Examining the social media in marketing success of the commercial companies. ... media, reality analysis and social media's direct impact on the marketing of commercial companies. ... EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT
Lobstein, Tim; Landon, Jane; Thornton, Nicole; Jernigan, David
The rising use of digital media in the last decade, including social networking media and downloadable applications, has created new opportunities for marketing a wide range of goods and services, including alcohol products. This paper aims to review the evidence in order to answer a series of policy-relevant questions: does alcohol marketing through digital media influence drinking behaviour or increases consumption; what methods of promotional marketing are used, and to what extent; and what is the evidence of marketing code violations and especially of marketing to children? A search of scientific, medical and social journals and authoritative grey literature identified 47 relevant papers (including 14 grey literature documents). The evidence indicated (i) that exposure to marketing through digital media was associated with higher levels of drinking behaviour; (ii) that the marketing activities make use of materials and approaches that are attractive to young people and encourage interactive engagement with branded messaging; and (iii) there is evidence that current alcohol marketing codes are being undermined by alcohol producers using digital media. There is evidence to support public health interventions to restrict the commercial promotion of alcohol in digital media, especially measures to protect children and youth. © 2016 Society for the Study of Addiction.
Khajeheian, Datis; Mirahmadi, Fereshteh
Public relations are undertaking more important role in the marketing communication and advertising. The present paper reports a survey conducted in three Iranian banks’ public relations departments to understand how they use different media in their marketing communications and other related...... functions. A classification of public relations functions including fourteen functions in three categories has taken as research framework and by using a questionnaire, eight media have been asked to rank for each function, includes Television, Radio, Newspaper, Magazine, Classified Ads, Internet Websites......, Social media and finally Mobile and SMS ads. Findings show that traditional media still play a dominant role in media consumption of public relations, while new Web2.0 media consist of Mobile communications and Social networks, have never ranked better than fifth from eight. Some reasons have been argues...
Evans, W. Douglas
Media-related commercial marketing aimed at promoting the purchase of products and services by children, and by adults for children, is ubiquitous and has been associated with negative health consequences such as poor nutrition and physical inactivity. But, as Douglas Evans points out, not all marketing in the electronic media is confined to the…
Evans, W Douglas
Media-related commercial marketing aimed at promoting the purchase of products and services by children, and by adults for children, is ubiquitous and has been associated with negative health consequences such as poor nutrition and physical inactivity. But, as Douglas Evans points out, not all marketing in the electronic media is confined to the sale of products. Increasingly savvy social marketers have begun to make extensive use of the same techniques and strategies used by commercial marketers to promote healthful behaviors and to counter some of the negative effects of conventional media marketing to children and adolescents. Evans points out that social marketing campaigns have been effective in helping to prevent and control tobacco use, increase physical activity, improve nutrition, and promote condom use, as well as other positive health behaviors. He reviews the evidence from a number of major recent campaigns and programming in the United States and overseas and describes the evaluation and research methods used to determine their effectiveness. He begins his review of the field of social marketing by describing how it uses many of the strategies practiced so successfully in commercial marketing. He notes the recent development of public health brands and the use of branding as a health promotion strategy. He then goes on to show how social marketing can promote healthful behavior, how it can counter media messages about unhealthful behavior, and how it can encourage discussions between parents and children. Evans concludes by noting some potential future applications to promote healthful media use by children and adolescents and to mitigate the effects of exposure to commercial marketing. These include adapting lessons learned from previous successful campaigns, such as delivering branded messages that promote healthful alternative behaviors. Evans also outlines a message strategy to promote "smart media use" to parents, children, and adolescents and
Mar 5, 2018 ... Keywords : Social media, Commercial Companies, Marketing,. Media, Marketing ..... motivation that pushed several commercial companies to use the social media .... Ministry of Tourism, April 2012, Egypt.  Dinesh Gupta ...
Thöne, Miriam; Rasch, Alexander; Wenzel, Tobias
We consider a product and a media market and show how a change in the business model employed by the media platforms affects consumers, producers (or advertisers), and price negotiations for advertisements. On both markets, two firms differentiated á la Hotelling compete for consumers. On the media market, consumers can mix between the two outlets whereas on the product market, consumers have to decide for one supplier. With pay-tv, as opposed to free-to-air, mixing by consumers disappears, p...
Khajeheian, Datis; Mirahmadi, Fereshteh
Public relations are undertaking more important role in the marketing communication and advertising. The present paper reports a survey conducted in three Iranian banks’ public relations departments to understand how they use different media in their marketing communications and other related functions. A classification of public relations functions including fourteen functions in three categories has taken as research framework and by using a questionnaire, eight media have been asked to ran...
Public relations and marketing of Nigerian School Library Media Centre ... the prevailing group of users in their environment would determine the price range. ... need a very good knowledge of the marketing mix to achieve huge results.
Kelly, Bridget; Vandevijvere, Stefanie; Freeman, Becky; Jenkin, Gabrielle
'New media' refers to digital technologies, which offer unmatched opportunities for food companies to engage with young people. This paper explores the emergence of food marketing using new media, the potential impact of this marketing on young people, and current and potential policy responses to limit exposure to these promotions. Foremost in any informed policy discussion is the need for robust evidence to demonstrate the need for intervention. In this case, such evidence relates to the extent of children's exposures to commercial food promotions via new media, and the nature of these promotions. Approaches to, and challenges of, collecting and assessing these data are discussed. There is accumulating evidence that food marketing on new media is increasing and influences children's food preferences and choices. The impact of integrated campaigns, which reinforce commercial messages across multiple platforms, and of new media, which engage personally with potential consumers, is likely to be greater than that of traditional marketing.
The rapid growth of commercial remote sensing has made high quality digital sensing data widely available -- now, remote sensing must become and remain a strong, commercially viable industry. However, this new industry cannot survive without an educated consumer base. To access markets, remote sensing providers must make their product more accessible, both literally and figuratively: Potential customers must be able to find the data they require, when they require it, and they must understand the utility of the information available to them. The Internet and the World Wide Web offer the perfect medium to educate potential customers and to sell remote sensing data to those customers. A well-designed web presence can provide both an information center and a market place for companies offering their data for sale. A very high potential web-based market for remote sensing lies in media. News agencies, web sites, and a host of other visual media services can use remote sensing data to provide current, relevant information regarding news around the world. This paper will provide a model for promotion and sale of remote sensing data via the Internet.
Media markets recently have been identified as multisided markets. The application of the theory of multisided markets provides a better understanding of such markets. It enriched the hitherto economic approach and led to new insights and perspectives especially for the antitrust authorities when evaluating competition constraints and mergers. This paper reviews the theory of multisided markets and subsequently applies it to media markets. Finally the paper draws attention to the new perspect...
Full Text Available At the first time when the cell phone was invented, it was hard to imagine that it will influence on the the survival of traditional media, and even the survival - of television. We can say that the future of all media - whether print or digital - is closely related to their skills and strength to win a space for itself in the mobile device user. Mobile phones have become the most widely used devices in the world, only a few grams heavy, with the price of only one hundred dollars and predstavljjua the same time, television and newspapers, ATM, credit cards, camera, calendar, and who knows what else. Mobile device users can now simultaneously use multiple devices while watching TV. So far during the commercials on TV rather look at your cell phone or laptop computer than the TV. This phenomenon of “two-screen” effect reduces conventional advertising. Those who want to survive in the market should develop new advertising models that will be able to respond to this challenge and will include all the popular social networks, especially Facebook and Twitter.
Alexandru Lucian MIHAI
Full Text Available Media relations in sport mean maintenance of networks and positive relationships with people in the media to obtain positive media exposure for a sport product (informal and formal information sessions with media representatives. Because of the pervasive influence the media has on marketing success, sport marketers must make concerted efforts to create a positive relationship between their sport event and the media. They may accomplish this by providing the media with press releases, having news conferences, having media-day events (in which the media are invited to interact with the players, coaches, and administrators, providing media guides for the respective sport events and so on. Each of these activities promotes active involvement from the media, which will subsequently contribute to relationship building with the community.
Amir Mehrabi; Hossein Islami; Mojtaba Aghajani
Nowadays, customers’ loyalty is a key to commercial success. Hence, this study aimed to investigate the effect of social media marketing on customers’ brand loyalty. In this regard, a conceptual framework which considered advertising campaign, providing relevant content, updating content, providing popular content among friends, and providing applicable programs as marketing indexes in social media is presented. This was an applicable research in terms of its purpose, and a descriptive-survey...
The marketing field is changing simultaneously with the digital world. Social media is getting more and more important to marketers, and there is a need to stand out in the social media noise. Social media influencer marketing could be a good alternative to other types of marketing. A need from the consignor and the interest of the author were the motivations for conducting the study. Sääskilahti Consulting has a social media influencer network Somevaikuttajat, which is offering social media ...
Social media marketing involves the use of social media for connecting with prospective consumers. The study focuses on explaining such notions like social media marketing (SMM), types of SMM, differences between social media and traditional marketing, social media marketing plan, development ways of strategic social media marketing plan and why strategy may fail. This thesis also presents research in Russian social network – Vkontakte, where promotion of Mechanical Engineering programme ...
Full Text Available Technological innovation has grown at an unprecedented rate over the past couple of decades, creating multiple opportunities for marketing in online settings. The proliferation of social media helps customers become more empowered and engaged in their brand interactions, while also providing them with new tools in their search, evaluation, choice and purchases of marketing offerings. Consequently, these developments are influencing marketing practices, both strategically, and tactically. Nowadays, social media has developed in an essential part of marketing strategy for its ability to generate co-created value, to interactively connect brands to consumers, to monitor brand-related discussions and sentiments, to guide consumers in the decision-making process, to instigate customer-to-customer interactions, and transform consumers into brand advocates. The purpose of this paper is to examine the strategic opportunities of social media marketing for organizations. By providing a comprehensive conceptualization and definition of social media marketing, this research outlines its role in advertising, Customer Relationship Management, and e-Word-of-Mouth.
Gavert, Raymond B.
Independent market studies related to Low Earth Orbit (LEO) commercialization have identified three near term markets that have return-on-investment potential. These markets are: (1) Entertainment (2) Education (3) Advertising/sponsorship. Commercial activity is presently underway focusing on these areas. A private company is working with the Russians on a commercial module attached to the ISS that will involve entertainment and probably the other two activities as well. A separate corporation has been established to commercialize the Russian Mir Space Station with entertainment and promotional advertising as important revenue sources. A new startup company has signed an agreement with NASA for commercial media activity on the International Space Station (ISS). Profit making education programs are being developed by a private firm to allow students to play the role of an astronaut and work closely with space scientists and astronauts. It is expected that the success of these efforts on the ISS program will extend to exploration missions beyond LEO. The objective of this paper is to extrapolate some of the LEO commercialization experiences to see what might be expected in space exploration missions to Mars, the Moon and beyond. .
Hollensen, Svend; Raman, Anthony
Social media marketing can be understood as a group of Internet-based applications that build on the foundations of Web 2.0 and that then allows the creation and exchange of ‘User Generated Content’. In the ‘Bowling’ marketing world, marketers target certain customer groups and send out...... this is a very direct one-way communication approach. In a social media marketing world, the bowling metaphor does not fit anymore. On this arena marketing can be better described as playing “Pinball”: Companies serve up a “marketing ball” (brands and brand-building messages) into a dynamic and chaotic market...... environment. The “marketing ball” is then diverted and often accelerated by social media “bumpers”, which change the ball’s course in chaotic ways. Occasionally, the marketing ball will come back to the company. At this point, the firm (brand) has to use the flippers to interact and throw it back...
This thesis looks into social media marketing, what relationship public relations has with social media marketing and brand equity. The challenge with utilizing social media marketing is identifying the right tools to use in measuring the success or effectiveness of it. In this thesis I investigate a set of tools a Finnish PR agency could utilize in measuring the effects of their social media marketing efforts on their client’s brand equity. This thesis topics include new media in specifi...
Media markets recently have been identified as multisided markets. The application of the theory of multisided markets provides a better understanding of such markets. It enriched the hitherto economic approach and led to new insights and perspectives especially for the antitrust authorities when...... evaluating competition constraints and mergers. This paper reviews the theory of multisided markets and subsequently applies it to media markets. Finally the paper draws attention to the new perspectives and insights the theory provides but also brings open research questions to light....
Full Text Available Objective of the research described in this article is to make an analysis of the usage of marketing communication using both traditional Internet communication channels as well as Social Media Networks by the Czech companies. Primary research was made through on-line questionnaire. Companies across the branches and size categories within the Czech economy were addressed. Companies were selected from the www.firmy.cz portal. Only companies with their own web domain were addressed. The typical respondents were mostly from middle management, especially managers from the marketing or commercial departments. The final number of questionnaire respondents covered in the research is 1009. The main research method was questioning. The questionnaire consisted of three sections with the scale answer questions mainly. Google Refine was used for data processing and Microsoft Excel for statistical processing and graphic outputs of the research. Evaluated results show significant gaps in usage of Internet communication tools in marketing of Czech companies and also deficiency between clear understanding of the respondents how Social Media should be used in marketing communication and real use in the companies. This deficiency was statistically tested and relation between respondents’ perception of the importance of Social Media use for bidirectional communication with stakeholders and non-use of Social Media for bidirectional communication with stakeholders by respondents’ company was confirmed.
Aschemann-Witzel, Jessica; Perez-Cueto, Federico J A; Niedzwiedzka, Barbara; Verbeke, Wim; Bech-Larsen, Tino
Commercial food marketing has considerably shaped consumer food choice behaviour. Meanwhile, public health campaigns for healthier eating have had limited impact to date. Social marketing suggests that successful commercial food marketing campaigns can provide useful lessons for public sector activities. The aim of the present study was to empirically identify food marketing success factors that, using the social marketing approach, could help improve public health campaigns to promote healthy eating. In this case-study analysis, 27 recent and successful commercial food and beverage marketing cases were purposively sampled from different European countries. The cases involved different consumer target groups, product categories, company sizes and marketing techniques. The analysis focused on cases of relatively healthy food types, and nutrition and health-related aspects in the communication related to the food. Visual as well as written material was gathered, complemented by semi-structured interviews with 12 food market trend experts and 19 representatives of food companies and advertising agencies. Success factors were identified by a group of experts who reached consensus through discussion structured by a card sorting method. Six clusters of success factors emerged from the analysis and were labelled as "data and knowledge", "emotions", "endorsement", "media", "community" and "why and how". Each cluster subsumes two or three success factors and is illustrated by examples. In total, 16 factors were identified. It is argued that the factors "nutritional evidence", "trend awareness", "vertical endorsement", "simple naturalness" and "common values" are of particular importance in the communication of health with regard to food. The present study identified critical factors for the success of commercial food marketing campaigns related to the issue of nutrition and health, which are possibly transferable to the public health sector. Whether or not a particular
Background Commercial food marketing has considerably shaped consumer food choice behaviour. Meanwhile, public health campaigns for healthier eating have had limited impact to date. Social marketing suggests that successful commercial food marketing campaigns can provide useful lessons for public sector activities. The aim of the present study was to empirically identify food marketing success factors that, using the social marketing approach, could help improve public health campaigns to promote healthy eating. Methods In this case-study analysis, 27 recent and successful commercial food and beverage marketing cases were purposively sampled from different European countries. The cases involved different consumer target groups, product categories, company sizes and marketing techniques. The analysis focused on cases of relatively healthy food types, and nutrition and health-related aspects in the communication related to the food. Visual as well as written material was gathered, complemented by semi-structured interviews with 12 food market trend experts and 19 representatives of food companies and advertising agencies. Success factors were identified by a group of experts who reached consensus through discussion structured by a card sorting method. Results Six clusters of success factors emerged from the analysis and were labelled as "data and knowledge", "emotions", "endorsement", "media", "community" and "why and how". Each cluster subsumes two or three success factors and is illustrated by examples. In total, 16 factors were identified. It is argued that the factors "nutritional evidence", "trend awareness", "vertical endorsement", "simple naturalness" and "common values" are of particular importance in the communication of health with regard to food. Conclusions The present study identified critical factors for the success of commercial food marketing campaigns related to the issue of nutrition and health, which are possibly transferable to the public health
Winpenny, Eleanor Margaret; Marteau, Theresa; Nolte, Ellen
AIMS: In 2011, online marketing became the largest marketing channel in the UK, overtaking television for the first time. This study aimed to describe the exposure of children and young adults to alcohol marketing on social media websites in the UK. METHODS: We used commercially available data on the three most used social media websites among young people in the UK, from December 2010 to May 2011. We analysed by age (6-14 years; 15-24 years) and gender the reach (proportion of internet users...
Carrotte, Elise R; Dietze, Paul M; Wright, Cassandra J; Lim, Megan S
To describe patterns of 'liking' alcohol marketing social media pages, and determine related alcohol consumption patterns among young Australians. Participants were 1,001 Australians aged 15-29 years who completed a cross-sectional online survey. Logistic regression and ordinal logistic regression were used. A quarter (249/1001, 24.9%) liked at least one of the alcohol marketing social media pages, most commonly brands of spirits, cider and alcohol retailers. Underage participants were as likely as older participants to report liking these pages. Alcohol marketing social media use was significantly and independently associated with male gender, living outside a major city, ever using illegal drugs and early age of first alcohol consumption (all pmarketing social media use (OR 2.1, 95% CI 1.5-2.8, p=marketing pages is common regardless of age, and associated with riskier alcohol consumption, among young Australians. There is a need to develop strategies to reduce the exposure to, and potential impact of, alcohol marketing social media pages on young Australians, and ensure these pages are neither accessible to nor targeting underage social media users. © 2016 Public Health Association of Australia.
Social media and social media marketing are real challenges to holistic marketing management approach focusing on real customer value. A distinct problem for social media is making a profit when the standard practice is to not charge the user any money. Social media marketing relies on its similarity to word of mouth marketing which has always been praised for its effectiveness. Social media marketing can be faster and cheaper that other forms of marketing, and should be integrated with the r...
Glesk, M M
The residential/commercial market sector, particularly as it relates to energy technologies, is described. Buildings account for about 25% of the total energy consumed in the US. Market response to energy technologies is influenced by several considerations. Some considerations discussed are: industry characteristics; market sectors; energy-consumption characeristics; industry forecasts; and market influences. Market acceptance may be slow or nonexistent, the technology may have little impact on energy consumption, and redesign or modification may be necessary to overcome belatedly perceived market barriers. 7 figures, 20 tables.
Ontario Hydro has a marketing strategy for designing and implementing demand side management (DSM) programs, which marks a turnaround from previous years when marketing efforts were concentrated on selling electricity. Starting in the 1980s, marketing activities consisted, in effect, of coordinating relations between the customer, the market, and the utility. To achieve a better understanding of the needs of customers, the nature of the energy market, and the utilization of energy, the utility conducted research on the decision-making process associated with consumer choices of energy systems. To develop relations with its clientele in the commercial sector, the utility published an information bulletin and prepared an energy guide. Along with this initiative, the number of energy advisers to the commercial sector was increased in Ontario Hydro's regional offices. To improve understanding of each segment of the commercial market, the utility contacted organizations representing each segment as well as broader based organizations with the objective of creating opportunities to address this market, for example at conferences. Because of this philosophy of satisfying and understanding customer needs, Ontario Hydro has been in the process of commercializing demand-side management. Its high-efficiency lighting program is a good example in this regard. From a strategy which focused on a simple reduction in lighting in the 1970s, the utility has turned toward promoting efficient high-quality lighting which better responds to industry needs, to the point where industry itself has begun to promote the program. Such a strategy benefits industry, customers, and Ontario Hydro's demand-side management programs
Gordan, Frederick M. [Pacific Energy Associates, Inc. (United States)
Bonneville has, as part of its resource plan, accepted targets for commercial conservation which are quite ambitious. To meet these targets, Bonneville will need to acquire as much cost-effective conservation as possible over the next twelve years. With this in mind, this document explores the relative importance of different commercial market segments and the types of assistance each market needs to install as many cost-effective conservation measures in as many buildings as possible. This document reviews Bonneville`s marketing environment and position, and suggests goals for commercial sector conservation marketing at Bonneville. Then it presents a broad market segmentation and series of additional demographic analyses. These analyses assess what groups of consumers Bonneville must reach to achieve most of the commercial conservation potential and what is needed to reach them. A final section reviews the success of Bonneville programs at reaching various markets. The market segmentation identifies different types of consumers and opportunities which would require distinct program approaches. Four large market segments are identified that have distinct program needs. Then four ``building life-cycle events`` are identified which provide important conservation opportunities and also require distinct program services. This creates a matrix of 16 cells which delineate distinct needs for program marketing. Each of the four key market segments manages at least 20% of the Region`s commercial floorspace.
The thesis focuses on a B2C Digital Marketing Communications plan on a mobile gamification application. The marketing communications plan takes a clear step away from the traditional views on marketing planning and PR, above all because of the evolvement of social media and the massive cultural shift that has deeply affected the way societies use the most widely spread communications platform ever invented, the Internet. The project for which the marketing communications plan is made, is ...
Full Text Available Background While many areas of tobacco marketing have been restricted, the rise of digital and social media has presented an opportunity for new marketing avenues. This study looked at celebrity social media culture and its contribution to tobacco marketing. Objectives: - Assess the prevalence of such marketing. - Assess who is being targeted, which audience segments. - Determine what types of tobacco products are being marketed. - Analyze themes or frames used to make these products appealing. Methods Qualitative and quantitative methods were used to assess the celebrity social media setting. The top 10 global celebrity personalities were included for assessment. Only Instagram accounts were included as sources for data collection. Instagram posts were reviewed for imagery of tobacco products, content, and audience targets. From this data a thematic analysis was conducted to assess frames and narratives used within marketing tactics. Review of social media posts was limited to a 3 year time frame starting October 1, 2014 and ending September 30, 2017. Results Tobacco related marketing remains present on social media within the celebrity culture. Many of the top 10 followed celebrities had portrayals of tobacco embedded within their profile and/or posts. Young females are overtly targeted and traditional themes such as fashion, glamour, fun, sex appeal and free-will continue to be used as marketing frames. Conclusions These findings demonstrate the need for intervention to monitor and restrict tobacco related marketing on social media. While it's difficult to determine the source of tobacco marketing social media (industry placed or without paid placement it warrants a discussion about influence of the celebrity and digital cultures on health behaviours. In the absence of regulation, celebrities should be considerate and responsible for the harmful imagery shared over social media.
Abstract Social media is a marketing phenomenon that is growing very fast. Social media helps creating value for customers in broadcasting the advertising among social networks. Blog posts, videos, pictures, reviews and ratings all have a significant impact on marketing. The purpose of the thesis is to investigate how companies can achieve customer loyalty and customer relationship management using social media marketing and if companies can target new customers by social media. An inductive ...
O.F. Gryshсhenko; A.D. Niesheva
The aim of this article. The aim of this article is to analyze the connection and relation between social media marketing and enterprise’s products promotion, to show the importance of using social media in marketing and the role of marketers in this process. The results of the analysis. This article is based on the investigation of specialized literature regarding new promotional techniques used at the global market nowadays. Authors analyze the definition to the social media marketing...
Full Text Available Consumers' suspicion towards traditional marketing techniques, led marketers to try the virtual media communication form called disguise advertising as other forms of messages. The examples include making advertisements resemble news items (Aditya 2001; Levine 1993; Richards 1992, the infomercials in the '90s that disguise advertising as TV programs (Levine 1993; Lacher and Rotfeld 1994, making celebrities use the products in their real lives or in films (Aditya2001, feeding media information using public relations (PR activities like brib- ing journalists with gifts and making TV stations use the footages from press releases (Gillin 2006. Because of the prevalence of virtual media, the marketing practices that conceal the real sources (marketers with disguised sources haveposed both ethical and policy concerns. This article proposed a new typology that covered the comprehensive scope of disguised marketing practices, discussed the deceptive nature of this marketing technique from the consumer behavioral view- points, and conducted a 2 x 3 experiment to test the hypothesized relationships.The results suggest that an implicit message, disguised source’s preference, is likely to be conveyed in covert marketing and thus results in high a deceptive tendency.
Ormrod, Robert P.; Savigny, Heather
Young voters between 18 and 24 are a key target segment for political marketers, but this age group is less likely to vote than other age groups. This paper is motivated by a desire to understand the relative importance of various media to 18-24 year old voters, with the aim of providing political...... marketers with an indication of how best to prioritise their marketing efforts: is the primary source of political information for young people the new media, or does the mass media still serve its traditional function? Using a Best-Worst Scaling method, this study looks at the relative importance of seven...
Blasco, Andrea; Sobbrio, Francesco
This paper reviews the empirical evidence on commercial media bias (i.e., advertisers influence over media accuracy) and then introduces a simple model to summarize the main elements of the theoretical literature. The analysis provides three main policy insights for media regulators: i) Media regulators should target their monitoring efforts towards news contents upon which advertisers are likely to share similar preferences; ii) In advertising industries characterized by high correlation in ...
Artha Sejati Ananda
Full Text Available Despite the increasing and ubiquitous use of social media for business activities, scholar research on social media marketing strategy is scant and companies deploy their social media marketing strategies guided by intuition or trial and error. This study proposes a comprehensive framework that identifies and classifies social media marketing strategic actions. The conceptual framework covers actions that support both transactional and relationship marketing. This research also positions social media marketing strategy and strategic actions in the context of the marketing organization theory, and discusses the impact of the incorporation of social media on the concept of marketing organization. The study offers valuable theoretical insight on social media marketing actions and the deployment of social media marketing strategies in companies. The investigation also provides hints about how to maximize the benefits from social media marketing for customer-oriented, market-driven organizations.
Rantapelkonen Ahlberg, Jaana
Rantapelkonen Ahlberg, Jaana. 2010. Social Media Marketing. Case: Comparison of Social Media Marketing Approaches of B2C Companies for Company X. Master’s Thesis. Kemi-Tornio University of Applied Sciences. Business and Culture. Pages 42 (74). The objective of this thesis is to provide insights on how Company X can use Social Media as a marketing and branding tool in consumer marketing in the Swedish market. More specifically, this study attempts to define what kinds of social media are u...
Ormrod, Robert P.; Savigny, Heather
Young voters between 18 and 24 are a key target segment for political marketers, but this age group is less likely to vote than other age groups. This paper is motivated by a desire to understand the relative importance of various media to 18-24 year old voters, with the aim of providing political marketers with an indication of how best to prioritise their marketing efforts: is the primary source of political information for young people the new media, or does the mass media still serve its ...
Gadiraju, Gaurav Kumar
JEL: M1 - Business Administration; M31 – Marketing; M37 - Advertising The purpose of this research is to evaluate the impact of social media in the field of sports marketing. This is carried out through an in-depth analysis on sports marketing and the rising popularity of social media marketing for sports brands in the world. One such brand is Nike, Inc. This company has shifted its focus to digital marketing. As social media marketing started to explode, the traditional marketing methods ...
Savelyeva Irina Petrovna
Full Text Available The purpose of the article is to develop an original approach to the formation of a marketing strategy of commercialization of innovations. The existing views on the process of creating marketing strategies were examined and classified and the algorithm of building marketing strategies for the processes commercialization of innovations was offered. The results can be used by industrial companies and in the educational process of marketing, strategic marketing and innovation management disciplines.
Vigrolio, Tom; Zahler, Jack
The authors have compiled a dictionary of terms used in marketing, advertising, public relations, and radio/television, photography/filmmaking, and graphics. Included in the volume are articles of a general and historical interest regarding the various media covered in the definitions. A list of trade publications is appended. (JY)
Today's changing business world exposes two sales/marketing systems. One is indirectly removed from contact with the customers, but still meets their needs. Whereas the sales/marketing system that exercises the skills of Commercial/Industrial Marketing Professionals has direct customer contact that not only meets the customer's needs, but also satisfies them
Full Text Available The article outlines the issues related to the topic of management of formalised marketing and media activities in outsourcing companies in the age of competitiveness, with particular emphasis on contemporary marketing approach. General management of the organisation and management of marketing and media activities, particularly in their formalised form, both have a significant effect on improving company competitiveness in the market. Outsourcing companies constitute a specific sector of services which without a very well-functioning marketing and media activities would not be able to operate and develop in the market. The article presents selected aspects connected with the management of marketing and media activities, with particular emphasis on formalisation of marketing activities in outsourcing companies. The analysis presented below focuses on the efficiency of the implemented formalisation of marketing and media activities in outsourcing companies in relation to their competitiveness, with special recognition of contemporary marketing approach.
This article discusses whether commercial communication in social media is covered by the European opt in-model concerning unsolicited electronic mail for direct marketing purposes found in the directive on privacy and electronic communications (2002/58). It is concluded that messages in social...... the consumer ombudsmen questioned inter alia whether unsolicited commercial communications sent to users’ news feeds should be considered electronic mail or other un-solicited communications for the purposes of direct marketing. This and other related questions are dealt with in this article....... found in the distance selling directive (1997/7). Now, the use of electronic mail for direct marketing purposes in social media must be assessed in accordance with the full harmonisation in the unfair commercial practices directive (2005/29). This directive does not contain a ban on »unsolicited...
Wojciechowski Łukasz P.
Full Text Available Death is an inseparable part of life. This paradoxical statement expresses the inevitability that each individual will encounter death. The demise of human existence is often stereotyped in media, and used in a variety of commercial purposes as away of drawing attention. When death and tragedy are used in marketing communication, it is called necromarketing. There are two approaches to the tool of necromarketing: explicit and implicit. Explicit necromarketing displays catastrophes, misfortunes and deaths in their direct form, while implicit necromarketing indirectly presents of the death.
Yip, Wai Lam; Soosainather, Tom Collin; Dyrstad, Knut; Sande, Sverre Arne
Near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is a non-destructive measurement technique with broad application in pharmaceutical industry. Correct identification of pharmaceutical ingredients is an important task for quality control. Failure in this step can result in several adverse consequences, varied from economic loss to negative impact on patient safety. We have compared different methods in classification of a set of commercially available structurally related contrast media, Iodixanol (Visipaque(®)), Iohexol (Omnipaque(®)), Caldiamide Sodium and Gadodiamide (Omniscan(®)), by using NIR spectroscopy. The performance of classification models developed by soft independent modelling of class analogy (SIMCA), partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) and Main and Interactions of Individual Principal Components Regression (MIPCR) were compared. Different variable selection methods were applied to optimize the classification models. Models developed by backward variable elimination partial least squares regression (BVE-PLS) and MIPCR were found to be most effective for classification of the set of contrast media. Below 1.5% of samples from the independent test set were not recognized by the BVE-PLS and MIPCR models, compared to up to 15% when models developed by other techniques were applied. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Every year, in every market and in any country, advertisers spend increasing budgets on advertising to influence consumer behavior. Finding the ideal marketing channel mix is a continuous challenge for every brand on every local market. This paper is aiming to analyze overall media investment in CEE region trying to find patterns of media mix based on economic context and local market status that supports media investment (internet and Facebook statistics, TV audiences. In the paper are used multidimensional methods like: principal component analysis and hierarchical clustering techniques. Thirteen Central and Eastern European countries are clustered based on 2017 data from Media Factbook. Two main patterns are described in the paper based on these data. The first one is characterized by high Internet usage, high Print and Digital advertising share. In terms of inverstment level, these countries have negative evolution of Net Market Spend per Capita in 2016 versus 2008 but high media market sizes. The second one is characterized by high out of home advertising share. In terms of inverstment level, these countries are splited in two subpatterns: one with negative and one with positive evolution of Net Market Spend per Capita in 2016 versus 2008.
Nelson, Kristin L; Shroff, Bhavna; Best, Al M; Lindauer, Steven J
To (1) assess orthodontic patient and practitioner use of and preferences for social media and (2) investigate the potential benefit of social media in marketing and communication strategies in orthodontic practices. A survey was developed and randomly distributed to orthodontists via the American Association of Orthodontists and to patients/parents via private practices throughout the United States. Participants were asked to answer questions related to their use of social media and their perceptions of the use of social media in the orthodontic practice. Of the participants, 76% of orthodontists and 89% of patients/parents use social media. Furthermore, Facebook was the social media platform that was most preferred. Social media use was more common in female and younger adult participants. Orthodontists posted information more often in the morning (40%) and afternoon (56%), and patients/parents used social media mainly in the evening (76%). The most commonly used marketing strategies in the orthodontic practices were social media (76%) and a practice website (59%). Social media and practice websites were positively related with new patient starts (P = .0376, P = .0035, respectively). Most orthodontists and patients/parents used social media. Social media may be an effective marketing and communication tool in an orthodontic practice.
Savage, Daniel D.
Urges community colleges to adopt pro-active public relations strategies. Examines the role of the public information officer in such areas as coordination of public relations and marketing activities, relations with media, and the development of a comprehensive public relations plan. (AYC)
Ирина Петровна Савельева
Full Text Available The purpose of the article is to develop an original approach to the formation of a marketing strategy of commercialization of innovations. The existing views on the process of creating marketing strategies were examined and classified and the algorithm of building marketing strategies for the processes commercialization of innovations was offered. The results can be used by industrial companies and in the educational process of marketing, strategic marketing and innovation management disciplines.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-4-4
Jalees, Tariq; Tariq, Huma; Zaman, Syed Imran; Alam Kazmi, Syed Hasnain
Social media usage in the world and especially in Pakistan has a high growth due to which it (social media) has a potential of becoming an eﬀective marketing tool. Despite its comparatively low cost and significance, marketers are not eﬀectively utilizing social media. Thus the aim of this study is to measure the influence (eﬀect) of four social variables: social capital, trust, homophily and interpersonal influence on electronic word of mouth (eWOM) communication. The sample size for the stu...
Constantinides, Efthymios; Zinck Stagno, M.
The importance of the Internet as commercial platform is by now universally recognized, and businesses increasingly adopt online marketing channels at the cost of traditional ones. The social media, being second generation (Web 2.0) internet applications, allow interaction, one-to-one communication, customer engagement, and user generated content. The interest of higher education institutions in social media as part of the marketing toolkit is increasing, but little is known about the potenti...
Charmaine du Plessis
Full Text Available Background: Content marketing has become a leading marketing technique in digital marketing communication and uses the point of view of consumers to build relationships by creating and sharing engaging content in social media that enhance their daily lives. Existing research on social media communities has focused mainly on social media marketing and virtual brand community perspectives while content marketing’s valuable and unobtrusive role in social media content communities has largely been overlooked. Objective: The purpose of this article was to investigate content marketing’s role in social media content communities to engage with the target audience in an innate manner. Method: This study made use of a directed, inductive content analysis of 51 practitioner documents relating to business-to-consumer content marketing practices to add another perspective to existing research on communities in social media. The content analysis was facilitated by using QDA Miner, a widely adopted and reliable qualitative data analysis software programme. Results: Three categories emerged from the data namely building content communities, platform-specific content and understanding channels. These categories provide sufficient evidence of how brands make use of social media content communities to connect with the target audience in an unobtrusive manner, in addition to being present in virtual brand communities. Conclusion: The findings make several contributions to the existing literature. Firstly, it provides a clearer distinction between brand and social media content communities. Secondly, it extends conceptions about social media communities to include content communities and, thirdly, it provides sufficient evidence of how content marketing could benefit a brand by naturally becoming part of social media conversations.
The aim of this bachelor’s thesis was to create an efficient, low-cost social media marketing plan for a small clothing company called Nikitrade. The data gathered for establishing the marketing plan were mainly secondary data consisting of multiple books and articles related to the topic. For qualitative data gathering, interviews and discussions with the company owners were used. Because of the competitive sensitiveness of the subject, the social marketing plan itself is not published. ...
paper offers a useful means to analyze the kinds of research that needs to be pursued to make additional research progress in the related area of social media marketing. Within this research, the qualitative method is used in order to identify opportunities and challenges and determine factors that drive social media marketing adoption and usage in SMEs.
Roberson, Angela A; McKinney, Cliff; Walker, Courtney; Coleman, Ashley
To investigate how alcohol marketing and peers may promote college students' alcohol use through social media. College students (N = 682) aged 18 to 22 years from a large Southern university completed paper surveys in April 2014. Structural equation modeling was used to investigate relationships among variables as well as moderation by gender and race. Drinking behavior was directly related to perceived norms and attitudes toward alcohol that develop, in part, from direct and indirect interactions with their online and offline peers, as well as engagement with alcohol-related content on social media. Gender and ethnicity moderated some effects. College student drinking is influenced by friends' alcohol-related content posted on social networking sites and by greater engagement with traditional and online alcohol marketing. College campus alcohol misuse interventions should include components to counter peer influences and alcohol marketing on social media.
Hoffman, Eric W; Pinkleton, Bruce E; Weintraub Austin, Erica; Reyes-Velázquez, Wanda
Alcohol marketers have increasingly moved their advertising efforts into digital and social media venues. As a result, the purpose of this study is to investigate associations between students' use of social media, their exposure to alcohol marketing messages through social media, and their alcohol-related beliefs and behaviors. Public and private university students (N = 637) participated November and December 2011 and April 2012. College students completed online surveys to measure their exposure to social and online media generally, as well as their alcohol-related digital media use and alcohol use. Use of social media related to alcohol marketing predicted alcohol consumption and engaging in risky behaviors, whereas the use of social media more generally did not. Students' use of alcohol-related social media-marketing content associates with their problem drinking. Results have implications for alcohol abuse reduction efforts targeted at college students and suggest the importance of considering social, cultural, and cognitive factors in campaign planning and design.
Ananda, Artha Sejati; Hernández-García, Ángel; Lamberti, Lucio
Despite the increasing and ubiquitous use of social media for business activities, scholar research on social media marketing strategy is scant and companies deploy their social media marketing strategies guided by intuition or trial and error. This study proposes a comprehensive framework that identifies and classifies social media marketing strategic actions. The conceptual framework covers actions that support both transactional and relationship marketing. The study also positions social m...
Zakirhusain A Shaikh
Full Text Available Background and Aims: Epidemiological transition in the form of noncommunicable diseases (NCDs now becoming the main cause of mortality and morbidity is very much evident even in developing countries like India. Alcohol is an important risk factor for NCD. The use of alcohol is increasing especially in young people and women. This increased use can be attributed to aggressive and innovative marketing by alcohol, in spite of and due to restrictions on its marketing. Social media, in recent times, has been misused by alcohol companies for marketing their products legally, due to legal loophole. The present study examined the reach of alcohol companies on social media and the marketing strategies used by them. Design, Settings, Participants: Facebook, Twitter and YouTube were explored for accounts and content by alcohol companies for marketing their product. Policies of social media sites pertaining to alcohol marketing were also studied. Measurements: Alcohol marketing was measured in terms of content posted by alcohol companies, use of direct or surrogate advertisement and engagement with users. Findings: Alcohol companies have been conveniently using social media to target young urban population with direct and surrogate advertisements of their products. Current social media policies and laws are ineffective in controlling it. Conclusions: Amendment of laws pertaining to alcohol marketing to include social media also in its ambit is necessary. Social media sites should revise their policies to prevent alcohol marketing and promotion especially to underaged users.
Ananda, Artha Sejati; Hernández García, Ángel; Lamberti, Lucio
Industries nowadays have been comfortable with the incorporation of social media to their marketing strategy. Italy has been known as a major center of the European fashion industry, a sector that is also following the social media marketing trends. This paper provides empirical findings on Italian luxury fashion brands? social media marketing activities. We present and analyze two case studies of Italian luxury fashion brands: Gucci and The Bridge (Il Ponte Pelletteria). Gucci is one of worl...
Martino, Steven C; Scharf, Deborah M; Setodji, Claude M; Shadel, William G
The aims of this study were to validate ecological momentary assessment (EMA) as a method for measuring exposure to tobacco-related marketing and media and to use this method to provide detailed descriptive data on college students' exposure to protobacco marketing and media. College students (n = 134; ages 18-24 years) recorded their exposures to protobacco marketing and media on handheld devices for 21 consecutive days. Participants also recalled exposures to various types of protobacco marketing and media at the end of the study period. Retrospectively recalled and EMA-based estimates of protobacco marketing exposure captured different information. The correlation between retrospectively recalled and EMA-logged exposures to tobacco marketing and media was moderate (r = .37, p marketing through multiple channels in a relatively short period: Exposures (M = 8.24, SD = 7.85) occurred primarily in the afternoon (42%), on weekends (35%), and at point-of-purchase locations (68%) or in movies/TV (20%), and exposures to Marlboro, Newport, and Camel represented 56% of all exposures combined and 70% of branded exposures. Findings support the validity of EMA as a method for capturing detailed information about youth exposure to protobacco marketing and media that are not captured through other existing methods. Such data have the potential to highlight areas for policy change and prevention in order to reduce the impact of tobacco marketing on youth.
Snyman, L; Visser, J H
The purpose of the study was to identify and understand social media usage behaviour of dentists in South Africa, in general and in particular as part of their marketing strategy and to consider the potential determinants associated with these behaviours. Dentists who are members of the South African Dental Association were requested to anonymously complete an online questionnaire. Apart from demographic information, respondents were asked to report on their use of social media and their adoption of social media marketing. One-on-one interviews were also conducted with three dentists, to gain a deeper understanding of their adoption of this marketing option. South African dentists have started to embrace social media and 50.2% interact through these channels at least once a day. The most popular social media platforms are GooglePlus and Facebook. Respondents use social media mainly for personal purposes, including staying connected to family and friends.. Only 13.2% of those responding currently use social media as a marketing tool, but the majority (83.5%) predict that such usage will increase in future. Social media marketing is a growing trend and will become more significant in future. Although respondents used social media regularly for personal purposes, most are only now starting to use it as a marketing tool.
Aschemann-Witzel, Jessica; JA Perez-Cueto, Federico; Niedzwiedzka, Barbara
Background: Commercial food marketing has considerably shaped consumer food choice behaviour. Meanwhile, public health campaigns for healthier eating have had limited impact to date. Social marketing suggests that successful commercial food marketing campaigns can provide useful lessons for public...... sector activities. The aim of the present study was to empirically identify food marketing success factors that, using the social marketing approach, could help improve public health campaigns to promote healthy eating. Methods: In this case-study analysis, 27 recent and successful commercial food...... in the communication related to the food. Visual as well as written material was gathered, complemented by semi-structured interviews with 12 food market trend experts and 19 representatives of food companies and advertising agencies. Success factors were identified by a group of experts who reached consensus through...
Subsidies constitute a prominent media-policy instrument, serving to correct media-market failures. However, because they interfere in the market, and because the commercial media market is under structural pressure in the digital age, there is much debate about the role of media subsidies. Within...
This thesis concerns social media, and social media marketing. Specifically, has the campaign for the film Deadpool been chosen in order to illustrate the possible financial affordances within this area. The thesis seeks to investigate past, as well as contemporary tendencies in the world of social media, and how these can be utilized in a marketing context. This is done in order to depict the role of the users, their current influence and ability to create awareness via communicative means. ...
The objective of the thesis is to develop a better, easier to use social media marketing tool that could be utilised in any business. By understanding and analysing how business uses social media as well as currently available social media marketing tools, design a tool with the maximum amount of features, but with a simple and intuitive User Interface. An agile software development life cycle was used throughout the creation of the tool. Qualitative analysis was used to analyse existing ...
Social media has become a huge part of the people to people communication, which also reaches out to the business world. Social media can be a very effective marketing channel, especially in hospitality business, where the image marketing is one of the core objects. Nowadays people don’t follow the traditional way of marketing the same way as for example 10 years ago. With right actions in social media channels, the company can gain a lot of visibility, therefor it’s important to plan the ...
Shatalov D. S.; Hamidova O. M.
in the scientific article the necessity of development and implementation of marketing strategies in the activity of any commercial enterprise, we give a meaningful description of the concept of «marketing strategy» and develop requirements for the selection strategy of trade enterprise.
Ishii, Akira; Kawahata, Yasuko; Goto, Ujo
Proposal of market theory to put the effect of social media into account is presented in this paper. The standard market share model in economics is employed as a market theory and the effect of social media is considered quantitatively using the mathematical model for hit phenomena. Using this model, we can estimate the effect of social media in market share as a simple market model simulation using our proposed method.
Scharf, Deborah M.; Setodji, Claude M.; Shadel, William G.
Introduction: The aims of this study were to validate ecological momentary assessment (EMA) as a method for measuring exposure to tobacco-related marketing and media and to use this method to provide detailed descriptive data on college students’ exposure to protobacco marketing and media. Methods: College students (n = 134; ages 18–24 years) recorded their exposures to protobacco marketing and media on handheld devices for 21 consecutive days. Participants also recalled exposures to various types of protobacco marketing and media at the end of the study period. Results: Retrospectively recalled and EMA-based estimates of protobacco marketing exposure captured different information. The correlation between retrospectively recalled and EMA-logged exposures to tobacco marketing and media was moderate (r = .37, p marketing through multiple channels in a relatively short period: Exposures (M = 8.24, SD = 7.85) occurred primarily in the afternoon (42%), on weekends (35%), and at point-of-purchase locations (68%) or in movies/TV (20%), and exposures to Marlboro, Newport, and Camel represented 56% of all exposures combined and 70% of branded exposures. Conclusions: Findings support the validity of EMA as a method for capturing detailed information about youth exposure to protobacco marketing and media that are not captured through other existing methods. Such data have the potential to highlight areas for policy change and prevention in order to reduce the impact of tobacco marketing on youth. PMID:22039076
Powell, Gregory E; Seifert, Harry A; Reblin, Tjark; Burstein, Phil J; Blowers, James; Menius, J Alan; Painter, Jeffery L; Thomas, Michele; Pierce, Carrie E; Rodriguez, Harold W; Brownstein, John S; Freifeld, Clark C; Bell, Heidi G; Dasgupta, Nabarun
Post-marketing safety surveillance primarily relies on data from spontaneous adverse event reports, medical literature, and observational databases. Limitations of these data sources include potential under-reporting, lack of geographic diversity, and time lag between event occurrence and discovery. There is growing interest in exploring the use of social media ('social listening') to supplement established approaches for pharmacovigilance. Although social listening is commonly used for commercial purposes, there are only anecdotal reports of its use in pharmacovigilance. Health information posted online by patients is often publicly available, representing an untapped source of post-marketing safety data that could supplement data from existing sources. The objective of this paper is to describe one methodology that could help unlock the potential of social media for safety surveillance. A third-party vendor acquired 24 months of publicly available Facebook and Twitter data, then processed the data by standardizing drug names and vernacular symptoms, removing duplicates and noise, masking personally identifiable information, and adding supplemental data to facilitate the review process. The resulting dataset was analyzed for safety and benefit information. In Twitter, a total of 6,441,679 Medical Dictionary for Regulatory Activities (MedDRA(®)) Preferred Terms (PTs) representing 702 individual PTs were discussed in the same post as a drug compared with 15,650,108 total PTs representing 946 individual PTs in Facebook. Further analysis revealed that 26 % of posts also contained benefit information. Social media listening is an important tool to augment post-marketing safety surveillance. Much work remains to determine best practices for using this rapidly evolving data source.
Winpenny, Eleanor M; Marteau, Theresa M; Nolte, Ellen
In 2011, online marketing became the largest marketing channel in the UK, overtaking television for the first time. This study aimed to describe the exposure of children and young adults to alcohol marketing on social media websites in the UK. We used commercially available data on the three most used social media websites among young people in the UK, from December 2010 to May 2011. We analysed by age (6-14 years; 15-24 years) and gender the reach (proportion of internet users who used the site in each month) and impressions (number of individual pages viewed on the site in each month) for Facebook, YouTube and Twitter. We further analysed case studies of five alcohol brands to assess the marketer-generated brand content available on Facebook, YouTube and Twitter in February and March 2012. Facebook was the social media site with the highest reach, with an average monthly reach of 89% of males and 91% of females aged 15-24. YouTube had a similar average monthly reach while Twitter had a considerably lower usage in the age groups studied. All five of the alcohol brands studied maintained a Facebook page, Twitter page and YouTube channel, with varying levels of user engagement. Facebook pages could not be accessed by an under-18 user, but in most cases YouTube content and Twitter content could be accessed by those of all ages. The rise in online marketing of alcohol and the high use of social media websites by young people suggests that this is an area requiring further monitoring and regulation.
Winpenny, Eleanor M.; Marteau, Theresa M.; Nolte, Ellen
Aims: In 2011, online marketing became the largest marketing channel in the UK, overtaking television for the first time. This study aimed to describe the exposure of children and young adults to alcohol marketing on social media websites in the UK. Methods: We used commercially available data on the three most used social media websites among young people in the UK, from December 2010 to May 2011. We analysed by age (6–14 years; 15–24 years) and gender the reach (proportion of internet users who used the site in each month) and impressions (number of individual pages viewed on the site in each month) for Facebook, YouTube and Twitter. We further analysed case studies of five alcohol brands to assess the marketer-generated brand content available on Facebook, YouTube and Twitter in February and March 2012. Results: Facebook was the social media site with the highest reach, with an average monthly reach of 89% of males and 91% of females aged 15–24. YouTube had a similar average monthly reach while Twitter had a considerably lower usage in the age groups studied. All five of the alcohol brands studied maintained a Facebook page, Twitter page and YouTube channel, with varying levels of user engagement. Facebook pages could not be accessed by an under-18 user, but in most cases YouTube content and Twitter content could be accessed by those of all ages. Conclusion: The rise in online marketing of alcohol and the high use of social media websites by young people suggests that this is an area requiring further monitoring and regulation. PMID:24293506
Marketing through social media nowadays represents one of the most effective ways to introduce the company and its products on the market. Various businesses are achieving amazing results being advertised via e-mail marketing. Online marketing is fast, simple, represents a different way to socialize the business and it is most direct marketing medium that is currently available. Through social media platform businesses are exposed to a global market and different kind of customers. Well-conce...
Anker, Thomas Boysen; Kappel, Klemens; Sandøe, Peter
The aim of this paper is to explore the impact of commercial marketing on personal autonomy. Several philosophers argue that marketing conflicts with ideals of autonomy or, at best, is neutral to these ideals. After qualifying our concept of marketing and introducing the distinctions between (i...
Anker, Thomas Boysen; Stead, Martine
The aim of this paper is to introduce the concept of commercial social marketing (CSM) and discuss some major ethical aspects of CSM. In the first section, we introduce 6 social marketing benchmark criteria. Against this background, we demonstrate Dove’s ‘Campaign for Real Beauty’ to be an instance...
Ormrod, Robert P.
There is surprisingly little research on the market orientation of political parties, unlike its commercial cousin, with only three authors publishing work that concentrates on the concept (O'Cass, 1996, 2001a,b; Lees-Marshment, 2001a,b; Ormrod, 2004, 2005). This paper seeks to analyse the more r...
Subritzky, Todd; Pettigrew, Simone; Lenton, Simon
In 2014, Colorado implemented the world's first seed-to-sale recreational cannabis market under a commercial model. This paper aims to provide a thick descriptive account that gives insight into the issues and complexities of Colorado's pioneering and evolving attempt to regulate the use of pesticides on commercial cannabis plantations. The paper examines multiple data sets including: (i) Colorado State Government documents; (ii) recreational cannabis regulations; (iii) mass and niche media publications (n=175); (iv) face-to-face interviews with key stakeholders, including seniors, regulators and industry executives (n=8); and (v) field notes from relevant conferences and cultivation facility tours in Denver in October, 2016. Two key issues are identified. First, a public safety threat has arisen relating to application of pesticides on cannabis with intensified toxicity in concentrated products of particular concern. Second, as a pioneering jurisdiction, Colorado faces a considerable knowledge gap. To expand collective learning on this issue, for which no regulatory template and little research exists, state regulators tapped industry and other stakeholder expertise while attempting to ensure public safety goals were achieved and regulatory capture by industry was limited. Four years since the recreational cannabis market in Colorado was legalised, the State continues to grapple with the pesticide issue as testing regulations and cultivation standards are yet to be finalised. While more work is needed, Colorado has made significant progress in developing regulations relating to this complex matter. As governments of countries such as Canada and US states, including California, contemplate changes to recreational cannabis laws, Colorado's experience can assist regulators in other jurisdictions considering policy change. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Charmaine du Plessis
Background: Content marketing has become a leading marketing technique in digital marketing communication and uses the point of view of consumers to build relationships by creating and sharing engaging content in social media that enhance their daily lives. Existing research on social media communities has focused mainly on social media marketing and virtual brand community perspectives while content marketing’s valuable and unobtrusive role in social media content communities has largely bee...
Full Text Available This study intends to reveal the facts of the application of the concept of IMCwas done by radio Segara Bangkalan.Study used the concept theory of IMCwas applied of direct marketing, sales promotion, public relations, personalselling, advertising, and media interaction, marketing which relativelyapplied to the public audience of Segara radio.This of study used a qualitative descriptive method which intends to findout the phenomenon of concerns about the research subject. In holistic anddescriptive manner in the form of words and language, the data collectionmethods in this used study documentation, techniques, observation anddirectly interviews to the field.The application of IMC was good to increase the number of radio audience inSegara, from the six concepts of IMC, advertising, public relations, personalselling, sales promotion, direct marketing, and interactive ware marketing,applied directly by radio to the public, so that produce good results againstthe Segara radio.Keywords: IMC (Integrated Marketing Communication, Media Radio,Audience
Full Text Available Through genre structure analysis of the Television´s Zagreb First Channel schedule from the beginning of 1970´s till the end of the 1980´s accompanied by analysis of advertising in same period, the paper will examine the ways and intensity of commercialization entrance in Croatian media space dominated then by state media. Television schedule genre change and the broadcast of economic propaganda program will point out the different character of the television. It can be said that it will serve for preparing the public for commercialization entrance and guidance of structural media space towards its fusion with advertising one. The assumption is that in spite of the TV schedule change, which was in economic sense accompanied by economy reforms in order to establish market economy, the public wasn´t yet delivered to advertisers. One of the clarification lies in the role of the media, which then had revolutionary function with main purpose of not the voters’ generation but only to create patriots. The paper will reproduce a kind of public transformation genesis from latent status in state guided media system to same status of latent consumers in dual media model.
Perkins, H Wesley; Linkenbach, Jeffrey W; Lewis, Melissa A; Neighbors, Clayton
This research evaluated the efficacy of a high-intensity social norms media marketing campaign aimed at correcting normative misperceptions and reducing the prevalence of drinking and driving among 21-to-34-year-olds in Montana. A quasi-experimental design was used, such that regions of Montana were assigned to one of three experimental groups: social norms media marketing campaign, buffer, and control. Four random samples of Montanans between the ages of 21 and 34 were assessed at four time points over 18 months via phone surveys. Findings suggest that the social norms media campaign was successful at exposing the targeted population to social norms messages in the counties within the intervention region. Moreover, results demonstrate the campaign reduced normative misperceptions, increased use of designated drivers, and decreased drinking and driving among those young adults in counties within the intervention region. Social norms media marketing can be effective at changing drinking-related behaviors at the population level. This research provides a model for utilizing social norms media marketing to address other behaviors related to public health. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Linkenbach, Jeffrey W.; Lewis, Melissa A.; Neighbors, Clayton
This research evaluated the efficacy of a high-intensity social norms media marketing campaign aimed at correcting normative misperceptions and reducing the prevalence of drinking and driving among 21-to-34-year-olds in Montana. A quasi-experimental design was used, such that regions of Montana were assigned to one of three experimental groups: social norms media marketing campaign, buffer, and control. Four random samples of Montanans between the ages of 21 and 34 were assessed at four time points over 18 months via phone surveys. Findings suggest that the social norms media campaign was successful at exposing the targeted population to social norms messages in the counties within the intervention region. Moreover, results demonstrate the campaign reduced normative misperceptions, increased use of designated drivers, and decreased drinking and driving among those young adults in counties within the intervention region. Social norms media marketing can be effective at changing drinking-related behaviors at the population level. This research provides a model for utilizing social norms media marketing to address other behaviors related to public health. PMID:20619177
Yang, Y Tony; Chen, Brian
Social media marketing is the next frontier for direct-to-consumer advertising of pharmaceutical products, but represents an unchartered territory for regulatory action. With explosive growth in the use of social media, along with pharmaceutical companies' increasing adeptness at taking advantage of opportunities for social media marketing, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) faces an urgent need to develop its own capacities to monitor and engage with social media marketing. In response to potential FDA action, pharmaceutical companies' marketing, regulatory compliance and legal staffs must work closely to design initiatives that are sensitive to FDA concerns. This article will address the current status of FDA regulations on social media advertising, their historical origins, challenges to implementation, and their likely future direction.
Many medical practices are facing the lack of practice growth that their social media efforts are generating. This article provides concrete ideas that can be put in place by any medical practice to realize sustainable practice growth through social media marketing. In the article, the author demonstrates that social media marketing of the medical practice has become absolutely essential in today's evolving, competitive, and fast-paced environment. This demonstration is made through an exploration of the evolution of what "good" marketing has looked like for medical practices over time. In addition, attention is paid to the shift in the definition of good marketing that is required for the practice that is preparing a social media-marketing plan. Specifically, the article investigates the proven requirements for a balanced blend of unique and engaging promotional and nonpromotional community outreach, which is required on a daily basis to achieve the significant, lasting, and sustainable growth that the practice wishes to achieve.
Belowska, Martyna; Løyche, Tanja Blomgaard; Szewczykowska, Karolina; Shore, Jonna Ellinor; Krejci, Kamila
This research project is a case study of LUSH Cosmetics which aims to understand theinfluence in social media on consumers through the social media marketing strategy ofLUSH. This is done by first, explaining the social media marketing strategy of LUSH throughThe Theory of Influence by Robert Cialdini (1984) which has formed the theoreticalframework in this project. Second, an online individual survey has been conducted to deeperunderstand how potential consumers perceive the influence from L...
Cort, Katherine A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Haack, Jereme N. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Katipamula, Srinivas [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Nicholls, Andrew K. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)
VOLTTRON™ is an open-source distributed control and sensing platform developed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for the U.S. Department of Energy. It was developed to be used by the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy to support transactive controls research and deployment activities. VOLTTRON is designed to be an overarching integration platform that could be used to bring together vendors, users, and developers and enable rapid application development and testing. The platform is designed to support modern control strategies, including the use of agent- and transaction-based controls. It also is designed to support the management of a wide range of applications, including heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning systems; electric vehicles; and distributed-energy and whole-building loads. This report was completed as part of the Building Technologies Office’s Technology-to-Market Initiative for VOLTTRON’s Market Validation and Business Case Development efforts. The report provides technology-to-market guidance and best practices related to VOLTTRON platform deployments and commercialization activities for use by entities serving small- and medium-sized commercial buildings. The report characterizes the platform ecosystem within the small- and medium-sized commercial building market and articulates the value proposition of VOLTTRON for three core participants in this ecosystem: 1) platform owners/adopters, 2) app developers, and 3) end-users. The report also identifies key market drivers and opportunities for open platform deployments in the small- and medium-sized commercial building market. Possible pathways to the market are described—laboratory testing to market adoption to commercialization. We also identify and address various technical and market barriers that could hinder deployment of VOLTTRON. Finally, we provide “best practice” tech-to-market guidance for building energy-related deployment efforts serving small- and
Alim, Ihwanul; Iskandar, Budi Permadi
Internet in Indonesia grew fast. Indonesian do socialize in online social media, also. Klik-Amazing was small company run in media industry and used online social media to do the marketing communication.Customer's media habit consumption also shifting from offline media (without internet) into offline and online (by internet) media, including the online social media. The most used online social media were facebook and twitter. Klik-Amazing prepares their low cost-marketing strategy by these o...
Lund, Anker Brink
a social science / leadership perspective - not from the perspective of a journalist or from the ideologically critical perspective of the license payer. Thirdly, we consider competition in the media market as an institutional phenomenon that is not solely conditioned by economic considerations. We aim...... emerged from a tradition based upon ideals of freedom of expression, democracy and the enlightenment of the general public. At the same time we stress the fact that the media worldwide is Big Business - and that this reality has an increasing effect on Danish competitiveness and business development......This inaugural address is a welcome opportunity to call your attention to a new area of research that the International Center for Business and Politics has chosen as one of five areas of special interest. By referring to this area of focus as'institutional competition in the media market' we also...
Atwong, Catherine T.
To prepare students for the rapidly evolving field of digital marketing, which requires more and more technical skills every year, a social media practicum creates a learning environment in which students can apply marketing principles and become ready for collaborative work in social media marketing and analytics. Using student newspapers as…
Constantinides, Efthymios; Zinck Stagno, M.
The importance of the Internet as commercial platform is by now universally recognized, and businesses increasingly adopt online marketing channels at the cost of traditional ones. The social media, being second generation (Web 2.0) internet applications, allow interaction, one-to-one communication,
Huang, Jidong; Kornfield, Rachel; Szczypka, Glen; Emery, Sherry L
Background Rapid increases in marketing of e-cigarettes coincide with growth in e-cigarette use in recent years; however, little is known about how e-cigarettes are marketed on social media platforms. Methods Keywords were used to collect tweets related to e-cigarettes from the Twitter Firehose between 1 May 2012 and 30 June 2012. Tweets were coded for smoking cessation mentions, as well as health and safety mentions, and were classified as commercial or non-commercial (‘organic’) tweets using a combination of Naïve Bayes machine learning methods, keyword algorithms and human coding. Metadata associated with each tweet were used to examine the characteristics of accounts tweeting about e-cigarettes. Results 73 672 tweets related to e-cigarettes were captured in the study period, 90% of which were classified as commercial tweets. Accounts tweeting commercial e-cigarette content were associated with lower Klout scores, a measure of influence. Commercial tweeting was largely driven by a small group of highly active accounts, and 94% of commercial tweets included links to websites, many of which sell or promote e-cigarettes. Approximately 10% of commercial and organic tweets mentioned smoking cessation, and 34% of commercial tweets included mentions of prices or discounts for e-cigarettes. Conclusions Twitter appears to be an important marketing platform for e-cigarettes. Tweets related to e-cigarettes were overwhelmingly commercial, and a substantial proportion mentioned smoking cessation. E-cigarette marketing on Twitter may have public health implications. Continued surveillance of e-cigarette marketing on social media platforms is needed. PMID:24935894
Lopes, Andreia Cristina Figueiredo
Mestrado em Marketing O social media marketing adquire cada vez maior relevo para as empresas e exige, tal como noutras áreas de marketing, a delineação de um plano estratégico por forma a potenciar o seu sucesso. Tomando como objecto de estudo a companhia aérea TAP Portugal, foi elaborado um Plano de Social Media Marketing, com base no modelo conceptual de Barker et al. (2013), designado de "Social Media Planning Cycle". Para a elaboração do Plano, foram recolhidos dados primários, seguin...
Hoffman, Eric W.; Pinkleton, Bruce E.; Weintraub Austin, Erica; Reyes-Velázquez, Wanda
Objective: Alcohol marketers have increasingly moved their advertising efforts into digital and social media venues. As a result, the purpose of this study is to investigate associations between students' use of social media, their exposure to alcohol marketing messages through social media, and their alcohol-related beliefs and behaviors.…
Diniz, Debora; Castro, Rosana
This article analyzes how the Brazilian news media covers the illegal market for misoprostol, the main drug used to induce abortion. A total of 1,429 news stories were retrieved from 220 print and electronic media channels from 2004 to 2009. The analysis included 524 stories from 62 regional and national newspapers. Misoprostol appeared repeatedly in the news, but was usually approached from a criminal perspective, unlike abortion as a whole, which the Brazilian media routinely covers as a religious, political, and public health issue. Misoprostol is part of the illegal gender-related drug market, along with drugs for weight loss and erectile dysfunction and anabolic steroids. Sixty-four (12%) of the news stories told life histories of women who had aborted with misoprostol. The women's ages ranged from 13 to 46 years, and socioeconomic status was associated with different experiences with abortion. Three characters appeared in the women's abortion itineraries: girlfriends (confidantes), go-betweens, and physicians. Stories of late-stage abortion are confused with the criminal characterization of infanticide and provide the extreme cases in the media's narrative on abortion.
To provide a snapshot content analysis of social media marketing among leading alcohol brands in the UK, and to outline the implications for both regulatory policies and further research. Using screengrab technology, the complete Facebook walls and Twitter timelines for 12 leading UK alcohol brands in November 2011 were captured and archived. A total of 701 brand-authored posts were identified and categorized using a thematic coding frame. Key strategic trends were identified and analysed in the light of contextual research into recent developments in marketing practice within the alcohol industry. A number of dominating trends were identified. These included the use of real-world tie-ins, interactive games, competitions and time-specific suggestions to drink. These methods reflect a strategy of branded conversation-stimulus which is favoured by social media marketing agencies. A number of distinct marketing methods are deployed by alcohol brands when using social media. These may undermine policies which seek to change social norms around drinking, especially the normalization of daily consumption. Social media marketing also raises questions regarding the efficacy of reactive regulatory frameworks. Further research into both the nature and impact of alcohol marketing on social media is needed.
Full Text Available The market for commercial sex is in fact just like any other market characterized by demand, supply, and price. The market exists in almost every country, and different types have different market structures. In Thailand, the economic structure of the commercial sex market is rather complicated and there is need for a methodological or scientific approach to help better our understanding. This paper aims to provide a working taxonomy appropriate to the commercial sex market for Thailand. Both primary data (survey and interview and secondary data based on microeconomic analysis are used to describe the market forces behind Thai’s commercial sex markets. We discuss the demand and supply conditions to see what kind of market structure best suits Thailand’s case. Because the commercial sex market in Thailand is not homogeneous, we categorized the market into sub-markets according to demand and supply characteristics and then justify the kind of market structure and equilibrium for each. For the analytical results, this paper provides many cases and details, for example, the monopoly position and price discrimination practice of brothel, and the oligopoly position in massage parlors, which contrast with the online market that is closer to the perfect competitive model with large number of agents as well as free entry or exit. We hope that an objective take on Thai’s commercial sex market grounded on microeconomics will clear many myths and unfounded issues usually associated with this market.
Full Text Available Social Media is a prominent marketing tool profoundly used by E-Businesses to draw the attention of the online target audience that could be converted to direct traffic. However, the non-exclusivity of social media has created a unique issue for virtual enterprises that are entirely depending on digital media. The main emphasis of this study is to appreciate the significance of Social Media Marketing in promoting the Brand Equity of E-Commerce enterprises. The empirical study is based on Kapruka.Com; Sri Lanka’s largest online gift shop with the aim of identifying the casual relationship between social media marketing and brand equity. An online questionnaire has been employed to collect the data during the survey. Evident by findings, there is a significant relationship between social media marketing and brand equity of online companies. The study contributes to the marketing practitioners in terms of enhancing the brand value by identifying and exploiting the main attributes of social media marketing.
Nugzar Todua; Charita Jashi
This paper is focusing on the attitude of Georgian consumers toward social media, influence of social media on consumer buying behavior. The purpose of this paper is to explore the usage of social media marketing for small business companies of Georgia. The result of marketing research has revealed that social webs are mostly used by Georgian consumers, but they have little impact on the buying decision. The research method was exploratory and descriptive. Conclusions sum...
This Bachelor’s thesis focuses on social media and utilising it as a marketing strategy for a photography entrepreneur in Tampere. Marketing theories and the concept of social media are defined in order to facilitate understanding the case in a more constructive manner. Social media platforms are introduced through literature and web materials. The purpose was to give a general guideline in marketing through various social media platforms. The objective was to gain knowledge of the more popul...
Muñoz, Caroline Lego; Wood, Natalie T.
The purpose of this research is to examine how the topic of social media has been integrated and executed within academic institutions and marketing courses. An exploratory survey of marketing educators that taught social media in their course(s) was undertaken. The survey addressed how social media was embedded within an institute's curriculum,…
Gebremedhin, Berhanu; Tegegne, Azage
The literature on commercial transformation of smallholders makes little distinction between market orientation and market participation. This paper analyzes the determinants of market orientation and market participation in Ethiopia separately and examines if market orientation translates into market participation. Results show that subsistence requirements, market access, and production factors affect market orientation, while market access and volume of production affect market participati...
Guenzi, Paolo; Troilo, Gabriele
L'articolo analizza come sarà il futuro (dei mercati, del marketing e del mestiere di Chief Marketing Officer) secondo i Direttori Marketing, soprattutto a seguito di fenomeni quali i big data e i social media
The study aims to enhance understanding of social media’s impact on and role within marketing strategy for new release films. Current literature on social media and film marketing has a predominantly consumer-oriented focus. This study examines perceptions of social media from the perspective of marketing practitioners, including knowledgeable filmmakers and other professionals with film marketing expertise. This study utilized semi-structured interviews to explore professional perspectives o...
Raletić Saša; Radojević Predrag; Mihić Svetlana
Subjects present in the market tend to achieve synergetic effect by well-established partnerships more often. Cause related marketing based on the direct partnership between companies and nonprofit organizations and indirect partnership between the company and the customer, in order to support a social cause, is as such the subject of this analysis. Cause-related marketing is a manifestation of social-cause marketing and the adaptation of commercial marketing tailored for the programs that in...
Della, Lindsay J; Eroglu, Dogan; Bernhardt, Jay M; Edgerton, Erin; Nall, Janice
Market trend data show that the media marketplace continues to rapidly evolve. Recent research shows that substantial portions of the U.S. media population are "new media" users. Today, more than ever before, media consumers are exposed to multiple media at the same point in time, encouraged to participate in media content generation, and challenged to learn, access, and use the new media that are continually entering the market. These media trends have strong implications for how consumers of health information access, process, and retain health-related knowledge. In this article we review traditional information processing models and theories of interpersonal and mass media access and consumption. We make several theory-based propositions for how traditional information processing and media consumption concepts will function as new media usage continues to increase. These propositions are supported by new media usage data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's entry into the new media market (e.g., podcasting, virtual events, blogging, and webinars). Based on these propositions, we conclude by presenting both opportunities and challenges that public health communicators and marketers will face in the future.
Goetzler, William [Navigant Consulting, Inc., Burlington, MA (United States); Shandross, Richard [Navigant Consulting, Inc., Burlington, MA (United States); Weintraub, Daniel [Navigant Consulting, Inc., Burlington, MA (United States); Young, Jim [Navigant Consulting, Inc., Burlington, MA (United States)
This market assessment and commercialization report characterizes and assesses the market potential of the rotating heat exchanger technology developed at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), known as the Radial Sandia Cooler. The RSC is a novel, motor-driven, rotating, finned heat exchanger technology. The RSC was evaluated for the residential, commercial, industrial, and transportation markets. Recommendations for commercialization were made based on assessments of the prototype RSC and the Sandia Cooler technology in general, as well as an in-depth analysis of the six most promising products for initial RSC commercialization.
Nouchpramool, K.; Charoen, S.; Prachasitthisak, Y.
Pilot scale storage tests were carried out in co-operation with commercial onions traders in the years 1986 and 1987 to evaluate the efficacy of irradiation for sprout inhibition of onions under actual commercial stored in commercial cold storage at 1-10 degrees C and 70-90% relative humidity. The results show that irradiation reduce sprouting in onions by 11 and 40 per cent and weight loss by 3 and 5 per cent after 5 and 6 months of storage, respectively. Storage losses are minimum when radiation is applied within two weeks of harvest. A maximum storage life of six months as against five months for controls is attained. Post cold storage life at ambient temperature for irradiated onions after withdrawal from cold storage is one week longer than that of non-irradiated controls. The radio inhibition process is technically feasible and economically justified as a profit can be made during the extended storage period. Marketing trials of irradiated onions conducted during and after termination of storage revealed no adverse comments from consumers and retailers/wholesalers. Wholesalers.retailers and consumers preferred irradiated onions because of their better physical quality and longer marketable life
Araújo, Filipa Alexandra da Costa
O presente estudo incide nas áreas do marketing e do E-marketing, em concreto no corporate social marketing e nos media sociais, respetivamente. O marketing tem sido reinventado e hoje em dia já não se fala em marketing por si só e expressões como marketing organizacional, marketing de pessoas, marketing territorial, marketing tribal, ouvem-se e lêem-se com frequência. É neste contexto que também surge o corporate social marketing, isto é, o marketing social corporativo, que pode ser enten...
Technological innovation has grown at an unprecedented rate over the past couple of decades, creating multiple opportunities for marketing in online settings. The proliferation of social media helps customers become more empowered and engaged in their brand interactions, while also providing them with new tools in their search, evaluation, choice and purchases of marketing offerings. Consequently, these developments are influencing marketing practices, both strategically, and tactically. Nowa...
Thackeray, Rosemary; Neiger, Brad L; Keller, Heidi
Social media is a group of Internet-based applications that allows individuals to create, collaborate, and share content with one another. Practitioners can realize social media's untapped potential by incorporating it as part of the larger social marketing strategy, beyond promotion. Social media, if used correctly, may help organizations increase their capacity for putting the consumer at the center of the social marketing process. The purpose of this article is to provide a template for strategic thinking to successfully include social media as part of the social marketing strategy by using a four-step process.
Ramkumar, Prem N; Navarro, Sergio M; Haeberle, Heather S; Chughtai, Morad; Demetriades, Christopher; Piuzzi, Nicolas S; Mont, Michael A; Bauer, Thomas W; Muschler, George F
The current state of cellular therapy for musculoskeletal conditions is at a crossroads. Marketing efforts are often outpacing clinical evidence and regulatory control. This study was an effort to describe the marketing of cellular therapy in musculoskeletal medicine by evaluating the content in popular social media channels. Specifically, media posts were evaluated for the following: (1) perspective, (2) tone, (3) content and (4) visibility. Social media content related to cell therapy for musculoskeletal conditions was assessed in a search using 28 hashtags on the public domains of Instagram and Twitter over a 2-year period (2014-2016) that resulted in analysis of 698 posts. Supplemental analyses of LinkedIn and Facebook domains were also conducted. A categorical scoring system was used to analyze perspective (patient, family or friend, business or organization), tone (positive, negative), content (education, advertisement, research, media coverage or patient experience) and visibility (number of hashtags per post). Sub-analyses of the advertisement content from various perspectives (patients, physicians and businesses) were performed. The media perspective was most frequently from a business or organization (83%; n = 575). A total of 94% of the posts had a positive tone and only 6% had a negative tone, and the only negative posts came from patients (60% positive and 40% negative). The most common content of social media posts were advertisements, representing 68% (n = 477) of all posts; this was confirmed in the Facebook analysis. The mean number of hashtags was five per post. Sub-analyses revealed approximately half of the advertising posts originated from a single business that recruited physicians to market their cell-based therapies on social media, which was confirmed in the LinkedIn analysis. The market messages related to cell-based therapies for musculoskeletal conditions available on social media are dominated by businesses that seem to use a
Full Text Available Nowadays information plays an important role in the development of companies. Information constitutes the main source of building competitive advantage allowing to make a good business decision, which leads to a company’s success on the market. Conducting marketing research makes it possible to obtain valuable information, but unfortunately this method is usually associated with the necessity of bearing high costs and in many cases research itself is conducted in an incorrect way and delivers incorrect information. We live in the age of information society, which is associated with the rapid development of the Internet and tools using the Internet allowing various forms of communication. One of such tools are social media platforms, which are usually regarded as a place for building contact networks and communication with other users. It is worth pointing out here that thanks to their popularity social media have become a place which is more and more often noticed by companies. Almost every well-known brand has its profile in the social media, allowing the users of social media portals direct contact with products, or services offered by a particular brand. Persistent popularity of social media means that they are becoming a rich source of information, both about the users – current and potential clients, but also about rivals – companies with a similar profile of activity, actively operating in social networks. The starting point for further deliberations are issues associated with the functioning of social media as a place allowing to obtain market information, which in light of the concept of market intelligence constitutes an alternative to traditional marketing research.
Germano, Fabrizio; Meier, Martin
Within a simple model of non-localized, Hotelling-type competition among arbitrary numbers of media outlets we characterize quality and content of media under different ownership structures. Assuming advertising-sponsored, profit-maximizing outlets, we show that (i) topics sensitive to advertisers can be underreported (self-censored) by all outlets in the market, (ii) self-censorship increases with the concentration of ownership, (iii) adding outlets, while keeping the number of owners fixed,...
Full Text Available This study mainly focuses on the insights of a private school’s head pertaining to the use of digital media in educational marketing. The qualitative research paradigm was chosen for this study and in depth phenomenological interview was conducted from a head of a private school. Two themes were extracted from the data: Marketing educational services through digital media and its challenges, and digital media tool for marketing education services. The study revealed that the school head perceived the digital media to be cost-effective marketing strategy that was multidimensional and value-driven, but due to lack of awareness, skills, attitude, and sense of maturity among stakeholders, digital media was ignored and was not much used as a cost-effective marketing tool. Nevertheless, it is proposed that by hiring marketing personnel to promote services professionally, by aligning their strategies according to the demands of their customers, and by inviting customers’ voice on digital platforms, digital media can become a cost-effective and a valuable tool for mercerization of education.
The principles of marketing have always been about connecting with consumers at the right place at the right time. Nowadays that means meeting them where they are spending a lot of their time already: online. Engaging with brands has become a part of the buyer decision process. Social media effects consumers’ decisions to purchase more than ever before. This thesis aimed to create a social media marketing plan for a Finnish tourism company called Lakeside Cafe. The plan was based on the SOSTA...
Full Text Available Active Ukraine media market development and its integration into the global market space cause a number of problems faced by scientists and practitioners in the fild of audit organizing of firms that saturate this market sector. The market research problems and organizing business parameters audit in this market are segmental in nature as the vast majority of work media market, accounting of its financial performance and its audit are dealt with separately, thus leaving aside the causal link between the trends of the industry and the specifics of audit of its subjects who in their turn represent different legal forms. The article deals with domestic and foreign experience of media market development for using it as marketing communications tools. The study takes the media companies organizational form as the basis for organizing and holding internal and external audits. The article summarizes the list of domestic audit challenges that accompany media market globalization. Therefore, the system that would efficiently respond to these challenges and, thereby, ensure effective company operation has great significance for the subjects of the media market taking into account their legal status and type of business.
Masteroppgave økonomi og administrasjon- Universitetet i Agder, 2014 Social media has gained precedence in today‟s business environment, and consumers themselves are more receptive to this marketing media. This study aims to identify the factors affecting users‟ attitudes towards social media marketing. From the literature review, a conceptual model was proposed, and five hypotheses were developed. The model studies the effect of several independent variables on attitude towards social med...
Lesley James; Harsha Kasi Vishwanathan
Background While many areas of tobacco marketing have been restricted, the rise of digital and social media has presented an opportunity for new marketing avenues. This study looked at celebrity social media culture and its contribution to tobacco marketing. Objectives: - Assess the prevalence of such marketing. - Assess who is being targeted, which audience segments. - Determine what types of tobacco products are being marketed. - Analyze themes or frames used to make these products ...
Nguyen, Bang; Xiaoyu, Yu; Melewar, T. C.; Chen, Junsong
The study examines the relationships between knowledge acquisition from social media, two forms of market orientation (proactive and reactive), social media strategic capability, and brand innovation strategy in the context of China’s online technology industry. Analysis of 357 online technology ventures, created during the past 6 years, suggests that brand innovation is affected by both knowledge acquisition from social media and market orientation. Social media strategic capability positive...
Töllinen, Aarne; Karjaluoto, Heikki
The objective of this paper is to develop a conceptual framework for measuring the effectiveness of social media marketing communications. Specifically, we study whether the existing marketing communications performance metrics are still valid in the changing digitalised communications landscape, or whether it is time to rethink them, or even to devise entirely new metrics. Recent advances in information technology and marketing bring a need to re-examine measurement models. We combine two im...
Perry, Burt; MacIntosh, Brian; Cushman, David
This paper examines the issues encountered in the development and commercial deployment of a system based on digital watermarking technology. The paper provides an overview of the development of digital watermarking technology and the first applications to use the technology. It also looks at how we took the concept of digital watermarking as a communications channel within a digital environment and applied it to the physical print world to produce the Digimarc MediaBridge product. We describe the engineering tradeoffs that were made to balance competing requirements of watermark robustness, image quality, embedding process, detection speed and end user ease of use. Today, the Digimarc MediaBridge product links printed materials to auxiliary information about the content, via the Internet, to provide enhanced informational marketing, promotion, advertising and commerce opportunities.
Veeck, Ann; Hoger, Beth
Knowledge of how to effectively monitor social media is an increasingly valued marketing research skill. This study tests an approach for adding social media content to an undergraduate marketing research class team project. The revised project maintains the expected objectives and parameters of a traditional research project, while integrating…
PASSAWUNG, ALIQUE LA
2014 Pengaruh Social Media Marketing Terhadap Tingkat Kunjungan Coffee Toffee Di Makassar The Effect of Social Media Marketing on Rate of The Visit Coffee Toffee at Makassar Alique La Passawung Abd.Rahman Kadir Mukhtar Penelitian ini membahas pengaruh social media marketing terhadap tingkat kunjungan Coffee Toffee di Makassar. Data yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah data primer yang diperoleh dari kuesioner. ...
The Social Media have changed the power structures in the marketplace; evidence points to a major power migration taking place and to emergence of a new breed of powerful and sophisticated customer, difficult to influence, persuade and retain The paper outlines the nature, effects and present status of the Social Media, underlying their role as customer empowerment agents. It explains their aptitude and possible roles as part of the corporate Marketing strategy and identifies different ways o...
Syrkiewicz-S Witała, Magdalena; Romaniuk, Piotr; Strzelecka, Agnieszka; Lar, Katarzyna; Holecki, Tomasz
To investigate whether the Polish Marshal Offices use instruments for social media marketing activities in the field of health promotion. 14 Polish Marshal Offices participated. The Computer-Assisted Web Interview and Computer-Assisted Telephone Interview were used along with a proprietary questionnaire. Standard statistical methods were employed. The number of people using the Internet and social media in Poland is steadily growing. The majority of the offices (93%) performed health promotion activities. The authorities collaborated with other units of local government and non-governmental organizations in these activities. According to respondents, the most convincing form of health promotion is direct communication (46%). More than half of the surveyed offices (56%) did not use portals or social networking sites in health campaigns. The rest of the offices indicated using Facebook (25%) or YouTube (6%). Half of them did not apply the tools of social media marketing. The other half was involved in discussions on health-related online forums (moderation or consulting). Relatively few offices use social media and social media marketing in health promotion campaigns. The use of social media by the Marshal Offices may result in a potential increase in effectiveness of the pro-health campaigns. It is recommended that Polish Marshal Offices recognize the potential benefits of social media marketing campaign instruments in the field of health promotion in order to reach out the digital recipients.
Although biomass accounts for a significant proportion of renewable energy in Europe, its market penetration could be increased if certain barriers can be surmounted. Some of those barriers are identified and suggestions made as to how they may be overcome through improved 'distribution' in various sectors. To integrate biomass into the electricity distribution system, the commercial distribution of liquid biofuels, and in the commercial distribution of biomass in the heat sector, certain rewards and penalties could be introduced and these are discussed. The low temperature heat market is seen as very important for the further development of bioenergy in Europe. (UK)
Full Text Available Currently, new media has become the popular platform for brand marketing and services promoting of public libraries. Using the method of online survey, literature analysis and comparative analysis, this paper chooses 4 foreign public libraries and 4 domestic public libraries as the research samples and compares the differences in new media marketing between them from new media marketing tools, marketing content and marketing strategies, then makes some proposals and measures to perfect domestic public libraries’ new media marketing, so as to provide references to improve the libraries’ social awareness and benefits.
Full Text Available Art is a human activity which aims to stimulate the senses, mind and spirit. It is an activity that was created with the intention to transmit emotions and ideas. The need for art comes from human creativity. Many scientific disciplines such as psychology, sociology, art, are exploring the concept of creativity. The presence of creativity in marketing is not sufficiently explored. We live in a time that is characterized by rapid technological advances and changes. We are meeting with a large number of advertisements and our consciousness has already built a “defense” against advertising. We do not notice many advertisements and become blind to most of them. Companies must be extremely creative if they want to send a specific message and to gain public attention. Creative marketing is a combination of marketing and creativity. It is useful in theoretical and practical terms, and can use all types of media to achieve their goal. Creativity has benefits of marketing because it can express through it, and the marketing gets benefits of creativity because on that way it gets a new look and a becomes a marketing of new age.
Full Text Available Subjects present in the market tend to achieve synergetic effect by well-established partnerships more often. Cause related marketing based on the direct partnership between companies and nonprofit organizations and indirect partnership between the company and the customer, in order to support a social cause, is as such the subject of this analysis. Cause-related marketing is a manifestation of social-cause marketing and the adaptation of commercial marketing tailored for the programs that influence the voluntary behavior of customers, which will enhance well-being of society. The aim of this analysis is to present cause-related marketing as a win-win situation for all participants in the exchange and in the community. The outcome of the analysis are benefits realized by means of Liste Read phonetically cause-related marketing campaigns. .
The thesis discussed the topic of online marketing in social media. The focus was set on the social media platforms Facebook, YouTube and Flickr. Commissioner of the thesis was DORTMUNDtourismus e.V., the destination management organization for Dortmund, Germany. The research problem was to identify ways to develop online marketing in social media in a cost-efficient and innovative way in order to raise the awareness of DORTMUNDtourismus e.V. and Dortmund in social media and as a destination....
Full Text Available Purpose: With the development of the networked marketing in TV media, it is important to do the research on network value and optimum analysis in this field.Design/methodology/approach: According to the research on the mode of networked marketing in TV media and Correlation theory, the essence of media marketing is creating, spreading and transferring values. The Participants of marketing value activities are in network, and value activities proceed in networked form. Network capability is important to TV media marketing activities.Findings: This article raises the direction of research of analysis and optimization about network based on the mode of networked marketing in TV media by studying TV media marketing Development Mechanism , network analysis and network value structure.
Abstract Objective: This thesis seeks to provide insight into the integration of social media marketing communications and brand strategy from the perspective of the destination marketing organization. Method: Qualitative case study methodology generated understanding of the approach to DMOs’ marketing. Interview allows exploration of how online marketing strategies with the practice of social media used in destination branding processes and content analysis to analyze audience engagement to ...
For the last couple of decades marketing and the media have been successfully cooperating together hand in hand improving business management around the world and setting new goals for companies to reach. Innovations in both areas have challenged current world of business and developed new approaches to theories of profitable companies. One of the main goals of coordination of media and marketing is to get familiar and closer to people and influence their decision making process. This paper i...
Full Text Available PurposeTo investigate whether the Polish Marshal Offices use instruments for social media marketing activities in the field of health promotion.Methodology14 Polish Marshal Offices participated. The Computer-Assisted Web Interview and Computer-Assisted Telephone Interview were used along with a proprietary questionnaire. Standard statistical methods were employed.FindingsThe number of people using the Internet and social media in Poland is steadily growing. The majority of the offices (93% performed health promotion activities. The authorities collaborated with other units of local government and non-governmental organizations in these activities. According to respondents, the most convincing form of health promotion is direct communication (46%. More than half of the surveyed offices (56% did not use portals or social networking sites in health campaigns. The rest of the offices indicated using Facebook (25% or YouTube (6%. Half of them did not apply the tools of social media marketing. The other half was involved in discussions on health-related online forums (moderation or consulting. Relatively few offices use social media and social media marketing in health promotion campaigns.ValueThe use of social media by the Marshal Offices may result in a potential increase in effectiveness of the pro-health campaigns. It is recommended that Polish Marshal Offices recognize the potential benefits of social media marketing campaign instruments in the field of health promotion in order to reach out the digital recipients.
Marketing in social media has been studied extensively in recent years, but not specifically for extreme-sport oriented companies. Even though most of the extreme-oriented companies are using social media for marketing, only a few pay special attention to its risks and possibilities. The purpose of this study is to identify extreme-sport oriented companies' practices to use social media as a marketing tool. I interviewed eight extreme- oriented companies and athletes. In addition to interview...
This study mainly focuses on the insights of a private school’s head pertaining to the use of digital media in educational marketing. The qualitative research paradigm was chosen for this study and in depth phenomenological interview was conducted from a head of a private school. Two themes were extracted from the data: Marketing educational services through digital media and its challenges, and digital media tool for marketing education services. The study revealed that the school head perce...
The importance of mastering digital marketing in companies’ marketing mix is increasing and expertise in the field is still developing. Digital marketing provides tools to facilitate more targeted and cost-efficient marketing. Not only can marketing teams reach customers all over the world but they can also communicate, interact and engage with them. The objective of this project-based thesis was to increase social media engagement, brand awareness and reach new audiences in social media ...
Moeller Leslie H.
Full Text Available Throughout 2005, Booz Allen Hamilton engaged in a dialogue on the Future of Advertising with Fortune 500 CMOs and senior media and entertainment executives. From these conversations, our client work, and research we've conducted with the Association of National Advertisers (ANA, it has become abundantly clear that shifts in consumer, marketer, and media behavior have passed a tipping point. We expect 2006 to open a widening gap between those marketers and media companies that know how to engage an increasingly "in-control" consumer-and those that do not.
The goal of this paper is to highlight how instructors may integrate the different social media into various marketing classes. The paper will address the major social networks, and then follow with discussions of microblogging, media sites, and social gaming. Given that there is a great deal of research highlighting the effectiveness of utilizing…
Faulds, David J.; Mangold, W. Glynn
This paper describes the process used and experiences gained in developing a social media and marketing course. As the first known paper on this topic appearing in the marketing education literature, the paper provides educators with a framework for developing similar courses. The course was developed using a sound instructional design model, the…
Uzunova, Aleksandra; Franko, Jan
The case company of this project-based thesis is Hauskafe Oy, an SME company located in Espoo, Finland. Following examples of best practices in the field, Hauskafe Oy recognised the need of designing a social media marketing plan that will allow to build the brand, improve customer loyalty and as a final goal – increase the sales. A social media marketing communication plan for Hauskafe Oy is the outcome of this thesis. The theoretical framework of the thesis is a desktop study that discu...
The subject of this thesis is successful social media marketing on Instagram, and how to effectively use Instagram to build a strong brand and reach more customers. As a part of this study a case study of MI.NO shoes was conducted. The objective here was to deepen the company’s understanding of Instagram marketing and how the company can use it to improve its sales and customer communication. The theoretical part of this study consists of general information about social media and social ...
Ionescu Andreea; Ciceo Andreea Teodora
Consumers are confronted daily with dozens of decisions on buying a product and more than ever they refer to Social Media as the main and most important source of information and impressions from consumers worldwide. This article tackles the issue that companies nowadays still struggle with: understanding, properly using and incorporating Social Media marketing efforts into the overall marketing communications strategy. Moreover, it presents the particularities of communicating through Social...
Gyimóthy, Szilvia; Larson, Mia
Since the emerging omnipresence of social media usage in Western societies, marketers have been eager to harness the strategic communication potential of new media (e.g. blogs, wikis, visual content sharing sites and online communities. This is also apparent in event tourism; for instance music...... festivals have proved to be early adopters of Facebook fan sites and Twitter in order to distribute information, campaigns and celebrity rumors to their potential visitors in an inexpensive way. On the other hand, the strategic use of social media has also been hypothesized to be paved with a number...... of challenges. In order to fill a void of empirical studies of managing festival communications, this paper explores how social media is used as a tool for marketing and service innovation. By conducting focus groups and personal interviews with larger music events (Storsjöyran, Way Out West and Roskilde...
Mine Ucok Hughes
Most university students today use social media daily, are knowledgeable about a myriad of applications, and can navigate numerous platforms, such as Facebook and Twitter. Despite their affinity for social media, however, it is not clear whether or not they understand how social media can be used to create effective marketing strategies. This paper describes a social media assignment that was incorporated into a marketing field experience course for undergraduate students. The aim of the pape...
150521065 Digital era has influenced varians business and marketing types. Social media has given big impact on marketer to promote their brands, covering worldwide marketing, increasing the sales and building the community compared to conventional media. The purpose of this research is to analyze the influence social media marketing which consist of consumption, curation, creation dan collaboration on customer equity of young entrepreneurs in Medan City. This research us...
Anderson, Simon P.; Jullien, Bruno
This chapter focuses on the economic mechanisms at work in recent models of advertising finance in media markets developed around the concept of two-sided markets. The objective is to highlight new and original insights from this approach, and to clarify the conceptual aspects. The chapter first develops a canonical model of two-sided markets for advertising, where platforms deliver content to consumers and resell their "attention" to advertisers. A key distinction is drawn between free media...
This dissertation provides insights in explaining the interrelationships between news media and the stock market. First, the results show that first-hand economic news seems to induce stronger, and more immediate stock market reactions than already known public information. Second, public economic
Wayne, G Ferris; Connolly, G N
Regulatory oversight of tobacco product design has gained momentum in the US and internationally. Appropriate standards for assessing commercial brands and characterising product features must be considered a priority. An area of potential concern is in-market design changes adopted within a single commercial brand over time. Internal tobacco industry documents were identified and used to assess internal discussion of product guidelines and practices regarding in-market brand changes. Commercial tobacco products undergo a constant process of revision in-market, beginning at the most basic level of physical product characteristics and components, and including every aspect of design. These revisions commonly exceed guidelines for acceptable product variance adopted within the industry. While consumer and market testing is conducted to ensure that products remain acceptable to users, explicit marketing often may not accompany brand changes. In the absence of such marketing, it should not be assumed that a brand remains unchanged. For manufacturers, assessment of competitor brands includes identification and analysis of non-routine changes; that is, those changes likely to significantly alter the character of a given brand. Regulators must adopt a similar practice in determining standards for product evaluation in the face of ongoing commercial product revision.
In a series of two contributions, decisive business-related aspects of the current process status to transfer research results on diffractive optical elements (DOEs) into commercial solutions are discussed. In part I, the focus was on the patent landscape. Here, in part II, market estimations concerning DOEs for selected applications are presented, comprising classical spectroscopic gratings, security features on banknotes, DOEs for high-end applications, e.g., for the semiconductor manufacturing market and diffractive intra-ocular lenses. The derived market sizes are referred to the optical elements, itself, rather than to the enabled instruments. The estimated market volumes are mainly addressed to scientifically and technologically oriented optical engineers to serve as a rough classification of the commercial dimensions of DOEs in the different market segments and do not claim to be exhaustive.
Satheeka Kavisekera; Nalin Abeysekera
Social Media is a prominent marketing tool profoundly used by E-Businesses to draw the attention of the online target audience that could be converted to direct traffic. However, the non-exclusivity of social media has created a unique issue for virtual enterprises that are entirely depending on digital media. The main emphasis of this study is to appreciate the significance of Social Media Marketing in promoting the Brand Equity of E-Commerce enterprises. The empirical study is based on Ka...
The aim of this thesis was to discover whether social media is an effective marketing communication tactic for Gina Tricot or not. The objective was to find out how customers experience Gina Tricot’s marketing and social media activities and whether social media accounts are able to serve customers as aimed. The case company Gina Tricot is presented in the introduction chapter. The theoretical study focuses on social media marketing and on the transition from traditional outbound marketing to...
Kljucanin, Nermin; Shahbazi, Said; Pourjanekikhani, Pouyan
The purpose of this thesis is to understand how brand awareness among customers is created and maintained through the use of social media as a marketing tool.The web does not only provide people to socialize and share and receive information among friends and family online, it is also a powerful marketing tool and marketing place where the customer can interact with other customers and firms. Social media has made it possible for customer to choose on their own when and where they want to rec...
Full Text Available There is extensive data to support the use of commercial transport media as a stabilizer for known clinical samples; however, there is little information to support their use outside of controlled conditions specified by the manufacturer. Furthermore, there is no data to determine the suitability of said media for biological pathogens, specifically those of interest to the US military. This study evaluates commercial off-the-shelf (COTS transport media based on sample recovery, viability, and quality of nucleic acids and peptides for nonpathogenic strains of Bacillus anthracis, Yersinia pestis, and Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus, in addition to ricin toxin. Samples were stored in COTS, PBST, or no media at various temperatures over an extended test period. The results demonstrate that COTS media, although sufficient for the preservation of nucleic acid and proteinaceous material, are not capable of maintaining an accurate representation of biothreat agents at the time of collection.
Despite the fact that social media marketing has established itself as a vital area of marketing for businesses both large and small, global and local, Business Language Studies (BLS) has yet to turn its full attention to this business activity that requires a keen sense of language, culture, and business. As BLS continues to build and articulate its theoretical and methodological grounds, social media marketing provides rich research and teaching possibilities. However, social media is a dyn...
Bozkurt Bekoğlu, Filiz; Onaylı, Cemre
Development of Internet and social media has led to significant changes in marketing. Companies are now making serious efforts to integrate social media into their marketing strategies. In order to be successful in these efforts, marketing experts need to think strategically, integrate social media campaigns into their marketing plans and use the right tools in the right way. They should also evaluate the campaign performance and its effect on business performance. The aim of this study is to...
Full Text Available The objectives of this research are to: 1 compare the effect of premium earnings products of health insurances after the launching of national social health insurance (JKN-BPJS (Badan Penyelenggara Jaminan Sosial for health; 2 analyze the internal and external factors of private/commercial health insurance companies; 3 formulate a marketing strategyy for health insurance product after the operation of JKN-BPJS for health. It is a challenge for commercial health insurance to survive and thrive with the existence of JKN-BPJS for health which is compulsory to Indonesia’s citizens to be a member. The research begins by analyzing premium earnings of the commercial health insurance company one year before and after the implementation of JKN-BPJS for health, the intensive interviews and questionnaires to the chosen resource person (purposive samplings, the analysis on Internal Factor Evaluation (IFE, External Factor Evaluation (EFE, Matrix IE and SWOT are used in the research. Then it is continued by arranging a strategic priority using Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP. The result from the research is there is totally no decreasing premium earnings for the commercial health insurance company although the growth trend shows a slight drop. The appropriate strategy for the health insurance company in the commercial sector is the differentiation where the implication is involving customer service quality improvement, product innovation, and technology and infrastructure development. Keywords: commercial health insurance company, Marketing Strategy, AHP Analysis, national social health insurance
Williams, J R
Family planning (FP) and social marketing messages must utilize the rules concerning artfulness developed in the private sector for effective communication in the mass media around the world. They have to compete for the attention of television program viewers accustomed to receiving hundreds of 30-second messages. There are some rules essential to any effective communication program: 1) Command attention. In the US over 1350 different mass media messages vie for attention every single day. FP messages are sensitive, but dullness and passivity is not a requisite. 2) Clarify the message, and keep it simple and direct. Mixed messages equal less effective communication. 3) Communicate a benefit. Consumers do not only buy products, they buy expectations of benefits. 4) Consistency counts. The central message should remain consistent to allow the evaluation of its effectiveness, but execution should vary from time to time and medium to medium. 5) Cater to the heart and the head. Effective communication offers real emotional values. 6) Create trust. Words, graphics, sounds, and casting in the campaign should support 1 central key promise to a single prime prospect. 7) Call for action. Both commercial and social marketing campaigns can calculate results by quantifiable measurement of sales (of condoms) transactions (the number of IUD insertions), floor traffic (clinic visits), attitude shifts, and behavior change. The PRO-PATER Vasectomy Campaign of 1988 in Sao Paulo, Brazil successfully used the above rules for effective communication. During the 1st 2 months of the campaign, phone calls increased by over 300%, new clients by 97%, and actual vasectomies performed by 79%.
"In this book, Yuzuru Tanaka proposes a powerful new paradigm: that knowledge media, or "memes," operate in a way that closely resembles the biological function of genes, with their network publishing repository working as a gene pool to accelerate the evolution of knowledge shared in our societies. In Meme Media and Meme Market Architectures: Knowledge Media for Editing, Distributing, and Managing Intellectual Resources, Tanaka outlines a ready-to-use knowledge media system, supplemented with sample media objects, which allows readers to experience the knowledge media paradigm."--Jacket.
Murad, Afonso Tadeu; FAJE; ISTA
This article develops a reflection on the relationship between evangelization, media and marketing, especially in Catholic circles. In the first part, we present the six dimensions of Christian religious experience that are part of evangelization: mystical, ritual, ethics, Cognitive (intellectual), communal and missionary. The article also shows that these dimensions come in different concentration on multiple agents acting in religious media. In the second part, serving up the contribution o...
Muntinga, D.G.; Moorman, M.; Smit, E.G.
The article examines the use of social media by Internet users related to advertising and marketing, called "consumers' online brand-related activities (COBRA)." Interviews are conducted with such Internet users through instant messaging as to their motivations for engaging with brands and brand
Mirela Cristina VOICU
Full Text Available In order to carry out an efficient marketing activity, it is well known that entrepreneurs have to find out, first of all, where and how consumers spend their time, what are the communication channels and forms they prefer and then try to interact with the customers on their territory and on their own terms. The forms of communication that are gaining momentum currently, are taking place online, especially in the social media. A growing number of consumers have become open towards and familiar with social media, sharing their opinions daily through these means. Since the emergence of the social media phenomenon, its use has grown and has become widespread in a short period of time. In response to this phenomenon, social media marketing has developed at a similar pace and in a similar direction, and this is also reflected in the existing opportunities for using social media in qualitative marketing research.
Planned, skillful use of public relations in marketing nursing services can facilitate achievement of the nursing organization's goals and objectives. The local community, news media, bankers, local politicians, government officials, and social action groups all can take an active or reactive interest in nursing's activities. Public relations can provide an effective approach for achieving optimal results within the political and economic constraints of the current marketplace.
This bachelor thesis was commissioned by Oy Suomen Lyyra Ab, the largest student online media and student card producer for higher education students in Finland. The the-sis objective was to understanding the current social media situation and activity among the students of higher education in Finland, the social media networks that the case company currently uses as well as understanding how to use these networks for successful marketing activities. The quantitative research was conducted in...
G. A. Emirova
The article analyzes the media market of franchising in Russia - a rather new phenomenon in the domestic business. We study the general rules and laws affecting the media attractiveness for investors, for entrepreneurs intending to buy a franchise in the field of media. Results statistics of volumes of the advertising market in the media, correlated with indicators of success specific franchising projects. Examples of the various categories of franchising companys in the media.
Full Text Available In contemporary market conditions classical deposit-loan strategy is not enough anymore in order to ensure survival of the commercial banks on the financial market and to reach profit that is high enough. Besides the loan placements strategy, it is necessary to adopt an adequate investment strategy which will contribute to the profitability, liquidity and safety of gross asset portfolio. Commercial banks, unlike investment banks, invest smaller part of their resources into securities of diverse maturity on financial markets. However, with the harsh competition of banks and other non-banking institutions, significance of investment portfolio grows as an alternative that ensures additional sources of revenue, assures liquidity, diversification of placements and decreases risk exposure. Banks have at their disposal vast range of investment strategies that can be combined depending on their investment objectives and risk aversion, such as passive and active strategy, strategy of ladder, weights strategy etc. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to present the significance of investment portfolio in commercial banks and the basic management strategies of investment portfolio that can be used by commercial banks.
Full Text Available Background and Purpose: In recent years classic financial market theory based on decision makers’ rationality has been challenged by repeated anomalies that became a ‘new normal’. As a result, what we witness today is a considerable turn to behavioral concepts that can shed a new light on choices made by market participants. The astonishing development of social media accelerated scientific validation of such concepts, since the media opened new and capacious ‘laboratory space’ for testing behavioral hypotheses. The main purpose of the article is to examine whether financial market professionals believe that social media content can be useful in achieving additional financial market returns and to investigate the factors behind this belief.
Alves, Tomás de Oliveira Mouton Ribeiro
Online marketing campaigns are the big trend in today’s advertising world. The obvious advantages of online ad media – low costs, multiple tracking options and better segmentation -, are forcing marketing managers to re-allocate big portions of their advertisement budgets from traditional offline marketing media to online ad campaigns. Several digital communication channels are suitable for online advertising, each serving different communication goals - awareness, engagement, traffic gene...
In the light of the popularity of social media on one hand, and the contradictive relationships between journalists and public relations practitioners on the other hand, the thesis studies media relations after the introduction of social media. The study focuses on media relations in Estonian public relations scenery. The research answers to the questions: - What are media relations today? - What are the functions of social media and media relations in organizational communication? ...
The aim of this thesis is to research business-to-business social media marketing and help formulate guidelines for starting Real Clean Finland’s social media marketing efforts. This research seeks to find the easiest and most resource-effective methods and social media channels suitable for B2B marketing. At the time of the thesis process, the company had no established social media presence. Ideas for these guidelines were established through a combination of theoretical study and quali...
Full Text Available This study aims to explore how directly or indirectly control policies of Turkish political government towards media besides the ownership relations of the media affect the newsmaking process. After 1980, Turkey experienced media concentration and media commercialism as a result of neoliberal policies. Though media concentration is a global phenomenon, the process has its own characteristics in Turkey. Free market is not supposed to have given rise to the birth of a free press. Intervention in relations and clientelism between the government and the media in history have merged with a rapid commercialism. This study examines the newsmaking process with the political economy approach on the basis of the ownership structure and the relations between the media and the government. The study covers an analysis of 14 digital news portals based on their headlines between the dates 20-26 January 2015 and the hours 8:00 am. -11:00 pm. The data obtained indicate a similarity between the news portals in terms of topics agendas, and news discourse.
Jensen, Olaf Chresten; Stage, Søren; Noer, Preben
BACKGROUND: Work-related injuries in commercial fishing are of concern internationally. To better identify the causes of injury, this study coded occupational injuries by working processes in commercial fishing for fresh market fish. METHODS: A classification system of the work processes was deve......BACKGROUND: Work-related injuries in commercial fishing are of concern internationally. To better identify the causes of injury, this study coded occupational injuries by working processes in commercial fishing for fresh market fish. METHODS: A classification system of the work processes...... to working with the gear and nets vary greatly in the different fishing methods. Coding of the injuries to the specific working processes allows for targeted prevention efforts....
G. A. Emirova
Full Text Available The article analyzes the media market of franchising in Russia - a rather new phenomenon in the domestic business. We study the general rules and laws affecting the media attractiveness for investors, for entrepreneurs intending to buy a franchise in the field of media. Results statistics of volumes of the advertising market in the media, correlated with indicators of success specific franchising projects. Examples of the various categories of franchising companys in the media.
Nowak, Glen J; Gellin, Bruce G; MacDonald, Noni E; Butler, Robb
Many countries and communities are dealing with groups and growing numbers of individuals who are delaying or refusing recommended vaccinations for themselves or their children. This has created a need for immunization programs to find approaches and strategies to address vaccine hesitancy. An important source of useful approaches and strategies is found in the frameworks, practices, and principles used by commercial and social marketers, many of which have been used by immunization programs. This review examines how social and commercial marketing principles and practices can be used to help address vaccine hesitancy. It provides an introduction to key marketing and social marketing concepts, identifies some of the major challenges to applying commercial and social marketing approaches to immunization programs, illustrates how immunization advocates and programs can use marketing and social marketing approaches to address vaccine hesitancy, and identifies some of the lessons that commercial and non-immunization sectors have learned that may have relevance for immunization. While the use of commercial and social marketing practices and principles does not guarantee success, the evidence, lessons learned, and applications to date indicate that they have considerable value in fostering vaccine acceptance. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Ola Agbaimoni; Lilach Bullock
The goal of this article is to show how and why it is important for businesses to not only understand social media marketing, but to also include it as an integral part of their marketing strategies. In this article will be set out some basic strategies for how to be successful in social media marketing and conclude with a more in-depth look at Facebook.
Yepes, Luis Augusto
Coming years will not be easy for the world oil market. Colombia knows this and is preparing to face a surplus of light crude when large volumes of Cusiana production are available for export, particularly in 1998 and 1999. Ecopetrol considers this out look will give rise to a very competitive setting for Cusiana crude. It advises committing this crude as of now with an important refining group for whom petroleum is essential for their refinery diet. On the foreign scene, Ecopetrol's commercial policy is to sell petroleum by-products, as well as import shortfalls in motor fuel. Domestic policy is directed at making the natural gas market a reality
Chaurey, A.; Laxminarayan, R.
As is the case of most energy deficient countries in the tropics, India offers an enormous potential for use of photovoltaic (PV) systems. However, the demand in true commercial sense has not yet been created. The constraints for market development are not only related to the cost but also to several local parameters. The paper highlights these issues and constraints and suggests a market development strategy. (author)
Barišić, Anton Florijan; Vujnović, Krunoslav
Rapid development of technologies has led to emergence of new opportunities for businesses such as social media. Online social networks and media are well recognized and increasingly used by businesses as valuable source of information regarding the design, acceptance and use of their products and services, and also as important marketing tool to reach diverse groups of customers that had not been covered earlier by their marketing campaigns. The purpose of this paper was to research the low ...
With popularity growing of social marketing concepts and consciousness of the environmental issues in recent days, cause related marketing activities oriented in environmental conservation issues is also growing. Research aims is to examine the formation of consumer attitudes on cause related marketing activities, a marketing activities which undertaken a commercial brand with a nonprofit organization; in this research product is utilitarian product and also high involvement product, namely A...
Alexandra E. RUSĂNEANU
One of the most difficult challenges for small businesses is to decide which strategy to use for marketing or advertising to generate as much profit using the limited resources available. This study aims to identify ways to promote online using social platforms. With the advent of social media, marketing has undergone radical changes in the way to promote and attract customers. With this technology small and medium companies can identify categories of customers they want to reach much easier....
Klara, J.M.; Tomer, B.J.; Stiegel, G.J.
In the wake of deregulation of power generation in the US, market-based competition is driving electricity generators to low-cost risk system. In such an environment, gasification-based technologies will not be competitive with low capital cost, efficient, and reliable natural gas-fired facilities for baseload power generation in the foreseeable future. The lack of a near-term market application poses a serious threat to the progress of gasification technology. With a reduction in direct federal funding of large-scale demonstration plants as the trend to reduce the size of government continues, an alternate approach to commercialize gasification-based technologies has been developed at DOE/FETC. This new strategy employs gasification in near-term markets where, due to its ability to coproduce a wide variety of commodity and premium products to meet market requirements, it is an attractive alternative. By obtaining operating experience in near-term coproduction applications, gasification system modules can be refined and improved leading to commercial guarantees and acceptance of gasification technology as a cost-effective technology for baseload power generation when this market begins to open domestically, sometime after 2005
Lagrosen, Stefan; Josefsson, Pernilla
The purpose for this paper is to explore social media marketing fromthe perspective of entrepreneurial learning. The theoretical basis consists ofcontributions from the fields of organisational learning and entrepreneurship.An empirical study involving ten companies has been carried out. Thedata were analysed with methods inspired by grounded theory. Categoriesdescribing the companies’ social media presence from an entrepreneuriallearning perspective are provided. The value of using organisat...
Rapid changes in information and communication technologies cause serious developments in marketing field similar to every sector. In parallel with these developments, the social media channels which appear as Web 2.0 applications have a number of advantages in comparison with traditional media channels. Social media gained a place in marketing activities because of its advantages. Social media is added on instruments in line with these developments that countries benefit in marketing activit...
are becoming increasingly commercialized. This paper explores the use of media discourse for the communication of ethical messages by humanitarian organizations, caught, as they are, in a tension between, on the one hand, the commercial strategies of visibility and still greater dependence on the media, and......The development of corporate communication in recent years has brought about a fading of the division of labor between commercial and non-commercial organizations. While the practices of commercial organizations are becoming increasingly ethicalized, so the practices of non-profit organizations......'s branding strategies testify to a high degree of reflexivity about the conditions of what Luc Boltanski calls a Crisis of Pity. The analysis illustrates how, in the face of compassion fatigue, the organization manages to carve out a new space for itself in the marketized ethical discourse, and leads...
Full Text Available Rapid changes in information and communication technologies cause serious developments in marketing field similar to every sector. In parallel with these developments, the social media channels which appear as Web 2.0 applications have a number of advantages in comparison with traditional media channels. Social media gained a place in marketing activities because of its advantages. Social media is added on instruments in line with these developments that countries benefit in marketing activities for attracting more tourists, investment and becoming prominent against the other cities. Cities intensively benefit from social media because of social media’s properties like reaching the large masses, low marketing cost, interaction, receiving feedbacks rapidly, etc. Within this context, the purpose of this research is to determine the use statuses of social media by metropolitan municipalities as part of city marketing. In accordance with this purpose, official social media accounts of 30 metropolitan municipalities are investigated between the dates of 01/09/2016 and 30/09/2016, then their shares in social media channels are investigated in the context of city marketing.It is observed that two metropolitan municipalities do not have official Facebook accounts, four metropolitan municipalities do not have an official Twitter account as well. Again, it is found that 19 metropolitan municipalities do not have an official Instagram account and 17 metropolitan municipalities do not have official YouTube account. In consequence, it is observed that, our metropolitan municipalities do not benefit from social media effectively for city marketing activities.
Full Text Available Since the 1980s, the period of reform in China, the commercial relations between Spain and China have been marked by a progressive increase, accentuated at the end of that decade and the beginning of the 1990s. But, this rapprochement has not been sufficient for ensuring a significant Spanish presence in a market like China’s, of an extraordinary magnitude and potential. Spain’s commercial presence continues to be very limited. After analyzing this evidence, the author makes several proposals for changing the situation, among which are: increasing public support to Spanish businesses for exportation to and investment in the area; strengthening the mechanisms of knowledge about the functioning of and the changes in the Chinese market, in the midst of a process of adaptation andexpansion; and keeping in mind Chinese tourism to foreign lands, which, according to predictions, will become one of the most significant types of tourism in the world.
Traditional companies and especially in European countries such as Greece, lack the knowledge and motivation in order to move away from the traditional marketing methods to more revolutionary ways, such as online marketing. The purpose of this thesis is to explain what is online marketing and the importance of a sound presence on the social media. It also sets as a marketing plan, proposals on how the hotel in question should act in order to strengthen their presence in the Online and Soc...
Current status of food irradiation technology in Bangladesh with respect to public acceptance, commercial application, trade development and present research and development activities are summarized in the paper. Irradiated food products are generally accepted by people. To further boost public opinion on the usefulness of the technology, two national seminars were successfully organized in 1995 and 1996 respectively with wide participation and media coverage. A number of non-traditional items such as beef casing, flour, turtle meat, macaroni, peat soil, etc. were irradiated and successfully marketed during the last 5 years. Bangladesh adopted a ''Specification for Authorisation of Irradiation by Groups/Classes of Foods'' in 1995 in line with the ICGFI Guidelines. The Bangladesh Standard is essentially similar to the Harmonised Regulations adopted for the RCA countries in April 1998. About 1300 metric tons of different food items were irradiated for commercial purposes at the Gammatech Irradiation Facility in Chittagong during the past 5 years. Present research activities in Bangladesh include irradiation disinfestations of nematodes in ginger and turmeric, and mites and thrips from cut flowers. Work on identification of fruit flies, mites and thrips by using sensitive protein markers is in progress. (author)
Full Text Available The marketing communications industry and theory are facing rapid changes in accordance with global business and society fluctuations. Global and local market conditions are constantly varying and thus creating hardly predictable environment. The most implemented tool for marketing communications – advertising, is losing its power for effective communications; customers are becoming over-advertised and resistant to traditional advertising stimuli. Advertising, as one-way communication mass media tool is no longer effective as previously, hence can no longer fulfill the role of leading marketing mix tool. Therefore, the necessity for altering the structure of the traditional marketing communication mix elements, emphasizing the role of other elements but advertising, with more personalized and interactive functions. One method for improvement of marketing communication’s mix efficiency is by reallocation the leading role of advertising with public relations. The practice of public relations tools can ensure higher level of transparency in internal and external organizational communications and thus can certify more effective marketing communication. The theoretical research is supported with qualitative research of business segment by conducting a detailed interview for the marketing communication practice.
Jezzy Dela Puspita
Full Text Available PR concerns the interests of any organization, whether the organization is commercial or non-commercial, nor therein which includes media relations activities. News about the merger contained in the mass media can sometimes be misunderstood by the public as a controversy that is not necessarily true, can it be positive or negative. The problem studied is how the media relations PR strategy undertaken by PT Bank CIMB Niaga Tbk post-merger. The method used is the qualitative method. Descriptive method aims to collect real-time detailed information describing the existing symptoms, as well as identifying problems and practices applicable. Data collection techniques with in-depth interviews on employees and journalists.Based on the research results, we concluded that the strategy of media relations undertaken by the company after the merger is to establish good relations with the way the relationship with journalists routinely and personal, reaching the level of reporter and editor in chief, in order to produce interpersonal relations firm, and establish good communication with mass media institutions by providing access to good information. PR menyangkut kepentingan setiap organisasi, baik itu organisasi yang bersifat komersial maupun yang non-komersial, begitupula didalamnya yang termasuk kegiatan media relations. Pemberitaan mengenai merger yang terdapat pada media massa terkadang dapat disalah artikan oleh publik sebagai suatu kontroversi yang belum tentu kebenarannya, bisa itu berupa hal positif atau negatif. Permasalahan yang dikaji adalah bagaimana strategi media relations PR yang dilakukan oleh PT Bank CIMB Niaga Tbk pasca merger.Metode yang digunakan yaitu dengan metode kualitatif. Metode Deskriptif bertujuan mengumpulkan informasi aktual secara rinci yang melukiskan gejala-gejala yang ada, serta mengidentifikasikan masalah dan praktek-praktek yang berlaku . Tekhnik pengumpulan data dengan wawancara mendalam pada karyawan dan wartawan
Hébert, Emily T; Case, Kathleen R; Kelder, Steven H; Delk, Joanne; Perry, Cheryl L; Harrell, Melissa B
Little is known about the nature and extent of adolescents' exposure to tobacco- and e-cigarette-related communications on social media. In this study, we describe the prevalence and correlates of youth exposure and engagement with tobacco- and e-cigarette-related social media. Data are from the baseline survey of the Texas Adolescent Tobacco and Marketing Surveillance system, a cross-sectional sample of sixth, eighth, and 10th graders (n = 3907, N = 461,097). Weighted logistic regression models were used to examine associations between demographic characteristics, sensation seeking, tobacco use, and exposure and engagement with tobacco-related social media. Overall, 52.5% of students reported exposure to tobacco-related social media in the past month, whereas social media was higher among those who were susceptible to, had ever, or currently use both combustible tobacco and e-cigarettes (AOR = 2.10-3.46, p social media. Adolescents who are susceptible to or use e-cigarettes and/or combustible tobacco are exposed to and engage with tobacco-related social media more than their peers. Social media appears to be an important venue when targeting vulnerable youth in prevention campaigns. Copyright © 2017 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Viana Natália Andrade
Full Text Available The wine industry recognizes the increasingly relevant role of digital marketing as a valuable and appropriate tool to reach (adult consumers. This paper intends to trace a brief analysis about Digital Wine Marketing and Social Media Marketing contribution for the Wine Industry to increase brand awareness and sales and develop a short guidance to digital marketing as well. When consumers search for wine and wineries on internet they are bombarded with an massive volume of brand messages, meaning that delivering creative, polished content is key if a brand wants to capture people's attention. So, make a good wine is a important part of the work, but after this is necessary to give it the presentation it deserves, communicating accurately to consumers and have in mind that digital marketing activities are in a state of evolutionary development, where new trends are likely to occur rapidly and wineries have to adapt.
Jessen, Iben Bredahl; Graakjær, Nicolai Jørgensgaard
The aim of this article is to advance current understandings of cross-media communication in advertising. The study is based on a sample of 80 television commercials and their announced websites, and the article is inspired by recent studies of cross-media advertising effectiveness as well...... as semiotic perspectives on multimodal analysis. The authors present three dimensions to be considered when examining multimodal connections between television commercials and websites: announcements, participants and address strategy. These dimensions are brought together in an analytical framework that can...... serve as inspiration for further research on cross-media communication in advertising and possibly in other types of communication....
van der Zwaag, Janika
During the last decade the usage of internet has increased tremendously. Today’s technology makes it possible to use the internet anytime and anywhere because of smartphones and other mobile devices. The growth in the usage of the internet has also increased the usage of social media, including the largest social media service, Facebook, which currently has more than 757 million daily active users. In recent years businesses are also increasingly utilising social media as a marketing tool...
The various factors which endanger the future of commercial aircraft development are defined. The factors discussed are: (1) a decline in federally funded research and development programs, (2) a general decline in the economic health of the domestic airlines, (3) the increased cost of development which may be several times the net worth of the company, (4) the development overseas of common market and manufacturing consortia, and (5) foreign manufacturers receiving significant financial support from their national governments. It is stated that unless immediate and innovative solutions to combat these factors are found, the commercial aviation industry will be in serious difficulty.
Full Text Available This research is aims to determine how the media relations activities that have been done 10 Public Relations Higher Education, including the possibility of granting cultural envelope in media relations activities during this do. The object of this study is ten (10 Universities in Yogyakarta that consists of three (3 State University (PTN and seven (7 Colleges (PTS. Variations and types of media relations activities have been conducted by 10 universities. The reason is because the electoral college to ten (10 college is a big college in the city of Yogyakarta who own Public Relations and media relations activities that have a systematic and well-planned. In the course of media relations, Public Relations universities do culture accepting envelopes to reporters on the grounds reimburse the costs of transport and not as a "bribe" so that they publicized the news and as a means of imaging the institution. Publicist colleges feel that culture provides envelopes to reporters did not violate the code of ethics of their profession as a Public Relations, On the other hand for journalists, cultural granting envelope can interfere with the independence and constitute a violation of the code of ethics of their profession as journalists. Yet there are also journalists who will receive an envelope in their reporting activities. The discrepancies in the implementation of the code of ethics of journalism, is strongly influenced by the integrity of journalists and policies that apply to each media institution. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui bagaimana kegiatan media relations yang telah dilakukan 10 Public Relations / Humas Perguruan Tinggi tersebut, termasuk kemungkinan adanya budaya pemberian amplop dalam kegiatan media relations yang selama ini dilakukan. Objek penelitian ini adalah sepuluh (10 Perguruan Tinggi di Yogyakarta yang terdiri dari tiga (3 Perguruan Tinggi Negeri (PTN dan tujuh (7 Perguruan Tinggi Swasta (PTS . Beragam variasi dan jenis
The rise of social media has provided useful marketing tools for companies to promote their events. The purpose of this thesis was to research social media marketing and how it can be used in event promotion. The theory part also includes research of the event marketing process, as it can help to plan the social media marketing strategy. The purpose of the case study in this thesis was to study the ways the commissioning company can use social media marketing in their event promotion. Hence, ...
Wang, Yunchun; Ivanova, Anna
Problematisation Previous study has indicated that social media is an effective marketing tool. Moreover, Weibo, a Chinese social network contains large potential for the companies. However little theoretical guidance exists on what are the key features of Weibo marketing. Purpose and research question The purpose of this study contributes to a better understanding of the social media by analyzing the advantages and disadvantages of Weibo for Western companies that expect to launch a successf...
Karunamoorthy, S; Selvarasu, A.; Filipe, J.
Corporate social responsibility advertising (CSR Advertising) results from commercial advertising, having social dimensions. This concept works as a marketing tool of cause-related marketing (CR Marketing). In this study, the case of IOCL (an Indian oil company) is presented to show how the company creates innovative advertising ideas, serves the society, contributes to save environmental natural resources and allows to add economic value. In addition to the usual ways of commercial advertisi...
Full Text Available Introduction. The yeasts are a large group of fungi. In addition to their different uses in food industries and pharmacology they can also cause human and animal infections under predisposing factors. For investigating the yeast"s growth phases and diagnosis of the species, they should culture in media from natural sources like the seeds on the commercial media. According to yeast"s nutritinal requierments and considering the various nutritional materials of seeds like wheat, rice, barney and better use of these seed"s compounds during sprouting, this research was done with the aim of measurment of growth rate and yeasts characterization in such media. Methods. For making seeds media, a fixed quantity of seed"s flour or sprout"s flour was added to a certain amount of agar in acidotic condition (pH=5.8. The germination of seeds was done by Hus method and for colony counting Mc, Farland tubes were used and microscopic and macroscopic characteristics were investigated and compared in both synthetic and seed media Results. The results showed that the rate of yeasts growth in all germinated seeds was more than the seeds themeselves. Statistical analysis showed no significal difference between the growth rate of yeasts in both wheat and barney sprout compared to the commercial media. In the microscopic studies, the species of Candida albicans in wheat flour has produced more chlamydoconidia than the synthetic medium of corn meal agar. Also production of the capsule in C.neoformans in the seed"s media has been better than the synthetic media. Discussion. According to the promising results obtained from the present study regard to the growth rate and differentiation of the fungal species in such media, standardization and mass production of them in our country would seem to be an productive step towards self sufficiency.
This title discusses the emerging trends in defining, measuring, and operationalizing reputation as a new and essential component of the knowledge that is generated and consumed online. The book also proposes a future research agenda related to these issues—with the ultimate goal of shaping the next generation of theoretical and analytic strategies needed for understanding how knowledge markets are influenced by social interactions and reputations built around functional roles. Roles, Trust, and Reputation in Social Media Knowledge Markets exposes issues that have not been satisfactorily dealt with in the current literature. In a broader sense, the volume aims to change the way in which knowledge generation in social media spaces is understood and utilized. The tools, theories, and methodologies proposed here offer concrete avenues for developing the next generation of research strategies and applications that will help: tomorrow’s information consumers make smarter choices, developers to create new tools...
Leurdijk, A.; Limonard, S.
NM2 (New Media for a New Millennium) develops tools for interactive, personalised and non-linear audio-visual content that will be tested in seven pilot productions. This paper looks at the market potential for these productions from a technological, a business and a users' perspective. It shows
Geirinhas, Guilherme Guerra Abrantes
In this work project we discuss the advantages and disadvantages of social media as a marketing tool. Four international cases were analyzed to provide anecdotal evidence of how social and viral marketing have been used by four firms in very different industries. We reviewed empirical evidence on the topic to discuss the main components of viral marketing. We concluded that positive (electronic) word of mouth, short response time and seeding through high network value customers are the main d...
The purpose of this research was to determine the marketing communication strategy of children's books through social media in increasing sales. Qualitative research methods with the interpretive paradigm and the phenomenological approach were used in this research. The focus of this research was to observe about the children's books marketing communication strategy using social media, for instance with Facebook and Twitter to attract consumer’s interest in order to increase children's books ...
Krampitz, Iris (ed.)
The handbook explains to managing directors and marketing and PR heads of biomass, solar and wind companies, how they select PR measures, find the right topics and the appropriate target media and prepare a timetable and action plan. Step by step, the main author Iris Krampitz explains to her readers how to prepare their own concept and monitor the success of their media work. In practical terms, she describes how to compile a press distribution list, how to get in contact with journalists at a trade fair and what to pay attention to when organising a press conference. In her texts, she rigorously uses examples from the renewable energies sector and sector specific checklists - regardless of whether it concerns the structure and language of a press release, the concept for a trade fair, the scenic preamble to a professional article or the questions for an interview. Besides the main author and publisher Iris Krampitz, marketing and social media experts and a crisis communications expert have their say as co-authors. Sector journalists comment on the press relations work of companies from the renewable energies sector. (orig.)
Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to determine the marketing communication strategy of children's books through social media in increasing sales. Qualitative research methods with the interpretive paradigm and the phenomenological approach were used in this research. The focus of this research was to observe about the children's books marketing communication strategy using social media, for instance with Facebook and Twitter to attract consumer’s interest in order to increase children's books sales. The results of this study show that the children's book marketing communication strategies in publisher’s social media are fully and interactively utilized, as seen from the various activities posted on Facebook and Twitter. As well as the positive response from consumers who show their interest and desire to buy books offered or follow the event being held in order to increase sales.
Aschemann-Witzel, Jessica; Perez-Cueto, Federico JA; Niedzwiedzka, Barbara; Verbeke, Wim; Bech-Larsen, Tino
Abstract Background Commercial food marketing has considerably shaped consumer food choice behaviour. Meanwhile, public health campaigns for healthier eating have had limited impact to date. Social marketing suggests that successful commercial food marketing campaigns can provide useful lessons for public sector activities. The aim of the present study was to empirically identify food marketing success factors that, using the social marketing approach, could help improve public health campaig...
Constantinides, Efthymios; Zinck Stagno, Marc C.
The importance of social media as platforms of social interaction, communication and marketing is growing. Increasing numbers of businesses in various industries have already integrated or plan to integrate social media applications into their marketing programs. Higher education institutions show
Yang, Taeyang; Lee, Do-Young; Kwak, Youngshin; Choi, Jinsook; Kim, Chajoong; Kim, Sung-Phil
Background In recent years, neuroscientific knowledge has been applied to marketing as a novel and efficient means to comprehend the cognitive and behavioral aspects of consumers. A number of studies have attempted to evaluate media contents, especially TV commercials using various neuroimaging techniques such as electroencephalography (EEG). Yet neurophysiological examination of detailed cognitive and affective responses in viewers is still required to provide practical information to market...
Full Text Available This research aims to examine the influence of marketing mix carried out media performance social media portal on attitude towards a social marketing program,and its relationship with source credibility of the portal. This study was focused on "Generasi Berencana" Program (Generation with Plan Program, a program aimed at educating the youth on family planning The Research employed Structural Equations Modeling (SEM. Based on data from 150 respondents it can be concluded that in social marketing programs, source credibility, engagement, word of mouth have positive influence on the formation of behavior, but awareness of a program is not found to influence formation of behavior. This research also obtained findings that attitudes influence behavioral intention, but subjective norms is not positively influence the formation of behavioral intentions.
Hannon, Peggy; Lloyd, Gareth P; Viswanath, K; Smith, Tenbroeck; Basen-Engquist, Karen; Vernon, Sally W; Turner, Gina; Hesse, Bradford W; Crammer, Corinne; von Wagner, Christian; Backinger, Cathy L
People often seek and receive cancer information from mass media (including television, radio, print media, and the Internet), and marketing strategies often inform cancer information needs assessment, message development, and channel selection. In this article, we present the discussion of a 2-hour working group convened for a cancer communications workshop held at the 2008 Society of Behavioral Medicine meeting in San Diego, CA. During the session, an interdisciplinary group of investigators discussed the current state of the science for mass media and marketing communication promoting primary and secondary cancer prevention. We discussed current research, new research areas, methodologies and theories needed to move the field forward, and critical areas and disciplines for future research.
Kosarev Roman, V.
Full Text Available The author discusses the features of the development of commercial real estate market in the Rostov region on the assumption of a relationship between the vector of entrepreneurial activity and the dynamics of supply and demand of real estate in the context of the public interest. The urgency of the problem is due to the institutional nature of commercial real estate in business development, which is neglected in the practice of public exposure due to lack of methodological support and instrumentality. Based on the self-organization of these dynamic models related economic systems in the economy of the region, a logical assessment of the trends of development of business in the consumer market in the context of the real estate needs as infrastructure is given. It allows to identify the main patterns of development and its specific regional features. Statistical evaluation of the cost of renting and buying commercial real estate in Rostov-on-Don city has helped to identify new strategies for business development, requiring the transformation of commercial property types, proposed in the framework of regional program with a focus on five trends of Global Power of Retailing 2015.
Full Text Available The paper deals with a correlation between factors identifying a household representative and frequency of media usage. Particularly it concentrates on the analysis of internet and daily press usage. Internet is a constantly developing communication channel which is increasingly used in the field of marketing communication and contributes to the development of business environment. Due to its characteristics it is an ideal mean for multilingual communication and communication on international markets. The daily press is on the other hand a representative of traditional media. It is perceived by public as a more natural communication channel. The paper seeks an answer to the question which communication channel is more suitable to communicate with a particular target group – press or the internet. The paper tests the correlation between identification factors and frequency of internet and press presence. Testing will be carried out by using a database obtained in a primary research conducted by the Department of Marketing and Trade at the Faculty of Business and Economics, Mendel University in Brno. Results published in the paper are part of research objective, id. code: 62156 48904 “The Czech Republic in the process of integration and globalization and the evolution of agrarian and service sectors in the new conditions of the European integrated market”, thematic area 03 “The evolution of trade relationships regarding changes in a life style and purchasing behaviour and changes of business environment in the process of integration and globalization” that is conducted with a financial support of Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports.
N. A. ADZHARUDDIN
Full Text Available The paper demonstrates the current trend of advertising research that has moved towards integrating two or more media using both the traditional media and the new media. Recent advertising researches have shown that the repetition of a particular advertising feature across two different media has been found to reinforce the effectiveness of marketing communication. It has also been proven influential in improving memory and the attitude of consumers. Based on the positive and encouraging recent findings, more studies should focus on examining advertising effects using the integration of the traditional medium (television and the new medium (the Internet. Bearing in mind that the position of the Internet have progressed rapidly in the past, it is possible that the Internet can play a major role in advertising, going hand in hand with the traditional medium especially television.
Pop Nicolae Alexandru
Full Text Available The globalization has led to a better integration of international markets of goods, services and capital markets, fact which leads to a significant increase of investments in those regions with low labor cost and with access to commercial routes. The development of international trade has imposed a continuous growth of the volumes of transported goods and the development of a transport system, able to stand against the new pressure exercised by cost, time and space. The solution to efficient transport is the intermodal transportation relying on state-of-the-art technological platforms, which integrates the advantages specific to each means of transportation: flexibility for road transportation, high capacity for railway, low costs for sea, and speed for air transportation. Romania’s integration in the pan-European transport system alongside with the EU’s enlargement towards the east will change Romania’s positioning into a central one. The integrated governmental program of improving the intermodal infrastructure will ensure fast railway, road and air connections. For the Danube harbors and for the sea ports, EU grants and allowances will be used thus increasing Romania’s importance in its capacity as one of Europe’s logistical hubs. The present paper intends to use benchmarking, the management and strategic marketing tool, in order to realize an evaluation of the Romanian heavy commercial vehicles market, within European context. Benchmarking encourages change in a complex and dynamic context where a permanent solution cannot be found. The different results stimulate the use of benchmarking as a solution to reduce gaps. MAN’s case study shows the dynamics of the players on the Romanian market for heavy commercial vehicles, when considering the strong growth of Romanian exported goods but with a modest internal demand, a limited but developing road infrastructure, and an unfavorable international economical context together with
Alexandra E. RUSĂNEANU
Full Text Available One of the most difficult challenges for small businesses is to decide which strategy to use for marketing or advertising to generate as much profit using the limited resources available. This study aims to identify ways to promote online using social platforms. With the advent of social media, marketing has undergone radical changes in the way to promote and attract customers. With this technology small and medium companies can identify categories of customers they want to reach much easier. They can also control the content provided and can focus each type of content to the targeted customer category.
Terri Towner; Caroline Lego Munoz
Facebook posts, YouTube videos, tweets and wooing political bloggers have become standard practice in marketing political campaigns. Research has demonstrated the effect of new media on a host of politically-related behavior, including political participation, knowledge acquisition, group formation and self-efficacy. Yet, issues related to media trust, media performance and candidate evaluations have not been fully explored. In addition, much of the political marketing research looks exclusiv...
Del Savio, Lorenzo; Cavaliere, Giulia
Moral arguments pertaining to commercial surrogate pregnancy have been framed as questions on the appropriate scope of markets. Should pregnancies be conceived and regulated as services that can be exchanged in markets? It has been argued that surrogacy is an exceptional form of labour, and hence inappropriately commodified, because of its nature. Commercial surrogacy involves the bodies and identities of women in a most invasive manner, it negatively affects motherhood and it inappropriately...
Zheludev, Ilya; Smith, Robert; Aste, Tomaso
Social media analytics is showing promise for the prediction of financial markets. However, the true value of such data for trading is unclear due to a lack of consensus on which instruments can be predicted and how. Current approaches are based on the evaluation of message volumes and are typically assessed via retrospective (ex-post facto) evaluation of trading strategy returns. In this paper, we present instead a sentiment analysis methodology to quantify and statistically validate which assets could qualify for trading from social media analytics in an ex-ante configuration. We use sentiment analysis techniques and Information Theory measures to demonstrate that social media message sentiment can contain statistically-significant ex-ante information on the future prices of the S&P500 index and a limited set of stocks, in excess of what is achievable using solely message volumes.
Constantinides, Efthymios; Zinck Stagno, Marc C.
The importance of social media as platforms of social interaction, communication and marketing is growing. Increasing numbers of businesses in various industries have already integrated or plan to integrate social media applications into their marketing programs. Higher education institutions show increased interest in the potential of social…
Social media as a digital communications and marketing tool for new businesses is a cost-effective and useful way to reach audiences. Professional social media pages can be used as a form of direct communication with the customer, a visual representation of the com-pany and can serve as advertising channels. This is a project based thesis for a new restaurant, Odessa Comptoir. The objective is to launch a social media presence for the company via a digital marketing plan. To do so suc-ce...
The increasing prominence of social media marketing in advancing the global reach and visibility of products and services is ideal for the South African tourism industry, which depends on local and international visitors for leveraging its business activities and competitiveness. However, what remains under-explored in tourism literature is the depth of integration of social media marketing into the competitive strategies of emerging tourism small, micro and medium enterprises (SMMEs). To add...
Ma, Zheng; Jørgensen, Bo Nørregaard
Commercial greenhouses can provide energy flexibility with artificial lighting usage and information and communications technology support. Therefore, commercial greenhouse growers can potentially play an important role in the electricity market as a flexibility service provider....... With the application of a climate control software- DynaLight NG, this paper takes Danish commercial growers and the Nordic electricity regulating market as an example, to investigate the market potential with two business models: 1) commercial greenhouse growers directly participate in the regulating market, 2......) to reduce balance responsible parties’ imbalance errors. Two calculations are formulated to evaluate the monetary benefits for the commercial greenhouse growers’ participation in the two business models. The results show that: 1) one big commercial greenhouse grower might get around 55,000 DKK...
Master's thesis in International hotel and tourism management Social networks have become an integral part of everyday life for many. With an increasing number of companies using social media to communicate and build relationships with their customers, social media might be considered as the newest element of the marketing mix. The thesis’ objective is to explore the use of social media communication tools used by the jazz music festival, MaiJazz, in Stavanger, to define key...
The Tradition of Marketing Nigeria Politicians through Visual Media. ... Before Nigerian independence in 1960, all political campaigns and debates were limited by the colonial masters to ... EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT
Zhang, Yongjie; Zhang, Zuochao; Liu, Lanbiao; Shen, Dehua
In this paper, we investigate both the contemporaneous and the lead-lag relationships between the mass media news and the new media news of the financial news on the constitute stocks of the CSI 300. The empirical results show that: (1) there exists a strong correlation between these two types of news; (2) the granger causality direction from new media news to mass media news is increasingly obvious, while the reverse direction has a downward trend; (3) new media is playing a increasingly important role in the stock market and exhibits a trend to substitutes the mass media.
McCabe, Molly J.; Wang, Na
Under contract to Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, HaydenTanner, LLC conducted an in-depth analysis of the potential market value of a commercial building energy asset rating program for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy. The market research objectives were to: (1) Evaluate market interest and need for a program and tool to offer asset rating and rapidly identify potential energy efficiency measures for the commercial building sector. (2) Identify key input variables and asset rating outputs that would facilitate increased investment in energy efficiency. (3) Assess best practices and lessons learned from existing national and international energy rating programs. (4) Identify core messaging to motivate owners, investors, financiers, and others in the real estate sector to adopt a voluntary asset rating program and, as a consequence, deploy high-performance strategies and technologies across new and existing buildings. (5) Identify leverage factors and incentives that facilitate increased investment in these buildings. To meet these objectives, work consisted of a review of the relevant literature, examination of existing and emergent asset and operational rating systems, interviews with industry stakeholders, and an evaluation of the value implication of an asset label on asset valuation. This report documents the analysis methodology and findings, conclusion, and recommendations. Its intent is to support and inform the DOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy on the market need and potential value impacts of an asset labeling and diagnostic tool to encourage high-performance new buildings and building efficiency retrofit projects.
Due to the digitalization consumers are becoming more educated as media users and more critical of commercial messages. It is getting nearly impossible for brands to stand out among the crowd of advertisers, why many turn into Influencer marketing. It is the most important new approach to marketing in a decade for those professionals at the lead-ing edge of purchasing decision-making, because the built in level of trust between influ-encer and reader is essentially impossible for a brand to b...
Morbeck, Dean E; Krisher, Rebecca L; Herrick, Jason R; Baumann, Nikola A; Matern, Dietrich; Moyer, Thomas
To determine the composition of commercially available culture media and test whether differences in composition are biologically relevant in a murine model. Experimental laboratory study. University-based laboratory. Cryopreserved hybrid mouse one-cell embryos were used in experiments. Amino acid, organic acid, ions, and metal content were determined for two different lots of media from Cook, In Vitro Care, Origio, Sage, Vitrolife, Irvine CSC, and Global. To determine whether differences in the composition of these media are biologically relevant, mouse one-cell embryos were thawed and cultured for 120 hours in each culture media at 5% and 20% oxygen in the presence or absence of protein in an EmbryoScope time-lapse incubator. The compositions of seven culture media were analyzed for concentrations of 39 individual amino acids, organic acids, ions, and elements. Blastocyst rates and cell cycle timings were calculated at 96 hours of culture, and the experiments were repeated in triplicate. Of the 39 analytes, concentrations of glucose, lactate, pyruvate, amino acids, phosphate, calcium, and magnesium were present in variable concentrations, likely reflecting differences in the interpretation of animal studies. Essential trace elements, such as copper and zinc, were not detected. Mouse embryos failed to develop in one culture medium and were differentially affected by oxygen in two other media. Culture media composition varies widely, with differences in pyruvate, lactate, and amino acids especially notable. Blastocyst development was culture media dependent and showed an interaction with oxygen concentration and presence of protein. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Subritzky, Todd; Pettigrew, Simone; Lenton, Simon
For almost a century, the cultivation, sale and use of recreational cannabis has been prohibited by law in most countries. Recently, however, under ballot initiatives four states in the US have legalised commercial, non-medical (recreational) cannabis markets. Several other states will initiate similar ballot measures attached to the 2016 election that will also appoint a new President. As the first state to implement the legislation in 2014, Colorado is an important example to begin investigating early consequences of specific policy choices while other jurisdictions consider their own legislation although the empirical evidence base is only beginning to accrue. This paper brings together material sourced from peer reviewed academic papers, grey literature publications, reports in mass media and niche media outlets, and government publications to outline the regulatory model and process in Colorado and to describe some of the issues that have emerged in the first 20 months of its operation. These issues include tension between public health and profit, industry and investment, new methods of consumption, the black market and product testing. The paper concludes that, while it is too early to determine the impact of the scheme, and noting that it includes some features designed to mitigate adverse impacts, it faces major challenges. Not least of these are the lack of an effective overarching federal regulatory structure, as a consequence of the federal prohibition on cannabis, combined with a rapidly growing cannabis industry which, like other industries, will seek to exploit loopholes to maximise profit. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Spiller, Lisa; Tuten, Tracy
Modern digital and social media formats have revolutionized marketing measurement, producing an abundance of data, meaningful metrics, new tools, and methodologies. This increased emphasis on metrics in the marketing industry signifies the need for increased quantitative and critical thinking content in our marketing coursework if we are to…
Nguyen, Thi Kim Duyen
The primary objective of this research is to understand profoundly the new concept of content marketing – real-time content marketing on the aspect of the digital marketing experts. Particularly, the research will focus on the real-time content marketing theories and how to build real-time content marketing strategy based on content, search and social media. It also finds out how marketers measure and keep track of conversion rates of their real-time content marketing plan. Practically, th...
Berg, Christian Edelvold; Lowe, Gregory Ferrell; Lund, Anker Brink
Public service media is present in most countries because public intervention of this kind compensates market-failure by providing merit goods that are not provided by commercial players to the public writ large. Nonetheless, PSM is often regarded as a negative for private media providers...
Kelly, Bridget; Hattersley, Libby; King, Lesley; Flood, Victoria
While there is a recognized link between high levels of exposure to advertising of unhealthy foods and overweight and obesity among children, there is little research on the extent to which these exposures include persuasive marketing techniques. This study aimed to measure children's exposure to the use of persuasive marketing within television food advertisements. Advertisements broadcast on all three commercial Australian television channels were recorded for an equivalent 1 week period in May 2006 and 2007 (714 h). Food advertisements were analysed for their use of persuasive marketing, including premium offers, such as competitions, and the use of promotional characters, including celebrities and cartoon characters. Advertised foods were categorized as core, non-core or miscellaneous foods. Commercial data were purchased to determine children's peak viewing times and popular programs. A total of 20 201 advertisements were recorded, 25.5% of which were for food. Significantly more food advertisements broadcast during children's peak viewing times, compared to non-peak times, contained promotional characters (P marketing during all viewing periods were for non-core foods. Persuasive marketing techniques are frequently used to advertise non-core foods to children, to promote children's brand recognition and preference for advertised products. Future debate relating to television advertising regulations must consider the need to restrict the use of persuasive marketing techniques to children.
The aim of this master thesis is to analyze the social media engagement of the FMCGs (Fast Moving Consumer Goods) in Austria. The used methodologies are literature studies, Internet searches as well as internal data evaluations of the FMCG clients of a marketing agency. The thesis analyses selected key success factors on Social Media focusing on facebook, evaluates their development in the monitored period, and recommends main possibilities of future measures aiming on reaching an improvement...
Spackman, Jonathan S.; Larsen, Ross
This article validated one possible method, found in the luxury fashion industry, for evaluating the effectiveness of Facebook marketing activities on increasing enrollments in continuing higher education online courses. A survey assessing the qualities of social media marketing, value equity, relationship equity, brand equity, and purchase…
Snyder, Ilana; Jevons, Colin; Henderson, Michael; Gabbott, Mark; Beale, Denise
While schools have taught media literacy for many years, new challenges are raised by the growth of digital media and the sophistication of marketing techniques aimed at children. In response to a moral panic over the dangers posed by new media, schools have focused on cyber-safety education to reduce the incidence of phenomena such as…
Ramalingam, V. V.; Pandian, A.; Masilamani, Kirthiga
MarketingE-CommercebySodal media is the best way to improve marketing and business widely.The major issues faced with E-commerce and Social media interfacing is cold- start cross-site problem. The cold-start problem occurs at a situation when user is not having the history of purchase records.For the user who does not have a history of purchase records, we have introduced a method of finding the users’ interested product without knowing any of the demographic information of the user. The product is recommended on basesof visits i.e., the item which is most likely to be visited by the users occur in the hit list. This product is rated at the top position for the users to purchase. The e-commerce with social media sites uses the strategy of user embedding and product recommendations. The product recommendations are achieved by incorporating LatentDirichlet Allocation(LDA), Re Ranking and Collaborative Filtering algorithms. The proposed framework can enhance the recommendation system by embedding products and users. This shows the potential of solving cold-start cross-site problem across the e-commerce and social media sites and enhances the marketing strategy.
Full Text Available Use of media in the marketing strategy is an element of marketing tactics in an attempt to capture the market. Indicators of success are increased traffic promotions. Based on a survey conducted through interviews known that since the beginning of the Hospital stood own promotional programs, such as promotion through print media (brochures, leaflets, banners, electronic media (TV and online media (official site. The purpose of this study is to obtain in-depth information about the use of media in the marketing strategy at the Hospital Syafira 2016. This study was descriptive qualitative. The study was conducted at Hospital Syafira Pekanbaru. Subject of the study consisted of 3 main informant, 3 people informant support. With the method of collecting data through observation, interviews dam has the document. To maintain the validity of the data is done by means of triangulation. The results of the study, targeted communication of the Hospital is the whole society is in need of health services as well as the expected response from the target of the media campaign is limited only to find out the services that exist at the hospital. In setting the amount of the budget into the specific factors that need to be considered, namely in terms of the frequency of advertising and market share. Determining the message is done by involving the community or visitors. Selection of the budget available media that is using print media such as brochures, leaflets, banners, billboards, online media and social media such as facebook, twitter, instagram, specific media type is most effective is to use the brochure. Suggestions to the hospital, to determine the target of communication. Paying attention to the message, not just to provide information services, but the message may cause awareness or attention, interest, create desire, and encourage action. Managing back rssyafira.com website which until now have been inaccessible again
Vila, Natalia; Kuster, Ines
This article aims to examine the most widely used teaching media and methods in university education. To achieve this objective, international research has been carried out among 135 marketing teachers from North American and European universities. The study shows that North American teachers use more traditional media and participatory methods…
Tuten, Tracy; Marks, Melanie
Social media usage has grown rapidly in recent years, as individuals have incorporated social networks such as Facebook into their daily activities and businesses have begun to use social tools to interact with consumers. Many social media tools, likewise, have applications relevant for marketing education. This study assesses the adoption of…
Salimi, Mehdi; Zarea, Hadi; Khajeheian, Datis
Marketing of new products as important part of the commercialization process, plays a critical role in success of developer companies. Most of new products fail, and in sequence cause the company not to reach the financial and marketing aims. The paper concentrates on cooperative marketing...... alliances as a successful approach to commercialization of new products, by study the Iranian football premier league as a context for cooperative marketing alliances among football clubs and business enterprises. Popularity of football clubs has mentioned as a business platform, for commercialization...... usage from their equities, and help the business enterprise to joy from popularity of football club to exploit the market potential. Study results that cooperative marketing may offer an entrepreneurial approach to new product commercialization, and will promote the marketing abilities of football clubs....
Full Text Available The Romanian trade is passing through a transforming process, both for what the nature of the involved economic agents are concerned and the methods, techniques, knowledge etc. necessary for the activities within this economic field. Many of the favourable changes have been produced both under the influence of the large foreign retail groups (especially the European ones, present at themoment on the Romanian market too, and the impact of certain legislativeregulations applicable in this field. Right from the beginning of the “postDecember” period, there was an imperative need as far as the trade developmentwas concerned, as well as the creation of an urban framework that should offeroptimal conditions to carry out trading activities. The implementation of the foreignretail groups (including the large commercial centers has brought to our countrythe practices and commercial policies encountered in the civilized world, imposing at the same time the practice of the real competition, accompanied by a series of more or less favourable consequences, both at the local and national level. By the mid of March 2008, the hypermarket and supermarket type of market chains, discount and cash & carry markets (over 40 is going through an extension process, a fact which is to be observed in the huge number of markets in Romania, the Romanian market being open for the foreign investments.
Lewis, M Jane; Ling, Pamela M
As limitations on traditional marketing tactics and scrutiny by tobacco control have increased, the tobacco industry has benefited from direct mail marketing which transmits marketing messages directly to carefully targeted consumers utilising extensive custom consumer databases. However, research in these areas has been limited. This is the first study to examine the development, purposes and extent of direct mail and customer databases. We examined direct mail and database marketing by RJ Reynolds and Philip Morris utilising internal tobacco industry documents from the Legacy Tobacco Document Library employing standard document research techniques. Direct mail marketing utilising industry databases began in the 1970s and grew from the need for a promotional strategy to deal with declining smoking rates, growing numbers of products and a cluttered media landscape. Both RJ Reynolds and Philip Morris started with existing commercial consumer mailing lists, but subsequently decided to build their own databases of smokers' names, addresses, brand preferences, purchase patterns, interests and activities. By the mid-1990s both RJ Reynolds and Philip Morris databases contained at least 30 million smokers' names each. These companies valued direct mail/database marketing's flexibility, efficiency and unique ability to deliver specific messages to particular groups as well as direct mail's limited visibility to tobacco control, public health and regulators. Database marketing is an important and increasingly sophisticated tobacco marketing strategy. Additional research is needed on the prevalence of receipt and exposure to direct mail items and their influence on receivers' perceptions and smoking behaviours. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/
Wisnu Prasetya Utomo
Full Text Available The victory of Jokowi and Basuki Tjahaya Purnama (Ahok in the 2012 Jakarta election has marked an important stage in the development of political marketing on contemporary Indonesian politics. Social media provides a great influence in this election. Social media became an effective tools to organize people and mobilize voters. In the era of political personalization after the authoritarian New Order, mix-mediated political marketing which combine social media, mass media, and traditional political marketing can be an alternative strategy for the candidate or political party to win the election.
Makhitha, K. M.
Full Text Available The aim of this secondary research is to determine the suitability of social media as an element of marketing communication for craft producers. Secondary research was used to determine the suitability of social media as an element of marketing communication for craft producers in an emerging country. The growth in the craft market is also associated with the rise in local interest in South African craft fuelled by trends towards ethnic, rustic, earthy styles and increasing national pride and the return of local values. The consulted secondary resources confirm that social media has the potential to help crafters to create better brand awareness, better relationships with customers, and increase sales via these mechanisms. However, the major challenge for craft producers to use social media as a communication tool will be limited resources and illiteracy. The research recommends that the South African government provide support in the form of a centralized marketing agency that uses social media to promote craft producers products
Pridmore, Jason; Hämäläinen, Lalu Elias
textabstract(In)Aktive Marktsegmentierung: Marketing und noch zu installierende Rolle von Big- und Social-Media-Data«. Marketing has always been dependent on the input of new forms of consumer data throughout its history, relying on translations of this data into more and more effective means for targeting and engaging consumers. The focus on the digital segmentation of consumers has been subject to differing marketing orientations, beginning with relationship marketing and moving towards exp...
The purpose of this lesson plan is to introduce the importance of social media and the Internet on public relations and marketing. The lesson describes the new rules for public relations versus the old rules. It is a more in depth look at how, and why, to use blogging, social media, and the Internet for promoting a company and appealing to buyers.…
Ahmad, Madiha; Ahmad, Sofia; Ijaz, Nida; Batool, Sumera; Abid, Maratab
The article aims at the analysis of the TV commercials of three carbonated cold drinks from Pakistani media. The analysis will be carried out using the three dimensional framework presented by Fairclough. Through the analysis, the ideological framing of the commercials will be brought to light. To achieve this purpose different techniques used by…
Noori, Muhammad Yahya; AJi, Zaheer; Khan, Ghazala; Sharafat, Shaheen; Masroor, Muhammad
Mycobacterial culture is considered as the gold standard for TB diagnosis. It is performed on egg-based media using commercially available eggs to grow Mycobacteria from clinical samples. These eggs are known to contain high concentration of antibiotics, including fluoroquinolones, given to chicken to prevent early mortality. This study was performed to compare Mycobacterial growth on media prepared from commercial and antibiotic free household eggs. Sputum samples from negative (No bacilli in 100 oil immersion field), scanty (1-9 AFB in 100 fields), 1+ (10-99 bacilli per field), 2+ (1-10 bacilli per field) and 3+ (>10 bacilli per field) were inoculated dually on Ogawa medium prepared from commercial and household eggs. Tubes were inspected every fourth day for the appearance of colonies till 60 days. Data tabulations and statistical analysis (F test for variation and unpaired Student's t test) were performed on Microsoft Excel. One microscopically negative sample showed growth on media prepared from household eggs, while all were negative on that prepared from commercial eggs. There were significant differences in time to culture positivity for samples graded 1+ (p = 0.02), 2+ (p = 0.002) and 3+ (p = 0.0003). Commercial eggs containing antibiotics can be a source of false negativity in cultures especially in microscopically negative samples. This can be of special concern in HIV patients who have high smear negativity. It is therefore important to either develop provision of antibiotic free eggs for media preparation or to develop and validate other laboratory investigations for smear negative TB patients.
Noori, M.Y.; Khan, G.
Mycobacterial culture is considered as the gold standard for TB diagnosis. It is performed on egg-based media using commercially available eggs to grow Mycobacteria from clinical samples. These eggs are known to contain high concentration of antibiotics, including fluoroquinolones, given to chicken to prevent early mortality. This study was performed to compare Mycobacterial growth on media prepared from commercial and antibiotic free household eggs. Methods: Sputum samples from negative (No bacilli in 100 oil immersion field), scanty (1-9 AFB in 100 fields), 1+ (10-99 bacilli per field), 2+ (1-10 bacilli per field) and 3+ (>10 bacilli per field) were inoculated dually on Ogawa medium prepared from commercial and household eggs. Tubes were inspected every fourth day for the appearance of colonies till 60 days. Data tabulations and statistical analysis (F test for variation and unpaired Student's t test) were performed on Microsoft Excel. Results: One microscopically negative sample showed growth on media prepared from household eggs, while all were negative on that prepared from commercial eggs. There were significant differences in time to culture positivity for samples graded 1+ (p=0.02), 2+ (p=0.002) and 3+ (p=0.0003). Conclusion: Commercial eggs containing antibiotics can be a source of false negativity in cultures especially in microscopically negative samples. This can be of special concern in HIV patients who have high smear negativity. It is therefore important to either develop provision of antibiotic free eggs for media preparation or to develop and validate other laboratory investigations for smear negative TB patients. (author)
Lewis, M Jane; Ling, Pamela M
Background As limitations on traditional marketing tactics and scrutiny by tobacco control have increased, the tobacco industry has benefited from direct mail marketing which transmits marketing messages directly to carefully targeted consumers utilising extensive custom consumer databases. However, research in these areas has been limited. This is the first study to examine the development, purposes and extent of direct mail and customer databases. Methods We examined direct mail and database marketing by RJ Reynolds and Philip Morris utilising internal tobacco industry documents from the Legacy Tobacco Document Library employing standard document research techniques. Results Direct mail marketing utilising industry databases began in the 1970s and grew from the need for a promotional strategy to deal with declining smoking rates, growing numbers of products and a cluttered media landscape. Both RJ Reynolds and Philip Morris started with existing commercial consumer mailing lists, but subsequently decided to build their own databases of smokers’ names, addresses, brand preferences, purchase patterns, interests and activities. By the mid-1990s both RJ Reynolds and Philip Morris databases contained at least 30 million smokers’ names each. These companies valued direct mail/database marketing’s flexibility, efficiency and unique ability to deliver specific messages to particular groups as well as direct mail’s limited visibility to tobacco control, public health and regulators. Conclusions Database marketing is an important and increasingly sophisticated tobacco marketing strategy. Additional research is needed on the prevalence of receipt and exposure to direct mail items and their influence on receivers’ perceptions and smoking behaviours. PMID:26243810
Constantinides, Efthymios; Fountain, Stefan J.
This paper identifies the technological and commercial foundations of the new category of online applications commonly described as Web 2.0 or Social Media. It examines the relevance of Web 2.0 for Marketing Strategy and for Direct Marketing in particular. The issue is not a clear-cut one: while
Weeks, John [Eaton Corporation, Arden, NC (United States); Pugh, Jerry [Eaton Corporation, Arden, NC (United States)
In 2011, the DOE issued Funding Opportunity DE-FOA-0000554 as a means of addressing two major task areas identified by the Grid Integration Tech Team (GITT) that would help transition Electric vehicles from a market driven by early adopters and environmental supporters to a market with mainstream volumes. Per DE-FOA-0000554, these tasks were: To reduce the cost of Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment (EVSE), thereby increasing the likelihood of the build out of EV charging infrastructure. The goal of increasing the number of EVSE available was to ease concerns over range anxiety, and promote the adoption of electric vehicles: To allow EV loads to be managed via the smart grid, thereby maintaining power quality, reliability and affordability, while protecting installed distribution equipment. In December of that year, the DOE awarded one of the two contracts targeted toward commercial EVSE to Eaton, and in early 2012, we began in earnest the process of developing a Smart Grid Enable L2 EVSE for the Commercial Market (hereafter known as the DOE Charger). The design of the Smart Grid Enabled L2 EVSE was based primarily on the FOA requirements along with input from the Electric Transportation Infrastructure product line (hereafter ETI) marketing team who aided in development of the customer requirements.
The main objective of the research was to create a fully-working product, which is a group in social network, which may be used for promotion and increasing of brand awareness. The research was based on my own expe- rience obtained during the moderation of beta-version of group “Kruunupuisto Hotel” in one of the most popu- lar social networks in Russia – Odnoklassniki.ru The study consists of historical background of marketing, description of social media marketing(abbreviation SMM some...
The Electric Power Research Institute has developed instruments capable of verifying time responses of power plant pressure sensors and temperature sensors. A patent is pending on the pressure-sensor device, and the temperature-sensor device is already commercially available. The devices, EPRI's first hardware products to be marketed, are the result of research to find technological solutions to the problems of knowing the time period when temperature and pressure changes occur in light water reactors. The hydraulic pressure-sensor device is a portable unit that can conveniently test equipment in place. Utilities can obtain detailed information from EPRI's project report to construct their own. The loop current step response (LCSR), measuring resistance temperature, is also a compact system suitable for in-plant testing
Brocato, E. Deanne; White, Nathan James; Bartkus, Kenneth; Brocato, Ashley Ann
Given the presumed importance of social media to marketing, along with the apparent lack of research concerning social media curriculum development, the purpose of this study is to conduct a systematic analysis of social media curriculum through the evaluation of undergraduate course syllabi in the United States. This research is intended to…
Yu, Pattie; Waller, Karen
For years now, social change leaders have applied marketing principles to move and motivate their target audiences to change attitudes and ultimately and ideally behavior. By making the consumer the focus of the program, understanding the benefits and barriers for participating, and engaging in the marketing mix of product, price, promotion, and place, social marketers have been successful in applying this framework to clinical trial recruitment. A comprehensive recruitment plan will address the goal, objective,target, strategy, tactics, and evaluation that center around tested messages, disseminated through a host of communications channels including media and the "new" news media. The heart of social marketing, whether a public engagement campaign or a clinical trial recruitment effort, is always about them, not about you. Keeping focused on the target audience, their desires and concerns and channeling compelling messages through creative, motivating ways to engage them will help ensure a successful effort.
Buijzen, M.A.; Rozendaal, E.; Reijmersdal, E.A. van; Lemish, D.
In the first decade of the new millennium, children and adolescents' commercial media environment has changed dramatically. Advertisers have rapidly adopted new advertising techniques including branded websites, brand placement in video games, and viral marketing in social media (Buijzen et al.,
Sax, Hugo; Longtin, Yves; Alvarez-Ceyssat, Raymonde; Bonfillon, Chantal; Cavallero, Sabrina; Dayer, Pierre; Ginet, Claude; Herrault, Pascale
Although a large proportion of healthcare-associated infections are avoidable, healthcare workers do not always practice evidence-based preventive strategies. Marketing technologies might help to improve patient safety. This article presents the basic principles of marketing and its potential use to promote good infection control practices. The marketing mix (Product, Price, Place, and Promotion) should be taken into account to induce behaviour change. By placing the emphasis on the perceived "profits" for healthcare workers the approach might lose its moral aspect and gain in effectiveness. VigiGerme, a non-commercial registered trademark, applies social marketing techniques to infection control and prevention.
This study mainly focuses on the insights of a private school's head pertaining to the use of digital media in educational marketing. The qualitative research paradigm was chosen for this study and in depth phenomenological interview was conducted from a head of a private school. Two themes were extracted from the data: Marketing educational…
NARCI, Muhammed Talha
Social media sites are the most time spent areas in recent years with the services what they provide and the number of users is rapidly increasing. Thanks to a large number of social media users, companies turn to this field, and through this, firms can reach more people by carrying out promotion and marketing activities. On the other hand, social media sites enable consumers to gather information about their needs and they can directly communicate with companies about the products and servic...
Nair, T. R. Gopalakrishnan; Subramaniam, Kumarashvari
Effective Communication for marketing is a vital field in business organizations, which is used to convey the details about their products and services to the market segments and subsequently to build long lasting customer relationships. This paper focuses on an emerging component of the integrated marketing communication, ie. social media networking, as it is increasingly becoming the trend. In 21st century, the marketing communication platforms show a tendency to shift towards innovative te...
Hernández García, Ángel
This work-in-progress research project aims to cover different aspects of social media marketing in the fashion industry, starting with the creation of a framework for social media marketing strategies deployed by fashion companies. The research defines specific social media strategic actions, in terms of contents posted in different social media platforms, and analyzes their effect on consumers' perceptions and responses. The research features qualitative and quantitative data collected from...
Abrahams, Sheryl W
The advent of social networking sites and other online communities presents new opportunities and challenges for the promotion, protection, and support of breastfeeding. This study examines the presence of infant formula marketing on popular US social media sites, using the World Health Organization International Code of Marketing of Breast-milk Substitutes (the Code) as a framework. We examined to what extent each of 11 infant formula brands that are widely available in the US had established a social media presence in popular social media venues likely to be visited by expectant parents and families with young children. We then examined current marketing practices, using the Code as a basis for ethical marketing. Infant formula manufacturers have established a social media presence primarily through Facebook pages, interactive features on their own Web sites, mobile apps for new and expecting parents, YouTube videos, sponsored reviews on parenting blogs, and other financial relationships with parenting blogs. Violations of the Code as well as promotional practices unforeseen by the Code were identified. These practices included enabling user-generated content that promotes the use of infant formula, financial relationships between manufacturers and bloggers, and creation of mobile apps for use by parents. An additional concern identified for Code enforcement is lack of transparency in social media-based marketing. The use of social media for formula marketing may demand new strategies for monitoring and enforcing the Code in light of emerging challenges, including suggested content for upcoming consideration for World Health Assembly resolutions.
Constantinides, Efthymios; Karantinou, Kalipso; Alexiou, Maria; Vlachaki, Athanasia
The role and efficacy of online marketing in healthcare remains underexplored. The present study, focusing on one medical specialty, investigates the perceived role of the Internet and social media as marketing tools from the perspectives of both healthcare providers and patients. It assesses their
The aim of this research is to examine the effect of social media marketing activities on brand awareness, brand image and brand loyalty. In addition, it has been aimed to analyze the effect of brand awareness and brand image on brand loyalty in this research. The population of the research consists of the consumers who actively follow five brands with the highest social score according to the Marketing Turkey social media brand performance data on social media communication channels such as ...
Thapa, S; Prasad, C V; Rao, P H; Severy, L J; Rao, S R
Contraceptive social marketing is a way of supplying contraceptives to consumers who cannot afford to buy them at full market price, yet are not reached by the free public distribution program. The process involves supplying a subsidized product through existing commercial distribution networks, using the mass media and other retail marketing techniques to commercially advertise the products. India was the first country to introduce this concept to its family planning program. India's social marketing program is also the largest in the world. Over the past 25 years, total condom sales in India have expanded under the program from less than 10 million per year to more than one billion. The authors present an overview of India's social marketing initiative, describe the firms participating in the program, and summarize the lessons learned from the social marketing experience. Problems and prospects, and experiences and implications are discussed.
Clark, Melissa; Fine, Monica B.; Scheuer, Cara-Lynn
The landscape in consumer marketing is changing due to the rise in popularity of social media. This shift has also affected how higher education institutions build relationships with their stakeholders. This study explores how social media engagement impacts relationship quality between the university and one of its key stakeholder groups,…
Cheruiyot, Kimaru Stanley
Social media has become extremely effective form of marketing which has raised the brand awareness, brand loyalty, customer services and lead to increase sales hence opening tremendous opportunities for companies to market their products and services using social media. The objective of this research was to find out how tourism companies are integrating social media into marketing so as to boast awareness and generate excitement about tourism destination as well as finding what exactly ha...
Due to the continous increase in viral marketing's popularity phenomenon that causes viral marketing to later become a strategic requirement for marketers worldwide, a necessity to assess the effectiveness of viral marketing in achieveing its objectives in leveraging brand and products has emerged. This research was accomplished to study the impact of viral marketing through social media on consumer brand knowledge of a franchised Taiwanese bubble tea company, BCD. The company utilizes viral...
Il lavoro di tesi, che si compone di tre articoli di ricerca, analizza, nel contesto della marketing promotion, la risposta del consumatore ai media in termini di ricordo, intenzione di acquisto, comportamento di acquisto e preferenza per il medium. Il lavoro, in particolare, mette a confronto due tipologie di media, carta e online, nell’ambito della price e loyalty promotion, utilizzando due disegni di ricerca sperimentali ed uno correlazionale. I risultati del lavoro mostrano che la rispost...
V. I. Poplyko
Full Text Available Insurance market plays an important role in the economic development and has a special significance in the countries with economy of the transition period. In spite of its positive influence exerted on the development of national economy the level of insurance service spreading is still rather low. The paper considers main results of the activity of the Belarusian insurance organizations. Usage of statistic evaluation methods makes it possible to break them in separate groups. The conducted analysis of organizations’ financial flows (receipts, payments and profits for the period of 2005–2007 testifies to their dynamic development. Economic management subjects of non-state ownership take leading positions in this matter.Further growth of commercial insurance market greatly depends on the government efficiency to regulate the given sphere of activity. Removal of existing negative factors including creation of equal competitive conditions for all participants of the market, its demonopolization, will favor its development.
Bradley, J.; DeGroat, K.; Tanner, S.
This market and technical assessment illustrates that the Southwestern power market can support the commercialization needs of Solar Power Tower (SPT) technology over the next 10 to 15 years. Realizing full commercial development during this time is contingent on successful completion of Solar Two and development of an initial follow-on plant around 2000. After 2002, the power market will become increasingly robust, presenting new opportunities for SPT development. The important conclusion of this analysis is that SPT projects can reach a cost level that puts them at or below the expected norm of costs for their main competitor, combined cycle natural gas. This means that with the same competitive focus on minimizing costs and finding opportunities to be more competitive that characterize combined cycle project developers, SPT has a realistic chance of competing and winning market share. The ability of SPT technology to compete in this market will be greatly affected by the rate of cost-reductions and technological improvements, but perhaps as importantly, by the environmental and regulatory climate which will unfold over the next decade and the availability of low cost financing options
J.H. Pridmore (Jason); Hämäläinen, L.E.
textabstract(In)Aktive Marktsegmentierung: Marketing und noch zu installierende Rolle von Big- und Social-Media-Data«. Marketing has always been dependent on the input of new forms of consumer data throughout its history, relying on translations of this data into more and more effective means
Full Text Available The study develops and empirically tests a model for finding the effect of advertising frequency across different media vehicles towards building brand equity for the passenger car market for first time and repeat buyers. The effect that selected media mix elements had on the dimensions of brand equity was examined. First time buyers are expected to have lower category knowledge than repeat buyers, and are hence expected to behave differently from repeat buyers. Since the knowledge structures of these two groups are expected to be different, it is reasonable to predict that they would process product/brand related information differently and this is corroborated by the results.
Regulatory theory is premised on the failure of markets, prompting a focus on regulators and industry from economic perspectives. This article argues that overlooking the public interest in the sustainability of commercial markets risks markets failing completely. This point is exemplified through health care markets - meeting an essential need - and focuses upon innovative medicines as the most desired products in that market. If this seemingly invulnerable market risks failure, there is a pressing need to consider the public interest in sustainable markets within regulatory literature and practice. Innovative medicines are credence goods, meaning that the sustainability of the market fundamentally relies upon the public trusting regulators to vouch for product quality. Yet, quality is being eroded by patent bodies focused on economic benefits from market growth, rather than ensuring innovatory value. Remunerative bodies are not funding medicines relative to market value, and market authorisation bodies are not vouching for robust safety standards or confining market entry to products for 'unmet medical need'. Arguably, this failure to assure quality heightens the risk of the market failing where it cannot be substituted by the reputation or credibility of providers of goods and/or information such as health care professionals/institutions, patient groups or industry.
Rauwers, F.; van Noort, G.; Verlegh, P.; Voorveld, H.; Eisend, M.
Consumers are exposed to a large volume of advertising messages on a daily basis. This excess of commercial messages is called advertising clutter. Marketers are searching for new innovative advertising strategies to break through this clutter and creative media advertising is considered as one of
Kuehn, T. J.; Nawrocki, P. M.
It is suggested that federal programs for hastening the adoption of alternative energy sources must operate within the free market structure. Five phases of the free market commercialization process are described. Federal role possibilities include information dissemination and funding to stimulate private sector activities within these five phases, and federally sponsored procedures for accelerating commercialization of solar thermal small power systems are considered.
Full Text Available This study aims to: 1 describe the implementation of blog as a learning medium for online marketing subject; 2 determine students' response on the implementation of blog as a learning medium for online marketing subject; and 3 know the advantages and disadvantages after the implementation the implementation of blog as a learning medium for online marketing subject. This research is a qualitative descriptive research. Data that were taken for this study is based on the observation sheet and questionnaire. In addition, the data sources that are taken are 26 tenth grade students of Marketing 2 at SMKN 1 Probolinggo. The research finding showed that: 1 the implementation of a blog can help students to learn online marketing materials; 2 the results of the questionnaire showed that students responded positively on the implementation of blogs as a learning medium; and 3 the advantages and disadvantages after the implementation of blogs as a learning medium are: a advantages: teachers can operate a blog, students can be more active in the learning activities and creating innovative and creative learning; b dissadvantages: there is one student who did not like the virtual world and if there is a blackout, the teaching and learning activities is disrupted. Abstrak: Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk 1 mendeskripsikan penerapan blog sebagai media pembelajaran mata pelajaran pemasaran online, 2 mengetahui respon siswa terhadap penerapan blog sebagai media pembelajaran mata pelajaran pemasaran online, 3 mengetahui kelebihan dan kekurangan setelah penerapan blog sebagai media pembelajaran mata pelajaran pemasaran online. Jenis penelitian ini adalah deskriptif kualitatif. Data yang diambil untuk penelitian ini berdasarkan pada lembar observasi dan angket. Sedangkan sumber data yang diambil yaitu 26 siswa kelas X PMS 2 di SMKN 1 Probolinggo. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa 1 penerapan blog dapat membantu siswa dalam belajar materi pemasaran online, 2 hasil
Scully, Maree; Wakefield, Melanie; Niven, Philippa; Chapman, Kathy; Crawford, David; Pratt, Iain S; Baur, Louise A; Flood, Victoria; Morley, Belinda
The present study examined associations between food marketing exposure and adolescents' food choices and reported consumption of energy-dense and nutrient-poor (EDNP) foods. A cross-sectional survey of 12,188 Australian secondary students aged 12-17 years was conducted, using a web-based self-report questionnaire. Measures included students' level of exposure to commercial television and non-broadcast types of food marketing, whether they had tried a new product or requested a product they had seen advertised, and their reported consumption of fast food, sugary drinks and sweet and salty snacks. Results indicated greater exposure to commercial television, print/transport/school food marketing and digital food marketing were all independently associated with students' food choices. High commercial television viewers (>2h/day) were more likely to report higher consumption of EDNP foods (ORs ranged from 1.31 for fast food to 1.91 for sweet snacks). Some associations between digital food marketing exposure and students' eating behaviors were found; however, print/transport/school food marketing was only related to sweet snack consumption. These study results suggest that cumulative exposure to television food advertising and other food marketing sources are positively linked to adolescents' food choices and eating behaviors. Policy changes to restrict food marketing to young people should include both television and non-broadcast media. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Mobile media OTT service such as mobile music and mobile video is believed to be the next big revenue driver for mobile operator’s mobile broadband business. The media industry is willing to take mobile distribution channel to increase the content value. In Europe, there are already several successful cooperation cases between online media service provider and mobile operator, such as Spotify and Telia. However, with more complicated market and business environment in China, the mobile media ...
Blerta Rugova; Burim Prenaj
Social media is a phenomenon that has transformed the interaction and communication of individuals throughout the world. Especially, social networking websites are very popular and have become daily practice in a lot of people’s lives. These sites have made significant impact on the individual’s life. However, social media is not only a communication tool for amusement, but it is also an important part of marketing strategies in business life. There is a constant rise in social networking and...
Arts festivals have been explored through many lenses, but social media marketing and digital performance are less studied. The potential of social media networks in digital performance is exemplified by the London International Festival of Theatre (LIFT), which repositions social media technology as an enabler for audiences to co-produce digitally oriented performance. This article argues that the relationship between social media marketing and performance is more hybridized than often assum...
Ezraty, Benjamin; Henry, Camille; Hérisse, Marion; Denamur, Erick; Barras, Frédéric
Lysogeny Broth (LB), most often misnamed Luria-Bertani medium, ranks among the most commonly used growth media in microbiology. Surprisingly, we observed that oxidative levels vary with the commercial origin of the LB ready to use powder. Indeed, growth on solid media of Escherichia coli and Salmonella derivatives lacking antioxidative stress defenses, such as oxyR mutant devoid of the H2O2-sensing transcriptional activator or Hpx(-) strains lacking catalases and peroxidases, exhibit different phenotypes on LB-Sigma or LB-Difco. Using gene fusion and exogenously added catalase, we found that LB-Sigma contains higher levels of H2O2 than LB-Difco. Also we observed differences in population counts of 82 clinical and environmental isolates of E. coli, depending on the LB used. Further investigations revealed a significant influence of the commercial origin of agar as well. Besides being a warning to the wide population of LB users, our observations provide researchers in the oxidative stress field with a tool to appreciate the severity of mutations in antioxidative stress defenses. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
This thesis studies Finnish music industry startups’ viewpoints on marketing communica-tions and social media, as well as their views on the future of the music business. Four Finland based music industry startups were interviewed for the study. Separate chapters deal with the framework of the study: marketing communications, social media and music industry. During the past few years a number of startup companies have been established in Finland with the aim of providing online and digit...
Kraak, Vivica I; Kumanyika, Shiriki K; Story, Mary
Public- and private-sector initiatives to promote healthy eating and physical activity, called 'healthy lifestyles', are a relatively recent response to the global obesity pandemic. The present paper explores different views about marketing healthy lifestyles with a special emphasis on private-sector initiatives and public-private partnerships designed to reach young people. We discuss aspects of these initiatives and partnerships from three perspectives: (i) the potential for commercial marketing practices to have a favourable influence on reversing global obesity trends (termed prospects); (ii) unresolved dilemmas and challenges that may hinder progress (termed pitfalls); and (iii) the implementation and evaluation of coordinated and systematic actions (termed priorities) that may increase the likelihood that commercially marketed healthy-lifestyle initiatives and public-private partnerships can make a positive contribution to reverse the rise in overweight and obesity among young people globally.
To describe the marketing of snacks and beverages to children in television (TV) commercials and on food packages. Study 1: For 5 weeks from April 1 to May 7, 2007, TV commercials were recorded from one of five channels each week (Nihon, TBS, Fuji, Asahi, and Tokyo). Study 2: The energy values of the products advertised in the TV commercials analyzed in Study 1 were determined, along with whether marketing information (e.g., presents, campaigns, and URLs) was included on the packages. The data were shown in frequency tables, and a chi2 test was conducted to examine the relationship between the energy values of the products (under or over 200 kcal) and descriptions concerning consumption of the products presented in the TV commercials (none, eating alone and eating with others). Five hours and 18 minutes of food commercials and 2 hours and 57 minutes of snack commercials were obtained from the 105 hours of recordings. Of the food commercials, 55.7% were for snacks. Commercials that were repeated or that targeted adults were excluded, leaving 197 commercials for analysis. There were many beverage commercials, most often associating products with mood, such as having fun and good times. No relationship between the energy value of the products (under or over 200 kcal), and the description of consuming the product in the TV commercials (none, eating alone and eating with others) was found (chi2 (2) = 2.2, P = 0.33). A scene showing someone eating alone was the most common depiction for products with energy levels both under and over 200 kcal. The analysis of 164 snack packages showed that most gave URLs. Although the present study had several limitations, such as the relatively short research period, as the first to describe TV commercials for snacks and beverages in Japan it provides new insights. It is now necessary to understand the current state of commercials in other media, and to consider the content of nutrition education for the future, including media literacy
Mjelde, Jarle Christian
In summarizing the reasons for the fall of the Roman empire one has found about 210 significant ones. Without too much comparison the Roman empire and the EU natural gas market have similarities in connections between political authorities and the commercial actors in the European natural gas market. The area has consisted of several independent markets with different solutions that from 1988 has been tried integrated in an inner energy market. Several governmental and private actors have interest in this sector and both inhabitants and businesses are affected by alterations in a national natural gas market. This process is not yet finished. The thesis gives a broad description of the topic by including as many as possible of the EU member states. The topic is large and complex and the author has had to make a choice which parts to emphasize. There are chapters on the theoretical basis, the natural gas industry, what factors may explain the relationship between the political authorities and the commercial actors in the national natural gas market in each EU member and how does the EU Commission goals regarding free competition in the energy market affect the relationship between the political authorities and commercial actors in the national natural gas market
Mostafa Ghazizadeh; Ahmad Sardari; Seyyed Reza Shojaee; Mehdi Samizadeh
Abstract The main goal of this research is to review and determine the factors associated with tendency to forward the marketing messages in viral marketing plans of Fast-food industries. In other words, in this study, the effects of three critical determinants, i.e. commercial intention, attractiveness, and media richness have been examined on receivers' intention to forward marketing message in Tehran, Isfahan and Shiraz. Findings imply that receivers’ attitude toward the message has pos...
Full Text Available Does the trend in which electronic media are gradually becoming extension of human body have to move towards full enslavement of a human and his personality, or the same human will unpredictably, with the aid of his personal media literacy, exit the whirls of media and technological censorships? Personality crisis is closely related to the crisis of language no matter how contradicted to global ideology of transnational transhumanism it may seem. Considering the fact that recent media presentations of the world are based on commercialization of environmentalism, philosophical and aesthetic thought appears as an important subject of ecology. As media mediates, the scenery of civilized living increasingly becomes more appealing even though it derives from commercial and political background. Consequently, the future of humanity depends by large on the philosophy of media. Media have to truly ecologise returning the humanum to its essence making it into the extension of the natural world.
Huang, Jidong; Duan, Zongshuan; Kwok, Julian; Binns, Steven; Vera, Lisa E; Kim, Yoonsang; Szczypka, Glen; Emery, Sherry L
While national surveys showed declines in e-cigarette use in the USA between 2015 and 2016, recent reports indicate that JUUL, a sleekly designed e-cigarette that looks like a USB drive, is increasingly being used by youth and young adults. However, the extent of JUUL's growth and its marketing strategy have not been systematically examined. A variety of data sources were used to examine JUUL retail sales in the USA and its marketing and promotion. Retail store scanner data were used to capture the retail sales of JUUL and other major e-cigarette brands for the period 2011-2017. A list of JUUL-related keywords was used to identify JUUL-related tweets on Twitter; to identify JUUL-related posts, hashtags and accounts on Instagram and to identify JUUL-related videos on YouTube. In the short 3-year period 2015-2017, JUUL has transformed from a little-known brand with minimum sales into the largest retail e-cigarette brand in the USA, lifting sales of the entire e-cigarette category. Its US$150 million retail sales in the last quarter of 2017 accounted for about 40% of e-cigarette retail market share. While marketing expenditures for JUUL were moderate, the sales growth of JUUL was accompanied by a variety of innovative, engaging and wide-reaching campaigns on Twitter, Instagram and YouTube, conducted by JUUL and its affiliated marketers. The discrepancies between e-cigarette sales data and the prevalence of e-cigarette use from surveys highlight the challenges in tracking and understanding the use of new and emerging tobacco products. In a rapidly changing media environment, where successful and influential marketing campaigns can be conducted on social media at little cost, marketing expenditures alone may not fully capture the influence, reach and engagement of tobacco marketing. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.
Lubis, Evawani Elysa; Pratama, Lian
The rise of social media is the new media can be used as marketing at once to do consumer interaction, called social media marketing. One of the social media marketing which is now popular among business people, IE blackberry messenger. Through this application can send a message text, sound, and images for free about their business or place information and promotions offered from their products so that it formed an interest to buy from someone, with the blackberry messenger messages or infor...
Full Text Available The contribution deals with investments of commercial insurance companies operating in Slovak, Czech and Austrian insurance market in the period of 2004–2009. First of all, development of technical reserves volume as an important prerequisite of investing of commercial insurance companies will be characterized. After that, we evaluate financial placements and investment activities – ratio of total investments and technical reserves. We also present statistical tests by means of which we examine the existence of the relation between the volume of technical reserves and the volume of investments of commercial insurance companies.
The objective of this study is to develop a social media marketing plan for the case com-pany to integrate it into its existing marketing communications. The case company of this study is a medium-sized consumer goods producing company that advertises its brand and products using traditional methods of advertising (radio, television, flyers and event promotion). At the moment, these methods seem to be lacking in efficiency and effective-ness caused by the saturation of marketing information w...
The thesis will study the effectiveness of social media marketing as the main marketing tool for an SME. Social media has shown significant growth in popularity lately, both in the public and personal use as well as in the business world. Companies are acknowledging the potential of social media and realizing slowly that it seems that it will not be a passing trend. For an SME this could potentially mean good news. The general idea is that social media marketing could potentially be fairly in...
Safura M. Kallier
Full Text Available Marketing communication is essential for any business as it informs the consumer about the business and the products and services that it offers. The way in which the retailer decides to communicate with the customer is important as it can influence the consumer to purchase from the retailer. With the rapid increase in new communication mediums, retailers now have much more mediums at their disposal to communicate and interact with their customers. This study thus aimed to determine which mediums of marketing communication media is most influential for the consumer. Convenience sampling was used for this study and a self-administered web-based questionnaire was used to collect the data. The data was collected from available consumers in the Gauteng province of South Africa. The results indicated that consumers regard marketing communication mediums such as television, radio as influential and would react to marketing communication that included discounts and vouchers.
This article categorizes and describes current media campaigns to reduce college student drinking, reviews key principles of campaign design and outlines recommendations for future campaigns. The article describes three types of media campaigns on student drinking: information, social norms marketing, and advocacy. Key principles of campaign design are derived from work in commercial marketing, advertising, and public relations and from evaluations of past public health campaigns. Information campaigns on the dangers of high-risk drinking are common, but none has been rigorously evaluated. Quasi-experimental studies suggest that social norms marketing campaigns, which correct misperceptions of campus drinking norms, may be effective, but more rigorous research is needed. As of this writing, only one major media campaign has focused on policy advocacy to reduce college student drinking, but it is still being evaluated. Lessons for campaign design are organized as a series of steps for campaign development, implementation and assessment: launch a strategic planning process, select a strategic objective, select the target audience, develop a staged approach, define the key promise, avoid fear appeals, select the right message source, select a mix of media channels, maximize media exposure, conduct formative research, and conduct process and outcome evaluations. Future campaigns should integrate information, social norms marketing, and advocacy approaches to create a climate of support for institutional, community and policy changes that will alter the environment in which students make decisions about their alcohol consumption.
Full Text Available Popularity of social media among Internet users resulted in popularity of this medium among companies looking for contact with the participants of the community. Social media became as well a marketing research area of interest. Challenges social media researchers are facing, such as a combination of quantitative and qualitative aspects, and the problem of complexity and the selection of indicators, demonstrate the need to systematize the knowledge in this area.
Muhammad Ade Himawan
Full Text Available Usaha Mikro Kecil dan Menengah (UMKM merupakan salah satu elemen penting dalam perekonomian suatu negara. keberhasilan UMKM memiliki dampak langsung terhadap pembangunan ekonomi baik pada negara maju maupun negara berkembang, tidak terkecuali Indonesia. Dari tahun 2009 sampai tahun 2012, jumlah UMKM di Indonesia terus meningkat hingga mencapai angka 56,6 juta. Hal tersebut menjadikan UMKM sebagai penopang perekonomian nasional. Peningkatan jumlah UMKM juga terjadi di Kota Surabaya. Peningkatan jumlah UMKM di Surabaya membuat persaingan menjadi semakin kompetitif, sehingga UMKM harus memiliki strategi marketing yang baik agar bisa bersaing. Salah satu strategi marketing yang bisa digunakan oleh UMKM di Surabaya adalah dengan memanfaatkan social media sebagai alat pemasaran. Namun, masih sedikit UMKM di Kota Surabaya terutama UMKM binaan pemerintah yang menggunakan social media untuk memsarkan dan mempromosikan produk mereka. Dinas Perdagangan dan Perindustrian (Disperdagin Kota Surabaya selaku biro pemerintah yang menaungi UMKM di Surabaya kemudian berinisiatif untuk membantu UMKM binaan dengan melakukan promosi menggunakan social media yang akan dikelola oleh Disperdagin. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk Mengidentifikasi dan mengevaluasi social media yang tepat bagi Disperdagin Kota Surabaya, Kemudian membuat rancangan implementasi social media marketing bagi Disperdagin untuk branding UMKM, dan yang terakhir merancang panduan operasional social media marketing yang efektif bagi Disperdagin untuk branding UMKM binaan. Metode yang digunakan mengadopsi model House of Quality (HOQ. Hasil dari penelitian ini yakni ada tiga social media yang sesuai untuk digunakan oleh Disperdagin yaitu Facebook, Twitter dan Instagram. Selain itu, dari hasil analisis juga didapati 15 poin rencana aksi social media marketing yang bisa dijadikan landasan dalam pembuatan dan pengelolaan akun social media oleh Disperdagin.
Full Text Available The aim of this research is to examine the effect of social media marketing activities on brand awareness, brand image and brand loyalty. In addition, it has been aimed to analyze the effect of brand awareness and brand image on brand loyalty in this research. The population of the research consists of the consumers who actively follow five brands with the highest social score according to the Marketing Turkey social media brand performance data on social media communication channels such as Facebook, Twitter and Instagram. In this research, quantitative method has been used and research data has been obtained via online questionnaires shared on social media from 547 brand followers with applying convenience sampling method. The obtained data have been analyzed by structural equation modeling (SEM. As a result of the analysis, social media marketing activities have been found as effective factors on brand image and brand loyalty, besides it has been determined that the most obvious effect seen on brand awareness. In addition, it has been found out that brand awareness and brand image have a significant effect on brand loyalty. Furthermore, in the research, it has been achieved that the brand awareness has a limited effect on the brand image.
The purpose of this thesis is to suggest ways to increase and develop the brand image of A. Ahlström Real Estate Ltd. The plan involves more effort put on B2B events, adding new service concepts, highlighting social media as a marketing tool and creating a new sales strategy for foreign customers. The goal is not to create a brand, but rather enhance and develop the already existing one. By implementing a variety of social media channels into their marketing strategy A. Ahlström Real...
This report revises and extends previous work sponsored by the US DOE on the potential industrial market in the United States for solar thermal energy systems and presents a new analysis of the commercial sector market potential. Current and future industrial process heat demand and commercial water heating, space heating and space cooling end-use demands are estimated. The PC Industrial Model (PCIM) and the commercial modules of the Building Energy End-Use Model (BEEM) used by the DOE's Energy Information Administration (EIA) to support the recent National Energy Strategy (NES) analysis are used to forecast industrial and commercial end-use energy demand respectively. Energy demand is disaggregated by US Census region to account for geographic variation in solar insolation and regional variation in cost of alternative natural gas-fired energy sources. The industrial sector analysis also disaggregates demand by heat medium and temperature range to facilitate process end-use matching with appropriate solar thermal energy supply technologies. The commercial sector analysis disaggregates energy demand by three end uses: water heating, space heating, and space cooling. Generic conceptual designs are created for both industrial and commercial applications. Levelized energy costs (LEC) are calculated for industrial sector applications employing low temperature flat plate collectors for process water preheat; parabolic troughs for intermediate temperature process steam and direct heat industrial application; and parabolic dish technologies for high temperature, direct heat industrial applications. LEC are calculated for commercial sector applications employing parabolic trough technologies for low temperature water and space heating. Cost comparisons are made with natural gas-fired sources for both the industrial market and the commercial market assuming fuel price escalation consistent with NES reference case scenarios for industrial and commercial sector gas markets
Robinson, Maren N; Tansil, Kristin A; Elder, Randy W; Soler, Robin E; Labre, Magdala P; Mercer, Shawna L; Eroglu, Dogan; Baur, Cynthia; Lyon-Daniel, Katherine; Fridinger, Fred; Sokler, Lynn A; Green, Lawrence W; Miller, Therese; Dearing, James W; Evans, William D; Snyder, Leslie B; Kasisomayajula Viswanath, K; Beistle, Diane M; Chervin, Doryn D; Bernhardt, Jay M; Rimer, Barbara K
Health communication campaigns including mass media and health-related product distribution have been used to reduce mortality and morbidity through behavior change. The intervention is defined as having two core components reflecting two social marketing principles: (1) promoting behavior change through multiple communication channels, one being mass media, and (2) distributing a free or reduced-price product that facilitates adoption and maintenance of healthy behavior change, sustains cessation of harmful behaviors, or protects against behavior-related disease or injury. Using methods previously developed for the Community Guide, a systematic review (search period, January 1980-December 2009) was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of health communication campaigns that use multiple channels, including mass media, and distribute health-related products. The primary outcome of interest was use of distributed health-related products. Twenty-two studies that met Community Guide quality criteria were analyzed in 2010. Most studies showed favorable behavior change effects on health-related product use (a median increase of 8.4 percentage points). By product category, median increases in desired behaviors ranged from 4.0 percentage points for condom promotion and distribution campaigns to 10.0 percentage points for smoking-cessation campaigns. Health communication campaigns that combine mass media and other communication channels with distribution of free or reduced-price health-related products are effective in improving healthy behaviors. This intervention is expected to be applicable across U.S. demographic groups, with appropriate population targeting. The ability to draw more specific conclusions about other important social marketing practices is constrained by limited reporting of intervention components and characteristics. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Dyrlund, Thomas F; Kirkegaard, Kirstine; Poulsen, Ebbe Toftgaard; Sanggaard, Kristian W; Hindkjær, Johnny J; Kjems, Jørgen; Enghild, Jan J; Ingerslev, Hans Jakob
Which non-declared proteins (proteins not listed on the composition list of the product data sheet) are present in unconditioned commercial embryo culture media? A total of 110 non-declared proteins were identified in unconditioned media and between 6 and 8 of these were quantifiable and therefore represent the majority of the total protein in the media samples. There are no data in the literature on what non-declared proteins are present in unconditioned (fresh media in which no embryos have been cultured) commercial embryo media. The following eight commercial embryo culture media were included in this study: G-1 PLUS and G-2 PLUS G5 Series from Vitrolife, Sydney IVF Cleavage Medium and Sydney IVF Blastocyst Medium from Cook Medical and EmbryoAssist, BlastAssist, Sequential Cleav and Sequential Blast from ORIGIO. Two batches were analyzed from each of the Sydney IVF media and one batch from each of the other media. All embryo culture media are supplemented by the manufacturers with purified human serum albumin (HSA 5 mg/ml). The purified HSA (HSA-solution from Vitrolife) and the recombinant human albumin supplement (G-MM from Vitrolife) were also analyzed. For protein quantification, media samples were in-solution digested with trypsin and analyzed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). For in-depth protein identification, media were albumin depleted, dialyzed and concentrated before sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The gel was cut into 14 slices followed by in-gel trypsin digestion, and analysis by LC-MS/MS. Proteins were further investigated using gene ontology (GO) terms analysis. Using advanced mass spectrometry and high confidence criteria for accepting proteins (P defence pathways, for example 18 were associated with the innate immune response and 17 with inflammatory responses. Eight proteins have been reported previously as secreted embryo proteins. For six of the commercial embryo culture media only one
Tsimonis, Georgios; Dimitriadis, Sergios
Considering the rapid development of social media and their penetration in business marketing actions, the changes brought to the firm-customer interactions, and that social interactions are enhanced by social media, it is reasonable to ask a) what actions companies take, what their motivations are, what policies and strategies they follow, and what outcomes do they expect; and b) what social benefits arise from the use of such social media channels. The present work is a part of a study whic...
Gupta, Himanshu; Lam, Tina; Pettigrew, Simone; Tait, Robert J
Alcohol marketing on social networking sites (SNS) is associated with alcohol use among young people. Alcohol companies adapt their online marketing content to specific national contexts and responses to such content differ by national settings. However, there exists very little academic work comparing the association between alcohol marketing on SNS and alcohol use among young people in different national settings and across different SNS. Therefore, we aimed to extend the limited existing work by investigating and comparing the association between self-reported exposure to alcohol marketing on three leading SNS (Facebook, YouTube, and Twitter) and alcohol use among young people in diverse national contexts (India and Australia). Cross-sectional, self-report data were obtained from a convenience sample of 631 respondents (330 in India; 301 in Australia) aged 13-25 years via online surveys. Respondents answered questions on their drinking behaviors and involvement with alcohol marketing on SNS. Many respondents from both countries reported interacting with alcohol content online, predominantly on Facebook, followed by YouTube and then Twitter. The interaction was primarily in the forms of posting/liking/sharing/commenting on items posted on alcohol companies' social media accounts, viewing the event page/attending the event advertised by an alcohol company via social media, and/or accessing an alcohol website. Multivariate analyses demonstrated significant associations between respondents' interaction with alcohol content and drinking levels, with effects differing by SNS, demographic group, and country. For example, having friends who shared alcohol-related content was an important predictor of usual alcohol consumption for Indian respondents (p social media platforms and national contexts. The results highlight the need to formulate and implement strategies to effectively regulate the SNS alcohol marketing, especially among younger SNS users.
Naybi Salas Vargas
Full Text Available The proposal is based on the studio of marketing in touristic sector with emphasis in shops as tool in commercial management that allows work team coordination, resources and materials, and the orientation towards the client to afford best earnings, position in market and image. This thematic responds to the conditions of the Tiendas Recaudadoras de Divisas (TRD in Sancti Spiritus Province, solving problems in manipulating and managing of inventories and the marketing of Caracol product, what affects the financial results given by a non fitable activity to the market challenges. The previous said is the result of the estimable practical, financial and economic values of an investigation in order to achieve social satisfaction of the clients needs. The investigation proposed a methodology supported in Sainz (1995 methodological scheme with the necessary adaptations related to the development of commercial activity in TRD, as fitable response to actual context of this enterprise in the touristic activity in Cuba.
Skoumpopoulou, D; Vlachos, I; San José, J
This research project investigates the impact of social media, in particular the uses of the social media in Spain, the impact of the engagement concept for the companies, the influence of the word of mouth for the businesses and the effectiveness of social media marketing in Spanish companies. Qualitative data has been gathered from five Spanish companies that use social media providing rich and detailed information. The most common use of social media in Spain is branding and promotions but...
Social media is currently an evolving “wave” in online business marketing. Marketers are beginning to drive the use of social media as a component in their marketing strategy and campaigns to reach out to customers and fans. Within the subdisciplines of marketing that may use social media include promotions, marketing intelligence, sentiments research, public relations, marketing communications and product and customer management. This paper will try to find a conceptual model ...
Mostert, Clarise Letitia
The purpose of this study was to critically assess the key success factors of social media as a marketing tool in the South African tourism industry. Numerous studies have been done on social media, but none of them were focused on optimising the success of social media in the South African tourism industry. Relationship marketing and social media is interrelated, where relationships form the foundation of social media. Social media has become the world’s latest marketing marvel, dissemina...
Full Text Available The mass media which should serve as a channel of information, entertainment, education, and social control only able to portray itself solely as a medium of information and entertainment. Business dimension override seemed ideal dimensions that should go hand in hand. Commodification of the media has obscured the real function of the media. On behalf of the commercialization of value to media converted to market value. Not important quality of a program. Put forward is how a program backed by the financial strength or sponsorship. As a result, the commodification of the media has spawned society commodities. Society tends to be absorbed in the strength of an increasingly hegemonic pop culture with all its attributes. Lifestyle has become a commodity. Lifestyle embodied in Kohe culture.
Full Text Available The Internet evolved from Web1.0 to Web2.0, bringing on frontline the Social Media, with the help of which a double communication advantage can be underscored: between companies and their customers and between customers. Hence, Social Media can be considered a new, hybrid component of the promotion-mix. This complex phenomenon includes also weblogs or more commun expressed: blogs. The blogosphere grows as the number of weblogs multiplicate in an exponential manner and starts to gain ground in marketing. As consumers search for recommandations on the Internet about trends and products to buy and thus also on blogs, this can only lead to influencing consumer’s behavior. Two different types of weblogs are analysed: fashion blogs and travel blogs.
Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to examine the role of social media as marketing tools in professional team sport organizations. Focusing on the English Premier League football club Liverpool FC, an exploratory case study design using one-to-one inter- views with the club’s senior social media managers was adopt- ed. The findings highlight the need for integration of all media channels of the club in order to allow for a more targeted and engaging approach towards its fans, and suggests that further development of social media strategies has potential to deliver increased commercial gains both in the short and in the long term. However, given the peculiar nature of sports fandom, a major issue for social media managers is to find the appropriate balance between content that increases fan interaction and engagement and content that deals with purely commercial purposes.
TRAIAN ALEXANDRU NASTASE
In this paper we intend to describe the economic implications of mass-media in correlation with the recent socio-economic changes generated by the economic crisis. We take into consideration the dual market on which mass-media evolves: the mass-media products market, and the advertising market, keeping in mind that the behavior of a mass-media institution on one market, can have direct implication on the other market. We analyze the relation between mass-media and the public (audience), the c...
Full Text Available Background: In tourism, globally there is a growing interest in social media marketing research. However, most previous research on social media marketing has focused on large tourism enterprises such as chain hotels, leaving out small tourism businesses such as travel agencies and tour operators. Objective: The aim of this research was to establish factors that influence attitude towards the use of social media marketing by travel agencies and tour operators in South Africa. Method: The study adopteda quantitative approach through the use of questionnaires. Data used in the analysis were collected from 150 travel agencies and tour operators by means of a structured questionnaire. Multiple regression analysis and one-way ANOVA were used for data analysis. Results: The results showed that managerial support and managers’ level of education are the two main internal factors which influence attitude towards the use of social media marketing. Pressure from competitors, perceived benefits and perceived ease of use were found to be the most prominent external factors which influence the use of social media marketing. The results also revealed that technical knowledge moderates the relationship between attitude towards social media marketing and the level of social media marketing usage. Conclusion: The study concludes with these recommendations: Management of travel agencies, tour operating businesses and the South African government should support the use of social media marketing by small tourism businesses through providing training and workshops on social media marketing for the employees to acquire the required skills.
K. Prakash Vel
Full Text Available Marketers have paid a huge price for their inability to decipher which trend has come to stay and which one is a fad. Such a challenge has jeopardized the survival of blue-chip brands, as marketers anticipated in vain the end of existing red ocean strategies. Essentially, the traditional marketing strategies associated with the success of well-known brands in the past are losing their relevance in the current context. There is the need to identify and understand modern trends and their implications to marketing strategy development. In light of this, this study examines fourteen (14 fundamental ‘game changing’ trends that are poised to impact the traditional practices and perceptions associated with marketing at the operational and strategic levels. The study presents the trends under three categories, the invasive role of technology, data, and social media, alongside looking at their impact on contemporary marketing. Each trend has been identified and analyzed based on in-depth interviews with industry experts as the primary source of data. Relevant data has also been given to present a holistic perspective on each trend.
Recent scholarship challenges the celebratory discourse surrounding Web 2.0. This paper engages with this scholarship to examine critically the implications of academic libraries' presence within commercially owned social media spaces. It considers the apparent contradiction between work to promote the principles of open access and the idea of the…
Reports have shown how behavioural marketing through social media sites is heavily dominated by soft drink and fast food franchises, with additional concern arising due to the direct targeting of this marketing at 13 to 17-year-olds. Dr Simon Williams from Northwestern University, Chicago, USA suggests ways in which the medical community can tackle this threat to public health.
Barakat, Bassam; DALZIEL, Nurdilek
Purpose: In an era that is characterised by speed and ruled by technology, new communication tools are required to achieve business objectives in a fast and innovative manner. This is facilitated by the emergence of Web 2.0 tools. Consequently, social media aroused as an assemblage of internet-based platforms that utilise the technological and ideological foundations of Web 2.0. While social media changed the fundamentals of business, marketing and communications in general, it also redefined...
Pine, G.D.; Mac Donald, J.M.; McLain, H.A.
This paper describes a method, developed for the Gas Research Institute of the United States, that can assist planning for commercial sector natural gas cooling systems R and D. These systems are higher in first cost than conventional electric chillers. Yet, engine-driven chiller designs exist which are currently competitive in U.S. markets typified by high electricity or demand charges. Section II describes a scenario analysis approach used to develop and test the method. Section III defines the technology frontier, a conceptual tool for identifying new designs with sales potential. Section IV describes a discrete choice method for predicting market shares of technologies with sales potential. Section V shows how the method predicts operating parameter, cost, and/or performance goals for technologies without current sales potential (or for enhancing a frontier technology's sales potential). Section VI concludes with an illustrative example for the Chicago office building retrofit market
Brian Garda Muchardie
Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to determine the influence of social media marketing against customer engagement and its impact on brand loyalty. Methods applied is a quantitative method by distributing questionnaire to 100 customers. Data analysis was applied path analysis. The results of this study shows that social media marketing has a positive and significant impact on customer engagement, on brand loyalty, and on customer engagement, and its impact on brand loyalty where customer engagement has a greater influence on brand loyalty than social media marketing.
Miyungi Odhiambo, Christine Adhiambo
Social media is a phenomenon that has become an important aspect in marketing mix and revolutionizing the way companies interact with customers. It is a new research field and a quick literature scan reveals that not many studies exist. Nevertheless, these few existing studies without scientific evidence with industry data, have rushed to conclude that the emergence of social media has led to the demise of the traditional advertising mainstream media. Therefore, using a scientific research me...
The aim of this thesis is to analyze the possibility of presentation of the company in an environment of social media with a focus on Twitter, to determine whether the presence of the company in this environment can affect (positively) brand perception and finally to recommend how the company should communicate on Twitter. The theoretical part describes definitions and the basic principles of social media and social media marketing based on the knowledge gained from literature, surveys and st...
M.N.M. Verboord (Marc)
textabstractThis article examines whether the attention to cultural products on the internet is more democratically structured (in terms of gender and genre distributions) than in traditional print media, and how these types of media attention affect commercial success. For the U.S. fiction book
David C. Ling
Full Text Available We examine the impact of heterogeneous investors with asymmetric bargaining positions on transaction prices in private commercial real estate markets. Using a dataset that contains nearly 100,000 commercial real estate transactions during 1997-2009, we examine the extent to which common conditions of sale and buyer characteristics affect bargaining power and negotiated prices. We find that tax-motivated buyers seeking to complete a delayed Section 1031 exchange pay an average price premium of 12.5% when purchasing smaller properties. However, these price premiums for exchange motivated buyers are not observed among more expensive properties. We find strong evidence that out-of-state buyers pay significantly more (8 - 11% premium for commercial properties than in-state buyers. Consistent with our expectations, we find that sellers of distressed properties negotiate significantly lower transaction prices (13 - 15% discount than sellers of non-distressed properties, all else equal. Finally, we find evidence that REITs pay price premiums between 14 - 16% for office and industrial and retail properties. Our results strongly support the notion that relative bargaining power influences negotiated transaction prices.
Nora Ganim Barnes; Eric Mattson; Mira Marušić
As a great challenge in communications, social media are widely accepted among the general population. Being very flexible and adaptable, they offer an opportunity of active participation to users, thus representing a public forum. This study presents the results of social media acceptance in the business world on a sample of the Inc. 500 companies in the US. The research found that familiarity, the value placed on social media and the use of different forms of social media are all related. T...
Clark, Eric M; Jones, Chris A; Williams, Jake Ryland; Kurti, Allison N; Norotsky, Mitchell Craig; Danforth, Christopher M; Dodds, Peter Sheridan
Twitter has become the "wild-west" of marketing and promotional strategies for advertisement agencies. Electronic cigarettes have been heavily marketed across Twitter feeds, offering discounts, "kid-friendly" flavors, algorithmically generated false testimonials, and free samples. All electronic cigarette keyword related tweets from a 10% sample of Twitter spanning January 2012 through December 2014 (approximately 850,000 total tweets) were identified and categorized as Automated or Organic by combining a keyword classification and a machine trained Human Detection algorithm. A sentiment analysis using Hedonometrics was performed on Organic tweets to quantify the change in consumer sentiments over time. Commercialized tweets were topically categorized with key phrasal pattern matching. The overwhelming majority (80%) of tweets were classified as automated or promotional in nature. The majority of these tweets were coded as commercialized (83.65% in 2013), up to 33% of which offered discounts or free samples and appeared on over a billion twitter feeds as impressions. The positivity of Organic (human) classified tweets has decreased over time (5.84 in 2013 to 5.77 in 2014) due to a relative increase in the negative words 'ban', 'tobacco', 'doesn't', 'drug', 'against', 'poison', 'tax' and a relative decrease in the positive words like 'haha', 'good', 'cool'. Automated tweets are more positive than organic (6.17 versus 5.84) due to a relative increase in the marketing words like 'best', 'win', 'buy', 'sale', 'health', 'discount' and a relative decrease in negative words like 'bad', 'hate', 'stupid', 'don't'. Due to the youth presence on Twitter and the clinical uncertainty of the long term health complications of electronic cigarette consumption, the protection of public health warrants scrutiny and potential regulation of social media marketing.
Töllinen, Aarne; Karjaluoto, Heikki
The objective of this paper is to develop a conceptual framework for measuring the effectiveness of social media marketing communications. With recent advances in information and communications technology, especially in social collaboration technologies, both academics and practitioners rethink whether the existing marketing communications performance metrics are still valid in the changing communications landscape, or is it time to devise entirely new metrics for measuring mar...
Roberson, Angela A.; McKinney, Cliff; Walker, Courtney; Coleman, Ashley
Objective: To investigate how alcohol marketing and peers may promote college students' alcohol use through social media. Participants: College students (N = 682) aged 18 to 22 years from a large Southern university completed paper surveys in April 2014. Methods: Structural equation modeling was used to investigate relationships among variables as…
McCorkle, Denny E.; McCorkle, Yuhua Li
With the rapid growth of social networking and media comes their consideration for use in the marketing classroom. Social networking skills are becoming essential for personal branding (e.g., networking, self-marketing) and corporate/product branding (e.g., marketing communication). This paper addresses the use of LinkedIn (i.e., an online…
Background As the use of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) rises, social media likely influences public awareness and perception of this emerging tobacco product. Objective This study examined the public conversation on Twitter to determine overarching themes and insights for trending topics from commercial and consumer users. Methods Text mining uncovered key patterns and important topics for e-cigarettes on Twitter. SAS Text Miner 12.1 software (SAS Institute Inc) was used for descriptive text mining to reveal the primary topics from tweets collected from March 24, 2015, to July 3, 2015, using a Python script in conjunction with Twitter’s streaming application programming interface. A total of 18 keywords related to e-cigarettes were used and resulted in a total of 872,544 tweets that were sorted into overarching themes through a text topic node for tweets (126,127) and retweets (114,451) that represented more than 1% of the conversation. Results While some of the final themes were marketing-focused, many topics represented diverse proponent and user conversations that included discussion of policies, personal experiences, and the differentiation of e-cigarettes from traditional tobacco, often by pointing to the lack of evidence for the harm or risks of e-cigarettes or taking the position that e-cigarettes should be promoted as smoking cessation devices. Conclusions These findings reveal that unique, large-scale public conversations are occurring on Twitter alongside e-cigarette advertising and promotion. Proponents and users are turning to social media to share knowledge, experience, and questions about e-cigarette use. Future research should focus on these unique conversations to understand how they influence attitudes towards and use of e-cigarettes. PMID:27956376
Full Text Available There are many facts that attest to the pervasiveness of social media applications in the current world of business. This communication medium is replacing the well-known emails and complimenting the likes of short message service (SMS and instant messaging and chatting. As part of technology, which is revolutionising the way we do business and live, organizations worldwide are gearing up efforts to take advantage of this phenomenon. In South Africa, the story is the same. However, the Banks in South Africa seems to have problems selling this form of communication to their clientele to augment their service delivery. In view of this, the current study aimed to research into social media concept in South Africa, to highlight its trajectory pros and cons, and investigate why it is not being adopted by these clients, in addition to measuring the continuance intention of those who have accepted banking through social media. It was discovered that, social norm (β=0.579, perceived trust (β=0.510 and user satisfaction (β=0.332, in that order, stood out as the most influencing factors impacting on user acceptance and continuance intention (β=0.384 of social media usage for banking. Perceived behavioural control made no significant impact on users to adopt social media for financial services. As the banking industry keeps investing in the marketing potentials of social media tools for banking, in order to gain competitive advantage in customer service delivery, this social media usage could make a lot of difference when well researched into and managed. In some countries, banking customers are able to do their banking through social media sites, but little is known in South Africa (according to research, regarding the usage of this tool for banking purposes
Kara K Schroepfer
Full Text Available Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes are often used in movies, commercials and print advertisements with the intention of eliciting a humorous response from audiences. The portrayal of chimpanzees in unnatural, human-like situations may have a negative effect on the public's understanding of their endangered status in the wild while making them appear as suitable pets. Alternatively, media content that elicits a positive emotional response toward chimpanzees may increase the public's commitment to chimpanzee conservation. To test these competing hypotheses, participants (n = 165 watched a series of commercials in an experiment framed as a marketing study. Imbedded within the same series of commercials was one of three chimpanzee videos. Participants either watched 1 a chimpanzee conservation commercial, 2 commercials containing "entertainment" chimpanzees or 3 control footage of the natural behavior of wild chimpanzees. Results from a post-viewing questionnaire reveal that participants who watched the conservation message understood that chimpanzees were endangered and unsuitable as pets at higher levels than those viewing the control footage. Meanwhile participants watching commercials with entertainment chimpanzees showed a decrease in understanding relative to those watching the control footage. In addition, when participants were given the opportunity to donate part of their earnings from the experiment to a conservation charity, donations were least frequent in the group watching commercials with entertainment chimpanzees. Control questions show that participants did not detect the purpose of the study. These results firmly support the hypothesis that use of entertainment chimpanzees in the popular media negatively distorts the public's perception and hinders chimpanzee conservation efforts.
Shah, Fahid; Sindakovski, Robert
The role of internet and the digitalized world are more relevant than ever before. The new phenomena of digital marketing has created a paradigm shift of existing marketing with new ways to market. Social media plays a significant role in this change, since it allows businesses to easily engage with its customers and to maintain relationships. For small and local businesses, this change has created great opportunities to interact more with the local audience. However, not all such businesses ...
Melchiorre, Marilyn Martin; Johnson, Scott A.
Although traditional student enrollment is declining, the nontraditional segment of students is growing. This enrollment pattern will require recruitment strategies that speak directly to the adult learners. There is robust adoption of social media use by individuals and by organizations for marketing purposes. Social media marketing includes…
The report is written based on practical training of marketing internship in Zhen Meng fitness management Ltd in Shanghai. With carrying out the research, setting objectives, setting and implementing a strategy, it is good to have a deeper understanding of social media marketing strategy. Secondly, with a SWOT analysis tool, it is defined the advantages and disadvantages of Zhen Meng fitness management Ltd in Shanghai. The report is going to try to make an example for other students or compan...
GAVRILAKIS, FILIPPOS; MAKROPOULOU, KALLIOPI
Background Social media have changed the way of communication and interaction between the organizations and the costumers. The huge merge of social media has led the companies to change their current marketing strategies into the use of social media marketing during the last years. An increasing number of companies adopt this kind of performance and there is a need to study this phenomenon more in depth and explore it through the perspective of strategic renewal. Purpose The purpose of this t...
Alisa Yu. Fadeyeva
Full Text Available Objective to investigate the potential of Social Media Marketing as a tool for promoting regional investment portals in the information environment to identify the most effective ways of its implementation and to determine the level of mastering of this tool by the Russian regions. Methods general scientific methods observation comparison analysis induction deduction analogy classification. Results the analysis showed that today Social Media Marketing is an essential tool for interaction with the investment community and one of the most effective ways to promote the regional portal which allows to increase the knowledge of and loyalty to the brand to increase the targeted website traffic to increase the awareness of investors about the specific features of the portal and the regional development agenciesrsquo functioning to promptly receive information about the investment environment and to establish contacts with investors. At the same time the study of SMMactivity in the Russian regions revealed a very low level of quality of communication with investors through social networks. Scientific novelty for the first time the article investigates the significance and makes the comparative analysis of the Social Media Marketing channels with regard to investment promotion agencies as well as the results of the regional structures functioning for effective communication through social networks. Practical significance the main results of the research can be used by the regional investment agencies in order to promote their websites increase the quality of communication with investors and promote the investment attractiveness of the region as a whole. nbsp
Orajärvi, P. (Paavo)
Abstract This thesis explains what social media marketing is as a phenomenon and what kind of roles it can fill in a company’s overall marketing strategies. The thesis also provides very practical information on how small/medium-sized companies can use social media channels in their daily marketing activities. This has been achieved through a literature review on the topic supported by an empirical multi-case study. The mot...
Full Text Available Social networks are becoming more and more widespread and they are literally conquering the World Wide Web. Facebook has managed to arrive even in poor and remote territories which apparently have nothing to do with our always on the move modern world. However, only on the African continent there are more than 100 million active Facebook users who represent 50% of the African population having access to Internet. Thus, it would be huge marketing mistake for businesses not to take into consideration this opportunity to get in touch with prospective customers (Neti, 2011. Social media is hot and has turned into a “must” for businesses looking for brand awareness. Therefore, the techniques used to attract customers by means of social networks have gained quite a high degree of sophistry (Neti, 2011. In an age in which the average internet user accesses his/her social network account at least fourteen times a day, companies cannot afford to be absent from this medium. The aim of the present paper is to present the concept and characteristics of social media and how it can be used in order to increase brand awareness.
A. Boer, de
This research explored a potential working framework for using social media as a marketing channel. Based on an extensive literature review and a multiple case study, important factors for using social media have been identified. Companies should provide relevant information, show signs of real
O. S. Laskina
Full Text Available The article is discusses the scientific and theoretical approaches to marketing of innovations in the cosmetic market in the strategic aspect. It is showing the development of the concept of strategic marketing innovation in the foreign and domestic scientific literature; the key concepts of marketing innovations is clarified; elements of the commercialization of innovative products is identified; the specificity of strategic marketing innovations in the cosmetic market in the Russian conditions is established; actual problems of innovative development and commercialization of innovations is identified; an assessment of the Russian market of innovations. The marketing of innovations – is a systematic methodological approach that combines the strategy and tactics of promotion goods (works, services, technologies, having substantially new properties, at the level of economic entities, it is proved. Under the innovative products offered to understand the implementation of the results of scientific and technological activities in the form of goods, works and services, which have an absolute or relative scientific and technological novelty and (or consumer value, going beyond the existing traditions. Innovative production is subdivided into two main categories: not commercialized and the commercialized production. Process of commercialization of innovative goods is considered as three-level system: the first level is the state innovation policy (macro-level; the second level – regional innovation policy (meso-level; the third level – commodity innovative policy of enterprise (micro-level. It was shown that the weak spots for Russian manufacturers of innovative products has been and remains insufficient elaboration of organizational and methodological approaches to strategic marketing of innovations in industry the as aspect, including in the sector of cosmetic goods. Recommendations for the development of marketing strategy of
Messner, Mike; Hunt, Darnell; Dunbar, Michele; Chen, Perry; Lapp, Joan; Miller, Patti
Sports programming plays a significant role in the media messages that American boys receive today. To explore the messages that sports programming presents to its audience, this report relates the findings of a study that analyzed a representative selection of sports programs and their accompanying commercials; also presented are findings from a…
Liu, Yizao; Lopez, Rigoberto A.
This article estimates the impact of social media exposure on consumer valuation of product characteristics. We apply the Berry, Levinsohn and Pakes (1995) model of market equilibrium to sales data for 18 carbonated soft drink brands sold in 12 cities over 17 months (June 2011 to October 2012) and social media conversations on Facebook, Twitter and YouTube. Empirical results show that social media exposure is a significant driver of consumer behavior through altering evaluation of product cha...
Farooq, Omar; Dandoune, Salma
independence and dividend policies in emerging markets. Using a dataset from twenty three emerging markets, we show a significantly negative relationship between dividend policies (payout ratio and decision to pay dividend) and media independence. We argue that independent media reduces information asymmetries...... for stock market participants. Consequently, stock market participants in emerging markets with more independent media do not demand as high and as much dividends as their counterparts in emerging markets with less independent media. We also show that press independence is more important in defining......Can media pressurize managers to disgorge excess cash to shareholders? Do firms in countries with more independent media follow different dividend policies than firms with less independent media? This paper seeks to answer these questions and aims to document the relationship between media...
The study attempts to gain insight into the social media and content marketing, which can influence a brand’s presence among social community and methods that can increase customer awareness. As the end result, the author is proposing valuable recommendations on utilizing social media and determining content idea types effectively to the case company. For raising customer awareness, the case company’s online channels are not comprehended properly to utilize their potential effectivel...
Marbun, Tresia Br; ", Rumyeni
Integrated Marketing Communication (IMC) is the company's effort to integrate and coordinate all communication channels to deliver its message clearly, consistently and strongly influences its organization and products. Green Radio 96.7 FM Pekanbaru is the only electronic media that focuses on broadcasting news Environmental issues in Riau Province. This radio builds brand image as an environment-based media by choosing to use Integrated Marketing Communication (IMC). This study aims to find ...
Eric M Clark
Full Text Available Twitter has become the "wild-west" of marketing and promotional strategies for advertisement agencies. Electronic cigarettes have been heavily marketed across Twitter feeds, offering discounts, "kid-friendly" flavors, algorithmically generated false testimonials, and free samples.All electronic cigarette keyword related tweets from a 10% sample of Twitter spanning January 2012 through December 2014 (approximately 850,000 total tweets were identified and categorized as Automated or Organic by combining a keyword classification and a machine trained Human Detection algorithm. A sentiment analysis using Hedonometrics was performed on Organic tweets to quantify the change in consumer sentiments over time. Commercialized tweets were topically categorized with key phrasal pattern matching.The overwhelming majority (80% of tweets were classified as automated or promotional in nature. The majority of these tweets were coded as commercialized (83.65% in 2013, up to 33% of which offered discounts or free samples and appeared on over a billion twitter feeds as impressions. The positivity of Organic (human classified tweets has decreased over time (5.84 in 2013 to 5.77 in 2014 due to a relative increase in the negative words 'ban', 'tobacco', 'doesn't', 'drug', 'against', 'poison', 'tax' and a relative decrease in the positive words like 'haha', 'good', 'cool'. Automated tweets are more positive than organic (6.17 versus 5.84 due to a relative increase in the marketing words like 'best', 'win', 'buy', 'sale', 'health', 'discount' and a relative decrease in negative words like 'bad', 'hate', 'stupid', 'don't'.Due to the youth presence on Twitter and the clinical uncertainty of the long term health complications of electronic cigarette consumption, the protection of public health warrants scrutiny and potential regulation of social media marketing.
Jones, Chris A.; Williams, Jake Ryland; Kurti, Allison N.; Norotsky, Mitchell Craig; Danforth, Christopher M.; Dodds, Peter Sheridan
Background Twitter has become the “wild-west” of marketing and promotional strategies for advertisement agencies. Electronic cigarettes have been heavily marketed across Twitter feeds, offering discounts, “kid-friendly” flavors, algorithmically generated false testimonials, and free samples. Methods All electronic cigarette keyword related tweets from a 10% sample of Twitter spanning January 2012 through December 2014 (approximately 850,000 total tweets) were identified and categorized as Automated or Organic by combining a keyword classification and a machine trained Human Detection algorithm. A sentiment analysis using Hedonometrics was performed on Organic tweets to quantify the change in consumer sentiments over time. Commercialized tweets were topically categorized with key phrasal pattern matching. Results The overwhelming majority (80%) of tweets were classified as automated or promotional in nature. The majority of these tweets were coded as commercialized (83.65% in 2013), up to 33% of which offered discounts or free samples and appeared on over a billion twitter feeds as impressions. The positivity of Organic (human) classified tweets has decreased over time (5.84 in 2013 to 5.77 in 2014) due to a relative increase in the negative words ‘ban’, ‘tobacco’, ‘doesn’t’, ‘drug’, ‘against’, ‘poison’, ‘tax’ and a relative decrease in the positive words like ‘haha’, ‘good’, ‘cool’. Automated tweets are more positive than organic (6.17 versus 5.84) due to a relative increase in the marketing words like ‘best’, ‘win’, ‘buy’, ‘sale’, ‘health’, ‘discount’ and a relative decrease in negative words like ‘bad’, ‘hate’, ‘stupid’, ‘don’t’. Conclusions Due to the youth presence on Twitter and the clinical uncertainty of the long term health complications of electronic cigarette consumption, the protection of public health warrants scrutiny and potential regulation of social media
To what extent is social media marketing localised in an increasingly globalised world? An exploratory study with comparative focus on the creative marketing strategy of Adidas in the United States and the United Kingdom.
The primary aim of this study is to identify creative and social media marketing strategies that brands can use to effectively engage with users and consumers, in the context of international advertising. A further objective is to discover cross-cultural marketing strategies in relation to interactivity, and determine if standardisation or localisation is suitable. The study draws on existing literature to outline components of creative brand strategies, what prompts brand engagement, key...
Riber, J; Smith, S
Worldview International Foundation, an international voluntary organization whose activities focus on practical participation in the information process, established a media center in Dhaka, Bangladesh in 1982 in an effort to use the film media to disseminate development messages. Initially, WIF worked with the Ministry of Education (MOE) to promote literacy. Using the social marketing approach to promote a development theme, the producers were able to plug into a commercially successful network that assured them of reaching a large, attentive audience for a very low cost. An estimated 8 million Bangladeshis have seen this literacy film in cinema halls, mobile film projection vans, and on television. Project evaluation showed that 95% of the surveyed audience enjoyed the film and understood the intended message. The film was so popular that it was submitted as the Bangladesh entry at an international film festival in Moscow. WIF's next project was the production of another film, this time for the Social Marketing Project -- an Agency for International Development (AID) funded family planning cimmunication project. This time a family planning theme was the social development message. The script was developed from research conducted by Manoff International, Inc., an American social marketing agency who worked closely with MRCB, a Bangladeshi market research agency. They identified the target audiences and the constraints against using contraceptive methods in Bangladesh. Then messages were designed to address these issues. A love story entitled "Together" was developed. The social message revolves around a newlywed couple; both are hesitant to immediately start a family, but neither feels comfortable discussing his/her feelings on the subject with the other because of strong cultural taboos against such a delay. As the story develops, the barriers are surmounted, and this "model couple" begins to discuss the issue -- using singing and dancing to express their
Carpentier, Francesca Renee Dillman
This commentary explores the implications of increased social media marketing by drug manufacturers, based on findings in Hyosun Kim’s article of the major themes in recent Food and Drug Administration (FDA) warning letters and notices of violation regarding online direct-to-consumer promotions of pharmaceuticals. Kim’s rigorous analysis of FDA letters over a 10-year span highlights a relative abundance of regulatory action toward marketer-controlled websites and sponsored advertisements, compared to branded and unbranded social media messaging. However, social media marketing efforts are increasing, as is FDA attention to these efforts. This commentary explores recent developments and continuing challenges in the FDA’s attempts to provide guidance and define pharmaceutical company accountability in marketer-controlled and -uncontrolled claims disseminated through social media. PMID:27239874
Nora Ganim Barnes
Full Text Available As a great challenge in communications, social media are widely accepted among the general population. Being very flexible and adaptable, they offer an opportunity of active participation to users, thus representing a public forum. This study presents the resultsof social media acceptance in the business world on a sample of the Inc. 500 companies in the US. The research found that familiarity, the value placed on social media and the use of different forms of social media are all related. These companies know that engaging social media requires education and a change of the management effort. They use them to gather critical strategic information by listening to what is being said about themselves and their competitors in the social media world. The Inc. 500 companies accept social media as a medium. They recognize that the marketplace is movingtheir conversations online and the business world needs to join in. These fast-growing, innovative companies offer us a glimpse of the business future because where they lead, others will certainly follow.
Lazard, Allison J; Saffer, Adam J; Wilcox, Gary B; Chung, Arnold DongWoo; Mackert, Michael S; Bernhardt, Jay M
As the use of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) rises, social media likely influences public awareness and perception of this emerging tobacco product. This study examined the public conversation on Twitter to determine overarching themes and insights for trending topics from commercial and consumer users. Text mining uncovered key patterns and important topics for e-cigarettes on Twitter. SAS Text Miner 12.1 software (SAS Institute Inc) was used for descriptive text mining to reveal the primary topics from tweets collected from March 24, 2015, to July 3, 2015, using a Python script in conjunction with Twitter's streaming application programming interface. A total of 18 keywords related to e-cigarettes were used and resulted in a total of 872,544 tweets that were sorted into overarching themes through a text topic node for tweets (126,127) and retweets (114,451) that represented more than 1% of the conversation. While some of the final themes were marketing-focused, many topics represented diverse proponent and user conversations that included discussion of policies, personal experiences, and the differentiation of e-cigarettes from traditional tobacco, often by pointing to the lack of evidence for the harm or risks of e-cigarettes or taking the position that e-cigarettes should be promoted as smoking cessation devices. These findings reveal that unique, large-scale public conversations are occurring on Twitter alongside e-cigarette advertising and promotion. Proponents and users are turning to social media to share knowledge, experience, and questions about e-cigarette use. Future research should focus on these unique conversations to understand how they influence attitudes towards and use of e-cigarettes. ©Allison J Lazard, Adam J Saffer, Gary B Wilcox, Arnold DongWoo Chung, Michael S Mackert, Jay M Bernhardt. Originally published in JMIR Public Health and Surveillance (http://publichealth.jmir.org), 12.12.2016.
Ninčević, Šime; Krajnović, Aleksandra; Bosna, Jurica
Mobile marketing is a relatively new branch of marketing, referring to the two-way marketing communication between company and customers that takes place via mobile devices. The effectiveness of marketing campaigns has been greatly increased when mobile devices have been used in conjunction with traditional media and in that case potential customers show more intention to purchase. Implementation of mobile marketing strategy in marketing management is a complex and demanding process. To make ...
Barnett, GA; Xu, WW; Chu, J; Jiang, K; Huh, C; Park, JY; Park, HW
© 2016 Elsevier Inc. This paper examines international relations as perceived by the public in their social media conversations. It examines over 1.8 billion Facebook postings in English and 51 million Chinese posts on Weibo, to reveal the relations among nations as expressed in social media conversations. It argues that social media represent a transnational electronic public sphere, in which public discussions reveal characteristics of international relations as perceived by a foreign publi...
Full Text Available Facebook posts, YouTube videos, tweets and wooing political bloggers have become standard practice in marketing political campaigns. Research has demonstrated the effect of new media on a host of politically-related behavior, including political participation, knowledge acquisition, group formation and self-efficacy. Yet, issues related to media trust, media performance and candidate evaluations have not been fully explored. In addition, much of the political marketing research looks exclusively at the Millennial age cohort, ignoring other age groups, particularly Baby Boomers. This case study addresses whether attention to traditional (i.e., television, hard-copy newspapers and radio and online media sources (i.e., political candidate websites, television network websites, online newspapers, Facebook, Twitter, YouTube, Tumblr and political blogs about the 2012 U.S. presidential campaign influences Millennials and Baby Boomers’ media trust and performance ratings, as well as candidate evaluations. Panel surveys were completed by both age cohorts, Millennials (n = 431 and Baby Boomers (n = 360, during the last two weeks of the presidential election. Findings indicate that traditional sources, specifically television, rather than online sources are significantly linked to media trust and performance ratings among both Boomers and Millennials. Attention to traditional media for campaign information predicts Boomers’ candidate evaluations, whereas Millennials’ candidate evaluations are influenced by online sources, such as Facebook and candidate websites.
Etter, Michael; Fieseler, Christian
Stakeholder relationships become increasingly important as new communication technologies en-able interest groups to communicate their demands, organize themselves and voice their concerns with ease. In this changing stakeholder environment, the creation and maintenance of relational social capital...... relies not only on communication in classical media alone but also on the various online channels summarized by the term “social media.” Utilizing a literature study and expert interviews, this article explores how organizations engage in creating and maintaining relational social capital...... by communicating their corporate social responsibility efforts through social media channels....
Full Text Available Judicious media planning decisions are crucial for successful advertising of products. Media planners extensively use mathematical models supplemented with market research and expert opinion to devise the media plans. Media planning models discussed in the literature largely focus on single products with limited studies related to the multi-product media planning. In this paper we propose a media planning model to allocate limited advertising budget among multiple products advertised in a segmented market and determine the number of advertisements to be given in different media. The proposed model is formulated considering both segment specific and mass media vehicles to maximize the total advertising reach for each product. The model also incorporates the cross product effect of advertising of one product on the other. The proposed formulation is a multi-objective linear integer programming model and interactive linear integer goal programming is discussed to solve the model. A real life case study is presented to illustrate the application of the proposed model.
Wenqiang, Liu; Xiliang, Zhang; Shuhua, Gu; Gan, Lin
This paper presents an overview of the development of wind energy in China. By examining the economics of windfarm development, it compares the economics of wind technology with other conventional energy technologies and analyzes the role of alternative policy instruments. Meanwhile, it identifies the major constraints of wind technology development and the defects of current non-market support from the government. It shows that the development of wind power will be directly subject to rational policy change, incentive mechanisms and institutional framework building. Particular importance is paid to market incentives to reach the objectives of commercialization and industrialization of wind power. The paper recommends some cost-competitive incentive measure and policies to drive the wind power market. It concludes that promising market incentives to speed up the development of wind energy include: (i) establish market competition mechanisms through standard power purchase agreement; (ii) adjust tax policies and government subsidies; (iii) stimulate investment incentive policies and regulations; and (iv) change governmental institutions and management modes. (author)
DISCOURSE ANALYSIS OF JLO COMPANY ESTABLISHMENT ISSUE IN ONLINE MEDIA AND MEDIA RELATIONS TREATMENT OF JASA MARGA COMPANY (ANALISIS WACANA ISU PENDIRIAN PT. JLO DI MEDIA ONLINE DAN TREATMENT MEDIA RELATIONS PT. JASA MARGA
Icha Bella Widawati
Full Text Available Abstract. discourse Analysis of Coverage in the Online Media Liputan6.com. Regarding to Establishment Issue of New Subsidiary PT. Jasa Layanan Operasi ( PT . JLO . The research is about coverage analysis to see the implementatiom issue management through me-dia relations activations at online media by Jasa Marga’s Public Relations Officer. This study aims to determine the discourse analysis of coverage regarding to establishment issue of new subsidiary PT. JLO in the online media and to see how Jasa Marga’s public relations of-ficer exercises issue management through media relations activations to handle the issues. Using the discourse analysis method with Halliday model of analysis. The results showed that the discourse in the news are based on fact that really happened. News content is served with a different point of view and very objective. The Media shows its position as a netral posi-tion between two sides of subjects, objective, and reporting the truth to the public. it shows that media relations activations is not bring much influence to the emerging issues and nega-tive news in the media. The conclusion of this study is the coverage was experiencing news balance between negative tone and positive tone after PRO did the media relations activations. But does not eliminate the negative news regarding the issue of the establish-ment of a subsidiary JLO. Abstrak. artikel ini merupakan sebuah analisis wacana pemberitaan di Media Online Liputan6.com mengenai Isu Pendirian Anak Usaha Baru PT. Jasa Layanan Operasi (PT. JLO serta melihat Implementasi Manajemen Isu Melalui Media Relations pada Media Online yang Dilakukan Oleh Humas Jasa Marga dengan. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menge-tahui analisis wacana dari Informasi pemberitaan mengenai isu pendirian anak usaha baru Jasa Marga, PT. Jasa Layanan Operasi (JLO di media online Liputan6.com dan melihat bagaimana manajemen isu melalui kegiatan media relations dilakukan untuk mengatasi isu
Moreno Bragado, Elisa
This dissertation presents a Model of Commercial Exchanges in B2B Dyads. This model explains how buying and selling decisions are made in industrial markets that are subject to continuous change, particularly the market for telecommunication products and services.Buying and selling decision-making
The purpose of the study was to investigate the most effective ways of social media marketing that can be applied for customers’ loyalty management in fitness industry, as well as particular features, benefits, and methods of these strategies. The main idea is to create appropriate guidelines for the case companies to build social bonds with customer that will positively impact on maintaining communication and retention. The data for this study were collected from several sources, such as ...
Full Text Available Marketing activities supported by mobile devices offer great opportunities for direct communication with consumers without the barriers of time, place, location and other. This article explores opinions and expectations Croatian marketing experts have towards use of m-advertising and other available advertising media, where we take the perspective of marketing experts to predict the future of m-marketing and m-advertising in Croatia. The paper also discusses the relevance of m-advertising and investigates the future of m-marketing and m-advertising in Croatia. This research focuses mainly on understanding the potential and effectiveness of the use of mobile phones as a promotional medium, but we also try to recognize the level of concern of marketing experts associated with spam, relating to privacy intrusion and ethics components in m-advertising. Privacy and ethics concerns could create resistance to the adoption of m-advertising. Media selection becomes the most critical factor for the success of a promotional and advertising marketing campaign. Croatian experts still consider TV or newspapers the best way to reach a large number of potential consumers, but what are their expectations towards mobile advertising? To answer this question, we built a model that links attitudes towards advertising via classical media to the intention to use m-advertising.
Tsimonis, Georgios; Dimitriadis, Sergios
The paper focuses on consumer-brand relationships, and attempts to identify what relational benefits and costs consumers-members of social media brand pages perceive. Considering the rapid development of social media and their penetration in business marketing actions, this study is an exploratory step towards the understanding of relational benefits and costs together in the context of social media. A qualitative approach was employed for this study. Data were collected from four focus gr...
Full Text Available While the new media changes our daily life practices, it also causes some transformations in thefield of marketing. Today it can be said that the real estate sector is also inevitably affected by thistransformation and that it has developed new business models that include social media. Alexa is awebsite managed by amazon.com, which displays web traffic on a world and country basis. In this way,businesses can continuously monitor the visitor performance of their websites. In this study, the rankingsof the Alexa web site were used to construct the sample of the research and in this way the visitortraffic was determined by the highest five real estate website in Turkey tracing techniques. On theother hand, the practices of real estate web sites to use social networks have been compared to the Alexavalue ranks by examining them on specific networks and within defined metrics. Thus, it can beshown whether the real estate web site with the highest value metric has the same order in the Alexavaluation, and the role of social media in real estate marketing is evaluated within the dimensions oftransformation. Research is essential since it makes an instantaneous evaluation of the circumstancesand snaps a moment in the timeline.
Full Text Available The near-ubiquitous use of social media among adolescents and young adults creates opportunities for both corporate brands and health promotion agencies to target and engage with young audiences in unprecedented ways. Traditional media is known to have both a positive and negative influence on youth health behaviours, but the impact of social media is less well understood. This paper first summarises current evidence around adolescents’ exposure to the promotion and marketing of unhealthy products such as energy dense and nutrient poor food and beverages, alcohol, and tobacco on social media sites such as Facebook, Twitter, Instagram and YouTube. We explore emerging evidence about the extent of exposure to marketing of these harmful products through social media platforms and potential impacts of exposure on adolescent health. Secondly, we present examples of health-promoting social media campaigns aimed at youth, with the purpose of describing innovative campaigns and highlighting lessons learned for creating effective social media interventions. Finally, we suggest implications for policy and practice, and identify knowledge gaps and opportunities for future research.
Jernigan, David H; Padon, Alisa; Ross, Craig; Borzekowski, Dina
Alcohol marketing is known to be a significant risk factor for underage drinking. However, little is known about youth and adult exposure to alcohol advertising in digital and social media. This study piloted a comparative assessment of youth and adult recall of exposure to online marketing of alcohol. From September to October 2013, a pilot survey of past 30-day exposure to alcohol advertising and promotional content in traditional and digital media was administered to a national sample of 1,192 youth (ages 13 to 20) and 1,124 adults (ages ≥21) using a prerecruited Internet panel maintained by GfK Custom Research. The weighted proportions of youth and adults who reported this exposure were compared by media type and by advertising and promotional content. Youth were more likely than adults to recall exposure to alcohol advertising on television (69.2% vs. 61.9%), radio (24.8% vs. 16.7%), billboards (54.8% vs. 35.4%), and the Internet (29.7% vs. 16.8%), but less likely to recall seeing advertising in magazines (35.7% vs. 36.4%). Youth were also more likely to recall seeing advertisements and pictures on the Internet of celebrities using alcohol (36.1% vs. 20.8%) or wearing clothing promoting alcohol (27.7% vs. 15.9%), and actively respond (i.e., like, share, or post) to alcohol-related content online. Youth report greater exposure to alcohol advertising and promotional content than adults in most media, including on the Internet. These findings emphasize the need to assure compliance with voluntary industry standards on the placement of alcohol advertising and the importance of developing better tools for monitoring youth exposure to alcohol marketing, particularly on the Internet. Copyright © 2017 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.
Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to analyse the loss given default (LGD determinants in case of a typical loan portfolio consisting of SME loans in a commercial bank operating in one of the quickly developing banking markets, i.e. in Slovenia. Accurate LGD estimates of defaulted bank claims are important for provisioning reserves for credit losses, calculating adequate risk capital and determining fair pricing risky bank loans. While most of the empirical literature in the field concentrates on corporate bond markets to estimate losses in the event of default, we use a unique individual bank data set on SME loan losses. Due to the proprietary nature of data only few studies of this kind have been published so far and to our knowledge none of them covers the Eastern European banking markets. In the first stage of the analysis we estimate the LGD variable by applying the discounted cash flow approach, while in the second stage we analyse its determinants by using the ordinal regression analysis. Our findings suggest that reliable LGD estimates can be produced by discounting expected loan related future cash flows and that explanatory factors, such as type of collateral, type of industrial sector, last available loan rating, size of the debt and loan maturity satisfactorily explicate variability of the LGD variable in the specific banking market. All the results are not only relevant to the impairment policy determination and capital adequacy calculation in the specific bank, but also to the evaluation of SME loans characteristics in developing markets.
Hoffman, Eric W; Austin, Erica Weintraub; Pinkleton, Bruce E; Austin, Bruce W
College students' use of digital communication technology has led to a rapid expansion of digital alcohol marketing efforts. Two surveys (total usable n = 637) were conducted to explore college students' experiences with alcohol-related social media, their decision making related to alcohol use, and their problematic drinking behaviors. Study results indicated that students' use of alcohol-related social media predicted their problem drinking behaviors. In addition, students' wishful identification, perceived desirability, perceived similarity, and normative beliefs predicted their expectancies for drinking alcohol. Finally, students' expectancies for drinking alcohol predicted their problematic drinking behaviors.
Mackey, Tim Ken; Liang, Bryan A
Illicit or rogue Internet pharmacies are a recognized global public health threat that have been identified as utilizing various forms of online marketing and promotion, including social media. To assess the accessibility of creating illicit no prescription direct-to-consumer advertising (DTCA) online pharmacy social media marketing (eDTCA2.0) and evaluate its potential global reach. We identified the top 4 social media platforms allowing eDTCA2.0. After determining applicable platforms (ie, Facebook, Twitter, Google+, and MySpace), we created a fictitious advertisement advertising no prescription drugs online and posted it to the identified social media platforms. Each advertisement linked to a unique website URL that consisted of a site error page. Employing Web search analytics, we tracked the number of users visiting these sites and their location. We used commercially available Internet tools and services, including website hosting, domain registration, and website analytic services. Illicit online pharmacy social media content for Facebook, Twitter, and MySpace remained accessible despite highly questionable and potentially illegal content. Fictitious advertisements promoting illicit sale of drugs generated aggregate unique user traffic of 2795 visits over a 10-month period. Further, traffic to our websites originated from a number of countries, including high-income and middle-income countries, and emerging markets. Our results indicate there are few barriers to entry for social media-based illicit online drug marketing. Further, illicit eDTCA2.0 has globalized outside US borders to other countries through unregulated Internet marketing.
Jurkovic, I.A.; Debrecin, N.; Feretic, D.; Skanata, D.
In the event of an emergency, media relation should be considered as one of the most important functions in emergency management. Individuals should be trained to be able to provide factual information to the media and the citizens during nuclear emergencies. Media can be also acquainted with the scope, ways and means of providing information related to nuclear emergencies during the predefined and regular media training or workshops, or as a part of regular training routine of involved organizations and institutions. This paper is through various approaches trying to present one of the possible ways that media and public relation can be treated during the emergencies and inside the developed emergency plans and procedures. It also represents an idea, based on the authors' experience, on a way in which things can be organized in the Croatian Technical Support Center when it comes to the media/public relation issue. (author)
Koumpouros, Yiannis; Toulias, Thomas L; Koumpouros, Nicholas
The present research aims to identify the application of social media for marketing or communication purposes in healthcare. We studied the opinion of healthcare professionals, organizations and health consumers, trying to identify the current status, trends and beliefs. The research reveals that healthcare organizations have to move forward and engage with their customers. The health consumers are more mature than the health providers. The descriptive characteristics of the sample's responses collected during the survey are presented. The current research tries to identify the application of social media for marketing or communication purposes in healthcare in Greece. The scope of the paper is to investigate the status in Greece and compare it with other countries. We studied the opinion of healthcare professionals, organizations and health consumers, trying to identify the current status, trends and beliefs. We formed adequate questionnaires which were distributed to the different target groups, while for statistical analysis we performed tests (in order to investigate the dependence between certain respondents' categories) as well as one-way ANOVA analysis for inference purposes. In this context, the results can depict the (average) behavior, as well as the homogeneity of the corresponding general population. The research conducted took into account the individualities of the Greek environment and revealed that both physicians and healthcare organizations have to move forward in order to engage with their customers. There is also a clear need to measure the effectiveness of any such media marketing effort. Most adopters are not yet-taking maximum advantage of the technology. Social networks are prevalent and several paradigms support their adoption for marketing purposes in the sensitive healthcare domain. Even though the expectations are ambitious, there is a lot of work to do in Greece in order to achieve the desired outcome. An important finding is that
The sharing economy is a new business model rapidly expanding. In transportation, many people use innovative services proposed by ride-hailing mobile applications. These technological platforms, operated by networking companies, rely extensively on social media to promote their services, and reach new customers (riders) and providers (drivers). This dissertation focuses on e-marketing communication. It makes a comparative analysis of the information published on several social media (Facebook...
Social media marketing must be a part of a digital marketing plan. Although marketing traditionally has been associated with obtaining an economic ROI (return on investment), it also can be measured in terms of social ROI (return on influence, return on relationships, reputation, branding, etc.). This study addresses the use of digital marketing campaigns by libraries for social profitability. Concepts related to digital marketing and social media marketing, and the way different types of org...
Full Text Available The paper deals with intercultural marketing, which is a combination of two different phenomena - marketing and culture. The first objective of the paper lies in providing theoretical definitions of the above-mentioned areas. Subsequently, the aim is to analyse marketing communication of the selected automotive companies and determine its efficiency on social media within the context of cultural differences and cultural forms as their manifestations. A considerable amount of literature has been published on intercultural marketing, but only a few studies have concentrated on the connection with modern communication tools – i.e. social media. The data come from a research conducted online focused on Facebook. In total 2606 posts on twenty Facebook profiles of selected automotive companies were analysed. Our findings show that the use of standardization and adaptation is not related to the efficiency of marketing communication of individual Facebook profiles. One of the factors that determine the efficiency is cultural specifics visible by cultural forms which were interpreted for each selected culture. The contribution and the originality of this paper lies in providing theoretical and practical information about cultural differences on social media not only for marketing managers operating in different cultures, but also for researchers interested in intercultural marketing.
Tomić, Zoran; Grbavac, Ivana
Political public relations, as one of the PR programmes, has slowly created strategies and tactics for communication with the public and the media. Media management and information management are the most important activities of the political public relations. These activities are frequently connected with non-ethical communication, whose aim is media manipulation and manipulation of the public. Media manipulation is well known as communication spin. These activities are created by governm...
Brown, Gerald R.
In this workshop, the concept of marketing was applied to school library media programs by examining the relationship between library media programs, the marketing plan, public relations (PR), and promotion. Reachable goals, targeting the audience, advertising, and motivation and commitment of the staff were also considered, and successful…
María Elena Estrada Martínez
Full Text Available The identification of commercial circuits in the Machala canton contributes to the economic and social development of the members of the San José de Guartiguro agricultural cooperative located in the Guanazón parish of Zaruma canton. The purpose of this paper was to identify commercial circuits for the marketing of baskets of organic agricultural products in nine Public Ministries of Machala. An inquiry was carried out among 138 workers, and the distribution process of the baskets was observed. The program Microsoft Excel 2013was applied to organize data in tables and graphics. Results showed that 84.14% of the workers inquired agreed to purchase the baskets at the Ministries. The implementation of commercial circuits in Machala canton that will favor the access of the members of the agricultural cooperative to institutional markets is proposed. This measure will also enable the workers at the Ministries to acquire organic agricultural products at lower prices in their work place.
Shields, C. E.; Kessler, C.; Lavitola, M. S.
For more than ten years, private industry has worked to develop a commercial human space market and to create a sustainable ISS commercial utilization customer base. Before ISS assembly was underway - and long before NASA and the international space agencies began to craft ISS commercial business terms and conditions - industry planted and nurtured the seeds of interest in exploiting human space utilization for commerce. These early initiatives have yielded the impetus and framework for industry approaches to ISS commercial utilization today and for NASA's and the International Partners' planned accommodation of private sector interests and desires on the ISS. This paper chronicles major industry initiatives for commercial ISS utilization, emphasizing successful marketing and business approaches and why these approaches have a higher likelihood of success than others. It provides an overview of individual companies' initiatives, as well as collaborative efforts that cross company lines and country borders; and it assesses the relative success of each. Rather than emphasize negative issues and barriers, this paper characterizes and prioritizes actionable success factors for industry and government to make ISS commercial utilization a sustainable reality.
This paper explores how "social democratic" Sweden initiated and implemented choice reforms that attracted the interest of "liberal" England. By studying how English media framed and portrayed the Swedish free school "export" from 2008 to 2014, this paper aims to describe and discuss how a market-oriented policy idea,…
Looks at college marketing and promotion from the media's point of view, and addresses the challenges media personnel face in retrieving timely information from colleges and in establishing working relationships with marketing and public relations practitioners in community colleges. Describes what journalists expect from community colleges and…
Integrated marketing communications represent the unification of organization's marketing and communication activities. Sports organizations have the emphasized need for effective communication with their environment (the public, the media, advertisers, sponsors, and other subjects interested in their offer). Elements of the integrated marketing communications are: advertising, personal selling, sales promotion, publicity, public relations, direct marketing, Internet communications etc. Each ...
Farmer, Andrea; Pinkerton, Jim; Pipkin, Erin; Riggs, Nathan
This presentation discusses strategies for launching a simple, yet effective, campaign through media relations and social media for public outreach. Key points regarding protocol and time management will be covered.
Arnold, Ray J.
One of the primary goals of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) commercial space development plan is to encourage the development of space-based products and markets, along with the infrastructure and transportation that will support those products and markets. A three phased program has been instituted to carry out this program. The first phase utilizes government grants through the Centers for the Commercial Development of Space (CCDS) for space-related, industry driven research; the development of a technology data base; and the development of commercial space transportation and infrastructure. The second phase includes the development of these technologies by industry for new commercial markets, and features unique industry/government collaborations such as Joint Endeavor Agreements. The final phase will feature technical applications actually brought to the marketplace. The government's role will be to support industry required infrastructure to encourage start-up markets and industries through follow-on development agreements such as the Space Systems Development Agreement. The Office of Commercial Programs has an aggressive flight program underway on the Space Shuttle, suborbital rockets, orbital expendable launch vehicles, and the Commercial Middeck Accommodation Module with SPACEHAB Inc. The Office of Commercial Program's has been allocated 35 percent of the U.S. share of the Space Station Freedom resources for 1997 utilization. A utilization plan has been developed with the Centers for the Commercial Development of Space and has identified eleven materials processing and biotechnology payloads occupying 5 double racks in the pressurized module as well as two payloads external to the module in materials exposure and environment monitoring. The Office of Commercial Programs will rely on the Space Station Freedom to provide the long duration laboratory component for space-based commercial research.
Valentini, Chiara; Romenti, Stefania; Kruckeberg, Dean
constitution perspective that focuses on the power of communicative acts and practices to create organizational realities. The theoretical proposition suggests that social media are communicatively constituted, just as are relationships; thus, relational dynamics in social media that feature oral or written......This article presents and discusses a theoretical proposition to study social media and their relational dynamics based on the role of language and discourse in communicative interactions that occur in social media. We propose a theoretical foundation that is grounded on the communicative...... communications should be analyzed through the study of actors’ language and discourses. The article concludes with reflections on the implications of this theoretical proposition for the study of relational dynamics in social media and provides suggestions for future research....
TRAIAN ALEXANDRU NASTASE
Full Text Available In this paper we intend to describe the economic implications of mass-media in correlation with the recent socio-economic changes generated by the economic crisis. We take into consideration the dual market on which mass-media evolves: the mass-media products market, and the advertising market, keeping in mind that the behavior of a mass-media institution on one market, can have direct implication on the other market. We analyze the relation between mass-media and the public (audience, the cost for creating mass-media products, the ways in which mass-media reduces costs and the ways of increasing their profits. As mass-media must always adapt to the social changes and to the public, we take our analysis further and we describe how the recent economic changes influenced the mass-media consumption trends and mass-media profits on all the main communication channels: TV, radio, outdoor, internet, newspapers/magazines. This analysis is performed at both a global and a local level, for Romania. In the end we predict how other key changes may affect the economic model approach of the mass-media institutions on short and middle terms.
Bos, Peter B.
Commercialization of fuel cells, like any other product, entails both financial and technical risks. Most of the fuel cell literature has focussed upon technical risks, however, the most significant risks during commercialization may well be associated with the financial funding requirements of this process. Successful commercialization requires an integrated management of these risks. Like any developing technology, fuel cells face the typical 'Catch-22' of commercialization: "to enter the market, the production costs must come down, however, to lower these costs, the cumulative production must be greatly increased, i.e. significant market penetration must occur". Unless explicit steps are taken to address this dilemma, fuel cell commercialization will remain slow and require large subsidies for market entry. To successfully address this commercialization dilemma, it is necessary to follow a market-driven commercialization strategy that identifies high-value entry markets while minimizing the financial and technical risks of market entry. The financial and technical risks of fuel cell commercialization are minimized, both for vendors and end-users, with the initial market entry of small-scale systems into high-value stationary applications. Small-scale systems, in the order of 1-40 kW, benefit from economies of production — as opposed to economies to scale — to attain rapid cost reductions from production learning and continuous technological innovation. These capital costs reductions will accelerate their commercialization through market pull as the fuel cell systems become progressively more viable, starting with various high-value stationary and, eventually, for high-volume mobile applications. To facilitate market penetration via market pull, fuel cell systems must meet market-derived economic and technical specifications and be compatible with existing market and fuels infrastructures. Compatibility with the fuels infrastructure is facilitated by a
Branstetter, Steven A; Lengerich, Eugene; Dignan, Mark; Muscat, Joshua
A critical component of the US Food and Drug Administration's new authority to regulate tobacco products is understanding communications and marketing of tobacco products and their perceived risks in different geographic, age, race, ethnic and socioeconomic groups. Such information might be particularly useful in subgroups of the population or geographic areas that experience high tobacco use and suffer a disproportionate burden from tobacco-related diseases. For certain populations, there may be additional cultural factors unique to the geographical region which may promote smoking behavior. The purpose of the present study was to examine the perceptions of tobacco-related media messages among a sample of rural Appalachian natives, a population with smoking rates higher than the national average and who are disproportionately affected by tobacco-related and other cancers. A series of four focus group sessions were conducted in a north-central area of Pennsylvania, in one of 52 counties in Pennsylvania designated as within the Appalachian region. Participants were recruited via direct mail letters, advertisements in a local newspaper, and recruiting flyers posted at the local library. The focus groups were moderated by trained professional staff from The Pennsylvania State University's Center for Survey Research (CSR). Focus group sessions sought to examine perceptions of tobacco-related media in an Appalachian region of Pennsylvania. The sessions were audiotaped and transcribed, and the data was analyzed using qualitative approaches. Participants reported that pro-tobacco ads and favorable messages were received through the internet, direct mail, convenience stores, billboards, movies, and other sources. Anti-tobacco messages were identified primarily from television and magazines. In general, participants concluded that quitting was a matter of choice and was not influenced by pro- or anti-tobacco media. These results indicate that both pro- and anti
Vecchiato, Giovanni; Kong, Wanzeng; Maglione, Anton Giulio; Wei, Daming
Today, there is a greater interest in the marketing world in using neuroimaging tools to evaluate the efficacy of TV commercials. This field of research is known as neuromarketing. In this article, we illustrate some applications of electrical neuroimaging, a discipline that uses electroencephalography (EEG) and intensive signal processing techniques for the evaluation of marketing stimuli. We also show how the proper usage of these methodologies can provide information related to memorization and attention while people are watching marketing-relevant stimuli. We note that temporal and frequency patterns of EEG signals are able to provide possible descriptors that convey information about the cognitive process in subjects observing commercial advertisements (ads). Such information could be unobtainable through common tools used in standard marketing research. Evidence of this research shows how EEG methodologies could be employed to better design new products that marketers are going to promote and to analyze the global impact of video commercials already broadcast on TV.
Brekke, Kjellr Arne; Nilsen , Tore
We show how increased competition in a media market may have implications for the competition between firms that are advertising in that medium. We apply a simple model of a product market with network externalities where firms buy advertising space in a media market and find that there is more entry in the product market, the more competitive the media market is. The paper is the first combining a study of media markets with a behavioral foundation of how advertising affects the demand for t...
Lenka Waschková Císařová
Full Text Available In this article we map some of the key developments on the Czech print media market following the fall of communism in 1989. We focus on ownership changes and their impact on the conduct of professional journalism. In the 1990s foreign media companies (dominantly German and Swiss entered the Czech media market and brought with them a profit-oriented model of journalism. Our research in the mid-2000s explored these changes and their impact on journalists’ professional conduct. At the time journalists stressed commercial pressures, however, in the mid-2010s with the departure of foreign print media owners (except for one and the emergence of local ones, journalists voiced concerns about interference in content for political purposes. We also note that the journalists we interviewed did not reflect on the influence of government on the conduct of their profession, for example, through media regulation.
van Zoonen, W.; van der Meer, T.G.L.A.; Verhoeven, J.W.M.
This study explores the antecedents of work-related social-media use. To date the role of employees in organizational sense giving through work-related social-media use remains under investigated. The findings suggest that - in a work-related context - social media serve multiple functions: as a
Full Text Available Direct marketing is marketing which demands immediate reply. That reply can be an order, a request for an additional information, a registration, a telephone call or a visit. This work presents direct marketing as the most contemporary method of company communications with environs. A concept of direct marketing is made and aimed for complete identification of existing customers and for finding out potential customers. Mail, printed documents e-mail and new medias are used as modern communications channels. It is especially emphasizes the Internet as an important media.
Voloshyn, Ihor; Voloshyn, Mykyta
In this article, on the basis of the "cash flow at risk" approach, the system of the integrated (credit, market, operational and liquidity risks) risk management in a market-maker commercial bank is developed. This system guarantees reaching profitability, liquidity and coverage of banking risks and thus allows the fullest protection of the interests of depositors, creditors and shareholders of the bank providing its sustainable development.
Flammini, Serena; Arcese, Gabriella; Lucchetti, Maria Claudia; Mortara, Letizia
The food industry is a well-established and complex industry. New entrants attempting to penetrate it via the commercialization of a new technological innovation could face high uncertainty and constraints. The capability to innovate through collaboration and to identify suitable strategies and innovative business models (BMs) can be particularly important for bringing a technological innovation to this market. However, although the potential for these capabilities has been advocated, we still lack a complete understanding of how new ventures could support the technology commercialization process via the development of BMs. The paper aims to discuss these issues. To address this gap, this paper builds a conceptual framework that knits together the different bodies of extant literature (i.e. entrepreneurship, strategy and innovation) to analyze the BM innovation processes associated with the exploitation of emerging technologies; determines the suitability of the framework using data from the exploratory case study of IT IS 3D - a firm which has started to exploit 3D printing in the food industry; and improves the initial conceptual framework with the findings that emerged in the case study. From this analysis it emerged that: companies could use more than one BM at a time; hence, BM innovation processes could co-exist and be run in parallel; the facing of high uncertainty might lead firms to choose a closed and/or a familiar BM, while explorative strategies could be pursued with open BMs; significant changes in strategies during the technology commercialization process are not necessarily reflected in a radical change in the BM; and firms could deliberately adopt interim strategies and BMs as means to identify the more suitable ones to reach the market. This case study illustrates how firms could innovate the processes of their BM development to face the uncertainties linked with the entry into a mature and highly conservative industry (food).
This study examines the performance of business models used by commercial banks to enter the microfinance industry. The purpose of the study was to provide a high level indication of whether there is a model or models that yield better success than others. To conduct the research, four commer cial market entry models were chosen, and analysis of secondary data from the MixMaket dataset was completed compare model performance. Results indicated based on the methodology that the “service compan...
Reinhart, David; Damjanovic, Lukas; Kaisermayer, Christian; Kunert, Renate
In this study, eight commercially available, chemically defined Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell culture media from different vendors were evaluated in batch culture using an IgG-producing CHO DG44 cell line as a model. Medium adaptation revealed that the occurrence of even small aggregates might be a good indicator of cell growth performance in subsequent high cell density cultures. Batch experiments confirmed that the culture medium has a significant impact on bioprocess performance, but high amino acid concentrations alone were not sufficient to ensure superior cell growth and high antibody production. However, some key amino acids that were limiting in most media could be identified. Unbalanced glucose and amino acids led to high cell-specific lactate and ammonium production rates. In some media, persistently high glucose concentrations probably induced the suppression of respiration and oxidative phosphorylation, known as Crabtree effect, which resulted in high cell-specific glycolysis rates along with a continuous and high lactate production. In additional experiments, two of the eight basal media were supplemented with feeds from two different manufacturers in six combinations, in order to understand the combined impact of media and feeds on cell metabolism in a CHO fed-batch process. Cell growth, nutrient consumption and metabolite production rates, antibody production, and IgG quality were evaluated in detail. Concentrated feed supplements boosted cell concentrations almost threefold and antibody titers up to sevenfold. Depending on the fed-batch strategy, fourfold higher peak cell concentrations and eightfold increased IgG titers (up to 5.8 g/L) were achieved. The glycolytic flux was remarkably similar among the fed-batches; however, substantially different specific lactate production rates were observed in the different media and feed combinations. Further analysis revealed that in addition to the feed additives, the basal medium can make a considerable
Alcheva, Valentina; Yonggang, Cai; Lingyan, Zhao
American Express initiated a new marketing strategy twenty-five years ago. Forevery new card user the company donated one cent for the recovery of the Statueof Liberty. The success of the campaign exceeds the expectations. This strategywhere a company declares to spend a defined amount of money for a special causein order to push up its sales is called Cause-Related Marketing. Now more andmore companies use the cause-related marketing strategy as a way out of saturatedmarkets and growing cons...
Boyle, Raymond; Haynes, Richard
This chapter examines the disruptive nature of social media as it alters the relationship between sports journalism and public relations. It looks at some key examples and argues that while much is changing, some aspects of the relationship between the media and sports also remain constant.
Sargent, J D; Gibson, J; Heatherton, T F
To examine the concurrent effects of exposure to movie smoking and tobacco marketing receptivity on adolescent smoking onset and progression. Cross-sectional study of 4524 northern New England adolescents aged 10-14 in 1999 with longitudinal follow-up of 2603 baseline never-smokers. Cross-sectional outcomes included ever tried smoking and higher level of lifetime smoking among 784 experimenters. The longitudinal outcome was onset of smoking among baseline never-smokers two years later. Movie smoking exposure was modelled as four population quartiles, tobacco marketing receptivity included two levels-having a favourite tobacco advert and wanting/owning tobacco promotional items. All analyses controlled for sociodemographics, other social influences, personality characteristics of the adolescent and parenting style. In the full cross-sectional sample, 17.5% had tried smoking; both exposure to movie smoking and receptivity to tobacco marketing were associated with having tried smoking. Among experimental smokers, the majority (64%) were receptive to tobacco marketing, which had a multivariate association with higher level of lifetime smoking (movie smoking did not). In the longitudinal study 9.5% of baseline never-smokers tried smoking at follow-up. Fewer never-smokers (18.5%) were receptive to tobacco marketing. Movie smoking had a multivariate association with trying smoking (receptivity to tobacco marketing did not). The results suggest separate roles for entertainment media and tobacco marketing on adolescent smoking. Both exposures deserve equal emphasis from a policy standpoint.
Cova, Bernard; Skaates, Maria Anne
Services are a growing part of projects in the context of the international trend toward solution buying and selling on B2B markets. Services are also often a key source of competitive advantage in project business. Therefore the aim of this paper is to critically scrutinise the intuitive...... hypothesis that the marketing of project-related services lies somewhere at the crossroads between services marketing and project marketing....
The objective was to evaluate the magnitude of various contributors to outpatient commercial colonoscopy prices, including market- and provider-level factors, especially market share. We used adjudicated fee-for-service facility claims from a large commercial insurer for colonoscopies occurring in hospital outpatient department or ambulatory surgery center from October 2005 to December 2012. Claims were matched to provider- and market-level data. Linear fixed effects regressions of negotiated colonoscopy price were run on provider, system, and market characteristics. Markets were defined as counties. There were 178,433 claims from 169 providers (104 systems). The mean system market share was 76% (SD = 0.34) and the mean real (deflated) price was US$1363 (SD = 374), ranging from US$169 to US$2748. For every percentage point increase in a system or individual facility's bed share, relative price increased by 2 to 4 percentage points; this result was stable across a number of specifications. Market population and price were also consistently positively related, though this relation was small in magnitude. No other factor explained price as strongly as market share. Price variation for colonoscopy was driven primarily by market share, of particular concern as the number of mergers increases in wake of the recession and the Affordable Care Act. Whether variation is justified by better quality care requires further research to determine whether quality is subsumed in prices. © The Author(s) 2015.
In the bachelor thesis are introduced theoretical concepts of the Internet and marketing, accented the need of marketing mix along with its specifics of the internet environment. Next is interpreted which tools can be used for marketing of firms and which marketing instruments are to be deployed. Final chapter illustrates socio-demographics of Czech internet users along with media market allocation from the perspective of all media as well as in the segment of the Internet.
Brian Garda Muchardie; Nabila Hanindya Yudiana; Annetta Gunawan
The purpose of this research was to determine the influence of social media marketing against customer engagement and its impact on brand loyalty. Methods applied is a quantitative method by distributing questionnaire to 100 customers. Data analysis was applied path analysis. The results of this study shows that social media marketing has a positive and significant impact on customer engagement, on brand loyalty, and on customer engagement, and its impact on brand loyalty where customer engag...
Scarff, D. D.; Bloom, H. L.
Paper reviews technical, resource planning and marketing steps an industrial organization must perform in arriving at a decision to undertake space development and production of commercial products or services for Users on the ground. Technical elements are supported by particular examples. Analysis of required resources emphasizes facility and financial inter-relationships between commercial organizations and NASA. Marketing planning covers elements of profitability. Paper addresses questions related to protection of corporate stockholders and public interest, investment decision timing, budget variations. Paper concludes with observations on timeliness of planning shuttle-based commercial ventures and on key industry/NASA problems and decisions.
Kuechel, Marie Czenko
This article discusses social media as a means of communication between the aesthetic medical practice and clients. Discussion of the various types of social media and how each can support a physician's practice, brand, market, and tolerances is presented. Blogs, wikis, networks, viral marketing, and electronic communications are presented in terms of what they can provide a practice and their limitations and pitfalls. Emphasis is on finding the combination of methods to showcase the individual style and personality of a practice. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Ali Akbar Farhangi
Full Text Available This study examines a number of factors suggested in the literature as important determinants of the foreign market selection. Key strategic factors are determined as four groups: host-country characteristics, firm-specific factors, competitive situation and content adaptation. In this study, multiple regression and path analysis are used. To test the model with modeling techniques, the necessary data from 29 media firms were used. It is based on a questionnaire, which has provided several insights into market selection elements. Our findings indicate that all components of the host country, exporting companies, competitive situation and the content adaptation could influence positively the selection of foreign market. The results also indicate that the adaptation of content was the most effective in choosing a foreign market. In addition, cross-cultural adaptation is an important component in selection of foreign markets. The results also suggest that the causal relationships between the independent variables are positive and significant, while the relationship between the content adaptation and the competitive situation has not been confirmed.
McLaren, Joyce; Gagnon, Pieter; Anderson, Kate; Elgqvist, Emma; Fu, Ran; Remo, Tim
This slide deck presents current market data on the commercial scale li-ion battery storage projects in the U.S. It includes existing project locations, cost data and project cost breakdown, a map of demand charges across the U.S. and information about how the ITC and MACRS apply to energy storage projects that are paired with solar PV technology.
Wild, C; Puig, S
In the context of increasing economic pressure upon on hospital budgets, it is inevitable that central and standardized purchasing of pharmaceuticals must be considered. It was the aim of this assessment to analyse the many different non-ionic contrast media/CM products on the actual "clinical relevance of the differences" in order to give advice for a more concerted purchasing of CM. The assessment was commissioned by a large scale Austrian hospital cooperation; it can be regarded as the beginning of a broad strategy against the many new, only rarely innovative, but nevertheless patent-protected pharmaceuticals. Eight different non-ionic contrast media - used in routine care - were compared for their physico-chemical characteristics: osmolality, nephrotoxicity, viscosity, hydrophilicity and electric charge. In a systematic review 193 publications were analysed. The examined CM show similar pharmacokinetic and -dynamic attributes, and no differences of clinical relevance. An optimisation of purchasing pharmaceuticals by standardisation of the range of products takes place in the context of common strategies of producers and buying agents in marketing-economies. The strategies of the pharmaceutical industry (patent protection of me-too drugs, high-price-policy, extensive marketing of up to 40 % of revenue) and the counter-strategies of the central hospital purchasers (market concentration, drug commissions, institutional measures to disentangle interests) are presented - exemplified by contrast media - in this article.
Sifaneck, Stephen J.; Ream, Geoffrey L.; Johnson, Bruce D.; Dunlap, Eloise
This paper documents the bifurcation of the market for commercial marijuana from the market for designer marijuana in New York City. Commercial marijuana is usually grown outdoors, imported to NYC, and of average quality. By contrast, several strains of designer marijuana are usually grown indoors from specially-bred strains and carefully handled for maximum quality. The mechanisms for selling include street/park sellers, delivery services, private sales, and storefronts. Retail sales units vary from $5 to $50 and more, but the actual weights and price per gram of retail marijuana purchases lacks scientific precision. Ethnographic staff recruited marijuana purchasers who used digital scales to weigh a purposive sample of 99 marijuana purchases. Results indicate clear differences in price per gram between the purchases of commercial (avg. $8.20/gram) and designer (avg. $18.02/gram) marijuana. Designer purchases are more likely to be made by whites, downtown (Lower East Side/Union Square area), via delivery services, and in units of $10 bags, $50 cubes, and eighth and quarter ounces. Commercial marijuana purchases are more likely to be made by blacks, uptown (Harlem), via street dealers, and in units of $5 and $20 bags. Imported commercial types Arizona and Chocolate were only found uptown, while designer brand names describing actual strains like Sour Diesel and White Widow were only found downtown. Findings indicate clear divisions between commercial and designer marijuana markets in New York City. The extent that these differences may be based upon different THC potencies is a matter for future research. PMID:17055670
Although, both in the world and in Lithuania, there are more and more discussions, publications, scientific researches related to marketing ethics and application of its rules in everyday business activity, a situation in this sector is not as it could be. In order to improve the situation we should know which factors influence ethics of marketing solution. Individual and organisational factors, having impact on decision making, as far as ethics is concerned, are being analysed in this public...
Different marketing researches report that participation in adventure races had grown over the last 2-3 years. However, adventure races have received relatively little attention in academic literature. The focus of existing studies in this field tends to be on accidents or medical issues. At the same time social media networks have become popular. The purpose of this thesis was to describe how increased social media activity would affect awareness of the Lost in Kajaani (LiK) adventure race. ...
Benetoli, Arcelio; Chen, Timothy F; Aslani, Parisa
Although a number of studies have investigated how consumers use social media for health-related purposes, there is a paucity of studies in the Australian context. This study aimed to explore how Australian consumers used social media for health-related purposes, specifically how they identified social media platforms, which were used, and which health-related activities commonly took place. A total of 5 focus groups (n=36 participants), each lasting 60 to 90 minutes, were conducted in the Sydney metropolitan area. The group discussions were audiorecorded and transcribed verbatim. The transcripts were coded line-by-line and thematically analyzed. Participants used general search engines to locate health-related social media platforms. They accessed a wide range of social media on a daily basis, using several electronic devices (in particular, mobile phones). Although privacy was a concern, it did not prevent consumers from fully engaging in social media for health-related purposes. Blogs were used to learn from other people's experiences with the same condition. Facebook allowed consumers to follow health-related pages and to participate in disease-specific group discussions. Wikipedia was used for factual information about diseases and treatments. YouTube was accessed to learn about medical procedures such as surgery. No participant reported editing or contributing to Wikipedia or posting YouTube videos related to health topics. Twitter was rarely used for health-related purposes. Social media allowed consumers to obtain and provide disease and treatment-related information and social and emotional support for those living with the same condition. Most considered their participation as observational, but some also contributed (eg, responded to people's questions). Participants used a wide range of social media for health-related purposes. Medical information exchange (eg, disease and treatment) and social and emotional support were the cornerstones of their online
O. Zhylinska; S. Firsova
The necessity of identifying the costs for commercialization of high-tech products is revealed based on theoretical assumptions of marketing models of innovation diffusion. The results obtained show the objective nature of the avalanche increase of transaction costs choice, caused by a high level of information asymmetry, which occurs in gaps in lifecycle of high technology products adoption. A development and systematization of marketing measures to bridge the gap in life cycle of high techn...
Abolfazl Tajzadeh Namin; Abedin Pouya
Social media are always considered as an important source for industrial marketing research. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of social media on the manufacturers’ performance in western Iran. For this purpose, the impact of using social media on variables, includingmanufacturers’ personal goals ( Bulletin et al., 2011), The benefits of research media (Homburg et al., 2010; Schultz, 2012), support of producers from each (Schultz et al., 2012), manufacturers’ characteristic...
Brings to the attention of the Media Relations Advisor and/or Social Media Officer in ... Monitors, evaluates and reports on the effectiveness and influence of IDRC's social ... projects to promote research results among regional decision-makers.
Petrella, Robert J; Speechley, Mark; Kleinstiver, Peter W; Ruddy, Terry
Barriers to high blood pressure (BP) awareness and control are exacerbated by poor knowledge of the consequences and uncertainty regarding how to and who should direct care. We developed a social marketing hypertension awareness program to determine baseline awareness, knowledge, and treatment behavior, and then studied the impact of a targeted, media intervention among randomly surveyed adults at risk in a representative urban community compared to a control community immediately and 6 months after the intervention. The program consisted of three random-digit telephone surveys conducted in two mid-sized Ontario cities to determine high BP awareness, knowledge, and treatment behavior. Using baseline knowledge and attitudes toward high BP in both communities, a social marketing awareness strategy and mass media intervention campaign incorporating television, radio, print, direct to patient, and interactive techniques was developed and implemented in the test city only. Both test and control cities were resurveyed immediately after and at 6 months post-media intervention to detect change and decay. A sample of 6873 men and women more than 35 years old who were aware of their high BP demonstrated a high prevalence of high BP in the general population ( approximately 34% in both communities). At baseline this population had poor knowledge of their own BP numbers and poor understanding of the diseases related to high BP. Although few considered high BP a health concern, they had good understanding of lifestyle interventions for high BP prevention and control. The number of the respondents who claimed to have high BP increased immediately after intervention in the test city (38%; P < .02), whereas the number of respondents who were treated and uncontrolled decreased (P < .05) compared to control. There was a significant increase in patients' knowledge of consequences and in their perception that they were most responsible for high BP control in the test city (P < .005
Michal A. Michalski
This article discusses the question of the presence of the category of the family in the media, which most often operate as commercial enterprises these days. At the same time the influence of media communication on the family is underlined. The analysis results in distinguishing between two ways of presenting and treating the family in media broadcasting. The first – objective – resembles the authentic nature and character of this basic social group, while the second – subjective – distorts ...
Gainsbury, Sally M; King, Daniel L; Russell, Alex M T; Delfabbro, Paul; Derevensky, Jeffrey; Hing, Nerilee
Digital advertising for gambling and specifically marketing via social media have increased in recent years, and the impact on vulnerable consumers, including moderate-risk and problem gamblers, is unknown. Social media promotions often fall outside of advertising restrictions and codes of conduct and may have an inequitable effect on susceptible gamblers. This study aimed to investigate recall of exposure to, and reported impact on gamblers of, gambling promotions and marketing content on social media, with a focus on vulnerable users currently experiencing gambling problems. Gamblers who use social media (N = 964) completed an online survey assessing their exposure to and engagement with gambling operators on social media, their problem gambling severity, and the impact of social media promotions on their gambling. Gamblers at moderate risk and problem gamblers were significantly more likely to report having been exposed to social media gambling promotions and indicated actively engaging with gambling operators via these platforms. They were more likely to self-report that they had increased gambling as a result of these promotions, and over one third reported that the promotions had increased their problems. This research suggests that gamblers at moderate risk or those experiencing gambling problems are more likely to be impacted by social media promotions, and these may play a role in exacerbating disordered gambling. Future research should verify these self-reported results with behavioral data. However, the potential influence of advertisements via these new platforms should be considered by clinicians and policymakers, given their potential role in the formation of this behavioral addiction. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Kuenneke, R.W.; Bouwmans, I.; Kling, W.L.; Slootweg, J.G.; Stout, H.D.; De Vries, L.J.; Van Poelje, H.; Wolters, M.
The purpose of this study is to contribute to the development a view on the future of the energy infrastructure for the next 10-15 years, including the related regulation, focusing on the strategic options for development of networks. Attention is paid to (1) planning concepts (to what extent should existing planning concepts be revised as a result of liberalization and technical innovation); and (2) positioning of networks (what are the consequences of the separation of energy markets in commercial and regulated sectors for the development of the energy sector) [nl
This paper explains methods and conditions, which if completely and correctly fulfilled, enable an operating NPP (Nuclear Power Plant) licensed and operating in accordance with the US codes and US regulatory requirements to use a commercial grade programmable digital device (PLC - Programmable Digital Controller, digital controller, digital computer or process computer) in a safety related application in a NPP. In mid 80's, when an intensive construction cycle of the new NPPs in the U.S.A. was completed, many equipment manufacturers either disappeared from the market or they abandoned their product lines that were designed and manufactured under 10 CFR Part 50 Appendix B quality assurance program. The quality assurance as defined by 10 CFR Part 50 Appendix B comprises all those planned and systematic actions necessary to provide adequate confidence that a Structure, System or Component (SSC) will perform satisfactorily in service . The operating NPPs faced the problem related to the availability of qualified equipment, components and spare parts. The US NRC (Nuclear Regulatory Commission) recognized that problem timely (Oct. 1978 revision of 10CFR21) and required a commercial grade item to be dedicated before it could be used as a basic component. A special process named Dedication of CGI - Commercial Grade Items if conducted properly, provides reasonable assurance that a commercial grade item to be used as a basic component will perform its intended safety related function and, in this respect, is deemed equivalent to an item designed and manufactured under 10 CFR Part 50 Appendix B. After that, the Dedication of CGI has been widely used mostly for relatively simple mechanical, electrical, and IandC components and spare parts. In order to provide guidance to the dedication process, EPRI has issued two documents (EPRI NP-5652 and Supplemental Guidance for EPRI NP-5652). All nuclear power plants, which comply with the US nuclear regulatory requirements, hindered as
This bachelor thesis presents a project, which is commissioned by Valona Design, a Finnish-based design company in arts and crafts. The main outcome of this thesis is to familiarize the reader with the fast-changing social media branding, which is applied to the commissioning company. The final objective of this thesis is to produce a customized content marketing calendar for the commissioning company which is based on the social media branding’s framework. The content marketing calendar...
Stuart, E J E; Tschulik, K; Compton, R G; Omanović, D; Cullen, J T; Jurkschat, K; Crossley, A
The electrochemistry of silver nanoparticles contained in a consumer product has been studied. The redox properties of silver particles in a commercially available disinfectant cleaning spray were investigated via cyclic voltammetry before particle-impact voltammetry was used to detect single particles in both a typical aqueous electrolyte and authentic seawater media. We show that particle-impact voltammetry is a promising method for the detection of nanoparticles that have leached into the environment from consumer products, which is an important development for the determination of risks associated with the incorporation of nanotechnology into everyday products. (paper)
Voorveld, H.A.M.; Neijens, P.C.; Smit, E.G.
The aim of the study is to investigate the role of media sequence on consumers' responses to cross-media campaigns. To do so, we conducted an experiment in which we studied the effects of a combination of TV commercials and websites (TV commercial-website vs. website-TV commercial) for two different
Ketelaar, P.E.; Lucassen, P.; Kregting, G.H.J.
Research into the reasons why consumers pass along viral commercials: their motives, the content characteristics of viral commercials and the medium context in which viral commercials appear. Based on the uses and gratifications perspective this study has determined which motives of consumers,
Liang, Bryan A
Background Illicit or rogue Internet pharmacies are a recognized global public health threat that have been identified as utilizing various forms of online marketing and promotion, including social media. Objective To assess the accessibility of creating illicit no prescription direct-to-consumer advertising (DTCA) online pharmacy social media marketing (eDTCA2.0) and evaluate its potential global reach. Methods We identified the top 4 social media platforms allowing eDTCA2.0. After determining applicable platforms (ie, Facebook, Twitter, Google+, and MySpace), we created a fictitious advertisement advertising no prescription drugs online and posted it to the identified social media platforms. Each advertisement linked to a unique website URL that consisted of a site error page. Employing Web search analytics, we tracked the number of users visiting these sites and their location. We used commercially available Internet tools and services, including website hosting, domain registration, and website analytic services. Results Illicit online pharmacy social media content for Facebook, Twitter, and MySpace remained accessible despite highly questionable and potentially illegal content. Fictitious advertisements promoting illicit sale of drugs generated aggregate unique user traffic of 2795 visits over a 10-month period. Further, traffic to our websites originated from a number of countries, including high-income and middle-income countries, and emerging markets. Conclusions Our results indicate there are few barriers to entry for social media–based illicit online drug marketing. Further, illicit eDTCA2.0 has globalized outside US borders to other countries through unregulated Internet marketing. PMID:23718965
Full Text Available Integrated marketing communications represent the unification of organization's marketing and communication activities. Sports organizations have the emphasized need for effective communication with their environment (the public, the media, advertisers, sponsors, and other subjects interested in their offer. Elements of the integrated marketing communications are: advertising, personal selling, sales promotion, publicity, public relations, direct marketing, Internet communications etc. Each of these elements has some specifics which marketing specialists in sports organizations need to understand.
Dunlop, Sally; Freeman, Becky; Jones, Sandra C.
The near-ubiquitous use of social media among adolescents and young adults creates opportunities for both corporate brands and health promotion agencies to target and engage with young audiences in unprecedented ways. Traditional media is known to have both a positive and negative influence on youth health behaviours, but the impact of social media is less well understood. This paper first summarises current evidence around adolescents’ exposure to the promotion and marketing of unhealthy ...
The main objective of this work was to clarify the role billboard in the marketing strategy of small and medium-sized enterprise. The theoretical part deals with marketing and commercial communications, their mixes and process of creation. This work also analyzes the billboard as one of the types of outdoor advertising. It provides a detailed look at its advantages, disadvantages, characteristics that should be considered when choosing media. It also provides guidance on how it should look li...
Vassallo, Amy Jo; Kelly, Bridget; Zhang, Lelin; Wang, Zhiyong; Young, Sarah; Freeman, Becky
Omnipresent marketing of processed foods is a key driver of dietary choices and brand loyalty. Market data indicate a shift in food marketing expenditures to digital media, including social media. These platforms have greater potential to influence young people, given their unique peer-to-peer transmission and youths' susceptibility to social pressures. The aim of this study was to investigate the frequency of images and videos posted by the most popular, energy-dense, nutrient-poor food and beverage brands on Instagram and the marketing strategies used in these images, including any healthy choice claims. A content analysis of 15 accounts was conducted, using 12 months of Instagram posts from March 15, 2015, to March 15, 2016. A pre-established hierarchical coding guide was used to identify the primary marketing strategy of each post. Each brand used 6 to 11 different marketing strategies in their Instagram accounts; however, they often adhered to an overall theme such as athleticism or relatable consumers. There was a high level of branding, although not necessarily product information on all accounts, and there were very few health claims. Brands are using social media platforms such as Instagram to market their products to a growing number of consumers, using a high frequency of targeted and curated posts that manipulate consumer emotions rather than present information about their products. Policy action is needed that better reflects the current media environment. Public health bodies also need to engage with emerging media platforms and develop compelling social counter-marketing campaigns. ©Amy Jo Vassallo, Bridget Kelly, Lelin Zhang, Zhiyong Wang, Sarah Young, Becky Freeman. Originally published in JMIR Public Health and Surveillance (http://publichealth.jmir.org), 05.06.2018.
Martin, Gary L.
A robust and competitive commercial space sector is vital to continued progress in space. The United States is committed to encouraging and facilitating the growth of a U.S. commercial space sector that supports U.S. needs, is globally competitive, and advances U.S. leadership in the generation of new markets and innovation-driven entrepreneurship. Energize competitive domestic industries to participate in global markets and advance the development of: satellite manufacturing; satellite-based services; space launch; terrestrial applications; and increased entrepreneurship. Purchase and use commercial space capabilities and services to the maximum practical extent Actively explore the use of inventive, nontraditional arrangements for acquiring commercial space goods and services to meet United States Government requirements, including measures such as public-private partnerships, . Refrain from conducting United States Government space activities that preclude, discourage, or compete with U.S. commercial space activities. Pursue potential opportunities for transferring routine, operational space functions to the commercial space sector where beneficial and cost-effective.
Agesty Sabreyna RM
Full Text Available Media Relations was a requirement for Public Relation practitioners thatPR had an important role in a relationship with media. It was because thetask of public relation was the mass media and journalist. PT PelabuhanIndonesia III (Persero as a State-owned enterprised cannot separate withthe crisis news. The strategy of media relations was very important to handlethe negative publicity because it could affect a company’s image.This research used qualitative descriptive method with data collectiontechniques, observation, interviews, and literature. The aim was determinethe media relations strategy of PT. Pelabuhan Indonesia III (Persero tohandle media crisis and compared it with the theory used. This study usedtheory of public relations, crisis and the media of media relations in crisissituation. The crisis of media should solve quickly and precisely, by handling the crisis.The results of this research to handle a news crisis, the steps were: 1. Analysis,2. Identification, 3. Responds media. All the four steps above, the activity ofmedia relations were very important to do, and the strategy of media relationsused to support roles, functions and duties of public relations. The strategy ofmedia relations were: By served the media, By established a reputations for reliability, By supplying good copy, By cooperations in providing materials, verifications By provided facilities, and By build a personal relationship withthe media. The six of those strategies was the activity of public relationscommunications to establish understanding and good relations with the massmedia.Keywords: Crisis, Public Relations, Media Relations, Strategy, andPelabuhan Indonesia III (Persero
Henry, Rachel K; Molnar, Amy; Henry, Jon C
Social media is becoming the way for businesses, including health care professionals, to communicate with consumers. The study examines the use of social media by dental practices in the US. An electronic survey was sent to 22,682 dentists in the United States. The survey consisted of questions related to the use of social media in the dental practice. Data was analyzed using descriptive statistics and comparisons were made using a Fisher's exact test. A total of 573 responses were received. Social media was used in 52% of dental practices, the most common being Facebook. The use of social media was most commonly for marketing purposes (91%). Dentists younger than 45 years old were more likely to use social media in their practice than dentists 45 years or older (p > 0.001). Dental practices actively use social media for marketing and communication. Many dentists are unsure how to measure the success of social media in their practice. Additional research is needed to measure the success of social media in a dental practice. Social media is a common way practices market and interact with their patients. There are some difficulties in determining what appropriate content for social media is and how to evaluate the success.
Dandridge, Cyane; Walton, Jennifer; Bertoldi, Paolo
This paper examines how effectively working with students and contractors can engage small commercial businesses in energy efficiency measures. Small commercial businesses are an underserved and hard-to-reach market for energy efficiency services. Yet, this sector comprises a significant percentage of all businesses and aggregate energy usage. Two main barriers to doing an energy retrofit in small businesses include getting the business to agree to participate and getting them to implement suggested measures. Student outreach addresses the first, and using a mechanical or electrical contractor as an ESCO is a great way to address the second. The Awareness for Community Energy (ACE) Program is currently being offered throughout the United States. ACE employs high school and college students as interns and trains them in small business energy auditing. The business more readily accepts the marketing of energy services by a student, since it is seen as an opportunity to contribute to a student's educational experience. In one case, ACE program participants audited over 150 small businesses in a three-month period. Electrical and mechanical contractors are prime candidates to both disseminate information on energy efficiency and carry out the necessary retrofits. The owners of most energy using facilities already have trusted mechanical/electrical service contractors. By diffusing ESCO concepts amongst existing service contractors, there is a far greater chance of upgrading the energy efficiency throughout the small business sector. Such diffusion activities will involve training and awareness programs for contractors, as well as encouragement of financial institutions to develop supportive financing products
The objective of this project was to discuss the process necessary to utilize commercial grade equipment in safety related applications and to provide utilities with guidance for accepting commercial grade motors for safety-related applications. The generic commercial-grade concepts presented in this report can be successfully applied to motors. Commercial grade item utilization has the greatest applicability to motors in ''mild'' environments, because these motors are essentially similar to commercial grade motors in materials, construction methods, and capabilities. The acceptance process is less applicable to motors that are subject to ''harsh'' environments during postulated accidents, because of the unique design features and testing required to qualify these motors
Swinburn, Boyd; Sacks, Gary; Lobstein, Tim; Rigby, Neville; Baur, Louise A; Brownell, Kelly D; Gill, Tim; Seidell, Jaap; Kumanyika, Shiriki
A set of seven principles (the 'Sydney Principles') was developed by an International Obesity Taskforce (IOTF) Working Group to guide action on changing food and beverage marketing practices that target children. The aim of the present communication is to present the Sydney Principles and report on feedback received from a global consultation (November 2006 to April 2007) on the Principles. The Principles state that actions to reduce marketing to children should: (i) support the rights of children; (ii) afford substantial protection to children; (iii) be statutory in nature; (iv) take a wide definition of commercial promotions; (v) guarantee commercial-free childhood settings; (vi) include cross-border media; and (vii) be evaluated, monitored and enforced. The draft principles were widely disseminated and 220 responses were received from professional and scientific associations, consumer bodies, industry bodies, health professionals and others. There was virtually universal agreement on the need to have a set of principles to guide action in this contentious area of marketing to children. Apart from industry opposition to the third principle calling for a statutory approach and several comments about the implementation challenges, there was strong support for each of the Sydney Principles. Feedback on two specific issues of contention related to the age range to which restrictions should apply (most nominating age 16 or 18 years) and the types of products to be included (31% nominating all products, 24% all food and beverages, and 45% energy-dense, nutrient-poor foods and beverages). The Sydney Principles, which took a children's rights-based approach, should be used to benchmark action to reduce marketing to children. The age definition for a child and the types of products which should have marketing restrictions may better suit a risk-based approach at this stage. The Sydney Principles should guide the formation of an International Code on Food and Beverage
Glik, Deborah; Massey, Philip; Gipson, Jessica; Dieng, Thierno; Rideau, Alexandre; Prelip, Michael
Lower- and middle-income countries (LMICs) are experiencing rapid changes in access to and use of new internet and digital media technologies. The purpose of this study was to better understand how younger audiences are navigating traditional and newer forms of media technologies, with particular emphasis on the skills and competencies needed to obtain, evaluate and apply health-related information, also defined as health and media literacy. Sixteen focus group discussions were conducted throughout Senegal in September 2012 with youth aged 15-25. Using an iterative coding process based on grounded theory, four themes emerged related to media use for health information among Senegalese youth. They include the following: (i) media utilization; (ii) barriers and conflicts regarding media utilization; (iii) uses and gratifications and (iv) health and media literacy. Findings suggest that Senegalese youth use a heterogeneous mix of media platforms (i.e. television, radio, internet) and utilization often occurs with family members or friends. Additionally, the need for entertainment, information and connectedness inform media use, mostly concerning sexual and reproductive health information. Importantly, tensions arise as youth balance innovative and interactive technologies with traditional and conservative values, particularly concerning ethical and privacy concerns. Findings support the use of multipronged intervention approaches that leverage both new media, as well as traditional media strategies, and that also address lack of health and media literacy in this population. Implementing health-related interventions across multiple media platforms provides an opportunity to create an integrated, as opposed to a disparate, user experience. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Full Text Available Many concepts have been developed to describe the convergence of media, public relations and storytelling formats in contemporary media systems. This article presents a theoretical reflection on “transmedia storytelling” from a perspective of integration narrative in the context of the re-invention of public relations. The rapid evolution of digital media technology and the emergence of transmedia storytelling present foresight professionals with a powerful new approach for communicating about the future. A transmedia story unfolds across multiple media platforms with each new text making a distinctive and valuable contribution to the whole. Between other, this article also outlines some of the key principles and elements of transmedia storytelling in combination with modern public relations, in order to provide a basic framework that public relations practitioner can use when designing transmedia projects.
Brown, M.A.; Franchuk, C.A. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)); Wilson, C.R. (Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States))
This report provides information on the recent commercial progress of inventions supported by the US Department of Energy's Energy-Related Inventions Programs (ERIP). It describes the results of the latest in a series of ERIP evaluation projects that have been completed since 1980. It focuses on the economic impacts of the program, notably sales and employment benefits. The period of interest is 1980 through 1990. The evaluation is based on data collected through mail and telephone surveying of 143 participants in the Program. As of October 1989, a total of 486 inventions were recommended to DOE by the National Institute for Standards and Technology, which screens all submitted inventions in terms of technical merit, potential for commercial success, and potential energy impact. By the end of 1990, at least 109 of these inventions had entered the market, generating total cumulative sales of more than $500 million. With $25.7 million in grants awarded from 1975 through 1990, and $63.1 million in program appropriations over the same period, ERIP has generated a 20:1 return in terms of sales values to grants, and an 8:1 return in sales versus program appropriations. It is estimated that 25% of all ERIP inventions had achieved sales by the end of 1990. While it is difficult to make exact comparisons between these percentages and other indicators of the success rates of technological innovations as a whole, the ERIP figures remain impressive. The commercial progress of spin-off technologies is also documented.
Brown, M.A.; Franchuk, C.A. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Wilson, C.R. [Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States)
This report provides information on the recent commercial progress of inventions supported by the US Department of Energy`s Energy-Related Inventions Programs (ERIP). It describes the results of the latest in a series of ERIP evaluation projects that have been completed since 1980. It focuses on the economic impacts of the program, notably sales and employment benefits. The period of interest is 1980 through 1990. The evaluation is based on data collected through mail and telephone surveying of 143 participants in the Program. As of October 1989, a total of 486 inventions were recommended to DOE by the National Institute for Standards and Technology, which screens all submitted inventions in terms of technical merit, potential for commercial success, and potential energy impact. By the end of 1990, at least 109 of these inventions had entered the market, generating total cumulative sales of more than $500 million. With $25.7 million in grants awarded from 1975 through 1990, and $63.1 million in program appropriations over the same period, ERIP has generated a 20:1 return in terms of sales values to grants, and an 8:1 return in sales versus program appropriations. It is estimated that 25% of all ERIP inventions had achieved sales by the end of 1990. While it is difficult to make exact comparisons between these percentages and other indicators of the success rates of technological innovations as a whole, the ERIP figures remain impressive. The commercial progress of spin-off technologies is also documented.
Promising market opportunities for the sale of Active Solar Thermal Systems (ASTS) in the institutional, commercial and industrial sectors of the Canadian economy were examined in an effort to identify the main factors for success and the barriers to development of the ASTS market. This report described some of the action plans which could help Natural Resources Canada and the industry to develop these markets. It was noted that a promising ASTS application should have a substantial market. Some of the promising applications for ASTS include air heating applications such as: (1) make-up air to an industrial facility, particularly one that requires a high rate of air flow or air layer destratification, such as in welding operations, paint shops or vehicle maintenance facilities, (2) ventilation to a high-walled commercial or institutional building that requires high air flow such as in schools, recreational facilities, multi-residential or retail buildings, and (3) slow drying applications for crops, lumber or other materials. Promising water heating applications include: (1) high volume low temperature rise applications such as in swimming pools, (2) domestic hot water to high density accommodations such as in hotels, multi-unit dwellings, college residences and military barracks, (3) domestic hot water to an isolated location such as campgrounds or lodges, and (4) process hot water used for water washing in industry, restaurants, farms and car washes. This study concluded that there are many opportunities for sales of ASTS to the institutional, commercial and industrial sectors, but combined efforts are needed by committed members of the community to take advantage of these opportunities. 15 refs., 11 tabs., 2 figs., 4 append.
Moon Young Kang
Full Text Available Social media has been receiving attention as a cost-effective tool to build corporate brand image and to enrich customer relationships. This phenomenon calls for more attention to developing a model that measures the impact of structural features, used in corporate social media messages. Based on communication science, this study proposes a model to measure the impact of three essential message structural features (interactivity, formality, and immediacy in corporate social media on customers’ purchase intentions, mediated by brand attitude and corporate trust. Especially, social media platforms are believed to provide a good marketing platform for small and medium enterprises (SMEs by providing access to huge audiences at a very low cost. The findings from this study based on a structural equation model suggest that brand attitude and corporate trust have larger impacts on purchase intention for SMEs than large firms. This implies that SMEs with little to no presence in the market should pay more attention to building corporate trust and brand attitude for their sustainable growth.
Full Text Available The objective of the paper is to analyse the impact of the Swiss Nati onal Bank’s decision to introduce the floating exchange rate of the franc on January 15th, 2015, upon the market value of commercial banks operatingin the Polish banking sector. The analysis involved twelve commercial banks quoted on the Warsaw Stock Exchange. The results are inconclusive. The predicted reducti on of the banks’ market value was less significant than indicated by market investors’ reaction on the day after the announcement of the decision to introduce the floating exchange rate of the franc. The banks most prone to granting credit denominated in CHF did experience the largest reducti on of their share quotations. However, the Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient calculated for the correlation between the average cumulative abnormal returns on shares for the entire analysed sample, and the proportion of credits denominated in Swiss francs in the total credit portfolio, indicated only a moderate correlation between both variables.
consumer, and includes word -of- mouth or viral posts.7 However, the marketer may help generate earned media through marketing actions.8 Likewise, earned... MEDIA : A METHOD FOR INCORPORATING SOCIAL MEDIA IN DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE 5b. GRANT NUMBER PLANS 5c. PROGRAM ELEM ENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT... social media to influence the 2016 U.S. presidential elections demonstrated the power of social media . They also revealed that the U.S. is behind its
Chronopoulou, Elpiniki; Harper, Joyce C
The advances in the world of IVF during the last decades have been rapid and impressive and culture media play a major role in this success. Until the 1980s fertility centers made their media in house. Nowadays, there are numerous commercially available culture media that contain various components including nutrients, vitamins and growth factors. This review goes through the past, present and future of IVF culture media and explores their composition and quality assessment. A computerized search was performed in PubMed regarding IVF culture media including results from 1929 until March 2014. Information was gathered from the websites of companies who market culture media, advertising material, instructions for use and certificates of analysis. The regulation regarding IVF media mainly in the European Union (EU) but also in non-European countries was explored. The keyword 'IVF culture media' gave 923 results in PubMed and 'embryo culture media' 12 068 results dating from 1912 until March 2014, depicting the increased scientific activity in this field. The commercialization of IVF culture media has increased the standards bringing a great variety of options into clinical practice. However, it has led to reduced transparency and comparisons of brand names that do not facilitate the scientific dialogue. Furthermore, there is some evidence suggesting that suboptimal culture conditions could cause long-term reprogramming in the embryo as the periconception period is particularly susceptible to epigenetic alterations. IVF media are now classified as class III medical devices and only CE (Conformité Européene)-marked media should be used in the EU. The CE marking of IVF culture media is a significant development in the field. However, the quality and efficiency of culture media should be monitored closely. Well-designed randomized controlled trials, large epidemiological studies and full transparency should be the next steps. Reliable, standardized models assessing
Babor, Thomas F; Robaina, Katherine; Noel, Jonathan K; Ritson, E Bruce
The concern that alcohol advertising can have detrimental effects on vulnerable viewers has prompted the development of codes of responsible advertising practices. This paper evaluates critically the concept of vulnerability as it applies to (1) susceptibility to alcohol-related harm and (2) susceptibility to the effects of marketing, and describes its implications for the regulation of alcohol marketing. We describe the findings of key published studies, review papers and expert reports to determine whether these two types of vulnerability apply to population groups defined by (1) age and developmental history; (2) personality characteristics; (3) family history of alcoholism; (4) female sex and pregnancy risk; and (5) history of alcohol dependence and recovery status. Developmental theory and research suggest that groups defined by younger age, incomplete neurocognitive development and a history of alcohol dependence may be particularly vulnerable because of the disproportionate harm they experience from alcohol and their increased susceptibility to alcohol marketing. Children may be more susceptible to media imagery because they do not have the ability to compensate for biases in advertising portrayals and glamorized media imagery. Young people and people with a history of alcohol dependence appear to be especially vulnerable to alcohol marketing, warranting the development of new content and exposure guidelines focused on protecting those groups to improve current self-regulation codes promoted by the alcohol industry. If adequate protections cannot be implemented through this mechanism, statutory regulations should be considered. © 2016 Society for the Study of Addiction.
Johansen, Stine Liv
a very early age, also becoming consumers in their own right. Through media, children are exposed to a wide range of consumer goods,not only through traditional spot commercials, but especially through different kinds of merchandise related to program content. This process, the paper argues, takes place...... in a complex socialization, in which the child through daily interactions with family members and media texts learns how to act and behave as a competent media user......This paper presents some main results from the PhD-project ‘Toddlers watching TV'1. Young children, aged 1½ to three, are in this project understood and examined as active participants in the process of becoming regular viewers of both public service and commercial television, and thereby, from...
Jernigan, David H
The experiences of the Center on Alcohol Marketing and Youth from 2002 to 2008 in re-framing a major public health issue and influencing public policy offer lessons for other public health movements. The Center pioneered new ways to use commercial market research data in public health surveillance and public debate. Combining a steady stream of reports and peer-reviewed articles with state and federal organizing and media advocacy, the Center re-framed a policy debate over alcohol marketing and youth, enabling measurable progress.
Dietz, William H
Federal efforts to address the impact of food marketing on children began more than thirty years ago, when the Federal Trade Commission sought comment on strategies to reduce young children's exposure to food advertising. The food, advertising, and television industries mounted a virulent response, and Congress withdrew the commission's authority to regulate unfair advertising to children. The same industries and Congress responded equally aggressively to the proposed nutrition criteria for food products marketed to children drafted by a working group of federal agencies in 2011. Although federal efforts over the past thirty years have led to modest improvements in food quality and marketing practices, commercial interests have consistently overridden the health concerns of children. Mobilization of parents as a political force to improve standards for food marketed to children, use of social media for counteradvertising, and the development of new technologies to decrease exposure to food advertisements could reduce the impact of food marketing to children.
Balachandra, P.; Kristle Nathan, Hippu Salk; Reddy, B. Sudhakara
Commercialization efforts to diffuse sustainable energy technologies (SETs) have so far remained as the biggest challenge in the field of renewable energy and energy efficiency. Limited success of diffusion through government driven pathways urges the need for market based approaches. This paper reviews the existing state of commercialization of SETs in the backdrop of the basic theory of technology diffusion. The different SETs in India are positioned in the technology diffusion map to reflect their slow state of commercialization. The dynamics of SET market is analysed to identify the issues, barriers and stakeholders in the process of SET commercialization. By upgrading the 'potential adopters' to 'techno-entrepreneurs', the study presents the mechanisms for adopting a private sector driven 'business model' approach for successful diffusion of SETs. This is expected to integrate the processes of market transformation and entrepreneurship development with innovative regulatory, marketing, financing, incentive and delivery mechanisms leading to SET commercialization. (author)
Hennessy, Ciarán; Smeaton, Alan F.
The world of social media influencers, bloggers and online “clothes horses” is a relatively new one. New-media personalities, a.k.a. “clothes horses”, are now endorsing brands, products and companies in a more subtle way than through traditional advertising. They carefully cultivate and position their personal brands with a view to persuading businesses to use them for relatively inexpensive, often local, online marketing campaigns. In the world of traditional media, companies wishing to adve...
MacDonald, Jacqueline; Doshi, Ketan; Dussault, Marike; Hall, J Christopher; Holbrook, Larry; Jones, Ginny; Kaldis, Angelo; Klima, Cassidy L; Macdonald, Phil; McAllister, Tim; McLean, Michael D; Potter, Andrew; Richman, Alex; Shearer, Heather; Yarosh, Oksana; Yoo, Han Sang; Topp, Edward; Menassa, Rima
The production of recombinant vaccines in plants may help to reduce the burden of veterinary diseases, which cause major economic losses and in some cases can affect human health. While there is abundant research in this area, a knowledge gap exists between the ability to create and evaluate plant-based products in the laboratory, and the ability to take these products on a path to commercialization. The current report, arising from a workshop sponsored by an Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) Co-operative Research Programme, addresses this gap by providing guidance in planning for the commercialization of plant-made vaccines for animal use. It includes relevant information on developing business plans, assessing market opportunities, manufacturing scale-up, financing, protecting and using intellectual property, and regulatory approval with a focus on Canadian regulations. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Yang, Taeyang; Lee, Do-Young; Kwak, Youngshin; Choi, Jinsook; Kim, Chajoong; Kim, Sung-Phil
In recent years, neuroscientific knowledge has been applied to marketing as a novel and efficient means to comprehend the cognitive and behavioral aspects of consumers. A number of studies have attempted to evaluate media contents, especially TV commercials using various neuroimaging techniques such as electroencephalography (EEG). Yet neurophysiological examination of detailed cognitive and affective responses in viewers is still required to provide practical information to marketers. Here, this study develops a method to analyze temporal patterns of EEG data and extract affective and cognitive indices such as happiness, surprise, and attention for TV commercial evaluation. Twenty participants participated in the study. We developed the neurophysiological indices for TV commercial evaluation using classification model. Specifically, these model-based indices were customized using individual EEG features. We used a video game for developing the index of attention and four video clips for developing indices of happiness and surprise. Statistical processes including one-way analyses of variance (ANOVA) and the cross validation scheme were used to select EEG features for each index. The EEG features were composed of the combinations of spectral power at selected channels from the cross validation for each individual. The Fisher's linear discriminant classifier (FLDA) was used to estimate each neurophysiological index during viewing four different TV commercials. Post hoc behavioral responses of preference, short-term memory, and recall were measured. Behavioral results showed significant differences for all preference, short-term memory rates, and recall rates between commercials, leading to a 'high-ranked' commercial group and a 'low-ranked' group (P < 0.05). Neural estimation of happiness results revealed a significant difference between the high-ranked and the low-ranked commercials in happiness index (P < 0.01). The order of rankings based on happiness and
D.E. Allen (David); M.J. McAleer (Michael); A.K. Singh (Abhay)
textabstractIn recent years there has been a tremendous growth in the influx of news related to traded assets in international financial markets. This financial news is now available via print media but also through real-time online sources such as internet news and social media sources. The
Full Text Available This article studies the mediatization of criminal and deviant subcultures by analyzing the media-related practices of graffiti writers and skaters in Ghent, Belgium. The ethnographic analysis shows how these subcultures orient themselves toward media and how media become an essential part of and change their everyday practices. Three consequences of this mediatization are highlighted: First, by emphasizing their artistic and performative skills through the mediation of their practices, these subcultures start losing their rebellious and oppositional image. Second, as such, it can be observed that they increasingly become part of mainstream culture. Third, our analysis demonstrates how the mediatization of subcultural groups and their practices goes hand in hand with their commercialization and commodification, as they engage in recording and disseminating their work not only for artistic reasons but also as a means of acquiring sponsorship deals and job opportunities.
Full Text Available This article studies the mediatization of criminal and deviant subcultures by analyzing the media-related practices of graffiti writers and skaters in Ghent, Belgium. The ethnographic analysis shows how these subcultures orient themselves toward media and how media become an essential part of and change their everyday practices. Three consequences of this mediatization are highlighted: First, by emphasizing their artistic and performative skills through the mediation of their practices, these subcultures start losing their rebellious and oppositional image. Second, as such, it can be observed that they increasingly become part of mainstream culture. Third, our analysis demonstrates how the mediatization of subcultural groups and their practices goes hand in hand with their commercialization and commodification, as they engage in recording and disseminating their work not only for artistic reasons but also as a means of acquiring sponsorship deals and job opportunities.
互联网技术和移动应用的发展极大地改变了人们的生活，令酒店消费者行为模式发生了重大改变。市场环境的变化促使酒店无法再固守传统的市场营销策略，越来越多的酒店开始采用和重视社交媒体营销。在新形势下，应努力发挥酒店社交媒体的营销功能，以此提升酒店的口碑，扩散酒店的良好形象。%The development of Internet technology and mobile applications has greatly influenced people's life, which makes hotel consumers undergo tremendous changes. The change of the market environment makes more and more hotels began to use and pay attention to social media marketing. Under the new situation, efforts should be made to develop hotel's social media marketing functions, to improve the hotel reputation and a good image of hotel..
Amalia Novoa Hoyos
Full Text Available This article shows a first estimate about the relationship between investment in digital media and some financial variables in Colombia. First, a literature review is made about the impact of marketing and digital marketing in Company performance. Then, an analysis of the sectorial variables such as liquidity, profitability, indebtedness and concentration in sectors like food, personal grooming, automotive, drinking and tobacco, construction, entertainment, furniture, services, telecommunication, tourism and clothing using the technique of ordinary squared minimums (OSM in the years 2011, 2012, 2013 and 2014. For this study, investment in digital media in the above- mentioned years is also taken into account.
The market potential for active solar thermal systems in the institutional, commercial and industrial sectors of the Canadian economy was investigated, the objective being to identify markets and to prepare action plans as the foundation for developing these markets by Natural Resources Canada and the industry. In the process of researching the market, barriers to market development in these sectors of the economy were also identified as well as actions to overcome these barriers. Nine potential applications were modelled to determine their energy, economic and environmental performance. Of these four attractive applications have been selected for more detailed treatment. Separate action plans have been developed for Natural Resources Canada, the Canadian Solar Industries Association and the active solar thermal industry. The close cooperation of all three partners is considered essential for a successful marketing effort. A marketing plan which gives due consideration to the product, planning, packaging, price and promotion, is also considered to be a vital ingredient, as is a meticulous follow-up on 'leads' created by exposure to the target market. Solarwall'TM' for preheating of ventilation air to new school buildings and solar domestic hot water heating for camp grounds have been identified as the most attractive candidates for marketing at this time. Highlights of marketing plans for these two options are included for purposes of illustrating the essential ingredients of marketing plans. 1 fig
Barfod, Michael Bruhn; Kaplan, Sigal; Frenzel, Ina
Stakeholder's strategies in encouraging wide-scale market penetration depend on their perceptions. This study focuses on perceptions of Danish practitioners in policy-making organizations regarding the perceived challenges, opportunities and policy initiatives for the majority-market adoption...... of electric commercial vehicles (ECVs) in commercial sector in Denmark. We propose a new four-step expert-based technique, named COPE-SMARTER, for evaluating the market diffusion of environmental friendly technologies by combining SWOT analysis and multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) techniques. We focus...... on the perceptions regarding: (i) the potential promotional strength of motivators for ECV market penetration, (ii) the severity of the technological, financial, physical and operational challenges, (iii) the efficiency of policy initiatives in encouraging the market diffusion of ECVs, (iv) the expected market...
Zucchiatti, A., E-mail: email@example.com [Centro de Micro Análisis de Materiales, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, C/ Faraday 3, Madrid (Spain); Climent-Font, A. [Centro de Micro Análisis de Materiales, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, C/ Faraday 3, Madrid (Spain); Departamento de Física Aplicada, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Avda. Francisco Tomás y Valiente 7, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Gómez-Tejedor, J. García [Museo Nacional Centro de Arte Reina Sofia, Departamento de Restauración, Calle Santa Isabel, 52, 28012 Madrid (Spain); Martina, S. [Centro de Micro Análisis de Materiales, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, C/ Faraday 3, Madrid (Spain); Universitá degli Studi di Torino, Turin (Italy); Muro García, C.; Gimeno, E.; Hernández, P.; Canelo, N. [Museo Nacional Centro de Arte Reina Sofia, Departamento de Restauración, Calle Santa Isabel, 52, 28012 Madrid (Spain)
We have examined by PIXE (and by RBS in parallel) about 180 samples of commercial painting and drawing media including pencils, pastels, waxes, inks, paints and paper. Given the high PIXE sensitivity we produced X-ray spectra at low collected charges and currents, operating in good conservation conditions. For drawing media containing inorganic components or a unique marker element, we have defined colouring agent fingerprints which correspond, when applicable, to the composition declared by the manufacturer. For thin layers, the ratios of areal densities of elements are close to those expected given the declared composition, which is promising from the perspective of compiling the database. The quantitative PIXE and RBS analysis of part of the set of samples is provided.
Full Text Available The necessity of identifying the costs for commercialization of high-tech products is revealed based on theoretical assumptions of marketing models of innovation diffusion. The results obtained show the objective nature of the avalanche increase of transaction costs choice, caused by a high level of information asymmetry, which occurs in gaps in lifecycle of high technology products adoption. A development and systematization of marketing measures to bridge the gap in life cycle of high technology products adoption are made in accordance with the economic interests of the dominant categories of consumers.
Full Text Available Paper focuses on areas of Social Media Marketing and Social Network Analysis. It describes case-study of joint university-business project of analysis of online presence of Slovak banks which took place in cooperation with IBM CZ in early 2012. This project was aimed at general analysis of online presence of Slovak banks, uncovering the structure of various channels and forms of bank-customer interaction and identifying key actors in banks social networks along with general sentiment and climate. Paper gives a general overview of the project and its challenges and presents high-level results.
Dracker, R.; De Laquil, P. III
The commercial status of the principal solar electric technologies -- photovoltaic and solar thermal -- is reviewed. Current and near-term market niches are identified, and projected longer-term markets are explored along with the key strategies for achieving them, including technological breakthroughs, manufacturing developments, economies of scale and mass production, and market creation. Market barriers and public policy impacts on commercialization are discussed
Milena Valadar Miranda; Wellyson da Cunha Araújo Firmo; Luciana Patrícia Lima Alves Pereira; Clarice Noleto Dias; Natércia Gomes de Castro; Roberto Sigfrido Gallegos Olea; Denise Fernandes Coutinho Moraes; Luíz Mário da Silva Silveira
The phytotherapy has been becoming an important alternative to terapeutic all over the world. Thereby, several plants have been commercialized at public markets and fairs in many countries. Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi is a species popularly known as aroeira in Brazil and is considered one of the most consumed plants in our country due to its medicinal properties. This study aimed to evaluate the quality of commercial samples of aroeira, purchased at public markets in São Luis-MA, Brazil. T...
Full Text Available Freshwater turtles are being exploited for meat, eggs, traditional medicine, and pet trade. As a response, turtle farming became a booming aquaculture industry in the past two decades, specifically in the southeastern states of the United States of America (US and across Southeast Asia. However, US turtle farms are currently producing turtles only for the pet trade while commercial trappers remain focused on catching the largest individuals from the wild. In our analyses we have created a biological and economic model that describes farming operations on a representative turtle farm in Louisiana. We first modeled current production of hatchling and yearling red-eared slider turtles (Trachemys scripta elegans (i.e., traditional farming for foreign and domestic pet markets, respectively. We tested the possibility of harvesting adult turtles from the breeding stock for sale to meat markets to enable alternative markets for the farmers, while decreasing the continued pressures on wild populations (i.e., non-traditional farming. Our economic model required current profit requirements of ~$13/turtle or ~$20.31/kg of meat from non-traditional farming in order to acquire the same profit as traditional farming, a value which currently exceeds market values of red-eared sliders. However, increasing competition with Asian turtle farms and decreasing hatchling prices may force the shift in the US toward producing turtles for meat markets. In addition, our model can be modified and applied to more desirable species on the meat market once more knowledge is acquired about species life histories and space requirements under farmed conditions.
Mali, Ivana; Wang, Hsiao-Hsuan; Grant, William E.; Feldman, Mark; Forstner, Michael R. J.
Freshwater turtles are being exploited for meat, eggs, traditional medicine, and pet trade. As a response, turtle farming became a booming aquaculture industry in the past two decades, specifically in the southeastern states of the United States of America (US) and across Southeast Asia. However, US turtle farms are currently producing turtles only for the pet trade while commercial trappers remain focused on catching the largest individuals from the wild. In our analyses we have created a biological and economic model that describes farming operations on a representative turtle farm in Louisiana. We first modeled current production of hatchling and yearling red-eared slider turtles (Trachemys scripta elegans) (i.e., traditional farming) for foreign and domestic pet markets, respectively. We tested the possibility of harvesting adult turtles from the breeding stock for sale to meat markets to enable alternative markets for the farmers, while decreasing the continued pressures on wild populations (i.e., non-traditional farming). Our economic model required current profit requirements of ~$13/turtle or ~$20.31/kg of meat from non-traditional farming in order to acquire the same profit as traditional farming, a value which currently exceeds market values of red-eared sliders. However, increasing competition with Asian turtle farms and decreasing hatchling prices may force the shift in the US toward producing turtles for meat markets. In addition, our model can be modified and applied to more desirable species on the meat market once more knowledge is acquired about species life histories and space requirements under farmed conditions. PMID:26407157
Mali, Ivana; Wang, Hsiao-Hsuan; Grant, William E; Feldman, Mark; Forstner, Michael R J
Freshwater turtles are being exploited for meat, eggs, traditional medicine, and pet trade. As a response, turtle farming became a booming aquaculture industry in the past two decades, specifically in the southeastern states of the United States of America (US) and across Southeast Asia. However, US turtle farms are currently producing turtles only for the pet trade while commercial trappers remain focused on catching the largest individuals from the wild. In our analyses we have created a biological and economic model that describes farming operations on a representative turtle farm in Louisiana. We first modeled current production of hatchling and yearling red-eared slider turtles (Trachemys scripta elegans) (i.e., traditional farming) for foreign and domestic pet markets, respectively. We tested the possibility of harvesting adult turtles from the breeding stock for sale to meat markets to enable alternative markets for the farmers, while decreasing the continued pressures on wild populations (i.e., non-traditional farming). Our economic model required current profit requirements of ~$13/turtle or ~$20.31/kg of meat from non-traditional farming in order to acquire the same profit as traditional farming, a value which currently exceeds market values of red-eared sliders. However, increasing competition with Asian turtle farms and decreasing hatchling prices may force the shift in the US toward producing turtles for meat markets. In addition, our model can be modified and applied to more desirable species on the meat market once more knowledge is acquired about species life histories and space requirements under farmed conditions.
Bal, Anjali S.; Grewal, Dhruv; Mills, Adam; Ottley, Gary
The importance of social media for marketing professionals has grown immensely as consumers turn to it to connect with products, brands, and brand communities. Yet limited research investigates the uses of social media to teach core marketing concepts. This article analyzes coursework in foundational marketing classes, with a specific focus on the…
Ruyter, de J.C.; Wetzels, M.G.M.
In marketing theory and practice the concept of relational exchanges has gained wide popularity particularly with regards to external exchange parties, such as consumers and marketing channel intermediaries. However, the concept of relational exchange could also be applied to marketing interfaces
Qishen Zhou; Mingxing Yang
This study aims to investigate the Chinese goods market structure and related integrated marketing strategy. In recent years, it is becoming more and more popular for Chinese consumers to go on luxury consuming in a variety of large cities in China, showing the increasing demand of luxury for Chinese people possessed relatively high fortune. Further, dozens of international famous luxury brands are pouring into the Chinese market such as LVMH and Gucci, recognizing the huge consumption demand...
Full Text Available This study examines the use of different marketing tools among dentists for the development of private dental practices. Material and methods: A phone call survey was conducted. The survey consisted of questions related to the use of different marketing tools used by dentists for the development of their practices. Results: The most used contemporary marketing tools from Bulgarian dentist are the presence of web site (24.3% and social media advertisement (21.57%. The less used tools are media advertisement (0.68% and the use of flyers (1.36%. Conclusion: Dentists are not well acquainted with the contemporary marketing tools. The internal marketing is most secure tool for attracting new patients. Internet technology gives opportunity for additional form of rapid communication and advertisement on a moderate price.
Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study examines the use of different marketing tools among dentists for the development of private dental practices. Material and methods A phone call survey was conducted. The survey consisted of questions related to the use of different marketing tools used by dentists for the development of their practices. Results The most used contemporary marketing tools from Bulgarian dentist are the presence of web site (24.3% and social media advertisement (21.57%. The less used tools are media advertisement (0.68% and the use of flyers (1.36%. Conclusion Dentists are not well acquainted with the contemporary marketing tools. The internal marketing is most secure tool for attracting new patients. Internet technology gives opportunity for additional form of rapid communication and advertisement on a moderate price.
Arisandi, Diki; Sukri
Today, there are many culinary business can be found Pekanbaru city. To increase the benefit, the culinary entrepreneurs are using social media such as Facebook, twitter, instagram, whatsapp and others. This research discussed about the expediency of social media analysis for culinary products marketing on micro and middle enterprise in Pekanbaru by using structural equation modeling method. The Variables were used in this research are the selection of social media, updating information, response to costumers, quality and price as variable x to culinary business marketing as variable y. Data retrieval comes from a questionnaire filled by culinary entrepreneurs who are using social media to sell their product to customer in Pekanbaru. The result of this research displayed that the value of validity to the questionnaire was minimum = 0.083 and maximum = 0.547, RMSEA = 0.08, AGFI = 0.705, CMIN / DF = 1.834, TLI = 0.813 and CFI = 0.843. From the results of these measurements can be concluded that six of seven components of the measurement value can be avowed as acceptable, so the final result in this research is all the x variables have a positive influence on y variable.
Full Text Available Industrial market, created by companies, which buy and sell goods which are not directly for consumption, but are used in production process, communicates with the environment in a specific way. Many industrial companies supply only the customers of non consumption goods market and hence they do not enter into direct contact with a final consumer. In such cases recognizing the customers needs is even more difficult. Such environment requires efficiently functioning and planned communication of the company with the market. This study presents methods and strategies of marketing communication really used in industrial companies. While analysing marketing strategies of industrial companies, the author draws the attention to the fact that even though there was system transformation, the state still has significant impact on functioning and development of industry and that in a way directs and created barriers in companies functioning. Such conditions force even more active marketing communication as well as searching new solutions. As there are more and more sophisticated marketing techniques related to digital media, there is also a growing demand for strategic solutions in marketing communication. Digital media, first of all the Internet, provide so far unavailable possibilities of researching consumers behaviours and ways of using media. They also give a chance to follow the behaviour of smaller, unique and often social groups of consumers.
Warner-Søderholm, Gillian; Bertsch, Andy; Søderholm, Annika
This article contains data collected from self-report surveys of respondents to measure 1) social media usage, 2) age, 3) gender and 4) trust, measured within five major trust constructs of a) Integrity, b) Competence, c) Concern, d) Benevolence and e) Identification. The data includes all instruments used, SPSS syntax, the raw survey data and descriptive statistics from the analyses. Raw data was entered into SPSS software and scrubbed using appropriate techniques in order to prepare the data for analysis. We believe that our dataset and instrument may give important insights related to computers in human behavior, and predicting trust antecedents in social media use such as age, gender, number of hour online and choice of content provider. We have also created a parsimonious five factor trust instrument developed from the extant literature for future research. Hence, this newly developed trust instrument can be used to measure trust not only in social media, but also in other areas such as healthcare, economics and investor relations, CSR, management and education. Moreover, the survey items developed to measure social media use are concise and may be applied to measure social media use in other contexts such as national cultural differences, marketing and tourism. For interpretation and discussion of the data and constructs, please see original article entitled "Who trusts social media" (Warner-Søderholm et al., 2018) .
Social media has changes the way public relations practitioners in doing their jobs related to communicate with the public how to communicate both individually and at the corporate level. Social media become a challenge for practitioners to improve their technical and managerial abilities as a professional to deak with the development of new technology. Practitioners continue to know more about social media in order to optimize utilization and help the company to establish a better relationsh...
Leiderman, Eduardo Blay; Padovan, Jorge Luis; Zucchi, Paola
Characterize the marketing actions in private hospitals in the city of São Paulo, the organizational structure of the marketing area, the target public of marketing actions and the media used. Exploratory cross-sectional study, carried out by a survey made with hospital administrators. The hospitals studied were clearly divided in two groups whose differentials are statistically significant: 1. good infrastructure and equipment, with a well-defined investment policy in marketing; 2. worse infrastructure and less equipment, with lower proportional investment in marketing. 1. The actions most used are the evaluation of patients/caregivers satisfaction, web site and dissemination of the hospital services. 2. The hospital administrators attribute a level of significant importance to the application of hospital marketing concepts. 3. There is a marketing structure in most of the hospitals studied. 4. The hospitals consider as extremely or very important publics: patients and relatives, doctors, collaborators, health plans and community. 5. The media most used are the most simple and of lower cost. 6. There is a statistically significant correlation between the higher investment in marketing and the best infrastructure. 7. The studied hospitals apply the concept of marketing in a restricted way.
The purpose of this research was to study customer relationship management on social media affecting brand loyalty of Siam Commercial Bank in Bangkok. The statistics used in data analysis were frequency, mean, standard deviation, and Pearson's correlation coefficient based on social science statistic program. The result of the study found that the majority of the respondents were female, 37–47 years old of age, bachelor degree of education and monthly income between 10,001 and 15,000 Baht. In...
Tamplin, Natalie C; McLean, Siân A; Paxton, Susan J
Frequent exposure to appearance ideal social media is associated with body dissatisfaction. We hypothesised that commercial and peer social media literacy would protect against the negative impact of exposure to social media appearance ideal images on young adults' body image. The study was presented as an investigation of alcohol promotion on social media. Participants were 187 women (M age = 24.6, SD = 3.7) and 187 men (M age = 22.8, SD = 3.9) who viewed gender-matched alcohol-related appearance ideal social media images or control images containing alcohol only. Social media literacy was assessed prior to image exposure and body satisfaction measured before and after exposure. A negative effect of ideal image exposure on body satisfaction was observed in both women and men. In women only, commercial-social media literacy moderated the negative effect of exposure, independent of internalization or body comparison. Inclusion of social media literacy skills in prevention interventions is supported. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Social marketers have certainly shown that the CSM discipline can quickly and cost-effectively harness commercial resources to increase contraceptive prevalence. But why hasn't the social marketing idea caught on in more countries? According to Social Marketing Forum, only a tiny number of countries have active programs after more than a decade of effort. The most likely reason for this lack of success is doubt and fear on the part of both developing countries' officials and donor agencies about allowing marketing enthusiasts--with our very noticeable advertising methods--to join the family planning fight. And what has our answer been? Usually, a head-on retort such as, "But look at all the condoms we've sold]" And that gets us nowhere, because the successful peddling of 1 not-so-impressive method doesn't begin to balance the fears of a possible backlash that brash condom promotions could bring down on official heads. The lesson we should be learning is that social marketers possess to narrow an outlook and promote a small range of products that don't enthuse decisionmakers. Hence, we are often perceived as condom salesmen--and not much more. What should we be doing? We should be selling the idea of using private sector experience to assist national development. That means social development, particularly improved health, family planning and women's education. These 3 activities have proven effective in reducing fertility and would add up to a marketing opportunity--a longterm challenge that should enthuse dicisionmakers, private sector entrepreneurs and donor agencies alike. Further, our model--the commercial sector--is renowned for branching out and secceeding in a broad range of endeavors. As an example, Procter and Gamble uses separate divisions to market different products. Initiatives already exist in many countries to harness the private sector as a development tool. Social marketers should be leading the initiative--and benefitting from it, too. full text
Nuclear materials declared by the US and Russian governments as surplus to defense programs are being converted into fuel for commercial nuclear reactors. This report presents the results of an analysis estimating the market effects that would likely result from current plans to commercialize surplus defense inventories. The analysis focuses on two key issues: (1) the extent by which traditional sources of supply, such as production from uranium mines and enrichment plants, would be displaced by the commercialization of surplus defense inventories or, conversely, would be required in the event of disruptions to planned commercialization, and (2) the future price of uranium considering the potential availability of surplus defense inventories. Finally, the report provides an estimate of the savings in uranium procurement costs that could be realized by US nuclear power generating companies with access to competitively priced uranium supplied from surplus defense inventories.
Nuclear materials declared by the US and Russian governments as surplus to defense programs are being converted into fuel for commercial nuclear reactors. This report presents the results of an analysis estimating the market effects that would likely result from current plans to commercialize surplus defense inventories. The analysis focuses on two key issues: (1) the extent by which traditional sources of supply, such as production from uranium mines and enrichment plants, would be displaced by the commercialization of surplus defense inventories or, conversely, would be required in the event of disruptions to planned commercialization, and (2) the future price of uranium considering the potential availability of surplus defense inventories. Finally, the report provides an estimate of the savings in uranium procurement costs that could be realized by US nuclear power generating companies with access to competitively priced uranium supplied from surplus defense inventories
Errika Dwi Setya Watie
Full Text Available Advertising is currently getting a huge challenge. the number of ads , it is realized or not, effects on saturation of advertising. New era media presents new communications media to the community. This condition should be recognized by anyone working in the advertising, because the development of advertising is in line with a new media movement, so the expectansy of the intended market segment will be achieved better. Today, the challenge of a new style of advertising has been answered by the professions related to a new advertising which is driven by the appearance and the popularity of the new social media. One of the new profession known by and used in advertising is a Buzzer. The principle work of Buzzer is similar to WOM (Word Of Mouth. However, it should also be remembered that the selection of buzzer is also important, so that the purpose of advertising can be achieved.
Alves, Ana Isabel Guedes Serra
Dissertação de mestrado em Marketing e Estratégia Vive-se, atualmente, uma revolução no que concerne ao modo como as pessoas, em todo o Mundo comunicam e interagem. Esta comunicação globalizada iniciou uma mudança nos padrões de relacionamento não apenas entre os indivíduos mas também na comunicação realizada entre organizações e consumidores. Através de atividades de social media marketing e das plataformas de social media o consumidor conseguiu integrar-se no processo de p...
This paper reviews how the tobacco industry is promoting its products online and examines possible regulation models to limit exposure to this form of marketing. Opportunities to use new media to advance tobacco control are also discussed and future research possibilities are proposed. Published articles and grey literature reports were identified through searches of the electronic databases, PUBMED and Google Scholar using a combination of the following search terms: tobacco or smoking and new media, online media, social media, internet media, Web 2.0, Facebook, YouTube and Twitter. A possible obstacle to fully realising the benefits of regulating tobacco marketing activities and effectively communicating tobacco control messages is the rapid evolution of the media landscape. New media also offer the tobacco industry a powerful and efficient channel for rapidly countering the denormalising strategies and policies of tobacco control. Evidence of tobacco promotion through online media is emerging, with YouTube being the most researched social media site in the tobacco control field. The explosive rise in Internet use and the shift to these new media being driven by consumer generated content through social platforms may mean that fresh approaches to regulating tobacco industry marketing are needed.
Ezenwafor, J. I.; Onokpaunu, Michel O.; Nna-Emmanuel, Sarah W.
The need for wide utilization of social media marketing for entrepreneurial development in Delta State necessitated this study which sought to determine how competent practicing entrepreneurs are for their use in Delta State. One research question guided the study. A survey research design was adopted. The population consisted of 200 entrepreneurs in Delta North Senatorial District of Delta State. A validated 22 item on a 5-point rating scale questionnaire was used for data collection. Mean a...
Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to analyze the introduction of marketing innovations by companies in Croatia. This study provides an insight into the innovativeness with regard to the introduction of marketing innovations. It explores the presence of marketing innovations in general and the introduction of four types of marketing innovation (significant changes to the aesthetic design or packaging, new media or techniques for product promotion, new methods for product placement or sales channels and new methods of pricing goods or services. The changes in all four elements of the marketing mix are described. The paper also explores the extent to which the introduction of marketing innovation is related to the companies that introduce other types of innovations.
Nugrahaning Esa Pratiwi
Full Text Available This research aims to find out the role of media relations in forming positive news on printed media by having a special page for Salatiga news as research focus. This research is a qualitative research by using qualitative descriptive approach. Observation, interview, document collection and photo activities are used to collect data. The result indicates that informal media relations activities are more effective to create positive news about Salatiga government in printed media because it can build good relation between Public Relations practitioners and journalists.
Lupiáñez-Villanueva, F.; Gaskell, G.; Veltri, G.A.; Theben, A.; Folkvord, F.; Bonatti, L; Bogliacino, F.; Fernández, L.; Codagnone, C.
The European Online Games, Social Media and Mobile Application sector has grown substantially in recent years and children are exposed to increasingly sophisticated marketing techniques online which are often outside the purview of existing regulatory frameworks. This study aims to provide a better
Full Text Available this article discusses the various forms of commercial companies. The paper focuses on the process of incorporation of the limited liability company. The author describes contradictions of the new companies incorporation process at the present stage of market relations development in Russia.
Campbell, Jill F.; Spiro, Louis M.
The impact of media marketing strategies on continuing education enrollment at the State University of New York College at Brockport (SUNY-CB), was evaluated. The evaluation of advertising impacts used advertising records of SUNY-CB and other area colleges and a telephone questionnaire instrument. A stratified, random countywide sample, in…
Nova Scotia's Energy Strategy is aimed at opening the electricity market to wholesale competition, allowing eligible wholesale customers (such as municipal distribution utilities) to buy their electricity from competitive sources. The Nova Scotia Electricity Marketplace Governance Committee (EMGC) is concerned that this will not promote long-term competition because these eligible customers form only a very small fraction (1.6 per cent) of the total electricity demand in the province. This report examines the possible extensions of competition beyond the minimum specified in the Energy Strategy. It also identifies approaches that the EMGC may consider, including other potential levels of competition and their associated issues. The report discussed the issue of implementing wholesale competition as it relates to unbundling of the transmission tariff from the cost of energy supply and from the cost of distribution in retail marketing. The stages of expanding the market scope were also described with reference to large industrial customers, medium industrial and large commercial customers, and small commercial and residential customers. The report states that it is unlikely that the transition to an open access transmission market will need to be reversed, as it is likely to be an essential component of any further development. The EMGC feels it could minimize future transition costs and promote future evolution of competition by recommending for an institutional and market structure that is compatible with a broader competitive market
Alves, Ricardo N.; Maulvault, Ana L.; Barbosa, Vera L.; Fernandez-Tejedor, Margarita; Tediosi, Alice; Kotterman, Michiel; Heuvel, van den Fredericus H.M.; Robbens, Johan; Fernandes, José O.; Romme Rasmussen, Rie; Sloth, Jens J.; Marques, António
The oral bioaccessibility of several essential and toxic elements was investigated in raw and cooked commercially available seafood species from European markets. Bioaccessibility varied between seafood species and elements. Methylmercury bioaccessibility varied between 10 (octopus) and 60%