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Sample records for medial elbow pain

  1. Ulnar neuropathy and medial elbow pain in women's fastpitch softball pitchers: a report of 6 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Adam M; Butler, Thomas H; Dolan, Michael S

    2017-12-01

    Elite-level women's fastpitch softball players place substantial biomechanical strains on the elbow that can result in medial elbow pain and ulnar neuropathic symptoms. There is scant literature reporting the expected outcomes of the treatment of these injuries. This study examined the results of treatment in a series of these patients. We identified 6 female softball pitchers (4 high school and 2 collegiate) with medial elbow pain and ulnar neuropathic symptoms. Trials of conservative care failed in all 6, and they underwent surgical treatment with subcutaneous ulnar nerve transposition. These patients were subsequently monitored postoperatively to determine outcome. All 6 female pitchers had early resolution of elbow pain and neuropathic symptoms after surgical treatment. Long-term follow-up demonstrated that 1 patient quit playing softball because of other injuries but no longer reported elbow pain or paresthesias. One player was able to return to pitching at the high school level but had recurrent forearm pain and neuritis 1 year later while playing a different sport and subsequently stopped playing competitive sports. Four patients continued to play at the collegiate level without further symptoms. Medial elbow pain in women's softball pitchers caused by ulnar neuropathy can be treated effectively with subcutaneous ulnar nerve transposition if nonsurgical options fail. Further study is necessary to examine the role of overuse, proper training techniques, and whether pitching limits may be necessary to avoid these injuries. Copyright © 2017 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. MR imaging of edematous anconeus epitrochlearis: another cause of medial elbow pain?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeon, In-Ho; Neumann, Lars; Wallace, W. Angus; Fairbairn, K. Julia

    2005-01-01

    Two patients with unusual medial elbow pain had MRI scans performed that revealed edema of the aberrant muscle of the anconeus epitrochlearis. MRI of this anconeus epitrochlearis muscle are presented. (orig.)

  3. The "moving valgus stress test" for medial collateral ligament tears of the elbow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Driscoll, Shawn W M; Lawton, Richard L; Smith, Adam M

    2005-02-01

    The diagnosis of a painful partial tear of the medial collateral ligament in overhead-throwing athletes is challenging, even for experienced elbow surgeons and despite the use of sophisticated imaging techniques. The "moving valgus stress test" is an accurate physical examination technique for diagnosis of medial collateral ligament attenuation in the elbow. Cohort study (diagnosis); Level of evidence, 2. Twenty-one patients underwent surgical intervention for medial elbow pain due to medial collateral ligament insufficiency or other abnormality of chronic valgus overload, and they were assessed preoperatively with an examination called the moving valgus stress test. To perform the moving valgus stress test, the examiner applies and maintains a constant moderate valgus torque to the fully flexed elbow and then quickly extends the elbow. The test is positive if the medial elbow pain is reproduced at the medial collateral ligament and is at maximum between 120 degrees and 70 degrees. The moving valgus stress test was highly sensitive (100%, 17 of 17 patients) and specific (75%, 3 of 4 patients) when compared to assessment of the medial collateral ligament by surgical exploration or arthroscopic valgus stress testing. The mean shear range (ie, the arc within which pain was produced with the moving valgus stress test) was 120 degrees to 70 degrees. The mean angle at which pain was at a maximum was 90 degrees of elbow flexion. The moving valgus stress test is an accurate physical examination technique that, when performed and interpreted correctly, is highly sensitive for medial elbow pain arising from the medial collateral ligament.

  4. Nirschl surgical technique for concomitant lateral and medial elbow tendinosis: a retrospective review of 53 elbows with a mean follow-up of 11.7 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schipper, Oliver N; Dunn, Jonathan H; Ochiai, Derek H; Donovan, J Skye; Nirschl, Robert P

    2011-05-01

    Combined lateral elbow tendinosis (tennis elbow) and medial elbow tendinosis (golfer's elbow) can be a disabling condition that, if unresponsive to nonoperative treatments, may be effectively treated surgically. The authors are not aware of any study that reports the outcome of a combined operation for lateral and medial elbow tendinosis (country club elbow) performed in the same operative setting. Combined surgical treatment of country club elbow in the same operative setting has similar outcomes to those seen in the literature for single operative procedures. Case series; Level of evidence 4. Outcome measurements included the Numeric Pain Intensity Scale, the Nirschl tennis elbow scoring system, and the American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons elbow form. Forty-eight patients (53 clinical elbows) were available by telephone, with a minimum time to follow-up of 5 years (range, 5-19 years; mean, 11.7 years). The average Nirschl tennis elbow score improved from 16.7 preoperatively to 70.8 postoperatively (P Elbow Surgeons elbow score improved from 45.2 to 90.4 (P tennis elbow score, results were rated excellent in 38 elbows, good in 7 elbows, fair in 5 elbows, and poor in 3 elbows, with 85% (45 of 53) good to excellent results. Patient satisfaction with the surgery averaged 8.7 out of 10. Of the 46 patients who played sports, 44 (96%) reported returning to their sports. When nonoperative treatment of lateral and medial elbow tendinosis fails, combined surgical intervention via the Nirschl operative techniques for country club elbow is highly effective, with results similar to those of single-sided intervention.

  5. The medial collateral ligament of the elbow joint

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Floris, S; Olsen, Bo Sanderhoff; Dalstra, Michel

    1998-01-01

    Eighteen osteoligamentous elbow joint specimens were included in a study of the medial collateral ligament complex (MCL). The morphologic characteristics of the MCL were examined, and three-dimensional kinematic measurements were taken after selective ligament dissections were performed. On morph......Eighteen osteoligamentous elbow joint specimens were included in a study of the medial collateral ligament complex (MCL). The morphologic characteristics of the MCL were examined, and three-dimensional kinematic measurements were taken after selective ligament dissections were performed...

  6. Assessment of medial elbow laxity by gravity stress radiography: comparison of valgus stress radiography with gravity and a Telos stress device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harada, Mikio; Takahara, Masatoshi; Maruyama, Masahiro; Nemoto, Tadanobu; Koseki, Kazuhiko; Kato, Yoshihiro

    2014-04-01

    Valgus instability was reported to be higher with the elbow in 60° of flexion, rather than in 30° of flexion, although there are no studies using valgus stress radiography by gravity (gravity radiography) with the elbow in 60° of flexion. Fifty-seven patients with medial elbow pain participated. For both elbows, valgus stress radiography by use of a Telos device (Telos radiography) and gravity radiography, with the elbow in 60° of flexion, were performed for the assessment of medial elbow laxity. In both radiographs, the medial elbow joint space (MJS) on the affected side was compared with that on the opposite side, and the increase in the MJS on the affected side was assessed. For the Telos radiographs, the mean MJS was 4.7 mm on the affected side and 4.0 mm on the opposite side, with the mean increase in the MJS on the affected side being 0.7 mm. For the gravity radiographs, the mean MJS was 5.0 mm on the affected side and 4.2 mm on the opposite side, with the mean increase in the MJS on the affected side being 0.8 mm. There were significant correlations between the Telos and gravity radiographs in the MJS on the affected side, the MJS on the opposite side, and the increase in the MJS on the affected side (respectively, P gravity radiographs. Gravity radiography is useful for assessment of medial elbow laxity, similar to Telos radiography. Copyright © 2014 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Characteristics and prognosis of medial epicondylar fragmentation of the humerus in male junior tennis players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harada, Mikio; Takahara, Masatoshi; Maruyama, Masahiro; Takagi, Michiaki

    2014-10-01

    Although medial epicondylar fragmentation of the humerus is a reported elbow injury in junior tennis players, there have been only a few studies on this entity, and none have investigated the characteristics and prognosis of medial epicondylar fragmentation. Forty-one male junior tennis players, aged 11 to 14 years (mean, 13 years), underwent elbow examination by ultrasonography. Elbow re-examination was performed in subjects with medial epicondylar fragmentation at an average of 20 months (12-30 months) after the initial examination. On examination, 9 subjects (22%) had elbow pain. Ultrasonography showed that 6 subjects (15%) had medial epicondylar fragmentation, all of whom had elbow pain. Medial epicondylar fragmentation was present in 5 (38%) of 13 subjects aged 11 to 12 years and in 1 (4%) of 28 aged 13 to 14 years. More subjects aged 11 to 12 years had medial epicondylar fragmentation (P = .0084). All 6 subjects with medial epicondylar fragmentation continued to play tennis between the initial elbow examination and the re-examination. At re-examination, although ultrasonography showed that 5 developed bone union and 1 had nonunion, 3 subjects (50%) reported elbow pain. Our results demonstrated that subjects aged 11 to 12 years had a high frequency (38%) of medial epicondylar fragmentation. Although medial epicondylar fragmentation was the main cause of elbow pain (67%) at the initial elbow examination, all 6 players with medial epicondylar fragmentation continued to play tennis between the initial elbow examination and the re-examination. At re-examination, 5 subjects presented spontaneous bone union (83%), but 3 subjects (50%) reported elbow pain. Copyright © 2014 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Kinematics of partial and total ruptures of the medial collateral ligament of the elbow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eygendaal, D; Olsen, Bo Sanderhoff; Jensen, Steen Lund

    2000-01-01

    In this study the kinematics of partial and total ruptures of the medial collateral ligament of the elbow are investigated. After selective transection of the medial collateral ligament of 8 osteoligamentous intact elbow preparations was performed, 3-dimensional measurements of angular displacement......, increase in medial joint opening, and translation of the radial head were examined during application of relevant stress. Increase in joint opening was significant only after complete transection of the anterior part of the medial collateral ligament was performed. The joint opening was detected during...... valgus and internal rotatory stress only. After partial transection of the anterior bundle of the medial collateral ligament was performed, there was an elbow laxity to valgus and internal rotatory force, which became significant after transection of 100% of the anterior bundle of the medial collateral...

  9. Incarcerated medial epicondyle fracture following pediatric elbow dislocation: 11 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodds, Seth D; Flanagin, Brody A; Bohl, Daniel D; DeLuca, Peter A; Smith, Brian G

    2014-09-01

    To describe outcomes after surgical management of pediatric elbow dislocation with incarceration of the medial epicondyle. We conducted a retrospective case review of 11 consecutive children and adolescents with an incarcerated medial epicondyle fracture after elbow dislocation. All patients underwent open reduction internal fixation using a similar technique. We characterized outcomes at final follow-up. Average follow-up was 14 months (range, 4-56 mo). All patients had clinical and radiographic signs of healing at final follow-up. There was no radiographic evidence of loss of reduction at intervals or at final follow-up. There were no cases of residual deformity or valgus instability. Average final arc of elbow motion was 4° to 140°. All patients had forearm rotation from 90° supination to 90° pronation. Average Mayo elbow score was 99.5. Four of 11 patients had ulnar nerve symptoms postoperatively and 1 required a second operation for ulnar nerve symptoms. In addition, 1 required a second operation for flexion contracture release with excision of heterotopic ossification. Three patients had ulnar nerve symptoms at final follow-up. Two of these had mild paresthesia only and 1 had both mild paresthesia and weakness. Our results suggest that open reduction internal fixation of incarcerated medial epicondyle fractures after elbow dislocation leads to satisfactory motion and function; however, the injury carries a high risk for complications, particularly ulnar neuropathy. Therapeutic IV. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Elbow Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... tear damage than are many other joints. Seek emergency care if you have: An obvious deformity in ... http://www.mayoclinic.org/symptoms/elbow-pain/basics/definition/SYM-20050874 . Mayo Clinic Footer Legal Conditions and ...

  11. Medial Elbow Joint Space Increases With Valgus Stress and Decreases When Cued to Perform A Maximal Grip Contraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pexa, Brett S; Ryan, Eric D; Myers, Joseph B

    2018-04-01

    Previous research indicates that the amount of valgus torque placed on the elbow joint during overhead throwing is higher than the medial ulnar collateral ligament (UCL) can tolerate. Wrist and finger flexor muscle activity is hypothesized to make up for this difference, and in vitro studies that simulated activity of upper extremity musculature, specifically the flexor digitorum superficialis and flexor carpi ulnaris, support this hypothesis. To assess the medial elbow joint space at rest, under valgus stress, and under valgus stress with finger and forearm flexor contraction by use of ultrasonography in vivo. Controlled laboratory study. Participants were 22 healthy males with no history of elbow dislocation or UCL injury (age, 21.25 ± 1.58 years; height, 1.80 ± 0.08 m; weight, 79.43 ± 18.50 kg). Medial elbow joint space was measured by use of ultrasonography during 3 separate conditions: at rest (unloaded), under valgus load (loaded), and with a maximal grip contraction under a valgus load (loaded-contracted) in both limbs. Participants lay supine with their arm abducted 90° and elbow flexed 30° with the forearm in full supination. A handgrip dynamometer was placed in the participants' hand to grip against during the contracted condition. Images were reduced in ImageJ to assess medial elbow joint space. A 2-way (condition × limb) repeated-measures analysis of variance and Cohen's d effect sizes were used to assess changes in medial elbow joint space. Post hoc testing was performed with a Bonferroni adjustment to assess changes within limb and condition. The medial elbow joint space was significantly larger in the loaded condition (4.91 ± 1.16 mm) compared with the unloaded condition (4.26 ± 1.23 mm, P space increases under a valgus load and then decreases when a maximal grip contraction is performed. This indicates that wrist and finger flexor muscle contraction may assist in limiting medial elbow joint space, a result similar to findings of previous

  12. The Snapping Elbow Syndrome as a Reason for Chronic Elbow Neuralgia in a Tennis Player - MR, US and Sonoelastography Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Łasecki, Mateusz; Olchowy, Cyprian; Pawluś, Aleksander; Zaleska-Dorobisz, Urszula

    2014-01-01

    Ulnar neuropathy is the second most common peripheral nerve neuropathy after median neuropathy, with an incidence of 25 cases per 100 000 men and 19 cases per 100 000 women each year. Skipping (snapping) elbow syndrome is an uncommon cause of pain in the posterior-medial elbow area, sometimes complicated by injury of the ulnar nerve. One of the reason is the dislocation of the abnormal insertion of the medial triceps head over the medial epicondyle during flexion and extension movements. Others are: lack of the Osboune fascia leading to ulnar nerve instability and focal soft tissue tumors (fibromas, lipomas, etc). Recurrent subluxation of the nerve at the elbow results in a tractional and frictional neuritis with classical symptoms of peripheral neuralgia. As far as we know snapping triceps syndrome had never been evaluated in sonoelastography. A 28yo semi-professional left handed tennis player was complaining about pain in posterior-medial elbow area. Initial US examination suggest golfers elbow syndrome which occurs quite commonly and has a prevalence of 0.3-0.6% in males and 0-3-1.1% in women and may be associated (approx. 50% of cases) with ulnar neuropathy. However subsequently made MRI revealed unusual distal triceps anatomy, moderate ulnar nerve swelling and lack of medial epicondylitis symptoms. Followed (second) US examination and sonoelastography have detected slipping of the both ulnar nerve and the additional band of the medial triceps head. Snapping elbow syndrome is a poorly known medical condition, sometimes misdiagnosed as the medial epicondylitis. It describes a broad range of pathologies and anatomical abnormalities. One of the most often reasons is the slipping of the ulnar nerve as the result of the Osborne fascia/anconeus epitrochlearis muscle absence. Simultaneously presence of two or more "snapping reasons" is rare but should be always taken under consideration. There are no sonoelastography studies describing golfers elbow syndrome

  13. Radiographic evaluation of the canine elbow joint with special reference to the medial humeral condyle and the medial coronoid process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voorhout, G.; Hazewinkel, H.A.W.

    1987-01-01

    The results of radiographic examination of clinically affected elbow joints in 14 young, large-breed dogs, including standard and oblique projections and linear tomography, were compared with the findings of medial arthrotomy. Radiographs revealed arthrosis (13 dogs), osteochondrosis of the medial humeral condyle (2 dogs), fragmentation of the medial coronoid process (5 dogs), and a combination of osteochondrosis of the medial humeral condyle and fragmentation of the medial coronoid process (2 dogs). In one dog fissures in the medial coronoid process and in another dog a linear radiopacity along the articular surface of the medial coronoid process were found. In three dogs both medial humeral condyle and medial coronoid process appeared normal. The radiographic findings were confirmed during surgery in 11 dogs. Cartilage erosion of the medial humeral condyle in two dogs and of the medial coronoid process in one dog had not resulted in radiographically visible abnormalities. Radiographic examination of the elbow joints in young, large-breed dogs should include standard mediolateral and craniocaudal projections, a mediolateral projection with the joint maximally extended and the leg supinated 15°, and a craniolateral-to-caudomedial projection

  14. The effect of repetitive baseball pitching on medial elbow joint space gapping associated with 2 elbow valgus stressors in high school baseball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hattori, Hiroshi; Akasaka, Kiyokazu; Otsudo, Takahiro; Hall, Toby; Amemiya, Katsuya; Mori, Yoshihisa

    2018-04-01

    To prevent elbow injury in baseball players, various methods have been used to measure medial elbow joint stability with valgus stress. However, no studies have investigated higher levels of elbow valgus stress. This study investigated medial elbow joint space gapping measured ultrasonically resulting from a 30 N valgus stress vs. gravitational valgus stress after a repetitive throwing task. The study included 25 high school baseball players. Each subject pitched 100 times. The ulnohumeral joint space was measured ultrasonographically, before pitching and after each successive block of 20 pitches, with gravity stress or 30 N valgus stress. Two-way repeated measures analysis of variance and Pearson correlation coefficient analysis were used. The 30 N valgus stress produced significantly greater ulnohumeral joint space gapping than gravity stress before pitching and at each successive 20-pitch block (P space gapping increased significantly from baseline after 60 pitches (P space gapping (r = 0.727-0.859, P space gapping before pitching; however, 30 N valgus stress appears to induce greater mechanical stress, which may be preferable when assessing joint instability but also has the potential to be more aggressive. The present results may indicate that constraining factors to medial elbow joint valgus stress matched typical viscoelastic properties of cyclic creep. Copyright © 2017 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. The Snapping Elbow Syndrome as a Reason for Chronic Elbow Neuralgia in a Tennis Player – MR, US and Sonoelastography Evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Łasecki, Mateusz; Olchowy, Cyprian; Pawluś, Aleksander; Zaleska-Dorobisz, Urszula

    2014-01-01

    Ulnar neuropathy is the second most common peripheral nerve neuropathy after median neuropathy, with an incidence of 25 cases per 100 000 men and 19 cases per 100 000 women each year. Skipping (snapping) elbow syndrome is an uncommon cause of pain in the posterior-medial elbow area, sometimes complicated by injury of the ulnar nerve. One of the reason is the dislocation of the abnormal insertion of the medial triceps head over the medial epicondyle during flexion and extension movements. Others are: lack of the Osboune fascia leading to ulnar nerve instability and focal soft tissue tumors (fibromas, lipomas, etc). Recurrent subluxation of the nerve at the elbow results in a tractional and frictional neuritis with classical symptoms of peripheral neuralgia. As far as we know snapping triceps syndrome had never been evaluated in sonoelastography. A 28yo semi-professional left handed tennis player was complaining about pain in posterior-medial elbow area. Initial US examination suggest golfers elbow syndrome which occurs quite commonly and has a prevalence of 0.3–0.6% in males and 0–3–1.1% in women and may be associated (approx. 50% of cases) with ulnar neuropathy. However subsequently made MRI revealed unusual distal triceps anatomy, moderate ulnar nerve swelling and lack of medial epicondylitis symptoms. Followed (second) US examination and sonoelastography have detected slipping of the both ulnar nerve and the additional band of the medial triceps head. Snapping elbow syndrome is a poorly known medical condition, sometimes misdiagnosed as the medial epicondylitis. It describes a broad range of pathologies and anatomical abnormalities. One of the most often reasons is the slipping of the ulnar nerve as the result of the Osborne fascia/anconeus epitrochlearis muscle absence. Simultaneously presence of two or more “snapping reasons” is rare but should be always taken under consideration. There are no sonoelastography studies describing golfers elbow syndrome

  16. A rare cause of forearm pain: anterior branch of the medial antebrachial cutaneous nerve injury: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildiz, Necmettin; Ardic, Füsun

    2008-04-21

    Medial antebrachial cutaneous nerve (MACN) neuropathy is reported to be caused by iatrogenic reasons. Although the cases describing the posterior branch of MACN neuropathy are abundant, only one case caused by lipoma has been found to describe the anterior branch of MACN neuropathy in the literature. As for the reason for the forearm pain, we report the only case describing isolated anterior branch of MACN neuropathy which has developed due to repeated minor trauma. We report a 37-year-old woman patient with pain in her medial forearm and elbow following the shaking of a rug. Pain and symptoms of dysestesia in the distribution of the right MACN were found. Electrophysiological examination confirmed the normality of the main nerve trunks of the right upper limb and demonstrated abnormalities of the right MACN when compared with the left side. Sensory action potential (SAP) amplitude on the right anterior branch of the MACN was detected to be lower in proportion to the left. In the light of these findings, NSAI drug and physical therapy was performed. Dysestesia and pain were relieved and no recurrence was observed after a follow-up of 14 months. MACN neuropathy should be taken into account for the differential diagnosis of the patients with complaints of pain and dysestesia in medial forearm and anteromedial aspect of the elbow.

  17. A rare cause of forearm pain: anterior branch of the medial antebrachial cutaneous nerve injury: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ardic Füsun

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Medial antebrachial cutaneous nerve (MACN neuropathy is reported to be caused by iatrogenic reasons. Although the cases describing the posterior branch of MACN neuropathy are abundant, only one case caused by lipoma has been found to describe the anterior branch of MACN neuropathy in the literature. As for the reason for the forearm pain, we report the only case describing isolated anterior branch of MACN neuropathy which has developed due to repeated minor trauma. Case presentation We report a 37-year-old woman patient with pain in her medial forearm and elbow following the shaking of a rug. Pain and symptoms of dysestesia in the distribution of the right MACN were found. Electrophysiological examination confirmed the normality of the main nerve trunks of the right upper limb and demonstrated abnormalities of the right MACN when compared with the left side. Sensory action potential (SAP amplitude on the right anterior branch of the MACN was detected to be lower in proportion to the left. In the light of these findings, NSAI drug and physical therapy was performed. Dysestesia and pain were relieved and no recurrence was observed after a follow-up of 14 months. Conclusion MACN neuropathy should be taken into account for the differential diagnosis of the patients with complaints of pain and dysestesia in medial forearm and anteromedial aspect of the elbow.

  18. Fracture of an unossified humeral medial epicondyle: use of magnetic resonance imaging for diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanabe, Katsuhisa; Miyamoto, Nao

    2016-01-01

    Fracture of the humeral medial epicondyle is a relatively common injury in children. Surgery is a good option for treatment, but correct diagnosis is important. Most fractures occur after the ossification of the medial epicondylar apophysis. If a fracture occurs before the ossification of the medial epicondyle, it is undetectable by radiographs. Here we report a case of an unossified medial epicondyle fracture of the humerus. A 9-year-old boy had persistent pain in the medial side of the right elbow after a fall. Despite his pain, he could move his injured elbow with a range from 60 to 90 . Radiographs and computed tomography showed neither fracture nor dislocation in the injured elbow, and soft tissue swelling was the only finding. Neither the trochlea nor the medial epicondyle was ossified. Magnetic resonance imaging showed that the medial epicondyle was separated from the medial metaphysis and displaced. This clear finding led us to surgical fixation. Under general anesthesia, valgus stress showed gross instability of the injured elbow. Two years after the operation, he had no complaints and could play sports with the same range of motion as the left elbow. It is important to keep in mind that medial epicondylar fractures may be hidden in a normal radiograph before the ossification of the medial epicondylar apophysis. (orig.)

  19. Fracture of an unossified humeral medial epicondyle: use of magnetic resonance imaging for diagnosis

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    Tanabe, Katsuhisa; Miyamoto, Nao [Nishinomiya Municipal Central Hospital, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Nishinomiya (Japan)

    2016-10-15

    Fracture of the humeral medial epicondyle is a relatively common injury in children. Surgery is a good option for treatment, but correct diagnosis is important. Most fractures occur after the ossification of the medial epicondylar apophysis. If a fracture occurs before the ossification of the medial epicondyle, it is undetectable by radiographs. Here we report a case of an unossified medial epicondyle fracture of the humerus. A 9-year-old boy had persistent pain in the medial side of the right elbow after a fall. Despite his pain, he could move his injured elbow with a range from 60 to 90 . Radiographs and computed tomography showed neither fracture nor dislocation in the injured elbow, and soft tissue swelling was the only finding. Neither the trochlea nor the medial epicondyle was ossified. Magnetic resonance imaging showed that the medial epicondyle was separated from the medial metaphysis and displaced. This clear finding led us to surgical fixation. Under general anesthesia, valgus stress showed gross instability of the injured elbow. Two years after the operation, he had no complaints and could play sports with the same range of motion as the left elbow. It is important to keep in mind that medial epicondylar fractures may be hidden in a normal radiograph before the ossification of the medial epicondylar apophysis. (orig.)

  20. Simultaneous bilateral elbow dislocation with bilateral medial epicondyle fractures in a 13-year-old female gymnast with hyperlaxity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Stefan; Dunne, Ben; Whitewood, Colin

    2012-01-01

    Bilateral simultaneous elbow dislocations are extremely rare and have only been described in 12 cases. In the paediatric population unilateral elbow dislocations are rare with 3–6% of all elbow injuries and there are only few studies describing this injury exclusively in children. There is only one case report of a paediatric patient who sustained a simultaneous bilateral elbow dislocation with medial epicondyle fractures. We present a second paediatric case of simultaneous bilateral elbow dislocation with associated displaced bilateral medial epicondyle fractures in a gymnast with joint hyperlaxity (3 of 5 Wynne-Davies criteria) treated with closed reduction and short-term immobilisation (3 weeks). The patient returned to full trampoline gymnastics between 4 and 5 months postinjury and made an uneventful recovery. PMID:23234820

  1. Clinical and radiological evaluation of the integrity of the medial and lateral collateral ligaments of the elbow in dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montavon, P.M.; Savoldelli, D.

    1995-01-01

    In most cases of luxation of the elbow closed reduction constitutes the therapy of choice. Clinical retrospective studies showed signs of arthrosis in 50 % of the cases treated with this therapy, and persisting medial instability after the reduction in more than 50 % of the cases. In the present study the biomechanics of both the medial and the lateral collateral ligaments were analysed after selective severing. Severing of the medial collateral ligament led to an average increase of 30 deg of the pronation with the presence of crepitus on the lateral aspect of the elbow during passive motion. The medial instability of the elbow could be evidenced both clinically and radiographically. Severing of the lateral collateral ligament resulted in an average increase of 15 deg of the supination. Neither palpation nor radiological examination showed any evidence of subluxation

  2. Intra-articular Entrapment of Medial Epicondyle Fracture Fragment in Elbow Joint Dislocation Causing Ulnar Neuropraxia: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed J

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Traumatic elbow dislocations in children are rare but most of them are complex dislocations, and in such dislocations, medial humerus epicondyle fractureis the most common associated injury. Fracture incarceration in the elbow joint occurs in 5-18% of medial humerus epicondyle fractures but ulnar neuropraxia is very rare. Open reduction internal fixation is indicated in medial humerus epicondyle fracture with fracture incarceration, ulnar neuropraxia, marked instability or open fracture. Operative treatment options include fragment excision and sutures, closed or open reduction and Kirschner wire fixation, open reduction and suture fixation, open reduction and smooth pin fixation, and open reduction and screw fixation. However, ulnar nerve transposition is debatable as good outcome had been reported with and without nerve transposition. We report a case of a 13-year old boy, who presented with right elbow dislocation and intra-articular entrapment of medial humerus epicondyle fracture fragment, complicated with sensory ulnar neuropraxia, following a fall onto his right outstretched hand in a motor vehicle accident. The elbow joint was reduced using close manipulative reduction but the fracture fragment remained entrapped post-reduction. The patient then underwent open reduction and screw fixation of the medial humerus epicondyle fracture without ulnar nerve transposition. He had good functional outcome six weeks after surgical intervention, with complete recovery of ulnar neuropraxia six months later. Currently, he is doing well at school and is active with his sporting activity.

  3. Intra-Articular Entrapment of the Medial Epicondyle following a Traumatic Fracture Dislocation of the Elbow in an Adult

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Youssef G.; Joukhadar, Nabih I.

    2018-01-01

    Medial epicondyle entrapment after an acute fracture dislocation of the elbow is a common finding in the pediatric population, but a rare finding in adults. We present a case of an adult patient diagnosed with a traumatic fracture dislocation of the elbow joint with intra-articular entrapment of the medial epicondyle. After initial evaluation, closed reduction was done. Stability testing after reduction showed an unstable joint; thus, open reduction and internal fixation was decided. PMID:29666736

  4. Functional Results in Arthroscopic Treatment in Patients with Chronic Lateral Elbow Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phorkhar, Termphong; Chanlalit, Cholawish

    2015-11-01

    Modern surgery as elbow arthroscopic surgery is an accepted operation due to benefit in precise intra-articular lesion detection and minimally invasive surgery. To report the functional results when using arthroscopic surgery to treat chronic lateral elbow pain. The data was collected from 25 patients with chronic lateral elbow pain that failed in non-operative treatment and treated with elbow arthroscopic surgery. Five patients were excluded from this study due to diagnosed as instability that needed the ligament reconstruction. The etiology of pain were grouped in to tennis elbow (4 pts), plica (9 pts), tennis elbow combined with plica (4 pts) and cartilage lesion (3 pts). Thai quick DASH questionnaire was used to evaluate the functional results by comparing pre and post operation score and calculated statistic results with paired t-test by level of significance p tennis elbow mean score was 74 and 33, in plica lesion mean score was 65 and 11, combined lesions mean score was 60 and 18 and cartilage lesion mean score was 60 and 20. Approaching chronic lateral elbow pain with arthroscopy can maintain the signficant improvement of functional result in midterm follow-up.

  5. Elbow tendinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitzer, Michael E; Seidenberg, Peter H; Bader, Dov A

    2014-07-01

    Overuse injuries of the lateral and medial elbow are common in sport, recreational activities, and occupational endeavors. They are commonly diagnosed as lateral and medial epicondylitis; however, the pathophysiology of these disorders demonstrates a lack of inflammation. Instead, angiofibroblastic degeneration is present, referred to as tendinosis. As such, a more appropriate terminology for these conditions is epicondylosis. This is a clinical diagnosis, and further investigations are only performed to rule out other clinical entities after conventional therapy has failed. Yet, most patients respond to conservative measures with physical therapy and counterforce bracing. Corticosteroid injections are effective for short-term pain control but have not demonstrated long-term benefit. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. A Rare Cause of Elbow Pain: Hegemann%u2019s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tugrul Alici

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Non-traumatic elbow pain is rarely seen in children and pre-adolescents. Osteochondral lesions may be the source of chronic elbow pain, swelling, and loss of motion in children or adolescents. Osteochondritis dissecans (OCD is described as a lesion of subchondral bone resulting in separation of the articular cartilage and subchondral bone. It is found primarily in the knee, ankle, and elbow joints. Since osteochondrosis of the elbow primarily involves capitellum, few papers involving osteonecrosis of the trochlea have been reported. This paper discusses a pre-adolescent boy with clinical and radiographic signs consistent with unilateral osteochondral lesion of the trochlea humeri, with no history of recent trauma. The patient had insidious onset of right elbow pain during daily activities for the last 3 weeks. After usage of long arm splint for 2 weeks, persistence of the symptoms necessitated MRI of the affected elbow. After the diagnosis, non-operative management was achieved. Care should be taken for the affected children to recognize any residual deformity and to treat it properly at follow up.

  7. Arthroscopic resection of humeroradial synovial plica for persistent lateral elbow pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajeev, Aysha; Pooley, Joesph

    2015-04-01

    To review the outcome of 121 patients who underwent arthroscopic resection of a humeroradial synovial plica for persistent lateral elbow pain. 92 men and 29 women aged 24 to 56 (mean, 38) years with chronic lateral elbow pain underwent arthroscopic resection of a humeroradial synovial plica using a motorised soft tissue shaver, followed by intensive physiotherapy. The modified elbow score and range of motion were assessed, as were wound healing, infection, soft tissue swelling or effusion, tenderness, ligamentous instability, and motor strength. No patient had any ligamentous instability. 80 patients were pain-free at 3 months; only 3 patients were taking pain medication at 6 months. All patients had full pronation and supination; the mean range of motion was 3º to 135º of flexion. The mean modified elbow score at 12 months was 93.2 (range, 72-100). The percentages of patients with excellent, good, fair, and poor score were 70%, 17%, 8%, and 5% at 3 months, 74%, 20%, 3%, and 3% at 6 months, and 76%, 18%, 3%, and 3% at 12 months, respectively. A humeroradial synovial plica is one of the causes of chronic lateral elbow pain. Arthroscopic resection of the synovial plica followed by intensive physiotherapy achieved good outcome.

  8. Acute effects of one session dry needling on a chronic golfer’s elbow disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shariat, Ardalan; Noormohammadpour, Pardis; Memari, Amir Hossein; Ansari, Noureddin Nakhostin; Cleland, Joshua A.; Kordi, Ramin

    2018-01-01

    A 40-year-old retired male elite athlete with more than 20 years’ experience in wrestling and bodybuilding with mild elbow pain and disability of 2 years presented to our clinic reporting an acute pain in medial aspect of the elbow. Physical examination revealed symptoms of left Golfer’s elbow during target-directed movements. The results of sonography in left elbow showed low level of hypo echo irregularity and increased blood flow in color Doppler mode in the common flexor origin. The pain amplitude was moderate at rest and extremely high during kinetic and intentional movements. During last 2 years, the patient tried different types of therapy including manual therapy, Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation and also received a variety of injections none of which were effective for reducing pain and disability. This is the first study showed that one sessions of dry needling improved both pain and disability and helped to return to a normal life and exercise training. PMID:29511665

  9. Percutaneous ultrasonic tenotomy for chronic elbow tendinosis: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Darryl E; Beckley, James M; Smith, Jay

    2015-01-01

    Elbow tendinopathy is the most common cause of elbow pain affecting active populations. Surgical excision is reserved for patients with refractory symptoms. Percutaneous ultrasonic tenotomy performed under local anesthesia also removes degenerated tissue and therefore provides an alternative treatment option to surgical excision. This investigation prospectively documented the safety and 1-year efficacy of ultrasonic percutaneous tenotomy performed by a single operator. Nineteen patients, aged 38 to 67 years, in whom >6 months of conservative management for medial (7) or lateral (12) elbow tendinopathy had failed were prospectively studied. All patients were treated with percutaneous ultrasonic tenotomy of the elbow by a single operator. Visual analog scale (VAS) for pain, the 11-item version of the Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand (Quick DASH) index, and the Mayo Elbow Performance Score (MEPS) were assessed by an independent observer before treatment and at 6 weeks, 3 months, 6 months, and 12 months after treatment. No procedural complications occurred. Total treatment time was elbow tendinopathy up to 1 year after the procedure. Copyright © 2015 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. ARTHROSCOPIC TREATMENT OF THE LATERAL ELBOW PAIN –OUR EXPERIENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oskar Zupanc

    2008-01-01

    Arthroscopic treatment of the lateral elbow pain has been proved to be very effectiveespecially in younger population and in patients with early elbow osteoarthritis. The lengthof hospital stay is reduced. However, the length of rehabilitation depends on the stage ofelbow osteoarthritis and extensiveness of the arthroscopic intervention

  11. Reliability of internal oblique elbow radiographs for measuring displacement of medial epicondyle humerus fractures: a cadaveric study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottschalk, Hilton P; Bastrom, Tracey P; Edmonds, Eric W

    2013-01-01

    Standard elbow radiographs (AP and lateral views) are not accurate enough to measure true displacement of medial epicondyle fractures of the humerus. The amount of perceived displacement has been used to determine treatment options. This study assesses the utility of internal oblique radiographs for measurement of true displacement in these fractures. A medial epicondyle fracture was created in a cadaveric specimen. Displacement of the fragment (mm) was set at 5, 10, and 15 in line with the vector of the flexor pronator mass. The fragment was sutured temporarily in place. Radiographs were obtained at 0 (AP), 15, 30, 45, 60, 75, and 90 degrees (lateral) of internal rotation, with the elbow in set positions of flexion. This was done with and without radio-opaque markers placed on the fragment and fracture bed. The 45 and 60 degrees internal oblique radiographs were then presented to 5 separate reviewers (of different levels of training) to evaluate intraobserver and interobserver agreement. Change in elbow position did not affect the perceived displacement (P=0.82) with excellent intraobserver reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient range, 0.979 to 0.988) and interobserver agreement of 0.953. The intraclass correlation coefficient for intraobserver reliability on 45 degrees internal oblique films for all groups ranged from 0.985 to 0.998, with interobserver agreement of 0.953. For predicting displacement, the observers were 60% accurate in predicting the true displacement on the 45 degrees internal oblique films and only 35% accurate using the 60 degrees internal oblique view. Standardizing to a 45 degrees internal oblique radiograph of the elbow (regardless of elbow flexion) can augment the treating surgeon's ability to determine true displacement. At this degree of rotation, the measured number can be multiplied by 1.4 to better estimate displacement. The addition of a 45 degrees internal oblique radiograph in medial humeral epicondyle fractures has good

  12. It's time to change perspective! New diagnostic tools for lateral elbow pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrigoni, P; Cucchi, D; Menon, A; Randelli, P

    2017-12-01

    The presence of intra-articular findings that may complement the extra-articular pathology in lateral epicondilytis has been suggested, and a role for minor instability of the elbow as part of the causative process of this disease has been postulated. This study was designed to describe two new clinical tests, aimed at detecting intra-articular pathology in patients affected by recalcitrant lateral epicondylitis and investigate their diagnostic performance. Ten patients suffering of atraumatic lateral elbow pain unresponsive to conservative treatment were considered in this study. Two clinical tests were developed and administrated prior to arthroscopy: Supination and Antero-Lateral pain Test (SALT); Posterior Elbow Pain by Palpation-Extension of the Radiocapitellar joint (PEPPER). Sensitivity, specificity, predictive values and accuracy of SALT and PEPPER as diagnostic tests for seven intra-articular findings were calculated. In 90% of the patients, at least one test was positive. All patients with signs of lateral ligamentous patholaxity or intra-articular abnormal findings had a positive response to at least one of the two tests. SALT proved to have a high sensitivity but a low specificity and is accurate in detecting the presence of intra-articular abnormal findings, especially synovitis. PEPPER test was sensible, specific and accurate in the detection of radial head chondropathy. Two new diagnostic tests (SALT and PEPPER) were specifically designed to evoke pain from intra-articular structures. These tests could be a valid support in the diagnostic algorithm of recalcitrant lateral elbow pain. Positive findings may be indicative of a minor instability of the lateral elbow condition. Diagnostic study, development of diagnostic criteria on basis of consecutive patients, level II.

  13. A meniscus causing painful snapping of the elbow joint: MR imaging with arthroscopic and histologic correlation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Guo-Shu; Chen, Cheng-Yu [National Defense Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Tri-Service General Hospital, Taipei (Taiwan); Lee, Chian-Her [National Defense Medical Center, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Tri-Service General Hospital, Taipei (Taiwan); Lee, Herng-Sheng [National Defense Medical Center, Department of Pathology, Tri-Service General Hospital, Taipei (Taiwan)

    2005-12-01

    Snapping of the elbow joint can cause pain. We report a case of painful snapping elbow produced by an interposed meniscus in the radiohumeral joint in a 20-year-old man. The MR arthrogram demonstrated a meniscus-like tissue interposed between the radial head and humeral capitellum. The MR-arthrographic findings were well correlated with surgical findings. The location and appearance of the meniscus-like tissue was similar to that of meniscus in the knee joint. Histologic findings of the excised meniscus-like tissue showed a typical presentation of fibrocartilage. A meniscus may exist in the elbow joint and can be a rare cause of painful snapping elbow. MR arthrography is helpful for identifying the snapping tissue in the elbow joint. (orig.)

  14. A novel method for assessing elbow pain resulting from epicondylitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polkinghorn, Bradley S.

    2002-01-01

    Abstract Objective To describe a novel orthopedic test (Polk's test) which can assist the clinician in differentiating between me- dial and lateral epicondylitis, 2 of the most common causes of elbow pain. This test has not been previously described in the literature. Clinical Features The testing procedure described in this paper is easy to learn, simple to perform and may provide the clinician with a quick and effective method of differentiating between lateral and medial epicondylitis. The test also helps to elucidate normal activities of daily living that the patient may unknowingly be performing on a repetitive basis that are hindering recovery. The results of this simple test allow the clinician to make immediate lifestyle recommendations to the patient that should improve and hasten the response to subsequent treatment. It may be used in conjunction with other orthopedic testing procedures, as it correlates well with other clinical tests for assessing epicondylitis. Conclusion The use of Polk's Test may help the clinician to diagnostically differentiate between lateral and medial epicondylitis, as well as supply information relative to choosing proper instructions for the patient to follow as part of their treatment program. Further research, performed in an academic setting, should prove helpful in more thoroughly evaluating the merits of this test. In the meantime, clinical experience over the years suggests that the practicing physician should find a great deal of clinical utility in utilizing this simple, yet effective, diagnostic procedure. PMID:19674572

  15. Medial branch neurotomy in low back pain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masala, Salvatore; Mammucari, Matteo; Simonetti, Giovanni; Nano, Giovanni; Marcia, Stefano

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to assess the effectiveness of pulsed radiofrequency medial branch dorsal ramus neurotomy in patients with facet joint syndrome. From January 2008 to April 2010, 92 patients with facet joint syndrome diagnosed by strict inclusion criteria and controlled diagnostic blocks undergone medial branch neurotomy. We did not exclude patients with failed back surgery syndrome (FBSS). Electrodes (20G) with 5-mm active tip were placed under fluoroscopy guide parallel to medial branch. Patients were followed up by physical examination and by Visual Analog Scale and Oswestry Disability Index at 1, 6, and 12 months. In all cases, pain improvement was statistically significant and so quality of life. Three non-FBSS patients had to undergo a second neurotomy because of non-satisfactory pain decrease. Complications were reported in no case. Medial branch radiofrequency neurotomy has confirmed its well-established effectiveness in pain and quality of life improvement as long as strict inclusion criteria be fulfilled and nerve ablation be accomplished by parallel electrode positioning. This statement can be extended also to FBSS patients. (orig.)

  16. Medial branch neurotomy in low back pain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masala, Salvatore; Mammucari, Matteo; Simonetti, Giovanni [Interventional Radiology and Radiotherapy University ' ' Tor Vergata' ' , Department of Diagnostic and Molecular Imaging, Rome (Italy); Nano, Giovanni [Interventional Radiology and Radiotherapy University ' ' Tor Vergata' ' , Department of Diagnostic and Molecular Imaging, Rome (Italy); University ' ' Tor Vergata' ' , Department of Radiology, Rome (Italy); Marcia, Stefano [S. Giovanni di Dio Hospital, Department of Diagnostic and Molecular Imaging, Cagliari (Italy)

    2012-07-15

    This study aimed to assess the effectiveness of pulsed radiofrequency medial branch dorsal ramus neurotomy in patients with facet joint syndrome. From January 2008 to April 2010, 92 patients with facet joint syndrome diagnosed by strict inclusion criteria and controlled diagnostic blocks undergone medial branch neurotomy. We did not exclude patients with failed back surgery syndrome (FBSS). Electrodes (20G) with 5-mm active tip were placed under fluoroscopy guide parallel to medial branch. Patients were followed up by physical examination and by Visual Analog Scale and Oswestry Disability Index at 1, 6, and 12 months. In all cases, pain improvement was statistically significant and so quality of life. Three non-FBSS patients had to undergo a second neurotomy because of non-satisfactory pain decrease. Complications were reported in no case. Medial branch radiofrequency neurotomy has confirmed its well-established effectiveness in pain and quality of life improvement as long as strict inclusion criteria be fulfilled and nerve ablation be accomplished by parallel electrode positioning. This statement can be extended also to FBSS patients. (orig.)

  17. Risk factors for persistent elbow, forearm and hand pain among computer workers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, C. F.; Mikkelsen, S.; Kryger, Ann Isabel

    2005-01-01

    to elbow, forearm, or wrist-hand pain during the 12 months preceding the baseline questionnaire. Pain status (recovery versus persistence) at follow-up was examined in relation to computer work aspects and ergonomic, psychosocial, and personal factors by questionnaire. In addition, data on objectively......, and type-A behavior, the prognosis seemed independent of psychosocial workplace factors and personal factors. A few cases with severe pain were affected at a level which could be compared to clinical pain conditions. CONCLUSIONS: Our results do not support the hypothesis that computer work activity......OBJECTIVES: This study examined the influence of work-related and personal factors on the prognosis of "severe" elbow, forearm, and wrist-hand pain among computer users. METHODS: In a 1-year follow-up study of 6943 computer users, 673 (10%) participants reported "quite a lot" or more trouble due...

  18. The Prevalence of Medial Epicondylitis Among Patients With C6 and C7 Radiculopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Aaron Taylor; Lee-Robinson, Ayse L.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Medial epicondylitis, or golfer’s/pitcher’s elbow, develops as a result of medial stress overload on the flexor muscles at the elbow and presents as pain at the medial epicondyle. Cervical radiculopathy has been associated with lateral epicondylitis, but few associations between the cervical spine and medial epicondylitis have been made. Researchers propose that there is an association, suggesting that the weakness and imbalance in the elbow flexor and extensor muscles from C6 and C7 radiculopathy allow for easy onset of medial epicondylitis. Hypothesis: Medial epicondylitis will present in over half the patients diagnosed with C6 and C7 radiculopathy. Methodology: A total of 102 patients initially presenting with upper extremity or neck symptoms were diagnosed with cervical radiculopathy. They were then examined for medial epicondylitis. Data were collected by referring to patient charts from February 2008 until June 2009. Results: Fifty-five patients were diagnosed with medial epicondylitis. Of these, 44 had C6 and C7 radiculopathy whereas 11 presented with just C6 radiculopathy. Conclusion: Medial epicondylitis presented with cervical radiculopathy in slightly more than half the patients. Weakening of the flexor carpi radialis and pronator teres and imbalance of the flexor and extensor muscles from the C6 and C7 radiculopathy allow for easy onset of medial epicondylitis. Patients with medial epicondylitis should be examined for C6 and C7 radiculopathy to ensure proper treatment. Physicians dealing with golfers, pitchers, or other patients with medial epicondylitis should be aware of the association between these 2 diagnoses to optimize care. PMID:23015956

  19. Surgical management of medial humeral epicondylitis, cubital synovial osteochondromatosis and humeroradial subluxation in a cat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen L Perry

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Case summary A 13-year-old domestic shorthair cat presented for evaluation of pain and difficulty ambulating. Orthopedic examination and CT facilitated a diagnosis of bilateral elbow synovial osteochondromatosis with medial humeral epicondylitis and concurrent osteoarthritis. Right humeroradial subluxation was evident on CT images, but no instability was evident preoperatively. Surgical treatment was elected, including external neurolysis of the ulnar nerve, removal of the areas of mineralization within the flexor carpi ulnaris muscle and medial arthrotomy to remove intra-articular mineralized bodies. Following closure, instability of the right elbow was noted with humeroradial subluxation necessitating placement of circumferential suture prostheses to provide satisfactory stability. Reassessment was performed 2, 6, 12, 24 and 40 weeks postoperatively and revealed maintenance of elbow stability and substantial improvement in mobility and comfort. Relevance and novel information While humeroradial subluxation has been reported in association with medial humeral epicondylitis on post-mortem examination, associated clinically significant instability has not been documented previously. Surgeons should be aware of the potential for this complication and check elbow stability following surgery. Despite this complication, a favorable medium-term outcome was achieved for this cat.

  20. Muscle releases to improve passive motion and relieve pain in patients with spastic hemiplegia and elbow flexion contractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namdari, Surena; Horneff, J Gabe; Baldwin, Keith; Keenan, Mary Ann

    2012-10-01

    Patients with spastic hemiplegia after upper motor neuron (UMN) injury can develop elbow contractures. This study evaluated outcomes of elbow releases in treating spastic elbow flexion contractures in hemiplegic patients. Adults with spastic hemiplegia due to UMN injury who underwent elbow releases (brachialis, brachioradialis, and biceps muscles) were included. Nonoperative treatment was unsuccessful in all patients. Patients complained of difficulty with passive functions. Passive range of motion (ROM), pain relief, Modified Ashworth spasticity score, and complications were evaluated preoperatively and postoperatively. There were 8 men and 21 women with an average age of 52.4 years (range, 24.1-81.4 years). Seventeen patients had pain preoperatively. Postoperative follow-up was a mean of 1.7 years (range, 1-4.5 years). Preoperatively, patients lacked a mean of 78° of passive elbow extension compared with 17° postoperatively (P .05). Releases of the brachialis, brachioradialis, and biceps muscles can be an effective means of pain relief, improved passive ROM, and decreased spasticity in patients with elbow flexion deformity after UMN injury. Copyright © 2012 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Medial tibial pain. A prospective study of its cause among military recruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milgrom, C; Giladi, M; Stein, M; Kashtan, H; Margulies, J; Chisin, R; Steinberg, R; Swissa, A; Aharonson, Z

    1986-12-01

    In a prospective study of 295 infantry recruits during 14 weeks of basic training, 41% had medial tibial pain. Routine scintigraphic evaluation in cases of medial tibial bone pain showed that 63% had abnormalities. A stress fracture was found in 46%. Only two patients had periostitis. None had ischemic medial compartment syndrome. Physical examination could not differentiate between cases with medial tibial bone pain secondary to stress fractures and those with scintigraphically normal tibias. When both pain and swelling were localized in the middle one-third of the tibia, the lesion most likely proved to be a stress fracture.

  2. Work-related risk factors for lateral epicondylitis and other cause of elbow pain in the working population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herquelot, Eleonore; Bodin, Julie; Roquelaure, Yves; Ha, Catherine; Leclerc, Annette; Goldberg, Marcel; Zins, Marie; Descatha, Alexis

    2013-04-01

    This study was designed to assess the relationship between work-related combined physical and psychosocial factors and elbow disorders (lateral epicondylitis and non-specific disorders without lateral epicondylitis) in the working population. A total of 3,710 workers (58% men) in a French region in 2002-2005 participated in physical examinations by occupational health physicians and assessed their personal factors and work exposure by self-administered questionnaire. Statistical associations between elbow disorders and risks factors were analyzed using multinomial logistic regression. A total of 389 (10.5%) workers had elbow pain without lateral epicondylitis and 90 (2.4%) workers had lateral epicondylitis. Age, body mass index (>25), and low social support (only for men) were significant risks factors. Hard perceived physical exertion combined with elbow flexion/extension (>2 hr/day) and wrist bending (>2 hr/day) was a strong significant risk factor for elbow pain and epicondylitis: among men, adjusted Odds Ratio (ORa) = 2.6 (1.9-3.7) and ORa = 5.6 (2.8-11.3), respectively; among women, ORa = 1.4 (0.9-2.2) and ORa = 2.9 (1.3-6.5). This study emphasizes the strength of the associations between combined physical exertion and elbow movements and lateral epicondylitis. Certain observed differences in associations with lateral epicondylitis and elbow pain only indicate the need for additional longitudinal studies on different stages of elbow disorders and known risk factors. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Correlation of radiographic, necropsy and histologic findings in 8 dogs with elbow dysplasia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keller, G.G.; Kreeger, J.M.; Mann, F.A.; Lattimer, J.C.

    1997-01-01

    Elbow dysplasia is osteoarthrosis/degenerative joint disease due to abnormal development of the elbow joint. The abnormal development is the result of specific inherited etiologies alone or in combination. This paper attempts to clarify the diagnosis of elbow dysplasia based on the presence of degenerative joint disease by correlating radiographic, necropsy, and histopathologic results using elbows from 8 German Shepherd dogs. All elbows had radiographic changes consistent with osteoarthrosis/degenerative joint disease which were identified best on the flexed medial-lateral projection. Radiographically, a specific diagnosis was made in seven elbows; ununited anconeal process (6) and osteochondrosis (1). At necropsy these lesions were confirmed plus 14 elbows were identified that had fragmented medial coronoid process (6), abnormally shaped medial coronoid processes or fissures in the articular cartilage of the medial coronoid process (8). Additionally, histopathologically there was proliferative synovitis at the radial notch of the ulna and degenerative changes on the proximal, nonarticular surface of the anconeal process at the site of insertion of the olecranon ligament and joint capsule. Therefore, for screening the elbow joint to identify elbow dysplasia, the recognition of osteoarthrosis/degenerative joint disease on an extreme flexed mediolateral radiograph appears to be sufficient

  4. Increased medial foot loading during drop jump in subjects with patellofemoral pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rathleff, Michael S; Richter, Camilla; Brushøj, Christoffer

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: To compare medial-to-lateral plantar forces during drop jump and single leg squat in individuals with and without patellofemoral pain. METHODS: This cross-sectional study compared 23 young adults with patellofemoral pain to 20 age- and sex-matched controls without knee pain. The plantar...... pressure distribution was collected during drop jump and single leg squat using pressure-sensitive Pedar insoles, inserted into a standard flat shoe. The primary outcome was the medial-to-lateral force, quantified as the peak force under the medial forefoot as the percentage of force under the total...... forefoot during drop jump. Secondary outcomes included peak medial-to-lateral force during single leg squat and mean forces during drop jump and single leg squat. RESULTS: The primary outcome showed that individuals with patellofemoral pain had a 22 % higher medial-to-lateral peak force during drop jump...

  5. Exposures of the elbow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axelrod, Terry S

    2014-11-01

    This article describes the basic bony, ligamentous, and neurologic anatomy of the structures about the elbow. The surgical exposures of the elbow joint are described, providing details of the various posterior, lateral, and medial approaches to the articular segments. Clinical applications describing the potential benefits of each surgical exposure are provided as examples. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Fragmented medial coronoid process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juhasz, Cs.; Juhasz, T.

    1997-01-01

    Fragmented medial coronoid process: (FCP) is often considered to be part of the osteochondrosis dissecans complex, but trauma and growth discrepancies between the radius and ulna are proposed as causes. There is little to clinically differentiate FCP, from osteochondrosis dissecans (OCD) of the elbow. Pain on, flexion-extension of the elbow and lateral rotation of the paw is a little more consistent in FCP. Radiographic examination of the elbow is important despite the, fact that radiographic signs of the FCP are often nonspecific. Excessive osteoarthrosis and superimposition of the radial head and coronoid process make identification of the FCP difficult. Craniocaudal, flexed mediolateral and 25 degree craniocaudal-lateromedial views are necessary for diagnosis. Osteophyte production is more dramatic with FCP than with OCD and suggests therefore the occurrence of OCP in many cases. Although the detached process may be seen on any view, the oblique projection offers the least obstructed view. Exposure of the joint is identical to that for OCD, that means a medial approach with osteotomy of the epicondyle. In most cases the process is loose enough to be readily apparent, but in some it is necessary to exert force on the process in order to find the cleavage plane. It is necessary to remove the osteophytes as well and to inspect and irrigate the joint carefully to remove cartilage fragments before closure. Confinement is advisable for 4 weeks before returning the dog to normal activity. The outlook for function is good if the FCP is removed before secondary degenerative joint disease is well established

  7. Medialized repair for retracted rotator cuff tears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young-Kyu; Jung, Kyu-Hak; Won, Jun-Sung; Cho, Seung-Hyun

    2017-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the functional outcomes of medialized rotator cuff repair and the continuity of repaired tendon in chronic retracted rotator cuff tears. Thirty-five consecutive patients were selected from 153 cases that underwent arthroscopic rotator cuff repair for more than medium-sized posterosuperior rotator cuff tears between July 2009 and July 2012 performed with the medialized repair. All cases were available for at least 2 years of postoperative follow-up. The visual analog scale of pain, muscle strength, Constant score, American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons (ASES) score, and University of California-Los Angeles score were evaluated. At the final follow-up, all clinical outcomes were significantly improved. The visual analog scale score for pain improved from 6 ± 1 preoperatively to 2 ± 1 postoperatively. The range of motion increased from preoperatively to postoperatively: active forward elevation, from 134° ± 49° to 150° ± 16°; active external rotation at the side, from 47° ± 15° to 55° ± 10°; and active internal rotation, from L3 to L1. The shoulder score also improved: Constant score, from 53.5 ± 16.7 to 79 ± 10; American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons score, from 51 ± 15 to 82 ± 8; and University of California-Los Angeles score, from 14 ± 4 to 28 ± 4. The retear cases at the final follow-up were 6 (17%). Medialized repair may be useful in cases in which anatomic bone-to-tendon repair would be difficult because of the excessive tension of the repaired tendon and a torn tendon that does not reach the anatomic insertion. Copyright © 2016 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. High-resolution MR imaging of the elbow using a microscopy surface coil and a clinical 1.5 T MR machine: preliminary results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshioka, Hiroshi; Ueno, Teruko; Takahashi, Nobuyuki; Saida, Yukihisa; Tanaka, Toshikazu; Kujiraoka, Yuka; Shindo, Masashi; Nishiura, Yasumasa; Ochiai, Naoyuki

    2004-01-01

    To obtain high-resolution MR images of the elbow using a microscopy surface coil with a 1.5 T clinical machine and to evaluate the feasibility of its use for elbow injuries. Five asymptomatic normal volunteers and 13 patients with elbow pain were prospectively studied with MR imaging using a microscopy surface coil 47 mm in diameter. High-resolution MR images using a microscopy coil were obtained with fast spin echo (FSE) proton density-weighted sequence, gradient recalled echo (GRE) T2*-weighted sequence, and short tau inversion recovery (STIR) sequence, with a 1-2 mm slice thickness, a 50-70 mm field of view, an imaging matrix of 140-224 x 512 using zero fill interpolation, and 2-6 excitations. High-resolution MR images of normal volunteers using a microscopy coil clearly showed each structure of the medial and lateral collateral ligaments on GRE T2*-weighted images and FSE proton-density weighted images. Partial medial collateral ligament injury, a small avulsion of the medial epicondyle, and osteochondritis dissecans were well demonstrated on high-resolution MR images. High-resolution MR imaging of the elbow using a microscopy surface coil with a 1.5 T clinical machine is a promising method for accurately characterizing the normal anatomy of the elbow and depicting its lesions in detail. (orig.)

  9. Total elbow arthroplasty for primary osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoch, Bradley S; Werthel, Jean-David; Sánchez-Sotelo, Joaquín; Morrey, Bernard F; Morrey, Mark

    2017-08-01

    Primary osteoarthritis of the elbow is a less common indication for total elbow arthroplasty (TEA). Higher complication rates in younger, active patients may offset short-term improvements in pain and function. The purpose of this study was to determine pain relief, functional outcomes, complications, and survival of TEA in this population. Between 1984 and 2011, 20 consecutive TEAs were performed for primary elbow osteoarthritis. Two patients died before the 2-year follow-up. Mean age at surgery was 68 years (range, 51-85 years). Outcome measures included pain, motion, Mayo Elbow Performance Score, satisfaction, complications, and reoperations. Mean follow-up was 8.9 years (range, 2-20 years). Three elbows sustained mechanical failures. Complications included intraoperative fracture (n = 2), wound irrigation and débridement (n = 1), bony ankylosis (n = 1), humeral loosening (n = 1), humeral component fracture (n = 1), and mechanical failure of a radial head component (n = 1). Fifteen elbows without mechanical failure were examined clinically. Pain improved from 3.6 to 1.5 (P  .05), with preoperative flexion contractures not improving. Mayo Elbow Performance Scores were available for 13 elbows without mechanical failure, averaging 81.5 points (range, 60-100 points); these were graded as excellent (n = 5), good (n = 2), and fair (n = 6). Subjectively, all patients without mechanical failure were satisfied. TEA represents a reliable surgical option for pain relief in patients with primary osteoarthritis. However, restoration of extension is not always obtained, indicating that more aggressive soft tissue releases or bony resection should be considered. Complications occurred in a large number of elbows, but mechanical failure was low considering the nature of this population and the length of follow-up. Copyright © 2017 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Elbow arthroscopy: valgus extension overload.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Christopher S; Conway, John E

    2011-01-01

    Valgus torque combined with deceleration produces high compression and shear forces acting on the posteromedial olecranon and the posteromedial trochlea. This valgus extension overload process may cause posteromedial trochlea chondromalacia, chondral flap formation, osteochondrosis, subchondral erosion, a subchondral insufficiency fracture, and marginal exostosis formation. Olecranon pathologies include proximal stress reaction, a posteromedial tip stress fracture, a transverse proximal process stress fracture, exostosis formation, exostosis fragmentation, and intra-articular loose bodies. Symptoms include posteromedial elbow pain during the deceleration phase of the throwing motion. The extension impingement test reproduces posterior or posteromedial pain similar to that experienced while throwing. Special radiographic techniques and CT scans can show loose bodies and osteophyte fragmentation. Surgical treatment is indicated when symptoms persist despite nonsurgical management. Based on clinical and basic science research, all patients with valgus extension overload should be comprehensively evaluated for medial ulnar collateral ligament insufficiency. Surgical treatment is limited to the resection of osteophytes only; normal olecranon should not be resected.

  11. Hyperextension of the elbow joint

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tyrdal, Stein; Olsen, Bo Sanderhoff

    1998-01-01

    According to an epidemiologic study (Scand J Med Sci 1996/ 6: 297-302) the mechanism of "handball goalie's elbow" may be forced hyperextension. The pathomechanics of hyperextension were studied in nine macroscopically normal male cadaver elbow joints. The mean age of the donors was 43.2 years...... of the medial collateral ligament; (3) occasional incomplete rupture of the lateral collateral ligament; and (4) small fragments of cartilage near the posterior edge of the ulna in one of the specimens. One or more of these lesions may be responsible for the symptoms in "handball goalie's elbow."...

  12. Effect of strength training on regional hypertrophy of the elbow flexor muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drummond, Marcos D M; Szmuchrowski, Leszek A; Goulart, Karine N O; Couto, Bruno P

    2016-10-01

    Muscle hypertrophy is the main structural adaptation to strength training. We investigated the chronic effects of strength training on muscle hypertrophy in different regions of the elbow flexor muscles. Eleven untrained men (21.8 ± 1.62 years) underwent magnetic resonance imaging to determine the proximal, medial, distal, and mean cross-sectional areas (CSA) of the elbow flexors. The volunteers completed 12 weeks of strength training. The training protocol consisted of 4 sets of 8-10 maximum repetitions of unilateral elbow flexion. The interval between sets was 120 s. The training frequency was 3 sessions per week. The magnetic resonance images verified the presence of significant and similar hypertrophy in the distal, medial, and proximal portions of the elbow flexor muscles. Muscle hypertrophy may be assessed using only the medial CSA. We should not expect different degrees of hypertrophy among the regions of the elbow flexor muscles. Muscle Nerve 54: 750-755, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. EFFECTIVENESS OF MEDIAL TO LATERAL TAPING WITH EXERCISE PROGRAMME IN SUBJECTS WITH LATERAL EPICONDYLITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhavana Dattaram Desai

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Medial to lateral tapping and exercise programme has been found to be effective in Lateral epicondylitis. The purpose to find the combined effect of Medial to lateral tapping with exercise programme for subjects with lateral epicondylitis on pain intensity and functional ability. Method: An experimental study design, selected 40 subjects with Lateral epicondylitis randomized 20 subjects each into Study and Control group. Control group received only exercise programme while study group received combined medial to lateral tapping with exercise programme thrice a week for 4 weeks. Pain intensity was measured using Visual analogue scale and functional ability was measured using Patient Rated Tennis Elbow Evaluation questionnaire before and after 4 weeks of treatment. Results: When the post-intervention means were compared between Study and Control group after 4 weeks of treatment found statistically significant difference in the improvement in outcomes measures in means of VAS and PRTEE before and after intervention within the groups. Conclusion: It is concluded that the Medial to lateral tapping with exercise programme is more effective than the exercise programme in reduction of pain and improve functional abilities for subjects with Lateral epicondylitis.

  14. Reorganised force control in elbow pain patients during isometric wrist extension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mista, Christian Ariel; Monterde, Sonia; Inglés, Montserrat

    2018-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Reorganised force control may be an important adaptation following painful traumas. In this study, force control adaptations were assessed in elbow pain patients. Increasing the contraction demand may overcome pain interference on the motor control and as such act as an internal...... voluntary contraction. Pressure pain thresholds were recorded at the lateral epicondyle and tibialis anterior muscle. Contraction force was recorded using a three-directional force transducer. Participants performed contractions according with visual feedback of the task-related force intensity (main...... direction of wrist extension) and another set of contractions with feedback of the three force directions. Going from the simple to the detailed force feedback will increase the demand of the motor task. Force steadiness in all 3 dimensions and force direction was extracted. RESULTS: Compared with controls...

  15. Irreducible lateral dislocation of the elbow.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chhaparwal M

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available A rare case of an irreducible post-traumatic lateral dislocation of elbow is presented. The mechanism of injury was fall on a flexed elbow with trauma on its medial aspect resulting in pronation of the forearm. At open reduction, the brachialis muscle was in the form of a tight band which prevented reduction. The ulnar nerve was entrapped in the joint.

  16. Elbow dislocation with intra-articular fracture: the results of operative treatment without repair of the medial collateral ligament.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forthman, Christopher; Henket, Marjolijn; Ring, David C

    2007-10-01

    To determine the effectiveness of a protocol for the treatment of fracture-dislocations of the elbow based on the concept that, if dislocation of the elbow with associated fractures can be made to resemble a simple elbow dislocation by repairing or reconstructing the fractured structures, repair of the medial collateral ligament (MCL) will not be necessary. Over a 5-year period, a single surgeon operated on 34 patients with a posterior dislocation of the elbow associated with one or more intra-articular fractures. The mean age of these 19 men and 15 women was 48 years. Associated fractures included the capitellum, trochlea, and lateral epicondyle in 3 patients; the olecranon in 1 patient; and the radial head in 30 patients (with concomitant fracture of the coronoid process-the so-called "terrible triad" of the elbow-in 22 patients, and concomitant fracture of the coronoid and olecranon in 1 patient). Operative treatment consisted of open reduction internal fixation (ORIF) or prosthetic replacement of all fractures and reattachment of the origin of the lateral collateral ligament (LCL) complex to the lateral epicondyle. The MCL was not repaired. Two patients (1 with a terrible triad injury and 1 with fracture of the capitellum and trochlea) had postoperative instability related to noncompliance, had reconstructive procedures, and were considered failures. An average of 32 months after injury, the remaining 32 patients regained an average of 120 degrees ulnohumeral motion and 142 degrees forearm rotation. Twenty-five of 34 patients (74%) had good or excellent results according to the system of Broberg and Morrey. Patients with terrible triad injuries had an average of 117 degrees ulnohumeral motion and 137 degrees forearm rotation, and 17 of 22 patients (77%) had good or excellent results. MCL repair is unnecessary in the treatment of dislocation of the elbow with associated intra-articular fractures, provided that the articular fractures and the LCL are repaired or

  17. Chronic medial knee pain without history of prior trauma: correlation of pain at rest and during exercise using bone scintigraphy and MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buck, Florian M.; Hoffmann, Alexander; Hofer, Bernhard; Allgayer, Bernhard; Pfirrmann, Christian W.A.

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to correlate chronic medial knee pain at rest and during exercise with bone scintigraphic uptake, bone marrow edema pattern (BMEP), cartilage lesions, meniscal tears, and collateral ligament pathologies on magnetic resonance MR imaging (MRI). Fifty consecutive patients with chronic medial knee pain seen at our institute were included in our study. Pain level at rest and during exercise was assessed using a visual analog scale (VAS). On MR images, BMEP volume was measured, and the integrity of femoro-tibial cartilage, medial meniscus, and medial collateral ligament (MCL) were assessed. Semiquantitative scintigraphic tracer uptake was measured. Multivariate linear regression analysis was performed. At the day of examination, 40 patients reported medial knee pain at rest, 49 when climbing stairs (at rest mean VAS 33 mm, range 0-80 mm; climbing stairs mean VAS, 60 mm, range 20-100 mm). Bone scintigraphy showed increased tracer uptake in 36 patients (uptake factor, average 3.7, range 2.4-18.0). MRI showed BMEP in 31 studies (mean volume, 4,070 mm 3 ; range, 1,200-39,200 mm 3 ). All patients with BMEP had abnormal bone scintigraphy. Ten percent of patients with pain at rest and 8% of patients with pain during exercise showed no BMEP but tracer uptake in scintigraphy. Tracer uptake and signal change around MCL predicted pain at rest significantly (tracer uptake p=0.004; MCL signal changes p=0.002). Only MCL signal changes predicted pain during exercise significantly (p=0.001). In chronic medial knee pain, increased tracer uptake in bone scintigraphy is more sensitive for medial knee pain than BMEP on MRI. Pain levels at rest and during exercise correlate with signal changes in and around the MCL. (orig.)

  18. Does radiographic arthrosis correlate with cartilage pathology in Labrador Retrievers affected by medial coronoid process disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, Michael; Heller, Jane; Solano, Miguel; Fitzpatrick, Noel; Sparrow, Tim; Kowaleski, Mike

    2014-02-01

    To compare radiographic elbow arthrosis with arthroscopic cartilage pathology in Labrador retrievers with elbow osteoarthritis secondary to medial coronoid process (MCP) disease. Retrospective epidemiological study. Labrador retrievers (n = 317; 592 elbow joints). Data were collected retrospectively (June 2007-June 2011) to identify Labrador retrievers with thoracic limb lameness and elbow pain, a complete set of elbow radiographs, and a comprehensive arthroscopic surgery report. Each radiograph was scored for osteophytosis on the anconeal process and ulnar subtrochlear sclerosis using a modification of the International Elbow Working Group (IEWG) scoring system. Elbows affected by traumatic MCP fracture, humeral condylar osteochondrosis, or ununited anconeal process were excluded. The arthroscopic report was used to generate a composite cartilage score (CCS; 0 = normal, 1 = mild, 2 = moderate, 3 = severe) for each elbow joint. Ordinal regression analysis was performed to test the relationship between radiographic arthrosis score and CCS. There was a significant relationship between radiographic elbow arthrosis and CCS (P arthrosis can be used to predict the severity of arthroscopic cartilage pathology in Labrador retrievers affected by MCP disease. © Copyright 2014 by The American College of Veterinary Surgeons.

  19. Lateral epicondylitis and beyond: imaging of lateral elbow pain with clinical-radiologic correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotnis, Nikhil A.; Chiavaras, Mary M.; Harish, Srinivasan

    2012-01-01

    The diagnosis of lateral epicondylitis is often straightforward and can be made on the basis of clinical findings. However, radiological assessment is valuable where the clinical picture is less clear or where symptoms are refractory to treatment. Demographics, aspects of clinical history, or certain physical signs may suggest an alternate diagnosis. Knowledge of the typical clinical presentation and imaging findings of lateral epicondylitis, in addition to other potential causes of lateral elbow pain, is necessary. These include entrapment of the posterior interosseous and lateral antebrachial cutaneous nerves, posterolateral rotatory instability, posterolateral plica syndrome, Panner's disease, osteochondritis dissecans of the capitellum, radiocapitellar overload syndrome, occult fractures and chondral-osseous impaction injuries, and radiocapitellar arthritis. Knowledge of these potential masquerades of lateral epicondylitis and their characteristic clinical and imaging features is essential for accurate diagnosis. The goal of this review is to provide an approach to the imaging of lateral elbow pain, discussing the relevant anatomy, various causes, and discriminating factors, which will allow for an accurate diagnosis. (orig.)

  20. Evaluation and Management of Elbow Tendinopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Samuel A.; Hannafin, Jo A.

    2012-01-01

    Context: Elbow tendinopathy is a common cause of pain and disability among patients presenting to orthopaedic surgeons, primary care physicians, physical therapists, and athletic trainers. Prompt and accurate diagnosis of these conditions facilitates a directed treatment regimen. A thorough understanding of the natural history of these injuries and treatment outcomes will enable the appropriate management of patients and their expectations. Evidence Acquisitions: The PubMed database was searched in December 2011 for English-language articles pertaining to elbow tendinopathy. Results: Epidemiologic data as well as multiple subjective and objective outcome measures were investigated to elucidate the incidence of medial epicondylitis, lateral epicondylitis, distal biceps and triceps ruptures, and the efficacy of various treatments. Conclusions: Medial and lateral epicondylitis are overuse injuries that respond well to nonoperative management. Their etiology is degenerative and related to repetitive overuse and underlying tendinopathy. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and localized corticosteroid injections yield moderate symptomatic relief in short term but do not demonstrate benefit on long-term follow-up. Platelet-rich plasma injections may be advantageous in cases of chronic lateral epicondylitis. If 6 to 12 months of nonoperative treatment fails, then surgical intervention can be undertaken. Distal biceps and triceps tendon ruptures, in contrast, have an acute traumatic etiology that may be superimposed on underlying tendinopathy. Prompt diagnosis and treatment improve outcomes. While partial ruptures confirmed with magnetic resonance imaging can be treated nonoperatively with immobilization, complete ruptures should be addressed with primary repair within 3 to 4 weeks of injury. PMID:23016111

  1. The posterior transtriceps approach for elbow arthrography: a forgotten technique?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lohman, M.; Borrero, C.; Casagranda, B.; Rafiee, B.; Towers, J.

    2009-01-01

    To evaluate the technical feasibility of performing elbow MR arthrography via a posterior approach through the triceps. The images of 19 patients with elbow MR arthrography via a posterior transtriceps approach were retrospectively studied. The injections were performed by four musculoskeletal radiologists, using fluoroscopic guidance and a 22- or 25-gauge needle. The fluoroscopic and subsequent MR images were reviewed by two musculoskeletal radiologists and evaluated for adequacy of joint capsular distention, degree and location of contrast leakage, and presence of gas bubbles. The injection was diagnostic in all 19 patients, with a sufficient amount of contrast agent seen in the elbow joint. No significant contrast leakage occurred in 12 patients who received injections of 8 cc or less of contrast agent, but moderate contrast leakage occurred in 6/7 patients who received injections of greater than 8 cc. Contrast leakage generally occurred within the triceps myotendinous junction. No gas bubbles were identified in the injected joints. Patients often present for MR arthrography of the elbow with medial or lateral elbow pain. Contrast leakage during a radiocapitellar approach may complicate evaluation of the lateral collateral ligament or the common extensor tendon origin. Transtriceps MR arthrography offers an alternative to the more commonly used radiocapitellar approach. With injected volumes not exceeding 8 cc, the risk of significant contrast leakage is small. An advantage of the transtriceps injection is that contrast leakage through the posterior needle tract does not interfere with evaluation of the lateral structures. (orig.)

  2. Effect of Platelet-Rich Plasma (PRP versus Autologous Whole Blood on Pain and Function Improvement in Tennis Elbow: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Ahmad Raeissadat

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Autologous whole blood and platelet-rich plasma (PRP have been both suggested to treat chronic tennis elbow. The aim of the present study was to compare the effects of PRP versus autologous whole blood local injection in chronic tennis elbow. Methods. Forty patients with tennis elbow were randomly divided into 2 groups. Group 1 was treated with a single injection of 2 mL of autologous PRP and group 2 with 2 mL of autologous blood. Tennis elbow strap, stretching, and strengthening exercises were administered for both groups during a 2-month followup. Pain and functional improvements were assessed using visual analog scale (VAS, modified Mayo Clinic performance index for the elbow, and pressure pain threshold (PPT at 0, 4, and 8 weeks. Results. All pain and functional variables including VAS, PPT, and Mayo scores improved significantly in both groups 4 weeks after injection. No statistically significant difference was noted between groups regarding pain scores in 4-week follow-up examination (P>0.05. At 8-week reevaluations, VAS and Mayo scores improved only in PRP group (P<0.05. Conclusion. PRP and autologous whole blood injections are both effective to treat chronic lateral epicondylitis. PRP might be slightly superior in 8-week followup. However, further studies are suggested to get definite conclusion.

  3. Phenotypic and genetic evaluation of elbow dysplasia in Dutch Labrador Retrievers, Golden Retrievers, and Bernese Mountain Dogs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lavrijsen, I.C.M.; Heuven, H.C.M.; Voorhout, G.; Meij, B.P.; Theyse, L.F.H.; Leegwater, P.A.J.; Hazewinkel, H.A.W.

    2012-01-01

    Canine elbow dysplasia encompasses four developmental diseases: ununited anconeal process, osteochondrosis of the medial part of the humeral condyle, fragmented medial coronoid process (FCP), and incongruity of the elbow joint. Four radiographic views per joint were used to evaluate 2693 Labrador

  4. Sonography of injury of the ulnar collateral ligament of the elbow - initial experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, Theodore T.; Adler, Ronald S.; Friedman, Lawrence

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to describe the sonographic appearance of injuries of the ulnar collateral ligament (UCL) of the elbow. Eight non-professional male baseball pitchers, ages 13-35 years, with medial elbow pain and clinical suspicion of ulnar collateral ligament injury, were referred for imaging. All eight underwent sonography of the affected and contralateral asymptomatic elbow, and six also underwent MR imaging. Neither valgus stress nor power Doppler was used during the sonographic examinations. Time from onset of symptoms to imaging was 1.5 weeks to 6 months. Three patients had surgical confirmation of their injuries, with time from imaging to surgery of 2 days to 9 months. In four patients, the UCL was ruptured, manifest sonographically in three cases as discontinuity of the normally hyperechoic ligament with anechoic fluid in the gap and in one case as non-visualization of the ligament with heterogeneous echogenicity in the expected location of the ligament. Two adolescent patients had avulsions of the UCL from the medial epicondyle, with sonographic demonstration of the avulsed echogenic bony fragment in both cases. One patient had a mild sprain, manifest as mild thickening and decreased echogenicity of the ligament sonographically compared with the contralateral normal elbow, with mild surrounding hypoechoic edema. The eighth patient had a small partial tear of the deep surface of the distal aspect of the ligament, visualized as a hypoechoic focus between the deep surface of the ligament and its ulnar attachment. Tears of the ulnar collateral ligament are manifested sonographically as non-visualization of the ligament or alteration of the normal morphology. (orig.)

  5. Posterolateral Rotatory Apprehension Test in Tennis Elbow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanlalit, Cholawish; Phorkhar, Termphong

    2015-11-01

    Tennis elbow is a syndrome that commonly diagnosed in patient who comes with lateral elbow pain. Instability pain in tennis elbow patient was observed and reported in many previous literatures. Posterolateral rotatory apprehension test was proposed for diagnosis of posterolateral rotatory instability of elbow. However, no review literatures that studied about posterolateral rotatory apprehensions test in tennis elbow. To find out the relationship between posterolateral rotatory apprehension test and tennis elbow. There were 44 patients that were recruited in this study. We examined the posterolateral rotatory apprehension test in tennis elbow patients. The examination was done in our outpatient clinic from March 2012 to April 2012. The data was collected to find out the ratio of negative test in tennis elbow patient. The results from the posterolateral rotatory apprehension test were negative in 43 patients. The ratio of the negative test result was 98%. A result from posterolateral rotatory apprehension test should be negative in general tennis elbow patients. If this test is used in a tennis elbow patients who are suspected with hidden instability and the result is positive, further evaluation is strongly suggested.

  6. Lateral epicondylitis and beyond: imaging of lateral elbow pain with clinical-radiologic correlation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotnis, Nikhil A. [McMaster University, Departments of Radiology, Hamilton, ON (Canada); Sheffield Teaching Hospitals, Department of Medical Physics and Medical Imaging, Sheffield (United Kingdom); Chiavaras, Mary M. [McMaster University, Departments of Radiology, Hamilton, ON (Canada); Harish, Srinivasan [McMaster University, Departments of Radiology, Hamilton, ON (Canada); St. Joseph' s Healthcare, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Hamilton, ON (Canada)

    2012-04-15

    The diagnosis of lateral epicondylitis is often straightforward and can be made on the basis of clinical findings. However, radiological assessment is valuable where the clinical picture is less clear or where symptoms are refractory to treatment. Demographics, aspects of clinical history, or certain physical signs may suggest an alternate diagnosis. Knowledge of the typical clinical presentation and imaging findings of lateral epicondylitis, in addition to other potential causes of lateral elbow pain, is necessary. These include entrapment of the posterior interosseous and lateral antebrachial cutaneous nerves, posterolateral rotatory instability, posterolateral plica syndrome, Panner's disease, osteochondritis dissecans of the capitellum, radiocapitellar overload syndrome, occult fractures and chondral-osseous impaction injuries, and radiocapitellar arthritis. Knowledge of these potential masquerades of lateral epicondylitis and their characteristic clinical and imaging features is essential for accurate diagnosis. The goal of this review is to provide an approach to the imaging of lateral elbow pain, discussing the relevant anatomy, various causes, and discriminating factors, which will allow for an accurate diagnosis. (orig.)

  7. MR imaging of the elbow in baseball pitchers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ouellette, Hugue; Bredella, Miriam; Palmer, William E.; Torriani, Martin [Massachusetts General Hospital, Division of Musculoskeletal Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); Labis, John [Methodist Hospital, Houston, TX (United States)

    2008-02-15

    Baseball pitcher throwing biomechanics are important to understanding the pathophysiology and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging appearances of injuries in baseball pitchers. Baseball pitchers experience repetitive excessive valgus forces at the elbow. Typical injuries are secondary to medial joint distraction, lateral joint compression, and rotatory forces at the olecranon. MR imaging is useful for evaluation of the elbow in baseball pitchers. (orig.)

  8. Evaluation of thoracic limb loads, elbow movement, and morphology in dogs before and after arthroscopic management of unilateral medial coronoid process disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galindo-Zamora, Vladimir; Dziallas, Peter; Wolf, Davina C; Kramer, Sabine; Abdelhadi, Jalal; Lucas, Karin; Nolte, Ingo; Wefstaedt, Patrick

    2014-10-01

    To (1) evaluate thoracic limb loads and symmetry, and elbow function and morphology, before and after arthroscopic treatment of unilateral medial coronoid process disease (MCPD), and (2) determine if functional variables correlate with morphologic findings. Prospective case series. Dogs (n = 14) with thoracic limb lameness. Dogs were included when unilateral MCPD was confirmed as the cause of lameness. Kinetic analysis of both thoracic limbs, along with kinematic analysis and goniometry of both elbows were carried out before, and 60, 120, and 180 days after partial coronoidectomy by arthroscopy. Radiography and computed tomography of both elbows were performed before and 180 days after arthroscopy. A nonsignificant (P = .11) increase in the peak vertical loads (PFz), and a significant (P = .022) increase in the vertical impulse (iFz) applied by the affected limb were seen. Symmetry indices improved, with significant differences between sessions (PFz: P = .019; iFz: P = .003). Kinematic variables showed no significant differences, between sessions or when comparing both elbows within sessions. Goniometry revealed no significant differences between sessions, but some significant differences were identified when comparing both elbows within sessions. Osteophytosis and degree of lameness showed no correlation, before (rs  = -0.077; P = .79) or after arthroscopy (rs  = 0.27; P = .35). Kinetic variables improved after arthroscopy, without full restoration of function. Kinematic variables did not change significantly. Osteoarthritis and goniometric measurements in the affected joint worsened. Functional variables did not correlate with morphologic findings. © Copyright 2014 by The American College of Veterinary Surgeons.

  9. Double-Cone Coil TMS Stimulation of the Medial Cortex Inhibits Central Pain Habituation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico D'Agata

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate whether Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS applied over the medial line of the scalp affects the subjective perception of continuous pain induced by means of electric stimulation. In addition, we wanted to identify the point of stimulation where this effect was maximum.Superficial electrical stimulation was used to induce continuous pain on the dominant hand. At the beginning of the experiment we reached a pain rating of 5 on an 11-point numeric rating scale (NRS; 0 = no pain and 10 = maximum tolerable pain for each subject by setting individually the current intensity. The TMS (five pulses at increasing intensities was applied on 5 equidistant points (one per session over the medial line of the scalp in 13 healthy volunteers using a double-cone coil to stimulate underlying parts of the brain cortex. In every experimental session the painful stimulation lasted 45 minutes, during which pain and distress intensities NRS were recorded continuously. We calculated the effect of adaptation and the immediate effect of the TMS stimulation for all locations. Additionally, an ALE (Activation Likelihood Estimation meta-analysis was performed to compare our results with the neuroimaging literature on subjective pain rating.TMS stimulation temporarily decreased the pain ratings, and pain adaptation was suppressed when applying the TMS over the FCz site on the scalp. No effect was found for distress ratings.The present data suggest that the medial cortex in proximity of the cingulated gyrus has a causal role in adaptation mechanisms and in processing ongoing pain and subjective sensation of pain intensity.

  10. Laxity of the elbow after experimental excision of the radial head and division of the medial collateral ligament. Efficacy of ligament repair and radial head prosthetic replacement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, S.L.; Deutch, S.R.; Olsen, B.S.

    2003-01-01

    We studied the stabilising effect of prosthetic replacement of the radial head and repair of the medial collateral ligament (MCL) after excision of the radial head and section of the MCL in five cadaver elbows. Division of the MCL increased valgus angulation (mean 3.9 +/- 1.5 degrees) and internal...

  11. Tratamento da síndrome do túnel ulnar pela técnica da epicondilectomia parcial medial do cotovelo Treatment of cubital tunnel syndrome using the technique of medial partial epicondylectomy of the elbow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcio Eduardo de Melo Viveiros

    2008-12-01

    .4%. Mean age of the patients was 51.6 years. According to McGowan classification, six (28.6% patients were grade I, 11 (52.3%, grade II, and four (19.1%, grade III in the preoperative period. RESULTS: The mean post-operative follow-up time was 25.7 months. In the post-operative period, patients were evaluated according to the Bishop score scale, and nine of them (42.8% showed excellent results, seven (33.3% had good results, three (14.2%, regular, and two patients (9.5% had poor results. The authors did not find in this series any complications represented by residual valgus instability, permanent lesion of the ulnar nerve, recurrent compression, or subluxation of the ulnar nerve. Complications found were the loss of the movement arch in one case (4.7%, superficial infection in one case (4.7%, and residual pain in one case (4.7%. CONCLUSION: The results allow for the conclusion that partial medial epicondylectomy of the elbow associated to neurolysis of the ulnar nerve is effective and safe to treat cubital tunnel syndrome.

  12. Results of Posterior Dislocation of Elbow Associated with Bony and Soft Tissue Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neel M Bhavsar

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Elbow trauma is challenging to manage by virtue of its complex articular structure and capsuloligamentous and musculotendinous arrangements. We included 17 patients with elbow dislocation and associated injuries in this study. The study protocol included early elbow reduction and planned fixation of the medial or lateral condyle, coronoid and radial head. The sample was 73% male and 27% female with mean duration follow-up of 8 months, and mean age of 37 years. The mean Mayo Elbow Performance Score was 96 points at conclusion of follow-up, indicating an excellent result in 14 patients. Whenever the radial head was excised, we performed a strong transosseous ligamentous repair of the medial and lateral collateral ligaments. Fixation of the coronoid is essential for elbow stability. A small avulsed fragment can be fixed using an ACL jig. We found this technique very useful. Early planned intervention, stable fixation, and repair provide sufficient stability and enhance functional outcomes.

  13. Calcific periarthritis of the elbow presenting as acute tennis elbow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jawad, F; Jawad, A S M

    2014-01-01

    A 28-year-old woman presented with sudden acute lateral epicondylitis. There was no history of preceding trauma or repetitive use of the arm. Because of the acute onset and signs of acute inflammation, an X-ray was arranged. The X-ray showed a hyperdense calcified elongated globule distal to the lateral epicondyle. A diagnosis of calcific periarthritis (calcium apatite) of the elbow was made. Calcific periarthritis has rarely been reported as a cause of acute elbow pain.

  14. A COMPARATIVE STUDY TO FIND OUT IMMEDIATE EFFECTIVENESS OF MOVEMENT WITH MOBILIZATION VERSUS ELBOW ORTHOSIS ON PAIN AND GRIP STRENGTH IN LATERAL EPICONDYLITIS IN HOUSEWIVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trishna Kakati

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: There are various studies using Mulligan’s MWM with or without combining with electrotherapy modalities and proved the efficacy of the technique in immediately decreasing pain and improving grip strength in patients with lateral epicondylitis. Orthotic as a treatment is also proved to be beneficial in decreasing pain and improving grip strength. There is evidence that housewives are prone to develop lateral epicondylitis due to their routine household work. But there is lack of evidence which compare initial effects of MWM and orthosis in housewives bringing up better outcome measures. The purpose of this study is to compare the initial effectiveness of Mulligan’s MWM and elbow orthosis on pain and grip strength in housewives with lateral epicondylitis. The aim of the study is to evaluate the effectiveness of Mulligan’s MWM technique versus counterforce elbow orthosis in immediately reducing pain and improving grip strength in lateral epicondylitis in housewives. Methodos: All subjects underwent a pre-treatment examination to assess pain and pain free hand grip strength with the help of outcome measures. Subjects were randomly assigned into two groups, A and B respectively; having 25 subjects in each group. Group A was treated with one session of Mulligan’s MWM technique. Group B was treated with Counterforce elbow strap orthosis. Data was assessed pre-treatment and immediately after treatment. Visual Analogue Scale (VAS and hand grip on Hand Grip Dynamometer (HGD were used as outcome measures. Results: Independent t-test was performed to see the effectiveness between Mulligan’s MWM and elbow orthosis. For VAS, t = - 2.243 which is significant at 5% level of significance. It has been inferred that VAS decreases more when Mulligan’s MWM was applied. For HGD, t = 0.878 which is not significant implying that increase in HGD do not differ remarkably for the two treatments. Conclusion: It has been recorded from the study that

  15. Direct magnetic resonance arthrography of the canine elbow

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    Yauheni Zhalniarovich

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study compares the effects of four dilutions of the gadolinium-containing contrast media (1:100; 1:400; 1:800; 1:1,200 administered to the elbow on the quality of magnetic resonance images. All the examined dilutions had a positive effect on image quality, and 1:800 was regarded as the optimal dilution of gadolinium for viewing the elbow because it imparted good contrast to the joint cavity without obliterating the contours of articular surfaces. Transverse, sagittal, and dorsal low-field magnetic resonance images were obtained in 24 canine cadaver front limbs. The musculus biceps brachii, m. triceps brachii, m. extensor carpi radialis, m. flexor carpi ulnaris, the articular surfaces, the medial coronoid process and the anconeal process of the ulna were well visualized by High Resolution Gradient Echo, XBONE T2 and Spin Echo T1 sequences in the sagittal plane. The biceps brachii, pronator teres, flexor carpi radialis, extensor digitorum communis, extensor carpi radialis, deltoid muscle and the articular surface of the medial condyle of the humerus were very well visualized by 3D SST1 and XBONE T2 sequences in the transverse plane. The triceps brachii muscle, extensor digitorum lateralis muscle, superficial digital flexor, deep digital flexor and the medial condyle of the humerus were very well visualized by the Spin Echo T1 sequence in the dorsal plane. This article describes for the first time the use of the gadolinium contrast agent administered to the canine elbow joint during magnetic resonance modality. Magnetic resonance arthrography can be a helpful visualization technique in treating canine soft tissue elbow injury.

  16. Total elbow arthroplasty: a radiographic outcome study

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    Bai, Xue Susan [University of Washington, Department of Radiology, Box 357115, Seattle, WA (United States); Petscavage-Thomas, Jonelle M. [Penn State Hershey Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Hershey, PA (United States); Ha, Alice S. [University of Washington, Department of Radiology, Box 354755, Seattle, WA (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Total elbow arthroplasty (TEA) is becoming a popular alternative to arthrodesis for patients with end-stage elbow arthrosis and comminuted distal humeral fractures. Prior outcome studies have primarily focused on surgical findings. Our purpose is to determine the radiographic outcome of TEA and to correlate with clinical symptoms such as pain. This is an IRB-approved retrospective review from 2005 to 2015 of all patients with semiconstrained TEA. All available elbow radiographs and clinical data were reviewed. Data analysis included descriptive statistics and Kaplan-Meier survival curves for radiographic and clinical survival. A total of 104 total elbow arthroplasties in 102 patients were reviewed; 75 % were in women and the mean patient age was 63.1 years. Mean radiographic follow-up was 826 days with average of four radiographs per patient. Seventy TEAs (67 %) developed radiographic complications, including heterotopic ossification (48 %), perihardware lucency (27 %), periprosthetic fracture (23 %), hardware subluxation/dislocation (7 %), polyethylene wear (3 %), and hardware fracture/dislodgement (3 %); 56 patients (55 %) developed symptoms of elbow pain or instability and 30 patients (30 %) underwent at least one reoperation. In patients with radiographic complications, 66 % developed elbow pain, compared to 19 % of patients with no radiologic complications (p = 0.001). Of the patients with radiographic complications, 39 % had at least one additional surgery compared to 0 % of patients without radiographic complications (p = 0.056). Radiographic complications are common in patients after total elbow arthroplasty. There is a strong positive association between post-operative radiographic findings and clinical outcome. Knowledge of common postoperative radiographic findings is important for the practicing radiologist. (orig.)

  17. Medial abrasion syndrome: a neglected cause of knee pain in middle and old age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyu, Shaw-Ruey; Lee, Ching-Chih; Hsu, Chia-Chen

    2015-04-01

    Knee pain is a prevailing health problem of middle and old age. Medial plica-related medial abrasion syndrome (MAS), although a well-known cause of knee pain in younger individuals, has rarely been investigated in older individuals. This prospective study was conducted to investigate the prevalence and clinical manifestations of this syndrome as a cause of knee pain in middle and old age. The outcomes of arthroscopic treatment for this syndrome were also evaluated.A total of 232 knees of 169 patients >40 years of age (41-82, median: 63 years old) suffering from chronic knee pain were analyzed. The clinical diagnosis, predisposing factors, presenting symptoms, and physical signs were investigated. The sensitivity and specificity of each parameter of the clinical presentation for the diagnosis of MAS were evaluated after confirmation by arthroscopy. For patients with MAS, the roentgenographic and arthroscopic manifestations were investigated, and arthroscopic medial release (AMR) was performed. The outcomes were evaluated by the changes in the pain domain of the Knee Society scoring system and by patient satisfaction. The prevalence of medial plica was 95%, and osteoarthritis (OA) was the most common clinical diagnosis. Symptoms of pain and crepitus in motion and local tenderness during physical examination were the most sensitive parameters for the diagnosis. A history of a single knee injury combined with local tenderness and a palpable band found during physical examination were the most specific parameters for the diagnosis. The majority of patients suffering from this syndrome were successfully treated using AMR, yielding a satisfaction rate of 85.5% after a minimum of 3 years.MAS is a common cause of knee pain in middle and old age and can be effectively treated by AMR. Its concomitance with OA warrants further investigation.

  18. Ulnohumeral chondral and ligamentous overload: biomechanical correlation for posteromedial chondromalacia of the elbow in throwing athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osbahr, Daryl C; Dines, Joshua S; Breazeale, Nathan M; Deng, Xiang-Hua; Altchek, David W

    2010-12-01

    Previous studies have documented increased posteromedial contact forces with the elbow at lower flexion angles associated with valgus extension overload; however, the authors believe that posteromedial elbow impingement in association with valgus laxity is a complex pathological process that may occur throughout the entire throwing motion in the form of ulnohumeral chondral and ligamentous overload. Valgus laxity with the elbow at 90° of flexion may lead to chondromalacia secondary to a subtle shift in the contact point between the tip of the olecranon and the distal humeral trochlea. Controlled laboratory study. Six fresh human cadaveric elbows were dissected and subjected to a static valgus load. Pressure-sensitive Fuji film measured the contact pressure, contact area, and shift in contact area across the posteromedial elbow before and after sectioning the anterior bundle of the ulnar collateral ligament. The contact pressure between the tip of the olecranon process and the medial crista of the posterior humeral trochlea significantly increased, from an average of 0.27 ± 0.06 kg/cm² to 0.40 ± 0.08 kg/cm². The contact area also significantly decreased, from an average of 30.34 ± 9.17 mm² to 24.59 ± 6.44 mm², and shifted medially on the medial humeral crista, which corresponds to the position of the posteromedial chondral lesions that was observed in throwing athletes in the authors' clinical practice. While simulating the early acceleration phase of the throwing motion with the elbow in 90° of flexion, the results illustrate that abnormal contact may occur as a result of valgus laxity through increased contact pressures across the posteromedial elbow between the medial tip of the olecranon and medial crista of the humeral trochlea. In addition, congruency of the ulnohumeral joint changed, as there was a statistically significant medial shift of the olecranon on the posterior humeral trochlea with the elbow at 90° of flexion after sectioning the anterior

  19. Management of tennis elbow by Agnikarma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vyasadeva Mahanta

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Tennis elbow is a painful condition and causes restricted movement of forearm which requires treatment for long period. Till date only symptomatic treatments are available like use of anti-inflammatory analgesic drugs, steroids injection, physiotherapy, exercise etc. But none of these provide satisfactory result. Long term use of anti-inflammatory, analgesic drugs and steroids injection is also not free from the adverse effects. Usually, ′wait-and-see policy′ of treatment guideline is recommended in most of medical texts. According to Ayurveda, snayugata vata can be correlated with the condition of tennis elbow. Sushruta has advised Agnikarma for disorders of snayu (ligaments and tendons, asthi (bone, siddhi (joints etc. Hence, in this study a case of tennis elbow (snayugata vata was treated by Agnikarma, along with administration of powder of Ashwagandha and Navajivana Rasa orally, for a period of 03 weeks. This combination therapy provided considerable relief in pain and movement of the elbow joint.

  20. Management of tennis elbow by Agnikarma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahanta, Vyasadeva; Dudhamal, Tukaram S; Gupta, Sanjay Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Tennis elbow is a painful condition and causes restricted movement of forearm which requires treatment for long period. Till date only symptomatic treatments are available like use of anti-inflammatory analgesic drugs, steroids injection, physiotherapy, exercise etc. But none of these provide satisfactory result. Long term use of anti-inflammatory, analgesic drugs and steroids injection is also not free from the adverse effects. Usually, 'wait-and-see policy' of treatment guideline is recommended in most of medical texts. According to Ayurveda, snayugata vata can be correlated with the condition of tennis elbow. Sushruta has advised Agnikarma for disorders of snayu (ligaments and tendons), asthi (bone), siddhi (joints) etc. Hence, in this study a case of tennis elbow (snayugata vata) was treated by Agnikarma, along with administration of powder of Ashwagandha and Navajivana Rasa orally, for a period of 03 weeks. This combination therapy provided considerable relief in pain and movement of the elbow joint.

  1. Medial tibial pain: a dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattila, K T; Komu, M E; Dahlström, S; Koskinen, S K; Heikkilä, J

    1999-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the sensitivity of different magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) sequences to depict periosteal edema in patients with medial tibial pain. Additionally, we evaluated the ability of dynamic contrast-enhanced imaging (DCES) to depict possible temporal alterations in muscular perfusion within compartments of the leg. Fifteen patients with medial tibial pain were examined with MRI. T1-, T2-weighted, proton density axial images and dynamic and static phase post-contrast images were compared in ability to depict periosteal edema. STIR was used in seven cases to depict bone marrow edema. Images were analyzed to detect signs of compartment edema. Region-of-interest measurements in compartments were performed during DCES and compared with controls. In detecting periosteal edema, post-contrast T1-weighted images were better than spin echo T2-weighted and proton density images or STIR images, but STIR depicted the bone marrow edema best. DCES best demonstrated the gradually enhancing periostitis. Four subjects with severe periosteal edema had visually detectable pathologic enhancement during DCES in the deep posterior compartment of the leg. Percentage enhancement in the deep posterior compartment of the leg was greater in patients than in controls. The fast enhancement phase in the deep posterior compartment began slightly slower in patients than in controls, but it continued longer. We believe that periosteal edema in bone stress reaction can cause impairment of venous flow in the deep posterior compartment. MRI can depict both these conditions. In patients with medial tibial pain, MR imaging protocol should include axial STIR images (to depict bone pathology) with T1-weighted axial pre and post-contrast images, and dynamic contrast enhanced imaging to show periosteal edema and abnormal contrast enhancement within a compartment.

  2. Effect of cryotherapy after elbow arthrolysis: a prospective, single-blinded, randomized controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Shi-yang; Chen, Shuai; Yan, He-de; Fan, Cun-yi

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the effect of cryotherapy after elbow arthrolysis on elbow pain, blood loss, analgesic consumption, range of motion, and long-term elbow function. Prospective, single-blinded, randomized controlled study. University hospital. Patients (N=59; 27 women, 32 men) who received elbow arthrolysis. Patients were randomly assigned into a cryotherapy group (n=31, cryotherapy plus standard care) or a control group (n=28, standard care). Elbow pain at rest and in motion were measured using a visual analog scale (VAS) on postoperative day (POD) 1 to POD 7 and at 2 weeks and 3 months after surgery. Blood loss and analgesic consumption were recorded postoperatively. Elbow range of motion (ROM) was measured before surgery and on POD 1, POD 7, and 3 months after surgery. The Mayo Elbow Performance Score (MEPS) was evaluated preoperatively and 3 months postoperatively. VAS scores were significantly lower in the cryotherapy group during the first 7 PODs, both at rest and in motion (Pcryotherapy group than the control group for pain relief (P.05). Cryotherapy is effective in relieving pain and reducing analgesic consumption for patients received elbow arthrolysis. The application of cryotherapy will not affect blood loss, ROM, or elbow function. Copyright © 2015 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Pathology of articular cartilage and synovial membrane from elbow joints with and without degenerative joint disease in domestic cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freire, M; Meuten, D; Lascelles, D

    2014-09-01

    The elbow joint is one of the feline appendicular joints most commonly and severely affected by degenerative joint disease. The macroscopic and histopathological lesions of the elbow joints of 30 adult cats were evaluated immediately after euthanasia. Macroscopic evidence of degenerative joint disease was found in 22 of 30 cats (39 elbow joints) (73.33% cats; 65% elbow joints), and macroscopic cartilage erosion ranged from mild fibrillation to complete ulceration of the hyaline cartilage with exposure of the subchondral bone. Distribution of the lesions in the cartilage indicated the presence of medial compartment joint disease (most severe lesions located in the medial coronoid process of the ulna and medial humeral epicondyle). Synovitis scores were mild overall and correlated only weakly with macroscopic cartilage damage. Intra-articular osteochondral fragments either free or attached to the synovium were found in 10 joints. Macroscopic or histologic evidence of a fragmented coronoid process was not found even in those cases with intra-articular osteochondral fragments. Lesions observed in these animals are most consistent with synovial osteochondromatosis secondary to degenerative joint disease. The pathogenesis for the medial compartmentalization of these lesions has not been established, but a fragmented medial coronoid process or osteochondritis dissecans does not appear to play a role. © The Author(s) 2014.

  4. Richly innervated soft tissues covering the superficial aspect of the extensor origin in patients with chronic painful tennis elbow - Implication for treatment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spang, C; Alfredson, H

    2017-06-01

    Tennis elbow is difficult to treat. The results of surgical treatments are not convincing. Treatment studies on Achilles and patellar tendinopathy targeting the richly innervated and vascularized soft tissues outside the tendon have shown promising outcomes. The innervation patterns in the fibrous/fatty tissues superficially to the elbow extensor origin have not been clarified. Nine tissue specimens from the fibrous/fatty tissue covering the extensor origin was taken from seven patients (mean age: 45 years) undergoing surgical treatment for chronic painful tennis elbow. The specimens were stained for morphology (haematoxylin and eosin, H and E) and immunohistochemically for general nerve marker protein gene product 9.5 (PGP 9.5) and markers for sympathetic (tyrosine hydroxylase, TH) and sensory nerve fibres (calcitonin gene-related peptide, CGRP). All specimens contained multiple blood vessels and nerve structures indicated by morphology and immunoreactions. There was a frequent occurrence of TH reactions, especially peri-vascularly, but also in nerve fascicles. Immunoreactions for CGRP were seen in nerve fascicles and isolated nerve fibres. The results provide new information on the innervation patterns of the superficial tissues of the extensor origin and their potential as source of tennis elbow pain. IV.

  5. Medial release and lateral imbrication for intractable anterior knee pain: diagnostic process, technique, and results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meldrum AR

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Alexander R Meldrum,1 Jeremy R Reed,2 Megan D Dash3 1Department of Surgery, Section of Orthopedic Surgery, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, Canada; 2Department of Surgery, University of Saskatchewan College of Medicine, Regina, SK, Canada; 3Department of Family Medicine, College of Medicine, University of Saskatchewan, Regina, SK, Canada Purpose: To present two cases of intractable patellofemoral pain syndrome treated with a novel procedure, arthroscopic medial release, and lateral imbrication of the patellar retinaculum. Patients and methods: This case series presents the treatment of three knees in two patients (one bilateral in whom an all-inside arthroscopic medial release and lateral imbrication of the patellar retinaculum was performed. Subjective measurement of pain was the primary outcome measurement, and subjective patellofemoral instability was the secondary outcome measurement. Results: Subjectively the two patients had full resolution of their pain, without any patellofemoral instability. Conclusion: Medial release and lateral imbrication of the patellar retinaculum is a new surgical procedure that has been used in the treatment of intractable patellofemoral pain syndrome. This is the first report of its kind in the literature. While outcome measurements were less than ideal, the patients had positive outcomes, both functionally and in terms of pain. Keywords: anterior knee pain syndrome, chondromalacia patellae, runners knee, patellar chondropathy, patellofemoral dysfunction, patellofemoral tracking disorder

  6. Radiofrequency neurotomy of the medial branch for the management of lumbar zygapophysial joint pain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sang Hoon; Kim, Hyoung Ihl; Han, Young Min

    2006-01-01

    We wanted to investigate the efficacy of percutaneous radiofrequency (RF) neurotomy of the medial branch for the management of chronic low back pain due to lumbar zygapophysial joint dysfunction. Thirteen patients who had unremitting chronic low back pain for more than 6 months and whose VAS scores were over 7 were selected on the basis of double comparative nerve blocks. The patients consist of three males and 10 females, and their nean age was 67 years. Sensory stimulation was performed to detect the 'pathologic branches' that were responsible for pain generation. RF neurotomy was performed using a lesion generator at 80 C for 90 seconds. The postoperative outcome was classified, depending on the degree of pain reduction, as excellent (≥ 75%), good (50-75%), and poor (<50%). Follow-up evaluation was performed at 6 weeks, 3 months and 6 months after surgery. The mean number of medial branches was 6.2. Eleven patients had bilateral disease and two had unilateral disease. Sensory stimulation was positive in all patients with a mean amplitude of 4.5V (range: 0.15-6 V). The L5 dorsal ramus was the most frequently involved segment, and this was followed by L4, L3 and L2. The number of lesionings for each medial branch was 3.7. The surgical outcome was graded as excellent (53%), good (23%), and poor (24%) after 6 months of follow-up. Transient backaches were noticed in two patients; however, complications were not observed. Recurrences were not demonstrated during the follow-up period. We conclude that RF neurotomy of the medial branches is an efficient method to substantially alleviate the chronic low back pain caused by zygapophysial joint dysfunction

  7. Radiofrequency neurotomy of the medial branch for the management of lumbar zygapophysial joint pain

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    Lee, Sang Hoon [Bong-Sang Clinic, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hyoung Ihl [Presbyterian Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Han, Young Min [Chonbuk National University Medical School, Chonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-08-15

    We wanted to investigate the efficacy of percutaneous radiofrequency (RF) neurotomy of the medial branch for the management of chronic low back pain due to lumbar zygapophysial joint dysfunction. Thirteen patients who had unremitting chronic low back pain for more than 6 months and whose VAS scores were over 7 were selected on the basis of double comparative nerve blocks. The patients consist of three males and 10 females, and their nean age was 67 years. Sensory stimulation was performed to detect the 'pathologic branches' that were responsible for pain generation. RF neurotomy was performed using a lesion generator at 80 C for 90 seconds. The postoperative outcome was classified, depending on the degree of pain reduction, as excellent ({>=} 75%), good (50-75%), and poor (<50%). Follow-up evaluation was performed at 6 weeks, 3 months and 6 months after surgery. The mean number of medial branches was 6.2. Eleven patients had bilateral disease and two had unilateral disease. Sensory stimulation was positive in all patients with a mean amplitude of 4.5V (range: 0.15-6 V). The L5 dorsal ramus was the most frequently involved segment, and this was followed by L4, L3 and L2. The number of lesionings for each medial branch was 3.7. The surgical outcome was graded as excellent (53%), good (23%), and poor (24%) after 6 months of follow-up. Transient backaches were noticed in two patients; however, complications were not observed. Recurrences were not demonstrated during the follow-up period. We conclude that RF neurotomy of the medial branches is an efficient method to substantially alleviate the chronic low back pain caused by zygapophysial joint dysfunction.

  8. The Effects of Counterforce Brace Size on the Wrist Range of Motility, Pain, Grip & Wrist Extension Sterngth in Normal Subjects and Patients with Tennis Elbow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Asghar Jameh-Bozorgi

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Counter force brace is one of the most usefull treatments for lateral opicondylitis (Tennis elbow because it decreases grip pain and increases the power of grip, power of wrist extension and Wrist Range of Motility. The purpose of this quasi experimental (repeated measurementsstudy was to determine the effect of 3 counterforce brace sizes on the wrist R.O.M, grip and wrist extension strength and pain intensity in two groups of healthy subjects and patients with tennis elbow. Materials & Methods: 18 normal subjects & 18 patients with tennis elbow were selected simple conveniently and were tested with no brace and 3 size of counterforce (1,2 and 3 inches. The R.O.M , strength and pain intensity were measured by jamar goniometry and Nicholas MMT dynamometry & VAS, respectively. Results: 1 With all sizes there was a significant decrease of R.O.M on normal subjects but no significant difference in patients. 2 There was a significant decrease of grip strength with 1-inch brace in normal subjects but a significant increase of grip strength with 2 and 3-inch brace in patiens. 3 All sizes of brace caused significant decrease of extension strength in normal subjects but increase in patients. 4All size caused significant decrease of pain intensity that was more considerable in the case of 2 and 3 inch size. Conclusion: The results shows that the counterforce brace may be considered as an effective treatment for increasing strength and decreasing pain in patients with tennis elbow.

  9. Pulled elbow in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamanaka, Syunsuke; Goldman, Ran D

    2018-06-01

    Question Our practice is seeing children with relatively minor injuries to their elbows, with a history of "swinging" them when their hands are being held to cross the road. Nothing is usually found on a physical examination. I know that this is likely a "pulled elbow." Can we manage this in the clinic setting rather than sending the family to the emergency department? What would be the best course of action in the clinic setting? Answer Pulled elbow, also called nursemaid's elbow , is a radial head subluxation caused by axial traction or a sudden pull of the extended pronated arm, and it is a very common phenomenon. The practice of swinging children while holding their hands should be abandoned. In the case of pulled elbow, the child usually avoids moving the affected arm, holding it close to his or her body, without considerable pain, and no obvious swelling or deformity can be seen. While a fracture should be excluded, pulled elbow can usually be identified based on this presentation. The reduction procedure can easily be done in the office setting, with an 80% success rate and no complications. The hyperpronation maneuver (holding the elbow at 90° and then firmly pronating the wrist) to reduce pulled elbow has been found to be better than a supination-flexion maneuver (holding the elbow at 90° with one hand, supinating and flexing the elbow rapidly with the other) and should be exercised first. When 2 trials of reduction are unsuccessful, the child's arm should be splinted and the family should be sent for further evaluation. Copyright© the College of Family Physicians of Canada.

  10. Medial tibial “spackling” to lessen chronic medial tibial soft tissue irritation

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    J. Ryan Martin, MD

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available We describe a unique, utilitarian reconstructive treatment option known as tibial “spackling” for chronic, localized medial joint line pain corresponding with progressive radiographic peripheral medial tibial bone loss beneath a well-fixed revision total knee arthroplasty tibial baseplate. It is believed that this localized pain is due to chronic irritation of the medial capsule and collateral ligament from the prominent medial edge of the tibial component. In the setting of failed nonoperative treatment, our experience with utilizing bone cement to reconstruct the medial tibial bone defect and create a smooth medial tibial surface has been successful in eliminating chronic medial soft tissue irritation.

  11. Clinical Results of Surgically Treated Medial Humeral Epicondylar Apophyseal Avulsion Injury in Children and Adolescent.

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    Ruban Raj Joshi

    2014-12-01

    years (SD=2.3. Fifteen (75% dominant elbows were injured in our study and 12(60% elbows had an associated elbow dislocation. On examination in operating room post anaesthesia, all of the elbow injuries revealed some degree of valgus instability. All of our patients(n=20 showed good to excellent results in the MAYO elbow performance score (MEPS. Radiographically, union was achieved in all cases. Three patients developed postoperative ulnar nerve neuropraxia, all recovered at time of final follow up. One patient developed mild lateral heterotrophic ossification but did not require any additional surgical intervention. Conclusion: Our results suggest that open reduction internal fixation of displaced medial epicondyle fractures leads to satisfactory motion and function. A valgus stress test in operating room can reveal the true nature of joint instability that can warrant operative stabilization of medial epicondylar injuries.

  12. Noninvasive monopolar capacitive-coupled radiofrequency for the treatment of pain associated with lateral elbow tendinopathies: 1-year follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Tobias; Kabelka, Bernd

    2012-03-01

    To evaluate noninvasive monopolar capacitive-coupled radiofrequency (mcRF) for the treatment of pain associated with lateral elbow tendinopathies. Prospective, single-center, single-arm, 1-year follow-up. Private sports medicine practice. Thirty-nine consecutive patients with diagnosis of lateral elbow tendinopathy (including 3 bilateral cases, for a total of 42 elbows) participated in the study. All patients had been unsuccessfully treated with a variety of nonoperative therapies (eg, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, corticosteroid injections, and braces) for at least 3 months before they were enrolled in the study. Patients were treated with mcRF technology in the office without local anesthetic or any particular preparation. Anatomic landmarks and careful determination of the most tender point defined the area treated; rapid and precise mcRF pulses were delivered covering the area in a staggered fashion; and 10 additional pulses were delivered directly to the point of maximum tenderness (total of 100 pulses). Patients returned to activities of daily living without restriction and were instructed to avoid nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and/or ice over the treated area. Physical therapy or other treatment modalities were disallowed. The presence of pain before enrollment ranged from 15 weeks to 2 years (average, 32 weeks). Visual analog scores at rest, with regular activity, and with triggering events were gathered at 3, 6, and 12 months. The Nirschl Tennis Elbow Questionnaire and patient satisfaction also were used to evaluate study outcomes. Follow-up average was 423 days (range, 330-487 days). On the basis of the study's multifactorial success criteria, 81% of participants had successful outcomes. Furthermore, 89% of the patients who completed the study were completely or moderately satisfied with the outcome. Outcomes of this study suggest that noninvasive mcRF may have a role in the treatment of pain associated with lateral elbow tendinopathies

  13. Lateral epicondylitis of the elbow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tosti, Rick; Jennings, John; Sewards, J Milo

    2013-04-01

    Lateral epicondylitis, or "tennis elbow," is a common musculotendinous degenerative disorder of the extensor origin at the lateral humeral epicondyle. Repetitive occupational or athletic activities involving wrist extension and supination are thought to be causative. The typical symptoms include lateral elbow pain, pain with wrist extension, and weakened grip strength. The diagnosis is made clinically through history and physical examination; however, a thorough understanding of the differential diagnosis is imperative to prevent unnecessary testing and therapies. Most patients improve with nonoperative measures, such as activity modification, physical therapy, and injections. A small percentage of patients will require surgical release of the extensor carpi radialis brevis tendon. Common methods of release may be performed via percutaneous, arthroscopic, or open approaches. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Elbow dysplasia in the dog : pathophysiology, diagnosis and control : review article

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    R.M. Kirberger

    1998-07-01

    Full Text Available Elbow dysplasia is a non-specific term denoting abnormal development of the elbow. Elbow dysplasia encompasses the clinical and radiographic manifestation of ununited anconeal process, fragmented medial coronoid process, osteochondritis dissecans, erosive cartilage lesions and elbow incongruity. The net result is elbow arthrosis, which may be clinically inapparent or result in marked lameness. These conditions may be diagnosed by means of routine or special radiographic views and other imaging modalities, or the precise cause of the arthrosis or lameness may remain undetermined. Breeds most commonly affected are the rottweiler, Bernese mountain dog, Labrador and golden retriever and the German shepherd dog. Certain breeds are more susceptible to a particular form of elbow dysplasia and more than 1 component may occur simultaneously. The various conditions are thought to result from osteochondrosis of the articular or physeal cartilage that results in disparate growth of the radius and ulna. Heritability has been proven for this polygenic condition and screening programmes to select suitable breeding stock have been initiated in several countries and have decreased the incidence of elbow dysplasia.

  15. O papel do ligamento oblíquo no comportamento mecânico do ligamento colateral medial da articulação do cotovelo de cães SRD – alguns aspectos biomecânicos - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v27i2.1323 The role of the oblique ligament in the mechanical behavior of the medial collateral ligament of the mongrel dog elbow joint – some biomechanical aspects - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v27i2.1323

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Regina Rossi

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available O propósito deste trabalho foi analisar a contribuição mecânica do ligamento oblíquo frente ao ligamento colateral medial na articulação do cotovelo do cão. Quinze cães foram utilizados para a realização de ensaio de tração para a análise da carga, alongamento e tenacidade dos ligamentos colateral medial e oblíquo, isolados ou associados. A carga máxima e o valor da tenacidade suportada pelo ligamento colateral medial isolado foram significativamente maiores em relação ao ligamento oblíquo isolado. Quando associados, apresentaram um incremento na carga máxima, no alongamento e na tenacidade em relação aos ligamentos analisados isoladamente. Concluiu-se, portanto, que o ligamento oblíquo tem um importante papel na estabilidade da articulação do cotovelo do cão, já que aumenta a resistência à tração do ligamento colateral medial, um dos principais estabilizadores da referida articulaçãoThis study investigated the oblique ligament mechanical contribution to the medial collateral ligament of the canine elbow joint. Fifteen dogs were used for the study of the failure load, displacement, and energy absorption of the medial collateral and oblique ligaments of the canine elbow joint, associate and separately in the joint. Medial collateral ligament failure load and energy absorption were significantly higher in relation to the isolated oblique ligament. When the ligaments were associated in the joint, they presented an increment in failure load, displacement and energy absorption in relation to the ligaments analyzed separately. It was concluded, therefore, that the oblique ligament could have an important paper in the stability of the canine elbow joint, as it favors the medial collateral ligament resistance to the tensile load, one of the main stabilizer of the elbow joint

  16. Does well maintained graft provide consistent return to play after medial ulnar collateral ligament reconstruction of the elbow joint in elite baseball players?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jin-Young; Oh, Kyung-Soo; Bahng, Seung-Chul; Chung, Seok-Won; Choi, Jin-Ho

    2014-06-01

    Several studies have reported the clinical outcomes of medial ulnar collateral ligament (MUCL) reconstruction of the elbow joint in throwing athletes, including the rate of return to sports. However, little has been known about the imaging outcomes after MUCL reconstruction. The aim of this study is to report the clinical and imaging outcomes after MUCL reconstruction using figure of eight fashion in the elite and professional baseball players. This study included 17 baseball players, who underwent MUCL reconstruction between July 2007 and May 2010. The average follow-up period was 48.6 months. Imaging assessment consisted of preoperative plain and stress radiographs, magnetic resonance imaging, and postoperative serial ultrasonography. The clinical assessments were composed of visual analogue scale (VAS) for pain, range of motion, and the Conway scale. The mean VAS score was 6.4 (range, 3 to 8) preoperatively and 2.2 (range, 0 to 4) postoperatively (p returned to sports at the same or higher level compared to preinjury. Serial ultrasonography revealed well-maintained grafts at 3 and 12 months in all of the players. Five out of 17 players showed decreased echogenecity in the common flexor tendon at 3 months, which was considered as remaining tissue swelling and resolved completely at 12 months. All grafts are well-maintained until 12-months based on the ultrasonographic findings, although only 53% of the players returned to preinjury level.

  17. Cost Utility Analysis of Cervical Therapeutic Medial Branch Blocks in Managing Chronic Neck Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manchikanti, Laxmaiah; Pampati, Vidyasagar; Kaye, Alan D; Hirsch, Joshua A

    2017-01-01

    Background: Controlled diagnostic studies have established the prevalence of cervical facet joint pain to range from 36% to 67% based on the criterion standard of ≥ 80% pain relief. Treatment of cervical facet joint pain has been described with Level II evidence of effectiveness for therapeutic facet joint nerve blocks and radiofrequency neurotomy and with no significant evidence for intraarticular injections. However, there have not been any cost effectiveness or cost utility analysis studies performed in managing chronic neck pain with or without headaches with cervical facet joint interventions. Study Design: Cost utility analysis based on the results of a double-blind, randomized, controlled trial of cervical therapeutic medial branch blocks in managing chronic neck pain. Objectives: To assess cost utility of therapeutic cervical medial branch blocks in managing chronic neck pain. Methods: A randomized trial was conducted in a specialty referral private practice interventional pain management center in the United States. This trial assessed the clinical effectiveness of therapeutic cervical medial branch blocks with or without steroids for an established diagnosis of cervical facet joint pain by means of controlled diagnostic blocks. Cost utility analysis was performed with direct payment data for the procedures for a total of 120 patients over a period of 2 years from this trial based on reimbursement rates of 2016. The payment data provided direct procedural costs without inclusion of drug treatments. An additional 40% was added to procedural costs with multiplication of a factor of 1.67 to provide estimated total costs including direct and indirect costs, based on highly regarded surgical literature. Outcome measures included significant improvement defined as at least a 50% improvement with reduction in pain and disability status with a combined 50% or more reduction in pain in Neck Disability Index (NDI) scores. Results: The results showed direct

  18. Richly innervated soft tissues covering the superficial aspect of the extensor origin in patients with chronic painful tennis elbow – Implication for treatment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spang, C.; Alfredson, H.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Tennis elbow is difficult to treat. The results of surgical treatments are not convincing. Treatment studies on Achilles and patellar tendinopathy targeting the richly innervated and vascularized soft tissues outside the tendon have shown promising outcomes. The innervation patterns in the fibrous/fatty tissues superficially to the elbow extensor origin have not been clarified. Methods: Nine tissue specimens from the fibrous/fatty tissue covering the extensor origin was taken from seven patients (mean age: 45 years) undergoing surgical treatment for chronic painful tennis elbow. The specimens were stained for morphology (haematoxylin & eosin, H&E) and immunohistochemically for general nerve marker protein gene product 9.5 (PGP 9.5) and markers for sympathetic (tyrosine hydroxylase, TH) and sensory nerve fibres (calcitonin gene-related peptide, CGRP). Results: All specimens contained multiple blood vessels and nerve structures indicated by morphology and immunoreactions. There was a frequent occurrence of TH reactions, especially peri-vascularly, but also in nerve fascicles. Immunoreactions for CGRP were seen in nerve fascicles and isolated nerve fibres. Conclusion: The results provide new information on the innervation patterns of the superficial tissues of the extensor origin and their potential as source of tennis elbow pain. Level of Evidence: IV. PMID:28574416

  19. Natural course in tennis elbow--lateral epicondylitis after all?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeisig, Eva

    2012-12-01

    Tennis elbow is a common and difficult-to-treat condition largely because of lack of evidence. The natural history is unknown, but the condition is described as self-limiting. The objective of this case report is to describe the natural course of two control participants (pain free), who later developed tennis elbow, patient history, clinical findings, and ultrasound and colour Doppler examination before, during and after a period of tennis elbow.

  20. A Newly Designed Tennis Elbow Orthosis With a Traditional Tennis Elbow Strap in Patients With Lateral Epicondylitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saremi, Hossein; Chamani, Vahid; Vahab-Kashani, Reza

    2016-01-01

    Background Lateral epicondylitis is a common cause of pain and upper limb dysfunction. The use of counterforce straps for treatment of lateral epicondylitis is widespread. This kind of orthosis can be modified to have a greater effect on relieving pain by reducing tension on the origin of the extensor pronator muscles. Objectives To determine the immediate effects of a newly designed orthosis on pain and grip strength in patients with lateral epicondylitis. Materials and Methods Twelve participants (six men and six women) were recruited (mean age = 41 ± 6.7 years) and evaluated for pain and grip strength in three sessions. A 48-hour break was taken between each session. The first session was without any orthosis, the second session was with the new modified tennis elbow orthosis, and the third session was with a conventional tennis elbow strap. Results Both counterforce straps were effective. However, significantly more improvement was observed in pain and grip strength after using the newly modified orthosis (P < 0.05). Conclusions The newly designed strap reduces pain more effectively and improves grip strength by causing greater localized pressure on two regions with different force applications (two component vectors versus one). PMID:28180116

  1. A Newly Designed Tennis Elbow Orthosis With a Traditional Tennis Elbow Strap in Patients With Lateral Epicondylitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saremi, Hossein; Chamani, Vahid; Vahab-Kashani, Reza

    2016-07-01

    Lateral epicondylitis is a common cause of pain and upper limb dysfunction. The use of counterforce straps for treatment of lateral epicondylitis is widespread. This kind of orthosis can be modified to have a greater effect on relieving pain by reducing tension on the origin of the extensor pronator muscles. To determine the immediate effects of a newly designed orthosis on pain and grip strength in patients with lateral epicondylitis. Twelve participants (six men and six women) were recruited (mean age = 41 ± 6.7 years) and evaluated for pain and grip strength in three sessions. A 48-hour break was taken between each session. The first session was without any orthosis, the second session was with the new modified tennis elbow orthosis, and the third session was with a conventional tennis elbow strap. Both counterforce straps were effective. However, significantly more improvement was observed in pain and grip strength after using the newly modified orthosis (P < 0.05). The newly designed strap reduces pain more effectively and improves grip strength by causing greater localized pressure on two regions with different force applications (two component vectors versus one).

  2. Current evidence for effectiveness of interventions for cubital tunnel syndrome, radial tunnel syndrome, instability, or bursitis of the elbow: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinkel, Willem D; Schreuders, Ton A R; Koes, Bart W; Huisstede, Bionka M A

    2013-12-01

    To provide an evidence-based overview of the effectiveness of interventions for 4 nontraumatic painful disorders sharing the anatomic region of the elbow: cubital tunnel syndrome, radial tunnel syndrome, elbow instability, and olecranon bursitis. The Cochrane Library, PubMed, Embase, PEDro, and CINAHL were searched to identify relevant reviews and randomized clinical trials (RCTs). Two reviewers independently extracted data and assessed the quality of the methodology. A best-evidence synthesis was used to summarize the results. One systematic review and 6 RCTs were included. For the surgical treatment of cubital tunnel syndrome (1 review, 3 RCTs), comparing simple decompression with anterior ulnar nerve transposition, no evidence was found in favor of either one of these. Limited evidence was found in favor of medial epicondylectomy versus anterior transposition and for early postoperative therapy versus immobilization. No evidence was found for the effect of local steroid injection in addition to splinting. No RCTs were found for radial tunnel syndrome. For olecranon bursitis (1 RCT), limited evidence for effectiveness was found for methylprednisolone acetate injection plus naproxen. Concerning elbow instability, including 2 RCTs, one showed that nonsurgical treatment resulted in similar results compared with surgery, whereas the other found limited evidence for the effectiveness in favor of early mobilization versus 3 weeks of immobilization after surgery. In this review no, or at best, limited evidence was found for the effectiveness of nonsurgical and surgical interventions to treat painful cubital tunnel syndrome, radial tunnel syndrome, elbow instability, or olecranon bursitis. Well-designed and well-conducted RCTs are clearly needed in this field.

  3. Ensemble encoding of nociceptive stimulus intensity in the rat medial and lateral pain systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woodward Donald J

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The ability to encode noxious stimulus intensity is essential for the neural processing of pain perception. It is well accepted that the intensity information is transmitted within both sensory and affective pathways. However, it remains unclear what the encoding patterns are in the thalamocortical brain regions, and whether the dual pain systems share similar responsibility in intensity coding. Results Multichannel single-unit recordings were used to investigate the activity of individual neurons and neuronal ensembles in the rat brain following the application of noxious laser stimuli of increasing intensity to the hindpaw. Four brain regions were monitored, including two within the lateral sensory pain pathway, namely, the ventral posterior lateral thalamic nuclei and the primary somatosensory cortex, and two in the medial pathway, namely, the medial dorsal thalamic nuclei and the anterior cingulate cortex. Neuron number, firing rate, and ensemble spike count codings were examined in this study. Our results showed that the noxious laser stimulation evoked double-peak responses in all recorded brain regions. Significant correlations were found between the laser intensity and the number of responsive neurons, the firing rates, as well as the mass spike counts (MSCs. MSC coding was generally more efficient than the other two methods. Moreover, the coding capacities of neurons in the two pathways were comparable. Conclusion This study demonstrated the collective contribution of medial and lateral pathway neurons to the noxious intensity coding. Additionally, we provide evidence that ensemble spike count may be the most reliable method for coding pain intensity in the brain.

  4. Sonographic measurements of the ulnar nerve at the elbow with different degrees of elbow flexion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Prutha; Norbury, John W; Fang, Xiangming

    2014-05-01

    To determine whether there were differences in the cross-sectional area (CSA) and the flattening ratio of the normative ulnar nerve as it passes between the medial epicondyle and the olecranon at 30° of elbow flexion versus 90° of elbow flexion. Bilateral upper extremities of normal healthy adult volunteers were evaluated with ultrasound. The CSA and the flattening ratio of the ulnar nerve at the elbow as it passes between the medial epicondyle and the olecranon were measured, with the elbow flexed at 30° and at 90°, by 2 operators with varying ultrasound scanning experience by using ellipse and direct tracing methods. The results from the 2 different angles of elbow flexion were compared for each individual operator. Finally, intraclass correlations for absolute agreement and consistency between the 2 raters were calculated. An outpatient clinic room at a regional rehabilitation center. Twenty-five normal healthy adult volunteers. The mean CSA and the mean flattening ratio of the ulnar nerve at 30° of elbow flexion and at 90° of elbow flexion. First, for the ellipse method, the mean CSA of the ulnar nerve at 90° (9.93 mm(2)) was slightly larger than at 30° (9.77 mm(2)) for rater 1. However, for rater 2, the mean CSA of the ulnar nerve at 90° (6.80 mm(2)) was slightly smaller than at 30° (7.08 mm(2)). This was found to be statistically insignificant when using a matched pairs t test and the Wilcoxon signed-rank test, with a significance level of .05. Similarly, the difference between the right side and the left side was not statistically significant. The intraclass correlations for absolute agreement between the 2 raters were not very high due to different measurement locations, but the intraclass correlations for consistency were high. Second, for the direct tracing method, the mean CSA at 90° (7.26 mm(2)) was slightly lower than at 30° (7.48 mm(2)). This was found to be statistically nonsignificant when using the matched pairs t test and the

  5. Comparing Two Exercise Programmes for the Management of Lateral Elbow Tendinopathy (Tennis Elbow/Lateral Epicondylitis—A Controlled Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrios Stasinopoulos

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To compare the effectiveness of supervised exercise programme as proposed by Stasinopoulos and colleagues with home exercise programme as proposed by Pienimaki and his coworkers in the treatment of lateral elbow tendinopathy. Design: Controlled clinical trial. Setting: Physiotherapy and rehabilitation centre. Participants: This trial was carried out with 60 patients, who had lateral elbow tendinopathy. Intervention: Group A (n = 30 had received supervised exercise programme, once per day for 4 weeks. Group B (n = 30 was treated with home exercise programme four to six times daily for 8 weeks. Outcome measures: pain, using a visual analogue scale, function, using a visual analogue scale for elbow function and the pain-free grip strength. Patients were evaluated at baseline, at the end of treatment (week 12, and 3 months (week 24 after the end of treatment. Results: Both the supervised and home exercise programme were found to be significantly effective in the reduction of pain and in the improvement of functional status. The supervised exercise programme resulted in significantly different improvement in comparison to those who received home exercise programme. Conclusion: A specific supervised exercise programme is superior to a specific home exercise programme in reducing pain and improving function in patients with LET at the end of the treatment and at the 3 month follow-up. Further research is needed to confirm our results.

  6. Elbow joint fatigue and bench-press training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yen-Po; Chou, You-Li; Chen, Feng-Chun; Wang, Rong-Tyai; Huang, Ming-Jer; Chou, Paul Pei-Hsi

    2014-01-01

    Bench-press exercises are among the most common form of training exercise for the upper extremity because they yield a notable improvement in both muscle strength and muscle endurance. The literature contains various investigations into the effects of different bench-press positions on the degree of muscle activation. However, the effects of fatigue on the muscular performance and kinetics of the elbow joint are not understood fully. To investigate the effects of fatigue on the kinetics and myodynamic performance of the elbow joint in bench-press training. Controlled laboratory study. Motion research laboratory. A total of 18 physically healthy male students (age = 19.6 ± 0.8 years, height = 168.7 ± 5.5 cm, mass = 69.6 ± 8.6 kg) participated in the investigation. All participants were right-hand dominant, and none had a history of upper extremity injuries or disorders. Participants performed bench-press training until fatigued. Maximal possible number of repetitions, cycle time, myodynamic decline rate, elbow-joint force, and elbow-joint moment. We observed a difference in cycle time in the initial (2.1 ± 0.42 seconds) and fatigue (2.58 ± 0.46 seconds) stages of the bench-press exercise (P = .04). As the participants fatigued, we observed an increase in the medial-lateral force (P = .03) and internal-external moment (P ≤ .04) acting on the elbow joint. Moreover, a reduction in the elbow muscle strength was observed in the elbow extension-flexion (P ≤ .003) and forearm supination-pronation (P ≤ .001) conditions. The results suggest that performing bench-press exercises to the point of fatigue increases elbow-joint loading and may further increase the risk of injury. Therefore, when clinicians design bench-press exercise regimens for general athletic training, muscle strengthening, or physical rehabilitation, they should control carefully the maximal number of repetitions.

  7. Validation of the Danish version of the Oxford Elbow Score

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plaschke, Hans Christian; Jørgensen, Andreas Møller; Thillemann, Theis Muncholm

    2013-01-01

    The Oxford Elbow Score (OES) is a patient-related outcome measure quantifying quality of life in relation to elbow disorders. This 12-item patient-administered English questionnaire comprises three domains: function, social-psychological status and pain. The purpose of this study was to examine...

  8. The role of physical examinations in studies of musculoskeletal disorders of the elbow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kryger, Ann Isabel; Lassen, C. F.; Andersen, JH

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To present data on pain and physical findings from the elbow region, and to discuss the role of diagnostic criteria in epidemiological studies of epicondylitis. METHODS: From a cohort of computer workers a subgroup of 1369 participants, who reported at least moderate pain in the neck...... completed on the day of examination. RESULTS: 349 participants met the authors' criteria for being an arm case and 249 were elbow cases. Among the 1369 participants the prevalence of at least mild palpation tenderness and indirect tenderness at the lateral epicondyle was 5.8%. The occurrence of physical...... findings increased markedly by level of pain score. Only about one half with physical findings fulfilled the authors' pain criteria for having lateral epicondylitis. A large part with physical findings reported no pain at all in the elbow in any of the two questionnaires, 28% and 22%, respectively. Inter...

  9. Inner Synovial Membrane Footprint of the Anterior Elbow Capsule: An Arthroscopic Boundary

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    Srinath Kamineni

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The purpose of this study is to describe the inner synovial membrane (SM of the anterior elbow capsule, both qualitatively and quantitatively. Materials and Methods. Twenty-two cadaveric human elbows were dissected and the distal humerus and SM attachments were digitized using a digitizer. The transepicondylar line (TEL was used as the primary descriptor of various landmarks. The distance between the medial epicondyle and medial SM edge, SM apex overlying the coronoid fossa, the central SM nadir, and the apex of the SM insertion overlying the radial fossa and distance from the lateral epicondyle to lateral SM edge along the TEL were measured and further analyzed. Gender and side-to-side statistical comparisons were calculated. Results. The mean age of the subjects was 80.4 years, with six male and five female cadavers. The SM had a distinctive double arched attachment overlying the radial and coronoid fossae. No gender-based or side-to-side quantitative differences were noted. In 18 out of 22 specimens (81.8%, an infolding extension of the SM was observed overlying the medial aspect of the trochlea. The SM did not coincide with the outer fibrous attachment in any specimen. Conclusion. The humeral footprint of the synovial membrane of the anterior elbow capsule is more complex and not as capacious as commonly understood from the current literature. The synovial membrane nadir between the two anterior fossae may help to explain and hence preempt technical difficulties, a reduction in working arthroscopic volume in inflammatory and posttraumatic pathologies. This knowledge should allow the surgeon to approach this aspect of the anterior elbow compartment space with the confidence that detachment of this synovial attachment, to create working space, does not equate to breaching the capsule. Alternatively, stripping the synovial attachment from the anterior humerus does not constitute an anterior capsular release.

  10. Ipsilateral Medial and Lateral Discoid Meniscus with Medial Meniscus Tear

    OpenAIRE

    Shimozaki, Kengo; Nakase, Junsuke; Ohashi, Yoshinori; Numata, Hitoaki; Oshima, Takeshi; Takata, Yasushi; Tsuchiya, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Discoid meniscus is a well-documented knee pathology, and there are many cases of medial or lateral discoid meniscus reported in the literature. However, ipsilateral concurrent medial and lateral discoid meniscus is very rare, and only a few cases have been reported. Herein, we report a case of concurrent medial and lateral discoid meniscus. Case Report: A 27-year-old Japanese man complained of pain on medial joint space in his right knee that was diagnosed as a complete medial ...

  11. Management of tennis elbow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chesterton LS

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Linda S Chesterton, Christian D Mallen, Elaine M HayArthritis Research UK Primary Care Centre, Primary Care Sciences, Keele University, Keele, Staffordshire, UKDate of preparation: April 21, 2011Conflict of interest: None declaredClinical question: What is the best treatment for tennis elbow?Results: Despite a wealth of research, there is no true consensus on the most efficacious management of tennis elbow especially for effective long-term outcomes. Corticosteroid injections do show large pain-relieving effects in the short term but are associated with risks of adverse events and long-term reoccurrence. Advice with a “wait and see” approach is recommended as the first-line treatment in primary care for most cases. In the medium term physiotherapy and or low-level laser therapy may be effective.Implementation: Rule out alternative diagnosis. Onward referral may be indicated if the condition does not resolve after 12 months.Keywords: tennis elbow, corticosteroids, physiotherapy, laser therapy

  12. Efficacy of tennis elbow (epicondylitis humeri radialis) treatment in CBR "Praxis".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pecar, Dzemal; Avdić, Dijana

    2009-02-01

    Tennis elbow (Epicondylitis humeri radialis) is the most frequent reason that patients with elbow pain report to a physician. The exact cause of elbow pain is still unclear. However, it is certainly causally connected with connective intersection between forearm muscle and bone in the elbow region. In this paper, we analyzed patients that, over the period of 15 years, reported to "Praxis" clinic for elbow pain treatment (Epicondylitis humeri radialis). Of the total number of 228 patients, 126 were male, 101 female while one patient was younger than 14. Initial analysis established that average overall health condition grade was 2,87 at the onset of treatment. Following the treatment completion that grade was 4,48. Of the total number of 223 patients who were treated by combined method of manipulation and local corticosteroid instillation, eight patients received physical therapy as well. Thus, surgical treatment was not necessary in any patient. The patients' treatment included: 1. Application of manipulative methods in order to reestablish mobility in the "blocked" radio-humeral and the upper radio-ulnar joints. 2. Local instillation of corticosteroid depot in order to control inflammation (enthesitis) and thus, eliminate pain and establish physiological conditions for functioning of joint and local structures. Unlike conservative method which includes initial immobilization due to irritation and inflammation development prevention with concomitant analgesic and antirheumatic therapy, initial application of manipulation with reinstatement of joint mobility instead of immobilization with subsequent instillation of steroid preparations achieves functional restitution and fast reinstatement of full working ability, as a rule.

  13. Efficacy of tennis elbow (Epicondylitis humeri radialis treatment in CBR "PRAXIS".

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Džemal Pecar

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Tennis elbow (Epicondylitis humeri radialis is the most frequent reason that patients with elbow pain report to a physician. The exact cause of elbow pain is still unclear. However, it is certainly causally connected with connective intersection between forearm muscle and bone in the elbow region.In this paper, we analyzed patients that, over the period of 15 years, reported to “Praxis” clinic for elbow pain treatment (Epicondylitis humeri radialis. Of the total number of 228 patients, 126 were male, 101 female while one patient was younger than 14. Initial analysis established that average overall health condition grade was 2,87 at the onset of treatment. Following the treatment completion that grade was 4,48.Of the total number of 223 patients who were treated by combined method of manipulation and local corticosteroid instillation, eight patients received physical therapy as well. Thus, surgical treatment was not necessary in any patient.The patients’ treatment included:Application of manipulative methods in order to reestablish mobility in the “blocked” radio-humeral and the upper radio-ulnar joints.Local instillation of corticosteroid depot in order to control inflammation (enthesitis and thus, eliminate pain and establish physiological conditions for functioning of joint and local structures. Unlike conservative method which includes initial immobilization due to irritation and inflammation development prevention with concomitant analgesic and antirheumatic therapy, initial application of manipulation with reinstatement of joint mobility instead of immobilization with subsequent instillation of steroid preparations achieves functional restitution and fast reinstatement of full working ability, as a rule.

  14. Anatomic factors related to the cause of tennis elbow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunata, Robert E; Brown, David S; Capelo, Roderick

    2007-09-01

    The pathogenesis of lateral epicondylitis remains unclear. Our purpose was to study the anatomy of the lateral aspect of the elbow under static and dynamic conditions in order to identify bone-to-tendon and tendon-to-tendon contact or rubbing that might cause abrasion of the tissues. Eighty-five cadaveric elbows were examined to determine details related to the bone structure and musculotendinous origins. We identified the relative positions of the musculotendinous units and the underlying bone when the elbow was in different degrees of flexion. We also recorded the contact between the extensor carpi radialis brevis and the lateral edge of the capitellum as elbow motion occurred, and we sought to identify the areas of the capitellum and extensor carpi radialis brevis where contact occurs. The average site of origin of the extensor carpi radialis brevis on the humerus lay slightly medial and superior to the outer edge of the capitellum. As the elbow was extended, the undersurface of the extensor carpi radialis brevis rubbed against the lateral edge of the capitellum while the extensor carpi radialis longus compressed the brevis against the underlying bone. The extensor carpi radialis brevis tendon has a unique anatomic location that makes its undersurface vulnerable to contact and abrasion against the lateral edge of the capitellum during elbow motion.

  15. Elbow pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the cause, but may involve: Antibiotics Corticosteroid shots Manipulation Pain medicine Physical therapy Surgery (last resort) Alternative ... M. is also a founding member of Hi-Ethics and subscribes to the principles of the Health ...

  16. Magnetic resonance imaging of the elbow. Part II: Abnormalities of the ligaments, tendons, and nerves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kijowski, Richard; Tuite, Michael; Sanford, Matthew [University of Wisconsin Hospital, Department of Radiology, Madison, WI (United States)

    2005-01-01

    Part II of this comprehensive review on magnetic resonance imaging of the elbow discusses the role of magnetic resonance imaging in evaluating patients with abnormalities of the ligaments, tendons, and nerves of the elbow. Magnetic resonance imaging can yield high-quality multiplanar images which are useful in evaluating the soft tissue structures of the elbow. Magnetic resonance imaging can detect tears of the ulnar collateral ligament and lateral collateral ligament of the elbow with high sensitivity and specificity. Magnetic resonance imaging can determine the extent of tendon pathology in patients with medial epicondylitis and lateral epicondylitis. Magnetic resonance imaging can detect tears of the biceps tendon and triceps tendon and can distinguishing between partial and complete tendon rupture. Magnetic resonance imaging is also helpful in evaluating patients with nerve disorders at the elbow. (orig.)

  17. Complete dislocation of the ulnar nerve at the elbow: a protective effect against neuropathy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leis, A Arturo; Smith, Benn E; Kosiorek, Heidi E; Omejec, Gregor; Podnar, Simon

    2017-08-01

    Recurrent complete ulnar nerve dislocation has been perceived as a risk factor for development of ulnar neuropathy at the elbow (UNE). However, the role of dislocation in the pathogenesis of UNE remains uncertain. We studied 133 patients with complete ulnar nerve dislocation to determine whether this condition is a risk factor for UNE. In all, the nerve was palpated as it rolled over the medial epicondyle during elbow flexion. Of 56 elbows with unilateral dislocation, UNE localized contralaterally in 17 elbows (30.4%) and ipsilaterally in 10 elbows (17.9%). Of 154 elbows with bilateral dislocation, 26 had UNE (16.9%). Complete dislocation decreased the odds of having UNE by 44% (odds ratio = 0.475; P =  0.028), and was associated with less severe UNE (P = 0.045). UNE occurs less frequently and is less severe on the side of complete dislocation. Complete dislocation may have a protective effect on the ulnar nerve. Muscle Nerve 56: 242-246, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. The Immediate Effects of Orthoses on Pain in People with Lateral Epicondylalgia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebrahim Sadeghi-Demneh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Tennis elbow is a common cause of upper limb dysfunction and a primary reason for pain at the lateral aspect of the elbow. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of three commonly used orthoses on pain severity. An elbow band, an elbow sleeve, and a wrist splint were assessed for their ability to reduce the level of reported pain. Method. A crossover randomized controlled trial was used. The orthoses were worn in a randomized order, and all participants were required to complete a control trial for which they wore a placebo orthosis. 52 participants with lateral epicondylalgia were recruited, and the level of pain at their elbow was recorded using the visual analogue scale (VAS. Results. The reported pain for all orthoses was lower than that of the placebo (. Pain reduction was significantly greater with a counterforce elbow band or a counterforce elbow sleeve compared to a wrist splint (. There was no significant difference between a counterforce elbow band and a counterforce elbow sleeve (. Conclusion. All the types of orthoses studied showed an immediate improvement on pain severity in people with lateral epicondylalgia. The counterforce elbow orthoses (elbow band and elbow sleeve presented the greatest improvement, suggesting that either of them can be used as a first treatment choice to alleviate the pain in people with tennis elbow.

  19. The reliability, validity and responsiveness of the Dutch version of the Oxford elbow score

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patka Peter

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Oxford elbow score (OES is an English questionnaire that measures the patients' subjective experience of elbow surgery. The OES comprises three domains: elbow function, pain, and social-psychological effects. This questionnaire can be completed by the patient and used as an outcome measure after elbow surgery. The aim of this study was to develop and evaluate the Dutch version of the translated OES for reliability, validity and responsiveness with respect to patients after elbow trauma and surgery. Methods The 12 items of the English-language OES were translated into Dutch and then back-translated; the back-translated questionnaire was then compared to the original English version. The OES Dutch version was completed by 69 patients (group A, 60 of whom had an elbow luxation, four an elbow fracture and five an epicondylitis. QuickDASH, the visual analogue pain scale (VAS and the Mayo Elbow Performance Index (MEPI were also completed to examine the convergent validity of the OES in group A. To calculate the test-retest reliability and responsiveness of the OES, this questionnaire was completed three times by 43 different patients (group B. An average of 52 days elapsed between therapy and the administration of the third OES (SD = 24.1. Results The Cronbach's α coefficients for the function, pain and social-psychological domains were 0.90, 0.87 and 0.90, respectively. The intra-class correlation coefficients for the domains were 0.87 for function, 0.89 for pain and 0.87 for social-psychological. The standardised response means for the domains were 0.69, 0.46 and 0.60, respectively, and the minimal detectable changes were 27.6, 21.7 and 24.0, respectively. The convergent validity for the function, pain and social-psychological domains, which were measured as the Spearman's correlation of the OES domains with the MEPI, were 0.68, 0.77 and 0.77, respectively. The Spearman's correlations of the OES domains with QuickDASH were

  20. Effect of glucocorticosteroid injections in tennis elbow verified on colour Doppler ultrasonography: evidence of inflammation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torp-Pedersen, T.E.; Torp-Pedersen, S.T.; Qvistgaard, E.

    2008-01-01

    were evaluated at baseline before the injection and at 2 weeks of follow-up. Outcome measures were changes in pain score and US parameters (resistive index (RI) and the amount of colour within the CEO). Prognosticators for outcome were: use of computer mouse, symptom duration, elbow strain, RI, colour...... fraction, Likert pain score, pain at rest, pain during activity, age, height, weight, disease in dominant versus nondominant arm. RESULTS: All but one patient experienced improvement of general elbow pain perception at follow-up at 2 weeks. In parallel, Doppler US showed significant reduction in colour...

  1. Duloxetine in treatment of refractory chronic tennis elbow: Two case reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wani Zaid

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Tennis elbow is a common musculoskeletal disorder; management options include physiotherapeutic, medical, surgical, and other forms of intervention. Some patients remain symptomatic despite best efforts. We present two patients who did not respond to medical and surgical treatments, and whose symptoms were relieved with duloxetine. This is the first report on the use of duloxetine to treat tennis elbow. Case presentation Two mentally healthy young Asian women aged 32 and 27 years, each with tennis elbow of about 18 months duration continued to suffer pain despite treatment with analgesics, local steroid injections, physiotherapy, cryotherapy, ultrasound, and surgical release, among other interventions. Both showed substantial improvement within 4 to 6 weeks of receiving monotherapy with duloxetine 60 mg/day. Both were pain-free with continued treatment at a 6-month follow-up. Conclusion Duloxetine may be a useful treatment option in patients with chronic tennis elbow, even those who have failed conventional medical, physiotherapeutic, surgical, and other forms of management.

  2. EFFICACY OF TENNIS ELBOW (EPICONDYLITIS HUMERI RADIALIS) TREATMENT IN CBR “PRAXIS”

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pecar, Džemal; Avdić, Dijana

    2009-01-01

    Tennis elbow (Epicondylitis humeri radialis) is the most frequent reason that patients with elbow pain report to a physician. The exact cause of elbow pain is still unclear. However, it is certainly causally connected with connective intersection between forearm muscle and bone in the elbow region. In this paper, we analyzed patients that, over the period of 15 years, reported to “Praxis” clinic for elbow pain treatment (Epicondylitis humeri radialis). Of the total number of 228 patients, 126 were male, 101 female while one patient was younger than 14. Initial analysis established that average overall health condition grade was 2,87 at the onset of treatment. Following the treatment completion that grade was 4,48. Of the total number of 223 patients who were treated by combined method of manipulation and local corticosteroid instillation, eight patients received physical therapy as well. Thus, surgical treatment was not necessary in any patient. The patients’ treatment included: Application of manipulative methods in order to reestablish mobility in the “blocked” radio-humeral and the upper radio-ulnar joints. Local instillation of corticosteroid depot in order to control inflammation (enthesitis) and thus, eliminate pain and establish physiological conditions for functioning of joint and local structures. Unlike conservative method which includes initial immobilization due to irritation and inflammation development prevention with concomitant analgesic and antirheumatic therapy, initial application of manipulation with reinstatement of joint mobility instead of immobilization with subsequent instillation of steroid preparations achieves functional restitution and fast reinstatement of full working ability, as a rule. PMID:19284391

  3. A comparative study to evaluate the efficacy of platelet-rich plasma and triamcinolone to treat tennis elbow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seetharamaiah, Vanamali B; Gantaguru, Amrit; Basavarajanna, Sunil

    2017-01-01

    Lateral elbow pain is common with a population prevalence of 1%-3%. The study was a comparative trial to validate the efficacy of single injection of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) for tennis elbow as compared with single injections of triamcinolone and placebo (normal saline) over a short term period. Comparative trial with 3- and 6-month followup evaluated with visual analog scale (VAS) and facial pain scale (FPS). Our study included a total of eighty patients with unilateral or bilateral tennis elbows. The study population included patients between 20 and 40 years age group belonging to either sex with seventy unilateral and ten bilateral affections for more than 3-month duration. Patients suffering from elbow pain due to other problems or those who have received any form of injection were excluded from the study. One milliliter of 2% Xylocaine injection was given before injecting the proposed formulation under trial. VAS and FPS were used for scoring pain. Kruskal-Wallis test and Mann-Whitney U-tests were used for statistical analyses at 12 and 24 weeks. Overall, 49 females and 31 males were included with thirty elbows in each group. Both the PRP and triamcinolone groups had better pain relief at 3 and 6 months as compared to normal saline group ( P < 0.05), but at 6 months followup, the PRP group had statistically significant better pain relief than triamcinolone group. In the triamcinolone group, 13 patients had injection site hypopigmentation and 3 patients had subdermal atrophy. Over a short term period, PRP gives better pain relief than triamcinolone or normal saline in tennis elbow which needs to be validated over long term period by further studies.

  4. Natural history of medial clavicle fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salipas, Andrew; Kimmel, Lara A; Edwards, Elton R; Rakhra, Sandeep; Moaveni, Afshin Kamali

    2016-10-01

    Fractures of the medial third of the clavicle comprise less than 3% of all clavicle fractures. The natural history and optimal management of these rare injuries are unknown. The aim of our study is to describe the demographics, management and outcomes of patients with medial clavicle fractures treated at a Level 1 Trauma Centre. A retrospective review was conducted of patients presenting to our institution between January 2008 and March 2013 with a medial third clavicle fracture. Clinical and radiographic data were recorded including mechanism of injury, fracture pattern and displacement, associated injuries, management and complications. Functional outcomes were assessed using the Glasgow Outcome Scale Extended (GOS-E) scores from the Victorian Orthopaedic Trauma Outcomes Registry (VOTOR). Shoulder outcomes were assessed using two patient reported outcomes scores, the American Shoulder and Elbow Society Score (ASES) and the Subjective Shoulder Value (SSV). Sixty eight medial clavicle fractures in 68 patients were evaluated. The majority of patients were male (n=53), with a median age of 53.5 years (interquartile range (IQR) 37.5-74.5 years). The most common mechanism of injury was motor vehicle accident (n=28). The in-hospital mortality rate was 4.4%. The fracture pattern was almost equally distributed between extra articular (n=35) and intra-articular (n=33). Fifty-five fractures (80.9%) had minimal or no displacement. Associated injuries were predominantly thoracic (n=31). All fractures were initially managed non-operatively, with a broad arm sling. Delayed operative fixation was performed for painful atrophic delayed union in two patients (2.9%). Both patients were under 65 years of age and had a severely displaced fracture of the medial clavicle. One intra-operative vascular complication was seen, with no adverse long-term outcome. Follow-up was obtained in 85.0% of the surviving cohort at an average of three years post injury (range 1-6 years). The mean ASES

  5. Three-dimensional analysis of elbow soft tissue footprints and anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capo, John T; Collins, Christopher; Beutel, Bryan G; Danna, Natalie R; Manigrasso, Michaele; Uko, Linda A; Chen, Linda Y

    2014-11-01

    Tendinous and ligamentous injuries commonly occur in the elbow. This study characterized the location, surface areas, and origin and insertional footprints of major elbow capsuloligamentous and tendinous structures in relation to bony landmarks with the use of a precision 3-dimensional modeling system. Nine unpaired cadaveric elbow specimens were dissected and mounted on a custom jig. Mapping of the medial collateral ligament (MCL), lateral ulnar collateral ligament (LUCL), triceps, biceps, brachialis, and capsular reflections was then performed with 3-dimensional digitizing technology. The location, surface areas, and footprints of the soft tissues were calculated. The MCL had a mean origin (humeral) footprint of 216 mm(2), insertional footprint of 154 mm(2), and surface area of 421 mm(2). The LUCL had a mean origin footprint of 136 mm(2), an insertional footprint of 142 mm(2), and a surface area of 532 mm(2). Of the tendons, the triceps maintained the largest insertional footprint, followed by the brachialis and the biceps (P anatomy of key elbow capsuloligamentous and tendinous structures is crucial for effective reconstruction after bony or soft tissue trauma. This study provides the upper extremity surgeon with information that may aid in restoring elbow biomechanics and preserving range of motion in these patients. Copyright © 2014 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. EFFECT OF ECCENTRIC EXERCISE PROGRAMME ON PAIN AND GRIP STRENGTH FOR SUBJECTS WITH MEDIAL EPICONDYLITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mishra Prashant Akhilesh

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Therapeutic eccentric exercise may provide both a structural and functional benefit during tendinopathy rehabilitation. The objective is to find the effect of eccentric exercises on improvement of pain and grip strength for subjects with Medial Epicondylitis. Method: Pre to post test experimental study design randomized thirty subjects with medial epicondylitis, 15 each into Group A and Group B. Group B subjects were treated with conventional therapy and Eccentric exercises. Group A subjects were treated with conventional therapy. Results: When means of post intervention were compared using Independent ‘t’ between groups there was no statistically significant difference in improvements obtained in VAS scores and grip strength. There was a statistically significant change in means of VAS score and Grip strength when means were analyzed by using Paired‘t’ test and Wilcoxon signed rank test within the groups with positive percentage of change. Conclusion: It is concluded that four weeks of Eccentric Exercise Programme combined with conventional therapy shown significant effect on improving pain and Grip strength, however the improvement obtained has no difference when compared with control conventional treatment for Subjects with Medial Epicondylitis.

  7. Valgus extension overload syndrome of the elbow in a test cricket ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    tion and showed attenuation of the medial collateral ligament, with medullary oedema at the lateral side of the elbow (Fig. 2). The patient refused arthroscopy, and opted for total abstinence from throwing and fast-bowling for 12 weeks. He started a training programme designed to strengthen his forearm flexor-pronator and.

  8. Functional treatment versus plaster for simple elbow dislocations (FuncSiE: a randomized trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verleisdonk Egbert JMM

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Elbow dislocations can be classified as simple or complex. Simple dislocations are characterized by the absence of fractures, while complex dislocations are associated with fractures. After reduction of a simple dislocation, treatment options include immobilization in a static plaster for different periods of time or so-called functional treatment. Functional treatment is characterized by early active motion within the limits of pain with or without the use of a sling or hinged brace. Theoretically, functional treatment should prevent stiffness without introducing increased joint instability. The primary aim of this randomized controlled trial is to compare early functional treatment versus plaster immobilization following simple dislocations of the elbow. Methods/Design The design of the study will be a multicenter randomized controlled trial of 100 patients who have sustained a simple elbow dislocation. After reduction of the dislocation, patients are randomized between a pressure bandage for 5-7 days and early functional treatment or a plaster in 90 degrees flexion, neutral position for pro-supination for a period of three weeks. In the functional group, treatment is started with early active motion within the limits of pain. Function, pain, and radiographic recovery will be evaluated at regular intervals over the subsequent 12 months. The primary outcome measure is the Quick Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand score. The secondary outcome measures are the Mayo Elbow Performance Index, Oxford elbow score, pain level at both sides, range of motion of the elbow joint at both sides, rate of secondary interventions and complication rates in both groups (secondary dislocation, instability, relaxation, health-related quality of life (Short-Form 36 and EuroQol-5D, radiographic appearance of the elbow joint (degenerative changes and heterotopic ossifications, costs, and cost-effectiveness. Discussion The successful

  9. Laser radiation in tennis elbow treatment: a new minimally invasive alternative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paganini, Stefan; Thal, Dietmar R.; Werkmann, Klaus

    1998-01-01

    The epicondylitis humeri radialis (EHR) (tennis elbow), is a common disease in elbow joint pain syndromes. We treated patients with chronic pain for at least one year and no improvement with conservative or operative therapies with a new minimal invasive method, the EHR-Laser radiation (EHR- LR). With this method periepicondylar coagulations were applied to the trigger points of the patients. For this the previously established technique of facet joint coagulation with the Nd:Yag-laser was modified. In a follow-up study of between 6 weeks and 2 years all patients reported either a significant pain reduction or were symptom free. EHR-LR is a new method situated between conservative and surgical treatments for minimal invasive therapy of EHR. Several therapeutic rationales were discussed for the resulting pain reduction.

  10. Radiographic anatomy of the medial coronoid process of dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyabayashi, T.; Takiguchi, M.; Schrader, S.C.; Biller, D.S.

    1995-01-01

    Mediolateral, flexed mediolateral, mediocaudal-laterocranial 15 degrees oblique (extended and supinated mediolateral), and craniolateral-caudomedial 20 degrees to 30 degrees oblique radiographs of 16 elbow-joint specimens were produced to study the radiographic anatomy of the medial coronoid process. On the mediolateral view, the cranial point of the coronoid process was at the level of the distal one-third of the radial epiphysis. Degree of superimposition of the proximal radius and ulna determined how the medial coronoid process was projected on the radiographs. Mediocaudal-laterocranial oblique radiographs best showed the cranial outline of the medial coronoid process with moderate superimposition of the proximal radius and ulna

  11. Tennis elbow: role of local steroid injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Gulzar Saeed; Ali, Muhammad; Trago, Imtiaz Ahmed

    2012-01-01

    Tennis elbow is a condition, characterised by pain and tenderness over the lateral epicondyle of the humerus, and pain on resisted dorsiflexion of the wrist, middle finger, or both. The aim of this randomised controlled trial was to investigate the short term efficacy of local steroid injection compared with oral and topical NSAIDs. Sixty patients (45 male and 15 female) were included in the study. The mean age was 42 years for men and 40 years for women. They were placed in group A and B (30 cases each). Group A received local steroid injection (triamcinolone 20 mg mixed with lignocaine 2% 1 cc) and topical NSAID cream application (diclofenac diethylammonium) twice a day, tab. diclofenac sodium 50 mg twice a day for 3 weeks. Group B received tab diclofenac 50 mg twice a day and, topical NSAID cream application twice a day for 3 weeks. Assessment of patients was made 3 times; first at the start of the study, 2nd time after 6 weeks, and 3rd time after 12 weeks. A blinded assessor rated the elbow complaints of the patients at resisted dorsiflexion of wrist using VAS (0 = no severity, 1-3 mild, 4-6 moderate, 7-9 sever, 10 = maximum severity). At six weeks, 22 (73.33%) patient in group A had no pain as compared to 7 (23.33%) patients in group B who were pain free (p < 0.0001, chi2 = 38.75). At 12 weeks 27 (90%) patients in group A were pain free compared to group B in which 7 (23.33%) patients were pain free (p < 0.0001, chi2 = 27.56). In patients with tennis elbow, the use of local steroid injection in combination with topical and oral NSAIDs is superior to the use of combination of topical and oral NSAIDs. Better results with combination therapy using local steroid injection may be limited to the short term.

  12. Ultrasound-guided, minimally invasive, percutaneous needle puncture treatment for tennis elbow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jiaan; Hu, Bing; Xing, Chunyan; Li, Jia

    2008-10-01

    This report evaluates the efficacy of percutaneous needle puncture under sonographic guidance in treating lateral epicondylitis (tennis-elbow). Ultrasound-guided percutaneous needle puncture was performed on 76 patients who presented with persistent elbow pain. Under a local anesthetic and sonographic guidance, a needle was advanced into the calcification foci and the calcifications were mechanically fragmented. This was followed by a local injection of 25 mg prednisone acetate and 1% lidocaine. If no calcification was found then multiple punctures were performed followed by local injection of 25 mg prednisone acetate and 1% lidocaine. A visual analog scale (VAS) was used to evaluate the degree of pain pre-and posttreatment at 1 week to 24 weeks. Elbow function improvement and degree of self-satisfaction were also evaluated. Of the 76 patients, 55% were rated with excellent treatment outcome, 32% good, 11% average, and 3% poor. From 3 weeks posttreatment, VAS scores were significantly reduced compared with the pretreatment score (Ptennis elbow. Sonography can be used to accurately identify the puncture location and monitor changes.

  13. Local corticosteroid injection versus Cyriax-type physiotherapy for tennis elbow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.A.N. Verhaar (Jan); G.H.I.M. Walenkamp; H. van Mameren; A.D.M. Kester; A.J. van der Linden

    1996-01-01

    textabstractWe performed a prospective, randomised trial on 106 patients to compare the effects of local corticosteroid injections with physiotherapy as advocated by Cyriax in the treatment of tennis elbow. The main outcome measures were the severity of pain, pain provoked by resisted dorsiflexion

  14. ELBOW AND WRIST INJURIES IN SPORTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marmor, Leonard; Bechtol, Charles O.

    1960-01-01

    Any disabling injury of the elbow or wrist should be studied roentgenographically for evidence of fracture which may not be otherwise evident but which may cause permanent disability unless the joint is immobilized for healing. “Tennis elbow” may be treated with physical therapy and analgesic injection but may require splinting or tendon stripping. Elbow sprain can occur in the growing epiphysis but is rare in adults. A jarring fall on the hand may cause fracture or dislocation at the elbow. Full extension of the joint should be restored gradually by active exercise rather than passive or forcible stretching. Fracture at the head of the radius may cause joint hemorrhage with severe pain which can be relieved by aspiration. A displacing fracture at the head of the radius requires removal of the head to prevent arthritic changes. Myositis ossificans contraindicates operation until after it has cleared. Healing of wrist fractures may be facilitated by exercise of the shoulder and elbow while the wrist is still in a cast. Fractures of the navicular bone are difficult to detect even roentgenographically and splinting may have to be done on clinical evidence alone. PMID:14421374

  15. Custom-Made Foot Orthoses Decrease Medial Foot Loading During Drop Jump in Individuals With Patellofemoral Pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rathleff, Michael S; Richter, Camilla; Brushøj, Christoffer

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of foot orthoses on medial-to-lateral plantar forces during drop jump and single leg squat, and second, to explore the self-reported change in symptoms after 12 weeks of wearing the orthoses in individuals with patellofemoral pain (PFP). DESIGN: Cohort study...... with 12 weeks of follow-up. SETTING: Hospital setting. PARTICIPANTS: 23 adults with PFP. INTERVENTIONS: Custom-made foot orthoses. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Foot loading (plantar pressure) was collected from the most painful side during drop jump and single leg squat using pressure sensitive Pedar insoles....... Primary outcome was the medial-to-lateral peak force under the forefoot during drop jump. The PFP syndrome severity score was used to measure self-reported improvement from baseline to follow-up. RESULTS: Orthoses were associated with a significant 2.9%-point (95% confidence intervals: 0.7-5.1) reduction...

  16. Management of Tennis Elbow with sodium hyaluronate periarticular injections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrella Robert J

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives To determine the efficacy and safety of peri-articular hyaluronic acid injections in chronic lateral epicondylosis (tennis elbow. Design Prospective randomized clinical trial in primary care sport medicine. Patients Three hundred and thirty one consecutive competitive racquette sport athletes with chronic (>3 months lateral epicondylosis were administered 2 injections (first injection at baseline into the subcutaneous tissue and muscle 1 cm. from the lateral epicondyle toward the primary point of pain using a two-dimensional fanning technique. A second injection was administered 1 week later. Outcomes measures Assessments were done at baseline, days 7, 14, 30, 90 and 356. Efficacy measures included patient's visual analogue scale (VAS of pain at rest (0-100 mm and following assessment of grip strength (0-100 mm. Grip strength was determined using a jamar hydraulic hand dynamometer. Other assessments included patients' global assessment of elbow injury (5 point categorical scale; 1 = no disability, 5 = maximal disability, patients' assessment of normal function/activity (5 point categorical scale, patients/physician satisfaction assessment (10 point categorical scale, time to return to pain-free and disability-free sport and adverse events as per WHO definition. Differences between groups were determined using an intent-to-treat ANOVA. Results Average age of the study population was 49 years (± 12 years. One hundred and sixty-five patients were randomized to the HA and 166 were randomized to the control groups. The change in VAS pain was -6.7 (± 2.0 for HA vs -1.3 (± 1.5 for control (p Conclusion Peri-articular HA treatment for tennis elbow was significantly better than control in improving pain at rest and after maximal grip testing. Further, HA treatment was highly satisfactory by patients and physicians and resulted in better return to pain free sport compared to control.

  17. Corticosteroid injection for tennis elbow or lateral epicondylitis: a review of the literature

    OpenAIRE

    Saccomanni, Bernardino

    2010-01-01

    Lateral epicondylitis or tennis elbow is a painful and functionally limiting entity affecting the upperextremity and is frequently treated by hand surgeons. Corticosteroid injection is one of the most common interventions for lateral epicondylitis or tennis elbow. Here, a review of the medical literature on this treatment is presented.

  18. The Posterior Bundle's Effect on Posteromedial Elbow Instability After a Transverse Coronoid Fracture: A Biomechanical Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Dave R; Golan, Elan; Weiser, Mitch C; Nasser, Philip; Choueka, Jack; Hausman, Michael

    2018-04-01

    There has been increased interest in the role of the posterior bundle of the medial collateral ligament (pMUCL) in the elbow, particularly its effects on posteromedial rotatory stability. The ligament's effect in the context of an unfixable coronoid fracture has not been the focus of any study. The purposes of this biomechanical study were to evaluate the stabilizing effect of the pMUCL with a transverse coronoid fracture and to assess the effect of graft reconstruction of the ligament. We simulated a varus and internal rotatory subluxation in 7 cadaveric elbows at 30°, 60°, and 90° elbow flexion. The amount of ulnar rotation and medial ulnohumeral joint gapping were assessed in the intact elbow after we created a transverse coronoid injury, after we divided the pMUCL, and finally, after we performed a graft reconstruction of the pMUCL. At all angles tested, some stability was lost after cutting the pMUCL once the coronoid had been injured, because mean proximal ulnohumeral joint gapping increased afterward by 2.1, 2.2, and 1.3 mm at 90°, 60°, and 30°, respectively. Ulnar internal rotation significantly increased after pMUCL transection at 90°. At 60° and 30° elbow flexion, ulnar rotation increased after resection of the coronoid but not after pMUCL resection. An uninjured pMUCL stabilizes against varus internal rotatory instability in the setting of a transverse coronoid fracture at higher flexion angles. Further research is needed to optimize graft reconstruction of the pMUCL. The pMUCL is an important secondary stabilizer against posteromedial instability in the coronoid-deficient elbow. In the setting of an unfixable coronoid fracture, the surgeon should examine for posteromedial instability and consider addressing the pMUCL surgically. Copyright © 2018 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. A systematic review with procedural assessments and meta-analysis of low level laser therapy in lateral elbow tendinopathy (tennis elbow).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjordal, Jan M; Lopes-Martins, Rodrigo Ab; Joensen, Jon; Couppe, Christian; Ljunggren, Anne E; Stergioulas, Apostolos; Johnson, Mark I

    2008-05-29

    Recent reviews have indicated that low level level laser therapy (LLLT) is ineffective in lateral elbow tendinopathy (LET) without assessing validity of treatment procedures and doses or the influence of prior steroid injections. Systematic review with meta-analysis, with primary outcome measures of pain relief and/or global improvement and subgroup analyses of methodological quality, wavelengths and treatment procedures. 18 randomised placebo-controlled trials (RCTs) were identified with 13 RCTs (730 patients) meeting the criteria for meta-analysis. 12 RCTs satisfied half or more of the methodological criteria. Publication bias was detected by Egger's graphical test, which showed a negative direction of bias. Ten of the trials included patients with poor prognosis caused by failed steroid injections or other treatment failures, or long symptom duration or severe baseline pain. The weighted mean difference (WMD) for pain relief was 10.2 mm [95% CI: 3.0 to 17.5] and the RR for global improvement was 1.36 [1.16 to 1.60]. Trials which targeted acupuncture points reported negative results, as did trials with wavelengths 820, 830 and 1064 nm. In a subgroup of five trials with 904 nm lasers and one trial with 632 nm wavelength where the lateral elbow tendon insertions were directly irradiated, WMD for pain relief was 17.2 mm [95% CI: 8.5 to 25.9] and 14.0 mm [95% CI: 7.4 to 20.6] respectively, while RR for global pain improvement was only reported for 904 nm at 1.53 [95% CI: 1.28 to 1.83]. LLLT doses in this subgroup ranged between 0.5 and 7.2 Joules. Secondary outcome measures of painfree grip strength, pain pressure threshold, sick leave and follow-up data from 3 to 8 weeks after the end of treatment, showed consistently significant results in favour of the same LLLT subgroup (p elbow tendon insertions, seem to offer short-term pain relief and less disability in LET, both alone and in conjunction with an exercise regimen. This finding contradicts the conclusions of

  20. A systematic review with procedural assessments and meta-analysis of Low Level Laser Therapy in lateral elbow tendinopathy (tennis elbow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Couppe Christian

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent reviews have indicated that low level level laser therapy (LLLT is ineffective in lateral elbow tendinopathy (LET without assessing validity of treatment procedures and doses or the influence of prior steroid injections. Methods Systematic review with meta-analysis, with primary outcome measures of pain relief and/or global improvement and subgroup analyses of methodological quality, wavelengths and treatment procedures. Results 18 randomised placebo-controlled trials (RCTs were identified with 13 RCTs (730 patients meeting the criteria for meta-analysis. 12 RCTs satisfied half or more of the methodological criteria. Publication bias was detected by Egger's graphical test, which showed a negative direction of bias. Ten of the trials included patients with poor prognosis caused by failed steroid injections or other treatment failures, or long symptom duration or severe baseline pain. The weighted mean difference (WMD for pain relief was 10.2 mm [95% CI: 3.0 to 17.5] and the RR for global improvement was 1.36 [1.16 to 1.60]. Trials which targeted acupuncture points reported negative results, as did trials with wavelengths 820, 830 and 1064 nm. In a subgroup of five trials with 904 nm lasers and one trial with 632 nm wavelength where the lateral elbow tendon insertions were directly irradiated, WMD for pain relief was 17.2 mm [95% CI: 8.5 to 25.9] and 14.0 mm [95% CI: 7.4 to 20.6] respectively, while RR for global pain improvement was only reported for 904 nm at 1.53 [95% CI: 1.28 to 1.83]. LLLT doses in this subgroup ranged between 0.5 and 7.2 Joules. Secondary outcome measures of painfree grip strength, pain pressure threshold, sick leave and follow-up data from 3 to 8 weeks after the end of treatment, showed consistently significant results in favour of the same LLLT subgroup (p Conclusion LLLT administered with optimal doses of 904 nm and possibly 632 nm wavelengths directly to the lateral elbow tendon insertions

  1. A review of epidemiology of paediatric elbow injuries in sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magra, Merzesh; Caine, Dennis; Maffulli, Nicola

    2007-01-01

    The elbow is a common site of orthopaedic injury in the paediatric population. The number of these injuries continues to rise following increased levels of participation in paediatric recreational and competitive sport. Injuries to the paediatric elbow can be classified as either overuse or acute. Delineating injury patterns to the elbow in children can be challenging, given the cartilaginous composition of the distal humerus and the multiple secondary ossification centres that appear and unite with the epiphysis at defined ages. Pitching in baseball, serving in tennis, spiking in volleyball, passing in American football and launching in javelin-throwing can all produce elbow pathology by forceful valgus stress, with medial stretching, lateral compression and posterior impingement. In children and adolescents, the epiphyseal plate is weaker than the surrounding ligaments, predisposing them to epiphyseal plate injuries. On the other hand, post-pubescent or skeletally mature athletes are more prone to tendinous or ligamentous injury. Injuries may cause significant impact on the athlete, parents and healthcare system. With the exception of baseball, there are few prospective cohort studies on the epidemiological trends of childhood elbow injuries in other sports. This paper aims to describe the epidemiological trends in paediatric elbow injuries related to sports, suggests prevention strategies and discusses the scope for further research. A web-based search of existing articles pertaining to paediatric elbow injuries in sports was performed. The implications of acute and overuse injuries and the possibility of permanent damage should be understood by parents, coaches and the athletes. Proper understanding of the intrinsic and extrinsic risk factors that could lead to elbow injuries is thus required. Measures to prevent elbow injuries should include proper coaching, warm-up, officiation, legislation, medical expertise and protective gear. There are still many

  2. EFFICACY OF LOCAL INFILTRATION OF AUTOLOGOUS BLOOD VERSUS LOCAL CORTICOSTEROID INJECTION- THE TREATMENT OF CHRONIC TENNIS ELBOW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajeev Kumar Roy

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Chronic painful tendon disorders are common in both sport persons and common individuals. 1,2 Lateral epicondylitis (tennis elbow is relatively more common among active individuals in the general population. 3 Typical signs and symptoms include pain and tenderness over the lateral epicondyle, exacerbated by resisted wrist extension and passive wrist flexion and impaired grip strength. The aim of the study is to find whether autologous blood provides comparable functional outcome over local steroids and hence whether it can replace steroids in treatment of tennis elbow. MATERIALS AND METHODS Patients with nontraumatic elbow pain attending the Orthopaedics Outpatient Department of Nalanda Medical College Hospital from January 2016 to August 2016. The participating subjects were randomly grouped into two groups (steroid (Group A and autologous blood (Group B. Pain in the subject’s affected elbow was measured using Visual Analogue Score (VAS. RESULTS Initially, both the groups had comparable initial VAS scores. At 1 month follow up, steroid group showed a significantly greater improvement in mean VAS scores when compared to autologous blood group. However, at 6 months follow up, steroid group showed no statistically significant difference in mean VAS scores when compared to autologous blood group. CONCLUSION From the current study, we concluded that both local corticosteroid and autologous blood were equally efficacious in the treatment of chronic lateral epicondylitis of elbow.

  3. Pulsed Dose Radiofrequency Before Ablation of Medial Branch of the Lumbar Dorsal Ramus for Zygapophyseal Joint Pain Reduces Post-procedural Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arsanious, David; Gage, Emmanuel; Koning, Jonathon; Sarhan, Mazin; Chaiban, Gassan; Almualim, Mohammed; Atallah, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    One of the potential side effects with radiofrequency ablation (RFA) includes painful cutaneous dysesthesias and increased pain due to neuritis or neurogenic inflammation. This pain may require the prescription of opioids or non-opioid analgesics to control post-procedural pain and discomfort. The goal of this study is to compare post-procedural pain scores and post-procedural oral analgesic use in patients receiving continuous thermal radiofrequency ablation versus patients receiving pulsed dose radiofrequency immediately followed by continuous thermal radiofrequency ablation for zygopophaseal joint disease. This is a prospective, double-blinded, randomized, controlled trial. Patients who met all the inclusion criteria and were not subject to any of the exclusion criteria were required to have two positive diagnostic medial branch blocks prior to undergoing randomization, intervention, and analysis. University hospital. Eligible patients were randomized in a 1:1 ratio to either receive thermal radiofrequency ablation alone (standard group) or pulsed dose radiofrequency (PDRF) immediately followed by thermal radiofrequency ablation (investigational group), all of which were performed by a single Board Certified Pain Medicine physician. Post-procedural pain levels between the two groups were assessed using the numerical pain Scale (NPS), and patients were contacted by phone on post-procedural days 1 and 2 in the morning and afternoon regarding the amount of oral analgesic medications used in the first 48 hours following the procedure. Patients who received pulsed dose radiofrequency followed by continuous radiofrequency neurotomy reported statistically significantly lower post-procedural pain scores in the first 24 hours compared to patients who received thermal radiofrequency neurotomy alone. These patients also used less oral analgesic medication in the post-procedural period. These interventions were carried out by one board accredited pain physician at one

  4. Atraumatic medial collateral ligament oedema in medial compartment knee osteoarthritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergin, D.; Keogh, C.; O'Connell, M.; Zoga, A.; Rowe, D.; Shah, B.; Eustace, S.

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To describe and determine the prevalence of atraumatic medial collateral oedema identified in patients with medial compartment osteoarthritis. Design and patients: Sixty patients, 30 patients with medial compartment knee osteoarthritis (Kellgren and Lawrence grade 2 to 4) and 30 age-matched patients with atraumatic knee pain without osteoarthritis, referred for MR imaging over a 2 year period were included in the study. In each case, severity of osteoarthritis was recorded on radiographs and correlated with the presence or absence of medial collateral ligament oedema at MR imaging. Results: Medial collateral oedema was identified in 27 of the 30 patients with osteoarthritis, of whom 14 had grade 1 oedema and 13 had grade 2 oedema compared with the presence of medial collateral ligament oedema (grade 1) in only two of the 30 control patients without osteoarthritis (P<<0.0001). Conclusion: Medial collateral oedema is common in patients with osteoarthritis in the absence of trauma. When identified, medial collateral ligament oedema should be considered to be a feature of osteoarthritis and should not be incorrectly attributed to an acute traumatic injury. (orig.)

  5. Ligamentous and capsular restraints to experimental posterior elbow joint dislocation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deutch, S.R.; Olsen, B.S.; Jensen, S.L.

    2003-01-01

    the anterior capsule and the lateral collateral ligament complex (LCLC), whereas in the flexed elbow the anterior capsule did not have a stabilizing effect. In flexed joint positions, the LCLC seems to be the only immediate stabilizer against PEFR, and thereby against posterolateral instability and possibly...... against posterior dislocation. The medial collateral ligament did not have any immediate stabilizing effect, but it prevented the final step of the posterior dislocation....

  6. Gender-specific pattern differences of the ossification centers in the pediatric elbow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patel, Bijal; Reed, Martin; Patel, Shamir

    2009-01-01

    Only a limited number of studies have investigated the age ranges in which the secondary centers of the elbow appear and ossify. Knowledge of sequence, gender differences and age ranges can aid in accurate assessment of radiographs, especially in cases of injury. To determine the sequence and general age ranges in which each ossification center both appears and fuses, and also to identify differences between genders. This study included 412 sets of radiographs of children's elbows that were analyzed prospectively by a single experienced pediatric radiologist. The presence as well as state of fusion of each ossification center was noted. The ages of the children ranged from 2 months to 17 years. In girls, the radial head and medial epicondyle appeared at the same age. In boys, there was a trend towards the radial head appearing earlier than the medial epicondyle. There was no statistically significant difference between the age at which the trochlea and olecranon appeared. Our results demonstrate a statistically significant difference between genders in both appearance and fusion. All centers both appeared and fused earlier in girls, with the exception of the appearance of the capitellum. The sequence of appearance and fusion was similar between genders. Ossification centers at the elbow both appear and fuse earlier in females but the normal range in age for the times of appearance and fusion of these centers is quite wide for both sexes. (orig.)

  7. Posteromedial knee friction syndrome: an entity with medial knee pain and edema between the femoral condyle, sartorius and gracilis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simeone, F.J.; Huang, Ambrose J.; Chang, Connie Y.; Smith, Maximilian; Bredella, Miriam A.; Torriani, Martin [Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Division of Musculoskeletal Imaging and Intervention, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); Gill, Thomas J. [Boston Sports Medicine and Research Institute, Boston, MA (United States)

    2014-12-20

    To describe MRI features of an entity consisting of medial knee pain and edema between the posteromedial femoral condyle (PMFC), sartorius and/or gracilis tendons and determine whether reduced tendon-bone distances may account for these findings. We retrospectively identified MRI cases of edema between the PMFC, sartorius and/or gracilis tendons (25 subjects, 26 knees). Two musculoskeletal radiologists independently graded edema and measured the sartorius- and gracilis-PMFC distances and knee flexion angle. Age- and gender-matched subjects with normal knee MRIs (27 subjects, 27 knees) served as controls for measurements. Statistical analyses compared abnormal to control subjects. Sartorius-PMFC and gracilis-PMFC spaces were narrower in abnormal compared to control subjects (1.6 ± 1.0 vs. 2.1 ± 1.2 mm, P = 0.04; 2.3 ± 2.0 vs. 4.6 ± 3.0 mm, P = 0.002, respectively). The knee flexion angle was similar between groups (P > 0.05). In subjects with clinical information, medial knee pain was the main complaint in 58 % (15/26) of abnormal subjects, with 42 % (11/26) having clinical suspicion of medial meniscal tear. Edema between the PMFC, sartorius and/or gracilis was mild in 54 % (14/26), moderate in 35 % (9/26) and severe in 12 % (3/26), and it was most frequent deep to both the sartorius and gracilis (50 %, 13/26). Edema between the PMFC, sartorius and/or gracilis tendons identified on knee MRI may be associated with medial knee pain and may represent a friction syndrome. (orig.)

  8. Posteromedial knee friction syndrome: an entity with medial knee pain and edema between the femoral condyle, sartorius and gracilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simeone, F Joseph; Huang, Ambrose J; Chang, Connie Y; Smith, Maximilian; Gill, Thomas J; Bredella, Miriam A; Torriani, Martin

    2015-04-01

    To describe MRI features of an entity consisting of medial knee pain and edema between the posteromedial femoral condyle (PMFC), sartorius and/or gracilis tendons and determine whether reduced tendon-bone distances may account for these findings. We retrospectively identified MRI cases of edema between the PMFC, sartorius and/or gracilis tendons (25 subjects, 26 knees). Two musculoskeletal radiologists independently graded edema and measured the sartorius- and gracilis-PMFC distances and knee flexion angle. Age- and gender-matched subjects with normal knee MRIs (27 subjects, 27 knees) served as controls for measurements. Statistical analyses compared abnormal to control subjects. Sartorius-PMFC and gracilis-PMFC spaces were narrower in abnormal compared to control subjects (1.6 ± 1.0 vs. 2.1 ± 1.2 mm, P = 0.04; 2.3 ± 2.0 vs. 4.6 ± 3.0 mm, P = 0.002, respectively). The knee flexion angle was similar between groups (P > 0.05). In subjects with clinical information, medial knee pain was the main complaint in 58 % (15/26) of abnormal subjects, with 42 % (11/26) having clinical suspicion of medial meniscal tear. Edema between the PMFC, sartorius and/or gracilis was mild in 54 % (14/26), moderate in 35 % (9/26) and severe in 12 % (3/26), and it was most frequent deep to both the sartorius and gracilis (50 %, 13/26). Edema between the PMFC, sartorius and/or gracilis tendons identified on knee MRI may be associated with medial knee pain and may represent a friction syndrome.

  9. Posteromedial knee friction syndrome: an entity with medial knee pain and edema between the femoral condyle, sartorius and gracilis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simeone, F.J.; Huang, Ambrose J.; Chang, Connie Y.; Smith, Maximilian; Bredella, Miriam A.; Torriani, Martin; Gill, Thomas J.

    2015-01-01

    To describe MRI features of an entity consisting of medial knee pain and edema between the posteromedial femoral condyle (PMFC), sartorius and/or gracilis tendons and determine whether reduced tendon-bone distances may account for these findings. We retrospectively identified MRI cases of edema between the PMFC, sartorius and/or gracilis tendons (25 subjects, 26 knees). Two musculoskeletal radiologists independently graded edema and measured the sartorius- and gracilis-PMFC distances and knee flexion angle. Age- and gender-matched subjects with normal knee MRIs (27 subjects, 27 knees) served as controls for measurements. Statistical analyses compared abnormal to control subjects. Sartorius-PMFC and gracilis-PMFC spaces were narrower in abnormal compared to control subjects (1.6 ± 1.0 vs. 2.1 ± 1.2 mm, P = 0.04; 2.3 ± 2.0 vs. 4.6 ± 3.0 mm, P = 0.002, respectively). The knee flexion angle was similar between groups (P > 0.05). In subjects with clinical information, medial knee pain was the main complaint in 58 % (15/26) of abnormal subjects, with 42 % (11/26) having clinical suspicion of medial meniscal tear. Edema between the PMFC, sartorius and/or gracilis was mild in 54 % (14/26), moderate in 35 % (9/26) and severe in 12 % (3/26), and it was most frequent deep to both the sartorius and gracilis (50 %, 13/26). Edema between the PMFC, sartorius and/or gracilis tendons identified on knee MRI may be associated with medial knee pain and may represent a friction syndrome. (orig.)

  10. The role of total elbow arthroplasty in traumatology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansat, P; Bonnevialle, N; Rongières, M; Bonnevialle, P

    2014-10-01

    Fractures of the distal humerus account for 5% of osteoporotic fractures in subjects older than 60 years. A history of osteoporosis, co-morbidities, and joint comminution make their management difficult. The therapeutic options are limited to functional treatments, osteosynthesis, or either partial or total arthroplasty. Functional treatment of distal humerus fractures in the elderly subject provide inconsistent results, often with persistence of pain with a stiff or unstable elbow. Osteosynthesis remains the reference treatment for these fractures, following the principle of stable and rigid osteosynthesis allowing early mobilization. However, joint comminution and a history of osteoporosis occasionally make it impossible to meet this objective, with a considerable rate of complications and surgical revisions. Total elbow arthroplasty remains an alternative to osteosynthesis with very satisfactory immediate results restoring a painless, stable, and functional elbow. These results seem reproducible and sustainable over time. The complication rate is not uncommon with an approximately 10% surgical revision rate. Elbow hemiarthroplasty remains to be validated in this indication. V. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Diagnostic criterial to differentiate medial meniscal injury from degenerative changes on 99mTc-MDP knee SPECT in patients with chronic knee pain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paeng, Jin Chul; Chung, June Key; Kang, Won Jun; So, Young; Lee, Dong Soo; Lee, Myung Chul; Yoo, Jae Ho; Lee, Myung Chul; Jeong, Hwan Jeong

    2003-01-01

    In patients with chronic knee pain, the diagnostic performance of 99m Tc-MDP knee SPECT for internal derangement of knee is deteriorated due to degenerative changes. In this study, we tried to establish diagnostic criteria to differentiate medial meniscal injury (MMI) from degenerative change (DC) when the uptake in increased in medial compartment. A total of 49 knee SPECT of the patients with chronic(more than 3 months) knee pain, which showed increased 99m Tc-MDP uptake in the medial compartment, were included in this study. The diagnosis was confirmed by arthroscopy. On knee SPECT, 3 diagnosic criteria for MMI were investigated. In Criterion, I, MMI was diagnosed when crescentic uptake was observed in the medial tibial plateau. In Criterion II, crescentic uptake was further classified into anterior, mid, posterior, and diffuse patterns, according to the location of maximal uptake; and only crescentic mid, posterior, and diffuse patterns were diagnosed as MMI. In Criterion III, MMI was diagnosed when medial tibial plateau showed higher activity then medial femoral condyle. The diagnostic performance of the 3 criteria was compared. The sensitivity and specificity were 93% and 14% in Criterion I, 89% and 38% in Criterion II, and 75% and 67% in Criterion III, respectively. Criterion III had significantly improve diagnostic performance, especially, specificity. In this study, we established a practical diagnostic criterion to differentiate MMI from DC on knee SPECT. The result is helpful to improve the diagnostic value of knee SPECT as a screening test for chronic knee pain

  12. Alternative medicine - pain relief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acupuncture - pain relief; Hypnosis - pain relief; Guided imagery - pain relief ... neck, shoulder, knee, or elbow) Osteoarthritis Rheumatoid arthritis Hypnosis is a focused state of concentration. With self- ...

  13. Development of medial coronoid disease in Labrador retrievers: Diagnostic and pathogenic studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lau, S.F.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/344825485

    2013-01-01

    Medial coronoid disease (MCD) of the canine elbow joint was first reported in 1974 as a developmental skeletal disease causing forelimb lameness in dogs. It is known as one of the most frequently diagnosed heritable disorders of dogs and usually affects young, large breed dogs, including Labrador

  14. 21 CFR 888.3170 - Elbow joint radial (hemi-elbow) polymer prosthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Elbow joint radial (hemi-elbow) polymer prosthesis. 888.3170 Section 888.3170 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... (hemi-elbow) polymer prosthesis. (a) Identification. An elbow joint radial (hemi-elbow) polymer...

  15. Lateral epicondylitis of the elbow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaquero-Picado, Alfonso; Barco, Raul; Antuña, Samuel A

    2016-11-01

    Lateral epicondylitis, also known as 'tennis elbow', is a very common condition affecting mainly middle-aged patients.The pathogenesis remains unknown but there appears to be a combination of local tendon pathology, alteration in pain perception and motor impairment.The diagnosis is usually clinical but some patients may benefit from additional imaging for a specific differential diagnosis.The disease has a self-limiting course of between 12 and 18 months, but in some patients, symptoms can be persistent and refractory to treatment.Most patients are well-managed with non-operative treatment and activity modification. Many surgical techniques have been proposed for patients with refractory symptoms.New non-operative treatment alternatives with promising results have been developed in recent years. Cite this article: Vaquero-Picado A, Barco R, Antuña SA. Lateral epicondylitis of the elbow. EFORT Open Rev 2016;1:391-397. DOI: 10.1302/2058-5241.1.000049.

  16. Reliability and precision of stress sonography of the ulnar collateral ligament.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bica, David; Armen, Joseph; Kulas, Anthony S; Youngs, Kevin; Womack, Zachary

    2015-03-01

    Musculoskeletal sonography has emerged as an additional diagnostic tool that can be used to assess medial elbow pain and laxity in overhead throwers. It provides a dynamic, rapid, and noninvasive modality in the evaluation of ligamentous structural integrity. Many studies have demonstrated the utility of dynamic sonography for medial elbow and ulnar collateral ligament (UCL) integrity. However, evaluating the reliabilityand precision of these measurements is critical if sonography is ultimately used as a clinical diagnostic tool. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the reliability and precision of stress sonography applied to the medial elbow. We conducted a cross-sectional study during the 2011 baseball off-season. Eighteen National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I pitchers were enrolled, and 36 elbows were studied. Using sonography, the medial elbow was assessed, and measurements of the UCL length and ulnohumeral joint gapping were performed twice under two conditions (unloaded and loaded) and bilaterally. Intraclass correlation coefficients (0.72-0.94) and standard errors of measurements (0.3-0.9 mm) for UCL length and ulnohumeral joint gapping were good to excellent. Mean differences between unloaded and loaded conditions for the dominant arms were 1.3 mm (gapping; P < .001) and 1.4 mm (UCL length; P < .001). Medial elbow stress sonography is a reliable and precise method for detecting changes in ulnohumeral joint gapping and UCL lengthening. Ultimately, this method may provide clinicians valuable information regarding the medial elbow's response to valgus loading and may help guide treatment options. © 2015 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.

  17. The relationship between chondromalacia patella, medial meniscal tear and medial periarticular bursitis in patients with osteoarthritis

    OpenAIRE

    Resorlu Mustafa; Doner Davut; Karatag Ozan; Toprak Canan Akgun

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background This study investigated the presence of bursitis in the medial compartment of the knee (pes anserine, semimembranosus-tibial collateral ligament, and medial collateral ligament bursa) in osteoarthritis, chondromalacia patella and medial meniscal tears. Patients and methods Radiological findings of 100 patients undergoing magnetic resonance imaging with a preliminary diagnosis of knee pain were retrospectively evaluated by two radiologists. The first radiologist assessed al...

  18. A elasticidade do ligamento colateral medial da articulação do cotovelo de cão não advém de elastina The elasticity of the medial collateral ligament of the canine elbow joint does not come from elastin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paloma Souza Costa

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available A literatura relata que ligamentos consistem de tecido conjuntivo denso, composto por água, colágeno tipos I e III, diversas proteoglicanas, pouca elastina e várias outras substâncias. Além disso, os ligamentos, quando testados in vitro com tensão longitudinal e unidirecional, apresentam um comportamento mecânico não-linear, ou seja, as fibras colágenas são alongadas aos poucos, perdendo seu padrão ondulado, até que todas estejam no limite máximo de tração e iniciem o rompimento. Portanto, no presente estudo avaliou-se a presença de fibras elásticas (elastina no ligamento colateral medial do cotovelo de cães adultos para ponderar se a elasticidade do referido ligamento deve-se à presença de fibras elásticas ou às propriedades elásticas do colágeno ou à combinação de ambas. Foram utilizadas quatro articulações, de machos e fêmeas em igual proporção, das quais foram adquiridas as amostras das porções médias dos ligamentos colaterais mediais para a rotina histológica. Os cortes foram corados pela técnica de Weigert, e não foi observada a presença de fibras elásticas, detectável por esta técnica à microscopia de luz. Concluiu-se que a elasticidade do ligamento colateral medial do cotovelo de cão deve-se, principalmente, ao padrão ondulado das fibras colágenas, devido à quantidade ínfima ou até à inexistência de fibras elásticas nesta estrutura.The literature reports that ligaments consist of connective tissue, composed by water, Type I and III collagen, several proteoglycans, some elastin and other substances. Ligaments tested in vitro with longitudinal and unidirectional tension exhibit non-linear mechanical behavior; the collagen fibers are stretched little by little, losing their undulating pattern, until reaching the maximum limit of traction and failure begins. The aim of the present study was to assess the presence of elastin in the medial collateral ligament of the elbow in adult dogs to

  19. Inverted 'V' osteotomy excision arthroplasty for bony ankylosed elbows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rex Chadrabose

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bony ankylosis of elbow is challenging and difficult problem to treat. The options are excision arthroplasty and total elbow replacement. We report our midterm results on nine patients, who underwent inverted 'V' osteotomy excision arthroplasty in our hospital with good functional results. Materials Our case series includes 9 patients (seven males and two females with the mean age of 34 years (13-56 years. Five patients had trauma, two had pyogenic arthritis, one had tuberculous arthritis, and one had pyogenic arthritis following surgical fixation. Results The average duration of follow up is 65 months (45 months-80 months. The mean Mayo's elbow performance score (MEPS preoperatively was 48 (35-70. The MEPS at final follow up was 80 (60-95. With no movement at elbow and fixed in various degrees of either flexion or extension preoperatively, the mean preoperative position of elbow was 64°(30°to 100°. The mean post operative range of motion at final follow up was 27°of extension (20-500, 116°of flexion (1100-1300, and the arc of motion was 88°(800-1000. One patient had ulnar nerve neuropraxia and another patient developed median nerve neuropraxia, and both recovered completely in six weeks. No patient had symptomatic instability of the elbow. All patients were asymptomatic except one patient, who had pain mainly on heavy activities. Conclusion We conclude that inverted 'V' osteotomy excision arthroplasty is a viable option in the treatment of bony ankylosis of the elbow in young patients.

  20. Elbow Fractures

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is also an important factor when treating elbow fractures. Casts are used more frequently in children, as their risk of developing elbow stiffness is small; however, in an adult, elbow stiffness is much more likely. Rehabilitation directed by your doctor is often used to ...

  1. Treatment of neglected elbow dislocations with the help of hinged external fixator: Report of two cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özgür Karakoyun

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Elbow dislocations are cases that have to be treated in emergency conditions. Neglected elbow dislocations are seen very rarely and the treatment of such cases are more complicated than acute cases. We present two cases of neglected elbow dislocations treated with open reduction and hinged external fixators. Case 1: 23 year old female patient had a neglected posterior dislocation of left elbow with ipsilateral humeral shaft fracture caused by car accident. The patient was treated after 3 months of initial trauma. We have performed open reduction for the joint. After that we fixed the joint whit a hinged external fixator. The humeral shaft fracture was also fixed with the components of the external fixator. Case 2: 33 year male patient had a large bone and soft tissue defect around the left elbow accompanying with neglected medial elbow dislocation. He presented to our clinic with a delay of 2 months. The patient was treated with open reduction and hinged external fixator after reconstruction of bone defect of distal humerus. Conclusion: The treatment of neglected cases is quite challenging. Open reduction and external fixation has satisfactory results in treatment of late cases of elbow dislocation with the possibility of early rehabilitation. This method can be considered as an option for such cases. J Clin Exp Invest 2014; 5 (2: 443-446

  2. The effects of forearm fatigue on baseball fastball pitching, with implications about elbow injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lin-Hwa; Lo, Kuo-Cheng; Jou, I-Ming; Kuo, Li-Chieh; Tai, Ta-Wei; Su, Fong-Chin

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the contribution of flexor muscles to the forearm through fatigue; therefore, the differences in forearm mechanisms on the pitching motion in fastball were analysed. Fifteen baseball pitchers were included in this study. Ultrasonographical examination of participants' ulnar nerve in the cubital tunnel with the elbow extended and at 45°, 90° and 120° of flexion was carried. A three-dimensional motion analysis system with 14 reflective markers attached on participants was used for motion data collection. The electromyography system was applied over the flexor carpi ulnaris, flexor carpi radialis and extensor carpi radialis muscles of the dominant arm. Flexor carpi ulnaris muscle activity showed a significant difference during the acceleration phase, with a peak value during fastball post-fatigue (P = 0.02). Significant differences in the distance between ulnar nerve and medial condyle on throwing arm and non-throwing arm were observed as the distance increased with the elbow movement from 0° to 120° of flexion (P = 0.01). The significant increase of the flexor carpi ulnaris muscle activity might be responsible for maintaining the stability of the wrist joint. The increased diameter might compress the ulnar nerve and cause several pathological changes. Therefore, fatigue in baseball pitchers still poses a threat to the ulnar nerve because the flexor carpi ulnaris and flexor carpi radialis all originate from the medial side of the elbow, and the swelling tendons after fatigue might be a key point.

  3. Pediatric elbow trauma: an orthopaedic perspective on the importance of radiographic interpretation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacoby, Sidney M; Herman, Martin J; Morrison, William B; Osterman, A Lee

    2007-03-01

    Radiographic interpretation of pediatric elbow trauma presents a daunting task for both the radiologist and treating orthopaedic surgeon. Proper radiographic diagnosis and appropriate intervention requires a thorough understanding and appreciation of developmental anatomy. As the pediatric elbow matures, it transitions from multiple cartilaginous anlagen through a predictable pattern of ossification and fusion. When children sustain trauma to the elbow, they may have a limited capacity to communicate specific complaints and are sometimes difficult to examine reliably. Furthermore, the presence of multiple growth centers, and their variability, makes radiographic evaluation of pediatric elbow injuries particularly challenging. These variables, coupled with the known adverse long-term sequelae of pediatric elbow trauma (painful nonunion, malunion, elbow stiffness, growth disturbance, etc.) highlight the importance of accurate radiographic interpretation, which facilitates appropriate treatment. By using an orderly, systematic approach based on well-defined anatomical relationships and accepted radiographic markers, the radiologist may effectively interpret and communicate pertinent findings to the treating orthopaedic surgeon. Furthermore, using common classification systems may facilitate interdisciplinary communication. Finally, it is crucial that caregivers of children consider the possibility of child abuse in suspect cases.

  4. Posttraumatic stiff elbow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravi Mittal

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Posttraumatic stiff elbow is a frequent and disabling complication and poses serious challenges for its management. In this review forty studies were included to know about the magnitude of the problem, causes, pathology, prevention, and treatment of posttraumatic stiff elbow. These studies show that simple measures such as internal fixation, immobilization in extension, and early motion of elbow joint are the most important steps that can prevent elbow stiffness. It also supports conservative treatment in selected cases. There are no clear guidelines about the choice between the numerous procedures described in literature. However, this review article disproves two major beliefs-heterotopic ossification is a bad prognostic feature, and passive mobilization of elbow causes elbow stiffness.

  5. Acupuncture for lateral epicondylitis (tennis elbow): study protocol for a randomized, practitioner-assessor blinded, controlled pilot clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Kyung-Min; Kim, Joo-Hee; Lee, Seunghoon; Shin, Mi-Suk; Kim, Tae-Hun; Park, Hyo-Ju; Lee, Min-Hee; Hong, Kwon-Eui; Lee, Seungdeok; Choi, Sun-Mi

    2013-06-14

    Lateral epicondylitis is the most frequent cause of pain around the elbow joint. It causes pain in the region of the elbow joint and results in dysfunction of the elbow and deterioration of the quality of life. The purpose of this study is to compare the effects of ipsilateral acupuncture, contralateral acupuncture and sham acupuncture on lateral epicondylitis. Forty-five subjects with lateral epicondylitis will be randomized into three groups: the ipsilateral acupuncture group, contralateral acupuncture group and the sham acupuncture group. The inclusion criteria will be as follows: (1) age between 19 and 65 years with pain due to one-sided lateral epicondylitis that persisted for at least four weeks, (2) with tenderness on pressure limited to regions around the elbow joint, (3) complaining of pain during resistive extension of the middle finger or the wrist, (4) with average pain of NRS 4 or higher during the last one week at a screening visit and (5) voluntarily agree to this study and sign a written consent. Acupuncture treatment will be given 10 times in total for 4 weeks to all groups. Follow up observations will be conducted after the completion of the treatment, 8 weeks and 12 weeks after the random assignment. Ipsilateral acupuncture group and contralateral acupuncture group will receive acupuncture on LI4, TE5, LI10, LI11, LU5, LI12 and two Ashi points. The sham acupuncture group will receive treatment on acupuncture points not related to the lateral epicondylitis using a non-invasive method. The needles will be maintained for 20 minutes. The primary outcome will be differences in the visual analogue scale (VAS) for elbow pain between the groups. The secondary outcome will be differences in patient-rated tennis elbow evaluation (PRTEE), pain-free/maximum grip strength (Dynamometer), pressure pain threshold, clinically relevant improvement, patient global assessment, and the EQ-5D. The data will be analyzed with the paired t-test and ANCOVA (P <0.05). The

  6. Can osseous landmarks in the distal medial humerus be used to identify the attachment sites of ligaments and tendons: paleopathologic-anatomic imaging study in cadavers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buck, Florian M. [Veterans Administration Medical Center, Department of Radiology, San Diego, CA (United States); Institut fuer Diagnostische Radiologie, Uniklinik Balgrist, Zurich (Switzerland); Zoner, Cristiane S.; Cardoso, Fabiano; Gheno, Ramon; Nico, Marcelo A.C.; Trudell, Debra J.; Resnick, Donald [Veterans Administration Medical Center, Department of Radiology, San Diego, CA (United States); Randall, Tori D. [San Diego Museum of Man, Physical Anthropology, San Diego, CA (United States)

    2010-09-15

    To describe osseous landmarks that allow identification of the attachments of the ligaments and tendons in the distal medial aspect of the humerus. Reliable osseous landmarks in the distal medial aspect of the humerus were identified in 34 well-preserved specimens from a paleopathologic collection. These osseous landmarks were then sought in magnetic resonance (MR) images of ten cadaveric elbow specimens so that the ease of their visualization and optimal imaging plane could be assessed. To assign these osseous landmarks to specific attachments of the tendons and ligaments in the distal medial humerus, we cut the specimens in slices and photographed and examined them. Subsequently, the prevalence of these osseous landmarks as well as the attachment sites of the tendons and ligaments in this location was determined. We determined ten reliable osseous landmarks in the distal medial aspect of the humerus, their prevalence and ease of identification, and their relationship to the attachments of the tendons and ligaments at the medial distal humerus. It is possible to use osseous landmarks at the distal medial humerus to facilitate identification of the different attachments of tendons and ligaments when MR images of the elbow are assessed. (orig.)

  7. Synovial chondromatosis of the elbow in a child

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    Rishi Narasimhan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Synovial chondromatosis is cartilaginous metaplasia of mesenchymal remnants of synovial tissue of the joints. Its main characteristic is the formation of cartilaginous nodules in the synovium and inside the articular space (loose bodies. It usually presents between the third and fifth decades and is rare in children. It presents as a mono-articular pathology affecting large joints such as the knee, hip, and elbow. The main symptoms are pain, swelling, and limitation of movements in the affected joint. Diagnosis is made by panoramic radiographs, computed tomography scan, and mainly magnetic resonance imaging and on surgery. The authors describe of synovial chondromatosis presenting in the elbow of an 11 year-old girl which is unreported to the best of our knowledge.

  8. LONG TERM EFFECT OF CYRIAX PHYSIOTHERPY WITH SUPERVISED EXERCISE PROGRAM IN SUBJECTS WITH TENNIS ELBOW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pallavi Shridhar Thakare

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The purpose is to find long term effect of Cyriax physiotherapy with supervised exercise program in the reduction of pain and improvement of functional ability for subjects with tennis elbow. Method: An experimental study design, 30 subjects with Tennis Elbow randomized 15 subjects each into Study and Control group. Control group received Supervised Exercise program while Study group received Cyriax Physiotherapy with Supervised exercises program thrice in a week for 4 weeks and post intervention follow up after 2 weeks. Outcome measurements were measured for pain using Visual analogue Scale (VAS and Patient Rated Tennis Elbow Evaluation (PRTEE for functional ability. Results: There is no statistically significant difference in pre- intervention means of VAS and PRTEE when compared between the groups using independent ‘t’ test as a parametric and Mann Whitney U test as a non-parametric test. When means of post intervention and follow-up measurements were compared there is a statistically significant (p<0.05 difference in VAS and PRTEE scores between the groups. However greater percentage of improvements was obtained in study group than control group. Conclusion: It is concluded that there is significant long term effect with greater percentage of improvement in pain and functional ability up to 2 weeks follow-up following 4 weeks of combined Cyriax physiotherapy with supervised exercise program than only supervised exercise program for subjects with tennis elbow.

  9. Tennis elbow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epitrochlear bursitis; Lateral epicondylitis; Epicondylitis - lateral; Tendonitis - elbow ... tennis or other racket sports, hence the name "tennis elbow." Backhand is the most common stroke to cause ...

  10. Validity and cross-cultural adaptation of the persian version of the oxford elbow score.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimzadeh, Mohammad H; Kachooei, Amir Reza; Vahedi, Ehsan; Moradi, Ali; Mashayekhi, Zeinab; Hallaj-Moghaddam, Mohammad; Azami, Mehran; Birjandinejad, Ali

    2014-01-01

    Oxford Elbow Score (OES) is a patient-reported questionnaire used to assess outcomes after elbow surgery. The aim of this study was to validate and adapt the OES into Persian language. After forward-backward translation of the OES into Persian, a total number of 92 patients after elbow surgeries completed the Persian OES along with the Persian DASH and SF-36. To assess test-retest reliability, 31 randomly selected patients (34%) completed the Persian OES again after three days while abstaining from all forms of therapeutic regimens. Reliability of the Persian OES was assessed by measuring intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) for test-retest reliability and Cronbach's alpha for internal consistency. Spearman's correlation coefficient was used to test the construct validity. Cronbach's alpha coefficient was 0.92 showing excellent reliability. Cronbach's alpha for function, pain, and social-psychological subscales was 0.95, 0.86, and 0.85, respectively. Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was 0.85 for the overall questionnaire and 0.90, 0.76, and 0.75 for function, pain, and social-psychological subscales, respectively. Construct validity was confirmed as the Spearman correlation between OES and DASH was 0.80. Persian OES is a valid and reliable patient-reported outcome measure to assess postsurgical elbow status in Persian speaking population.

  11. Ultrasound of the elbow with emphasis on detailed assessment of ligaments, tendons, and nerves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Maeseneer, Michel; Brigido, Monica Kalume; Antic, Marijana; Lenchik, Leon; Milants, Annemieke; Vereecke, Evie; Jager, Tjeerd; Shahabpour, Maryam

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: •Medial and lateral tendons: the different muscles forming these tendons can be followed up to the insertion. The imaging anatomy is reviewed. •Medial and lateral ligaments: the anatomy is complex and specialized imaging planes and arm positions are necessary for accurate assessment. •Biceps tendon: the anatomy of the distal biceps and lacertus fibrosus are discussed and illustrated with cadaveric correlation. •US imaging of the nerves about the elbow and visualization of the possible compression points is discussed. -- Abstract: The high resolution and dynamic capability of ultrasound make it an excellent tool for assessment of superficial structures. The ligaments, tendons, and nerves about the elbow can be fully evaluated with ultrasound. The medial collateral ligament consists of an anterior and posterior band that can easily be identified. The lateral ligament complex consists of the radial collateral ligament, ulnar insertion of the annular ligament, and lateral ulnar collateral ligament, easily identified with specialized probe positioning. The lateral ulnar collateral ligament can best be seen in the cobra position. On ultrasound medial elbow tendons can be followed nearly up to their common insertion. The pronator teres, flexor carpi radialis, palmaris longus, and flexor digitorum superficialis can be identified. The laterally located brachioradialis and extensor carpi radialis longus insert on the supracondylar ridge. The other lateral tendons can be followed up to their common insertion on the lateral epicondyle. The extensor digitorum, extensor carpi radialis brevis, extensor digiti minimi, and extensor carpi ulnaris can be differentiated. The distal biceps tendon is commonly bifid. For a complete assessment of the distal biceps tendon specialized views are necessary. These include an anterior axial approach, medial and lateral approach, and cobra position. In the cubital tunnel the ulnar nerve is covered by the ligament of Osborne

  12. Ultrasound of the elbow with emphasis on detailed assessment of ligaments, tendons, and nerves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Maeseneer, Michel, E-mail: Michel.demaeseneer@uzbrussel.be [Department of Radiology, Universitair Ziekenhuis Brussel, Brussels (Belgium); Brigido, Monica Kalume, E-mail: Mbrigido@med.umich.edu [Department of Radiology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Antic, Marijana, E-mail: Misscroa@gmail.com [Department of Radiology, Universitair Ziekenhuis Brussel, Brussels (Belgium); Lenchik, Leon, E-mail: Llenchik@wakehealth.edu [Department of Radiology, Wake Forest University, Winston-Salem, NC (United States); Milants, Annemieke, E-mail: Annemieke.Milants@gmail.com [Department of Radiology, Universitair Ziekenhuis Brussel, Brussels (Belgium); Vereecke, Evie, E-mail: Evie.Vereecke@kuleuven-kulak.be [Department of Anatomy, KULAK, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Campus Kortrijk, Kortrijk (Belgium); Jager, Tjeerd [Aalsters Stedelijk Ziekenhuis, Aalst (Belgium); Shahabpour, Maryam, E-mail: Maryam.Shahabpour@uzbrussel.be [Department of Radiology, Universitair Ziekenhuis Brussel, Brussels (Belgium)

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: •Medial and lateral tendons: the different muscles forming these tendons can be followed up to the insertion. The imaging anatomy is reviewed. •Medial and lateral ligaments: the anatomy is complex and specialized imaging planes and arm positions are necessary for accurate assessment. •Biceps tendon: the anatomy of the distal biceps and lacertus fibrosus are discussed and illustrated with cadaveric correlation. •US imaging of the nerves about the elbow and visualization of the possible compression points is discussed. -- Abstract: The high resolution and dynamic capability of ultrasound make it an excellent tool for assessment of superficial structures. The ligaments, tendons, and nerves about the elbow can be fully evaluated with ultrasound. The medial collateral ligament consists of an anterior and posterior band that can easily be identified. The lateral ligament complex consists of the radial collateral ligament, ulnar insertion of the annular ligament, and lateral ulnar collateral ligament, easily identified with specialized probe positioning. The lateral ulnar collateral ligament can best be seen in the cobra position. On ultrasound medial elbow tendons can be followed nearly up to their common insertion. The pronator teres, flexor carpi radialis, palmaris longus, and flexor digitorum superficialis can be identified. The laterally located brachioradialis and extensor carpi radialis longus insert on the supracondylar ridge. The other lateral tendons can be followed up to their common insertion on the lateral epicondyle. The extensor digitorum, extensor carpi radialis brevis, extensor digiti minimi, and extensor carpi ulnaris can be differentiated. The distal biceps tendon is commonly bifid. For a complete assessment of the distal biceps tendon specialized views are necessary. These include an anterior axial approach, medial and lateral approach, and cobra position. In the cubital tunnel the ulnar nerve is covered by the ligament of Osborne

  13. Outcome of Boyd-McLeod procedure for recalcitrant lateral epicondylitis of elbow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, V R M; Satheesan, K S; Bayliss, N

    2011-08-01

    Various surgical procedures including percutaneous and open release and arthroscopic procedures have been described to treat recalcitrant tennis elbow. We present the outcome of Boyd-McLeod surgical procedure for tennis elbow resistant to non-operative treatment in twenty-seven patients (twenty-nine limbs). Boyd McLeod procedure involves excision of the proximal portion of the annular ligament, release of the origin of the extensor muscles, excision of the bursa if present, and excision of the synovial fringe. The average time interval from the onset of symptoms of tennis elbow until surgery was 28 months (range 8-72 months). Of those patients, 91% reported complete relief of symptoms with return to full normal activities including sports. Average post-operative time for return to professional/recreational activity was 5 weeks. One case developed pain secondary to ectopic bone formation after surgery, which settled after excision, and in another there was no pain relief with Boyd McLeod procedure. Two patients had scar tenderness that did not affect the final outcome. We conclude that Boyd-McLeod procedure is an effective treatment option in patients with resistant lateral epicondylitis.

  14. MR imaging findings of medial tibial crest friction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klontzas, Michail E.; Akoumianakis, Ioannis D.; Vagios, Ilias; Karantanas, Apostolos H.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Medial tibial condyle bone marrow edema (BME), associated with soft tissue edema (STe) surrounding the medial collateral ligament, was incidentally observed in MRI examinations of young and athletic individuals. The aim of the present study was to 1. Prospectively investigate the association between these findings and coexistence of localized pain, and 2. Explore the possible contribution of the tibial morphology to its pathogenesis. Methods: The medial tibial condyle crest was evaluated in 632 knee MRI examinations. The angle and depth were measured by two separate evaluators. The presence of STe and BME was recorded. A third evaluator blindly assessed the presence of pain at this site. Results: BME associated with STe was found in 24 patients (with no history of previous trauma, osteoarthritis, tumor or pes anserine bursitis). The mean crest angle was 151.3° (95%CI 147.4–155.3°) compared to 159.4° (95%CI 158.8–160°) in controls (Mann–Whitney test, P < 0.0001). MRI findings were highly predictive of localized pain (sensitivity 92% specificity 99%, Fisher's exact test, P < 0.0001). Conclusion: Friction at the medial tibial condyle crest is a painful syndrome. MRI is a highly specific and sensitive imaging modality for its diagnosis

  15. MR imaging findings of medial tibial crest friction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klontzas, Michail E., E-mail: miklontzas@gmail.com; Akoumianakis, Ioannis D., E-mail: ioannis.akoumianakis@gmail.com; Vagios, Ilias, E-mail: iliasvagios@gmail.com; Karantanas, Apostolos H., E-mail: akarantanas@gmail.com

    2013-11-01

    Objective: Medial tibial condyle bone marrow edema (BME), associated with soft tissue edema (STe) surrounding the medial collateral ligament, was incidentally observed in MRI examinations of young and athletic individuals. The aim of the present study was to 1. Prospectively investigate the association between these findings and coexistence of localized pain, and 2. Explore the possible contribution of the tibial morphology to its pathogenesis. Methods: The medial tibial condyle crest was evaluated in 632 knee MRI examinations. The angle and depth were measured by two separate evaluators. The presence of STe and BME was recorded. A third evaluator blindly assessed the presence of pain at this site. Results: BME associated with STe was found in 24 patients (with no history of previous trauma, osteoarthritis, tumor or pes anserine bursitis). The mean crest angle was 151.3° (95%CI 147.4–155.3°) compared to 159.4° (95%CI 158.8–160°) in controls (Mann–Whitney test, P < 0.0001). MRI findings were highly predictive of localized pain (sensitivity 92% specificity 99%, Fisher's exact test, P < 0.0001). Conclusion: Friction at the medial tibial condyle crest is a painful syndrome. MRI is a highly specific and sensitive imaging modality for its diagnosis.

  16. Radiographic and tomographic study of the elbow joint in dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sendyk-Grunkraut, Alessandra; Martin, Claudia M.; Souza, Alexandre N.A.; Patricio, Geni Cristina F.; Lorigados, Carla A.B.; Matera, Julia M.; Fonseca-Pinto, Ana C.B.C.

    2017-01-01

    Elbow dysplasia disease includes an united anconeal process, fragmented medial coronoid process, osteochondrosis of humeral trochlea, articular incongruity and degenerative joint disease. The aim of this study was to present detailed morphologic and morphometric aspects of the elbow joint in dog in clinical and correlate with radiographic and tomographic (CT) exam. Inter-observer variation for articular incongruity measurements by CT, comparative analysis in the radiographic exam, angle in ulnar notch and its comparative analysis between radiographic and tomographic agreement examination in 44 elbow of dogs with different ages were evaluated. The statistics analyses included the kappa coefficient and interclass correlation and Fischer's test and McNemar's test. It was evidenced that individual performance of each radiographic incidence had poor agreement with the tomographic exam, suggesting that the accomplishment of more than two radiograph views are needed. There was no agreement between the three evaluators in the ulnar notch angle at radiographic and tomographic exams. However, there was good/moderate agreement for articular incongruity measurement in the sagittal plane between evaluators. It was possible to conclude that none of the five radiographic incidences was better than the others for radiographic analysis because each incidence had a better identification of a particular elbow compartment; measurements at the tomographic exam to evaluate radioulnar incongruity had no reproductiveness in the frontal plane, but in sagittal plan had a good/moderate agreement between observers and the angle in ulnar notch presented no repeatability at radiographic exam and no reproductiveness at tomographic exam. (author)

  17. Snapping plicae associated with radiocapitellar chondromalacia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antuna, S A; O'Driscoll, S W

    2001-05-01

    Painful snapping of the elbow joint is usually attributed to intra-articular loose bodies, instability, or medial dislocation of the triceps muscle over the medial epicondyle. We report our experience with 14 patients who were treated arthroscopically for snapping elbow that was found to be caused by hypertrophic synovial folds associated with radiocapitellar chondromalacia. Case series. The records of 14 patients who were treated arthroscopically for painful snapping elbows caused by intra-articular plicae were reviewed. There were 6 women and 8 men with an average age of 36 years (range, 27 to 48 years). Nine patients had had some type of trauma to the joint. Four patients had been previously diagnosed with lateral epicondylitis and 5 with intra-articular loose bodies. The average time from initial onset of symptoms to treatment was 13 months (range, 8 to 36 months). Average follow-up was 24 months (range, 6 to 66 months). All patients complained of painful snapping in the posterolateral or anterolateral aspect of the elbow. The snapping occurred between 90 degrees and 110 degrees of flexion with the forearm in pronation. In 7 patients, the snapping was reproducible by passively flexing the pronated elbow, which we refer to as the flexion-pronation test. At the time of arthroscopic surgery, all patients had a thickened synovial plica that would snap back and forward over the radial head, usually associated with a chondromalacic area on the radial head. Twelve patients had complete relief of their snapping after surgery. One patient in whom there was associated posterolateral rotatory elbow instability did not improve. One patient became asymptomatic for 4 years but then had recurrence of her symptoms, which persisted despite 2 subsequent arthroscopies. The presence of synovial plicae in the radiocapitellar joint must be considered in the differential diagnosis of painful snapping elbow. Arthroscopy confirms the diagnosis and allows excision of the plica.

  18. Unreduced elbow dislocation treated by Ilizarov method: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović Vesna

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Unreduced elbow dislocation is every elbow dislocation older than one week. It may be treated non-operatively (with prereduction traction or surgically. The treatment goals are: to reduce pain, to establish joint stability and movements. There are a lot of techniques described in literature, series are relatively small, mostly case reports. Multicentric studies have not been done. That is why there are no precisely defined therapeutic protocols. Every contribution in the field is valuable. Case Outline. A 43-year-old patient was admitted for the treatment of a three-month old unreduced elbow dislocation. Treatment has been done by Ilizarov method, using the reduction mechanism. The reduction process lasted two weeks. The Ilizarov device was removed two months after the operation, then physical therapy was started. Normal anatomical and functional findings were established five months following the operation. Conclusion. The presented method of treatment has been found as very useful, having in mind that it may solve two problems: difficult reduction and redislocation. Reduction may be done without the joint opening, step by step; retention of the reduced joint may be easily done. Physical therapy may be started without Ilizarov device removal, movements of flexion and extension may be improved without any lateral instability. There is no iatrogenic intraarticular damage, so there are no secondary joint degeneration, pains and invalidity.

  19. Platelet rich plasma versus laser therapy in lateral epicondylitis of elbow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonk, Gyaneshwar; Kumar, Anish; Gupta, Amit

    2014-07-01

    Platelet rich plasma (PRP) extract has shown to be a general stimulation for repair and currently used widely in various sports injury. A prospective observational study was done to assess the efficacy of autologous PRP injection in lateral epicondylitis of elbow, and compare the result with low level laser therapy. The trial was conducted at a tertiary care center for a period of 2 years. Eighty-one patients with chronic lateral epicondylitis were divided into two groups. PRP group (n = 39) and laser therapy group (n = 42). The primary analysis included Nirschl pain score, local tenderness, pain on wrist extension, grip strength, elbow swelling were clinically assessed at different interval of followup (minimum followup: 52 weeks) and; clinical and functional outcome evaluated at final followup. The statistical analysis were done. The mean Nirschl pain score decreased significantly from baseline in PRP when compared with low level laser therapy (P ≤ 0.05). Treatment of patients with chronic lateral epicondylitis with PRP extract reduced pain and significantly increased function, exceeding the effect of low level laser therapy on long term followup. Low-level laser therapy is better in the short term period, but on long term followup injection PRP therapy is better than laser therapy in lateral epicondylitis.

  20. Posterolateral rotatory instability from multiple steroids injections for tennis elbow: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanlalit, Cholawish; Limsricharoen, Warodom

    2013-01-01

    This article reports the complication (lateral collateral ligament rupture) arising from improper numbers of steroids injections for the chronic lateral elbow pain (tennis elbow). Clinical sign and investigation with MRI confirmed a diagnosis of LCL rupture. In the present report, we describe the successful outcome of one year results in surgical debridement and lateral collateral ligament (LCL) reconstruction. A discussion of the proper conservative role for the chronic lateral epicondyalgia and the surgical decision to resolve this complication is also included.

  1. Infraclavicular brachial plexus block: Comparison of posterior cord stimulation with lateral or medial cord stimulation, a prospective double blinded study

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    Dushyant Sharma

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Infraclavicular approach to the brachial plexus sheath provides anesthesia for surgery on the distal arm, elbow, forearm, wrist, and hand. It has been found that evoked distal motor response or radial nerve-type motor response has influenced the success rate of single-injection infraclavicular brachial plexus block. Aim: We conducted this study to compare the extent and effectiveness of infraclavicular brachial plexus block achieved by injecting a local anesthetic drug after finding specific muscle action due to neural stimulator guided posterior cord stimulation and lateral cord/medial cord stimulation. Methods: After ethical committee approval, patients were randomly assigned to one of the two study groups of 30 patients each. In group 1, posterior cord stimulation was used and in group 2 lateral/medial cord stimulation was used for infraclavicular brachial plexus block. The extent of motor block and effectiveness of sensory block were assessed. Results: All four motor nerves that were selected for the extent of block were blocked in 23 cases (76.7% in group 1 and in 15 cases (50.0% in group 2 (P:0.032. The two groups did not differ significantly in the number of cases in which 0, 1, 2, and 3 nerves were blocked (P>0.05. In group 1, significantly lesser number of patients had pain on surgical manipulation compared with patients of group 2 (P:0.037. Conclusion: Stimulating the posterior cord guided by a nerve stimulator before local anesthetic injection is associated with greater extent of block (in the number of motor nerves blocked and effectiveness of block (in reporting no pain during the surgery than stimulation of either the lateral or medial cord.

  2. Distribution of Platelet-rich Plasma after Ultrasound-Guided Injection for Chronic Elbow Tendinopathies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gi-Young Park, Dong Rak Kwon, Hee Kyung Cho, Jinyoung Park, Jung Hyun Park

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Characteristics of the spreads of platelet-rich plasma (PRP are not widely known despite commonly use. This study aims to evaluate whether PRP stays within the injected area by using ultrasonography, to improve understanding of the spreads of intratendinous injected PRP. Thirty-nine patients (15 males, 24 females; mean age, 49.3 years, who had symptoms on their elbows (> 6 months and diagnosed as lateral (25 elbows or medial (14 elbows tendinopathies of elbow, were included. The severity of tendon pathology was assessed by ultrasonography as tear or no tear. Immediately after ultrasound-guided PRP injection, ultrasound images were evaluated to assess the area of PRP distribution, which was defined as the presence of fluid or microbubbles. Ultrasound revealed that 13 elbows had tendon tear and 26 had no tear, respectively. Post-injection ultrasound confirmed the injected PRP was within the tendon in all cases. The mean distance of distribution from the injection site was 12.6 mm (5.0–26.0 mm. There was no difference in the distance of PRP distribution between tendon tear and no tear. Injected PRP spread to soft tissue outside the tendon in 20 of 39 cases. Intra-articular extension of PRP was observed in 5 cases. Although PRP remained intratendinous after the injection in all cases, some portion tended to spread outside from the injection site in a short space of time. Postinjection ultrasonographic imaging has a value for observing the spreading patterns of intratendinous PRP injection.

  3. Randomised, prospective, non-blinded pilot study comparing the effect of intramuscular steroid injections and intralesional steroid injections in the management of tennis elbow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahir, Hasan; Biro, Izolda; Donnelly, Simon; Greenwood, Mandy

    2016-01-01

    Background Tennis elbow is an overuse injury affecting people performing repetitive forearm movements. It is a soft tissue disorder that causes significant disability and pain. The aim of the study was to establish that an intramuscular steroid injection is effective in the short-term pain relief and functional improvement of tennis elbow. The severity of pain at the injection site was monitored to determine whether the intramuscular injection is better tolerated than the intralesional injection. Methods and results 19 patients, who had no treatment for tennis elbow in the preceding 3 months, were recruited from Whipps Cross University Hospital, London, and were randomised to receive either 80 mg of intramuscular Depo-Medrone or 40 mg of intralesional Depo-Medrone injection. Blinding proved difficult as the injection sites differed and placebo arms were not included in the study. A Patient-Rated Tennis Elbow Evaluation (PRTEE) Questionnaire and a 10-point Likert scale were used to assess primary outcome. Six weeks after the treatment, there was a reduction in pain, improvement in function and total PRTEE scores in both intramuscular and intralesional groups (p=0.008) using a 95% CI for mean treatment difference of −26 to +16 points. A statistically significant result (p=0.001) in favour of intramuscular causing less pain at the injection site was noted. Conclusion Non-inferiority of intramuscular to intralesional injections was not confirmed; however, the intramuscular injection proved to be effective in reducing tennis elbow-related symptoms and was found less painful at the site of injection at the time of administration. Trial registration number EUDRACT Number: 2010-022131-11. REC Number: 10/H0718/76 (NRES, Central London REC 1). PMID:28879024

  4. A clinical evaluation of alternative fixation techniques for medial malleolus fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Hayley; Cannada, Lisa K; Watson, J Tracy

    2014-09-01

    Medial malleolus fractures have traditionally been managed using partially threaded screws and/or Kirschner wire fixation. Using these conventional techniques, a non-union rate of as high as 20% has been reported. In addition too many patients complaining of prominent hardware as a source of pain post-fixation. This study was designed to assess the outcomes of medial malleolar fixation using a headless compression screw in terms of union rate, the need for hardware removal, and pain over the hardware site. Saint Louis University and Mercy Medical Center, Level 1 Trauma Centers, St. Louis, MO. After IRB approval, we used billing records to identify all patients with ankle fractures involving the medial malleolus. Medical records and radiographs were reviewed to identify patients with medial malleolar fractures treated with headless compression screw fixation. Our inclusion criteria included follow-up until full weight bearing and a healed fracture. Follow-up clinical records and radiographs were reviewed to determine union, complication rate and perception of pain over the site of medial malleolus fixation. Sixty-four ankles were fixed via headless compression screws and 44 had adequate follow-up for additional evaluation. Seven patients had isolated medial malleolar fractures, 23 patients had bimalleolar fractures, and 14 patients had trimalleolar fractures. One patient (2%) required hardware removal due to cellulitis. One patient (2%) had a delayed union, which healed without additional intervention. Ten patients (23%) reported mild discomfort to palpation over the medial malleolus. The median follow-up was 35 weeks (range: 12-208 weeks). There were no screw removals for painful hardware and no cases of non-union. Headless compression screws provide effective compression of medial malleolus fractures and result in good clinical outcomes. The headless compression screw is a beneficial alternative to the conventional methods of medial malleolus fixation. Copyright

  5. Decreased Brain Neurokinin-1 Receptor Availability in Chronic Tennis Elbow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linnman, Clas; Catana, Ciprian; Svärdsudd, Kurt; Appel, Lieuwe; Engler, Henry; Långström, Bengt; Sörensen, Jens; Furmark, Tomas; Fredrikson, Mats; Borsook, David; Peterson, Magnus

    Substance P is released in painful and inflammatory conditions, affecting both peripheral processes and the central nervous system neurokinin 1 (NK1) receptor. There is a paucity of data on human brain alterations in NK1 expression, how this system may be affected by treatment, and interactions between central and peripheral tissue alterations. Ten subjects with chronic tennis elbow (lateral epicondylosis) were selected out of a larger (n = 120) randomized controlled trial evaluating graded exercise as a treatment for chronic tennis elbow (lateral epicondylosis). These ten subjects were examined by positron emission tomography (PET) with the NK1-specific radioligand 11C-GR205171 before, and eight patients were followed up after treatment with graded exercise. Brain binding in the ten patients before treatment, reflecting NK1-receptor availability (NK1-RA), was compared to that of 18 healthy subjects and, longitudinally, to the eight of the original ten patients that agreed to a second PET examination after treatment. Before treatment, patients had significantly lower NK1-RA in the insula, vmPFC, postcentral gyrus, anterior cingulate, caudate, putamen, amygdala and the midbrain but not the thalamus and cerebellum, with the largest difference in the insula contralateral to the injured elbow. No significant correlations between brain NK1-RA and pain, functional severity, or peripheral NK1-RA in the affected limb were observed. In the eight patients examined after treatment, pain ratings decreased in everyone, but there were no significant changes in NK1-RA. These findings indicate a role for the substance P (SP) / NK1 receptor system in musculoskeletal pain and tissue healing. As neither clinical parameters nor successful treatment response was reflected in brain NK1-RA after treatment, this may reflect the diverse function of the SP/NK1 system in CNS and peripheral tissue, or a change too small or slow to capture over the three-month treatment.

  6. Decreased Brain Neurokinin-1 Receptor Availability in Chronic Tennis Elbow.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clas Linnman

    Full Text Available Substance P is released in painful and inflammatory conditions, affecting both peripheral processes and the central nervous system neurokinin 1 (NK1 receptor. There is a paucity of data on human brain alterations in NK1 expression, how this system may be affected by treatment, and interactions between central and peripheral tissue alterations. Ten subjects with chronic tennis elbow (lateral epicondylosis were selected out of a larger (n = 120 randomized controlled trial evaluating graded exercise as a treatment for chronic tennis elbow (lateral epicondylosis. These ten subjects were examined by positron emission tomography (PET with the NK1-specific radioligand 11C-GR205171 before, and eight patients were followed up after treatment with graded exercise. Brain binding in the ten patients before treatment, reflecting NK1-receptor availability (NK1-RA, was compared to that of 18 healthy subjects and, longitudinally, to the eight of the original ten patients that agreed to a second PET examination after treatment. Before treatment, patients had significantly lower NK1-RA in the insula, vmPFC, postcentral gyrus, anterior cingulate, caudate, putamen, amygdala and the midbrain but not the thalamus and cerebellum, with the largest difference in the insula contralateral to the injured elbow. No significant correlations between brain NK1-RA and pain, functional severity, or peripheral NK1-RA in the affected limb were observed. In the eight patients examined after treatment, pain ratings decreased in everyone, but there were no significant changes in NK1-RA. These findings indicate a role for the substance P (SP / NK1 receptor system in musculoskeletal pain and tissue healing. As neither clinical parameters nor successful treatment response was reflected in brain NK1-RA after treatment, this may reflect the diverse function of the SP/NK1 system in CNS and peripheral tissue, or a change too small or slow to capture over the three-month treatment.

  7. Focused and Radial Shock Wave Therapy in the Treatment of Tennis Elbow: A Pilot Randomised Controlled Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Król Piotr

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article was to evaluate and compare the efficacy of radial and focused shock wave therapies applied to treat tennis elbow. Patients with tennis elbow were randomized into two comparative groups: focused shock wave therapy (FSWT; n=25 and radial shock wave therapy (RSWT; n=25. Subjects in the FSWT and RSWT groups were applied with a focused shock wave (3 sessions, 2000 shocks, 4 Hz, 0.2 mJ/mm2 and a radial shock wave (3 sessions, 2000 + 2000 shocks, 8 Hz, 2.5 bar, respectively. The primary study endpoints were pain relief and functional improvement (muscle strength one week after therapy. The secondary endpoint consisted of the results of the follow-up observation (3, 6 and 12 weeks after the study. Successive measurements showed that the amount of pain patients felt decreased in both groups. At the same time grip strength as well as strength of wrist extensors and flexors of the affected extremity improved significantly. Both focused and radial shock wave therapies can comparably and gradually reduce pain in subjects with tennis elbow. This process is accompanied by steadily improved strength of the affected extremity.

  8. The use of polarized polychromatic non-coherent light as therapy for acute tennis elbow/lateral epicondylalgia: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stasinopoulos, Dimitrios

    2005-02-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of polarized, polychromatic, non-coherent, low energy light (Bioptron 2, Bioptron AG, Switzerland) in the treatment of acute tennis elbow. Tennis elbow, or lateral epicondylitis, is one of the most common lesions affecting the arm. A plethora of treatment regimes have been described for this condition, but no specific therapy has emerged as a gold standard. A pilot study was carried out with 25 patients who had acute tennis elbow. Bioptron 2 device was applied over lateral epicondyle three times per week for 4 weeks. Pain on VAS, function on VAS, and painfree grip strength were measured at the beginning (week 0) and at the end of the study (week 4). The pain on VAS was reduced at the end of treatment (t(24) = 3.84, p = 0.001). Function on VAS was increased at the end of treatment (t(24) = 4.23, p Bioptron 2 could reduce patients' symptoms with acute tennis elbow, future controlled studies are needed to establish the relative and absolute effectiveness of Bioptron 2.

  9. A new method for elbow arthrodesis for soft-tissue coverage: The use of biceps brachii muscle flap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soysal Bas

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Elbow arthrodesis is a rarely applied and difficult procedure that is performed to reduce extremity pain and prevent amputation in various clinical states. Infection, nonunion, plate-screw exposition, and skin loss are the major complications of this procedure. In this report, a new reconstruction technique with biceps brachii muscle flap was presented in a case of elbow arthrodesis performed with three operations.

  10. The elbow and its disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrey, B.F.

    1985-01-01

    This book contains 49 chapters. Some of the chapter titles are: Diagnostic Radiographic Techniques of the Elbow; Radiography of the Pediatric Elbow; Muscle and Tendon Trauma: Tennis Elbow; Nerve Injuries; Tendon Injurires about the Elbow; and Ligamentous and Articular Injuries in the Athlete

  11. [External stability of the elbow after surgical treatment of epicondylitis. Presentation of a case].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llop-Corbacho, A; Romero-Ruiz, J; Denia-Alarcón, N

    2014-01-01

    Elbow instability is a difficult to diagnose condition in certain cases, and could lead to some problems that limit daily functioning, such as joint blocks, bumps, projections, muscle weakness, and persistent pain. A case is presented of a patient with a clinical picture of epicondylitis, with a previous history of a fall on the affected arm. As there was no improvement after performing conventional non-aggressive treatment, surgery was performed on the affected tendon. The outcome of this was persistent pain and clinical instability of the elbow that ended up requiring surgery to reconstruct the ligament over the external complex. In follow-up 6 months after the operation, the clinical instability had disappeared, but there was still external discomfort and a 30° extension deficit. When faced with a picture of epicondylitis with a previous injury that does not respond to conventional therapies, it is important to take into account the possibility of an underlying elbow instability, ruling this out with a correct physical examination and, where necessary, with the appropriate complementary tests. Copyright © 2013 SECOT. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  12. Self-reported physical exposure association with medial and lateral epicondylitis incidence in a large longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Descatha, Alexis; Dale, Ann Marie; Jaegers, Lisa; Herquelot, Eléonore; Evanoff, Bradley

    2013-09-01

    Although previous studies have related occupational exposure and epicondylitis, the evidence is moderate and mostly based on cross-sectional studies. Suspected physical exposures were tested over a 3-year period in a large longitudinal cohort study of workers in the USA. In a population-based study including a variety of industries, 1107 newly employed workers were examined; only workers without elbow symptoms at baseline were included. Baseline questionnaires collected information on personal characteristics and self-reported physical work exposures and psychosocial measures for the current or most recent job at 6 months. Epicondylitis (lateral and medial) was the main outcome, assessed at 36 months based on symptoms and physical examination (palpation or provocation test). Logistic models included the most relevant associated variables. Of 699 workers tested after 36 months who did not have elbow symptoms at baseline, 48 suffered from medial or lateral epicondylitis (6.9%), with 34 cases of lateral epicondylitis (4.9%), 30 cases of medial epicondylitis (4.3%) and 16 workers who had both. After adjusting for age, lack of social support and obesity, consistent associations were observed between self-reported wrist bending/twisting and forearm twisting/rotating/screwing motion and future cases of medial or lateral epicondylitis (ORs 2.8 (1.2 to 6.2) and 3.6 (1.2 to 11.0) in men and women, respectively). Self-reported physical exposures that implicate repetitive and extensive/prolonged wrist bend/twisting and forearm movements were associated with incident cases of lateral and medial epicondylitis in a large longitudinal study, although other studies are needed to better specify the exposures involved.

  13. Combination of diagnostic medial calcaneal nerve block followed by pulsed radiofrequency for plantar fascitis pain: A new modality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepak Thapa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Plantar fasciitis (PF is the most common cause of chronic heel pain which may be bilateral in 20 to 30% of patients. It is a very painful and disabling condition which can affect the quality of life. The management includes both pharmacological and operative procedures with no single proven effective treatment modality. In the present case series, we managed three patients with PF (one with bilateral PF. Following a diagnostic medial calcaneal nerve (MCN block at its origin, we observed reduction in verbal numerical rating scale (VNRS in all the three patients. Two patients has relapse of PF pain which was managed with MCN block followed with pulsed radio frequency (PRF. All the patients were pain-free at the time of reporting. This case series highlights the possible role of combination of diagnostic MCN block near its origin followed with PRF as a new modality in management of patients with PF.

  14. Combination of diagnostic medial calcaneal nerve block followed by pulsed radiofrequency for plantar fascitis pain: A new modality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thapa, Deepak; Ahuja, Vanita

    2014-01-01

    Plantar fasciitis (PF) is the most common cause of chronic heel pain which may be bilateral in 20 to 30% of patients. It is a very painful and disabling condition which can affect the quality of life. The management includes both pharmacological and operative procedures with no single proven effective treatment modality. In the present case series, we managed three patients with PF (one with bilateral PF). Following a diagnostic medial calcaneal nerve (MCN) block at its origin, we observed reduction in verbal numerical rating scale (VNRS) in all the three patients. Two patients has relapse of PF pain which was managed with MCN block followed with pulsed radio frequency (PRF). All the patients were pain-free at the time of reporting. This case series highlights the possible role of combination of diagnostic MCN block near its origin followed with PRF as a new modality in management of patients with PF. PMID:24963184

  15. Diagnostyka i leczenie zachowawcze łokcia tenisisty = Diagnosis and conservative treatment of tennis elbow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustaw Wójcik

    2017-02-01

      Introduction. Tennis elbow is a relatively common disorder of the musculoskeletal system, for which effective treatment strategy is still unknown. It is responsible for considerable pain and loss of function of the affected limb. Characteristic for the diseases are degenerative changes in the structure of collagen and abnormalities in blood supply associated with the process of neovascularization. Pathology is due to cycles of repetitive stress leading to tissue damage. The sensitivity of imaging depends on the duration of the disease. The first period of the disease is usually caused by trauma, which may be accompanied by inflammation, which is why the most effective treatment may be anti-inflammatory therapy and immobilization of a limb. The subsequent period  is connected with degenerative changes, and treatment relies mainly on combating the painful symptoms. Conditions refractory to conservative treatment are eligible for surgery. The objective of the study. Presentation of current knowledge about diagnosis and treatment of enthesopathy of the lateral epicondyle of the humerus. Materials and method. The work is based on a review of literature of Baz PubMed, Scopus and Web of Science. Conclusions. The primary imaging technique for the diagnosis of tennis elbow is ultrasound. Classic radiology is rather used for the differentiation of other diseases related to the elbow. Modern methods of treatment of tennis elbow are based on the treatment of degenerative changes. Anti-inflammatory treatment is ineffective in the above disease.

  16. OCCUPATION AND EPICONDYLITIS: A POPULATION-BASED STUDY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker-Bone, Karen; Palmer, Keith T; Reading, Isabel C; Coggon, David; Cooper, Cyrus

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To explore the relationship between occupational exposures and lateral and medial epicondylitis and the effect of epicondylitis on sickness absence in a population sample of working aged adults. Methods This was a cross-sectional study of 9696 randomly selected adults aged 25-64 years involving a screening questionnaire and standardised physical examination. Age- and sex-specific prevalence rates of epicondylitis were estimated and associations with occupational risk factors explored. Results Among 6038 respondents, 636 (11%) reported elbow pain in the last week. 0.7% of those surveyed were diagnosed with lateral epicondylitis and 0.6% with medial epicondylitis. Lateral epicondylitis was associated with manual work (OR 4.0, 95% CI 1.9-8.4). In multivariate analyses, repetitive bending/straightening elbow > 1 hour day was independently associated with lateral (OR 2.5, 95% CI 1.2-5.5) and medial epicondylitis (OR 5.1, 95% CI 1.8-14.3). 5% of adults with epicondylitis took sickness absence because of their elbow symptoms in the past 12 months (median 29 days). Conclusions Repetitive exposure to bending/straightening the elbow was a significant risk factor for medial and lateral epicondylitis. Epicondylitis is associated with prolonged sickness absence in 5% of affected working-aged adults. PMID:22019808

  17. Predisposing Effect of Elbow Alignment on the Elbow Fracture Type in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Seungcheol; Park, Soo-Sung

    2015-08-01

    Under the hypothesis that the elbow alignment, namely the carrying angle, could predispose individuals to a specific type of pediatric elbow fracture after a fall onto an outstretched arm, we investigated the relationship between radiographic carrying angle and elbow fracture type in children. Retrospective case-control study. Level I pediatric trauma center. We reviewed 374 children who were diagnosed with supracondylar fracture (SCF, n = 208), lateral condylar fracture (LCF, n = 132), and radial neck fracture (RNF, n = 34). The association between the radiographic carrying angle and the fracture type was investigated. To adjust for bias, 2 statistical methods were used: multivariate analysis using a baseline-category logistic model and a case-matching method using propensity score analysis. In the multivariate analysis, with SCF patients set as the baseline category, a more valgus-deviated elbow (increased carrying angle, P = 0.011) predisposed individuals to RNF, whereas a more varus-deviated elbow (decreased carrying angle, P predisposed them to LCF. In the case-matched analysis, there were also significant differences in carrying angles between RNF and case-matched SCF patients (14.3 vs. 11.4 degrees, P = 0.013) and between LCF and case-matched SCF patients (7.7 vs. 11.7 degrees, P fall onto an outstretched elbow, could be a predisposing factor for specific types of pediatric elbow fracture. The results provide the additional information about the injury mechanisms of pediatric elbow fracture and may deepen our understanding of the fractures. Prognostic Level III. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

  18. Appearance of medial plica of the knee on MR images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barton, J.; Pope, C.F.; Jokl, P.; Lynch, K.

    1989-01-01

    To assess the appearance of the abnormal plica, a rare but important cause of knee pain, the authors have reviewed 1.5-T MR images of 17 patients (mean age, 33 years) who had arthroscopically confirmed abnormal plicae involving the medial aspect of the patella pouch. Asymmetry in the medial wall of the patella pouch was seen in 17 of 17; 10 of 17 had a discernible edge, and four of 17 had sufficient fluid to surround the plica. When sufficient intraarticular fluid was present, the plica was easily detected. Asymmetry in the medial wall of the patella pouch was a helpful MR characteristic to account for unexplained knee pain

  19. Arthroscopic R-LCL plication for symptomatic minor instability of the lateral elbow (SMILE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrigoni, Paolo; Cucchi, Davide; D'Ambrosi, Riccardo; Menon, Alessandra; Aliprandi, Alberto; Randelli, Pietro

    2017-07-01

    Minor instability has been proposed as a possible aetiology of lateral elbow pain. This study presents the results of the arthroscopic plication of the radial component of the lateral collateral ligament (R-LCL) to reduce minor instability of the lateral elbow. Twenty-seven patients with recalcitrant lateral epicondylitis who had failed conservative therapy and who had no previous trauma or overt instability, were included. R-LCL plication was performed in the presence of at least one sign of lateral ligamentous patholaxity and one intra-articular abnormal finding. Single-assessment numeric evaluation (SANE), Oxford Elbow Score (OES), quickDASH (Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, Hand), patient satisfaction and post-operative range of motion were evaluated. SANE improved from a median of 30 [2-40] points pre-operatively to 90 [80-100] at final follow-up (p instability of the lateral elbow (SMILE) at 2-year median follow-up. A slight limitation in range of motion is a possible undesired consequence of this intervention. Retrospective case series, Level IV.

  20. Assessment of pressure-pain thresholds and central sensitization of pain in lateral epicondylalgia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, Anders; Amris, Kirstine; Graven-Nielsen, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    pressure stimulation at intensity relative to the individual pain threshold, the pain intensity was continuously recorded using an electronic visual analogue scale (VAS), and from this the degree of temporal summation was estimated. For LE, a Doppler ultrasound examination of the elbow was made to identify...

  1. Arthroscopic treatment of symptomatic type D medial plica

    OpenAIRE

    Uysal, Mustafa; Asik, Mehmet; Akpinar, Sercan; Ciftci, Feyyaz; Cesur, Necip; Tandogan, Reha N.

    2007-01-01

    We aimed to review the results of subtotal arthroscopic resection of symptomatic type D medial plica. We retrospectively evaluated 23 knees with symptomatic type D medial plica in 22 patients without other intra-articular pathology. All patients complained of chronic knee pain that had not been alleviated by medical treatment or physical therapy. In only three (13%) of the patients studied was the plica diagnosed pre-operatively with magnetic resonance imaging. The type D medial plicae in our...

  2. Tennis elbow surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lateral epicondylitis - surgery; Lateral tendinosis - surgery; Lateral tennis elbow - surgery ... Surgery to repair tennis elbow is often an outpatient surgery. This means you will not stay in the hospital overnight. You will be given ...

  3. Influence of elbow curvature on flow structure at elbow outlet under high Reynolds number condition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ono, A., E-mail: ono.ayako@jaea.go.jp [Oarai Research and Development Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Narita 4002, Oarai, Ibaraki 311-1393 (Japan); Kimura, N.; Kamide, H.; Tobita, A. [Oarai Research and Development Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Narita 4002, Oarai, Ibaraki 311-1393 (Japan)

    2011-11-15

    In the design of Japan Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor (JSFR), coolant velocity is beyond 9 m/s in the primary hot leg pipe of 1.27 m diameter. The Reynolds number in the piping reaches 4.2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 7}. Moreover, a short-elbow is adopted in the hot leg pipe in order to achieve compact plant layout and to reduce plant construction cost. Therefore, the flow-induced vibration (FIV) arising from the piping geometry may occur in the short-elbow pipe. The FIV is due to the excitation source which is caused by the pressure fluctuation in the pipe. The pressure fluctuation in the pipe is closely related with the velocity fluctuation. As the first step of clarification of the FIV mechanism, it is important to grasp the mechanism of flow fluctuation in the elbow. In this study, water experiments with two types of elbows with different curvature ratios were conducted in order to investigate the interaction between flow separation and the secondary flow due to the elbow curvature. The experiments were conducted with the short-elbow and the long-elbow under Re = 1.8 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 5} and 5.4 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 5} conditions. The velocity fields in the elbows were measured using a high-speed Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV). The time-series of axial velocity fields and the cross-section velocity fields obtained by the high-speed PIV measurements revealed the unsteady and complex flow structure in the elbow. The flow separation always occurred in the short-elbow while the flow separation occurred intermittently in the long-elbow case. The circumferential secondary flows in clockwise and counterclockwise directions flowed forward downstream of reattachment point alternately in both elbows.

  4. The first 100 elbow arthroscopies of one surgeon: analysis of complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marti, Darius; Spross, Christian; Jost, Bernhard

    2013-04-01

    Elbow arthroscopy is technically challenging and prone to complications especially due to the close relation of nerves and vessels. Complication rates up to 20% are reported, depending on indication and how complications are defined. This study analyzes the complications of the first 100 elbow arthroscopies done by 1 fellowship- and cadaver-trained surgeon. From September 2004 to April 2009, 100 consecutive elbow arthroscopies were performed, and thus consequently standardized, by 1 surgeon in 1 institution. The clinical data of all patients were retrospectively analyzed for indication-specific complications. Complications were divided into minor (transient) and major (persistent or infection). Included were 65 male and 35 female patients (mean age, 41 years; range, 12-70 years) with a minimum follow-up of 12 months (clinical or telephone). The following indications were documented (several per patient were possible): osteoarthritis in 29, stiffness in 27, loose bodies in 27, tennis elbow in 24, traumatic sequelae in 19, and others in 24. No major complications occurred, but 6 minor complications occurred in 5 patients (5%), comprising 2 hematoma, 2 transient nerve lesions, 1 wound-healing problem, and 1 complex regional pain syndrome. No revision surgery was necessary. Complications were not significantly associated with the indication for operation or the surgeon's learning curve. This study shows an acceptable complication rate of the first 100 elbow arthroscopies from a single surgeon. A profound clinical education, including cadaver training as well as standardization of patient position, portals, and surgery, help to achieve this. Copyright © 2013 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Comparison of Effectiveness of Supervised Exercise Program and Cyriax Physiotherapy in Patients with Tennis Elbow (Lateral Epicondylitis: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajadurai Viswas

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To compare the effectiveness of supervised exercise program and Cyriax physiotherapy in the treatment of tennis elbow (lateral epicondylitis. Design. Randomized clinical trial. Setting. Physiotherapy and rehabilitation centre. Subjects. This study was carried out with 20 patients, who had tennis elbow (lateral epicondylitis. Intervention. Group A (=10 had received supervised exercise program. Group B (=10 was treated with Cyriax physiotherapy. All patients received three treatment sessions per week for four weeks (12 treatment sessions. Outcome measures. Pain was evaluated using a visual analogue scale (VAS, and functional status was evaluated by completion of the Tennis Elbow Function Scale (TEFS which were recorded at base line and at the end of fourth week. Results. Both the supervised exercise program and Cyriax physiotherapy were found to be significantly effective in reduction of pain and in the improvement of functional status. The supervised exercise programme resulted in greater improvement in comparison to those who received Cyriax physiotherapy. Conclusion. The results of this clinical trial demonstrate that the supervised exercise program may be the first treatment choice for therapist in managing tennis elbow.

  6. The Boyd–McLeod procedure for tennis elbow: mid- to long-term results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeavons, Richard; Richards, Ian; Bayliss, Neil

    2014-01-01

    Background Tennis elbow is a common condition that usually responds to conservative measures. In refractory cases, surgical intervention is indicated. A plethora of surgical techniques have been described. We report the mid- to long-term outcomes of the Boyd–McLeod procedure for refractory tennis elbow. Methods A retrospective analysis and current review of patients that had undergone the Boyd–McLeod procedure over a 12-year period was undertaken. Demographics, time to discharge, length of follow-up and outcome scores were collected. Results Seventy patients underwent surgery. Mean time to discharge was 15.35 weeks, with 88% successful outcomes. Fifty-four patients were available for current follow-up at mean of 5.52 years (range 1.17 years to 11.49 years). Range of motion in all patients was unchanged. There were no revision procedures. Mean (SD) Mayo Elbow Performance Score was 90.85 (13.11), with 75.5% returning a good or excellent score and 24.5% a fair outcome. The mean (SD) Oxford Elbow Score was 44.04 (6.92); mean (SD) pain score was 89.5 (17.58); mean (SD) function score was 95.34 (9.59) and mean (SD) socio-psychological score was 91.50 (17.01). Overall, 83% of patients had an Oxford Elbow Score of 43 or greater, suggesting excellent outcome. Conclusions We show that the Boyd–McLeod procedure is an excellent option over both the short- and long-term for refractory tennis elbow. PMID:27582946

  7. Role of computed tomography in evaluation of osteochondritis dissecans of the elbow joint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Byung Lyul; Kim, Jeong Eun; Jee, Keum Nahn; Park, Yang Hee

    1995-01-01

    To evaluate the role of CT in early detection, location, and extent of osteochondritis dissecans (OCD) of the elbow joint. We reviewed surgically proved 27 cases of 22 patients with osteochondritis dissecans in elbow joint retrospectively. We compared simple x-ray (elbow AP and lateral) with CT on the basis of staging of OCD of talus by simple x-ray. The frequency of location was as follows: fourteen cases of capitellum, 5 cases of olecranon tip, 5 cases of medial epicondyle, 2 cases of trochlea, and 1 case of olecranon base. Among the 4 cases of normal finding on simple x-ray, CT showed 1 case each of stage I, II, III and IV OCD and among the 8 cases of stage I on simple x-ray, CT showed 2 cases of stage I, 1 case of stage II, and 5 cases of stage III. Among the 3 cases of stage II on simple x-ray, CT showed 1 case of stage II and 2 cases of stage III. Among the 5 cases of stage III on simple x-ray, CT showed 1 case of stage II, 2 cases of stage III, and 2 cases of stage IV, but it was difficult to detect the presence or absence of attachment between the articular cartilage of mother bone and osteochondral fragment CT was more accurate than simple x-ray in detection of loose body. CT might be an useful imaging modality in early diagnosis of OCD and evaluation of its anatomic location and extent in elbow joint

  8. A Study on the Effect of Applying Cast Splints in Treatment of Tennis Elbow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Zarezadeh

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tennis elbow is a common orthopedic disease affecting elbow in middle aged people. Ninety percent of patients are cured using conservative treatments. In the past, emphasis was placed on the use of long arm splints for its treatment; however, recent studies put doubt on the use of this method of treatment for the complications arising from the application of splints. The results of using long arm splints for the treatment of Methods: This was a case series non randomized clinical trial involving 25 patients treated with long arm castsplints, and 25 patients treated without the use of splint. Local corticosteroid injections and oral NSAIDs were administered for all patients. The two groups were compared in the third week, third month and sixth month of their treatment for the presence of local tenderness and pain in passive flexion test of wrist and fingers against resistance. Using SPSS 9.0, data were analyzed via repeated measurements test of ANOVA Results: Patients in case and control groups had mean ages 43.6 ± 7.2 and 43.6 ± 6 years, respectively. Prior to any treatments, all patients in this study suffered from pain and tenderness in the origin of forearm extensor muscles. Their pain exacerbated upon passive flexion of wrist and fingers against resistance. No significant difference was seen in third week, third month and sixth month (P value =0.32, and no significant difference was seen in the results of our tests regarding the presence of local tenderness and pain in passive flexion of wrist and fingers against resistance between the two groups Conclusions: After a follow-up period of six months, this study demonstrated no statistically significant difference between the two groups treated with and without long arm splints. Keywords: Tennis elbow, Conservative treatment, Laterals epicondylitis, Cast splint

  9. The effect of elbow angle and external moment on load sharing of elbow muscles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Praagman, M.; Chadwick, E.K.J.; van der Helm, F.C.T.; Veeger, H.E.J.

    2010-01-01

    To study elbow muscle load sharing we investigated the effect of external flexion-extension (FE) and pronation-supination (PS) moments and elbow angle on muscle activation and oxygen consumption (V̇O2).Two data sets were obtained. First, (n=6) electromyography (EMG) of elbow flexors (long and short

  10. The Relationship between Chondromalacia Patella, Medial Meniscal Tear and Medial Periarticular Bursitis in Patients with Osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resorlu, Mustafa; Doner, Davut; Karatag, Ozan; Toprak, Canan Akgun

    2017-12-01

    This study investigated the presence of bursitis in the medial compartment of the knee (pes anserine, semimembranosus-tibial collateral ligament, and medial collateral ligament bursa) in osteoarthritis, chondromalacia patella and medial meniscal tears. Radiological findings of 100 patients undergoing magnetic resonance imaging with a preliminary diagnosis of knee pain were retrospectively evaluated by two radiologists. The first radiologist assessed all patients in terms of osteoarthritis, chondromalacia patella and medial meniscal tear. The second radiologist was blinded to these results and assessed the presence of bursitis in all patients. Mild osteoarthritis (grade I and II) was determined in 55 patients and severe osteoarthritis (grade III and IV) in 45 cases. At retropatellar cartilage evaluation, 25 patients were assessed as normal, while 29 patients were diagnosed with mild chondromalacia patella (grade I and II) and 46 with severe chondromalacia patella (grade III and IV). Medial meniscus tear was determined in 51 patients. Severe osteoarthritis and chondromalacia patella were positively correlated with meniscal tear (p chondromalacia patella (p = 0.023 and p = 0.479, respectively). Evaluation of lateral compartment bursae revealed lateral collateral ligament bursitis in 2 patients and iliotibial bursitis in 5 patients. We observed a greater prevalence of bursitis in the medial compartment of the knee in patients with severe osteoarthritis and medial meniscus tear.

  11. Elbow joint instability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Bo Sanderhoff; Henriksen, M G; Søjbjerg, Jens Ole

    1994-01-01

    The effect of simultaneous ulnar and radial collateral ligament division on the kinematics of the elbow joint is studied in a cadaveric model. Severance of the anterior part of the ulnar collateral ligament and the annular ligament led to significant elbow joint instability in valgus and varus...

  12. A Removable Long-arm Soft Cast to Treat Nondisplaced Pediatric Elbow Fractures: A Randomized, Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Mauricio; Sadlik, Gal; Avoian, Tigran; Ebramzadeh, Edward

    2018-04-01

    The ideal type of immobilization for nondisplaced pediatric elbow fractures has not been established. We hypothesized that the use of a long-arm cylinder made of soft cast material will result in similar outcomes to those obtained with a traditional long-arm hard cast. We randomly assigned 100 consecutive children who presented with a closed, nondisplaced, type I supracondylar humeral fracture or an occult, closed, acute elbow injury, to 1 of 2 groups: group A (n=50) received a long-arm, traditional fiberglass (hard) cast. Group B (n=50) received a long-arm, soft fiberglass cast. After 4 weeks, the cast was removed in group A by a member of our staff using a cast saw, and in group B by one of the patient's parents by rolling back the soft fiberglass material. We compared the amount of fracture displacement and/or angulation, recovery of range of motion, elbow pain, and patient satisfaction. There were no instances of unplanned removal of the cast by the patient or parent. No evidence of fracture displacement or angulation was seen in either group. The final carrying angle of the affected elbow was nearly identical of that of the normal, contralateral elbow in both groups (P=0.64). At the latest follow-up appointment, elbows in groups A and B had a similar mean arc of motion (156 vs. 154 degrees; P=0.45), and had achieved identical relative arc of motion of 99.6% and 99.5% of that of the normal, contralateral side, respectively (P=0.94). Main pain scores were low and comparable over the study period. All patients in both groups reported the highest rate of satisfaction at the eighth week of follow-up. The results indicate that children with nondisplaced supracondylar humeral fractures can be successfully managed with the use of a removable long-arm soft cast, maintaining fracture alignment and resulting in comparable rates of range of motion, pain, and patient satisfaction. The use of a removable immobilization that can reliably maintain fracture alignment and

  13. Comparison of Effectiveness of Supervised Exercise Program and Cyriax Physiotherapy in Patients with Tennis Elbow (Lateral Epicondylitis): A Randomized Clinical Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viswas, Rajadurai; Ramachandran, Rejeeshkumar; Korde Anantkumar, Payal

    2012-01-01

    Objective. To compare the effectiveness of supervised exercise program and Cyriax physiotherapy in the treatment of tennis elbow (lateral epicondylitis). Design. Randomized clinical trial. Setting. Physiotherapy and rehabilitation centre. Subjects. This study was carried out with 20 patients, who had tennis elbow (lateral epicondylitis). Intervention. Group A (n = 10) had received supervised exercise program. Group B (n = 10) was treated with Cyriax physiotherapy. All patients received three treatment sessions per week for four weeks (12 treatment sessions). Outcome measures. Pain was evaluated using a visual analogue scale (VAS), and functional status was evaluated by completion of the Tennis Elbow Function Scale (TEFS) which were recorded at base line and at the end of fourth week. Results. Both the supervised exercise program and Cyriax physiotherapy were found to be significantly effective in reduction of pain and in the improvement of functional status. The supervised exercise programme resulted in greater improvement in comparison to those who received Cyriax physiotherapy. Conclusion. The results of this clinical trial demonstrate that the supervised exercise program may be the first treatment choice for therapist in managing tennis elbow. PMID:22629225

  14. [Efficacies of arthroscopic debridement and olecranon fossa plasty in the treatment of osteoarthritis and posterior elbow impingement].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yu-jie; Wang, Jun-liang; Li, Hai-feng; Qi, Wei; Wang, Ning

    2012-07-17

    To evaluate the efficacies of arthroscopic debridement and removal of osteophyma for olecroanon and olecranon fossa plasty for posterior impingement of elbow joint. Between 1999 and 2008, a total of 21 cases were diagnosed with osteoarthritis and posterior elbow impingement. There were 15 males and 6 females. And there were 16 right and 15 left cases. They included volleyball players (n = 7), tennis players (n = 7), golf enthusiasts (n = 4) and fencers (n = 3). The average duration of onset-operation was 3.5 years (range: 2.5 - 8). Arthroscopic exploration revealed synovial hyperplasia hypertrophy, cartilage degeneration and olecranon fossa hyperplasia with deformed olecranon fossa. Debridement and plasty were performed. Loose bodies were removed from elbow joint in 6 patients. Partial resection of posterior olecranon tip was performed and osteophytes or fibrous tissue removed in this area. Dynamic observation showed no posterior elbow impingement. Postoperative follow-up was conducted in 19 cases and 2 cases became lost to follow-up. The average follow-up period was 25.3 months (range: 18 - 42). All patients were evaluated preoperatively and postoperatively with the Hospital for Special Surgery Elbow Assessment Scale. The outcomes were excellent (n = 12), good (n = 7) and fair (n = 2). Postoperative patients elbow swelling and pain relieve, sports and life function returns to normal, elbow flexion and rotating mobility obviously improved. With the elbow radiological films to measure the range of motion, the average range of motion was 90.5° preoperatively and improved to 130° postoperatively. There was significant improvement in all cases. Posterior elbow impingement is caused by hyperextension trauma and elbow overuse during specific sporting activities. Arthroscopic debridement and olecroanon or olecranon fossa plasty demonstrates excellent results for posterior impingement of elbow joint.

  15. PET-scan shows peripherally increased neurokinin 1 receptor availability in chronic tennis elbow: visualizing neurogenic inflammation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magnus Peterson

    Full Text Available In response to pain, neurokinin 1 (NK1 receptor availability is altered in the central nervous system. The NK1 receptor and its primary agonist, substance P, also play a crucial role in peripheral tissue in response to pain, as part of neurogenic inflammation. However, little is known about alterations in NK1 receptor availability in peripheral tissue in chronic pain conditions and very few studies have been performed on human beings. Ten subjects with chronic tennis elbow were therefore examined by positron emission tomography (PET with the NK1 specific radioligand [(11C]GR205171 before and after treatment with graded exercise. The radioligand signal intensity was higher in the affected arm as compared with the unaffected arm, measured as differences between the arms in volume of voxels and signal intensity of this volume above a reference threshold set as 2.5 SD above mean signal intensity of the unaffected arm before treatment. In the eight subjects examined after treatment, pain ratings decreased in all subjects but signal intensity decreased in five and increased in three. In conclusion, NK1 receptors may be activated, or up-regulated in the peripheral, painful tissue of a chronic pain condition. This up-regulation does, however, have moderate correlation to pain ratings. The increased NK1 receptor availability is interpreted as part of ongoing neurogenic inflammation and may have correlation to the pathogenesis of chronic tennis elbow.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00888225 http://clinicaltrials.gov/

  16. Tennis elbow surgery - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... epicondylitis surgery - discharge; Lateral tendinosis surgery - discharge; Lateral tennis elbow surgery - discharge ... long as you are told. This helps ensure tennis elbow will not return. You may be prescribed a ...

  17. Elbow arthroscopy: indications, techniques, outcomes, and complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Julie E; King, Graham J W; Steinmann, Scott P; Cohen, Mark S

    2015-01-01

    Elbow arthroscopy is a tool useful for the treatment of a variety of pathologies about the elbow. The major indications for elbow arthroscopy include débridement for septic elbow arthritis, synovectomy for inflammatory arthritis, débridement for osteoarthritis, loose body extraction, contracture release, treatment of osteochondral defects and selected fractures or instability, and tennis elbow release. To achieve favorable outcomes after elbow arthroscopy, the surgeon should be aware of contraindications, technical considerations, anatomic principles, and the need for proper patient positioning and portal selection. Elbow arthroscopy is an effective procedure for the treatment of inflammatory arthritis, osteoarthritis, and lateral epicondylitis.

  18. Isolated partial tear and partial avulsion of the medial head of gastrocnemius tendon presenting as posterior medial knee pain

    OpenAIRE

    Watura, Christopher; Ward, Anthony; Harries, William

    2010-01-01

    We present a case of medial head of gastrocnemius tendon tear. The type of injury widely reported in the literature is tear of the medial head of gastrocnemius muscle or ‘tennis leg’. We previously reported an isolated partial tear and longitudinal split of the tendon to the medial head of gastrocnemius at its musculotendinous junction. The case we now present has notable differences; the tear was interstitial and at the proximal (femoral attachment) part of the tendon, the patient’s symptoms...

  19. Pediatric elbow fractures: a new angle on an old topic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emery, Kathleen H.; Anton, Christopher G. [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Zingula, Shannon N. [Mayo Clinic, Department of Radiology, Rochester, MN (United States); Salisbury, Shelia R. [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Biostatistics and Epidemiology, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Tamai, Junichi [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Department of Pediatric Orthopedics, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    2016-01-15

    The three most common elbow fractures classically reported in pediatric orthopedic literature are supracondylar (50-70%), lateral condylar (17-34%), and medial epicondylar fractures (10%), with fractures of the proximal radius (including but not limited to fractures of the radial neck) being relatively uncommon (5-10%). Our experience at a large children's hospital suggests a different distribution. Our goals were (1) to ascertain the frequency of different elbow fracture types in a large pediatric population, and (2) to determine which fracture types were occult on initial radiographs but detected on follow-up. Review of medical records identified 462 children, median age 6 years and interquartile range for age of 4-8 years (range 0.8-18 years), who were diagnosed with elbow fractures at our institution over a 10-month period. Initial and follow-up radiographs were reviewed in blinded fashion independently by two experienced pediatric musculoskeletal radiologists to identify fracture types on initial and follow-up radiographs. The most common fractures included supracondylar (n = 258, 56%), radial neck (n = 80, 17%), and lateral condylar (n = 69, 15%). Additional fractures were seen on follow-up exams in 32 children. Of these, 25 had a different fracture type than was identified on initial radiographs. The most common follow-up fractures were olecranon (n = 23, 72%), coronoid process (n = 4, 13%) and supracondylar (n = 3, 9%). Olecranon fractures were significantly more common on follow-up radiographs than they were on initial radiographs (n = 33, 7%; P <.0001). Twenty-six children had more than one fracture type on the initial radiograph. The most common fracture combinations were radial neck with olecranon (n = 9) and supracondylar with lateral condylar (n = 9). Supracondylar fractures are the most frequent elbow fracture seen initially, followed by radial neck, lateral condylar, and olecranon fractures in a distribution different from what has been

  20. Flexibility of trunnion piping elbows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, G.D.; Chao, Y.J.

    1987-01-01

    Flexibility factors and stress indices for piping component such as straight pipe, elbows, butt-welding tees, branch connections, and butt-welding reducers are contained in the code, but many of the less common piping components, like the trunnion elbow, do not have flexibility factors or stress indices defined. The purpose of this paper is to identify the in-plane and out-of-plane flexibility factors in accordance with code procedures for welded trunnions attached to the tangent centerlines of long radius elbows. This work utilized the finite element method as applicable to plates and shells for calculating the relative rotations of the trunnion elbow-ends for in-plane and out-of-plane elbow moment loadings. These rotations are used to derive the corresponding in-plane and out-of-plane flexibility factors. (orig./GL)

  1. Cross-cultural adaptation and validation of the Patient-Rated Tennis Elbow Evaluation Questionnaire on lateral elbow tendinopathy for French-speaking patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaux, Jean-François; Delvaux, François; Schaus, Jean; Demoulin, Christophe; Locquet, Médéa; Buckinx, Fanny; Beaudart, Charlotte; Dardenne, Nadia; Van Beveren, Julien; Croisier, Jean-Louis; Forthomme, Bénédicte; Bruyère, Olivier

    Translation and validation of algo-functional questionnaire. The lateral elbow tendinopathy is a common injury in tennis players and physical workers. The Patient-Rated Tennis Elbow Evaluation (PRTEE) Questionnaire was specifically designed to measure pain and functional limitations in patients with lateral epicondylitis (tennis elbow). First developed in English, this questionnaire has since been translated into several languages. The aims of the study were to translate and cross-culturally adapt the PRTEE questionnaire into French and to evaluate the reliability and validity of this translated version of the questionnaire (PRTEE-F). The PRTEE was translated and cross-culturally adapted into French according to international guidelines. To assess the reliability and validity of the PRTEE-F, 115 participants were asked twice to fill in the PRTEE-F, and once the Disabilities of Arm, Shoulder and Hand Questionnaire (DASH) and the Short Form Health Survey (SF-36). Internal consistency (using Cronbach's alpha), test-retest reliability (using intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), standard error of measurement and minimal detectable change), and convergent and divergent validity (using the Spearman's correlation coefficients respectively with the DASH and with some subscales of the SF-36) were assessed. The PRTEE was translated into French without any problems. PRTEE-F showed a good test-retest reliability for the overall score (ICC 0.86) and for each item (ICC 0.8-0.96) and a high internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha = 0.98). The correlation analyses revealed high correlation coefficients between PRTEE-F and DASH (convergent validity) and, as expected, a low or moderate correlation with the divergent subscales of the SF-36 (discriminant validity). There was no floor or ceiling effect. The PRTEE questionnaire was successfully cross-culturally adapted into French. The PRTEE-F is reliable and valid for evaluating French-speaking patients with lateral elbow

  2. The Relationship between Chondromalacia Patella, Medial Meniscal Tear and Medial Periarticular Bursitis in Patients with Osteoarthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doner, Davut; Karatag, Ozan; Toprak, Canan Akgun

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background This study investigated the presence of bursitis in the medial compartment of the knee (pes anserine, semimembranosus-tibial collateral ligament, and medial collateral ligament bursa) in osteoarthritis, chondromalacia patella and medial meniscal tears. Patients and methods Radiological findings of 100 patients undergoing magnetic resonance imaging with a preliminary diagnosis of knee pain were retrospectively evaluated by two radiologists. The first radiologist assessed all patients in terms of osteoarthritis, chondromalacia patella and medial meniscal tear. The second radiologist was blinded to these results and assessed the presence of bursitis in all patients. Results Mild osteoarthritis (grade I and II) was determined in 55 patients and severe osteoarthritis (grade III and IV) in 45 cases. At retropatellar cartilage evaluation, 25 patients were assessed as normal, while 29 patients were diagnosed with mild chondromalacia patella (grade I and II) and 46 with severe chondromalacia patella (grade III and IV). Medial meniscus tear was determined in 51 patients. Severe osteoarthritis and chondromalacia patella were positively correlated with meniscal tear (p chondromalacia patella (p = 0.023 and p = 0.479, respectively). Evaluation of lateral compartment bursae revealed lateral collateral ligament bursitis in 2 patients and iliotibial bursitis in 5 patients. Conclusions We observed a greater prevalence of bursitis in the medial compartment of the knee in patients with severe osteoarthritis and medial meniscus tear. PMID:29333118

  3. Nursemaid's Elbow (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Parents Parents site Sitio para padres General Health Growth & Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & ... For Parents / Nursemaid's Elbow Print About Nursemaid's Elbow Toddlers and preschoolers are at risk for a common ...

  4. The medial tibial stress syndrome. A cause of shin splints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mubarak, S J; Gould, R N; Lee, Y F; Schmidt, D A; Hargens, A R

    1982-01-01

    The medial tibial stress syndrome is a symptom complex seen in athletes who complain of exercise-induced pain along the distal posterior-medial aspect of the tibia. Intramuscular pressures within the posterior compartments of the leg were measured in 12 patients with this disorder. These pressures were not elevated and therefore this syndrome is a not a compartment syndrome. Available information suggests that the medial tibial stress syndrome most likely represents a periostitis at this location of the leg.

  5. MR imaging findings and MR criteria for instability in osteochondritis dissecans of the elbow in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jans, Lennart B.O.; Ditchfield, Michael; Anna, Gomez; Jaremko, Jacob L.; Verstraete, Koenraad L.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Osteochondritis dissecans (OCD) of the elbow is an uncommon cause of elbow pain in adolescents and occurs at different locations in the elbow joint. Early diagnosis and treatment may prevent surgery. The aim of the study is to describe the MR imaging features of OCD at initial imaging, and to correlate these findings with surgical findings of stability and instability with arthroscopic findings as the reference standard. Methods: Patients were identified through a keyword search of the radiology information system from 2000 to 2009. Twenty-five patients (26 elbows) with OCD of the elbow were identified (age 10.4–18 years, mean age 14 years). MR studies were retrospectively reviewed by two radiologists in consensus to define MR imaging findings and to determine the presence of previously described MR imaging criteria for OCD instability (i.e., high T2 signal rim, surrounding cysts, high T2 signal fracture line, fluid-filled osteochondral defect). Sensitivity of the individual and combined criteria was calculated. Results: OCD occurred in the capitellum in 24 patients (92%), in the trochlea in 2 patients (8%) and radial head in 1 patient (4%). Loose bodies were identified in 11 (42%) patients. Eighteen patients demonstrated MRI findings in keeping with unstable lesions. In all 11 patients who had surgery the surgical findings of instability correlated with the MRI findings. When combined, the MR criteria were 100% sensitive for instability of OCD lesions of the elbow. Conclusion: The vast majority of OCD of the elbow occurs in the capitellum. When used together, the MR criteria for instability were 100% sensitive for evaluation OCD lesions of the elbow.

  6. Elbow Injuries and Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Many things can make your elbow hurt. A common cause is tendinitis, an inflammation or injury to the tendons that attach muscle to bone. Tendinitis of the elbow is a sports injury, often from playing tennis or golf. You ...

  7. Elbow arthroplasty in perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijink, A.

    2017-01-01

    This thesis focuses on the effect of biomechanical aspects of prosthesis design and outcome after radial head and total elbow arthroplasty. First, we examine the available evidence regarding the role of several unfavorable biomechanical conditions about the elbow in the development of

  8. Hydro-galvanic and rising - temperature bath therapy for chronic elbow epicondylitis: a comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Mucha

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available The efficacy of two different regimens of physiotherapy for epicondylitis was compared. A combination treatment with hydrogalvanic four-cell bath and arm bath with rising temperature, which had showed good effects in treatment of tennis elbow in an earlier observational study (Mucha 1987, was compared with the analgesic interference current treatment often recommended in the literature (Sadil and Sadil 1994, Noteboom et al 1994, Becker and Reuter 1982. For this study, 60 patients with epicondylitis that was resistant to conservative treatment were randomized into two groups for comparison. In group 1, interference currents were administered twice a day for six weeks and group 2 received combination treatment with the hydrogalvanic four-cell bath and rising- temperature arm bath once a day for six weeks. Criteria for inclusion, control and appraisal were laid down prospectively. Several parameters were used, recorded and statistically evaluated as outcome measures.  These were active joint range of movement of the elbow, grip strength, pain provocation with muscle contraction, palpation pain and pain with functional activities.  The results showed a significant superiority of combination treatment over therapy with interference current. It is therefore recommended that hydrogalvanic four-cell bath and arm bath with rising temperature should be carried out before considering surgical treatment for chronic epicondylitis.

  9. The Effect of Dry Needling of the Trigger Points of Shoulder Muscles on Pain and Grip Strength in Patients with Lateral Epicondylitis: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Kheradmandi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Lateral epicondylitis, also known as tennis elbow, is the most common overuse syndrome of the elbow. The severity of pain may not be directly caused by tendinopathy of wrist extensors since trigger points of the shoulder muscles have a referral zone in the arm and elbow. Therefore the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of dry needling of shoulder myofascial trigger points on wrist extensors muscles pain and function. Methods: Fourteen female patients with tennis elbow (aged 20 - 45 years old were recruited after primary evaluation by an orthopedist. They entered the study if they had pain in the lateral aspect of elbow of the dominant hand for more than 3 months along with the presence of myofascial trigger points in any muscles of supra spinatus, infra spinatus, sub scapularis or scalenes. Pain pressure threshold, maximal grip force and pain intensity of the hand extensors on lateral epicondyle of elbow were measured before and after treatment. Pain intensity was measured on a one to ten scale of visual analogue scale (VAS. A hand dynamometer used to measure the maximal grip force value of the affected hand in 0˚shoulder flexion/ abduction, 90˚ elbow extension and mid-poison of forearm in sitting position. A pressure algometer was applied on hand extensor muscles to define their trigger point sensitivity. For the control group, treatment regimens consisted of routine physical therapy of tennis elbow. This regime was accompanied by dry needling of mentioned muscles for the intervention group. Wilcoxon and Mann-Whitney non-parametric tests were used for statistical analysis. Results: Comparison of the results after intervention showed that the patients’ pain significantly decreased in both groups (P<0.001; but the patient’s PPT and grip force significantly increased solely in the intervention group (P<0.05. Mann Whitney test showed significant pain differences in both groups (P=0.001. The comparison of differences

  10. Comparison of neuromuscular and quadriceps strengthening exercise in the treatment of varus malaligned knees with medial knee osteoarthritis: a randomised controlled trial protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bennell Kim L

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Osteoarthritis of the knee involving predominantly the medial tibiofemoral compartment is common in older people, giving rise to pain and loss of function. Many people experience progressive worsening of the disease over time, particularly those with varus malalignment and increased medial knee joint load. Therefore, interventions that can reduce excessive medial knee loading may be beneficial in reducing the risk of structural progression. Traditional quadriceps strengthening can improve pain and function in people with knee osteoarthritis but does not appear to reduce medial knee load. A neuromuscular exercise program, emphasising optimal alignment of the trunk and lower limb joints relative to one another, as well as quality of movement performance, while dynamically and functionally strengthening the lower limb muscles, may be able to reduce medial knee load. Such a program may also be superior to traditional quadriceps strengthening with respect to improved pain and physical function because of the functional and dynamic nature. This randomised controlled trial will investigate the effect of a neuromuscular exercise program on medial knee joint loading, pain and function in individuals with medial knee joint osteoarthritis. We hypothesise that the neuromuscular program will reduce medial knee load as well as pain and functional limitations to a greater extent than a traditional quadriceps strengthening program. Methods/Design 100 people with medial knee pain, radiographic medial compartment osteoarthritis and varus malalignment will be recruited and randomly allocated to one of two 12-week exercise programs: quadriceps strengthening or neuromuscular exercise. Each program will involve 14 supervised exercise sessions with a physiotherapist plus four unsupervised sessions per week at home. The primary outcomes are medial knee load during walking (the peak external knee adduction moment from 3D gait analysis, pain, and self

  11. Tennis elbow: associated psychological factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aben, Aurelie; De Wilde, Lieven; Hollevoet, Nadine; Henriquez, Carlos; Vandeweerdt, Marc; Ponnet, Koen; Van Tongel, Alexander

    2018-03-01

    The etiology of tennis elbow is multifactorial. Overuse of the wrist extensors along with anatomic factors, such as flexibility problems, aging, and poor blood circulation, may play a role. This study investigated whether patients with tennis elbow have a different psychological profile compared with healthy controls. Patients with clinical signs of tennis elbow, consulting at the Ghent University Hospital between September 2015 and January 2017, were offered a paper-and-pencil questionnaire about Big Five personality traits, perfectionism, anxiety, depression, work satisfaction, and working conditions. Healthy controls in the same risk group were offered the same questionnaires. We recruited 69 patients (35 men, 34 women) and 100 controls (44 men, 56 women). Tennis elbow patients scored significantly lower on the personality traits extraversion and agreeableness. Men, in particular, scored significantly higher on perfectionism and were more likely to develop an anxiety disorder or a depression. Concerning work, patients indicated a significantly higher workload (especially men) and a significantly lower autonomy (especially women). Female patients also indicated less contact with colleagues. However, work satisfaction was relatively high in both groups. The results suggest that there is a relationship between complaints related to tennis elbow and psychological characteristics. Copyright © 2017 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. The Elbow Self-Assessment Score (ESAS): development and validation of a new patient-reported outcome measurement tool for elbow disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beirer, Marc; Friese, Henrik; Lenich, Andreas; Crönlein, Moritz; Sandmann, Gunther H; Biberthaler, Peter; Kirchhoff, Chlodwig; Siebenlist, Sebastian

    2017-07-01

    To develop and validate an elbow self-assessment score considering subjective as well as objective parameters. Each scale of the American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons-Elbow Score, the Broberg and Morrey rating system (BMS), the Patient-Rated Elbow Evaluation (PREE) Questionnaire, the Mayo Elbow Performance Score (MEPS), the Oxford Elbow Score (OES) and the Quick Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (Quick-DASH) was analysed, and after matching of the general topics, the dedicated items underwent a fusion to the final ESAS's item and a score containing 22 items was created. In a prospective clinical study, validity, reliability and responsiveness in physically active patients with traumatic as well as degenerative elbow disorders were evaluated. Validation study included 103 patients (48 women, 55 men; mean age 43 years). A high test-retest reliability was found with intraclass correlation coefficients of at least 0.71. Construct validity and responsiveness were confirmed by correlation coefficients of -0.80 to -0.84 and 0.72-0.84 (p Self-Assessment Score (ESAS), a valid and reliable instrument for a qualitative self-assessment of subjective and objective parameters (e.g. range of motion) of the elbow joint is demonstrated. Quantitative measurement of elbow function may not longer be limited to specific elbow disorders or patient groups. The ESAS seems to allow for a broad application in clinical research studying elbow patients and may facilitate the comparison of treatment results in elbow disorders. The treatment efficacy can be easily evaluated, and treatment concepts could be reviewed and revised. Diagnostic study, Level III.

  13. Modified tension band wiring of medial malleolar ankle fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiadis, G M; White, D B

    1995-02-01

    Twenty-two displaced medial malleolar ankle fractures that were treated surgically using the modified tension band method of Cleak and Dawson were retrospectively reviewed at an average follow-up of 25 months. The technique involves the use of a screw to anchor a figure-of-eight wire. There were no malreductions and all fractures healed. Problems with the technique included technical errors with hardware placement, medial ankle pain, and asymptomatic wire migration. Despite this, modified tension band wiring remains an acceptable method for fixation of selected displaced medial malleolar fractures. It is especially suited for small fracture fragments and osteoporotic bone.

  14. Combined steroid and lignocaine injection in resistant cases of tennis elbow: A prospective, interventional study from India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vishal Marwaha

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tennis elbow or lateral epicondylitis is a chronic, painful condition and is often resistant to conventional therapy. We evaluated the benefits of a combined steroid and lignocaine injection in resistant cases of tennis elbow. Materials and Methods: In this prospective, interventional study, we included chronic lateral epicondylitis patients resistant to analgesics and physiotherapy. The pain was assessed by visual analog scale (VAS, and we included patients with a baseline VAS> 4. All patients were given local infiltration at the painful site with methylprednisolone (1 ml and lignocaine (1 ml by the peppering technique. The primary outcome was the change in VAS from the baseline at the end of 7 and 28 days. The improvement is classified as good, moderate, or mild based on the reduction in VAS score by 3, 2, 1, respectively. Descriptive statistics and appropriate tests were used to analyze the results. Results: The study population (n = 63; male: female - 33:30 had a mean age of 36.2 ± 4.5 years and disease duration of 17.4 ± 5.8 weeks. After 1 week, 55 patients showed good improvement, three patients showed moderate improvement, two patients showed mild improvement, and three patients had no improvement. The improvement persisted till 28 days in all the patients and one patient who had not improved after 7 days did not report for 28 days follow-up. Conclusion: Local infiltration with steroids and lignocaine is a useful modality of therapy for tennis elbow, especially in patients where ultrasonic therapy and conservative measures have failed.

  15. Stress fracture of the medial clavicle secondary to nervous tic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, K.; Sugiura, H.; Suzuki, Y.

    2004-01-01

    The clinical and radiological characteristics of swelling in the region of the medial clavicle may suggest the presence of a neoplastic or inflammatory lesion. This report describes a 27-year-old man with a painful tumor-like lesion over the medial clavicle, which was found to be a stress fracture caused by a nervous tic resulting from mental stress. (orig.)

  16. Prolonged blockade of the brachial plexus for the early rehabilitation of children with posttraumatic elbow contractures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. V. Zabolotsky

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Improvement of surgical treatment outcomes in children with post-traumatic elbow contractures. Materials and methods. The study is based on the diagnostic findings of 48 children with post-traumatic elbow contractures who were treated at the Turner Scientific and Research Institute for Children’s Orthopedics. All children underwent complex rehabilitation after reconstructive intra-articular surgery to work out passive motions in the elbow using ARTROMOT-E2 device. The patients of the study group started rehabilitation in the first days after reconstructive intra-articular surgery in the background of prolonged blockade of the brachial plexus. In the control group, the rehabilitation was carried out traditionally on the 6th day after surgery without regional anesthesia. The patients of the study group were supplied with Contiplex SU perinural catheters for prolonged blockade of the brachial plexus using ultrasound (Edge SonoSite and neurostimulation (Stimuplex® HNS12 before surgery. For perioperative blockade of the brachial plexus we used intermittent injection of 0.5% ropivacaine (2 mg / kg. The severity of pain at the stages of rehabilitation was assessed using 10-point grading scale (FPS-R. The range of active and passive motions in the joints was evaluated by measuring the range of motions with a fleximeter. Results. Intermittent injection of ropivacaine before rehabilitation allowed to correct post-traumatic elbow contractures in children in the first days after surgery associated with the minimum subjective pain level and stable hemodynamic parameteres, accompanied with a significant increase of the elbow motion range in comparison with the group of the patients who were not performed regional anesthesia . Conclusion. Prolonged blockade of the brachial plexus in rehabilitation treatment of children with post-traumatic contractures provides appropriate analgesic and myoneural block components from the 1st day after intra

  17. Occult posterolateral rotatory dislocation of the elbow with olecranon fracture in a child: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fujimori Takahito

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Acute posterolateral rotator elbow dislocation in a child is rare and can be easily misdiagnosed due to immaturity of the epiphysis. This is the first case of occult posterolateral rotator elbow dislocation in combination with an olecranon fracture. We report our experience with this case, which was not diagnosed correctly by plain radiographs. Case presentation An 11-year-old Asian boy suffered severe pain and swelling of his right elbow after his outstretched arm hit a car dashboard in a motor vehicle accident. Plain radiographs showed only a minimally displaced olecranon fracture and a tiny lateral epicondylar avulsion fracture. However, stress radiographs under general anesthesia revealed severe posterolateral rotatory instability. During surgery, we found that the cartilaginous lateral epicondylar apophysis was much larger than the epicondylar fragment on the radiographs. After the lateral epicondylar osteochondral fragment and lateral collateral ligament complex were fixed, the instability disappeared. Conclusion Our experience with this case shows that it is important to check for instability with pediatric elbow fractures, because a tiny avulsion fracture was able to cause severe posterolateral rotatory instability in a child.

  18. Muscle Fatigue in the Three Heads of the Triceps Brachii During a Controlled Forceful Hand Grip Task with Full Elbow Extension Using Surface Electromyography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Asraf; Sundaraj, Kenneth; Badlishah Ahmad, R; Ahamed, Nizam Uddin; Islam, Anamul; Sundaraj, Sebastian

    2015-06-27

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the time to fatigue and compare the fatiguing condition among the three heads of the triceps brachii muscle using surface electromyography during an isometric contraction of a controlled forceful hand grip task with full elbow extension. Eighteen healthy subjects concurrently performed a single 90 s isometric contraction of a controlled forceful hand grip task and full elbow extension. Surface electromyographic signals from the lateral, long and medial heads of the triceps brachii muscle were recorded during the task for each subject. The changes in muscle activity among the three heads of triceps brachii were measured by the root mean square values for every 5 s period throughout the total contraction period. The root mean square values were then analysed to determine the fatiguing condition for the heads of triceps brachii muscle. Muscle fatigue in the long, lateral, and medial heads of the triceps brachii started at 40 s, 50 s, and 65 s during the prolonged contraction, respectively. The highest fatiguing rate was observed in the long head (slope = -2.863), followed by the medial head (slope = -2.412) and the lateral head (slope = -1.877) of the triceps brachii muscle. The results of the present study concurs with previous findings that the three heads of the triceps brachii muscle do not work as a single unit, and the fiber type/composition is different among the three heads.

  19. Early results of Latitude primary total elbow replacement with a minimum follow-up of 2 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Saurabh S; Watts, Adam C; Talwalkar, Sumedh C; Birch, Ann; Nuttall, David; Trail, Ian A

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this study was to present outcomes of primary Latitude total elbow replacement (TER) with a minimum follow-up of 2 years. A retrospective cohort study was undertaken with prospective outcome data collection for the latest outcome. Included were 63 consecutive primary Latitude TERs in 58 patients performed during a period of 5 years at a specialist orthopedic hospital. The mean age of the patients was 62 years (33-85 years). Five primary TERs (4 patients) were lost to follow-up. The primary diagnosis was rheumatoid arthritis in 49, osteoarthritis in 8, and trauma in 6 elbows. The mean flexion-extension arc was 75° preoperatively and 97° postoperatively. Mean postoperative Elbex pain score was 19/100, and function score was 37/100. Mean postoperative scores were 42/100 for the Quick Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand and 38/50 for the elbow-specific American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons assessment. Four patients died of unrelated causes, and 8 of 63 underwent further surgical intervention, including explantation and conversion from unlinked to linked implant. On radiographic review of 41 surviving TERs, aseptic radiologic loosening was observed of the humeral component in 4 elbows and of the ulnar component in 9. Seven elbows had no radial component, and of the remaining 34 elbows, 16 (47%) had signs of loosening of the radial implant. Complications included 1 heterotopic ossification, 1 olecranon fracture, and 3 further procedures for ulnar nerve entrapment. The results indicate that the early outcome of Latitude TER is comparable to that of other prostheses. There is concern about early radiologic loosening of the radial component. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. MR imaging appearance of insufficiency fractures of the medial tibial plateau

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laredo, J.D.; Savy, J.M.; Oreel, P.; Liote, F.; Kuntz, D.; Kaplan, G.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on the etiology of a painful syndrome of the medial tibial plateau (MTP) in elderly patients. Findings include acute pain of the medial aspect of the knee, normal plain radiographs, and increased uptake of the MTP on bone scans. It has been related to osteonecrosis in most cases and, more rarely, to an insufficiency fracture. To our knowledge, no MR studies of patients with this syndrome have been previously reported. Five patients presenting with this syndrome (age > 59 years) were studied with MR imaging. In all five cases, initial plain radiographs were normal and increased uptake of the MTP was found on bone scans

  1. Medial joint line bone bruising at MRI complicating acute ankle inversion injury: What is its clinical significance?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, V.O.; Moran, D.E.; Shine, S.; Eustace, S.J.

    2013-01-01

    Aim: To assess the incidence and clinical significance of medial joint line bone bruising following acute ankle inversion injury. Materials and methods: Forty-five patients who underwent ankle magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) within 2 weeks of acute ankle inversion injury were included in this prospective study. Integrity of the lateral collateral ligament complex, presence of medial joint line bone bruising, tibio-talar joint effusion, and soft-tissue swelling were documented. Clinical follow-up at 6 months was carried out to determine the impact of injury on length of time out of work, delay in return to normal walking, delay in return to sports activity, and persistence of medial joint line pain. Results: Thirty-seven patients had tears of the anterior talofibular ligament (ATFL). Twenty-six patients had medial joint line bone bruising with altered marrow signal at the medial aspect of the talus and congruent surface of the medial malleolus. A complete ATFL tear was seen in 92% of the patients with medial joint line bone bruising (p = 0.05). Patients with an ATFL tear and medial joint line bone bruising had a longer delay in return to normal walking (p = 0.0002), longer delay in return to sports activity (p = 0.0001), and persistent medial joint line pain (p = 0.0003). There was no statistically significant difference in outcome for the eight patients without ATFL tears. Conclusion: Medial joint line bone bruising following an acute ankle inversion injury was significantly associated with a complete ATFL tear, longer delay in the return to normal walking and sports activity, as well as persistent medial joint line pain. Its presence should prompt detailed assessment of the lateral collateral ligament complex, particularly the ATFL

  2. Correlation of (99m) Tc-DPD SPECT/CT Scan Findings and Diagnostic Blockades of Lumbar Medial Branches in Patients with Unspecific Low Back Pain in a Randomized-Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freiermuth, David; Kretzschmar, Martin; Bilecen, Denis; Schaeren, Stefan; Jacob, Augustinus Ludwig; Aeschbach, Armin; Ruppen, Wilhelm

    2015-10-01

    Zygapophyseal joints are the origin of pain in up to 30% of those with unspecific chronic low back pain. Until recently, no reliable clinical tests have been found to identify the patients who would benefit from denervation of the zygapophyseal joints by medial branch blockades. We performed a prospective randomized placebo-controlled trial to evaluate the value of high-resolution single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)/computed tomography (CT) of the lumbar spine prior to any diagnostic infiltration of the medial branches. Patients with suspected zygapophyseal joint-related pain were included in the study. After obtaining a SPECT/CT scan of the lumbar spine a set of infiltrations of the medial branches was done with local anesthetics and placebo on different days. Patients and anesthetists were blinded to the results of SPECT/CT and to the infiltrated agents. In a total of 29 study patients, 7 had positive and 22 negative infiltration tests, and 9 had positive and 20 negative SPECT/CT findings. Sensitivity of SPECT/CT for a positive response after diagnostic infiltration was 0.57 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.18-0.90); specificity was 0.77 (CI 95% 0.55-0.92); odds ratio was 4.53 (CI 95% 0.75-27.40); and diagnostic accuracy was 0.72. Compared with diagnostic infiltrations SPECT/CT scans showed only a moderate sensitivity and specificity and, therefore, may not be recommended as a first line diagnostic tool prior to diagnostic infiltrations. Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. The thrower's elbow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Ronak M; Lynch, T Sean; Amin, Nirav H; Calabrese, Gary; Gryzlo, Stephen M; Schickendantz, Mark S

    2014-07-01

    Overhead throwing activities expose the elbow to tremendous valgus stress, making athletes vulnerable to a specific constellation of injuries. Although baseball players, in particular pitchers, are the athletes affected most commonly, overhead throwing athletes in football, volleyball, tennis, and javelin tossing also are affected. The purpose of this review is to review the anatomy, biomechanics, pathophysiology, and treatment of elbow disorders related to overhead throwing athletes. Although focus is on management of ulnar collateral ligament injuries, all common pathologies are discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Use of the Liverpool Elbow Score as a postal questionnaire for the assessment of outcome after total elbow arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashmore, Alexander M; Gozzard, Charles; Blewitt, Neil

    2007-01-01

    The Liverpool Elbow Score (LES) is a newly developed, validated elbow-specific score. It consists of a patient-answered questionnaire (PAQ) and a clinical assessment. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the PAQ portion of the LES could be used independently as a postal questionnaire for the assessment of outcome after total elbow arthroplasty and to correlate the LES and the Mayo Elbow Performance Score (MEPS). A series of 51 total elbow replacements were reviewed by postal questionnaire. Patients then attended the clinic for assessment by use of both the LES and the MEPS. There was an excellent response rate to the postal questionnaire (98%), and 44 elbows were available for clinical review. Good correlation was shown between the LES and the MEPS (Spearman correlation coefficient, 0.84; P PAQ portion of the LES and the MEPS (Spearman correlation coefficient, 0.76; P PAQ component and the MEPS, suggesting that outcome assessment is possible by postal questionnaire.

  5. Total elbow arthroplasty for the treatment of distal humeral fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallucci, G L; Larrondo Calderón, W; Boretto, J G; Castellaro Lantermo, J A; Terán, J; de Carli, P

    2016-01-01

    To report the clinical-functional outcomes of the treatment of humeral distal fractures with a total elbow prosthesis. This retrospective study was performed in two surgical centres. A total of 23patients were included, with a mean age of 79years, and of which 21 were women. The inclusion criteria were: patients with humeral distal fractures, operated on using a Coonrad-Morrey prosthesis, and with a follow-up of more than one year. According to AO classification, 15fractures were type C3, 7 C2 and 1 A2. All patients were operated on without de-insertion of the extensor mechanism. The mean follow-up was 40 months. Flexor-extension was 123-17°, with a total mobility arc of 106° (80% of the contralateral side). Pain, according to a visual analogue scale was 1. The Mayo Elbow Performance Index (MEPI) was 83 points. Excellent results were obtained in 8 patients, good in 13, medium in 1, and poor in 1. The mean DASH (disability) score was 24 points. Treatment of humeral distal fractures with total elbow arthroplasty could be a good treatment option, but indications must be limited to patients with complex fractures, poor bone quality, with osteoporosis and low functional demands. In younger patients, the use is limited to serious cases where there is no other treatment option. Level of Evidence IV. Copyright © 2016 SECOT. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  6. Medial and Lateral Pectoral Nerve Block with Liposomal Bupivacaine for the Management of Postsurgical Pain after Submuscular Breast Augmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Leiman, MD

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Summary: This report describes an ultrasound-guided medial and lateral pectoralis nerve block using liposome bupivacaine, performed before the surgical incision, in a patient undergoing submuscular breast augmentation. The anatomic basis and technique are described. This procedure may be offered to patients undergoing submuscular insertion of a breast implant or tissue expander. Advancements in ultrasound guidance allow for more precise anatomic placement of local anesthetic agents. The injection technique used for this procedure resulted in complete relaxation of the pectoralis major, facilitating the surgical dissection and markedly diminishing postsurgical pain and muscle spasms.

  7. An Economic Evaluation of TENS in Addition to Usual Primary Care Management for the Treatment of Tennis Elbow: Results from the TATE Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martyn Lewis

    Full Text Available The TATE trial was a multicentre pragmatic randomized controlled trial of supplementing primary care management (PCM-consisting of a GP consultation followed by information and advice on exercises-with transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS, to reduce pain intensity in patients with tennis elbow. This paper reports the health economic evaluation.Adults with new diagnosis of tennis elbow were recruited from 38 general practices in the UK, and randomly allocated to PCM (n = 120 or PCM plus TENS (n = 121. Outcomes included reduction in pain intensity and quality-adjusted-life-years (QALYs based on the EQ5D and SF6D. Two economic perspectives were evaluated: (i healthcare-inclusive of NHS and private health costs for the tennis elbow; (ii societal-healthcare costs plus productivity losses through work absenteeism. Mean outcome and cost differences between the groups were evaluated using a multiple imputed dataset as the base case evaluation, with uncertainty represented in cost-effectiveness planes and through probabilistic cost-effectiveness acceptability curves. Incremental healthcare cost was £33 (95%CI -40, 106 and societal cost £65 (95%CI -307, 176 for PCM plus TENS. Mean differences in outcome were: 0.11 (95%CI -0.13, 0.35 for change in pain (0-10 pain scale; -0.015 (95%CI -0.058, 0.029 for QALYEQ5D; 0.007 (95%CI -0.022, 0.035 for QALYSF6D (higher score differences denote greater benefit for PCM plus TENS. The ICER (incremental cost effectiveness ratio for the main evaluation of mean difference in societal cost (£ relative to mean difference in pain outcome was -582 (95%CI -8666, 8113. However, incremental ICERs show differences in cost-effectiveness of additional TENS, according to the outcome being evaluated.Our findings do not provide evidence for or against the cost-effectiveness of TENS as an adjunct to primary care management of tennis elbow.

  8. Simultaneous MPFL and LPFL reconstruction for recurrent lateral patellar dislocation with medial patellofemoral instability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masashi Kusano

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We report an extremely rare case of both recurrent lateral patella dislocation and medial patellofemoral instability, following prior operations to correct patella maltracking. Manual translation of the patella revealed medial and lateral instability with a positive apprehension sign. 3-D computer modelling of kinematics based on MRI data demonstrated that the patella deviated laterally at full extension and translated medially with knee flexion. The medial and lateral patellofemoral ligaments were reconstructed simultaneously with hamstring tendons, alleviating peripatellar pain and patellar instability in both directions.

  9. Acupuncture and moxibustion for lateral elbow pain: a systematic review of randomized controlled trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Acupuncture and moxibustion have widely been used to treat lateral elbow pain (LEP). A comprehensive systematic review of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) including both English and Chinese databases was conducted to assess the efficacy of acupuncture and moxibustion in the treatment of LEP. Methods Revised STRICTA (2010) criteria were used to appraise the acupuncture procedures, the Cochrane risk of bias tool was used to assess the methodological quality of the studies. A total of 19 RCTs that compared acupuncture and/or moxibustion with sham acupuncture, another form of acupuncture, or conventional treatment were included. Results All studies had at least one domain rated as high risk or uncertain risk of bias in the Cochrane risk of bias tool. Results from three RCTs of moderate quality showed that acupuncture was more effective than sham acupuncture. Results from 10 RCTs of mostly low quality showed that acupuncture or moxibustion was superior or equal to conventional treatment, such as local anesthetic injection, local steroid injection, non-steroidal anti- inflammatory drugs, or ultrasound. There were six low quality RCTs that compared acupuncture and moxibustion combined with manual acupuncture alone, and all showed that acupuncture and moxibustion combined was superior to manual acupuncture alone. Conclusion Moderate quality studies suggest that acupuncture is more effective than sham acupuncture. Interpretations of findings regarding acupuncture vs. conventional treatment, and acupuncture and moxibustion combined vs. manual acupuncture alone are limited by the methodological qualities of these studies. Future studies with improved methodological design are warranted to confirm the efficacy of acupuncture and moxibustion for LEP. PMID:24726029

  10. Medial tibial stress syndrome: a critical review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moen, Maarten H.; Tol, Johannes L.; Weir, Adam; Steunebrink, Miriam; de Winter, Theodorus C.

    2009-01-01

    Medial tibial stress syndrome (MTSS) is one of the most common leg injuries in athletes and soldiers. The incidence of MTSS is reported as being between 4% and 35% in military personnel and athletes. The name given to this condition refers to pain on the posteromedial tibial border during exercise,

  11. Total elbow arthroplasty in primary osteoarthritis of the elbow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozak, T K; Adams, R A; Morrey, B F

    1998-10-01

    Primary osteoarthritis of the elbow is an infrequent condition typically managed by some form of debridement. There is no comment in the literature regarding prosthetic replacement for this condition. We report 5 patients (mean age, 68), with a minimum assessment of 3 years (range, 37-125 years) after total elbow arthroplasty. Complications in 4 patients included subluxation, fracture of a humeral component with particulate synovitis, heterotopic ossification, recurrent osteophyte formation, and transient ulnar neuropathy. Although revision was required in 2 of the 5, currently all experience had satisfactory outcomes. While replacement has proven ultimately to be a successful option for this high-demand patient group because of the high complication rate, we do not recommend replacement unless alternate operative options are deemed unacceptable.

  12. Posterolateral elbow joint instability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Bo Sanderhoff; Søjbjerg, Jens Ole; Nielsen, K K

    1998-01-01

    Thirty-five osteoligamentous elbows were included in a study on the kinematics of posterolateral elbow joint instability during the pivot shift test (PST) before and after separate ligament cuttings in the lateral collateral ligament complex (LCLC). Division of the annular ligament or the lateral...... ulnar collateral ligament caused no laxity during the PST. Division of the lateral collateral ligament caused maximal laxity of 4 degrees and 23 degrees during forced PST in valgus and external rotation (supination), respectively. Cutting of the LCLC at the ulnar or the humeral insertion was necessary...... for any PST stressed elbow joint laxity to occur. Total division of the LCLC induced a maximal laxity of 7.9 degrees and 37 degrees during forced PST in valgus and external rotation (supination), respectively. This study suggests the lateral collateral ligament to be the primary soft tissue constraint...

  13. Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation for the management of tennis elbow: a pragmatic randomized controlled trial: the TATE trial (ISRCTN 87141084

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warlow Catherine

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tennis elbow is a common and often extremely painful musculoskeletal condition, which has considerable impact on individuals as well as economic implications for healthcare utilization and absence from work. Many management strategies have been studied in clinical trials. Whilst corticosteroid injections offer short term pain relief, this treatment is unpleasant and is used with caution due to an associated high risk of pain recurrence in the long term. Systematic reviews conclude that there is no clear and effective treatment for symptoms of pain in the first 6 weeks of the condition. There is a clear need for an intervention that is acceptable to patients and provides them with effective short-term pain relief without increasing the risk of recurrence. Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS is an inexpensive, non-invasive, non-pharmacological form of analgesia that is commonly used in the treatment of pain. TENS has very few contraindications and is simple to apply. It also benefits from being patient controlled, thereby promoting self-management. This study aims to assess the effectiveness, in terms of pain relief, and cost-effectiveness of a self-management package of treatment that includes TENS. Methods/Design The design of the study will be a two-group pragmatic randomized clinical trial. 240 participants aged 18 years and over with tennis elbow will be recruited from 20-30 GP practices in Staffordshire, UK. Participants are to be randomized on a 1:1 basis to receive either primary care management (standard GP consultation, medication, advice and education or primary care management with the addition of TENS, over 6 weeks. Our primary outcome measure is average intensity of elbow pain in the past 24 hours (0-10 point numerical rating scale at 6 weeks. Secondary outcomes include pain and limitation of function, global assessment of change, days of sick leave, illness perceptions, and overall health status. A

  14. High intensity physical exercise and pain in the neck and upper limb among slaughterhouse workers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sundstrup, Emil; Jakobsen, Markus D.; Andersen, Kenneth Jay

    2014-01-01

    and pain among 595 slaughterhouse workers in Denmark, Europe. Using logistic regression analyses, odds ratios for pain and work disability as a function of physical exercise, gender, age, BMI, smoking, and job position were estimated. The prevalence of pain in the neck, shoulder, elbow, and hand...... about the effect among workers with repetitive and forceful work demands. Before performing randomized controlled trials it may be beneficial to assess the cross-sectional connection between exercise and musculoskeletal pain. We investigated the association between high intensity physical exercise....../wrist was 48%, 60%, 40%, and 52%, respectively. The odds for experiencing neck pain were significantly lower among slaughterhouse workers performing physical exercise (OR = 0.70, CI: 0.49-0.997), whereas the odds for pain in the shoulders, elbow, or hand/wrist were not associated with exercise. The present...

  15. Elbow and wrist/hand symptoms among 6,943 computer operators: a 1-year follow-up study (the NUDATA study)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, C. F.; Mikkelsen, S.; Kryger, Ann Isabel

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to examine relations between computer work aspects and elbow and wrist/hand pain conditions and disorders. METHODS: In a 1-year follow-up study among 6,943 technical assistants and machine technicians self-reported active mouse and keyboard time, ergonomic...

  16. Clinical and Radiological Evaluation of the Radius-Ulna- Humerus Joint in Police Dogs in the City of Concepción, Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro Luzio Quiroga

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the elbow joint in police dogs through a clinical orthopedic exam and a radiological exam. Fifteen dogs were studied (13 males and 2 females between the ages of 3 and 10 that perform police work in Concepción, Chile. Method: Individuals were subjected to a general and orthopedic physical examination focused on the elbow joint, and then a radiological study was carried out, in which both elbows were assessed through 4 projections including an extended medial lateral (ML, craniocaudal (CrCa, medial lateral flexed at 45º (ML 45º flex and craniolateral-caudomedial oblique (Cr15° LCdMO, in order to establish the appearance of osteoarticular disorders. Results: Only 2 dogs showed clinical signs (13.33 % in which pain and crepitation were observed through palpation and manipulation of the joint; 8 individuals showed radiological signs (53.33 %. The most common signs were osteophytes (40 %, sclerosis (20 %, joint incongruity (20 %, unevenness between radius and ulna (20 %, absence of the medial coronoid process of the ulna (6.67 % and unbound anconeus process (6.67 %. Conclusion: This study showed a low correlation between the presence of clinical signs and the presence of radiological signs (r: 0.327.

  17. The role of arthroscopy in chronic elbow instability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, David; Dynin, Maria; Macdonnell, J Ryan; Kessler, Michael W

    2013-12-01

    Elbow arthroscopy has had an emerging role in the management of many disorders of the elbow. In patients with chronic elbow instability, several arthroscopic techniques have been described in the diagnosis and management of posterolateral rotatory instability and valgus instability. We performed a systematic review investigating the role of arthroscopy in posterolateral rotatory instability and valgus instability in the elbow using the PubMed and CINAHL (Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature) databases, and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, consisting of articles from peer-reviewed journals published in the English language after January 1, 1991. Search criteria initially identified 249 articles. Twenty-five articles met criteria for inclusion. This included 17 review articles, 4 cadaveric studies, 3 retrospective studies, and 1 prospective study. Two of the retrospective studies compared arthroscopic and open techniques. Articles included in this systematic review concluded that arthroscopy is an accurate adjunct to physical examination and imaging in the diagnosis of chronic elbow instability and affords an exceptional view of the joint with the ability to address intra-articular pathologic conditions. Arthroscopic surgical techniques have shown equivalent clinical outcomes in a comparison of arthroscopic and open techniques. Elbow arthroscopy is a valuable tool in the diagnosis and management of chronic elbow instability. Patients treated arthroscopically benefit from additional diagnostic techniques, improved visualization of the elbow joint, the ability to address coexisting intra-articular pathologic conditions, and minimal soft tissue injury with no clinical consequences in outcomes. With such significant advantages, the use of elbow arthroscopy is likely to expand in the management of chronic elbow instability. Level IV, systematic review. Copyright © 2013 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc

  18. A martial arts exploration of elbow anatomy: Ikkyo (Aikido's first teaching).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seitz, F C; Olson, G D; Stenzel, T E

    1991-12-01

    The Martial Art of Aikido, based on several effective anatomical principles, is used to subdue a training partner. One of these methods is Ikkyo (First Teaching). According to Saotome, the original intent of Ikkyo was to "break the elbow joint" of an enemy. Nowadays the intent is to secure or pin a training partner to the mat. This investigation focused on examining Ikkyo with the purpose of describing the nerves, bones, and muscles involved in receiving this technique. Particular focus was placed on the locations and sources of the reported pain.

  19. Patellofemoral morphometry in patients with idiopathic patellofemoral pain syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mar Carrion Martin, Maria del; Ruiz Santiago, Fernando; Pozuelo Calvo, Rocio; Guzman Alvarez, Luis

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To compare clinical and computed tomography (CT) measures in extension, 20 o and 30 o of flexion of symptomatic knees of patient with idiopathic patellofemoral pain syndrome with the contra lateral asymptomatic knee. Materials and methods: Knees of 52 consecutive patients with idiopathic patellofemoral pain were studied with CT. In 28 patients this condition was unilateral and asymptomatic knee was used as control; 76 knees were symptomatic. Results: In patients with idiopathic patellofemoral pain we found a greater Q angle and internal condylar facet width in symptomatic knees with regard to asymptomatic knees. Conclusion: Greater Q angle and medial condylar facet can lead to overpressure on the medial knee compartment during maneuvers that increase contact between patella and medial condylar facet, such as knee flexion and squatting, contributing to development of idiopathic patellofemoral pain.

  20. Avaliação do ombro doloroso no jogador de beisebol Evaluation of painful shoulder in baseball players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Naoki Miyazaki

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar em jogadores de beisebol a relação entre mobilidade e força do ombro e a presença de dor. MÉTODOS: Entre abril e julho de 2009 foram avaliados 55 jogadores de beisebol pelo Grupo de Ombro e Cotovelo da Faculdade de Ciências Médicas da Santa Casa de Misericórdia de São Paulo. Todos do sexo masculino, com idade entre 15 e 33 anos (média de 21, média de três treinos por semana e tempo médio de prática da modalidade de 10 anos. RESULTADOS: 14 dos 55 atletas avaliados eram arremessadores, 20 referiram dor no arremesso. As médias de rotação lateral, medial e amplitude de movimento (ADM do ombro dominante foram de 110º, 61º e 171º, respectivamente, com diferença estatisticamente significante em relação ao membro não dominante. Arremessadores tiveram maior ganho de rotação lateral e déficit de rotação medial que os não arremessadores. Dor teve correlação estaticamente significante com ADM diminuída, maior tempo de prática da modalidade e situação de "ombro em risco". CONCLUSÃO: Foram encontradas diferenças estatisticamente significantes na mobilidade do ombro dominante com aumento da rotação lateral, diminuição da rotação medial e menor amplitude de movimento, em relação ao membro contralateral. Foram encontradas relações estatisticamente significantes entre maior ganho de rotação lateral e diminuição da rotação medial e a posição de arremessador. Houve correlação estatisticamente significante entre dor e ADM diminuída, maior tempo de prática da modalidade e situação de "ombro em risco". Existe uma tendência estatística sugerindo que os atletas com rotação medial do ombro dominante diminuída tenham relação com dor.OBJECTIVE: To assess the relationship between shoulder mobility and strength and the presence of pain among baseball players. METHODS: Between April and July 2009, 55 baseball players were assessed by the Shoulder and Elbow Group of the School of Medical

  1. Assessment of induction elbows for an ASME Code application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panesar, J.S.; Soliman, M.

    1991-01-01

    The ASME Nuclear Codes impose some specific requirements on the wall thickness uniformity and the out-of-roundness of cross sections of the elbows for Nuclear Power Plant applications. Due to some of these requirements, manufacturing and installation of these elbows can be time consuming and quite expensive. This paper explores the feasibility of using induction elbows for nuclear application from the stress analysis point of view. To this end, three different sizes of 90deg elbows have been analyzed based on the geometry of an 'ASME Code' elbow and an elbow formed by induction bending. The analysis is carried out for internal pressure, in-plane and out-of-plane loads. Based on the results of these three carbon steel elbows, the use of induction elbows in some of the CANDU-PHW (CANadian Deuterium Uranium-Pressurized Heavy Water) power plant applications seems encouraging. However, before the feasibility can be fully confirmed analysis and induction bending tests over a wider range of geometries, loading conditions, and materials are required. (author)

  2. Clarification of Eponymous Anatomical Terminology: Structures Named After Dr Geoffrey V. Osborne That Compress the Ulnar Nerve at the Elbow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wali, Arvin R; Gabel, Brandon; Mitwalli, Madhawi; Tubbs, R Shane; Brown, Justin M

    2017-05-01

    In 1957, Dr Geoffrey Osborne described a structure between the medial epicondyle and the olecranon that placed excessive pressure on the ulnar nerve. Three terms associated with such structures have emerged: Osborne's band, Osborne's ligament, and Osborne's fascia. As anatomical language moves away from eponymous terminology for descriptive, consistent nomenclature, we find discrepancies in the use of anatomic terms. This review clarifies the definitions of the above 3 terms. We conducted an extensive electronic search via PubMed and Google Scholar to identify key anatomical and surgical texts that describe ulnar nerve compression at the elbow. We searched the following terms separately and in combination: "Osborne's band," "Osborne's ligament," and "Osborne's fascia." A total of 36 papers were included from 1957 to 2016. Osborne's band, Osborne's ligament, and Osborne's fascia were found to inconsistently describe the etiology of ulnar neuritis, referring either to the connective tissue between the 2 heads of the flexor carpi ulnaris muscle as described by Dr Osborne or to the anatomically distinct fibrous tissue between the olecranon process of the ulna and the medial epicondyle of the humerus. The use of eponymous terms to describe ulnar pathology of the elbow remains common, and although these terms allude to the rich history of surgical anatomy, these nonspecific descriptions lead to inconsistencies. As Osborne's band, Osborne's ligament, and Osborne's fascia are not used consistently across the literature, this research demonstrates the need for improved terminology to provide reliable interpretation of these terms among surgeons.

  3. ARTHROSCOPIC TREATMENT OF PATIENTS WITH LATERAL HUMERAL EPICONDYLITIS (TENNIS ELBOW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. R. Salikhov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the past decade the clinical and anatomical studies proved that lateral humeral epicondylitis can be successfully treated arthroscopically.Purpose of the study is to identify the optimal method of surgical treatment for patients with lateral humeral epicondylitis.Material and methods. The authors conducted an integral study consisting of two sections: clinical and anatomical. Anatomical section included precision preparation of extensor muscles of the forearm. Clinical section was dedicated to comparative analysis of statistically valid and matched by lesion severity groups of patients who underwent open and arthroscopic procedures. All patients were divided into three groups. Patients of Group I underwent arthroscopic release of extensor carpi radialis brevis tendon (ECRB without decorticating of the lateral humeral epicondyle. Patients of Group II underwent arthroscopic release of ECRB in combination with decortication of the lateral humeral epicondyle. Patients in Group III underwent an open release of ECRB.Results. Patients who underwent arthroscopic release of ECRB demonstrated less pronounced pain syndrome as compared to patients after ECRB release along with decortication of epicondyle or after open release (р<0,05. VAS pain score in Group I decreased from 7 to 1 point, in Group II — from 7 to 3 points, in Group III — from 7 to 4 points. Mean time until full recovery after the surgery was 24,2±7,8 days in Group I, 39,4±5,6 days in Group II and 60,2±15,6 days in Group III (р<0,05. Functional outcomes were assessed by Mayo Elbow Performance Score (MEPS in 9 weeks postoperatively: Group I — improvement from 60 to 79 points, Group II — from 62 to 75 points, Group III — from 60 to 75 points.Conclusion. Drilling or removal of periosteum of the damaged epicondyle does not provide a positive effect. Decortication also has certain disadvantages like postoperative pain intensification leading to lesser range of motion in elbow and

  4. Interobserver and intraobserver agreement of ligamentous injuries on conventional MRI after simple elbow dislocation

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    Marc Schnetzke

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The primary objective of this study was to assess the interobserver and intraobserver agreement on ligamentous injuries on conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI in acute simple elbow dislocation. The secondary objectives were to determine the interobserver agreement on the assessment of joint congruity, joint effusion, loose bodies and chondral lesions on conventional MRI. Methods Conventional MRIs (1.5 Tesla, elbow specific surface coil of 30 patients (40.7 years; range 14–72 with simple elbow dislocations were evaluated by four blinded examiners. An analysis of the interobserver agreement of all raters and for several subgroups (radiologists, orthopaedics, experienced, non-experienced was performed. The examiners assessed the integrity (intact, partial tear, complete tear of the lateral collateral ligament (LCL, medial collateral ligament (MCL, extensor and flexor tendons, as well as the presence of joint congruity, joint effusion, loose bodies and chondral lesions. Agreement strength, correlation and proportion of exact agreement were determined for interobserver agreement, and intraobserver agreement analyses. Results Interobserver agreement of all examiners was fair to moderate for collateral ligaments (LCL: 0.441, MCL: 0.275. Exact agreement of all raters was found in 33.3% for the LCL and in 26.7% for the MCL. The both experienced examiners showed highest agreement strength for the LCL (0.619 and the radiologists showed highest agreement strength for the MCL (0.627, the proportion of exact agreement was 60.0% in both categories. A high proportion of exact agreement regarding joint congruity (90%, joint effusion (100%, loose bodies (96.7% and chondral lesion (80% was found among the radiologists. The evaluation of the intraobserver agreement revealed slight to substantial agreement (0.227 to 0.718 for the collateral ligaments. Conclusions This study shows difficulties in the evaluation of ligaments by

  5. Osteochondral lesions of the humeral trochlea in the young athlete

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marshall, Kelley W. [Pediatric Radiology of America, Roanoke, VA (United States); Children' s Healthcare of Atlanta at Scottish Rite, Atlanta, GA (United States); Children' s Diagnostic Imaging of Atlanta, P.C., Marietta, GA (United States); Marshall, David L.; Busch, Michael T. [Children' s Orthopaedics of Atlanta, P.C., Atlanta, GA (United States); Children' s Healthcare of Atlanta at Scottish Rite, Atlanta, GA (United States); Williams, Joseph P. [Children' s Healthcare of Atlanta at Scottish Rite, Atlanta, GA (United States); Children' s Diagnostic Imaging of Atlanta, P.C., Marietta, GA (United States)

    2009-05-15

    The purpose of this study was to characterize the variety of osteochondral abnormalities of the humeral trochlea in the pediatric athlete. Patients with trochlear abnormalities were identified through keyword search of radiology dictations from 1999 to 2007. The patient's medical record, imaging studies, and surgical reports were reviewed. The osteochondral lesions were categorized based on the imaging appearance. Surgical results were reviewed in conjunction with the imaging findings. Eighteen patients were identified. Trochlear lesions were stratified into two imaging groups: Osteochondral injury/osteochondritis dissecans (OCD) vs. avascular necrosis (AVN). The osteochondral injury group was stratified into medial and lateral trochlear abnormalities. The medial lesions (n=3) were small (<6 mm) and were located on the posterior articular surface of the medial trochlea. The lateral lesions (n=10) were larger (10-14 mm), circumscribed, and were located on the posterior inferior aspect of the lateral trochlea. Trochlear AVN (n=5) affected development of the lateral trochlea (type A) or both the medial and lateral aspects of the trochlea (type B). AVN occurred exclusively in athletes with history of remote distal humeral fracture. Seven of the 18 patients underwent elbow arthroscopy. Surgical findings and treatment regimens are summarized. Trochlear lesions should be considered in throwing athletes presenting with medial elbow pain and flexion contracture/extension block. Medial trochlear osteochondral injuries may result from posteromedial olecranon abutment. Lateral OCD lesions occur in a characteristic vascular watershed zone resulting from the unique blood supply of the trochlea. Trochlear AVN may be unmasked years following treated distal humeral fracture when the athletic demands upon the adolescent elbow increase, revealing the altered growth and biomechanics. (orig.)

  6. Osteochondral lesions of the humeral trochlea in the young athlete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marshall, Kelley W.; Marshall, David L.; Busch, Michael T.; Williams, Joseph P.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to characterize the variety of osteochondral abnormalities of the humeral trochlea in the pediatric athlete. Patients with trochlear abnormalities were identified through keyword search of radiology dictations from 1999 to 2007. The patient's medical record, imaging studies, and surgical reports were reviewed. The osteochondral lesions were categorized based on the imaging appearance. Surgical results were reviewed in conjunction with the imaging findings. Eighteen patients were identified. Trochlear lesions were stratified into two imaging groups: Osteochondral injury/osteochondritis dissecans (OCD) vs. avascular necrosis (AVN). The osteochondral injury group was stratified into medial and lateral trochlear abnormalities. The medial lesions (n=3) were small (<6 mm) and were located on the posterior articular surface of the medial trochlea. The lateral lesions (n=10) were larger (10-14 mm), circumscribed, and were located on the posterior inferior aspect of the lateral trochlea. Trochlear AVN (n=5) affected development of the lateral trochlea (type A) or both the medial and lateral aspects of the trochlea (type B). AVN occurred exclusively in athletes with history of remote distal humeral fracture. Seven of the 18 patients underwent elbow arthroscopy. Surgical findings and treatment regimens are summarized. Trochlear lesions should be considered in throwing athletes presenting with medial elbow pain and flexion contracture/extension block. Medial trochlear osteochondral injuries may result from posteromedial olecranon abutment. Lateral OCD lesions occur in a characteristic vascular watershed zone resulting from the unique blood supply of the trochlea. Trochlear AVN may be unmasked years following treated distal humeral fracture when the athletic demands upon the adolescent elbow increase, revealing the altered growth and biomechanics. (orig.)

  7. Bicarbonate-buffered ropivacaine-mepivacaine solution for medial caruncle anaesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrier, Gilles; Boutboul, David; Chanat, Cédric; Samama, Charles Marc; Baillard, Christophe

    2017-08-01

    To compare self-reported pain during injection of plain versus alkalinised 0.75% ropivacaine-2% mepivacaine solution for anaesthesia performed at the medial caruncle site for eye surgery. This prospective, monocentric, double blind, randomised, controlled trial involved 40 consecutive patients who received either a standard local anaesthetic solution (0.75% ropivacaine 5ml and 2% mepivacaine 5ml with a pH of 5.9), or an alkalinised solution composed with a pH-adjusted solution of 7.0 through adjunction of 0.15mEq sodium bicarbonate per 10ml of the same mixture. Before anaesthesia, patients received intravenous midazolam (0.03mg/kg) to ease potential anxiety. During injection performed at the medial caruncle site, patients were asked to grade a pain VRS (0 to 10) for the injection using a verbal analogue scale. The primary end point was to investigate pain during injection of local anaesthetics. Anxiety levels before anaesthesia were low and similar for both groups. The mean pain score for the alkalinised group was significantly reduced compared to the control group (6 [25-75%, IQR 4-9] versus 3 [25-75%, IQR 1-5]; P=0.02; 95% CI for the difference in median pain scores [1.9-3.3]). Buffering local anaesthetics used in caruncular injection for eye surgery significantly reduces pain during injection. This simple strategy should be tested in routine clinical practice to improve patient satisfaction. Copyright © 2016 Société française d'anesthésie et de réanimation (Sfar). Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Pain and fear avoidance partially mediate change in muscle strength during resistance exercise in women with fibromyalgia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anette Larsson

    2017-10-01

    Methods: Sixty-seven women with fibromyalgia (age range 25–64 years were included. Tests of muscle strength and questionnaires related to pain, fear avoidance and physical activity were carried out. Multivariable stepwise regression was used to analyse explanatory factors for change and predictors for final values of knee-extension force, elbow-flexion force and hand-grip force. Results: Change in knee-extension force was explained by fear avoidance beliefs about physical activity at baseline, together with change in pain intensity, knee-extension force at baseline, age and body mass index (BMI (R2=0.40, p = 0.013. Change in elbow-flexion force was explained by pain intensity at baseline, together with baseline fear avoidance beliefs about physical activity, BMI and elbow-flexion force at baseline (R2 = 0.32, p = 0.043. Change in hand-grip force was explained by hand-grip force at baseline, change in pain intensity and baseline fear avoidance (R2 = 0.37, p = 0.009. Final muscle strength was predicted by the same variables as change, except pain. Conclusion: Pain and fear avoidance are important factors to consider in rehabilitation using resistance exercise for women with fibromyalgia.

  9. Association between knee alignment and knee pain in patients surgically treated for medial knee osteoarthritis by high tibial osteotomy. A one year follow-up study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    W-Dahl, Annette; Toksvig-Larsen, Sören; Roos, Ewa

    2009-01-01

    on for knee OA by high tibial osteotomy. METHODS: 182 patients (68% men) mean age 53 years (34 - 69) with varus alignment having tibial osteotomy by the hemicallotasis technique for medial knee OA were consecutively included. Knee alignment was assessed by the Hip-Knee-Ankle (HKA) angle from radiographs...... including the hip and ankle joints. Knee pain was measured by the subscale pain (0 - 100, worst to best scale) of the Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS) preoperatively and at one year follow-up. To estimate the association between knee alignment and knee pain multivariate regression...... with every degree of HKA angle, adjusted analysis 0.3 points (95% CI -1.3 - 0.6).The mean postoperative knee alignment was 184 degrees (171 - 185). The mean change in knee alignment was 13 degrees (0 - 30). The mean change in KOOS pain was 32 (-16 - 83). There was neither any association between change...

  10. Long term results in refractory tennis elbow using autologous blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gani, Naseem Ul; Khan, Hayat Ahmad; Kamal, Younis; Farooq, Munir; Jeelani, Hina; Shah, Adil Bashir

    2014-10-27

    Tennis elbow (TE) is one of the commonest myotendinosis. Different treatment options are available and autologous blood injection has emerged as the one of the acceptable modalities of treatment. Long term studies over a larger group of patients are however lacking. The purpose of this study was to evaluate these patients on longer durations. One-hundred and twenty patients of TE, who failed to respond to conventional treatment including local steroid injections were taken up for this prospective study over the period from year 2005 to 2011 and were followed up for the minimum of 3 years (range 3-9 years). Two mL of autologous blood was taken from the ipsilateral limb and injected into the lateral epicondyle. The effectiveness of the procedure was assessed by Pain Rating Sscale and Nirschl Staging, which was monitored before the procedure, at first week, monthly for first three months, at 6 months and then 3 monthly for first year, six monthly for next 2 years and then yearly. Statistical analysis was done and a P value of tennis elbow should be made as there is lot of controversy regarding the treatment.

  11. [Influence of patellofemoral joint degeneration on outcome of medial unicompartmental knee arthroplasty].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, B Y; Ji, B C; Guo, W T; Mu, W B; Cao, L

    2017-06-01

    Objective: To evaluate the influence of patellofemoral joint degeneration and pre-operative pain location on the outcome of medial Oxford unicompartmental knee arthroplasty (UKA). Methods: A total of 58 patients (58 knees) with medial Oxford UKA had been performed for medial osteoarthritis from March 2013 to July 2014 in Department of Orthopaedic Surgery at First Teaching Hospital of Xinjiang Medical University were retrospective reviewed. There were 24 males and 34 females, the age from 43 to 87 years with the mean age was 68.5 years. The mean body mass index was 25.2 kg/m(2) ranging from 19.7 to 31.5 kg/m(2). Patients were divided into anterior-medial pain group (35 knees), anterior knee pain group (17 knees) and general knee pain group (6 knees) according to pre-operative pain location. Pre-operative radiological statuses of the patellefemoral joint were defined by Ahlback system and divided into patellofemoral joint degeneration group (16 knees) and normal group (42 knees). Patients were also divided into medial patellofemoral degeneration group (20 knees), lateral patellofemoral degeneration group (12 knees) and normal group (26 knees) according to Altman scoring system. Outerbridge system was used intraoperatively and the patients were divided into patellofemoral joint degeneration group (21 knees) and normal group (37 knees). Pre- and post-operative outcomes were evaluated with Oxford Knee Score (OKS), Western Ontario and MacMaster (WOMAC) and patellofemoral score system of Lonner. T test and ANOVA were used to analyze the data. Results: The average duration of follow-up was 33 months (from 26 to 42 months). There were no patients had complications of infection, deep vein thrombosis, dislocation or loosing at the last follow-up. Compared to pre-operation, OKS (18.9±3.5 vs . 38.9±4.7, 19.3±4.2 vs . 39.6±4.6, 18.1±3.2 vs . 38.1±3.7)( t =5.64 to 7.08, all P patellofemoral joint degeneration group and normal group, the outcomes were the same according to

  12. Rasch analysis of the Dutch version of the Oxford elbow score

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Haan J

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Jeroen de Haan1, Niels Schep2, Wim Tuinebreijer2, Peter Patka2, Dennis den Hartog21Department of Surgery and Traumatology, Westfriesgasthuis, Hoorn, the Netherlands; 2Department of Surgery and Traumatology, Erasmus MC, University Medical Center Rotterdam, Rotterdam, the NetherlandsBackground: The Oxford elbow score (OES is a patient-rated, 12-item questionnaire that measures quality of life in relation to elbow disorders. This English questionnaire has been proven to be a reliable and valid instrument. Recently, the OES has been translated into Dutch and examined for its reliability, validity, and responsiveness in a group of Dutch patients with elbow pathology. The aim of this study was to analyze the Dutch version of the OES (OES-DV in combination with Rasch analysis or the one-parameter item response theory to examine the structure of the questionnaire.Methods: The OES-DV was administered to 103 patients (68 female, 35 male. The mean age of the patients was 44.3 ± 14.7 (range 15–75 years. Rasch analysis was performed using the Winsteps® Rasch Measurement Version 3.70.1.1 and a rating scale parameterization.Results: The person separation index, which is a measure of person reliability, was excellent (2.30. All the items of the OES had a reasonable mean square infit or outfit value between 0.6 and 1.7. The threshold of items were ordered, so the categories can function as intended. Principal component analysis of the residuals partly confirmed the multidimensionality of the English version of the OES. The OES distinguished 3.4 strata, which indicates that about three ranges can be differentiated.Conclusion: Rasch analysis of the OES-DV showed that the data fit to the stringent Rasch model. The multidimensionality of the English version of the OES was partly confirmed, and the four items of the function and three items of the pain domain were recognized as separate domains. The category rating scale of the OES-DV works well. The OES can

  13. Associations between MRI-defined structural pathology and generalized and localized knee pain - the Oulu Knee Osteoarthritis study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaukinen, P; Podlipská, J; Guermazi, A; Niinimäki, J; Lehenkari, P; Roemer, F W; Nieminen, M T; Koski, J M; Arokoski, J P A; Saarakkala, S

    2016-09-01

    To determine the associations between multi-feature structural pathology assessed using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and the presence of knee pain, and to determine the associations between the locations of structural changes and different knee pain patterns. Eighty symptomatic subjects with knee pain and suspicion or diagnosis of knee OA and 63 asymptomatic subjects underwent knee MRI. Severity of structural changes was graded by MRI Osteoarthritis Knee Score (MOAKS) in separate knee locations. The associations between cartilage damage, bone marrow lesions (BMLs), osteophytes, Hoffa's synovitis, effusion-synovitis, meniscal damage and structural pathologies in ligaments, tendons and bursas and both the presence of pain and the knee pain patterns were assessed. The presence of Hoffa's synovitis (adjusted RR 1.6, 95% CI 1.2-1.3) and osteophytes in any region (2.07, 1.19-3.60) was significantly associated with the presence of pain. Any Hoffa's synovitis was associated with patellar pain (adjusted RR 4.70, 95% CI 1.19-3.60) and moderate-to-severe Hoffa's synovitis with diffuse pain (2.25, 1.13-4.50). Medial knee pain was associated with cartilage loss in the medial tibia (adjusted RR 2.66, 95% CI 1.22-5.80), osteophytes in the medial tibia (2.66, 1.17-6.07) and medial femur (2.55, 1.07-6.09), medial meniscal maceration (2.20, 1.01-4.79) and anterior meniscal extrusions (2.78, 1.14-6.75). Hoffa's synovitis and osteophytes were strongly associated with the presence of knee pain. Medial pain was associated most often with medially located structural pathologies. Copyright © 2016 Osteoarthritis Research Society International. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Patellofemoral morphometry in patients with idiopathic patellofemoral pain syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mar Carrion Martin, Maria del [Department of Rehabilitation, Hospital of Traumatology (Ciudad Sanitaria Virgen de las Nieves), Carretera de Jaen SN, 18014 Granada (Spain); Ruiz Santiago, Fernando, E-mail: ferruizsan@terra.e [Department of Radiology, Hospital of Traumatology (Ciudad Sanitaria Virgen de las Nieves), Carretera de Jaen SN, 18014 Granada (Spain); Pozuelo Calvo, Rocio [Department of Rehabilitation, Hospital of Traumatology (Ciudad Sanitaria Virgen de las Nieves), Carretera de Jaen SN, 18014 Granada (Spain); Guzman Alvarez, Luis [Department of Radiology, Hospital of Traumatology (Ciudad Sanitaria Virgen de las Nieves), Carretera de Jaen SN, 18014 Granada (Spain)

    2010-07-15

    Purpose: To compare clinical and computed tomography (CT) measures in extension, 20{sup o} and 30{sup o} of flexion of symptomatic knees of patient with idiopathic patellofemoral pain syndrome with the contra lateral asymptomatic knee. Materials and methods: Knees of 52 consecutive patients with idiopathic patellofemoral pain were studied with CT. In 28 patients this condition was unilateral and asymptomatic knee was used as control; 76 knees were symptomatic. Results: In patients with idiopathic patellofemoral pain we found a greater Q angle and internal condylar facet width in symptomatic knees with regard to asymptomatic knees. Conclusion: Greater Q angle and medial condylar facet can lead to overpressure on the medial knee compartment during maneuvers that increase contact between patella and medial condylar facet, such as knee flexion and squatting, contributing to development of idiopathic patellofemoral pain.

  15. Arthroscopic medial meniscus trimming or repair under nerve blocks: Which nerves should be blocked?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taha, AM; Abd-Elmaksoud, AM

    2016-01-01

    Background: This study aimed to determine the role of the sciatic and obturator nerve blocks (in addition to femoral block) in providing painless arthroscopic medial meniscus trimming/repair. Materials and Methods: One hundred and twenty patients with medial meniscus tear, who had been scheduled to knee arthroscopy, were planned to be included in this controlled prospective double-blind study. The patients were randomly allocated into three equal groups; FSO, FS, and FO. The femoral, sciatic, and obturator nerves were blocked in FSO groups. The femoral and sciatic nerves were blocked in FS group, while the femoral and obturator nerves were blocked in FO group. Intraoperative pain and its causative surgical maneuver were recorded. Results: All the patients (n = 7, 100%) in FO group had intraoperative pain. The research was terminated in this group but completed in FS and FSO groups (40 patients each). During valgus positioning of the knee for surgical management of the medial meniscus tear, the patients in FS group experienced pain more frequently than those in FSO group (P = 0.005). Conclusion: Adding a sciatic nerve block to the femoral nerve block is important for painless knee arthroscopy. Further adding of an obturator nerve block may be needed when a valgus knee position is required to manage the medial meniscus tear. PMID:27375382

  16. Long term results in refractory tennis elbow using autologous blood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naseem ul Gani

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Tennis elbow (TE is one of the commonest myotendinosis. Different treatment options are available and autologous blood injection has emerged as the one of the acceptable modalities of treatment. Long term studies over a larger group of patients are however lacking. The purpose of this study was to evaluate these patients on longer durations. One-hundred and twenty patients of TE, who failed to respond to conventional treatment including local steroid injections were taken up for this prospective study over the period from year 2005 to 2011 and were followed up for the minimum of 3 years (range 3-9 years. Two mL of autologous blood was taken from the ipsilateral limb and injected into the lateral epicondyle. The effectiveness of the procedure was assessed by Pain Rating Sscale and Nirschl Staging, which was monitored before the procedure, at first week, monthly for first three months, at 6 months and then 3 monthly for first year, six monthly for next 2 years and then yearly. Statistical analysis was done and a P value of <0.05 was taken as significant. The patients (76 females and 44 males were evaluated after procedure. The mean age group was 40.67±8.21. The mean follow up was 5.7±1.72 (range 3 to 9 years. The mean pain score and Nirschl stage before the procedure was 3.3±0.9 and 6.2±0.82 respectively. At final follow up the pain score and Nirschl were 1.1±0.9 and 1.5±0.91 respectively. Autologous blood injection was found to be one of the modalities for treatment of TE. Being cheap, available and easy method of treatment, it should be considered as a treatment modality before opting for the surgery. Universal guidelines for the management of tennis elbow should be made as there is lot of controversy regarding the treatment.

  17. Neuromuscular Exercise Post Partial Medial Meniscectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hall, Michelle; Hinman, Rana S; Wrigley, Tim V

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: To evaluate the effects of a 12-week, home-based, physiotherapist-guided neuromuscular exercise program on the knee adduction moment (an indicator of mediolateral knee load distribution) in people with a medial arthroscopic partial meniscectomy within the past 3-12 months. METHODS......: An assessor-blinded, randomised controlled trial including people aged 30-50 years with no to mild pain following medial arthroscopic partial meniscectomy was conducted. Participants were randomly allocated to either a 12-week neuromuscular exercise program that targeted neutral lower limb alignment...... or a control group with no exercise. The exercise program included eight individual sessions with one of seven physiotherapists in private clinics, together with home exercises. Primary outcomes were the peak external knee adduction moment during normal pace walking and during a one-leg sit-to-stand. Secondary...

  18. Influence of upper extremity positioning on pain, paresthesia, and tolerance: advancing current practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester, Mark E; Hazelton, Jill; Dewey, William S; Casey, James C; Richard, Reginald

    2013-01-01

    Loss of upper extremity motion caused by axillary burn scar contracture is a major complication of burn injury. Positioning acutely injured patients with axillary burns in positions above 90° of shoulder abduction may improve shoulder motion and minimize scar contracture. However, these positions may increase injury risk to the nerves of the brachial plexus. This study evaluated the occurrence of paresthesias, pain, and positional intolerance in four shoulder abduction positions in healthy adults. Sixty men and women were placed in four randomly assigned shoulder abduction positions for up to 2 hours: 1) 90° with elbow extension (90 ABD); 2) 130° with elbow flexion at 110° (130 ABD); 3) 150° with elbow extension (150 ABD); and 4) 170° with elbow extension (170 ABD). Outcome measures were assessed at baseline and every 30 minutes and included the occurrence of upper extremity paresthesias, position comfort/tolerance, and pain. Transient paresthesias, lasting less than 3 minutes, occurred in all test positions in 10 to 37% of the cases. Significantly fewer subjects reported paresthesias in the 90 ABD position compared with the other positions (P < .01). Pain was reported more frequently in the 170° position (68%) compared with the other positions (P < .01). Positioning with the elbow flexed or in terminal extension is not recommended, regardless of the degree of shoulder abduction. Positioning patients in a position of 150° of shoulder abduction was shown to be safe and well tolerated. Consideration of positions above this range should be undertaken cautiously and only with strict monitoring in alert and oriented patients for short time periods.

  19. Acute compartment syndrome after medial gastrocnemius tear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sit, Yan Kit; Lui, Tun Hing

    2015-02-01

    Acute compartment syndrome after medial gastrocnemius tear is very rare. It can involve the superficial posterior compartment alone or progress to involve all the 4 compartments of the lower legs. Those patients with high pain tolerance and minor trauma can lead to delayed presentation. Immediate fasciotomy is the treatment of choice. Therapeutic Level IV, Case Study. © 2014 The Author(s).

  20. Static analysis of a piping system with elbows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bryan, B.J.

    1994-01-01

    Vibration tests of elbows to failure were performed in Japan in the early 1970s. The piping system included two elbows and an eccentric mass. Tests were run both pressurized and unpressurized. This report documents a static analysis of the piping system in which the elbows are subjected to out of plane bending. The effects of internal pressure and material plasticity are investigated

  1. Etiologic factors in the development of medial tibial stress syndrome: a review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tweed, Jo L; Avil, Steven J; Campbell, Jackie A; Barnes, Mike R

    2008-01-01

    Medial tibial stress syndrome is a type of exercise-induced leg pain that is common in recreational and competitive athletes. Although various studies have attempted to find the exact pathogenesis of this common condition, it remains unknown. Various theories in literature from 1976 to 2006 were reviewed using key words. Until recently, inflammation of the periosteum due to excessive traction was thought to be the most likely cause of medial tibial stress syndrome. This periostitis has been hypothesized by some authors to be caused by the tearing away of the muscle fibers at the muscle-bone interface, although there are several suggestions as to which, if any, muscle is responsible. Recent studies have supported the view that medial tibial stress syndrome is not an inflammatory process of the periosteum but instead a stress reaction of bone that has become painful.

  2. Joint space narrowing, body mass index, and knee pain: the ROAD study (OAC1839R1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muraki, S; Akune, T; En-Yo, Y; Yoshida, M; Suzuki, T; Yoshida, H; Ishibashi, H; Tokimura, F; Yamamoto, S; Tanaka, S; Nakamura, K; Kawaguchi, H; Oka, H; Yoshimura, N

    2015-06-01

    The objective of the present study was to clarify the association of joint space narrowing with knee pain in Japanese men and women using a large-scale population-based cohort of the Research on Osteoarthritis/osteoporosis Against Disability (ROAD) study. This study examined the association between minimum joint space width (mJSW) in the medial compartment and pain at the knee. mJSW was measured in the medial and lateral compartments of the knee using a knee osteoarthritis (OA) computer-aided diagnosis system. From the 3040 participants in the ROAD study, the present study analyzed 2733 participants who completed the radiographic examinations and questionnaires regarding knee pain (975 men and 1758 women; mean age, 69.9 ± 11.2 years). Subjects with lateral knee OA were excluded. After adjustment for age and Body mass index (BMI), medial mJSW, as well as medial mJSW/lateral mJSW, was significantly associated with knee pain. Sex and BMI affected the association of medial mJSW with knee pain. The threshold of medial mJSW was approximately 3 mm in men and 2 mm in women, while that of medial mJSW/lateral mJSW was approximately 60% in both men and women. BMI was found to have a distinct effect on the association of mJSW with pain. The present cross-sectional study using a large-scale population from the ROAD study showed that joint space narrowing had a significant association with knee pain. The thresholds of joint space narrowing for knee pain were also established. Copyright © 2015 Osteoarthritis Research Society International. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Application of CT three-dimensional reconstruction in elbow injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang Wenhua; Qian Li

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the application of multi-slice spiral CT in fracture of elbow, and to study the value of different methods of the reconstruction. Methods: Thin line cross-section spiral CT scan was carried out in 13 cases with elbow injury, three-dimensional reconstruction was completed later. Several reconstructed image quality to display f the elbow fracture and dislocation were analyzed and compared. Results: 13 cases (17) elbow trauma included humeral media epicondyle fracture, humeral external epicondyle fracture, intercondylar fracture, olecranal fracture and radial head fracture. Among them, X-ray film showed negative in three sites, showed suspect fractures in 2 cases, and only showed single fracture in 2 cases. MPR reconstruction image could not only identify the diagnosis of fracture, but also provide further multi-angle display on fracture line and the extent of articular surface involvement. Surface reconstruction technology could exclude the impact of passive elbow flexion and display elbow injury more intuitively. Conclusion The elbow fracture dislocation could be showed clearly in multi-slice spiral CT, especially for complex fractures, with unmatched advantages compared to X-ray for clinical diagnosis and treatment determination. (authors)

  4. Evaluation of the Effect of Mesotherapy in the Management of Osteoarthritis-Related Pain in a Police Working Dog Using the Canine Brief Pain Inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, João Carlos; Santos, Ana Margarida

    2017-03-01

    A 9-year-old, 33.4kg (73.63Lb) male entire drug detection Labrador Retriever Dog was presented with an history of constant lameness from the right thoracic limb, aggravated with exercise and work. Clinical examination revealed mild signs of pain on the manipulation of the elbow joint, with reduced range of motion on the end feel of joint flexion and extension and crepitation. Radiographic examination of the right elbow joint revealed severe, chronic osteoarthritis, with osteophyte formation on the humeral epicondyles and articular margin of the distomedial humerus, with a narrowed joint space, and osteophytes on the proximal radius, proximomedial ulna, and anconeal process. A solution comprised of a combination of lidocaine, thiocolchicoside, and piroxicam was prepared and applied around the right elbow joint. The animal was rested for 3 days and normal work load was introduced over a 5-day period. The CPBI was completed by the trainer before treatment (T0), 14 days (T1), 1 (T2), 2 (T3), 3 (T4), 4 (T5), 5 (T6), and 6 (T7) months after treatment. Following the mesotherapy session, pain score results consistently declined until the 3-month evaluation moment. At the 6-month follow-up evaluation, values have risen to near baseline values. No side effects were recorded. Mesotherapy produced significant reduction of pain score results, as measure by the CBPI, and may be a promising treatment option for canine osteoarthritis-related pain. Further studies are required. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Continuous passive motion and physical therapy (CPM) versus physical therapy (PT) versus delayed physical therapy (DPT) after surgical release for elbow contractures; a study protocol for a prospective randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viveen, Jetske; Doornberg, Job N; Kodde, Izaak F; Goossens, Pjotr; Koenraadt, Koen L M; The, Bertram; Eygendaal, Denise

    2017-11-22

    The elbow is prone to stiffness after trauma. To regain functional elbow motion several conservative- and surgical treatment options are available. Conservative treatment includes physical therapy, intra-articular injections with corticosteroids and a static progressive or dynamic splinting program. If conservative treatment fails, an operative release of the posttraumatic stiff elbow is often performed. The best Evidence-Based rehabilitation protocol for patients after an operative release is unknown to date and differs per surgeon, hospital and country. Options include early- or delayed motion supervised by a physical therapist, immediate continuous passive motion (CPM), (night) splinting and a static progressive or dynamic splinting program. The SET-Study (Stiff Elbow Trial) is a single-centre, prospective, randomized controlled trial. The primary objective of this study is to compare the active Range of Motion (ROM) (flexion arc and rotational arc) twelve months after surgery between three groups. The first group will receive in-hospital CPM in combination with early motion Physical Therapy (PT) supervised by a physical therapist, the second group will receive only in-hospital early motion PT supervised by a physical therapist and the third group will receive outpatient supervised PT from postoperative day seven till ten. Secondary outcome measures will be Patient Reported Outcome Measures (PROMs) including the Mayo Elbow Performance Score (MEPS), the Oxford Elbow Score (OES), the quick Disabilities of Arm, Shoulder and Hand (qDASH) score, Visual Analogue pain Scale in rest and activity (VAS), Pain Catastrophizing Scale (PCS), the Short Form (SF)-36, the Centre for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale Revised (CESD-R) and the Work Rehabilitation Questionnaire (WORQ) for the upper limb. A successful completion of this trial will provide evidence on the best rehabilitation protocol in order to (re)gain optimal motion after surgical release of the stiff elbow

  6. Pain and fear avoidance partially mediate change in muscle strength during resistance exercise in women with fibromyalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsson, Anette; Palstam, Annie; Löfgren, Monika; Ernberg, Malin; Bjersing, Jan; Bileviciute-Ljungar, Indre; Gerdle, Björn; Kosek, Eva; Mannerkorpi, Kaisa

    2017-11-21

    Resistance exercise results in health benefits in fibromyalgia. The aim of this study was to determine the factors that mediate change in muscle strength in women with fibromyalgia as a result of resistance exercise. Sixty-seven women with fibromyalgia (age range 25-64 years) were included. Tests of muscle strength and questionnaires related to pain, fear avoidance and physical activity were carried out. Multivariable stepwise regression was used to analyse explanatory factors for change and predictors for final values of knee-extension force, elbow-flexion force and hand-grip force. Change in knee-extension force was explained by fear avoidance beliefs about physical activity at baseline, together with change in pain intensity, knee-extension force at baseline, age and body mass index (BMI) (R2=0.40, p = 0.013). Change in elbow-flexion force was explained by pain intensity at baseline, together with baseline fear avoidance beliefs about physical activity, BMI and elbow-flexion force at baseline (R2 = 0.32, p = 0.043). Change in hand-grip force was explained by hand-grip force at baseline, change in pain intensity and baseline fear avoidance (R2 = 0.37, p = 0.009). Final muscle strength was predicted by the same variables as change, except pain. Pain and fear avoidance are important factors to consider in rehabilitation using resistance exercise for women with fibromyalgia.

  7. Case report 483: Discoid lateral meniscus (DLM), medially displaced, with complex tear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howe, M.A.; Buckwalter, K.A.; Braunstein, E.M.; Wojtys, E.M.

    1988-01-01

    A case of a 9-year-old girl who presented with persistent pain in the left knee was demonstrated to have a discoid lateral meniscus (DLM). The sagittal MR images demonstrated the oval shape of the meniscus, consistent with the typical arthrographic appearance. The coronal images showed that the main substance of the meniscus was displaced medially, with overgrowth of the articular cartilage at the lateral aspect of the joint. The medial aspect of the lateral femoral condyle was concave to accommodate the abnormal meniscus. These findings are consistent with long-standing, medial displacement of the torn meniscus. The literature concerning DLM, an uncommon variant, was reviewed and discussed. (orig.)

  8. Role for the Ventral Posterior Medial/Posterior Lateral Thalamus and Anterior Cingulate Cortex in Affective/Motivation Pain Induced by Varicella Zoster Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phillip R. Kramer

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Varicella zoster virus (VZV infects the face and can result in chronic, debilitating pain. The mechanism for this pain is unknown and current treatment is often not effective, thus investigations into the pain pathway become vital. Pain itself is multidimensional, consisting of sensory and affective experiences. One of the primary brain substrates for transmitting sensory signals in the face is the ventral posterior medial/posterior lateral thalamus (VPM/VPL. In addition, the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC has been shown to be vital in the affective experience of pain, so investigating both of these areas in freely behaving animals was completed to address the role of the brain in VZV-induced pain. Our lab has developed a place escape avoidance paradigm (PEAP to measure VZV-induced affective pain in the orofacial region of the rat. Using this assay as a measure of the affective pain experience a significant response was observed after VZV injection into the whisker pad and after VZV infusion into the trigeminal ganglion. Local field potentials (LFPs are the summed electrical current from a group of neurons. LFP in both the VPM/VPL and ACC was attenuated in VZV injected rats after inhibition of neuronal activity. This inhibition of VPM/VPL neurons was accomplished using a designer receptor exclusively activated by a designer drug (DREADD. Immunostaining showed that cells within the VPM/VPL expressed thalamic glutamatergic vesicle transporter-2, NeuN and DREADD suggesting inhibition occurred primarily in excitable neurons. From these results we conclude: (1 that VZV associated pain does not involve a mechanism exclusive to the peripheral nerve terminals, and (2 can be controlled, in part, by excitatory neurons within the VPM/VPL that potentially modulate the affective experience by altering activity in the ACC.

  9. Capitellocondylar total elbow replacement in late-stage rheumatoid arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ovesen, Janne; Olsen, Bo Sanderhoff; Johannsen, Hans Viggo

    2012-01-01

    of instability. Other complications included 2 maltracking elbows, 2 triceps tendon ruptures, 2 cases of operative olecranon bursitis, and 2 ulnar nerve palsies. One elbow showed radiolucent lines of more than 1 mm in the circumference of the ulnar component; none of the other elbows showed any signs...

  10. Hydroforming Process for an Ultrasmall Bending Radius Elbow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shangwen Ruan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Bent pipes are widely used in automotive, aviation, and aerospace industries for delivering fluids. Parts having small relative bending radiuses are called elbows. However, fabricating a thin-walled elbow part using the simple bending process poses many challenges. One possible way to manufacture elbows is with the stamping-welding process. The major drawbacks of this method include the decline in sealing performance and the addition in weight attributed to the lap welding process. Tube hydroforming (THF is considered as a feasible solution to these problems. However, the forming process could be quite complex, and multistep forming is necessary. This study investigates the effects of preliminary processes on elbow forming such as bending, partition forming, and heat treatment and presents a high-performance optimized process design to achieve an ultrasmall radius elbow. The effects of multistep forming on the thickness distribution and the heat treatment on the microstructure have been evaluated. The results obtained from simulations show a reasonable agreement with those from the experiments.

  11. Acute effects of maximal isometric muscle action of the elbow extensors on contralateral dynamic task of the elbow flexors: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cauê V La Scala Teixeira

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Aim the aim was to investigate the influence of a maximal isometric muscle action of the elbow extensors on the contralateral dynamic task of the elbow flexors. Methods Seventeen recreationally trained men (23.3 ± 4.9 yrs, BMI: 24.8 ± 2.2 Kg/m² underwent two randomized different testing sessions separated by one week. In the control session (CON all subjects performed a maximum number of repetitions test (RMs at 75%1RM using the right elbow flexors. The experimental session (EXP was similar to the CON; however, all subjects were instructed to perform RMs at 75%1RM by using the right elbow flexors and maintaining the maximal voluntary contraction of the left elbow extensors during the test. RMs, rating of perceived exertion (RPE, and training volume (TV were measured and compared between sessions. Results The EXP showed a significant 10.4% increase on the RMs (13.8 vs. 12.5, p < 0.001, d = 0.44 and 12.1% increase in TV (238.0 vs. 212.4 kg, p < 0.001, d = 0.43 than CON. No differences were observed for RPE between sessions. Conclusion The maximum voluntary contraction of the left elbow extensors increased the RMs of the contralateral elbow flexors, reflecting a higher TV, and no differences in the RPE. Our results suggest that the investigated method may be a viable and practical alternative to increase the acute strength performance of elbow flexors when using submaximal loads.

  12. An Isolated Medial Patellofemoral Ligament Reconstruction with Patellar Tendon Autograft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dariusz Witoński

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the results of the medial patellofemoral ligament reconstruction with a medial strip of patellar tendon autograft after a minimum 2-year followup. Ten patients (10 knees were operated on by one surgeon, according to the modified technique, described by Camanho, without any bone plug at free graft end. The mean age of the patients was 27.2 years (ranging from 18 to 42 years. The mean follow-up period was 3 years and 7 months. All patients were reviewed prospectively. At the last follow-up visit, all the patients demonstrated a significant improvement in terms of patellofemoral joint stability, all aspects of the KOOS questionnaire, and Kujala et al.’s score (59.7 points preoperatively and 84.4 points at the last followup. No patient revealed recurrent dislocation. The SF-36 score revealed a significant improvement in bodily pain, general health, physical role functioning, social role functioning, and physical functioning domains. The described MPFL reconstruction with the use of the medial 1/3rd of patella tendon is an effective procedure that gives satisfactorily patellofemoral joint functions, improves the quality of life, and provides much pain relief. It is relatively simple, surgically not extensive, and economically cost-effective procedure.

  13. Feasibility of four-dimensional preoperative simulation for elbow debridement arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Michiro; Murakami, Yukimi; Iwatsuki, Katsuyuki; Kurimoto, Shigeru; Hirata, Hitoshi

    2016-04-02

    Recent advances in imaging modalities have enabled three-dimensional preoperative simulation. A four-dimensional preoperative simulation system would be useful for debridement arthroplasty of primary degenerative elbow osteoarthritis because it would be able to detect the impingement lesions. We developed a four-dimensional simulation system by adding the anatomical axis to the three-dimensional computed tomography scan data of the affected arm in one position. Eleven patients with primary degenerative elbow osteoarthritis were included. A "two rings" method was used to calculate the flexion-extension axis of the elbow by converting the surface of the trochlea and capitellum into two rings. A four-dimensional simulation movie was created and showed the optimal range of motion and the impingement area requiring excision. To evaluate the reliability of the flexion-extension axis, interobserver and intraobserver reliabilities regarding the assessment of bony overlap volumes were calculated twice for each patient by two authors. Patients were treated by open or arthroscopic debridement arthroplasties. Pre- and postoperative examinations included elbow range of motion measurement, and completion of the patient-rated questionnaire Hand20, Japanese Orthopaedic Association-Japan Elbow Society Elbow Function Score, and the Mayo Elbow Performance Score. Measurement of the bony overlap volume showed an intraobserver intraclass correlation coefficient of 0.93 and 0.90, and an interobserver intraclass correlation coefficient of 0.94. The mean elbow flexion-extension arc significantly improved from 101° to 125°. The mean Hand20 score significantly improved from 52 to 22. The mean Japanese Orthopaedic Association-Japan Elbow Society Elbow Function Score significantly improved from 67 to 88. The mean Mayo Elbow Performance Score significantly improved from 71 to 91 at the final follow-up evaluation. We showed that four-dimensional, preoperative simulation can be generated by

  14. Radiographic arthrosis after elbow trauma: interobserver reliability.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lindenhovius, A.; Karanicolas, P.J.; Bhandari, M.; Ring, D.; Kampen, A. van; et al.,

    2012-01-01

    PURPOSE: This study measured observer variation in radiographic rating of elbow arthrosis. METHODS: Thirty-seven independent orthopedic surgeons graded the extent of elbow arthrosis in 20 consecutive sets of plain radiographs, according to the Broberg and Morrey rating system (grade 0, normal joint;

  15. Radiographic Arthrosis After Elbow Trauma: Interobserver Reliability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lindenhovius, Anneluuk; Karanicolas, Paul Jack; Bhandari, Mohit; Ring, David; Allan, Cristopher; Axelrod, Terry; Baratz, Mark; Beingessner, Daphne; Cassidy, Charles; Coles, Chad; Conflitti, Joe; Rocca, Gregory Della; van Dijk, C. Niek; Elmans, L. H. G. J.; Feibe, Roger; Frihagen, Frede; Gosens, Taco; Greenberg, Jeffrey; Grosso, Elena; Harness, Neil; van der Heide, Huub; Jeray, Kyle; Kalainov, David; van Kampen, Albert; Kawamura, Sumito; Kloen, Peter; McCormac, Bob; McKee, Michael; Page, Richard; Pesantez, Rodrigo; Peters, Anil; Petrisor, Brad; Poolman, Rudolf; Richardson, Martin; Seiler, John; Swiontkowski, Marc; Trumble, Thomas; Wright, Thomas; Zalavras, Charalampos; Zura, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Purpose This study measured observer variation in radiographic rating of elbow arthrosis. Methods Thirty-seven independent orthopedic surgeons graded the extent of elbow arthrosis in 20 consecutive sets of plain radiographs, according to the Broberg and Morrey rating system (grade 0, normal joint;

  16. MR tomography of the elbow joint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zwaan, M.; Rinast, E.; Weiss, H.D.; Pressler, M.; Vogel, H.

    1989-03-01

    MR examinations of the elbow joint of three healthy subjects and a comparison with corresponding sections of anatomical preparations show that MR tomography enables not only an excellent differentiation of muscles, tendons and of the articular capsule, but will also visualise vessels and nerve tracts. MR tomography proved superior to the conventional methods in demonstration of separate fragments and inflammatory changes in the bone on examining 11 pathological elbow joints: congenital malformation, osteochondritis dissecans, ostitis, ulnar and radial nerve lesions, completely healed radius fracture and epicondylitis of the radial and ulnar humerus. Epicondylitis could not be demonstrated by MR. Magnetic resonance tomography seems to be the only method that enables direct visualisation of the nerve paths at the elbow joint.

  17. Elbow Reconstruction Using Island Flap for Burn Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gi Yeun Hur

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundDeep burns of the elbow lead to soft tissue necrosis and infection, with exposure of deep structures. Adequate wound coverage of this area requires thin, pliable, and durable tissue, while optimal functional recovery requires early coverage and functional rehabilitation. We have found 3 types of island flaps that provide reliable coverage for the elbow.MethodsA retrospective study was performed on all patients who underwent flap coverage of an elbow defect at our hospital. The patients' data including age, sex, cause of injury, wound dimensions, timing of flap coverage, postoperative elbow motion, and complications were investigated.ResultsBetween 2001 and 2012, 16 patients were treated at our hospital. The mean age was 53.3 years. Three kinds of flaps were performed: 9 latissimus dorsi flaps, 4 lateral arm flaps, and 4 radial forearm flaps. The average defect size was 183.5 cm2 (range, 28 to 670 cm2. Wound coverage was performed at mean duration of 45.9 days (range, 14 to 91 days. The mean postoperative active elbow flexion was 98° (range, 85° to 115°. Partial flap failure occurred in 1 latissimus dorsi flap. Minor complications included partial flap loss (11.8%, hematoma (23.5%, seroma (35.3%, and wound infection (5.9%.ConclusionsFlap selection for elbow reconstruction is determined by the defect size and the extent of the adjacent tissue injury. Elbow reconstruction using an island flap is a single-staged, reliable, and relatively simple procedure that permits initiation of early rehabilitation, thereby improving a patient's functional outcome.

  18. Elbow Reconstruction Using Island Flap for Burn Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gi Yeun Hur

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Background Deep burns of the elbow lead to soft tissue necrosis and infection, with exposureof deep structures. Adequate wound coverage of this area requires thin, pliable, and durabletissue, while optimal functional recovery requires early coverage and functional rehabilitation.We have found 3 types of island flaps that provide reliable coverage for the elbow.Methods A retrospective study was performed on all patients who underwent flap coverageof an elbow defect at our hospital. The patients’ data including age, sex, cause of injury, wounddimensions, timing of flap coverage, postoperative elbow motion, and complications wereinvestigated.Results Between 2001 and 2012, 16 patients were treated at our hospital. The mean agewas 53.3 years. Three kinds of flaps were performed: 9 latissimus dorsi flaps, 4 lateral armflaps, and 4 radial forearm flaps. The average defect size was 183.5 cm2 (range, 28 to 670cm2. Wound coverage was performed at mean duration of 45.9 days (range, 14 to 91 days.The mean postoperative active elbow flexion was 98° (range, 85° to 115°. Partial flap failureoccurred in 1 latissimus dorsi flap. Minor complications included partial flap loss (11.8%,hematoma (23.5%, seroma (35.3%, and wound infection (5.9%.Conclusions Flap selection for elbow reconstruction is determined by the defect size andthe extent of the adjacent tissue injury. Elbow reconstruction using an island flap is a singlestaged,reliable, and relatively simple procedure that permits initiation of early rehabilitation,thereby improving a patient’s functional outcome.

  19. Magnetic resonance imaging findings in bipartite medial cuneiform – a potential pitfall in diagnosis of midfoot injuries: a case series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elias Ilan

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction The bipartite medial cuneiform is an uncommon developmental osseous variant in the midfoot. To our knowledge, Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI characteristics of a non-symptomatic bipartite medial cuneiform have not been described in the orthopaedic literature. It is important for orthopaedic foot and ankle surgeons, musculoskeletal radiologists, and for podiatrists to identify this osseous variant as it may be mistakenly diagnosed as a fracture or not recognized as a source of non-traumatic or traumatic foot pain, which may sometimes even require surgical treatment. Case presentations In this report, we describe the characteristics of three cases of bipartite medial cuneiform on Magnetic Resonance Imaging and contrast its appearance to that of a medial cuneiform fracture. Conclusion A bipartite medial cuneiform is a rare developmental anomaly of the midfoot and may be the source of midfoot pain. Knowledge about its characteristic appearance on magnetic resonance imaging is important because it is a potential pitfall in diagnosis of midfoot injuries.

  20. Nerve injuries do occur in elbow arthroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hilgersom, Nick F. J.; van Deurzen, Derek F. P.; Gerritsma, Carina L. E.; van der Heide, Huub J. L.; Malessy, Martijn J. A.; Eygendaal, Denise; van den Bekerom, Michel P. J.

    2018-01-01

    The purpose is to create more awareness as well as emphasize the risk of permanent nerve injury as a complication of elbow arthroscopy. Patients who underwent elbow arthroscopy complicated by permanent nerve injury were retrospectively collected. Patients were collected using two strategies: (1) by

  1. Role of pathophysiology of patellofemoral instability in the treatment of spontaneous medial patellofemoral subluxation: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doğruyol Dağhan

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Medial patellar subluxation is usually seen after lateral retinacular release. Spontaneous medial subluxation of the patella is a very rare condition. There are few reports in the literature on the pathophysiology of iatrogenic medial patellar subluxation. To our knowledge, there are no reports of the pathophysiology of non-iatrogenic medial patellar subluxation in the English literature. In this study we present a case of spontaneous medial patellar instability that is more prominent in extension during weight bearing. We also try to define the treatment protocol based on pathophsiology. Case presentation We report the case of a 21-year-old Turkish man with spontaneous medial patellar instability. He had suffered right knee pain, clicking and popping sensation in the affected knee for three months prior to presentation. Clinical examination demonstrated medial patellar subluxation that is more prominent in extension during the weight bearing phase of gait and while standing. Increased medial tilt was observed when the patella was stressed medially. Conventional anterior to posterior, lateral and Merchant radiographs did not reveal any abnormalities. After three months of physical therapy, our patient was still suffering from right knee pain which disturbed his gait pattern. Throughout the surgery, medial patellar translation was tested following the imbrication of lateral structures. He still had a medial patellar translation that was more than 50% of his patellar width. Patellotibial ligament augmentation using an iliotibial band flap was added. When examined after surgery, the alignment of the patella was effectively corrected. Conclusions Chronic imbalance between the strengths of vastus lateralis and vastus medialis results in secondary changes in passive ligamentous structures and causes additional instability. Physical therapy modalities that aim to strengthen the vastus lateralis might be sufficient for the

  2. Elbow, forearm, wrist, and hand injuries among sport rock climbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtzhausen, L M; Noakes, T D

    1996-07-01

    Sport rock climbing with its repetitive high-torque movements in gaining the ascent of a rock face or wall, often in steep overhanging positions, is associated with a unique distribution and form of upper limb injuries. In this article, we review the biomechanical aspects of sport rock climbing and the types of injuries commonly encountered in the forearm, wrist, and hand regions of elite sport rock climbers. Because elbow, forearm, wrist, and hand injuries predominate, representing 62% of the total injuries encountered, these anatomical areas have been selected for review. The predominant source of data are the published work of Bollen et al. The remaining sources were obtained through electronic search of the Medline and Current Contents Databases (last searched May 1995). German and French articles were included in the search criteria. Only studies dealing with acute soft tissue and overuse injuries amongst sport rock climbers were selected. Data were extracted directly from the sourced articles. The following injuries have been described in detail with regard to their presentation, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention amongst sport rock climbers: medial epicondylitis, brachialis tendonitis, biceps brachii tendonitis, ulnar collateral ligament sprain of the elbow, carpal tunnel syndrome, digital flexor tendon pulley sheath tears, interphalangeal joint effusions, fixed flexion deformities of the interphalangeal joints, and collateral ligament tears of the interphalangeal joints. Many of the injuries are specific to the handhold types used by the rock climber. Accurate diagnosis and effective treatment of these unique injuries will be facilitated by a wider understanding of the biomechanical aspects of rock climbing and an awareness of the patterns and incidence of injuries in this sport.

  3. Investigation on ultrasonic guided waves propagation in elbow pipe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qi, Minxin; Zhou, Shaoping; Ni, Jing; Li, Yong

    2016-01-01

    Pipeline plays an indispensable role in process industries, whose structural integrity is of great significance for the safe production. In this paper, the axial crack-like defects in 90° elbows are inspected by using the T (0, 1) mode guided waves. The detection sensitivity for different defect locations is firstly investigated by guided waves experimentally. The propagation of guided waves in the bent pipe is then simulated by using finite element method. The results show that the rates of T (0, 1) mode passing through elbow correlate strongly with the excitation frequency. Less mode conversion is generated at the frequency of 38 kHz when passing through the elbow, while most of energy converted into F (1, 2) mode at the frequency of 75 kHz. The crack in different locations of the elbow can affect the rates of mode conversion. It can be found that the crack in the middle of the elbow inhibits mode conversion and shares the highest detection sensitivity, while the crack in the extrados of elbow causes more mode conversion.

  4. Nerve injuries do occur in elbow arthroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilgersom, Nick F J; van Deurzen, Derek F P; Gerritsma, Carina L E; van der Heide, Huub J L; Malessy, Martijn J A; Eygendaal, Denise; van den Bekerom, Michel P J

    2018-01-01

    The purpose is to create more awareness as well as emphasize the risk of permanent nerve injury as a complication of elbow arthroscopy. Patients who underwent elbow arthroscopy complicated by permanent nerve injury were retrospectively collected. Patients were collected using two strategies: (1) by word-of-mouth throughout the Dutch Society of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery, and the Leiden University Nerve Centre, and (2) approaching two medical liability insurance companies. Medical records were reviewed to determine patient characteristics, disease history and postoperative course. Surgical records were reviewed to determine surgical details. A total of eight patients were collected, four men and four women, ageing 21-54 years. In five out of eight patients (62.5%), the ulnar nerve was affected; in the remaining three patients (37.5%), the radial nerve was involved. Possible causes for nerve injury varied among patients, such as portal placement and the use of motorized instruments. A case series on permanent nerve injury as a complication of elbow arthroscopy is presented. Reporting on this sequel in the literature is little, however, its risk is not to be underestimated. This study emphasizes that permanent nerve injury is a complication of elbow arthroscopy, concurrently increasing awareness and thereby possibly aiding to prevention. IV, case series.

  5. Pain of osteoarthritis and bone uptake - is there a correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wadhwa, S.S.; Carollan, M.; Abbati, D.; Chan, W.-L.; Bui, C.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: In patients with osteoarthritis bone scintigraphy is consistently reported as demonstrating mild, moderate or severe arthritis, particularly for the medial compartment of the knee, depending on the degree of uptake. Numerous studies however have not demonstrated a correlation between severity of bone scan findings and severity of osteoarthritis (OA) demonstrated at surgery or arthroscopy. In fact, most studies have not demonstrated any correlation between OA as assessed with imaging and subsequent surgical findings. The only positive correlation for outcome of OA of the knee appears to be the severity of pain. In this pilot study we investigate if there is correlation between pain and scintigraphic findings in medial compartment OA. 69 patients (18 - 87 years) without history of recent knee trauma or previous surgery for insertion of knee prosthesis who presented for a bone scan for any reasons were studied. All patients were asked to quantify any knee pain on a simple 4 point score i.e. no pain, non limiting pain, pain limiting daily activity and rest pain. Uptake in the medial compartment of the knee was quantified by measuring the count ratio between the medial compartment and the corresponding distal femur. 45 patients reported no pain, 20 reported non-limiting pain while 4 reported limiting pain. No patient reported pain at rest. In general pain was bilateral with no major differences. The mean knee/femur ratio for patients with no pain was 1.46 +/- 0.95 (N=90). Knee/femur ratio for patients with non-limiting pain was 1.77 +/- 0.57 (N=40) and for those with limiting pain it was 2.36 +/- 1.82 (N=8). Although the results were not statistically significant there was a clear trend towards a rising knee/femur ratio with increasing pain. The number of patients with knee pain was small and further study concentrating on this group would be required to assess the significance of the trend findings. Further study particularly in patients with significant

  6. Isometric elbow extensors strength in supine- and prone-lying positions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelzaher, Ibrahim E; Ababneh, Anas F; Alzyoud, Jehad M

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare isometric strength of elbow extensors measured in supine- and prone-lying positions at elbow flexion angles of 45 and 90 degrees. Twenty-two male subjects under single-blind procedures participated in the study. Each subject participated in both supine-lying and prone-lying measuring protocols. Calibrated cable tensiometer was used to measure isometric strength of the right elbow extensors and a biofeedback electromyography was used to assure no substitution movements from shoulder girdle muscles. The mean values of isometric strength of elbow extensors measured from supine-lying position at elbow flexion angles of 45 and 90 degrees were 11.1  ±  4.2 kg and 13.1  ±  4.6 kg, while those measured from prone-lying position were 9.9  ±  3.6 kg and 12  ±  4.2 kg, respectively. There is statistical significant difference between the isometric strength of elbow extensors measured from supine-lying position at elbow flexion angles of 45 and 90 degrees compared to that measured from prone-lying position (p  isometric strength of elbow extensors since supine-lying starting position is better than prone-lying starting position.

  7. Deliberate utilization of interaction torques brakes elbow extension in a fast throwing motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hore, Jon; Debicki, Derek B; Gribble, Paul L; Watts, Sherry

    2011-05-01

    We tested the hypothesis that in fast arm movements the CNS deliberately utilizes interaction torques to decelerate (brake) joint rotations. Twelve subjects performed fast 2-D overarm throws in which large elbow extension velocities occurred. Joint motions were computed from recordings made with search coils; joint torques were calculated using inverse dynamics. After ball release, a large follow-through shoulder extension acceleration occurred that was initiated by shoulder extensor muscle torque. This shoulder acceleration produced a flexor interaction torque at the elbow that initiated elbow deceleration (braking). An instantaneous mechanical interaction of passive torques then occurred between elbow and shoulder, i.e., elbow extension deceleration produced a large shoulder extensor interaction torque that contributed to the shoulder extension acceleration which, simultaneously, produced a large elbow flexor interaction torque that contributed to elbow extension deceleration, and so on. Late elbow flexor muscle torque also contributed to elbow deceleration. The interaction of passive torques between shoulder and elbow was braked by shoulder flexor muscle torque. In this mechanism, shoulder musculature contributed to braking elbow extension in two ways: shoulder extensors initiated the mechanical interaction of passive torques between shoulder and elbow and shoulder flexors dissipated kinetic energy from elbow braking. It is concluded that, in fast 2-D throws, the CNS deliberately utilizes powerful interaction torques between shoulder and elbow to brake motion at the elbow.

  8. Brachialis periosteal avulsion injury: case report with magnetic resonance imaging findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lam, Justin Chak Yiu; Lee, Ka Lok Ryan; Griffith, James F.

    2016-01-01

    Brachialis periosteal avulsion injury is an uncommon injury occurring in young children. The injury may be misinterpreted or overlooked because of misleading or subtle radiological findings. A case of 7-year-old child with post-traumatic elbow pain and subtle findings on elbow radiography is presented. The injury was initially misinterpreted as an avulsion fracture of the medial epicondyle. Following radiological review, a diagnosis of brachialis periosteal avulsion injury was made. The radiographic and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of this injury are presented to stress the value of comparing the radiographic findings with previous imaging and to increase awareness of this uncommon injury. (orig.)

  9. Brachialis periosteal avulsion injury: case report with magnetic resonance imaging findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lam, Justin Chak Yiu; Lee, Ka Lok Ryan; Griffith, James F. [Prince of Wales Hospital, Department of Imaging and Interventional Radiology, Shatin, N.T (China)

    2016-11-15

    Brachialis periosteal avulsion injury is an uncommon injury occurring in young children. The injury may be misinterpreted or overlooked because of misleading or subtle radiological findings. A case of 7-year-old child with post-traumatic elbow pain and subtle findings on elbow radiography is presented. The injury was initially misinterpreted as an avulsion fracture of the medial epicondyle. Following radiological review, a diagnosis of brachialis periosteal avulsion injury was made. The radiographic and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of this injury are presented to stress the value of comparing the radiographic findings with previous imaging and to increase awareness of this uncommon injury. (orig.)

  10. Astym treatment vs. eccentric exercise for lateral elbow tendinopathy: a randomized controlled clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas L. Sevier

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Patients with chronic lateral elbow (LE tendinopathy, commonly known as tennis elbow, often experience prolonged symptoms and frequent relapses. Astym treatment, evidenced in animal studies to promote the healing and regeneration of soft tissues, is hypothesized to improve outcomes in LE tendinopathy patients. This study had two objectives: (1 to compare the efficacy of Astym treatment to an evidence-based eccentric exercise program (EE for patients with chronic LE tendinopathy, and (2 to quantify outcomes of subjects non-responsive to EE who were subsequently treated with Astym treatment.Study Design. Prospective, two group, parallel, randomized controlled trial completed at a large orthopedic center in Indiana. Inclusion criteria: age range of 18–65 years old, with clinical indications of LE tendinopathy greater than 12 weeks, with no recent corticosteriod injection or disease altering comorbidities.Methods. Subjects with chronic LE tendinopathy (107 subjects with 113 affected elbows were randomly assigned using computer-generated random number tables to 4 weeks of Astym treatment (57 elbows or EE treatment (56 elbows. Data collected at baseline, 4, 8, 12 weeks, 6 and 12 months. Primary outcome measure: DASH; secondary outcome measures: pain with activity, maximum grip strength and function. The treating physicians and the rater were blinded; subjects and treating clinicians could not be blinded due to the nature of the treatments.Results. Resolution response rates were 78.3% for the Astym group and 40.9% for the EE group. Astym subjects showed greater gains in DASH scores (p = 0.047 and in maximum grip strength (p = 0.008 than EE subjects. Astym therapy also resolved 20/21 (95.7% of the EE non-responders, who showed improvements in DASH scores (p < 0.005, pain with activity (p = 0.002, and function (p = 0.004 following Astym treatment. Gains continued at 6 and 12 months. No adverse effects were reported.Conclusion. This study

  11. The Effects of Workplace Physical Activity Programs on Musculoskeletal Pain: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira-Silva, Isabel; Teixeira, Pedro M; Santos, Rute; Abreu, Sandra; Moreira, Carla; Mota, Jorge

    2016-05-01

    This article reviews the effectiveness of physical activity (PA) interventions at the workplace to reduce musculoskeletal pain among employees and assesses the effect size of these programs using meta-analysis. Four databases (i.e., PubMed, EBSCO, Web of Science, and Cochrane) were searched for research trials, which included comparison groups of employees that assessed PA programs, musculoskeletal pain, and health-related behaviors, published between January 1990 and March 2013. The meta-analysis estimates of standardized mean differences (Hedges' g) present significant evidence of less general pain (g = -.40 with a 95% confidence interval [CI] = [-0.78, -0.02]) and neck and shoulder pain (g = -.37 with a 95% CI = [-0.63, -0.12]) in intervention groups. The few studies of low back pain and arm, elbow, wrist, hand, or finger pain did not present sufficient statistically significant evidence. Consistent evidence demonstrates that workplace PA interventions significantly reduce general musculoskeletal pain and neck and shoulder pain. More studies are needed to determine the effectiveness of work-related PA interventions for arm, elbow, wrist, hand or finger, and low back pain. © 2016 The Author(s).

  12. Acute Medial Plantar Fascia Tear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascoe, Stephanie C; Mazzola, Timothy J

    2016-06-01

    A 32-year-old man who participated in competitive soccer came to physical therapy via direct access for a chief complaint of plantar foot pain. The clinical examination findings and mechanism of injury raised a concern for a plantar fascia tear, so the patient was referred to the physician and magnetic resonance imaging was obtained. The magnetic resonance image confirmed a high-grade, partial-thickness, proximal plantar fascia tear with localized edema at the location of the medial band. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2016;46(6):495. doi:10.2519/jospt.2016.0409.

  13. Chronic elbow dislocation: a rare complication of tennis elbow surgery. Successful treatment by open reduction and external fixator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degreef, I; De Smet, L

    2007-06-01

    A case is presented of chronic dislocation of the elbow after tennis elbow surgery combined with posterior interosseous nerve (PIN) release. An open reduction with repair of the collateral ligaments was performed. Postoperative rehabilitation involved the use of an articulated external fixator and there was a successful outcome. Possible causes of the dislocation are discussed.

  14. Trauma and sports injuries of the elbow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kodde, I.F.

    2016-01-01

    This thesis deals with current issues in the management of trauma and sports injuries of the elbow. Common sports injuries of the elbow involve ruptures of the distal biceps tendon and the ulnar collateral ligament. We evaluated one of the current thoughts, that the height of the radial bicipital

  15. Temporary presence of myofibroblasts in human elbow capsule after trauma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doornberg, Job N.; Bosse, Tjalling; Cohen, Mark S.; Jupiter, Jesse B.; Ring, David; Kloen, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Elbow stiffness is a common complication after elbow trauma. The elbow capsule is often thickened, fibrotic, and contracted at the time of surgical release. The limited studies available suggest that the capsule is contracted because of fibroblast-to-myofibroblast differentiation. We hypothesize

  16. Clinical anatomy of the elbow and shoulder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villaseñor-Ovies, Pablo; Vargas, Angélica; Chiapas-Gasca, Karla; Canoso, Juan J; Hernández-Díaz, Cristina; Saavedra, Miguel Ángel; Navarro-Zarza, José Eduardo; Kalish, Robert A

    The elbow patients herein discussed feature common soft tissue conditions such as tennis elbow, golfers' elbow and olecranon bursitis. Relevant anatomical structures for these conditions can easily be identified and demonstrated by cross examination by instructors and participants. Patients usually present rotator cuff tendinopathy, frozen shoulder, axillary neuropathy and suprascapular neuropathy. The structures involved in tendinopathy and frozen shoulder can be easily identified and demonstrated under normal conditions. The axillary and the suprascapular nerves have surface landmarks but cannot be palpated. In neuropathy however, physical findings in both neuropathies are pathognomonic and will be discussed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  17. Elbow flexor and extensor muscle weakness in lateral epicondylalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coombes, Brooke K; Bisset, Leanne; Vicenzino, Bill

    2012-05-01

    To evaluate whether deficits of elbow flexor and extensor muscle strength exist in lateral epicondylalgia (LE) in comparison with a healthy control population. Cross-sectional study. 150 participants with unilateral LE were compared with 54 healthy control participants. Maximal isometric elbow flexion and extension strength were measured bilaterally using a purpose-built standing frame such that gripping was avoided. The authors found significant side differences in elbow extensor (-6.54 N, 95% CI -11.43 to -1.65, p=0.008, standardised mean difference (SMD) -0.45) and flexor muscle strength (-11.26 N, 95% CI -19.59 to -2.94, p=0.009, SMD -0.46) between LE and control groups. Within the LE group, only elbow extensor muscle strength deficits between sides was significant (affected-unaffected: -2.94 N, 95% CI -5.44 to -0.44). Small significant deficits of elbow extensor and flexor muscle strength exist in the affected arm of unilateral LE in comparison with healthy controls. Notably, comparing elbow strength between the affected and unaffected sides in unilateral epicondylalgia is likely to underestimate these deficits. Trial Registration Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Register ACTRN12609000051246.

  18. Medial patellofemoral ligament reconstruction: patient selection and perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baer MR

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Michael R. Baer, Jeffrey A. Macalena Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, USA Abstract: Patellofemoral instability is a painful and often recurring disorder with many negative long-term consequences. After a period of failed nonoperative management, surgical intervention has been used to reduce the incidence of patellar subluxation and dislocations. Medial patellofemoral ligament (MPFL reconstruction successfully addresses patellofemoral instability by restoring the deficient primary medial patellar soft tissue restraint. When planning MPFL reconstruction for instability, it is imperative to consider the patient’s unique anatomy including the tibial tuberosity–trochlear groove (TT–TG distance, trochlear dysplasia, and patella alta. Additionally, it is important to individualize surgical treatment in the skeletally immature, hypermobile, and athletic populations. Keywords: MPFL, indications, considerations, contraindications

  19. Prolonged knee pain relief by saphenous block (new technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajeev Harshe

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Pain in the knee joint can be from a variety of reasons. It can be either from the joint itself, it can be myofascial or it can be neuropathy, radicular pain. The myofascial component can be in different forms, namely, collateral ligament pain, bursitis, tendinitis, and so on. This responds well to local injections of steroids. Pain from the joint can be because of osteoarthritis (OA, rheumatoid arthritis or any other variety of arthritis. Among these osteoarthritis is the most common and naturally occurring pain. There are several modalities used for managing pain in the knee joint. They include medicines and physiotherapy, intra-articular steroid injection, intra-articular Hyalgan, Synvisc injection, prolotherapy, genicular nerve block, ablation, intra-articular pulsed radio frequency (PRF ablation, acupuncture, injection of platelet-rich plasma in the joint, total knee replacement, high tibial osteotomy, arthroscopy and lavage, and so on. All these modalities have their pros and cons. Literature and experience state that the pain relief provided may last for a few months with these modalities except in surgical interventions in advanced OA. The saphenous nerve is termination of femoral nerve and it is essentially sensory nerve. It supplies the medial compartment and some part of the anterior compartment of the knee joint. This nerve has been blocked near the knee joint by way of infiltration by surgeons and anesthetists, for relief of pain after knee surgery, with varying pain relief of postoperative pain. When we block the saphenous in the mid thigh in the sartorial canal, the fluid tends to block the medial branch of the anterior femoral cutaneous nerve also. It is hypothesized that this may give complete medial and anterior knee pain relief and as most of the knee OA patients have medial and anterior knee pain, this may prove useful. Use of ultrasonography helps to locate the nerve better, ensuring perfection. An effort has been made to

  20. Medial epicondylitis - golfer's elbow

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Golf Baseball and other throwing sports, such as football and javelin Racquet sports, such as tennis Weight ... herein should not be used during any medical emergency or for the diagnosis or treatment of any ...

  1. Myositis Ossificans Traumatica Causing Ankylosis of the Elbow

    OpenAIRE

    Kanthimathi, B.; Udhaya Shankar, S.; Arun Kumar, K.; Narayanan, V. L.

    2014-01-01

    Myositis ossificans traumatica is an unusual complication following a muscle contusion injury. A significantly large myositic mass causing ankylosis of the elbow is even rarer. We report a 13-year-old boy who presented with a 14-month history of a fixed elbow with no movement and a palpable bony mass in the anterior aspect of the elbow. He had sustained significant trauma to the affected limb 1 month prior to onset of symptoms, which was managed by native massage and bandaging for 4 weeks. Th...

  2. MR imaging of the major nerves about the elbow: cadaveric study examining the effect of flexion and extension of the elbow and pronation and supination of the forearm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Young Sook; Yeh, Lee Ren; Trudell, D.; Resnick, D.

    1998-01-01

    Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging provides useful information in the evaluation of peripheral nerves. Recent advances in MR imaging allow for detailed depiction of the soft tissue structures of the elbow joint. Three major nerves are present about the elbow. Six cadaveric elbows were imaged to depict the normal anatomy of these nerves and to determine the best plane and position of the elbow for optimal visualization of each nerve. Axial images of the elbow in full extension with the forearm in supination allow identification of all major nerves. Axial images with the elbow in full flexion allow accurate assessment of the cubital tunnel and the ulner nerve. Axial images of the elbow in full extension with the forearm in pronation are helpful for assessment of the median and radial nerves in the forearm. (orig.)

  3. The effectiveness of diagnostic imaging methods for the assessment of soft tissue and articular disorders of the shoulder and elbow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shahabpour, M. [Department of Radiology, Universitair Ziekenhuis Brussel, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Laarbeeklaan 101, 1090 Brussels (Belgium)], E-mail: Maryam@shahabpour.uzbrussel; Kichouh, M.; Laridon, E. [Department of Radiology, Universitair Ziekenhuis Brussel, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Laarbeeklaan 101, 1090 Brussels (Belgium); Gielen, J.L. [Department of Radiology, Universitair Ziekenhuis Antwerpen, Universiteit Antwerpen, Wilrijkstraat 10, 2650 Edegem (Belgium); De Mey, J. [Department of Radiology, Universitair Ziekenhuis Brussel, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Laarbeeklaan 101, 1090 Brussels (Belgium)

    2008-02-15

    There are no clear guidelines for diagnostic imaging of articular and soft tissue pathologies of the shoulder and elbow. Several methods are used, including magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), magnetic resonance arthrography (MRA) and ultrasound (US). Their cost-effectiveness is still unclear. We performed a meta-analysis of the relevant literature and discussed the role of MR imaging of the shoulder and elbow compared with other diagnostic imaging modalities. For the shoulder impingement syndrome and rotator cuff tears, MRI and US have a comparable accuracy for detection of full-thickness rotator cuff tears. MRA and US might be more accurate for the detection of partial-thickness tears than MRI. Given the large difference in cost of MR and US, ultrasound may be the most cost-effective diagnostic method for identification of full-thickness tears in a specialist hospital setting (Evidence level 3). Both MRA and CT arthrography (CTA) are effective methods for the detection of labrum tears. More recently, multidetector CTA has offered the advantages of thinner slices than with MRA in a shorter examination time. Still, MRA has the advantage towards CTA to directly visualize the affected structures with a better evaluation of extent and location and to detect associated capsuloligamentous injuries. For the elbow pathologies, plain MRI or MRA have the advantage towards CTA to detect occult bone injuries. CTA is better for the assessment of the thin cartilage of the elbow. Both US and MRI are reliable methods to detect chronic epicondylitis; US is more available and far more cost-effective (Evidence level 2). MRA can differentiate complete from partial tears of the medial collateral ligament. US or MRI can detect partial and complete biceps tendon tears and/or bursitis. MRI can provide important diagnostic information in lesions of the ulnar, radial, or median nerve.

  4. Gait changes in patients with knee osteoarthritis are replicated by experimental knee pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Marius; Nielsen, Thomas Graven; Aaboe, Jens

    2010-01-01

    Medial knee osteoarthritis (OA) is characterized by pain and associated with abnormal knee moments during walking. The relationship between knee OA pain and gait changes remains to be clarified, and a better understanding of this link could advance the treatment and prevention of disease...... progression. This study investigated changes in knee moments during walking following experimental knee pain in healthy volunteers, and whether these changes replicated the joint moments observed in medial knee OA patients....

  5. Rehabilitation of the Overhead Athlete’s Elbow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilk, Kevin E.; Macrina, Leonard C.; Cain, E. Lyle; Dugas, Jeffrey R.; Andrews, James R.

    2012-01-01

    The activities required during overhead sports, particularly during baseball pitching, produce large forces at the elbow joint. Injuries to the elbow joint frequently occur in the overhead athlete because of the large amount of forces observed during the act of throwing, playing tennis, or playing golf. Injuries may result because of repetitive overuse, leading to tissue failure. Rehabilitation following injury or surgery to the throwing elbow is vital to fully restore normal function and return the athlete to competition as quickly and safely as possible. Rehabilitation of the elbow, whether following injury or postsurgical, must follow a progressive and sequential order, building on the previous phase, to ensure that healing tissues are not compromised. Emphasis is placed on restoring full motion, muscular strength, and neuromuscular control while gradually applying loads to healing tissue. In addition, when one is creating a rehabilitation plan for athletes, it is imperative to treat the entire upper extremity, core, and legs to create and dissipate the forces generated at each joint. PMID:23016113

  6. Articular Contact Area and Pressure in Posteromedial Rotatory Instability of the Elbow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellato, Enrico; Fitzsimmons, James S; Kim, Youngbok; Bachman, Daniel R; Berglund, Lawrence J; Hooke, Alexander W; O'Driscoll, Shawn W

    2018-03-21

    Joint incongruity in posteromedial rotatory instability (PMRI) has been theorized to determine early articular degenerative changes. Our hypothesis was that the articular contact area and contact pressure differ significantly between an intact elbow and an elbow affected by PMRI. Seven cadaveric elbows were tested under gravity varus stress using a custom-made machine designed to simulate muscle loads and allow passive elbow flexion (0° to 90°). The mean contact area and contact pressure data were collected and processed using the Tekscan sensor and software. After testing the intact specimen (intact elbow), a PMRI injury was simulated (PMRI elbow) and the specimen was tested again. The PMRI elbows were characterized by initial joint subluxation and significantly elevated articular contact pressure. Both worsened, corresponding with a reduction in contact area, as the elbow was flexed from 0° until the joint subluxation and incongruity spontaneously reduced (at a mean [and standard error] of 60° ± 5° of flexion), at which point the mean contact pressure decreased from 870 ± 50 kPa (pre-reduction) to 440 ± 40 kPa (post-reduction) (p contact area increased from 80 ± 8 mm to 150 ± 58 mm (p contact area from the coronoid fracture edge toward the lower portion of the coronoid. At the flexion angle at which the PMRI elbows reduced, both the contact area and the contact pressure of the intact elbows differed significantly from those of the PMRI elbows, both before and after the elbow reduction (p contact area and increased contact pressures due to joint subluxation and incongruity could explain the progressive arthritis seen in some elbows affected by PMRI. This biomechanical study suggests that the early degenerative changes associated with PMRI reported in the literature could be subsequent to joint incongruity and an increase in contact pressure between the coronoid fracture surface and the trochlea.

  7. MR imaging of the major nerves about the elbow: cadaveric study examining the effect of flexion and extension of the elbow and pronation and supination of the forearm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Young Sook; Yeh, Lee Ren; Trudell, D.; Resnick, D. [Department of Radiology (114), Veterans Administration Medical Center, San Diego, CA (United States)

    1998-08-01

    Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging provides useful information in the evaluation of peripheral nerves. Recent advances in MR imaging allow for detailed depiction of the soft tissue structures of the elbow joint. Three major nerves are present about the elbow. Six cadaveric elbows were imaged to depict the normal anatomy of these nerves and to determine the best plane and position of the elbow for optimal visualization of each nerve. Axial images of the elbow in full extension with the forearm in supination allow identification of all major nerves. Axial images with the elbow in full flexion allow accurate assessment of the cubital tunnel and the ulner nerve. Axial images of the elbow in full extension with the forearm in pronation are helpful for assessment of the median and radial nerves in the forearm. (orig.) With 11 figs., 20 refs.

  8. The effect of different depths of medial heel skive on plantar pressures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonanno Daniel R

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Foot orthoses are often used to treat lower limb injuries associated with excessive pronation. There are many orthotic modifications available for this purpose, with one being the medial heel skive. However, empirical evidence for the mechanical effects of the medial heel skive modification is limited. This study aimed to evaluate the effect that different depths of medial heel skive have on plantar pressures. Methods Thirty healthy adults (mean age 24 years, range 18–46 with a flat-arched or pronated foot posture and no current foot pain or deformity participated in this study. Using the in-shoe pedar-X® system, plantar pressure data were collected for the rearfoot, midfoot and forefoot while participants walked along an 8 metre walkway wearing a standardised shoe. Experimental conditions included a customised foot orthosis with the following 4 orthotic modifications: (i no medial heel skive, (ii a 2 mm medial heel skive, (iii a 4 mm medial heel skive and (iv a 6 mm medial heel skive. Results Compared to the foot orthosis with no medial heel skive, statistically significant increases in peak pressure were observed at the medial rearfoot – there was a 15% increase (p = 0.001 with the 4 mm skive and a 29% increase (p  Conclusions This study found that a medial heel skive of 4 mm or 6 mm increases peak pressure under the medial rearfoot in asymptomatic adults with a flat-arched or pronated foot posture. Plantar pressures at the midfoot and forefoot were not altered by a medial heel skive of 2, 4 or 6 mm. These findings provide some evidence for the effects of the medial heel skive orthotic modification.

  9. Phase-dependence of elbow muscle coactivation in front crawl swimming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauer, Jessy; Figueiredo, Pedro; Vilas-Boas, João Paulo; Fernandes, Ricardo J; Rouard, Annie Hélène

    2013-08-01

    Propulsion in swimming is achieved by complex sculling movements with elbow quasi-fixed on the antero-posterior axis to transmit forces from the hand and the forearm to the body. The purpose of this study was to investigate how elbow muscle coactivation was influenced by the front crawl stroke phases. Ten international level male swimmers performed a 200-m front crawl race-pace bout. Sagittal views were digitized frame by frame to determine the stroke phases (aquatic elbow flexion and extension, aerial elbow flexion and extension). Surface electromyograms (EMG) of the right biceps brachii and triceps brachii were recorded and processed using the integrated EMG to calculate a coactivation index (CI) for each phase. A significant effect of the phases on the CI was revealed with highest levels of coactivation during the aquatic elbow flexion and the aerial elbow extension. Swimmers stabilize the elbow joint to overcome drag during the aquatic phase, and act as a brake at the end of the recovery to replace the arm for the next stroke. The CI can provide insight into the magnitude of mechanical constraints supported by a given joint, in particular during a complex movement. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Intrinsic constraint of unlinked total elbow replacements--the ulnotrochlear joint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamineni, S; O'Driscoll, S W; Urban, M; Garg, A; Berglund, L J; Morrey, B F; An, K N

    2005-09-01

    Many unlinked total elbow replacement designs with radically differing articular geometries exist, suggesting that there is no consensus regarding an optimal design. A feature inherent to the articular design is the intrinsic constraint afforded to the joint by the implant. Our aim was to compare the intrinsic constraints of unlinked implants with that of the normal ulnotrochlear joint. We tested twelve cadaveric ulnotrochlear joints with a custom-made multiple-axis materials testing machine. With compressive loads ranging from 10 to 100 N, the joints were moved in either valgus or varus directions at 90 degrees of flexion. The ulnotrochlear components from a single example of five medium-sized unlinked elbow replacements (Ewald, Kudo, Pritchard ERS, Sorbie-Questor, and Souter-Strathclyde) were also tested. The recorded measurements included the torques and forces, angular displacement, and axial displacement of the humerus relative to the ulna. In general, the peak torque and the constraint ratio significantly increased with increasing compressive load for the implants as well as for the normal elbow. In valgus displacement, the Souter-Strathclyde implant had the highest and the Sorbie-Questor had the smallest peak torque and the Souter-Strathclyde had the highest and the Ewald had the smallest constraint ratio. In varus displacement, the Kudo had the highest and the Ewald had the smallest peak torque and constraint ratio. The constraint ratio is a characteristic that is useful for describing elbow joint behavior and for comparing the behavior of implants with that of the human elbow. Of the unlinked implants tested, the Souter-Strathclyde and Kudo prostheses most closely approximated the behavior of the human elbow joint. Implants that resemble the human elbow in appearance do not replicate normal behavior consistently, whereas other implants that do not resemble the human elbow closely do not deviate markedly from human behavior. Thus, much basic information

  11. Orthotic devices for the treatment of tennis elbow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Struijs, P. A. A.; Smidt, N.; Arola, H.; Dijk, van C. N.; Buchbinder, R.; Assendelft, W. J. J.

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Lateral epicondylitis (tennis elbow) is a frequently reported condition. A wide variety of treatment strategies has been described. As of yet, no optimal strategy has been identified. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effectiveness of orthotic devices for the treatment of tennis elbow. SEARCH

  12. Tips to avoid nerve injury in elbow arthroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hilgersom, Nick F. J.; Oh, Luke S.; Flipsen, Mark; Eygendaal, Denise; van den Bekerom, Michel P. J.

    2017-01-01

    Elbow arthroscopy is a technical challenging surgical procedure because of close proximity of neurovascular structures and the limited articular working space. With the rising number of elbow arthroscopies being performed nowadays due to an increasing number of surgeons performing this procedure and

  13. Acute and overuse elbow trauma: radio-orthopaedics overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nocerino, Elisabetta Antonia; Cucchi, Davide; Arrigoni, Paolo; Brioschi, Marco; Fusi, Cristiano; Genovese, Eugenio A; Messina, Carmelo; Randelli, Pietro; Masciocchi, Carlo; Aliprandi, Alberto

    2018-01-19

    The correct management of acute, subacute and overuse-related elbow pathologies represents a challenging diagnostic and therapeutic problem. While major trauma frequently requires a rapid surgical intervention, subluxation and minor trauma allow taking more time for diagnostics and planning the correct elective treatment after careful clinical and radiological investigation. In these conditions, communication between orthopaedic surgeon and radiologist allow to create a detailed radiology report, tailored to the patient's and surgeon's needs and optimal to plan proper management. Imaging technique as X-Ray, CT, US, MRI, CTA and MRA all belong to the radiologist's portfolio in elbow diagnostics. Detailed knowledge of elbow pathology and its classification and of the possibilities and limits of each imaging technique is of crucial importance to reach the correct diagnosis efficiently. The aim of this review is to present the most frequent elbow pathologies and suggest a suitable diagnostic approach for each of them.

  14. Congenital Pseudoarthrosis of Medial Malleolus in A Young Soccer Player – Diagnosis in Clinical setting of Ankle Sprain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuliano Cerulli

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: We report a case of a young female soccer player affected by congenital medial bilateral malleolus pseudoarthrosis and os subfibulare. Congenital pseudoarthrosis is the failure of the bones to fuse prior or at birth. The etiology is still unknown, although frequency is high in subjects affected by neurofibromatosis or correlated syndromes, so it has been suggested that these congenital disorders may be the cause of congenital pseudoarthrosis. Case Report: Our patient, a 16-year-old female, high level soccer player, was referred to us following a right ankle sprain during a match. She reported no medical history of tibia-tarsus joint injuries or disease. Pain, swelling and functional impairment were noted immediately after the accident. Standard radiographs in the emergency department revealed a displaced fracture of the medial malleolus and the presence of os subfibularis. The patient was transferred to our Traumatology and Orthopaedic Department to undergo malleolus ostheosynthesis. Before surgery swelling, functional impairment and intense pain at the medial malleolus level were confirmed. However, there was no radiological opening of ankle, instability or pronation pain; furthermore the flexion-extension was preserved with slight pain. Twenty-four hours later a considerable remission of symptoms was evident with increased range of motion and reduction in the swelling and post-traumatic edema. A radiograph on the left ankle to compare with that of the right ankle was necessary to overcome the discrepancy between the radiological diagnosis and the clinical examination. The radiographic results of both medial malleoli were comparable although on the left the os subfibularis was absent. Since the diagnosis of fracture by the association between the radiographs and the symptomatology was doubtful, a bilateral CT was performed. The scan revealed a medial bilateral malleolus pseudoarthrosis and an accessory right subfibularis nucleus

  15. [Elbow dislocation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Pablo Márquez, B; Castillón Bernal, P; Bernaus Johnson, M C; Ibañez Aparicio, N M

    Elbow dislocation is the most frequent dislocation in the upper limb after shoulder dislocation. Closed reduction is feasible in outpatient care when there is no associated fracture. A review is presented of the different reduction procedures. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Médicos de Atención Primaria (SEMERGEN). Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  16. Experimental measurement of flexion-extension movement in normal and corpse prosthetic elbow joint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    TarniŢă, Daniela; TarniŢă, DănuŢ Nicolae

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a comparative experimental study of flexion-extension movement in healthy elbow and in the prosthetic elbow joint fixed on an original experimental bench. Measurements were carried out in order to validate the functional morphology and a new elbow prosthesis type ball head. The three-dimensional (3D) model and the physical prototype of our experimental bench used to test elbow endoprosthesis at flexion-extension and pronation-supination movements is presented. The measurements were carried out on a group of nine healthy subjects and on the prosthetic corpse elbow, the experimental data being obtained for flexion-extension movement cycles. Experimental data for the two different flexion-extension tests for the nine subjects and for the corpse prosthetic elbow were acquired using SimiMotion video system. Experimental data were processed statistically. The corresponding graphs were obtained for all subjects in the experimental group, and for corpse prosthetic elbow for both flexion-extension tests. The statistical analysis has proved that the flexion angles of healthy elbows were significantly close to the values measured at the prosthetic elbow fixed on the experimental bench. The studied elbow prosthesis manages to re-establish the mobility for the elbow joint as close to the normal one.

  17. Humeral windows in revision total elbow arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peach, Chris A; Salama, Amir; Stanley, David

    2016-04-01

    The use of cortical windows for revision elbow arthroplasty has not previously been widely reported. Their use aids safe revision of a well fixed humeral prosthesis and can be used in the setting of dislocation, periprosthetic fracture or aseptic loosening of the ulnar component. We describe our technique and results of cortical windows in the distal humerus for revision elbow arthroplasty surgery.

  18. Combined hyperextension and supination of the elbow joint induces lateral ligament lesions. An experimental study of the pathoanatomy and kinematics in elbow ligament injuries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tyrdal, Stein; Olsen, Bo Sanderhoff

    1998-01-01

    An epidemiological study suggested that the injury mechanism of 'handball goalie's elbow' may be hyperextension. The pathomechanics of hyperextension combined with supination was studied in ten macroscopically normal, male, cadaveric elbow joint specimens. The age of the donors was 28.8 years...... rupture of the lateral collateral ligament. The lesions indicate that combined hyperextension and supination represent a possible mechanism leading to 'handball goalie's elbow'....

  19. Orthotic devices for tennis elbow: a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Struijs, P. A.; Smidt, N.; Arola, H.; van Dijk, C. N.; Buchbinder, R.; Assendelft, W. J.

    2001-01-01

    Lateral epicondylitis (tennis elbow) is af requently reported condition. A wide variety of treatment strategies has been described. Asy et, no optimal strategy has been identified. The aim of this review was to assess the effectiveness of orthotic devices for treatment of tennis elbow. An electronic

  20. Biomechanics of the elbow joint in tennis players.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eygendaal, D.; Rahussen, F.T.; Diercks, R.L.

    2007-01-01

    Elbow injuries constitute a sizeable percentage of tennis injuries. A basic understanding of biomechanics of tennis and analysis of forces, loads and motions of the elbow during tennis can will improve the understanding of the pathophysiology of these injuries. All different strokes in tennis have a

  1. Ratcheting failure of pressurised straight pipes and elbows under reversed bending

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vishnuvardhan, S.; Raghava, G.; Gandhi, P.; Saravanan, M.; Goyal, Sumit; Arora, Punit; Gupta, Suneel K.; Bhasin, Vivek

    2013-01-01

    Ratcheting studies were carried out on Type 304LN stainless steel straight pipes and elbows subjected to steady internal pressure and cyclic bending load. The internal pressure for all the straight pipes was 35 MPa and in the case of elbows the internal pressure was varied for different elbows, ranging from 27.6 MPa to 39.2 MPa. Cyclic bending load was applied on the specimens by subjecting them to different levels of load-line displacement. The specimens have undergone significant ratchet swelling (ballooning), ovalization and consequent thinning of the cross-section during ratcheting. The straight pipes failed either by occurrence of through-wall crack accompanied by simultaneous ballooning, or bursting with simultaneous ballooning. All the elbows failed by occurrence of through-wall crack accompanied by simultaneous ballooning. Ratcheting behaviour of straight pipes and elbows were compared and it was generally inferred that ratcheting was more pronounced in straight pipes than in elbows. -- Graphical abstract: Strain history for the specimen QCE-RAT-6-L1. Highlights: • Studies were carried out under combined internal pressure and cyclic bending. • Ratcheting strains were measured at critical locations of the specimens. • Quantified the percentage of ballooning, ovalization and reduction in thickness. • Modes of ratcheting failure of straight pipes and elbows are studied. • Inferred that ratcheting is more pronounced in straight pipes than in elbows

  2. Unsteady hydraulic characteristics in pipe with elbow under high Reynolds condition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ono, A.; Kimura, N.; Kamide, H.; Tobita, A. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, O-arai, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2011-07-01

    In the design of Japan Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor (JSFR), coolant velocity is beyond 9 m/s in the primary hot leg pipe of 1.27 m diameter. The Reynolds number in the piping reaches 4.2x10{sup 7}. Moreover, a short-elbow (r/D=1.0, r: curvature radius, D: pipe diameter) is adopted in the hot leg pipe in order to achieve compact plant layout and reduce plant construction cost. Therefore, the flow-induced vibration (FIV) arising from the piping geometry may occur in the short-elbow pipe. The FIV is due to the excitation force which is caused by the pressure fluctuation on the wall. The pressure fluctuation on the pipe wall is closely related with the flow fluctuation. In this study, water experiments using two types of 1/8 scaled elbows with different curvature ratio, r/D=1.0 and 1.5 (short-elbow and long-elbow), were conducted in order to investigate the mechanism of velocity and pressure fluctuation in the elbow and its downstream. The experiments were carried out at Re=5.4x10{sup 5} conditions. Measurement of velocity fluctuation and pressure fluctuation in two types of elbows with different curvature revealed that behavior of separation region and the circumferential secondary flow affected the pressure fluctuation on the wall of the elbow greatly. (author)

  3. The effects of gender, level of co-contraction, and initial angle on elbow extensor muscle stiffness and damping under a step increase in elbow flexion moment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yunju; Ashton-Miller, James A

    2011-10-01

    Flexion buckling of an arm under the large ground reaction loads associated with arresting a fall to the ground increases the risk for head and thorax injuries. Yet, the factors that determine the arm buckling load remain poorly understood. We tested the hypothesis in 18 healthy young adults that neither gender, triceps co-contraction level (i.e., 25, 50, or 75% MVC) nor elbow angle would affect the rotational stiffness and damping resistance to step changes in elbow flexion loading. Data on the step response were gathered using optoelectronic markers (150 Hz) and myoelectric activity measurements (2 kHz), and an inverse dynamics analysis was used to estimate elbow extensor stiffness and damping coefficients. A repeated-measures analysis of variance showed that gender (p = 0.032), elbow flexion angle and co-contraction level (both p initial elbow flexion angle and maximum co-contraction, female stiffness and damping coefficients were 18 and 30% less, respectively, than male values after normalization by body height and weight. We conclude that the maximum extensor rotational stiffness and damping at the elbow is lower in women than in men of the same body size, and varies with triceps co-contraction level and initial elbow angle.

  4. Experimental study of plastic responses of pipe elbows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenstreet, W.L.

    1978-01-01

    Load-deflection responses were determined experimentally for sixteen 152.4-mm (6-in.) (nominal) commercial carbon steel pipe elbows and four 152.4-mm (6-in.) stainless steel elbows. Each specimen was loaded with an external force of sufficient magnitude to produce predominantly plastic response. The influences of bend radius and wall thickness were studied, as well as the effect of internal prssure on load-deflection behavior. Comparisons of results from stainless steel and from carbon steel elbows indicate differences in responses attributable to material differences. The results were interpreted in terms of limit analysis concepts, and collapse loads were determined. Trends given by the collapse loads are identified and discussed

  5. Femoral Medialization, Fixation Failures, and Functional Outcome in Trochanteric Hip Fractures Treated With Either a Sliding Hip Screw or an Intramedullary Nail From Within a Randomized Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bretherton, Christopher P; Parker, Martyn J

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to determine if femoral medialization influences residual pain and mobility and to determine if fixation method or fracture pattern influences the tendency to medialize. This study used data from within a randomized controlled trial. Peterborough City Hospital, UK. Eight hundred forty-four patients presenting with a trochanteric hip fracture were randomized. Five hundred thirty-eight were available for 1-year follow-up. Fractures were classified according to OTA/AO classification as 31 A1, A2, and A3. Randomized to fixation with a Targon proximal femoral nail or sliding hip screw (SHS). Femoral medialization was calculated from follow-up x-rays at a minimum of 28 days post-fixation. Pain and mobility scores were assessed at 1 year by an independent blinded observer. Fixation failure and revision procedures were assessed at a minimum of 1 year from injury. Patients with >50% medialization had worse pain (P = 0.012) and mobility scores (P = 0.013) at 1 year. They also had more fracture healing complications (P = 0.021) and required more revision procedures (P = 0.014). Fractures treated with SHS were more likely to medialize >50% compared with intramedullary nail (P fractures were more likely to medialize, and A3 fractures were more likely to undergo >50% medialization (P fractures treated with SHS to undergo femoral medialization and correlates this with worse functional outcomes. It supports the use of intramedullary nails for A3 fractures, which have a significant tendency to medialize. Prognostic level II. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

  6. Clinical application of advances in elbow and forearm anatomy and biomechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Neal B

    2002-02-01

    The static and dynamic stabilizers of the elbow and forearm axis are closely interrelated in elbow and forearm unit motion and load handling. An [figure: see text] understanding of elbow and forearm anatomy is crucial to the surgeon evaluating and treating complex pathologies resulting from acute or remote trauma.

  7. Pain Threshold Tests in Patients With Heel Pain Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saban, Bernice; Masharawi, Youssef

    2016-07-01

    Pressure pain threshold (PPT) is a useful tool for evaluating mechanical sensitivity in patients suffering from various musculoskeletal disorders. However, no previous study has investigated PPT in the heel of patients experiencing plantar heel pain syndrome (PHPS). The aim of this study was to compare PPT levels and topographic presentation of sensitivity in the heel of patients with PHPS and in healthy controls. The reliability of PPT testing in patients with PHPS was assessed for intra- and interrater recordings. The PPT levels of 40 feet in each group were then assessed on 5 predetermined sites in the heel using a standardized measurement protocol. Patient functional status (FS) as measured by the Foot & Ankle Computerized Adaptive Test was employed as an external reference. Multivariate analysis of covariance revealed no group differences for PPTs at all sites (P = .406). Age (P = .099) or BMI (P = .510) did not affect PPT values, although there was an effect on gender (P = .006). The analysis revealed significant differences between sites (P < .001) demonstrating a diverse topographic distribution. In the PHPS group, PPT levels at the anterior/medial, posterior/medial and central sites were significantly lower than at the posterior/lateral and anterior/lateral sites (P < .05). For the control group, PPT levels at the anterior/medial site were significantly lower than all other sites (P < .001). No significant differences were found between PPT of the PHPS patients and controls, therefore, PPT cannot be recommended as an assessment tool for these patients. The topographic distribution indicated low PPT levels at the anterior/medial area of the heel in patients with PHPS and controls. Level II, comparative study. © The Author(s) 2016.

  8. The KineSpring® Knee Implant System: an implantable joint-unloading prosthesis for treatment of medial knee osteoarthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clifford AG

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Anton G Clifford,1 Stefan M Gabriel,1 Mary O’Connell,1 David Lowe,1 Larry E Miller,2,3 Jon E Block31Moximed, Inc, Hayward, CA, USA; 2Miller Scientific Consulting, Inc, Arden, NC, USA; 3The Jon Block Group, San Francisco, CA, USAAbstract: Symptomatic medial compartment knee osteoarthritis (OA is the leading cause of musculoskeletal pain and disability in adults. Therapies intended to unload the medial knee compartment have yielded unsatisfactory results due to low patient compliance with conservative treatments and high complication rates with surgical options. There is no widely available joint-unloading treatment for medial knee OA that offers clinically important symptom alleviation, low complication risk, and high patient acceptance. The KineSpring® Knee Implant System (Moximed, Inc, Hayward, CA, USA is a first-of-its-kind, implantable, extra-articular, extra-capsular prosthesis intended to alleviate knee OA-related symptoms by reducing medial knee compartment loading while overcoming the limitations of traditional joint-unloading therapies. Preclinical and clinical studies have demonstrated excellent prosthesis durability, substantial reductions in medial compartment and total joint loads, and clinically important improvements in OA-related pain and function. The purpose of this report is to describe the KineSpring System, including implant characteristics, principles of operation, indications for use, patient selection criteria, surgical technique, postoperative care, preclinical testing, and clinical experience. The KineSpring System has potential to bridge the gap between ineffective conservative treatments and irreversible surgical interventions for medial compartment knee OA.Keywords: KineSpring, knee, medial, osteoarthritis, prosthesis

  9. Cross-cultural adaptation of Kerlan-Jobe Orthopaedic Clinic shoulder and elbow score: Reliability and validity in Turkish-speaking overhead athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turgut, Elif; Tunay, Volga Bayrakci

    2018-03-09

    Kerlan-Jobe Orthopaedic Clinic Shoulder and Elbow Score (KJOC-SES) is a subjective assessment tool to measure functional status of the upper extremities in overhead athletes. The aim was to translate and culturally adapt the KJOC-SES and to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Turkish version (KJOC-SES-Tr) in overhead athletes. The forward and back-translation method was followed. One hundred and twenty-three overhead athletes completed the KJOC-SES-Tr, the Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand (DASH), and the American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons Evaluation Form (ASES). Participants were assigned to one of the following subgroups: asymptomatic (playing without pain) or symptomatic (playing with pain, or not playing due to pain). Internal consistency, reliability, construct validity, discriminant validity, and content validity of the KJOC-SES-Tr were tested. The test-retest reliability of the KJOC-SES-Tr was excellent with an interclass coefficient of 0.93. There was a strong correlation between the KJOC-SES-Tr and the DASH and the ASES, indicating that the construct validity was good for all participants. Results of the KJOC-SES-Tr significantly differed between different subgroups and categories of athletes. The floor and ceiling effects were acceptable for symptomatic athletes. The KJOC-SES-Tr was shown to be valid, reliable tool to monitor the return to sports following injuries in athletes. Copyright © 2018 Turkish Association of Orthopaedics and Traumatology. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Elbow joint stability in relation to forced external rotation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deutch, S.R.; Jensen, S.L.; Olsen, B.S.

    2003-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the osseous constraint related to forced forearm external rotation as the initial stage in a posterior elbow dislocation. Six joint specimens without soft tissues were examined in a joint analysis system developed for simulation of dislocation. The osse......The objective of this study was to evaluate the osseous constraint related to forced forearm external rotation as the initial stage in a posterior elbow dislocation. Six joint specimens without soft tissues were examined in a joint analysis system developed for simulation of dislocation...... external forearm rotation until the point of maximal torque decreased from a maximum in full extension to a minimum at 30 degrees of elbow flexion (P =.03). The elbow in a slightly flexed position, varus stress, and forearm external rotation trauma might be the important biomechanical factors...

  11. Proximal fibular osteotomy: a new surgery for pain relief and improvement of joint function in patients with knee osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaohu; Wei, Lei; Lv, Zhi; Zhao, Bin; Duan, Zhiqing; Wu, Wenjin; Zhang, Bin; Wei, Xiaochun

    2017-02-01

    Objective To explore the effects of proximal fibular osteotomy as a new surgery for pain relief and improvement of medial joint space and function in patients with knee osteoarthritis. Methods From January 2015 to May 2015, 47 patients who underwent proximal fibular osteotomy for medial compartment osteoarthritis were retrospectively followed up. Preoperative and postoperative weight-bearing and whole lower extremity radiographs were obtained to analyse the alignment of the lower extremity and ratio of the knee joint space (medial/lateral compartment). Knee pain was assessed using a visual analogue scale, and knee ambulation activities were evaluated using the American Knee Society score preoperatively and postoperatively. Results Medial pain relief was observed in almost all patients after proximal fibular osteotomy. Most patients exhibited improved walking postoperatively. Weight-bearing lower extremity radiographs showed an average increase in the postoperative medial knee joint space. Additionally, obvious correction of alignment was observed in the whole lower extremity radiographs in 8 of 47 patients. Conclusions The present study demonstrates that proximal fibular osteotomy effectively relieves pain and improves joint function in patients with medial compartment osteoarthritis at a mean of 13.38 months postoperatively.

  12. Changes in motor unit recruitment strategy during pain alters force direction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Kylie J; Hodges, Paul W

    2010-10-01

    Motor unit (MU) recruitment is altered (decreased discharge rate and cessation of discharge in some units, and recruitment of new units) in force-matched contractions during pain compared to contractions performed before pain. As MU's within a motoneurone pool have different force direction properties we hypothesised that altered MU recruitment during experimental knee pain would change the force vector (total force (F(T)): amplitude and angle) generated by the quadriceps. Force was produced at two levels during 1 × 60-s and 3 × 10-s isometric contractions of knee extensors, and recorded by two force transducers at right angles. This enabled calculation of both F(E) (extension force) and F(T). MU recruitment was recorded from the medial and lateral vastii with four fine-wire electrodes. Pain was induced by hypertonic saline injection in the infra-patella fat pad. Nine subjects matched F(E) and six subjects also matched both medial and lateral forces (F(T)) before and during pain. Changes in MU discharge pattern (decreased discharge rate (Precruitment of new units) during pain were associated with a ∼5° change in absolute force angle. As force angle changed in both directions (left/right) for individual subjects with pain there was no change in average F(T) amplitude between conditions. When both medial and lateral forces were matched MU discharge rate decreased (Punits ceased firing or were newly recruited during pain. Change in motoneurone recruitment during pain alters direction of muscle force. This may be a strategy to avoid pain or protect the painful part. Copyright © 2010 European Federation of International Association for the Study of Pain Chapters. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Reconstruction of medial patellofemoral ligament using quadriceps tendon combined with reconstruction of medial patellotibial ligament using patellar tendon: initial experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betina Bremer Hinckel

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE: To describe a surgical technique for anatomical reconstruction of the medial patellofemoral ligament using the quadriceps tendon, combined with reconstruction of the medial patellotibial ligament using the patellar tendon; and to present the initial results from a case series. METHOD: The proposed technique was used on a series of cases of patients with diagnoses of patellofemoral instability and indications for surgical treatment, who were attended by the Knee Group of HC-IOT, University of São Paulo. The following were evaluated before and after the operation: range of motion (ROM, apprehension test, lateral translation test, patellar inclination test, inverted J sign, subluxation upon extension, pain from compression of the patella and pain from contraction of the quadriceps. After the operation, the patients were asked whether any new episode of dislocation had occurred, what their degree of satisfaction with the surgery was (on a scale from 0 to 10 and whether they would be prepared to go through this operation again. RESULTS: Seven knees were operated, in seven patients, with a mean follow-up of 5.46 months (±2.07. Four patients who presented apprehension before the operation did not show this after the operation. The lateral translation test became normal for all the patients, while the patellar inclination test remained positive for two patients. The patients with an inverted J sign continued to be positive for this sign. Five patients were positive for subluxation upon extension before the operation, but all patients were negative for this after the operation. None of the patients presented any new episode of dislocation of the patella. All of them stated that they were satisfied: five gave a satisfaction score of 9 and two, a score of 10. All of them said that they would undergo the operation again. Only one patient presented a postoperative complication: dehiscence of the wound. CONCLUSION: Reconstruction of the

  14. Long-term sequel of posterolateral rotatory instability of the elbow: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Chun-Ying

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The natural course of untreated posterior lateral rotatory instability of the elbow is unclear. A case of elbow arthrosis with progressing deformity and flexion contracture after an episode of elbow dislocation about 20 years ago presented the possibility the long term outcome of untreated posterior lateral rotatory instability of the elbow.

  15. Results of isolated lateral retinacular reconstruction for iatrogenic medial patellar instability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchis-Alfonso, Vicente; Montesinos-Berry, Erik; Monllau, Joan Carles; Merchant, Alan C

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the outcomes of an isolated lateral retinaculum reconstruction for iatrogenic medial patellar instability (IMPI) in patients with continued pain after failed lateral retinacular release (LRR), including associated psychometric analysis. Pain was assessed using the visual analog scale (VAS) and disability was determined with the Lysholm scale. Psychological variables such as anxiety, depression, catastrophizing, and fear-of-movement beliefs were studied by using self-administered psychometric questionnaires. All 17 patients (13 women and 4 men) in this retrospective study had undergone LRR previously for anterior knee pain or lateral patellar instability. Four patients had undergone LRR plus proximal (Insall) realignment, and one had undergone LRR plus a medial tibial tubercle transfer. After their procedures, all had disabling symptoms. All patients underwent reconstructive surgery for IMPI. At a minimum follow-up of 2 years (range, 2 to 8 years), the mean preoperative VAS score was 7.6 (range, 5 to 9) and improved to 1.9 (range, 0 to 8) at the time of final follow-up (P surgery, 4 patients (24%) had the clinical criteria for depression, 10 (59%) had anxiety, 7 (41%) had "catastrophizing" ideas concerning pain, and all (100%) had kinesiophobia (fear of movement). After surgery, none of the patients had depression or anxiety, none had catastrophizing ideation, and only 53% had kinesiophobia. Reconstruction of the deep transverse layer of the lateral retinaculum (LR) using a central strip of the iliotibial band for IMPI in patients with continued pain after failed LRR can successfully treat these severely disabled patients. Level IV, therapeutic case series. Copyright © 2015 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. The treatment of recurrent posterolateral instability of the elbow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Bo Sanderhoff; Søjbjerg, Jens Ole

    2003-01-01

    This study describes the surgical technique used for reconstruction and reinforcement of the lateral collateral ligament complex in patients with posterolateral instability of the elbow and the results. A triceps tendon graft from the ipsilateral elbow which was inserted through bone tunnels...

  17. Radiographic and tomographic study of the elbow joint in dogs; Avaliacao morfologica e morfometrica da articulacao umerorradioulnar em caes atraves de exames radiograficos e por tomografia computadorizada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sendyk-Grunkraut, Alessandra; Martin, Claudia M.; Souza, Alexandre N.A.; Patricio, Geni Cristina F.; Lorigados, Carla A.B.; Matera, Julia M.; Fonseca-Pinto, Ana C.B.C., E-mail: anacarol@usp.br [Universidade de Sao Paulo (FMVZ/USP), SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina Veterinaria e Zootecnia

    2017-02-15

    Elbow dysplasia disease includes an united anconeal process, fragmented medial coronoid process, osteochondrosis of humeral trochlea, articular incongruity and degenerative joint disease. The aim of this study was to present detailed morphologic and morphometric aspects of the elbow joint in dog in clinical and correlate with radiographic and tomographic (CT) exam. Inter-observer variation for articular incongruity measurements by CT, comparative analysis in the radiographic exam, angle in ulnar notch and its comparative analysis between radiographic and tomographic agreement examination in 44 elbow of dogs with different ages were evaluated. The statistics analyses included the kappa coefficient and interclass correlation and Fischer's test and McNemar's test. It was evidenced that individual performance of each radiographic incidence had poor agreement with the tomographic exam, suggesting that the accomplishment of more than two radiograph views are needed. There was no agreement between the three evaluators in the ulnar notch angle at radiographic and tomographic exams. However, there was good/moderate agreement for articular incongruity measurement in the sagittal plane between evaluators. It was possible to conclude that none of the five radiographic incidences was better than the others for radiographic analysis because each incidence had a better identification of a particular elbow compartment; measurements at the tomographic exam to evaluate radioulnar incongruity had no reproductiveness in the frontal plane, but in sagittal plan had a good/moderate agreement between observers and the angle in ulnar notch presented no repeatability at radiographic exam and no reproductiveness at tomographic exam. (author)

  18. Pulled elbow in infancy: diagnostic role of imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scapinelli, Raffaele; Borgo, Andrea

    2005-01-01

    Purpose. Pulled elbow is a common injury in infancy. Typically the child, after a sudden pull, refuses to use the arm. The history and clinical findings are sufficient to make the diagnosis, and radiography or ultrasonography are not necessary. When imaging procedures are performed, a few small signs are useful to confirm the diagnosis of pulled elbow. Materials and methods. The authors reviewed the radiographic and ultrasonographic signs reported to be suggestive of pulled elbow (increased radio-condylar distance, increased radio-coronoid distance, proximal radio-ulnar diastasis, deviation of the radio-condylar line) and attempted to confirm their presence in children affected by this trauma. Results. Increased radio-condylar and radio-coronoid distance were present in 8 of 8 cases: proximal radio-ulnar diastasis and deviation of the radio-condylar line were inconsistently present. Ultrasonography gave contradictory results. Conclusions. In typical cases of pulled elbow, radiography or ultrasonography are not necessary for diagnosis and treatment. imaging procedures are recommended only in the case of non typical history, in the presence of deformity or traumatic skin lesions and in children over six years of age. Increased radio-coronoid distance on the affected side is the most frequent and visible sign, which can confirm the diagnosis of pulled elbow. Increased radio-condylar distance is also present, but it is not easy to visualize. Proximal radio-ulnar diastasis and deviation of the radio-condylar line are inconstant. Ultrasonography is difficult to standardize [it

  19. 'Cable-maker's clavicle': stress fracture of the medial clavicle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peebles, C.R.; Sulkin, T.; Sampson, M.A.

    2000-01-01

    A 50-year-old man presented with a non-traumatic painful swelling over the medial clavicle. Radiographs showed a poorly defined fracture and the possibility of an underlying pathology was raised. Computed tomography suggested a stress fracture. This prompted a further, more detailed occupational history to be obtained from the patient, which revealed a hitherto undescribed cause of clavicular stress fracture and obviated the need for further imaging or biopsy. (orig.)

  20. Effect of knee joint icing on knee extension strength and knee pain early after total knee arthroplasty: a randomized cross-over study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holm, Bente; Husted, Henrik; Kehlet, Henrik; Bandholm, Thomas

    2012-08-01

    To investigate the acute effect of knee joint icing on knee extension strength and knee pain in patients shortly after total knee arthroplasty. A prospective, single-blinded, randomized, cross-over study. A fast-track orthopaedic arthroplasty unit at a university hospital. Twenty patients (mean age 66 years; 10 women) scheduled for primary unilateral total knee arthroplasty. The patients were treated on two days (day 7 and day 10) postoperatively. On one day they received 30 minutes of knee icing (active treatment) and on the other day they received 30 minutes of elbow icing (control treatment). The order of treatments was randomized. Maximal knee extension strength (primary outcome), knee pain at rest and knee pain during the maximal knee extensions were measured 2-5 minutes before and 2-5 minutes after both treatments by an assessor blinded for active or control treatment. The change in knee extension strength associated with knee icing was not significantly different from that of elbow icing (knee icing change (mean (1 SD)) -0.01 (0.07) Nm/kg, elbow icing change -0.02 (0.07) Nm/kg, P = 0.493). Likewise, the changes in knee pain at rest (P = 0.475), or knee pain during the knee extension strength measurements (P = 0.422) were not different between treatments. In contrast to observations in experimental knee effusion models and inflamed knee joints, knee joint icing for 30 minutes shortly after total knee arthroplasty had no acute effect on knee extension strength or knee pain.

  1. Dysfunctional pain modulation in somatoform pain disorder patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klug, Stefanie; Stefanie, Klug; Anderer, Peter; Peter, Anderer; Saletu-Zyhlarz, Gerda; Gerda, Saletu-Zyhlarz; Freidl, Marion; Marion, Freidl; Saletu, Bernd; Bernd, Saletu; Prause, Wolfgang; Wolfgang, Prause; Aigner, Martin; Martin, Aigner

    2011-06-01

    To date, pain perception is thought to be a creative process of modulation carried out by an interplay of pro- and anti-nociceptive mechanisms. Recent research demonstrates that pain experience constitutes the result of top-down processes represented in cortical descending pain modulation. Cortical, mainly medial and frontal areas, as well as subcortical structures such as the brain stem, medulla and thalamus seem to be key players in pain modulation. An imbalance of pro- and anti-nociceptive mechanisms are assumed to cause chronic pain disorders, which are associated with spontaneous pain perception without physiologic scaffolding or exaggerated cortical activation in response to pain exposure. In contrast to recent investigations, the aim of the present study was to elucidate cortical activation of somatoform pain disorder patients during baseline condition. Scalp EEG, quantitative Fourier-spectral analyses and LORETA were employed to compare patient group (N = 15) to age- and sex-matched controls (N = 15) at rest. SI, SII, ACC, SMA, PFC, PPC, insular, amygdale and hippocampus displayed significant spectral power reductions within the beta band range (12-30 Hz). These results suggest decreased cortical baseline arousal in somatoform pain disorder patients. We finally conclude that obtained results may point to an altered baseline activity, maybe characteristic for chronic somatoform pain disorder.

  2. Early results of surgical intervention for elbow deformity in cerebral palsy based on degree of contracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Michelle G; Hearns, Krystle A; Inkellis, Elizabeth; Leach, Michelle E

    2012-08-01

    Elbow flexion posture, caused by spasticity of the muscles on the anterior surface of the elbow, is the most common elbow deformity seen in patients with cerebral palsy. This study retrospectively evaluated early results of 2 surgical interventions for elbow flexion deformities based on degree of contracture. We hypothesized that by guiding surgical treatment to degree of preoperative contracture, elbow extension and flexion posture angle at ambulation could be improved while preserving maximum flexion. Eighty-six patients (90 elbows) were treated for elbow spasticity due to cerebral palsy. Seventy-one patients (74 elbows) were available for follow-up. Fifty-seven patients with fixed elbow contractures less than 45° were surgically treated with a partial elbow muscle lengthening, which included partial lengthening of the biceps and brachialis and proximal release of the brachioradialis. Fourteen patients (17 elbows) with fixed elbow contractures ≥ 45° had a more extensive full elbow release, with biceps z-lengthening, partial brachialis myotomy, and brachioradialis proximal release. Age at surgery averaged 10 years (range, 3-20 y) for partial lengthening and 14 years (range, 5-20 y) for full elbow release. Follow-up averaged 22 months (range, 7-144 mo) for partial lengthening and 18 months (range, 6-51 mo) for full elbow release. Both groups achieved meaningful improvement in flexion posture angle at ambulation, active and passive extension, and total range of motion. Elbow flexion posture angle at ambulation improved by 57° and active extension increased 17° in the partial lengthening group, with a 4° loss of active flexion. In the full elbow release group, elbow flexion posture angle at ambulation improved 51° and active extension improved 38°, with a loss of 19° of active flexion. Surgical treatment of spastic elbow flexion in cerebral palsy can improve deformity. We obtained excellent results by guiding the surgical intervention by the amount of

  3. Fracture behavior of circumferentially surface-cracked elbows. Technical report, October 1993--March 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kilinski, T.; Mohan, R.; Rudland, D.; Fleming, M.

    1996-12-01

    This report presents the results from Task 2 of the Second International Piping Integrity Research Group (IPIRG-2) program. The focus of the Task 2 work was directed towards furthering the understanding of the fracture behavior of long-radius elbows. This was accomplished through a combined analytical and experimental program. J-estimation schemes were developed for both axial and circumferential surface cracks in elbows. Large-scale, quasi-static and dynamic, pipe-system, elbow fracture experiments under combined pressure and bending loads were performed on elbows containing an internal surface crack at the extrados. In conjunction with the elbow experiments, material property data were developed for the A106-90 carbon steel and WP304L stainless steel elbow materials investigated. A comparison of the experimental data with the maximum stress predictions using existing straight pipe fracture prediction analysis methods, and elbow fracture prediction methods developed in this program was performed. This analysis was directed at addressing the concerns regarding the validity of using analysis predictions developed for straight pipe to predict the fracture stresses of cracked elbows. Finally, a simplified fitting flaw acceptance criteria incorporating ASME B2 stress indices and straight pipe, circumferential-crack analysis was developed

  4. Fracture behavior of circumferentially surface-cracked elbows. Technical report, October 1993--March 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kilinski, T.; Mohan, R.; Rudland, D.; Fleming, M. [and others

    1996-12-01

    This report presents the results from Task 2 of the Second International Piping Integrity Research Group (IPIRG-2) program. The focus of the Task 2 work was directed towards furthering the understanding of the fracture behavior of long-radius elbows. This was accomplished through a combined analytical and experimental program. J-estimation schemes were developed for both axial and circumferential surface cracks in elbows. Large-scale, quasi-static and dynamic, pipe-system, elbow fracture experiments under combined pressure and bending loads were performed on elbows containing an internal surface crack at the extrados. In conjunction with the elbow experiments, material property data were developed for the A106-90 carbon steel and WP304L stainless steel elbow materials investigated. A comparison of the experimental data with the maximum stress predictions using existing straight pipe fracture prediction analysis methods, and elbow fracture prediction methods developed in this program was performed. This analysis was directed at addressing the concerns regarding the validity of using analysis predictions developed for straight pipe to predict the fracture stresses of cracked elbows. Finally, a simplified fitting flaw acceptance criteria incorporating ASME B2 stress indices and straight pipe, circumferential-crack analysis was developed.

  5. Radiography of the pediatric elbow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffman, A.D.

    1985-01-01

    The ability to obtain adequate and appropriate radiographs of the elbow depends on a number of variables. Often the pattern and timing of the appearance of the numerous secondary ossifications centers at the elbow is a source of confusion to those who deal infrequently with children. To obtain diagnostic radiographs consistently requires well-maintained, modern equipment and technologists who pay careful attention to the details of radiographic technique. Radiology technicians are generally empathetic with the anxiety that a child (and an accompanying parent or guardian) may feel when confronted with the need to enter a radiology exposure room with its ominous appearing, bulky machinery. It is always helpful to reassure the patient gently that the examination is easy and will not cause any discomfort

  6. Finite Element Analysis and Experimental Study on Elbow Vibration Transmission Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qing-shan, Dai; Zhen-hai, Zhang; Shi-jian, Zhu

    2017-11-01

    Pipeline system vibration is one of the significant factors leading to the vibration and noise of vessel. Elbow is widely used in the pipeline system. However, the researches about vibration of elbow are little, and there is no systematic study. In this research, we firstly analysed the relationship between elbow vibration transmission characteristics and bending radius by ABAQUS finite element simulation. Then, we conducted the further vibration test to observe the vibration transmission characteristics of different elbows which have the same diameter and different bending radius under different flow velocity. The results of simulation calculation and experiment both showed that the vibration acceleration levels of the pipeline system decreased with the increase of bending radius of the elbow, which was beneficial to reduce the transmission of vibration in the pipeline system. The results could be used as reference for further studies and designs for the low noise installation of pipeline system.

  7. Design of a Soft Robotic Elbow Sleeve with Passive and Intent-Controlled Actuation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tze Hui Koh

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The provision of continuous passive, and intent-based assisted movements for neuromuscular training can be incorporated into a robotic elbow sleeve. The objective of this study is to propose the design and test the functionality of a soft robotic elbow sleeve in assisting flexion and extension of the elbow, both passively and using intent-based motion reinforcement. First, the elbow sleeve was developed, using elastomeric and fabric-based pneumatic actuators, which are soft and lightweight, in order to address issues of non-portability and poor alignment with joints that conventional robotic rehabilitation devices are faced with. Second, the control system was developed to allow for: (i continuous passive actuation, in which the actuators will be activated in cycles, alternating between flexion and extension; and (ii an intent-based actuation, in which user intent is detected by surface electromyography (sEMG sensors attached to the biceps and triceps, and passed through a logic sequence to allow for flexion or extension of the elbow. Using this setup, the elbow sleeve was tested on six healthy subjects to assess the functionality of the device, in terms of the range of motion afforded by the device while in the continuous passive actuation. The results showed that the elbow sleeve is capable of achieving approximately 50% of the full range of motion of the elbow joint among all subjects. Next, further experiments were conducted to test the efficacy of the intent-based actuation on these healthy subjects. The results showed that all subjects were capable of achieving electromyography (EMG control of the elbow sleeve. These preliminary results show that the elbow sleeve is capable of carrying out continuous passive and intent-based assisted movements. Further investigation of the clinical implementation of the elbow sleeve for the neuromuscular training of neurologically-impaired persons, such as stroke survivors, is needed.

  8. Diagnosing ulnar neuropathy at the elbow using magnetic resonance neurography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keen, Nayela N.; Chin, Cynthia T.; Saloner, David; Steinbach, Lynne S.; Engstrom, John W.

    2012-01-01

    Early diagnosis of ulnar neuropathy at the elbow is important. Magnetic resonance neurography (MRN) images peripheral nerves. We evaluated the usefulness of elbow MRN in diagnosing ulnar neuropathy at the elbow. The MR neurograms of 21 patients with ulnar neuropathy were reviewed retrospectively. MRN was performed prospectively on 10 normal volunteers. The MR neurograms included axial T1 and axial T2 fat-saturated and/or axial STIR sequences. The sensitivity and specificity of MRN in detecting ulnar neuropathy were determined. The mean ulnar nerve size in the symptomatic and normal groups was 0.12 and 0.06 cm 2 (P 2 , sensitivity was 95% and specificity was 80%. Ulnar nerve size and signal intensity were greater in patients with ulnar neuropathy. MRN is a useful test in evaluating ulnar neuropathy at the elbow. (orig.)

  9. Complex Medial Meniscus Tears Are Associated With a Biconcave Medial Tibial Plateau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, F Alan; Getelman, Mark H; Berry, Kathy L

    2017-04-01

    To determine whether an association exists between a biconcave medial tibial plateau and complex medial meniscus tears. A consecutive series of stable knees undergoing arthroscopy were evaluated retrospectively with the use of preoperative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), radiographs, and arthroscopy documented by intraoperative videos. Investigators independently performed blinded reviews of the MRI or videos. Based on the arthroscopy findings, medial tibial plateaus were classified as either biconcave or not biconcave. A transverse coronal plane ridge, separating the front of the tibial plateau from the back near the inner margin of the posterior body of the medial meniscus, was defined as biconcave. The medial plateau slope was calculated with MRI sagittal views. General demographic information, body mass index, and arthroscopically confirmed knee pathology were recorded. A total of 179 consecutive knees were studied from July 2014 through August 2015; 49 (27.2%) biconcave medial tibial plateaus and 130 (72.8%) controls were identified at arthroscopy. Complex medial meniscus tears were found in 103. Patients with a biconcave medial tibial plateau were found to have more complex medial meniscus tears (69.4%) than those without a biconcavity (53.1%) (P = .049) despite having lower body mass index (P = .020). No difference in medial tibial plateau slope was observed for biconcavities involving both cartilage and bone, bone only, or an indeterminate group (P = .47). Biconcave medial tibial plateaus were present in 27.4% of a consecutive series of patients undergoing knee arthroscopy. A biconcave medial tibial plateau was more frequently associated with a complex medial meniscus tear. Level III, case-control study. Copyright © 2016 Arthroscopy Association of North America. All rights reserved.

  10. Total elbow arthroplasty in distal humerus fracture in patients older than 65 years.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerardo Gallucci

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective To report the clinical-functional results of the treatment of humeral distal fractures with a total elbow prosthesis in patients older than 65 years old. Material and methods This retrospective paper was performed in two surgical centers. Criteria inclusion were: patients with humeral distal fractures, > 65 years, operated on with Coonrad-Morrey prostheses, and with a follow-up of  >1 year. Twenty-one patients were included. Twenty were women with an average age of 79 years old. According to AO classification, 13 fractures were type C3, 7 C2 and 1 A2. All patientes were operated on without desinsertion of the extensor mechanism. Average follow-up was 40 months. Results Flexo-extension was 123-17°, with a total arc of mobility of 106° (80 % of the contralateral side. Pain according to AVE was 1. The MEPI was 83 points: 8 patients had excellent results, 11 good, 1 regular and 1 bad. Average DASH score was 24 points. Conclusion Treatment of humeral distal fractures with total elbow arthoplasty in patients older than 65 years old, may lead to a good option of treatment, but indications must be limited to patients with complex fractures, bad bone quality, with osteoporosis and low functional demands.

  11. Neuromuscular versus quadriceps strengthening exercise in patients with medial knee osteoarthritis and varus malalignment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennell, Kim L; Kyriakides, Mary; Metcalf, Ben

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare the effects of neuromuscular exercise (NEXA) and quadriceps strengthening (QS) on the knee adduction moment (an indicator of mediolateral distribution of knee load), pain, and physical function in patients with medial knee joint osteoarthritis (OA) and varus malalignment. ME...

  12. Does Excision of Heterotopic Ossification of the Elbow Result in Satisfactory Patient-Rated Outcomes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandeep, K N; Suresh, G; Gopisankar, B; Abhishek, N; Sujiv, A

    2017-03-01

    Treatment of heterotopic ossification (HO) of the elbow is challenging and fraught with complications. Patients who sustain direct trauma to the elbow joint, the central nervous system, and thermal burns are at increased risk for development of HO. There is a paucity of studies and reports on patient's self-evaluation after the excision of the heterotopic ossification. This retrospective study assessed outcomes after excision of heterotopic ossification around the elbow in a cohort of ten patients operated from 2012 to 2015. The outcome assessment was done by the Mayo Elbow Performance index (MEPI) and the American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons-Elbow score (ASES-E scores). The mean follow-up was 18.11 months after the operation. The Mayo Elbow Performance Score was excellent in two elbows, good in six and fair in two. The mean gain in flexion-extension arc after excision of HO was 80 degrees. All of the patients had residual flexion deformity postoperatively. Eight of the nine patients were able to do activities requiring flexion at final follow-up. Excision of HO around the elbow is associated with satisfactory patient-rated outcomes in spite of failure to regain full range of motion.

  13. A study on operative findings and pathogenic factors in ulnar neuropathy at the elbow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojima, T; Kurihara, K; Nagano, T

    1979-01-01

    A study was made of operative findings obtained in 44 cases of ulnar nerve neuropathy at the elbow in an attempt to help elucidate the pathogenetic factors for the condition. Distinction must be made between Lig. epitrochleo-anconeum or a ligament-like thickening at the same site and the tendinous arch of M. flexor carpi ulnaris. These 2 sites constitute the entrapment points for the condition. A thick tendinous arch, Lig. epitrochleo-anconeum of M. anconeus epitrochlearis deters the ulnar nerve from being mobile, thereby contributing to the development of neuropathy with trauma acting as a precipitating factor. Dislocation of the ulnar nerve cannot be considered a factor of major etiologic significance. An important part is played by the tendinous arch in the pathogenesis of neuropathy, regardless of whether it is in association with ganglion, osteochondromatosis or osteoarthritis. In surgery for ulnar neuropathy decompression of the nerve is of primary necessity. Division of the tendinous arch is mandatory. Medial epicondylectomy may be added as required.

  14. End effects on elbows subjected to moment loadings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodabaugh, E.C.; Iskander, S.K.; Moore, S.E.

    1978-03-01

    End effects on elbows subjected to moment loading are investigated using the finite element program EPACA. Relatively simple but more accurate (than present Code) equations are developed and recommendation for an alternative Code method using these equations is presented. Data from EPACA on stresses at welds (elbow-to-pipe juncture) are presented. A simple equation is given for estimating the maximum stresses at the welds

  15. Prevalence of and referred pain from myofascial trigger points in the forearm muscles in patients with lateral epicondylalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Carnero, Josué; Fernández-de-Las-Peñas, César; de la Llave-Rincón, Ana Isabel; Ge, Hong-You; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars

    2007-05-01

    Referred pain and pain characteristics evoked from the extensor carpi radialis brevis, extensor carpi radialis longus, extensor digitorum communis, and brachioradialis muscles was investigated in 20 patients with lateral epicondylalgia (LE) and 20-matched controls. Both groups were examined for the presence of myofascial trigger points (TrPs) in a blinded fashion. The quality and location of the evoked referred pain, and the pressure pain threshold (PPT) at the lateral epicondyle on the right upper extremity (symptomatic side in patients, and dominant-side on controls) were recorded. Several lateral elbow pain parameters were also evaluated. Within the patient group, the elicited referred pain by manual exploration of 13 out of 20 (65%) extensor carpi radialis brevis muscles, 12/20 (70%) extensor carpi radialis longus muscles, 10/20 (50%) brachioradialis muscles, and 5/20 (25%) extensor digitorum communis muscles, shares similar pain patterns as their habitual lateral elbow and forearm pain. The mean number of muscles with TrPs for each patient was 2.9 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1,4] of which 2 (95% CI 1,3) were active, and 0.9 (95% CI 0,2) were latent TrPs. Control participants only had latent TrPs (mean: 0.4; 95% CI 0,2). TrP occurrence between the 2 groups was significantly different for active TrPs (P0.05). The referred pain pattern was larger in patients than in controls, with pain referral to the lateral epicondyle (proximally) and to the dorso-lateral aspect of the forearm in the patients, and confined to the dorso-lateral aspect of the forearm in the controls. Patients with LE showed a significant (Plateral epicondyle was negatively correlated with both the total number of TrPs (rs=-0.63; P=0.003) and the number of active TrPs (rs=-0.5; P=0.02): the greater the number of active TrPs, the lower the PPT at the lateral epicondyle. Our results suggest that in patients with LE, the evoked referred pain and its sensory characteristics shared similar patterns

  16. Severe Ulnar Nerve Injury After Bee Venom Acupuncture at a Traditional Korean Medicine Clinic: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Joon Sang; Park, Yoon Ghil; Jang, Chul Hoon; Cho, Yoo Na; Park, Jung Hyun

    2017-06-01

    This case report describes a severe nerve injury to the right ulnar nerve, caused by bee venom acupuncture. A 52-year-old right-handed man received bee venom acupuncture on the medial side of his right elbow and forearm, at a Traditional Korean Medicine (TKM) clinic. Immediately after acupuncture, the patient experienced pain and swelling on the right elbow. There was further development of weakness of the right little finger, and sensory changes on the ulnar dermatome of the right hand. The patient visited our clinic 7 days after acupuncture. Electrodiagnostic studies 2 weeks after the acupuncture showed ulnar nerve damage. The patient underwent steroid pulse and rehabilitation treatments. However, his condition did not improve completely, even 4 months after acupuncture.

  17. Serial casting for elbow flexion contractures in neonatal brachial plexus palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duijnisveld, B J; Steenbeek, D; Nelissen, R G H H

    2016-09-02

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of serial casting of elbow flexion contractures in neonatal brachial plexus palsy. A prospective consecutive cohort study was performed with a median follow-up of 5 years. Forty-one patients with elbow flexion contractures ≥ 30° were treated with serial casting until the contracture was ≤ 10°, for a maximum of 8 weeks. Range of motion, number of recurrences and patient satisfaction were recorded and analyzed using Wilcoxon signed-rank and Cox regression tests. Passive extension increased from a median of -40° (IQR -50 to -30) to -15° (IQR -10 to -20, p casting had to be prematurely replaced by night splinting due to complaints. Serial casting improved elbow flexion contractures, although recurrences were frequent. The severity of elbow flexion contracture is a predictor of recurrence. We recommend more research on muscle degeneration and determinants involved in elbow flexion contractures to improve treatment strategies and prevent side-effects.

  18. Myositis ossificans traumatica causing ankylosis of the elbow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanthimathi, B; Udhaya Shankar, S; Arun Kumar, K; Narayanan, V L

    2014-12-01

    Myositis ossificans traumatica is an unusual complication following a muscle contusion injury. A significantly large myositic mass causing ankylosis of the elbow is even rarer. We report a 13-year-old boy who presented with a 14-month history of a fixed elbow with no movement and a palpable bony mass in the anterior aspect of the elbow. He had sustained significant trauma to the affected limb 1 month prior to onset of symptoms, which was managed by native massage and bandaging for 4 weeks. The clinicoradiological diagnosis was suggestive of myositis ossificans, and the myositic mass was completely excised. Histopathology revealed lamellar bone. The 2-year follow-up showed full function of the affected limb and no signs of recurrence. We report this case of clinical interest due to the unusually large myositic mass.

  19. Inverse relationship between the complexity of midfoot kinematics and muscle activation in patients with medial tibial stress syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rathleff, M S; Samani, Afshin; Olesen, C G

    2011-01-01

    Medial tibial stress syndrome is a common overuse injury characterized by pain located on the medial side of the lower leg during weight bearing activities such as gait. The purpose of this study was to apply linear and nonlinear methods to compare the structure of variability of midfoot kinematics...... and surface electromyographic (SEMG) signals between patients with medial tibial stress syndrome and healthy controls during gait. Fourteen patients diagnosed with medial tibial stress syndrome and 11 healthy controls were included from an orthopaedic clinic. SEMG from tibialis anterior and the soleus muscles...... as well as midfoot kinematics were recorded during 20 consecutive gait cycles. Permuted sample entropy and permutation entropy were used as a measure of complexity from SEMG signals and kinematics. SEMG signals in patients with medial tibial stress syndrome were characterized by higher structural...

  20. Elbow joint position sense after neuromuscular training with handheld vibration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripp, Brady L; Faust, Donald; Jacobs, Patrick

    2009-01-01

    Clinicians use neuromuscular control exercises to enhance joint position sense (JPS); however, because standardizing such exercises is difficult, validations of their use are limited. To evaluate the acute effects of a neuromuscular training exercise with a handheld vibrating dumbbell on elbow JPS acuity. Crossover study. University athletic training research laboratory. Thirty-one healthy, college-aged volunteers (16 men, 15 women, age = 23 + or - 3 years, height = 173 + or - 8 cm, mass = 76 + or - 14 kg). We measured and trained elbow JPS using an electromagnetic tracking device that provided auditory and visual biofeedback. For JPS testing, participants held a dumbbell and actively identified the target elbow flexion angle (90 degrees ) using the software-generated biofeedback, followed by 3 repositioning trials without feedback. Each neuromuscular training protocol included 3 exercises during which participants held a 2.55-kg dumbbell vibrating at 15, 5, or 0 Hz and used software-generated biofeedback to locate and maintain the target elbow flexion angle for 15 seconds. We calculated absolute (accuracy) and variable (variability) errors using the differences between target and reproduced angles. Training protocols using 15-Hz vibration enhanced accuracy and decreased variability of elbow JPS (P or = .200). Our results suggest these neuromuscular control exercises, which included low-magnitude, low-frequency handheld vibration, may enhance elbow JPS. Future researchers should examine vibration of various durations and frequencies, should include injured participants and functional multijoint and multiplanar measures, and should examine long-term effects of training protocols on JPS and injury.

  1. Influence of BMI, gender, and sports on pain decrease and medication usage after facet-medial branch neurotomy or SI joint lateral branch cooled RF-neurotomy in case of low back pain: original research in the Austrian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stelzer, Wolfgang; Stelzer, Valentin; Stelzer, Dominik; Braune, Monika; Duller, Christine

    2017-01-01

    This retrospective original research was designed to illustrate the general outcome after radiofrequency (RF) neurotomy of lumbar medial branch (MB) and posterior ramus of the sacroiliac joint of 160 patients with chronic low back pain (LBP) 1, 6, and 12 months after treatment. Visual Analog Scale (VAS) 0-10 pain scores, quality of life, body mass index (BMI), medication usage, and frequency of physical exercise/sports participation (none, 1-3×/week, more) were collected before the procedure, at 1 month post procedure (n=160), and again at 6 (n=73) and 12 months (n=89) post procedure. A VAS decrease of 4 points on a 10-point scale (from 8 to 4) in the overall group was seen after 6 months and of 4.5 after 12 months. Lower medication usage was reported, with opioids decreased by 40% and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) by 60%. Decreased pain lasted for 12 months. Significantly better outcomes were reported by patients with BMIs gender-specific differences occurred in the reported decrease in VAS. Analysis of the "no-sports" group versus the more active (1-3 times weekly sports) group showed a better pain decrease after 1 year in the active group. The data suggest RF treatment for chronic LBP that can lead to long-term improvement. Patients with a BMI >30 are less likely to report decreased pain. The better long-term pain relief in the sports participating group is a motivation for the authors to keep the patients in motion.

  2. Lateral and medial epicondylitis: role of occupational factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiri, Rahman; Viikari-Juntura, Eira

    2011-02-01

    Epicondylitis is a common upper-extremity musculoskeletal disorder. It is most common at the age of 40-60 years. Epicondylitis seems to affect women more frequently than men. Diagnosis of epicondylitis is clinical and based on symptoms and findings of physical examination. The prevalence of lateral epicondylitis in the general populations is approximately 1.0-1.3% in men and 1.1-4.0% in women and that of medial epicondylitis is nearly 0.3-0.6% in men and 0.3-1.1% in women. The incidence rate of medical consultations has been estimated at 0.3-1.1 for lateral and 0.1 for medial epicondylitis per year per 100 subjects of general practice populations. Of occupational risk factors, forceful activities, high force combined with high repetition or awkward posture and awkward postures are associated with epicondylitis. The number of studies is limited to work-related psychosocial factors and the effects are not as consistent as those of physical load factors. Topical non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, corticosteroid injections and acupuncture provide short-term beneficial effects. Workload modification should be considered, especially in manually strenuous jobs. According to clinical case series, surgical treatment has shown fair to good results; however, the efficacy of surgical treatment has not been evaluated in randomised controlled trials. Poorer prognosis of epicondylitis has been reported for individuals with high level of physical strain at work, non-neutral wrist postures during work activity and for those with the condition on the dominant elbow. Modification of physical factors could reduce the risk or improve the prognosis of epicondylitis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Painful locking of the knee due to bucket handle tear of

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HE Rui

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available 【Abstract】 A case of swelling and anterior painful knee due to tear of mediopatellar plica is reported. The patient also felt clunk of the patellofemoral joint and knee locking. Under arthroscopic examination, a thick and fibrous plica was found medial to patellar, and a bucket tear along the plica from medial patellar retinaculum to infrapatellar fat pad. Polarized microscopic examination showed collagen fiber fragment and loss of light reflecting property. Neuroimmunohistology suggested up-regulation of synovial plica innervation in the area around the crack. This may be related to the pain. The bucket tear of mediopatellar plicacaused pain and lock of knee are more common than previously reported. Key words: Knee injuries; Arthroscopy; Patellofemoral joint

  4. MRI findings associated with development of incident knee pain over 48 months: data from the osteoarthritis initiative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joseph, Gabby B.; Hou, Stephanie W.; Nardo, Lorenzo; Heilmeier, Ursula; Link, Thomas M. [University of California, San Francisco, Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, San Francisco, CA (United States); Nevitt, Michael C.; McCulloch, Charles E. [University of California, San Francisco, Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, San Francisco, CA (United States)

    2016-05-15

    The purpose of this nested case-control study was to identify baseline, incident, and progressive MRI findings visible on standard MRI clinical sequences that were associated with development of incident knee pain in subjects at risk for OA over a period of 48 months. We analyzed 60 case knees developing incident pain (WOMAC{sub pain} = 0 at baseline and WOMAC{sub pain} ≥ 5 at 48 months) and 60 control knees (WOMAC{sub pain} = 0 at baseline and WOMAC{sub pain} = 0 at 48 months) from the Osteoarthritis Initiative. 3 T knee MRIs were analyzed using a modified WORMS score (cartilage, meniscus, bone marrow) at baseline and after 48 months. Baseline and longitudinal findings were grouped into logistic regression models and compared using likelihood-ratio tests. For each model that was significant, a stepwise elimination was used to isolate significant MRI findings. One baseline MRI finding and three findings that changed from baseline to 48 months were associated with the development of pain: at baseline, the severity of a cartilage lesion in the medial tibia was associated with incident pain - (odds ratio (OR) for incident pain = 3.05; P = 0.030). Longitudinally, an incident effusion (OR = 9.78; P = 0.005), a progressive cartilage lesion of the patella (OR = 4.59; P = 0.009), and an incident medial meniscus tear (OR = 4.91; P = 0.028) were associated with the development of pain. Our results demonstrate that baseline abnormalities of the medial tibia cartilage as well as an incident joint effusion, progressive patella cartilage defects, and an incident medial meniscus tear over 48 months may be associated with incident knee pain. Clinically, this study helps identify MRI findings that are associated with the development of knee pain. (orig.)

  5. MRI findings associated with development of incident knee pain over 48 months: data from the osteoarthritis initiative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joseph, Gabby B.; Hou, Stephanie W.; Nardo, Lorenzo; Heilmeier, Ursula; Link, Thomas M.; Nevitt, Michael C.; McCulloch, Charles E.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this nested case-control study was to identify baseline, incident, and progressive MRI findings visible on standard MRI clinical sequences that were associated with development of incident knee pain in subjects at risk for OA over a period of 48 months. We analyzed 60 case knees developing incident pain (WOMAC pain = 0 at baseline and WOMAC pain ≥ 5 at 48 months) and 60 control knees (WOMAC pain = 0 at baseline and WOMAC pain = 0 at 48 months) from the Osteoarthritis Initiative. 3 T knee MRIs were analyzed using a modified WORMS score (cartilage, meniscus, bone marrow) at baseline and after 48 months. Baseline and longitudinal findings were grouped into logistic regression models and compared using likelihood-ratio tests. For each model that was significant, a stepwise elimination was used to isolate significant MRI findings. One baseline MRI finding and three findings that changed from baseline to 48 months were associated with the development of pain: at baseline, the severity of a cartilage lesion in the medial tibia was associated with incident pain - (odds ratio (OR) for incident pain = 3.05; P = 0.030). Longitudinally, an incident effusion (OR = 9.78; P = 0.005), a progressive cartilage lesion of the patella (OR = 4.59; P = 0.009), and an incident medial meniscus tear (OR = 4.91; P = 0.028) were associated with the development of pain. Our results demonstrate that baseline abnormalities of the medial tibia cartilage as well as an incident joint effusion, progressive patella cartilage defects, and an incident medial meniscus tear over 48 months may be associated with incident knee pain. Clinically, this study helps identify MRI findings that are associated with the development of knee pain. (orig.)

  6. ERRORS AT RESTORATIVE TREATMENT OF CHILDREN WITH ELBOW INJURIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Ovsyankin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Presented analysis based on a large clinical material of reconstructive management of children with posttraumatic contractures of the elbow joint. In reconstructive management of children a plenty of errors are committed, and most of them are through undervaluation of displacements that have not been eliminated after bone fractures at the elbow joint.

  7. Determining the Neural Substrate for Encoding a Memory of Human Pain and the Influence of Anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Ming-Tsung; Kong, Yazhuo; Eippert, Falk; Tracey, Irene

    2017-12-06

    To convert a painful stimulus into a briefly maintainable construct when the painful stimulus is no longer accessible is essential to guide human behavior and avoid dangerous situations. Because of the aversive nature of pain, this encoding process might be influenced by emotional aspects and could thus vary across individuals, but we have yet to understand both the basic underlying neural mechanisms as well as potential interindividual differences. Using fMRI in combination with a delayed-discrimination task in healthy volunteers of both sexes, we discovered that brain regions involved in this working memory encoding process were dissociable according to whether the to-be-remembered stimulus was painful or not, with the medial thalamus and the rostral anterior cingulate cortex encoding painful and the primary somatosensory cortex encoding nonpainful stimuli. Encoding of painful stimuli furthermore significantly enhanced functional connectivity between the thalamus and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). With regards to emotional aspects influencing encoding processes, we observed that more anxious participants showed significant performance advantages when encoding painful stimuli. Importantly, only during the encoding of pain, the interindividual differences in anxiety were associated with the strength of coupling between medial thalamus and mPFC, which was furthermore related to activity in the amygdala. These results indicate not only that there is a distinct signature for the encoding of a painful experience in humans, but also that this encoding process involves a strong affective component. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT To convert the sensation of pain into a briefly maintainable construct is essential to guide human behavior and avoid dangerous situations. Although this working memory encoding process is implicitly contained in the majority of studies, the underlying neural mechanisms remain unclear. Using fMRI in a delayed-discrimination task, we found that the

  8. Ultrasound-guided percutaneous lavage of calcific bursitis of the medial collateral ligament of the knee: a case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Castillo-González, Federico; Ramos-Álvarez, Juan José; González-Pérez, José; Jiménez-Herranz, Elena; Rodríguez-Fabián, Guillermo

    2016-10-01

    Calcification of the medial collateral ligament (MCL) of the knee is rare. The literature reports no positive outcomes when conservative treatment has been followed. This paper reports a case of such calcification and its treatment using ultrasound-guided percutaneous lavage (UGPL). A 66-year-old patient presented with medial knee pain. X-ray, ultrasound, and magnetic resonance (MR) examinations revealed calcific bursitis of the MCL, which was treated by UGPL. One month after treatment the patient was asymptomatic. X-ray, ultrasound, and MR examinations confirmed the almost complete disappearance of the calcification; only very tiny fragments remained. Calcific bursitis of the MCL of the knee is very uncommon, but should be taken into account in differential diagnoses for medial knee pain. UGPL is proposed as a treatment for this condition.

  9. Joint unloading implant modifies subchondral bone trabecular structure in medial knee osteoarthritis: 2-year outcomes of a pilot study using fractal signature analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miller LE

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Larry E Miller,1,2 Miki Sode,3 Thomas Fuerst,3 Jon E Block2 1Miller Scientific Consulting, Inc., Asheville, NC, USA; 2The Jon Block Group, San Francisco, CA, USA; 3Bioclinica, Newark, CA, USA Background: Knee osteoarthritis (OA is largely attributable to chronic excessive and aberrant joint loading. The purpose of this pilot study was to quantify radiographic changes in subchondral bone after treatment with a minimally invasive joint unloading implant (KineSpring® Knee Implant System.Methods: Nine patients with unilateral medial knee OA resistant to nonsurgical therapy were treated with the KineSpring System and followed for 2 years. Main outcomes included Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC pain, function, and stiffness subscores and independent core laboratory determinations of joint space width and fractal signature of the tibial cortex.Results: WOMAC scores, on average, improved by 92% for pain, 91% for function, and 79% for stiffness over the 2-year follow-up period. Joint space width in the medial compartment of the treated knee significantly increased from 0.9 mm at baseline to 3.1 mm at 2 years; joint space width in the medial compartment of the untreated knee was unchanged. Fractal signatures of the vertically oriented trabeculae in the medial compartment decreased by 2.8% in the treated knee and increased by 2.1% in the untreated knee over 2 years. No statistically significant fractal signature changes were observed in the horizontally oriented trabeculae in the medial compartment or in the horizontal or vertical trabeculae of the lateral compartment in the treated knee.Conclusion: Preliminary evidence suggests that the KineSpring System may modify knee OA disease progression by increasing joint space width and improving subchondral bone trabecular integrity, thereby reducing pain and improving joint function. Keywords: disease modification, KineSpring, joint space, pain, trabecular

  10. End effects on elbows subjected to moment loadings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodabaugh, E.C.; Moore, S.E.

    1982-01-01

    So-called end effects for moment loadings on short-radius and long-radius butt welding elbows of various arc lengths are investigated with a view toward providing more accurate design formulas for critical piping systems. Data developed in this study, along with published information, were used to develop relatively simple design equations for elbows attached at both ends to long sections of straight pipe. These formulas are the basis for an alternate ASME Code procedure for evaluating the bending moment stresses in Class 1 nuclear piping (ASME Code Case N-319). The more complicated problems of elbows with other end conditions, e.g., flanges at one or both ends, are also considered. Comparisons of recently published experimental and theoretical studies with current industrial code design rules for these situations indicate that these rules also need to be improved

  11. Depression and Anxiety in Traumatic Brachial Plexus Injury Patients Are Associated With Reduced Motor Outcome After Surgical Intervention for Restoration of Elbow Flexion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Thomas J; Chang, Kate W C; Yang, Lynda J-S

    2016-06-01

    Depression has been associated with poor outcomes in neurosurgical patients, including increased pain, poorer functional recovery, delayed return to work, and decreased patient satisfaction. No reports exist regarding an association of psychiatric diagnoses with outcomes after brachial plexus reconstruction. As outcomes and patient satisfaction become increasingly important to payers and physician reimbursement, assessing modifiable preoperative risk factors for their association with poor outcome and patient satisfaction is imperative. To analyze patients undergoing brachial plexus reconstruction to assess the relationship of depression/anxiety with functional outcome. Data were collected retrospectively on all patients who underwent brachial plexus reconstruction to restore elbow flexion between 2005 and 2013. Elbow flexion, graded via the Medical Research Council scale, was assessed at latest follow-up. Multiple variables, including the presence of Axis I psychiatric diagnoses, were assessed for their association with the dichotomous outcome of Medical Research Council scale score ≥3 (antigravity) vs <3 elbow flexion. Standard statistical methods were used. Thirty-seven patients met inclusion criteria. The median postsurgical follow-up time was 21 months. Operations included neurolysis (n = 3), nerve graft repair (n = 6), and nerve transfer (n = 28). Depression was present in 10 of 37 patients (27%). Of variables tested, only depression was associated with poor elbow flexion outcome (odds ratio: 6.038; P = .04). Preoperative depression is common after brachial plexus injury. The presence of depression is associated with reduced elbow flexion recovery after reconstruction. Our data suggest assessment and treatment of preoperative mental health is important in designing a comprehensive postoperative management plan to optimize outcomes and patient satisfaction. MRC, Medical Research CouncilTBI, traumatic brain injury.

  12. Altered structural connectivity of pain-related brain network in burning mouth syndrome-investigation by graph analysis of probabilistic tractography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Akihiko; Shizukuishi, Takashi; Kikuta, Junko; Yamada, Haruyasu; Watanabe, Yusuke; Imamura, Yoshiki; Shinozaki, Takahiro; Dezawa, Ko; Haradome, Hiroki; Abe, Osamu

    2017-05-01

    Burning mouth syndrome (BMS) is a chronic intraoral pain syndrome featuring idiopathic oral pain and burning discomfort despite clinically normal oral mucosa. The etiology of chronic pain syndrome is unclear, but preliminary neuroimaging research has suggested the alteration of volume, metabolism, blood flow, and diffusion at multiple brain regions. According to the neuromatrix theory of Melzack, pain sense is generated in the brain by the network of multiple pain-related brain regions. Therefore, the alteration of pain-related network is also assumed as an etiology of chronic pain. In this study, we investigated the brain network of BMS brain by using probabilistic tractography and graph analysis. Fourteen BMS patients and 14 age-matched healthy controls underwent 1.5T MRI. Structural connectivity was calculated in 83 anatomically defined regions with probabilistic tractography of 60-axis diffusion tensor imaging and 3D T1-weighted imaging. Graph theory network analysis was used to evaluate the brain network at local and global connectivity. In BMS brain, a significant difference of local brain connectivity was recognized at the bilateral rostral anterior cingulate cortex, right medial orbitofrontal cortex, and left pars orbitalis which belong to the medial pain system; however, no significant difference was recognized at the lateral system including the somatic sensory cortex. A strengthened connection of the anterior cingulate cortex and medial prefrontal cortex with the basal ganglia, thalamus, and brain stem was revealed. Structural brain network analysis revealed the alteration of the medial system of the pain-related brain network in chronic pain syndrome.

  13. High Intensity Physical Exercise and Pain in the Neck and Upper Limb among Slaughterhouse Workers: Cross-Sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emil Sundstrup

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Slaughterhouse work involves a high degree of repetitive and forceful upper limb movements and thus implies an elevated risk of work-related musculoskeletal disorders. High intensity strength training effectively rehabilitates musculoskeletal disorders among sedentary employees, but less is known about the effect among workers with repetitive and forceful work demands. Before performing randomized controlled trials it may be beneficial to assess the cross-sectional connection between exercise and musculoskeletal pain. We investigated the association between high intensity physical exercise and pain among 595 slaughterhouse workers in Denmark, Europe. Using logistic regression analyses, odds ratios for pain and work disability as a function of physical exercise, gender, age, BMI, smoking, and job position were estimated. The prevalence of pain in the neck, shoulder, elbow, and hand/wrist was 48%, 60%, 40%, and 52%, respectively. The odds for experiencing neck pain were significantly lower among slaughterhouse workers performing physical exercise (OR = 0.70, CI: 0.49–0.997, whereas the odds for pain in the shoulders, elbow, or hand/wrist were not associated with exercise. The present study can be used as general reference of pain in the neck and upper extremity among slaughterhouse workers. Future studies should investigate the effect of high intensity physical exercise on neck and upper limb pain in slaughterhouse workers.

  14. Initial Effect of Taping Technique on Wrist Extension and Grip Strength and Pain of Individuals with Lateral Epicondylitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Shamsoddini

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Aim of this study is to investigate the initial effect of taping technique on wrist extension and grip strength and pain of Individuals with tennis elbow. Methods: fifteen patients (10 men and 5 women with 42.53 years on their dominant arm participated in this study. Outcome measures were wrist extension and grip strength and pain taken before and immediately after application of tape. The unaffected arm served as a control. Used of hand-held dynamometer and jammar dynamometer for evaluated of wrist extension and grip strength. Also, visual analog scale (VAS used for evaluated of pain Results: Among the variables, significant differences were found in wrist extension strength between effected and unaffected arm (P=0.006. Also, changes in grip strength shows statically significant improve in effect arm than unaffected arm (P=0.001. Changes in pain in impaired arm were positive. Discussion: Taping technique, as applied in this study demonstrated an impressive effect on wrist extension and grip strength and pain in individuals with tennis elbow. Therefore, it is recommended that this method may be useful in the management of this condition during exercise and functional rehabilitation.

  15. Kinematics of the lateral ligamentous constraints of the elbow joint

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Bo Sanderhoff; Søjbjerg, Jens Ole; Dalstra, Michel

    1996-01-01

    preventer of elbow joint laxity. The LCLC was observed to be a complex structure of ligamentous fibers rather than discreet bands. The LCLC forms a ligamentous constraint between the lateral humeral epicondyle and the ulna, stabilizing the elbow joint and forming a base for radial head stability...

  16. Prognostic value of thumb pain sensation in birth brachial plexopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos O. Heise

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the prognostic value of absent thumb pain sensation in newborns and young infants with birth brachial plexopathy. METHODS: We evaluated 131 patients with birth brachial plexopathy with less than two months of age. Pain sensation was evoked by thumb nail bed compression to evaluate sensory fibers of the upper trunk (C6. The patients were followed-up monthly. Patients with less than antigravity elbow flexion at six months of age were considered to have a poor outcome. RESULTS: Thirty patients had absent thumb pain sensation, from which 26 showed a poor outcome. Sensitivity of the test was 65% and specificity was 96%. CONCLUSION: Evaluation of thumb pain sensation should be included in the clinical assessment of infants with birth brachial plexopathy.

  17. Diagnosing ulnar neuropathy at the elbow using magnetic resonance neurography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keen, Nayela N.; Chin, Cynthia T.; Saloner, David; Steinbach, Lynne S. [University of California San Francisco, Dept of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, San Francisco, CA (United States); Engstrom, John W. [University of California San Francisco, Department of Neurology, San Francisco, CA (United States)

    2012-04-15

    Early diagnosis of ulnar neuropathy at the elbow is important. Magnetic resonance neurography (MRN) images peripheral nerves. We evaluated the usefulness of elbow MRN in diagnosing ulnar neuropathy at the elbow. The MR neurograms of 21 patients with ulnar neuropathy were reviewed retrospectively. MRN was performed prospectively on 10 normal volunteers. The MR neurograms included axial T1 and axial T2 fat-saturated and/or axial STIR sequences. The sensitivity and specificity of MRN in detecting ulnar neuropathy were determined. The mean ulnar nerve size in the symptomatic and normal groups was 0.12 and 0.06 cm{sup 2} (P < 0.001). The mean relative signal intensity in the symptomatic and normal groups was 2.7 and 1.4 (P < 0.01). When using a size of 0.08 cm{sup 2}, sensitivity was 95% and specificity was 80%. Ulnar nerve size and signal intensity were greater in patients with ulnar neuropathy. MRN is a useful test in evaluating ulnar neuropathy at the elbow. (orig.)

  18. Elbow mass flow meter

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarland, A.R.; Rodgers, J.C.; Ortiz, C.A.; Nelson, D.C.

    1994-08-16

    The present invention includes a combination of an elbow pressure drop generator and a shunt-type mass flow sensor for providing an output which gives the mass flow rate of a gas that is nearly independent of the density of the gas. For air, the output is also approximately independent of humidity. 3 figs.

  19. Schorzenia w obrębie stawu łokciowego. Łokieć teniststy - schorzenie i współczesne metody leczenia = Diseases within the elbow joint. Tennis elbow - condition and modern methods of treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Siminska

    2015-04-01

    lateral epicondyle of the humerus, commonly referred to as "tennis elbow". A patient with this condition shall be reported with felt pain, which is caused by degeneration of the extensor tendons in the area. Also discusses the most common injuries that affect the elbow joint. Now we can distinguish a number of treatments for diseases of inflammation of the lateral epicondyle of the humerus, among others, consisting of injections space causing pain: full blood, steroids and washed platelets. In addition, we can also be used with shock wave therapy and treatment coblation topaz. Keywords: tennis elbow, treatment, humeral lateral epicondyle aches and pains.

  20. Phase-II Clinical Validation of a Powered Exoskeleton for the Treatment of Elbow Spasticity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Crea

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Spasticity is a typical motor disorder in patients affected by stroke. Typically post-stroke rehabilitation consists of repetition of mobilization exercises on impaired limbs, aimed to reduce muscle hypertonia and mitigate spastic reflexes. It is currently strongly debated if the treatment's effectiveness improves with the timeliness of its adoption; in particular, starting intensive rehabilitation as close as possible to the stroke event may counteract the growth and postpone the onset of spasticity. In this paper we present a phase-II clinical validation of a robotic exoskeleton in treating subacute post-stroke patients.Methods: Seventeen post-stroke patients participated in 10 daily rehabilitation sessions using the NEUROExos Elbow Module exoskeleton, each one lasting 45 min: the exercises consisted of isokinetic passive mobilization of the elbow, with torque threshold to detect excessive user's resistance to the movement. We investigated the safety by reporting possible adverse events, such as mechanical, electrical or software failures of the device or injuries or pain experienced by the patient. As regards the efficacy, the Modified Ashworth Scale, was identified as primary outcome measure and the NEEM metrics describing elbow joint resistance to passive extension (i.e., maximum extension torque and zero-torque angle as secondary outcomes.Results: During the entire duration of the treatments no failures or adverse events for the patients were reported. No statistically significant differences were found in the Modified Ashworth Scale scores, between pre-treatment and post-treatment and between post-treatment and follow-up sessions, indicating the absence of spasticity increase throughout (14 days and after (3–4 months follow-up the treatment. Exoskeleton metrics confirmed the absence of significant difference in between pre- and post-treatment data, whereas intra-session data highlighted significant differences in the

  1. Phase-II Clinical Validation of a Powered Exoskeleton for the Treatment of Elbow Spasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crea, Simona; Cempini, Marco; Mazzoleni, Stefano; Carrozza, Maria Chiara; Posteraro, Federico; Vitiello, Nicola

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Spasticity is a typical motor disorder in patients affected by stroke. Typically post-stroke rehabilitation consists of repetition of mobilization exercises on impaired limbs, aimed to reduce muscle hypertonia and mitigate spastic reflexes. It is currently strongly debated if the treatment's effectiveness improves with the timeliness of its adoption; in particular, starting intensive rehabilitation as close as possible to the stroke event may counteract the growth and postpone the onset of spasticity. In this paper we present a phase-II clinical validation of a robotic exoskeleton in treating subacute post-stroke patients. Methods: Seventeen post-stroke patients participated in 10 daily rehabilitation sessions using the NEUROExos Elbow Module exoskeleton, each one lasting 45 min: the exercises consisted of isokinetic passive mobilization of the elbow, with torque threshold to detect excessive user's resistance to the movement. We investigated the safety by reporting possible adverse events, such as mechanical, electrical or software failures of the device or injuries or pain experienced by the patient. As regards the efficacy , the Modified Ashworth Scale, was identified as primary outcome measure and the NEEM metrics describing elbow joint resistance to passive extension (i.e., maximum extension torque and zero-torque angle) as secondary outcomes. Results: During the entire duration of the treatments no failures or adverse events for the patients were reported. No statistically significant differences were found in the Modified Ashworth Scale scores, between pre-treatment and post-treatment and between post-treatment and follow-up sessions, indicating the absence of spasticity increase throughout (14 days) and after (3-4 months follow-up) the treatment. Exoskeleton metrics confirmed the absence of significant difference in between pre- and post-treatment data, whereas intra-session data highlighted significant differences in the secondary outcomes

  2. Isometric strength ratios of the hip musculature in females with patellofemoral pain: a comparison to pain-free controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magalhães, Eduardo; Silva, Ana Paula M C C; Sacramento, Sylvio N; Martin, RobRoy L; Fukuda, Thiago Y

    2013-08-01

    The purpose of the study was to compare hip agonist-antagonist isometric strength ratios between females with patellofemoral pain (PFP) syndrome and pain-free control group. One hundred and twenty females between 15 and 40 years of age (control group: n = 60; PFP group: n = 60) participated in the study. Hip adductor, abductor, medial rotator, lateral rotator, flexor, and extensor isometric strength were measured using a hand-held dynamometer. Comparisons in the hip adductor/abductor and medial/lateral rotator and flexor/extensor strength ratios were made between groups using independent t-tests. Group comparisons also were made between the anteromedial hip complex (adductor, medial rotator, and flexor musculature) and posterolateral hip complex (abductor, lateral rotator, and extensor musculature). On average, the hip adductor/abductor isometric strength ratio in the PFP group was 23% higher when compared with the control group (p = 0.01). The anteromedial/posterolateral complex ratio also was significantly higher in the PFP group (average 8%; p = 0.04). No significant group differences were found for the medial/lateral rotator ratio and flexor/extensor strength ratios. The results of this study demonstrate that females with PFP have altered hip strength ratios when compared with asymptomatic controls. These strength imbalances may explain the tendency of females with PFP to demonstrate kinematic tendencies that increase loading on the patellofemoral joint (i.e., dynamic knee valgus).

  3. Muscle changes in brachial plexus birth injury with elbow flexion contracture: an MRI study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poeyhiae, Tiina H; Koivikko, Mika P; Lamminen, Antti E [University of Helsinki, Helsinki Medical Imaging Center, Helsinki (Finland); Peltonen, Jari I; Nietosvaara, A Y [Helsinki University Central Hospital, Hospital for Children and Adolescents, Helsinki (Finland); Kirjavainen, Mikko O [Helsinki University Central Hospital, Department of Orthopaedics and Traumatology, Helsinki (Finland)

    2007-02-15

    Muscle pathology of the arm and forearm in brachial plexus birth injury (BPBI) with elbow flexion contracture has not been evaluated with MRI. To determine whether limited range of motion of the elbow in BPBI is correlated with specific patterns of muscular pathology. For 15 BPBI patients, total active motion (TAM) of the elbow (extension-flexion) and the forearm (pronation-supination) were measured. MRI of the elbow joints and musculature allowed assessment of elbow congruency. Fatty infiltration and size reduction of the muscles were graded semiquantitatively. Mean TAM of the elbow was 113 (50 -140 ) and that of the forearm 91 (10 -165 ). The greater the size reduction of the brachioradialis muscle, the more diminished was elbow TAM. The more extensive the BPBI and muscle pathology of the pronator teres muscle, the more limited was the TAM of the forearm. Pathology of the supinator and brachialis muscles was evident in every patient. Extensive BPBI may result in marked limitation of TAM. Elbow flexion contracture seems to be caused mainly by brachialis muscle pathology. Prosupination of the forearm is better preserved when the pronator teres is not severely affected. MRI can reliably show the extent of muscle pathology in BPBI. (orig.)

  4. Muscle changes in brachial plexus birth injury with elbow flexion contracture: an MRI study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poeyhiae, Tiina H.; Koivikko, Mika P.; Lamminen, Antti E.; Peltonen, Jari I.; Nietosvaara, A.Y.; Kirjavainen, Mikko O.

    2007-01-01

    Muscle pathology of the arm and forearm in brachial plexus birth injury (BPBI) with elbow flexion contracture has not been evaluated with MRI. To determine whether limited range of motion of the elbow in BPBI is correlated with specific patterns of muscular pathology. For 15 BPBI patients, total active motion (TAM) of the elbow (extension-flexion) and the forearm (pronation-supination) were measured. MRI of the elbow joints and musculature allowed assessment of elbow congruency. Fatty infiltration and size reduction of the muscles were graded semiquantitatively. Mean TAM of the elbow was 113 (50 -140 ) and that of the forearm 91 (10 -165 ). The greater the size reduction of the brachioradialis muscle, the more diminished was elbow TAM. The more extensive the BPBI and muscle pathology of the pronator teres muscle, the more limited was the TAM of the forearm. Pathology of the supinator and brachialis muscles was evident in every patient. Extensive BPBI may result in marked limitation of TAM. Elbow flexion contracture seems to be caused mainly by brachialis muscle pathology. Prosupination of the forearm is better preserved when the pronator teres is not severely affected. MRI can reliably show the extent of muscle pathology in BPBI. (orig.)

  5. Knotless double-row SutureBridge rotator cuff repairs have improved self-reinforcement compared with double-row SutureBridge repairs with tied medial knots: a biomechanical study using an ovine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Geoffrey C S; Bouwmeester, Theresia M; Lam, Patrick H

    2017-12-01

    In double-row SutureBridge (Arthrex, Naples, FL, USA) rotator cuff repairs, increasing tendon load may generate progressively greater compression forces at the repair footprint (self-reinforcement). SutureBridge rotator cuff repairs using tied horizontal mattress sutures medially may limit this effect compared with a knotless construct. Rotator cuff repairs were performed in 9 pairs of ovine shoulders. One group underwent repair with a double-row SutureBridge construct with tied horizontal medial-row mattress sutures. The other group underwent repair in an identical fashion except that medial-row knots were not tied. Footprint contact pressure was measured at 0° and 20° of abduction under loads of 0 to 60 N. Pull-to-failure tests were then performed. In both repair constructs, each 10-N increase in rotator cuff tensile load led to a significant increase in footprint contact pressure (P row SutureBridge configuration, self-reinforcement is seen in repairs with and without medial-row knots. Self-reinforcement is greater with the knotless technique. Copyright © 2017 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Neurological Complications Related to Elective Orthopedic Surgery: Part 1: Common Shoulder and Elbow Procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwyer, Tim; Henry, Patrick D G; Cholvisudhi, Phantila; Chan, Vincent W S; Theodoropoulos, John S; Brull, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Many anesthesiologists are unfamiliar with the rate of surgical neurological complications of the shoulder and elbow procedures for which they provide local anesthetic-based anesthesia and/or analgesia. Part 1 of this narrative review series on neurological complications of elective orthopedic surgery describes the mechanisms and likelihood of peripheral nerve injury associated with some of the most common shoulder and elbow procedures, including open and arthroscopic shoulder procedures, elbow arthroscopy, and total shoulder and elbow replacement. Despite the many articles available, the overall number of studied patients is relatively low. Large prospective trials are required to establish the true incidence of neurological complications following elective shoulder and elbow surgery. As the popularity of regional anesthesia increases with the development of ultrasound guidance, anesthesiologists should have a thoughtful understanding of the nerves at risk of surgical injury during elective shoulder and elbow procedures.

  7. Static Progressive Orthoses for Elbow Contracture: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Chen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. As one of the most common musculoskeletal complications following trauma, elbow contracture is a frequent source of disabled daily activities. Conventional interventions are inadequate to provide favorable outcome. The static progressive orthoses are getting popular in the treatment of this problem. Objective. The purpose of this review was to assess the effectiveness of static progressive orthoses for elbow contracture. Methods. Literatures when written in English published during 1 January 1997 and 31 January 2017 were searched in the following databases: Web of Science, Cochrane Library, PubMed, and EBSCOhost. Articles are quality-assessed by two assessors, each article was summarized in evidence tables, and a narrative synthesis was also performed. Results. Ten clinical trials were included. The study design and outcome measures used varied. Significant immediate improvement in the range of motion was reported by all studies, and those effects were still significant at follow-up. No significant difference was shown between static progressive and dynamic orthoses for elbow contracture in one randomized control trial. Conclusions. Current low-quality evidence suggested that static progressive orthoses provided assistance for elbow contracture through improving range of motion. Further research is recommended using high-quality randomized controlled trials.

  8. Finite element evaluation of erosion/corrosion affected reducing elbow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basavaraju, C.

    1996-01-01

    Erosion/corrosion is a primary source for wall thinning or degradation of carbon steel piping systems in service. A number of piping failures in the power industry have been attributed to erosion/corrosion. Piping elbow is one of such susceptible components for erosion/corrosion because of increased flow turbulence due to its geometry. In this paper, the acceptability of a 12 in. x 8 in. reducing elbow in RHR service water pump discharge piping, which experienced significant degradation due to wall thinning in localized areas, was evaluated using finite element analysis methodology. Since the simplified methods showed very small margin and recommended replacement of the elbow, a detailed 3-D finite element model was built using shell elements and analyzed for internal pressure and moment loadings. The finite element analysis incorporated the U.T. measured wall thickness data at various spots that experienced wall thinning. The results showed that the elbow is acceptable as-is until the next fuel cycle. FEA, though cumbersome, and time consuming is a valuable analytical tool in making critical decisions with regard to component replacement of border line situation cases, eliminating some conservatism while not compromising the safety

  9. Astym treatment vs. eccentric exercise for lateral elbow tendinopathy: a randomized controlled clinical trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stegink-Jansen, Caroline W.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Patients with chronic lateral elbow (LE) tendinopathy, commonly known as tennis elbow, often experience prolonged symptoms and frequent relapses. Astym treatment, evidenced in animal studies to promote the healing and regeneration of soft tissues, is hypothesized to improve outcomes in LE tendinopathy patients. This study had two objectives: (1) to compare the efficacy of Astym treatment to an evidence-based eccentric exercise program (EE) for patients with chronic LE tendinopathy, and (2) to quantify outcomes of subjects non-responsive to EE who were subsequently treated with Astym treatment. Study Design. Prospective, two group, parallel, randomized controlled trial completed at a large orthopedic center in Indiana. Inclusion criteria: age range of 18–65 years old, with clinical indications of LE tendinopathy greater than 12 weeks, with no recent corticosteriod injection or disease altering comorbidities. Methods. Subjects with chronic LE tendinopathy (107 subjects with 113 affected elbows) were randomly assigned using computer-generated random number tables to 4 weeks of Astym treatment (57 elbows) or EE treatment (56 elbows). Data collected at baseline, 4, 8, 12 weeks, 6 and 12 months. Primary outcome measure: DASH; secondary outcome measures: pain with activity, maximum grip strength and function. The treating physicians and the rater were blinded; subjects and treating clinicians could not be blinded due to the nature of the treatments. Results. Resolution response rates were 78.3% for the Astym group and 40.9% for the EE group. Astym subjects showed greater gains in DASH scores (p = 0.047) and in maximum grip strength (p = 0.008) than EE subjects. Astym therapy also resolved 20/21 (95.7%) of the EE non-responders, who showed improvements in DASH scores (p effects were reported. Conclusion. This study suggests Astym therapy is an effective treatment option for patients with LE tendinopathy, as an initial treatment, and after an eccentric

  10. Romantic Resonances in the Rhetoric of Peter Elbow's "Writing Without Teachers."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yager, Kristi

    1996-01-01

    Seeks to uncover the historical roots within English Romanticism of Peter Elbow's thinking in order to show the depth and complexity of his assumptions about writing. Implicitly refutes charges questioning the intellectual credibility of Elbow's work. (TB)

  11. [Case-control study on local injection of autoallergic platelet rich plasma or whole blood for the treatment of tennis elbow].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Li-Lai; Tong, Pei-Jian; Xiao, Lu-Wei; Zhu, Qiu-Liang; Xu, Bin; Yan, Mao-Hua

    2014-11-01

    To compare therapeutic effects of local injection with autoallergic platelet rich plasma (PRP) or autoallergic whole blood (AWB) for the treatment of chronic tennis elbow. From January 2011 to January 2014, 40 patients with chronic tennis elbow were divided into 2 groups, 20 cases in each group: PRP group and AWB group. There were 20 patients in PRP group treated with local injection of autoallergic platelet rich plasma, including 5 males and 15 females, with an average age of (47.50 ± 9.86) years old; and the average course of disease was (4.67 ± 3.27) months. Among the 20 patients in AWB group treated with local injection of autoallergic whole blood, 3 patients were male and 17 patients were female, with an average age of (46.50 ± 9.96) years old;and the average course of disease was (4.53 ± 2.27) months. The elbow joint was fixed with elastic stockings after injection. All the patients were guided to do strengthening and extension exercises during the follow-up period. Visual analog scale (VAS), Mayo scores for elbow and pressure pain threshold (PPT) were used to evaluate clinical effects after injection immediately and 4,8 weeks after treatment. Results:All the patients were followed up,there were no infections and swelling occurred. The VAS, Mayo and PPT scores of patients in PRP group were improved from pre-therapy 7.22 ± 1.32, 56.71 ± 10.90 and 17.47 ± 4.62 to 2.73 ± 1.00, 91.59 ± 6.95 and 21.35 ± 4.80 respectively 8 weeks after treatment. The VAS, Mayo and PPT scores of patients in AWB group were improved from pre-therapy 7.16 ±1.27, 54.72 ± 8.36 and 17.06 ± 4.83 to 3.81 ± 1.36, 82.06 ± 7.89 and 20.12 ± 4.97 respectively 8 weeks after treatment. All the pain and functional variables including VAS, PPT, and Mayo scores were improved significantly in both groups 4 weeks after injection. On the 4th week after injection, there was no statistically significant difference in PPT between two groups; while the VAS and Mayo score of AWB group were

  12. Orthotic devices for tennis elbow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Struijs, P. A.; Smidt, N.; Arola, H.; van Dijk, C. N.; Buchbinder, R.; Assendelft, W. J.

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Lateral epicondylitis (tennis elbow) is a frequently reported condition. A wide variety of treatment strategies has been described. As of yet, no optimal strategy has been identified. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this review was to assess the effectiveness of orthotic devices for

  13. Outside-In Deep Medial Collateral Ligament Release During Arthroscopic Medial Meniscus Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todor, Adrian; Caterev, Sergiu; Nistor, Dan Viorel

    2016-08-01

    Arthroscopic partial medial meniscectomy is a very common orthopaedic procedure performed for symptomatic, irreparable meniscus tears. It is usually associated with a very good outcome and minimal complications. In some patients with tight medial compartment, the posterior horn of the medial meniscus can be difficult to visualize, and access in this area with instruments may be challenging. To increase the opening of the medial compartment, after valgus-extension stress position of the knee, different techniques of deep medial collateral ligament release have been described. The outside-in pie-crusting technique shown in this technical note has documented effectiveness and good outcomes with minimal or no morbidity.

  14. Medial Canthoplasty Combined with Conjunctivodacryocystorhinostomy for the Treatment of Delayed Medial Telecanthal Deformity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Sun

    2017-01-01

    Conclusions: Medial canthoplasty combined with CDCR is an effective surgical method for treatment of patients with medial telecanthal deformity and lacrimal drainage system obstruction. The study indicates that medial canthoplasty combined with CDCR surgery rebuilds normal appearance of eyelid and contour of the medial canthus and successfully repairs the function of the lacrimal drainage system.

  15. Corticosteroids in sports-related injuries: Friend or Foe

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2002-03-16

    Mar 16, 2002 ... the field of play. But to what extent ... Mineralocorticoids on the other hand (e.g. aldosterone) influence .... a player's return to play and reduce the game and practice ... Elbow: golfer's elbow (medial epicondylitis), tennis elbow.

  16. Can We Achieve Intuitive Prosthetic Elbow Control Based on Healthy Upper Limb Motor Strategies?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manelle Merad

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Most transhumeral amputees report that their prosthetic device lacks functionality, citing the control strategy as a major limitation. Indeed, they are required to control several degrees of freedom with muscle groups primarily used for elbow actuation. As a result, most of them choose to have a one-degree-of-freedom myoelectric hand for grasping objects, a myoelectric wrist for pronation/supination, and a body-powered elbow. Unlike healthy upper limb movements, the prosthetic elbow joint angle, adjusted prior to the motion, is not involved in the overall upper limb movements, causing the rest of the body to compensate for the lack of mobility of the prosthesis. A promising solution to improve upper limb prosthesis control exploits the residual limb mobility: like in healthy movements, shoulder and prosthetic elbow motions are coupled using inter-joint coordination models. The present study aims to test this approach. A transhumeral amputated individual used a prosthesis with a residual limb motion-driven elbow to point at targets. The prosthetic elbow motion was derived from IMU-based shoulder measurements and a generic model of inter-joint coordinations built from healthy individuals data. For comparison, the participant also performed the task while the prosthetic elbow was implemented with his own myoelectric control strategy. The results show that although the transhumeral amputated participant achieved the pointing task with a better precision when the elbow was myoelectrically-controlled, he had to develop large compensatory trunk movements. Automatic elbow control reduced trunk displacements, and enabled a more natural body behavior with synchronous shoulder and elbow motions. However, due to socket impairments, the residual limb amplitudes were not as large as those of healthy shoulder movements. Therefore, this work also investigates if a control strategy whereby prosthetic joints are automatized according to healthy individuals

  17. Enhanced Brain Responses to Pain-Related Words in Chronic Back Pain Patients and Their Modulation by Current Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritter, Alexander; Franz, Marcel; Puta, Christian; Dietrich, Caroline; Miltner, Wolfgang H R; Weiss, Thomas

    2016-08-10

    Previous functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies in healthy controls (HC) and pain-free migraine patients found activations to pain-related words in brain regions known to be activated while subjects experience pain. The aim of the present study was to identify neural activations induced by pain-related words in a sample of chronic back pain (CBP) patients experiencing current chronic pain compared to HC. In particular, we were interested in how current pain influences brain activations induced by pain-related adjectives. Subjects viewed pain-related, negative, positive, and neutral words; subjects were asked to generate mental images related to these words during fMRI scanning. Brain activation was compared between CBP patients and HC in response to the different word categories and examined in relation to current pain in CBP patients. Pain-related words vs. neutral words activated a network of brain regions including cingulate cortex and insula in subjects and patients. There was stronger activation in medial and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and anterior midcingulate cortex in CPB patients than in HC. The magnitude of activation for pain-related vs. negative words showed a negative linear relationship to CBP patients' current pain. Our findings confirm earlier observations showing that pain-related words activate brain networks similar to noxious stimulation. Importantly, CBP patients show even stronger activation of these structures while merely processing pain-related words. Current pain directly influences on this activation.

  18. Magnetic resonance imaging of the elbow. Part I: Normal anatomy, imaging technique, and osseous abnormalities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kijowski, Richard; Tuite, Michael; Sanford, Matthew

    2004-01-01

    Part I of this comprehensive review on magnetic resonance imaging of the elbow discusses normal elbow anatomy and the technical factors involved in obtaining high-quality magnetic resonance images of the elbow. Part I also discusses the role of magnetic resonance imaging in evaluating patients with osseous abnormalities of the elbow. With proper patient positioning and imaging technique, magnetic resonance imaging can yield high-quality multiplanar images which are useful in evaluating the osseous structures of the elbow. Magnetic resonance imaging can detect early osteochondritis dissecans of the capitellum and can be used to evaluate the size, location, stability, and viability of the osteochondritis dissecans fragment. Magnetic resonance imaging can detect early stress injury to the proximal ulna in athletes. Magnetic resonance imaging can detect radiographically occult fractures of the elbow in both children and adults. Magnetic resonance imaging is also useful in children to further evaluate elbow fractures which are detected on plain-film radiographs. (orig.)

  19. Incidence and risk factors for the development of radiographic arthrosis after traumatic elbow injuries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guitton, Thierry G.; Zurakowski, David; van Dijk, Niek C.; Ring, David

    2010-01-01

    Radiographic arthrosis is a common sequela of elbow trauma. Few studies have addressed risk factors for radiographic arthrosis after elbow injury, especially in the long term. Data from multiple long-term follow-up studies of patients with surgically treated elbow fractures provided us with an

  20. Geometric effects of 90-degree vertical elbows on local two-phase flow parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yadav, M.; Worosz, T.; Kim, S.

    2011-01-01

    This study presents the geometric effects of 90-degree vertical elbows on the development of the local two-phase flow parameters. A multi-sensor conductivity probe is used to measure local two-phase flow parameters. It is found that immediately downstream of the vertical-upward elbow, the bubbles have a bimodal distribution along the horizontal radius of the pipe cross-section causing a dual-peak in the profiles of local void fraction and local interfacial area concentration. Immediately downstream of the vertical-downward elbow it is observed that the bubbles tend to migrate towards the inside of the elbow's curvature. The axial transport of void fraction and interfacial area concentration indicates that the elbows promote bubble disintegration. Preliminary predictions are obtained from group-one interfacial area transport equation (IATE) model for vertical-upward and vertical-downward two-phase flow. (author)

  1. Injerto libre braquial medial Free medial arm graft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Martos Díaz

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Introducción. Entre las reconstrucciones de defectos titulares de cabeza y cuello, el injerto libre microvascularizado braquial medial no ha adquirido mucha popularidad debido a las variaciones anatómicas que se reflejan en la vascularización de éste. Nuestro objetivo es realizar una descripción de la anatomía y técnica quirúrgica, así como una revisión de la literatura describiendo las ventajas y desventajas de este tipo de injerto. Material y método. Presentamos el caso de una paciente con carcinoma epidermoide de mucosa yugal izquierda con afectación ganglionar ipsilateral. Se procedió a su resección con márgenes más disección cervical funcional. La reconstrucción del defecto se llevó a cabo mediante un injerto libre microvascularizado braquial medial de brazo izquierdo. Discusión. Pensamos que el injerto libre braquial medial de brazo se trata de una opción más segura a la hora de la reconstrucción de defectos cervicofaciales, aportando una serie de ventajas entre las que destacan: no sacrificio de una arteria terminal, cierre primario de la zona donante, mínimo defecto estético, y poseer una piel fina, elástica y sin vello.Introduction. Free medial microvascularized arm grafts have not become very popular for the reconstruction of head and neck defects due to anatomic variations in their vascularization. Our objective was to describe the anatomy and surgical technique and to review the literature on the advantages and disadvantages of free medial arm grafts. Material and methods. We report the case of a patient with squamous cell carcinoma of the left jugal mucosa with same-side lymph node involvement. The tumor was resected with margins and a functional cervical dissection was performed. The defect was reconstructed using a free medial microvascularized graft from the left arm. Discussion. We believe that free medial arm grafts are a safer option for the reconstruction of cervicofacial defects and that they offer

  2. Surgical Procedures of the Elbow: A Nationwide Cross-Sectional Observational Study in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Kinaci

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background:  Elbow surgery is shared by several subspecialties. We were curious about the most common elbow surgeries and their corresponding diagnoses in the United States.   Methods:  We used the National Hospital Discharge Survey (NHDS and the National Survey of Ambulatory Surgery (NSAS data gathered in 2006-databases that together provide an estimate of all inpatient and ambulatory surgical care in the US.  Results:  An estimated 150,000 elbow surgeries were performed in the US in 2006, 75% in an outpatient setting. The most frequent diagnosis treated operative was enthesopathy (e.g. lateral epicondylitis and it was treated with several different procedures. More than three quarters of all elbow surgeries treated enthesopathy, cubital tunnel syndrome, or fracture (radial head in particular. Arthroscopy and arthroplasty accounted for less than 10% of all elbow surgeries.  Conclusions:  Elbow surgery in the United States primarily addresses enthesopathies such as tennis elbow, cubital tunnel syndrome, and trauma. It is notable that some of the most common elbow surgeries (those that address enthesopathy and radial head fracture are some of the most variably utilized and debated.

  3. Short-term evaluation of arthroscopic management of tennis elbow; including resection of radio-capitellar capsular complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babaqi, AbdulRahman A; Kotb, Mohammed M; Said, Hatem G; AbdelHamid, Mohamed M; ElKady, Hesham A; ElAssal, Maher A

    2014-06-01

    There has been controversy regarding the pathogenesis and treatment of lateral epicondylitis. Different surgical techniques for the treatment of lateral epicondylitis prescribed. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the short-term outcomes of arthroscopic management including resection of the radio-capitellar capsular complex, using different validated scores. In this study, arthroscopic resection of a capsular fringe complex was done beside debridement of the undersurface of Extensor Carpi Radialis Brevis (ECRB). Thirty-one patients with recalcitrant lateral epicondylitis for a minimum of 6 months had surgery. In all patients, a collar-like band of radio-capitellar capsular complex was found to impinge on the radial head and subluxate into the radio-capitellar joint with manipulation under direct vision. Outcomes were assessed using Mayo Elbow Performance Index (MEPI), the Patient-Rated Tennis Elbow Evaluation (PRTEE), and the Disability of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand (DASH), beside visual analog scale (VAS) for pain and satisfaction criteria. After arthroscopic surgery, overall satisfaction was extremely positive, over the 31 patients, 93.5% of the patients are satisfied. The mean score for pain improved from 8.64 to 1.48 points. The total PRTEE improved from 55.53 to 10.39 points. The mean MEPI score was improved from 61.82 to 94.10 points. DASH score also improved from 24.46 to 4.81 points. All improvements are statistically significant (P < 0.05). Arthroscopic release of ECRB in patients with chronic lateral epicondylitis is a reproducible method with a marked improvement in function within a short period, with special consideration for resection of radio-capitellar capsular complex.

  4. Characteristics of Plantar Pressures and Related Pain Profiles in Elite Sprinters and Recreational Runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Tong-Hsien; Chen, Yih-Shyuan; Wang, Jia-Chang

    2018-01-01

    Plantar pressure measurement is effective for assessing plantar loading and can be applied to evaluating foot performance. We sought to explore the characteristics of plantar pressures in elite sprinters and recreational runners during static standing and walking. Arch index (AI) values, regional plantar pressure distributions (PPDs), and footprint characteristics were examined in 80 elite sprinters and 90 recreational runners using an optical plantar pressure measurement system. Elite sprinters' pain profiles were examined to evaluate their most common pain areas. In recreational runners, AI values in males were in the normal range and in females were high arch type. The AI values were significantly lower in elite sprinters than in recreational runners. In elite sprinters, particularly males, the static PPD of both feet was higher at the medial metatarsal bone and the lateral heel and lower at the medial and lateral longitudinal arches. Elite male sprinters' PPD of both feet was mainly transferred to the medial metatarsal bone and decreased at the lateral longitudinal arch and the medial heel during the midstance phase of walking. The lateral knee joint and biceps femoris were the most common sites of musculoskeletal pain in elite sprinters. Elite sprinters' AI values could be classified as high arches, and their PPD tended to parallel the features of runners and high-arched runners. These findings correspond to the profile of patellofemoral pain syndrome (PFPS)-related plantar pressure. The pain profiles seemed to resonate with the symptoms of high-arched runners and PFPS. A possible link between high-arched runners and PFPS warrants further study.

  5. Irrecoverable pressure loss coefficients for two out-of-plane piping elbows at high Reynolds number

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coffield, R.D.; Hammond, R.B.; McKeown, P.T.

    1999-02-08

    Pressure drops of multiple piping elbows were experimentally determined for high Reynolds number flows. The testing described has been performed in order to reduce uncertainties in the currently used methods for predicting irrecoverable pressure losses and also to provide a qualification database for computational fluid dynamics (CFD) computer codes. The earlier high Reynolds number correlations had been based on extrapolations over several orders of magnitude in Reynolds number from where the original database existed. Recent single elbow test data shows about a factor of two lower elbow pressure loss coefficient (at 40x 106 Reynolds number) than those from current correlations. This single piping elbow data has been extended in this study to a multiple elbow configuration of two elbows that are 90o out-of-plane relative to each other. The effects of separation distance and Reynolds number have been correlated and presented in a form that can be used for design application. Contrary to earlier extrapolations from low Reynolds numbers (Re c 1.0x 106), a strong Reynolds number dependence was found to exist. The combination of the high Reynolds number single elbow data with the multiple elbow interaction effects measured in this study shows that earlier design correlations are conservative by significant margins at high Reynolds numbers. Qualification of CFD predictions with this new high Reynolds number database will help guide the need for additional high Reynolds number testing of other piping configurations. The study also included velocity measurements at several positions downstream of the first and second test elbows using an ultrasonic flowmeter. Reasonable agreement after the first test elbow was found relative to flow fields that are known to exist from low Reynolds number visual tests and also from CFD predictions. This data should help to qualify CFD predictions of the three-dimensional flow stream downstream of the second test elbow.

  6. Angioleiomyoma: A Rare Cause of Fixed Flexion Contracture of the Elbow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asterios Dramis

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe an unusual case of a patient presented with a painless fixed flexion contracture of the elbow due to an angioleiomyoma. This benign smooth muscle tumour should be considered in the differential diagnosis of flexion contractures of the elbow.

  7. Biceps brachii long head overactivity associated with elbow flexion contracture in brachial plexus birth palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheffler, Lindsey C; Lattanza, Lisa; Sison-Williamson, Mitell; James, Michelle A

    2012-02-15

    The etiology of elbow flexion contracture in children with brachial plexus birth palsy remains unclear. We hypothesized that the long head of the biceps brachii muscle assists with shoulder stabilization in children with brachial plexus birth palsy and that overactivity of the long head during elbow and shoulder activity is associated with an elbow flexion contracture. Twenty-one patients with brachial plexus birth palsy-associated elbow flexion contracture underwent testing with surface electromyography. Twelve patients underwent repeat testing with fine-wire electromyography. Surface electrodes were placed on the muscle belly, and fine-wire electrodes were inserted bilaterally into the long and short heads of the biceps brachii. Patients were asked to perform four upper extremity tasks: elbow flexion-extension, hand to head, high reach, and overhead ball throw. The mean duration of muscle activity in the affected limb was compared with that in the contralateral, unaffected limb, which was used as a control. Three-dimensional motion analysis, surface dynamometry, and validated function measures were used to evaluate upper extremity kinematics, elbow flexor-extensor muscle imbalance, and function. The mean activity duration of the long head of the biceps brachii muscle was significantly higher in the affected limb as compared with the contralateral, unaffected limb during hand-to-head tasks (p = 0.02) and high-reach tasks (p = 0.03). No significant differences in mean activity duration were observed for the short head of the biceps brachii muscle between the affected and unaffected limbs. Isometric strength of elbow flexion was not significantly higher than that of elbow extension in the affected limb (p = 0.11). Overactivity of the long head of the biceps brachii muscle is associated with and may contribute to the development of elbow flexion contracture in children with brachial plexus birth palsy. Elbow flexion contracture may not be associated with an elbow

  8. Revisiting the anatomy and biomechanics of the anconeus muscle and its role in elbow stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Barry P

    2013-07-01

    Recent studies have designated the anconeus muscle as an option for use as a pedicled flap for covering soft tissue defects about the elbow, with reported minimal risk of morbidity. This has raised the question as to the importance of the anconeus muscle and as to whether this is truly an accessory muscle that can be sacrificed, or whether the anconeus muscle significantly contributes to elbow and forearm stability? This study revisits the anatomy and biomechanics of the anconeus muscle and aims to investigate the neuromuscular compartments of the anconeus muscle and to determine the changes in the muscle length, fibre length and moment arm over a range of elbow flexion angles for each compartment. An anatomical study on 8 human cadavers (51-77 years of age) was done and a 2-dimensional kinematic elbow model developed to determine changes in the muscle length and moment arm of the muscle related to changes in elbow flexion angles. The muscle was modelled with two possible lines of action, one along the posterior and another on the anterior edge of the muscle as they had different muscle fibre lengths (posterior: average of 32 mm, anterior: average of 20 mm). The anterior edge also had an aponeurosis which was 70% of its length. From 0 to 120° elbow flexion, the length of the posterior and anterior edges increased with a maximum change recorded at 90° elbow flexion (31.7±1.0 mm and 65.3±1.4 mm, respectively). The moment arm is 14-mm at 0° flexion, but between the posterior and anterior edges it decreases at different rates with increasing elbow flexion angle. Beyond 80°, the anterior edge behaves as an elbow flexor, while the posterior edge remains an elbow extensor. The study demonstrates that the anconeus muscle has two neuromuscular compartments each with distinct intramuscular innervations and muscle fibre lengths. The posterior and deep aspect of the muscle functions as an elbow extensor decreasing in influence with increasing elbow flexion angle. The

  9. Chronic exertional compartment syndrome with medial tibial stress syndrome in twins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Purnajyoti; McLean, Christopher

    2011-06-14

    Chronic exertional compartment syndrome and medial tibial stress syndrome are uncommon conditions that affect long-distance runners or players involved in team sports that require extensive running. We report 2 cases of bilateral chronic exertional compartment syndrome, with medial tibial stress syndrome in identical twins diagnosed with the use of a Kodiag monitor (B. Braun Medical, Sheffield, United Kingdom) fulfilling the modified diagnostic criteria for chronic exertional compartment syndrome as described by Pedowitz et al, which includes: (1) pre-exercise compartment pressure level >15 mm Hg; (2) 1 minute post-exercise pressure >30 mm Hg; and (3) 5 minutes post-exercise pressure >20 mm Hg in the presence of clinical features. Both patients were treated with bilateral anterior fasciotomies through minimal incision and deep posterior fasciotomies with tibial periosteal stripping performed through longer anteromedial incisions under direct vision followed by intensive physiotherapy resulting in complete symptomatic recovery. The etiology of chronic exertional compartment syndrome is not fully understood, but it is postulated abnormal increases in intramuscular pressure during exercise impair local perfusion, causing ischemic muscle pain. No familial predisposition has been reported to date. However, some authors have found that no significant difference exists in the relative perfusion, in patients, diagnosed with chronic exertional compartment syndrome. Magnetic resonance images of affected compartments have indicated that the pain is not due to ischemia, but rather from a disproportionate oxygen supply versus demand. We believe this is the first report of chronic exertional compartment syndrome with medial tibial stress syndrome in twins, raising the question of whether there is a genetic predisposition to the causation of these conditions. Copyright 2011, SLACK Incorporated.

  10. Eponyms in elbow fracture surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Somford, Matthijs P.; Wiegerinck, Johannes I.; Hoornenborg, Daniël; van den Bekerom, Michel P. J.; Eygendaal, Denise

    2015-01-01

    Eponyms are common in medicine and in orthopaedic surgery. For future reference and historical considerations, we present common eponyms in elbow fracture surgery. We describe in short the biography of the name giver and give, where possible, the original description on which the eponym was based.

  11. Failure Behavior of Elbows with Local Wall Thinning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sung-Ho; Lee, Jeong-Keun; Park, Jai-Hak

    Wall thinning defect due to corrosion is one of major aging phenomena in carbon steel pipes in most plant industries, and it results in reducing load carrying capacity of the piping components. A failure test system was set up for real scale elbows containing various simulated wall thinning defects, and monotonic in-plane bending tests were performed under internal pressure to find out the failure behavior of them. The failure behavior of wall-thinned elbows was characterized by the circumferential angle of thinned region and the loading conditions to the piping system.

  12. The use of MRI in the investigation of lateral meniscal tear post medial unicompartmental knee replacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanil H. Ajwani, MBChB, BSc (Hons, MRCS

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The evaluation of lateral knee pain in patients with a medial unicompartmental knee replacement (UKR is complex. The native lateral compartment structures are prone to the same injuries as patients with normal knees. Historical reports of lateral meniscal injury post medial UKR have argued MRI evaluation is obsolete due to artefact caused by the prosthesis. We report a case of lateral meniscal injury in a patient two years after successful medial UKR. We identified the offending pathology via utilization of MRI scanners adopting metal artefact reduction sequences (MARS. The MARS MRI protocol helps clinicians accurately and non-invasively evaluate soft tissue structures in knees with metal prostheses. It also allows surgeons to accurately counsel patients and provides a higher degree of certainty in treating the pathology.

  13. Regional Variation Is Present in Elbow Capsules after Injury

    OpenAIRE

    Germscheid, Niccole M.; Hildebrand, Kevin A.

    2006-01-01

    Myofibroblast numbers and α-smooth muscle actin expression are increased in anterior joint capsules of patients with posttraumatic elbow contractures. The purpose of our study was to determine whether these changes occur regionally or throughout the entire joint capsule. We hypothesized that the α-smooth muscle actin mRNA expression and the myofibroblast numbers in posterior joint capsules would be elevated in elbows obtained from patients with posttraumatic joint contractures compared with j...

  14. Anterior knee pain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LLopis, Eva [Hospital de la Ribera, Alzira, Valencia (Spain) and Carretera de Corbera km 1, 46600 Alzira Valencia (Spain)]. E-mail: ellopis@hospital-ribera.com; Padron, Mario [Clinica Cemtro, Ventisquero de la Condesa no. 42, 28035 Madrid (Spain)]. E-mail: mario.padron@clinicacemtro.com

    2007-04-15

    Anterior knee pain is a common complain in all ages athletes. It may be caused by a large variety of injuries. There is a continuum of diagnoses and most of the disorders are closely related. Repeated minor trauma and overuse play an important role for the development of lesions in Hoffa's pad, extensor mechanism, lateral and medial restrain structures or cartilage surface, however usually an increase or change of activity is referred. Although the direct relation of cartilage lesions, especially chondral, and pain is a subject of debate these lesions may be responsible of early osteoarthrosis and can determine athlete's prognosis. The anatomy and biomechanics of patellofemoral joint is complex and symptoms are often unspecific. Transient patellar dislocation has MR distinct features that provide evidence of prior dislocation and rules our complication. However, anterior knee pain more often is related to overuse and repeated minor trauma. Patella and quadriceps tendon have been also implicated in anterior knee pain, as well as lateral or medial restraint structures and Hoffa's pad. US and MR are excellent tools for the diagnosis of superficial tendons, the advantage of MR is that permits to rule out other sources of intraarticular derangements. Due to the complex anatomy and biomechanic of patellofemoral joint maltracking is not fully understood; plain films and CT allow the study of malalignment, new CT and MR kinematic studies have promising results but further studies are needed. Our purpose here is to describe how imaging techniques can be helpful in precisely defining the origin of the patient's complaint and thus improve understanding and management of these injuries.

  15. Anterior knee pain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LLopis, Eva; Padron, Mario

    2007-01-01

    Anterior knee pain is a common complain in all ages athletes. It may be caused by a large variety of injuries. There is a continuum of diagnoses and most of the disorders are closely related. Repeated minor trauma and overuse play an important role for the development of lesions in Hoffa's pad, extensor mechanism, lateral and medial restrain structures or cartilage surface, however usually an increase or change of activity is referred. Although the direct relation of cartilage lesions, especially chondral, and pain is a subject of debate these lesions may be responsible of early osteoarthrosis and can determine athlete's prognosis. The anatomy and biomechanics of patellofemoral joint is complex and symptoms are often unspecific. Transient patellar dislocation has MR distinct features that provide evidence of prior dislocation and rules our complication. However, anterior knee pain more often is related to overuse and repeated minor trauma. Patella and quadriceps tendon have been also implicated in anterior knee pain, as well as lateral or medial restraint structures and Hoffa's pad. US and MR are excellent tools for the diagnosis of superficial tendons, the advantage of MR is that permits to rule out other sources of intraarticular derangements. Due to the complex anatomy and biomechanic of patellofemoral joint maltracking is not fully understood; plain films and CT allow the study of malalignment, new CT and MR kinematic studies have promising results but further studies are needed. Our purpose here is to describe how imaging techniques can be helpful in precisely defining the origin of the patient's complaint and thus improve understanding and management of these injuries

  16. Unstable elbow dislocations: the description and cadaveric feasibility study of a new surgical technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harris Mark

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: A small proportion of simple elbow dislocations are grossly unstable and joint congruence is not maintained after reduction. In this rare situation operative treatment is indicated. We describe a new intra articular reconstruction that utilises a slip of triceps tendon to provide immediate stability to the elbow. Methods: We assessed 20 cadaveric elbows, measuring the length of triceps tendon available and required to complete the reconstruction. We then sequentially sectioned the ligamentous stabilisers of an elbow before performing the new technique. We measured the displacement and angulation possible at the elbow before and after the reconstruction. Results: All 20 elbows had sufficient triceps tendon length to complete the new technique. Prior to the reconstruction greater than 30 mm of joint distraction and 90 degrees varus or valgus angulation was possible. Following the reconstruction it was not possible to re-dislocate the elbow. Only 2 mm of joint distraction and 10 degrees of varus or valgus angulation were possible with the triceps graft fixed in position. Discussion: This novel technique elegantly avoids many of the problems associated with current methods. We have demonstrated that it is technically feasible and easy to perform with minimal equipment requirements or costs.

  17. MR arthrography of elbow: evaluation of the ulnar collateral ligament of elbow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakanishi, Katsunuki; Masatomi, Takashi; Ochi, Takahiro; Ishida, Takeshi; Hori, Shinichi; Ikezoe, Junpei; Nakamura, Hironobu

    1996-01-01

    Objective. The purpose of this study was to evaluate ulnar collateral ligament (UCL) injury of the elbow in throwing athletes by MRI and MR arthrography. Design. Ten elbows of throwing athletes were examined on both plain MRI and MR saline arthrography and the injuries subsequently surgically proven. Spin-echo (SE) T1-weighted and fast SE T2-weighted coronal images were obtained. Results. The UCL was unclear in all ten cases on T1-weighted MRI. In five cases an avulsion fracture was also found on T1-weighted MRI. On T2-weighted MRI, abnormal high-intensity areas were identified in or around the UCL. On T2-weighted MR arthrography images, extracapsular high-intensity areas, which represent extracapsular leakage, were found in four of five cases with avulsion fracture. At surgery, all these four cases showed avulsion fractures with instability; the other case had a fracture but it was stable and adherent to the humerus. On T2-weighted MR arthrography images, an extracapsular high-intensity area was found in one of the five cases without avulsion fracture. At surgery this patient had a complete tear of the UCL itself. Conclusion. MR arthrography provided additional information for evaluating the degree of UCL injury. (orig.). With 5 figs., 1 tab

  18. Feasibility of the Atlas Unicompartmental Knee System Load Absorber in Improving Pain Relief and Function in Patients Needing Unloading of the Medial Compartment of the Knee: 1-Year Follow-Up of a Prospective, Multicenter, Single-Arm Pilot Study (PHANTOM High Flex Trial).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slynarski, Konrad; Walawski, Jacek; Smigielski, Robert; van der Merwe, Willem

    2017-01-01

    In young patients with medial knee osteoarthritis (OA), surgical intervention may not be desirable due to preferences to avoid bone cutting procedures, return to high activity levels, and prolong implant survival. The Atlas Knee System was designed to fill the gap between ineffective conservative treatments and invasive surgery. This single-arm study included 26 patients, aged 25 to 65 years, who completed 12 months of follow-up. All dimensions of the Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS), Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC), and Knee Society Score significantly improved from baseline to 12 months. About 96.2% and 92.3% of patients experienced a ⩾20% improvement in their KOOS pain and WOMAC pain scores, respectively, at 12 months. This study highlights the potential benefit of a joint unloading device in the management of young patients with medial knee OA. The trial is still ongoing and another analysis is planned at 24 months.

  19. The effect of load-controlled bending load on the failure pressure of wall-thinned pipe elbows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jin Weon; Yoon, Min Soo; Park, Chi Yong

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • We evaluated bending load effect on the failure pressure of wall-thinned pipe elbows. • Burst tests were conducted on real-scale elbow specimens with local wall thinning. • The tests were performed under combined pressure and load-controlled bending. • Load-controlled bending reduced the failure pressure of wall-thinned elbows. • Bending load effect was significant for opening-mode and intrados wall-thinning case. - Abstract: In this research, burst tests were conducted on real-scale elbow specimens, each with an artificial local wall-thinning defect, under combined internal pressure and constant in-plane bending load, as well as under simple internal pressure, to evaluate the effect of load-controlled bending load on the failure pressure of locally wall-thinned pipe elbows. Ninety-degree, 65A Schedule 80 elbows, with wall-thinning defects in the intrados and extrados, were used as specimens. The bending loads were in-plane opening- and closing-mode bending, applied in load-control mode. The results clearly indicated that a load-controlled in-plane bending load reduced the failure pressure of wall-thinned pipe elbows, in contrast to observations previously made under displacement-controlled bending conditions. The effect of the bending load was more significant for opening-mode than for closing-mode bending, regardless of the wall-thinning location in the elbow. Also, the effect was greater when the wall-thinning defect was located in the intrados region of the elbow, rather than the extrados region. Existing models that have been proposed to evaluate the failure of wall-thinned elbows under simple internal pressure conservatively predicted the failure pressure of elbows subjected to a combined internal pressure and load-controlled bending load

  20. Series elastic actuation of an elbow rehabilitation exoskeleton with axis misalignment adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Kuan-Yi; Su, Yin-Yu; Yu, Ying-Lung; Lin, Kuei-You; Lan, Chao-Chieh

    2017-07-01

    Powered exoskeletons can facilitate rehabilitation of patients with upper limb disabilities. Designs using rotary motors usually result in bulky exoskeletons to reduce the problem of moving inertia. This paper presents a new linearly actuated elbow exoskeleton that consists of a slider crank mechanism and a linear motor. The linear motor is placed beside the upper arm and closer to shoulder joint. Thus better inertia properties can be achieved while lightweight and compactness are maintained. A passive joint is introduced to compensate for the exoskeleton-elbow misalignment and intersubject size variation. A linear series elastic actuator (SEA) is proposed to obtain accurate force and impedance control at the exoskeleton-elbow interface. Bidirectional actuation between exoskeleton and forearm is verified, which is required for various rehabilitation processes. We expect this exoskeleton can provide a means of robot-aided elbow rehabilitation.

  1. Comminuted Distal Radial Fracture with Large Rotated Palmar Medial Osteochondral Fragment in the Joint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gökkus, Kemal; Sagtas, Ergin; Kesgin, Engin; Aydin, Ahmet Turan

    2018-01-01

    Intra-articular distal radius fractures have long been massively discussed in the literature, but regarding to fractures that possess rotated volar medial fragment in the joint a few amount papers has been written. In this article, we would like to emphasize the significance of the rotated palmar medial (lunate facet) fragment. A 39-year-old man fell from a height of about 3 m and landed on his right outstretched hand; within 40 min, he arrived at our clinic presenting with a severe pain and swelling in his right wrist. Initial X-rays of the wrist revealed dorsal subluxation of the radiocarpal joint with dorsal comminution of the radial articular surface and fracture of the radial styloid process, with (nearly inverted) ~ 140-150° rotation of the palmar medial fragment. With an additional volar approach, the fragment reduced and stabilized with two K-wires and wrist immobilized in external fixator. The patient returned to daily activities without any discomfort and pain after the 1 year from the surgery. Overlooking of palmar rotated osteochondral fragment will cause deficiency to build proper pre-operative strategy to approach the reduction of the fragment. The incompetence of reduction will deteriorate the articular surface and lead to early osteoarthritis of the wrist. The surgeon should detect this fragment and should be familiar with volar approaches of the wrist. Above average surgical experience would be needed for successful reduction.

  2. Muscle contributions to elbow joint rotational stiffness in preparation for sudden external arm perturbations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Michael W R; Keir, Peter J

    2014-04-01

    Understanding joint stiffness and stability is beneficial for assessing injury risk. The purpose of this study was to examine joint rotational stiffness for individual muscles contributing to elbow joint stability. Fifteen male participants maintained combinations of three body orientations (standing, supine, sitting) and three hand preloads (no load, solid tube, fluid filled tube) while a device imposed a sudden elbow extension. Elbow angle and activity from nine muscles were inputs to a biomechanical model to determine relative contributions to elbow joint rotational stiffness, reported as percent of total stiffness. A body orientation by preload interaction was evident for most muscles (Psafety.

  3. In vivo fluoroscopic kinematography of dynamic radio-ulnar ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... canine elbow joint, as part of the physiological kinematic pattern. However, dysplastic elbow joints do not show an increased radio-ulnar translation, and therfore dRUI cannot be considered causative for medial coronoid disease. Keywords: Canine, Elbow dysplasia, Fluoroscopy, Gait analysis, Radio-ulnar incongruence.

  4. Biomechanics of the elbow joint in tennis players and relation to pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eygendaal, Denise; Rahussen, F Th G; Diercks, R L

    2007-11-01

    Elbow injuries constitute a sizeable percentage of tennis injuries. A basic understanding of biomechanics of tennis and analysis of the forces, loads and motions of the elbow during tennis will improve the understanding of the pathophysiology of these injuries. All different strokes in tennis have a different repetitive biomechanical nature that can result in tennis-related injuries. In this article, a biomechanically-based evaluation of tennis strokes is presented. This overview includes all tennis-related pathologies of the elbow joint, whereby the possible relation of biomechanics to pathology is analysed, followed by treatment recommendations.

  5. Łokieć tenisisty - czy jest to tylko problem lokalny? = Tennis elbow - is it only a local problem?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin Siedlaczek

    2015-12-01

    • 3.      Uniwersytet Kazimierza Wielkiego w Bydgoszczy, Bydgoszcz, Polska   Correspondence: mgr Marcin Siedlaczek ul. Monte Cassino 55 85-791 Bydgoszcz tel. 604631227 Marcinsied@o2.pl   Streszczenie Łokieć tenisisty jest jedną z najczęstszych dolegliwości rozpoznawanych w obszarze stawu łokciowego. Pomimo tak powszechnego występowania wiele pytań związanych z tą jednostką pozostaje niewyjaśnionych. Doniesienia dotyczące efektywności różnych form terapii również zdają się być niejednoznaczne. Celem pracy jest przybliżenie globalnych zależności występujących w ciele, które mogą wpływać na dolegliwości pacjentów oraz próba odpowiedzi na pytanie, czy zawsze należy szukać przyczyny w miejscu bólu.  Zwrócić uwagę należy na fakt, iż współczesna anatomia bardziej dzieli niż łączy, a co za tym idzie często pośrednie i bezpośrednie zależności pomiędzy nawet blisko położonymi strukturami są w badaniu czy analizie pomijane.   Abstract Tennis elbow is one of the most common disorders diagnosed in the elbow area. Despite such prevalence, lot of questions associated with this disease still remains unexplained. Reports about the effectiveness of treatment also seems to be not clear. The aim of the work is to familiarize with global relationships in a body, that can influence the disorders of patients and attempt to answer the question of whether we should always look for the pain cause in painful localization. We should pay attention to the fact, that classic anatomy divides rather than connect. Because of this fact, therapists often ignore direct and indirect relationships between even closely located structures.   Słowa kluczowe: łokieć tenisisty, powięź.   Key words: tennis elbow, fascia.

  6. Cerebral cortex modulation of pain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu-feng XIE; Fu-quan HUO; Jing-shi TANG

    2009-01-01

    Pain is a complex experience encompassing sensory-discriminative, affective-motivational and cognitiv e-emotional com-ponents mediated by different mechanisms. Contrary to the traditional view that the cerebral cortex is not involved in pain perception, an extensive cortical network associated with pain processing has been revealed using multiple methods over the past decades. This network consistently includes, at least, the anterior cingulate cortex, the agranular insular cortex, the primary (SⅠ) and secondary somatosensory (SⅡ) cortices, the ventrolateral orbital cortex and the motor cortex. These corti-cal structures constitute the medial and lateral pain systems, the nucleus submedius-ventrolateral orbital cortex-periaque-ductal gray system and motor cortex system, respectively. Multiple neurotransmitters, including opioid, glutamate, GABA and dopamine, are involved in the modulation of pain by these cortical structures. In addition, glial cells may also be in-volved in cortical modulation of pain and serve as one target for pain management research. This review discusses recent studies of pain modulation by these cerebral cortical structures in animals and human.

  7. Isolated and combined medial patellofemoral ligament reconstruction in revision surgery for patellofemoral instability: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohn, Ludwig M; Meidinger, Gebhart; Beitzel, Knut; Banke, Ingo J; Hensler, Daniel; Imhoff, Andreas B; Schöttle, Philip B

    2013-09-01

    Persistent pain and redislocations after surgical treatment of patellofemoral instability are described in up to 40% of patients. However, prospective outcome data about revision surgery are missing. To evaluate the clinical outcome after revision medial patellofemoral ligament (MPFL) reconstruction using isolated and combined procedures, with a follow-up of 24 months. Case series; Level of evidence, 4. Study participants were 42 patients (median age, 22 years; range, 13-46 years) who underwent revision surgery between January 2007 and December 2009 because of persistent patellofemoral instability after a mean of 1.8 previous failed surgical interventions (lateral release, medial imbrication/vastus medialis obliquus distalization, medialization of the tuberosity). An isolated MPFL reconstruction was performed in 15 cases, while a combination procedure was performed in 27 cases. The clinical results were evaluated preoperatively and 24 months postoperatively using the International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC), Kujala, and Tegner scores as well as a subjective questionnaire. Patellar shift, tilt, and height, as well as level of degeneration, were defined preoperatively and at the latest follow-up on plain radiographs and magnetic resonance imaging. At 24-month follow-up, 87% of the patients were satisfied or very satisfied with the treatment. No apprehension or redislocation was reported at follow-up, and there was a significant decrease in pain during daily activities. There were significant improvements (P instability is a multifactorial problem, revision surgery should be indicated only after a comprehensive examination. The results of this study show that MPFL reconstruction, alone or in combination, seems to be an effective treatment for recurrent patellar dislocations after a failed previous surgery, leading to significant increases in stability and functionality as well as a reduction in pain.

  8. Simultaneous avascular necrosis of both medial and lateral femoral condyles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mansberg, R.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Avascular necrosis (AVN) of a femoral condyle is a common orthopaedic condition. While both medial and lateral femoral condyles may be involved either singly or sequentially the simultaneous occurrence of AVN of both femoral condyles is extremely uncommon. A 57-year-old male is presented who developed the onset of severe left sided knee pain suddenly at rest. Plain and tomographic radiography was unremarkable and a bone scan was performed. Markedly increased vascularity was demonstrated in the left knee with intense osteoblastic activity in the left medial and femoral condyles more marked in the lateral femoral condyle. A diagnosis of AVN of both femoral condyles was made and a MRI exam was performed to confirm this unusual diagnosis. The MRI showed a diffuse increase in intensity bilaterally with subtle bony change in the subarticular bone consistent with AVN more marked in the left lateral femoral condyle. The patients' symptoms resolved with supportive treatment. Copyright (2002) The Australian and New Zealand Society of Nuclear Medicine Inc

  9. Imaging study of the painful heel syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, P.L.; Smibert, J.G.; Cox, R.; Mitchell, R.; Klenerman, L.

    1987-01-01

    A total of 45 patients with the painful heel syndrome without evidence of an associated inflammatory arthritis, seven of whom had pain in both heels, were studied using technetium-99 isotope bone scans and lateral and 45 degrees medial oblique radiographs of both feet. Of the 52 painful heels 31 (59.6%) showed increased uptake of tracer at the calcaneum. Patients with scans showing increased uptake tended to have more severe heel pain and responded more frequently to a local hydrocortisone injection. On plain x-ray, 39 of 52 painful heels (75%) and 24 of the 38 opposite nonpainful heels (63%) showed plantar spurs, compared with five of 63 (7.9%) heels in 59 age- and sex-matched controls. No evidence of stress fractures was seen

  10. A failure estimation method of steel pipe elbows under in-plane cyclic loading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeon, Bub Gyu; Kim, Sung Wan; Choi, Hyoung Suk; Park, Dong Uk [Seismic Simulation Tester Center, Pusan National University, Yangsan (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Nam Sik [Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Pusan National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-02-15

    The relative displacement of a piping system installed between isolated and nonisolated structures in a severe earthquake might be larger when without a seismic isolation system. As a result of the relative displacement, the seismic risks of some components in the building could increase. The possibility of an increase in seismic risks is especially high in the crossover piping system in the buildings. Previous studies found that an elbow which could be ruptured by low-cycle ratcheting fatigue is one of the weakest elements. Fatigue curves for elbows were suggested based on component tests. However, it is hard to find a quantitative evaluation of the ultimate state of piping elbows. Generally, the energy dissipation of a solid structure can be calculated from the relation between displacement and force. Therefore, in this study, the ultimate state of the pipe elbow, normally considered as failure of the pipe elbow, is defined as leakage under in-plane cyclic loading tests, and a failure estimation method is proposed using a damage index based on energy dissipation.

  11. A Failure Estimation Method of Steel Pipe Elbows under In-plane Cyclic Loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bub-Gyu Jeon

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The relative displacement of a piping system installed between isolated and nonisolated structures in a severe earthquake might be larger when without a seismic isolation system. As a result of the relative displacement, the seismic risks of some components in the building could increase. The possibility of an increase in seismic risks is especially high in the crossover piping system in the buildings. Previous studies found that an elbow which could be ruptured by low-cycle ratcheting fatigue is one of the weakest elements. Fatigue curves for elbows were suggested based on component tests. However, it is hard to find a quantitative evaluation of the ultimate state of piping elbows. Generally, the energy dissipation of a solid structure can be calculated from the relation between displacement and force. Therefore, in this study, the ultimate state of the pipe elbow, normally considered as failure of the pipe elbow, is defined as leakage under in-plane cyclic loading tests, and a failure estimation method is proposed using a damage index based on energy dissipation.

  12. A failure estimation method of steel pipe elbows under in-plane cyclic loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeon, Bub Gyu; Kim, Sung Wan; Choi, Hyoung Suk; Park, Dong Uk; Kim, Nam Sik

    2017-01-01

    The relative displacement of a piping system installed between isolated and nonisolated structures in a severe earthquake might be larger when without a seismic isolation system. As a result of the relative displacement, the seismic risks of some components in the building could increase. The possibility of an increase in seismic risks is especially high in the crossover piping system in the buildings. Previous studies found that an elbow which could be ruptured by low-cycle ratcheting fatigue is one of the weakest elements. Fatigue curves for elbows were suggested based on component tests. However, it is hard to find a quantitative evaluation of the ultimate state of piping elbows. Generally, the energy dissipation of a solid structure can be calculated from the relation between displacement and force. Therefore, in this study, the ultimate state of the pipe elbow, normally considered as failure of the pipe elbow, is defined as leakage under in-plane cyclic loading tests, and a failure estimation method is proposed using a damage index based on energy dissipation

  13. Postoperative analgesic efficacy of ultrasound-guided ilioinguinal-iliohypogastric nerve block compared with medial transverse abdominis plane block in inguinal hernia repair: A prospective, randomised trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatia, Nidhi; Sen, Indu Mohini; Mandal, Banashree; Batra, Ankita

    2018-03-29

    Analgesic efficacy of ultrasound-guided transverse abdominis plane block, administered a little more medially, just close to the origin of the transverse abdominis muscle has not yet been investigated in patients undergoing unilateral inguinal hernia repair. We hypothesised that medial transverse abdominis plane block would provide comparable postoperative analgesia to ilioinguinal-iliohypogastric nerve block in inguinal hernia repair patients. This prospective, randomised trial was conducted in 50 ASA I and II male patients≥18 years of age. Patients were randomised into two groups to receive either pre-incisional ipsilateral ultrasound-guided ilioinguinal-iliohypogastric nerve block or medial transverse abdominis plane block, with 0.3ml/kg of 0.25% bupivacaine. Our primary objective was postoperative 24-hour analgesic consumption and secondary outcomes included pain scores, time to first request for rescue analgesic and side effects, if any, in the postoperative period. There was no significant difference in the total postoperative analgesic consumption [group I: 66.04mg; group II: 68.33mg (P value 0.908)]. Time to first request for rescue analgesic was delayed, though statistically non-significant (P value 0.326), following medial transverse abdominis plane block, with excellent pain relief seen in 58.3% patients as opposed to 45.8% patients in ilioinguinal-iliohypogastric nerve block group. Medial transverse abdominis plane block being a novel, simple and easily performed procedure can serve as an useful alternative to ilioinguinal-iliohypogastric nerve block for providing postoperative pain relief in inguinal hernia repair patients. Copyright © 2018 Société française d'anesthésie et de réanimation (Sfar). Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Gait changes in patients with knee osteoarthritis are replicated by experimental knee pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Marius; Graven-Nielsen, Thomas; Aaboe, Jens

    2010-01-01

    Medial knee osteoarthritis (OA) is characterized by pain and associated with abnormal knee moments during walking. The relationship between knee OA pain and gait changes remains to be clarified, and a better understanding of this link could advance the treatment and prevention of disease...

  15. Liquid metal flow in a large-radius elbow with a uniform magnetic fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, T.J.; Walker, J.S.

    1988-07-01

    This paper treats the liquid-metal flow in an elbow between two straight, rectangular ducts. There is a uniform magnetic field in the plane of the elbow. The duct has thin, electrically conducting walls. The Hartmann number and the interaction parameter are assumed to be large, while the magnetic Reynolds number is assumed to be small. Solutions for the velocity at each cross section of the elbow and for the pressure drop due to three-dimensional effects are presented. 10 refs., 5 figs

  16. Experimental study on fluid mixing phenomena in T-pipe junction with upstream elbow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiroshi Ogawa; Minoru Igarashi; Nobuyuki Kimura; Hideki Kamide

    2005-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: Temperature fluctuation in fluid causes high cycle thermal fatigue in shroud structure according to its amplitude and frequency. There are still some incidents of thermal fatigue and leakage in light water reactors (Japanese PWR Tomari-2 in 2003, French PWR CIVAUX in 1998), and also in sodium cooled reactors (French FBR Phenix in 1992). Mixing tee is a typical component where temperature fluctuation occurs. Water experiment has been carried out to investigate temperature fluctuation characteristics and flow velocity field in a simple T-pipe junction with straight inlet pipings for main and branch lines; test facility is named as WATLON (Water Experiment on Fluid Mixing in T-pipe with Long Cycle Fluctuation). Here, influence of upstream elbow in the main pipe was studied in the WATLON facility. Elbow can be set near the mixing tee in a real plant. Outlet of the elbow has biased velocity distribution and also the secondary flow, which decays unsteadily. Temperature distribution in the mixing tee was measured by a movable tree with 17 thermocouples and velocity field was measured by Dynamic PIV (high speed particle image velocimetry) with sampling frequency of 200 Hz. Measured temperature showed that fluctuation intensity near the wall was larger in the elbow geometry than in the straight inlet pipes in a case of wall jet (branch flow velocity is smaller than main pipe flow velocity); high intensity region in the elbow case was enlarged around the jet exiting from the branch pipe. The result of flow velocity measurement showed that secondary flow and biased flow velocity distributions due to the elbow influenced bending of the jet exiting from the branch pipe and the temperature fluctuation intensity around the jet. The detailed flow velocity distributions and the secondary flow of upstream elbow can be measured by Dynamic PIV. Influence of such elbow was discussed based on detailed temperature data together with fluctuated velocity

  17. 78 FR 68907 - Agency Information Collection (Elbow and Forearm Conditions Disability Benefits Questionnaire...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-15

    ... Forearm Conditions Disability Benefits Questionnaire) Under OMB Review AGENCY: Veterans Benefits... Control No. 2900- NEW (Elbow and Forearm Conditions Disability Benefits Questionnaire)'' in any... Benefits Questionnaire)''. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title: Elbow and Forearm Conditions Disability...

  18. sEMG feature evaluation for identification of elbow angle resolution in graded arm movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Maria Claudia F; Colombini, Esther L; Aquino, Plinio T; Arjunan, Sridhar P; Kumar, Dinesh K

    2014-11-25

    Automatic and accurate identification of elbow angle from surface electromyogram (sEMG) is essential for myoelectric controlled upper limb exoskeleton systems. This requires appropriate selection of sEMG features, and identifying the limitations of such a system.This study has demonstrated that it is possible to identify three discrete positions of the elbow; full extension, right angle, and mid-way point, with window size of only 200 milliseconds. It was seen that while most features were suitable for this purpose, Power Spectral Density Averages (PSD-Av) performed best. The system correctly classified the sEMG against the elbow angle for 100% cases when only two discrete positions (full extension and elbow at right angle) were considered, while correct classification was 89% when there were three discrete positions. However, sEMG was unable to accurately determine the elbow position when five discrete angles were considered. It was also observed that there was no difference for extension or flexion phases.

  19. Biomechanics of the elbow joint in tennis players and relation to pathology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eygendaal, Denise; Rahussen, F. T. G.; Diercks, R. L.

    Elbow injuries constitute a sizeable percentage of tennis injuries. A basic understanding of biomechanics of tennis and analysis of the forces, loads and motions of the elbow during tennis will improve the understanding of the pathophysiology of these injuries. All different strokes in tennis have a

  20. Cost effectiveness of brace, physiotherapy, or both for treatment of tennis elbow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Struijs, P. A. A.; Korthals-de Bos, I. B. C.; van Tulder, M. W.; van Dijk, C. N.; Bouter, L. M.; Assendelft, W. J. J.

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The annual incidence of tennis elbow in the general population is high (1-3%). Tennis elbow often leads to limitation of activities of daily living and work absenteeism. Physiotherapy and braces are the most common treatments. OBJECTIVES: The hypothesis of the trial was that no

  1. An evaluation of the carrying angle of the elbow joint in adolescents

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    McRoy

    Department of Anatomy and Orthopedics, Sri Lakshmi Narayana Institute of Medical Sciences,. Pondicherry - 605 502 ... forearm deviates laterally from the long axis of the humerus, with the arm extended and the palm ... for elbow reconstruction. Key words: Carrying angle, elbow joint, adolescent, forearm, humerus, ulna ...

  2. Luxation of the elbow complicated by proximal radio-ulnar translocation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ekloef, O.; Nybonde, T.; Karlsson, G.; St. Goeran's Children's Hospital, Stockholm

    1990-01-01

    Luxation of the elbow complicated by proximal radio-ulnar translocation is a rare entity. The clue to diagosis is the reversed position of the bones of the proxomal forearm. In the a.p. projection the radial head articulates with the trochlea and the ulna with the capitellum. This unexpected anatomic relationship is easily overlooked. Delayed reduction may result in permanent impairment of elbow motility. Our experience with three recent cases is presented. (orig.)

  3. Luxation of the elbow complicated by proximal radio-ulnar translocation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ekloef, O.; Nybonde, T.; Karlsson, G. (St. Goeran' s Children' s Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Radiology St. Goeran' s Children' s Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Surgery)

    1990-03-01

    Luxation of the elbow complicated by proximal radio-ulnar translocation is a rare entity. The clue to diagosis is the reversed position of the bones of the proxomal forearm. In the a.p. projection the radial head articulates with the trochlea and the ulna with the capitellum. This unexpected anatomic relationship is easily overlooked. Delayed reduction may result in permanent impairment of elbow motility. Our experience with three recent cases is presented. (orig.).

  4. Diclofenac Patch for Treatment of Mild to Moderate Tendonitis or Bursitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-08-05

    Rotator Cuff Tendonitis; Bicipital Tendonitis; Subdeltoid Bursitis of the Shoulder; Subacromial Bursitis of the Shoulder; Medial Epicondylitis of the Elbow; Lateral Epicondylitis of the Elbow; DeQuervain's Tenosynovitis of the Wrist

  5. Measurement issues in the sonographic assessment of tennis elbow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poltawski, Leon; Jayaram, Vijay; Watson, Tim

    2010-05-01

    Sonography is increasingly being used for assessment in tennis elbow research and clinical practice, but there are a lack of data regarding its validity, reliability, and responsiveness to change for this application. Studies using the modality were reviewed to establish current levels of evidence for these measurement properties. There is reasonable evidence regarding its validity for identifying tennis elbow tendinopathy, but a lack of data addressing its reliability and responsiveness. Practical issues affecting image quality are discussed, and recommendations for further investigation are suggested, to enhance the credible use of sonography with this debilitating condition.

  6. The Cannabinoid System and Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodhams, Stephen G.; Chapman, Victoria; Finn, David P.; Hohmann, Andrea G.; Neugebauer, Volker

    2018-01-01

    Chronic pain states are highly prevalent and yet poorly controlled by currently available analgesics, representing an enormous clinical, societal, and economic burden. Existing pain medications have significant limitations and adverse effects including tolerance, dependence, gastrointestinal dysfunction, cognitive impairment, and a narrow therapeutic window, making the search for novel analgesics ever more important. In this article, we review the role of an important endogenous pain control system, the endocannabinoid (EC) system, in the sensory, emotional, and cognitive aspects of pain. Herein, we briefly cover the discovery of the EC system and its role in pain processing pathways, before concentrating on three areas of current major interest in EC pain research; 1. Pharmacological enhancement of endocannabinoid activity (via blockade of EC metabolism or allosteric modulation of CB1 receptors); 2. The EC System and stress-induced modulation of pain; and 3. The EC system & medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) dysfunction in pain states. Whilst we focus predominantly on the preclinical data, we also include extensive discussion of recent clinical failures of endocannabinoid-related therapies, the future potential of these approaches, and important directions for future research on the EC system and pain. PMID:28625720

  7. The associations between indices of patellofemoral geometry and knee pain and patella cartilage volume: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urquhart Donna M

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Whilst patellofemoral pain is one of the most common musculoskeletal disorders presenting to orthopaedic clinics, sports clinics, and general practices, factors contributing to its development in the absence of a defined arthropathy, such as osteoarthritis (OA, are unclear. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to describe the relationships between parameters of patellofemoral geometry (patella inclination, sulcus angle and patella height and knee pain and patella cartilage volume. Methods 240 community-based adults aged 25-60 years were recruited to take part in a study of obesity and musculoskeletal health. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI of the dominant knee was used to determine the lateral condyle-patella angle, sulcus angle, and Insall-Salvati ratio, as well as patella cartilage and bone volumes. Pain was assessed by the Western Ontario and McMaster University Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC VA pain subscale. Results Increased lateral condyle-patella angle (increased medial patella inclination was associated with a reduction in WOMAC pain score (Regression coefficient -1.57, 95% CI -3.05, -0.09 and increased medial patella cartilage volume (Regression coefficient 51.38 mm3, 95% CI 1.68, 101.08 mm3. Higher riding patella as indicated by increased Insall-Salvati ratio was associated with decreased medial patella cartilage volume (Regression coefficient -3187 mm3, 95% CI -5510, -864 mm3. There was a trend for increased lateral patella cartilage volume associated with increased (shallower sulcus angle (Regression coefficient 43.27 mm3, 95% CI -2.43, 88.98 mm3. Conclusion These results suggest both symptomatic and structural benefits associated with a more medially inclined patella while a high-riding patella may be detrimental to patella cartilage. This provides additional theoretical support for the current use of corrective strategies for patella malalignment that are aimed at medial patella translation, although

  8. The associations between indices of patellofemoral geometry and knee pain and patella cartilage volume: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanamas, Stephanie K; Teichtahl, Andrew J; Wluka, Anita E; Wang, Yuanyuan; Davies-Tuck, Miranda; Urquhart, Donna M; Jones, Graeme; Cicuttini, Flavia M

    2010-05-10

    Whilst patellofemoral pain is one of the most common musculoskeletal disorders presenting to orthopaedic clinics, sports clinics, and general practices, factors contributing to its development in the absence of a defined arthropathy, such as osteoarthritis (OA), are unclear.The aim of this cross-sectional study was to describe the relationships between parameters of patellofemoral geometry (patella inclination, sulcus angle and patella height) and knee pain and patella cartilage volume. 240 community-based adults aged 25-60 years were recruited to take part in a study of obesity and musculoskeletal health. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the dominant knee was used to determine the lateral condyle-patella angle, sulcus angle, and Insall-Salvati ratio, as well as patella cartilage and bone volumes. Pain was assessed by the Western Ontario and McMaster University Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) VA pain subscale. Increased lateral condyle-patella angle (increased medial patella inclination) was associated with a reduction in WOMAC pain score (Regression coefficient -1.57, 95% CI -3.05, -0.09) and increased medial patella cartilage volume (Regression coefficient 51.38 mm3, 95% CI 1.68, 101.08 mm3). Higher riding patella as indicated by increased Insall-Salvati ratio was associated with decreased medial patella cartilage volume (Regression coefficient -3187 mm3, 95% CI -5510, -864 mm3). There was a trend for increased lateral patella cartilage volume associated with increased (shallower) sulcus angle (Regression coefficient 43.27 mm3, 95% CI -2.43, 88.98 mm3). These results suggest both symptomatic and structural benefits associated with a more medially inclined patella while a high-riding patella may be detrimental to patella cartilage. This provides additional theoretical support for the current use of corrective strategies for patella malalignment that are aimed at medial patella translation, although longitudinal studies will be needed to further substantiate this.

  9. Postoperative Single-Fraction Radiation for Prevention of Heterotopic Ossification of the Elbow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, Clifford G.; Polster, Joshua M.; Reddy, Chandana A.; Lyons, Janice A.; Evans, Peter J.; Lawton, Jeffrey N.; Graham, Thomas J.; Suh, John H.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Heterotopic ossification (HO) about the elbow has been described after surgery, trauma, and burns. Even limited deposits can lead to significant functional deficits. Little data exist regarding outcomes of patients treated with radiation therapy (RT) after elbow surgery. We report here the Cleveland Clinic experience with single-fraction radiation following surgery to the elbow. The primary endpoint was the rate of new HO after RT. Secondary endpoints were range of motion, functional compromise, and toxicity. Methods and Materials: From May 1993 to July 2006, 36 patients underwent elbow surgery followed by single-fraction RT. Range of motion data were collected before and during surgery and at last follow-up. Radiographs were reviewed for persistent or new HO. Patient and treatment factors were analyzed for correlation with development of HO or functional compromise. Results: Median follow-up was 8.7 months, median age was 42 years, and 75% of patients were male. Twenty-six (72%) patients had HO prior to surgery. All patients had significant limitations in flexion/extension or pronation/supination at baseline. Thirty-one (86%) patients had prior elbow trauma, and 26 (72%) patients had prior surgery. RT was administered a median of 1 day postoperatively (range, 1-4 days). Thirty-four patients received 700 cGy, and 2 patients received 600 cGy. Three (8%) patients developed new HO after RT. All patients had improvement in range of motion from baseline. No patient or treatment factors were significantly associated with the development of HO or functional compromise. Conclusions: Single-fraction RT after surgery to the elbow is associated with favorable functional and radiographic outcomes.

  10. Endoscopic Plantar Fasciotomy Through Two Medial Portals for the Treatment of Recalcitrant Plantar Fasciopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Ashhab, Mohamed Ebrahim; Elbegawy, Hossam El-Dein A; Hasan, Hala Ali Abed

    Plantar fasciopathy is a common cause of heel pain. Endoscopic plantar fasciotomy has the advantage of less surgical trauma and rapid recovery. The aim of the present prospective study was to delineate the results of endoscopic plantar fascia release through 2 medial portals. The present study included 2 groups. The first group included 27 feet in 25 patients that had undergone endoscopic plantar fascia release followed up for 19.7 (range 12 to 33) months. The second group, the control group, included 20 feet in 16 patients treated conservatively and followed up for 16.4 (range 12 to 24) months. The results of endoscopic plantar fascia release were superior to the conservative methods. The surgically treated group experienced significantly less pain, activity limitations, and gait abnormality. The presence of a calcaneal spur had no effect on the final postoperative score. In conclusion, endoscopic plantar fascia release through 2 medial portals is an effective procedure for treatment of resistant plantar fasciopathy that fails to respond to conservative management options. Copyright © 2017 The American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. A case study of 20 patients with lateral epicondylitis of the elbow by using hwachim (burning acupuncture therapy) and sweet bee venom pharmacopuncture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Seho; Lee, Chamgeol; Yeo, Inho; Sung, Heejin; Roh, Jeongdu; Jo, Nayoung; Lee, Eunyong

    2014-12-01

    This study was performed to estimate the effectiveness of burning acupuncture therapy (Hwachim) and sweet bee venom pharmacopuncture (S-BV pharmacopuncture) in treating lateral epicondylitis of elbow. We selected 33 patients at first, but 13 patients were excluded due to unclear medical records. Finally, a total of 20 patients who had received treatment from January 2012 to December 2013 were included in this study; all 20 patients had undergone Hwachim for the treatment of lateral epicondylitis of elbow, and 19 of the 20 had been treated with S-BV pharmacopuncture (Korea Pharmacopuncture Institute, KPI) and transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) as an ancillary treatment method. The degrees of pain of the 20 patients were evaluated by using the visual analogue scale (VAS) score at their first and final visits. The Wilcoxon signed rank test and the Kruskal-Wallis test were used to compare the VAS scores statistically. The VAS score had decreased significantly from 10.00 ± 0.00 to 4.00 ± 2.47 (P = 0.000) by the end of the treatment. No significant changes were observed based on the number of treatments (P = 0.246), the age of the patients (P = 0.810), the duration of the illness (P = 0.705), and the location of the lesion (P = 0.076). This study suggests Hwachim and S-BV pharmacopuncture are very effective for treating lateral epicondylitis of the elbow.

  12. Effect of Obesity on Complication Rate After Elbow Arthroscopy in a Medicare Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Brian C; Fashandi, Ahmad H; Chhabra, A Bobby; Deal, D Nicole

    2016-03-01

    To use a national insurance database to explore the association of obesity with the incidence of complications after elbow arthroscopy in a Medicare population. Using Current Procedural Terminology (CPT) and International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision (ICD-9) procedure codes, we queried the PearlDiver database for patients undergoing elbow arthroscopy. Patients were divided into obese (body mass index [BMI] >30) and nonobese (BMI arthroscopy were identified from 2005 to 2012; 628 patients (22.5%) were coded as obese or morbidly obese, and 628 matched nonobese patients formed the control group. There were no di