro" aplicado uniformementeOBJECTIVE: To evaluate the correlation between the presence of a lunate medial facet and the incidence of ligament lesions of the wrist and arthrosis of the proximal pole of the hamate. This study was carried out on cadavers. METHODS: Arthroscopic evaluation and dissection were performed on cadaver wrists. RESULTS: There was a clear, statistically significant correlation between arthrosis of the proximal pole of the hamate and the presence of a medial facet on the lunate. CONCLUSION: Arthrosis of the proximal pole of the hamate is correlated with the presence of a type II lunate. Level of Evidence III, Study of nonconsecutive patients; without consistently applied reference ''gold'' standard.

  8. Ostectomy and Medial Plantar Artery Flap Reconstruction for Charcot Foot Ulceration Involving the Midfoot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Tomoya; Ichioka, Shigeru

    2016-01-01

    Charcot foot is a serious complication of diabetes, characterized by deformity and overlying ulceration. The condition most commonly affects the midfoot. However, little information is available on the use of a medial plantar artery flap to treat diabetic midfoot ulceration. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the versatility of ostectomy and medial plantar flap reconstruction for midfoot plantar ulceration associated with rocker-bottom deformity secondary to Charcot foot. Four patients underwent ostectomy and medial plantar flap reconstruction. Before flap reconstruction, the devitalized soft tissues and bone were radically resected. After the infection had been controlled, the ulcerated portion was minimally excised, and the bony prominence underlying the ulcer was removed. A medial plantar artery flap was applied to the ulcer. The donor site was covered with a split-thickness skin graft or artificial dermis. In all patients, the ulcers healed and independent ambulation was achieved. However, 1 patient experienced ulcer recurrence, and subsequent infection necessitated a major amputation. Limb salvage is challenging in the setting of deformity and intractable plantar ulceration. The advantages of medial plantar artery flap reconstruction are that tissues with a rich blood supply are used to cover the exposed bone, and the flap can withstand the pressure and shear stress of the patient's body weight. However, a dominant artery in the foot is sacrificed. Therefore, the patency of the dorsalis pedis artery must be confirmed in every patient. The results of the present study have demonstrated that a medial plantar artery can be an effective alternative for diabetic patients with a plantar ulcer secondary to Charcot foot.

  9. The effects of kinematically aligned total knee arthroplasty on stress at the medial tibia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Y.; Tanaka, Y.; Kuriyama, S.; Ito, H.; Furu, M.; Matsuda, S.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Little biomechanical information is available about kinematically aligned (KA) total knee arthroplasty (TKA). The purpose of this study was to simulate the kinematics and kinetics after KA TKA and mechanically aligned (MA) TKA with four different limb alignments. Materials and Methods Bone models were constructed from one volunteer (normal) and three patients with three different knee deformities (slight, moderate and severe varus). A dynamic musculoskeletal modelling system was used to analyse the kinematics and the tibiofemoral contact force. The contact stress on the tibial insert, and the stress to the resection surface and medial tibial cortex were examined by using finite element analysis. Results In all bone models, posterior translation on the lateral side and external rotation in the KA TKA models were greater than in the MA TKA models. The tibiofemoral force at the medial side was increased in the moderate and severe varus models with KA TKA. In the severe varus model with KA TKA, the contact stress on the tibial insert and the stress to the resection surface and to the medial tibial cortex were increased by 41.5%, 32.2% and 53.7%, respectively, compared with MA TKA, and the bone strain at the medial side was highest among all models. Conclusion Near normal kinematics was observed in KA TKA. However, KA TKA increased the contact force, stress and bone strain at the medial side for moderate and severe varus knee models. The application of KA TKA for severe varus knees may be inadequate. Cite this article: S. Nakamura, Y. Tian, Y. Tanaka, S. Kuriyama, H. Ito, M. Furu, S. Matsuda. The effects of kinematically aligned total knee arthroplasty on stress at the medial tibia: A case study for varus knee. Bone Joint Res 2017;6:43–51. DOI: 10.1302/2046-3758.61.BJR-2016-0090.R1. PMID:28077396

  10. Comparison of the homogeneity of breast dose distributions with and without the medial wedge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikner, C L; Russo, R; Podgorsak, M B; Proulx, G M; Lee, R J

    1998-01-01

    Radiation of the intact breast often requires medial and lateral wedges to improve dose homogeneity of its pyramidal shape and to achieve acceptable cosmesis. There is some concern that radiation scatter from the medial wedge may contribute to cancer in the uninvolved breast, yet treatment without the medial wedge is associated with inhomogeneity of magnitudes that affect cosmesis. These homogeneities are identified on treatment plans generated at the central axis (CAX). It is not known if comparing isodose curves at the central axis reflect homogeneity in superior and inferior planes. A study was undertaken to both examine inhomogeneity with and without the medial wedge, and to determine if plan selection at the CAX was representative of homogeneity above and below the CAX. Ten consecutive patients with early breast cancers had cranial, CAX, and caudal CT images of each breast compared with two wedging conditions, lateral only (LW) and medial and lateral wedged conditions (dual wedges = DW). Dosimetry was optimized at the CAX for DW and LW conditions. Dose distributions and hot spots relative to prescribed dose were compared for cranial, CAX, and caudal images. Mean chest wall separations were measured. Six of ten patients had equivalent LW and DW distributions at the levels examined. Only one of these patients had a single off-axis hot spot > 20%. Six patients had comparable LW and DW dosimetry and acceptable hot spots at the central axis, as well as chest wall separations < or = 22 cm. In conclusion, if isodose configurations are commensurate at the CAX, these patients will have homogeneity above and below the CAX. In patients with chest wall separations < or = 22 cm, treatment without the medial wedge is feasible, sparing the contralateral breast dose with little compromise to inhomogeneity in the treated breast.

  11. Diagnosis and Follow-up US Evaluation of Ruptures of the Medial Head of the Gastrocnemius

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwak, Hyo-Sung; Han, Young-Min; Lee, Sang-Yong; Kim, Ki-Nam; Chung, Gyung Ho [Chonbuk National University Medical School, Chonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-09-15

    The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the ultrasonographic (US) findings of rupture and the healing process of the medial head of the gastrocnemius ('Tennis Leg'). Twenty-two patients (age range: 30 to 45 years) with clinically suspected ruptures of the medial head of the gastrocnemius were referred to us for US examination. All the patients underwent US of the affected limb and the contralateral asymptomatic limb. Follow-up clinical evaluation and US imaging of all patients were performed at two-week intervals during the month after injury and at one-month intervals during the following six months. Of the 22 patients who had an initial US examination after their injury, partial rupture of the medial head of the gastrocnemius muscle was identified in seven patients (31.8%); the remaining 15 patients were diagnosed with complete rupture. Fluid collection between the medial head of the gastrocnemius and the soleus muscle was identified in 20 patients (90.9%). The thickness of the fluid collection, including the hematoma in the patients with complete rupture (mean: 9.7 mm), was significantly greater than that seen in the patients with partial tear (mean: 6.8 mm) (p < 0.01). The primary union of the medial head of the gastrocnemius with the soleus muscle in all the patients with muscle rupture and fluid collection was recognized via the hypoechoic tissue after four weeks. Ultrasonography is a useful imaging modality for the diagnosis and follow-up examination for the patients suffering with rupture of the medial head of the gastrocnemius.

  12. Distribution of the Toxin following Medial Rectus Muscular Injection of Botulinum Toxin Gel in Rabbits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jingchang Chen; Guanghuan Mai; Xinping Yu; Huanyuan Yu; Heping Wu; Xiaoming Lin; Daming Deng; Ying Kang

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the distribution of the toxin among individual muscles after intramuscular injection of botulinum toxin gel.Methods: One eye of 7 New Zealand white rabbits was randomized into group A, and the contralateral eye was into group B. Eyes in group A received medial rectus intramuscular injection of 2.5 IU of 125I-BTX-A gel in 0.1 ml, and those in group B received equivalent amount of 125I-BTX-A solution by medial rectus intramuscular injection. Four rectus muscles and the levator palpebrae superioris were harvested and the radioactivity of muscles was measured 16 hours after the injection.Results: In group A, the radioactivity of per gram medial rectus was significantly higher than that of other muscles (P < 0.01), and there was no statistically significant difference in the radioactivity of per gram muscles among other muscles (P > 0.05). In group B, the radioactivity of per gram medial rectus and levator palpebrae superioris was significantly higher than that of other muscles respectively(P < 0.05), and the difference in the radioactivity of per gram muscles between medial rectus and levator palpebrae superioris was not statistically significant (P > 0.05). The radioactivity of per gram medial rectus in group A was higher than that in group B (t=3.731 ,P=0.01), and there was no significant difference in the radioactivity of per gram muscles among other homonymous muscles (P > 0.05).Conclusion: The toxin dispersed principally in the injected muscle and the local concentration of the toxin was much high following intramuscular injection of botulinum toxin gel.

  13. Selective disappearance of medial back muscles in a case of myotonic dystrophy type 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morihara, Ryuta; Hishikawa, Nozomi; Yamashita, Toru; Deguchi, Kentaro; Kurata, Tomoko; Abe, Koji

    2015-01-01

    Here, we report a unique case of late-onset myotonic dystrophy type 1 in a 64-year-old woman, with selective disappearance of the medial lower back muscles. We compared the clinical features of this patient with those of a cohort of 29 patients with myotonic dystrophy type 1 to clarify the correlation between clinical features and lower back muscle atrophy. After classification into three subgroups according to muscle atrophy pattern, medial muscle atrophy was present in 17.2% of the patients. Affected patients were older at onset than non-affected patients, and limb muscle power and respiratory function decreased with atrophy progression.

  14. Fratura avulsão do planalto tibial medial (Segond reverso)

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    Descreve-se neste artigo um padrão de lesão descrito na literatura apenas duas vezes, num total de quatro casos, denominado Segond reverso por apresentar achados clínicos e radiológicos exatamente opostos aos da clássica lesão de Segond. Semelhantemente aos casos previamente descritos, apresentou fratura avulsão do planalto tibial medial, na inserção do ligamento colateral medial profundo, associada a lesão do ligamento cruzado posterior. Assim como em um dos casos prévios, foi constatada les...

  15. Subcutaneous rupture of the Achilles tendon and ipsilateral fracture of the medial malleolus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richards Paula J

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although ankle fractures and an Achilles tendon rupture are relatively frequent in isolation, their association in the same injury is uncommon. Case presentation A 38 year old male tree surgeon fell six meters from a tree, sustaining a subcutaneous rupture of the Achilles tendon and an ipsilateral closed fracture of the medial malleolus. The injuries were diagnosed following clinical examination and imaging. Conclusion This injury combination is infrequent, and management of the Achilles tendon rupture should take into account the necessity not to secondarily displace the fracture of the medial malleollus.

  16. Aplicaciones del colgajo sural medial en cirugía reconstructiva de cavidad oral y orofaringe

    OpenAIRE

    Zubillaga, Ignacio; Redondo, Marta; Sánchez, Gregorio

    2017-01-01

    Objetivos: Presentar nuestra serie clínica de colgajos de perforantes basados en la arteria sural medial revisando las indicaciones, las características del colgajo y las complicaciones asociadas. Material y métodos: Análisis retrospectivo de 25 pacientes con defectos de cavidad oral y orofaringe reconstruidos con colgajo sural medial desde 2010 hasta 2013 en el Servicio de Cirugía Oral y Maxilofacial del Hospital Universitario 12 de Octubre de Madrid. Resultados: El rango de edad fue d...

  17. Beauty in a smile: the role of medial orbitofrontal cortex in facial attractiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Doherty, J; Winston, J; Critchley, H; Perrett, D; Burt, D M; Dolan, R J

    2003-01-01

    The attractiveness of a face is a highly salient social signal, influencing mate choice and other social judgements. In this study, we used event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate brain regions that respond to attractive faces which manifested either a neutral or mildly happy face expression. Attractive faces produced activation of medial orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), a region involved in representing stimulus-reward value. Responses in this region were further enhanced by a smiling facial expression, suggesting that the reward value of an attractive face as indexed by medial OFC activity is modulated by a perceiver directed smile.

  18. Buttress plating for a rare case of comminuted medial condylar Hoffa fracture associated with patellar fracture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ashwani Soni; Ramesh K Sen; Uttam Chand Saini; Dajjit Singh; Sushil Chaudhary

    2012-01-01

    Hoffa fracture is an uncommon injury.In the literature,lateral condylar Hoffa fracture is mentioned as a more common injury pattern than medial condylar Hoffa fracture.The mechanism of injury and method of treatment is not very well described in the literature.We are presenting a rare case of comminuted medial condylar Hoffa fracture with ipsitateral patellar fracture.The mechanism of injury has not been described in the literature.Lag screw fixation,which is the most acceptable method of treatment,is not possible due to comminution.We explain the possible mechanism of injury and fix the fracture with L-buttress plate.

  19. The medial heel skive technique. Improving pronation control in foot orthoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirby, K A

    1992-04-01

    A new method of foot orthosis modification that enhances the pronation controlling ability of foot orthoses is presented. The medial heel skive technique involves selectively removing small amounts of the medial portion of the plantar heel of the positive cast of the foot to create a unique varus wedging effect within the heel cup of the foot orthosis. The resulting increase in supination moment across the subtalar joint axis of the foot clinically produces significantly improved pronation control on pediatric flexible flat feet, posterior tibial dysfunction, and other types of excessively pronated feet.

  20. Misdiagnosis of plexiform neurofibroma of the medial plantar nerve: case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Orazi, Valerio; Venditto, Teresa; Panunzi, Andrea; Anichini, Silvia; Manzini, Gabriele; Tallarico, Arturo; Bernetti, Andrea; Paoloni, Marco

    2014-09-01

    Plexiform neurofibromas are benign tumors of the peripheral nerve. Diagnosis may be challenging, if they present mimicking other peripheral nerve pathologies. We report the case of a patient who had severe foot pain, which progressively hampered her walking ability, erroneously attributed to recurrent Morton's neuroma. Diagnosis of plexiform neurofibroma of her right medial plantar nerve was made 15 years after the appearance of symptoms. Pain and function recovered after radical neurotomy of the medial plantar nerve. A correct diagnosis is an essential starting point in the treatment of neurofibromas and a misdiagnosis may lead to an inappropriate treatment.

  1. Histological and ultrastructural study on the medial canthal ligament of blepharophimosis, ptosis and epicanthus inversus syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Dan-ping; ZHUO Ye-hong; CAI Jian-hao; XU Nuo; ZHONG Xiu-feng; YU Yang-yang; LAI Zhao-guang; GONG Di; GE Jian

    2009-01-01

    Background Blepharophimosis ptosis epicanthus inversus syndrome (BPES) is a rare congenital ophthalmic disorder,characterized by congenital eyelid malformation including bilateral ptosis, shortening of the horizontal eyelid fissure,epicanthus inversus, and increased distance between the inner canthi. In this research, we studied the histological structure and ultrastructure of medial canthal ligament of patients with BPES.Methods Thirty patients with BPES who received plastic surgery at the Zhongshan Ophthalmic Center from March 2006 to January 2008 were studied. There were 17 males and 13 females with an average age of (8.73±3.37) years (3-31 years). The medial canthal ligaments of patients were collected during the plastic surgery to analyze the histological structure by hematoxylin and eosin (HE), Congo red, van Gieson's (VG), Masson trichrome and aldehyde-fuchsin staining. The ultrastructures of the medial canthal ligaments were also analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Fifteen samples of medial canthal ligament from healthy persons with an average age of (9.02±3.12) years (6-30 years) were collected as a control group.Results Morphological and histological study showed that the medial canthal ligaments of BPES patients were composed of collagen fibers, a few elastic fibers and striated muscles. The collagen fibers assemblies were disorganized and the fibrous connective tissues were undergoing hyaline degeneration. The karyopycnosis of fibroblasts was located among the collagen fibrils and the numbers of fibroblasts were decreased. Ultrastructural study with SEM showed that the collagen fibers were larger than normal, irregular and loose. Parts of the collagen fibers were broken and had a coarse surface. Ultrastructural study with TEM showed that the fibroblasts had less cytoplasm, fewer organelles and the nucleus displayed pyknosis.Conclusions The medial canthal ligament in BPES patients is composed

  2. Editorial Commentary: Is Medial-Side Repair Indicated in the Treatment of Multiligament Knee Injuries?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marx, Robert G

    2016-09-01

    Multiligament knee injuries are heterogenous and demand individualized treatment. In addition to the complexity of the injury, factors such as the timing and type of surgery are also crucial to patient outcomes. In a case series, patients who underwent medial-side repair had inferior patient-reported outcomes compared with those who had medial reconstruction or lateral surgery. Interestingly, patients with common peroneal nerve injury did not have inferior outcomes, probably because of the lack of sensitivity of rating scales to measure nerve-related disability. In view of the complexity and heterogeneity of these injuries, the above-mentioned findings may not be generalizable to all patients.

  3. The quadruple cruciate sign of simultaneous bicompartmental medial and lateral bucket-handle meniscal tears

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bugnone, Alejandro N. [University of Miami School of Medicine/Jackson Memorial Hospital, Department of Radiology, Miami, FL (United States); Ramnath, R.R. [Neuroskeletal Imaging, Merritt Island, FL (United States); Davis, S.B. [Orthopedic Center, Huntsville, Alabama (United States); Sedaros, R. [Space Coast Orthopedics, Merritt Island, FL (United States)

    2005-11-01

    We report the second known case of bicompartmental bucket-handle tears of the medial and lateral menisci and the first documented case of the bucket-handle tears occurring simultaneously following trauma, which occurred after a motorcycle accident. Both bucket-handle fragments were displaced into the intercondylar notch. An anterior cruciate ligament tear was also present. Coronal images demonstrated four structures in the intercondylar notch: the anterior and posterior cruciate ligaments and the medial and lateral bucket-handle meniscal fragments. (orig.)

  4. Angle at the Medial Border: The Spinovertebra Angle and Its Significance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. S. Oladipo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The evolution from quadrupedalism to bipedalism has adjusted the balance of the upper limb to extensive movement at the shoulder. The scapular angles provide the point of attachment and control to various muscles and have been associated with the different movements of the shoulder girdle and joint. This has made the morphometric and anthropometric study of scapula a subject of extensive investigation. Aim. In the present study, the angle at the medial border was measured in the South-Southern Nigerian population and an anatomical name was ascribed to the angle. Method. The study was conducted on 173 scapulae (75 right and 98 left obtained from various Anatomy Department of South-Sothern Nigerian Universities. The angle at medial border was obtained by pinning the edge of the superior and inferior angles, the lined traced out, and the angle measured using a protractor. SPSS version 20 was used to analyse the data. t-test was used to determine mean angular difference in the sides. Result. The mean ± SD of the medial angle was observed to be 136.88 ± 7.70° (R = 138.13 ± 7.06° : L = 135.92 ± 8.05°. Statistical analysis using the Z-test for mean difference showed the medial angle was found to be higher in the right side of the scapula (mean difference of 2.214 ± 1.152°, but the observed difference was not statistically significant (P > 0.05. The above findings have adjusted the scapula from three to four angles (lateral, superior, inferior, and medial formed from four borders (lateral, superior, inferior, and superomedial and inferomedial. The medial angle because of its anatomical location was named “spinovertebral” angle, owing to its position at the scapulae spine, and located in medial proximity to the vertebra column. Conclusion. The medial angle (now referred to as the spinovertebral angle of the right side of the scapula is wider than the left. The representation of the spinovertebral angle is very important, as

  5. [Brodmann Areas 8 and 9 Including the Frontal Eye Field].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Masataka

    2017-04-01

    Based on cytoarchitectonic analyses, Brodmann assigned numbers 8 and 9 to certain areas of the dorsal and medial prefrontal cortex (PFC) in humans and monkeys. Petrides and Pandya re-analyzed the cytoarchitectures of the human and monkey PFCs, and proposed slightly different brain maps for both species. They assigned numbers 8, 9 and 9/46 to the areas that were originally named areas 8 and 9. Areas 8 and 9 have both lateral and medial regions respectively. The lateral area 8 is important for conditional discrimination learning. The frontal eye field which occupies the most caudal region of area 8, is responsible for visual attention and control of eye movements. The lateral area 9 and area 9/46 are functionally similar to area 46 and play important roles in executive control. The dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (DMPFC) comprises the medial regions of areas 8 and 9 and is related to "Theory of Mind" and social cognition. The DMPFC is also known to show "default mode of brain activity" (i.e., more activity during rest than during cognitive task).

  6. Extensive sonographic ulnar nerve enlargement above the medial epicondyle is a characteristic sign in Hansen’s neuropathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    N. Krishnam, Venkataramana; Kumar, Hari Kishan; Neladimmanahally, Vivekananda; Nagaraju, Umashankar; Kumar, Himanshu M.; Telleman, Johan A.; Visser, Leo H.

    2017-01-01

    Objective Earlier studies have shown sonographic enlargement of the ulnar nerve in patients with Hansen’s neuropathy. The present study was performed to determine whether sonography or electrophysiological studies can detect the specific site of ulnar nerve pathology in leprosy. Methods Eighteen patients (thirty arms) with Hansen’s disease and an ulnar neuropathy of whom 66% had borderline tuberculoid (BT), 27% lepromatous leprosy (LL) and 7% mid-borderline (BB) leprosy were included in the study. Cross-sectional area (CSA) of ulnar nerve was measured every two centimeters from wrist to medial epicondyle and from there to axilla. All patients underwent standard motor and sensory nerve conduction studies of the ulnar nerve. Thirty age and sex matched controls underwent similar ulnar nerve CSA measurements and conduction studies. Results Ulnar nerve was clinically palpable in 19 of the 30 arms of patients. Motor and sensory nerve conduction studies of the ulnar nerve showed a reduced compound motor action potential and sensory nerve action potential amplitude in all patients. Motor Conduction Velocity (MCV) in patients were slower in comparison to controls, especially at the elbow and upper arm, but unable to exactly locate the site of the lesion. In comparison to controls the ulnar nerveCSA was larger in the whole arm in patients and quite specific the maximum enlargement was seen between nulnar sulcus and axilla, peaking at four centimeters above the sulcus. Conclusions A unique sonographic pattern of nerve enlargement is noted in patients with ulnar neuropathy due to Hansen’s disease, while this was not the case for the technique used until now, the electrodiagnostic testing. The enlargement starts at ulnar sulcus and is maximum four centimeters above the medial epicondyle and starts reducing further along the tract. This characteristic finding can help especially in diagnosing pure neuritic type of Hansen’s disease, in which skin lesions are absent, and

  7. Stress-induced structural plasticity of medial amygdala stellate neurons and rapid prevention by a candidate antidepressant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, T.; Bigio, B.; Zelli, D.; McEwen, BS.; Nasca, C.

    2016-01-01

    The adult brain is capable of adapting to internal and external stressors by undergoing structural plasticity, and failure to be resilient and preserve normal structure and function is likely to contribute to depression and anxiety disorders. While the hippocampus has provided the gateway for understanding stress effects on the brain, less is known about the amygdala, a key brain area involved in the neural circuitry of fear and anxiety. Here, in mice more vulnerable to stressors, we demonstrate structural plasticity within the medial and basolateral regions of the amygdala in response to prolonged 21day chronic restraint stress (CRS). Three days before the end of CRS, treatment with the putative, rapidly acting antidepressant, acetyl-L-carnitine (LAC) in the drinking water opposed the direction of these changes. Behaviorally, the LAC treatment during the last part of CRS enhanced resilience, opposing the effects of CRS, as shown by an increased social interaction and reduced passive behavior in a forced swim test. Furthermore, CRS mice treated with LAC show resilience of the CRS-induced structural remodeling of medial amygdala (MeA) stellate neurons. Within the basolateral (BLA) amygdala, LAC did not reduce, but slightly enhanced, the CRS-increased length and number of intersections of pyramidal neurons. No structural changes were observed in MeA bipolar neurons, BLA stellate neurons, or in lateral amygdala (LA) stellate neurons. Our findings identify MeA stellate neurons as an important component in the responses to stress and LAC action and show that LAC can promote structural plasticity of the MeA. This may be useful as a model for increasing resilience to stressors in at risk populations. PMID:27240534

  8. Social interaction with a cagemate in pain facilitates subsequent spinal nociception via activation of the medial prefrontal cortex in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhen; Lu, Yun-Fei; Li, Chun-Li; Wang, Yan; Sun, Wei; He, Ting; Chen, Xue-Feng; Wang, Xiao-Liang; Chen, Jun

    2014-07-01

    Empathy for the pain experience of others can lead to the activation of pain-related brain areas and can even induce aberrant responses to pain in human observers. Recent evidence shows this high-level emotional and cognitive process also exists in lower animals; however, the mechanisms underlying this phenomenon remain unknown. In the present study we found that, after social interaction with a rat that had received subcutaneous injection of bee venom (BV), only the cagemate observer (CO) but not the noncagemate observer (NCO) showed bilateral mechanical hypersensitivity and an enhanced paw flinch reflex following BV injection. Moreover, neuronal activities labeled by c-Fos immunoreactivity in the spinal dorsal horn of CO rats were also significantly increased relative to the control 1 hour after BV injection. A stress-related response can be excluded because serum corticosterone concentration following social interaction with demonstrator rats in pain was not changed in CO rats relative to NCO and isolated control rats. Anxiety can also be excluded because anxiety-like behaviors could be seen in both the CO and NCO rats tested in the open-field test. Finally, bilateral lesions of the medial prefrontal cortex eliminated the enhancement of the BV-induced paw flinch reflex in CO rats, but bilateral lesions of either the amygdala or the entorhinal cortex failed. Together, we have provided another line of evidence for the existence of familiarity-dependent empathy for pain in rats and have demonstrated that the medial prefrontal cortex plays a critical role in processing the empathy-related enhancement of spinal nociception.

  9. Thalamic pathology and memory loss in early Alzheimer's disease: moving the focus from the medial temporal lobe to Papez circuit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggleton, John P; Pralus, Agathe; Nelson, Andrew J D; Hornberger, Michael

    2016-07-01

    It is widely assumed that incipient protein pathology in the medial temporal lobe instigates the loss of episodic memory in Alzheimer's disease, one of the earliest cognitive deficits in this type of dementia. Within this region, the hippocampus is seen as the most vital for episodic memory. Consequently, research into the causes of memory loss in Alzheimer's disease continues to centre on hippocampal dysfunction and how disease-modifying therapies in this region can potentially alleviate memory symptomology. The present review questions this entrenched notion by bringing together findings from post-mortem studies, non-invasive imaging (including studies of presymptomatic, at-risk cases) and genetically modified animal models. The combined evidence indicates that the loss of episodic memory in early Alzheimer's disease reflects much wider neurodegeneration in an extended mnemonic system (Papez circuit), which critically involves the limbic thalamus. Within this system, the anterior thalamic nuclei are prominent, both for their vital contributions to episodic memory and for how these same nuclei appear vulnerable in prodromal Alzheimer's disease. As thalamic abnormalities occur in some of the earliest stages of the disease, the idea that such changes are merely secondary to medial temporal lobe dysfunctions is challenged. This alternate view is further strengthened by the interdependent relationship between the anterior thalamic nuclei and retrosplenial cortex, given how dysfunctions in the latter cortical area provide some of the earliest in vivo imaging evidence of prodromal Alzheimer's disease. Appreciating the importance of the anterior thalamic nuclei for memory and attention provides a more balanced understanding of Alzheimer's disease. Furthermore, this refocus on the limbic thalamus, as well as the rest of Papez circuit, would have significant implications for the diagnostics, modelling, and experimental treatment of cognitive symptoms in Alzheimer's disease.

  10. Different forms of decision-making involve changes in the synaptic strength of the thalamic, hippocampal, and amygdalar afferents to the medial prefrontal cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos López-Ramos

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Decision-making and other cognitive processes are assumed to take place in the prefrontal cortex. In particular, the medial prefrontal cortex is identified in rodents by its dense connectivity with the mediodorsal thalamus, and because of its inputs from other sites, such as hippocampus and amygdala. The aim of this study was to find a putative relationship between the behavior of mice during the performance of decision-making tasks that involve penalties as a consequence of induced actions, and the strength of field postsynaptic potentials evoked in the prefrontal cortex from its thalamic, hippocampal, and amygdalar afferents. Mice were chronically implanted with stimulating electrodes in the mediodorsal thalamus, the hippocampal CA1 area, or the basolateral amygdala, and with recording electrodes in the prelimbic/infralimbic area of the prefrontal cortex. Additional stimulating electrodes aimed at evoking negative reinforcements were implanted on the trigeminal nerve. Field postsynaptic potentials evoked at the medial prefrontal cortex from the three selected projecting areas during the food/shock decision-making task decreased in amplitude with shock intensity and animals’ avoidance of the reward. Field postsynaptic potentials collected during the operant task also decreased in amplitude (but that evoked by amygdalar stimulation when lever presses were associated with a trigeminal shock. Results showed a general decrease in the strength of these potentials when animals inhibited their natural or learned appetitive behaviors, suggesting an inhibition of the prefrontal cortex in these conflicting situations.

  11. Medial Prefrontal Cortex and HPA Axis Roles in Generation of PTSD-Like Symptoms in SPS Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    AD_________________ Award Number: W81XWH-08-1-0661 TITLE: Medial Prefrontal Cortex and HPA Axis...August 2011 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Medial Prefrontal Cortex and HPA Axis Roles In Generation of PTSD-Like Symptoms In SPS Model...emotional regulation (specific aim #3). 15. SUBJECT TERMS PTSD, SPS, anxiety, fear, conditioning, prefrontal cortex , hippocampus, amygdala 16

  12. Inverse relationship between the complexity of midfoot kinematics and muscle activation in patients with medial tibial stress syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rathleff, M S; Samani, Afshin; Olesen, C G

    2011-01-01

    Medial tibial stress syndrome is a common overuse injury characterized by pain located on the medial side of the lower leg during weight bearing activities such as gait. The purpose of this study was to apply linear and nonlinear methods to compare the structure of variability of midfoot kinemati...

  13. Morphological and biomechanical structural characteristics of medial cerebral artery in adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolenko V.N.

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The research goal is to study general strength, breaking point, Young's modulus (tensile modulus, absolute and relative strain of medial cerebral artery. Materials end methods. External diameter of medial cerebral artery, thickness of its wall and diameter of a lumen have been measured under the microscope on cross-section edges. In total 200 arteries (144 — from corpses of men, 56 — from corpses of women received not later than 16 hours after autopsy of adults have been investigated. Results. Lethal cases resulted from acute or chronic vascular cerebral pathology have not been included in the study. Authentic predominance of wall thickness (14,8%, lumen diameter (50,3% and general wall strength (13,8% has been revealed statistically in men. Bilateral differences of parameters have been expressed by 1,0% (external diameter and wall thickness of an artery to 10,0% (Young's modulus and have been determined as statistically insignificant (p>0,05. Age aspect has shown intensity of morphological characteristics of medial cerebral artery. In conclusion it is worth while noting that after the age of 35 wall strength and resistance to strain of medial cerebral artery are authentically diminished; the artery becomes less rigid. Capability to elongation remains constant but after the age of 75 it decreases

  14. Behavioral detectability of single-cell stimulation in the ventral posterior medial nucleus of the thalamus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B.C. Voigt (Birgit); M. Brecht (Michael); A.R. Houweling (Arthur)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractIn mammals, most sensory information passes through the thalamus before reaching cortex. In the rat whisker system, each macrovibrissa is represented by ∼250 neurons in the ventral posterior medial nucleus (VPM) of the thalamus and ∼10,000 neurons in a cortical barrel column. Here we qua

  15. Euclidean skeletons of 3D data sets in linear time by the integer medial axis transform

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hesselink, Wim H.; Visser, Menno; Roerdink, Jos B.T.M.; Ronse, C; Najman, L; Decenciere, E

    2005-01-01

    A general algorithm for computing Euclidean skeletons of 3D data sets in linear time is presented. These skeletons are defined in terms of a new concept, called the integer medial axis (IMA) transform. The algorithm is based upon the computation of 3D feature transforms, using a modification of an a

  16. Role of Medial Prefrontal Cortex Narp in the Extinction of Morphine Conditioned Place Preference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blouin, Ashley M.; Han, Sungho; Pearce, Anne M.; Cheng, KaiLun; Lee, JongAh J.; Johnson, Alexander W.; Wang, Chuansong; During, Matthew J.; Holland, Peter C.; Shaham, Yavin; Baraban, Jay M.; Reti, Irving M.

    2013-01-01

    Narp knockout (KO) mice demonstrate an impaired extinction of morphine conditioned place preference (CPP). Because the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) has been implicated in extinction learning, we tested whether Narp cells in this region play a role in the extinction of morphine CPP. We found that intracranial injections of adenoassociated virus…

  17. Disruption of the Perineuronal Net in the Hippocampus or Medial Prefrontal Cortex Impairs Fear Conditioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hylin, Michael J.; Orsi, Sara A.; Moore, Anthony N.; Dash, Pramod K.

    2013-01-01

    The perineuronal net (PNN) surrounds neurons in the central nervous system and is thought to regulate developmental plasticity. A few studies have shown an involvement of the PNN in hippocampal plasticity and memory storage in adult animals. In addition to the hippocampus, plasticity in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) has been demonstrated to…

  18. Medial parabrachial nucleus neurons modulate d-fenfluramine-induced anorexia through 5HT2C receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trifunovic, Radmila; Reilly, Steve

    2006-01-05

    We previously reported that lesions of the medial parabrachial nucleus (PBN) enhanced d-fenfluramine (DFEN)-induced anorexia; a finding that suggests these lesions may potentiate the release of serotonin (5HT) or increase the postsynaptic action of 5HT. In the present study, we used SB 206553 (a 5HT2B/2C receptor antagonist) or m-CPP (a 5HT2C/1B receptor agonist) in a standard behavioral procedure (deprivation-induced feeding) to further explore the role of the medial PBN in drug-induced anorexia. In Experiment 1, DFEN (0 or 1.0 mg/kg) was given alone or in combination with SB 206553 (2.0 or 5.0 mg/kg). In Experiment 2, we investigated the food-suppressive effects of m-CPP (0.5, 1.0 or 2.0 mg/kg). The results of Experiment 1 show that SB 206553, while having no influence on the performance of control subjects, attenuated (2.0 mg/kg) or abolished (5 mg/kg) the potentiating effect of the lesions on DFEN-induced anorexia. In Experiment 2, m-CPP induced a suppression of food intake in nonlesioned animals that was significantly potentiated in rats with medial PBN lesions. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that medial PBN neurons mediate anorexia through 5HT2C receptors.

  19. In Situ Splitting of a Rib Bone Graft for Reconstruction of Orbital Floor and Medial Wall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uemura, Tetsuji; Yanai, Tetsu; Yasuta, Masato; Harada, Yoshimi; Morikawa, Aya; Watanabe, Hidetaka; Kurokawa, Masato

    2017-06-01

    In situ splitting of rib bone graft was conducted in 22 patients for the repair of orbital fracture with no other complicating fractures. A bone graft was harvested from the sixth or seventh rib in the right side. The repair of the orbital floor and medial wall was successful in all the cases. Ten patients had bone grafting to the orbital floor, eight had it done onto medial wall, and 4 onto both floor and wall after reduction. The mean length of in situ rib bone graft was 40.9 mm (range, 20-70 mm), the mean width of these was 14.9 mm (range, 8-20 mm). The bone grafting was done by one leaf for 15 cases and two leafs for 7 cases in size of defects. The technique of in situ splitting of a rib bone graft for the repair of the orbital floor and medial wall is a simple and safe procedure, easily taking out the in situ splitting of a rib, and less pain in donor site. It has proved to be an optimal choice in craniofacial reconstruction, especially the defects of orbital floor and medial wall.

  20. White matter lesions are associated with progression of medial temporal lobe atrophy in Alzheimer disease.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuw, F.E. de; Korf, E.; Barkhof, F.; Scheltens, P.

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Medial temporal lobe atrophy (MTA) is a hallmark of Alzheimer disease (AD). Its progression is often seen during the course of AD, but its frequency and risk factors remain unclear. METHODS: We investigated MTA in 35 patients with AD from whom sequential magnetic resonance

  1. Diabetes mellitus, hypertension and medial temporal lobe atrophy: the LADIS study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korf, E.S.; Straaten, E.C. van; Leeuw, F.E. de; Flier, W.M.; Barkhof, F.; Pantoni, L.; Basile, A.M.; Inzitari, D.; Erkinjuntti, T.; Wahlund, L.O.; Rostrup, E.; Schmidt, R.; Fazekas, F.; Scheltens, P.

    2007-01-01

    HYPOTHESIS: Based on recent findings on the association between vascular risk factors and hippocampal atrophy, we hypothesized that hypertension and diabetes mellitus (DM) are associated with medial temporal lobe atrophy (MTA) in subjects without disability, independent of the severity of white

  2. Medial Temporal Lobe Activity during Source Retrieval Reflects Information Type, Not Memory Strength

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diana, Rachel A.; Yonelinas, Andrew P.; Ranganath, Charan

    2010-01-01

    The medial temporal lobes (MTLs) are critical for episodic memory but the functions of MTL subregions are controversial. According to memory strength theory, MTL subregions collectively support declarative memory in a graded manner. In contrast, other theories assert that MTL subregions support functionally distinct processes. For instance, one…

  3. Recollection of episodic memory within the medial temporal lobe: behavioural dissociations from other types of memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Easton, Alexander; Eacott, Madeline J

    2010-12-31

    In recent years there has been significant debate about whether there is a single medial temporal lobe memory system or dissociable systems for episodic and other types of declarative memory. In addition there has been a similar debate over the dissociability of recollection and familiarity based processes in recognition memory. Here we present evidence from recent work using episodic memory tasks in animals that allows us to explore these issues in more depth. We review studies that demonstrate triple dissociations within the medial temporal lobe, with only the hippocampal system being necessary for episodic memory. Similarly we review behavioural evidence for a dissociation in a task of episodic memory in rats where animals with lesions of the fornix are only impaired at recollection of the episodic memory, not recognition within the same trial. This work, then, supports recent models of dissociable neural systems within the medial temporal lobe but also raises questions for future investigation about the interactions of these medial temporal lobe memory systems with other structures. Copyright © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Dissecting medial temporal lobe contributions to item and associative memory formation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Qin, S.; Rijpkema, M.J.P.; Tendolkar, I.; Piekema, C.; Hermans, E.J.; Binder, M.; Petersson, K.M.; Luo, J.; Fernandez, G.S.E.

    2009-01-01

    A fundamental and intensively discussed question is whether medial temporal lobe (MTL) processes that lead to non-associative item memories differ in their anatomical substrate from processes underlying associative memory formation. Using event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging, we imple

  5. Directional hearing by linear summation of binaural inputs at the medial superior olive

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. van der Heijden (Marcel); J. Lorteije (Jeannette); A. Plauška (Andrius); M.T. Roberts (Michael); N.L. Golding (Nace); J.G.G. Borst (Gerard)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractNeurons in the medial superior olive (MSO) enable sound localization by their remarkable sensitivity to submillisecond interaural time differences (ITDs). Each MSO neuron has its own "best ITD" to which it responds optimally. A difference in physical path length of the excitatory inputs

  6. Is there a medial nucleus of the trapezoid body in humans?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richter, Erik; Norris, B E; Fullerton, B C

    1983-01-01

    The medial nucleus of the trapezoid body (MNTB) appears to be a prominent auditory structure in many mammals. However, the presence of an MNTB in the human brain has not been clearly established. One of the most characteristic features of the cat MNTB is the presence of large somatic endings with...

  7. Role of Modified Endoscopic Medial Maxillectomy in Persistent Chronic Maxillary Sinusitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thulasidas, Ponnaiah

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Functional endoscopic sinus surgery has a long-term high rate of success for symptomatic improvement in patients with medically refractory chronic rhinosinusitis. As the popularity of the technique continues to grow, however, so does the population of patients with postsurgical persistent sinus disease, especially in those with a large window for ventilation and drainage. In addition, chronic infections of the sinuses especially fungal sinusitis have a higher incidence of recurrence even though a wide maxillary ostium had been performed earlier. This subset of patients often represents a challenge to the otorhinolaryngologist. Objectives To identify the patients with chronic recalcitrant maxillary sinusitis and devise treatment protocols for this subset of patients. Methods A retrospective review was done of all patients with persistent maxillary sinus disease who had undergone modified endoscopic medial maxillectomy between 2009 and 2012. We studied patient demographics, previous surgical history, and follow-up details and categorized the types of endoscopic medial maxillectomies performed in different disease situations. Results We performed modified endoscopic medial maxillectomies in 37 maxillary sinuses of 24 patients. The average age was 43.83 years. Average follow-up was 14.58 months. All patients had good disease control in postoperative visits with no clinical evidence of recurrences. Conclusion Modified endoscopic medial maxillectomy appears to be an effective surgery for treatment of chronic, recalcitrant maxillary sinusitis.

  8. Medial Temporal Lobe Activity during Source Retrieval Reflects Information Type, Not Memory Strength

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diana, Rachel A.; Yonelinas, Andrew P.; Ranganath, Charan

    2010-01-01

    The medial temporal lobes (MTLs) are critical for episodic memory but the functions of MTL subregions are controversial. According to memory strength theory, MTL subregions collectively support declarative memory in a graded manner. In contrast, other theories assert that MTL subregions support functionally distinct processes. For instance, one…

  9. Medial Prefrontal Cortex Is Selectively Involved in Response Selection Using Visual Context in the Background

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Inah; Shin, Ji Yun

    2012-01-01

    The exact roles of the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) in conditional choice behavior are unknown and a visual contextual response selection task was used for examining the issue. Inactivation of the mPFC severely disrupted performance in the task. mPFC inactivations, however, did not disrupt the capability of perceptual discrimination for visual…

  10. The Effect of Hip Bracing on Gait in Patients with Medial Knee Osteoarthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Wallace

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Impaired hip motion has been associated with heightened medial knee joint loading in patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA. A hip external rotation strap designed to pull the femur into external rotation and abduction may serve as one protective mechanism. The primary aim of our study is to determine if the strap decreases medial knee joint loading during level walking in people with knee OA. Design. This study is a single-day repeated measures design. Methods. 15 volunteers with medial knee OA underwent motion analysis data collection during two randomly assigned walking conditions: (1 wearing the strap and (2 control (no strap. Primary outcome measures were peak pelvis, hip and knee joint motions, and torques. These outcomes were averaged across five trials for each condition. Results. Hip abduction (<0.01, trunk lean towards the stance limb (=0.04 and pelvic tilt (=0.02 significantly increased with the strap versus control trials. Knee adduction loading did not significantly change with the strap (=0.33. Conclusion. The use of the hip external rotation strap resulted in angular changes at the hip and pelvis which may be beneficial for patients with medial knee osteoarthritis.

  11. Working Memory, Long-Term Memory, and Medial Temporal Lobe Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeneson, Annette; Squire, Larry R.

    2012-01-01

    Early studies of memory-impaired patients with medial temporal lobe (MTL) damage led to the view that the hippocampus and related MTL structures are involved in the formation of long-term memory and that immediate memory and working memory are independent of these structures. This traditional idea has recently been revisited. Impaired performance…

  12. Lipids in biocalcification: contrasts and similarities between intimal and medial vascular calcification and bone by NMR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, David G; Shanahan, Catherine M; Duer, Melinda J; Arroyo, Luis G; Schoppet, Michael; Brooks, Roger A; Murray, Rachel C

    2012-08-01

    Pathomechanisms underlying vascular calcification biogenesis are still incompletely understood. Biomineral from human atherosclerotic intimal plaques; human, equine, and bovine medial vascular calcifications; and human and equine bone was released from collagenous organic matrix by sodium hydroxide/sodium hypochlorite digestion. Solid-state (13)C NMR of intimal plaque mineral shows signals from cholesterol/cholesteryl esters and fatty acids. In contrast, in mineral from pure medial calcifications and bone mineral, fatty acid signals predominate. Refluxing (chloroform/methanol) intimal plaque calcifications removes the cholesterylic but not the fatty acyl signals. The lipid composition of this refluxed mineral now closely resembles that of the medial and bone mineral, which is unchanged by reflux. Thus, intimal and medial vascular calcifications and bone mineral have in common a pool of occluded mineral-entrained fatty acyl-rich lipids. This population of fatty acid may contain methyl-branched fatty acids, possibly representing lipoprotein particle remnants. Cell signaling and mechanistic parallels between physiological (orthotopic) and pathological (ectopic) calcification are also reflected thus in the NMR spectroscopic fingerprints of mineral-associated and mineral-entrained lipids. Additionally the atherosclerotic plaque mineral alone shows a significant independent pool of cholesterylic lipids. Colocalization of mineral and lipid may be coincidental, but it could also reflect an essential mechanistic component of biomineralization.

  13. Aging affects medial but not anterior frontal learning-related theta oscillations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Vijver, Irene; Cohen, Michael X; Ridderinkhof, K Richard

    2014-03-01

    Aging induces a decline in the ties that bind anatomical networks centered on the prefrontal cortex, which are critical for reinforcement learning and decision making. At the neurophysiological level, the prefrontal cortex may engage electrophysiological oscillatory synchronization to coordinate other brain systems during learning. We recorded scalp EEG from 21 older (mean age 69 years) and 20 young (mean age 22 years) healthy human adults while they learned stimulus-response mappings by trial-and-error using feedback. In young adults, theta-band (4-8 Hz) oscillatory power over medial frontal and anterior frontal cortex predicted learning after errors. Older adults demonstrated a decrease in the theta-band learning-predictive signals over medial frontal but not anterior frontal cortex. This age-related decrease in task-relevant medial frontal theta power may be related to the more general decrease in medial frontal theta power that we observed during rest. These results demonstrate a shift in cortical networks that support reinforcement learning in older adults, and shed new light on the changes in neurophysiological (oscillatory) mechanisms with neurocognitive aging. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. [Repair of soft tissue defect in hand or foot with lobulated medial sural artery perforator flap].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fengjing, Zhao; Jianmin, Yao; Xingqun, Zhang; Liang, Ma; Longchun, Zhang; Yibo, Xu; Peng, Wang; Zhen, Zhu

    2015-11-01

    To explore the clinical effect of the lobulated medial sural artery perforator flap in repairing soft tissue defect in hand or foot. Since March 2012 to September 2014, 6 cases with soft tissue defects in hands or feet were treated by lobulated medial sural artery flaps pedicled with 1st musculo-cutaneous perforator and 2st musculo-cutaneous perforator of the medial sural artery. The size of the flaps ranged from 4.5 cm x 10.0 cm to 6.0 cm x 17.0 cm. 5 cases of lobulated flap survived smoothly, only 1 lobulated flap had venous articulo, but this flap also survived after the articulo was removed by vascular exploration. All flaps had desirable appearance and sensation and the two-point discrimination was 6 mm in mean with 4 to 12 months follow-up (average, 7 months). Linear scar was left in donor sites in 3 cases and skin scar in 3 cases. There was no malfunction in donor sites. Lobulated medial sural artery perforator flap is feasible and ideal method for the treatment of soft tissue defect in hand or foot with satisfactory effect.

  15. Medial Amygdala Lesions in Male Rats Reduce Aggressive Behavior : Interference With Experience

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vochteloo, J.D.; Koolhaas, J.M.

    1987-01-01

    The medial nucleus of the amygdala (am) has been implicated in a variety of social behaviors. The present experiment will test the hypothesis that the effect of am lesions on intermale aggressive behavior is due to interference with social learning processes. Small electrolytic lesions of the am had

  16. Radiographic Relevance of the Distal Medial Cuneiform Angle in Hallux Valgus Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatch, Daniel J; Smith, Abigail; Fowler, Troy

    2016-01-01

    The angle formed by the distal articular facet of the medial cuneiform has been evaluated and discussed by various investigators. However, no consistent method has been available to radiograph and measure this entity. The wide variability of the angle is not conducive to comparative analysis. Additionally, investigators have noted that the angles observed (obliquity) vary greatly because of changes in radiographic angle, foot position, rotation of the first ray, and declination of the first metatarsal. Recognizing that these variables exist, we propose a reproducible assessment using digital radiography and application of deformity of correction principles. Our results have indicated a mean distal medial cuneiform angle of 20.69° in normal feet, 23.51° with moderate hallux valgus, and 20.41° with severe hallux valgus deformity. The radiograph beam was kept at 15° from the coronal plane. An inverse relationship was found between the distal medial cuneiform angle and bunion severity. This was in contrast to our expected hypothesis. The overall angle of the first metatarsal-medial cuneiform did, however, correlate with the severity of the bunion deformity (p positioning, and soft tissue imbalances. Perhaps, 3-dimensional computed tomography imaging will provide better insight into this entity.

  17. Error-likelihood prediction in the medial frontal cortex: A critical evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieuwenhuis, S.; Scheizer, T.S.; Mars, R.B.; Botvinick, M.M.; Hajcal, G.

    2007-01-01

    A recent study has proposed that posterior regions of the medial frontal cortex (pMFC) learn to predict the likelihood of errors ccurring in a given task context. A key prediction of the errorlZelihood (EL) hypothesis is that the pMFC should exhibit enhanced activity to cues that are predictive of h

  18. Working Memory, Long-Term Memory, and Medial Temporal Lobe Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeneson, Annette; Squire, Larry R.

    2012-01-01

    Early studies of memory-impaired patients with medial temporal lobe (MTL) damage led to the view that the hippocampus and related MTL structures are involved in the formation of long-term memory and that immediate memory and working memory are independent of these structures. This traditional idea has recently been revisited. Impaired performance…

  19. MEDIAL PATELLAR DESMOTOMY BY BLIND METHOD IN LARGE RUMINANTS DURING UPWARD PATELLAR FIXATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.Mondal

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A total number of 21 cases were reported with the clinical history of locked stifle joint. All cases were operated by medial patellar desmotomy using blind (closed method. Cases were recovered 100% with immediate relief. This blind method may be followed for operation of upward fixation of patella.

  20. Material-Specific Lateralization of Working Memory in the Medial Temporal Lobe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Dylan D.; Sziklas, Viviane; Garver, Krista E.; Jones-Gotman, Marilyn

    2009-01-01

    Mnemonic deficits in patients with medial temporal lobe (MTL) damage arising from temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) are traditionally constrained to long-term episodic memory, sparing short-term and working memory (WM). This view of WM as being independent of MTL structures has recently been challenged by a small number of patient and neuroimaging…

  1. Predicting binaural responses from monaural responses in the gerbil medial superior olive

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Plauška (Andrius); J. Borst (Jannie); M. van der Heijden (Marcel)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractAccurate sound source localization of low-frequency sounds in the horizontal plane depends critically on the comparison of arrival times at both ears. A specialized brainstem circuit containing the principal neurons of the medial superior olive (MSO) is dedicated to this comparison. MSO

  2. Does increasing step width alter knee biomechanics in medial compartment knee osteoarthritis patients during stair descent?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paquette, Max R; Zhang, Songning; Milner, Clare E; Klipple, Gary

    2014-06-01

    Research shows that one of the first complaints from knee osteoarthritis (OA) patients is difficulty in stair ambulation due to knee pain. Increased step width (SW) has been shown to reduce first and second peak internal knee abduction moments, a surrogate variable for medial compartment knee joint loading, during stair descent in healthy older adults. This study investigates the effects of increased step width (SW) on knee biomechanics and knee pain in medial compartment knee OA patients during stair descent. Thirteen medial compartment knee OA patients were recruited for the study. A motion analysis system was used to obtain three-dimensional joint kinematics. An instrumented staircase was used to collect ground reaction forces (GRF). Participants performed stair descent trials at their self-selected speed using preferred, wide, and wider SW. Participants rated their knee pain levels after each SW condition. Increased SW had no effect on peak knee abduction moments and knee pain. Patients reported low levels of knee pain during all stair descent trials. The 2nd peak knee adduction angle and frontal plane GRF at time of 2nd peak abduction moment were reduced with increasing SW. The findings suggest that increases in SW may not influence knee loads in medial compartment knee OA patients afflicted with low levels of knee pain during stair descent. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Medial knee osteoarthritis treated by insoles or braces: a randomized trial.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.M. van Raaij (Tom); M. Reijman (Max); R.W. Brouwer (Reinoud); S.M. Bierma-Zeinstra (Sita); J.A.N. Verhaar (Jan)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractBACKGROUND: There is controversial evidence regarding whether foot orthoses or knee braces improve pain and function or correct malalignment in selected patients with osteoarthritis (OA) of the medial knee compartment. However, insoles are safe and less costly than knee bracing if they r

  4. Aplicaciones del colgajo sural medial en cirugía reconstructiva de cavidad oral y orofaringe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio Zubillaga

    2017-01-01

    Conclusiones: El colgajo de perforantes de la arteria sural medial es una excelente opción en la reconstrucción de defectos de la cavidad oral y la orofaringe, proporcionándonos una adecuada adaptabilidad a la zona receptora y una mínima morbilidad de la zona donante.

  5. Is Migraine Related to Medial Meningeal Artery and Spinous Foramen Caliber?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emre Nalbant

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Although migraine is one of the headache disorders for which people most often consult a doctor, it still does not have a specific diagnostic laboratory or radiologic test. Vasodilation of the medial meningeal artery is widely believed to cause migraines. However, some current hypotheses decrease the role of the vasodilation. If the medial meningeal artery dilates during attacks, in the long term it can expand the foramen pass through. Based on this idea, our study investigated whether there is a significant difference between the medial meningeal artery and spinous foramen sizes of migraine patients compared with a control group. Material and Method: Thirty-six migraine patients and 26 tension-type headache (TTH patients as the control group were involved in the study. Patients were scanned with brain CT (computed tomography angiography. The medial meningeal artery and spinous foramen sizes of both groups were measured. Results: There was no statistically significant difference between the measurements of migraine and tension-type headache patients. Discussion: In our study we could not find any evidence to show vasodilation of the dura mater%u2019s vasculature as a factor of migraine pathophysiology. This result indicates the need to continue investigating the different hypotheses for migraine pathophysiology.

  6. LOCAL ORTHOGONAL CUTTING METHOD FOR COMPUTING MEDIAL CURVES AND ITS BIOMEDICAL APPLICATIONS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Xiangmin; Einstein, Daniel R; Dyedov, Vladimir

    2010-03-01

    Medial curves have a wide range of applications in geometric modeling and analysis (such as shape matching) and biomedical engineering (such as morphometry and computer assisted surgery). The computation of medial curves poses significant challenges, both in terms of theoretical analysis and practical efficiency and reliability. In this paper, we propose a definition and analysis of medial curves and also describe an efficient and robust method called local orthogonal cutting (LOC) for computing medial curves. Our approach is based on three key concepts: a local orthogonal decomposition of objects into substructures, a differential geometry concept called the interior center of curvature (ICC), and integrated stability and consistency tests. These concepts lend themselves to robust numerical techniques and result in an algorithm that is efficient and noise resistant. We illustrate the effectiveness and robustness of our approach with some highly complex, large-scale, noisy biomedical geometries derived from medical images, including lung airways and blood vessels. We also present comparisons of our method with some existing methods.

  7. Lateral fixation of sclera to the periosteum with medial rectus disinsertion for severe myopic strabismus fixus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murthy Ramesh

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Myopic strabismus fixus is characterized by severe ocular motility restriction with the development of progressive esotropia and hypotropia. Management of severe cases with strongly positive forced duction test can be challenging. We describe a longstanding case of myopic strabismus fixus, which was managed by bilateral medial rectus disinsertion and scleral fixation laterally to the periosteum.

  8. Osteosynthesis of medial humeral epicondyle fractures in children. 8-year follow-up of 33 cases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duun, P S; Ravn, Pernille; Hansen, L B;

    1994-01-01

    33 children with a mean age of 12 (7-15) years had open reduction and osteosynthesis for a displaced fracture of the medial humeral epicondyle. 8 (2-15) years after the operation a clinical and radiographic examination was performed. 22/33 had a prominent scar. No