WorldWideScience

Sample records for media effects paradigm

  1. Ostracism Online: A social media ostracism paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Wouter; Levordashka, Ana; Ruff, Johanna R; Kraaijeveld, Steven; Lueckmann, Jan-Matthis; Williams, Kipling D

    2015-06-01

    We describe Ostracism Online, a novel, social media-based ostracism paradigm designed to (1) keep social interaction experimentally controlled, (2) provide researchers with the flexibility to manipulate the properties of the social situation to fit their research purposes, (3) be suitable for online data collection, (4) be convenient for studying subsequent within-group behavior, and (5) be ecologically valid. After collecting data online, we compared the Ostracism Online paradigm with the Cyberball paradigm (Williams & Jarvis Behavior Research Methods, 38, 174-180, 2006) on need-threat and mood questionnaire scores (van Beest & Williams Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 91, 918-928, 2006). We also examined whether ostracized targets of either paradigm would be more likely to conform to their group members than if they had been included. Using a Bayesian analysis of variance to examine the individual effects of the different paradigms and to compare these effects across paradigms, we found analogous effects on need-threat and mood. Perhaps because we examined conformity to the ostracizers (rather than neutral sources), neither paradigm showed effects of ostracism on conformity. We conclude that Ostracism Online is a cost-effective, easy to use, and ecologically valid research tool for studying the psychological and behavioral effects of ostracism.

  2. Social Media Guidelines and the News Paradigm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blumell, Lindsey; Hellmueller, Lea; Etter, Michael

    Social network use continues to increase in the majority of regions around the world, with a global increase of 17.6% in 2012, and another projected 12.6% in 2014 (digital.org, 2014). Social media have also been incorporated into daily routines of American journalists, with 53.8% reporting...... that they use microblogs like Twitter on a regular basis to both gather and disseminate information (Willnat & Weaver, 2014). The aim of this study is to investigate how social media, more specifically, social media guidelines, implemented at the organizational level intercede with journalism practices...... and if these guidelines challenge the news paradigm. While using social media have been a “loop-hole” of sorts to disseminating political information in countries that have strong censorship (the Arab Spring being a premiere example, Eltantawy & Wiest, 2011; Lotan, Graeff, Ananny, Gaffney, & Pearce, 2011), journalists...

  3. Fueling a Third Paradigm of Education: The Pedagogical Implications of Digital, Social and Mobile Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlik, John V.

    2015-01-01

    Emerging technologies are fueling a third paradigm of education. Digital, networked and mobile media are enabling a disruptive transformation of the teaching and learning process. This paradigm challenges traditional assumptions that have long characterized educational institutions and processes, including basic notions of space, time, content,…

  4. A matter of trust: Plagiarism, fake sources and paradigm repair in the Danish news media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørsten, Mark; Hartley, Jannie Møller; Wittchen, Maria Bendix

    2018-01-01

    find that the news media tried to distance themselves from the journalists involved in the scandals and describe them as ‘bad apples’. In both scandals the news media also went to great lengths to investigate the accusations and publically document the transgressions of the reporters. This effort could......In December of 2015 two major journalistic scandals hit the Danish news media. The two scandals ran almost concurrently, which increased the media attention and was reflected in the coverage. In a time of diminishing trust in the news media these scandals represented a significant and acute...... credibility problem for the news media that were affected. Using paradigm repair theory coupled with theory about transparency, this paper analyses which strategies the affected news media employed to re-instore trust in their journalism, and thus in the traditional news paradigm. Like previous studies we...

  5. Social Media: Changing the Paradigm for Surgical Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrucci, Andrea M; Chand, Manish; Wexner, Steven D

    2017-09-01

    The role of social media (SoMe) in surgical education is emerging as a tool that augments and complements traditional learning. As SoMe usage has steadily increased in our personal and professional lives, it is no surprise that it has permeated into surgical education. Different SoMe sites offer distinct platforms from which knowledge can be transmitted, while catering to various learning styles. The purpose of this review is to outline the various SoMe platforms and their use in surgical education. Moreover, it will discuss their effectiveness in teaching and learning surgical knowledge and skills as well as other potential roles SoMe has to offer to improve surgical education.

  6. Reinforcing Property by Strengthening the Commons: A New Media Policy Paradigm?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Jakobsson

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In much scholarly writing and in many leftist and activist accounts the enclosures of the cultural commons have been fiercely critiqued. However, during the last years, new media business models, that challenge the notion of the cultural industries as “copyright industries”, has been taking shape. A new class of entrepreneurs is instead working to expand the commons as part of their businesses. Accordingly, representatives from these new media industries, policy makers, and politicians have joined the academic and political critique of the “enclosures of the cultural common”. The paper argues that this is a shift within the dominant media policy paradigm and an attempt to integrate existing practices on the Internet, based on cooperation and sharing, into the market. By relocating the struggle from “intellectual property” to “platform economics”, the media industry can exploit the productivity of the commons while holding on to the power that comes with ownership and property.

  7. Using Media Effectively.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danzer, Gerald A.; Newman, Mark

    1992-01-01

    Recommends that media presentations can be used effectively in the history classroom as images of reality. Suggests films and television programs and documentaries that can be utilized to show how movies play a role in shaping opinion and changing perceptions. (DK)

  8. Systemic Approach to Learning Paradigms and the Use of Social Media in Higher Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauri Juhani Kurkela

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The implementation of social media in learning, teaching and cooperation is an innovation process which has implications at many levels in networking universities. eLearning developers and educational designers need to be aware of social media related technological prospects to be able to determine how to benefit from new possibilities. They also need to be aware of related pedagogical possibilities, competences and attitudes among students, teachers and tutors. Soft System Methodology (SSM has been applied to investigate the problem area more deeply. One can see three development challenges at each level: 1 paradigms and paradigm shifts, 2 teaching and learning competences and related culture, 3 infrastructure and technology related services and innovations. The Virtual Campus for Digital Students (ViCaDiS Project is used to concretise some features of the systemic approach of SSM. As a result of the SSM analysis, one can find a useful framework to start analysing development challenges in the context of one university or universities working together.

  9. Policy and Regulation in the Media Landscape: the Greek Paradigm Concentration of Media Ownership Versus the Right to Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasia Veneti

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available By outlining the long-lasting peculiarities of the Greek media landscape, this paper aims to make us reflect on how the political system affects their development and role. Particularly, through analyzing the policy and regulating frames applied to Greek communication field, we try to shed light on the degree and shapes of media concentration and control as well as on the effects of this widespread phenomenon. Special emphasis is placed on the illicit interweaving of political and media interests, giving rise to a media system which has great difficulties in following constructively the technological developments in the field and challenges the active participation of citizens in the public affairs. In the contemporary society of digital revolution market values continue to be dominant. Those who control the private media outweigh the political figures and as a result any attempts to regulate the communication field are always implemented for the benefit of the private capital. Under these circumstances the question of whether the media can act as amplifiers of the democratic practices is more crucial than ever. This is the central question posed by the paper, arguing that the evolution of the Greek media system is inundated with evidence supporting the view that the particular voice of citizen as well as his right to information is under threat.

  10. Prosocial effects of media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan, Marjorie J

    2012-06-01

    Parents, teachers, health care providers, and other caring adults worry about the harmful influence of media messages and images on children and teens and wonder how to recognize and encourage positive and healthy use of media. For decades, experts have commented on the power of media. Media depictions can lead to negative attitudes and behavior in some young viewers. This article discusses whether prosocial, tolerant, and cooperative attitudes and behavior can be learned and imitated by children and adolescents and whether media can nurture or stimulate creativity or actively promote health and well-being in young consumers. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Media Effects: Theory and Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valkenburg, Patti M; Peter, Jochen; Walther, Joseph B

    2016-01-01

    This review analyzes trends and commonalities among prominent theories of media effects. On the basis of exemplary meta-analyses of media effects and bibliometric studies of well-cited theories, we identify and discuss five features of media effects theories as well as their empirical support. Each of these features specifies the conditions under which media may produce effects on certain types of individuals. Our review ends with a discussion of media effects in newer media environments. This includes theories of computer-mediated communication, the development of which appears to share a similar pattern of reformulation from unidirectional, receiver-oriented views, to theories that recognize the transactional nature of communication. We conclude by outlining challenges and promising avenues for future research.

  12. Need for Orientation, Media Uses and Gratifications, and Media Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, David

    In order to study the influence of need for orientation and media gratifications on media use and media effects in political communication, two previous surveys were studied to compare the causal modeling approach and the contingent conditions approach. In the first study, 339 personal interviews were conducted with registered voters during a…

  13. Transformation of Traditional Marketing Communications in to Paradigms of Social Media Networking

    OpenAIRE

    Nair, T. R. Gopalakrishnan; Subramaniam, Kumarashvari

    2012-01-01

    Effective Communication for marketing is a vital field in business organizations, which is used to convey the details about their products and services to the market segments and subsequently to build long lasting customer relationships. This paper focuses on an emerging component of the integrated marketing communication, ie. social media networking, as it is increasingly becoming the trend. In 21st century, the marketing communication platforms show a tendency to shift towards innovative te...

  14. New Media Technology in Developing Effective Organizational Internal Communication

    OpenAIRE

    Kholisoh, Nur; Sulastri, Ria

    2017-01-01

    The article was intended to investigate various benefits of Whatsapp Messenger application for an effective intenal communication in PT Euro Management Indonesia. In addition, this research also aimed to map the organizational internal communication pattern through the use of Whatsapp Messenger application. The research used theories of organizaional communication, new media communication pattern, and computer mediated communication (CMC). Moreover, paradigm used in the research was construct...

  15. A paradigm shift in advertising and its meaning for advertising-supported media

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez-Latre, F.J. (Francisco Javier)

    2007-01-01

    The changing role of advertising is altering the behavior of advertisers with significant implications for advertising-supported media. Advertisers are struggling to understand changes in audience media usage and to changes in attention paid to commercial messages. In order to maintain relevance, media firms need to lead the way in helping advertising understand and adjust to the changes.

  16. The differential susceptibility to media effects model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valkenburg, P.M.; Peter, J.

    2013-01-01

    In this theoretical article, we introduce the Differential Susceptibility to Media Effects Model (DSMM), a new, integrative model to improve our understanding of media effects. The DSMM organizes, integrates, and extends the insights developed in earlier microlevel media-effects theories. It

  17. Programming paradigms in an object-oriented multi-media standard

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.J. Duke; I. Herman (Ivan)

    1997-01-01

    textabstractOf the various programming paradigms in use today, object-orientation is probably the most successful in terms of industrial take-up and application, particularly in the field of multimedia. It is therefore unsurprising that this technology has been adopted by ISO/IEC JTC1/SC24 as the

  18. The Paradigm for Effective School Supervision in Secondary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The role of instructional supervision is to bring about teaching effectiveness from which students can benefit. The continued poor performance of secondary school students in Nigeria, as exemplified in the dismal school certificate results, complaints in local and national newspapers as well as electronic media, questions ...

  19. The new media paradigm: From mediation to mediatisation of social communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdanić Aleksandar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study discusses the changes in character and role of social communication at the beginning of the twenty-first century. Beside itself being the subject of most thorough change under the influence of globalization and new communication technologies, communication became a key agency of social change. Mediation is seen as one of the phenomena that dominates everyday life and a common feature of almost all forms of human communication. Certain features of contemporary communication are also analyzed in greater detail, such as the new media and the culture of new 'intermediaries'. The new media, such as the internet, mobile phone, Youtube and Facebook, beside their intermediary nature, share a number of other features which are discussed in the study. The features of the culture of new intermediaries that are, among others, discussed in the study are media, content or user convergence, intertextuality, decentralization and decontextualization, media democratization, communicational reductionism, visual culture domination, new genres, planetary popularity, personal mass communication, commercialization of privacy, hypersensationalism and others. The study concludes that the new media have permeated all pores of society and became the integral part of social structure for the reason of which citizens must adapt to them. The media are not merely the means of social interaction but the place of social interaction. In other words, society and human communication have been mediatized.

  20. Control effects of stimulus paradigms on characteristic firings of parkinsonism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Honghui; Wang, Qingyun; Chen, Guanrong

    2014-09-01

    Experimental studies have shown that neuron population located in the basal ganglia of parkinsonian primates can exhibit characteristic firings with certain firing rates differing from normal brain activities. Motivated by recent experimental findings, we investigate the effects of various stimulation paradigms on the firing rates of parkinsonism based on the proposed dynamical models. Our results show that the closed-loop deep brain stimulation is superior in ameliorating the firing behaviors of the parkinsonism, and other control strategies have similar effects according to the observation of electrophysiological experiments. In addition, in conformity to physiological experiments, we found that there exists optimal delay of input in the closed-loop GPtrain|M1 paradigm, where more normal behaviors can be obtained. More interestingly, we observed that W-shaped curves of the firing rates always appear as stimulus delay varies. We furthermore verify the robustness of the obtained results by studying three pallidal discharge rates of the parkinsonism based on the conductance-based model, as well as the integrate-and-fire-or-burst model. Finally, we show that short-term plasticity can improve the firing rates and optimize the control effects on parkinsonism. Our conclusions may give more theoretical insight into Parkinson's disease studies.

  1. Effect of electronic media on children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Munni; Jat, Kana Ram

    2010-07-01

    Radio, television (TV), movies, video games, cell phones, and computer networks have assumed central roles in our children's daily lives. The media has demonstrated potentially profound effects, both positive and negative, on children's cognitive, social, and behavioral development. Considering the increasing exposure of children to newer forms of media, we decided to review the current literature on the effects of media on child health both in the Western countries and India. It is widely accepted that media has profound influence on child health, including violence, obesity, tobacco and alcohol use, and risky sexual behaviors. Simultaneously, media may have some positive effects on child health. We need to find ways to optimize the role of media in our society, taking advantage of their positive attributes and minimizing their negative ones. We need to understand better how to reverse the negative impact of media and make it more positive.

  2. Happy Face Superiority Effect in Change Detection Paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domagoj Švegar

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to investigate which affective component guides cognitive processing of emotional facial expressions. According to the threat hypothesis, processing of angry faces is prioritized by the human cognitive system, because rapid detection of threat has a large adaptive value. The negativity hypothesis presumes that distressing emotional experiences of other people attract attention, regardless of whether they represent danger or not. The emotionality hypothesis proposes that positive emotional facial expressions can capture attention as effective as negative ones, while the happy face superiority hypothesis predicts that happy faces are prioritized. In the present study, which was conducted on 24 participants, change detection paradigm was used, because that procedure enables insight into the later stage of information processing. The results obtained show that happy facial expressions are heavily prioritized by the human cognitive system. In explanation of these results, that clearly support the happy face superiority hypothesis, we propose that angry expressions are initially prioritized by our cognitive system, because we benefit from early detection of potential threat in the environment, but in later cognitive processing, happy expressions are given the priority, because smiling is a valuable mechanism for forming and maintaining cooperative relationships. Besides the theoretical relevance, the present study is also valuable methodologically, because we demonstrated that change detection paradigm can be efficiently used for the research of emotional facial expressions processing.

  3. The Internet's effect on personality traits: An important casualty of the "Internet addiction" paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aboujaoude, Elias

    2017-03-01

    Background and aims The "Internet addiction" paradigm has been criticized for several shortcomings, including inattention to specific online behaviors, not distinguishing the Internet from other media, insufficient focus on comorbidities, and definitions that do not take into account the constant access now possible. The paradigm's biggest casualty, however, may be that it has diverted attention away from subtle personality changes that seem to occur online, including in users who cannot be considered "addicted" under any definition. Methods A narrative assessment of the literature was conducted, focusing on the Internet's effects on personality traits as revealed in studies of Internet users. Results Impulsivity, narcissism, and aggression are some of the personality traits that seem to be nurtured by the Internet, with possible negative offline consequences. Discussion Ignoring the Internet's subtle effects on personality as we embrace an addiction model that implies severe pathology makes the majority of Internet users feel deceptively immune to the psychological effects of new technologies. It also limits our understanding of the big cultural shifts that are happening as a result. Conclusion The Internet's potentially negative effect on personality, and by extension on society at large, is a fundamental part of online psychology, one well worthy of further investigation.

  4. New Media Technology in Developing Effective Organizational Internal Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Kholisoh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article was intended to investigate various benefits of Whatsapp Messenger application for an effective intenal communication in PT Euro Management Indonesia. In addition, this research also aimed to map the organizational internal communication pattern through the use of Whatsapp Messenger application. The research used theories of organizaional communication, new media communication pattern, and computer mediated communication (CMC. Moreover, paradigm used in the research was constructivist with qualitative approach and the research method was case study. The research result finds that the use of new media Whatsapp Messenger as a tool of communication can build effective internal communication in PT Euro Management Indonesia. Moreover, it also shows that the internal organizational communication pattern in PT Euro Management Indonesia used in Whatsapp Messenger application is conversation pattern.

  5. Capacitance effects in porous media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jasti, J.K.; Vaidya, R.N.; Fogler, H.S.

    1987-01-01

    The velocity dependence of the parameters in the Coats-Smith model for tracer dispersion and tailing in porous media was investigated in this study. Numerical simulations show that eddies with recirculation flow are formed in the pockets due to flow separation. The tracer transport between the eddies in the dead zones and the main channel was found to be diffusion limited. The simulations reveal that in the Stokes' flow regime the mass transfer coefficient between the two regions is independent of interstitial velocity. Core flood experiments were performed using radioactive tracers to verify the hypothesis that the capcitance effects are not due to a change in flowing fraction. The experimental results confirm that racer tailing is a function of the ratio of the molecular diffusivity to the flow rate. In light of these findings, the authors investigated the validity of the Coats-Smith model to predict dispersion and tailing in porous medium. Their studies indicate that the Coats-Smith model may be used, however, certain restrictions apply to the procedure for estimation of parameters and are described in this paper

  6. Negotiated media effects. Peer feedback modifies effects of media's thin-body ideal on adolescent girls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldhuis, Jolanda; Konijn, Elly A; Seidell, Jacob C

    The present study introduces a theoretical framework on negotiated media effects. Specifically, we argue that feedback of peers on thin-body ideal media images and individual dispositions guide effects on adolescent girls' psychosocial responses to media exposure. Therefore, we examined the

  7. Blended learning as an effective pedagogical paradigm for biomedical science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perry Hartfield

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Blended learning combines face-to-face class based and online teaching and learning delivery in order to increase flexibility in how, when, and where students study and learn. The development, integration, and promotion of blended learning in frameworks of curriculum design can optimize the opportunities afforded by information and communication technologies and, concomitantly, accommodate a broad range of student learning styles. This study critically reviews the potential benefits of blended learning as a progressive educative paradigm for the teaching of biomedical science and evaluates the opportunities that blended learning offers for the delivery of accessible, flexible and sustainable teaching and learning experiences. A central tenet of biomedical science education at the tertiary level is the development of comprehensive hands-on practical competencies and technical skills (many of which require laboratory-based learning environments, and it is advanced that a blended learning model, which combines face-to-face synchronous teaching and learning activities with asynchronous online teaching and learning activities, effectively creates an authentic, enriching, and student-centred learning environment for biomedical science. Lastly, a blending learning design for introductory biochemistry will be described as an effective example of integrating face-to-face and online teaching, learning and assessment activities within the teaching domain of biomedical science.   DOI: 10.18870/hlrc.v3i4.169

  8. Understanding Self-Effects in Social Media

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valkenburg, P.M.

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this article is to improve understanding of self-effects in social media, and to compare self-effects with reception effects. Self-effects are the effects of messages the cognitions, emotions, attitudes, and behaviors of the message creators/senders themselves. A total of 4 theories have

  9. Effective field theory of dark matter from membrane inflationary paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhury, Sayantan; Dasgupta, Arnab

    2016-09-01

    In this article, we have studied the cosmological and particle physics constraints on dark matter relic abundance from effective field theory of inflation from tensor-to-scalar ratio (r), in case of Randall-Sundrum single membrane (RSII) paradigm. Using semi-analytical approach we establish a direct connection between the dark matter relic abundance (ΩDMh2) and primordial gravity waves (r), which establishes a precise connection between inflation and generation of dark matter within the framework of effective field theory in RSII membrane. Further assuming the UV completeness of the effective field theory perfectly holds good in the prescribed framework, we have explicitly shown that the membrane tension, σ ≤ O(10-9) Mp4 , bulk mass scale M5 ≤ O(0.04 - 0.05) Mp, and cosmological constant Λ˜5 ≥ - O(10-15) Mp5 , in RSII membrane plays the most significant role to establish the connection between dark matter and inflation, using which we have studied the features of various mediator mass scale suppressed effective field theory "relevant operators" induced from the localized s, t and u channel interactions in RSII membrane. Taking a completely model independent approach, we have studied an exhaustive list of tree-level Feynman diagrams for dark matter annihilation within the prescribed setup and to check the consistency of the obtained results, further we apply the constraints as obtained from recently observed Planck 2015 data and Planck + BICEP2 + Keck Array joint data sets. Using all of these derived results we have shown that to satisfy the bound on, ΩDMh2 = 0.1199 ± 0.0027, as from Planck 2015 data, it is possible to put further stringent constraint on r within, 0.01 ≤ r ≤ 0.12, for thermally averaged annihilation cross-section of dark matter, 〈 σv 〉 ≈ O(10-28 - 10-27) cm3 / s, which are very useful to constrain various membrane inflationary models.

  10. Measuring engagement effectiveness in social media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lei; Sun, Tong; Peng, Wei; Li, Tao

    2012-03-01

    Social media is becoming increasingly prevalent with the advent of web 2.0 technologies. Popular social media websites, such as Twitter and Facebook, are attracting a gigantic number of online users to post and share information. An interesting phenomenon under this trend involves that more and more users share their experiences or issues with regard to a product, and then the product service agents use commercial social media listening and engagement tools (e.g. Radian6, Sysomos, etc.) to response to users' complaints or issues and help them tackle their problems. This is often called customer care in social media or social customer relationship management (CRM). However, all these existing commercial social media tools only provide an aggregated level of trends, patterns and sentiment analysis based on the keyword-centric brand relevant data, which have little insights for answering one of the key questions in social CRM system: how effective is our social customer care engagement? In this paper, we focus on addressing the problem of how to measure the effectiveness of engagement for service agents in customer care. Traditional CRM effectiveness measurements are defined under the scenario of the call center, where the effectiveness is mostly based on the duration time per call and/or number of answered calls per day. Different from customer care in a call center, we can obtain detailed conversations between agents and customers in social media, and therefore the effectiveness can be measured by analyzing the content of conversations and the sentiment of customers.

  11. Effects of Media on Female Body Image: Myth or Reality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryla, Karen Y.

    2002-01-01

    Examines the media's influence on female body image. differentiating between the effects of print and electronic media. Results suggest that print media have a direct, immediate, and negative effect on female body image, while no such relationship exists for electronic media. Results also indicate that exploring only exposure to media images is…

  12. Negotiated media effects. Peer feedback modifies effects of media's thin-body ideal on adolescent girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veldhuis, Jolanda; Konijn, Elly A; Seidell, Jacob C

    2014-02-01

    The present study introduces a theoretical framework on negotiated media effects. Specifically, we argue that feedback of peers on thin-body ideal media images and individual dispositions guide effects on adolescent girls' psychosocial responses to media exposure. Therefore, we examined the thin-body ideal as portrayed in media and peers' feedback on such thin-ideal images in their combined effects on adolescent girls' body dissatisfaction, objectified body consciousness, and social comparison with media models. Hence, media models and peer comments were systematically combined as incorporated entities in YouTube-formats. Hypotheses were tested in a 3 (media models: extremely thin vs. thin vs. normal weight)×3 (peer comments: 6kg-underweight vs. 3kg-underweight vs. normal-weight)×2 (appearance schematicity: lower vs. higher) between-subjects design (N=216). Results showed that peer comments indicating that a media model was 'only 3kg-underweight' exerted most negative responses, particularly in girls who strongly process appearance relevant information. Peer feedback interacts with media models in guiding perceptions of what is considered an 'ideal' body shape. Results highlight the important role of peers as well as individual predispositions in view of understanding how thin-ideal media images may impact adolescent girls' body image concerns. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Fluid transfers in fractured media: scale effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bour, Olivier

    1996-01-01

    As there has been a growing interest in the study of fluid circulations in fractured media for the last fifteen years, for example for projects of underground storage of different waste types, or to improve water resources, or for exploitation of underground oil products or geothermal resources, this research thesis first gives a large overview of the modelling and transport properties of fractured media. He presents the main notions related to fluid transfers in fractured media (structures of fracture networks, hydraulic properties of fractured media), and the various adopted approaches (the effective medium theory, the percolation theory, double porosity models, deterministic discrete fracture models, equivalent discontinuous model, fractal models), and outlines the originality of the approach developed in this research: scale change, conceptual hypotheses, methodology, tools). The second part addresses scale rules in fracture networks: presentation of fracture networks (mechanical aspects, statistical analysis), distribution of fracture lengths and of fracture networks, length-position relationship, modelling attempt, lessons learned and consequences in terms of hydraulic and mechanical properties, and of relationship between length distribution and fractal dimension. The third part proposes two articles published by the author and addressing the connectivity properties of fracture networks. The fifth chapter reports the application to natural media. It contains an article on the application of percolation theory to 2D natural fracture networks, and reports information collected on a site [fr

  14. Effectiveness of Selected Communication Media on Tourism ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    waterfalls, historical relics, captivating beaches, rock out-crops, rolling lulls coupled with hospitable and culturally active people that are capable of making tourism a delight in Nigeria. The study therefore assessed the effectiveness of selected communication media on awareness creation towards tourism for rural ...

  15. THE EFFECT OF MEDIA LITERACY ON THE SOCIAL IDENTITY OF VOLLEYBALL SPECTATORS THROUGH PERSONAL IDENTITY

    OpenAIRE

    Mahsa Nematzadeh

    2017-01-01

    This research aim was investigating the effect of media literacy on volleyball spectator's social identity through personal identity. The present study, psychologically, is divided in to 8 layers of view paradigm, the main type of applied research: deductive research approaches, quantity research strategies theories, field research tone, cross sectional survey methods, research objectives, description and finally data collection methods, library resource reviews, and questionnaires. The stati...

  16. Effective stress principle for partially saturated media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McTigue, D.F.; Wilson, R.K.; Nunziato, J.W.

    1984-04-01

    In support of the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigation (NNWSI) Project, we have undertaken a fundamental study of water migration in partially saturated media. One aspect of that study, on which we report here, has been to use the continuum theory of mixtures to extend the classical notion of effective stress to partially saturated media. Our analysis recovers previously proposed phenomenological representations for the effective stress in terms of the capillary pressure. The theory is illustrated by specializing to the case of linear poroelasticity, for which we calculate the deformation due to the fluid pressure in a static capillary fringe. We then examine the transient consolidation associated with liquid flow induced by an applied surface load. Settlement accompanies this flow as the liquid is redistributed by a nonlinear diffusion process. For material properties characteristic of tuff from the Nevada Test Site, these effects are found to be vanishingly small. 14 references, 7 figures, 1 table

  17. Effects of Frequency and Motion Paradigm on Perception of Tilt and Translation During Periodic Linear Acceleration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaton, K. H.; Holly, J. E.; Clement, G. R.; Wood, Scott J.

    2009-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated an effect of frequency on the gain of tilt and translation perception. Results from different motion paradigms are often combined to extend the stimulus frequency range. For example, Off-Vertical Axis Rotation (OVAR) and Variable Radius Centrifugation (VRC) are useful to test low frequencies of linear acceleration at amplitudes that would require impractical sled lengths. The purpose of this study was to compare roll-tilt and lateral translation motion perception in 12 healthy subjects across four paradigms: OVAR, VRC, sled translation and rotation about an earth-horizontal axis. Subjects were oscillated in darkness at six frequencies from 0.01875 to 0.6 Hz (peak acceleration equivalent to 10 deg, less for sled motion below 0.15 Hz). Subjects verbally described the amplitude of perceived tilt and translation, and used a joystick to indicate the direction of motion. Consistent with previous reports, tilt perception gain decreased as a function of stimulus frequency in the motion paradigms without concordant canal tilt cues (OVAR, VRC and Sled). Translation perception gain was negligible at low stimulus frequencies and increased at higher frequencies. There were no significant differences between the phase of tilt and translation, nor did the phase significantly vary across stimulus frequency. There were differences in perception gain across the different paradigms. Paradigms that included actual tilt stimuli had the larger tilt gains, and paradigms that included actual translation stimuli had larger translation gains. In addition, the frequency at which there was a crossover of tilt and translation gains appeared to vary across motion paradigm between 0.15 and 0.3 Hz. Since the linear acceleration in the head lateral plane was equivalent across paradigms, differences in gain may be attributable to the presence of linear accelerations in orthogonal directions and/or cognitive aspects based on the expected motion paths.

  18. Media truck guidelines effective Monday, April 23

    OpenAIRE

    Owczarski, Mark

    2007-01-01

    All private media vehicles (those without a visible logo) must have a media permit. If you are planning to stay on the campus of Virginia Tech beyond Sunday, April 22, you will need a free media parking permit. All non-logo media vehicles will be ticketed if a media permit is not displayed.

  19. Illicit drugs and the media: models of media effects for use in drug policy research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancaster, Kari; Hughes, Caitlin E; Spicer, Bridget; Matthew-Simmons, Francis; Dillon, Paul

    2011-07-01

    Illicit drugs are never far from the media gaze and although identified almost a decade ago as 'a new battleground' for the alcohol and other drug (AOD) field there has been limited research examining the role of the news media and its effects on audiences and policy. This paper draws together media theories from communication literature to examine media functions. We illustrate how each function is relevant for media and drugs research by drawing upon the existing literature examining Australian media coverage during the late 1990s of escalating heroin-related problems and proposed solutions. Media can influence audiences in four key ways: by setting the agenda and defining public interest; framing issues through selection and salience; indirectly shaping individual and community attitudes towards risk; and feeding into political debate and decision making. Each has relevance for the AOD field. For example, media coverage of the escalating heroin-related problems in Australia played a strong role in generating interest in heroin overdoses, framing public discourse in terms of a health and/or criminal issue and affecting political decisions. Implications AND CONCLUSION: Media coverage in relation to illicit drugs can have multifarious effects. Incorporating media communication theories into future research and actions is critical to facilitate understanding of the short- and long-term impacts of media coverage on illicit drugs and the avenues by which the AOD field can mitigate or inform future media debates on illicit drugs. © 2010 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  20. Teaching Students about Violent Media Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bushman, Brad J.

    2018-01-01

    Although violent entertainment has existed for centuries, the media have made it more accessible than ever before. In modern societies, people are immersed in media, like fish in water. Using hand-held devices, people can consume media just about anywhere they want, anytime they want. Moreover, violence is a common theme in the media, and research…

  1. Disclosure of sexual victimization: the effects of Pennebaker's emotional disclosure paradigm on physical and psychological distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearns, Megan C; Edwards, Katie M; Calhoun, Karen S; Gidycz, Christine A

    2010-01-01

    Research suggests that many sexual assault survivors do not disclose their experience, which may increase associated distress. Pennebaker's emotional disclosure paradigm has been shown to ameliorate psychological and physical distress in individuals exposed to stressful events. The current study assessed the effectiveness of this paradigm with sexual assault survivors (N = 74). College women with a history of sexual assault wrote about their most severe victimization or about how they spend their time (control). Then 73 women (98.6%) completed a 1-month follow-up assessment. Results indicated that across writing sessions, the disclosure group reported greater reductions in negative mood immediately post-writing. However, both groups showed significant reductions in physical complaints, psychological distress, and traumatic stress symptoms at the 1-month follow-up, suggesting no added benefit to disclosure of a sexual assault using a brief written paradigm.

  2. Understanding Citizenship, Understanding Social Media? The effects of digital media on citizenship understanding and political participation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ohme, Jakob; Albæk, Erik

    Is there a connection between increased use of digital media and changing patterns of political participation? This study tests how use of online media for different purposes (social interaction, creative expression, online news use, social media news use) is related to three types of political...... participation. It examines whether mobilizing effects are partly indirect due to different understandings of citizenship (dutiful, optional, individual, collective) that may be fostered by digital media use. The study is based on a survey of a sample of the Danish population (n=1322), including data from two...... online survey waves and a smartphone-based media diary that documents respondents’ social media use. Results indicate support for a new pathway to participation, but the relationship depends on whether citizens are socialized in a digital media environment....

  3. The Bullwhip Effect in Different Manufacturing Paradigm: An Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shamila Nabi Khan

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Slight fluctuation in the customer demand produces huge fluctuations in the inventory and production levels of the upstream member of the supply chain. This is known as demand amplification or the bullwhip effect. The bullwhip effect produces huge inefficiencies along the supply chain, captures much-needed working capital by high inventory levels and results in dissatisfied customers. Analyzing a set of nine case studies, results show that agile manufacturing is best suited to deal with a turbulent market with unpredictable demand.

  4. Cost-Effective Control Systems for Colleges and Universities: A New Paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbell, Loren Loomis; Dougherty, Jennifer Dowling

    This report addresses the issue of maintaining adequate controls within a streamlined or restructured financial affairs environment at an institution of higher education. It presents a new paradigm for control structures designed to more effectively meet administrators' needs--both in terms of cost and risk management. The first section: (1)…

  5. Undesirable Effects of Media on Children: Why Limitation is Necessary?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaagac, Aysu Turkmen

    2015-06-01

    Pervasive media environment is a social problem shared by most of the countries around the world. Several studies have been performed to highlight the undesired effects of media on children. Some of these studies have focused on the time spent by children watching television, playing with computers or using mobile media devices while some others have tried to explain the associations between the obesity, postural abnormalities or psychological problems of children, and their media use. This article discusses the recent approaches to curb influence of media on children, and the importance of family media literacy education programs with particular relevance to developing countries.

  6. Effectiveness of Corporate Social Media Activities to Increase Relational Outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risius, Marten; Beck, Roman

    2015-01-01

    This study applies social media analytics to investigate the impact of different corporate social media activities on user word of mouth and attitudinal loyalty. We conduct a multilevel analysis of approximately 5 million tweets regarding the main Twitter accounts of 28 large global companies. We...... empirically identify different social media activities in terms of social media management strategies (using social media management tools or the web-frontend client), account types (broadcasting or receiving information), and communicative approaches (conversational or disseminative). We find positive...... effects of social media management tools, broadcasting accounts, and conversational communication on public perception....

  7. The effect of masking in the attentional dwell time paradigm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Anders

    2009-01-01

    , 1994). In most studies of attentional dwell time, two masked targets have been used. Moore et al. (1996) have criticised the masking of the first target when measuring the attentional dwell time, finding a shorter attentional dwell time when the first mask was omitted. In the presented work, the effect...... of the first mask is further investigated by including a condition where the first mask is presented without a target. The results from individual subjects show that the findings of Moore et al. can be replicated. The results also suggest that presenting the first mask without a target is enough to produce...... an impairment of the second target. Hence, the attentional dwell time may be a combined effect arising from attending to both the first target and its mask....

  8. Reconstructing inflationary paradigm within Effective Field Theory framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhury, Sayantan

    2016-03-01

    In this paper my prime objective is to analyse the constraints on a sub-Planckian excursion of a single inflaton field within Effective Field Theory framework in a model independent fashion. For a generic single field inflationary potential, using the various parameterization of the primordial power spectrum I have derived the most general expression for the field excursion in terms of various inflationary observables, applying the observational constraints obtained from recent Planck 2015 and Planck 2015 + BICEP2/Keck Array data. By explicit computation I have reconstructed the structural form of the inflationary potential by constraining the Taylor expansion co-efficients appearing in the generic expansion of the potential within the Effective Field Theory. Next I have explicitly derived, a set of higher order inflationary consistency relationships, which would help us to break the degeneracy between various class of inflationary models by differentiating them. I also provided two simple examples of Effective Theory of inflation- inflection-point model and saddle-point model to check the compatibility of the prescribed methodology in the light of Planck 2015 and Planck 2015 + BICEP2/Keck Array data. Finally, I have also checked the validity of the prescription by estimating the cosmological parameters and fitting the theoretical CMB TT, TE and EE angular power spectra with the observed data within the multipole range 2 < l < 2500.

  9. Media Selection in the Air Force Environment: How Communications Requirements Influence Effectiveness as an Outcome of Media Choice

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hillman, David

    1998-01-01

    .... However, there is still confusion over which factors influence media choice. This study examined the effectiveness of five media under different conditions in an effort to better understand which factors impact media choice...

  10. The effectiveness of cross-media advertising under simultaneous media exposure: combining online and radio advertisements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voorveld, H.

    2011-01-01

    Inspired by the proliferating use of cross-media campaigns by advertisers, this study gives insight into the effectiveness of combining online and radio advertising. Because consumers started to use several media simultaneously, we investigated these advertising effects by exposing participants

  11. [Effect of object consistency in a spatial contextual cueing paradigm].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Yuji

    2008-04-01

    Previous studies demonstrated that attention can be quickly guided to a target location in a visual search task when the spatial configurations of search items and/or the object identities were repeated in the previous trials. This phenomenon is termed contextual cueing. Recently, it was reported that spatial configuration learning and object identity learning occurred independently, when novel contours were used as search items. The present study examined whether this learning occurred independently even when the search items were meaningful. The results showed that the contextual cueing effect was observed even if the relationships between the spatial locations and object identities were jumbled (Experiment 1). However, it disappeared when the search items were changed into geometric patterns (Experiment 2). These results suggest that the spatial configuration can be learned independent of the object identities; however, the use of the learned configuration is restricted by the learning situations.

  12. Cross-tools and cross-media effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voorveld, H.

    2013-01-01

    Effects of persuasive messages depend on the content of the message itself and on the media or tools that deliver the persuasive messages. Nowadays almost all campaigns make use of multiple media or multiple promotional tools. Therefore, it is important to study so-called cross-media (or

  13. The social media participation framework: studying the effects of social media on nonprofit communities

    OpenAIRE

    Effing, Robin

    2014-01-01

    Social media could help nonprofit communities to organize their communication with their members in new and innovative ways. This could contribute to sustaining or improving the participation of members within these communities. Yet little is known of how to measure and understand the offline community effects of social media use. Therefore, the main question of this study is: “How does the use of social media by members of nonprofit communities affect their offline participation?” The Social...

  14. Information feedback and mass media effects in cultural dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Gonzalez-Avella, J. C.; Cosenza, M. G.; Klemm, K.; Eguiluz, V. M.; Miguel, M. San

    2007-01-01

    We study the effects of different forms of information feedback associated with mass media on an agent-agent based model of the dynamics of cultural dissemination. In addition to some processes previously considered, we also examine a model of local mass media influence in cultural dynamics. Two mechanisms of information feedback are investigated: (i) direct mass media influence, where local or global mass media act as an additional element in the network of interactions of each agent, and (i...

  15. CORTICAL ENCODING OF SIGNALS IN NOISE: EFFECTS OF STIMULUS TYPE AND RECORDING PARADIGM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billings, Curtis J.; Bennett, Keri O.; Molis, Michelle R.; Leek, Marjorie R.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives Perception-in-noise deficits have been demonstrated across many populations and listening conditions. Many factors contribute to successful perception of auditory stimuli in noise, including neural encoding in the central auditory system. Physiological measures such as cortical auditory evoked potentials can provide a view of neural encoding at the level of the cortex that may inform our understanding of listeners’ abilities to perceive signals in the presence of background noise. In order to understand signal-in-noise neural encoding better, we set out to determine the effect of signal type, noise type, and evoking paradigm on the P1-N1-P2 complex. Design Tones and speech stimuli were presented to nine individuals in quiet, and in three background noise types: continuous speech spectrum noise, interrupted speech spectrum noise, and four-talker babble at a signal-to-noise ratio of −3 dB. In separate sessions, cortical auditory evoked potentials were evoked by a passive homogenous paradigm (single repeating stimulus) and an active oddball paradigm. Results The results for the N1 component indicated significant effects of signal type, noise type, and evoking paradigm. While components P1 and P2 also had significant main effects of these variables, only P2 demonstrated significant interactions among these variables. Conclusions Signal type, noise type, and evoking paradigm all must be carefully considered when interpreting signal-in-noise evoked potentials. Furthermore, these data confirm the possible usefulness of CAEPs as an aid to understanding perception-in-noise deficits. PMID:20890206

  16. The effects of media on sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van den Bulck, Jan

    2010-12-01

    The media are an important part of young people's lives, but television, computer games, Internet use, cellular phone use, and even book reading threaten healthy sleep. Adults do not fully comprehend the ways in which young people use various media. Media use is a type of behavior that may displace sleep time or shorten it. Media content may lead to overexcitement or cause recurring nightmares. The cellular telephone is a particular threat. Parents may also use media excessively, establishing an unhealthy environment that may lead to sleep dysfunction in children and adolescents. Therefore, anticipatory guidance for healthy behavioral changes should be focused on the family.

  17. Dissociating Compatibility Effects and Distractor Costs in the Additional Singleton Paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles eFolk

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The interpretation of identity compatibility effects associated with irrelevant items outside the nominal focus of attention has fueled much of the debate over early versus late selection and perceptual load theory. However, compatibility effects have also played a role in the debate over the extent to which the involuntary allocation of spatial attention (i.e., attentional capture is completely stimulus-driven or whether it is contingent on top-down control settings. For example, in the context of the additional singleton paradigm, irrelevant color singletons have been found to produce not only an overall cost in search performance but also significant compatibility effects. This combination of search costs and compatibility effects has been taken as evidence that spatial attention is indeed allocated in a bottom-up fashion to the salient but irrelevant singletons. However, it is possible that compatibility effects in the additional singleton paradigm reflect parallel processing of identity associated with low perceptual load rather than an involuntary shift of spatial attention. In the present experiments, manipulations of load were incorporated into the traditional additional singleton paradigm. Under low load conditions, both search costs and compatibility effects were obtained, replicating previous studies. Under high load conditions, search costs were still present, but compatibility effects were eliminated. This dissociation suggests that the costs associated with irrelevant singletons may reflect filtering processes rather than the allocation of spatial attention.

  18. Parents of preschoolers: expert media recommendations and ratings knowledge, media-effects beliefs, and monitoring practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funk, Jeanne B; Brouwer, Jason; Curtiss, Kathleen; McBroom, Evan

    2009-03-01

    Given the increase in screen media targeted at the very young, the purpose of this study was to examine preschooler parents' knowledge about expert recommendations for young children's screen media experience, their knowledge of specific screen media ratings, their beliefs about screen media effects, and actual monitoring practices. Parents of 94 children education, age and gender of child, and parents' perceptions of their child's favorite television show and favorite video or computer game. Eleven multiple-choice questions assessed the respondent's knowledge of expert recommendations for screen media for preschoolers and the meaning of television and video game content ratings. Fourteen questions addressed the typical amount of their preschooler's screen media exposure, parental rules regarding screen media use, and parents' beliefs about appropriate use of screen media for preschoolers. Preschoolers were exposed to an average of approximately 12 hours of screen media in a typical week. Parents believe that media do have either short- or long-term effects on preschoolers. Performance on factual questions was poor (mean score: 2.83 of 11). In particular, only 34% of the parents correctly identified the expert recommendation for children >2 years of age. Parents should continue to be educated about the need for preschoolers to participate in activities that promote language development, socialization, imagination, and physical activity. Although professionals should work to improve the ratings, and ultimately to implement a universal ratings system for all screen media, parents need to be encouraged to improve their understanding of current recommendations for screen media exposure and television and video game ratings.

  19. Five challenges for the future of media-effects research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valkenburg, P.M.; Peter, J.

    2013-01-01

    The past several decades have witnessed thousands of studies into the effects of media on children and adults. The effects sizes that are found in these studies are typically small to moderate, at best. In this article, we first compare the effect sizes found in media-effects research to those found

  20. Membrane paradigm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, R.H.; Thorne, K.S.

    1986-01-01

    The membrane paradigm is a modified frozen star approach to modeling black holes, with particles and fields assuming a complex, static, boundary-layer type structure (membrane) near the event horizon. The membrane has no effects on the present or future evolution of particles and fields above itself. The mathematical representation is a combination of a formalism containing terms for the shear and bulk viscosity, surface pressure, momentum, temperature, entropy, etc., of the horizon and the 3+1 formalism. The latter model considers a family of three-dimensional spacelike hypersurfaces in one-dimensional time. The membrane model considers a magnetic field threading the hole and undergoing torque from the hole rotation. The field is cleaned by the horizon and distributed over the horizon so that ohmic dissipation is minimized. The membrane paradigm is invalid inside the horizon, but is useful for theoretically probing the properties of slowly evolving black holes

  1. Effects of white noise on event-related potentials in somatosensory Go/No-go paradigms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohbayashi, Wakana; Kakigi, Ryusuke; Nakata, Hiroki

    2017-09-06

    Exposure to auditory white noise has been shown to facilitate human cognitive function. This phenomenon is termed stochastic resonance, and a moderate amount of auditory noise has been suggested to benefit individuals in hypodopaminergic states. The present study investigated the effects of white noise on the N140 and P300 components of event-related potentials in somatosensory Go/No-go paradigms. A Go or No-go stimulus was presented to the second or fifth digit of the left hand, respectively, at the same probability. Participants performed somatosensory Go/No-go paradigms while hearing three different white noise levels (45, 55, and 65 dB conditions). The peak amplitudes of Go-P300 and No-go-P300 in ERP waveforms were significantly larger under 55 dB than 45 and 65 dB conditions. White noise did not affect the peak latency of N140 or P300, or the peak amplitude of N140. Behavioral data for the reaction time, SD of reaction time, and error rates showed the absence of an effect by white noise. This is the first event-related potential study to show that exposure to auditory white noise at 55 dB enhanced the amplitude of P300 during Go/No-go paradigms, reflecting changes in the neural activation of response execution and inhibition processing.

  2. Health effects of media on children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strasburger, Victor C; Jordan, Amy B; Donnerstein, Ed

    2010-04-01

    Youth spend an average of >7 hours/day using media, and the vast majority of them have access to a bedroom television, computer, the Internet, a video-game console, and a cell phone. In this article we review the most recent research on the effects of media on the health and well-being of children and adolescents. Studies have shown that media can provide information about safe health practices and can foster social connectedness. However, recent evidence raises concerns about media's effects on aggression, sexual behavior, substance use, disordered eating, and academic difficulties. We provide recommendations for parents, practitioners, the media, and policy makers, among others, for ways to increase the benefits and reduce the harm that media can have for the developing child and for adolescents.

  3. The effects of violent media content on aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bender, Patrick K; Plante, Courtney; Gentile, Douglas A

    2018-02-01

    Decades of research have shown that violent media exposure is one risk factor for aggression. This review presents findings from recent cross-sectional, experimental, and longitudinal studies, demonstrating the triangulation of evidence within the field. Importantly, this review also illustrates how media violence research has started to move away from merely establishing the existence of media effects and instead has begun to investigate the mechanisms underlying these effects and their limitations. Such studies range from investigations into cross-cultural differences to neurophysiological effects, and the interplay between media, individual, and contextual factors. Although violent media effects have been well-established for some time, they are not monolithic, and recent findings continue to shed light on the nuances and complexities of such effects. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The effects of violent media content on aggression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bender, Patrick K.; Plante, Courtney; Gentile, Douglas A.

    2017-01-01

    how media violence research has started to move away from merely establishing the existence of media effects and instead has begun to investigate the mechanisms underlying these effects and their limitations. Such studies range from investigations into cross-cultural differences to neurophysiological...... effects, and the interplay between media, individual, and contextual factors. Although violent media effects have been well-established for some time, they are not monolithic, and recent findings continue to shed light on the nuances and complexities of such effects.......Decades of research have shown that violent media exposure is one risk factor for aggression. This review presents findings from recent cross-sectional, experimental, and longitudinal studies, demonstrating the triangulation of evidence within the field. Importantly, this review also illustrates...

  5. Otitis Media: Effect on a Child's Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gdowski, Becky S.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    The paper reviews the relationship between otitis media, auditory processing, language, and learning development. Suggestions are provided for identifying and managing students with suspected histories of the condition. (CL)

  6. Scale dependence of effective media properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tidwell, V.C.; VonDoemming, J.D.; Martinez, K.

    1992-01-01

    For problems where media properties are measured at one scale and applied at another, scaling laws or models must be used in order to define effective properties at the scale of interest. The accuracy of such models will play a critical role in predicting flow and transport through the Yucca Mountain Test Site given the sensitivity of these calculations to the input property fields. Therefore, a research programhas been established to gain a fundamental understanding of how properties scale with the aim of developing and testing models that describe scaling behavior in a quantitative-manner. Scaling of constitutive rock properties is investigated through physical experimentation involving the collection of suites of gas permeability data measured over a range of discrete scales. Also, various physical characteristics of property heterogeneity and the means by which the heterogeneity is measured and described are systematically investigated to evaluate their influence on scaling behavior. This paper summarizes the approach that isbeing taken toward this goal and presents the results of a scoping study that was conducted to evaluate the feasibility of the proposed research

  7. Effects of iodinated contrast media on blood and endothelium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aspelin, Peter; Stacul, Fulvio; Thomsen, Henrik S.; Morcos, Sameh K.; Molen, Aart J. van der

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the effects of iodinated contrast media on blood components and endothelium based on experimental and clinical studies and to produce clinically relevant guidelines for reducing thrombotic and hematologic complications following the intravascular use of contrast media. A report was drafted after review of the literature and discussions among the members of the Contrast Media Safety Committee of the European Society of Urogenital Radiology. The final report was produced following discussion at the 12th European Symposium on Urogenital Radiology in Ljubljana, Slovenia (2005). Experimental data indicate that all iodinated contrast media produce an anticoagulant effect and that this effect is greater with ionic contrast media. Several of the in vitro and experimental in vivo studies on haematological effects of contrast media have not been confirmed by clinical studies. Low- or iso-osmolar contrast media should be used for diagnostic and interventional angiographic procedures, including phlebography. Meticulous angiographic technique is the most important factor for reducing the thrombotic complications associated with angiographic procedures. Drugs and interventional devices that decrease the risk of thromboembolic complications during interventional procedures minimize the importance of the effects of contrast media. (orig.)

  8. Effects of iodinated contrast media on blood and endothelium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aspelin, Peter [Karolinska Institute/Huddinge University Hospital, Division of Radiology, Centre for Surgical Sciences, Stockholm (Sweden); Stacul, Fulvio [Institute of Radiology, Trieste (Italy); Thomsen, Henrik S. [Copenhagen University Hospital at Herlev, Department of Diagnostic Radiology 54E2, Herlev (Denmark); Morcos, Sameh K. [Sheffield Teaching Hospitals NHS Trust, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Northern General Hospital, Sheffield (United Kingdom); Molen, Aart J. van der [Leiden University Medical Centre, Department of Radiology, Leiden (Netherlands)

    2006-05-15

    The aim of the study was to assess the effects of iodinated contrast media on blood components and endothelium based on experimental and clinical studies and to produce clinically relevant guidelines for reducing thrombotic and hematologic complications following the intravascular use of contrast media. A report was drafted after review of the literature and discussions among the members of the Contrast Media Safety Committee of the European Society of Urogenital Radiology. The final report was produced following discussion at the 12th European Symposium on Urogenital Radiology in Ljubljana, Slovenia (2005). Experimental data indicate that all iodinated contrast media produce an anticoagulant effect and that this effect is greater with ionic contrast media. Several of the in vitro and experimental in vivo studies on haematological effects of contrast media have not been confirmed by clinical studies. Low- or iso-osmolar contrast media should be used for diagnostic and interventional angiographic procedures, including phlebography. Meticulous angiographic technique is the most important factor for reducing the thrombotic complications associated with angiographic procedures. Drugs and interventional devices that decrease the risk of thromboembolic complications during interventional procedures minimize the importance of the effects of contrast media. (orig.)

  9. Effects of Sowing Media and Sowing Depth on Germination and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examines the effect of sowing media and sowing depth on the germination and growth of Lecanodiscus cupanoides (Planch.Ex Benth). The germination of L. cupanoides seed was significantly affected by sowing depth and sowing medium at p=0.05. The result of various sowing media and sowing depth showed ...

  10. Social Effects of Mass Media Advertising on the Elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Ruth B.; And Others

    A study examined the effects of media advertising on the elderly to determine whether they use the media to help combat social disengagement, whether they perceived the elderly as positively portrayed in advertising, whether they perceive their role as consumer as declining, whether television advertising reinforced sex roles, and whether the…

  11. Realism and Romance: The Study of Media Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuchman, Gaye

    1993-01-01

    Compares and contrasts two studies representing diametrical approaches (Romanticism versus Realism) toward the issue of agency and media effects: P. Willis's "Common Culture" and W. A. Gamson's "Talking Politics." Argues that both studies find that people make their own uses of media. (SR)

  12. Dissociating explicit and implicit effects of cross-media advertising

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vandeberg, L.; Murre, J.M.J.; Voorveld, H.A.M.; Smit, E.G.

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge of cross-media advertising effects is mainly based on explicit psychological measures, such as self-reports. To fully understand the mechanisms responsible for the success of cross-media advertising, it is important to also use implicit measures. We used both types of measures to assess

  13. The effectiveness of self-persuasion in media campaigns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bernritter, S.F.

    2014-01-01

    Recently, it has been demonstrated that self-persuasion can be activated by media campaigns, which were more effective than those using direct argumentation. Extending these findings, in the present paper we investigated conditions under which self-persuasion can be successfully applied in media

  14. The Effects of Media Violence on Attitudes, Emotions, and Cognitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rule, Brendan Gail; Ferguson, Tamara J.

    1986-01-01

    Identifies mediating factors between the viewing of violent media and aggressive behavior. Discusses the role of cognitive and emotional arousal processes, and the interplay among these factors and attitudes toward aggression. Describes the effects of media exposure on arousal, emotional desensitization, and the excitement of the observer's…

  15. Effect of organic contrast Media on the haematology and Serum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Key Words: Contrast media, haematology, serum electrolytes, dogs, xylazine. The effect of contrast media on the hematology and serum electrolyte was determined in five dogs sedated with 2mg/kg of xylazine intramuscular (i.m). A total of 800mg/kg bolus of 76% urograffin was then administered by intravenous injection ...

  16. Evaluating the Effectiveness of a Mass Media Ethics Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Byung; Padgett, George

    2000-01-01

    Examines the effectiveness of an ethics education component in a media law and ethics course. Suggests that a short-term mass media ethics study could not develop values considered essential for ethical behavior. Argues that students developed more complexity in their reasoning not measurable by the scale. Suggests a course or module on ethics…

  17. Studies on the Effects of Media on Growth and Nutritional ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of different solutions and media on growth and nutrient composition of Pleurotus tuber-regium were investigated. The different solutions used are glucose, fructose, sucrose and Knop\\'s solutions. The media used are cassava agar, cocoyam agar, corn agar, potato agar and yam agar. Glucose solution produced ...

  18. Scientific Story Telling & Social Media The role of social media in effectively communicating science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinkhuis, D.; Peart, L.

    2012-12-01

    Scientific discourse generally takes place in appropriate journals, using the language and conventions of science. That's fine, as long as the discourse remains in scientific circles. It is only outside those circles that the rules and techniques of engaging social media tools gain importance. A young generation of scientists are eager to share their experiences by using social media, but is this effective? And how can we better integrate all outreach & media channels to engage general audiences? How can Facebook, Twitter, Skype and YouTube be used as synergy tools in scientific story telling? Case: during IODP Expedtion 342 (June-July 2012) onboard the scientific drillship JOIDES Resolution an onboard educator and videographer worked non-stop fort two months on an integrated outreach plan that tried and tested the limits of all social media tools available to interact with an international public while at sea. The results are spectacular!

  19. [The workplace-based learning: a main paradigm of an effective continuing medical education].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lelli, Maria Barbara

    2010-01-01

    On the strength of the literature analysis and the Emilia-Romagna Region experience, we suggest a reflection on the workplace-based learning that goes beyond the analysis of the effectiveness of specific didactic methodologies and aspects related to Continuing Medical Education. Health education and training issue is viewed from a wider perspective, that integrates the three learning dimensions (formal, non formal and informal). In such a perspective the workplace-based learning becomes an essential paradigm to reshape the explicit knowledge conveyed in formal context and to emphasize informal contexts where innovation is generated.

  20. Patient loyalty and the social media effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verkamp, Jamie

    2013-01-01

    In a changing healthcare environment, patient loyalty has never been more important. However, creating patient loyalty can mean more than providing quality health services within the four walls of the medical office. With patients turning to online sources and social media in search of advice and a better patient experience, we must now ensure that patients have meaningful engagements with us across the continuum of care, from the phone, to the office, to social media tools like Facebook and YouTube as we look to build loyalty and grow our referral volumes.

  1. The Double-Edged Effects of Social Media Terror Communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nickel, Sandro

    2014-01-01

    This paper connects the effects of social media on terror/anti-terror communication with dynamics and consequences of surveillance. Citizens become via social media more independent from mass media and more interconnected. This is also valid when citizens engage in terror/anti-terror communication...... that social media contribute to extending surveillance: by being a temptation for intelligence services, by not resisting state authorities and via constructing threat perceptions among populations which in effect deliver security politicians ‘windows of opportunity’ in order to implement ever more....... However, via social media citizens also become targets of the ‘collect-it-all’ surveillance, which was revealed to the global public in 2013. I argue that due to such surveillance some citizens might start to censor themselves and that surveillance inflicts with a number of human rights. I further argue...

  2. The effects of sacubitril/valsartan on coronary outcomes in PARADIGM-HF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogensen, Ulrik M; Køber, Lars; Kristensen, Søren L; Jhund, Pardeep S; Gong, Jianjian; Lefkowitz, Martin P; Rizkala, Adel R; Rouleau, Jean L; Shi, Victor C; Swedberg, Karl; Zile, Michael R; Solomon, Scott D; Packer, Milton; McMurray, John J V

    2017-06-01

    Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACE-I), are beneficial both in heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HF-REF) and after myocardial infarction (MI). We examined the effects of the angiotensin-receptor neprilysin inhibitor sacubitril/valsartan, compared with the ACE-I enalapril, on coronary outcomes in PARADIGM-HF. We examined the effect of sacubitril/valsartan compared with enalapril on the following outcomes: i) the primary composite endpoint of cardiovascular (CV) death or HF hospitalization, ii) a pre-defined broader composite including, in addition, MI, stroke, and resuscitated sudden death, and iii) a post hoc coronary composite of CV-death, non-fatal MI, angina hospitalization or coronary revascularization. At baseline, of 8399 patients, 3634 (43.3%) had a prior MI and 4796 (57.1%) had a history of any coronary artery disease. Among all patients, compared with enalapril, sacubitril/valsartan reduced the risk of the primary outcome (HR 0.80 [0.73-0.87], Psacubitril/valsartan group, compared with the enalapril group, only CV death was reduced significantly. Compared with enalapril, sacubitril/valsartan reduced the risk of both the primary endpoint and a coronary composite outcome in PARADIGM-HF. Additional studies on the effect of sacubitril/valsartan on atherothrombotic outcomes in high-risk patients are merited. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. [Erespal effectiveness in exudative otitis media].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levina, Iu V; Luchikhin, L A; Krasiuk, A A

    2003-01-01

    Standard conservative treatment of exudative otitis media (EOM) was performed in 82 patients, but 44 of them received adjuvant fenspiride (erespal) in a dose 80 mg per os 3 times a day for 10 days. Dynamic pure tone audiometry, tympanometry and subjective response demonstrated higher treatment efficiency in the erespal group. Therefore, it is recommended to include erespal in combined conventional therapy of EOM.

  4. Effects of victim presence and coercion in restorative justice: An experimental paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saulnier, Alana; Sivasubramaniam, Diane

    2015-08-01

    There is little experimental work examining the ways in which particular procedural features of restorative justice impact offenders. This research describes a new experimental paradigm designed to advance knowledge about causal relationships in restorative justice settings. Apologizing is a core component of restorative procedures, and can result in beneficial outcomes, but previous research suggests that coercion to apologize and the absence of victims in restorative procedures may negatively impact these outcomes. The experimental procedure elicited confessions and apologies for a transgression from participants (N = 101) in a deceptive paradigm. We manipulated coercion (coerced, not coerced) and victim presence (direct, surrogate, ambiguous) to test their effects on offenders' subjective experiences of offering an apology, as well as their effects on the quality of offenders' apologies. Findings indicated that the victim presence and coercion manipulations significantly impacted some of the subjective perceptions of apologizers, including perceptions of accountability and transgression finality. In addition, independent raters evaluated the degree to which the transgressor's apologies conveyed remorse, acceptance of guilt, and potential for dispute resolution. Victim presence and coercion consistently affected the ability of transgressors to convey high quality apologies. Implications for future research and restorative procedures are discussed. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. 382 Effectiveness of Selected Communication Media on Tourism ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    FIRST LADY

    2011-01-18

    Jan 18, 2011 ... Effectiveness of Selected Communication Media on Tourism ... communication is a means to education vis-à-vis education is a means .... Strategies in Extention. ... Marketing Profile Among Rural Households in South Eastern.

  6. Effects of embryo induction media and pretreatments in isolated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-11-16

    Nov 16, 2009 ... chemical + heat and also the effects of 5 embryo induction media (NPB-99, C17, ... Key words: Hexaploid wheat, haploid, isolated microspore culture, pretreatment, ..... this method is influenced by several mentioned factors.

  7. Perceptual effects of linguistic category priming: the Stapel and Semin (2007) paradigm revisited in twelve experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    IJzerman, Hans; Regenberg, Nina F E; Saddlemyer, Justin; Koole, Sander L

    2015-05-01

    Linguistic category priming is a novel paradigm to examine automatic influences of language on cognition (Semin, 2008). An initial article reported that priming abstract linguistic categories (adjectives) led to more global perceptual processing, whereas priming concrete linguistic categories (verbs) led to more local perceptual processing (Stapel & Semin, 2007). However, this report was compromised by data fabrication by the first author, so that it remains unclear whether or not linguistic category priming influences perceptual processing. To fill this gap in the literature, the present article reports 12 studies among Dutch and US samples examining the perceptual effects of linguistic category priming. The results yielded no evidence of linguistic category priming effects. These findings are discussed in relation to other research showing cultural variations in linguistic category priming effects (IJzerman, Saddlemyer, & Koole, 2014). The authors conclude by highlighting the importance of conducting and publishing replication research for achieving scientific progress. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. The media effect in Axelrod's model explained

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peres, L. R.; Fontanari, J. F.

    2011-11-01

    We revisit the problem of introducing an external global field —the mass media— in Axelrod's model of social dynamics, where in addition to their nearest neighbors, the agents can interact with a virtual neighbor whose cultural features are fixed from the outset. The finding that this apparently homogenizing field actually increases the cultural diversity has been considered a puzzle since the phenomenon was first reported more than a decade ago. Here we offer a simple explanation for it, which is based on the pedestrian observation that Axelrod's model exhibits more cultural diversity, i.e., more distinct cultural domains, when the agents are allowed to interact solely with the media field than when they can interact with their neighbors as well. In this perspective, it is the local homogenizing interactions that work towards making the absorbing configurations less fragmented as compared with the extreme situation in which the agents interact with the media only.

  9. Social Media Effects on Operational Art

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-22

    can help with organizing and coordinating these movements. Some believe that social media and the internet are the only tools used today for...to the government and society of each country. Examples of social movements include race equality, feminism , religious, socio-economic, and socio...story and message the global community which positions itself it in a greater position of relative advantage.75 It is easier today to fuel the causes

  10. Effects of Ordering Strategies and Programming Paradigms on Sparse Matrix Computations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliker, Leonid; Li, Xiaoye; Husbands, Parry; Biswas, Rupak; Biegel, Bryan (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The Conjugate Gradient (CG) algorithm is perhaps the best-known iterative technique to solve sparse linear systems that are symmetric and positive definite. For systems that are ill-conditioned, it is often necessary to use a preconditioning technique. In this paper, we investigate the effects of various ordering and partitioning strategies on the performance of parallel CG and ILU(O) preconditioned CG (PCG) using different programming paradigms and architectures. Results show that for this class of applications: ordering significantly improves overall performance on both distributed and distributed shared-memory systems, that cache reuse may be more important than reducing communication, that it is possible to achieve message-passing performance using shared-memory constructs through careful data ordering and distribution, and that a hybrid MPI+OpenMP paradigm increases programming complexity with little performance gains. A implementation of CG on the Cray MTA does not require special ordering or partitioning to obtain high efficiency and scalability, giving it a distinct advantage for adaptive applications; however, it shows limited scalability for PCG due to a lack of thread level parallelism.

  11. Media Arts: A Shifting Paradigm?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    The chairs of four arts education professional organizations--Jane Bonbright of the National Dance Education Organization, Michael Butera of the National Association for Music Education, Lynne Kingsley of the American Alliance for Theatre and Education, and Deborah Reeve of the National Art Education Association--were individually interviewed for…

  12. The bidirectional congruency effect of brightness-valence metaphoric association in the Stroop-like and priming paradigms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yanli; Tse, Chi-Shing; Xie, Jiushu

    2017-11-04

    The conceptual metaphor theory (Lakoff & Johnson, 1980, 1999) postulates a unidirectional metaphoric association between abstract and concrete concepts: sensorimotor experience activated by concrete concepts facilitates the processing of abstract concepts, but not the other way around. However, this unidirectional view has been challenged by studies that reported a bidirectional metaphoric association. In three experiments, we tested the directionality of the brightness-valence metaphoric association, using Stroop-like paradigm, priming paradigm, and Stroop-like paradigm with a go/no-go manipulation. Both mean and vincentile analyses of reaction time data were performed. We showed that the directionality of brightness-valence metaphoric congruency effect could be modulated by the activation level of the brightness/valence information. Both brightness-to-valence and valence-to-brightness metaphoric congruency effects occurred in the priming paradigm, which could be attributed to the presentation of prime that pre-activated the brightness or valence information. However, in the Stroop-like paradigm the metaphoric congruency effect was only observed in the brightness-to-valence direction, but not in the valence-to-brightness direction. When the go/no-go manipulation was used to boost the activation of word meaning in the Stroop-like paradigm, the valence-to-brightness metaphoric congruency effect was observed. Vincentile analyses further revealed that valence-to-brightness metaphoric congruency effect approached significance in the Stroop-like paradigm when participants' reaction times were slower (at around 490ms). The implications of the current findings on the conceptual metaphor theory and embodied cognition are discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. The effects of sacubitril/valsartan on coronary outcomes in PARADIGM-HF

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Ulrik M.; Køber, Lars; Kristensen, Søren L.

    2017-01-01

    Background Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACE-I), are beneficial both in heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HF-REF) and after myocardial infarction (MI). We examined the effects of the angiotensin-receptor neprilysin inhibitor sacubitril/valsartan, compared with the ACE......-I enalapril, on coronary outcomes in PARADIGM-HF. Methods and results We examined the effect of sacubitril/valsartan compared with enalapril on the following outcomes: i) the primary composite endpoint of cardiovascular (CV) death or HF hospitalization, ii) a pre-defined broader composite including...... patients, compared with enalapril, sacubitril/valsartan reduced the risk of the primary outcome (HR 0.80 [0.73–0.87], P 

  14. Attributional processes in the learned helplessness paradigm: behavioral effects of global attributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikulincer, M

    1986-12-01

    Following the learned helplessness paradigm, I assessed in this study the effects of global and specific attributions for failure on the generalization of performance deficits in a dissimilar situation. Helplessness training consisted of experience with noncontingent failures on four cognitive discrimination problems attributed to either global or specific causes. Experiment 1 found that performance in a dissimilar situation was impaired following exposure to globally attributed failure. Experiment 2 examined the behavioral effects of the interaction between stable and global attributions of failure. Exposure to unsolvable problems resulted in reduced performance in a dissimilar situation only when failure was attributed to global and stable causes. Finally, Experiment 3 found that learned helplessness deficits were a product of the interaction of global and internal attribution. Performance deficits following unsolvable problems were recorded when failure was attributed to global and internal causes. Results were discussed in terms of the reformulated learned helplessness model.

  15. Locality effects on bifurcation paradigm of L-H transition in tokamak plasmas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boonyarit Chatthong

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The locality effects on bifurcation paradigm of L-H transition phenomenon in magnetic confinement plasmas are investigated. One dimensional thermal transport equation with both neoclassical and anomalous transports effects included is considered, where a flow shear due to pressure gradient component is included as a transport suppression mechanism. Three different locally driven models for anomalous transport are considered, including a constant transport model, pressure gradient driven transport model, and critical pressure gradient threshold transport model. Local stability analysis shows that the transition occurs at a threshold flux with hysteresis nature only if ratio of anomalous strength over neoclassical transport exceeds a critical value. The depth of the hysteresis loop depends on both neoclassical and anomalous transports, as well as the suppression strength. The reduction of the heat flux required to maintain H-mode can be as low as a factor of two, which is similar to experimental evidence.

  16. Quantification and Control of Wall Effects in Porous Media Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, E. J.; Mays, D. C.; Neupauer, R.; Crimaldi, J. P.

    2017-12-01

    Fluid flow dynamics in porous media are dominated by media heterogeneity. This heterogeneity can create preferential pathways in which local seepage velocities dwarf system seepage velocities, further complicating an already incomplete understanding of dispersive processes. In physical models of porous media flows, apparatus walls introduce preferential flow paths (i.e., wall effects) that may overwhelm other naturally occurring preferential pathways within the apparatus, leading to deceptive results. We used planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) in conjunction with refractive index matched (RIM) porous media and pore fluid to observe fluid dynamics in the porous media, with particular attention to the region near the apparatus walls in a 17 cm x 8 cm x 7 cm uniform flow cell. Hexagonal close packed spheres were used to create an isotropic, homogenous porous media field in the interior of the apparatus. Visualization of the movement of a fluorescent dye revealed the influence of the wall in creating higher permeability preferential flow paths in an otherwise homogenous media packing. These preferential flow paths extended approximately one half of one sphere diameter from the wall for homogenously packed regions, with a quickly diminishing effect on flow dynamics for homogenous media adjacent to the preferential pathway, but with major influence on flow dynamics for adjoining heterogeneous regions. Multiple approaches to mitigate wall effects were investigated, and a modified wall was created such that the fluid dynamics near the wall mimics the fluid dynamics within the homogenous porous media. This research supports the design of a two-dimensional experimental apparatus that will simulate engineered pumping schemes for use in contaminant remediation. However, this research could benefit the design of fixed bed reactors or other engineering challenges in which vessel walls contribute to unwanted preferential flow.

  17. Altered Sensory Feedbacks in Pianist's Dystonia: the altered auditory feedback paradigm and the glove effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felicia Pei-Hsin Cheng

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study investigates the effect of altered auditory feedback (AAF in musician's dystonia (MD and discusses whether altered auditory feedback can be considered as a sensory trick in MD. Furthermore, the effect of AAF is compared with altered tactile feedback, which can serve as a sensory trick in several other forms of focal dystonia. Methods: The method is based on scale analysis (Jabusch et al. 2004. Experiment 1 employs synchronization paradigm: 12 MD patients and 25 healthy pianists had to repeatedly play C-major scales in synchrony with a metronome on a MIDI-piano with 3 auditory feedback conditions: 1. normal feedback; 2. no feedback; 3. constant delayed feedback. Experiment 2 employs synchronization-continuation paradigm: 12 MD patients and 12 healthy pianists had to repeatedly play C-major scales in two phases: first in synchrony with a metronome, secondly continue the established tempo without the metronome. There are 4 experimental conditions, among them 3 are the same altered auditory feedback as in Experiment 1 and 1 is related to altered tactile sensory input. The coefficient of variation of inter-onset intervals of the key depressions was calculated to evaluate fine motor control. Results: In both experiments, the healthy controls and the patients behaved very similarly. There is no difference in the regularity of playing between the two groups under any condition, and neither did AAF nor did altered tactile feedback have a beneficial effect on patients’ fine motor control. Conclusions: The results of the two experiments suggest that in the context of our experimental designs, AAF and altered tactile feedback play a minor role in motor coordination in patients with musicians' dystonia. We propose that altered auditory and tactile feedback do not serve as effective sensory tricks and may not temporarily reduce the symptoms of patients suffering from MD in this experimental context.

  18. Effective Elliptic Models for Efficient Wavefield Extrapolation in Anisotropic Media

    KAUST Repository

    Waheed, Umair bin

    2014-05-01

    Wavefield extrapolation operator for elliptically anisotropic media offers significant cost reduction compared to that of transversely isotropic media (TI), especially when the medium exhibits tilt in the symmetry axis (TTI). However, elliptical anisotropy does not provide accurate focusing for TI media. Therefore, we develop effective elliptically anisotropic models that correctly capture the kinematic behavior of the TTI wavefield. Specifically, we use an iterative elliptically anisotropic eikonal solver that provides the accurate traveltimes for a TI model. The resultant coefficients of the elliptical eikonal provide the effective models. These effective models allow us to use the cheaper wavefield extrapolation operator for elliptic media to obtain approximate wavefield solutions for TTI media. Despite the fact that the effective elliptic models are obtained by kinematic matching using high-frequency asymptotic, the resulting wavefield contains most of the critical wavefield components, including the frequency dependency and caustics, if present, with reasonable accuracy. The methodology developed here offers a much better cost versus accuracy tradeoff for wavefield computations in TTI media, considering the cost prohibitive nature of the problem. We demonstrate the applicability of the proposed approach on the BP TTI model.

  19. Interface effects on dose distributions in irradiated media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wright, H.A.; Hamm, R.N.; Turner, J.E.

    1980-01-01

    It has long been recognized that nonuniformities in dose distributions may occur in the immediate vicinity of a boundary between two different media. Considerable work has been done to determine interface effects in media irradiated by photons or in media containing β- or α-particle emitters. More recently interface effects have become of interest in additional problems, including pion radiotherapy and radiation effects in electronic microcircuits in space vehicles. These problems arise when pion capture stars or proton-nucleus interactions produce a spectrum of charged nuclear fragments near an interface. The purpose of this paper is to examine interface effects in detail as to their specific origin. We have made Monte Carlo calculations of dose distributions near an interface in a systematic way for a number of idealized cases in order to indicate the separate influences of several factors including different stopping powers of the two media, nonconstancy (e.g., Bragg peak) in the energy loss curve for the particles, different particle spectra in the two media, and curvature of the boundary between the two media

  20. Effective Elliptic Models for Efficient Wavefield Extrapolation in Anisotropic Media

    KAUST Repository

    Waheed, Umair bin; Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali

    2014-01-01

    Wavefield extrapolation operator for elliptically anisotropic media offers significant cost reduction compared to that of transversely isotropic media (TI), especially when the medium exhibits tilt in the symmetry axis (TTI). However, elliptical anisotropy does not provide accurate focusing for TI media. Therefore, we develop effective elliptically anisotropic models that correctly capture the kinematic behavior of the TTI wavefield. Specifically, we use an iterative elliptically anisotropic eikonal solver that provides the accurate traveltimes for a TI model. The resultant coefficients of the elliptical eikonal provide the effective models. These effective models allow us to use the cheaper wavefield extrapolation operator for elliptic media to obtain approximate wavefield solutions for TTI media. Despite the fact that the effective elliptic models are obtained by kinematic matching using high-frequency asymptotic, the resulting wavefield contains most of the critical wavefield components, including the frequency dependency and caustics, if present, with reasonable accuracy. The methodology developed here offers a much better cost versus accuracy tradeoff for wavefield computations in TTI media, considering the cost prohibitive nature of the problem. We demonstrate the applicability of the proposed approach on the BP TTI model.

  1. The Limited Informativeness of Meta-Analyses of Media Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valkenburg, Patti M

    2015-09-01

    In this issue of Perspectives on Psychological Science, Christopher Ferguson reports on a meta-analysis examining the relationship between children's video game use and several outcome variables, including aggression and attention deficit symptoms (Ferguson, 2015, this issue). In this commentary, I compare Ferguson's nonsignificant effects sizes with earlier meta-analyses on the same topics that yielded larger, significant effect sizes. I argue that Ferguson's choice for partial effects sizes is unjustified on both methodological and theoretical grounds. I then plead for a more constructive debate on the effects of violent video games on children and adolescents. Until now, this debate has been dominated by two camps with diametrically opposed views on the effects of violent media on children. However, even the earliest media effects studies tell us that children can react quite differently to the same media content. Thus, if researchers truly want to understand how media affect children, rather than fight for the presence or absence of effects, they need to adopt a perspective that takes differential susceptibility to media effects more seriously. © The Author(s) 2015.

  2. Body dissatisfaction: can a short media literacy message reduce negative media exposure effects amongst adolescent girls?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halliwell, Emma; Easun, Alice; Harcourt, Diana

    2011-05-01

    This experimental study examined whether a brief video intervention identifying the artificial nature of media images could protect adolescent girls from negative media exposure effects and body dissatisfaction. A 2 (intervention condition)×2 (exposure condition) between-groups design was used. Participants were 127 British girls aged between 10 and 13 recruited from two secondary schools. Girls were assigned to one of four experimental conditions. An intervention video was shown to half of the girls immediately before they viewed ultra-thin models or control images. The video was developed by Dove's Self-Esteem Fund and has the benefits of being professionally produced and freely available through the Internet. In the absence of the intervention video, viewing thin idealized models was associated with lower state body satisfaction and lower state body esteem than exposure to control images. However, viewing the video intervention immediately before exposure prevented this negative exposure effect. The results suggest that, in the short term, this widely available video prevents girls from making damaging social comparisons with media models. Although this study only examined short-term effects, the findings add to the growing evidence that media literacy interventions may be useful tools in protecting young girls from body dissatisfaction. ©2010 The British Psychological Society.

  3. The Effect of Social Media Marketing on Customers’ Brand Loyalty

    OpenAIRE

    Amir Mehrabi; Hossein Islami; Mojtaba Aghajani

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays, customers’ loyalty is a key to commercial success. Hence, this study aimed to investigate the effect of social media marketing on customers’ brand loyalty. In this regard, a conceptual framework which considered advertising campaign, providing relevant content, updating content, providing popular content among friends, and providing applicable programs as marketing indexes in social media is presented. This was an applicable research in terms of its purpose, and a descriptive-survey...

  4. Power corrupts co-operation: cognitive and motivational effects in a double EEG paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanso, Riam; Hewstone, Miles; Hawkins, Erin; Waszczuk, Monika; Nobre, Anna Christina

    2014-02-01

    This study investigated the effect of interpersonal power on co-operative performance. We used a paired electro-encephalogram paradigm: pairs of participants performed an attention task, followed by feedback indicating monetary loss or gain on every trial. Participants were randomly allocated to the power-holder, subordinate or neutral group by creating different levels of control over how a joint monetary reward would be allocated. We found that power was associated with reduced behavioural accuracy. Event-related potential analysis showed that power-holders devoted less motivational resources to their targets than did subordinates or neutrals, but did not differ at the level of early conflict detection. Their feedback potential results showed a greater expectation of rewards but reduced subjective magnitude attributed to losses. Subordinates, on the other hand, were asymmetrically sensitive to power-holders' targets. They expected fewer rewards, but attributed greater significance to losses. Our study shows that power corrupts balanced co-operation with subordinates.

  5. Parallel Conjugate Gradient: Effects of Ordering Strategies, Programming Paradigms, and Architectural Platforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliker, Leonid; Heber, Gerd; Biswas, Rupak

    2000-01-01

    The Conjugate Gradient (CG) algorithm is perhaps the best-known iterative technique to solve sparse linear systems that are symmetric and positive definite. A sparse matrix-vector multiply (SPMV) usually accounts for most of the floating-point operations within a CG iteration. In this paper, we investigate the effects of various ordering and partitioning strategies on the performance of parallel CG and SPMV using different programming paradigms and architectures. Results show that for this class of applications, ordering significantly improves overall performance, that cache reuse may be more important than reducing communication, and that it is possible to achieve message passing performance using shared memory constructs through careful data ordering and distribution. However, a multi-threaded implementation of CG on the Tera MTA does not require special ordering or partitioning to obtain high efficiency and scalability.

  6. Reduced negativity effect in older adults' memory for emotional pictures: the heterogeneity-homogeneity list paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grühn, Daniel; Scheibe, Susanne; Baltes, Paul B

    2007-09-01

    Using the heterogeneity-homogeneity list paradigm, the authors investigated 48 young adults' (20-30 years) and 48 older adults' (65-75 years) recognition memory for emotional pictures. The authors obtained no evidence for a positivity bias in older adults' memory: Age differences were primarily driven by older adults' diminished ability to remember negative pictures. The authors further found a strong effect of list types: Pictures, particularly neutral ones, were better recognized in homogeneous (blocked) lists than in heterogeneous (mixed) ones. Results confirm those of a previous study by D. Grühn, J. Smith, and P. B. Baltes (2005) that used a different type of to-be-remembered material, that is, pictures instead of words. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2007 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. Creating Effective Media Messaging for Rural Smoke-free Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riker, Carol A; Butler, Karen M; Ricks, JaNelle M; Record, Rachael A; Begley, Kathy; Anderson, Debra Gay; Hahn, Ellen J

    2015-01-01

    Objectives were to (1) explore perceived effectiveness of existing smoke-free print advertisements in rural communities and (2) generate message content, characteristics, and media delivery channels that resonate with residents. Qualitative methods design. Thirty-nine rural adults recruited by community partners. Content analysis of findings from individuals in four focus groups who participated in general discussion and reviewed eight print ads related to secondhand smoke (SHS) and smoke-free policy. Six content themes were identified: smoking/SHS dangers, worker health, analogies, economic impact, rights, and nostalgia. Seven message characteristics were recognized: short/to the point, large enough to read, graphic images, poignant stories, statistics/charts/graphs, message sender, and messages targeting different groups. Four media delivery channels were considered most effective: local media, technology, billboard messages, and print materials. Seeking input from key informants is essential to reaching rural residents. Use of analogies in media messaging is a distinct contribution to the literature on effective smoke-free campaigns. Other findings support previous studies of effective messaging and delivery channels. Further research is needed to examine effectiveness of themes related to message content in smoke-free ads and delivery strategies. Effective media messaging can lead to policy change in rural communities to reduce exposure to SHS. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Effective Social Media Engagement for Nonprofits: What Matters?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia L Carboni

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available We employ public management relationship theory to examine how nonprofits can effectively engage social media stakeholders in two-way communication. Though many nonprofit organizations have a social media presence, there is variance in how well organizations use social media to engage stakeholders. Simply having a social media presence is not enough to engage stakeholders.  We examine Facebook posts of a stratified random sample of youth development organizations to determine what predicts stakeholder engagement. We find the type of Facebook post is a significant predictor of stakeholder engagement.  Longer posts also significantly predict increased stakeholder engagement.  At the organizational level, having many posts is a significant negative predictor of stakeholder engagement, indicating that users may feel bombarded and are less likely to engage.  Increased organizational spending on advertising as a proportion of total budget is positively associated with stakeholder engagement. 

  9. Intercultural Peers’ effect on Social Identity of Social Media Users

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khajeheian, Datis

    2016-01-01

    - and their impact on two constructs, namely the global and local social identity. Adopting the ethnographic approach and a complementary phase of interviews, this study explores the influence of social media peers on consumers’ identity and consumption patterns. The findings show that the influence of “consumer...... socialization of peers” on the social identity of consumers is overestimated. Rather, the main influence comes from peers in the real world. The influence of this real world peer on consumption patterns is much higher than social media peers. Though social media is used for communication of real world peers......This research investigates the effect of social media peers on the social identity of consumers. The critical perspective of this research is based on the consumer socialization theory research framework. This framework consists of three levels - the global, national and local peers...

  10. Measuring the effects of social media participation on political party communities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Effing, Robin; van Hillegersberg, Jos; Huibers, T.; Reddick, C.; Aikins, S.K.

    2012-01-01

    Political parties can potentially benefit from Social Media to shape interactions between their members. This chapter presents the Social Media Participation Model (SMPM), which measures the effects of Social Media Participation on political party communities. As people and politicians increasingly

  11. Social Media Campaign Effects: Moderating Role of Social Capital in an Anti-Smoking Campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namkoong, Kang; Nah, Seungahn; Van Stee, Stephanie K; Record, Rachael A

    2018-03-01

    This study examined the effects of an anti-smoking campaign that employs a crowdsourcing method with a social networking service. Drawing upon social capital scholarship and the expression effect research paradigm in eHealth systems, the study also investigated the roles of social trust and community life satisfaction in the social media campaign that has a specific geographical boundary. To that end, we conducted an experiment using a two-group pretest-posttest design. We randomly assigned 201 participants to two conditions: "campaign message reception only" as a control group and "message reception and expression" as a treatment group in which participants fully engaged in the campaign process by sharing their own campaign ideas with other participants. Findings revealed that social trust and community life satisfaction interacted with the treatment condition to positively affect persuasive intentions, but in distinct ways. Social trust moderated the effect of the message reception and interaction condition on participants' willingness to encourage community members to stop smoking. In contrast, community life satisfaction moderated the effect of the treatment condition on encouraging others to comply with the community's anti-smoking policy. These results provide theoretical and practical implications related to the roles of social capital in geographically defined social media campaigns.

  12. Media development effectiveness of geography 3d muckups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasetya, S. P.; Daryono; Budiyanto, E.

    2018-01-01

    Geography examines geosphere phenomena that occurs in a space associated with humans on earth’s surface. Media 3D models are an important visual media in presenting spatial objects on the earth’s surface. This study aims to develop a decent 3D mockups media used for learning materials and test the effectiveness of media geography 3D mockups on learning outcomes. The study involved 90 students of Geography Education, Faculty of Social Sciences and Law, State University of Surabaya. Method development using a model of the Borg and Gall (1989) which has been modified into three stages, namely the introduction, development, and testing. The study produced instructional media 3D Muckups eligible to be used as a learning medium for the material hydrosphere geography, geology, and geomorphology. 3D mockups media use in learning geography materials can increase the activity of students, student interest and a positive response to raise the student learning outcomes as the material can be delivered more concrete geography. Based on observations conducted student activity occurs continuously increase in the use of 3D models for learning geography material.

  13. Chromogenic media for urine cultures can be cost-effective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matjaž J. Retelj

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Chromogenic media for diagnostic urinary bacteriology have several advantages over traditional media, such as cysteine-lactose-electrolyte deficient (CLED medium. Chromogenic media allow for easier recognition of mixed growth, save time, reduce workload and provide higher detection rates. However, the cost of chromogenic media is significantly higher compared to CLED and performance of chromogenic media varies depending on the manufacturer. In the present study, performance, turn-around time and cost of Uriselect4 chromogenic medium was compared to CLED.Methods: For performance analysis, 351 midstream urine (MSU samples from September 2005 to December 2005 were directly plated in parallel on Uriselect4 and CLED agar using the calibrated loop technique. Isolates on Uriselect4 were presumptively identified according to the product insert. For cost-effectiveness analysis, we included 1,972 consecutive MSU samples from May 2005 to July 2006. We compared the cost of required materials as well as technologists’ or specialists’ time for each medium examined.Results: No significant differences were found between the isolation rates of urinary pathogens on the studied media. The procedure using chromogenic media for uropathogens is slightly cheaper than the procedure using CLED, considering the proportion of bacteriuria positive samples (50.5 % and the distribution of taxa among isolates (namely Escherichia coli with 59.6 % observed in our laboratory. At the current isolation proportion in MSU samples processed in our laboratory, the average time to reporting results could be decreased by 0.3 days.Conclusions: Use of chromogenic media for urine investigations offers multiple advantages without increasing costs compared to procedures using CLED.

  14. Advertisement Effectiveness for Print Media: A Conceptual Model

    OpenAIRE

    Prateek Maheshwari; Nitin Seth; Anoop Kumar Gupta

    2015-01-01

    The objective of present research paper is to highlight the importance of measuring advertisement effectiveness in print media and to develop a conceptual model for advertisement effectiveness. The developed model is based on dimensions on which advertisement effectiveness depends and on the dimensions which are used to measure the effectiveness. An in-depth and extensive literature review is carried out to understand the concept of advertisement effectiveness and its var...

  15. Technological effect of vibroprocessing by flows of organic granular media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebedev, V. A.; Shishkina, A. P.; Davydova, I. V.; Morozova, A. V.

    2018-03-01

    The analysis of approaches to modeling of vibrational processing by granulated media is carried out. The vibroprocessing model which provides effective finishing of the surfaces of the parts due to the stone fruit organic media granules is developed. The model is based on the granule flow energy impact on the surface being treated. As the main characteristic of the organic media processing, a specific volumetric metal scrap is used, the physical meaning of which is the increase rate in the thickness of the material removed from the surface at a given velocity and pressure of the medium. It is shown that the metal scrap depends on the medium flow velocity, the height of the loading column of the granular medium, and the conditions for the formation of a medium stationary circulation motion. Based on the analysis of the results of experimental studies of the influence of amplitude-frequency characteristics on the removal of metal in the process of vibroprocessing with abrasive granules, the dependence of the specific volume metal removal is proposed for organic media processing, taking into account the threshold amplitude and frequency of oscillations of the working chamber, at which the effect of surface treatment is observed. The established set of relationships describing the effective conditions for vibroprocessing with stone organic media was obtained using experimental data, which allows us to assume that the model obtained is valid.

  16. The effect of articulatory suppression on implicit and explicit false memory in the DRM paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Damme, Ilse; Menten, Jan; d'Ydewalle, Gery

    2010-11-01

    Several studies have shown that reliable implicit false memory can be obtained in the DRM paradigm. There has been considerable debate, however, about whether or not conscious activation of critical lures during study is a necessary condition for this. Recent findings have revealed that articulatory suppression prevents subsequent false priming in an anagram task (Lovden & Johansson, 2003). The present experiment sought to replicate and extend these findings to an implicit word stem completion task, and to additionally investigate the effect of articulatory suppression on explicit false memory. Results showed an inhibitory effect of articulatory suppression on veridical memory, as well as on implicit false memory, whereas the level of explicit false memory was heightened. This suggests that articulatory suppression did not merely eliminate conscious lure activation, but had a more general capacity-delimiting effect. The drop in veridical memory can be attributed to diminished encoding of item-specific information. Superficial encoding also limited the spreading of semantic activation during study, which inhibited later false priming. In addition, the lack of item-specific and phenomenological details caused impaired source monitoring at test, resulting in heightened explicit false memory.

  17. When rapid adaptation paradigm is not too rapid: Evidence of face-sensitive N170 adaptation effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Tengxiang; Feng, Xue; Feng, Chunliang; Gu, Ruolei; Luo, Yue-Jia

    2015-07-01

    Recent findings have demonstrated that N170 adaptation effects evoked by face adaptors are general to face and non-face tests, implicating adaptor-locked interferences in the rapid adaptation paradigm. Here we examined the extent to which adaptor-locked interferences confound N170 adaptation effects in different experimental parameters by manipulating the stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA) duration and jitter between adaptors and tests. In the short SOA, those interferences were well visible for the grand-average ERP waveforms evoked by tests, and they are likely to render rapid adaptation paradigm with short SOA unreliable. The adaptor-locked interferences were attenuated by appropriately increasing SOA duration, such that face-sensitive adaptation effects were evident in the long SOA for both baseline-to-peak and peak-to-peak N170 measurements. These findings suggest that the rapid adaptation paradigm may work with a relative long SOA. Our findings provide useful information for future studies regarding the choosing of appropriate experimental parameters and measurements for the rapid adaptation paradigm. In addition, future studies are needed to investigate how to objectively subtract the overlaps of adaptors from tests and to validate the N170 adaptation effect with appropriate behavioral performance. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. The effects of a novel hostile interpretation bias modification paradigm on hostile interpretations, mood, and aggressive behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    AlMoghrabi, Nouran; Huijding, Jorg; Franken, Ingmar H A

    2018-01-01

    Background and objectives Cognitive theories of aggression propose that biased information processing is causally related to aggression. To test these ideas, the current study investigated the effects of a novel cognitive bias modification paradigm (CBM-I) designed to target interpretations

  19. Effectiveness of alcohol media literacy programmes: a systematic literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Chloe S; Hindmarsh, Chloe S; Jones, Sandra C; Kervin, Lisa

    2015-06-01

    Alcohol media literacy is an emerging field that aims to address the link between exposure to alcohol advertising and subsequent expectancies and behaviours for children and adolescents. The design, rigour and results of alcohol media literacy programmes vary considerably, resulting in a number of unanswered questions about effectiveness. To provide insight into some of these questions, a systematic literature review of alcohol media literacy studies was conducted. The review was guided by the following research question: What considerations are needed to develop an effective school-based alcohol media literacy programme? On the basis of a critical synthesis of 10 interventions (published in the period 1997 to May 2014), our findings provide a comprehensive understanding of the descriptive, methodological and outcome characteristics of this small body of significant research. The review provides considerations for future alcohol media literacy programmes, including the need for an interactive pedagogical approach within the naturalistic school setting, implementation fidelity and a holistic approach to programme evaluation, a means for maintaining relevance, consideration of gender differences, relevance for an international audience and use of follow-up and longitudinal data. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Effects of Aging and Tai Chi on a Finger-Pointing Task with a Choice Paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William W. N. Tsang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. This cross-sectional study examined the effect of aging on performing finger-pointing tasks involving choices and whether experienced older Tai Chi practitioners perform better than healthy older controls in such tasks. Methods. Thirty students and 30 healthy older controls were compared with 31 Tai Chi practitioners. All the subjects performed a rapid index finger-pointing task. The visual signal appeared randomly under 3 conditions: (1 to touch a black ball as quickly and as accurately as possible, (2 not to touch a white ball, (3 to touch only the white ball when a black and a white ball appeared simultaneously. Reaction time (RT of anterior deltoid electromyogram, movement time (MT from electromyogram onset to touching of the target, end-point accuracy from the center of the target, and the number of wrong movements were recorded. Results. Young students displayed significantly faster RT and MT, achieving significantly greater end-point accuracy and fewer wrong movements than older controls. Older Tai Chi practitioners had significantly faster MT than older controls. Conclusion. Finger-pointing tasks with a choice paradigm became slower and less accurate with age. Positive findings suggest that Tai Chi may slow down the aging effect on eye-hand coordination tasks involving choices that require more cognitive progressing.

  1. Effective theories for Dark Matter interactions and the neutrino portal paradigm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macías, Vannia González; Wudka, José [Department of Physics & Astronomy, University of California Riverside,University Av., Riverside, California 92521-0413 (United States)

    2015-07-29

    In this article we discuss a general effective-theory description of a multi-component dark sector with an unspecified non-trivial symmetry and its interactions with the Standard Model generated by the exchange of heavy mediators. We then categorize the relevant effective operators given the current experimental sensistivity where the underlying theory is weakly coupled and renormalizable, with neutral mediators: either scalars or fermions. An interesting scenario resulting from this categorization is the neutrino portal, where only fermion mediators are present, and where the dark sector consists of fermions and scalars such that the lightest dark particle is a fermion, this scenario is characterized by having naturally suppressed couplings of the DM to all SM particles except the neutrinos and has received little attention in the literature. We find that there is a wide region in parameter space allowed by the current experimental constraints (relic abundance, direct and indirect detection limits); the cleanest signature of this paradigm is the presence of monochromatic neutrino lines with energy equal to that of the DM mass, but experimental sensitivity would have to be improved significantly before this can be probed.

  2. Defining success with HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis: A prevention-effective adherence paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haberer, Jessica E.; Bangsberg, David R.; Baeten, Jared M.; Curran, Kathryn; Koechlin, Florence; Amico, K. Rivet; Anderson, Peter; Mugo, Nelly; Venter, Francois; Goicochea, Pedro; Caceres, Carlos; O’Reilly, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    Clinical trial data have shown that oral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is efficacious when taken as prescribed; however, PrEP adherence is complex and must be understood within the context of variable risk for HIV infection and use of other HIV prevention methods. Different levels of adherence may be needed in different populations to achieve HIV prevention, and the optimal methods for achieving the necessary adherence for both individual and public health benefits are unknown. Guidance for PrEP use must consider these questions to determine the success of PrEP-based HIV prevention programs. In this article, we propose a new paradigm for understanding and measuring PrEP adherence, termed prevention-effective adherence, which incorporates dynamic HIV acquisition risk behaviors and the use of HIV alternative prevention strategies. We discuss the need for daily PrEP use only during periods of risk for HIV exposure, describe key issues for measuring and understanding relevant behaviors, review lessons from another health prevention field (i.e., family planning), and provide guidance for prevention-effective PrEP use. Moreover, we challenge emerging calls for sustained, near perfect PrEP adherence regardless of risk exposure and offer a more practical and public health-focused vision for this prevention intervention. PMID:26103095

  3. Self-delivered misinformation - Merging the choice blindness and misinformation effect paradigms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stille, Lotta; Norin, Emelie; Sikström, Sverker

    2017-01-01

    Choice blindness is the failure to detect a discrepancy between a choice and its outcome. The misinformation effect occurs when the recollection of an event changes because new, misleading information about the event is received. The purpose of this study was to merge the choice blindness and misinformation effect paradigms, and thus examine whether choice blindness can be created for individuals' recollections of a witnessed event, and whether this will affect their later recollections of the event. Thus, as a way of delivering misinformation the participants ostensibly became their own source of the misleading information. The participants watched a short film and filled out a questionnaire about events shown in the film. Some of their answers were then manipulated using reattachable stickers, which allowed alteration of their original answers. The participants gave justifications for their manipulated choices, and later their recollection of the original event was tested through another questionnaire. Choice blindness was created for a majority of the participants. A majority of the choice blind participants later changed their reported recollection of the event in line with the manipulations, whereas only a small minority of the participants in the control condition changed their recollection. This study provides new information about the misinformation effect, suggesting that this effect also can occur when misinformation is given immediately following presentation of the original stimuli, and about choice blindness and its effects on the recollections of events. The results suggest that memory blindness can be created when people inadvertently supply themselves with misleading information about an event, causing a change in their recollection.

  4. Stress effects on mood, HPA axis, and autonomic response: comparison of three psychosocial stress paradigms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grace E Giles

    Full Text Available Extensive experimental psychology research has attempted to parse the complex relationship between psychosocial stress, mood, cognitive performance, and physiological changes. To do so, it is necessary to have effective, validated methods to experimentally induce psychosocial stress. The Trier Social Stress Test (TSST is the most commonly used method of experimentally inducing psychosocial stress, but it is resource intensive. Less resource intense psychosocial stress tasks include the Socially Evaluative Cold Pressor Task (SECPT and a computerized mental arithmetic task (MAT. These tasks effectively produce a physiological and psychological stress response and have the benefits of requiring fewer experimenters and affording data collection from multiple participants simultaneously. The objective of this study was to compare the magnitude and duration of these three experimental psychosocial stress induction paradigms. On each of four separate days, participants completed either a control non-stressful task or one of the three experimental stressors: the TSST, SECPT, or MAT. We measured mood, working memory performance, salivary cortisol and alpha-amylase (AA, and heart rate. The TSST and SECPT exerted the most robust effects on mood and physiological measures. TSST effects were generally evident immediately post-stress as well as 10- and 20-minutes after stress cessation, whereas SECPT effects were generally limited to the duration of the stressor. The stress duration is a key determinant when planning a study that utilizes an experimental stressor, as researchers may be interested in collecting dependent measures prior to stress cessation. In this way, the TSST would allow the investigator a longer window to administer tasks of interest.

  5. Self-delivered misinformation - Merging the choice blindness and misinformation effect paradigms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lotta Stille

    Full Text Available Choice blindness is the failure to detect a discrepancy between a choice and its outcome. The misinformation effect occurs when the recollection of an event changes because new, misleading information about the event is received. The purpose of this study was to merge the choice blindness and misinformation effect paradigms, and thus examine whether choice blindness can be created for individuals' recollections of a witnessed event, and whether this will affect their later recollections of the event. Thus, as a way of delivering misinformation the participants ostensibly became their own source of the misleading information. The participants watched a short film and filled out a questionnaire about events shown in the film. Some of their answers were then manipulated using reattachable stickers, which allowed alteration of their original answers. The participants gave justifications for their manipulated choices, and later their recollection of the original event was tested through another questionnaire. Choice blindness was created for a majority of the participants. A majority of the choice blind participants later changed their reported recollection of the event in line with the manipulations, whereas only a small minority of the participants in the control condition changed their recollection. This study provides new information about the misinformation effect, suggesting that this effect also can occur when misinformation is given immediately following presentation of the original stimuli, and about choice blindness and its effects on the recollections of events. The results suggest that memory blindness can be created when people inadvertently supply themselves with misleading information about an event, causing a change in their recollection.

  6. Utilizing media arts principles for developing effective interactive neurorehabilitation systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rikakis, Thanassis

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses how interactive neurorehabilitation systems can increase their effectiveness through systematic integration of media arts principles and practice. Media arts expertise can foster the development of complex yet intuitive extrinsic feedback displays that match the inherent complexity and intuitive nature of motor learning. Abstract, arts-based feedback displays can be powerful metaphors that provide re-contextualization, engagement and appropriate reward mechanisms for mature adults. Such virtual feedback displays must be seamlessly integrated with physical components to produce mixed reality training environments that promote active, generalizable learning. The proposed approaches are illustrated through examples from mixed reality rehabilitation systems developed by our team.

  7. “GENIT” AS EFFECTIVE DESIGN OF LEARNING MEDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supriadi Mardiki

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available There are two main approaches to using media in schools: students can learn "from" Media and technology, and they can learn "with" media and technology. The basis for The use of media and technology as a "tutor" in schools is "educational communication," that is the deliberate act of communicating content (teaching content for students by assuming that they will learn something "from" this communication, so communication is not again free but controlled and conditioned for educational purposes. Findings on the impact of technologybased instruction in education can be concluded that technology as a tutor has a positive effect on learning, one of them is the student can complete a set of educational goals in less time than necessary in a traditional approach. However, these two approaches only make the task become easier but do not activate and facilitate them to think critical and higher learning. “Media Genit” uses a new approach as an approach that can optimize perspective-based cognitive processes, constructivism, which constitutes an environment in which the student as a designer thinks creative about content combined with real-world tasks, student learning content, enjoy the learning process, and recognize that they have created something that is valuable.

  8. Effective ellipsoidal models for wavefield extrapolation in tilted orthorhombic media

    KAUST Repository

    Waheed, Umair Bin

    2016-04-22

    Wavefield computations using the ellipsoidally anisotropic extrapolation operator offer significant cost reduction compared to that for the orthorhombic case, especially when the symmetry planes are tilted and/or rotated. However, ellipsoidal anisotropy does not provide accurate wavefield representation or imaging for media of orthorhombic symmetry. Therefore, we propose the use of ‘effective ellipsoidally anisotropic’ models that correctly capture the kinematic behaviour of wavefields for tilted orthorhombic (TOR) media. We compute effective velocities for the ellipsoidally anisotropic medium using kinematic high-frequency representation of the TOR wavefield, obtained by solving the TOR eikonal equation. The effective model allows us to use the cheaper ellipsoidally anisotropic wave extrapolation operators. Although the effective models are obtained by kinematic matching using high-frequency asymptotic, the resulting wavefield contains most of the critical wavefield components, including frequency dependency and caustics, if present, with reasonable accuracy. The proposed methodology offers a much better cost versus accuracy trade-off for wavefield computations in TOR media, particularly for media of low to moderate anisotropic strength. Furthermore, the computed wavefield solution is free from shear-wave artefacts as opposed to the conventional finite-difference based TOR wave extrapolation scheme. We demonstrate applicability and usefulness of our formulation through numerical tests on synthetic TOR models. © 2016 Institute of Geophysics of the ASCR, v.v.i

  9. Effectiveness of Social Media for Communicating Health Messages in Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bannor, Richard; Asare, Anthony Kwame; Bawole, Justice Nyigmah

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to develop an in-depth understanding of the effectiveness, evolution and dynamism of the current health communication media used in Ghana. Design/methodology/approach: This paper uses a multi-method approach which utilizes a combination of qualitative and quantitative approaches. In-depth interviews are…

  10. Power corrupts co-operation: cognitive and motivational effects in a double EEG paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanso, Riam; Hewstone, Miles; Hawkins, Erin; Waszczuk, Monika; Nobre, Anna Christina

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of interpersonal power on co-operative performance. We used a paired electro-encephalogram paradigm: pairs of participants performed an attention task, followed by feedback indicating monetary loss or gain on every trial. Participants were randomly allocated to the power-holder, subordinate or neutral group by creating different levels of control over how a joint monetary reward would be allocated. We found that power was associated with reduced behavioural accuracy. Event-related potential analysis showed that power-holders devoted less motivational resources to their targets than did subordinates or neutrals, but did not differ at the level of early conflict detection. Their feedback potential results showed a greater expectation of rewards but reduced subjective magnitude attributed to losses. Subordinates, on the other hand, were asymmetrically sensitive to power-holders’ targets. They expected fewer rewards, but attributed greater significance to losses. Our study shows that power corrupts balanced co-operation with subordinates. PMID:23160813

  11. The effect of social categorization on trust decisions in a trust game paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cañadas, Elena; Rodríguez-Bailón, Rosa; Lupiáñez, Juan

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates whether participants use categorical or individual knowledge about others in order to make cooperative decisions in an adaptation of the trust game paradigm. Concretely, participants had to choose whether to cooperate or not with black and white unknown partners as a function of expected partners' reciprocity rates. Reciprocity rates were manipulated by associating three out of four members of an ethnic group (blacks or whites consistent members) with high (or low) reciprocity rates, while the remaining member of the ethnic group is associated with the reciprocity of the other ethnic group (inconsistent member). Results show opposite performance's patterns for white and black partners. Participants seemed to categorize white partners, by making the same cooperation decision with all the partners, that is, they cooperated equally with consistent and inconsistent white partners. However, this effect was not found for black partners, suggesting a tendency to individuate them. Results are discussed in light of the implications of these categorization-individuation processes for intergroup relations and cooperative economic behavior.

  12. The effect of Social Categorization on Trust Decisions in a Trust Game Paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena eCanadas

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates whether participants use categorical or individual knowledge about others in order to make cooperative decisions in an adaptation of the trust game paradigm. Concretely, participants had to choose whether to cooperate or not with black and white unknown partners as a function of expected partners’ reciprocity rates. Reciprocity rates were manipulated by associating 3 out of 4 members of an ethnic group (blacks or whites consistent members with high (or low reciprocity rates, while the remaining member of the ethnic group is associated with the reciprocity of the other ethnic group (inconsistent member. Results show opposite performance’s patterns for white and black partners. Participants seemed to categorize white partners, by making the same cooperation decision with all the partners, that is, they cooperated equally with consistent and inconsistent white partners. However, this effect was not found for black partners, suggesting a tendency to individuate them. Results are discussed in light of the implications of these categorization-individuation processes for intergroup relations and cooperative economic behavior.

  13. Cardiovascular effects of Helichrysum ceres S Moore [Asteraceae] ethanolic leaf extract in some experimental animal paradigms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musabayane, Cephas T; Kamadyaapa, Dave R; Gondwe, Mavuto; Moodley, Kogi; Ojewole, John A O

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine some in vivo and in vitro cardiovascular effects of Helichrysum ceres leaf ethanolic extract (HCE) in experimental animal paradigms. The acute effects of HCE on blood pressure were studied in anaesthetised normotensive male Wistar rats challenged with intravenous hypotonic saline infusion after a 3.5-hour equilibration for four hours of one-hour control, 1.5-hour treatment and 1.5-hour recovery periods. HCE was added to the infusate during the treatment period. Sub-chronic hypotensive effects of HCE were examined in weanling Dahl saltsensitive (DSS) genetically hypertensive rats, which progressively develop hypertension with age, treated with HCE (80 mg/kg) every third consecutive day for seven weeks. Isolated atrial muscle strips, portal veins and descending thoracic aortic rings of healthy normotensive Wistar rats were used to investigate the vascular effects of HCE. Acute HCE administration caused a significant (p < 0.05) fall in blood pressure in the normotensive anaesthetised Wistar rats. DSS hypertensive rats treated with HCE displayed low arterial blood pressure and heart rate values from weeks five to seven. HCE produced concentrationdependent negative inotropic and chronotropic effects on rat isolated electrically driven left, and spontaneously beating right atrial muscle preparations, respectively. HCE also evoked concentration-dependent relaxation responses of endothelium-intact aortic rings and portal veins isolated from healthy normotensive Wistar rats. The vasorelaxant effects of HCE in intact aortic rings were significantly reduced, but not completely abolished by adding endothelial- derived factor (EDRF) inhibitor, L-NAME, suggesting that the vasorelaxant effect of the extract is mediated via EDRF-dependent and independent mechanisms. The results of the study suggest that the hypotensive action of HCE is elicited, in part, directly by decreasing myocardial contractile performance and total peripheral vascular

  14. effects of various effects of various quenching media on quenching

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    ABSTRACT. Evaluation of palm kernel oil, cotton seed oil and olive oil as quenching media of 0.509Wt%C medium carbon steel ... Quenching is an essential element in developing the .... machine, heat treatment furnace, Avery Denison Izod.

  15. Dual Coding Theory and Computer Education: Some Media Experiments To Examine the Effects of Different Media on Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alty, James L.

    Dual Coding Theory has quite specific predictions about how information in different media is stored, manipulated and recalled. Different combinations of media are expected to have significant effects upon the recall and retention of information. This obviously may have important consequences in the design of computer-based programs. The paper…

  16. Surface feature congruency effects in the object-reviewing paradigm are dependent on task memory demands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimchi, Ruth; Pirkner, Yossef

    2014-08-01

    Perception of object continuity depends on establishing correspondence between objects viewed across disruptions in visual information. The role of spatiotemporal information in guiding object continuity is well documented; the role of surface features, however, is controversial. Some researchers have shown an object-specific preview benefit (OSPB)-a standard index of object continuity-only when correspondence could be based on an object's spatiotemporal information, whereas others have found color-based OSPB, suggesting that surface features can also guide object continuity. This study shows that surface feature-based OSPB is dependent on the task memory demands. When the task involved letters and matching just one target letter to the preview ones, no color congruency effect was found under spatiotemporal discontinuity and spatiotemporal ambiguity (Experiments 1-3), indicating that the absence of feature-based OSPB cannot be accounted for by salient spatiotemporal discontinuity. When the task involved complex shapes and matching two target shapes to the preview ones, color-based OSPB was obtained. Critically, however, when a visual working memory task was performed concurrently with the matching task, the presence of a nonspatial (but not a spatial) working memory load eliminated the color-based OSPB (Experiments 4 and 5). These results suggest that the surface feature congruency effects that are observed in the object-reviewing paradigm (with the matching task) reflect memory-based strategies that participants use to solve a memory-demanding task; therefore, they are not reliable measures of online object continuity and cannot be taken as evidence for the role of surface features in establishing object correspondence.

  17. Effective Usage of Social Media for Dark Skies Awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennig, A. J.; Heenatigala, T.; Walker, C. E.

    2012-12-01

    Social media has become a daily tool in our culture. Networks such as Facebook with 900 million active users and Twitter with 140 million active users make an ideal platform to create awareness. It helps to generate and share new content and enables multi-communication channels. This presentation will address how effectively social media can be used as an education tool to create awareness of light pollution. As a "green" focus becomes more important in our world the topic of light pollution is also rising as an important issue. Light Pollution affects many aspects of our world ranging from flora and fauna to the economic well-being of many industrialized countries. Mixed among the many important pollutants in our world light pollution can fall by the way-side, forgotten, but it is imperative to bring out awareness of this problem, especially since studies are beginning to show how by fighting light pollution we will also be fighting other pollution such as air pollutants. GLOBE at Night has combined social media tools such as Facebook and Twitter with its educational awareness campaign on light pollution to reach out to social media community. Currently our Facebook reaches citizens of twenty separate countries ranging from the Czech Republic and Peru to the United States and the United Kingdom. On Facebook our reach is estimated at over 800,000 friends of our fans. These networks help us to directly answer users' immediate questions and encourage participation in the GLOBE at Night campaigns. Important news on light pollution appearing in cyberspace is monitored regularly using Google Alerts and Twitter hash tags filters which gets posted regularly on our networks. Social media networking has become a tool for users not only for information about GLOBE at Night but also for information about the overall topic of light pollution itself. Many individuals and organizations struggle with the mass content shared in social networks. It is important to know where to

  18. Effectiveness of a Non-Classroom News Media Literacy Intervention among Different Undergraduate Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vraga, Emily K.; Tully, Melissa

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we test the effectiveness of a short news media literacy message with audiences who differ in their media literacy education. We manipulate whether individuals are exposed to a news media literacy public service announcement (PSA) immediately before viewing a political program among two groups: students enrolled in media education…

  19. A Naturalistic Investigation of Media Multitasking While Studying and the Effects on Exam Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Michael C.

    2017-01-01

    The present study investigated the use of multiple digital media technologies, including social networking platforms, by students while preparing for an examination (media multitasking) and the subsequent effects on exam performance. The level of media multitasking (number of simultaneous media technologies) and duration of study were used as…

  20. Waveguide effect under 'antiguiding' conditions in graded anisotropic media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlov, A V; Mozhaev, V G; Zyryanova, A V

    2010-02-24

    A new wave confinement effect is predicted in graded crystals with a concave slowness surface under conditions of growth of the phase velocity with decreasing distance from the waveguide axis. This finding overturns the common notion about the guiding and 'antiguiding' profiles of wave velocity in inhomogeneous media. The waveguide effect found is elucidated by means of ray analysis and particular exact wave solutions. The exact solution obtained for localized flexural waves in thin plates of graded cubic and tetragonal crystals confirms the predicted effect. Since this solution is substantially different with respect to the existence conditions from all others yet reported, and it cannot be deduced from the previously known results, the predicted waves can be classified as a new type of waveguide mode in graded anisotropic media. Although the concrete calculations are given in the article for acoustic waves, its general predictions are expected to be valid for waves of various natures, including spin, plasma, and optical waves.

  1. Waveguide effect under 'antiguiding' conditions in graded anisotropic media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozlov, A V; Mozhaev, V G; Zyryanova, A V

    2010-01-01

    A new wave confinement effect is predicted in graded crystals with a concave slowness surface under conditions of growth of the phase velocity with decreasing distance from the waveguide axis. This finding overturns the common notion about the guiding and 'antiguiding' profiles of wave velocity in inhomogeneous media. The waveguide effect found is elucidated by means of ray analysis and particular exact wave solutions. The exact solution obtained for localized flexural waves in thin plates of graded cubic and tetragonal crystals confirms the predicted effect. Since this solution is substantially different with respect to the existence conditions from all others yet reported, and it cannot be deduced from the previously known results, the predicted waves can be classified as a new type of waveguide mode in graded anisotropic media. Although the concrete calculations are given in the article for acoustic waves, its general predictions are expected to be valid for waves of various natures, including spin, plasma, and optical waves.

  2. Incidence of immediate adverse effects of gadolinium contrast media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ujita, Kouishi; Matsui, Satomi; Oikawa, Satoko; Habano, Youji; Ozaki, Daisuke; Ootake, Hidenori; Amanuma, Makoto; Endo, Keigo

    2010-01-01

    We investigated the adverse effects of intravenous injection of one of 4 types of gadolinium contrast media in 6550 patients: gadopentate dimeglumine (Gd-DTPA), 4299 patients; gadodiamide (Gd-DTPA-BMA), 1612; gadoteridol (Gd (HP-DO3A)), 565; and gadoterate meglumin (Gd-DOTA), 74. Thirty-two (0.49%) patients experienced adverse effects, which included rash (18.8%), nausea (40.6%), vomiting (34.4%), and an unpleasant sensation in the throat (6.3%). No patient required hospitalization. We compared the incidence of adverse effects from the 4 types of contrast media and found no difference in sex, age, body region examined, or method of contrast administration. Incidence was significantly higher for Gd (HP-DO3A) than Gd-DTPA and Gd-DTPA-BMA (P<0.000001). (author)

  3. The effect of cognitive load on social categorization in the category confusion paradigm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spears, R; Haslam, SA; Jansen, R

    1999-01-01

    The category confusion paradigm (Taylor, Fiske, Etcoff & Ruderman, 1978) was used to examine the relationship between cognitive load and the extent of social categorization. The original prediction made by Taylor et al. (1978; Experiment 2) and inferences from the cognitive miser model suggest that

  4. The Effects of Frequency of Media Utilization on Decision Making of Media Choice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotoh, Yasushi

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to use the Analytic Hierarchy Process in order to identify how frequency of media use in daily life affects decision-making in media choice. 276 university students took part in this research, They were asked to prioritize their ways of obtaining information about current affairs using sets of media such as TV, books,…

  5. Effective constants for wave propagation through partially saturated porous media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berryman, J.G.; Thigpen, L.

    1985-01-01

    The multipole scattering coefficients for elastic wave scattering from a spherical inhomogeneity in a fluid-saturated porous medium have been calculated. These coefficients may be used to obtain estimates of the effective macroscopic constants for long-wavelength propagation of elastic waves through partially saturated media. If the volume average of the single scattering from spherical bubbles of gas and liquid is required to vanish, the resulting equations determine the effective bulk modulus, density, and viscosity of the multiphase fluid filling the pores. The formula for the effective viscosity during compressional wave excitation is apparently new

  6. Subjective Evaluation of Media Content as a Moderator of Media Effects on European Identity: Mere Exposure and the Hostile Media Phenomenon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waqas Ejaz

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper posits that the concept of European identity is an important indicator of the legitimacy of the European Union (EU. It further assumes that the exposure to EU related media content can influence the feeling of European identity. In order to verify this assumption, we combined the mere-exposure-theory and the hostile media phenomenon. We assume that these theoretical concepts could help to understand the influence of media on people’s levels of attachment to the EU. Regression analyses are performed on secondary data that were collected in a Eurobarometer survey in 2013. Our findings revealed that media exposure affected the respondents’ identification with Europe, as well as the modifications of this effect based on their assessments of EU media coverage. The results of the current study not only validate assumptions about the mere-exposure effects on identity but also confirm the theoretical assumption that perceived hostility reduces such effects, whereas exposure to information that is perceived as neutral promotes the effects of media exposure on the feeling of European identity.

  7. Distance Learning and University Effectiveness: Changing Educational Paradigms for Online Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mestan KUCUK

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available This book is published by Idea Group Publishing. The book has threesections which consist of sixteen chapters. In addition of those it has an author bibliography and an index. 28 authors, including editors, have contributed to the book.This book consists of three sections. First section focuses on strategies and paradigms. Second section is about course development instruction and quality issues.

  8. Inertial Effects on Flow and Transport in Heterogeneous Porous Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nissan, Alon; Berkowitz, Brian

    2018-02-02

    We investigate the effects of high fluid velocities on flow and tracer transport in heterogeneous porous media. We simulate fluid flow and advective transport through two-dimensional pore-scale matrices with varying structural complexity. As the Reynolds number increases, the flow regime transitions from linear to nonlinear; this behavior is controlled by the medium structure, where higher complexity amplifies inertial effects. The result is, nonintuitively, increased homogenization of the flow field, which leads in the context of conservative chemical transport to less anomalous behavior. We quantify the transport patterns via a continuous time random walk, using the spatial distribution of the kinetic energy within the fluid as a characteristic measure.

  9. Media advertising effects on consumer perception of orthodontic treatment quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Daenya T; Shroff, Bhavna; Lindauer, Steven J; Fowler, Chad E; Tufekci, Eser

    2008-09-01

    To determine the effect of media advertising on consumer perception of orthodontic treatment quality. A survey instrument was designed to evaluate factors influencing consumer selection of an orthodontist and consumer perception of different forms of media advertising (radio, television, newspaper, magazine, direct mail, and billboard) by orthodontic practices. The surveys were distributed by eight orthodontic offices in and around the Richmond, Virginia area. The survey return rate was 97%. Respondents most often cited dentist and patient referrals as how they learned of the orthodontic practices they visited (50% to 57%). A caring attitude and good practitioner reputation were the top reasons influencing actual selection of an orthodontist (53% and 49%, respectively). Of respondents, 14% to 24% felt that advertising orthodontists would offer a lower quality of care than nonadvertising orthodontists. Newspaper, magazine, and direct mail advertisements were viewed more favorably than radio, television, and billboard advertisements. Chi-square analyses revealed few statistically significant differences in perception between different income and education groups. The majority of patients do not perceive advertising to reflect poorly on the quality of orthodontic care. However, patients with different income and education levels perceive media advertising differently.

  10. THE BENEFICIAL EFFECT OF BILINGUALISM IN VISUAL MEDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aliva Rosdiana

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Bilingualism is a phenomenon that affects people throughout the world. People use bilingualism in particular situations in society such as in education, job, mass media, etc. People who speak bilingualism means that they get second language learning. Radio, televison, and YouTube are important vehicles of mass communication. Mass communication differs from the studies of other forms of communication, such as interpersonal communication, in that it focuses on a single source transmitting information to a large group of receivers. The study of bilingualism in visual media is chiefly concerned with how the content of visual media persuades or otherwise affects either behavior, attitude, opinion, or emotion of the person or people receiving the information. The beneficial effect is the development of bilingualism. Watching video affects children‘s acquisition of their native language and hasten language shift to the majority language. By watching the video, it also enrich our knowledge to particular vocabularies based on particular topics. The Internet makes it possible to have conversations across countries and continents. Individuals have multiple identities and belong to other speakers of their heritage language. So, the linguistic competence will develop as a by-product of the interest. In addition, it brings people closer.

  11. Effect of scatter media on small gamma camera imaging characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ser, H. K.; Choi, Y.; Yim, K. C.

    2001-01-01

    Effect of scatter media materials and thickness, located between radioactivity and small gamma camera, on imaging characteristics was evaluated. The small gamma camera developed for breast imaging was consisted of collimator, NaI(TI) crystal (60x60x6 mm 3 ). PSPMT (position sensitive photomultiplier tube), NIMs and personal computer. Monte Carlo simulation was performed to evaluate the system sensitivity with different scatter media thickness (0∼8 cm) and materials (air and acrylie) with parallel hole collimator and diverging collimator. The sensitivity and spatial resolution was measured using the small gamma camera with the same condition applied to the simulation. Counts was decreased by 10% (air) and 54% (acrylic) with the parallel hole collimator and by 35% (air) and 63% (acrylic) with the diverging collimator. Spatial resolution was decreased as increasing the thickness of scatter media. This study substantiate the importance of a gamma camera positioning and the minimization of the distance between detector and target lesion in the clinical application of a gamma camera

  12. The Effects of Social Media Use on Collaborative Learning: A Case of Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozanta, Aysun; Mardikyan, Sona

    2017-01-01

    The social media usage has penetrated to the many areas in daily lives of today's students. Therefore, social media can be effective tool to support their educational communications and collaborations with their friends and also faculty members. This study aims to determine the effects of social media on collaborative learning. For this purpose, a…

  13. Media Managing Mood: A Look at the Possible Effects of Violent Media on Affect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merritt, Alexandra; LaQuea, Rachel; Cromwell, Rachel; Ferguson, Christopher J.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The potential impact of violent media on children's emotional well-being has been a source of controversy for several decades. To date evidence for a negative impact of violent media on emotional well-being has been mixed and increasingly connected to a "replication crisis" throughout psychological science. Objective: The…

  14. Effect of Foam on Liquid Phase Mobility in Porous Media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eftekhari, Ali Akbar; Farajzadeh, R.

    2017-01-01

    We investigate the validity of the assumption that foam in porous media reduces the mobility of gas phase only and does not impact the liquid-phase mobility. The foam is generated by simultaneous injection of nitrogen gas and a surfactant solution into sandstone cores and its strength is varied...... by changing surfactant type and concentration. We find, indeed, that the effect of foam on liquid-phase mobility is not pronounced and can be ignored. Our new experimental results and analyses resolve apparent discrepancies in the literature. Previously, some researchers erroneously applied relative...

  15. Negativity Bias in Media Multitasking: The Effects of Negative Social Media Messages on Attention to Television News Broadcasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kätsyri, Jari; Kinnunen, Teemu; Kusumoto, Kenta; Oittinen, Pirkko; Ravaja, Niklas

    2016-01-01

    Television viewers' attention is increasingly more often divided between television and "second screens", for example when viewing television broadcasts and following their related social media discussion on a tablet computer. The attentional costs of such multitasking may vary depending on the ebb and flow of the social media channel, such as its emotional contents. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that negative social media messages would draw more attention than similar positive messages. Specifically, news broadcasts were presented in isolation and with simultaneous positive or negative Twitter messages on a tablet to 38 participants in a controlled experiment. Recognition memory, gaze tracking, cardiac responses, and self-reports were used as attentional indices. The presence of any tweets on the tablet decreased attention to the news broadcasts. As expected, negative tweets drew longer viewing times and elicited more attention to themselves than positive tweets. Negative tweets did not, however, decrease attention to the news broadcasts. Taken together, the present results demonstrate a negativity bias exists for social media messages in media multitasking; however, this effect does not amplify the overall detrimental effects of media multitasking.

  16. Negativity Bias in Media Multitasking: The Effects of Negative Social Media Messages on Attention to Television News Broadcasts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jari Kätsyri

    Full Text Available Television viewers' attention is increasingly more often divided between television and "second screens", for example when viewing television broadcasts and following their related social media discussion on a tablet computer. The attentional costs of such multitasking may vary depending on the ebb and flow of the social media channel, such as its emotional contents. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that negative social media messages would draw more attention than similar positive messages. Specifically, news broadcasts were presented in isolation and with simultaneous positive or negative Twitter messages on a tablet to 38 participants in a controlled experiment. Recognition memory, gaze tracking, cardiac responses, and self-reports were used as attentional indices. The presence of any tweets on the tablet decreased attention to the news broadcasts. As expected, negative tweets drew longer viewing times and elicited more attention to themselves than positive tweets. Negative tweets did not, however, decrease attention to the news broadcasts. Taken together, the present results demonstrate a negativity bias exists for social media messages in media multitasking; however, this effect does not amplify the overall detrimental effects of media multitasking.

  17. Importance of stimulation paradigm in determining facilitation and effects of neuromodulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crider, M E; Cooper, R L

    1999-09-25

    Evoked synaptic activity within the CNS and at the neuromuscular junction in most in vivo preparations studied occurs not with single isolated stimuli, but with trains, or bursts, of stimuli. Although for ease in studying the mechanisms of vesicular synaptic transmission one often uses single discrete stimuli, the true mechanisms in the animal may be far more complex. When repetitive stimuli are present at a nerve terminal, often a heightened (i.e., facilitated) postsynaptic potential can be as a result. Facilitation is commonly used as an index of synaptic function and plasticity induced by chronic stimulation or by neuromodulation. The mechanisms that give rise to facilitation are thought to be the same that may underlie short-term learning and memory [C.H. Bailey, E.R. Kandel, Structural changes accompanying memory storage. Annu. Rev. Physiol. 55 (1993) 397-426.]. Differences in short term facilitation (STF) are seen depending on the conventional stimulation paradigm (twin pulse, train, or continuous) used to induce facilitation. Thus, a battery of paradigms should be used to characterize synaptic function to obtain a closer understanding of the possible in vivo conditions.

  18. Effective wavefield extrapolation in anisotropic media: Accounting for resolvable anisotropy

    KAUST Repository

    Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali

    2014-01-01

    Spectral methods provide artefact-free and generally dispersion-free wavefield extrapolation in anisotropic media. Their apparent weakness is in accessing the medium-inhomogeneity information in an efficient manner. This is usually handled through a velocity-weighted summation (interpolation) of representative constant-velocity extrapolated wavefields, with the number of these extrapolations controlled by the effective rank of the original mixed-domain operator or, more specifically, by the complexity of the velocity model. Conversely, with pseudo-spectral methods, because only the space derivatives are handled in the wavenumber domain, we obtain relatively efficient access to the inhomogeneity in isotropic media, but we often resort to weak approximations to handle the anisotropy efficiently. Utilizing perturbation theory, I isolate the contribution of anisotropy to the wavefield extrapolation process. This allows us to factorize as much of the inhomogeneity in the anisotropic parameters as possible out of the spectral implementation, yielding effectively a pseudo-spectral formulation. This is particularly true if the inhomogeneity of the dimensionless anisotropic parameters are mild compared with the velocity (i.e., factorized anisotropic media). I improve on the accuracy by using the Shanks transformation to incorporate a denominator in the expansion that predicts the higher-order omitted terms; thus, we deal with fewer terms for a high level of accuracy. In fact, when we use this new separation-based implementation, the anisotropy correction to the extrapolation can be applied separately as a residual operation, which provides a tool for anisotropic parameter sensitivity analysis. The accuracy of the approximation is high, as demonstrated in a complex tilted transversely isotropic model. © 2014 European Association of Geoscientists & Engineers.

  19. Effective wavefield extrapolation in anisotropic media: Accounting for resolvable anisotropy

    KAUST Repository

    Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali

    2014-04-30

    Spectral methods provide artefact-free and generally dispersion-free wavefield extrapolation in anisotropic media. Their apparent weakness is in accessing the medium-inhomogeneity information in an efficient manner. This is usually handled through a velocity-weighted summation (interpolation) of representative constant-velocity extrapolated wavefields, with the number of these extrapolations controlled by the effective rank of the original mixed-domain operator or, more specifically, by the complexity of the velocity model. Conversely, with pseudo-spectral methods, because only the space derivatives are handled in the wavenumber domain, we obtain relatively efficient access to the inhomogeneity in isotropic media, but we often resort to weak approximations to handle the anisotropy efficiently. Utilizing perturbation theory, I isolate the contribution of anisotropy to the wavefield extrapolation process. This allows us to factorize as much of the inhomogeneity in the anisotropic parameters as possible out of the spectral implementation, yielding effectively a pseudo-spectral formulation. This is particularly true if the inhomogeneity of the dimensionless anisotropic parameters are mild compared with the velocity (i.e., factorized anisotropic media). I improve on the accuracy by using the Shanks transformation to incorporate a denominator in the expansion that predicts the higher-order omitted terms; thus, we deal with fewer terms for a high level of accuracy. In fact, when we use this new separation-based implementation, the anisotropy correction to the extrapolation can be applied separately as a residual operation, which provides a tool for anisotropic parameter sensitivity analysis. The accuracy of the approximation is high, as demonstrated in a complex tilted transversely isotropic model. © 2014 European Association of Geoscientists & Engineers.

  20. Media education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strasburger, Victor C

    2010-11-01

    The American Academy of Pediatrics recognizes that exposure to mass media (eg, television, movies, video and computer games, the Internet, music lyrics and videos, newspapers, magazines, books, advertising) presents health risks for children and adolescents but can provide benefits as well. Media education has the potential to reduce the harmful effects of media and accentuate the positive effects. By understanding and supporting media education, pediatricians can play an important role in reducing harmful effects of media on children and adolescents.

  1. The Effect of Various Media Scaffolding on Increasing Understanding of Students' Geometry Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutiarso, Sugeng; Coesamin, M.; Nurhanurawati

    2018-01-01

    This study is a quasi-experimental research with pretest-posttest control group design, which aims to determine (1) the tendency of students in using various media scaffolding based on gender, and (2) effect of media scaffolding on increasing understanding of students' geometry concepts. Media scaffolding used this study is chart, props, and…

  2. Effect of different media on the in vitro growth of cactus (Opuntia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2007-06-04

    Jun 4, 2007 ... The effect of media composition on the growth of cactus explants was investigated. Two media designated A and B were used in this study. Medium A contained basal Murashige Skoog salt (MS salt) and vitamins supplemented with 5% sucrose and 1% BAP (benzyl amino purines) and media B containing ...

  3. Media multitasking and the effectiveness of combining online and radio advertising

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voorveld, H.A.M.

    2011-01-01

    Research on the effectiveness of cross-media campaigns has shown that combining online advertising with advertising in offline media can result in more positive consumer responses than using only one medium. However, when using computers, people increasingly engage in more than one media activity at

  4. Creative Media Use Increases Online Sharing of Your Ad (but Seems Less Effective for Your Brand)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eelen, J.; Seiler, R.V.J.; Verlegh, P.W.J.; Voorveld, H.A.M.; Eisend, M.

    2015-01-01

    Previous research has shown beneficial advertising effects of creative media use (i.e., creatively choosing a novel medium to implicitly communicate a message) in comparison with traditional media use. Because of the increasing importance of marketing initiatives through social media, the authors

  5. Effective media models for unsaturated fractured rock: A field experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicholl, M.J.; Glass, R.J.

    1995-01-01

    A thick unsaturated rock mass at Yucca Mountain is currently under consideration as a potential repository site for disposal of high level radioactive waste. In accordance with standard industry and scientific practices, abstract numerical models will be used to evaluate the potential for radionuclide release through the groundwater system. At this time, currently available conceptual models used to develop effective media properties are based primarily on simplistic considerations. The work presented here is part of an integrated effort to develop effective media models at the intermediate block scale (approximately 8-125m) through a combination of physical observations, numerical simulations and theoretical considerations. A multi-purpose field experiment designed and conducted as part of this integrated effort is described. Specific goals of this experimental investigation were to: (1) obtain fracture network data from Topopah Spring Tuff for use in block scale simulations; (2) identity positions of the network conducting flow under three different boundary conditions; (3) visualize preferential flow paths and small-scale flow structures; (4) collect samples for subsequent hydraulic testing and use in block-scale simulations; and (5) demonstrate the ability of Electrical Resistance Tomography (ERT) to delineate fluid distribution within fractured rock

  6. The Effectiveness of Social Media as a Marketing Communication Tactic : Case Gina Tricot Ltd

    OpenAIRE

    Kallio, Kira

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was to discover whether social media is an effective marketing communication tactic for Gina Tricot or not. The objective was to find out how customers experience Gina Tricot’s marketing and social media activities and whether social media accounts are able to serve customers as aimed. The case company Gina Tricot is presented in the introduction chapter. The theoretical study focuses on social media marketing and on the transition from traditional outbound marketing to...

  7. The effects of a novel hostile interpretation bias modification paradigm on hostile interpretations, mood, and aggressive behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlMoghrabi, Nouran; Huijding, Jorg; Franken, Ingmar H A

    2018-03-01

    Cognitive theories of aggression propose that biased information processing is causally related to aggression. To test these ideas, the current study investigated the effects of a novel cognitive bias modification paradigm (CBM-I) designed to target interpretations associated with aggressive behavior. Participants aged 18-33 years old were randomly assigned to either a single session of positive training (n = 40) aimed at increasing prosocial interpretations or negative training (n = 40) aimed at increasing hostile interpretations. The results revealed that the positive training resulted in an increase in prosocial interpretations while the negative training seemed to have no effect on interpretations. Importantly, in the positive condition, a positive change in interpretations was related to lower anger and verbal aggression scores after the training. In this condition, participants also reported an increase in happiness. In the negative training no such effects were found. However, the better participants performed on the negative training, the more their interpretations were changed in a negative direction and the more aggression they showed on the behavioral aggression task. Participants were healthy university students. Therefore, results should be confirmed within a clinical population. These findings provide support for the idea that this novel CBM-I paradigm can be used to modify interpretations, and suggests that these interpretations are related to mood and aggressive behavior. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Filter media expansion during backwash: The effect of biological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    provided by the designer or that the mechanical behaviour of the media gradually changes after being placed in the filters. A number of media tests confirmed that the biological fraction of the specific deposit on the filter media (after backwashing) is relatively high – about 50% of the total specific deposit. This led to the ...

  9. Effects of holistic nursing course: a paradigm shift for holistic health practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downey, Marty

    2007-06-01

    A study of an undergraduate course in holistic nursing was conducted to determine its impact on personal and professional health care practices. A mixed method design was used to examine responses on a sample of 200 participants. Results indicated a positive personal impact with continued application of concepts into professional health practices. Personal and professional nursing practices were influenced from 1 to 7 years after completing the holistic nursing course. After introduction of the concepts of self-care and holistic approaches to health, students and graduates experienced a shift in values and beliefs related to their own health practices. Continued exposure to holistic practices creates a pattern of awareness toward health that affects future personal and professional nursing practice, creating a paradigm shift for emerging nursing students and graduates from the course. This affects the manner in which nurses meet the needs of their clients in a variety of settings.

  10. PARADIGMS IN CONSUMER BEHAVIOR

    OpenAIRE

    Sabrina Oktoria Sihombing

    2011-01-01

    A paradigm influences what we see and conceive about certain facts. Paradigm can also influence what we accept as a truth. Yet, the debate over which paradigm and methodology is best suit for marketing and consumer behavior has begun since 1980s. Many researchers criticized the domination of logical empiricism paradigm and offered alternative paradigm to understand marketing and consumer behavior. This article discusses several paradigms and methodology, which are part of qualitative paradigm...

  11. The effect of contrast media on the synovial membrane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papacharalampous, Xenophon [Department of Radiology, University of Athens, Vasilissis Sofias 76 Ave., GR-115 28 Athens (Greece)]. E-mail: medgraph@otenet.gr; Patsouris, Efstratios [Department of Pathology, University of Athens, Mikras Asias 75 str., GR-115 27 Athens (Greece); Mundinger, Alexander [Clinic of Radiology, Marienhospital Osnabrueck, Johannisfreiheit 2-4, D-49074 Osnabruek (Germany); Beck, Andreas [Clinic of Radiology, Konstanz, Luisenstrasse 7, D-78461 Konstanz (Germany); Kouloulias, Vasilios [Department of Radiotherapy, University of Athens, Vasilissis Sofias 76 Ave., GR-115 28 Athens (Greece); Primetis, Elias [Department of Radiology, University of Athens, Vasilissis Sofias 76 Ave., GR-115 28 Athens (Greece); Koureas, Andreas [Department of Radiology, University of Athens, Vasilissis Sofias 76 Ave., GR-115 28 Athens (Greece); Vlahos, Lambros [Department of Radiology, University of Athens, Vasilissis Sofias 76 Ave., GR-115 28 Athens (Greece)

    2005-09-01

    Objective: To examine the effect of intra-articular injection of contrast media, sorbitol and normal saline on the synovial membrane. Materials and methods: Sixty three rabbits (126 knees) were used in this study. We injected the knees with amidotrizoate, ioxaglate, iopamidol, iotrol and diluted gadolinium-DTPA (2 mmol/l). Normal saline and sorbitol 27.25% were used for comparison. A histological and histochemical examination of the knees was carried out 1, 2, 10, 20, 30, 40 and 60 days after the injection. Results: On histological examination, the knees injected with normal saline, ioxaglate and gadolinium-DTPA had a normal appearance. Intra-articular injection of amidotrizoate, iopamidol, iotrol and sorbitol caused early, mild and transient histological changes of the synovium (synovial hyperplasia, infiltration by leucocytes). Furthermore, the knees injected with amidotrizoate presented with late, extensive histological changes (severe synovial hyperplasia, moderate vascular dilatation, severe infiltration by leukocytes). Conclusion: The results suggest that the chemical structure and not the osmolality of the contrast media is the main cause for the histological changes of the synovium.

  12. PARADIGMS IN CONSUMER BEHAVIOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina Oktoria Sihombing

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available A paradigm influences what we see and conceive about certain facts. Paradigm can also influence what we accept as a truth. Yet, the debate over which paradigm and methodology is best suit for marketing and consumer behavior has begun since 1980s. Many researchers criticized the domination of logical empiricism paradigm and offered alternative paradigm to understand marketing and consumer behavior. This article discusses several paradigms and methodology, which are part of qualitative paradigm, and compares them with positivism paradigm. This article will also point to the importance of reconciliation between qualitative and quantitative paradigm in order to improve marketing and consumer behavior studies.

  13. Orthographic Reading Deficits in Dyslexic Japanese Children: Examining the Transposed-Letter Effect in the Color-Word Stroop Paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Shino; Shibasaki, Masahiro; Isomura, Tomoko; Masataka, Nobuo

    2016-01-01

    In orthographic reading, the transposed-letter effect (TLE) is the perception of a transposed-letter position word such as "cholocate" as the correct word "chocolate." Although previous studies on dyslexic children using alphabetic languages have reported such orthographic reading deficits, the extent of orthographic reading impairment in dyslexic Japanese children has remained unknown. This study examined the TLE in dyslexic Japanese children using the color-word Stroop paradigm comprising congruent and incongruent Japanese hiragana words with correct and transposed-letter positions. We found that typically developed children exhibited Stroop effects in Japanese hiragana words with both correct and transposed-letter positions, thus indicating the presence of TLE. In contrast, dyslexic children indicated Stroop effects in correct letter positions in Japanese words but not in transposed, which indicated an absence of the TLE. These results suggest that dyslexic Japanese children, similar to dyslexic children using alphabetic languages, may also have a problem with orthographic reading.

  14. Are there benefits of social overinclusion? Behavioral and ERP effects in the Cyberball paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael eNiedeggen

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Social participation can be examined using the Cyberball paradigm, a virtual ball-tossing game. Reducing the involvement of the participant is supposed to activate a neural alarm system, and to threaten fundamental social needs. Our previous findings indicate that the latter process can be linked to an enhancement of the centro-parietal P3 amplitude, signalling a modulation of the subjective expectancy of involvement. A preceding more frontal ERP component, the P2, does not depend of the probability of involvement, but reflects the appraisal of social reward. In this experiment, we examined whether overinclusion of participants enhances the satisfaction of social needs, reduces the P3 amplitude correspondingly, and affects central reward processing. In the control condition, participants (n = 40 were included (two co-player, ball possession 33%, and overincluded (ball possession 46% in the experimental condition. In a counterbalanced design, we also controlled for the order of conditions. As predicted, overinclusion increased the satisfaction of social needs, with exception of ‘self esteem’, and reduced the P3 amplitude. As for the frontal P2, overinclusion only enhanced the amplitudes if the less frequent involvement (condition: inclusion was experienced previously. The behavioural and P3 data suggest that the feelings of social belonging, meaningful existence, and control are related to the subjective expectancy of social involvement, and can be described in terms of a linear continuum ranging from exclusion to overinclusion. In contrast, appraisal of social rewards does not depend on the probability of involvement.

  15. A data-driven model for influenza transmission incorporating media effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Lewis; Ross, Joshua V

    2016-10-01

    Numerous studies have attempted to model the effect of mass media on the transmission of diseases such as influenza; however, quantitative data on media engagement has until recently been difficult to obtain. With the recent explosion of 'big data' coming from online social media and the like, large volumes of data on a population's engagement with mass media during an epidemic are becoming available to researchers. In this study, we combine an online dataset comprising millions of shared messages relating to influenza with traditional surveillance data on flu activity to suggest a functional form for the relationship between the two. Using this data, we present a simple deterministic model for influenza dynamics incorporating media effects, and show that such a model helps explain the dynamics of historical influenza outbreaks. Furthermore, through model selection we show that the proposed media function fits historical data better than other media functions proposed in earlier studies.

  16. Effect of Media Culture on Growth and Sucker Pandanus Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ali salehi sardoei

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: One factor that is of great importance to the cultivation of flowers and ornamental plants, is the media. Planting plants in containers as an important component of the nursery technology has grown. Compared with farm volume, growth media used for each plant greatly reduce plant growth that largely influence by the physical and chemical properties of growth media used. Therefore, good management of potted plants bed will cause the plants have good quality. A good growth media with optimal physical and biological properties, relatively inexpensive, stable and style enough to work should be available. The Burgers showed that composted green waste can be used as substrates for soilless cultivation and improve the water-holding capacity of soil. The garden has a range of materials including hardwood and softwood bark, leaves, soil, waste, sewage sludge and coconut (cocopeat that has been used as a seed bed. According to the economic issues and increasing moisture storage, palm peat substrates are primary material that can be prepared as a good growth medium for the producing's presented level Country. Peat moss is not applicable to all plants because of high cost and poor absorption characteristics like low pH and low water holding capacity . This study was conducted to investigate the possibility of replacing peat moss palm waste and the effect of it on growth characteristics were studied. Materials and Methods: The experimental design was completely randomized design with four replications of eight treatments. The compressed unit (block was supplied and commercial cocopeat was used because of reducing the cost of transportation. Before applying this material, the amount of water was added for opening up and voluminous and become it completely uniform.. In treatments containing sand + perlite, these four types volume ratio of 1:1 and mixed with sand + perlite were used. First, wooden cuttings of pandanus in a bed of sand rooted in the

  17. Magnetoviscous effect in ferrofluids with different dispersion media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borin, D.Yu [TU Dresden, Institute of Fluid Mechanics, Dresden 01062 (Germany); Korolev, V.V. [G.A. Krestov Institute of Solution Chemistry of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Ivanovo (Russian Federation); Ramazanova, A.G., E-mail: agr@isc-ras.ru [G.A. Krestov Institute of Solution Chemistry of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Ivanovo (Russian Federation); Odenbach, S. [TU Dresden, Institute of Fluid Mechanics, Dresden 01062 (Germany); Balmasova, O.V.; Yashkova, V.I. [G.A. Krestov Institute of Solution Chemistry of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Ivanovo (Russian Federation); Korolev, D.V. [Federal Sate Unitary Enterprise all Russian Scientific Research Institute of Aviation Materials (Russian Federation)

    2016-10-15

    Ferrofluids based on magnetite nanoparticles dispersed in different carrier media (dialkyldiphenyl and polyethylsiloxane) have been synthesized using mixed surfactants (oleic acid, stearic acid and alkenyl succinic anhydride). Magnetic properties of the samples and a change of their shear viscosities in an applied magnetic field have been studied in order to evaluate an influence of the carrier medium on a magnetoviscous effect. A significance of the interaction of the carrier medium and surfactant with a consideration of the magnetic and rheological behavior of ferrofluids was demonstrated. - Highlights: • Ferrofluids based on mixed surfactants were synthesized. • Oleic, stearic acid and alkenylsuccinic anhydride were used. • The nature of the surfactant has a high impact on the ferrofluids' shear viscosity. • The core size distribution is not the only determining reason of the structuring. • Significance of the interaction of the carrier medium and surfactant is demonstrated.

  18. Dispersive effects on multicomponent transport through porous media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Sourav; Daripa, Prabir

    2017-11-01

    We use a hybrid numerical method to solve a global pressure based porous media flow model of chemical enhanced oil recovery. This is an extension of our recent work. The numerical method is based on the use of a discontinuous finite element method and the modified method of characteristics. The impact of molecular diffusion and mechanical dispersion on the evolution of scalar concentration distributions are studied through numerical simulations of various flooding schemes. The relative importance of the advective, capillary diffusive and dispersive fluxes are compared over different flow regimes defined in the parameter space of Capillary number, Peclet number, longitudinal and transverse dispersion coefficients. Such studies are relevant for the design of effective injection policies and determining optimal combinations of chemical components for improving recovery. This work has been possible due to financial support from the U.S. National Science Foundation Grant DMS-1522782.

  19. Evaporation effect on two-dimensional wicking in porous media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benner, Eric M; Petsev, Dimiter N

    2018-03-15

    We analyze the effect of evaporation on expanding capillary flow for losses normal to the plane of a two-dimensional porous medium using the potential flow theory formulation of the Lucas-Washburn method. Evaporation induces a finite steady state liquid flux on capillary flows into fan-shaped domains which is significantly greater than the flux into media of constant cross section. We introduce the evaporation-capillary number, a new dimensionless quantity, which governs the frontal motion when multiplied by the scaled time. This governing product divides the wicking behavior into simple regimes of capillary dominated flow and evaporative steady state, as well as the intermediate regime of evaporation influenced capillary driven motion. We also show flow dimensionality and evaporation reduce the propagation rate of the wet front relative to the Lucas-Washburn law. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. The Effects of Immigration and Media Influence on Body Image Among Pakistani Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saghir, Sheeba; Hyland, Lynda

    2017-07-01

    This study examined the role of media influence and immigration on body image among Pakistani men. Attitudes toward the body were compared between those living in Pakistan ( n = 56) and those who had immigrated to the United Arab Emirates ( n = 58). Results of a factorial analysis of variance demonstrated a significant main effect of immigrant status. Pakistani men living in the United Arab Emirates displayed poorer body image than those in the Pakistan sample. Results also indicated a second main effect of media influence.Those highly influenced by the media displayed poorer body image. No interaction effect was observed between immigrant status and media influence on body image. These findings suggest that media influence and immigration are among important risk factors for the development of negative body image among non-Western men. Interventions designed to address the negative effects of the media and immigration may be effective at reducing body image disorders and other related health problems in this population.

  1. Determining Effect of Digital And Media Activities On Media And Science Literacy Of Middle-School Students And Parents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilge CAN

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This research aims determining effect of digital and media activities on media and science literacy of middle-school students and parents and identifying the relationship between them. Quasi- experimental model has been used by which pretest-posttest studies have been held on one group by using quantitative data during research. The sample of the research consists of 60 students and 119 parents who attend a school in the province of Bursa in the academic year of 2013-2014. According to data analysis obtained in the research, there is a significant relation between pretests and posttests about scientific literacy of middle-school students and parents relating to Digital and Media Activities. There is a relation between media and scientific literacy of students and mothers as parents. There is a difference between the applied PISA and TIMSS exams and the students' science literacy. In the light of these results, some suggestion has been offered with regard to focusing on the importance of 21st century skills and literacy, developing scientific and media literacy level and obtaining more comprehensive results.

  2. Stigma's Effect on Social Interaction and Social Media Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudewyns, Vanessa; Himelboim, Itai; Hansen, Derek L; Southwell, Brian G

    2015-01-01

    Stigmatized topics, such as HIV/STD, likely constrain related information sharing in ways that should be apparent in social interactions both on and off the Internet. Specifically, the authors predicted that the more people perceive an issue as stigmatized, the less likely they are to talk about the issue both privately (with sexual partners and peers) and publicly (on Twitter). Study 1 tested the effect of stigma on conversations at the individual level: The authors asked a group of participants (N = 138) about perceived STD-testing stigma, interactions with a sexual partner, and conversations with peers about STD testing. Study 2 assessed whether health conditions, in the aggregate, were less likely to generate social media activity as a function of current stigmatization. Using 259,758 archived Twitter posts mentioning 13 medical conditions, the authors tested whether level of stigma predicted the volume of relevant social media conversation, controlling for each condition's amount of advocacy and Google search popularity from a user's perspective. Findings supported our hypotheses. Individuals who reported perceiving a given health conditions in more stigmatic ways also reported interacting less with others about that topic; Twitter results showed a similar pattern. Results also suggest a more complex story of influence, as funding from the National Institutes of Health (i.e., each conditions amount of advocacy) associated with the examined health conditions also predicted Twitter activity. Overall, these results indicated that stigma had a similar, dampening effect on face-to-face and Twitter interactions. Findings hold theoretical and practical implications, which are discussed.

  3. The corrective effects of warning on false memories in the DRM paradigm are limited to full attention conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Maarten J V; Jelicic, Marko; Gorski, Benny; Sijstermans, Kevin; Giesbrecht, Timo; Merckelbach, Harald

    2008-10-01

    Effects of attention control and forewarning on the activation and monitoring of experimentally induced false memories in the Deese/Roediger-McDermott paradigm were investigated in a young adult sample (N=77). We found that reducing the degree of attention during encoding led to a decrease in veridical recall and an increase in non-presented critical lure intrusions. This effect could not be counteracted by a forewarning instruction. However, these findings did not emerge in a (retrieval supportive) recognition task. It seems that divided attention increases false recall when attention control and forewarning have to compete for limited cognitive resources in a generative free recall as opposed to a retrieval supportive recognition task. Forewarning instructions do not always protect young adults against experimentally induced false memories.

  4. Traditional and new media's influence on suicidal behavior and contagion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, Patricia; Khin Khin, Eindra

    2018-03-01

    The role of nonfictional and fictional media in suicide contagion has been well established, ostensibly beginning with the publication of Goethe's The Sorrows of Young Werther in 1774. In recent decades, the emergence of several new forms of media (e.g. websites, social media, blogs, smartphone applications) has revolutionized the communication and social interaction paradigms. This article reviews "the Werther effect" (or suicide contagion related to media), special populations who are more influential or susceptible, current media reporting guidelines and their effectiveness, and the latest research on new media and its effect on suicide and suicide contagion. The aim is to update recommendations on how to mitigate the potential negative effects of both traditional and new media on suicidal behavior and suicide contagion. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Building an Effective Social Media Strategy for Science Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohon, Wendy; Robinson, Sarah; Arrowsmith, Ramon; Semken, Steven

    2013-07-01

    Social media has emerged as a popular mode of communication, with more than 73% of the teenage and adult population in the United States using it on a regular basis [Lenhart et al., 2010]. Young people in particular (ages 12-29) are deeply involved in the rapidly evolving social media environment and have an expectation of communication through these media. This engagement creates a valuable opportunity for scientific organizations and programs to use the wide reach, functionality, and informal environment of social media to create brand recognition, establish trust with users, and disseminate scientific information.

  6. The social media participation framework: studying the effects of social media on nonprofit communities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Effing, Robin

    2014-01-01

    Social media could help nonprofit communities to organize their communication with their members in new and innovative ways. This could contribute to sustaining or improving the participation of members within these communities. Yet little is known of how to measure and understand the offline

  7. The mass media alone are not effective change agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruijter, J M

    1991-01-01

    Social mobilization programs for immunization have been used by African leaders, however, coverage from 20% to 70% in capitals like Mogadishu, Maputo, and Dakar were the result of short campaigns rather than the consequence of knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) improvement. One-party states relied on their network of cadres issuing decrees from the top down to enforce completion of these immunization campaigns. Sometimes resistance developed against these programs, as the military mobilized people (e.g., Somalia). These efforts became rather superficial once the temporary pressure evaporated. In Mogadishu coverage increased from 22% to 70% in 1985, and within a year it dropped back to 8% above the original level. Nigeria, Senegal, and Togo where they used regular mini campaigns had better results. Research data from Botswana, Kenya, Lesotho, Malawi, Mozambique, and Zambia were analyzed. In 1983 in Kenya 73% of health workers never advised their clients, and 82% were incompetent to do so. Data also showed that clinics provided the bulk of information to women aged 15-45 in lower income groups, but they rarely consulted village health workers. Radio and TV programs were not reaching people because radio ownership was not universal (47% in Zambia and 30% in Zimbabwe), and batteries were often not available. In addition, most people turned to the radio for entertainment. In 1989, vaccination coverage was 19% in Luanda, Angola, but only 5% of 232 respondents to an evaluation could name the immunizable diseases. An identical percentage was familiar with these diseases in a Zambian study in 1986. Media experts proposed dramas to raise interest, but innovative mass media programs of dissemination of the message advocated in the 1960s did not prove effective to bring about KAP changes. Training of health and paramedical personnel by mass organizations as initiated in Ethiopia may prove to be worthwhile.

  8. THE EFFECT OF SOCIAL MEDIA MARKETING ACTIVITIES ON BRAND AWARENESS, BRAND IMAGE AND BRAND LOYALTY

    OpenAIRE

    Yusuf BİLGİN

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this research is to examine the effect of social media marketing activities on brand awareness, brand image and brand loyalty. In addition, it has been aimed to analyze the effect of brand awareness and brand image on brand loyalty in this research. The population of the research consists of the consumers who actively follow five brands with the highest social score according to the Marketing Turkey social media brand performance data on social media communication channels such as ...

  9. THE EFFECTS OF SOCIAL MEDIA USE ON COLLABORATIVE LEARNING: A CASE OF TURKEY

    OpenAIRE

    Aysun BOZANTA; Sona MARDIKYAN

    2017-01-01

    The social media usage has penetrated to the many areas in daily lives of today's students. Therefore, social media can be effective tool to support their educational communications and collaborations with their friends and also faculty members. This study aims to determine the effects of social media on collaborative learning. For this purpose, a theoretical model is proposed based on comprehensive literature review. Using an online questionnaire, data are collected from the students of...

  10. Effects of a brief school-based media literacy intervention on digital media use in adolescents: cluster randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walther, Birte; Hanewinkel, Reiner; Morgenstern, Matthis

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of a four-session school-based media literacy curriculum on adolescent computer gaming and Internet use behavior. The study comprised a cluster randomized controlled trial with three assessments (baseline, posttest, and 12-month follow-up). At baseline, a total of 2,303 sixth and seventh grade adolescents from 27 secondary schools were assessed. Of these, 1,843 (80%) could be reached at all three assessments (Mage=12.0 years; SD=0.83). Students of the intervention group received the media literacy program Vernetzte www.Welten ("Connected www.Worlds ") implemented by trained teachers during class time. The control group attended regular class. Main outcome measures were adolescents' computer gaming and Internet use: days per month, hours per day, and addictive use patterns. Parental media monitoring and rules at home were assessed as secondary outcomes. Results of multilevel growth-curve models revealed a significant intervention effect in terms of a lower increase in self-reported gaming frequency (β = -1.10 [95% CI -2.06, -0.13]), gaming time (β = -0.27 [95% CI -0.40, -0.14]), and proportion of excessive gamers (AOR=0.21 [95% CI 0.08, 0.57]) in the intervention group. There were also significant group-time interactions for the addictive gaming scale (β=-0.08 [95% CI -0.12, -0.04]), and the Internet Addiction Scale (β = -0.06 [95% CI -0.10, -0.01]). No effect was found for days and hours of Internet use or parental media behavior. The study shows that the program Vernetzte www.Welten can influence adolescents' media use behavior. Future research should address mediating and moderating variables of program effects.

  11. Updating citizenship? The effects of digital media use on citizenship understanding and political participation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ohme, Jakob

    2018-01-01

    Is there a connection between increased use of digital media and changing patterns of political participation? This study tests how the use of online media for different purposes (social interaction, creative expression, online news use, social media news use) is related to three types of political...... participation. It examines whether mobilizing effects are partly indirect due to different understandings of citizenship (dutiful, optional, individual, collective) that may be fostered by digital media use. The study is based on a survey of a sample of the Danish population (n = 1322), including data from two...... online survey waves and a smartphone-based media diary that documents respondents’ social media use. Results indicate support for a new pathway to participation, but the relationship depends on whether citizens are socialized in a digital media environment....

  12. On the current knowledge of noise effects: necessity to change the paradigm; Zum gegenwaertigen Erkenntnissstand der Laermwirkungsforschung: Notwendigkeit eines Paradigmenwechsels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ising, H.; Kruppa, B. [Umweltbundesamt, Berlin (Germany)

    2001-07-01

    Previously, extra-aural noise effects were mostly assessed using a paradigm in which the sound level played the major role. On the basis of this paradigm the relatively low sound levels of environmental noise are not considered as causing any adverse health effects. In contrast to this numerous empirical results have demonstrated long-term noise-induced health risks. Therefore a radical change of attitude-a change of paradigm-- is necessary. For an immediate triggering of protective reactions (fight/flight or defeat reactions) the information conveyed by noise is very often more relevant than the sound level. The first and fastest signal detection is mediated by a subcortical area, the amygdala. For this reason even during sleep the noise from airplanes or heavy goods vehicles may be categorized as danger signals and induce the release of stress hormones. In accordance with the noise stress hypothesis chronic stress hormone dysregulations and increases of established endogenous risk factors of ischaemic heart diseases have been observed under long-term environmental noise exposure. Therefore, an increased risk of myocardial infarction is to be expected. The results of individual studies on this subject in most cases do not reach statistical significance. However, according to the Environmental Expert Council, they show a consistent trend towards an increased cardiovascular risk if the daytime immission levels exceed 65 dB(A).t of the present studies. (orig.) [German] In der Vergangenheit wurde vielfach von einem Paradigma der Laermwirkungen ausgegangen, bei dem allein der Schallpegel die dominierende Rolle spielt. Da hiernach bei den relativ niedrigen Pegeln des Umweltlaerms keine weitergehenden gesundheitlichen Beeintraechtigungen zu erwarten sind, andererseits aber empirische Befunde fuer die Existenz langfristiger laermbedingter Gesundheitsgefahren sprechen, ist ein radikales Umdenken - ein Paradigmenwechsel - erforderlich. Fuer die schnelle Ausloesung von

  13. Harmful Effects of Media on Children and Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Vivek; Dhanasekaran, Saranya

    2012-01-01

    Children and adolescents spent a considerable portion of their time watching television, movies, playing videogames and on the internet. Media has proved to be a very useful tool in the fields of education, arts, science, sports, and culture. Over the past few decades, there has been a surge in the use of media by the younger generations and…

  14. Otitis Media: Coping with the Effects in the Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Dorinne S.

    This curriculum adaptation provides a methodology that enables the classroom teacher to recognize the needs of the otitis media-affected child in the classroom. It discusses areas of concern related to otitis media; suggests activities that can enhance these children's language skills; and shows ways to enhance the learning environment by…

  15. Opening the black box: understanding cross-media effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voorveld, H.A.M.; Neijens, P.C.; Smit, E.G.

    2011-01-01

    Despite their popularity, the reasons why cross-media campaigns are more successful than single medium campaigns are still unknown. Therefore, the aim of this study is (a) to investigate which psychological processes are present when people are exposed to cross-media campaigns, and (b) to examine to

  16. Double Dose: High Family Conflict Enhances the Effect of Media Violence Exposure on Adolescents’ Aggression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patti M. Valkenburg

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available We investigated how exposure to media violence and family conflict affects adolescents’ subsequent aggressive behavior. We expected a double dose effect, meaning that high media violence exposure would lead to higher levels of aggression for adolescents in high conflict families compared to low conflict families. A total of 499 adolescents (aged 10 to 14, 48% girls participated in a two-wave longitudinal survey (4-month interval. Survey questions assessed their exposure to violence on television and in electronic games, family conflict, and aggressive behavior. Analyses revealed a significant interaction between media violence and family conflict. In families with higher conflict, higher media violence exposure was related to increased subsequent aggression. This study is the first to show a double dose effect of media violence and family conflict on adolescents’ aggression. These findings underscore the important role of the family in shaping the effects of adolescents’ media use on their social development.

  17. Media effects, interpersonal communication and beyond: An experimental approach to study conversations about the media and their role in news reception

    OpenAIRE

    Denise SOMMER

    2013-01-01

    The paper aims at discussing the challenges and opportunities of laboratory experiments for communicationstudies. An experimental approach to research on TV news effects is presented. It focuses on interpersonal communication about a newscast and simulates the social context of media use and media effects. Based upon two research domains, (1) The role of interpersonal communication in media effects and (2) TV news reception, five hypotheses are derived which are tested in an innovative experi...

  18. Effects of fluoxetine on CRF and CRF1 expression in rats exposed to the learned helplessness paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández Macedo, Georgina Valeria; Cladouchos, María Laura; Sifonios, Laura; Cassanelli, Pablo Martín; Wikinski, Silvia

    2013-02-01

    Stress is a common antecedent reported by people suffering major depression. In these patients, extrahypothalamic brain areas, like the hippocampus and basolateral amygdala (BLA), have been found to be affected. The BLA synthesizes CRF, a mediator of the stress response, and projects to hippocampus. The main hippocampal target for this peptide is the CRF subtype 1 receptor (CRF1). Evidence points to a relationship between dysregulation of CRF/CRF1 extrahypothalamic signaling and depression. Because selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are the first-line pharmacological treatment for depression, we investigated the effect of chronic treatment with the SSRI fluoxetine on long-term changes in CRF/CRF1 signaling in animals showing a depressive-like behavior. Male Wistar rats were exposed to the learned helplessness paradigm (LH). After evaluation of behavioral impairment, the animals were treated with fluoxetine (10 mg/kg i.p.) or saline for 21 days. We measured BLA CRF expression with RT-PCR and CRF1 expression in CA3 and the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus with in situ hybridization. We also studied the activation of one of CRF1's major intracellular signaling targets, the extracellular signal-related kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/2) in CA3. In saline-treated LH animals, CRF expression in the BLA increased, while hippocampal CRF1 expression and ERK1/2 activation decreased. Treatment with fluoxetine reversed the changes in CRF and CRF1 expressions, but not in ERK1/2 activation. In animals exposed to the learned helplessness paradigm, there are long-term changes in CRF and CRF1 expression that are restored with a behaviorally effective antidepressant treatment.

  19. A fractal model of effective stress of porous media and the analysis of influence factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Zhao, Huan; Li, Siqi; Sun, Wenfeng; Wang, Lei; Li, Bing

    2018-03-01

    The basic concept of effective stress describes the characteristics of fluid and solid interaction in porous media. In this paper, based on the theory of fractal geometry, a fractal model was built to analyze the relationship between the microstructure and the effective stress of porous media. From the microscopic point of view, the influence of effective stress on pore structure of porous media was demonstrated. Theoretical analysis and experimental results show that: (i) the fractal model of effective stress can be used to describe the relationship between effective stress and the microstructure of porous media; (ii) a linear increase in the effective stress leads to exponential increases in fractal dimension, porosity and pore number of the porous media, and causes a decreasing trend in the average pore radius.

  20. Effective Use of Social Media in Communicating Climate Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, P. W.

    2012-12-01

    The internet and social media have been a critical vector for misinformation on climate change. Scientists have not always been proactive or effective in utilizing the medium to bring attention to the best science, to correct misinformation and overcome urban myths. Similarly, mainstream journalists have been handicapped in dealing with the wide open nature of the medium, and often muted by editorial concerns or budget restrictions. Independent communicators who are highly motivated can make inroads in this area by using the internet's immediacy and connectivity to consistently connect viewers and readers to reliable information. Over the last 4 years, I have developed a series of you tube videos, made deliberately provocative to engage the internet's confrontational culture, but carefully crafted to bring the best science into the freewheeling community. In doing so, I have won the confidence of leading climate scientists, and in some cases assisted them in clarifying their message. This presentation will share simple tips, useful practices, and effective strategies for making complex material more clear and user friendly, and help scientists better convey the stories hidden in their data.

  1. An effective anisotropic poroelastic model for elastic wave propagation in finely layered media

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kudarova, A.; van Dalen, K.N.; Drijkoningen, G.G.

    2016-01-01

    Mesoscopic-scale heterogeneities in porous media cause attenuation and dispersion at seismic frequencies. Effective models are often used to account for this. We have developed a new effective poroelastic model for finely layered media, and we evaluated its impact focusing on the angledependent

  2. Older and Newer Media: Patterns of Use and Effects on Adolescents' Health and Well-Being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Jane D.; Bobkowski, Piotr S.

    2011-01-01

    The past decade's research on the use and effects of older (television, music, movies, magazines) and newer media (the Internet, cell phones, social networking) on adolescents' health and well-being is reviewed. A portrait of patterns of use of the media is provided and then the predictors and effects of those patterns on adolescents' mental…

  3. Pengaruh penggunaan media sosial terhadap transfer pengetahuan dan kinerja pegawai pemerintahan

    OpenAIRE

    Batubara, Risya Maulida

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSES: The social media is not only useful for personal or social relationship. The social media has been used widely for work purposes such as in government, business and education. The goal is to transfer knowledge and improve performance. Therefore, the objective of this study is to examine the direct effects of social media utilization on performance and indirect effects through knowledge transfer.  METHODS: The approach of this research is quantitative paradigm. The ...

  4. The effectiveness of the Millennium Development Goals (MDG as global paradigm shift for poverty eradication in sub-Saharan Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herman van der Elst

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Despite isolated progress there seems to be no clear-cut guideline or solution to the collective eradication of extreme poverty in sub-Saharan Africa. In an attempt to overcome the above reality, the objective of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs is short term poverty relief to the poorest of the poor by 2015. This is to be achieved through the realisation of eight pro-poor objectives. Since 2000 there has been notable progress. Developmental organisations such as the World Bank, the International Monetary Fund (IMF and the Freedom House Index project that global poverty will have been reduced to below fifteen per cent by 2015. The MDGs can, however, currently only be perceived as partially effective because poverty relief remains restricted to mainly Latin America and South and South East Asia. This partial success is substantiated by the reality that the majority of states in sub-Saharan Africa remains subjected to a cycle of extreme poverty, which seems impossible to overcome. There is consensus amongst many researchers that none of the MDGs will be achieved in this region by 2015. This article aims to critically analyse the nature, objectives and progress of the MDGs as a global developmental paradigm shift. In order to explore future trends and identify potential solutions, an emphasis is, however, placed on the possible reasons for the slow progress of the MDGs, specifically in sub-Saharan Africa. Keywords: Global paradigm shift, new conditionality, extreme poverty, poverty eradication, sub-Saharan Africa, foreign aid, deprivation hypothesis, weak governance, free-market approach and the poverty trap Disciplines: International relations, law, political economy, politics, environmental studies, water studies, communication studies, public management and governance, education, sociology, anthropology and history.

  5. Visual working memory modulates low-level saccade target selection: Evidence from rapidly generated saccades in the global effect paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollingworth, Andrew; Matsukura, Michi; Luck, Steven J.

    2013-01-01

    In three experiments, we examined the influence of visual working memory (VWM) on the metrics of saccade landing position in a global effect paradigm. Participants executed a saccade to the more eccentric object in an object pair appearing on the horizontal midline, to the left or right of central fixation. While completing the saccade task, participants maintained a color in VWM for an unrelated memory task. Either the color of the saccade target matched the memory color (target match), the color of the distractor matched the memory color (distractor match), or the colors of neither object matched the memory color (no match). In the no-match condition, saccades tended to land at the midpoint between the two objects: the global, or averaging, effect. However, when one of the two objects matched VWM, the distribution of landing position shifted toward the matching object, both for target match and for distractor match. VWM modulation of landing position was observed even for the fastest quartile of saccades, with a mean latency as low as 112 ms. Effects of VWM on such rapidly generated saccades, with latencies in the express-saccade range, indicate that VWM interacts with the initial sweep of visual sensory processing, modulating perceptual input to oculomotor systems and thereby biasing oculomotor selection. As a result, differences in memory match produce effects on landing position similar to the effects generated by differences in physical salience. PMID:24190909

  6. Visual working memory modulates low-level saccade target selection: evidence from rapidly generated saccades in the global effect paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollingworth, Andrew; Matsukura, Michi; Luck, Steven J

    2013-11-04

    In three experiments, we examined the influence of visual working memory (VWM) on the metrics of saccade landing position in a global effect paradigm. Participants executed a saccade to the more eccentric object in an object pair appearing on the horizontal midline, to the left or right of central fixation. While completing the saccade task, participants maintained a color in VWM for an unrelated memory task. Either the color of the saccade target matched the memory color (target match), the color of the distractor matched the memory color (distractor match), or the colors of neither object matched the memory color (no match). In the no-match condition, saccades tended to land at the midpoint between the two objects: the global, or averaging, effect. However, when one of the two objects matched VWM, the distribution of landing position shifted toward the matching object, both for target match and for distractor match. VWM modulation of landing position was observed even for the fastest quartile of saccades, with a mean latency as low as 112 ms. Effects of VWM on such rapidly generated saccades, with latencies in the express-saccade range, indicate that VWM interacts with the initial sweep of visual sensory processing, modulating perceptual input to oculomotor systems and thereby biasing oculomotor selection. As a result, differences in memory match produce effects on landing position similar to the effects generated by differences in physical salience.

  7. Romantic Red: Testing the Characteristics of Color–Attraction Effects in a Novel Paradigm

    OpenAIRE

    Lisa A. Williams; Timothy P. Schofield; Thomas J. Whitford

    2017-01-01

    The red-attraction effect refers to the finding that the color red enhances attractiveness ratings of targets, and is most robustly observed when males rate females. Three previously unexplored aspects of color-attraction effects were tested in a single experiment with a large sample size (N = 778). The effect of exposure to a color and the impact of pairing a color with a target were disentangled using a novel design. Moreover, we tested the proposition that color exerts its effects outside ...

  8. Social media and online self-presentation: Effects on how we see ourselves and our bodies

    OpenAIRE

    de Vries, D.A.

    2014-01-01

    Social media are becoming more and more popular. Many adolescents and adults present themselves online through a social network site or dating profile. Such widespread engagement in self-presentation on social media may have implications for how we see ourselves and our bodies. These self-views, in turn, can have important consequences for our mental health and well-being. This dissertation investigates negative as well as positive effects of social media use and online self-presentation on s...

  9. The Effectiveness of Social Media Implementation at Local Government Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elvira NICA

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to gain a deeper understanding of the management of social me-dia at the local government level, the availability of opportunities for citizen dialogue on govern-ment websites, and the impact that social net-working applications have on e-government. The results of the current study converge with prior research on the growing awareness amongst government practitioners regarding the relevance of social media, the use of social media for feed-back on service quality, and privacy and security commitments in e-government. The literature on the use of information technology to transform government, the potential for online government information to contribute to citizen engagement, and the rapid growth in local government use of social media is relevant to this discussion.

  10. The effects of old and new media on children's weight

    OpenAIRE

    Suziedelyte, A.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to determine if there is a causal relationship between children's time spent on media related activities and their weight. Since the beginning of 1980s, childhood obesity rates in the U.S. and other developed countries have been increasing. It has been suggested in the literature that changes in children's media use is an important explanation for the observed increase in children's weight. I investigate whether or not this hypothesis is supported by data. Additionall...

  11. Radiation-induced bystander effects and the DNA paradigm: An 'out of field' perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mothersill, Carmel; Seymour, C.B.

    2006-01-01

    Over the past 20 years there has been increasing evidence that cells and the progeny of cells surviving a very low dose of ionizing radiation [μ-mGy] can exhibit a wide range of non-monotonic effects such as adaptive responses, low dose hypersensitivity and other delayed effects. These effects are inconsistent with the expected dose-response, when based on extrapolation of high dose data and cast doubt on the reliability of extrapolating from high dose data to predict low dose effects. Recently the cause of many of these effects has been tentatively ascribed to so-called 'bystander effects'. These are effects that occur in cells not directly hit by an ionizing track but which are influenced by signals from irradiated cells and are thus highly relevant in situations where the dose is very low. Not all bystander effects may be deleterious although most endpoints measured involve cell damage or death. In this commentary, we consider how these effects impact the historical central dogma of radiobiology and radiation protection, which is that DNA double strand breaks are the primary radiation-induced lesion which can be quantifiably related to received dose and which determine the probability that a cancer will result from a radiation exposure. We explore the low dose issues and the evidence and conclude that in the very low dose region, the primary determinant of radiation exposure outcome is the genetic and epigenetic background of the individual and not solely the dose. What this does is to dissociate dose from effect as a quantitative relationship, but it does not necessarily mean that the effect is ultimately unrelated to DNA damage. The fundamental thesis we present is that at low doses fundamentally different mechanisms underlie radiation action and that at these doses, effect is not quantitatively related to dose

  12. Media as social influence: racial differences in the effects of peers and media on adolescent alcohol cognitions and consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbons, Frederick X; Pomery, Elizabeth A; Gerrard, Meg; Sargent, James D; Weng, Chih-Yuan; Wills, Thomas A; Kingsbury, John; Dal Cin, Sonya; Worth, Keilah A; Stoolmiller, Mike; Tanski, Susanne E; Yeh, Hsiu-Chen

    2010-12-01

    Racial differences in the effects of peer and media influence on adolescents' alcohol cognitions and consumption were examined in a large-scale panel study. With regard to peer influence, results from cross-lagged panel analyses indicated that the relation between perceived peer drinking and own drinking was significant for both Black and White adolescents, but it was stronger for the White adolescents. With regard to media influence, structural modeling analyses indicated that exposure to drinking in movies was associated with more alcohol consumption 8 months and 16 months later. These effects were mediated by increases in the favorability of the adolescents' drinker prototypes, their willingness to drink, and their tendency to affiliate with friends who were drinking. Multiple group analyses indicated that, once again, the effects (both direct and indirect) were much stronger for White adolescents than for Black adolescents. The results suggest media influence works in a similar manner to social influence and that Whites may be more susceptible to both types of influence. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. Protective effects of parental monitoring of children's media use: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentile, Douglas A; Reimer, Rachel A; Nathanson, Amy I; Walsh, David A; Eisenmann, Joey C

    2014-05-01

    Children spend more time with electronic media than they do in any other activity, aside from sleep. Many of the negative effects that stem from media exposure may be reduced by parental monitoring of children's media use; however, there lacks a clear understanding of the mechanisms and extent of these protective effects. To determine the prospective effects of parental monitoring of children's media on physical, social, and academic outcomes. Prospective cohort design. Data were collected by in-home and in-school surveys in 2 communities in Iowa and Minnesota, where 1323 third- (n = 430), fourth- (n = 446), and fifth- (n = 423) grade students participated. A primary caregiver and teachers also provided data about the student. Participants in the current study were recruited to participate in a social ecological model-based obesity prevention program. Body mass index, average weekly sleep, school performance, prosocial behavior, and aggressive behavior. RESULTS Structural equation modeling revealed that parental monitoring of children's media influences children's sleep, school performance, and prosocial and aggressive behaviors and that these effects are mediated through total screen time and exposure to media violence. Parental monitoring of media has protective effects on a wide variety of academic, social, and physical child outcomes. Pediatricians and physicians are uniquely positioned to provide scientifically based recommendations to families; encouraging parents to monitor children's media carefully can have a wide range of health benefits for children.

  14. How Does Information Spread on Social Media Lead to Effective Change?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varghese, Thomas K

    2017-09-01

    Social media encompasses computer-mediated technologies that facilitate the creation and sharing of information, ideas, and other forms of expression via virtual communities and networks. The key, of course, is the ability and willingness for information to be shared. But why does some information spread on social media and not others? What factors translate social media awareness to action? In this article, we explore these themes using case studies, as well as tips on how you can utilize social media to effectively champion a cause.

  15. Zooming in on the cause of the perceptual load effect in the go/no-go paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhe; Cave, Kyle R

    2016-08-01

    Perceptual load theory (Lavie, 2005) claims that attentional capacity that is not used for the current task is allocated to irrelevant distractors. It predicts that if the attentional demands of the current task are high, distractor interference will be low. One particularly powerful demonstration of perceptual load effects on distractor processing relies on a go/no-go cue that is interpreted by either simple feature detection or feature conjunction (Lavie, 1995). However, a possible alternative interpretation of these effects is that the differential degree of distractor processing is caused by how broadly attention is allocated (attentional zoom) rather than to perceptual load. In 4 experiments, we show that when stimuli are arranged to equalize the extent of spatial attention across conditions, distractor interference varies little whether cues are defined by a simple feature or a conjunction, and that the typical perceptual load effect emerges only when attentional zoom can covary with perceptual load. These results suggest that attentional zoom can account for the differential degree of distractor processing traditionally attributed to perceptual load in the go/no-go paradigm. They also provide new insight into how different factors interact to control distractor interference. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. Bimanual coupling paradigm as an effective tool to investigate productive behaviors in motor and body awareness impairments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garbarini, Francesca; Pia, Lorenzo

    2013-11-05

    When humans move simultaneously both hands strong coupling effects arise and neither of the two hands is able to perform independent actions. It has been suggested that such motor constraints are tightly linked to action representation rather than to movement execution. Hence, bimanual tasks can represent an ideal experimental tool to investigate internal motor representations in those neurological conditions in which the movement of one hand is impaired. Indeed, any effect on the "moving" (healthy) hand would be caused by the constraints imposed by the ongoing motor program of the 'impaired' hand. Here, we review recent studies that successfully utilized the above-mentioned paradigms to investigate some types of productive motor behaviors in stroke patients. Specifically, bimanual tasks have been employed in left hemiplegic patients who report illusory movements of their contralesional limbs (anosognosia for hemiplegia). They have also been administered to patients affected by a specific monothematic delusion of body ownership, namely the belief that another person's arm and his/her voluntary action belong to them. In summary, the reviewed studies show that bimanual tasks are a simple and valuable experimental method apt to reveal information about the motor programs of a paralyzed limb. Therefore, it can be used to objectively examine the cognitive processes underpinning motor programming in patients with different delusions of motor behavior. Additionally, it also sheds light on the mechanisms subserving bimanual coordination in the intact brain suggesting that action representation might be sufficient to produce these effects.

  17. Bimanual coupling paradigm as an effective tool to investigate productive behaviors in motor and body awareness impairments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca eGarbarini

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available When humans move simultaneously both hands strong coupling effects arise and neither of the two hands is able to perform independent actions. It has been suggested that such motor constraints are tightly linked to action representation rather than to movement execution. Hence, bimanual tasks can represent an ideal experimental tool to investigate internal motor representations in those neurological conditions in which the movement of one hand is impaired. Indeed, any effect on the ‘moving’ (healthy hand would be caused by the constraints imposed by the ongoing motor program of the ‘impaired’ hand. Here, we review recent studies that successfully utilized the above-mentioned paradigms to investigate some types of productive motor behaviors in stroke patients. Specifically, bimanual tasks have been employed in left hemiplegic patients who report illusory movements of their contralesional limbs (anosognosia for hemiplegia. They have also been administered to patients affected by a specific monothematic delusion of body ownership, namely the belief that another person’s arm and his/her voluntary action belong to them. In summary, the reviewed studies show that bimanual tasks are a simple and valuable experimental method apt to reveal information about the motor programs of a paralyzed limb. Therefore, it can be used to objectively examine the cognitive processes underpinning motor programming in patients with different delusions of motor behavior. Additionally, it also sheds light on the mechanisms subserving bimanual coordination in the intact brain suggesting that action representation might be sufficient to produce these effects.

  18. Romantic Red: Testing the Characteristics of Color–Attraction Effects in a Novel Paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa A. Williams

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The red-attraction effect refers to the finding that the color red enhances attractiveness ratings of targets, and is most robustly observed when males rate females. Three previously unexplored aspects of color-attraction effects were tested in a single experiment with a large sample size (N = 778. The effect of exposure to a color and the impact of pairing a color with a target were disentangled using a novel design. Moreover, we tested the proposition that color exerts its effects outside of awareness by examining the association of conscious awareness of color-target pairing with the red-attraction effect. Both prior exposure to red and pairing of red with a target influenced attractiveness ratings, but not always in the direction of increased attractiveness. Results also varied as a function of target and participant sex. However, when conscious awareness of target-color pairing was higher, results converged with the typically-observed red-attraction effect among males rating females.

  19. An effectiveness hierarchy of preventive interventions: neglected paradigm or self-evident truth?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capewell, Simon; Capewell, Ann

    2017-05-19

    Non-communicable disease prevention strategies usually target the four major risk factors of poor diet, tobacco, alcohol and physical inactivity. Yet, the most effective approaches remain disputed. However, increasing evidence supports the concept of an effectiveness hierarchy. Thus, 'downstream' preventive activities targeting individuals (such as 1:1 personal advice, health education, 'nudge' or primary prevention medications) consistently achieve a smaller population health impact than interventions aimed further 'upstream' (for instance, smoke-free legislation, alcohol minimum pricing or regulations eliminating dietary transfats). These comprehensive, policy-based interventions reach all parts of the population and do not depend on a sustained 'agentic' individual response. They thus tend to be more effective, more rapid, more equitable and also cost-saving. This effectiveness hierarchy is self-evident to many professionals working in public health. Previously neglected in the wider world, this effectiveness hierarchy now needs to be acknowledged by policy makers. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Effect of storage media and time on fin explants culture in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of storage media and time was investigated on fin explants culture in the goldfish (Carassius auratus). Fin explants under sterile conditions were able to produce cells at different storage media and time. On the outgrowth of cells, fin explants stored for seven days before culturing showed significantly higher growth ...

  1. Effect of X-ray Contrast Media, Chlorination, and Chloramination on Zebrafish Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Effect of X-ray Contrast Media, Chlorination, and Chloramination on Zebrafish Development Little is known about the vertebrate developmental toxicity of chlorinated or chloraminated drinking water (DW), iodinated X-ray contrast media (ICM, a common contaminate of DW) or how the c...

  2. Effect of growing media, sowing depth, and hot water treatment on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To optimize seedling production for reforestation of degraded dryland with A. senegal seeds, a study was conducted on the effect of boiled water treatment, growing media, sowing depth on seed germination and seedling growth of A. senegal. Three different growing media (farm soil, forest soil and sand soil), boiled water ...

  3. Evaluating the Effect of Educational Media Exposure on Aggression in Early Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrov, Jamie M.; Gentile, Douglas A.; Mullins, Adam D.

    2013-01-01

    Preschool-aged children (M = 42.44 months-old, SD = 8.02) participated in a short-term longitudinal study investigating the effect of educational media exposure on social development (i.e., aggression and prosocial behavior) using multiple informants and methods. As predicted, educational media exposure significantly predicted increases in both…

  4. The Effect of Social Media Usage on Course Achievement and Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alghazo, Yazan M.; Nash, Julie A.

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of social media usage as a classroom management tool on students' achievement and their behavior in class. Groups were determined by choosing random samples of different classes. The treatment group included the social media application "whatsapp" which all students and the instructor were asked to…

  5. The effects of social media on political party perception and voting behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riezebos, Peter; de Vries, Sjoerd A.; de Vries, Pieter Walter; de Zeeuw, Erik

    2011-01-01

    This study sought to determine to what extent social media influences political party perception (PPP) and political voting behavior. Based on literature a conceptual model was developed which measures political interest, political trust, religion and the use of social media and their effects on PPP

  6. Social Media Use: An Exploratory Test of Effects on the Daily Lives of College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Barbara; Cothern, Katherine

    2011-01-01

    This study covers the effects that social media use has on the daily lives of college students. More specifically, the current study focuses on college students' academic success, study habits, social interaction, and family interaction. Social media is a source of online tools that allow people from across the world to communicate with others.…

  7. Double dose: High family conflict enhances the effect of media violence exposure on adolescents’ aggression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fikkers, K.M.; Piotrowski, J.T.; Weeda, W.D.; Vossen, H.G.M.; Valkenburg, P.M.

    2013-01-01

    We investigated how exposure to media violence and family conflict affects adolescents’ subsequent aggressive behavior. We expected a double dose effect, meaning that high media violence exposure would lead to higher levels of aggression for adolescents in high conflict families compared to low

  8. Effect of organic media on growth of vegetable seedlings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unal, M.

    2013-01-01

    Organic media physical and chemical properties are suitable for growing seedling. It is not is low cost for additional chemical substances. In NP/sub 2/O/sub 5/K/sub 2/ O additional media M5 compared to organic media. The purpose of this study was to determine; the use of different growing media for organic production of tomatoes and peppers seedling quality characterictics. The trial was conducted the year 2010 in the greenhouse of Organic Agriculture Program of Arslanbey Vocational School of Kocaeli University. In this research M4 containing peat-stable manure-perlite, M5 containing peat-sand-NPK, M6 containing peat-stable manure and M8 containing peat gave positive results in tomato and pepper seedling cultivation. The quality of tomato and pepper seedling measured values and there were a difference between different growing media statistically at p<0.05 level. However, the width of cotyledons of pepper with different growing medium did not differ statistically. (author)

  9. The behaviorist the historical-cultural: The effectiveness of Aulic Teaching Process under two paradigms dimension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Modesta Moreno Iglesias

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available The article presents an approach to the analysis of the definition of Aulic Teaching Process with its dimensions, focusing on the effectiveness of that process and the actions to be undertaken for evaluation, from a humanist perspective and develope.

  10. Mitigating the effects of in-vehicle distractions through use of the Psychological Refractory Period paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hibberd, Daryl L; Jamson, Samantha L; Carsten, Oliver M J

    2013-01-01

    Modern driving involves frequent and potentially detrimental interactions with distracting in-vehicle tasks. Distraction has been shown to slow brake reaction time and decrease lateral and longitudinal vehicle control. It is likely that these negative effects will become more prevalent in the future as advances are made in the functionality, availability, and number of in-vehicle systems. This paper addresses this problem by considering ways to manage in-vehicle task presentation to mitigate their distracting effects. A driving simulator experiment using 48 participants was performed to investigate the existence of the Psychological Refractory Period in the driving context and its effect on braking performance. Drivers were exposed to lead vehicle braking events in isolation (single-task) and with a preceding surrogate in-vehicle task (dual-task). In dual-task scenarios, the time interval between the in-vehicle and braking tasks was manipulated. Brake reaction time increased when drivers were distracted. The in-vehicle task interfered with the performance of the braking task in a manner that was dependent on the interval between the two tasks, with slower reactions following a shorter inter-task interval. This is the Psychological Refractory Period effect. These results have implications for driver safety during in-vehicle distraction. The findings are used to develop recommendations regarding the timing of in-vehicle task presentation so as to reduce their potentially damaging effects on braking performance. In future, these guidelines could be incorporated into a driver workload management system to minimise the opportunity for a driver to be distracted from the ongoing driving task. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The effect of Phet Simulation media for physics teacher candidate understanding on photoelectric effect concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supurwoko Supurwoko

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Indonesian new Curriculum for senior high school students required student-centered learning. One of the curriculum implementation constraint was the difficulty of providing learning media. PhET simulations media is one of the options that can help implementation of new curriculum on learning. However, the use of this media in Indonesia still needs to be studied comprehensively. The learning was conducted on students of physics education Study Program in sebelas maret university in 2013. The sample consisted of 62 students that was taking quantum physics course. The method that was used in the research was descriptive qualitative.  The method that was used in learning was demonstration’s method that used PhET media and accompanied by a question and answer and groups discussion. The data was collected using multiple choice test and interview through email. We found that any students still did not understand about photoelectric effect concept. They were confused when asked about the thick material and cross section of the targets as related with the regardless of electrons in the photoelectric effect event. Other than that, the concept of the waves as a particle and its relation with the kinetic energy of the electrons was not understood by most students.

  12. Naming and categorizing objects: task differences modulate the polarity of semantic effects in the picture-word interference paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hantsch, Ansgar; Jescheniak, Jörg D; Mädebach, Andreas

    2012-07-01

    The picture-word interference paradigm is a prominent tool for studying lexical retrieval during speech production. When participants name the pictures, interference from semantically related distractor words has regularly been shown. By contrast, when participants categorize the pictures, facilitation from semantically related distractors has typically been found. In the extant studies, however, differences in the task instructions (naming vs. categorizing) were confounded with the response level: While responses in naming were typically located at the basic level (e.g., "dog"), responses were located at the superordinate level in categorization (e.g., "animal"). The present study avoided this confound by having participants respond at the basic level in both naming and categorization, using the same pictures, distractors, and verbal responses. Our findings confirm the polarity reversal of the semantic effects--that is, semantic interference in naming, and semantic facilitation in categorization. These findings show that the polarity reversal of the semantic effect is indeed due to the different tasks and is not an artifact of the different response levels used in previous studies. Implications for current models of language production are discussed.

  13. Reactions to ingroup and outgroup deviants: an experimental group paradigm for black sheep effect.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marika Rullo

    Full Text Available In the classic black sheep effect (BSE an ingroup deviant member is usually evaluated more negatively than the corresponding outgroup deviant. This effect is usually obtained by using scenarios and asking people to imagine the situation as vividly as possible. The present study proposes a new method to investigate the BSE by considering the behavioral and physiological reactions to unfair behavior (aggressive game behavior in a realistic experimental group-setting. The study involved 52 university students in a minimal group setting who performed a modified version of the competitive reaction time (CRT task adapted to be played in groups of four people. The classic BSE was replicated for evaluation but not for the behavioral reactions (retaliate to aggression to deviants. More interestingly, a negative relationship emerged in the ingroup deviant condition between the level of behavioral derogation and the systolic blood pressure level.

  14. Effect of Impurities on the Josephson Current through Helical Metals: Exploiting a Neutrino Paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaemi, Pouyan; Nair, V. P.

    2016-01-01

    In this Letter we study the effect of time-reversal symmetric impurities on the Josephson supercurrent through two-dimensional helical metals such as on a topological insulator surface state. We show that, contrary to the usual superconducting-normal metal-superconducting junctions, the suppression of the supercurrent in the superconducting-helical metal-superconducting junction is mainly due to fluctuations of impurities in the junctions. Our results, which are a condensed matter realization of a part of the Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein effect for neutrinos, show that the relationship between normal state conductance and the critical current of Josephson junctions is significantly modified for Josephson junctions on the surface of topological insulators. We also study the temperature dependence of the supercurrent and present a two fluid model which can explain some of the recent experimental results in Josephson junctions on the edge of topological insulators.

  15. Effects of Two Physical Training Paradigms on Biological and Cognitive Characteristics of Airmen: Lessons Learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-07

    was hypothesized that ‘ CrossFit -type’ training would be more effective at producing chronically elevated BDNF levels and fitness scores than the...Duty male subjects, ages ranging from 18-40, participated in this pilot research effort. Subjects were divided into two groups: Nine in ‘ CrossFit ... CrossFit trainers implemented the CrossFit -Type exercises. Of note, each group ultimately contained 6 subjects instead of nine original subjects. This was

  16. Evaluating the effects of a youth health media campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaudoin, Christopher E; Thorson, Esther

    2007-01-01

    This article examines the impact of a socially oriented public health media campaign that aims to influence social indicators among adults as a means to advances in youth health outcomes. Hierarchical regression analyses are conducted on telephone survey data from 18 weekly telephone surveys of adults in Kansas. Media campaign exposure was positively associated with two outcome measures: beliefs about youth development and behaviors toward youth development. In addition, these two outcome measures increased significantly over time, with the dissemination of the campaign's television and newspaper advertisements. Furthermore, these over-time increases were present only among respondents who were exposed to the media campaign. These findings offer support for the campaign's influence on the two social indicators, which would, per other research, be expected to influence improvements in youth health. Findings are discussed in reference to previous research in the areas of public health and mass communication, with implications made for practitioners and researchers.

  17. Congruency effects in the remote distractor paradigm: evidence for top-down modulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Born, Sabine; Kerzel, Dirk

    2009-08-10

    In three experiments, we examined effects of target-distractor similarity in the remote distractor effect (RDE). Observers made saccades to peripheral targets that were either gray or green. Foveal or peripheral distractors were presented at the same time. The distractors could either share the target's defining property (congruent) or be different from the target (incongruent). Congruent distractors slowed down saccadic reaction times more than incongruent distractors. The increase of the RDE with target-distractor congruency depended on task demands. The more participants had to rely on the target property to locate the target, the larger the congruency effect. We conclude that the RDE can be modulated in a top-down manner. Alternative explanations such as persisting memory traces for the target property or differences in stimulus arrangement were considered but discarded. Our claim is in line with models of saccade generation which assume that the structures underlying the RDE (e.g. the superior colliculus) receive bottom-up as well as top-down information.

  18. Effect of Social Media in a mHealth Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tufte, Trond; Babic, Ankica

    2017-01-01

    In this project the potential of social media has been reviewed in terms how it can promote a healthy lifestyle utilized in an app. A mHealth app for smartphones has been developed using Design Science methodology, where various features from social media have been implemented with the goal of increasing physical activity. The application has been evaluated extensively in order to meet usability requirements. In addition, a focus group has contributed towards the application's potential to increase physical. The data collected is suggesting that social features have a positive impact on promoting physical activity.

  19. Verbal cues effectively orient children's auditory attention in a CV-syllable dichotic listening paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phélip, Marion; Donnot, Julien; Vauclair, Jacques

    2015-12-18

    In their groundbreaking work featuring verbal dichotic listening tasks, Mondor and Bryden showed that tone cues do not enhance children's attentional orienting, in contrast to adults. The magnitude of the children's right-ear advantage was not attenuated when their attention was directed to the left ear. Verbal cues did, however, appear to favour the orientation of attention at around 10 years, although stimulus-onset asynchronies (SOAs), which ranged between 450 and 750 ms, were not rigorously controlled. The aim of our study was therefore to investigate the role of both types of cues in a typical CV-syllable dichotic listening task administered to 8- to 10-year-olds, applying a protocol as similar as possible to that used by Mondor and Bryden, but controlling for SOA as well as for cued ear. Results confirmed that verbal cues are more effective than tone cues in orienting children's attention. However, in contrast to adults, no effect of SOA was observed. We discuss the relative difficulty young children have processing CV syllables, as well as the role of top-down processes in attentional orienting abilities.

  20. Fukushima effects in Germany? Changes in media coverage and public opinion on nuclear power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arlt, Dorothee; Wolling, Jens

    2016-10-01

    Based on a literature review on factors that explain media effects and previous findings on media coverage and public opinion on nuclear power, this article examines the effects of Fukushima on media coverage and public opinion in Germany in two studies. The first study uses content analysis data to analyse changes in media coverage, and the second one is based on panel survey data to examine attitude changes on an individual level. The results of both studies show changes in media coverage and public opinion on nuclear power. Furthermore, the second study reveals that individual attitude changes cannot necessarily be explained by the same factors as the distribution of attitudes. © The Author(s) 2015.

  1. A study on effects of demographic variables on success of social media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjan Mohammadreza

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In the recent years, social media have developed significantly and their usages have become main activities of internet users. The proposed study of this paper considers the effects of personal characteristics such as age, gender and marital status on social media. The study designs a questionnaire and distributes 385 questionnaires among students who are enrolled in different educational levels in governmental university named Allameh Tabatabayi university located in Tehran, Iran during the year of 2011. Because of abnormality of data, non-parametric test were used. In this research, we studied the effects of demographic variables on success of social media. The results showed that success of social media is more important among female students. Marriage situation shows that social media success variable is more important among married than single ones and, finally, this variable is more important among older people.

  2. A Fractal Study on the Effective Thermal Conductivity of Porous Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, X.; Cai, J.; Wei, W.

    2017-12-01

    Thermal conduction in porous media has steadily received attention in science and engineering, for instance, exploiting and utilizing the geothermal energy, developing the oil-gas resource, ground water flow in hydrothermal systems and investigating the potential host nuclear wastes, etc. The thermal conductivity is strongly influenced by the microstructure features of porous media. In this work, based on the fractal characteristics of the grains, a theoretical model of effective thermal conductivity is proposed for saturated and unsaturated porous media. It is found that the proposed effective thermal conductivity solution is a function of geometrical parameters of porous media, such as the porosity, fractal dimension of granular matrix and the thermal conductivity of the grains and pore fluid. The model predictions are compared with existing experimental data and the results show that they are in good agreement with existing experimental data. The proposed model may provide a better understanding of the physical mechanisms of thermal transfer in porous media than conventional models.

  3. The effects of speech controls on performance in advanced helicopters in a double stimulation paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bortolussi, Michael R.; Vidulich, Michael A.

    1991-01-01

    The potential benefit of speech as a control modality has been investigated with mixed results. Earlier studies suggests that speech controls can reduce the potential of manual control overloads and improve time-sharing performance. However, these benefits were not without costs. Pilots reported higher workload levels associated with the use of speech controls. To further investigate these previous findings, an experiment was conducted in a simulation of an advanced single-pilot, scout/attack helicopter at NASA-Ames' ICAB (interchangeable cab) facility. Objective performance data suggested that speech control modality was effective in reducing interference of discrete, time-shared responses during continuous flight control activity. Subjective ratings, however, indicated that the speech control modality increased workload. Post-flight debriefing indicated that these results were mainly due to the increased effort to speak precisely to a less than perfect voice recognition system.

  4. A systematic review of the use and effectiveness of social media in child health

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Social media use is highly prevalent among children, youth, and their caregivers, and its use in healthcare is being explored. The objective of this study was to conduct a systematic review to determine: 1) for what purposes social media is being used in child health and its effectiveness; and 2) the attributes of social media tools that may explain how they are or are not effective. Methods We searched Medline, CENTRAL, ERIC, PubMed, CINAHL, Academic Search Complete, Alt Health Watch, Health Source, Communication and Mass Media Complete, Web of Knowledge, and Proquest Dissertation and Theses Database from 2000–2013. We included primary research that evaluated the use of a social media tool, and targeted children, youth, or their families or caregivers. Quality assessment was conducted on all included analytic studies using tools specific to different quantitative designs. Results We identified 25 studies relevant to child health. The majority targeted adolescents (64%), evaluated social media for health promotion (52%), and used discussion forums (68%). Most often, social media was included as a component of a complex intervention (64%). Due to heterogeneity in conditions, tools, and outcomes, results were not pooled across studies. Attributes of social media perceived to be effective included its use as a distraction in younger children, and its ability to facilitate communication between peers among adolescents. While most authors presented positive conclusions about the social media tool being studied (80%), there is little high quality evidence of improved outcomes to support this claim. Conclusions This comprehensive review demonstrates that social media is being used for a variety of conditions and purposes in child health. The findings provide a foundation from which clinicians and researchers can build in the future by identifying tools that have been developed, describing how they have been used, and isolating components that have been

  5. A systematic review of the use and effectiveness of social media in child health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamm, Michele P; Shulhan, Jocelyn; Williams, Gillian; Milne, Andrea; Scott, Shannon D; Hartling, Lisa

    2014-06-02

    Social media use is highly prevalent among children, youth, and their caregivers, and its use in healthcare is being explored. The objective of this study was to conduct a systematic review to determine: 1) for what purposes social media is being used in child health and its effectiveness; and 2) the attributes of social media tools that may explain how they are or are not effective. We searched Medline, CENTRAL, ERIC, PubMed, CINAHL, Academic Search Complete, Alt Health Watch, Health Source, Communication and Mass Media Complete, Web of Knowledge, and Proquest Dissertation and Theses Database from 2000-2013. We included primary research that evaluated the use of a social media tool, and targeted children, youth, or their families or caregivers. Quality assessment was conducted on all included analytic studies using tools specific to different quantitative designs. We identified 25 studies relevant to child health. The majority targeted adolescents (64%), evaluated social media for health promotion (52%), and used discussion forums (68%). Most often, social media was included as a component of a complex intervention (64%). Due to heterogeneity in conditions, tools, and outcomes, results were not pooled across studies. Attributes of social media perceived to be effective included its use as a distraction in younger children, and its ability to facilitate communication between peers among adolescents. While most authors presented positive conclusions about the social media tool being studied (80%), there is little high quality evidence of improved outcomes to support this claim. This comprehensive review demonstrates that social media is being used for a variety of conditions and purposes in child health. The findings provide a foundation from which clinicians and researchers can build in the future by identifying tools that have been developed, describing how they have been used, and isolating components that have been effective.

  6. Understanding causality in the effects of media violence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anderson, C.A.; Bushman, B.J.

    2015-01-01

    This article places media violence research into a broader context than the typical public debate about whether violent video games (or TV programs, or movies) are “the” cause of school shootings and other extreme acts of violence. We describe how scientists today decide whether one variable (e.g.,

  7. Comfortably numb: Desensitizing effects of violent media on helping others

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bushman, B.J.; Anderson, C.A.

    2009-01-01

    Two studies tested the hypothesis that exposure to violent media reduces aid offered to people in pain. In Study 1, participants played a violent or nonviolent video game for 20 min. After game play, while completing a lengthy questionnaire, they heard a loud fight, in which one person was injured,

  8. Effects of basal media, salt concentrations, antioxidant supplements ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    antioxidants than MS, LS and D basal media. Five different levels of N6 medium salts (10, 30, 50, 70 and 100%) were tested, and the highest transformation efficiency was 15.9% under a 50% salt concentration, followed by 6.4% transformation efficiency with 70 and 3.2% under 100% salt conditions. More than 95% of ...

  9. Sweet vs. Snap! Effective Dispositions in the Media Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Standard, April

    2011-01-01

    In "What Defines an Exemplary School Librarian," Jami Jones and Gail Bush make a strong argument that professional disposition is the key to a successful library media program. The authors emphasize the relevance of INTASC standards which specify that teachers must promote "positive social interaction and (develop) healthy and helping…

  10. Effect of Foam on Liquid Phase Mobility in Porous Media

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eftekhari, A.A.; Farajzadeh, R.

    2017-01-01

    We investigate the validity of the assumption that foam in porous media reduces the mobility of gas phase only and does not impact the liquid-phase mobility. The foam is generated by simultaneous injection of nitrogen gas and a surfactant solution into sandstone cores and its strength is varied by

  11. The Effect of Breastfeeding on Childhood Otitis Media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kørvel-Hanquist, Asbjørn; Djurhuus, B D; Homøe, P

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to summarize the literature regarding the association between breastfeeding and childhood otitis media (OM), with focus on the literature published within the past 5 years. The review comprises original articles and recent reviews. RECENT FINDINGS...

  12. Social Media Usage: Examination of Influencers and Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Stoney L.

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation is concerned with investigating topics surrounding the phenomenon of social media usage. Essay One draws from the technology acceptance literature by utilizing concepts from the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM), the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT), and the model of hedonic technology acceptance. The…

  13. The Effect of the Media on Suicide: The Great Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stack, Steven

    1992-01-01

    Tests thesis that degree of media influence is contingent on audience receptivity. Audience receptivity to suicide stories assumed high during Great Depression. Developed taxonomy of stories using classic imitation, social learning, and differential identification theories. Analysis of monthly data on suicides and publicized stories revealed…

  14. Establishing a learned-helplessness effect paradigm in C57BL/6 mice: behavioural evidence for emotional, motivational and cognitive effects of aversive uncontrollability per se.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pryce, Christopher R; Azzinnari, Damiano; Sigrist, Hannes; Gschwind, Tilo; Lesch, Klaus-Peter; Seifritz, Erich

    2012-01-01

    Uncontrollability of major life events has been proposed to be central to depression onset and maintenance. The learned helplessness (LH) effect describes a deficit in terminating controllable aversive stimuli in individuals that experienced aversive stimuli as uncontrollable relative to individuals that experienced the same stimuli as controllable. The LH effect translates across species and therefore can provide an objective-valid readout in animal models of depression. Paradigms for a robust LH effect are established and currently applied in rat but there are few reports of prior and current study of the LH effect in mouse. This includes the C57BL/6 mouse, typically the strain of choice for application of molecular-genetic tools in pre-clinical depression research. The aims of this study were to develop a robust paradigm for the LH effect in BL/6 mice, provide evidence for underlying psychological processes, and study the effect of a depression-relevant genotype on the LH effect. The apparatus used for in/escapable electro-shock exposure and escape test was a two-way shuttle arena with continuous automated measurement of locomotion, compartment transfers, e-shock escapes, vertical activity and freezing. Brother-pairs of BL/6 mice were allocated to either escapable e-shocks (ES) or inescapable e-shocks (IS), with escape latencies of the ES brother used as e-shock durations for the IS brother. The standard two-way shuttle paradigm was modified: the central gate was replaced by a raised divider and e-shock escape required transfer to the distal part of the safe compartment. These refinements yielded reduced superstitious, pre-adaptive e-shock transfers in IS mice and thereby increased the LH effect. To obtain a robust LH effect in all brother pairs, pre-screening for minor between-brother ES differences was necessary and did not confound the LH effect. IS mice developed reduced motor responses to e-shock, consistent with a motivational deficit, and absence of a

  15. Differentiation of perceptual and semantic subsequent memory effects using an orthographic paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Michael C C; Liu, Karen P Y; Ting, Kin Hung; Chan, Chetwyn C H

    2012-11-27

    This study aimed to differentiate perceptual and semantic encoding processes using subsequent memory effects (SMEs) elicited by the recognition of orthographs of single Chinese characters. Participants studied a series of Chinese characters perceptually (by inspecting orthographic components) or semantically (by determining the object making sounds), and then made studied or unstudied judgments during the recognition phase. Recognition performance in terms of d-prime measure in the semantic condition was higher, though not significant, than that of the perceptual condition. The between perceptual-semantic condition differences in SMEs at P550 and late positive component latencies (700-1000ms) were not significant in the frontal area. An additional analysis identified larger SME in the semantic condition during 600-1000ms in the frontal pole regions. These results indicate that coordination and incorporation of orthographic information into mental representation is essential to both task conditions. The differentiation was also revealed in earlier SMEs (perceptual>semantic) at N3 (240-360ms) latency, which is a novel finding. The left-distributed N3 was interpreted as more efficient processing of meaning with semantically learned characters. Frontal pole SMEs indicated strategic processing by executive functions, which would further enhance memory. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Effects of acute alcohol intoxication on automated processing: evidence from the double-step paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorstius, Christian; Radach, Ralph; Lang, Alan R

    2012-02-01

    Reflexive and voluntary levels of processing have been studied extensively with respect to possible impairments due to alcohol intoxication. This study examined alcohol effects at the 'automated' level of processing essential to many complex visual processing tasks (e.g., reading, visual search) that involve ongoing modifications or reprogramming of well-practiced routines. Data from 30 participants (16 male) were collected in two counterbalanced sessions (alcohol vs. no-alcohol control; mean breath alcohol concentration = 68 mg/dL vs. 0 mg/dL). Eye movements were recorded during a double-step task where 75% of trials involved two target stimuli in rapid succession (inter-stimulus interval [ISI]=40, 70, or 100 ms) so that they could elicit two distinct saccades or eye movements (double steps). On 25% of trials a single target appeared. Results indicated that saccade latencies were longer under alcohol. In addition, the proportion of single-step responses and the mean saccade amplitude (length) of primary saccades decreased significantly with increasing ISI. The key novel finding, however, was that the reprogramming time needed to cancel the first saccade and adjust saccade amplitude was extended significantly by alcohol. The additional time made available by prolonged latencies due to alcohol was not utilized by the saccade programming system to decrease the number of two-step responses. These results represent the first demonstration of specific alcohol-induced programming deficits at the automated level of oculomotor processing.

  17. The effectiveness of different approaches to media literacy in modifying adolescents' responses to alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi-Chun Yvonnes

    2013-01-01

    Fearing the negative effect that alcohol advertising might have on adolescents' receptiveness to the consumption of alcohol, health educators have used media literacy as an effective strategy to mitigate the effect of these messages in the media. The present study applied parental mediation to the design and evaluations of a media literacy curriculum that targets alcohol decision-making processes illustrated in the message interpretation process model. The authors conducted a pretest-posttest quasi-experiment of 171 adolescents to examine the effect of a negative evaluative approach and a balanced evaluative approach (a combination of negative and positive evaluative strategies) to media literacy on modifying adolescents' responses to alcohol messages. Results showed that different media literacy approaches had varying degrees of effectiveness on adolescent boys and girls. After receiving a negative media literacy lesson, adolescent boys regarded television characters as less realistic and believed that drinking alcohol had negative consequences. In contrast, adolescent girls benefited more from a balanced evaluative approach as their media skepticism attitude was enhanced. Results suggest that health educators should choose tailored pedagogical approaches that are based on gender to improve decision making regarding alcohol consumption.

  18. Media Framing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Rasmus T.

    2017-01-01

    The concept of media framing refers to the way in which the news media organize and provide meaning to a news story by emphasizing some parts of reality and disregarding other parts. These patterns of emphasis and exclusion in news coverage create frames that can have considerable effects on news...... consumers’ perceptions and attitudes regarding the given issue or event. This entry briefly elaborates on the concept of media framing, presents key types of media frames, and introduces the research on media framing effects....

  19. Effect of (social) media on the political figure fever model: Jokowi-fever model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yong, Benny; Samat, Nor Azah

    2016-02-01

    In recent years, political figures begin to utilize social media as one of alternative to engage in communication with their supporters. Publics referred to Jokowi, one of the candidates in Indonesia presidential election in 2014, as the first politician in Indonesia to truly understand the power of social media. Social media is very important in shaping public opinion. In this paper, effect of social media on the Jokowi-fever model in a closed population will be discussed. Supporter population is divided into three class sub-population, i.e susceptible supporters, Jokowi infected supporters, and recovered supporters. For case no positive media, there are two equilibrium points; the Jokowi-fever free equilibrium point in which it locally stable if basic reproductive ratio less than one and the Jokowi-fever endemic equilibrium point in which it locally stable if basic reproductive ratio greater than one. For case no negative media, there is only the Jokowi-fever endemic equilibrium point in which it locally stable if the condition is satisfied. Generally, for case positive media proportion is positive, there is no Jokowi-fever free equilibrium point. The numerical result shows that social media gives significantly effect on Jokowi-fever model, a sharp increase or a sharp decrease in the number of Jokowi infected supporters. It is also shown that the boredom rate is one of the sensitive parameters in the Jokowi-fever model; it affects the number of Jokowi infected supporters.

  20. Integrative Student Learning: An Effective Team Learning Activity in a Learner-Centered Paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Karimi, RPh, PhD

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: An Integrative Student Learning (ISL activity was developed with the intent to enhance the dynamic of student teamwork and enhance student learning by fostering critical-thinking skills, self-directed learning skills, and active learning. Case Study: The ISL activity consists of three portions: teambuilding, teamwork, and a facilitator driven “closing the loop” feedback discussion. For teambuilding, a set of clue sheets or manufacturer‘s drug containers were distributed among student pairs who applied their pharmaceutical knowledge to identify two more student pairs with similar clues or drugs, thus building a team of six. For teamwork, each team completed online exams, composed of integrated pharmaceutical science questions with clinical correlates, using only selected online library resources. For the feedback discussion, facilitators evaluated student impressions, opened a discussion about the ISL activity, and provided feedback to teams’ impressions and questions. This study describes three different ISL activities developed and implemented over three days with first year pharmacy students. Facilitators’ interactions with students and three surveys indicated a majority of students preferred ISL over traditional team activities and over 90% agreed ISL activities promoted active learning, critical-thinking, self-directed learning, teamwork, and student confidence in online library searches. Conclusions: The ISL activity has proven to be an effective learning activity that promotes teamwork and integration of didactic pharmaceutical sciences to enhance student learning of didactic materials and confidence in searching online library resources. It was found that all of this can be accomplished in a short amount of class time with a very reasonable amount of preparation.

  1. Integrative Student Learning: An Effective Team Learning Activity in a Learner-Centered Paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Karimi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: An Integrative Student Learning (ISL activity was developed with the intent to enhance the dynamic of student teamwork and enhance student learning by fostering critical-thinking skills, self-directed learning skills, and active learning. Case Study: The ISL activity consists of three portions: teambuilding, teamwork, and a facilitator driven "closing the loop" feedback discussion. For teambuilding, a set of clue sheets or manufacturer's drug containers were distributed among student pairs who applied their pharmaceutical knowledge to identify two more student pairs with similar clues or drugs, thus building a team of six. For teamwork, each team completed online exams, composed of integrated pharmaceutical science questions with clinical correlates, using only selected online library resources. For the feedback discussion, facilitators evaluated student impressions, opened a discussion about the ISL activity, and provided feedback to teams' impressions and questions. This study describes three different ISL activities developed and implemented over three days with first year pharmacy students. Facilitators' interactions with students and three surveys indicated a majority of students preferred ISL over traditional team activities and over 90% agreed ISL activities promoted active learning, critical-thinking, self-directed learning, teamwork, and student confidence in online library searches. Conclusions: The ISL activity has proven to be an effective learning activity that promotes teamwork and integration of didactic pharmaceutical sciences to enhance student learning of didactic materials and confidence in searching online library resources. It was found that all of this can be accomplished in a short amount of class time with a very reasonable amount of preparation.   Type: Case Study

  2. Effect of Acute Effort on Isometric Strength and Body Balance: Trained vs. Untrained Paradigm.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanisław Sterkowicz

    Full Text Available Years of training in competitive sports leads to human body adaptation to a specific type of exercise. In judo bouts, maintaining hand grip on an opponent's clothes and postural balance is essential for the effective technical and tactical actions. This study compares changes after maximal anaerobic exercise among judo athletes and untrained subjects regarding 1 maximum isometric handgrip strength (HGSmax and accuracy at the perceived 50% maximum handgrip force (1/2HGSmax and 2 the balance of 13 judo athletes at national (n = 8 and international (n = 5 competitive levels and 19 untrained university students. The groups did not differ in age, body height, and weight. Body mass index (BMI and body composition (JAWON were evaluated. The Wingate Anaerobic Test (WAnT, Monark 875E measured recommended anaerobic capacity indices. Hand grip strength (Takei dynamometer and balance (biplate balance platform were measured before warm-up (T1, before the WAnT test (T2, and after (T3. Parametric or non-parametric tests were performed after verifying the variable distribution assumption. Judoists had higher BMI and fat-free mass index (FFMI than the students. The athletes also showed higher relative total work and relative peak power and lower levels of lactic acid. The difference in judoists between HGSmax at T1 and HGSmax at T3 was statistically significant. Before warm-up (T1, athletes showed higher strength (more divergent from the calculated ½HGSmax value compared to students. Substantial fatigue after the WAnT test significantly deteriorated the body stability indices, which were significantly better in judo athletes at all time points. The findings suggest specific body adaptations in judoists, especially for body composition, anaerobic energy system efficiency, and postural balance. These characteristics could be trained for specifically by judo athletes to meet the time-motion and anaerobic demands of contemporary bouts.

  3. Effect of Acute Effort on Isometric Strength and Body Balance: Trained vs. Untrained Paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterkowicz, Stanisław; Jaworski, Janusz; Lech, Grzegorz; Pałka, Tomasz; Sterkowicz-Przybycień, Katarzyna; Bujas, Przemysław; Pięta, Paweł; Mościński, Zenon

    2016-01-01

    Years of training in competitive sports leads to human body adaptation to a specific type of exercise. In judo bouts, maintaining hand grip on an opponent's clothes and postural balance is essential for the effective technical and tactical actions. This study compares changes after maximal anaerobic exercise among judo athletes and untrained subjects regarding 1) maximum isometric handgrip strength (HGSmax) and accuracy at the perceived 50% maximum handgrip force (1/2HGSmax) and 2) the balance of 13 judo athletes at national (n = 8) and international (n = 5) competitive levels and 19 untrained university students. The groups did not differ in age, body height, and weight. Body mass index (BMI) and body composition (JAWON) were evaluated. The Wingate Anaerobic Test (WAnT, Monark 875E) measured recommended anaerobic capacity indices. Hand grip strength (Takei dynamometer) and balance (biplate balance platform) were measured before warm-up (T1), before the WAnT test (T2), and after (T3). Parametric or non-parametric tests were performed after verifying the variable distribution assumption. Judoists had higher BMI and fat-free mass index (FFMI) than the students. The athletes also showed higher relative total work and relative peak power and lower levels of lactic acid. The difference in judoists between HGSmax at T1 and HGSmax at T3 was statistically significant. Before warm-up (T1), athletes showed higher strength (more divergent from the calculated ½HGSmax value) compared to students. Substantial fatigue after the WAnT test significantly deteriorated the body stability indices, which were significantly better in judo athletes at all time points. The findings suggest specific body adaptations in judoists, especially for body composition, anaerobic energy system efficiency, and postural balance. These characteristics could be trained for specifically by judo athletes to meet the time-motion and anaerobic demands of contemporary bouts.

  4. Mass media effect on vaccines uptake during silent polio outbreak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagy, Iftach; Novack, Victor; Gdalevich, Michael; Greenberg, Dan

    2018-03-14

    During 2013, isolation of a wild type 1 poliovirus from routine sewage sample in Israel, led to a national OPV campaign. During this period, there was a constant cover of the outbreak by the mass media. To investigate the association of media exposure and OPV and non-OPV vaccines uptake during the 2013 silent polio outbreak in Israel. We received data on daily immunization rates during the outbreak period from the Ministry of Health (MoH). We conducted a multivariable time trend analysis to assess the association between daily media exposure and vaccines uptake. Analysis was stratified by ethnicity and socio-economic status (SES). During the MoH supplemental immunization activity, 138,799 OPV vaccines were given. There was a significant association between media exposure and OPV uptake, most prominent in a lag of 3-5 days from the exposure among Jews (R.R 1.79C.I 95% 1.32-2.41) and high SES subgroups (R.R 1.71C.I 95% 1.27-2.30). These subgroups also showed increased non-OPV uptake in a lag of 3-5 days from the media exposure, in all vaccines except for MMR. Lower SES and non-Jewish subgroups did not demonstrate the same association. Our findings expand the understanding of public behaviour during outbreaks. The public response shows high variability within specific subgroups. These findings highlight the importance of tailored communication strategies for each subgroup. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Comparing the Cost-Effectiveness of Campaigns Delivered via Various Combinations of Television and Online Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Allom

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundReflecting the increasing prevalence of online media, many mass media health campaigns are now delivered using both television (TV and online media formats. The aim of this study was to evaluate a smoking cessation mass media campaign according to the cost-effectiveness of the various combinations of TV and online media formats to inform future media buying decisions.MethodsA quasi-experimental interrupted time series approach was employed. The campaign was delivered in seven 1-week bursts using TV, online video (OV, or online display (OD (e.g., banner ads formats in isolation and in various combinations over a 13-week period. Campaign bursts were separated by “off-weeks” in which no campaign materials were delivered. Assessed outcomes were the number of campaign response “events” recorded (campaign web page views, calls to a smoking cessation telephone service, and registrations for smoking cessation services. The cost-effectiveness of each individual and combined media format condition in terms of these outcome variables was calculated using attributed production and broadcasting costs.ResultsOverall, OD alone was found to be the most cost-effective means of achieving the nominated campaign outcomes, followed by a combination of OV and OD and a combination of TV and OV. The use of TV in isolation was the least cost-effective.ConclusionThe results of this evaluation indicate that online media constitute a promising means of enhancing the cost-effectiveness of smoking cessation campaigns. Future research assessing a broader range of outcomes, especially smoking cessation, is needed to provide a more comprehensive account of the cost-effectiveness of various campaign media.

  6. Comparing the Cost-Effectiveness of Campaigns Delivered via Various Combinations of Television and Online Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allom, Vanessa; Jongenelis, Michelle; Slevin, Terry; Keightley, Stacey; Phillips, Fiona; Beasley, Sarah; Pettigrew, Simone

    2018-01-01

    Reflecting the increasing prevalence of online media, many mass media health campaigns are now delivered using both television (TV) and online media formats. The aim of this study was to evaluate a smoking cessation mass media campaign according to the cost-effectiveness of the various combinations of TV and online media formats to inform future media buying decisions. A quasi-experimental interrupted time series approach was employed. The campaign was delivered in seven 1-week bursts using TV, online video (OV), or online display (OD) (e.g., banner ads) formats in isolation and in various combinations over a 13-week period. Campaign bursts were separated by "off-weeks" in which no campaign materials were delivered. Assessed outcomes were the number of campaign response "events" recorded (campaign web page views, calls to a smoking cessation telephone service, and registrations for smoking cessation services). The cost-effectiveness of each individual and combined media format condition in terms of these outcome variables was calculated using attributed production and broadcasting costs. Overall, OD alone was found to be the most cost-effective means of achieving the nominated campaign outcomes, followed by a combination of OV and OD and a combination of TV and OV. The use of TV in isolation was the least cost-effective. The results of this evaluation indicate that online media constitute a promising means of enhancing the cost-effectiveness of smoking cessation campaigns. Future research assessing a broader range of outcomes, especially smoking cessation, is needed to provide a more comprehensive account of the cost-effectiveness of various campaign media.

  7. Media Literacy and Attitude Change: Assessing the Effectiveness of Media Literacy Training on Children's Responses to Persuasive Messages within the ELM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yates, Bradford L.

    This study adds to the small but growing body of literature that examines the effectiveness of media literacy training on children's responses to persuasive messages. Within the framework of the Elaboration Likelihood Model (ELM) of persuasion, this research investigates whether media literacy training is a moderating variable in the persuasion…

  8. New energy paradigm?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldoni, Giovanni

    2007-01-01

    The rise of oil prices, the difficulties in markets liberalization, and the poor results of competition have convinced many that a new energy paradigm is necessary. Taking the original definition of scientific paradigm, it doesn't seem that a practical solution could be found outside the present paradigm of energy policy, made of privatisation, liberalisation and competition [it

  9. Effective media communication of disasters: Pressing problems and recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ginter Peter M

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Public health officials and journalists play a crucial role in disseminating information regarding natural disasters, terrorism and other human-initiated disasters. However, research suggests that journalists are unprepared to cover terrorism and many types of natural disasters, in part because of lack sufficient expertise in science and medicine and training. The objective of this research was to identify solutions to problems facing journalists and public health public information officer (PIOs of communicating with the public during natural and human-initiated disasters. Methods To assist in identifying the most pressing problems regarding media response to health-related risks such as terrorism and large-scale natural disasters, 26 expert advisors were convened, including leaders representing journalists and public information officers, state health officials, experts in terrorism and emergency preparedness, and experts in health, risk, and science communication. The advisory group participated in pre-arranged interviews and were asked to identify and review bioterrorism educational resources provided to journalist. All advisory group members were then invited to attend a day long meeting January 29, 2004 to review the findings and reach consensus. Results The most pressing problems were found to be a lack of coordination between PIO's and journalists, lack of resources for appropriately evaluating information and disseminating it efficiently, and a difference in perception of PIO's and journalist towards each others role during emergency situations. The advisory board developed a list of 15 recommendations that may enhance communication plans betweens PIO's, journalist and the public. The solutions were meant to be feasible in terms of costs and practical in terms of the professional and organizational realities in which journalists and PIO's work. Conclusion It is clear that PIO's and journalists play crucial roles in

  10. The effect of various media on growth of ebony (Diospyros celebica Bakh seedlings through seeds multiplication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NURUL SUMIASRI

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Study of the effects of various media on growth of ebony (Diospyros celebica Bakh seedlings through seeds multiplication was carried out. The experiment used various media i.e. sands, soil (latosol, compost and EM Bokashi. The study was arranged by Factorial Randomized Block Design with 4 replications, growth parameters were observed i.e. growth percentage, plant height, total leaves, total roots and roots length. The results showed that the best medium of all parameter observed was EM Bokashi and the low results showed by latosol soil medium. Statistically all of parameter observed showed significant level at 5% Duncans’ tested to various media. The best media at the study was EM Bokashi, and could be recommended for media of ebony seed multiplication especially.

  11. Effect on thrombus growth and thrombolysis of two types of osmolar contrast media in rabbits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Levi, M. [=Marcel M.; Pascucci, C.; Agnelli, G.; Sturk, A.; Hoek, J.; ten Cate, J. Wouter

    1990-01-01

    Thromboembolic complications have been reported after diagnostic or interventional radiological procedures. However, contrast media inhibit platelet function and blood coagulation in vitro. To investigate these characteristics in vivo, we determined the effect of nonionic and ionic low osmolar

  12. Effective Social Media Engagement Options for Minnesota’s Diversifying Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-02-02

    Minnesota Department of Transportation (MnDOT) and Minnesota Local Road Research Board (LRRB) supported the University of Minnesota to investigate social media options for effective public engagement. A three-part approach assessed 1) the state of so...

  13. The Effect of Social Media to the Brand Awareness of a Product of a Company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hansel Bagus Tritama

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Social  media  is an online media, where the users can easily participate, share, and create any content such as banner,  posters, videos and advertisement.  Many companies  use these  social  media as  a tool to promote their products  and make  customers aware  with their brand. On the other hand, not all companies  succeed to market their products and make their products are at their customers’ awareness. The purpose of this research is to find the correlation  between social media commu- nication marketing  with companys brand awareness in social media.  The research  method for this research  is quantitative  research.  This method collects  data with explanative research type which explains the relationship between two variables. The result  of this research  is to show that marketing  communication in a company has an impact to company’s brand awareness. In addition, this research wants to show that marketing via social media can give impact  to company’s revenue. The summary of this research  is to get significant  information  about the effect of social media toward companys brand awareness through quantitative  and explanative  research  method due to the rising of social media.

  14. Trait Cheerfulness Does Not Influence Switching Costs But Modulates Preparation and Repetition Effects in a Task-Switching Paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl López-Benítez

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Many studies have shown the beneficial effect of positive emotions on various cognitive processes, such as creativity and cognitive flexibility. Cheerfulness, understood as an affective predisposition to sense of humor, has been associated with positive emotions. So far, however, no studies have shown the relevance of this dimension in cognitive flexibility processes. The aim of this research was to analyze the relationship between cheerfulness and these processes. To this end, we carried out two studies using a task-switching paradigm. Study 1 aimed at analyzing whether high trait cheerfulness was related to better cognitive flexibility (as measured by reduced task-switching costs, whereas Study 2 aimed at replicating the pattern of data observed in Study 1. The total sample was composed of 139 participants (of which 86 were women selected according to their high versus low scores in trait cheerfulness. In a random way, participants had to judge whether the face presented to them in each trial was that of a man or a woman (gender recognition task or whether it expressed anger or happiness (expressed emotion recognition task. We expected participants with high versus low trait cheerfulness to show a lower task-switching cost (i.e., higher cognitive flexibility. Results did not confirm this hypothesis. However, in both studies, participants with high versus low trait cheerfulness showed a higher facilitation effect when the stimuli attributes were repeated and also when a cue was presented anticipating the demand to perform. We discuss the relevance of these results for a better understanding of cheerfulness.

  15. Discovering Influential Users in Social Media to Enhance Effective Advertisement

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad J. Tarokh; Hosniyeh S. Arian; Omid R. B. Speily

    2015-01-01

    Recently, companies have attempted to take advantage of social advertising to deliver their advertisements to appropriate Customer. Social network advertising, also social media targeting is a group of terms that are used to describe forms of online advertising that focus on social networking services. One of the major benefit of this type of advertising is that advertisers can take advantage of the users` demographic information and target their ads appropriately. In social advertising ,iden...

  16. Media Presentation Mode, English Listening Comprehension and Cognitive Load in Ubiquitous Learning Environments: Modality Effect or Redundancy Effect?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chi-Cheng; Lei, Hao; Tseng, Ju-Shih

    2011-01-01

    Although ubiquitous learning enhances students' access to learning materials, it is crucial to find out which media presentation modes produce the best results for English listening comprehension. The present study examined the effect of media presentation mode (sound and text versus sound) on English listening comprehension and cognitive load.…

  17. Media Effects on Ethnic Identity among Linguistic Majorities and Minorities: A Longitudinal Study of a Bilingual Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clement, Richard; Baker, Susan C.; Josephson, Gordon; Noels, Kimberly A.

    2005-01-01

    Research on media effects has documented the media's influence on beliefs and behavior while cross-cultural psychology has documented the effects of the language used in communication on identification with the ingroup and the outgroup. Media usage in the outgroup language should, therefore, affect identification patterns. This research…

  18. [Testing of the effect of classic conditioning stimuli in human experiment by means of the transfer of control paradigm].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolter, J

    1999-01-01

    Pavlovian conditioning in animals is often evaluated by means of transfer of control experiments. With human subjects, however, only very few studies have been conducted and the outcomes were often not in accordance with theoretical explanations based on studies with animals. A theoretical framework is presented that tries to integrate the results of the human conditioning paradigm and the animal conditioning paradigm as well, with reference to the well-known Yerkes-Dodson law. The experimental study with human subjects (N = 24) confirmed the predictions out of this framework, when a procedure similar to animal research is applied.

  19. Effect of Task-Correlated Physiological Fluctuations and Motion in 2D and 3D Echo-Planar Imaging in a Higher Cognitive Level fMRI Paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladstein, Jarle; Evensmoen, Hallvard R; Håberg, Asta K; Kristoffersen, Anders; Goa, Pål E

    2016-01-01

    To compare 2D and 3D echo-planar imaging (EPI) in a higher cognitive level fMRI paradigm. In particular, to study the link between the presence of task-correlated physiological fluctuations and motion and the fMRI contrast estimates from either 2D EPI or 3D EPI datasets, with and without adding nuisance regressors to the model. A signal model in the presence of partly task-correlated fluctuations is derived, and predictions for contrast estimates with and without nuisance regressors are made. Thirty-one healthy volunteers were scanned using 2D EPI and 3D EPI during a virtual environmental learning paradigm. In a subgroup of 7 subjects, heart rate and respiration were logged, and the correlation with the paradigm was evaluated. FMRI analysis was performed using models with and without nuisance regressors. Differences in the mean contrast estimates were investigated by analysis-of-variance using Subject, Sequence, Day, and Run as factors. The distributions of group level contrast estimates were compared. Partially task-correlated fluctuations in respiration, heart rate and motion were observed. Statistically significant differences were found in the mean contrast estimates between the 2D EPI and 3D EPI when using a model without nuisance regressors. The inclusion of nuisance regressors for cardiorespiratory effects and motion reduced the difference to a statistically non-significant level. Furthermore, the contrast estimate values shifted more when including nuisance regressors for 3D EPI compared to 2D EPI. The results are consistent with 3D EPI having a higher sensitivity to fluctuations compared to 2D EPI. In the presence partially task-correlated physiological fluctuations or motion, proper correction is necessary to get expectation correct contrast estimates when using 3D EPI. As such task-correlated physiological fluctuations or motion is difficult to avoid in paradigms exploring higher cognitive functions, 2D EPI seems to be the preferred choice for higher

  20. Effectiveness of four different clinical fMRI paradigms for preoperative regional determination of language lateralization in patients with brain tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaca, Domenico; Deib, Gerard; Pillai, Jay J.; Nickerson, Joshua P.

    2012-01-01

    Blood oxygen level-dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has demonstrated its capability to provide comparable results to gold standard intracarotid sodium amobarbital (Wada) testing for preoperative determination of language hemispheric dominance. However, thus far, no consensus has been established regarding which fMRI paradigms are the most effective for the determination of hemispheric language lateralization in specific categories of patients and specific regions of interest (ROIs). Forty-one brain tumor patients who performed four different language tasks - rhyming (R), silent word generation (SWG) sentence completion, and sentence listening comprehension (LC) - for presurgical language mapping by fMRI were included in this study. A statistical threshold-independent lateralization index (LI) was calculated and compared among the paradigms in four different ROIs for language activation: functional Broca's (BA) and Wernicke's areas (WA) as well as larger anatomically defined expressive (EA) and receptive (RA) areas. The two expressive paradigms evaluated in this study are very good lateralizing tasks in expressive language areas; specifically, a significantly higher mean LI value was noted for SWG (0.36 ± 0.25) compared to LC (0.16 ± 0.24, p = 0.009) and for R (0.40 ± 0.22) compared to LC (0.16 ± 0.24, p = 0.001) in BA. SWG LI (0.28 ± 0.19) was higher than LC LI (0.12 ± 0.16, p = 0.01) also in EA. No significant differences in LI were found among these paradigms in WA or RA. SWG and R are sufficient for the determination of lateralization in expressive language areas, whereas new semantic or receptive paradigms need to be designed for an improved assessment of lateralization in receptive language areas. (orig.)

  1. Effectiveness of four different clinical fMRI paradigms for preoperative regional determination of language lateralization in patients with brain tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaca, Domenico; Deib, Gerard; Pillai, Jay J. [Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine and The Johns Hopkins Hospital, Division of Neuroradiology, Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Baltimore, MD (United States); Nickerson, Joshua P. [University of Vermont School of Medicine/Fletcher Allen Healthcare, Department of Radiology, Burlington, VT (United States)

    2012-09-15

    Blood oxygen level-dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has demonstrated its capability to provide comparable results to gold standard intracarotid sodium amobarbital (Wada) testing for preoperative determination of language hemispheric dominance. However, thus far, no consensus has been established regarding which fMRI paradigms are the most effective for the determination of hemispheric language lateralization in specific categories of patients and specific regions of interest (ROIs). Forty-one brain tumor patients who performed four different language tasks - rhyming (R), silent word generation (SWG) sentence completion, and sentence listening comprehension (LC) - for presurgical language mapping by fMRI were included in this study. A statistical threshold-independent lateralization index (LI) was calculated and compared among the paradigms in four different ROIs for language activation: functional Broca's (BA) and Wernicke's areas (WA) as well as larger anatomically defined expressive (EA) and receptive (RA) areas. The two expressive paradigms evaluated in this study are very good lateralizing tasks in expressive language areas; specifically, a significantly higher mean LI value was noted for SWG (0.36 {+-} 0.25) compared to LC (0.16 {+-} 0.24, p = 0.009) and for R (0.40 {+-} 0.22) compared to LC (0.16 {+-} 0.24, p = 0.001) in BA. SWG LI (0.28 {+-} 0.19) was higher than LC LI (0.12 {+-} 0.16, p = 0.01) also in EA. No significant differences in LI were found among these paradigms in WA or RA. SWG and R are sufficient for the determination of lateralization in expressive language areas, whereas new semantic or receptive paradigms need to be designed for an improved assessment of lateralization in receptive language areas. (orig.)

  2. Randomized Controlled Trial of Social Media: Effect of Increased Intensity of the Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Caroline S; Gurary, Ellen B; Ryan, John; Bonaca, Marc; Barry, Karen; Loscalzo, Joseph; Massaro, Joseph

    2016-04-27

    A prior randomized controlled trial of social media exposure at Circulation determined that social media did not increase 30-day page views. Whether insufficient social media intensity contributed to these results is uncertain. Original article manuscripts were randomized to social media exposure compared with no social media exposure (control) at Circulation beginning in January 2015. Social media exposure consisted of Facebook and Twitter posts on the journal's accounts. To increase social media intensity, a larger base of followers was built using advertising and organic growth, and posts were presented in triplicate and boosted on Facebook and retweeted on Twitter. The primary outcome was 30-day page views. Stopping rules were established at the point that 50% of the manuscripts were randomized and had 30-day follow-up to compare groups on 30-day page views. The trial was stopped for futility on September 26, 2015. Overall, 74 manuscripts were randomized to receive social media exposure, and 78 manuscripts were randomized to the control arm. The intervention and control arms were similar based on article type (P=0.85), geographic location of the corresponding author (P=0.33), and whether the manuscript had an editorial (P=0.80). Median number of 30-day page views was 499.5 in the social media arm and 450.5 in the control arm; there was no evidence of a treatment effect (P=0.38). There were no statistically significant interactions of treatment by manuscript type (P=0.86), by corresponding author (P=0.35), by trimester of publication date (P=0.34), or by editorial status (P=0.79). A more intensive social media strategy did not result in increased 30-day page views of original research. © 2016 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley Blackwell.

  3. A news media analysis of economic sanction effects on access to medicine in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kheirandish, Mehrnaz; Rashidian, Arash; Bigdeli, Maryam

    2015-01-01

    In the past decades economic sanctions have been used by different countries or international organizations in order to deprive target countries of some transactions. While the sanctions do not target health care systems or public health structures, they may, in fact, affect the availability of health care in target countries. In this study, we used media analysis to assess the impacts of recent sanctions imposed by the Central Bank of Iran in 2012 on access to medicines in Iran. We searched different sources of written news media including a database of nonspecialized weeklies and magazines, online news sources, web pages of daily newspapers and healthcare oriented weeklies from 2011 to 2013. We searched the sources using the general term "medicine" to reduce the chances of missing relevant items. The identified news media were read, and categorized under three groups of items announcing "shortage of medicines," "medicines related issues" and "no shortage." We conducted trend analyzes to see whether the news media related to access to medicines were affected by the economic sanctions. A total number of 371 relevant news media were collected. The number of news media related to medicines substantially increased in the study period: 30 (8%), 161 (43%) and 180 (49%) were published in 2011, 2012 and 2013, respectively. While 145 (39%) of media items referred to the shortage of medicines, 97 (26%) reported no shortage or alleviating of concerns. Media analysis suggests a clear increase in the number of news media reporting a shortage in Iran after the sanctions. In 2013, there were accompanying increases in the number of news media reporting alleviation of the shortages of medicines. Our analysis provides evidence of negative effects of the sanctions on access to medicines in Iran.

  4. A news media analysis of economic sanction effects on access to medicine in Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kheirandish, Mehrnaz; Rashidian, Arash; Bigdeli, Maryam

    2015-01-01

    Objective: In the past decades economic sanctions have been used by different countries or international organizations in order to deprive target countries of some transactions. While the sanctions do not target health care systems or public health structures, they may, in fact, affect the availability of health care in target countries. In this study, we used media analysis to assess the impacts of recent sanctions imposed by the Central Bank of Iran in 2012 on access to medicines in Iran. Methods: We searched different sources of written news media including a database of nonspecialized weeklies and magazines, online news sources, web pages of daily newspapers and healthcare oriented weeklies from 2011 to 2013. We searched the sources using the general term “medicine” to reduce the chances of missing relevant items. The identified news media were read, and categorized under three groups of items announcing “shortage of medicines,” “medicines related issues” and “no shortage.” We conducted trend analyzes to see whether the news media related to access to medicines were affected by the economic sanctions. Findings: A total number of 371 relevant news media were collected. The number of news media related to medicines substantially increased in the study period: 30 (8%), 161 (43%) and 180 (49%) were published in 2011, 2012 and 2013, respectively. While 145 (39%) of media items referred to the shortage of medicines, 97 (26%) reported no shortage or alleviating of concerns. Conclusion: Media analysis suggests a clear increase in the number of news media reporting a shortage in Iran after the sanctions. In 2013, there were accompanying increases in the number of news media reporting alleviation of the shortages of medicines. Our analysis provides evidence of negative effects of the sanctions on access to medicines in Iran. PMID:26645026

  5. Did we make it to the news? Effects of actual and perceived media coverage on media orientations of communication professionals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs, S.; Wonneberger, A.

    The aim of this study is to assess the mass media orientations of communication professionals: Is past media coverage for their organization related to the way communication professionals currently evaluate the importance of the media for their organizations? Following the debates on mediatization

  6. Phone conversation while processing information: chronometric analysis of load effects in everyday-media multitasking

    OpenAIRE

    Steinborn, Michael B.; Huestegge, Lynn

    2018-01-01

    This is a pilot study that examined the effect of cell-phone conversation on cognition using a continuous multitasking paradigm. Current theorizing argues that phone conversation affects behavior (e.g., driving) by interfering at a level of cognitive processes (not peripheral activity) and by implying an attentional-failure account. Within the framework of an intermittent spare–utilized capacity threading model, we examined the effect of aspects of (secondary-task) phone conversation on (prim...

  7. Effects of radiographic contrast media on cellular electrophysiology in the beating heart

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolpers, H.G.; Baller, D.; Ensink, F.B.M.; Hoeft, A.; Korb, H.; Hellige, G.

    1982-01-01

    Electrophysiological effects of intracoronarily administered contrast media have been documented in 12 thoracotomized dogs at the cellular level by use of a modified microelectrode technique. Injections (n = 63) of 4 different contrast media uniformly led to a temporary cellular hyperpolarisation of the resting potential and prolongation of the action potential. Additional experiments with intracoronary injections of several electrolyte concentrations, mainly by a local deficiency of potassium ions and an excess of sodium ions. The significance of the findings for mechanisms underlying ECG-changes and ventricular arrhythmia by radiographic contrasts media will be discussed.

  8. Thermal effects and in-plane magnetic anisotropy in thin-film recording media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ajan, Antony; Abarra, E.N.; Acharya, B.R.; Inomata, A.; Okamoto, I.; Shinohara, M.

    2003-01-01

    The effect of thermal activation on the in-plane magnetic anisotropy [measured as orientation ratio (OR)] of granular longitudinal magnetic recording media is investigated. Temperature and time dependent studies were made on media with different magnetic layer thicknesses. We find that OR is independent of temperature for a stable medium but shows a large increase with temperature for thermally unstable media. At low temperatures and high field sweep rates, the OR values are found to be the same, independent of the magnetic layer thickness. The unique value when thermal activation is reduced is consistent with the high population of the cobalt c axes along the texturing direction as the origin of anisotropy

  9. Effect of liquid active media on grinding and scratching of solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pertsov, N.V.; Danilova, F.B.; Babat, I.G.

    1975-01-01

    In the present paper the influence of various liquid active media on grinding of tungsten carbide, hard alloy T 15 K 6, oxide of aluminium A995 and other materials with diamond grinding wheels is investigated. A grinding device is described. The results of the investigations show that materials with metallic type of bonds are most effectively treated in the medium of liquid metals; for material with an ionic structure the active media are water and aqueous solutions of electrolytes. It is pointed out that liquid active media will diminish the specific work of dispergation by as much as one order of magnitude

  10. the effect of THE social media ON young consumers' consumption expenditure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatma Çakır

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Consumers carry mobile devices with them anytime, anywhere. So companieshave to develop new marketing channels to reach their customers. Especiallyseeing the intense interest in social media by young people, marketers add thesocial media applications to their marketing strategies.Consumers who follow spotlight developments, technological developments andfashion are young consumers. Also young people arethe consumers who are themost interested in mobile technologies too. For that reason, the purpose of thisstudy is to identify the effect of the mobile social media on young consumers'consumption expenditure. For this purpose, a questionnaire was administered touniversity students. The results were analyzed withSPSS software.

  11. Diffusion Dominant Solute Transport Modelling In Deep Repository Under The Effect of Emplacement Media Degradation - 13285

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwong, S.; Jivkov, A.P.

    2013-01-01

    Deep geologic disposal of high activity and long-lived radioactive waste is being actively considered and pursued in many countries, where low permeability geological formations are used to provide long term waste contaminant with minimum impact to the environment and risk to the biosphere. A multi-barrier approach that makes use of both engineered and natural barriers (i.e. geological formations) is often used to further enhance the containment performance of the repository. As the deep repository system subjects to a variety of thermo-hydro-chemo-mechanical (THCM) effects over its long 'operational' lifespan (e.g. 0.1 to 1.0 million years, the integrity of the barrier system will decrease over time (e.g. fracturing in rock or clay)). This is broadly referred as media degradation in the present study. This modelling study examines the effects of media degradation on diffusion dominant solute transport in fractured media that are typical of deep geological environment. In particular, reactive solute transport through fractured media is studied using a 2-D model, that considers advection and diffusion, to explore the coupled effects of kinetic and equilibrium chemical processes, while the effects of degradation is studied using a pore network model that considers the media diffusivity and network changes. Model results are presented to demonstrate the use of a 3D pore-network model, using a novel architecture, to calculate macroscopic properties of the medium such as diffusivity, subject to pore space changes as the media degrade. Results from a reactive transport model of a representative geological waste disposal package are also presented to demonstrate the effect of media property change on the solute migration behaviour, illustrating the complex interplay between kinetic biogeochemical processes and diffusion dominant transport. The initial modelling results demonstrate the feasibility of a coupled modelling approach (using pore-network model and reactive

  12. Effectiveness of Social Media Interventions for People With Schizophrenia: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Välimäki, Maritta; Athanasopoulou, Christina; Lahti, Mari; Adams, Clive E

    2016-04-22

    Recent studies have shown that people with serious mental disorders spend time online for the purposes of disclosure, information gathering, or gaming. However, coherent information on the effects of social media on treatment for people with schizophrenia is still lacking. Our aim was to determine the effects of social media interventions for supporting mental health and well-being among people with schizophrenia. A systematic review and meta-analysis were undertaken to determine the effects of social media interventions for supporting mental health and well-being among people with schizophrenia. Ten databases were searched, while search parameters included English-only manuscripts published prior to June 25, 2015. Study appraisals were made independently by 2 reviewers, and qualitative and quantitative syntheses of data were conducted. Out of 1043 identified records, only two randomized studies of moderate quality (three records, total N=331, duration 12 months) met the inclusion criteria. Participants were people with schizophrenia spectrum or an affective disorder. Social media was used as part of Web-based psychoeducation, or as online peer support (listserv and bulletin board). Outcome measures included perceived stress, social support, and disease-related distress. At 3 months, participants with schizophrenia in the intervention group reported lower perceived stress levels (P=.04) and showed a trend for a higher perceived level of social support (P=.06). However, those who reported more positive experiences with the peer support group also reported higher levels of psychological distress (P=.01). Despite using comprehensive searches from 10 databases, we found only two studies, whereas numerous reports have been published citing the benefits of social media in mental health. Findings suggest the effects of social media interventions are largely unknown. More research is needed to understand the effects of social media, for users with and without mental

  13. Hanle effect at forward scattering in excited media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veklenko, B.A.

    2001-01-01

    One introduces a new method to calculate matrix of density of quantized electromagnetic field interacting with environment with kinetic processes in the medium. This method alongside with the accurate account of photon-photon quantum correlators has a number of symmetry features essentially facilitating summing up of appearing Feynman diagrams. Forward scattering of resonance radiation by gas two-level atoms within magnetic field was studied as a supplement. It is shown that inadequacy of semiclassical description of this coherent process in the excited media using unique tensor factor of refraction follows from quantum electrodynamics. One more function depending on frequency of irradiation and on concentration of excited atoms should be introduced [ru

  14. Effect of contrast media iodine concentration on bolus tracking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishihara, Toshihiro; Hayashi, Takayuki; Nakaya, Yoshihiro; Naoi, Kuniji; Ikeno, Naoya; Kobayashi, Tatsushi; Satake, Mitsuo

    2006-01-01

    Computer-assisted bolus tracking has been confirmed to be a useful technique in computed tomography (CT) imaging and allows images to be captured with automated timing. The inflow of the contrast medium is monitored, and when the contrast medium reaches a predetermined level, CT image capture starts automatically. However, it has been shown that the preset threshold value of contrast medium is affected by its iodine concentration, which causes variations in image capture times. Greater speed in current multislice CT imaging requires that medical technicians pay more attention to setting the timing of image capture during venous examinations by taking into account the iodine concentration in contrast media. (author)

  15. Effectiveness of health-promoting media literacy education: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergsma, Lynda J; Carney, Mary E

    2008-06-01

    Media literacy education to promote health among youth involves them in a critical examination of media messages that promote risky behaviors and influence their perceptions and practices. Research on its effectiveness is in its infancy. Studies to date have been conducted with more or less rigor and achieved differing results, leaving many questions about effectiveness unanswered. To elucidate some of these questions, we conducted a systematic review of selected health-promoting media literacy education evaluation/research studies, guided by the following research question: What are the context and process elements of an effective health-promoting media literacy education intervention? Based on extensive analysis of 28 interventions, our findings provide a detailed picture of a small, 16- to 17-year (1990 to July 2006) body of important research, including citation information, health issue, target population/N/age, research design, intervention length and setting, concepts/skills taught, who delivered the intervention and ratings of effectiveness. The review provides a framework for organizing research about media literacy education which suggests that researchers should be more explicit about the media literacy core concepts/skills they are including in their interventions, and should more carefully address who delivered the intervention with what fidelity, in what setting, for how long and utilizing what pedagogical approach.

  16. The role of attention problems and impulsiveness in media violence effects on aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swing, Edward L; Anderson, Craig A

    2014-01-01

    Previous research has established media violence as a causal risk factor for aggressive behavior. Several theoretical mechanisms have been identified to explain this effect. The present study assessed 422 undergraduate students to test the possibility that individual differences in attention problems and impulsiveness can help explain the link between violent media and aggression. Attention problems and impulsiveness proved to be a distinct construct from other processes believed to mediate aggression (aggressive beliefs, aggression related schemata, trait anger, and trait hostility). Attention problems and impulsiveness were uniquely related to both media exposure (total weekly hours and violent content) and aggression. Attention problems and impulsiveness were particularly related to impulsive (as opposed to premeditated) aggression. These results suggest that attention problems and impulsiveness may play an important role in violent media effects on aggression. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Conveying Cutting-Edge Discoveries to Nonscientists: Effective Communication with Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Nikhil; Hamilton, Kathleen; Chamot, Joshua

    2013-07-01

    The benefits of using information and news media for disseminating cutting-edge scientific discoveries to the public are well known. Taxpayers and lawmakers need to be informed about the implications of public investments, young students' interest can be molded toward science- and technology-based careers, and public awareness of important issues can be raised by effectively using media. However, communication with news media is different from the means commonly used by scientists—journal publications and conference presentations. This article is intended to provide information on three basic aspects of media interactions—why, what, and how to communicate. The increasing importance of this mode of dissemination in this information age cannot be ignored; rather, it can be effectively utilized for educating a wider population base.

  18. Social media as an effective tool for creating and building an employer brand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iris Kaiser

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Social media can be an effective tool for creating and building an effective image of an organisation as a trustworthy employer both inside and outside the company. The author has examined the use of social marketing channels by academic institutions. She asked about the role of this communication tool, undertaking the challenge to use social media as a tool for cross-marketing, employer experience of branding through social media. She has also examined employers’ knowledge of what and on which channels employees and “ambassadors” post about their company. Overwhelmingly, the response was obtained “no”, which shows that social media are a tool used only occasionally if at all.

  19. Social media effects on opinion polarization and political participation during the 2015 European immigration movements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ohme, Jakob

    The selective exposure to likeminded political viewpoints on algorithmic social media platforms is seen as a potential source for opinion polarization. But so far, little is known about how realistic this proposed mechanism is. It is furthermore an open question, what effects a potential opinion...... polarization invoked by social media use has on citizens’ democratic behavior, especially in a non-electoral context. Focusing on the issue of immigration during the refugee influx to Europe in autumn 2015, this study investigates the effects of social media usage on attitude polarization and connects...... it to political participation in refugee-related activities. A panel study conducted among Danish citizens (n=847) reveals that frequent social media usage contributes to a reinforcement of existing attitudes and at the same time mobilizes political participation. However, citizens who become more extreme...

  20. Effects of first time voters’ political social media use on electoral behaviour - A smartphone-based measurement of media exposure to political information in an election campaign

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ohme, Jakob; de Vreese, Claes; Jensen, Camilla

    in citizens’ political media diet. Especially social media platforms like Facebook, Twitter or YouTube offer an up-to-date stream of information, easy to tune in and with personalized content citizens (or at least their network) are interested in. A recent study by PEW (Mitchell, Gottfried & Matsa, 2015...... for young citizens in an election campaign. Second, it will concentrate on their social media use to gain not only gain information about the platform first time voters use, but digging deeper to distinguish between types of content their social media exposure to political information consists of. Third......, it will determine what effect the exposure to political information on different media channels can have on electoral participation and their first vote in a national election....

  1. External misattribution of internal thoughts and proneness to auditory hallucinations: the effect of emotional valence in the Deese–Roediger–McDermott paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mari eKanemoto

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have suggested that a tendency to externalize internal thought is related to auditory hallucinations or even proneness to auditory hallucinations (AHp in the general population. However, although auditory hallucinations are related to emotional phenomena, few studies have investigated the effect of emotional valence on the aforementioned relationship. In addition, we do not know what component of psychotic phenomena relate to externalizing bias. The current study replicated our previous research, which suggested that individual differences in auditory hallucination-like experiences are strongly correlated with the external misattribution of internal thoughts, conceptualized in terms of false memory, using the Deese–Roediger–McDermott (DRM paradigm. We found a significant relationship between experimental performance and total scores on the Launay–Slade Hallucination Scale (LSHS. Among the LSHS factors, only vivid mental image, which is said to be a predictor of auditory hallucinations, was significantly related to experimental performance.We then investigated the potential effect of emotional valence using the DRM paradigm. The results indicate that participants with low scores on the LSHS (the low-AHp group in the current study showed an increased discriminability index (d' for positive words and a decreased d' for negative words. However, no effects of emotional valence were found for participants with high LSHS scores (high-AHp group. This study indicated that external misattribution of internal thoughts predicts AHp, and that the high-AHp group showed a smaller emotional valence effect in the DRM paradigm compared with the low-AHp group. We discuss this outcome from the perspective of the dual-process activation-monitoring framework in the DRM paradigm in regard to emotion-driven automatic thought in false memory.

  2. THE EFFECT ON MOTIVATIONS OF NEWS MONITORING OF ADDICTION TO SOCIAL MEDIA

    OpenAIRE

    BECAN, Cihan

    2018-01-01

    The addiction to social media have inevitably increaseddue to the fact that people want to seek information instantly, make some senseout of events in their own environment, to interact with other social groupsfor any issue or meet their own social and psychological needs. Depending onthis addiction to social media, individuals tend to use social networks inorder to get news and much of the daily information. The main of the study isto identify the effects on news monitoring motivations throu...

  3. Short-term mindfulness intervention reduces the negative attentional effects associated with heavy media multitasking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorman, Thomas E; Green, C Shawn

    2016-04-18

    Recent research suggests that frequently switching between various forms of media (i.e. 'media multitasking') is associated with diminished attentional abilities, a disconcerting result given the prevalence of media multitasking in today's society. In the present study, we sought to investigate the extent to which the deficits associated with frequent media multitasking can be temporarily ameliorated via a short-term mindfulness intervention previously shown to produce beneficial effects on the attentional abilities of normally functioning individuals. Consistent with previous work, we found: (1) that heavy media multitaskers showed generally poorer attentional abilities than light media multitaskers and (2) that all participants showed benefits from the short-term mindfulness intervention. Furthermore, we found that the benefits of the short-term mindfulness intervention were not equivalently large across participants. Instead, these benefits were disproportionately large in the heavy media multitaskers. While the positive outcomes were short-lived, this opens the possibility of performing long-term interventions with the goal of realizing lasting gains in this population.

  4. FIR: An Effective Scheme for Extracting Useful Metadata from Social Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Long-Sheng; Lin, Zue-Cheng; Chang, Jing-Rong

    2015-11-01

    Recently, the use of social media for health information exchange is expanding among patients, physicians, and other health care professionals. In medical areas, social media allows non-experts to access, interpret, and generate medical information for their own care and the care of others. Researchers paid much attention on social media in medical educations, patient-pharmacist communications, adverse drug reactions detection, impacts of social media on medicine and healthcare, and so on. However, relatively few papers discuss how to extract useful knowledge from a huge amount of textual comments in social media effectively. Therefore, this study aims to propose a Fuzzy adaptive resonance theory network based Information Retrieval (FIR) scheme by combining Fuzzy adaptive resonance theory (ART) network, Latent Semantic Indexing (LSI), and association rules (AR) discovery to extract knowledge from social media. In our FIR scheme, Fuzzy ART network firstly has been employed to segment comments. Next, for each customer segment, we use LSI technique to retrieve important keywords. Then, in order to make the extracted keywords understandable, association rules mining is presented to organize these extracted keywords to build metadata. These extracted useful voices of customers will be transformed into design needs by using Quality Function Deployment (QFD) for further decision making. Unlike conventional information retrieval techniques which acquire too many keywords to get key points, our FIR scheme can extract understandable metadata from social media.

  5. The Effects of a Nutrition Media Literacy Intervention on Parents' and Youths' Communication about Food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Erica Weintraub; Austin, Bruce W; French, Brian F; Cohen, Marilyn A

    2018-01-01

    Interventions addressing links between media exposure and obesity risk for school-age youth have not explicitly addressed the role of family communication about media. Youths' influence attempts on parents to purchase advertised foods can create conflict and negatively affect parental food choices. This study tested whether a family-based media literacy curriculum improves parents' media management skills and decreases youths' susceptibility to appealing but unrealistic food marketing. A matched-group pretest/posttest field experiment of parent-youth dyads with control group (N = 100 dyads, youth M = 11 years of age) tested the six-session curriculum. Hypotheses were analyzed using a Bayesian structural equation model. The curriculum increased parents' active negative mediation to foster youths' critical thinking about food marketing, b* = 0.35, 95% CCI [0.17, 0.50], increased parent Efficacy for making healthy dietary changes for their families, b* = 0.59, 95% CCI [0.41, 0.75], and fostered family discussion about nutrition labels (total effect = 0.22). Additionally, cumulative influences of Perceived Desirability and Wishful Identification on youths' requests for marketed foods were reduced (total effect = 0.04). Media literacy education can empower parents and improve youths' critical thinking to reduce effects of food marketing on families and improve use of media to obtain nutrition information.

  6. The Next Paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardo Kastrup

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to perceive the world, we need more than just raw sensory input: a subliminal paradigm of thought is required to interpret raw sensory data and, thereby, create the objects and events we perceive around ourselves. As such, the world we see reflects our own unexamined, culture-bound assumptions and expectations, which explains why every generation in history has believed that it more or less understood the world. Today, we perceive a world of objects and events outside and independent of mind, which merely reflects our current paradigm of thought. Anomalies that contradict this paradigm have been accumulated by physicists over the past couple of decades, which will eventually force our culture to move to a new paradigm. Under this new paradigm, a form of universal mind will be viewed as nature’s sole fundamental entity. In this paper, I offer a sketch of what the new paradigm may look like.

  7. Media Baru: Tantangan dan Peluang Dakwah

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Efa Rubawati

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This book describes Da'wah in the New Media Era. The presence of the Internet with the characteristics of interactivity and connectivity, making a new paradigm in preaching. Da'i is no longer the main factor of receiving the message of da'wah maximally by mad'u (object of da'wah because in the networking society, mad'u not only receive passive message of da'wah, they are actively processing and interpreting the message -the message they receive and reshare it in their social media. This becomes a challenge as well as da'wah opportunities, the challenge lies in how the messages of dakwah are not predicted by the logic of the media as well as the understanding of the recitation of the message preachers. But the opportunity to get the messages of dakwah quickly and wisely makes the new media into an effective medium in the activities of propaganda today

  8. Effects of reactive oxygen species levels in prepared culture media on embryo development: a comparison of two media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Ying-Fu; Lee, Tsung-Hsien; Liu, Chung-Hsien; Tsao, Hui-Mei; Huang, Chun-Chia; Lee, Maw-Sheng

    2014-12-01

    This study determined the correlation between the levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in prepared culture media and the early development of human embryos. This was an autocontrolled comparison study. A total of 159 patients undergoing in vitro fertilization/intracytoplasmic sperm injection treatment were recruited in this study. The pH values, osmolarity pressures, and ROS levels of 15 batches of two culture media were measured. Sibling oocytes or embryos from individual patients were randomly assigned to two culture groups with Quinn's Advantage Cleavage and Blastocyst media (QAC/QAB) or GIII series cleavage and blastocyst media (G1.3/G2.3). The difference between the two culture groups was analyzed using one-sample t test. The QAC/QAB and G1.3/G2.3 media exhibited similar pH values and osmolarity pressures. However, the prepared QAC/QAB media were characterized to contain lower amounts of ROS than the G1.3/G2.3 media. Furthermore, the blastocysts that developed under the QAC/QAB media were morphologically superior to those that developed under the G1.3/G2.3 media. The elevated ROS levels in culture media were associated with poor development of blastocyst-stage embryos. Measurement of ROS levels may be a valuable process for medium selection or modification. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. THE EFFECT OF SOCIAL MEDIA MARKETING ACTIVITIES ON BRAND AWARENESS, BRAND IMAGE AND BRAND LOYALTY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuf BİLGİN

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to examine the effect of social media marketing activities on brand awareness, brand image and brand loyalty. In addition, it has been aimed to analyze the effect of brand awareness and brand image on brand loyalty in this research. The population of the research consists of the consumers who actively follow five brands with the highest social score according to the Marketing Turkey social media brand performance data on social media communication channels such as Facebook, Twitter and Instagram. In this research, quantitative method has been used and research data has been obtained via online questionnaires shared on social media from 547 brand followers with applying convenience sampling method. The obtained data have been analyzed by structural equation modeling (SEM. As a result of the analysis, social media marketing activities have been found as effective factors on brand image and brand loyalty, besides it has been determined that the most obvious effect seen on brand awareness. In addition, it has been found out that brand awareness and brand image have a significant effect on brand loyalty. Furthermore, in the research, it has been achieved that the brand awareness has a limited effect on the brand image.

  10. Effects of radiographic contrast media on the serum complement system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tirone, P.; Boldrini, E.

    1983-01-01

    The authors explored the activation of the complement system produced by a nonionic organic iodine compound, namely iopamidol, which is proposed as a contrast medium for radiographic examination by intravenous and intra-arterial injection. The study was conducted in vitro versus established ionic contrasts (diatrizoate, iothalamate, acetrizoate) and a nonionic compound (metrizamide). The adopted experimental model was the immunohemolytic detector system, in which the immune complex consisted of goat erythrocytes sensitized with the corresponding antibody (hemolysin), and complement (C') was supplied by guinea pig serum. All the products caused complement activation. The results show that nonionic contrast media produce less activation of the complement system than the traditional ionic contrast. Thus the use of nonionic contrast for radiological procedures necessitating the introduction of contrast material into the blood compartment would imply a reduced risk of anaphylactoid reactions. (orig.)

  11. Putting Social Media in Its Place: A Curatorial Theory for Media’s Noisy Social Worlds

    OpenAIRE

    Mary L. Gray

    2015-01-01

    The quest to make sense of media’s impact—what it does to us—dominates communication theories and popular discourse about media. But the impulse to collar, cultivate, domesticate, or measure the impact of media on individuals and society can have pernicious effects, too. This essay calls for a set of new analytical models to account for media as messy instantiations of social interaction transforming before our very eyes. We need to shift from a media effects paradigm that narrowly focuses on...

  12. Didaktiske paradigmer og refleksion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Torben Spanget

    2014-01-01

    analysis of subject didactics by Sigmund Ongstad. The two positions offer fundamentally different insights into didactics. Nielsen’s position establishes didactics as a knowledge domain and Ongstad’s position points to the dynamics of subject didactics by analyzing communication as a basic aspect. Krogh...... this article. A possible utilitarian didactical paradigm, already indicated by Krogh as a historical paradigm prominent in our time, is also discussed. It is suggested that reflection could be seen as a normative response to the utilitarian paradigm, and not as a paradigm in its own right. It is concluded...

  13. Examining the effects of media on learners' mental representations and cognitive processes in science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Adrienne L.

    This study examined the effects of television and video games as media on the science knowledge and understanding of middle school students in a Midwest, urban charter school. Twenty-five study participants were organized into eight focus groups. Each group, which comprised of three to four members, was introduced to one of two media types, a television show episode or video games, and then asked a series of questions prompting group dialogue. Results show that students were able to distinguish science ideas presented in the media and made science content connections from previous classroom learning. Implications suggest how teachers can utilize weapons of mass instruction, the tools of media technology, to fight against the challenges that plague our current system of education.

  14. The Effect of Media on Body Image in Pregnant and Postpartum Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyne, Sarah M; Liechty, Toni; Collier, Kevin M; Sharp, Aubrey D; Davis, Emilie J; Kroff, Savannah L

    2018-07-01

    Much research has found that exposure to certain types of media portrayals of women can be related to body image concerns among women. The current paper focuses on the impact of certain messages on pregnant and postpartum women. These women are rarely examined in a media research context but are particularly vulnerable to body image concerns. This experimental study involved 192 pregnant or postpartum women who read a magazine containing glamorized media portrayals of pregnant/postpartum women or a control magazine. Pregnant women reported lower body image after only five minutes of exposure to the magazine with pregnant/postpartum women compared to the control group. There was no immediate effect on postpartum women. Implications for the media industry, health professionals, and women are discussed.

  15. Effects of Social Media in the Tourism Industry of Batangas Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Dexter R. Buted

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available - Social Networking is a powerful medium to advertise good things about people and places. Therefore, it is now being used to promote the tourism industry through networking sites where people mostly communicate and meet new ventures. This study aimed to assess the effects of social media in tourism industry of Batangas province. Descriptive type of research was utilized in the study. Results showed that Facebook, Twitter, YouTube, Blogs and Websites were the social networking site frequently used by individuals and hospitality industry. Social media applications served as an avenue to disseminate the information faster especially for the tourism establishments with lesser cost. The main problem encountered in using social media is that, customers’ opinions, thoughts and expressions are not well presented that leads to bad impressions and unfair criticism. Action plan was proposed to address the problem encountered in using Social Media.

  16. The Yazd People’s Point of View about Effect of Visual Media on Smoking Prevalence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hossein Baghianimoghadam

    2013-10-01

    Results: Based on participants' view role of family, friends and media respectively were more important in tendency of teenagers and adolescents smoking users. Almost 80 percent of subjects showed that influence of smoking in the media on a positive attitude towards tobacco smoking among adolescents and young people was very high. More than 55% of participants confirmed that the lack of smoking in movies is not effective in quality of the films. It was also confirmed, that in last month advertisements and anti-smoking programs were not seen by participants. Conclusion: The present study suggest control and monitoring on media, limitation or lack of smoking on media and films is an important factor to decreasing and control of smoking in adolescents and young adults.

  17. Media effects, interpersonal communication and beyond: An experimental approach to study conversations about the media and their role in news reception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise SOMMER

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims at discussing the challenges and opportunities of laboratory experiments for communicationstudies. An experimental approach to research on TV news effects is presented. It focuses on interpersonal communication about a newscast and simulates the social context of media use and media effects. Based upon two research domains, (1 The role of interpersonal communication in media effects and (2 TV news reception, five hypotheses are derived which are tested in an innovative experimental design integrating survey and observation methods in a combination of media effects study and small group experiment. The influence of conversations on news memory and evaluation is assessed by treating conversations as independent variable in the experiment. In a video observation, the mechanisms of interpersonal communication about the media are identified. A moderating influence of conversations, specifically an enhanced news recall, is revealed. Additionally, the characteristics of the social processing of the media content can be described and applied as possible explanations for the effects of the experimental treatment. Consequently, the advantages of integrative research designs are explicated.

  18. Moderating Effects of Media Exposure between Socioeconomic Position and Cancer Worry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Minsoo

    2015-01-01

    Reducing fear of cancer is significant in developing cancer screening interventions, but the levels of fear may vary depending on the degrees of media exposure as well as individuals’ socioeconomic positions (SEP). However, few studies have examined how the SEP influences the fear of cancer under the moderating process of general and specific forms of media exposure. We investigated the moderating effect of media exposure on the relationship between SEP and the level of fear of cancer by assuming that cancer knowledge is a covariate between those two. In particular, this study examined how exposure to both general and specific media changes the series of processes from SEP to fear of cancer. We conducted path analyses with three types of media—television, radio and the Internet—using data from a health communication survey of 613 adults in Massachusetts in the United States. We found that SEP influences cancer knowledge directly and fear of cancer indirectly, as moderated by the levels of media exposure. Health-specific exposure, however, had a more consistent effect than general media exposure in lowering the fear of cancer by increasing knowledge about cancer. A higher level of health-specific exposure and greater amount of cancer knowledge lessened the fear of cancer. In addition, the more people were exposed to health information on television and the Internet, the lower the level of fear of cancer was a result. These findings indicate a relationship between SEP and fear of cancer, as moderated by the levels and types of media exposure. Furthermore, the findings suggest that for early detection or cancer prevention strategies, health communication approaches through mass media need to be considered. PMID:25081712

  19. The effect of inertially viscous interphase interaction on the acoustic characteristics of disperse media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vladimir S Fedotovsky; Tatiana N Vereshchagina; Alexey V Derbenev

    2005-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: The vibratory-wave dynamics of disperse media with uniformly distributed spherical and ellipsoidal inclusions is considered on the basis of the concept of effective dynamic properties. The notions of effective dynamic density and translation viscosity taking account of the effects of the inertial and viscous interaction of liquid and disperse inclusions are introduced. The effective dynamic properties governing the process of wave propagation in disperse media depend both on the density, viscosity and concentration of components and on the form and orientation of inclusions. It is shown that for disperse media with inclusions as oblate ellipsoids of rotation the effective dynamic density takes the maximum value, whereas for the medium with inclusions as extended ellipsoids - the minimum one. The dynamic density of the medium with spherical inclusions takes the intermediate value. Based on the offered concept, the relations for sound velocity and attenuation in disperse media are derived. It is shown that the acoustic characteristics of disperse media essentially depend on the form of the ellipsoidal inclusions and their orientation relative to the direction of wave propagation. (authors)

  20. The Refugees: Threatening or Beneficial? Exploring the Effects of Positive and Negative Attitudes and Communication on Hostile Media Perceptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorothee Arlt

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In the actual debate on refugees in Germany the media’s role was heavily disputed. To understand this controversy, this study examines hostile media perceptions from the audience perspective. Building up on previous research on the hostile media phenomenon and considering literature on pro- and anti-immigrant attitudes, this study explores the effect of positive and negative attitudes towards refugees as well as of mainstream media, social media and interpersonal communication on hostile media perceptions. Using survey data (N=1005 and applying structural equation modelling, several hypotheses on the effects of attitudes and communication variables were tested. The results demonstrate that perceptions of media bias are strongly influenced by people’s negative and positive attitudes towards refugees and the basic hostile media hypothesis was confirmed. Moreover, our findings reveal that the perceived intensity of media coverage on contested aspects of the refugee issue also has an effect on perceptions of hostility. However, the various communication variables did not prove to have direct effects, whereas mainstream media use, social media use, and interpersonal communication with refugees had indirect effects on the hostile media perception.

  1. Turning Our Gaze to Prosocial Media Effects: What is and isn’t Known

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Prot

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Clark and Giacomantonio (2015 raise several valuable research questions concerning the relationship between empathy and music genre preferences, and present interesting exploratory analyses concerning this issue. This response provides a review of findings from similar past studies in this area and draws out some of the themes that can help the field progress. An overview is given of established effects of prosocial media use on prosocial behavior in real life as well as past findings concerning empathy as a mediator of these effects. Several key research questions that remain to be explored are also considered (such as a need for research concerning potential mediators and moderators of prosocial media effects.

  2. The component structure of ERP subsequent memory effects in the Von Restorff paradigm and the word frequency effect in recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamp, Siri-Maria; Brumback, Ty; Donchin, Emanuel

    2013-11-01

    We examined the degree to which ERP components elicited by items that are isolated from their context, either by their font size ("size isolates") or by their frequency of usage, are correlated with subsequent immediate recall. Study lists contained (a) 15 words including a size isolate, (b) 14 high frequency (HF) words with one low frequency word ("LF isolate"), or (c) 14 LF words with one HF word. We used spatiotemporal PCA to quantify ERP components. We replicated previously reported P300 subsequent memory effects for size isolates and found additional correlations with recall in the novelty P3, a right lateralized positivity, and a left lateralized slow wave that was distinct from the slow wave correlated with recall for nonisolates. LF isolates also showed evidence of a P300 subsequent memory effect and also elicited the left lateralized subsequent memory effect, supporting a role of distinctiveness in word frequency effects in recall. Copyright © 2013 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  3. The Media Mixer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Vitus; Mortensen, Christian Hviid

    2011-01-01

    content. The media content is created by the user in the museum's physical environment, but it can be mixed with material from web archives. It is the intention that the users learn about media through participatory and creative processes with media where the borders between producing, playing......We explore how remixing and content sharing can be used as a means for user participation in a digital museum age. Remix culture is seen as a culture that allows and encourages the production of derivative works; works that are based on already existing works. This cultural practice thrives...... throughout the Internet, most notably on web 2.0 sites like YouTube. The Media Museum has embraced the remix paradigm with the development of an interactive media experience centre called the Media Mixer. Here the museum users can produce, deconstruct, reconstruct and finally publish and share digital media...

  4. An efficient wave extrapolation method for tilted orthorhombic media using effective ellipsoidal models

    KAUST Repository

    Waheed, Umair bin; Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali

    2014-01-01

    The wavefield extrapolation operator for ellipsoidally anisotropic (EA) media offers significant cost reduction compared to that for the orthorhombic case, especially when the symmetry planes are tilted and/or rotated. However, ellipsoidal anisotropy does not provide accurate focusing for media of orthorhombic anisotropy. Therefore, we develop effective EA models that correctly capture the kinematic behavior of the wavefield for tilted orthorhombic (TOR) media. Specifically, we compute effective source-dependent velocities for the EA model using kinematic high-frequency representation of the TOR wavefield. The effective model allows us to use the cheaper EA wavefield extrapolation operator to obtain approximate wavefield solutions for a TOR model. Despite the fact that the effective EA models are obtained by kinematic matching using high-frequency asymptotic, the resulting wavefield contains most of the critical wavefield components, including the frequency dependency and caustics, if present, with reasonable accuracy. The methodology developed here offers a much better cost versus accuracy tradeoff for wavefield computations in TOR media, particularly for media of low to moderate complexity. We demonstrate applicability of the proposed approach on a layered TOR model.

  5. An efficient wave extrapolation method for tilted orthorhombic media using effective ellipsoidal models

    KAUST Repository

    Waheed, Umair bin

    2014-08-01

    The wavefield extrapolation operator for ellipsoidally anisotropic (EA) media offers significant cost reduction compared to that for the orthorhombic case, especially when the symmetry planes are tilted and/or rotated. However, ellipsoidal anisotropy does not provide accurate focusing for media of orthorhombic anisotropy. Therefore, we develop effective EA models that correctly capture the kinematic behavior of the wavefield for tilted orthorhombic (TOR) media. Specifically, we compute effective source-dependent velocities for the EA model using kinematic high-frequency representation of the TOR wavefield. The effective model allows us to use the cheaper EA wavefield extrapolation operator to obtain approximate wavefield solutions for a TOR model. Despite the fact that the effective EA models are obtained by kinematic matching using high-frequency asymptotic, the resulting wavefield contains most of the critical wavefield components, including the frequency dependency and caustics, if present, with reasonable accuracy. The methodology developed here offers a much better cost versus accuracy tradeoff for wavefield computations in TOR media, particularly for media of low to moderate complexity. We demonstrate applicability of the proposed approach on a layered TOR model.

  6. The Effect of Health Beliefs, Media Perceptions, and Communicative Behaviors on Health Behavioral Intention: An Integrated Health Campaign Model on Social Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Sun-Wook; Kim, Jarim; Lee, Yeunjae

    2018-01-01

    Social media have recently gained attention as a potential health campaign tool. This study examines this line of expectation concerning the role social media may play in health campaigns by testing an integrated health campaign model that combines insights from research on social media-specific perceptions and communicative behaviors in order to predict health behaviors. Specifically, this study aims to (a) develop a more holistic social media campaign model for predicting health behaviors in the social media context, (b) investigate how social media channel-related perceptions affect preventive health behaviors, and (c) investigate how communicative behaviors mediate perceptions and behavioral intention. The study conducted an online survey of 498 females who followed the Purple Ribbon Twitter campaign (@pprb), a cervical cancer prevention campaign. The results indicated that information acquisition mediated perceived risk's effect on intention. Information acquisition also mediated the relationships between intention and information selection and information transmission. On the other hand, social media-related perceptions indirectly impacted behavioral intention through communicative behaviors. The findings' theoretical and practical implications are discussed.

  7. Effectiveness of a Mass Media Campaign on Oral Carcinogens and Their Effects on the Oral Cavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Ashish; Rimal, Jyotsna

    2018-03-27

    Objective: To develop a mass media campaign on oral carcinogens and their effects on the oral cavity in order to increase awareness among the general population. Methods: Documentary and public service announcements highlighting the effects of tobacco and its products were designed and developed based on principles of behavior change. A questionnaire, designed to determine the knowledge, attitude and practice of people regarding oral carcinogens, was used to conduct a baseline survey at various sites in eastern Nepal. Local television channels and radio stations broadcasted the documentary and public service announcements. An evaluation survey was then performed to assess the effectiveness of the campaign. Results: Baseline and evaluation surveys covered 1,972 and 2,140 individuals, respectively. A third of the baseline population consumed quid, 22% chewing tobacco, 16% gutka (commercial preparation of arecanut, tobacco, lime and chemicals) and 25% cigarettes. Tobacco consumption differed significantly between 3 ecologic regions with greater use in the Terai region. The knowledge prevalence regarding the oral carcinogens quid (70%), chewing tobacco (82%), gutka (58%) and cigarettes (93%) significantly increased in the evaluation population. Females were more aware about the various tobacco products and their effects on health. More people knew about the harmful effects of tobacco on their health and oral cavity, and had their mouth examined and the frequency of consumption of these products reduced significantly after the campaign. Attitudes towards production, sale and advertisements of tobacco also improved significantly. Conclusions: The mass media campaign was an effective tool for increasing awareness among the population. Creative Commons Attribution License

  8. Effect of Aqueous Media on the Recovery of Scandium by Selective Precipitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bengi Yagmurlu

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available This research presents a novel precipitation method for scandium (Sc concentrate refining from bauxite residue leachates and the effect of aqueous media on this triple-stage successive precipitation process. The precipitation pattern and the precipitation behavior of the constituent elements was investigated using different precipitation agents in three major mineral acid media, namely, H2SO4, HNO3, and HCl in a comparative manner. Experimental investigations showed behavioral similarities between HNO3 and HCl media, while H2SO4 media was different from them because of the nature of the formed complexes. NH4OH was found to be the best precipitation agent in every leaching media to remove Fe(III with low Sc co-precipitation. To limit Sc loss from the system, Fe(III removal was divided into two steps, leading to more than 90% of Fe(III removal at the end of the process. Phosphate concentrates were produced in the final step of the precipitation process with dibasic phosphates which have a strong affinity towards Sc. Concentrates containing more than 50% of ScPO4 were produced in each case from the solutions after Fe(III removal, as described. A flow diagram of the selective precipitation process is proposed for these three mineral acid media with their characteristic parameters.

  9. Study of the effects of stress sensitivity on the permeability and porosity of fractal porous media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan, Xiao-Hua; Li, Xiao-Ping; Liu, Jian-Yi; Zhang, Lie-Hui; Fan, Zhou

    2015-01-01

    Flow in porous media under stress is very important in various scientific and engineering fields. It has been shown that stress plays an important role in effect of permeability and porosity of porous media. In this work, novel predictive models for permeability and porosity of porous media considering stress sensitivity are developed based on the fractal theory and mechanics of materials. Every parameter in the proposed models has clear physical meaning. The proposed models are evaluated using previously published data for permeability and porosity measured in various natural materials. The predictions of permeability and porosity show good agreement with those obtained by the available experimental data and illustrate that the proposed models can be used to characterize the flow in porous media under stress accurately. - Highlights: • Predictive models for permeability and porosity of porous media considering stress sensitivity are developed. • The fractal theory and mechanics of materials are used in these models. • The predictions of permeability and porosity show good agreement with those obtained by the available experimental data. • The proposed models can be used to characterize the flow in porous media under stress accurately

  10. Dynamic paradigm of turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukhamedov, Alfred M.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper a dynamic paradigm of turbulence is proposed. The basic idea consists in the novel definition of chaotic structure given with the help of Pfaff system of PDE associated with the turbulent dynamics. A methodological analysis of the new and the former paradigm is produced

  11. An Integrative Paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammack, Phillip L.

    2005-01-01

    Through the application of life course theory to the study of sexual orientation, this paper specifies a new paradigm for research on human sexual orientation that seeks to reconcile divisions among biological, social science, and humanistic paradigms. Recognizing the historical, social, and cultural relativity of human development, this paradigm…

  12. Numerical analyses on the effect of capillary condensation on gas diffusivities in porous media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimoto, Yuta; Hori, Takuma; Kinefuchi, Ikuya; Takagi, Shu

    2017-11-01

    We investigate the effect of capillary condensation on gas diffusivities in porous media composed of randomly packed spheres with moderate wettability. Lattice density functional theory simulations successfully reproduce realistic adsorption/desorption isotherms and provide fluid density distributions inside the porous media. We find that capillary condensations lead to the occlusion of narrow pores because they preferentially occur at confined spaces surrounded by the solid walls. Consequently, the characteristic lengths of the partially wet structures are larger than those of the corresponding dry structures with the same porosities. Subsequent gas diffusion simulations exploiting the mean-square displacement method indicate that while effective diffusion coefficients significantly decrease in the presence of partially condensed liquids, they are larger than those in the dry structures with the same porosities. Most importantly, we find that the porosity-to-tortuosity ratio, which is a crucial parameter that determines the effective diffusion coefficient, can be reasonably related to the porosity even for the partially wet porous media.

  13. Self-transparency effects in heterogeneous nonlinear scattering media and their possible use in lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al'tshuler, G.B.; Ermolaev, V.S.; Krylov, K.I.; Manenkov, A.A.; Prokhorov, A.M.

    1986-01-01

    Transmission of intense laser beams through heterogeneous scattering media is considered. Effects of intensity limitation, self-recovery of the wave front of a transmitted beam, and bistable reflection associated with the laser-induced self-transparency (suppression of scattering) of such media are predicted because of the compensation of the linear refractive-index difference Δn/sub L/ of the heterocomponents of a medium by nonlinear change Δn/sub N//sub L/ for different mechanisms of nonlinearity. Applications of these effects in lasers for Q switching and mode locking are discussed. The observation of self-transparency effects in several heterogeneous media (glass particles in toluene and nitrobenzene, and lead molybdenite powder) for cw Ar- and pulsed Nd- and CO 2 -laser radiation is reported. Q switching and mode locking have also been demonstrated with a YAG:Nd laser using nonlinear scattering in a heterogeneous cell as a control element in a laser resonator

  14. The effective thermal conductivity of porous media based on statistical self-similarity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kou Jianlong; Wu Fengmin; Lu Hangjun; Xu Yousheng; Song Fuquan

    2009-01-01

    A fractal model is presented based on the thermal-electrical analogy technique and statistical self-similarity of fractal saturated porous media. A dimensionless effective thermal conductivity of saturated fractal porous media is studied by the relationship between the dimensionless effective thermal conductivity and the geometrical parameters of porous media with no empirical constant. Through this study, it is shown that the dimensionless effective thermal conductivity decreases with the increase of porosity (φ) and pore area fractal dimension (D f ) when k s /k g >1. The opposite trends is observed when k s /k g t ). The model predictions are compared with existing experimental data and the results show that they are in good agreement with existing experimental data.

  15. Quantifying the persistence of pro-smoking media effects on college students' smoking risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setodji, Claude M; Martino, Steven C; Scharf, Deborah M; Shadel, William G

    2014-04-01

    To quantify the persistence of pro-smoking media exposure effects on college students' intentions to smoke and smoking refusal self-efficacy. A total of 134 college students (ages 18-24 years) were enrolled in an ecological momentary assessment study in which they carried handheld data collection devices for 3 weeks and reported their exposures to pro-smoking media as they occurred in the real world. Smoking intentions and smoking refusal self-efficacy were assessed after each exposure to pro-smoking media and at random prompts during each day of the 3-week assessment period. A generalized additive model was used to determine how long the effect of an exposure to pro-smoking media persisted. The effect of pro-smoking media exposures persisted for 7 days. After exposure, smoking intentions immediately increased (.56; 95% confidence interval [CI]: [.26, .87]) and then steadily decreased (-.12; 95% CI: [-.19, -.05]) each day for 7 days, while smoking refusal self-efficacy immediately decreased (-.42; 95% CI: [-.75, -.10]) and then steadily increased (.09; 95% CI: [.02, .16]) each day for 7 days. Daily changes occurring after 7 days were not statistically significant, suggesting that smoking intentions and refusal self-efficacy had stabilized and were no longer affected by pro-smoking media exposure. Exposures to pro-smoking media may have strong implications for emerging young adults smoking risk as the impact of an individual exposure appears to persist for at least a week. Copyright © 2014 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. All rights reserved.

  16. Clarifying the paradigm on radiator effects and safety management: unscear report on attribution on effects and inference of risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzaelez, Abel J.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to describe a relatively recent international agreement on the widely debated concepts of: (i) attributing effects to low dose radiation exposure situations that have occurred in the past and, (ii) inferring radiation risk to situations that are planned to occur in the future. An important global consensus has been recently achieved on these fundamental issues at the level of the highest international intergovernmental body: the General Assembly of the United Nations. The General Assembly has welcomed with appreciation a scientific report on attributing health effects to radiation exposure and inferring risks that had been prepared the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR) following a formal request by the General Assembly.

  17. Effects of gravity and inlet location on a two-phase countercurrent imbibition in porous media

    KAUST Repository

    El-Amin, Mohamed; Salama, Amgad; Sun, S.

    2012-01-01

    We introduce a numerical investigation of the effect of gravity on the problem of two-phase countercurrent imbibition in porous media. We consider three cases of inlet location, namely, from, side, top, and bottom. A 2D rectangular domain is considered for numerical simulation. The results indicate that gravity has a significant effect depending on open-boundary location.

  18. Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole in children with chronic otitis media: a randomized comparison of costs and effects.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boonacker, C.W.; Veen, E.L. van der; Wilt, G.J. van der; Schilder, A.G.M.; Rovers, M.M.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study the cost-effectiveness of a 6- to 12-week course of high-dose oral trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole in children with chronic active otitis media (COM). STUDY DESIGN: Cost-effectiveness study including both direct and indirect costs alongside a randomized placebo-controlled trial.

  19. Quantitative dosimetric assessment for effect of gold nanoparticles as contrast media on radiotherapy planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Shu-Ju; Yang, Pei-Ying; Hong, Ji-Hong; Lo, Ching-Jung

    2013-07-01

    In CT planning for radiation therapy, patients may be asked to have a medical procedure of contrast agent (CA) administration as required by their physicians. CA media improve quality of CT images and assist radiation oncologists in delineation of the target or organs with accuracy. However, dosimetric discrepancy may occur between scenarios in which CA media are present in CT planning and absent in treatment delivery. In recent preclinical experiments of small animals, gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) have been identified as an excellent contrast material of x-ray imaging. In this work, we quantitatively evaluate the effect of AuNPs to be used as a potential material of contrast enhancement in radiotherapy planning with an analytical phantom and clinical case. Conray 60, an iodine-based product for contrast enhancement in clinical uses, is included as a comparison. Other additional variables such as different concentrations of CA media, radiation delivery techniques and dose calculation algorithms are included. We consider 1-field AP, 4-field box, 7-field intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and a recent technique of volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT). CA media of AuNPs (Conray 60) with concentrations of 10%, 20%, 30%, 40% and 50% containing 28.2, 56.4, 84.6, 112.8 and 141.0 mg of gold (iodine) per mL were prepared prior to CT scanning. A virtual phantom with a target where nanoparticle media are loaded and clinical case of gastric lymphoma in which the Conray 60 media were given to the patient prior to the CT planning are included for the study. Compared to Conray 60 media with concentration of 10%/50%, Hounsfield units for AuNP media of 10%/50% are 322/1608 higher due to the fact that atomic number of Au (Z=79) is larger than I (Z=53). In consequence, dosimetric discrepancy of AuNPs is magnified between presence and absence of contrast media. It was found in the phantom study that percent dose differences between presence and absence of CA media may be

  20. Do universal media literacy programs have an effect on weight and shape concern by influencing media internalization?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, Tracey D; Wilksch, Simon M; Paxton, Susan J; Byrne, Susan M; Austin, S Bryn

    2017-07-01

    The current study examined whether media internalization, found to mediate the relationship between selected prevention programs and outcomes, mediated the impact of two universal prevention programs that targeted risk factors for eating disorders and obesity, namely weight concern, and shape concern. Students randomized to a media literacy (Media Smart) program (N = 269, 65% females, mean age 12.97 years) and a healthy lifestyle (Life Smart) program (N = 347, 69% females, mean age 13.07 years) were included in the analyses. There were four waves of data (baseline, end of intervention, 6- and 12-month follow-up). Latent growth curve modeling was used to explore whether group assignment influenced levels of media internalization, and whether that in turn influenced change over time of our two outcome variables. Being randomly allocated to Media Smart as opposed to Life Smart resulted in less growth of both outcome variables through the influence on decreasing levels of media internalization. Findings provided support for the suggestion that media literacy programs exert an impact on outcomes related to eating disorder risk through changes to media internalization. Future research should examine whether these mechanisms of change differ between girls and boys. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. The other-race effect in face learning: Using naturalistic images to investigate face ethnicity effects in a learning paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayward, William G; Favelle, Simone K; Oxner, Matt; Chu, Ming Hon; Lam, Sze Man

    2017-05-01

    The other-race effect in face identification has been reported in many situations and by many different ethnicities, yet it remains poorly understood. One reason for this lack of clarity may be a limitation in the methodologies that have been used to test it. Experiments typically use an old-new recognition task to demonstrate the existence of the other-race effect, but such tasks are susceptible to different social and perceptual influences, particularly in terms of the extent to which all faces are equally individuated at study. In this paper we report an experiment in which we used a face learning methodology to measure the other-race effect. We obtained naturalistic photographs of Chinese and Caucasian individuals, which allowed us to test the ability of participants to generalize their learning to new ecologically valid exemplars of a face identity. We show a strong own-race advantage in face learning, such that participants required many fewer trials to learn names of own-race individuals than those of other-race individuals and were better able to identify learned own-race individuals in novel naturalistic stimuli. Since our methodology requires individuation of all faces, and generalization over large image changes, our finding of an other-race effect can be attributed to a specific deficit in the sensitivity of perceptual and memory processes to other-race faces.

  2. Media Art

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekman, Ulrik

    2015-01-01

    environments, experience time, and develop identities individually and socially. Interviews with working media artists lend further perspectives on these cultural transformations. Drawing on cultural theory, new media art studies, human-computer interaction theory, and software studies, this cutting-edge book...... critically unpacks the complex ubiquity-effects confronting us every day....

  3. The uncertain first-time voter: Effects of political media exposure on young citizens’ formation of vote choice in a digital media environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ohme, Jakob; de Vreese, Claes Holger; Albæk, Erik

    2018-01-01

    The digital media environment changes the way citizens receive political information, also during an election campaign. Particularly first-time voters increasingly use social media platforms as news sources. Yet, it is less clear how accessing political information in such a unique social setting...... exposure and certainty can be mediated by active campaign participation. An 11-wave national panel study was conducted, using a smartphone-based assessment of citizens’ (n = 1108) media exposure and vote choice certainty across the campaign period. Results suggest that first-time voters’ social media...... affects these cohorts’ decision-making processes during an election campaign, compared to experienced voters. We compare effects of these two groups’ political information exposure on their vote choice certainty during the 2015 Danish national election. We furthermore test how the relation between...

  4. Identification and location tasks rely on different mental processes: a diffusion model account of validity effects in spatial cueing paradigms with emotional stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imhoff, Roland; Lange, Jens; Germar, Markus

    2018-02-22

    Spatial cueing paradigms are popular tools to assess human attention to emotional stimuli, but different variants of these paradigms differ in what participants' primary task is. In one variant, participants indicate the location of the target (location task), whereas in the other they indicate the shape of the target (identification task). In the present paper we test the idea that although these two variants produce seemingly comparable cue validity effects on response times, they rest on different underlying processes. Across four studies (total N = 397; two in the supplement) using both variants and manipulating the motivational relevance of cue content, diffusion model analyses revealed that cue validity effects in location tasks are primarily driven by response biases, whereas the same effect rests on delay due to attention to the cue in identification tasks. Based on this, we predict and empirically support that a symmetrical distribution of valid and invalid cues would reduce cue validity effects in location tasks to a greater extent than in identification tasks. Across all variants of the task, we fail to replicate the effect of greater cue validity effects for arousing (vs. neutral) stimuli. We discuss the implications of these findings for best practice in spatial cueing research.

  5. It's time to re-think the radiation paradigm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sagan, L.A.

    1992-01-01

    Several observers have noted a striking difference in views of the public and the scientific community regarding risks to health from exposures to low dose ionizing radiation. While the scientific community considers risks to be small, the public generally finds almost any degree of exposure unacceptable. For example, the siting of a repository for low level waste in the United States has been nearly impossible, in spite of reassurances of scientific authorities. Besides a variety of explanations such as the role of the media, grotesque movies and comics, and the thought of atomic weapons, there is another one, which has not received much attention; the scientific community itself in creating exaggerated risks of radiation, particularly to low doses of irradiation. This occurs as result of the use by the scientific community, of a risk paradigm that assumes a convenient but unproven absence of a threshold for radiation health effects. Two reasons for this paradigm are discussed: -the practice, common in science, of adopting a model, which through usage become an article of faith, to the exclusion of other competing models, and -the implicit influence of personal and community values in the construction and maintenance of those paradigms. (author). 12 refs

  6. Effects of oxcarbazepine treatment on serum lipids and carotid intima media thickness in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yiş, Uluç; Doğan, Mustafa

    2012-03-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the carotid intima media thickness and serum lipids in pediatric patients with epilepsy treated with oxcarbazepine. The study included 21 pediatric epileptic and 22 healthy children. Intima media thickness and fasting lipid profile were assessed. Although the median value of total cholesterol was in normal limits in the oxcarbazepine group, it was significantly higher when compared with the control group. We did not observe any differences regarding triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and carotid intima media thickness. We suggest that oxcarbazepine treatment in children has a minor effect on serum lipids and it does not seem to have an atherogenic effect. Copyright © 2011 The Japanese Society of Child Neurology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Prophylaxis and treatment of side effects due to iodinated contrast media relevant to radiological practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, C.

    2007-01-01

    Increased utilization of iodinated contrast media may be associated with increased incidence of adverse events. The most important side effects include contrast-induced nephropathy, anaphylactoid reaction, thyrotoxicosis, and extravasation. In patients with moderate renal dysfunction, saline hydration and reduction of contrast media volume are recommended. No regime to prevent anaphylactoid reactions has yet proven to be efficient. If subclinical hyperthyroidism has been determined, prophylaxis with sodium perchlorate is advised. Contrast-induced nephropathy is commonly transient and needs to be followed over time. Mild general anaphylactoid reactions may be treated with antihistaminic drugs and corticosteroids. Furthermore the choice of the X-ray contrast media might influence the risk of any adverse effects. (orig.) [de

  8. Media violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantor, J

    2000-08-01

    Research on the effects of media violence is not well understood by the general public. Despite this fact, there is an overwhelming consensus in the scientific literature about the unhealthy effects of media violence. Meta-analyses show that media-violence viewing consistently is associated with higher levels of antisocial behavior, ranging from the trivial (imitative violence directed against toys) to the serious (criminal violence), with many consequential outcomes in between (acceptance of violence as a solution to problems, increased feelings of hostility, and the apparent delivery of painful stimulation to another person). Desensitization is another well-documented effect of viewing violence, which is observable in reduced arousal and emotional disturbance while witnessing violence, the reduced tendency to intervene in a fight, and less sympathy for the victims of violence. Although there is evidence that youth who are already violent are more likely to seek out violent entertainment, there is strong evidence that the relationship between violence viewing and antisocial behavior is bidirectional. There is growing evidence that media violence also engenders intense fear in children which often lasts days, months, and even years. The media's potential role in solutions to these problems is only beginning to be explored, in investigations examining the uses and effects of movie ratings, television ratings, and the V-chip, and the effects of media literacy programs and public education efforts. Future research should explore important individual differences in responses to media violence and effective ways to intervene in the negative effects.

  9. Assessing antibacterial effect of filter media coated with silver nanoparticles against Bacillus spp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmood Nafisi Bahabadi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Nanotechnology is a field of applied science and technology covering a broad range of topics. Use of nanotechnology and especially silver nanoparticles in control of bacterial diseases and infections has been studied in the recent years. The aim of the present study was to investigate the in vitro antibacterial effect of filter media coated with silver nanoparticles against Bacillus spp. Materials and methods: In this research, first, the antibacterial effects of silver nanoparticles against mentioned bacteria were evaluated by microdilution method in Broth medium. After confidence of inhibitory effect of colloidal silver nanoparticles, antibacterial effect of filter media coated with silver nanoparticles was evaluated via in vitro microbiology tests (zone of inhibition test and test tube test. Results: Present study showed that colloidal silver nanoparticles have good antimicrobial effects against tested bacteria, so that MIC and MBC of silver nanoparticles for Bacillus spp. were calculated 3.9 and 31.25 mg/L, respectively. Also significant decrease was observed in bacterial growth after exposure to filter media coated with silver nanoparticles in test tube test and  zone of inhibition test (P≤ 5%. Conclusion: The results of this research indicate that filter media coated with silver nanoparticles have considerable antimicrobial effects; therefore they could possibly be used as excellent antibacterial water filters and would have several applications in other sectors.

  10. Utilization of Mass Media and Effects for Developing Women’s Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sema Ozbas

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Women's health, family and society resulting from psycho-social factors, women's individual health status, fertility behavior, such as the quality of health services are affected by many factors. Factors that affect health because they are many and various, to develop health strategies and actions are also many and varied. Therefore, the development of health issue, not only the health sector, many sectors of the business. One of the most important of these sectors is the media. Women how to mass media can reach, when they choose what is, and these preferences in women's health in developing discuss how the effective use of women in this study visual media to reach out difficulties they were experiencing. Especially in rural areas, it is observed more pronounced. Women in the use of the media gather useful information, they apply this knowledge in the development of their health and it was concluded that the media would be effective. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2010; 9(5.000: 541-546

  11. The effect of priming materialism on women's responses to thin-ideal media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashikali, Eleni-Marina; Dittmar, Helga

    2012-12-01

    Consumer culture is characterized by two prominent ideals: the 'body perfect' and the material 'good life'. Although the impact of these ideals has been investigated in separate research literatures, no previous research has examined whether materialism is linked to women's responses to thin-ideal media. Data from several studies confirm that the internalization of materialistic and body-ideal values is positively linked in women. After developing a prime for materialism (N = 50), we present an experimental examination (N = 155) of the effects of priming materialism on women's responses to thin-ideal media, using multiple outcome measures of state body dissatisfaction. Priming materialism affects women's body dissatisfaction after exposure to thin media models, but differently depending on the dimension of body image measured. The two main novel findings are that (1) priming materialism heightens the centrality of appearance to women's self-concept and (2) priming materialism influences the activation of body-related self-discrepancies (BRSDs), particularly for highly materialistic women. Exposure to materialistic media has a clear influence on women's body image, with trait materialism a further vulnerability factor for negative exposure effects in response to idealized, thin media models. ©2011 The British Psychological Society.

  12. Effect of Chemical Reactions on the Hydrologic Properties of Fractured and Rubbelized Glass Media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saripalli, Prasad; Meyer, P D.; Parker, Kent E.; Lindberg, Michael J.

    2005-01-01

    Understanding the effect of chemical reactions on the hydrologic properties of geological media, such as porosity, permeability and dispersivity, is critical to many natural and engineered sub-surface systems. Influence of glass corrosion (precipitation and dissolution) reactions on fractured and rubbelized (crushed) forms HAN28 and LAWBP1, two candidate waste glass forms for a proposed immobilized low-activity waste (ILAW) disposal facility at the Hanford, WA site, was investigated. Flow and tracer transport experiments were conducted using fractured and rubbelized forms, before and after subjecting them to corrosion using Vapor Hydration Testing (VHT) at 200 C temperature and 200 psig pressure, causing the precipitation of alteration products. Data were analyzed using analytical expressions and CXTFIT, a transport parameter optimization code, for the estimation of the hydrologic characteristics before and after VHT. It was found that glass reactions significantly influence the hydrologic properties of ILAW glass media. Hydrologic properties of rubbelized glass decreased due to precipitation reactions, whereas those of fractured glass media increased due to reaction which led to unconfined expansion of fracture aperture. The results are unique and useful to better understand the effect of chemical reactions on the hydrologic properties of fractured and rubbelized stony media in general and glass media in particular

  13. The effects of media on the level of accountability of public organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrdad Matani

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available One of the features of democratic political systems is the accountability against their own performances. Media, one of the powerful elements of civil society and effectual on public thought, plays an important role in making the government responsive. To achieve this goal, the present study tries to investigate the effect of media on the improvement of the accountability level of the government agencies. The statistical society of this research includes all male students of Azad Ghaemshahr University where 320 students were selected through purposive sampling method based on Kerjesy and Morgan table. Applied research method is used in this survey. A researcher-made questionnaire was used to collect the required data. In order to validate the instrument, appropriate questions related to each variable were extracted from valid sources and finally approved by authorities. In order to calculate the reliability of the questionnaire, Cronbach’s alpha was calculated to be 89. Since the distribution of the data was normal, parametric statistical tests were used to testify the hypotheses. The findings of the study show that the media could be effective in terms of making public organizations responsive, through leading and training the public, unifying demands, and monitoring and broadcasting. However, the findings reveal that if the media were free and independent, they would better perform their responsibilities. Finally, the study at hand concludes that in comparison to other media, television is much more powerful in terms of pushing the public sector to be responsive.

  14. No effect of embryo culture media on birthweight and length of newborns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shengli; Li, Ming; Lian, Ying; Chen, Lixue; Liu, Ping

    2013-07-01

    Does the type of media used to culture embryos for IVF influence the birthweight and length of neonates? No significant differences were observed in birthweight and length among the three embryo culture media used for in vitro embryo culture. Since the establishment of IVF as an assisted reproductive technology (ART), many different culture systems have been used for the development of human embryos. Some studies have shown that the types of culture media influence the newborn birthweight; however, other studies have shown no effect. To further explore this contradictory issue, we compared the birthweight and length of neonates born after the transfer of embryos cultured in one of three commercially available media. This retrospective analysis of birthweight and length of newborns included 1201 women who delivered singletons and 445 women who delivered twins. The following three commercially available culture media were used: G5™, Global and Quinn's advantage media. Women who underwent IVF-ET cycles between 2008 and 2010 were analyzed. Patients younger than 40 years of age with a body mass index (BMI) culture medium. Inter-twin mean birthweight and length disparities were analyzed, but were not shown to be significantly different. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that maternal weight, maternal height, gestational age and infant gender were significantly related to birthweight, and paternal height, gestational age and newborn complications were significantly associated with birth length. The current study showed that birthweight and length of newborns were not associated with the embryo culture medium. More research needs to be performed to analyze the effects of other culture medium formulations and to evaluate the long-term effects of embryo culture medium on the health of children conceived through ART. WIDER IMPLICATIONS OF THESE FINDINGS: Our retrospective study suggests that embryo culture medium does not influence neonatal birthweight and length

  15. Speciation of technetium in acidic media: effect of α radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denden, Ibtihel

    2013-01-01

    This project is part of the fundamental study of technetium speciation in highly acidic medium. The behaviour of technetium in HTFMS was carried out in the absence then in the presence of a irradiation. Given these two different conditions, spectrophotometric results of Tc(VII) reduction are similar. XAS analysis indicates the formation of a cyclic dimer of Tc(IV) complexed to triflate ligands and formulated asTc 2 O 2 (CF 3 SO 3 ) 4 (H 2 O)4. This compound is linearized to Tc(IV)-O-Tc(IV) with the increase of HTFMS concentration. At high concentration of HTFMS +98% (11.15 M), the protonated species TcO 3 (OH)(H 2 O) 2 which is formed in the absence of external ionizing radiations, is reduced to the V oxidation state under a irradiation. Structural characterization by EXAFS spectroscopy and DFT calculations suggests the formation of monomer species of Tc(V)-triflate complexes where [OTc(F 3 CSO 3 ) 2 (H 2 O)2] + and [OTc(F 3 CSO 3 ) 2 (OH) 2 ] - compounds were proposed. In concentrated H 2 SO 4 (CH 2 SO 4 ≥ 12 M), a-radiolysis experiments of Tc(VII) were performed in order to compare the radiolytic behaviour of Tc(VII) in both comparable media HTFMS and H 2 SO 4 . XANES studies show that radiolytic reduction of Tc(VII) leads to the formation of Tc(V)-Tc(VII) mixture in H 2 SO 4 13 M and just Tc(V) in 18 M of H 2 SO 4 . The analysis of EXAFS spectra is consistent with the formation of [TcO(HSO 4 ) 3 (H 2 O) 2 ] and [TcO(HSO 4 )3(H 2 O)(OH)] - monomer complexes in H 2 SO 4 13 M and [Tc(HSO 4 ) 3 (SO 4 )(H 2 O)] and [Tc(HSO 4 ) 3 (SO 4 )(OH)] - species at 18 M of H 2 SO 4 . (author)

  16. Evaluation of the effect of media velocity on HEPA filter performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alderman, Steven; Parsons, Michael; Hogancamp, Kristina; Norton, O. Perry; Waggoner, Charles

    2007-01-01

    Section FC of the ASME AG-1 Code addresses glass fiber HEPA filters and restricts the media velocity to a maximum of 2.54 cm/s (5 ft/min). Advances in filter media technology allow glass fiber HEPA filters to function at significantly higher velocities and still achieve HEPA performance. However, diffusional capture of particles < 100 nm is reduced at higher media velocities due to shorter residence times within the media matrix. Therefore, it is unlikely that higher media velocities for HEPA filters will be allowed without data to demonstrate the effect of media velocity on removal of particles in the smaller size classes. In order to address this issue, static testing has been conducted to generate performance related data and a range of dynamic testing has provided data regarding filter lifetimes, loading characteristics, changes in filter efficiency and the most penetrating particle size over time. Testing was conducted using 31 cm x 31 cm x 29 cm deep pleat HEPA filters supplied from two manufacturers. Testing was conducted at media velocities ranging from 2.0-4.5 cm/s with a solid aerosol challenge composed of potassium chloride. Two set of media velocity data were obtained for each filter type. In one set of evaluations, the maximum aerosol challenge particle size was limited to 3 μm, while particles above 3 μm were not constrained in the second set. This provided for considerable variability in the challenge mass mean diameter and overall mass loading rate. Results of this testing will be provided to the ASME AG-1 FC Committee for consideration in future versions of the HEPA standard. In general, the initial filter efficiency decreased with increasing media velocity. However, initial filter efficiencies were generally good in all cases. Filter efficiency values averaged over the first ten minute of the loading cycle ranged from 99.970 to 99.996 %. Additionally, the most penetrating particle size was observed to decrease with increasing media velocity

  17. Social media use in healthcare: A systematic review of effects on patients and on their relationship with healthcare professionals

    OpenAIRE

    Smailhodzic, Edin; Hooijsma, Wyanda; Boonstra, Albert; Langley, David J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Since the emergence of social media in 2004, a growing percentage of patients use this technology for health related reasons. To reflect on the alleged beneficial and potentially harmful effects of social media use by patients, the aim of this paper is to provide an overview of the extant literature on the effects of social media use for health related reasons on patients and their relationship with healthcare professionals. Methods We conducted a systematic literature review on em...

  18. Media Effects on the New York Times' “the Women's March in Washington” Video News Coverage on Facebook

    OpenAIRE

    AGRIPHINA, ALMIRA

    2017-01-01

    The reliance towards Facebook in regard to obtaining information becomes a news habit among the society. Considerable number of news coverage from media is accessible to Facebook which creates effects on the audience on account of the media exposure. The study is conducted for the purposes of analyzing news elements which are embedded in The New York Times' “The Women's March in Wahsington”video news coverage on Facebook and discovering the effects of the coverage towards media audience. This...

  19. Of Paradigms and Power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carstensen, Martin B.; Matthijs, Matthias

    in the study of policy paradigms. To demonstrate the general applicability of our framework, the paper examines the evolution of British macroeconomic policy making since 1990. We show that various Prime Ministers and their Chancellors were able to reinterpret and redefine the dominant neoliberal understanding......? Despite the profound impact of Peter Hall’s approach to policy paradigms and social learning, there is a burgeoning consensus that transposing a rudimentary ‘Kuhnian’ understanding of paradigms into the context of public policy making leads to a notion of punctuated equilibrium style shifts as the only...

  20. The Oral Paradigm and Snapchat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oren Soffer

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this short essay, I argue that the ephemeral nature of emerging instant-messaging applications, such as Snapchat, applies an oral paradigm. While online discourse of computer-mediated communication shares many qualities with oral communication, the case of ephemeral applications is unique, as the oral features are already integrated in the application technology design and as orality is often implemented on highly visual products. Snapchat applies technology that fades visual contents as if they were spoken words fading in the air after utterance. Moreover, Snapchat’s promise to delete all messages from its database after they are viewed echoes a key characteristic of primary oral culture: that is, the inability (and in our case, the obligation not to store knowledge. In this, Snapchat demonstrates counter-logic to the contemporary grammar of new media, which is based on information aggregation.

  1. The effect of growing media and concentration of nutrient solution on growth, flowering and macroelement content of media and leaves of Tymophylla tenuiloba Small

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Nowak

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Effects of growing media and concentration of nutrient solution on growth, flowering, evapotranspiration and macroelement content of media and leaves of Tymophylla tenuiloba were evaluated under ebb-and-flow conditions. Two media: peat and peat + perlite (3:l, v/v, and four concentrations of nutrient solution: 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5 mS cm-1 were applied. High quality plants were produced in both media and all concentration of nutrient solution. The lowest evapotranspiration was measured at the highest concentration of nutrient solution. N concentration of leaves was high in all treatments. Concentrations of K, Ca, and Mg decreased with increasing concentration of nutrient solution. Opposite was found for P. At the end of cultivation the lowest pH was measured in the upper layer of growing media. The highest total soluble salt level was measured in the upper layers. Upper layers accumulated more N-NO3, P, Ca, and Mg. Mineral element content of both media was high in all concentrations of nutrient solution. Low concentration of nutrient solution at 1.0 mS cm-1 is recommended, although -1Tymophylla tenuiloba-1 can be also cultivated at higher concentrations of nutrient solution up to 2.5mS cm-1, if placed on the same bench with other bedding plants requiring more nutrients.

  2. Digitized Ethnic Hate Speech: Understanding Effects of Digital Media Hate Speech on Citizen Journalism in Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Gichuhi Kimotho

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Ethnicity in Kenya permeates all spheres of life. However, it is in politics that ethnicity is most visible. Election time in Kenya often leads to ethnic competition and hatred, often expressed through various media. Ethnic hate speech characterized the 2007 general elections in party rallies and through text messages, emails, posters and leaflets. This resulted in widespread skirmishes that left over 1200 people dead, and many displaced (KNHRC, 2008. In 2013, however, the new battle zone was the war of words on social media platform. More than any other time in Kenyan history, Kenyans poured vitriolic ethnic hate speech through digital media like Facebook, tweeter and blogs. Although scholars have studied the role and effects of the mainstream media like television and radio in proliferating the ethnic hate speech in Kenya (Michael Chege, 2008; Goldstein & Rotich, 2008a; Ismail & Deane, 2008; Jacqueline Klopp & Prisca Kamungi, 2007, little has been done in regard to social media.  This paper investigated the nature of digitized hate speech by: describing the forms of ethnic hate speech on social media in Kenya; the effects of ethnic hate speech on Kenyan’s perception of ethnic entities; ethnic conflict and ethics of citizen journalism. This study adopted a descriptive interpretive design, and utilized Austin’s Speech Act Theory, which explains use of language to achieve desired purposes and direct behaviour (Tarhom & Miracle, 2013. Content published between January and April 2013 from six purposefully identified blogs was analysed. Questionnaires were used to collect data from university students as they form a good sample of Kenyan population, are most active on social media and are drawn from all parts of the country. Qualitative data were analysed using NVIVO 10 software, while responses from the questionnaire were analysed using IBM SPSS version 21. The findings indicated that Facebook and Twitter were the main platforms used to

  3. A surfeit of science: The "CSI effect" and the media appropriation of the public understanding of science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Simon A

    2015-02-01

    Over the past decade, popular media has promulgated claims that the television program CSI and its spinoffs and imitators have had a pernicious effect on the public understanding of forensic science, the so-called "CSI effect." This paper analyzes those media claims by documenting the ways in which the media claims that CSI "distorts" an imagined "reality." It shows that the media appropriated the analytic stance usually adopted by science advocates, portraying the CSI effect as a social problem in science communication. This appropriation was idiosyncratic in that it posited, as a social problem, a "surfeit" of knowledge and positive imagery about science, rather than the more familiar "deficits." In addition, the media simultaneously appropriated both "traditional" and "critical" PUS discourses. Despite this apparent contradiction, the paper concludes that, in both discourses, the media and its expert informants insist upon their hegemony over "the public" to articulate the "reality" of forensic science. © The Author(s) 2013.

  4. Comparison of excretory urographic contrast effects of dimeric and monomeric non-ionic iodinated contrast media in dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kishimoto, M.; Yamada, K.; Watanabe, A.; Miyamoto, K.; Iwasaki, T.; Miyake, Y.

    2007-01-01

    In excretory urography, the osmolarity of contrast media has rarely been treated as important in veterinary medicine. In this study, the contrast effect of two contrast media (monomeric iohexol and dimeric iodixanol) in the renal cortex and aorta were compared using computed tomography (CT). Five beagle dogs were used and the study employed a cross-over method for each contrast media. The results showed that there was no difference between the media in the aorta, but iodixanol showed higher CT value and a longer contrast effect than iohexol in the renal cortex, in spite of having the same iodine dosage. It is believed that iodixanol, with its low osmolarity, is diluted less by osmotic diuresis than monomeric iohexol. It is important to consider the osmolarity of the contrast media when evaluating the contrast effect, and it is essential to use the same contrast media for each examination, or the renal excretory speed will be under/overestimated

  5. The Interplay of Media Violence Effects and Behaviorally Disordered Children and Adolescents: Guidelines for Practitioners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reich, Manuel D

    2018-04-01

    A robust body of scientific research explores the effects of violent media on youths. For practitioners, the volume of interdisciplinary research and controversial findings can be confusing and difficult to generalize for best practice. This article briefly reviews the literature and presents guidelines for parenting and treating youths exposed and enmeshed in violent media. Attention is given to at-risk populations and children presenting with aggressive, violent, and antisocial behavior. Guidelines assume a family based, cognitive-behavioral approach suitable for the eclectic practitioner, with a focus on the complex, developmental, and ecological factors that contribute to presenting symptoms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Study of the effect of aggressive media on the long-term stability of reinforced plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zelentsov, D.G.; Pochtman, Yu.M.

    1995-01-01

    Many important load-bearing structural elements that operate in agressive media are subjected to simultaneous mechanical and chemical attack. The current status of the problem of designing such members is adequately reflected. It follows from that only a few studies have been devoted to the long-term stability of reinforced plates in aggressive media, and most of them were based on structurally orthotropic theory. Such an approach makes it impossible to construct an adequate model of the deformation process. In particular, it precludes allowance for the effect of the discreteness of the reinforcement on plate stability and determination of changes in the character of deformation of the plate during service

  7. Effectiveness of social norms media marketing in reducing drinking and driving: A statewide campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, H Wesley; Linkenbach, Jeffrey W; Lewis, Melissa A; Neighbors, Clayton

    2010-10-01

    This research evaluated the efficacy of a high-intensity social norms media marketing campaign aimed at correcting normative misperceptions and reducing the prevalence of drinking and driving among 21-to-34-year-olds in Montana. A quasi-experimental design was used, such that regions of Montana were assigned to one of three experimental groups: social norms media marketing campaign, buffer, and control. Four random samples of Montanans between the ages of 21 and 34 were assessed at four time points over 18 months via phone surveys. Findings suggest that the social norms media campaign was successful at exposing the targeted population to social norms messages in the counties within the intervention region. Moreover, results demonstrate the campaign reduced normative misperceptions, increased use of designated drivers, and decreased drinking and driving among those young adults in counties within the intervention region. Social norms media marketing can be effective at changing drinking-related behaviors at the population level. This research provides a model for utilizing social norms media marketing to address other behaviors related to public health. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The Effect of Bad News and CEO Apology of Corporate on User Responses in Social Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hoh; Park, Jaram; Cha, Meeyoung; Jeong, Jaeseung

    2015-01-01

    While social media has become an important platform for social reputation, the emotional responses of users toward bad news have not been investigated thoroughly. We analyzed a total of 20,773 Twitter messages by 15,513 users to assess the influence of bad news and public apology in social media. Based on both computerized, quantitative sentiment analysis and in-depth qualitative analysis, we found that rapid public apology effectively and immediately reduced the level of negative sentiment, where the degree of change in sentiments differed by the type of interactions users engaged in. The majority of users who directly conversed with corporate representatives on the new media were not typical consumers, but experts and practitioners. We extend the existing cognitive model and suggest the audiences' psychological reaction model to describe the information processing process during and after an organizational crisis and response. We also discuss various measures through which companies can respond to a crisis properly in social media in a fashion that is different from conventional mass media.

  9. The Effect of Bad News and CEO Apology of Corporate on User Responses in Social Media.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoh Kim

    Full Text Available While social media has become an important platform for social reputation, the emotional responses of users toward bad news have not been investigated thoroughly. We analyzed a total of 20,773 Twitter messages by 15,513 users to assess the influence of bad news and public apology in social media. Based on both computerized, quantitative sentiment analysis and in-depth qualitative analysis, we found that rapid public apology effectively and immediately reduced the level of negative sentiment, where the degree of change in sentiments differed by the type of interactions users engaged in. The majority of users who directly conversed with corporate representatives on the new media were not typical consumers, but experts and practitioners. We extend the existing cognitive model and suggest the audiences' psychological reaction model to describe the information processing process during and after an organizational crisis and response. We also discuss various measures through which companies can respond to a crisis properly in social media in a fashion that is different from conventional mass media.

  10. The Effect of Bad News and CEO Apology of Corporate on User Responses in Social Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Meeyoung; Jeong, Jaeseung

    2015-01-01

    While social media has become an important platform for social reputation, the emotional responses of users toward bad news have not been investigated thoroughly. We analyzed a total of 20,773 Twitter messages by 15,513 users to assess the influence of bad news and public apology in social media. Based on both computerized, quantitative sentiment analysis and in-depth qualitative analysis, we found that rapid public apology effectively and immediately reduced the level of negative sentiment, where the degree of change in sentiments differed by the type of interactions users engaged in. The majority of users who directly conversed with corporate representatives on the new media were not typical consumers, but experts and practitioners. We extend the existing cognitive model and suggest the audiences’ psychological reaction model to describe the information processing process during and after an organizational crisis and response. We also discuss various measures through which companies can respond to a crisis properly in social media in a fashion that is different from conventional mass media. PMID:25951231

  11. Effectiveness of social norms media marketing in reducing drinking and driving: A statewide campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linkenbach, Jeffrey W.; Lewis, Melissa A.; Neighbors, Clayton

    2016-01-01

    This research evaluated the efficacy of a high-intensity social norms media marketing campaign aimed at correcting normative misperceptions and reducing the prevalence of drinking and driving among 21-to-34-year-olds in Montana. A quasi-experimental design was used, such that regions of Montana were assigned to one of three experimental groups: social norms media marketing campaign, buffer, and control. Four random samples of Montanans between the ages of 21 and 34 were assessed at four time points over 18 months via phone surveys. Findings suggest that the social norms media campaign was successful at exposing the targeted population to social norms messages in the counties within the intervention region. Moreover, results demonstrate the campaign reduced normative misperceptions, increased use of designated drivers, and decreased drinking and driving among those young adults in counties within the intervention region. Social norms media marketing can be effective at changing drinking-related behaviors at the population level. This research provides a model for utilizing social norms media marketing to address other behaviors related to public health. PMID:20619177

  12. Effects of Guided Writing Strategies on Students' Writing Attitudes Based on Media Richness Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Yu-Feng; Hung, Chun-Ling; Hsu, Hung-Ju

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to develop different guided writing strategies based on media richness theory and further evaluate the effects of these writing strategies on younger students' writing attitudes in terms of motivation, enjoyment and anxiety. A total of 66 sixth-grade elementary students with an average age of twelve were invited to…

  13. Nonequilibrium capillarity effects in two?phase flow through porous media at different scales

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bottero, S.; Hassanizadeh, S.M.; Kleingeld, P.J.; Heimovaara, T.J.

    2011-01-01

    A series of primary drainage experiments was carried out in order to investigate nonequilibrium capillarity effects in two?phase flow through porous media. Experiments were performed with tetrachloroethylene (PCE) and water as immiscible fluids in a sand column 21 cm long. Four drainage experiments

  14. Nonequilibrium capillarity effects in two-phase flow through porous media at different scales

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bottero, S.; Hassanizadeh, S.M.; Kleingeld, P.J.; Heimovaara, T.J.

    2011-01-01

    A series of primary drainage experiments was carried out in order to investigate nonequilibrium capillarity effects in two-phase flow through porous media. Experiments were performed with tetrachloroethylene (PCE) and water as immiscible fluids in a sand column 21 cm long. Four drainage experiments

  15. Social media in advertising campaigns: examining the effects on perceived persuasive intent, campaign and brand responses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voorveld, H.A.M.; van Noort, G.

    2014-01-01

    Inspired by the increasing popularity of advertising on social media, and especially on social network sites (SNSs), the aim of this study is to give insight into the effectiveness of SNS advertising. The first experimental study compares consumer responses to advertising on SNSs and television (TV)

  16. Variable effects of radiological contrast media on thrombus growth in a rabbit jugular vein thrombosis model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Levi, M. [=Marcel M.; Biemond, B. J.; Sturk, A.; Hoek, J.; ten Cate, J. W.

    1991-01-01

    We studied the effect of an ionic high osmolar contrast medium (Ioxitalamate), an ionic low osmolar contrast medium (Ioxaglate) and various nonionic low osmolar contrast media (Iopamidol, Iopromide and Iohexol) on thrombus growth in a rabbit jugular vein thrombosis model. Thrombus growth was

  17. Activation of platelets by low-osmolar contrast media: differential effects of ionic and nonionic agents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hardeman, M. R.; Konijnenberg, A.; Sturk, A.; Reekers, J. A.

    1994-01-01

    To determine the effects of an ionic low-osmolar contrast medium (ioxaglate) and two nonionic low-osmolar contrast media (iohexol and iopamidol) on human platelet activation in vitro. Flow cytometry analysis subsequent to reaction with fluorescence-labeled monoclonal antibodies was used to detect

  18. Students' Misconceptions about the Ozone Layer and the Effect of Internet-Based Media on It

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gungordu, Nahide; Yalcin-Celik, Ayse; Kilic, Ziya

    2017-01-01

    In this study, students' misconceptions about the ozone layer were investigated, looking specifically at the effect internet-based media has on the formation of these misconceptions. Quantitative and qualitative research approaches were used to perform the research. As part of the quantitative portion of the research, the descriptive survey…

  19. A Whole Community Approach to Otitis Media--Reducing Its Incidence and Effects. Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McSwan, David

    Otitis media (OM) is an inflammation of the middle ear that is prevalent in childhood. OM can result in hearing loss, which interferes with learning. In Australia, indigenous children experience OM more often than other populations. Because teachers lack knowledge of OM and its effects on learning, affected children are often mislabeled as problem…

  20. The Effect of Media on Charitable Giving and Volunteering: Evidence from the "Give Five" Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoruk, Baris K.

    2012-01-01

    Fundraising campaigns advertised via mass media are common. To what extent such campaigns affect charitable behavior is mostly unknown, however. Using giving and volunteering surveys conducted biennially from 1988 to 1996, I investigate the effect of a national fundraising campaign, "Give Five," on charitable giving and volunteering patterns. The…

  1. An Experimental Investigation of News Source and the Hostile Media Effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arpan, Laura M.; Raney, Arthur A.

    2003-01-01

    Examines the interaction among different news sources, individual levels of partisanship, and the hostile media effect in sports news. Explains that university students read a balanced story about their home-town college football team in one of three newspapers: the home-town, the cross-state rival university's town, or a neutral town paper.…

  2. The Effects of an Early History of Otitis Media on Children's Language and Literacy Skill Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winskel, Heather

    2006-01-01

    Background: Otitis media (OM) or middle ear infection is a common childhood illness and is most frequent during the crucial first 3 years of life when speech and language categories are being established, which could potentially have a long-term effect on language and literacy skill development. Aims: The purpose of the current study was to…

  3. The Effect of Otitis Media on Articulation in Children with Cerebral Palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van der Vyver, Marguerite; And Others

    1988-01-01

    A study involving 20 Afrikaans-speaking children with cerebral palsy found that recurrent otitis media in early childhood had a negative effect on articulation abilities of the 7 to 11-year-old children but that other factors such as intelligence also played a role. (JDD)

  4. Culturing Chaetoceros muelleri using simplified media with different N sources: effects on production and lipid content

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reis Batista, Isabel; Garcia, Ainhoa Blanco; Dalen, Van Pim; Kamermans, Pauline; Verdegem, Marc; Smaal, Aad C.

    2015-01-01

    Land-based bivalve aquaculture depends on large-scale cultures of live microalgae for food. The intensity of large-scale microalgal production is important for cost-effectiveness. Using Walne’s medium as the control, simplified media containing nitrogen, phosphorus, silica, iron, manganese and

  5. Gray and multigroup radiation transport models for two-dimensional binary stochastic media using effective opacities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olson, Gordon L.

    2016-01-01

    One-dimensional models for the transport of radiation through binary stochastic media do not work in multi-dimensions. Authors have attempted to modify or extend the 1D models to work in multidimensions without success. Analytic one-dimensional models are successful in 1D only when assuming greatly simplified physics. State of the art theories for stochastic media radiation transport do not address multi-dimensions and temperature-dependent physics coefficients. Here, the concept of effective opacities and effective heat capacities is found to well represent the ensemble averaged transport solutions in cases with gray or multigroup temperature-dependent opacities and constant or temperature-dependent heat capacities. In every case analyzed here, effective physics coefficients fit the transport solutions over a useful range of parameter space. The transport equation is solved with the spherical harmonics method with angle orders of n=1 and 5. Although the details depend on what order of solution is used, the general results are similar, independent of angular order. - Highlights: • Gray and multigroup radiation transport is done through 2D stochastic media. • Approximate models for the mean radiation field are found for all test problems. • Effective opacities are adjusted to fit the means of stochastic media transport. • Test problems include temperature dependent opacities and heat capacities • Transport solutions are done with angle orders n=1 and 5.

  6. Effects of Perceived Social Support and Psychological Resilience on Social Media Addiction among University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilgin, Okan; Tas, Ibrahim

    2018-01-01

    This research investigated the effects of perceived social support and psychological resilience on social media addiction among university students. The research group was composed of 503 university students. The ages of participant students varied between 17 and 31 years old. 340 (67.6%) of the participants are female and 163 (32.4%) of them are…

  7. Comparing the effects of different in vitro maturation media on IVM outcomes of MI oocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzaneh Fesahat

    2017-09-01

    Conclusion: While the immature oocytes rescued from stimulated cycles based on specific conditions of patients can be useful for an alternative IVM intervention, it seems that different commercial culture media and longer incubation time has no beneficial effects on maturation, fertilization and embryo development on oocytes at MI stage.

  8. Effect of peer influence and social media utilisation on reading habit ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the effect of peer influence and use of social media on ... acquisition of information (61.1%), leisure and fun-seeking (58.3%), desire to be at ... new friends, socialising with contacts, having leisure/fun/entertainment and ...

  9. The Effects of Organization Design on Media Richness in Multinational Enterprises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitfield, J. Michael; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Examines effects of two organizational design parameters, divisionalization and centralization, on the media richness choices of Chief Executive Officers (CEOs) of multinational enterprises in obtaining information from foreign subsidiaries on strategic issues. Samples 86 US multinationals; finds formal divisional structure affects CEOs' use of…

  10. The Differential Effects of Social Media Sites for Promoting Cancer Risk Reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauckner, Carolyn; Whitten, Pamela

    2016-09-01

    Social media are potentially valuable tools for disseminating cancer education messages, but the differential effects of various sites on persuasive outcomes are unknown. In an effort to inform future health promotion, this research tested the effects of Facebook, YouTube, Twitter, and blogs for delivering a cancer risk reduction message. Using an experimental design, participants were randomly placed in several conditions that delivered the same message but with different forms of social media. Effects on comprehension and attitudes were examined, as they are important variables in the behavior change process. YouTube led to higher comprehension and stronger attitudes toward cancer risk reduction than Twitter, but there were no differences between other sites. Additionally, YouTube led to stronger attitudes toward cancer risk reduction as compared to Facebook, but not any other sites. These results demonstrate that, even if the message is kept constant, the form of social media used to deliver content can have an effect on persuasive outcomes. More research is needed to determine the mechanisms behind the differences found, however. Altogether, this line of research is valuable for any individuals seeking to use social media for health promotion purposes and could have direct implications for the development of cancer risk reduction campaigns.

  11. Opacity of expanding media: The effect of spectral lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karp, A.H.; Lasher, G.; Chan, K.L.; Salpeter, E.E.

    1977-01-01

    Spectral lines are more effective in slowing the transport of radiation in expanding (or contracting) objects than in static ones. The velocity gradient associated with the expansion causes the frequency of the photons to be continuously redshifted relative to the rest frame of the gas through which they travel. Those photons which are redshifted to the frequency of a sufficiently strong line will be absorbed by the corresponding bound-bound transition, and the net effect will be to increase the effective opacity of the gas. In certain cases the effect can be taken into account by using an effective opacity, the expansion opacity, which is a function not only of the temperature and density but also of the velocity gradient.Practical formulae for computing the expansion opacity and its Rosseland mean in terms of sums over spectral lines are derived. It is shown that the cumulative effect of many weak lines can be important, implying that a large list of spectral lines is required to obtain results of even modest accuracy. Numerical computations using the 260,000-entry line list of Kurucz and Peytremann have been completed and some samples of the result are given. The general effect may be important in many astronomical objects, but only in some of these will be detailed approach of this paper be appropriate. In optically thick supernova shells, the effect is important both in maintaining the radiation in thermal equilibrium as it diffuses out of the shell and in increasing the value of the total opacity. The enhancement of the opacity ranges from less than 1% to more than an order of magnitude, depending on the temperature, density, and velocity gradient

  12. The Media Mixer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Vitus; Mortensen, Christian Hviid

    In recent years many museums have experimented with different approaches to involving users through digital media. We explore how remixing and content sharing can be used as a means for user participation. Remix culture is seen as a culture that allows and encourages the production of derivative...... works; works that are based on already existing works. This cultural practice thrives throughout the Internet, most notably on web2.0 sites like YouTube. The Media Museum has embraced the remix paradigm with the development of an interactive media experience centre called the Media Mixer. Here...... the museum users can produce, deconstruct, reconstruct and finally publish and share digital media content. The media content is created by the user in the museums physical environment, but it can be mixed with material from local or global archives. In that way the gap between the analogue and the digital...

  13. TESTING CASC SCALE FOR MEASURING EMOTIONAL AND RATIONAL ADVERTISING AND MEDIA EFFECTS

    OpenAIRE

    Nevenka Podgornik; Andrej Kovacic

    2013-01-01

    Researching effects of media and advertising demands a search for a cost efficient, quick and verified method of testing the its emotional as well as rational effects on consumers. Thus a CASC (Communication Analytic and Syncretic Cognitions) scale was developed to meassure advertising effects and was selected for testing. In an extended research presented in this paper and based on 988 respondents evaluating 15 different ads we provided evidence that verify this scale on four different group...

  14. Stress as a one-armed bandit: Differential effects of stress paradigms on the morphology, neurochemistry and behavior in the rodent amygdala

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Marlene A.; Grillo, Claudia A.; Fadel, Jim R.; Reagan, Lawrence P.

    2015-01-01

    Neuroplasticity may be defined as the ability of the central nervous system (CNS) to respond to changes in the internal and external environment and it is well established that some stimuli have the ability to facilitate or impair neuroplasticity depending on the pre-existing milieu. A classic example of a stimulus that can both facilitate and impair neuroplasticity is stress. Indeed, the ability of CNS to respond to acute stress is often dependent upon the prior stress history of the individual. While responses to acute stress are often viewed as adaptive in nature, stress reactivity in subjects with prior chronic stress experiences are often linked to neuropsychiatric disorders, including major depressive disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and anxiety. In rodent studies, chronic stress exposure produces structural and functional alterations in the hippocampus and medial prefrontal cortex that are consistent across different types of stress paradigms. Conversely, the amygdala appears to exhibit differential structural and functional responses to stress that are dependent on a variety of factors, including the type of stressor performed and the duration of the stress paradigm. This is most evident in output measures including morphological analysis of amygdala neurons, measurement of glutamatergic tone in amygdalar subdivisions and the analysis of amygdala-centric behaviors. Accordingly, this review will provide an overview of the effects of stress on the structural and functional plasticity of the rodent amygdala, especially in relation to the differential effects of repeated or chronic stress paradigms on dendritic architecture, neurochemistry of the glutamatergic system and behavior. PMID:26844236

  15. Stress as a one-armed bandit: Differential effects of stress paradigms on the morphology, neurochemistry and behavior in the rodent amygdala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlene A. Wilson

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Neuroplasticity may be defined as the ability of the central nervous system (CNS to respond to changes in the internal and external environment and it is well established that some stimuli have the ability to facilitate or impair neuroplasticity depending on the pre-existing milieu. A classic example of a stimulus that can both facilitate and impair neuroplasticity is stress. Indeed, the ability of CNS to respond to acute stress is often dependent upon the prior stress history of the individual. While responses to acute stress are often viewed as adaptive in nature, stress reactivity in subjects with prior chronic stress experiences are often linked to neuropsychiatric disorders, including major depressive disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD and anxiety. In rodent studies, chronic stress exposure produces structural and functional alterations in the hippocampus and medial prefrontal cortex that are consistent across different types of stress paradigms. Conversely, the amygdala appears to exhibit differential structural and functional responses to stress that are dependent on a variety of factors, including the type of stressor performed and the duration of the stress paradigm. This is most evident in output measures including morphological analysis of amygdala neurons, measurement of glutamatergic tone in amygdalar subdivisions and the analysis of amygdala-centric behaviors. Accordingly, this review will provide an overview of the effects of stress on the structural and functional plasticity of the rodent amygdala, especially in relation to the differential effects of repeated or chronic stress paradigms on dendritic architecture, neurochemistry of the glutamatergic system and behavior.

  16. Effect of base media on the stability of annatto dye in industrial products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Audetuyi, A.O.; Lajide, L.; Popoola, A.V.

    2006-01-01

    Colour stability of the versatile annatto dye was examined to monitor the effects of base media on industrial products. The dye was incorporated in two media, namely, palm kernel oil used in products such as body cream and soap, and paraffin wax used in shoe polish and household candle wax. These products were exposed to various light conditions for a specific period before assessment. The melting point of the dye was determined as 176-178 degree C with a molar absorptivity of 13,600 mol/sub -1/ cm/sub -1/ at 545 nm. It imparted its brilliant yellow/orange colouration in industrial products as the colour stability depends on the compounding base media of the products. Losses of beta-carotene was higher and faster in nonaqueous environment as paraffin wax showed low fastness rating values, than in the palm kernel oil based aqueous medium products. (author)

  17. A media information analysis for implementing effective countermeasure against harmful rumor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagao, Mitsuyoshi; Suto, Kazuhiro; Ohuchi, Azuma

    2010-04-01

    When large scale earthquake occurred, the word of "harmful rumor" came to be frequently heard. The harmful rumor means an economic damage which is caused by the action that people regard actually safe foods or areas as dangerous and then abort consumption or sightseeing. In the case of harmful rumor caused by earthquake, especially, tourism industry receives massive economic damage. Currently, harmful rumor which gives substantial economic damage have become serious social issue which must be solved. In this paper, we propose a countermeasure method for harmful rumor on the basis of media trend in order to implement speedy recovery from harmful rumor. Here, we investigate the amount and content of information which is transmitted to the general public by the media when an earthquake occurred. In addition, the media information in three earthquakes is treated as instance. Finally, we discuss an effective countermeasure method for dispeling harmful rumor through these analysis results.

  18. The Complexity of ‘Community’: Considering the Effects of Discourse on Museums’ Social Media Practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amelia Wong

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Words are ‘objects of discourse’ in that they function not simply to convey meaning, but also to assert and reinforce values and truths in a society. Here I consider the effects of ‘community’ as a discursive object in museums’ use of social media, since how it is imagined affects practice, especially how institutions try to democratize practice. I trace a genealogy of ‘community’ to show how museums translate long-held ideas into new practices, explaining how its origins and social media conventions influence museums to champion an idealized view of community based on frequent, public, and immediate communication. Using the case study of the Japanese American National Museum’s Discover Nikkei project, I argue that, while communication is essential to progressive practice, museums accepting this conceptualization can actually stymie their efforts to use social media to democratize their relationship with audiences. I conclude with suggestions as to how to address this issue.

  19. Modeled effects on permittivity measurements of water content in high surface area porous media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, S.B.; Or, Dani

    2003-01-01

    Time domain reflectometry (TDR) has become an important measurement technique for determination of porous media water content and electrical conductivity due to its accuracy, fast response and automation capability. Water content is inferred from the measured bulk dielectric constant based on travel time analysis along simple transmission lines. TDR measurements in low surface area porous media accurately describe water content using an empirical relationship. Measurement discrepancies arise from dominating influences such as bound water due to high surface area, extreme aspect ratio particles or atypical water phase configuration. Our objectives were to highlight primary factors affecting dielectric permittivity measurements for water content determination in porous mixtures, and demonstrate the influence of these factors on mixture permittivity as predicted by a three-phase dielectric mixture model. Modeled results considering water binding, higher porosity, constituent geometry or phase configuration suggest any of these effects individually are capable of causing permittivity reduction, though all likely contribute in high surface area porous media

  20. Programming Language Paradigms

    OpenAIRE

    Felician ALECU

    2013-01-01

    This paper's goal is to briefly explain the basic theory behind programming languages and their history while taking a close look at different programming paradigms that are used today as well as describing their differences, benefits, and drawbacks

  1. The Molen Polymorphic Media Processor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuzmanov, G.K.

    2004-01-01

    In this dissertation, we address high performance media processing based on a tightly coupled co-processor architectural paradigm. More specifically, we introduce a reconfigurable media augmentation of a general purpose processor and implement it into a fully operational processor prototype. The

  2. Effects of twenty-minute 3G mobile phone irradiation on event related potential components and early gamma synchronization in auditory oddball paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanics, G; Thuróczy, G; Kellényi, L; Hernádi, I

    2008-11-19

    We investigated the potential effects of 20 min irradiation from a new generation Universal Mobile Telecommunication System (UMTS) 3G mobile phone on human event related potentials (ERPs) in an auditory oddball paradigm. In a double-blind task design, subjects were exposed to either genuine or sham irradiation in two separate sessions. Before and after irradiation subjects were presented with a random series of 50 ms tone burst (frequent standards: 1 kHz, P=0.8, rare deviants: 1.5 kHz, P=0.2) at a mean repetition rate of 1500 ms while electroencephalogram (EEG) was recorded. The subjects' task was to silently count the appearance of targets. The amplitude and latency of the N100, N200, P200 and P300 components for targets and standards were analyzed in 29 subjects. We found no significant effects of electromagnetic field (EMF) irradiation on the amplitude and latency of the above ERP components. In order to study possible effects of EMF on attentional processes, we applied a wavelet-based time-frequency method to analyze the early gamma component of brain responses to auditory stimuli. We found that the early evoked gamma activity was insensitive to UMTS RF exposition. Our results support the notion, that a single 20 min irradiation from new generation 3G mobile phones does not induce measurable changes in latency or amplitude of ERP components or in oscillatory gamma-band activity in an auditory oddball paradigm.

  3. The oxygen effect in bacteriophages irradiated in different media. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korystov, Yu.N.; Veksler, F.B.

    1983-01-01

    The oxygen effect (OE) on bacteriophage T4 in a salt solution was studied. It is shown that the sign and magnitude of OE depend on the conditions of the postirradiation incubation of the phage in irradiated medium. The direct OE is due to postirradiation lesion of the phage by hydrogen peroxide which is formed in greater amounts after irradiation in oxygen than in anoxia. The addition of catalase is shown to eliminate the postirradiation inactivation of the phage. In this case an opposite OE is observed. The mechanism of this effect is a scavenge of hydrogen atoms which damage the phage by oxygen. In the presence of catalase the OE depends also on pH of the solution. It is suggested that the hydroxyl radical arising from the reaction of H 2 O 2 with Fe 2+ is responsible for the damaging effect of H 2 O 2 . (author)

  4. Neoliberal Governance in the HIV and AIDS Epidemic Among Mexican Women in Mexico: the Effects of the Paradigm of Vulnerability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Amuchástegui

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The response to the HIV epidemics in Mexico is supported by the neoliberal governance paradigm of vulnerability, in such a way that a government organization of suffering distributes resources among “key populations”. This article discusses the way in which this strategy, oriented by the moral regulation of sexuality, works simultaneously as raison d’etre and straitjacket for feminist and women with HIV organizations, making difficult alliances between them. This discussion is carried out through an analysis of ethnographic material and an intervention-research with and for women affected by HIV. Their biographies show multiple forms of resistance, suggesting the necessity of questioning their self-representation as impotent subjects, and of problematizing, as a task of feminism, the dichotomy vulnerability-resistance.

  5. Dynamics of electrostatically driven granular media: Effects of humidity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howell, D. W.; Aronson, Igor S.; Crabtree, G. W.

    2001-01-01

    We performed experimental studies of the effect of humidity on the dynamics of electrostatically driven granular materials. Both conducting and dielectric particles undergo a phase transition from an immobile state (granular solid) to a fluidized state (granular gas) with increasing applied field. Spontaneous precipitation of solid clusters from the gas phase occurs as the external driving is decreased. The clustering dynamics in conducting particles is primarily controlled by screening of the electric field but is aided by cohesion due to humidity. It is shown that humidity effects dominate the clustering process with dielectric particles

  6. Eddy current effect in soft magnetic backlayer for PMR media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, T.; Yamamoto, S.; Kurisu, H.; Matsuura, M.

    2005-01-01

    Flux density distributions in the recording layer and soft magnetic backlayer of a perpendicular magnetic recording medium were calculated up to 5 GHz using a three-dimensional finite element method electromagnetic field analysis simulator, where eddy current effects in the high-frequency recording process were considered. It is presented that the flux density distribution in a recording layer hardly depends on the eddy current effect, although flux density distribution in a soft magnetic backlayer changes depending on the recording frequency and resistivity of the soft magnetic backlayer

  7. effect of sowing media and gibberellic acid on the seedling

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMIN

    ABSTRACT. Two pot experiments were carried out in the screen house of the Faculty of Agriculture Bayero ... that the quality of container grown ornamental plants is in broad ..... can have a profound effect on the supply of air and water to the ...

  8. Review of the Effectiveness of Video Media in Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-04-01

    did beginners . This is consistent with the finding that directing attention to the relevant aspect of the video is more effective, because more...abstract or theoretical concepts with animated flowcharts or diagrams (Riches, 1990). Enhancing Practice. Animation can be used within interactive video and

  9. Public attitudes toward biofuels. Effects of knowledge, political partisanship, and media use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacciatore, Michael A; Binder, Andrew R; Scheufele, Dietram A; Shaw, Bret R

    2012-01-01

    Despite large-scale investments and government mandates to expand biofuels development and infrastructure in the United States, little is known about how the public conceives of this alternative fuel technology. This study examines public opinion of biofuels by focusing on citizen knowledge and the motivated processing of media information. Specifically, we explore the direct effects of biofuels knowledge and the moderating effect of partisanship on the relationship between media use and benefit vs. risk perceptions in the following four domains: environmental impacts, economic consequences, ethical/social implications, and political ramifications. Our results suggest that more knowledgeable respondents see fewer benefits of biofuels relative to risks, and that Democrats and Republicans are affected differently by media use when forming opinions about biofuels. Among Democrats, greater attention to political media content leads to a more favorable outlook toward the technology across several domains of interest, while among Republicans, an increase in attention to political content has the opposite effect. Possible reasons for these results, as well as implications of the findings at the intersection of politics and the life sciences, are discussed.

  10. The effect of media area on the dust holding capacity of deep pleat HEPA filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dyment, J.; Loughborough, D.

    1997-01-01

    The high potential cost of storage, treatment and disposal of radioactive wastes places a premium on the longevity of installed HEPA filters in situations in radioactive processing facilities where dust capacity is a life determining factor. Previous work investigated the dust holding capacity v pressure drop characteristics of different designs of HEPA filter and also the effect of using graded density papers. This paper records an investigation of the effect of media area variation on the dust holding capacity of the open-quotes deep-pleatclose quotes design of HEPA filter. As in the previously reported work two test dusts (carbon black and sub micron sodium chloride) in the range (0.15 - 0.4μm) were used. Media area adjustment was effected by varying the number of separators within the range 60 - 90. Results with the coarser dust allowed an optimum media area to be identified. Media areas greater or smaller than this optimum retained less dust than the optimum for the same terminal pressure drop. Conversely with the finer sodium chloride aerosol the dust holding capacity continued to increase up to the maximum area investigated. 7 refs., 4 figs

  11. The effect of media area on the dust holding capacity of deep pleat HEPA filters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dyment, J. [AWE, Aldermaston (United Kingdom); Loughborough, D. [AEAT Harwell, Oxford (United Kingdom)

    1997-08-01

    The high potential cost of storage, treatment and disposal of radioactive wastes places a premium on the longevity of installed HEPA filters in situations in radioactive processing facilities where dust capacity is a life determining factor. Previous work investigated the dust holding capacity v pressure drop characteristics of different designs of HEPA filter and also the effect of using graded density papers. This paper records an investigation of the effect of media area variation on the dust holding capacity of the {open_quotes}deep-pleat{close_quotes} design of HEPA filter. As in the previously reported work two test dusts (carbon black and sub micron sodium chloride) in the range (0.15 - 0.4{mu}m) were used. Media area adjustment was effected by varying the number of separators within the range 60 - 90. Results with the coarser dust allowed an optimum media area to be identified. Media areas greater or smaller than this optimum retained less dust than the optimum for the same terminal pressure drop. Conversely with the finer sodium chloride aerosol the dust holding capacity continued to increase up to the maximum area investigated. 7 refs., 4 figs.

  12. Attention to Language in Day Care Attending Children: A Mediating Factor in the Developmental Effects of Otitis Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feagans, Lynne V.; And Others

    Three ways in which otitis media may affect development of hearing are explored. First, developmental effects may be due to illness in general; second, otitis media may cause fluctuating hearing loss which may lead to deficits in language in many areas; and, third, fluctuating hearing loss may have only a temporary effect on the acquisition of…

  13. Effects of general and alcohol-specific media literacy training on children's decision making about alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, E W; Johnson, K K

    1997-01-01

    This article examines the immediate and delayed effects of media literacy training on third-grade children's perceptions of alcohol advertising, alcohol norms, expectancies for drinking, and behaviors toward alcohol. A Solomon four-group style experiment (N = 225) with two levels of the treatment factor assessed the effectiveness of in-school media literacy training for alcohol. The experiment compared a treatment that included the viewing of a videotape about television advertising along with the viewing of video clips of alcohol ads and discussion pertaining to alcohol advertising specifically versus one that included the viewing of the same general purpose media literacy videotape along with video clips of non-alcohol advertising and then discussion of advertising in general. The treatment had both immediate and delayed effects. Immediate effects included the children's increased understanding of persuasive intent, viewing of characters as less similar to people they knew in real life and less desirable, decreased desire to be like the characters, decreased expectation of positive consequences from drinking alcohol, and decreased likelihood to choose an alcohol-related product. Indirect effects also were found on their perceptions of television's realism and their views of social norms related to alcohol. Delayed effects were examined and confirmed on expectancies and behavior. The treatment was more effective when alcohol-specific, and it also was more effective among girls than boys.

  14. Fluid Effects on Shear Waves in Finely Layered Porous Media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berryman, J G

    2004-01-01

    Although there are five effective shear moduli for any layered VTI medium, one and only one effective shear modulus for the layered system contains all the dependence of pore fluids on the elastic or poroelastic constants that can be observed in vertically polarized shear waves. Pore fluids can increase the magnitude the shear energy stored by this modulus by a term that ranges from the smallest to the largest shear moduli of the VTI system. But, since there are five shear moduli in play, the increase in shear energy overall is reduced by a factor of about 5 in general. We can therefore give definite bounds on the maximum increase of shear modulus, being about 20% of the permitted range, when gas is fully replaced by liquid. An attendant increase of density (depending on porosity and fluid density) by approximately 5 to 10% partially offsets the effect of this shear modulus increase. Thus, an increase of shear wave speed on the order of 5 to 10% is shown to be possible when circumstances are favorable - i.e., when the shear modulus fluctuations are large (resulting in strong anisotropy), and the medium behaves in an undrained fashion due to fluid trapping. At frequencies higher than seismic (such as sonic and ultrasonic waves for well-logging or laboratory experiments), short response times also produce the requisite undrained behavior and, therefore, fluids also affect shear waves at high frequencies by increasing rigidity

  15. Health outcomes and related effects of using social media in chronic disease management: a literature review and analysis of affordances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merolli, Mark; Gray, Kathleen; Martin-Sanchez, Fernando

    2013-12-01

    Whilst the future for social media in chronic disease management appears to be optimistic, there is limited concrete evidence indicating whether and how social media use significantly improves patient outcomes. This review examines the health outcomes and related effects of using social media, while also exploring the unique affordances underpinning these effects. Few studies have investigated social media's potential in chronic disease, but those we found indicate impact on health status and other effects are positive, with none indicating adverse events. Benefits have been reported for psychosocial management via the ability to foster support and share information; however, there is less evidence of benefits for physical condition management. We found that studies covered a very limited range of social media platforms and that there is an ongoing propensity towards reporting investigations of earlier social platforms, such as online support groups (OSG), discussion forums and message boards. Finally, it is hypothesized that for social media to form a more meaningful part of effective chronic disease management, interventions need to be tailored to the individualized needs of sufferers. The particular affordances of social media that appear salient in this regard from analysis of the literature include: identity, flexibility, structure, narration and adaptation. This review suggests further research of high methodological quality is required to investigate the affordances of social media and how these can best serve chronic disease sufferers. Evidence-based practice (EBP) using social media may then be considered. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Meme media and meme market architectures knowledge media for editing distributing and managing intellectual resources

    CERN Document Server

    Tanaka, Y

    2003-01-01

    "In this book, Yuzuru Tanaka proposes a powerful new paradigm: that knowledge media, or "memes," operate in a way that closely resembles the biological function of genes, with their network publishing repository working as a gene pool to accelerate the evolution of knowledge shared in our societies. In Meme Media and Meme Market Architectures: Knowledge Media for Editing, Distributing, and Managing Intellectual Resources, Tanaka outlines a ready-to-use knowledge media system, supplemented with sample media objects, which allows readers to experience the knowledge media paradigm."--Jacket.

  17. Recruiting nurses through social media: Effects on employer brand and attractiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpentier, Marieke; Van Hoye, Greet; Stockman, Sara; Schollaert, Eveline; Van Theemsche, Bart; Jacobs, Gerd

    2017-11-01

    To investigate whether and how nurses' exposure to a hospital's profile on social media affects their perceptions of the hospital's brand and attractiveness as an employer. Since in many places across the globe hospitals are struggling with nursing shortages, competition is rising to be perceived as an attractive employer by this target group. Organizations are increasingly using social media for recruitment, however, little is known about its effects on potential applicants' perceptions of the organization as an employer. We thus examine whether these effects occur and rely on the media richness theory to explain the mechanisms at play. A between-subjects experimental design was applied. Three conditions were used: a control group, one condition that required visiting the Facebook page of a hospital and one condition that required visiting the LinkedIn page. The focal organization was an existing Belgian hospital which had a LinkedIn and a Facebook page. An online questionnaire was sent to nursing students and employed nurses over 5 months in 2015-2016. Nurses' exposure to the hospital's Facebook or LinkedIn page had a significant positive effect on a majority of the employer brand dimensions, both instrumental and symbolic. In addition, nurses who visited the Facebook page felt more attracted to working at the hospital. Most of these effects were mediated by social presence. Nurses' perceptions of employers can be positively influenced by seeing a hospital's social media page. Hospitals can thus employ social media to improve their employer brand image and attractiveness. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Effects of media ratings on children and adolescents: a litmus test of the forbidden fruit effect

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gosselt, Jordi Franciscus; de Jong, Menno D.T.; van Hoof, Joris Jasper

    2012-01-01

    Media ratings serve to inform parents about and protect minors from violent or otherwise harmful media content. Most of these systems use age pictograms and content warning pictograms for entertainment products. An experiment was conducted to investigate whether these pictograms, contrary to their

  19. Effective medium theories of inhomogeneous media from modern perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gubernatis, J.E.

    1977-01-01

    In the study of disordered alloys, theorists have stated the physics of the problem in terms of an integral equation and analyzed this equation by techniques developed in the quantum mechanical theory of scattering. The application of the scattering theory approach to the computation of the effective dielectric constant of a polycrystal is discussed. The problem is framed in the form of an integral equation. Several well-known intuitive approximations are recovered, and the connection of the approximations to perturbation theory is indicated

  20. Comparative effectiveness of non-print media and live CME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuldeep Singh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Continuing Medical Education is an integral ingredient of professional development of health care providers. The educational activity can be delivered by different modes. Here we share our experience of using Digital Video Disc (DVD of a CME on Sleep Medicine as an alternative and cost effective mode.Objective: To assess improvement in knowledge and competencies in terms of comparative effectiveness of a model CME program using validated non-print medium for medical education.Methods: Recorded and validated DVD of talks delivered at NAMS-AIIMS Regional Symposium on Sleep Medicine was played to the participants in presence of one of the content experts. Video scripts of talk were also distributed to the participants. The assessment of participants and program evaluation of this CME was compared to the previously held live CME.Results: Eighty nine participants completed both pre and post test. Mean score increased from 9.91± 3.5 to 14.09 ± 2.85. Pass percentage based on an arbitrary cut off of 50%, increased from 8.3 to 43.8 (p< 0.001. Among the live CME group, mean score improved from 12.1±4.6 to 18.3 ± 3.8. Comparative analysis between live and DVD based CME showed improvement in scores of 6.17 and 4.18 respectively while pass percentage of 84.7 and 43.8 post CME among two modes were significant. The program evaluation showed identical level of satisfaction in all parameters except they were less satisfied vis-a-vis 'organizers made use of any critical comments I made' since all locally available resource persons were not present. Activity could be completed at just half the cost of live CME.Conclusions: The educational background and selection process of UG students between two medical institutes were strikingly different. While students at one institute were selected by highly competitive exam at All India level, the students at other institute were selected through state level competitive examination. In spite of that, results showed

  1. Mechanics of layered anisotropic poroelastic media with applications to effective stress for fluid permeability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berryman, J.G.

    2010-06-01

    The mechanics of vertically layered porous media has some similarities to and some differences from the more typical layered analysis for purely elastic media. Assuming welded solid contact at the solid-solid interfaces implies the usual continuity conditions, which are continuity of the vertical (layering direction) stress components and the horizontal strain components. These conditions are valid for both elastic and poroelastic media. Differences arise through the conditions for the pore pressure and the increment of fluid content in the context of fluid-saturated porous media. The two distinct conditions most often considered between any pair of contiguous layers are: (1) an undrained fluid condition at the interface, meaning that the increment of fluid content is zero (i.e., {delta}{zeta} = 0), or (2) fluid pressure continuity at the interface, implying that the change in fluid pressure is zero across the interface (i.e., {delta}p{sub f} = 0). Depending on the types of measurements being made on the system and the pertinent boundary conditions for these measurements, either (or neither) of these two conditions might be directly pertinent. But these conditions are sufficient nevertheless to be used as thought experiments to determine the expected values of all the poroelastic coefficients. For quasi-static mechanical changes over long time periods, we expect drained conditions to hold, so the pressure must then be continuous. For high frequency wave propagation, the pore-fluid typically acts as if it were undrained (or very nearly so), with vanishing of the fluid increment at the boundaries being appropriate. Poroelastic analysis of both these end-member cases is discussed, and the general equations for a variety of applications to heterogeneous porous media are developed. In particular, effective stress for the fluid permeability of such poroelastic systems is considered; fluid permeabilities characteristic of granular media or tubular pore shapes are treated

  2. [Effect of mass communication media in food purchasing at the family level].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moya de Sifontes, M Z; Dehollain, P L

    1986-03-01

    The main purpose of this study was to determine the effect of mass media advertisement of food products (TV, radio and the press), particularly in pre-school and school-age children, as well as the concomitant impact these age groups have on the family food buying patterns. To test the hypothesis that the impact of mass media advertising on foods varied in the different socioeconomic levels of a community, a stratified sample of all children below 13 years of age, who attended the Francisco Fajardo school in the central coast of Venezuela, was drawn. Mass media contact, food and nutrition knowledge and other socioeconomic characteristics were related to the family's food-buying patterns. More specifically, the age, working status and educational level of the mother in regard to beliefs concerning the nutritional value of advertized food products, were related. A semi-structured questionnaire was designed, tested and applied to the housewife or whoever performed this role within the family. Findings revealed that families of low socioeconomic status are prone to be most influenced by mass media food product advertising. This is reflected not only in food purchasing practices but also in food consumption patterns at the family level. Chocolate drinks, cereals, jello, sausages, and ice cream are the most popular products among pre-school and school-aged children, without social class distinction. Furthermore, results revealed that the degree of exposure to mass communication media--television, radio and newspapers--is a determining factor in children's food preferences at all socioeconomic levels, and that television is the media exerting the greatest influence.

  3. Effect of Differential Diffusion in Two-Component Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingel', L. Kh.

    2017-03-01

    Examples are presented of an exact solution of a nonstationary problem on the development of convection in a binary mixture (seawater) near an infinite vertical surface in which the buoyancy disturbances are determined both by the temperature and by the disturbances of the impurity (salt) concentration. Consideration is given to the development of convection in a homogeneous medium near an infinite vertical surface at whose boundary specification is made of constant (after ″switching on″ at the initial moment) heat fluxes and impurities or variations of these substances, i.e., problems with boundary conditions of 1st and 2nd kind are considered. The obtained analytical solutions demonstrate the possibility of a nontrivial effect associated with the difference in the values of the coefficients of transfer of two substances: the inflows of positive buoyancy may lead, contrary to intuitive notions, to the origination of descending motion of the medium rather than the ascending one. Clarification is provided for the physical meaning of such effects, which can be substantial, for example, in melting of sea ice.

  4. Exposure to thin-ideal media affect most, but not all, women: Results from the Perceived Effects of Media Exposure Scale and open-ended responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederick, David A; Daniels, Elizabeth A; Bates, Morgan E; Tylka, Tracy L

    2017-12-01

    Findings conflict as to whether thin-ideal media affect women's body satisfaction. Meta-analyses of experimental studies reveal small or null effects, but many women endorse appearance-related media pressure in surveys. Using a novel approach, two samples of women (Ns=656, 770) were exposed to bikini models, fashion models, or control conditions and reported the effects of the images their body image. Many women reported the fashion/bikini models made them feel worse about their stomachs (57%, 64%), weight (50%, 56%), waist (50%, 56%), overall appearance (50%, 56%), muscle tone (46%, 52%), legs (45%, 48%), thighs (40%, 49%), buttocks (40%, 43%), and hips (40%, 46%). In contrast, few women (1-6%) reported negative effects of control images. In open-ended responses, approximately one-third of women explicitly described negative media effects on their body image. Findings revealed that many women perceive negative effects of thin-ideal media in the immediate aftermath of exposures in experimental settings. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The diagnostic effectiveness of contrast media in the excretory urography in dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velesova, M.; Ledecky, V.

    2005-01-01

    A clinical study was conducted to investigate the use of four different positive contrast media, Omnipaque (Nycomed Imaging As.), Optiray (Maliincrodt Medical GmbH), Ultravist (Schering AG), and Urografin (Schering AG) in normograde excretory urography. Investigations were carried out on thirteen dogs. Each group of dogs was administered a different contrast medium. Radiographs were obtained immediately after the administration of contrast media and after a lapse of 5, 10 and 15 minutes. The effectiveness of the application was evaluated by assessing the radiographs of abdominal cavities in ventro-dorsal and latero-lateral positions. None of the dogs showed pronounced side effect after the application of contrast media. Ectopic ureter was diagnosed in three and a prostate cyst in one of the patients. Our results showed that Omnipaque and Ultravist were the contrast agents most suitable for the examination of the urinary apparatus by intravenous contrast excretory urography. Their advantage is that visualisation of the kidneys and ureters achieved by these media are sufficiently long and contrastive

  6. final register SOLID FERMENTED MATERIAL (BOKASHI) AS A BIOFERTILIZER FOR POTTING MEDIA USING EFFECTIVE MICROORGANISMS (EM)

    OpenAIRE

    Jenkins, Tim A.; Daly, Mike

    2005-01-01

    Adding a solid fermentation product (bokashi) to potting media enhanced the growth of vegetable seedlings when the microbial inoculant Effective Micororganisms (EM) was used. There was a negative response to the inclusion of bokashi made without EM. The benefit to seedling growth from EM bokashi also improved crop performance post-transplanting. Effect on seedlings was further enhanced by the inclusion of fishmeal and, to a lesser extent, by adding trace elements in the bokashi fermentation. ...

  7. Transmission Creep: Media Effects Theories and Journalism Studies in a Digital Era

    OpenAIRE

    Singer, J.

    2016-01-01

    The nature of digital media challenges the explanatory power of effects theories that rest on a transmission model of communication. As essentially linear conceptualizations reliant on identification and measurement of discrete message components, these twentieth-century theories are poorly suited to contemporary journalistic structures and forms. This article adds to the call for a more richly theorized concept of relationship effects suitable to an immersive, iterative, and interconnected e...

  8. Effective permittivity of random composite media: A comparative study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prasad, Ashutosh; Prasad, K.

    2007-01-01

    In the present study, experimental data for effective permittivity of amorphous, polycrystalline thick films, and ceramic form of samples, taken from the literature, have been chosen for their comparison with those yielded by different mixture equations. In order to test the acceptability of dielectric mixture equations for high volume fractions of the inclusion material in the mixture, eleven such equations have been chosen. It is found that equations given by Cuming, Maxwell-Wagner, Webmann, Skipetrov and modified Cule-Torquato show their coherence and minimal deviation from the experimental results of permittivity for all the chosen test materials almost over the entire measurement range of volume fractions. It is further found that Maxwell-Wagner, Webmann, and Skipetrov equations yielded equivalent results and consequently they have been combined together and reckoned as a single equation named MWWS. The study revealed that the Cuming equation had the highest degree of acceptability (errors <±1-5%) in all the cases

  9. Social Media Management Strategies for Organizational Impression Management and their Effect on Public Perception

    OpenAIRE

    Benthaus, Janek; Risius, Marten; Beck, Roman

    2016-01-01

    With the growing importance of social media, companies increasingly rely on social media management tools to analyze social media activities and to professionalize their social media engagement. In this study, we evaluate how social media management tools, as part of an overarching social media strategy, help companies to positively influence the public perception among social media users. A mixed methods approach is applied, where we quantitatively analyze 15 million user-generated Twitter m...

  10. POLARIZED LINE FORMATION IN MULTI-DIMENSIONAL MEDIA. III. HANLE EFFECT WITH PARTIAL FREQUENCY REDISTRIBUTION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anusha, L. S.; Nagendra, K. N.

    2011-01-01

    In two previous papers, we solved the polarized radiative transfer (RT) equation in multi-dimensional (multi-D) geometries with partial frequency redistribution as the scattering mechanism. We assumed Rayleigh scattering as the only source of linear polarization (Q/I, U/I) in both these papers. In this paper, we extend these previous works to include the effect of weak oriented magnetic fields (Hanle effect) on line scattering. We generalize the technique of Stokes vector decomposition in terms of the irreducible spherical tensors T K Q , developed by Anusha and Nagendra, to the case of RT with Hanle effect. A fast iterative method of solution (based on the Stabilized Preconditioned Bi-Conjugate-Gradient technique), developed by Anusha et al., is now generalized to the case of RT in magnetized three-dimensional media. We use the efficient short-characteristics formal solution method for multi-D media, generalized appropriately to the present context. The main results of this paper are the following: (1) a comparison of emergent (I, Q/I, U/I) profiles formed in one-dimensional (1D) media, with the corresponding emergent, spatially averaged profiles formed in multi-D media, shows that in the spatially resolved structures, the assumption of 1D may lead to large errors in linear polarization, especially in the line wings. (2) The multi-D RT in semi-infinite non-magnetic media causes a strong spatial variation of the emergent (Q/I, U/I) profiles, which is more pronounced in the line wings. (3) The presence of a weak magnetic field modifies the spatial variation of the emergent (Q/I, U/I) profiles in the line core, by producing significant changes in their magnitudes.

  11. Cost-effectiveness of a smokeless tobacco control mass media campaign in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murukutla, Nandita; Yan, Hongjin; Wang, Shuo; Negi, Nalin Singh; Kotov, Alexey; Mullin, Sandra; Goodchild, Mark

    2017-08-10

    Tobacco control mass media campaigns are cost-effective in reducing tobacco consumption in high-income countries, but similar evidence from low-income countries is limited. An evaluation of a 2009 smokeless tobacco control mass media campaign in India provided an opportunity to test its cost-effectiveness. Campaign evaluation data from a nationally representative household survey of 2898 smokeless tobacco users were compared with campaign costs in a standard cost-effectiveness methodology. Costs and effects of the Surgeon campaign were compared with the status quo to calculate the cost per campaign-attributable benefit, including quit attempts, permanent quits and tobacco-related deaths averted. Sensitivity analyses at varied CIs and tobacco-related mortality risk were conducted. The Surgeon campaign was found to be highly cost-effective. It successfully generated 17 259 148 additional quit attempts, 431 479 permanent quits and 120 814 deaths averted. The cost per benefit was US$0.06 per quit attempt, US$2.6 per permanent quit and US$9.2 per death averted. The campaign continued to be cost-effective in sensitivity analyses. This study suggests that tobacco control mass media campaigns can be cost-effective and economically justified in low-income and middle-income countries. It holds significant policy implications, calling for sustained investment in evidence-based mass media campaigns as part of a comprehensive tobacco control strategy. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  12. New vaccines against otitis media: projected benefits and cost-effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Megan A; Prosser, Lisa A; Paradise, Jack L; Ray, G Thomas; Kulldorff, Martin; Kurs-Lasky, Marcia; Hinrichsen, Virginia L; Mehta, Jyotsna; Colborn, D Kathleen; Lieu, Tracy A

    2009-06-01

    New vaccines that offer protection against otitis media caused by nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae and by Moraxella catarrhalis are under development. However, the potential health benefits and economic effects of such candidate vaccines have not been systematically assessed. We created a computerized model to compare the projected benefits and costs of (1) the currently available 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine, (2) a candidate pneumococcal-nontypeable H influenzae vaccine that has been tested in Europe, (3) a hypothetical pneumococcal-nontypeable H influenzae-Moraxella vaccine, and (4) no vaccination. The clinical probabilities of acute otitis media and of otitis media with effusion were generated from multivariate analyses of data from 2 large health maintenance organizations and from the Pittsburgh Child Development/Otitis Media Study cohort. Other probabilities, costs, and quality-of-life values were derived from published and unpublished sources. The base-case analysis assumed vaccine dose costs of $65 for the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine, $100 for the pneumococcal-nontypeable H influenzae vaccine, and $125 for the pneumococcal-nontypeable H influenzae-Moraxella vaccine. With no vaccination, we projected that 13.7 million episodes of acute otitis media would occur annually in US children aged 0 to 4 years, at an annual cost of $3.8 billion. The 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine was projected to prevent 878,000 acute otitis media episodes, or 6.4% of those that would occur with no vaccination; the corresponding value for the pneumococcal-nontypeable H influenzae vaccine was 3.7 million (27%) and for the pneumococcal-nontypeable H influenzae-Moraxella vaccine was 4.2 million (31%). Using the base-case vaccine costs, pneumococcal-nontypeable H influenzae vaccine use would result in net savings compared with nontypeable 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate use. Conversely, pneumococcal-nontypeable H influenzae-Moraxella vaccine use would not

  13. Quantitative dosimetric assessment for effect of gold nanoparticles as contrast media on radiotherapy planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tu, Shu-Ju; Yang, Pei-Ying; Hong, Ji-Hong; Lo, Ching-Jung

    2013-01-01

    In CT planning for radiation therapy, patients may be asked to have a medical procedure of contrast agent (CA) administration as required by their physicians. CA media improve quality of CT images and assist radiation oncologists in delineation of the target or organs with accuracy. However, dosimetric discrepancy may occur between scenarios in which CA media are present in CT planning and absent in treatment delivery. In recent preclinical experiments of small animals, gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) have been identified as an excellent contrast material of x-ray imaging. In this work, we quantitatively evaluate the effect of AuNPs to be used as a potential material of contrast enhancement in radiotherapy planning with an analytical phantom and clinical case. Conray 60, an iodine-based product for contrast enhancement in clinical uses, is included as a comparison. Other additional variables such as different concentrations of CA media, radiation delivery techniques and dose calculation algorithms are included. We consider 1-field AP, 4-field box, 7-field intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and a recent technique of volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT). CA media of AuNPs (Conray 60) with concentrations of 10%, 20%, 30%, 40% and 50% containing 28.2, 56.4, 84.6, 112.8 and 141.0 mg of gold (iodine) per mL were prepared prior to CT scanning. A virtual phantom with a target where nanoparticle media are loaded and clinical case of gastric lymphoma in which the Conray 60 media were given to the patient prior to the CT planning are included for the study. Compared to Conray 60 media with concentration of 10%/50%, Hounsfield units for AuNP media of 10%/50% are 322/1608 higher due to the fact that atomic number of Au (Z=79) is larger than I (Z=53). In consequence, dosimetric discrepancy of AuNPs is magnified between presence and absence of contrast media. It was found in the phantom study that percent dose differences between presence and absence of CA media may be

  14. Winnicott's paradigm outlined

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeljko Loparic

    Full Text Available The main objective of this paper is to present a unified view of Winnicott’s contribution to psychoanalysis. Part I (Sections 1-4 starts off by recalling that, according to some important commentators, Winnicott introduced a change in paradigms in psychoanalysis. In order to show that this change can be viewed as an overall “switch in paradigms”, in the sense given by T. S. Kuhn, this paper presents an account of the Kuhn’s view of science and offers a reconstruction of Freud’s Oedipal, Triangular or “Toddler-in-the-Mother’s-Bed” Paradigm. Part II (Sections 5-13 shows that as early as the 1920’s Winnicott encountered insurmountable anomalies in the Oedipal paradigm and, for that reason, started what can be called revolutionary research for a new framework of psychoanalysis. This research led Winnicott, especially during the last period of his life, to produce an alternative dual or “Baby-on-the-Mother’s-Lap” Paradigm. This new paradigm is described in some detail, especially the paradigmatic dual mother-baby relation and Winnicott’s dominant theory of maturation. Final remarks are made regarding Winnicott’s heritage and the future of psychoanalysis.

  15. Effects of media violence on viewers' aggression in unconstrained social interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, W; Wong, F Y; Chachere, J G

    1991-05-01

    This article provides a meta-analytic review of the experimental effects of media violence on viewers' aggression in unstructured social interaction. In the reviewed experiments, children or adolescents were exposed to violent or control presentations and their postexposure behavior was coded for aggression during spontaneous social interaction. Exposure to media violence significantly enhanced viewers' aggressive behavior when the findings were aggregated across studies, but the effect was not uniform across investigations. Only suggestive evidence was obtained concerning moderators of the effect: Marginally stronger relations were obtained in those studies using a cross-section of the normal population of children (vs. emotionally disturbed children) and in those studies conducted in laboratory settings (vs. other contexts).

  16. Waveguide effect under 'antiguiding' conditions in graded anisotropic media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozlov, A V; Mozhaev, V G; Zyryanova, A V, E-mail: av_kozlov@inbox.r, E-mail: vgmozhaev@mail.r, E-mail: annazyr@mail.r [Faculty of Physics, Moscow State University, Moscow, 119991 GSP-1 (Russian Federation)

    2010-02-24

    A new wave confinement effect is predicted in graded crystals with a concave slowness surface under conditions of growth of the phase velocity with decreasing distance from the waveguide axis. This finding overturns the common notion about the guiding and 'antiguiding' profiles of wave velocity in inhomogeneous media. The waveguide effect found is elucidated by means of ray analysis and particular exact wave solutions. The exact solution obtained for localized flexural waves in thin plates of graded cubic and tetragonal crystals confirms the predicted effect. Since this solution is substantially different with respect to the existence conditions from all others yet reported, and it cannot be deduced from the previously known results, the predicted waves can be classified as a new type of waveguide mode in graded anisotropic media. Although the concrete calculations are given in the article for acoustic waves, its general predictions are expected to be valid for waves of various natures, including spin, plasma, and optical waves.

  17. Media Literacy in Montenegro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena Perovic

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Few countries in the world have introduced media education into their curriculums. Montenegro became one of them in 2009, when “media literacy” was introduced as an optional subject for 16 and 17 year old students of Gymnasium high schools. This article presents the findings of the first and only research conducted so far on media education in Montenegro. It is a national case study which examines the potential of media education to change the school culture and accelerate education system reform towards embracing the new digital education paradigm in the future. The focus is on the results of research conducted through in-depth interviews with media literacy teachers all over the country. Despite the many challenges, all teachers identify the potential of media education to strengthen some of the key competences of the students and to improve their motivation and academic performance. They also identify potential to change positively school culture by transforming teachers into “cultural mediators” (Morcellini, 2007 and by supporting the formation of a “participative culture” (Jenkins & Kelley, 2013 in schools. This research recommends focusing education reform on spreading the media education pedagogy to the entire curriculum in order to embrace the new digital education paradigm in the future.

  18. Black hole evaporation: a paradigm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashtekar, Abhay; Bojowald, Martin

    2005-01-01

    A paradigm describing black hole evaporation in non-perturbative quantum gravity is developed by combining two sets of detailed results: (i) resolution of the Schwarzschild singularity using quantum geometry methods and (ii) time evolution of black holes in the trapping and dynamical horizon frameworks. Quantum geometry effects introduce a major modification in the traditional spacetime diagram of black hole evaporation, providing a possible mechanism for recovery of information that is classically lost in the process of black hole formation. The paradigm is developed directly in the Lorentzian regime and necessary conditions for its viability are discussed. If these conditions are met, much of the tension between expectations based on spacetime geometry and structure of quantum theory would be resolved

  19. Suppress to Forget: The Effect of a Mindfulness-Based Strategy during an Emotional Item-Directed Forgetting Paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamboa, Olga L.; Garcia-Campayo, Javier; Müller, Teresa; von Wegner, Frederic

    2017-01-01

    Forgetting is a common phenomenon in everyday life. Although it often has negative connotations, forgetting is an important adaptive mechanism to avoid loading the memory storage with irrelevant information. A very important aspect of forgetting is its interaction with emotion. Affective events are often granted special and priority treatment over neutral ones with regards to memory storage. As a consequence, emotional information is more resistant to extinction than neutral information. It has been suggested that intentional forgetting serves as a mechanism to cope with unwanted or disruptive emotional memories and the main goal of this study was to assess forgetting of emotional auditory material using the item-method directed forgetting (DF) paradigm using a forgetting strategy based on mindfulness as a means to enhance DF. Contrary to our prediction, the mindfulness-based strategy not only did not improve DF but reduced it for neutral material. These results suggest that an interaction between processes such as response inhibition and attention is required for intentional forgetting to succeed. PMID:28382015

  20. Effectiveness of Tympanostomy Tubes for Otitis Media: A Meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, Dale W; Adam, Gaelen P; Di, Mengyang; Halladay, Christopher H; Balk, Ethan M; Trikalinos, Thomas A

    2017-06-01

    Tympanostomy tube placement is the most common ambulatory surgery performed on children in the United States. The goal of this study was to synthesize evidence for the effectiveness of tympanostomy tubes in children with chronic otitis media with effusion and recurrent acute otitis media. Searches were conducted in Medline, the Cochrane Central Trials Registry and Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Embase, and the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature. Abstracts and full-text articles were independently screened by 2 investigators. A total of 147 articles were included. When feasible, random effects network meta-analyses were performed. Children with chronic otitis media with effusion treated with tympanostomy tubes compared with watchful waiting had a net decrease in mean hearing threshold of 9.1 dB (95% credible interval: -14.0 to -3.4) at 1 to 3 months and 0.0 (95% credible interval: -4.0 to 3.4) by 12 to 24 months. Children with recurrent acute otitis media may have fewer episodes after placement of tympanostomy tubes. Associated adverse events are poorly defined and reported. Sparse evidence is available, applicable only to otherwise healthy children. Tympanostomy tubes improve hearing at 1 to 3 months compared with watchful waiting, with no evidence of benefit by 12 to 24 months. Children with recurrent acute otitis media may have fewer episodes after tympanostomy tube placement, but the evidence base is severely limited. The benefits of tympanostomy tubes must be weighed against a variety of associated adverse events. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  1. Appropriation of social media for fostering effective tacit knowledge sharing: developing conceptual model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amidi, A.; Jabar, M.; Jusoh, Y. Y.; Abdullah, R.

    2017-09-01

    With the rising popularity of social media in the past few years, several researches ratiocinate that this type of interactive and collaborative technology could be a beneficial tool for the sharing of tacit knowledge. Nevertheless, very few literatures have tackled the subject of how social media could facilitate tacit knowledge sharing among medical practitioners, and what are its contributions in the area. Thus, the factors that drive individuals to share tacit knowledge need to be investigated further and included in literature. Through a systematic literature review, this study proposes seven enabling conditions which could potentially facilitate the sharing of tacit knowledge. TAM was applied as a novelty in this study in investigating the factors influencing knowledge sharing via social media, whilst taking into account the mediation effects of Attitude in social media usage. This study uncovered an important correlation between virtual settings and the conversion of tacit knowledge, which affects organizational members who are not co-located physically but have a crucial need for sharing information.

  2. Getting the message: media images and stereotypes and their effect on Asian Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mok, T A

    1998-01-01

    Mass media sources such as television and movies arguably offer up little in the way of positive Asian/Asian American images or role models. This article contends that the media do not often portray the diversity that is inherent within the Asian American culture and that such a paucity of Asian images may greatly affect perceptions Asian Americans may hold both of their own racial group and of the larger society. This article examines both media images of Asians and Asian Americans and autobiographical information from Asian American literature to illustrate the potentially detrimental effects of being a person of color in a society that emphasizes a monoracial standard of beauty. Information gleaned from first-hand accounts from Asian Americans often points to the media as a potent source of information as to how attractiveness is defined and measured. This article concludes with a discussion of some brief case examples and ethical imperatives for mental health workers in terms of both self-awareness and education as well as considerations for culturally sensitive therapy.

  3. A systematic review: effectiveness of mass media campaigns for reducing alcohol-impaired driving and alcohol-related crashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Rajendra-Prasad; Kobayashi, Miwako

    2015-09-04

    Mass media campaigns have long been used as a tool for promoting public health. In the past decade, the growth of social media has allowed more diverse options for mass media campaigns. This systematic review was conducted to assess newer evidence from quantitative studies on the effectiveness of mass media campaigns for reducing alcohol-impaired driving (AID) and alcohol-related crashes, particularly after the paper that Elder et al. published in 2004. This review focused on English language studies that evaluated the effect of mass media campaigns for reducing AID and alcohol-related crashes, with or without enforcement efforts. A systematic search was conducted for studies published between January 1, 2002 and December 31, 2013. Studies from the review by Elder et al. were added as well. A total of 19 studies met the inclusion criteria for the systematic review, including three studies from the review by Elder et al. Nine of them had concomitant enforcement measures and did not evaluate the impact of media campaigns independently. Studies that evaluated the impact of mass media independently showed reduction more consistently (median -15.1%, range -28.8 to 0%), whereas results of studies that had concomitant enforcement activities were more variable (median -8.6%, range -36.4 to +14.6%). Summary effects calculated from seven studies showed no evidence of media campaigns reducing the risk of alcohol-related injuries or fatalities (RR 1.00, 95% CI = 0.94 to 1.06). Despite additional decade of evidence, reviewed studies were heterogeneous in their approaches; therefore, we could not conclude that media campaigns reduced the risk of alcohol-related injuries or crashes. More studies are needed, including studies evaluating newly emerging media and cost-effectiveness of media campaigns.

  4. Evolution of the radiological protection paradigms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sordi, Gian Maria A.A.

    2009-01-01

    We consider as initial radiological protection paradigms those in vigour after the release of the atomic energy for pacific usages in 1955. In that occasion, only one paradigm was introduced, presently named dose limitation system. After arguing about the basis that raised the paradigm, we introduced the guidance, that is, the measurements to be implemented to comply with the paradigm. In that occasion, they were two, i.e., the radiation dose monitoring and the workplace classification. Afterwards, the reasons that caused the radiological protection paradigms changes in force until 1995 are discussed. The initial paradigm was modified introducing the justification and the optimization principles, adding that the radiological protection should be economical and effective. The guidance also increased to four: personal monitoring, workplace classification, reference level and workers classification. Afterwards, we give the main justifications for the present paradigms that besides the formers were added the dose constraints, the potential exposure and the annual risk limits. Due to these modifications, the workers classifications were eliminated from the guidance, but the potential exposure and the search for the dose constraints were added. Eventually, we discuss the tendencies for the next future and the main changes introduced by the ICRP in the Publication 103, 2007. (author)

  5. Three paradigms of horror

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dejan Ognjanović

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Starting with the definition of horror as a literary genre the core story of which is based on a meeting with threatening Otherness whose influx into consensual reality and it’s tacit normality creates unrest and awakens fear in the protagonists and the audience, this paper defines the three key paradigms of the horror genre, based on the causes of fear, or rather the “monstrous” Otherness in them. Paradigm 1 concerns the “fear of one’s own self”: the root of the fear is inside, in the individual psyche, in the split, deceived, or in some other way unreliable self which is, consciously or unconsciously, harmful to others, and ultimately to itself. Paradigm 2 deals with the “Fear of others”: the root of fear is outside and is concerned with other people and other creatures which have an urge to occupy a certain human microcosm. Paradigm 3 is concerned with the “Fear of the numinous”: the root of the fear is mostly situated on the outside; however its shape is amorphous, ambivalent and unknowable. The “monster” is faceless; it touches on primary forces of the divine/demonic, and as such is situated on the very border between inside/outside. All three paradigms, with their main approaches and constitutive elements, are modulated through two basic possible treatments: the conservative and the progressive (liberal, which affords a total of six basic variations of horror. Starting from definitions given by John Carpenter, Robin Wood and his own, the author analyzes representative examples from horror literature and film for each paradigm and its variation, with a special accent on the image of Otherness and its connection to the norm, its intrusion into the status quo, anthropocentrism and the presence or absence of a happy ending. The paper demonstrates the richness of connotative potential within the horror genre and provides a basis for its taxonomy.

  6. The Effect of 5E-Learning Model Supported with Webquest Media on Students' Achievement and Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, Semsettin M. S.; Baturay, Meltem Huri

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this research study is to investigate the effect of the 5E-learning model supported with WebQuest media on the achievement and satisfaction of students. Therefore, two groups of students were compared in an experimental research design model. The experimental group was exposed to the 5E-learning model supported with WebQuest media;…

  7. Impersonal sex orientation and multitasking influence the effect of sexual media content on involvement with a sexual character

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boot, I.; Peter, J.; van Oosten, J.M.F.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate whether responses to sexual media content depend on personal and situational factors. Specifically, we studied the role of the personal factor impersonal sex orientation (IS) and the situational factor multitasking in the effect of sexual media content

  8. Sociosexual orientation and multitasking influence the effect of sexual media content on involvement with a sexual character

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boot, I.; Peter, J.; van Oosten, J.M.F.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate whether responses to sexual media depend on personal and situational factors. Specifically, we studied the role of sociosexual orientation (i.e., personal factor) and multitasking (i.e., situational factor) in the effects of sexual media content on

  9. Social media use in healthcare: : A systematic review of effects on patients and on their relationship with healthcare professionals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smailhodzic, Edin; Hooijsma, Wyanda; Boonstra, Albert; Langley, David J.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Since the emergence of social media in 2004, a growing percentage of patients use this technology for health related reasons. To reflect on the alleged beneficial and potentially harmful effects of social media use by patients, the aim of this paper is to provide an overview of the

  10. Social media use in healthcare : A systematic review of effects on patients and on their relationship with healthcare professionals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smailhodzic, E.; Hooijsma, W.; Boonstra, A.; Langley, D.J.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Since the emergence of social media in 2004, a growing percentage of patients use this technology for health related reasons. To reflect on the alleged beneficial and potentially harmful effects of social media use by patients, the aim of this paper is to provide an overview of the

  11. Effects of the cyberbullying prevention program media heroes (Medienhelden) on traditional bullying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaux, Enrique; Velásquez, Ana María; Schultze-Krumbholz, Anja; Scheithauer, Herbert

    2016-01-01

    There is considerable debate over whether cyberbullying is just another form of bullying, or whether it is a problem distinct enough to require specific intervention. One way to explore this issue is to analyze whether programs designed to prevent traditional bullying help prevent cyberbullying, and whether programs designed to prevent cyberbullying prevent traditional bullying. The main goal of the current study was to analyze the spillover effects of the cyberbullying prevention program Media Heroes (Medienhelden) on traditional bullying. Media Heroes promotes empathy, knowledge of risks and consequences, and strategies that allow bystanders to defend victims from cyberbullying. Mixed ANOVAs were conducted comparing pretest and post-test (6 months after intervention) measures of 722 students (ages 11-17) assigned to a long (15 sessions) intervention, a short (1 day) intervention, and a control group. In addition to confirming the previously reported effects on cyberbullying, Media Heroes was found to reduce traditional bullying. Effects were larger for the long-version of the program than for the short 1-day version. No effects were found on victimization by either cyberbullying or traditional bullying. Strategies to complement traditional and cyberbullying prevention efforts are discussed. Aggr. Behav. 42:157-165, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Three paradigms of horror

    OpenAIRE

    Dejan Ognjanović

    2016-01-01

    Starting with the definition of horror as a literary genre the core story of which is based on a meeting with threatening Otherness whose influx into consensual reality and it’s tacit normality creates unrest and awakens fear in the protagonists and the audience, this paper defines the three key paradigms of the horror genre, based on the causes of fear, or rather the “monstrous” Otherness in them. Paradigm 1 concerns the “fear of one’s own self”: the root of the fear is inside, in the indivi...

  13. Media Sociography on Weblogs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tække, Jesper

    Weblogs are not only one of the newest technical media for communication, but also one of the most difficult to understand. Are weblogs a kind of mass medium, a personal medium like an online diary, or a medium that gives space for communities to grow? Or are weblogs a medium that enable all...... these possibilities depended on the actual use? This paper throws some light on what weblogs are by using the methodology of Media Sociography (Tække 2003, 2004a, 2004b and 2004c). Media Sociography is a strategy for analysing mediated social systems or in other words a strategy for describing the social in relation...... to the media it is based on. Theoretically seen it is inspired of two theoretical paradigms the Sociological Systems Theory of Niklas Luhmann and the Media Theory (also called the Toronto school). Empirically the paper primary draws on the literature about weblogs, which could be framed as CMC...

  14. A theoretical extension of the soil freezing curve paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amiri, Erfan A.; Craig, James R.; Kurylyk, Barret L.

    2018-01-01

    Numerical models of permafrost evolution in porous media typically rely upon a smooth continuous relation between pore ice saturation and sub-freezing temperature, rather than the abrupt phase change that occurs in pure media. Soil scientists have known for decades that this function, known as the soil freezing curve (SFC), is related to the soil water characteristic curve (SWCC) for unfrozen soils due to the analogous capillary and sorptive effects experienced during both soil freezing and drying. Herein we demonstrate that other factors beyond the SFC-SWCC relationship can influence the potential range over which pore water phase change occurs. In particular, we provide a theoretical extension for the functional form of the SFC based upon the presence of spatial heterogeneity in both soil thermal conductivity and the freezing point depression of water. We infer the functional form of the SFC from many abrupt-interface 1-D numerical simulations of heterogeneous systems with prescribed statistical distributions of water and soil properties. The proposed SFC paradigm extension has the appealing features that it (1) is determinable from measurable soil and water properties, (2) collapses into an abrupt phase transition for homogeneous media, (3) describes a wide range of heterogeneity within a single functional expression, and (4) replicates the observed hysteretic behavior of freeze-thaw cycles in soils.

  15. Effect of storage media on the proliferation of periodontal ligament fibroblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lauer, H.C.; Mueller, J.G.; Gross, J.; Horster, M.F.

    1987-01-01

    The effect of storage media, which are routinely used in replantation, upon the proliferative capacity of periodontal ligament fibroblasts, was compared with the effect of a tissue culture medium. The periodontal tissue was obtained from mandibular central incisors of White New Zealand rabbits. The experiments were performed in fibroblasts derived during second subculture. The storage media were physiologic salt solution, Ringer's solution and Rivanol; the tissue culture medium was alpha-minimum essential medium without nucleosides. The incubation period was 1 hour. [ 3 H]-thymidine incorporation and cell counts were taken to indicate changes in the proliferative capacity of the fibroblasts. The tissue culture experiments showed that the proliferative ability of the periodontal ligament fibroblasts was dependent upon the composition of the storage medium. Physiologic salt solution, Ringer's solution and Rivanol were unable to maintain the metabolism of the fibroblasts. alpha-MEM medium, however, was capable of stimulating proliferation of the periodontal ligament fibroblasts

  16. Effects of array arrangements in nano-patterned thin film media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Hilo, M.

    2010-01-01

    In this work, the effect of different arrays arrangements on the magnetic behaviour of patterned thin film media is simulated. The modeled films consist of 80x80 cobalt grains of uniform diameter (20 nm) distributed into two different array arrangement: hexagonal (triangular) or square arrays. In addition to that, for each array arrangement, two cases of anisotropy orientations, random and textured films are considered. For both array arrangements and media orientations, hysteresis loops at different array separation (d) were simulated. Predictions show that for closely packed films, the shearing effects on the magnetization loop are much larger for the square array arrangement than the hexagonal one. According to these predictions, the bit switching field distribution in interacting 2D systems is much narrower for the hexagonal array arrangement. This result could be very important for high-density magnetic recording where a narrow bit switching field distribution is required.

  17. The effect of loading solution and dissolution media on release of Diclofenac from ion exchange resins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    "Atyabi F

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Drugs can be loaded on ion exchange resins in order to control their release. Loading of diclofenac sodium on the resin beads not only sustain its release but also reduce its gastrointestinal mucosal injury. In this study the effect of loading solution and concentration of diclofenac in loading solution on total amount of drug loaded on the resin beads (Amberlite IRA-900 and the release characteristic of drug in different media were examined. Results showed that diclofenac resin complex did not release their drug content in simulated gastric fluid but released it in simulated intestinal fluid independent of exposure time in acidic conditions. The effect of a number of parameters such as ionic strength and pH on the release characteristic of drug - resin complexes were also examined. Results showed that although ionic strength is an important factor, drug release is more affected by the pH of the media. NO ABSTRACT

  18. Gender Effects in a Multischool Alcohol Media Literacy Study With Preadolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Chloe S; Howard, Steven J; Kervin, Lisa K; Jones, Sandra C

    2018-06-01

    Alcohol media literacy (AML) programs have achieved positive results for alcohol prevention; however, gender may moderate program effectiveness. This study investigated gender differences for an Australian AML intervention. Fifth and sixth graders ( N = 165), allocated to an intervention or wait-list control group, participated in an AML program. Student questionnaires were administered at three time points. The intervention resulted in significantly higher media deconstruction skills but did not lead to less preference for branded merchandise or greater understanding of persuasive intent, and these effects did not differ by gender. Gender differences were present in social norms for drinking and alcohol expectancies. AML education likely has appeal and benefit to both genders as it connects with students' lifeworlds. Social norms may be more difficult to shift for males due to a more ingrained drinking culture. Future research could explore contextual factors responsible for gender differences.

  19. Adjunctive social media for more effective contraceptive counseling: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kofinas, Jason D; Varrey, Aneesha; Sapra, Katherine J; Kanj, Rula V; Chervenak, Frank A; Asfaw, Tirsit

    2014-04-01

    To determine whether social media, specifically Facebook, is an effective tool for improving contraceptive knowledge. English-speaking women aged 18-45 years receiving care at an urban academic center obstetrics and gynecology clinic were included and randomized to a trial of standard contraceptive education and pamphlet (n=74) compared with standard contraceptive education and Facebook (n=69) information for contraception counseling. Contraceptive knowledge was evaluated preintervention and postintervention by the Contraceptive Knowledge Inventory. We evaluated the effect of the intervention by raw score and percent increase in Contraceptive Knowledge Inventory score, participant satisfaction with counseling method, and contraceptive preference postintervention. All analyses were stratified by age group. The median raw postintervention Contraceptive Knowledge Inventory score was significantly higher in the Facebook compared with the pamphlet group (15 compared with 12, PSocial media as an adjunct to traditional in-office counseling improves patient contraceptive knowledge and increases patient preference for LARCs. ClinicalTrials.gov, www.clinicaltrials.gov, NCT01994005.

  20. Effectiveness of Mass Media Campaigns to Reduce Alcohol Consumption and Harm: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Sarah; Katikireddi, Srinivasa Vittal; Bauld, Linda; Stead, Martine; Angus, Kathryn; Campbell, Mhairi; Hilton, Shona; Thomas, James; Hinds, Kate; Ashie, Adela; Langley, Tessa

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Aims To assess the effectiveness of mass media messages to reduce alcohol consumption and related harms using a systematic literature review. Methods Eight databases were searched along with reference lists of eligible studies. Studies of any design in any country were included, provided that they evaluated a mass media intervention targeting alcohol consumption or related behavioural, social cognitive or clinical outcomes. Drink driving interventions and college campus campaigns were ineligible. Studies quality were assessed, data were extracted and a narrative synthesis conducted. Results Searches produced 10,212 results and 24 studies were included in the review. Most campaigns used TV or radio in combination with other media channels were conducted in developed countries and were of weak quality. There was little evidence of reductions in alcohol consumption associated with exposure to campaigns based on 13 studies which measured consumption, although most did not state this as a specific aim of the campaign. There were some increases in treatment seeking and information seeking and mixed evidence of changes in intentions, motivation, beliefs and attitudes about alcohol. Campaigns were associated with increases in knowledge about alcohol consumption, especially where levels had initially been low. Recall of campaigns was high. Conclusion Mass media health campaigns about alcohol are often recalled by individuals, have achieved changes in knowledge, attitudes and beliefs about alcohol but there is little evidence of reductions in alcohol consumption. Short summary There is little evidence that mass media campaigns have reduced alcohol consumption although most did not state that they aimed to do so. Studies show recall of campaigns is high and that they can have an impact on knowledge, attitudes and beliefs about alcohol consumption. PMID:29329359

  1. Effect of finishing and polishing on color stability of a nanofilled resin immersed in different media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Luísa Botta Martins de OLIVEIRA

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of finishing and polishing on color stability of a nanofilled composite resin (Filtek Z350 XT according to different immersion media.MATERIAL AND METHOD: Composite disks (10 mm diameter, 2 mm thickness were prepared for each group (n = 6 using a stainless steel mold. The groups were divided according to the presence or absence of finishing and polishing procedure and immersion media (artificial saliva, artificial juice- KAPO(r Coca-Cola(rflavors: pineapple, orange, strawberry and grape. The finishing and polishing procedures were performed using Super -Snap(r disks. The specimens were stored in artificial saliva for 24 hours (baseline and were analyzed using a color spectrophotometer by CIELab system. Then, they were immersed in different media for 5 minutes, 3 times a day, every 4 hours during 60 days. They were stored in artificial saliva at 37 ± 1°C during the immersion intervals. After this time, new measure of color was performed. The data were analyzed using Kruskall-Wallis test and Mann- Whitney test. The significance level was 5%.RESULT: The results showed that the finishing/polishing not significantly influence the color stability of resin composite (p > 0.05. There was no statistically significant difference in the color stability of the studied resin after immersion in different media (p > 0.05.CONCLUSION: The finishing and polishing procedures and the immersion media did not have influence on color stability of nanofilled resin Filtek Z350 XT.

  2. Effectiveness of Mass Media Campaigns to Reduce Alcohol Consumption and Harm: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Ben; Lewis, Sarah; Katikireddi, Srinivasa Vittal; Bauld, Linda; Stead, Martine; Angus, Kathryn; Campbell, Mhairi; Hilton, Shona; Thomas, James; Hinds, Kate; Ashie, Adela; Langley, Tessa

    2018-05-01

    To assess the effectiveness of mass media messages to reduce alcohol consumption and related harms using a systematic literature review. Eight databases were searched along with reference lists of eligible studies. Studies of any design in any country were included, provided that they evaluated a mass media intervention targeting alcohol consumption or related behavioural, social cognitive or clinical outcomes. Drink driving interventions and college campus campaigns were ineligible. Studies quality were assessed, data were extracted and a narrative synthesis conducted. Searches produced 10,212 results and 24 studies were included in the review. Most campaigns used TV or radio in combination with other media channels were conducted in developed countries and were of weak quality. There was little evidence of reductions in alcohol consumption associated with exposure to campaigns based on 13 studies which measured consumption, although most did not state this as a specific aim of the campaign. There were some increases in treatment seeking and information seeking and mixed evidence of changes in intentions, motivation, beliefs and attitudes about alcohol. Campaigns were associated with increases in knowledge about alcohol consumption, especially where levels had initially been low. Recall of campaigns was high. Mass media health campaigns about alcohol are often recalled by individuals, have achieved changes in knowledge, attitudes and beliefs about alcohol but there is little evidence of reductions in alcohol consumption. There is little evidence that mass media campaigns have reduced alcohol consumption although most did not state that they aimed to do so. Studies show recall of campaigns is high and that they can have an impact on knowledge, attitudes and beliefs about alcohol consumption.

  3. Effects Of Social Networking Sites (SNSs) On Hyper Media Computer Mediated Environments (HCMEs)

    OpenAIRE

    Yoon C. Cho

    2011-01-01

    Social Networking Sites (SNSs) are known as tools to interact and build relationships between users/customers in Hyper Media Computer Mediated Environments (HCMEs). This study explored how social networking sites play a significant role in communication between users. While numerous researchers examined the effectiveness of social networking websites, few studies investigated which factors affected customers attitudes and behavior toward social networking sites. In this paper, the authors inv...

  4. Moral Disengagement in media and Moral Identity activation: their interactive effect on support of war

    OpenAIRE

    Liebnitzky, Jan

    2015-01-01

    People can disengage from their internalized moral standards and self-regulation in order to perform immoral behaviour by using different Moral Disengagement mechanisms. These mechanisms within media have a positive effect on immoral behaviour. However, Moral Identity activation is said to counter arguments of Moral Disengagement. In this study, both concepts are applied to the context of war. An additional assumption took into account in how far participants’ internalized moral standards con...

  5. Sphagnum moss as a growing media constituent: some effects of harvesting, processing and storage

    OpenAIRE

    S. Kumar

    2017-01-01

    The Sphagnum material used in horticulture so far has been harvested manually, and most of the available data about Sphagnum properties have been obtained from this material. A question that remains unanswered is how changes during harvesting and processing, as well as the use of mechanical methods, affect the important properties of Sphagnum moss as a growing media constituent. Some of the effects have been evaluated in Sphagnum farming projects in Germany during the past ten years, and are ...

  6. The Effects of Immigration and Media Influence on Body Image Among Pakistani Men

    OpenAIRE

    Saghir, Sheeba; Hyland, Lynda

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the role of media influence and immigration on body image among Pakistani men. Attitudes toward the body were compared between those living in Pakistan (n = 56) and those who had immigrated to the United Arab Emirates (n = 58). Results of a factorial analysis of variance demonstrated a significant main effect of immigrant status. Pakistani men living in the United Arab Emirates displayed poorer body image than those in the Pakistan sample. Results also indicated a second m...

  7. Efficient Modeling and Migration in Anisotropic Media Based on Prestack Exploding Reflector Model and Effective Anisotropy

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Hui

    2014-05-01

    This thesis addresses the efficiency improvement of seismic wave modeling and migration in anisotropic media. This improvement becomes crucial in practice as the process of imaging complex geological structures of the Earth\\'s subsurface requires modeling and migration as building blocks. The challenge comes from two aspects. First, the underlying governing equations for seismic wave propagation in anisotropic media are far more complicated than that in isotropic media which demand higher computational costs to solve. Second, the usage of whole prestack seismic data still remains a burden considering its storage volume and the existing wave equation solvers. In this thesis, I develop two approaches to tackle the challenges. In the first part, I adopt the concept of prestack exploding reflector model to handle the whole prestack data and bridge the data space directly to image space in a single kernel. I formulate the extrapolation operator in a two-way fashion to remove he restriction on directions that waves propagate. I also develop a generic method for phase velocity evaluation within anisotropic media used in this extrapolation kernel. The proposed method provides a tool for generating prestack images without wavefield cross correlations. In the second part of this thesis, I approximate the anisotropic models using effective isotropic models. The wave phenomena in these effective models match that in anisotropic models both kinematically and dynamically. I obtain the effective models through equating eikonal equations and transport equations of anisotropic and isotropic models, thereby in the high frequency asymptotic approximation sense. The wavefields extrapolation costs are thus reduced using isotropic wave equation solvers while the anisotropic effects are maintained through this approach. I benchmark the two proposed methods using synthetic datasets. Tests on anisotropic Marmousi model and anisotropic BP2007 model demonstrate the applicability of my

  8. Social media in advertising campaigns: examining the effects on perceived persuasive intent, campaign and brand responses

    OpenAIRE

    Voorveld, H.A.M.; van Noort, G.

    2014-01-01

    Inspired by the increasing popularity of advertising on social media, and especially on social network sites (SNSs), the aim of this study is to give insight into the effectiveness of SNS advertising. The first experimental study compares consumer responses to advertising on SNSs and television (TV) and demonstrates that while TV campaigns are evaluated more positively, SNS campaigns result in more favourable cognitive responses. Moreover, the persuasive intent of SNS campaigns is less recogn...

  9. Dynamic Viscosity and Compensation Effect in Hydrocarbon Media with a High Content of Resins and Paraffins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boitsova, A. A.; Kondrasheva, N. K.; Dolomatov, M. Yu.

    2017-11-01

    Linear dependences have been obtained for multicomponent hydrocarbon media (oils and high-boiling fractions), which relate the preexponent and the activation energy of viscous flow in the Arrhenius equation. A distinctive feature of the established kinetic compensation effect is it existing before and after the phase-transition temperature. The obtained results have been confirmed by statistical data and make it possible to predict the dynamic viscosity of multicomponent hydrocarbon systems, such as oil and high-boiling fractions.

  10. Effects of Social Media in the Tourism Industry of Batangas Province

    OpenAIRE

    Dr. Dexter R. Buted; Nancy S. Gillespie; Jandel B. Conti; Bernadeth A. Delgado; Ruth Mae P. Marasigan; Sher Kimmie A. Rubico; Sevilla S. Felicen

    2014-01-01

    - Social Networking is a powerful medium to advertise good things about people and places. Therefore, it is now being used to promote the tourism industry through networking sites where people mostly communicate and meet new ventures. This study aimed to assess the effects of social media in tourism industry of Batangas province. Descriptive type of research was utilized in the study. Results showed that Facebook, Twitter, YouTube, Blogs and Websites were the social networking ...

  11. Effect of different culture media and deswelling agents on survival of human corneal endothelial and epithelial cells in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valtink, Monika; Donath, Patricia; Engelmann, Katrin; Knels, Lilla

    2016-02-01

    To examine the effects of media and deswelling agents on human corneal endothelial and epithelial cell viability using a previously developed screening system. The human corneal endothelial cell line HCEC-12 and the human corneal epithelial cell line HCE-T were cultured in four different corneal organ culture media (serum-supplemented: MEM +2 % FCS, CorneaMax®/CorneaJet®, serum-free: Human Endothelial-SFM, Stemalpha-2 and -3) with and without 6 % dextran T500 or 7 % HES 130/0.4. Standard growth media F99HCEC and DMEM/F12HCE-T served as controls. In additional controls, the stress inducers staurosporine or hydrogen peroxide were added. After 5 days in the test media, cell viability was assessed by flow cytometrically quantifying apoptotic and necrotic cells (sub-G1 DNA content, vital staining with YO-PRO-1® and propidium iodide) and intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS). The MEM-based media were unable to support HCEC-12 and HCE-T survival under stress conditions, resulting in significantly increased numbers of apoptotic and necrotic cells. HCEC-12 survival was markedly improved in SFM-based media even under staurosporine or hydrogen peroxide. Likewise, HCE-T survival was improved in SFM with or without dextran. The media CorneaMax®, CorneaJet®, and CorneaMax® with HES supported HCEC-12 survival better than MEM-based media, but less well than SFM-based media. HCE-T viability was also supported by CorneaJet®, but not by CorneaMax® with or without HES. Stemalpha-based media were not suitable for maintaining viability of HCEC-12 or HCE-T in the applied cell culture system. The use of serum-supplemented MEM-based media for corneal organ culture should be discontinued in favour of serum-free media like SFM.

  12. An effective dead oil model for two-phase flow in inhomogeneous porous media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourgeat, A.

    1988-01-01

    The authors are investigating displacement process of incompressible two phase flow miscible or immiscible in heterogeneous porous media, including capillary and gravity effects. The authors' aim is to derive rigorously a Global or Effective Model which then allow, in Numerical Simulations, to disconnect the numerical mesh size from the heterogeneities size inside the reservoir itself. The reservoir is assumed to be made of uniformly (or non uniformly) periodically repeated cells. Each cell being made with different types of porous media. Then, calling ε the ratio of the cell size to the Reservoir size, we get equations depending on the parameter ε because the Porosity and Permeabilities, say Phi/sup ε/ and Κ/sup ε/ are themselves rapidly oscillating. From these ε-parametrized equations the authors derive simpler ''Effective Equations'' no more dependant on ε, called ''Homongenized Equations by the mathematical technique of Homogenization. In these new equations, which are describing Global Displacement process throughout a Globally Equivallent homogenous media where now //Phi and Κ are no more depending on the space variable or ε

  13. Effect of capillary condensation on gas transport properties in porous media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimoto, Yuta; Hori, Takuma; Kinefuchi, Ikuya; Takagi, Shu

    2017-10-01

    We investigate the effect of capillary condensation on gas diffusivity in porous media composed of randomly packed spheres with moderate wettability. To simulate capillary phenomena at the pore scale while retaining complex pore networks of the porous media, we employ density functional theory (DFT) for coarse-grained lattice gas models. The lattice DFT simulations reveal that capillary condensations preferentially occur at confined pores surrounded by solid walls, leading to the occlusion of narrow pores. Consequently, the characteristic lengths of the partially wet structures are larger than those of the corresponding dry structures with the same porosities. Subsequent gas diffusion simulations exploiting the mean-square displacement method indicate that while the effective diffusion coefficients significantly decrease in the presence of partially condensed liquids, they are larger than those in the dry structures with the same porosities. Moreover, we find that the ratio of the porosity to the tortuosity factor, which is a crucial parameter that determines an effective diffusion coefficient, can be reasonably related to the porosity even for the partially wet porous media.

  14. Paradigms in object recognition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mutihac, R.; Mutihac, R.C.

    1999-09-01

    A broad range of approaches has been proposed and applied for the complex and rather difficult task of object recognition that involves the determination of object characteristics and object classification into one of many a priori object types. Our paper revises briefly the three main different paradigms in pattern recognition, namely Bayesian statistics, neural networks, and expert systems. (author)

  15. Programming Language Paradigms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartoníček Jan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper's goal is to briefly explain the basic theory behind programming languages and their history while taking a close look at different programming paradigms that are used today as well as describing their differences, benefits, and drawbacks

  16. Shifting the paradigm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiss, Katalin; Brozik, Anna; Kucsma, Nora

    2012-01-01

    ABCB6, a member of the adenosine triphosphate-binding cassette (ABC) transporter family, has been proposed to be responsible for the mitochondrial uptake of porphyrins. Here we show that ABCB6 is a glycoprotein present in the membrane of mature erythrocytes and in exosomes released from reticuloc...... paradigm linking the expression and function of ABCB6 to mitochondria....

  17. Deconstructing Research: Paradigms Lost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trifonas, Peter Pericles

    2009-01-01

    In recent decades, proponents of naturalistic and/or critical modes of inquiry advocating the use of ethnographic techniques for the narrative-based study of phenomena within pedagogical contexts have challenged the central methodological paradigm of educational research: that is, the tendency among its practitioners to adhere to quantitative…

  18. Effective photons in weakly absorptive dielectric media and the Beer–Lambert–Bouguer law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Judge, A C; Brownless, J S; Martijn de Sterke, C; Bhat, N A R; Sipe, J E; Steel, M J

    2014-01-01

    We derive effective photon modes that facilitate an intuitive and convenient picture of photon dynamics in a structured Kramers–Kronig dielectric in the limit of weak absorption. Each mode is associated with a mode field distribution that includes the effects of both material and structural dispersion, and an effective line-width that determines the temporal decay rate of the photon. These results are then applied to obtain an expression for the Beer–Lambert–Bouguer law absorption coefficient for unidirectional propagation in structured media consisting of dispersive, weakly absorptive dielectric materials

  19. The effectiveness of mass media in changing HIV/AIDS-related behaviour among young people in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertrand, Jane T; Anhang, Rebecca

    2006-01-01

    To review the strength of the evidence for the effects of three types of mass media interventions (radio only, radio with supporting media, or radio and television with supporting media) on HIV/AIDS-related behaviour among young people in developing countries and to assess whether these interventions reach the threshold of evidence needed to recommend widespread implementation. We conducted a systematic review of studies that evaluated mass media interventions and were published or released between 1990 and 2004. Studies were included if they evaluated a mass media campaign that had the main objective of providing information about HIV/AIDS or sexual health. To be eligible for inclusion studies had to use a pre-intervention versus post-intervention design or an intervention versus control design or analyse cross-sectional data comparing those who had been exposed to the campaign with those who had not been exposed. Studies also had to comprehensively report quantitative data for most outcomes. Of the 15 programmes identified, 11 were from Africa, 2 from Latin America, 1 from Asia, and 1 from multiple countries. One programme used radio only, six used radio with supporting media, and eight others used television and radio with supporting media. The data support the effectiveness of mass media interventions to increase the knowledge of HIV transmission, to improve self-efficacy in condom use, to influence some social norms, to increase the amount of interpersonal communication, to increase condom use and to boost awareness of health providers. Fewer significant effects were found for improving self-efficacy in terms of abstinence, delaying the age of first sexual experience or decreasing the number of sexual partners. We found that mass media programmes can influence HIV-related outcomes among young people, although not on every variable or in every campaign. Campaigns that include television require the highest threshold of evidence, yet they also yield the

  20. Effects of embryo culture media do not persist after implantation: a histological study in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemkemeyer, Sandra A; Schwarzer, Caroline; Boiani, Michele; Ehmcke, Jens; Le Gac, Séverine; Schlatt, Stefan; Nordhoff, Verena

    2014-02-01

    Is post-implantation embryonic development after blastocyst transfer affected by exposure to different assisted reproduction technology (ART) culture media? Fetal development and placental histology of ART embryos cultured in vitro in different ART media was not impaired compared with embryos grown in vivo. The application of different in vitro culture (IVC) media for human ART has an effect on birthweight of newborns. In the mouse model, differences in blastocyst formation were reported after culture in different ART media. Moreover, abnormalities in the liver and heart have been detected as a result of suboptimal IVC conditions. Fertilized oocytes from inbred and outbred breeding schemes were retrieved and either immediately transferred to foster mothers or incubated in control or human ART culture media up to the blastocyst stage prior to transfer. Placental and fetal anatomy and particularly bone development were evaluated. B6C3F1 female mice were used as oocyte donors after ovulation induction. C57Bl/6 and CD1 males were used for mating and CD1 females as foster mothers for embryo transfer. Fertilized oocytes were recovered from mated females and incubated in sequential human ART media (ISM1/ISM2 and HTF/Multiblast), in control media [KSOM(aa) and Whitten's medium] or grown in utero without IVC (zygote control). As in vivo, control B6C3F1 females were superovulated and left untreated. Fetuses and placentae were isolated by Caesarean section and analysed at 18.5 days post-coitum (dpc) for placenta composition and at 15.5 dpc for body weight, crown-rump length (CRL), fetal organ development, morphological development, total bone length and extent of bone ossification. No major differences in the number of implantation sites or in histological appearance of the placentae were detected. CRL of KSOM(aa) fetuses was higher compared with zygote control and Whitten's medium. Histological analysis of tissue sections revealed no gross morphological differences compared

  1. The effects of chemical kinetics and wall temperature on performance of porous media burners

    Science.gov (United States)

    mohammadi, Iman; Hossainpour, Siamak

    2013-06-01

    This paper reports a two-dimensional numerical prediction of premixed methane-air combustion in inert porous media burner by using of four multi-step mechanisms: GRI-3.0 mechanism, GRI-2.11 mechanism and the skeletal and 17 Species mechanisms. The effects of these models on temperature, chemical species and pollutant emissions are studied. A two-dimensional axisymmetric model for premixed methane-air combustion in porous media burner has developed. The finite volume method has used to solve the governing equations of methane-air combustion in inert porous media burner. The results indicate that the present four models have the same accuracy in predicting temperature profiles and the difference between these profiles is not more than 2 %. In addition, the Gri-3.0 mechanism shows the best prediction of NO emission in comparison with experimental data. The 17 Species mechanism shows good agreement in prediction of temperature and pollutant emissions with GRI-3.0, GRI-2.11 and the skeletal mechanisms. Also the effects of wall temperature on the gas temperature and mass fraction of species such as NO and CH4 are studied.

  2. Polar and low polar solvents media effect on dipole moments of some diazo Sudan dyes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakerhamidi, M. S.; Golghasemi Sorkhabi, Sh.; Shamkhali, A. N.

    2014-06-01

    Absorption and fluorescence spectra of three Sudan dyes (SudanIII, SudanIV and Sudan black B) were recorded in various solvents with different polarity in the range of 300-800 nm, at room temperature. The solvatochromic method was used to investigate dipole moments of these dyes in ground and excited states, in different media. The solvatochromic behavior of these substances and their solvent-solute interactions were analyzed via solvent polarity parameters. Obtained results express the effects of solvation on tautomerism and molecular configuration (geometry) of Sudan dyes in solvent media with different polarity. Furthermore, analyze of solvent-solute interactions and value of ground and excited states dipole moments suggests different forms of resonance structures for Sudan dyes in polar and low-polar solvents.

  3. Sphagnum moss as a growing media constituent: some effects of harvesting, processing and storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kumar

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The Sphagnum material used in horticulture so far has been harvested manually, and most of the available data about Sphagnum properties have been obtained from this material. A question that remains unanswered is how changes during harvesting and processing, as well as the use of mechanical methods, affect the important properties of Sphagnum moss as a growing media constituent. Some of the effects have been evaluated in Sphagnum farming projects in Germany during the past ten years, and are described in this article. Different possibilities for drying, screening and cleaning the Sphagnum material are described. The results obtained indicate that Sphagnum moss can be dried and processed using mechanical methods without negative impacts on its quality as a growing media constituent.

  4. Memory-effect based deconvolution microscopy for super-resolution imaging through scattering media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edrei, Eitan; Scarcelli, Giuliano

    2016-09-01

    High-resolution imaging through turbid media is a fundamental challenge of optical sciences that has attracted a lot of attention in recent years for its wide range of potential applications. Here, we demonstrate that the resolution of imaging systems looking behind a highly scattering medium can be improved below the diffraction-limit. To achieve this, we demonstrate a novel microscopy technique enabled by the optical memory effect that uses a deconvolution image processing and thus it does not require iterative focusing, scanning or phase retrieval procedures. We show that this newly established ability of direct imaging through turbid media provides fundamental and practical advantages such as three-dimensional refocusing and unambiguous object reconstruction.

  5. The effect of indoor air pollutants on otitis media and asthma in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daigler, G.E.; Markello, S.J.; Cummings, K.M. (State Univ. of New York, Buffalo (USA))

    1991-03-01

    This case-control study investigated the possible association between home environmental air pollutants and their effect on otitis media and asthma in children. Patients with physician-diagnosed otitis (n = 125, 74% response), with asthma (n = 137, 80% response), and controls (n = 237, 72% response) from a private pediatric practice seen between October 1986 and May 1987 were studied. A questionnaire inquired about housing characteristics (i.e., age, insulation, heating system) and sources of indoor air pollution such as cigarette smoking, use of woodburning stoves, household pets, etc. Analysis of the responses confirmed previous findings of significant relationships between maternal smoking (P = .021), and the presence of pets (P = .034) and the occurrence of asthma. A newly reported relationship between exposure to woodburning stoves and the occurrence of otitis (P less than .05) was reported. This implicates yet another risk factor (wood burning) in the etiology of otitis media.

  6. The effect of liquid media on x-ray radiographic sensitivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdul Razak bin Daud; Ahmad Suhaimi bin Abdullah; Azali bin Muhamad

    1991-01-01

    The effect of liquid media i.e. tap water, seawater and crude oil on X-Rays radiographic sensitivity for 120, 160, 200 kV X-Rays was investigated. Stainless steel plates were used as specimens. Image quality indicators were German standard DIN 54109 - wire type and penetrameter ASME-SE142. Result obtained shows that radiographic sensitivity percents obtained in the liquid media using wire type image quality indicator and penetrameter are lessened to about 20-25% and 40-44% respectively with respect to radiographic sensitivity obtained in air. Optimum thickness of specimen for appropriate X-ray energies where sensitivity is best does not vary in air, tap water, seawater or crude oil

  7. Project management: a new service delivery paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. van der Walt

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available In line with international trends in governance, the South African Government’s initial focus on the development of policy frameworks, structures and systems in order to give effect to the values and principles of the Constitution, shifted to the most critical issue, namely service delivery. The Government became increasingly aware that a significant expansion in the scope and quality of service provision was not possible with traditional delivery settings and approaches. There is growing evidence that there is a need for a significant departure from conventional approaches and that a leap into a new service delivery paradigm is necessary. Increasingly this new paradigm highlights the need to further develop the government’s project management skills and applications with a view to achieving improved delivery capability. In this article the focus will be placed on the changing service delivery paradigm – from an “old” traditional model through the transition to a “new” paradigm. This paradigm is shaped by international and national trends and events in government. The contribution and advantages of project management applications for effective governance are highlighted and the article concludes with an explanation of project management organisational arrangements necessary to support the new paradigm.

  8. Abundant Topological Outliers in Social Media Data and Their Effect on Spatial Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westerholt, Rene; Steiger, Enrico; Resch, Bernd; Zipf, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Twitter and related social media feeds have become valuable data sources to many fields of research. Numerous researchers have thereby used social media posts for spatial analysis, since many of them contain explicit geographic locations. However, despite its widespread use within applied research, a thorough understanding of the underlying spatial characteristics of these data is still lacking. In this paper, we investigate how topological outliers influence the outcomes of spatial analyses of social media data. These outliers appear when different users contribute heterogeneous information about different phenomena simultaneously from similar locations. As a consequence, various messages representing different spatial phenomena are captured closely to each other, and are at risk to be falsely related in a spatial analysis. Our results reveal indications for corresponding spurious effects when analyzing Twitter data. Further, we show how the outliers distort the range of outcomes of spatial analysis methods. This has significant influence on the power of spatial inferential techniques, and, more generally, on the validity and interpretability of spatial analysis results. We further investigate how the issues caused by topological outliers are composed in detail. We unveil that multiple disturbing effects are acting simultaneously and that these are related to the geographic scales of the involved overlapping patterns. Our results show that at some scale configurations, the disturbances added through overlap are more severe than at others. Further, their behavior turns into a volatile and almost chaotic fluctuation when the scales of the involved patterns become too different. Overall, our results highlight the critical importance of thoroughly considering the specific characteristics of social media data when analyzing them spatially.

  9. Cost-effectiveness analysis of endoscopic tympanoplasty versus microscopic tympanoplasty for chronic otitis media in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Chih-Chieh; Lai, Ming-Tang; Wu, Chia-Che; Yuan, Sheng-Po; Ding, Yi-Fang

    2018-03-01

    Health care systems and physicians need to conform to budgets and streamline resources to provide cost-effective quality care. Although endoscopic tympanoplasty (ET) has been performed for decades, no studies on the cost-effectiveness of ET and microscopic tympanoplasty (MT) for treating chronic otitis media have been published. The present study aimed to compare the cost-effectiveness of ET and MT for treating chronic otitis media. This study was performed using a Cohort-style Markov decision-tree economic model with a 30-year time horizon. The economic perspective was that of a third-party payer (Taiwan National Health Insurance System). Two treatment strategies were compared, namely ET and MT. The primary outcome was the incremental cost per quality-adjusted life year (QALY). Probabilities were obtained from meta-analyses. Costs were obtained from the published literature and Taiwan National Health Insurance System database. Multiple sensitivity analyses were performed to account for data uncertainty. The reference case revealed that the total cost of ET was $NT 20,901 for 17.08 QALY per patient. By contrast, the total cost of MT was $NT 21,171 for 17.15 QALY per patient. The incremental cost effectiveness ratio for ET versus that of MT was $NT 3703 per QALY. The cost-effectiveness acceptability curve indicated that ET was comparable to MT at a willingness-to-pay threshold of larger than $NT 35,000 per QALY. This cost-effectiveness analysis indicates that ET is comparable to MT for treating chronic otitis media in Taiwan. This result provides the latest information for physicians, the government, and third-party payers to select proper clinical practice. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Taiwan LLC.

  10. Reading while Watching Video: The Effect of Video Content on Reading Comprehension and Media Multitasking Ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Lin; Lee, Jennifer; Robertson, Tip

    2011-01-01

    Media multitasking, or engaging in multiple media and tasks simultaneously, is becoming an increasingly popular phenomenon with the development and engagement in social media. This study examines to what extent video content affects students' reading comprehension in media multitasking environments. One hundred and thirty university students were…

  11. The effect of injection of high K+ solution into scala media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukazawa, T; Ohmura, M; Yagi, N

    1987-01-01

    Thirty guinea pig ears were studied to investigate the effect of endolymphatic hydrops on the cochlea. High K+ solution was injected into the scala media, and cochlear microphonics (CM) and endocochlear potential (EP) were observed before, during and after the injection. The CM amplitude decreased rapidly after injection, ending in a depressed plateau value. By contrast, EP remained almost unchanged. By changing the composition of the solution it was suggested that the effect of the injection was mechanical one, rather than biochemical. In three ears, spontaneous recovery of CM was observed during a relatively long interval after the injection. The meaning of these findings for the hearing loss in Meniere's disease is discussed.

  12. Effect of pore size distribution and flow segregation on dispersion in porous media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbonell, R.G.

    1978-11-01

    In order to study the effect of the pore size distribution and flow segregation on dispersion in a porous media, the dispersion of solute in an array of parallel pores is considered. Equations are obtained for the dispersion coefficient in laminar and turbulent flow, as a function of the particle Peclet number. The theory fits quite well cumulative experimental data from various researchers in the Peclet number range from 10 -3 to 10 6 . The model also predicts some trends, backed by experimental data, regarding the effect of particle size, particle size distribution and fluid velocity on dispersion

  13. The Effect of Wettability Heterogeneity on Relative Permeability of Two-Phase Flow in Porous Media: A Lattice Boltzmann Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jianlin; Kang, Qinjun; Yao, Jun; Viswanathan, Hari; Pawar, Rajesh; Zhang, Lei; Sun, Hai

    2018-02-01

    Relative permeability is a critical parameter characterizing multiphase flow in porous media and it is strongly dependent on the wettability. In many situations, the porous media are nonuniformly wet. To investigate the effect of wettability heterogeneity on relative permeability of two-phase flow in porous media, a multi-relaxation-time color-gradient lattice Boltzmann model is adopted to simulate oil/water two-phase flow in porous media with different oil-wet solid fractions. For the water phase, when the water saturation is high, the relative permeability of water increases with the increase of oil-wet solid fraction under a constant water saturation. However, as the water saturation decreases to an intermediate value (about 0.4-0.7), the relative permeability of water in fractionally wet porous media could be lower than that in purely water-wet porous media, meaning additional flow resistance exists in the fractionally wet porous media. For the oil phase, similar phenomenon is observed. This phenomenon is mainly caused by the wettability-related microscale fluid distribution. According to both our simulation results and theoretical analysis, it is found that the relative permeability of two-phase flow in porous media is strongly related to three parameters: the fluid saturation, the specific interfacial length of fluid, and the fluid tortuosity in the flow direction. The relationship between the relative permeability and these parameters under different capillary numbers is explored in this paper.

  14. Media portrayal of mental illness and its treatments: what effect does it have on people with mental illness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuart, Heather

    2006-01-01

    This article reviews dominant media portrayals of mental illness, the mentally ill and mental health interventions, and examines what social, emotional and treatment-related effects these may have. Studies consistently show that both entertainment and news media provide overwhelmingly dramatic and distorted images of mental illness that emphasise dangerousness, criminality and unpredictability. They also model negative reactions to the mentally ill, including fear, rejection, derision and ridicule. The consequences of negative media images for people who have a mental illness are profound. They impair self-esteem, help-seeking behaviours, medication adherence and overall recovery. Mental health advocates blame the media for promoting stigma and discrimination toward people with a mental illness. However, the media may also be an important ally in challenging public prejudices, initiating public debate, and projecting positive, human interest stories about people who live with mental illness. Media lobbying and press liaison should take on a central role for mental health professionals, not only as a way of speaking out for patients who may not be able to speak out for themselves, but as a means of improving public education and awareness. Also, given the consistency of research findings in this field, it may now be time to shift attention away from further cataloguing of media representations of mental illness to the more challenging prospect of how to use the media to improve the life chances and recovery possibilities for the one in four people living with mental disorders.

  15. Induced Kerr effects and self-guided beams in quasi-phase-matched quadratic media [CBC4

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Carl A. Balslev; Bang, Ole; Kivshar, Yuri S.

    1997-01-01

    We show that quasi-phase-matching of quadratic media induces Kerr effects, such as self- and cross-phase modulation, and leads to the existence of a novel class of solitary waves, QPM-solitons......We show that quasi-phase-matching of quadratic media induces Kerr effects, such as self- and cross-phase modulation, and leads to the existence of a novel class of solitary waves, QPM-solitons...

  16. THE EFFECT OF THE PICTORIAL NUMERIC CARD MEDIA TOWARD IMPROVEMENT OF THE SUMMATION COMPUTATION ABILITY FOR STUDENT WITH INTELLECTUAL DISSABILITY

    OpenAIRE

    Isna Nur Hikmah; Usep Kustiawan

    2016-01-01

    The reseach’s purpose was to analyze the effect of picture numeric card media toward improvement of the summation computation ability for student with intellectual disability of grade IV in SDLB. Data collected was analyzed with experiment technique and single subject research A-B design. Research result showed that: after being analyzed between condition overlap persentase was 0%. Thus, it could be concluded that there was effect of pictorial numeric card media toward summation computation a...

  17. Effect of sodium lauryl sulfate in dissolution media on dissolution of hard gelatin capsule shells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Fang; Malayev, Vyacheslav; Rao, Venkatramana; Hussain, Munir

    2004-01-01

    Sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) is a commonly used surfactant in dissolution media for poorly water soluble drugs. However, it has occasionally been observed that SLS negatively impacts the dissolution of drug products formulated in gelatin capsules. This study investigated the effect of SLS on the dissolution of hard gelatin capsule shells. The USP paddle method was used with online UV monitoring at 214 nm (peptide bond). Empty size #0 capsule shells were held to the bottom of the dissolution vessel by magnetic three-prong sinkers. SLS significantly slowed down the dissolution of gelatin shells at pH < 5. Visually, the gelatin shells transformed into some less-soluble precipitate under these conditions. This precipitate was found to contain a higher sulfur content than the gelatin control sample by elemental analysis, indicating that SLS is part of the precipitate. Additionally, the slowdown of capsule shell dissolution was shown to be dependent on the SLS concentration and the ionic strength of the media. SLS interacts with gelatin to form a less-soluble precipitate at pH < 5. The use of SLS in dissolution media at acidic pH should be carefully evaluated for gelatin capsule products.

  18. Effects of pH on nano-bubble stability and transport in saturated porous media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamamoto, Shoichiro; Takemura, Takato; Suzuki, Kenichiro; Nishimura, Taku

    2018-01-01

    An understanding of nano-scale bubble (NB) transport in porous media is important for potential application of NBs in soil/groundwater remediation. It is expected that the solution chemistry of NB water highly influences the surface characteristics of NBs and porous media and the interaction between them, thus affecting the stability and transport characteristics of NB. In this study, in addition to stability experiments, one-dimensional column transport experiments using glass beads were conducted to investigate the effects of pH on the NB transport behavior. The results showed that the NBs were more stable under higher pH. Column transport experiments revealed that entrapment of NBs, especially larger ones, was enhanced in lower-pH water, likely suggesting pH-dependent NB attachment and physical straining, both of which are also probably influenced by bubble size. Although relatively smaller NBs were released after switching the eluting fluid to one with lower ionic strength, most of the NBs in lower-pH water were still retained in the porous media even altering the chemical condition.

  19. Modeling the effectiveness of U(VI) biomineralization in dual-porosity porous media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotter, B. E.; Barry, D. A.; Gerhard, J. I.; Small, J. S.

    2011-05-01

    SummaryUranium contamination is a serious environmental concern worldwide. Recent attention has focused on the in situ immobilization of uranium by stimulation of dissimilatory metal-reducing bacteria (DMRB). The objective of this work was to investigate the effectiveness of this approach in heterogeneous and structured porous media, since such media may significantly affect the geochemical and microbial processes taking place in contaminated sites, impacting remediation efficiency during biostimulation. A biogeochemical reactive transport model was developed for uranium remediation by immobile-region-resident DMRB in two-region porous media. Simulations were used to investigate the parameter sensitivities of the system over wide-ranging geochemical, microbial and groundwater transport conditions. The results suggest that optimal biomineralization is generally likely to occur when the regional mass transfer timescale is less than one-thirtieth the value of the volumetric flux timescale, and/or the organic carbon fermentation timescale is less than one-thirtieth the value of the advective timescale, and/or the mobile region porosity ranges between equal to and four times the immobile region porosity. Simulations including U(VI) surface complexation to Fe oxides additionally suggest that, while systems exhibiting U(VI) surface complexation may be successfully remediated, they are likely to display different degrees of remediation efficiency over varying microbial efficiency, mobile-immobile mass transfer, and porosity ratios. Such information may aid experimental and field designs, allowing for optimized remediation in dual-porosity (two-region) biostimulated DMRB U(VI) remediation schemes.

  20. Green roof stormwater retention: effects of roof surface, slope, and media depth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanWoert, Nicholaus D; Rowe, D Bradley; Andresen, Jeffrey A; Rugh, Clayton L; Fernandez, R Thomas; Xiao, Lan

    2005-01-01

    Urban areas generate considerably more stormwater runoff than natural areas of the same size due to a greater percentage of impervious surfaces that impede water infiltration. Roof surfaces account for a large portion of this impervious cover. Establishing vegetation on rooftops, known as green roofs, is one method of recovering lost green space that can aid in mitigating stormwater runoff. Two studies were performed using several roof platforms to quantify the effects of various treatments on stormwater retention. The first study used three different roof surface treatments to quantify differences in stormwater retention of a standard commercial roof with gravel ballast, an extensive green roof system without vegetation, and a typical extensive green roof with vegetation. Overall, mean percent rainfall retention ranged from 48.7% (gravel) to 82.8% (vegetated). The second study tested the influence of roof slope (2 and 6.5%) and green roof media depth (2.5, 4.0, and 6.0 cm) on stormwater retention. For all combined rain events, platforms at 2% slope with a 4-cm media depth had the greatest mean retention, 87%, although the difference from the other treatments was minimal. The combination of reduced slope and deeper media clearly reduced the total quantity of runoff. For both studies, vegetated green roof systems not only reduced the amount of stormwater runoff, they also extended its duration over a period of time beyond the actual rain event.