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Sample records for media affect radiation-induced

  1. Radiation-induced changes of liposomes and lecithin in non-aqueous media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakazawa, T.; Nagatsuka, S.; Sakurai, T.

    1981-01-01

    Radiation-induced changes of lipids in non-aqueous media were studied to elucidate the process of radiation damage in biological membranes. The lipid peroxidation progressed linearly with increasing dose and decreasing dose rate of γ-irradiation in soyabean lecithin in chloroform. The fatty acid composition of lecithin also changed, especially in linoleic and linolenic acids. Lower dose rate radiation enhanced these changes in oxic condition. Lipid peroxidation was also shown in lipids extracted from irradiated liposomes or in liposomes prepared from irradiated lecithin in chloroform. The dose-dependent glucose efflux was seen in liposomes prepared from irradiated lecithin in chloroform. These results indicate that the peroxidation of lipid molecules might cause radiation damage to the membrane conformation. (author)

  2. Analysis of anatomical factors controlling the morbidity of radiation-induced otitis media with effusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Shengzi; Wang Weifang; Zhang Haiyan; Guo Ming; Hoffman, Matthew R.; Jiang, Jack J.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To analyze the anatomical factors controlling the morbidity of radiation-induced otitis media with effusion (OME) and determine how to best preserve middle ear function when treating nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Materials and methods: Forty patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma undergoing 3-D radiotherapy (RT) planning and curative RT were analyzed retrospectively. The difference in dosage over the middle ear cavity and the isthmus of the Eustachian tube (ET) was evaluated. Pure tone audiometry and impedance audiometry tests were performed before and after RT. Results: Mean dosages over the isthmus of the ET for acoustic impedance and pure tone audiometry were recorded. Differences in dosage among the three classifications of unchanged, improved, and worsened ears were statistically significant. Conclusion: There was a correlation between the morbidity of radiation-induced OME and the radiation dosage over the middle ear cavities. Decreased OME morbidity was observed when the dosage over the isthmus of the ET was below 52 Gy and the dosage over middle ear cavity was below 46 Gy

  3. On the derivation of vector radiative transfer equation for polarized radiative transport in graded index media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, J.M.; Tan, J.Y.; Liu, L.H.

    2012-01-01

    Light transport in graded index media follows a curved trajectory determined by Fermat's principle. Besides the effect of variation of the refractive index on the transport of radiative intensity, the curved ray trajectory will induce geometrical effects on the transport of polarization ellipse. This paper presents a complete derivation of vector radiative transfer equation for polarized radiation transport in absorption, emission and scattering graded index media. The derivation is based on the analysis of the conserved quantities for polarized light transport along curved trajectory and a novel approach. The obtained transfer equation can be considered as a generalization of the classic vector radiative transfer equation that is only valid for uniform refractive index media. Several variant forms of the transport equation are also presented, which include the form for Stokes parameters defined with a fixed reference and the Eulerian forms in the ray coordinate and in several common orthogonal coordinate systems.

  4. Monte Carlo method for polarized radiative transfer in gradient-index media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, J.M.; Tan, J.Y.; Liu, L.H.

    2015-01-01

    Light transfer in gradient-index media generally follows curved ray trajectories, which will cause light beam to converge or diverge during transfer and induce the rotation of polarization ellipse even when the medium is transparent. Furthermore, the combined process of scattering and transfer along curved ray path makes the problem more complex. In this paper, a Monte Carlo method is presented to simulate polarized radiative transfer in gradient-index media that only support planar ray trajectories. The ray equation is solved to the second order to address the effect induced by curved ray trajectories. Three types of test cases are presented to verify the performance of the method, which include transparent medium, Mie scattering medium with assumed gradient index distribution, and Rayleigh scattering with realistic atmosphere refractive index profile. It is demonstrated that the atmospheric refraction has significant effect for long distance polarized light transfer. - Highlights: • A Monte Carlo method for polarized radiative transfer in gradient index media. • Effect of curved ray paths on polarized radiative transfer is considered. • Importance of atmospheric refraction for polarized light transfer is demonstrated

  5. A study of radiation-induced cerebral vascular injury in nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients with radiation-induced temporal lobe necrosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianhong Ye

    Full Text Available To investigate radiation-induced carotid and cerebral vascular injury and its relationship with radiation-induced temporal lobe necrosis in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC patients.Fifty eight NPC patients with radiation-induced temporal lobe necrosis (TLN were recruited in the study. Duplex ultrasonography was used to scan bilateral carotid arterials to evaluate the intima-media thickness (IMT and occurrence of plaque formation. Flow velocities of bilateral middle cerebral arteries (MCAs, internal carotid arteries (ICAs and basal artery (BA were estimated through Transcranial Color Doppler (TCD. The results were compared with data from 33 patients who were free from radiation-induced temporal lobe necrosis after radiotherapy and 29 healthy individuals.Significant differences in IMT, occurrence of plaques of ICAs and flow velocities of both MCAs and ICAs were found between patients after radiotherapy and healthy individuals (p<0.05. IMT had positive correlation with post radiation interval (p = 0.049. Compared with results from patients without radiation-induced TLN, the mean IMT was significantly thicker in patients with TLN (p<0.001. Plaques were more common in patients with TLN than patients without TLN (p = 0.038. In addition, flow velocities of MCAs and ICAs in patients with TLN were much faster (p<0.001, p<0.001. Among patients with unilateral TLN, flow velocity of MCAs was significantly different between ipsilateral and contralateral sides to the lesion (p = 0.001.Thickening of IMT, occurrence of plaque formation and hemodynamic abnormality are more common in patients after radiotherapy, especially in those with TLN, compared with healthy individuals.

  6. Global Media, Biopolitics and Affect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Britta Timm; Stage, Carsten

    Global Media, Biopolitics and Affect shows how mediations of bodily vulnerability have become a strong political force in contemporary societies. In discussions and struggles concerning war involvement, healthcare issues, charity, democracy movements, contested national pasts, and climate change...... culture. Likewise, it presents a range of close empirical case studies in the areas of illness blogging, global protests after the killing of Neda Agda Soltan in Iran, charity communication, green media activism, online war commemoration and digital witnessing related to conflicts in Sarajevo and Ukraine......., performances of bodily vulnerability is increasingly used by citizens to raise awareness, create sympathy, encourage political action, and to circulate information in global media networks. The book thus argues that bodily vulnerability can serve as a catalyst for affectively charging and disseminating...

  7. Radiation induced mitotic delay and stimulation of growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feldmann, A.

    1974-01-01

    The mechanisms responsible for the radiation induced mitotic delay and stimulation of growth are discussed in connection with the results of studies in Lemna minor and Lepidium sativum. The action of temperature seems to be of major importance. As many authors suggest that various chemical agents and slight intoxications also affect mitosis in a way similar to that induced by ionizing radiation, the radiation induced stimulation has lost its specific character and approaches might be found for further investigations of this phenomenon. (MG) [de

  8. Radiation Sterilization of Two Commonly Culture Media Used for Bacterial Growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Hifnawi, H.N.

    2008-01-01

    Radiation sterilization of culture media used for the cultivation of bacteria by Co-60 gamma ray was investigated. Nutrient agar and tryptone glucose yeast extract (TGY) media widely used for the propagation of bacteria were sterilized with 15 kGy dose gamma radiation. Seven different bacterial species were grown as well on the radiation sterilized media as on media sterilized by autoclaving in a conventional way

  9. The induced radioactivity danger parameter for gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perry, D.R.

    1985-07-01

    Dosimetric and practical aspects of the induced radioactivity danger parameter, as used for calculating the gamma radiation dose rate near to objects that have been exposed to high energy radiation, are examined. A simplified and more generally applicable method of calculation is proposed, based on energy balance in homogeneous media. The problems of applying this in practice are discussed, and it is shown that corrections are generally small enough to be neglected in many practical applications. Examples of calculations by previous and proposed methods are given. (author)

  10. How does the mass media report and interpret radiation data? The results of media content analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perko, T. [Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK.CEN, Institute for Environment Health and Safety (Belgium); Cantone, M.C. [University of Milano, Faculty of Medicine (Italy); Tomkiv, Y. [Norwegian University of Life Sciences (Norway); Prezelj, I. [University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Social Sciences (Slovenia); Gallego, E. [Universidad Politecnica de Madrid (Spain); Melekhova, E. [Russian Academy of Sciences in Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2014-07-01

    In communication with the general population, experts often provide quantitative information related to ionizing radiation, expressed with different units of radioactivity. However, quantitative information about radiation risks may be meaningful only to people who have the ability to comprehend basic numerical concepts and possess knowledge related to radiation. Thus, the media, as a bridge between experts and the general population, has to 'translate' quantitative information into a qualitative one. How successful and accurate are the mass media in this transformation of scientific results into publicly understandable information? Our research investigates media reporting on the concept of ionizing radiation in a case of nuclear emergencies. The presentation is focused on summarizing the 'lessons learned' from the use of radiation data in media reporting about the Fukushima nuclear accident. The in-depth media content analysis was conducted in twelve quality newspapers in Belgium, Slovenia, Italy, Spain, Norway and Russia using the same scientific methodology and analyzing the same time period. Preliminary results identified miss concepts of radiation data by media and even within emergency responders and decision makers. The research is a result of FP7 project Innovative integrated tools and platforms for radiological emergency preparedness and post-accident response in Europe - PREPARE and upgraded with a Russian experience. Document available in abstract form only. (authors)

  11. Levels of p21WAF1/CIP1 do not affect radiation-induced cell death in human breast epithelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Harold E.; Han, Sue J.; Waid, David; Lee, Yong J.; Kim, Hyeong-Reh Choi

    1997-01-01

    Purpose/Objective: Loss of the wild-type p53 activity and/or overexpression of the proto-oncogene bcl-2 are frequently detected in breast cancer and suggested to be related to resistance to chemotherapy and radiation therapy. The long-term goals of this study are to identify the downstream signaling molecules for anti-proliferative and apoptotic activities of p53 and to investigate the interaction of bcl-2 with p53 in human breast epithelial cells. We previously showed that overexpression of bcl-2 downregulates radiation-induced expression of p21 WAF1/CIP1 , a p53 downstream molecule that functions to inhibit cyclin dependent kinases, and suppresses radiation-induced apoptosis in human breast epithelial cell line (MCF10A). In this study, we investigated the role of p21 WAF1/CIP1 in radiation-induced cell death in MCF10A cells. Materials and Methods: To determine whether downregulation of p21 WAF1/CIP1 is required for anti-apoptotic activity of bcl-2, and to investigate the roles of p21 WAF1/CIP1 in cell death following irradiation, we transfected p21 WAF1/CIP1 expression vector into bcl-2 overexpressing MCF10A cells. The effects of p21 WAF1/CIP1 overexpression on cell growth, radiation-induced apoptosis and clonogenic cell survival were analyzed. Results: Overexpression of p21 WAF1/CIP1 resulted in marked growth inhibition, but no effect on dose-dependent radiation-induced cell lethality as determined by clonogenic survival assay. Radiation-induced apoptosis was not detected in bcl-2 overexpressing MCF10A cells independent of levels of p21 WAF1/CIP1 expression. Conclusion: This study suggests that bcl-2 downregulation of p21 WAF1/CIP1 is independent of anti-apoptotic activity of bcl-2 and that levels of p21 WAF1/CIP1 do not affect radiation-induced cell death in human breast epithelial cells

  12. Study on radiation-inducible genes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Sang Yong; Kim, Dong Ho; Joe, Min Ho; Song, Hyu Npa

    2012-01-15

    Transcription of previously identified radiation-inducible genes, uscA and cyoA, was examined responding to radiation. The putative promoter regions of both genes were cloned into pRS415 vector containing lacZ, and the core promoter region necessary for radiation response were determined through promoter deletion method. To investigate the role of uscA, which is assumed to be small RNA related with radiation response, a deletion mutant strain of uscA was constructed. However, uscA deletion did not affect bacterial survival against radiation exposure. The use of bacteria as anticancer agents has attracted interest. In this study, we tried to develop tumor targeting bacteria in which the radiation-inducible promoter activate a transgene encoding a cytotoxic protein. For outward secretion of anticancer protein produced inside bacteria, the N-terminal 140 amino acid of SspH1 was found to function as a secretion signal peptide. To create an attenuated tumor-targeting bacteria, Salmonella ptsI mutant strain was constructed, and we found that its virulence decreased. Finally, the tumor-targeting ability of ptsI mutant was verified by the use of in-vivo imaging analysis.

  13. Study on radiation-inducible genes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Sang Yong; Kim, Dong Ho; Joe, Min Ho; Song, Hyu Npa

    2012-01-01

    Transcription of previously identified radiation-inducible genes, uscA and cyoA, was examined responding to radiation. The putative promoter regions of both genes were cloned into pRS415 vector containing lacZ, and the core promoter region necessary for radiation response were determined through promoter deletion method. To investigate the role of uscA, which is assumed to be small RNA related with radiation response, a deletion mutant strain of uscA was constructed. However, uscA deletion did not affect bacterial survival against radiation exposure. The use of bacteria as anticancer agents has attracted interest. In this study, we tried to develop tumor targeting bacteria in which the radiation-inducible promoter activate a transgene encoding a cytotoxic protein. For outward secretion of anticancer protein produced inside bacteria, the N-terminal 140 amino acid of SspH1 was found to function as a secretion signal peptide. To create an attenuated tumor-targeting bacteria, Salmonella ptsI mutant strain was constructed, and we found that its virulence decreased. Finally, the tumor-targeting ability of ptsI mutant was verified by the use of in-vivo imaging analysis

  14. Use of gamma radiation for preparation of nutrient culture media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Speranskaya, I.D.; Tumanyan, M.A.; Mironova, L.L.

    1977-01-01

    A technique was developed for sterilization of nutrient culture media using ..gamma..-radiation. For this purpose, dry preparations were exposed to 3 to 6 Mrad radiation, then dissolved in sterile distilled water. The quality of media and solutions thus obtained is as good as that of preparations sterilized by filtration. The advantage of the proposed sterilization method is that liquid media can be rapidly prepared and dry sterile media can be stored at room temperature for long periods of time.

  15. Multilayer bimetallic media as protection method of radioactive radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borts, B.V.; Tkachenko, V.I.; Tkachenko, I.V.

    2010-01-01

    Multilayer bimetallic media as means of protection of the earth's space vehicle from radioactive space radiation is described in the proposed paper. Evaluation of radiation losses of electron energy in inhomogeneous media is carried out; these media may be formed by layers of materials with different dielectric constants or they may be simulated by dielectric permittivity varying in space by harmonic law. It is shown that in such media the radiation losses of electron are proportional to the square of parameter of inhomogeneity, that is the losses are low. In the case when in periodic laminar medium with sharp boundaries the conditions of parametric union of self-waves of medium are satisfied, the losses of electron are proportional to the inhomogeneity parameter to first power and are comparable with losses that are caused by elementary events of scattering. The mean length of radiation losses of electron with energy 2(6) MeV in multilayer bimetallic medium tungsten-aluminum with period L ∼ 0,3 ·10 -6 cm is comparable with mean path of electron in such medium. The characteristic angles of radiation have the discrete character and are directed from 0 to 180 degree C. The power of losses increases with the radiation angle increase and is maximal for characteristic angles approaching 90 degree C.

  16. Radiation-induced bilateral common carotid artery stenosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Nobuaki; Nakagawa, Yoku; Tashiro, Kunio; Abe, Hiroshi

    1986-01-01

    A case of radiation-induced bilateral common carotid artery stenosis is reported. This 60 years old housewife was hospitalized in 1982 because of sudden onset of mild left hemiparesis. Twenty-five years ago, she underwent radiation therapy of approximately 5,000 rads to the anterior cervical region because of thyroid cancer. Angiograms in 1982 revealed bilateral common carotid artery stenosis, especially in the right common carotid artery, the legion of which were included within the field of radiation performed in 1952. Right thromboendarterectomy was performed in 1983. At operation, slight periarterial fibrosis with calcified arteriosclerotic change was found, and dissection between the thickened intima and the media was not so difficult. Histological change of resected thromboendarterium was similar to the one observed in the pure arteriosclerotic disease. (author)

  17. Effect of intercellular adhesion molecule 1 expression in radiation otitis media murine model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Shengzi; Cheng Qingfang; Lu Shenbin; Liu Jianping; Wang Shuyi

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To characterize the dose- and time-dependent changes in intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) expression and the role of this molecule as a mediator of middle ear inflammation induced by radiation. Methods: Radiation-induced otitis media animal models were established by using guinea pigs after 60 Co irradiation with 3 Gy/fraction per day, 5 times per week to a total dose of 15, 30, 45 Gy. The expression of ICAM-1 was studied by SP immunohistochemistry with the relation between radiation dose and infiltration of leukocytes investigated. Results: ICAM-1 was not expressed in the normal epithelium of the middle ear mucosa. Mucosal epithelium strongly expressed ICAM-1 after having been administered with 45 Gy of irradiation showing a significant correlation between the expression of ICAM-1 and the infiltration of leukocytes. Conclusions: Irradiation increases the expression of ICAM-1 in the middle ear mucosa. ICAM-1 may be related to the inflammation in the middle ear after irradiation

  18. Evaluation of contrast media submitted to ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinho, Katia Elisa Prus; Gewehr, Pedro Miguel; Soboll, Danyel Scheidegger; Silva, Caroline Werner Pereira da; Barison, Andersson; Tilly Junior, Joao Gilberto

    2009-01-01

    Objective: the purpose of the present study was to investigate the influence of ionizing radiation from x-rays and gamma rays on the molecular structure stability of several radiologic contrast media employed in diagnostic imaging by means of 1 H and 1 3C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Materials and methods: eight different types of iodinated contrast media (three ionic and five non-ionic) were exposed to x-rays and gamma rays irradiation. Subsequently, the 1 H and 1 3C{ 1 H} nuclear magnetic resonance spectra of these contrast media were collected. Results: the 1 H and 1 3C{ 1 H} nuclear magnetic resonance spectra of both ionic and non-ionic contrast media irradiated by x-rays or gamma rays demonstrated the absence of any alteration of the contrast media chemical composition. Conclusion: there is no problem in keeping contrast media inside examination rooms or close to radiological equipment. It is important to mention that, during the tests, the samples were directly irradiated, while in a radiology examination room, the irradiation is not direct and, therefore, radiation levels in these cases are much lower than those employed in the present study. (author)

  19. Radiation-induced changes affecting polyester based polyurethane binder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierpoint, Sujita Basi

    The application of thermoplastic polyurethane elastomers as binders in the high energy explosives particularly when used in weapons presents a significantly complex and challenging problem due to the impact of the aging of this polymer on the useful service life of the explosive. In this work, the effects of radiation on the aging of the polyester based polyurethane were investigated using both electron beam and gamma irradiation at various dose rates in the presence and absence of oxygen. It was found by means of GPC that, in the presence and absence of oxygen, the poly (ester urethane) primarily undergoes cross-linking, by means of a carbon-centered secondary alkyl radical. It was also concluded that the polymer partially undergoes scission of the backbone of the main chain at C-O, N-C, and C-C bonds. Substantial changes in the conditions of irradiation and in dose levels did not affect the cross-linking and scission yields. Experiments were also performed with EPR spectroscopy for the purpose of identifying the initial carbon-centered free radicals and for studying the decay mechanisms of these radicals. It was found that the carbon-centered radical which is produced via C-C scission (primary alkyl radical) is rapidly converted to a long-lived allylic species at higher temperatures; more than 80% radicals are converted to allyl species in 2.5 hours. In the presence of oxygen, the allyl radical undergoes a fast reaction to produce a peroxyl radical; this radical decays with a 1.7 hour half-life by pseudo first-order kinetics to negligible levels in 13 hours. FTIR measurements were conducted to identify the radiation-induced changes to the functional groups in the polyester polyurethane. These measurements show an increase in carbonyl, amine and carboxylic groups as a result of reaction of H atoms with R-C-O·, ·NH-R and R-COO·. The FTIR results also demonstrate the production of the unsaturation resulting from hydrogen atom transfer during intrachain conversion

  20. Radiation-induced apoptosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohyama, Harumi

    1995-01-01

    Apoptosis is an active process of gene-directed cellular self-destruction that can be induced in many cell types via numerous physiological and pathological stimuli. We found that interphasedeath of thymocytes is a typical apoptosis showing the characteristic features of apoptosis including cell shrinkage, chromatin condensation and DNA degradation. Moderate dose of radiation induces extensive apoptosis in rapidly proliferating cell population such as the epithelium of intestinal crypt. Recent reports indicate that the ultimate form of radiation-induced mitotic death in several cells is also apoptosis. One of the hallmarks of apoptosis is the enzymatic internucleosomal degradation of chromatin DNA. We identified an endonuclease responsible for the radiation-induced DNA degradation in rat thymocytes. The death-sparing effects of interrupting RNA and protein synthesis suggested a cell genetic program for apoptosis. Apoptosis of thymocytes initiated by DNA damage, such as radiation and radio mimetic substance, absolutely requires the protein of p53 cancer suppresser gene. The cell death induced by glucocorticoid, or aging, has no such requirement. Expression of oncogene bcl-2 rescues cells from the apoptosis. Massive apoptosis in radiosensitive cells induced by higher dose radiation may be fatal. It is suggested that selective apoptotic elimination of cells would play an important role for protection against carcinogenesis and malformation through removal of cells with unrepaired radiation-induced DNA damages. Data to evaluate the significance of apoptosis in the radiation risk are still poor. Further research should be done in order to clarify the roles of the cell death on the acute and late effects of irradiation. (author)

  1. Water structure versus radical scavenger theories as explanations for the suppressive effects of DMSO and related compounds on radiation-induced transformation in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kennedy, A.R.; Symons, M.C.

    1987-05-01

    We report here that dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO): suppresses radiation-induced transformation in vitro, even when DMSO treatments begin as late as 10 days post-irradiation (when cells are in the confluent, stationary phase of growth); inhibits the 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) enhancement of radiation-induced transformation in vitro; does not affect the expression of transformed cells as foci (when surrounded by non-transformed cells); and may be affecting radiation-induced transformation through its solvent properties (i.e. the Water Structure theory), while its effects on the TPA enhancement of radiation transformation may be mediated by its free radical scavenging abilities. DMSO, dimethylformamide (DMF) and dimethylacetamide (DMA) are similar solvents which are all very effective in their ability to suppress radiation-induced transformation in vitro (at concentrations in the cellular media down to 0.01%). As DMSO is known to be an extremely effective OH. free-radical scavenging agent, while DMF and DMA are not as efficient at scavenging free radicals, our results suggest that properties other than free-radical scavenging ability may be important in the suppressive effects of these compounds on radiation-induced transformation in vitro. It is known that low concentrations of such basic aprotic solvents modify water structure so as to suppress the protic (H-bond donor) reactivity of water and enhance its basic (H-bond receptor) reactivity. These reactivity changes may well be responsible for the effects noted above. DMSO, DMF and DMA are also capable of suppressing the TPA enhancement of radiation transformation (at concentrations of the compounds of 0.1% or higher). For this effect, the ability of these compounds to scavenge OH. shows a general correlation with their ability to suppress the TPA enhancement of transformation, suggesting that the Radical Scavenger theory may explain the ability of DMSO to suppress promotion in vitro.

  2. Radiation induced oral mucositis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P S Satheesh Kumar

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Patients receiving radiotherapy or chemotherapy will receive some degree of oral mucositis The incidence of oral mucositis was especially high in patients: (i With primary tumors in the oral cavity, oropharynx, or nasopharynx; (ii who also received concomitant chemotherapy; (iii who received a total dose over 5,000 cGy; and (iv who were treated with altered fractionation radiation schedules. Radiation-induced oral mucositis affects the quality of life of the patients and the family concerned. The present day management of oral mucositis is mostly palliative and or supportive care. The newer guidelines are suggesting Palifermin, which is the first active mucositis drug as well as Amifostine, for radiation protection and cryotherapy. The current management should focus more on palliative measures, such as pain management, nutritional support, and maintenance, of good oral hygiene

  3. Radiation-induced neuropathies: collateral damage of improved cancer prognosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pradat, Pierre-Francois; Maisonobe, Thierry; Psimaras, Dimitri; Lenglet, Timothee; Porcher, Raphael; Lefaix, J.L.; Delenian, S.

    2012-01-01

    Because of the improvement of cancer prognosis, long-term damages of treatments become a medical and public health problem. Among the iatrogenic complications, neurological impairment is crucial to consider since motor disability and pain have a considerable impact on quality of life of long cancer survivors. However, radiation-induced neuropathies have not been the focus of great attention. The objective of this paper is to provide an updated review about the radiation-induced lesions of the peripheral nerve system. Radiation-induced neuropathies are characterized by their heterogeneity in both symptoms and disease course. Signs and symptoms depend on the affected structures of the peripheral nerve system (nerve roots, nerve plexus or nerve trunks). Early-onset complications are often transient and late complications are usually progressive and associated with a poor prognosis. The most frequent and well known is delayed radiation-induced brachial plexopathy, which may follow breast cancer irradiation. Radiation-induced lumbosacral radiculoplexopathy is characterized by pure or predominant lower motor neuron signs. They can be misdiagnosed, confused with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) or with leptomeningeal metastases since nodular MRI enhancement of the nerve roots of the cauda equina and increased cerebrospinal fluid protein content can be observed. In the absence of specific markers of the link with radiotherapy, the diagnosis of post-radiation neuropathy may be difficult. Recently, a posteriori conformal radiotherapy with 3D dosimetric reconstitution has been developed to link a precise anatomical site to unexpected excess irradiation. The importance of early diagnosis of radiation-induced neuropathies is underscored by the emergence of new disease-modifying treatments. Although the pathophysiology is not fully understood, it is already possible to target radiation-induced fibrosis but also associated factors such as ischemia, oxidative stress and

  4. Mitochondrial mutagenesis induced by tumor-specific radiation bystander effects.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Gorman, Sheeona

    2012-02-01

    The radiation bystander effect is a cellular process whereby cells not directly exposed to radiation display cellular alterations similar to directly irradiated cells. Cellular targets including mitochondria have been postulated to play a significant role in this process. In this study, we utilized the Random Mutation Capture assay to quantify the levels of random mutations and deletions in the mitochondrial genome of bystander cells. A significant increase in the frequency of random mitochondrial mutations was found at 24 h in bystander cells exposed to conditioned media from irradiated tumor explants (p = 0.018). CG:TA mutations were the most abundant lesion induced. A transient increase in the frequency of random mitochondrial deletions was also detected in bystander cells exposed to conditioned media from tumor but not normal tissue at 24 h (p = 0.028). The increase in both point mutations and deletions was transient and not detected at 72 h. To further investigate mitochondrial dysfunction, mitochondrial membrane potential and reactive oxygen species were assessed in these bystander cells. There was a significant reduction in mitochondrial membrane potential and this was positively associated with the frequency of random point mutation and deletions in bystander cells treated with conditioned media from tumor tissue (r = 0.71, p = 0.02). This study has shown that mitochondrial genome alterations are an acute consequence of the radiation bystander effect secondary to mitochondrial dysfunction and suggests that this cannot be solely attributable to changes in ROS levels alone.

  5. Uses of γ-radiation for preparing culture media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Speranskaya, I.D.; Tumanyan, M.A.; Mironova, L.L.

    1977-01-01

    A technique has been developed for sterilizing the culture media by γ-radiation. For this purpose, dry preparations were exposed to doses of 3 to 6 Mrad and then dissolved in sterile distilled water. The quality of the preparations prepared in such a way is not inferior to that of the preparations sterilized by filtering. The advantage of the proposed technique is that it is possible to prepare liquid media quickly and to store dry sterile media for a long time at room temperature

  6. Bivariational calculations for radiation transfer in an inhomogeneous participating media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Wakil, S.A.; Machali, H.M.; Haggag, M.H.; Attia, M.T.

    1986-07-01

    Equations for radiation transfer are obtained for dispersive media with space dependent albedo. Bivariational bound principle is used to calculate the reflection and transmission coefficients for such media. Numerical results are given and compared. (author)

  7. Affective Media, Cyberlibertarianism and the New Zealand Internet Party

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier Jutel

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The New Zealand Internet Party tested key notions of affective media politics. Embracing techno-solutionism and the hacker politics of disruption, Kim Dotcom’s party attempted to mobilize the digital natives through an irreverent politics of lulz. While an electoral failure the party’s political discourse offers insights into affective media ontology. The social character of affective media creates the political conditions for an antagonistic political discourse. In this case affective identification in the master signifier “The Internet” creates a community of enjoyment threatened by the enemy of state surveillance as an agent of rapacious jouissance. The Internet Party’s politics of lulz was cast as a left-wing techno-fix to democracy, but this rhetoric belied a politics of cyberlibertarianism. Dotcom’s political intervention attempted to conflate his private interests as a battle that elevates him to the status of cyberlibertarian super-hero in the mold of Edward Snowden or Julian Assange.

  8. Radiation-induced apoptosis in different pH environments in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Hyung-Sik; Park, Heon J.; Lyons, John C.; Griffin, Robert J.; Auger, Elizabeth A.; Song, Chang W.

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: The effect of environmental pH on the radiation-induced apoptosis in tumor cells in vitro was investigated. Methods and Materials: Mammary adenocarcinoma cells of A/J mice (SCK cells) were irradiated with γ-rays using a 137 Cs irradiator and incubated in media of different pHs. After incubation at 37 deg. C for 24-120 h the extent of apoptosis was determined using agarose gel electrophoresis, TdT-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end labeling (TUNEL) staining, flow cytometry, and release of 3 H from 3 H-thymidine labeled cells. The clonogenicity of the cells irradiated in different pH medium was determined, and the progression of cells through the cell cycle after irradiation in different pHs was also determined with flow cytometry. Results: Irradiation with 2-12 Gy of γ-rays induced apoptosis in SCK cells in pH 7.5 medium within 48 h as judged from the results of four different assays mentioned. Radiation-induced apoptosis declined as the medium pH was lowered from 7.5 to 6.4. Specifically, the radiation-induced degradation of DNA including the early DNA breaks, as determined with the TUNEL method, progressively declined as the medium pH was lowered so that little DNA fragmentation occurred 48 h after irradiation with 12 Gy in pH 6.6 medium. When the cells were irradiated and incubated for 48 h in pH 6.6 medium and the medium was replaced with pH 7.5 medium, DNA fragmentation promptly occurred. DNA fragmentation also occurred even in pH 6.6 medium when the cells were irradiated and maintained in pH 7.5 medium for 8 h or longer post-irradiation before incubation in pH 6.6 medium. The radiation-induced G 2 arrest in pH 6.6 medium lasted markedly longer than that in pH 7.5 medium. Conclusion: Radiation-induced apoptosis in SCK cells in vitro is reversibly suppressed in an acidic environment. Taking the results of four different assays together, it was concluded that early step(s) in the apoptotic pathway, probably the DNA break or upstream of DNA break, is

  9. Pathophysiological Responses in Rat and Mouse Models of Radiation-Induced Brain Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lianhong; Yang, Jianhua; Li, Guoqian; Li, Yi; Wu, Rong; Cheng, Jinping; Tang, Yamei

    2017-03-01

    The brain is the major dose-limiting organ in patients undergoing radiotherapy for assorted conditions. Radiation-induced brain injury is common and mainly occurs in patients receiving radiotherapy for malignant head and neck tumors, arteriovenous malformations, or lung cancer-derived brain metastases. Nevertheless, the underlying mechanisms of radiation-induced brain injury are largely unknown. Although many treatment strategies are employed for affected individuals, the effects remain suboptimal. Accordingly, animal models are extremely important for elucidating pathogenic radiation-associated mechanisms and for developing more efficacious therapies. So far, models employing various animal species with different radiation dosages and fractions have been introduced to investigate the prevention, mechanisms, early detection, and management of radiation-induced brain injury. However, these models all have limitations, and none are widely accepted. This review summarizes the animal models currently set forth for studies of radiation-induced brain injury, especially rat and mouse, as well as radiation dosages, dose fractionation, and secondary pathophysiological responses.

  10. Effect of Flavopiridol on Radiation-induced Apoptosis of Human Laryngeal and Lung Cancer Cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Suzy; Kwon, Eun Kyung; Lee, B. S.; Lee, Seung Hee; Park, B. S.; Wu, Hong Gyun

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the flavopiridol effect on radiation-induced apoptosis and expression of apoptosisrelated genes of human laryngeal and lung cancer cells. Materials and Methods: A human laryngeal cancer cell line, AMC-HN3 and a human lung cancer cell line, NCI-H460, were used in the study. The cells were divided into four groups according to the type of treatment: 1) control groups; 2) cells that were only irradiated; 3) cells treated only with flavopiridol; 4) cells treated with flavopiridol and radiation simultaneously. The cells were irradiated with 10 Gy of X-rays using a 4 MV linear accelerator. Flavopiridol was administered to the media at a concentration of 100 nM for 24 hours. We compared the fraction of apoptotic cells of each group 24 hours after the initiation of treatment. The fraction of apoptotic cells was detected by measurement of the sub-G1 fractions from a flow cytometric analysis. The expression of apoptosis-regulating genes, including cleaved caspase-3, cleaved PARP (poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase), p53, p21, cyclin D1, and phosphorylated Akt (protein kinase B) were analyzed by Western blotting. Results: The sub-G1 fraction of cells was significantly increased in the combination treatment group, as compared to cells exposed to radiation alone or flavopiridol alone. Western blotting also showed an increased expression of cleaved caspase-3 and cleaved PARP expression in cells of the combination treatment group, as compared with cells exposed to radiation alone or flavopiridol alone. Treatment with flavopiridol down regulated cyclin D1 expression of both cell lines but its effect on p53 and p21 expression was different according to each individual cell line. Flavopiridol did not affect the expression of phophorylated Akt in both cell lines. Conclusion: Treatment with flavopiridol increased radiation-induced apoptosis of both the human laryngeal and lung cancer cell lines. Flavopiridol effects on p53 and p21 expression were different according

  11. Radiation-induced alternative transcripts as detected in total and polysome-bound mRNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahba, Amy; Ryan, Michael C; Shankavaram, Uma T; Camphausen, Kevin; Tofilon, Philip J

    2018-01-02

    Alternative splicing is a critical event in the posttranscriptional regulation of gene expression. To investigate whether this process influences radiation-induced gene expression we defined the effects of ionizing radiation on the generation of alternative transcripts in total cellular mRNA (the transcriptome) and polysome-bound mRNA (the translatome) of the human glioblastoma stem-like cell line NSC11. For these studies, RNA-Seq profiles from control and irradiated cells were compared using the program SpliceSeq to identify transcripts and splice variations induced by radiation. As compared to the transcriptome (total RNA) of untreated cells, the radiation-induced transcriptome contained 92 splice events suggesting that radiation induced alternative splicing. As compared to the translatome (polysome-bound RNA) of untreated cells, the radiation-induced translatome contained 280 splice events of which only 24 were overlapping with the radiation-induced transcriptome. These results suggest that radiation not only modifies alternative splicing of precursor mRNA, but also results in the selective association of existing mRNA isoforms with polysomes. Comparison of radiation-induced alternative transcripts to radiation-induced gene expression in total RNA revealed little overlap (about 3%). In contrast, in the radiation-induced translatome, about 38% of the induced alternative transcripts corresponded to genes whose expression level was affected in the translatome. This study suggests that whereas radiation induces alternate splicing, the alternative transcripts present at the time of irradiation may play a role in the radiation-induced translational control of gene expression and thus cellular radioresponse.

  12. Differences between Drug-Induced and Contrast Media-Induced Adverse Reactions Based on Spontaneously Reported Adverse Drug Reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, JiHyeon; Lee, HeeYoung; Suh, JinUk; Yang, MyungSuk; Kang, WonKu; Kim, EunYoung

    2015-01-01

    We analyzed differences between spontaneously reported drug-induced (not including contrast media) and contrast media-induced adverse reactions. Adverse drug reactions reported by an in-hospital pharmacovigilance center (St. Mary's teaching hospital, Daejeon, Korea) from 2010-2012 were classified as drug-induced or contrast media-induced. Clinical patterns, frequency, causality, severity, Schumock and Thornton's preventability, and type A/B reactions were recorded. The trends among causality tools measuring drug and contrast-induced adverse reactions were analyzed. Of 1,335 reports, 636 drug-induced and contrast media-induced adverse reactions were identified. The prevalence of spontaneously reported adverse drug reaction-related admissions revealed a suspected adverse drug reaction-reporting rate of 20.9/100,000 (inpatient, 0.021%) and 3.9/100,000 (outpatients, 0.004%). The most common adverse drug reaction-associated drug classes included nervous system agents and anti-infectives. Dermatological and gastrointestinal adverse drug reactions were most frequently and similarly reported between drug and contrast media-induced adverse reactions. Compared to contrast media-induced adverse reactions, drug-induced adverse reactions were milder, more likely to be preventable (9.8% vs. 1.1%, p contrast media-induced adverse reactions (56.6%, p = 0.066). Causality patterns differed between the two adverse reaction classes. The World Health Organization-Uppsala Monitoring Centre causality evaluation and Naranjo algorithm results significantly differed from those of the Korean algorithm version II (p contrast media-induced adverse reactions. The World Health Organization-Uppsala Monitoring Centre and Naranjo algorithm causality evaluation afforded similar results.

  13. Management of radiation-induced accelerated carotid atherosclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loftus, C.M.; Biller, J.; Hart, M.N.; Cornell, S.H.; Hiratzka, L.F.

    1987-01-01

    Patients with long survival following cervical irradiation are at risk for accelerated carotid atherosclerosis. The neurologic presentation in these patients mimics naturally occurring atheromatous disease, but patients often present at younger ages and with less concurrent coronary or systemic vascular disease. Hypercholesterolemia also contributes to this accelerated arteriosclerosis. Angiographic findings in this disorder include disproportionate involvement of the distal common carotid artery and unusually long carotid lesions. Pathologic findings include destruction of the internal elastic lamina and replacement of the normal intima and media with fibrous tissue. This article describes two surgical patients with radiation-induced accelerated carotid atherosclerosis who typify the presentation and characteristics of this disease

  14. Alteration of radiation-induced hematotoxicity by amifostine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Momm, Felix; Bechtold, Christine; Rudat, Volker; Strnad, Vratislav; Tsekos, Alexander; Fischer, Karin; Henke, Michael

    2001-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate whether amifostine can reduce radiation hematotoxicity. Patients and Methods: Seventy-three patients undergoing radiotherapy for squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck at the university clinics of Freiburg, Heidelberg, and Erlangen were evaluated. All received 60 Gy (50-70 Gy) at 5x2 Gy fractions per week employing standard techniques. Thirty-five were randomized to receive 200 mg/m 2 amifostine i.v. 30 min before radiation; 38 served as control patients. Blood counts (total n=501) were determined before, during, and while completing radiotherapy. Changes of leukocyte, platelet, and hemoglobin levels were determined and compared using the t test. Results: The blood hemoglobin level and the platelet count were not affected by irradiation, for either the amifostine-treated or control patients. Similarly, the leukocyte counts of amifostine-treated patients did not change during irradiation. However, control patients experienced a decrease in leukocyte count from 8.1 x 10 3 /mm 3 to 5.8x10 3 /mm 3 (difference: 2.3x10 3 /mm 3 ). This seems to be line specific: Whereas amifostine does not affect lymphocyte count, a radiation-induced decrease of neutrophil granulocytes seems to be prevented. Conclusion: Amifostine protects from radiation hematotoxicity, particularly affecting the granulocytopoiesis. These data confirm results from our former study

  15. Novel features of radiation-induced segregation and radiation-induced precipitation in austenitic stainless steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiao, Z., E-mail: zjiao@umich.edu [Department of Nuclear Engineering and Radiological Sciences, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Was, G.S. [Department of Nuclear Engineering and Radiological Sciences, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States)

    2011-02-15

    Three stainless steel alloys, high-purity 304 (HP304), high-purity 304 with high Si (HP304 + Si) and commercial purity 304 (CP304), were irradiated with 2 MeV protons to a dose of 5 dpa at 360 deg. C and subsequently examined using atom probe tomography (APT) and scanning transmission electron microscopy-energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (STEM-EDS). Several novel features of radiation-induced segregation and radiation-induced precipitation were observed. There is a significant variation in the composition of enriched and depleted elements in the grain boundary plane and along the dislocation loop core. Boron segregation to the grain boundary prior to irradiation is not affected by the irradiation. Phosphorus segregation is enhanced by irradiation. Carbon depletes at the grain boundary and may be affected by co-segregation with Cr. APT and STEM-EDS measurements are in excellent agreement for almost all the elements studied. The segregation behavior of elements at dislocations mirrors that at the grain boundary, but at a lower magnitude, except for Si. Ni/Si-rich clusters formed in irradiated HP304 + Si and CP304 are probably the precursors of {gamma}' or other Si- and Ni-rich phases. Copper depletion was observed at both the grain boundary and the dislocation loops. Regions adjacent to the depleted zones were sites for Cu cluster formation, which were also spatially correlated with Ni/Si-rich clusters.

  16. Methylglyoxal-bis(guanylhydrazone), a polyamine analogue, sensitized γ-radiation-induced cell death in HL-60 leukemia cells Sensitizing effect of MGBG on γ-radiation-induced cell death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin Sik; Lee, Jin; Chung, Hai Won; Choi, Han; Paik, Sang Gi; Kim, In Gyu

    2006-09-01

    Methylglyoxal-bis(guanylhydrazone) (MGBG), a polyamine analogue, has been known to inhibit the biosynthesis of polyamines, which are important in cell proliferation. We showed that MGBG treatment significantly affected γ-radiation-induced cell cycle transition (G(1)/G(0)→S→G(2)/M) and thus γ-radiation-induced cell death. As determined by micronuclei and comet assay, we showed that it sensitized the cytotoxic effect induced by γ-radiation. One of the reasons is that polyamine depletion by MGBG treatment did not effectively protect against the chemical (OH) or physical damage to DNA caused by γ-radiation. Through in vitro experiment, we confirmed that DNA strand breaks induced by γ-radiation was prevented more effectively in the presence of polyamines (spermine and spermidine) than in the absence of polyamines. MGBG also blocks the cell cycle transition caused by γ-radiation (G(2) arrest), which helps protect cells by allowing time for DNA repair before entry into mitosis or apoptosis, via the down regulation of cyclin D1, which mediates the transition from G(1) to S phase of cell cycle, and ataxia telangiectasia mutated, which is involved in the DNA sensing, repair and cell cycle check point. Therefore, the abrogation of G(2) arrest sensitizes cells to the effect of γ-radiation. As a result, γ-radiation-induced cell death increased by about 2.5-3.0-fold in cells treated with MGBG. However, exogenous spermidine supplement partially relieved this γ-radiation-induced cytotoxicity and cell death. These findings suggest a potentially therapeutic strategy for increasing the cytotoxic efficacy of γ-radiation.

  17. Inhibition of radiation-induced polyuria by histamine receptor antagonists

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donlon, M.A.; Melia, J.A.; Helgeson, E.A.; Wolfe, W.W.

    1986-03-01

    In previous studies the authors have demonstrated that gamma radiation results in polyuria, which is preceded by polydypsia. This suggests that the increased thirst elicited by radiation causes increased urinary volume (UV). Histamine, which is released following radiation exposure, also elicits drinking by nonirradiated rats when administered exogenously. In this study the authors have investigated both the role of water deprivation and the effect of histamine receptor antagonists (HRA) on radiation-induced polyuria. Sprague-Dawley rats were housed individually in metabolic cages. Water was allowed ad libitum except in deprivation experiments where water was removed for 24 hr immediately following radiation. Cimetidine (CIM), an H2 HRA, and dexbromopheniramine (DXB), an H1 HRA, were administered i.p. (16 and 1 mg/kg, respectively) 30 min prior to irradiation (950 rads from a cobalt source). UV was determined at 24-hr intervals for 3 days preceding irradiation and 24 hr postirradiation. UV in DXB treated rats was significantly reduced 24 hr postirradiation (CON = 427 +/- 54%; DXB = 247 +/- 39% of preirradiated CON) compared to postirradiation control values. CIM did not affect postirradiation UV. These data suggest that radiation-induced polyuria is caused by polydypsia which is, in part, mediated by histamine induced by an H1 receptor.

  18. Inhibition of radiation-induced polyuria by histamine receptor antagonists

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donlon, M.A.; Melia, J.A.; Helgeson, E.A.; Wolfe, W.W.

    1986-01-01

    In previous studies the authors have demonstrated that gamma radiation results in polyuria, which is preceded by polydypsia. This suggests that the increased thirst elicited by radiation causes increased urinary volume (UV). Histamine, which is released following radiation exposure, also elicits drinking by nonirradiated rats when administered exogenously. In this study the authors have investigated both the role of water deprivation and the effect of histamine receptor antagonists (HRA) on radiation-induced polyuria. Sprague-Dawley rats were housed individually in metabolic cages. Water was allowed ad libitum except in deprivation experiments where water was removed for 24 hr immediately following radiation. Cimetidine (CIM), an H2 HRA, and dexbromopheniramine (DXB), an H1 HRA, were administered i.p. (16 and 1 mg/kg, respectively) 30 min prior to irradiation (950 rads from a cobalt source). UV was determined at 24-hr intervals for 3 days preceding irradiation and 24 hr postirradiation. UV in DXB treated rats was significantly reduced 24 hr postirradiation (CON = 427 +/- 54%; DXB = 247 +/- 39% of preirradiated CON) compared to postirradiation control values. CIM did not affect postirradiation UV. These data suggest that radiation-induced polyuria is caused by polydypsia which is, in part, mediated by histamine induced by an H1 receptor

  19. Radiation-induced thermoacoustic imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowen, T.

    1984-01-01

    This invention provides a new technique for obtaining information non-invasively on the composition and structures of a material or body by detecting radiation-induced thermoacoustic image features. This is accomplished by utilizing the acoustic wave generated by sudden thermal stress. The sudden thermal stress is induced by a pulse of radiation which deposits energy causing a rapid, but very small, rise of temperature (typically, ΔT approximately 10sup(-6) - 10sup(-5) deg C). The radiation may be ionizing radiation, such as high energy electrons, photons (x-rays), neutrons, or other charged particles or it may be non-ionizing radiation, such as R.F. and microwave electromagnetic radiation and ultrasonic radiation. The choice of radiation depends on the nature of the body to be imaged and the type of information desired

  20. Investigation of radiation-induced multilayered signalling response of the inflammatory pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babini, G.; Ugolini, M.; Morini, J.; Baiocco, G.; Ottolenghi, A.; Mariotti, L.; Tabarelli de Fatis, P.; Liotta, M.

    2015-01-01

    Ionising radiation exposure of cells might induce the perturbation of cell functions and, in particular, the activation or inhibition of several important pathways. This perturbation can cause the deregulation of both intra- and extra-cellular signalling cascades (such as the inflammatory pathway) and alter not only the behaviour of directly exposed cells but also the neighbouring nonirradiated ones, through the so-called bystander effect. The aim of the present work was to investigate the complex nonlinear interactions between the inflammatory pathway and other strictly interlaced signalling pathways, such as Erk1/2 and Akt/PKB, focusing on the radiation-induced perturbation of such pathways in the dose range of 0 -2 Gy. The results show how radiation affects these interconnected pathways and how confounding factors, such as the change of culture medium, can hide radiation-induced perturbations. (authors)

  1. Radiation-induced inhibition of human lymphocyte blastogenesis: the effect of superoxide dismutase and catalase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knox, S.; Misra, H.P.; Shifrine, M.

    1982-01-01

    Mitogen-induced lymphocyte blastogenesis was measured following X-irradiation (0-4 Gy) in the presence or absence of superoxide dismutase (SOD), under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. There were no significant differences between radiation survival curves under these different conditions, nor did SOD have any radioprotective effect. This demonstrates lack of oxygen dependence of radiation-induced inhibition of lymphocyte blastogenesis. Following X-irradiation at 2 Gy, neither SOD nor catalase, alone or together, added before or after irradiation, were radioprotective. In comparison to controls, both enzymes depressed lymphocyte proliferation when added at levels as low as 25 μg catalase or 100 μg SOD/ml media. When SOD and catalase were added together, the greatest depression of blastogenesis was obtained with increasing levels of SOD relative to increasing levels of catalase, indicating that SOD was largely responsible for this depression. The suppressive effect of administration of SOD (p 2 - and/or H 2 O 2 are not involved in radiation-induced inhibition of lymphocyte blastogenesis. (author)

  2. Evidence for Radiation-Induced Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation as a Major Cause of Radiation-Induced Death in Ferrets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krigsfeld, Gabriel S.; Savage, Alexandria R.; Billings, Paul C.; Lin, Liyong; Kennedy, Ann R., E-mail: akennedy@mail.med.upenn.edu

    2014-03-15

    Purpose: The studies reported here were performed as part of a program in space radiation biology in which proton radiation like that present in solar particle events, as well as conventional gamma radiation, were being evaluated in terms of the ability to affect hemostasis. Methods and Materials: Ferrets were exposed to 0 to 2 Gy of whole-body proton or gamma radiation and monitored for 30 days. Blood was analyzed for blood cell counts, platelet clumping, thromboelastometry, and fibrin clot formation. Results: The lethal dose of radiation to 50% of the population (LD{sub 50}) of the ferrets was established at ∼1.5 Gy, with 100% mortality at 2 Gy. Hypocoagulability was present as early as day 7 postirradiation, with animals unable to generate a stable clot and exhibiting signs of platelet aggregation, thrombocytopenia, and fibrin clots in blood vessels of organs. Platelet counts were at normal levels during the early time points postirradiation when coagulopathies were present and becoming progressively more severe; platelet counts were greatly reduced at the time of the white blood cell nadir of 13 days. Conclusions: Data presented here provide evidence that death at the LD{sub 50} in ferrets is most likely due to disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC). These data question the current hypothesis that death at relatively low doses of radiation is due solely to the cell-killing effects of hematopoietic cells. The recognition that radiation-induced DIC is the most likely mechanism of death in ferrets raises the question of whether DIC is a contributing mechanism to radiation-induced death at relatively low doses in large mammals.

  3. Simulating Space Radiation-Induced Breast Tumor Incidence Using Automata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heuskin, A C; Osseiran, A I; Tang, J; Costes, S V

    2016-07-01

    Estimating cancer risk from space radiation has been an ongoing challenge for decades primarily because most of the reported epidemiological data on radiation-induced risks are derived from studies of atomic bomb survivors who were exposed to an acute dose of gamma rays instead of chronic high-LET cosmic radiation. In this study, we introduce a formalism using cellular automata to model the long-term effects of ionizing radiation in human breast for different radiation qualities. We first validated and tuned parameters for an automata-based two-stage clonal expansion model simulating the age dependence of spontaneous breast cancer incidence in an unexposed U.S. We then tested the impact of radiation perturbation in the model by modifying parameters to reflect both targeted and nontargeted radiation effects. Targeted effects (TE) reflect the immediate impact of radiation on a cell's DNA with classic end points being gene mutations and cell death. They are well known and are directly derived from experimental data. In contrast, nontargeted effects (NTE) are persistent and affect both damaged and undamaged cells, are nonlinear with dose and are not well characterized in the literature. In this study, we introduced TE in our model and compared predictions against epidemiologic data of the atomic bomb survivor cohort. TE alone are not sufficient for inducing enough cancer. NTE independent of dose and lasting ∼100 days postirradiation need to be added to accurately predict dose dependence of breast cancer induced by gamma rays. Finally, by integrating experimental relative biological effectiveness (RBE) for TE and keeping NTE (i.e., radiation-induced genomic instability) constant with dose and LET, the model predicts that RBE for breast cancer induced by cosmic radiation would be maximum at 220 keV/μm. This approach lays the groundwork for further investigation into the impact of chronic low-dose exposure, inter-individual variation and more complex space radiation

  4. Pomarning-eddington approximation for time-dependent radiation transfer in finite slab media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Wakil, S.A.; Degheidy, A.R.; Sallah, M.

    2005-01-01

    The time-dependent monoenergetic radiation transfer equation with linear anisotropic scattering is proposed. Pomraning-Eddington approximation is used to calculate the radiation intensity in finite plane-parallel media. Numerical results are done for the isotropic media. Shielding calculations are shown for reflectivity and transmissivity at different times. The medium is assumed to have specular-reflecting boundaries. Two different weight functions are introduced to force the boundary conditions to be fulfilled

  5. Radiation-induced centers in inorganic glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brekhovskikh, S.M.; Tyul'nin, V.A.

    1988-01-01

    The nature, structure and formation mechanisms of radiation-induced colour centers, EPR, luminescence, generated ionizing radiation in nonorganic oxide glasses are considered. Experimental material covering both fundamental aspects of radiation physics and glass chemistry, and aspects intimately connected with the creation of new materials with the given radiation-spectral characteristics, with possibilities to prepare radiation-stable and radiation-sensitive glasses is systematized and generalized. Considerable attention is paid to the detection of radiation-induced center binding with composition, glass structures redox conditions for their synthesis. Some new possibilities of practical application of glasses with radiation-induced centers, in particular, to record optical information are reflected in the paper

  6. Hemodynamic and tubular changes induced by contrast media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caiazza, Antonella; Russo, Luigi; Sabbatini, Massimo; Russo, Domenico

    2014-01-01

    The incidence of acute kidney injury induced by contrast media (CI-AKI) is the third cause of AKI in hospitalized patients. Contrast media cause relevant alterations both in renal hemodynamics and in renal tubular cell function that lead to CI-AKI. The vasoconstriction of intrarenal vasculature is the main hemodynamic change induced by contrast media; the vasoconstriction is accompanied by a cascade of events leading to ischemia and reduction of glomerular filtration rate. Cytotoxicity of contrast media causes apoptosis of tubular cells with consequent formation of casts and worsening of ischemia. There is an interplay between the negative effects of contrast media on renal hemodynamics and on tubular cell function that leads to activation of renin-angiotensin system and increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) within the kidney. Production of ROS intensifies cellular hypoxia through endothelial dysfunction and alteration of mechanisms regulating tubular cells transport. The physiochemical characteristics of contrast media play a critical role in the incidence of CI-AKI. Guidelines suggest the use of either isoosmolar or low-osmolar contrast media rather than high-osmolar contrast media particularly in patients at increased risk of CI-AKI. Older age, presence of atherosclerosis, congestive heart failure, chronic renal disease, nephrotoxic drugs, and diuretics may multiply the risk of CI-AKI.

  7. Involvement of inducible nitric oxide synthase in radiation-induced vascular endothelial damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Chang-Won; Lee, Joon-Ho; Kim, Suwan; Noh, Jae Myoung; Kim, Young-Mee; Pyo, Hongryull; Lee, Sunyoung

    2013-01-01

    The use of radiation therapy has been linked to an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. To understand the mechanisms underlying radiation-induced vascular dysfunction, we employed two models. First, we examined the effect of X-ray irradiation on vasodilation in rabbit carotid arteries. Carotid arterial rings were irradiated with 8 or 16 Gy using in vivo and ex vivo methods. We measured the effect of acetylcholine-induced relaxation after phenylephrine-induced contraction on the rings. In irradiated carotid arteries, vasodilation was significantly attenuated by both irradiation methods. The relaxation response was completely blocked by 1H-[1,2,4]oxadiazolo[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one, a potent inhibitor of soluble guanylate cyclase. Residual relaxation persisted after treatment with L-N ω -nitroarginine (L-NA), a non-specific inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase (NOS), but disappeared following the addition of aminoguanidine (AG), a selective inhibitor of inducible NOS (iNOS). The relaxation response was also affected by tetraethylammonium, an inhibitor of endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor activity. In the second model, we investigated the biochemical events of nitrosative stress in human umbilical-vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). We measured iNOS and nitrotyrosine expression in HUVECs exposed to a dose of 4 Gy. The expression of iNOS and nitrotyrosine was greater in irradiated HUVECs than in untreated controls. Pretreatment with AG, L-N 6 -(1-iminoethyl) lysine hydrochloride (a selective inhibitor of iNOS), and L-NA attenuated nitrosative stress. While a selective target of radiation-induced vascular endothelial damage was not definitely determined, these results suggest that NO generated from iNOS could contribute to vasorelaxation. These studies highlight a potential role of iNOS inhibitors in ameliorating radiation-induced vascular endothelial damage. (author)

  8. State-dependent interaction in the antihistamine-induced disruption of a radiation-induced conditioned taste aversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabin, B.M.; Hunt, W.A.; Lee, J.

    1982-01-01

    Two experiments were run to evaluate the possibility that injection of antihistamine can produce a state-dependent acquisition of a radiation-induced conditioned taste aversion. In the first experiment, pretreating rats with the antihistamine chlorpheniramine maleate prior to their initial exposure to sucrose and to low-level irradiation on the conditioning day did not prevent the acquisition of a taste aversion to sucrose when the antihistamine was also administered prior to a subsequent preference test. In the second experiment, rats were both conditioned and tested for a radiation-induced aversion in a drug-free state. Under these condtions, the rats continued to show an aversion to sucrose despite pretreating them with chlorpheniramine prior to irradiation. Since rats conditioned under the antihistamine do not show the radiation-induced conditioned taste aversion when tested for sucrose preference in a nondrug state, it would seem that pretreating rats with an antihistamine prior to conditioning affects only the retrieval of the previously learned response and not its acquisition

  9. UV-B Radiation Induces Root Bending Through the Flavonoid-Mediated Auxin Pathway in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Jinpeng; Zhang, Ping; Wang, Ruling; Sun, Liangliang; Wang, Wenying; Zhou, Huakun; Xu, Jin

    2018-01-01

    Ultraviolet (UV)-B radiation-induced root bending has been reported; however, the underlying mechanisms largely remain unclear. Here, we investigate whether and how auxin and flavonoids are involved in UV-B radiation-induced root bending in Arabidopsis using physiological, pharmacological, and genetic approaches. UV-B radiation modulated the direction of root growth by decreasing IAA biosynthesis and affecting auxin distribution in the root tips, where reduced auxin accumulation and asymmetric auxin distribution were observed. UV-B radiation increased the distribution of auxin on the nonradiated side of the root tips, promoting growth and causing root bending. Further analysis indicated that UV-B induced an asymmetric accumulation of flavonoids; this pathway is involved in modulating the accumulation and asymmetric distribution of auxin in root tips and the subsequent redirection of root growth by altering the distribution of auxin carriers in response to UV-B radiation. Taken together, our results indicate that UV-B radiation-induced root bending occurred through a flavonoid-mediated phototropic response to UV-B radiation.

  10. The effects of cysteamine on the radiation-induced apoptosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Young Min; Cho, Heung Lae; Park, Chang Gyo; Lee, Hyung Sik; Hur, Won Joo

    2000-01-01

    To investigate the pathways of radiation induced apoptosis and the effect of cysteamine (β-mercaptoethylamine), as a radioprotector, on it. HL-60 cells were assigned to control, irradiated, and cysteamine (1 mM, 10 mM) pretreated groups. Irradiation was given in a single fraction of 10 Gy (6 MV x-ray) and cysteamine was administered 1 hour before irradiation. The activities of caspase-8 were measured in control and irradiated group to evaiuate its relation to the radiation induced apoptosis. To evaluate the role of cysteamine in radiation induced apoptosis, the number of viable cells, the expression and activity or caspase-3, and the expression of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) were measured and compared after irradiating the HL cells with cysteamine pretreatment or not. The intracellular caspase-8 activity, known to be related to the death receptor induced apoptosis, was not affected by irradiation( p>0.05). The number of viable cells began to decrease from 6 hours after irradiation (p>0.05), but the number of viable cells in 1 mM cysteamine pretreated group was not decreased after irradiation and was similar to those in the control group. In caspase-3 analyses, known as apoptosis executioner, its expression was not different but its activity was increased by irradialion(p>0.05). However, this increase of activity was suppressed by the pretreatment of 1 mM cysteamine. The cleavage of PARP, thought to be resulted from caspase-3 activation, occurred, after irradiation, which was attenuated by the pretreatment of 1 mM cysteamine. These results show that radiation induced apoptotic process is somewhat different from death receptor induced one and the pretreatment of 1 mM cysteamine has a tendency to decrease the radiation-induced apoptosis in HL-60 cells

  11. Radiation-induced camptocormia and dropped head syndrome. Review and case report of radiation-induced movement disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seidel, Clemens; Kuhnt, Thomas; Kortmann, Rolf-Dieter; Hering, Kathrin

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, camptocormia and dropped head syndrome (DHS) have gained attention as particular forms of movement disorders. Camptocormia presents with involuntary forward flexion of the thoracolumbar spine that typically increases during walking or standing and may severely impede walking ability. DHS is characterized by weakness of the neck extensors and a consecutive inability to extend the neck; in severe cases the head is fixed in a ''chin to chest position.'' Many diseases may underlie these conditions, and there have been some reports about radiation-induced camptocormia and DHS. A PubMed search with the keywords ''camptocormia,'' ''dropped head syndrome,'' ''radiation-induced myopathy,'' ''radiation-induced neuropathy,'' and ''radiation-induced movement disorder'' was carried out to better characterize radiation-induced movement disorders and the radiation techniques involved. In addition, the case of a patient developing camptocormia 23 years after radiation therapy of a non-Hodgkin's lymphoma of the abdomen is described. In total, nine case series of radiation-induced DHS (n = 45 patients) and - including our case - three case reports (n = 3 patients) about radiogenic camptocormia were retrieved. Most cases (40/45 patients) occurred less than 15 years after radiotherapy involving extended fields for Hodgkin's disease. The use of wide radiation fields including many spinal segments with paraspinal muscles may lead to radiation-induced movement disorders. If paraspinal muscles and the thoracolumbar spine are involved, the clinical presentation can be that of camptocormia. DHS may result if there is involvement of the cervical spine. To prevent these disorders, sparing of the spine and paraspinal muscles is desirable. (orig.) [de

  12. Post-irradiation dietary vitamin E does not affect the development of radiation-induced lung damage in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiegman, Erwin M.; Gameren, Mieke M. van; Kampinga, Harm H.; Szabo, Ben G.; Coppes, Rob P.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether application of post-irradiation vitamin E, an anti-oxidant, could prevent the development of radiation induced lung damage. Wistar rats were given vitamin E enriched or vitamin E deprived food starting from 4 weeks after 18 Gy single dose irradiation of the right thorax. Neither breathing frequencies nor CT density measurements revealed differences between the groups. It is concluded that post-irradiation vitamin E does not influence radiation-induced fibrosis to the lung

  13. Contribution of radiation-induced, nitric oxide-mediated bystander effect to radiation-induced adaptive response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, H.; Ohnishi, T.

    There has been a recent upsurge of interest in radiation-induced adaptive response and bystander effect which are specific modes in stress response to low-dose low-dose rate radiation Recently we found that the accumulation of inducible nitric oxide NO synthase iNOS in wt p53 cells was induced by chronic irradiation with gamma rays followed by acute irradiation with X-rays but not by each one resulting in an increase in nitrite concentrations of medium It is suggested that the accumulation of iNOS may be due to the depression of acute irradiation-induced p53 functions by pre-chronic irradiation In addition we found that the radiosensitivity of wt p53 cells against acute irradiation with X-rays was reduced after chronic irradiation with gamma rays This reduction of radiosensitivity of wt p53 cells was nearly completely suppressed by the addition of NO scavenger carboxy-PTIO to the medium This reduction of radiosensitivity of wt p53 cells is just radiation-induced adaptive response suggesting that NO-mediated bystander effect may considerably contribute to adaptive response induced by radiation

  14. Balancing Radiation and Contrast Media Dose in Single-Pass Abdominal Multidetector CT: Prospective Evaluation of Image Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camera, Luigi; Romano, Federica; Liccardo, Immacolata; Liuzzi, Raffaele; Imbriaco, Massimo; Mainenti, Pier Paolo; Pizzuti, Laura Micol; Segreto, Sabrina; Maurea, Simone; Brunetti, Arturo

    2015-11-01

    As both contrast and radiation dose affect the quality of CT images, a constant image quality in abdominal contrast-enhanced multidetector computed tomography (CE-MDCT) could be obtained balancing radiation and contrast media dose according to the age of the patients. Seventy-two (38 Men; 34 women; aged 20-83 years) patients underwent a single-pass abdominal CE-MDCT. Patients were divided into three different age groups: A (20-44 years); B (45-65 years); and C (>65 years). For each group, a different noise index (NI) and contrast media dose (370 mgI/mL) was selected as follows: A (NI, 15; 2.5 mL/kg), B (NI, 12.5; 2 mL/kg), and C (NI, 10; 1.5 mL/kg). Radiation exposure was reported as dose-length product (DLP) in mGy × cm. For quantitative analysis, signal-to-noise (SNR) and contrast-to-noise (CNR) ratios were calculated for both the liver (L) and the abdominal aorta (A). Statistical analysis was performed with a one-way analysis of variance. Standard imaging criteria were used for qualitative analysis. Although peak hepatic enhancement was 152 ± 16, 128 ± 12, and 101 ± 14 Hounsfield units (P contrast media dose (mL) administered were 476 ± 147 and 155 ± 27 for group A, 926 ± 291 and 130 ± 16 for group B, and 1981 ± 451 and 106 ± 15 for group C, respectively (P contrast media dose administered to patients of different age. Copyright © 2015 AUR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. RhoA GTPase regulates radiation-induced alterations in endothelial cell adhesion and migration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rousseau, Matthieu; Gaugler, Marie-Hélène; Rodallec, Audrey; Bonnaud, Stéphanie; Paris, François; Corre, Isabelle

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: ► We explore the role of RhoA in endothelial cell response to ionizing radiation. ► RhoA is rapidly activated by single high-dose of radiation. ► Radiation leads to RhoA/ROCK-dependent actin cytoskeleton remodeling. ► Radiation-induced apoptosis does not require the RhoA/ROCK pathway. ► Radiation-induced alteration of endothelial adhesion and migration requires RhoA/ROCK. -- Abstract: Endothelial cells of the microvasculature are major target of ionizing radiation, responsible of the radiation-induced vascular early dysfunctions. Molecular signaling pathways involved in endothelial responses to ionizing radiation, despite being increasingly investigated, still need precise characterization. Small GTPase RhoA and its effector ROCK are crucial signaling molecules involved in many endothelial cellular functions. Recent studies identified implication of RhoA/ROCK in radiation-induced increase in endothelial permeability but other endothelial functions altered by radiation might also require RhoA proteins. Human microvascular endothelial cells HMEC-1, either treated with Y-27632 (inhibitor of ROCK) or invalidated for RhoA by RNA interference were exposed to 15 Gy. We showed a rapid radiation-induced activation of RhoA, leading to a deep reorganisation of actin cytoskeleton with rapid formation of stress fibers. Endothelial early apoptosis induced by ionizing radiation was not affected by Y-27632 pre-treatment or RhoA depletion. Endothelial adhesion to fibronectin and formation of focal adhesions increased in response to radiation in a RhoA/ROCK-dependent manner. Consistent with its pro-adhesive role, ionizing radiation also decreased endothelial cells migration and RhoA was required for this inhibition. These results highlight the role of RhoA GTPase in ionizing radiation-induced deregulation of essential endothelial functions linked to actin cytoskeleton.

  16. Radiation-induced instability of human genome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryabchenko, N.N.; Demina, Eh.A.

    2014-01-01

    A brief review is dedicated to the phenomenon of radiation-induced genomic instability where the increased level of genomic changes in the offspring of irradiated cells is characteristic. Particular attention is paid to the problems of genomic instability induced by the low-dose radiation, role of the bystander effect in formation of radiation-induced instability, and its relationship with individual radiosensitivity. We believe that in accordance with the paradigm of modern radiobiology the increased human individual radiosensitivity can be formed due to the genome instability onset and is a significant risk factor for radiation-induced cancer

  17. Effect of pH on radiation-induced apoptosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, W. Song; Park, Heon J.; Lyons, John C.; Auger, Elizabeth A.; Lee, Hyung-Sik

    1996-01-01

    Purpose/Objective: The effect of environmental pH on the radiation-induced apoptosis in tumor cells in vitro was investigated. Materials and Methods: SCK mammary adenocarcinoma cells of A/J mice were irradiated with γ-rays using a 137 Cs irradiator and incubated in media of different pHs. After incubation at 37 degree sign C for 24-120 hrs., the extent of apoptosis was determined using agarose gel electrophoresis of DNA, in situ TUNEL staining, flow cytometry, and release of 3 H from 3 H-thymidine labeled cells. The membrane integrity, using the trypan blue exclusion method, and the clonogenicity of the cells were also determined. Results: Irradiation with 2-12 Gy of γ-rays induced apoptosis in pH 7.5 medium within 48 hrs. The radiation-induced apoptosis progressively declined as the medium pH was lowered so that little apoptosis occurred in 48 hrs. after irradiation with 12 Gy in pH 6.6 medium. However, when the cells were irradiated and incubated for 48 hrs. in pH 6.6 medium and then medium was replaced with pH 7.5 medium, apoptosis promptly occurred. Apoptosis also occurred even in pH 6.6 medium when the cells were irradiated and maintained in pH 7.5 medium for 8 hrs. or longer post-irradiation before incubation in pH 6.6 medium. Conclusion: An acidic environment markedly suppresses radiation-induced apoptosis probably by suppressing the expression of initial signals responsible for irradiation-induced apoptosis. Indications are that the signals persist in an acidic environment and trigger apoptosis when the environmental acidity is eased. Our results suggest that the acidic environment in human tumors may inhibit the apoptosis after irradiation. However, apoptosis may be triggered when reoxygenation occurs after irradiation, and thus, the intratumor environment becomes less acidic after irradiation. Not only the change in pO 2 but the change in pH during the course of fractionated radiotherapy may greatly influence the outcome of the treatment

  18. 3D ultrasound Nakagami imaging for radiation-induced vaginal fibrosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaofeng; Rossi, Peter; Shelton, Joseph; Bruner, Debrorah; Tridandapani, Srini; Liu, Tian

    2014-03-01

    Radiation-induced vaginal fibrosis is a debilitating side-effect affecting up to 80% of women receiving radiotherapy for their gynecological (GYN) malignancies. Despite the significant incidence and severity, little research has been conducted to identify the pathophysiologic changes of vaginal toxicity. In a previous study, we have demonstrated that ultrasound Nakagami shape and PDF parameters can be used to quantify radiation-induced vaginal toxicity. These Nakagami parameters are derived from the statistics of ultrasound backscattered signals to capture the physical properties (e.g., arrangement and distribution) of the biological tissues. In this paper, we propose to expand this Nakagami imaging concept from 2D to 3D to fully characterize radiation-induced changes to the vaginal wall within the radiation treatment field. A pilot study with 5 post-radiotherapy GYN patients was conducted using a clinical ultrasound scanner (6 MHz) with a mechanical stepper. A serial of 2D ultrasound images, with radio-frequency (RF) signals, were acquired at 1 mm step size. The 2D Nakagami shape and PDF parameters were calculated from the RF signal envelope with a sliding window, and then 3D Nakagami parameter images were generated from the parallel 2D images. This imaging method may be useful as we try to monitor radiation-induced vaginal injury, and address vaginal toxicities and sexual dysfunction in women after radiotherapy for GYN malignancies.

  19. Assessment of factors affecting social media use for HIV andAIDS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study evaluated factors that affect use of social media for HIV and AIDS ... Structured questionnaire copies were administered to 355 undergraduate students. ... media sites for HIV and AIDS information communication was influenced by ...

  20. Radiation-induced heart injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Yoshihiko; Niibe, Hideo

    1975-01-01

    In order to identify radiation-induced heart injury and to differentiate it from heart disease, an attempt was made to clarify post-irradiation heart injury by investigating the histological changes which occur during the internal between the irradiation and the time of demonstrable histological changes. A study was made of 83 autopsies in which most of the primary neoplasms were breast cancers, lung cancers and mediastinal tumors. In 43 of these autopsies the heart had been irradiated. Sixty eight dd-strain mice were also used for microautoradiographic study. Histological changes in the heart were observed in 27 of the 43 cases receiving irradiation. The limit of the tolerance dose to the heart for indicating histological changes was 1220 ret in humans. The latent period without histological changes was 2.7 months after initiation of radiation therapy. Greater heart injury was observed after re-irradiation or after the combined therapy of radiation and chemotherapy especially mitomycin (MMC). The histological findings after treatment with MMC were similar to those of radiation-induced heart injury. Results of the study indicate that the damage is secondary to radiation-induced changes of the vascula connective tissue. (Evans, G.)

  1. Radiation-induced optic neuropathy: A magnetic resonance imaging study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guy, J.; Mancuso, A.; Beck, R.; Moster, M.L.; Sedwick, L.A.; Quisling, R.G.; Rhoton, A.L. Jr.; Protzko, E.E.; Schiffman, J.

    1991-01-01

    Optic neuropathy induced by radiation is an infrequent cause of delayed visual loss that may at times be difficult to differentiate from compression of the visual pathways by recurrent neoplasm. The authors describe six patients with this disorder who experienced loss of vision 6 to 36 months after neurological surgery and radiation therapy. Of the six patients in the series, two had a pituitary adenoma and one each had a metastatic melanoma, multiple myeloma, craniopharyngioma, and lymphoepithelioma. Visual acuity in the affected eyes ranged from 20/25 to no light perception. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging showed sellar and parasellar recurrence of both pituitary adenomas, but the intrinsic lesions of the optic nerves and optic chiasm induced by radiation were enhanced after gadolinium-diethylenetriaminepenta-acetic acid (DTPA) administration and were clearly distinguishable from the suprasellar compression of tumor. Repeated MR imaging showed spontaneous resolution of gadolinium-DTPA enhancement of the optic nerve in a patient who was initially suspected of harboring recurrence of a metastatic malignant melanoma as the cause of visual loss. The authors found the presumptive diagnosis of radiation-induced optic neuropathy facilitated by MR imaging with gadolinium-DTPA. This neuro-imaging procedure may help avert exploratory surgery in some patients with recurrent neoplasm in whom the etiology of visual loss is uncertain

  2. Radiation-induced gene expression in human subcutaneous fibroblasts is predictive of radiation-induced fibrosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rødningen, Olaug Kristin; Børresen-Dale, Anne-Lise; Alsner, Jan

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Breast cancer patients show a large variation in normal tissue reactions after ionizing radiation (IR) therapy. One of the most common long-term adverse effects of ionizing radiotherapy is radiation-induced fibrosis (RIF), and several attempts have been made over the last...... years to develop predictive assays for RIF. Our aim was to identify basal and radiation-induced transcriptional profiles in fibroblasts from breast cancer patients that might be related to the individual risk of RIF in these patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fibroblast cell lines from 31 individuals......-treated fibroblasts. Transcriptional differences in basal and radiation-induced gene expression profiles were investigated using 15K cDNA microarrays, and results analyzed by both SAM and PAM. RESULTS: Sixty differentially expressed genes were identified by applying SAM on 10 patients with the highest risk of RIF...

  3. Application of radiation-induced apoptosis in radiation oncology and radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crompton, N.E.A.; Emery, G.C.; Ozsahin, M.; Menz, R.; Knesplova, L.; Larsson, B.

    1997-01-01

    A rapid assay of the ability of lymphocytes to respond to radiation-induced damage is presented. Age and genetic dependence of radiation response have been quantified. The assay is sensitive to low doses of radiation. Its ability to assess the cytotoxic response of blood capillaries to radiation has been evaluated. (author)

  4. Jets in QCD Media: Onset of Color Decoherence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehtar-Tani, Y.; Salgado, C.A.; Tywoniuk, K.

    2011-01-01

    We report on recent studies of the phenomenon of color decoherence of jets in QCD media. The effect is most clearly observed in the radiation pattern of a quark-antiquark antenna, created in the same quantum state, traversing a dense color deconfined plasma. Multiple scattering with the medium color charges gradually destroys the coherence of the antenna. In the limit of opaque media this ultimately leads to independent radiation off the antenna constituents. Accordingly, radiation off the total charge vanishes implying a memory loss effect induced by the medium. (authors)

  5. Assessment of DNA double-strand breaks induced by intravascular iodinated contrast media following in vitro irradiation and in vivo, during paediatric cardiac catheterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, Richard; McFadden, Sonyia L; Horn, Simon; Prise, Kevin M; Doyle, Philip; Hughes, Ciara M

    2016-01-01

    Paediatric cardiac catheterizations may result in the administration of substantial amounts of iodinated contrast media and ionizing radiation. The aim of this work was to investigate the effect of iodinated contrast media in combination with in vitro and in vivo X-ray radiation on lymphocyte DNA. Six concentrations of iodine (15, 17.5, 30, 35, 45, and 52.5 mg of iodine per mL blood) represented volumes of iodinated contrast media used in the clinical setting. Blood obtained from healthy volunteers was mixed with iodinated contrast media and exposed to radiation doses commonly used in paediatric cardiac catheterizations (0 mGy, 70 mGy, 140 mGy, 250 mGy and 450 mGy). Control samples contained no iodine. For in vivo experimentation, pre and post blood samples were collected from children undergoing cardiac catheterization, receiving iodine concentrations of up to 51 mg of iodine per mL blood and radiation doses of up to 400 mGy. Fluorescence microscopy was performed to assess γH2AX-foci induction, which corresponded to the number of DNA double-strand breaks. The presence of iodine in vitro resulted in significant increases of DNA double-strand breaks beyond that induced by radiation for ≥ 17.5 mg/mL iodine to blood. The in vivo effects of contrast media on children undergoing cardiac catheterization resulted in a 19% increase in DNA double-strand breaks in children receiving an average concentration of 19 mg/mL iodine to blood. A larger investigation is required to provide further information of the potential benefit of lowering the amount of iodinated contrast media received during X-ray radiation investigations. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Radiation-induced degradation of chlorophenols in aqueous solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Jun; Wang Jianlong

    2005-01-01

    Radiation processing is a promising technology for applications in environmental protection, which includes wastewater treatment, micro-polluted drinking water treatment and the treatment of industrial wastewater containing various toxic and nonbiodegradable pollutants, municipal sewage and sludge disinfection, and flue gas desulfuration, etc. The paper reviews manly the recent progresses in radiolysis of chlorinated phenols in aqueous solution. Advantages and existing problems of the method in this particular application ar discussed. Mechanisms of radiation-induced degradation of chlorophenols, and the factors affecting the degradation efficiency, are discussed, too. It is concluded that combined approaches, such ozone oxidation and other methods, are of great help to the radiation processing application, in terms of lowering down the dose and increasing the efficient of pollutant removal. (authors)

  7. Radiation-induced pneumothorax

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Epstein, D.M.; Littman, P.; Gefter, W.B.; Miller, W.T.; Raney, R.B. Jr.

    1983-01-01

    Pneumothorax is an uncommon complication of radiation therapy to the chest. The proposed pathogenesis is radiation-induced fibrosis promoting subpleural bleb formation that ruptures resulting in pneumothorax. We report on two young patients with primary sarcomas without pulmonary metastases who developed spontaneous pneumothorax after irradiation. Neither patient had antecedent radiographic evidence of pulmonary fibrosis

  8. Radiation induced sarcomas of bone following therapeutic radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, J.H.; Chu, F.C.H.; Woodward, H.Q.; Huvos, A.

    1983-01-01

    Because of new therapeutic trends of multi-modality and the importance of late effects, we have updated our series of radiation induced bone sarcomas seen at Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center over the past four decades. A total of 37 cases of bone sarcoma arising from normal bone in the irradiated field was analyzed. The median for latent period from irradiation to diagnosis of bone sarcoma was 11 years with a minimum latent period of four years. The median radiation dose for the bone sarcoma was 6000 rad in 6 weeks with a minimum total radiation dose of 3000 rad in 3 weeks. We have found nine patients who developed bone sarcomas in the radiation field after successful treatment of Hodgkin's disease. Criteria for radiation induced bone sarcomas and the magnitude of the risk of bone sarcomas are briefly discussed

  9. Scintigraphic and Endoscopic Evaluation of Radiation-induced Acute Gastrointestinal Syndrome in Micro-pig Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Seung-Sook; Kim, Kyung-Min; Kim, Jin; Jang, Won-Suk; Lee, Jung-Eun; Kim, Noo-Ri; Lee, Sun-Joo; Kim, Mi-Sook; Ji, Young-Hoon; Cheon, Gi-Jeong; Lim, Sang-Moo

    2007-01-01

    Micro-pig model can be served as a proper substitute for humans in studying acute radiation syndrome following radiation-exposure accidents, especially showing similar clinico-pathologic response of hematopoietic and gastrointestinal (GI) syndrome to human. Among acute GI syndrome induced by radiation, GI motility disturbance has not been studied, however, it would be important in a viewpoint of affecting infectious progression from GI tract. Here, we employed scintigraphy of GI transit time and sequential endoscopic examination and tissue sampling in micropigs followed by abdominal radiation exposure. The specific aims of this study are to evaluate objective evidence of GI motility disturbance by scintigraphic evaluation and to find corresponding clinicoapthologic changes in radiation-induced acute GI syndrome

  10. Radiation-induced bone neoplasma in facial cranium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zomer-Drozda, J; Buraczewska-Lipinska, H; Buraczewski, J [Instytut Onkologii, Warsaw (Poland)

    1976-01-01

    Radiation-induced bone neoplasms in the region of facial cranium account for about 40% of all radiation-induced tumours of bones, although the number of cases with lesions irradiated in this area is proportionally much lower than the number of cases treated with radiotherapy in other parts of the body. Four personal cases of radiation-induced tumours with complicated course are reported. Attention is called to the value of radiological investigations in the diagnosis of bone diseases and in differential diagnosis of radiation-induced tumours of bones.

  11. UV radiation induced stress does not affect DMSP synthesis in the marine prymnesiophyte Emiliania huxleyi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rijssel, M; Buma, A.G.J.

    2002-01-01

    A possible coupling between UV radiation (UVR; 280 to 400 nm) induced stress and the production of dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP), the precursor of the climate-regulating gas dimethylsulfide (DMS), was investigated in the marine prymnesiophyte Emiliania huxleyi. To this end, axenic cultures of E.

  12. Diseases induced by ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    The instruction sheet for medical examinations presents information on clinical symptoms and diagnostic procedures relating to the following cases: 1. Acute radiation injury due to whole-body exposure; 2. acute, local radiation injury due to partial body exposure; 3. chronic general affections due to whole-body exposure; 4. chronic, local affections due to partial body exposure; 5. delayed radiation effects. (HP) [de

  13. Regulation of radiation-induced protein kinase Cδ activation in radiation-induced apoptosis differs between radiosensitive and radioresistant mouse thymic lymphoma cell lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakajima, Tetsuo; Yukawa, Osami; Tsuji, Hideo; Ohyama, Harumi; Wang, Bing; Tatsumi, Kouichi; Hayata, Isamu; Hama-Inaba, Hiroko

    2006-01-01

    Protein kinase Cδ (PKCδ) has an important role in radiation-induced apoptosis. The expression and function of PKCδ in radiation-induced apoptosis were assessed in a radiation-sensitive mouse thymic lymphoma cell line, 3SBH5, and its radioresistant variant, XR223. Rottlerin, a PKCδ-specific inhibitor, completely abolished radiation-induced apoptosis in 3SBH5. Radiation-induced PKCδ activation correlated with the degradation of PKCδ, indicating that PKCδ activation through degradation is involved in radiation-induced apoptosis in radiosensitive 3SBH5. In radioresistant XR223, radiation-induced PKCδ activation was lower than that in radiosensitive 3SBH5. Cytosol PKCδ levels in 3SBH5 decreased markedly after irradiation, while those in XR223 did not. There was no apparent change after irradiation in the membrane fractions of either cell type. In addition, basal cytosol PKCδ levels in XR223 were higher than those in 3SBH5. These results suggest that the radioresistance in XR223 to radiation-induced apoptosis is due to a difference in the regulation of radiation-induced PKCδ activation compared to that of 3SBH5. On the other hand, Atm -/- mouse thymic lymphoma cells were more radioresistant to radiation-induced apoptosis than wild-type mouse thymic lymphoma cells. Irradiated wild-type cells, but not Atm -/- cells, had decreased PKCδ levels, indicating that the Atm protein is involved in radiation-induced apoptosis through the induction of PKCδ degradation. The decreased Atm protein levels induced by treatment with Atm small interfering RNA had no effect on radiation-induced apoptosis in 3SBH5 cells. These results suggest that the regulation of radiation-induced PKCδ activation, which is distinct from the Atm-mediated cascade, determines radiation sensitivity in radiosensitive 3SBH5 cells

  14. Effects of tobacco-smoke on radiation-induced pneumonitis in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nilsson, K.; Henriksson, R.; Cai, Y.-Q.; Hellstroem, S.; Bjermer, L.; Hoernqvist Bylunds, S.

    1992-01-01

    To investigate the effect of exposure to tobacco smoke (TS) on the development of irradiation-induced pneumonitis in rats, five groups of animals were investigated including controls (C), tobacco smoke exposed (S), irradiated (RNS) and irradiated and tobacco smoke exposed (RS). An additional group (RS/NS) was exposed to tobacco before irradiation but not afterwards. Results indicate that smoking suppresses the radiation-induced inflammation but to a lesser degree affects the radiation-induced increase in membrane permeability as reflected by increased protein levels in BAL. Moreover, the marked effects on the numbers of mast cells and neutrophils in the RS group may indicate that these cells play an important role in the mechanism by which tobacco smoke modulates the effects of irradiation. When exposure to tobacco smoke was terminated immediately after irradiation (RS/NS), the inflammatory response was unaffected. (author)

  15. Selective reflection of resonance radiation from excited media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veklenko, B.A.; Gusarov, R.B.; Sherkunov, Yu.B.

    1998-01-01

    According to quantum electrodynamics, the cross section for resonant scattering of radiation on an aggregate of excited atoms can be written as a sum of positive definite terms. This type of structure is not consistent with the Fresnel formulas for the reflection coefficient of radiation from thermally excited media. The difference shows up on a macroscopic level and indicates that semiclassical radiation theory cannot be used. A study of the correlation between elastic scattering and stimulated emission processes clarifies the reason for the discrepancies. The resulting singularities require summing of Feynman diagrams which appear beginning in the sixth order of perturbation theory. A lower bound estimate for the reflection coefficient from a plane layer is given, including processes which violate the statistics of radiation. The contribution of stimulated emission processes caused by the initially scattered photon are examined specifically. An experiment is proposed which would settle the choice of theories

  16. 3 cases of radiation-induced sarcoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiba, Keiichiro; Fukuma, Hisatoshi; Beppu, Yasuo; Hirota, Teruyuki; Shinohara, Norio.

    1982-01-01

    Criteria for the diagnosis of radiation-induced sarcoma have been previously described. All cases must have a history of irradiation and the second neoplasm must have arisen in the area of the radiation field. A latent period of several years must have elapsed after irradiation before clinical evidence of a second malignant neoplasm. Most important thing is that, all suspected cases must have been proved histologically. We have experienced 3 cases of radiation-induced sarcoma, they were 42-years-old man who developed an osteosarcoma of the lumbar spine at the field of postoperative irradiation for seminoma 7 years previously, 69-years-old woman who developed a malignant fibrous histiocytoma of the buttock at the field of radical radiation for uterine carcinoma 7 years previously and 59-years-old woman who developed an extraskeletal osteosarcoma of the abdominal wall at the field of postoperative irradiation for uterine sarcoma 7 years previously. The last case is very rare and only 8 cases of radiation-induced extraskeletal osteosarcoma have been reported. Since there has been a definite trend in the treatment of cancer toward employing radiation for more favorable cases, in addition to technical improvements in the administration of radiotherapy and more modern equipment, survival data may have been altered considerably in many malignant tumors. Accordingly, more radiation-induced tumors may be encountered in the future. The clinical presentation and histopathology of these radiation-induced sarcomas are presented with a review of the literature. (author)

  17. Radiation-Induced Breast Cancer Incidence and Mortality From Digital Mammography Screening: A Modeling Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miglioretti, Diana L; Lange, Jane; van den Broek, Jeroen J; Lee, Christoph I; van Ravesteyn, Nicolien T; Ritley, Dominique; Kerlikowske, Karla; Fenton, Joshua J; Melnikow, Joy; de Koning, Harry J; Hubbard, Rebecca A

    2016-02-16

    Estimates of risk for radiation-induced breast cancer from mammography screening have not considered variation in dose exposure or diagnostic work-up after abnormal screening results. To estimate distributions of radiation-induced breast cancer incidence and mortality from digital mammography screening while considering exposure from screening and diagnostic mammography and dose variation among women. 2 simulation-modeling approaches. U.S. population. Women aged 40 to 74 years. Annual or biennial digital mammography screening from age 40, 45, or 50 years until age 74 years. Lifetime breast cancer deaths averted (benefits) and radiation-induced breast cancer incidence and mortality (harms) per 100,000 women screened. Annual screening of 100,000 women aged 40 to 74 years was projected to induce 125 breast cancer cases (95% CI, 88 to 178) leading to 16 deaths (CI, 11 to 23), relative to 968 breast cancer deaths averted by early detection from screening. Women exposed at the 95th percentile were projected to develop 246 cases of radiation-induced breast cancer leading to 32 deaths per 100,000 women. Women with large breasts requiring extra views for complete examination (8% of population) were projected to have greater radiation-induced breast cancer risk (266 cancer cases and 35 deaths per 100,000 women) than other women (113 cancer cases and 15 deaths per 100,000 women). Biennial screening starting at age 50 years reduced risk for radiation-induced cancer 5-fold. Life-years lost from radiation-induced breast cancer could not be estimated. Radiation-induced breast cancer incidence and mortality from digital mammography screening are affected by dose variability from screening, resultant diagnostic work-up, initiation age, and screening frequency. Women with large breasts may have a greater risk for radiation-induced breast cancer. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, U.S. Preventive Services Task Force, National Cancer Institute.

  18. Techniques of radiation induced haploid breeding of wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xuan Pu; Xu Liyuan; Qu Shihong; Yu Guirong; Yin Chunrong; Yue Chunfang

    2000-01-01

    With the treatment of different doses of 60 Co γ-ray irradiation to F 1 hybrid seeds and donor plants from M 1 F 1 or M 2 F 2 , wheat anther culture was made based on the media of MW 14 and modified MS. A series of studies on the applied doses of radiation induction, low temperature treatment on donor spikes and calli, variable temperature induced incubation and yield of pollen callus and calli giving green plant lets, pollen plant lets control over summertime and pollen plant let transplantation were carried out in order to increase the efficiency of obtaining double haploid-pure diploid plant lets of wheat with stable heredity and propagation. Theses plant lets could be used directly in rapid breeding

  19. Organic liquids as ''activ media'' in a holographic ionizing radiation dosimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicolau-Rebigan, S.

    1979-01-01

    Some types of organic liquids for using as activ media in a holographic ionizing radiation dosimeter are presented. One outlined the advantages of the holographic dosimeter comparatively with those of common used dosimeters. One presented the advantages of utilization of the organic liquids comparatively with another chemical systems used in a holographic ionizing radiation dosimeter. (author)

  20. Radiation-induced radical ions in calcium sulfite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogushevich, S. E.

    2006-07-01

    We have used EPR to study the effect of γ radiation on calcium sulfite. We have observed and identified the radiation-induced radical ions SO 2 - (iso) with g = 2.0055 and SO 2 - (orth-1) with g1 = 2.0093, g2 = 2.0051, g3 = 2.0020, identical to the initial and thermally induced SO 2 - respectively, SO 3 - (iso) with g = 2.0031 and SO 3 - (axial) with g⊥ = 2.0040, g∥ = 2.0023, identical to mechanically induced SO 3 - . We have established the participation of radiation-induced radical ions SO 3 - in formation of post-radiation SO 2 - .

  1. Radiation- induced aneuploidy in mammalian germ cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tease, C.

    1989-01-01

    The ability of ionizing radiation to induce aneuploidy in mammalian germ cells has been investigated experimentally in the laboratory mouse using a variety of cytogenetic and genetic methods. These studies have provided unambiguous evidence of induced nondisjunction in both male and female germ cells when the effect of irradiation is screened in meiotic cells or preimplantation embryos. In contrast, however, cytogenetic analyses of post-implantation embryos and genetic assays for induced chromosome gains have not found a significant radiation effect. These apparently contradictory findings may be reconciled if (a) radiation induces tertiary rather than primary trisomy, or (b) induces embryo-lethal genetic damage, such as deletions, in addition to numerical anomalies. Either or both of these explanations may account for the apparent loss during gestation of radiation-induced trisomic embryos. Extrapolating from the information so far available, it seems unlikely that environmental exposure to low doses if low dose rate radiation will result in a detectable increase in the rate of aneuploidy in the human population. (author)

  2. Thermal radiation heat transfer in participating media by finite volume discretization using collimated beam incidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harijishnu, R.; Jayakumar, J. S.

    2017-09-01

    The main objective of this paper is to study the heat transfer rate of thermal radiation in participating media. For that, a generated collimated beam has been passed through a two dimensional slab model of flint glass with a refractive index 2. Both Polar and azimuthal angle have been varied to generate such a beam. The Temperature of the slab and Snells law has been validated by Radiation Transfer Equation (RTE) in OpenFOAM (Open Field Operation and Manipulation), a CFD software which is the major computational tool used in Industry and research applications where the source code is modified in which radiation heat transfer equation is added to the case and different radiation heat transfer models are utilized. This work concentrates on the numerical strategies involving both transparent and participating media. Since Radiation Transfer Equation (RTE) is difficult to solve, the purpose of this paper is to use existing solver buoyantSimlpeFoam to solve radiation model in the participating media by compiling the source code to obtain the heat transfer rate inside the slab by varying the Intensity of radiation. The Finite Volume Method (FVM) is applied to solve the Radiation Transfer Equation (RTE) governing the above said physical phenomena.

  3. Radiation-induced camptocormia and dropped head syndrome. Review and case report of radiation-induced movement disorders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seidel, Clemens; Kuhnt, Thomas; Kortmann, Rolf-Dieter; Hering, Kathrin [Leipzig University, Department of Radiotherapy and Radiation Oncology, Leipzig (Germany)

    2015-10-15

    In recent years, camptocormia and dropped head syndrome (DHS) have gained attention as particular forms of movement disorders. Camptocormia presents with involuntary forward flexion of the thoracolumbar spine that typically increases during walking or standing and may severely impede walking ability. DHS is characterized by weakness of the neck extensors and a consecutive inability to extend the neck; in severe cases the head is fixed in a ''chin to chest position.'' Many diseases may underlie these conditions, and there have been some reports about radiation-induced camptocormia and DHS. A PubMed search with the keywords ''camptocormia,'' ''dropped head syndrome,'' ''radiation-induced myopathy,'' ''radiation-induced neuropathy,'' and ''radiation-induced movement disorder'' was carried out to better characterize radiation-induced movement disorders and the radiation techniques involved. In addition, the case of a patient developing camptocormia 23 years after radiation therapy of a non-Hodgkin's lymphoma of the abdomen is described. In total, nine case series of radiation-induced DHS (n = 45 patients) and - including our case - three case reports (n = 3 patients) about radiogenic camptocormia were retrieved. Most cases (40/45 patients) occurred less than 15 years after radiotherapy involving extended fields for Hodgkin's disease. The use of wide radiation fields including many spinal segments with paraspinal muscles may lead to radiation-induced movement disorders. If paraspinal muscles and the thoracolumbar spine are involved, the clinical presentation can be that of camptocormia. DHS may result if there is involvement of the cervical spine. To prevent these disorders, sparing of the spine and paraspinal muscles is desirable. (orig.) [German] In den letzten Jahren haben Bewegungsstoerungen von Wirbelsaeule und paraspinaler Muskulatur in

  4. Caffeine ameliorates radiation-induced skin reactions in mice but does not influence tumour radiation response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hebbar, S.A.; Mitra, A.K.; George, K.C.; Verma, N.C. [Radiation Biology Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai (India)]. E-mail: ncverma@apsara.barc.ernet.in

    2002-03-01

    Intramuscular administration of caffeine at a dose of 80 mg kg{sup -1} body weight to the gastrocnemius muscles of Swiss mice 5 min prior to local irradiation (35 Gy) of the leg delayed the progression of radiation-induced skin reactions in such animals. While 90% epilation with reddening of the skin was noted in animals treated with radiation alone, animals pretreated with caffeine suffered only partial hair loss with slight reddening of the skin on the 16th and 20th days post-irradiation. Beyond the 28th day, damage scores in irradiated feet for both the groups were similar (score 3) and remained unchanged until the 32nd day and then decreased and disappeared completely in both treatment groups by the 40th day after irradiation. In addition, the effect of caffeine on the radiation response of a mouse fibrosarcoma was investigated. Results showed that intratumoral administration of caffeine at a dose of 80 mg kg{sup -1} body weight 5 min prior to local exposure of tumours to 10 Gy of {sup 60}Co {gamma}-rays did not influence the response of tumours to radiation. The present study thus showed that although caffeine ameliorated radiation-induced skin reactions in the mouse leg, it did not affect the tumour radiation response, indicating its potential application in cancer radiotherapy. (author)

  5. Pathology of radiation induced lung damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawabata, Yoshinori; Murata, Yoshihiko; Ogata, Hideo; Katagiri, Shiro; Sugita, Hironobu; Iwai, Kazuo; Sakurai, Isamu.

    1985-01-01

    We examined pathological findings of radiation induced lung damage. Twenty-three cases are chosen from our hospital autopsy cases for 9 years, which fulfil strict criteria of radiation lung damage. Lung damage could be classified into 3 groups : 1) interstitial pneumonia type (9 cases), 2) intermediate pneumonia type (8 cases), and 3) alveolar pneumonia type (6 cases), according to the degree of intra-luminal exudation. These classification is well correlated with clinical findings. Pathological alveolar pneumonia type corresponds to symptomatic, radiologic ground glass pneumonic shadow. And pathologic interstitial type corresponds to clinical asymptomatic, radiologic reticulo-nodular shadow. From the clinico-pathological view point these classification is reasonable one. Radiation affects many lung structures and showed characteristic feature of repair. Elastofibrosis of the alveolar wall is observed in every cases, obstructive bronchiolitis are observed in 5 cases, and obstructive bronchiolitis in 9 cases. They are remarkable additional findings. Thickening of the interlobular septum, broncho-vascular connective tissue, and pleural layer are observed in every cases together with vascular lesions. (author)

  6. General principles of radiation protection in hospital media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chanteur, J.

    1993-01-01

    Principles of radiation protection given by ICRP in term of justification, optimization, limitation are applicable in hospital media. The medical act has to be justified and, in France, it is not possible to use ionizing radiations without a prescription from a doctor. The acceleration of technologies development make non radiological techniques more employed than radiologic ones, in an aim of efficiency more than an aim radiation protection. The second principle of optimization means to give medical care with the minimum of ionizing radiations for the patients as well the operators. For the principle of limitation which applied only for operators, we have the new recommends of ICRP, but it would be reasonable to give the most part of decision to the works doctor to decide if somebody has the aptitude to work at an exposed place. The last points concern the quality of equipment, the safety of installations, the organization of works which are under laws and regulations. 3 tabs

  7. Studies on the role of central histamine in the acquisition of a radiation-induced conditioned taste aversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabin, B.M.; Hunt, W.A.; Lee, J.

    1982-01-01

    The experiments described in this report were designed to test two hypotheses about how exposure to low-level radiation can affect the behavior of an organism: first, tht radiation effects on behavior are mediated by a radiation-induced release of histamine; and second, that this radiation-induced histamine release can exert relatively direct effects on the central nervous system. The results of the first experiment showed that microinjection of histamine directly into the fourth ventricle of rats produced a taste aversion to a novel sucrose solution. Pretreating rats with intraventricular H 1 or H 2 blockers was not effective in preventing the acquisition of the radiation-induced aversion, although the H 1 blocker did prevent the acquisition of a histamine-induced taste aversion. It also was not possible to establish a cross-tolerance between centrally administered histamine and radiation. The results are interpreted as not supporting the hypothesis that a radiation-induced release of central histamine mediates the acquisition of a conditioned taste aversion following exposure to low-level radiation

  8. Application of low dose radiation and low concentration contrast media in enhanced CT scans in children with congenital heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhimin; Song, Lei; Yu, Tong; Gao, Jun; Zhang, Qifeng; Jiang, Ling; Liu, Yong; Peng, Yun

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the feasibility of using low dose radiation and low concentration contrast media in enhanced CT examinations in children with congenital heart disease. Ninety patients with congenital heart disease were randomly divided into three groups of 30 patients each who underwent contrast-enhanced cardiac scans on a Discovery CT750 HD scanner. Group A received 270 mg I/mL iodixanol, and group B received 320 mg I/mL iodixanol contrast media and was scanned with prospective ECG triggering mode. Group C received 320 mg I/mL iodixanol and was scanned with conventional retrospective ECG gating mode. The same weight-based contrast injection protocol was used for all three groups. Images were reconstructed using a 30% adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASIR) algorithm and a 50% ASIR in groups A and B and a 30% ASIR in group C. The subjective and objective image quality evaluations, diagnostic accuracies, radiation doses and amounts of contrast media in the three groups were measured and compared. All images in the three groups met the diagnostic requirements, with the same diagnostic accuracy and image quality scores greater than 3 in a 4-point scoring system. However, ventricular enhancement and the objective noise, signal-to-noise ratio, contrast-to-noise ratio and subjective image quality scores in group C were better than those in groups A and B (all Pcontrast dose (14% lower than that of groups B and C). Enhanced CT scan images with low dose radiation and low concentration contrast media can meet the diagnostic requirements for examining children with congenital heart disease while reducing the potential risk of radiation damage and contrast-induced nephropathy. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Smad, but not MAPK, pathway mediates the expression of type I collagen in radiation induced fibrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yano, Hiroyuki; Hamanaka, Ryoji; Nakamura, Miki; Sumiyoshi, Hideaki; Matsuo, Noritaka; Yoshioka, Hidekatsu

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We examine how radiation affects the expression level and signal pathway of collagen. ► TGF-β1 mRNA is elevated earlier than those of collagen genes after irradiation. ► Smad pathway mediates the expression of collagen in radiation induced fibrosis. ► MAPK pathways are not affected in the expression of collagen after irradiation. -- Abstract: Radiation induced fibrosis occurs following a therapeutic or accidental radiation exposure in normal tissues. Tissue fibrosis is the excessive accumulation of collagen and other extracellular matrix components. This study investigated how ionizing radiation affects the expression level and signal pathway of type I collagen. Real time RT-RCR showed that both α1and α2 chain of type I collagen mRNA were elevated from 48 h after irradiation with 10 Gy in NIH3T3 cells. The relative luciferase activities of both genes and type I collagen marker were elevated at 72 h. TGF-β1 mRNA was elevated earlier than those of type I collagen genes. A Western blot analysis showed the elevation of Smad phosphorylation at 72 h. Conversely, treatment with TGF-β receptor inhibitor inhibited the mRNA and relative luciferase activity of type I collagen. The phosphorylation of Smad was repressed with the inhibitor, and the luciferase activity was cancelled using a mutant construct of Smad binding site of α2(I) collagen gene. However, the MAPK pathways, p38, ERK1/2 and JNK, were not affected with specific inhibitors or siRNA. The data showed that the Smad pathway mediated the expression of type I collagen in radiation induced fibrosis.

  10. Smad, but not MAPK, pathway mediates the expression of type I collagen in radiation induced fibrosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yano, Hiroyuki [Department of Matrix Medicine, Oita University, 1-1 Idaigaoka Hasama-machi, Yufu, Oita 879-5593 (Japan); Division of Radioisotope Research, Department of Research Support, Research Promotion Project, Oita University, 1-1 Idaigaoka Hasama-machi, Yufu, Oita 879-5593 (Japan); Hamanaka, Ryoji; Nakamura, Miki [Cell Biology, Faculty of Medicine, Oita University, 1-1 Idaigaoka Hasama-machi, Yufu, Oita 879-5593 (Japan); Sumiyoshi, Hideaki; Matsuo, Noritaka [Department of Matrix Medicine, Oita University, 1-1 Idaigaoka Hasama-machi, Yufu, Oita 879-5593 (Japan); Yoshioka, Hidekatsu, E-mail: hidey@oita-u.ac.jp [Department of Matrix Medicine, Oita University, 1-1 Idaigaoka Hasama-machi, Yufu, Oita 879-5593 (Japan)

    2012-02-17

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We examine how radiation affects the expression level and signal pathway of collagen. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer TGF-{beta}1 mRNA is elevated earlier than those of collagen genes after irradiation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Smad pathway mediates the expression of collagen in radiation induced fibrosis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MAPK pathways are not affected in the expression of collagen after irradiation. -- Abstract: Radiation induced fibrosis occurs following a therapeutic or accidental radiation exposure in normal tissues. Tissue fibrosis is the excessive accumulation of collagen and other extracellular matrix components. This study investigated how ionizing radiation affects the expression level and signal pathway of type I collagen. Real time RT-RCR showed that both {alpha}1and {alpha}2 chain of type I collagen mRNA were elevated from 48 h after irradiation with 10 Gy in NIH3T3 cells. The relative luciferase activities of both genes and type I collagen marker were elevated at 72 h. TGF-{beta}1 mRNA was elevated earlier than those of type I collagen genes. A Western blot analysis showed the elevation of Smad phosphorylation at 72 h. Conversely, treatment with TGF-{beta} receptor inhibitor inhibited the mRNA and relative luciferase activity of type I collagen. The phosphorylation of Smad was repressed with the inhibitor, and the luciferase activity was cancelled using a mutant construct of Smad binding site of {alpha}2(I) collagen gene. However, the MAPK pathways, p38, ERK1/2 and JNK, were not affected with specific inhibitors or siRNA. The data showed that the Smad pathway mediated the expression of type I collagen in radiation induced fibrosis.

  11. Radiation induced degradation of dyes-An overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rauf, M.A.; Ashraf, S. Salman

    2009-01-01

    Synthetic dyes are a major part of our life. Products ranging from clothes to leather accessories to furniture all depend on extensive use of organic dyes. An unfortunate side effect of extensive use of these chemicals is that huge amounts of these potentially carcinogenic compounds enter our water supplies. Various advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) including the use of high-energy radiation have been developed to degrade these compounds. In this review, dye decoloration and degradation as a result of its exposure to high energy radiation such as gamma radiation and pulsed electron beam are discussed in detail. The role of various transient species such as ·H, ·OH and e aq - are taken into account as reported by various researchers. Literature citations in this area show that e aq - is very effective in decolorization but is less active in the further degradation of the products formed. The degradation of the dyes is initiated exclusively by ·OH attack on electron-rich sites of the dye molecules. Additionally, various parameters that affect the efficiency of radiation induced degradation of dyes, such as effect of radiation dose, oxygen, pH, hydrogen peroxide, added ions and dye classes are also reviewed and summarized. Lastly, pilot plant application of radiation for wastewater treatment is briefly discussed.

  12. Radiation-induced myelopathy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaenshirt, H [Heidelberg Univ. (F.R. Germany). Neurologische Klinik

    1975-10-01

    12 cases of radiation-induced myelopathy after /sup 60/Co teletherapy are reported on. Among these were 10 thoracal lesions, one cerviothoracal lesion, and one lesion of the medulla oblongata. In 9 cases, Hodgkin's disease had been the primary disease, tow patients had been irradiated because of suspected vertebral metastases of cancer of the breast, and one patient had suffered from a glomus tumour of the petrous bone. The spinal doses had exceeded the tolerance doses recommended in the relevant literature. There was no close correlation between the radiation dose and the course of the disease. The latency periods between the end of the radiotherapy and the onset of the neurological symptons varied from 6 to 16 mouths and were very constant in 7 cases with 6 to 9 months. The segmental height of the lesion corresponded to the level of irradiation. The presenting symptons of radiation-induced myelopathy are buruing dysaesthesias and Brown-Sequard's paralysis which may develop into transverse lesion of the cord with paraplegia still accompanied by dissociated perception disorders. The disease developed intermittently. Disturbances of the bladder function are frequent. The fluid is normal in most cases. Myelographic examinations were made in 8 cases. 3 cases developed into stationary cases exhibiting. Brown-Sequard syndrome, while 9 patients developed transverse lesion of the cord with paraplegia. 3 patients have died; antopsy findings are given for two of these. In the pathogenesis of radiation-induced myelopathy, the vascular factor is assumed to be of decisive importance.

  13. Radiation-induced erectile dysfunction: Recent advances and future directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javed Mahmood, PhD

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer is one of the most prevalent cancers and the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths in men in the United States. A large number of patients undergo radiation therapy (RT as a standard care of treatment; however, RT causes erectile dysfunction (radiation-induced erectile dysfunction; RiED because of late side effects after RT that significantly affects quality of life of prostate cancer patients. Within 5 years of RT, approximately 50% of patients could develop RiED. Based on the past and current research findings and number of publications from our group, the precise mechanism of RiED is under exploration in detail. Recent investigations have shown prostate RT induces significant morphologic arterial damage with aberrant alterations in internal pudendal arterial tone. Prostatic RT also reduces motor function in the cavernous nerve which may attribute to axonal degeneration may contributing to RiED. Furthermore, the advances in radiogenomics such as radiation induced somatic mutation identification, copy number variation and genome-wide association studies has significantly facilitated identification of biomarkers that could be used to monitoring radiation-induced late toxicity and damage to the nerves; thus, genomic- and proteomic-based biomarkers could greatly improve treatment and minimize arterial tissue and nerve damage. Further, advanced technologies such as proton beam therapy that precisely target tumor and significantly reduce off-target damage to vital organs and healthy tissues. In this review, we summarize recent advances in RiED research and novel treatment modalities for RiED. We also discuss the possible molecular mechanism involved in the development of RiED in prostate cancer patients. Further, we discuss various readily available methods as well as novel strategies such as stem cell therapies, shockwave therapy, nerve grafting with tissue engineering, and nutritional supplementations might be used to

  14. Perinatal radiation-induced renal damage in the beagle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaenke, R.S.; Angleton, G.M.

    1990-01-01

    The developing perinatal kidney is particularly sensitive to radiation. The pathogenesis of the radiation-induced lesion is related to the destruction of outer cortical developing nephrons and direct radiation injury with secondary hemodynamic alterations in remnant nephrons. In this study, which is part of a life span investigation of the effects of whole-body gamma radiation during prenatal and early postnatal life, dogs were given 0, 0.16, 0.83, or 1.25 Gy irradiation at either 55 days postcoitus or 2 days postpartum and were examined morphometrically and histopathologically at 70 days of age. Although irradiated dogs showed no reduction in the total number of nephrons per kidney, there was a significant increase in the total number and relative percentage of immature, dysplastic glomeruli. In addition, deeper cortical glomeruli of irradiated kidneys exhibited mesangial sclerosis similar to that associated with progressive renal failure in our previous studies. These findings are in accord with those reported at doses of 2.24 to 3.57 Gy and demonstrate that the perinatal kidney is affected by radiation doses much lower than previously demonstrated

  15. Lovastatin attenuates ionizing radiation-induced normal tissue damage in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ostrau, Christian; Huelsenbeck, Johannes; Herzog, Melanie; Schad, Arno; Torzewski, Michael; Lackner, Karl J.; Fritz, Gerhard

    2009-01-01

    Background and purpose: HMG-CoA-reductase inhibitors (statins) are widely used lipid-lowering drugs. Moreover, they have pleiotropic effects on cellular stress responses, proliferation and apoptosis in vitro. Here, we investigated whether lovastatin attenuates acute and subchronic ionizing radiation-induced normal tissue toxicity in vivo. Materials and methods: Four hours to 24 h after total body irradiation (6 Gy) of Balb/c mice, acute pro-inflammatory and pro-fibrotic responses were analyzed. To comprise subchronic radiation toxicity, mice were irradiated twice with 2.5 Gy and analyses were performed 3 weeks after the first radiation treatment. Molecular markers of inflammation and fibrosis as well as organ toxicities were measured. Results: Lovastatin attenuated IR-induced activation of NF-κB, mRNA expression of cell adhesion molecules and mRNA expression of pro-inflammatory and pro-fibrotic marker genes (i.e. TNFα, IL-6, TGFβ, CTGF, and type I and type III collagen) in a tissue- and time-dependent manner. γH2AX phosphorylation stimulated by IR was not affected by lovastatin, indicating that the statin has no major impact on the induction of DNA damage in vivo. Radiation-induced thrombopenia was significantly alleviated by lovastatin. Conclusions: Lovastatin inhibits both acute and subchronic IR-induced pro-inflammatory and pro-fibrotic responses and cell death in normal tissue in vivo. Therefore, lovastatin might be useful for selectively attenuating acute and subchronic normal tissue damage caused by radiotherapy.

  16. Radiative Heat Transfer Modeling in Fibrous Porous Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobhani, Sadaf; Panerai, Francesco; Borner, Arnaud; Ferguson, Joseph C.; Wray, Alan; Mansour, Nagi N.

    2017-01-01

    Phenolic-Impregnated Carbon Ablator (PICA) was developed at NASA Ames Research Center as a lightweight thermal protection system material for successful atmospheric entries. The objective of the current work is to compute the effective radiative conductivity of fibrous porous media, such as preforms used to make PICA, to enable the efficient design of materials that can meet the thermal performance goals of forthcoming space exploration missions.

  17. Radiative muon capture and induced pseudoscalar coupling constant in nuclear matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheoun, Myung Ki; Kim, K S; Choi, T K

    2003-01-01

    Radiative muon capture is studied to investigate the induced pseudoscalar coupling constant g P in nuclear matter. According to the recent TRIUMF experiment for μ - p → nν μ γ, the g P was surprisingly larger than the value obtained from μ - p → nν μ experiment by as much as 44%. The result may affect seriously theoretical interpretations of the experimental results for the radiative muon captures in finite nuclei. In view of the recent TRIUMF result, the radiative muon capture in nuclear matter is revisited in a framework of the relativistic mean field theory

  18. Radiation-induced genomic instability and bystander effects: related inflammatory-type responses to radiation-induced stress and injury? A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorimore, S A; Wright, E G

    2003-01-01

    To review studies of radiation responses in the haemopoietic system in the context of radiation-induced genomic instability, bystander effects and inflammatory-type processes. There is considerable evidence that cells that themselves are not exposed to ionizing radiation but are the progeny of cells irradiated many cell divisions previously may express a high frequency of gene mutations, chromosomal aberrations and cell death. These effects are collectively known as radiation-induced genomic instability. A second untargeted effect results in non-irradiated cells exhibiting responses typically associated with direct radiation exposure but occurs as a consequence of contact with irradiated cells or by receiving soluble signals from irradiated cells. These effects are collectively known as radiation-induced bystander effects. Reported effects include increases or decreases in damage-inducible and stress-related proteins; increases or decreases in reactive oxygen species, cell death or cell proliferation, and induction of mutations and chromosome aberrations. This array of responses is reminiscent of effects mediated by cytokines and other similar regulatory factors that may involve, but do not necessarily require, gap junction-mediated transfer, have multiple inducers and a variety of context-dependent consequences in different cell systems. That chromosomal instability in haemopoietic cells can be induced by an indirect bystander-type mechanism both in vitro and in vivo provides a potential link between these two untargeted effects and there are radiation responses in vivo consistent with the microenvironment contributing secondary cell damage as a consequence of an inflammatory-type response to radiation-induced injury. Intercellular signalling, production of cytokines and free radicals are features of inflammatory responses that have the potential for both bystander-mediated and persisting damage as well as for conferring a predisposition to malignancy. The

  19. Radiation-induced polymerization and radiation effect on polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seguchi, Tadao

    1977-12-01

    The processes of radiation-induced polymerization of monomers and also radiation effects on polymers have been studied by instrumental analyses of electron spin resonance (ESR), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and electron microscopy. In radiation-induced polymerization, graft-copolymerization and absorbed state polymerization were taken up. For graft-copolymerization, monomers such as methylmethacrylate and butadiene were made to react with irradiated polyethylene, and behaviors of the initiating radicals and propagating radicals were followed under the reaction by ESR. For absorbed state polymerization, acrylonitrile/zeolite and methylmethacrylate/zeolite were chosen. Absorbed monomers were irradiated at 77 0 K and polymerized at room temperature. Active species and the concentrations were measured by ESR and the yields of polymer were observed by NMR. In radiation effect on polymers, polyvinylfluoride, polyvinylidenfluoride and polytetrafluoroethylene were taken up. Active species trapped in the polymer matrixes were identified and decay and reactivity of the species were also studied. On the basis of information from the electron microscopy and x-ray analysis, radiation effects on these polymers are described. In polytetrafluoroethylene produced by radiation polymerization, the relation between morphology and polymerization conditions and also the process of crystallization during polymerization were studied. (auth.)

  20. Study on radiation-inducible genes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Sang Yong; Kim, Dong Ho; Joe, Min Ho; Park, Hae Jun; Song, Hyu Npa

    2012-01-15

    Radiation-inducible genes of E. coli, which is a model strain for bacterial study, and Salmonella, which is a typical strain for pathogenic bacteria were compared through omic analysis. Heat shock response genes and prophage genes were induced by radiation in Salmonella, not in E. coli. Among prophage genes tested, STM2628 showed the highest activation by radiation, and approximately 1 kb promoter region was turned out to be necessary for radiation response. To screen an artificial promoter showing activation by 2 Gy, the high-throughput screening method using fluorescent MUG substrate was established. The use of bacteria as anticancer agents has attracted interest. In this study, we tried to develop tumor targeting bacteria in which the radiation-inducible promoter activate a transgene encoding a cytotoxic protein. To do this, a tumor-targeting hfq Salmonella mutant strain was constructed, and we found that its virulence decreased. For outward secretion of anticancer protein produced inside bacteria, the signal peptide of SspH1 was determined and the signal peptide was proven to be able to secrete an anticancer protein. Tumor xenograft mouse model was secured, which can be used for efficiency evaluation of bacterial tumor therapy.

  1. Study on radiation-inducible genes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Sang Yong; Kim, Dong Ho; Joe, Min Ho; Park, Hae Jun; Song, Hyu Npa

    2012-01-01

    Radiation-inducible genes of E. coli, which is a model strain for bacterial study, and Salmonella, which is a typical strain for pathogenic bacteria were compared through omic analysis. Heat shock response genes and prophage genes were induced by radiation in Salmonella, not in E. coli. Among prophage genes tested, STM2628 showed the highest activation by radiation, and approximately 1 kb promoter region was turned out to be necessary for radiation response. To screen an artificial promoter showing activation by 2 Gy, the high-throughput screening method using fluorescent MUG substrate was established. The use of bacteria as anticancer agents has attracted interest. In this study, we tried to develop tumor targeting bacteria in which the radiation-inducible promoter activate a transgene encoding a cytotoxic protein. To do this, a tumor-targeting hfq Salmonella mutant strain was constructed, and we found that its virulence decreased. For outward secretion of anticancer protein produced inside bacteria, the signal peptide of SspH1 was determined and the signal peptide was proven to be able to secrete an anticancer protein. Tumor xenograft mouse model was secured, which can be used for efficiency evaluation of bacterial tumor therapy

  2. Radiation-induced cancers in man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirose, Fumio

    1978-01-01

    Radiation-induced cancers in man were divided into three groups, a group in which cancers occurred after atomic bomb exposure, a group in which cancers occurred in radiologists and other medical specialists, and a group in which cancers occurred after exposure to diagnostic radiation, and they were summarized. In atomic bomb survivors leukemia, thyroid cancer, salivary gland cancer, lung cancer, and breast cancer occurred so frequently. In addition to them, mortality ratios by malignant lymphoma, stomach cancer, esophageal cancer, and by cancer of urinary tract were increased. The incidence of leukemia was decreased in those who treated radiation owing to the development of the protection of occupational exposure, and the incidence of radiation-induced cancers was decreased in patients owing to the improvement of therapy. However, a new problem has arisen as to the occurrence of cancers after medical exposure, such as various histological types of cancers after the treatment of skin diseases on the head, and breast cancer after the treatment of pneumothorax. Dose-to-effect relation, hereditary factors, effect of age, immunological influences and endocrine actions were also studied in each radiation-induced cancer. (Ichikawa, K.)

  3. Radiation-induced cancers in man

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirose, F [Hiroshima Univ. (Japan). Research Inst. for Nuclear Medicine and Biology

    1978-07-01

    Radiation-induced cancers in man were divided into three groups, a group in which cancers occurred after atomic bomb exposure, a group in which cancers occurred in radiologists and other medical specialists, and a group in which cancers occurred after exposure to diagnostic radiation, and they were summarized. In atomic bomb survivors leukemia, thyroid cancer, salivary gland cancer, lung cancer, and breast cancer occurred so frequently. In addition to them, mortality ratios by malignant lymphoma, stomach cancer, esophageal cancer, and by cancer of urinary tract were increased. The incidence of leukemia was decreased in those who treated radiation owing to the development of the protection of occupational exposure, and the incidence of radiation-induced cancers was decreased in patients owing to the improvement of therapy. However, a new problem has arisen as to the occurrence of cancers after medical exposure, such as various histological types of cancers after the treatment of skin diseases on the head, and breast cancer after the treatment of pneumothorax. Dose-to-effect relation, hereditary factors, effect of age, immunological influences and endocrine actions were also studied in each radiation-induced cancer.

  4. Radiation-induced brain injury: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael eRobbins

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Approximately 100,000 primary and metastatic brain tumor patients/year in the US survive long enough (> 6 months to experience radiation-induced brain injury. Prior to 1970, the human brain was thought to be highly radioresistant; the acute CNS syndrome occurs after single doses > 30 Gy; white matter necrosis occurs at fractionated doses > 60 Gy. Although white matter necrosis is uncommon with modern techniques, functional deficits, including progressive impairments in memory, attention, and executive function have become important, because they have profound effects on quality of life. Preclinical studies have provided valuable insights into the pathogenesis of radiation-induced cognitive impairment. Given its central role in memory and neurogenesis, the majority of these studies have focused on the hippocampus. Irradiating pediatric and young adult rodent brains leads to several hippocampal changes including neuroinflammation and a marked reduction in neurogenesis. These data have been interpreted to suggest that shielding the hippocampus will prevent clinical radiation-induced cognitive impairment. However, this interpretation may be overly simplistic. Studies using older rodents, that more closely match the adult human brain tumor population, indicate that, unlike pediatric and young adult rats, older rats fail to show a radiation-induced decrease in neurogenesis or a loss of mature neurons. Nevertheless, older rats still exhibit cognitive impairment. This occurs in the absence of demyelination and/or white matter necrosis similar to what is observed clinically, suggesting that more subtle molecular, cellular and/or microanatomic modifications are involved in this radiation-induced brain injury. Given that radiation-induced cognitive impairment likely reflects damage to both hippocampal- and non-hippocampal-dependent domains, there is a critical need to investigate the microanatomic and functional effects of radiation in various brain

  5. Ionizing radiation induced malignancies in man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dutrillaux, B.

    1997-01-01

    Using data on gene and chromosome alterations in human cancers, it is proposed that most radiation induced cancers are a consequence of recessive mutations of tumor suppressor genes. This explains the long delay between radiation exposure and the cancer onset. As a consequence, radiation induced cancers belong to groups of tumors where no specific translocations (forming or activating oncogenes) but multiple unbalanced chromosome rearrangements (deletions unmasking recessive mutations) exist. This explains why osteosarcomas, malignant fibrous histiocytoma, chondrosarcomas are frequently induced, but not liposarcoma, Ewing sarcomas and rhabdomyosarcomas, among others. A single exception confirms this rule: papillary thyroid cancer, frequently induced in exposed children, in which structural rearrangements frequently form a RET/PTC3 fusion gene. This fusion gene is the results of the inversion of a short segment of chromosome 10, and it is assumed that such rearrangement (small para-centric inversion) can easily occur after exposure to radiations, at contrast with translocations between to genes belonging to different chromosomes. (author)

  6. Three cases of radiation-induced cancer in oral regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawamura, Hiroshi; Shinoki, Kunihiko; Endo, Yoshitaka; Fujita, Yasushi; Hayashi, Susumu

    1985-01-01

    Three cases of radiation-induced cancer in the oral regions were reported with relation to radiation therapy. One was the general radiation-induced cancer following radiotherapy for the hemangioma. The other two cases, which belonged in the B-1 group of Sakai and his coworker's diagnostic criteria for radiation-induced cancer, were those occurring after radiotherapy for the malignant tumors. Due to the relatively high dosage exposure by the patient in the radiotherapy it is necessary to look out the latency of the radiation-induced cancer. After radiotherapy, careful and periodical observation is important for immediate treatment in an early stage for the radiation-induced cancer to have a favorable prognosis. In addition careful observation of the changes after radiotherapy helps in discovering the precancerous lesions from the therapy. For the radiation-induced cancer, surgical treatment would be the best, however, radiation therapy is also effective in certain cases. (author)

  7. A Review: Radiographic Iodinated Contrast Media-Induced Thyroid Dysfunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Angela M.; Braverman, Lewis E.; Brent, Gregory A.; Pearce, Elizabeth N.

    2015-01-01

    Context: Thyroid hormone production is dependent on adequate iodine intake. Excess iodine is generally well-tolerated, but thyroid dysfunction can occur in susceptible individuals after excess iodine exposure. Radiological iodinated contrast media represent an increasingly common source of excess iodine. Objective: This review will discuss the thyroidal response after acute exposure to excess iodine; contrast iodine-induced thyroid dysfunction; risks of iodine-induced thyroid dysfunction in vulnerable populations, such as the fetus, neonate, and patients with impaired renal function; and recommendations for the assessment and treatment of contrast iodine-induced thyroid dysfunction. Methods: Data for this review were identified by searching PubMed, Google Scholar, and references from relevant articles from 1948 to 2014. Conclusions: With the increase in the use of computed tomography scans in the United States, there is increasing risk of contrast-induced thyroid dysfunction. Patients at risk of developing iodine-induced thyroid dysfunction should be closely monitored after receiving iodinated contrast media and should be treated as needed. PMID:25375985

  8. Changes in peroxidases associated with radiation-induced sprout inhibition in garlic (Allium sativum L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Croci, C.A.; Curvetto, N.R.; Orioli, G.A.; Arguello, J.A.

    1991-01-01

    The effects of an acute dose of γ-rays (10 Gy) to post-dormant garlic cloves on inner sprout growth and changes in peroxidases and soluble proteins were evaluated up to 100 days of storage in darkness at 19±1 0 C and 42±2% relative humidity. Radiation-induced inhibition of sprout growth became evident after 25 days of treatment and was synchronous with a marked increase in peroxidase activity. Thin-layer isoelectric focusing revealed that radiation induced an increase in the number of anodic peroxidase isoenzymes at 100 days, suggesting modifications in the vascularization process. Neither the soluble protein content nor the protein pattern were affected by irradiation. These results are discussed in terms of a possible mediating effect of peroxidase on radiation-induced sprout inhibition in garlic. (author)

  9. Changes in peroxidases associated with radiation-induced sprout inhibition in garlic (Allium sativum L. )

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Croci, C.A.; Curvetto, N.R.; Orioli, G.A. (Universidad Nacional del Sur, Bahia Blanca (Argentina)); Arguello, J.A. (Universidad Nacional de Cordoba (Argentina). Dept. de Biologia Aplicada)

    1991-02-01

    The effects of an acute dose of {gamma}-rays (10 Gy) to post-dormant garlic cloves on inner sprout growth and changes in peroxidases and soluble proteins were evaluated up to 100 days of storage in darkness at 19+-1{sup 0}C and 42+-2% relative humidity. Radiation-induced inhibition of sprout growth became evident after 25 days of treatment and was synchronous with a marked increase in peroxidase activity. Thin-layer isoelectric focusing revealed that radiation induced an increase in the number of anodic peroxidase isoenzymes at 100 days, suggesting modifications in the vascularization process. Neither the soluble protein content nor the protein pattern were affected by irradiation. These results are discussed in terms of a possible mediating effect of peroxidase on radiation-induced sprout inhibition in garlic. (author).

  10. The nature and principles of the radiation-induced cancerogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lips'ka, A.YI.; Serkyiz, Ya.Yi.

    2004-01-01

    The paper represents the analysis of the authors and literary data concerning the nature and principles of the radiation-induced neoplasms. The mechanisms of the radiation-induced cancerogenesis development are not clear understood. The experimental data altogether do not allow developing the mathematical model of the radiation-induced cancerogenesis at the molecular level. This model has to take into account all necessary indices including radiation factor and the state of the organism. The general principles of the radiation-induced cancerogenesis have been formulated in the present review. It is possible to use these principles in order to predict and calculate the risks of the radiation-induced neoplasms

  11. Effects of smoke and tea on radiation-induced bone marrow cell mutation and marrow inhibition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Yong; Zhang Weiguang

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To provide scientific information for the prevention and treatment of the radiation damage by analyzing the effects of smoke and tea on radiation-induced bone marrow cell mutation and marrow inhibition. Methods: 7 group mice were exposed to smoke and/or tea and/or radiation respectively. There were also b blank control group and a cyclophosphamide positive control group. The frequencies of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes (MPCE), the ratio of polychromatic erythrocytes (PCE) to mature erythrocytes (RBC) in marrow, and the count of peripheral blood hemoleukocyte were observed. Results: The frequencies of MPCE in the groups irradiated with γ-rays were significantly higher than that in the blank control group (P<0.05 or 0.01). The smoke + radiation group's frequency was significantly higher than single radiation group (P<0.05). The ratios of PCE to RBC in the groups irradiated were significantly lower than that in the blank control group (P<0.01). The counts of peripheral blood hemoleukocyte in the groups irradiated were significantly lower than the blank control group (P<0.01). Conclusion: Radiation were able to cause marrow cell mutation and induce marrow inhibition. Smoke increases the effect of radiation-induced marrow cell mutation. Tea and smoke could not affect radiation-induced bone marrow inhibition

  12. Radiation-induced alterations of histone post-translational modification levels in lymphoblastoid cell lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maroschik, Belinda; Gürtler, Anne; Krämer, Anne; Rößler, Ute; Gomolka, Maria; Hornhardt, Sabine; Mörtl, Simone; Friedl, Anna A

    2014-01-01

    Radiation-induced alterations in posttranslational histone modifications (PTMs) may affect the cellular response to radiation damage in the DNA. If not reverted appropriately, altered PTM patterns may cause long-term alterations in gene expression regulation and thus lead to cancer. It is therefore important to characterize radiation-induced alterations in PTM patterns and the factors affecting them. A lymphoblastoid cell line established from a normal donor was used to screen for alterations in methylation levels at H3K4, H3K9, H3K27, and H4K20, as well as acetylation at H3K9, H3K56, H4K5, and H4K16, by quantitative Western Blot analysis at 15 min, 1 h and 24 h after irradiation with 2 Gy and 10 Gy. The variability of alterations in acetylation marks was in addition investigated in a panel of lymphoblastoid cell lines with differing radiosensitivity established from lung cancer patients. The screening procedure demonstrated consistent hypomethylation at H3K4me3 and hypoacetylation at all acetylation marks tested. In the panel of lymphoblastoid cell lines, however, a high degree of inter-individual variability became apparent. Radiosensitive cell lines showed more pronounced and longer lasting H4K16 hypoacetylation than radioresistant lines, which correlates with higher levels of residual γ-H2AX foci after 24 h. So far, the factors affecting extent and duration of radiation-induced histone alterations are poorly defined. The present work hints at a high degree of inter-individual variability and a potential correlation of DNA damage repair capacity and alterations in PTM levels

  13. Inhibition of radiation-induced transformation in vitro by bacterial endotoxins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carew, J.A.; Collins, M.F.; Kennedy, A.R.

    1988-01-01

    Bacterial endotoxins (lipopolysaccharides) were found to suppress X-ray-induced malignant transformation of C3H/10T1/2 cells. Endotoxins were effective if present either throughout the 6-week transformation assay period, or for the final 4-week phase, but not when present only for the initial 2-week phase. Neither growth nor survival of C3H/10T1/2 cells, or a radiation-transformed cell line derived from them, were affected by endotoxins. Also, the endotoxins did not affect the formation of foci by the radiation transformed cells when these cells were co-cultured with untransformed cells. These results suggest that endotoxins exert their effect directly upon the transformation process itself, perhaps at a 'late' step in the conversion of an untransformed to a transformed cell. (author)

  14. Inhibition of radiation-induced transformation in vitro by bacterial endotoxins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carew, J A; Collins, M F; Kennedy, A R

    1988-05-01

    Bacterial endotoxins (lipopolysaccharides) were found to suppress X-ray-induced malignant transformation of C3H/10T1/2 cells. Endotoxins were effective if present either throughout the 6-week transformation assay period, or for the final 4-week phase, but not when present only for the initial 2-week phase. Neither growth nor survival of C3H/10T1/2 cells, or a radiation-transformed cell line derived from them, were affected by endotoxins. Also, the endotoxins did not affect the formation of foci by the radiation transformed cells when these cells were co-cultured with untransformed cells. These results suggest that endotoxins exert their effect directly upon the transformation process itself, perhaps at a 'late' step in the conversion of an untransformed to a transformed cell.

  15. Modification of radiation-induced division delay by caffeine analogues and dibutyryl cyclic AMP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimler, B.F.; Leeper, D.B.; Snyder, M.H.; Rowley, R.; Schneiderman, M.H. (Thomas Jefferson Univ., Philadelphia, PA (USA). Hospital)

    1982-01-01

    The mitotic selection procedure for cell cycle analysis was utilized to investigate the concentration-dependent modification of x-radiation-induced division delay in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells by methyl xanthines (caffeine, theophylline, and theobromine) and by dibutyryl cyclic AMP. The methyl xanthines (concentrations from 0.5 to 1000 ..mu..g/ml) all reduced radiation-induced division delay with the effect being linear between approximately 100 and 1000 ..mu..g/ml. After doses of 100-300 rad, delay was reduced by 75, 94 or 83 per cent at 1000 ..mu..g/ml for each drug, respectively. However, the addition of dibutyryl cyclic AMP had an opposite effect: radiation-induced delay was increased by the concentration range of 0.3 to 300 ..mu..g/ml. These results indicate that in mammalian cells the control of cell cycle progression and the modification of radiation-induced division delay are not simply related to intracellular levels of cyclic AMP. Rather, there appear to be at least two competing mechanisms which are differentially affected by caffeine analogues or by direct addition of dibutyryl cyclic AMP. The direct effect of caffeine and the methyl xanthines on membrane calcium permeability is considered.

  16. Modification of radiation-induced division delay by caffeine analogues and dibutyryl cyclic AMP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimler, B.F.; Leeper, D.B.; Snyder, M.H.; Rowley, R.; SChneiderman, M.H.

    1982-01-01

    The mitotic selection procedure for cell cycle analysis was utilized to investigate the concentration-dependent modification of x-radiation-induced division delay in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells by methyl xanthines (caffeine, theophylline, and theobromine) and by dibutyryl cyclic AMP. The methyl xanthines (concentrations from 0.5 to 1000 μg/ml) all reduced radiation-induced division delay with the effect being linear between approximately 100 and 1000 μg/ml. After doses of 100-300 rad, delay was reduced by 75, 94 or 83 per cent at 1000 μg/ml for each drug, respectively. However, the addition of dibutyryl cyclic AMP had an opposite effect: radiation-induced delay was increased by the concentration range of 0.3 to 300 μg/ml. These results indicate that in mammalian cells the control of cell cycle progression and the modification of radiation-induced division delay are not simply related to intracellular levels of cyclic AMP. Rather, there appear to be at least two competing mechanisms which are differentially affected by caffeine analogues or by direct addition of dibutyryl cyclic AMP. The direct effect of caffeine and the methyl xanthines on membrane calcium permeability is considered. (author)

  17. Radiation-induced linking reactions in polyethylene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zoepfl, F.J.

    1983-01-01

    Three types of measurements are reported relating to chemical reactions in polyethylene induced by ionizing radiation: 1) viscometric and low-angle laser light scattering measurements to determine the effect of a radical scavenger on the yield of links; 2) calorimetric measurements to determine the effect of radiation-induced linking on the melting behavior of polyethylene; and 3) high-resolution solution carbon 13 nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectrometry measurements to determine the nature of the links and the method of their formation. The NMR results present the first direct detection of radiation-induced long-chain branching (Y links) in polyethylene, and place an apparent upper limit on the yield of H-shaped crosslinks that are formed when polyethylene is irradiated to low absorbed doses. The effect of radiation-induced linking on the melting behavior of polyethylene was examined using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). It was found that radiation-induced links do not change the heat of fusion of polythylene crystals, but decrease the melt entropy and increase the fold surface free energy per unit area of the crystals. The carbon 13 NMR results demonstrate that long-chain branches (Y links) are formed much more frequently than H-shaped crosslinks at low absorbed doses. The Y links are produced by reactions of alkyl free radicals with terminal vinyl groups in polyethylene

  18. Genetic alterations during radiation-induced carcinogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kodama, Seiji

    1995-01-01

    This paper reviews radiation-induced genetic alterations and its carcinogenesis, focusing on the previous in vitro assay outcome. A colony formation assay using Syrian hamster fetal cells and focus formation assay using mouse C3H10T1/2 cells are currently available to find malignant transformation of cells. Such in vitro assays has proposed the hypothesis that radiation-induced carcinogenesis arises from at least two-stage processes; i.e., that an early step induced by irradiation plays an important role in promoting the potential to cause the subsequent mutation. A type of genetic instability induced by radiation results in a persistently elevated frequency of spontaneous mutations, so-called the phenomenon of delayed reproductive death. One possible mechanism by which genetic instability arises has been shown to be due to the development of abnormality in the gene group involved in the maintenance mechanism of genome stability. Another possibility has also been shown to stem from the loss of telomere (the extremities of a chromosome). The importance of search for radiation-induced genetic instability is emphasized in view of the elucidation of carcinogenesis. (N.K.)

  19. Modifying factors of radiation induced myeloid leukemia of C3H/He mouse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Kazuko; Nishimura, Mayumi; Nemoto, Kumie; Seki, Masatoshi

    1989-01-01

    The first experiment examined modifying factors, such as adrenocortical hormones, inflammatory reaction, and surgical stress, for radiation induced myeloid leukemia in C3H/He mice. The incidence of myeloid leukemia was not affected by a solitary subcutaneous injection of one mg of prednisolone acetate (predonine), but increased significantly by whole body irradiation, immediately followed by predonine. Augumentated effects of predonine was found in the 0.47 Gy, 1.42 Gy, and 2.84 Gy irradiated groups, but not found in the 4.73 Gy irradiated group. These results suggest that predonine itself did not have any effect on initiation of leukemogenesis, but promoted the incidence of radiation-induced myeloid leukemia. In the next experiment determining whether the incidence of myeloid leukemia was increased with stimulation of hematopoietic tissues, mice were inserted a piece of cellulose acetate membrane (CAM) into the peritoneal cavity. In the non-irradiated group of mice, CAM insertion did not affect the incidence of myeloid leukemia at all. The incidence of leukemia increased significantly by CAM insertion combined with irradiation of 2.84 Gy. Mice suffered from both surgical stress and inflammatory reaction after CAM insertion. Therefore, surgical stress was considered responsible for the development of radiation-induced leukemia. (Namekawa, K)

  20. Radiation and chemotherapy bystander effects induce early genomic instability events: telomere shortening and bridge formation coupled with mitochondrial dysfunction.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Gorman, Sheeona

    2012-02-01

    The bridge breakage fusion cycle is a chromosomal instability mechanism responsible for genomic changes. Radiation bystander effects induce genomic instability; however, the mechanism driving this instability is unknown. We examined if radiation and chemotherapy bystander effects induce early genomic instability events such as telomere shortening and bridge formation using a human colon cancer explant model. We assessed telomere lengths, bridge formations, mitochondrial membrane potential and levels of reactive oxygen species in bystander cells exposed to medium from irradiated and chemotherapy-treated explant tissues. Bystander cells exposed to media from 2Gy, 5Gy, FOLFOX treated tumor and matching normal tissue showed a significant reduction in telomere lengths (all p values <0.018) and an increase in bridge formations (all p values <0.017) compared to bystander cells treated with media from unirradiated tissue (0Gy) at 24h. There was no significant difference between 2Gy and 5Gy treatments, or between effects elicited by tumor versus matched normal tissue. Bystander cells exposed to media from 2Gy irradiated tumor tissue showed significant depolarisation of the mitochondrial membrane potential (p=0.012) and an increase in reactive oxygen species levels. We also used bystander cells overexpressing a mitochondrial antioxidant manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) to examine if this antioxidant could rescue the mitochondrial changes and subsequently influence nuclear instability events. In MnSOD cells, ROS levels were reduced (p=0.02) and mitochondrial membrane potential increased (p=0.04). These events were coupled with a decrease in percentage of cells with anaphase bridges and a decrease in the number of cells undergoing telomere length shortening (p values 0.01 and 0.028 respectively). We demonstrate that radiation and chemotherapy bystander responses induce early genomic instability coupled with defects in mitochondrial function. Restoring mitochondrial

  1. Radiative-Transfer Modeling of Spectra of Densely Packed Particulate Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, G.; Mishchenko, M. I.; Glotch, T. D.

    2017-12-01

    Remote sensing measurements over a wide range of wavelengths from both ground- and space-based platforms have provided a wealth of data regarding the surfaces and atmospheres of various solar system bodies. With proper interpretations, important properties, such as composition and particle size, can be inferred. However, proper interpretation of such datasets can often be difficult, especially for densely packed particulate media with particle sizes on the order of wavelength of light being used for remote sensing. Radiative transfer theory has often been applied to the study of densely packed particulate media like planetary regoliths and snow, but with difficulty, and here we continue to investigate radiative transfer modeling of spectra of densely packed media. We use the superposition T-matrix method to compute scattering properties of clusters of particles and capture the near-field effects important for dense packing. Then, the scattering parameters from the T-matrix computations are modified with the static structure factor correction, accounting for the dense packing of the clusters themselves. Using these corrected scattering parameters, reflectance (or emissivity via Kirchhoff's Law) is computed with the method of invariance imbedding solution to the radiative transfer equation. For this work we modeled the emissivity spectrum of the 3.3 µm particle size fraction of enstatite, representing some common mineralogical and particle size components of regoliths, in the mid-infrared wavelengths (5 - 50 µm). The modeled spectrum from the T-matrix method with static structure factor correction using moderate packing densities (filling factors of 0.1 - 0.2) produced better fits to the laboratory measurement of corresponding spectrum than the spectrum modeled by the equivalent method without static structure factor correction. Future work will test the method of the superposition T-matrix and static structure factor correction combination for larger particles

  2. Genetic modification to induce CXCR2 overexpression in mesenchymal stem cells enhances treatment benefits in radiation-induced oral mucositis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Zongshan; Wang, Jiancheng; Huang, Qiting; Shi, Yue; Wei, Zhewei; Zhang, Xiaoran; Qiu, Yuan; Zhang, Min; Wang, Yi; Qin, Wei; Huang, Shuheng; Huang, Yinong; Liu, Xin; Xia, Kai; Zhang, Xinchun; Lin, Zhengmei

    2018-02-14

    Radiation-induced oral mucositis affects patient quality of life and reduces tolerance to cancer therapy. Unfortunately, traditional treatments are insufficient for the treatment of mucositis and might elicit severe side effects. Due to their immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory properties, the transplantation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) is a potential therapeutic strategy for mucositis. However, systemically infused MSCs rarely reach inflamed sites, impacting their clinical efficacy. Previous studies have demonstrated that chemokine axes play an important role in MSC targeting. By systematically evaluating the expression patterns of chemokines in radiation/chemical-induced oral mucositis, we found that CXCL2 was highly expressed, whereas cultured MSCs negligibly express the CXCL2 receptor CXCR2. Thus, we explored the potential therapeutic benefits of the transplantation of CXCR 2 -overexpressing MSCs (MSCs CXCR2 ) for mucositis treatment. Indeed, MSCs CXCR2 exhibited enhanced targeting ability to the inflamed mucosa in radiation/chemical-induced oral mucositis mouse models. Furthermore, we found that MSC CXCR2 transplantation accelerated ulcer healing by suppressing the production of pro-inflammatory chemokines and radiogenic reactive oxygen species (ROS). Altogether, these findings indicate that CXCR2 overexpression in MSCs accelerates ulcer healing, providing new insights into cell-based therapy for radiation/chemical-induced oral mucositis.

  3. Radiation-induced brain injury: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greene-Schloesser, Dana; Robbins, Mike E.; Peiffer, Ann M.; Shaw, Edward G. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Wake Forest School of Medicine,, Winston-Salem, NC (United States); Brain Tumor Center of Excellence, Wake Forest School of Medicine,, Winston-Salem, NC (United States); Wheeler, Kenneth T. [Brain Tumor Center of Excellence, Wake Forest School of Medicine,, Winston-Salem, NC (United States); Department of Radiology, Wake Forest School of Medicine,, Winston-Salem, NC (United States); Chan, Michael D., E-mail: mrobbins@wakehealth.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Wake Forest School of Medicine,, Winston-Salem, NC (United States); Brain Tumor Center of Excellence, Wake Forest School of Medicine,, Winston-Salem, NC (United States)

    2012-07-19

    Approximately 100,000 primary and metastatic brain tumor patients/year in the US survive long enough (>6 months) to experience radiation-induced brain injury. Prior to 1970, the human brain was thought to be highly radioresistant; the acute CNS syndrome occurs after single doses >30 Gy; white matter necrosis occurs at fractionated doses >60 Gy. Although white matter necrosis is uncommon with modern techniques, functional deficits, including progressive impairments in memory, attention, and executive function have become important, because they have profound effects on quality of life. Preclinical studies have provided valuable insights into the pathogenesis of radiation-induced cognitive impairment. Given its central role in memory and neurogenesis, the majority of these studies have focused on the hippocampus. Irradiating pediatric and young adult rodent brains leads to several hippocampal changes including neuroinflammation and a marked reduction in neurogenesis. These data have been interpreted to suggest that shielding the hippocampus will prevent clinical radiation-induced cognitive impairment. However, this interpretation may be overly simplistic. Studies using older rodents, that more closely match the adult human brain tumor population, indicate that, unlike pediatric and young adult rats, older rats fail to show a radiation-induced decrease in neurogenesis or a loss of mature neurons. Nevertheless, older rats still exhibit cognitive impairment. This occurs in the absence of demyelination and/or white matter necrosis similar to what is observed clinically, suggesting that more subtle molecular, cellular and/or microanatomic modifications are involved in this radiation-induced brain injury. Given that radiation-induced cognitive impairment likely reflects damage to both hippocampal- and non-hippocampal-dependent domains, there is a critical need to investigate the microanatomic and functional effects of radiation in various brain regions as well as their

  4. Radiation-induced brain injury: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greene-Schloesser, Dana; Robbins, Mike E.; Peiffer, Ann M.; Shaw, Edward G.; Wheeler, Kenneth T.; Chan, Michael D.

    2012-01-01

    Approximately 100,000 primary and metastatic brain tumor patients/year in the US survive long enough (>6 months) to experience radiation-induced brain injury. Prior to 1970, the human brain was thought to be highly radioresistant; the acute CNS syndrome occurs after single doses >30 Gy; white matter necrosis occurs at fractionated doses >60 Gy. Although white matter necrosis is uncommon with modern techniques, functional deficits, including progressive impairments in memory, attention, and executive function have become important, because they have profound effects on quality of life. Preclinical studies have provided valuable insights into the pathogenesis of radiation-induced cognitive impairment. Given its central role in memory and neurogenesis, the majority of these studies have focused on the hippocampus. Irradiating pediatric and young adult rodent brains leads to several hippocampal changes including neuroinflammation and a marked reduction in neurogenesis. These data have been interpreted to suggest that shielding the hippocampus will prevent clinical radiation-induced cognitive impairment. However, this interpretation may be overly simplistic. Studies using older rodents, that more closely match the adult human brain tumor population, indicate that, unlike pediatric and young adult rats, older rats fail to show a radiation-induced decrease in neurogenesis or a loss of mature neurons. Nevertheless, older rats still exhibit cognitive impairment. This occurs in the absence of demyelination and/or white matter necrosis similar to what is observed clinically, suggesting that more subtle molecular, cellular and/or microanatomic modifications are involved in this radiation-induced brain injury. Given that radiation-induced cognitive impairment likely reflects damage to both hippocampal- and non-hippocampal-dependent domains, there is a critical need to investigate the microanatomic and functional effects of radiation in various brain regions as well as their

  5. Delayed Radiation-Induced Vasculitic Leukoencephalopathy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rauch, Philipp J. [Departments of Pathology and Neurosurgery, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut (United States); Faculty of Medicine, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg (Germany); Park, Henry S. [Departments of Pathology and Neurosurgery, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut (United States); Knisely, Jonathan P.S. [Department of Radiation Medicine, North Shore University Hospital, Manhasset, New York (United States); Chiang, Veronica L. [Departments of Pathology and Neurosurgery, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut (United States); Vortmeyer, Alexander O., E-mail: alexander.vortmeyer@yale.edu [Departments of Pathology and Neurosurgery, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut (United States)

    2012-05-01

    Purpose: Recently, single-fraction, high-dosed focused radiation therapy such as that administered by Gamma Knife radiosurgery has been used increasingly for the treatment of metastatic brain cancer. Radiation therapy to the brain can cause delayed leukoencephalopathy, which carries its own significant morbidity and mortality. While radiosurgery-induced leukoencephalopathy is known to be clinically different from that following fractionated radiation, pathological differences are not well characterized. In this study, we aimed to integrate novel radiographic and histopathologic observations to gain a conceptual understanding of radiosurgery-induced leukoencephalopathy. Methods and Materials: We examined resected tissues of 10 patients treated at Yale New Haven Hospital between January 1, 2009, and June 30, 2010, for brain metastases that had been previously treated with Gamma Knife radiosurgery, who subsequently required surgical management of a symptomatic regrowing lesion. None of the patients showed pathological evidence of tumor recurrence. Clinical and magnetic resonance imaging data for each of the 10 patients were then studied retrospectively. Results: We provide evidence to show that radiosurgery-induced leukoencephalopathy may present as an advancing process that extends beyond the original high-dose radiation field. Neuropathologic examination of the resected tissue revealed traditionally known leukoencephalopathic changes including demyelination, coagulation necrosis, and vascular sclerosis. Unexpectedly, small and medium-sized vessels revealed transmural T-cell infiltration indicative of active vasculitis. Conclusions: We propose that the presence of a vasculitic component in association with radiation-induced leukoencephalopathy may facilitate the progressive nature of the condition. It may also explain the resemblance of delayed leukoencephalopathy with recurring tumor on virtually all imaging modalities used for posttreatment follow-up.

  6. Retrospective results of radiation therapy of the Eustachian tube in chronic otitis media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schultze, J.; Reinke, C.; Kimmig, B.; Frese, K.A.

    2003-01-01

    Background: The treatment results of symptomatic radiation therapy of the Eustachian tube in chronic otitis media had to be evaluated retrospectively. Patients and Methods: Between 1980 and 1997, 66 patients were referred for therapy. The median age was 58 years. In the clinical presentation, all the patients had a hearing impairment, 35 patients complained of pain, 21 had otorrhea. In their history, 20 patients indicated chronic recurrent infections. The complaints lasted for 4.7 years in the median, primary conservative (adstringentia, antibiotics) and surgical treatment (paracentesis, tympanic tubule, tympanoplastic) did not lead to lasting cure. In 40 of 66 patients, finally radiation therapy was done of both Eustachian tubes. With opposed fields and cobalt-60 photons a total dose of 6 Gy at single doses of 1 Gy, three times a week, was applied. Under the causes for exclusion of radiation therapy were non-acceptance of the patients (nine), prior radiation therapies (six) or spontaneous improvement after initial presentation in our department. The treatment results were evaluated by interviews of the patients and regular otorhinolaryngological examinations. Results: There were no side effects noticed. 28 of 40 (70%) patients reported a significant improvement that could be verified by objective otorhinolaryngological examinations. In the group of 26 nonirradiated patients, 22 could be interviewed indicating in 16 cases (72%) that the complaints were unchanged and chronic otitis media was lasting. In a subgroup analysis concerning the duration of otitis media radiation therapy proved more effective in an acute and subacute stadium of disease of up to 5 years duration, while the patients resistant to radiation therapy were entirely in a chronic stage of disease exceeding 5 years duration. (orig.) [de

  7. 'Water Structure' versus 'Radical Scavenger' theories as explanations for the suppressive effects of DMSO and related compounds on radiation-induced transformation in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennedy, A.R.; Symons, M.C.R.

    1987-01-01

    We report here that dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO): (i) suppresses radiation-induced transformation in vitro, even when DMSO treatments begin as late as 10 days post-irradiation; (ii) inhibits the 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) enhancement of radiation-induced transformation in vitro; (iii) does not affect the expression of transformed cells as foci (when surrounded by non-transformed cells); and (iv) may be affecting radiation-induced transformation through its solvent properties (i.e. the 'Water Structure' theory), while its effects on the TPA enhancement of radiation transformation may be mediated by its free radical scavenging abilities. DMSO, dimethylformamide (DMF) and dimethylacetamide (DMA) are similar solvents which are all very effective in their ability to suppress radiation-induced transformation in vitro. As DMSO is known to be an extremely effective OH free-radical scavenging agent, while DMF and DMA are not as efficient at scavenging free radicals, our results suggest that properties other than free-radical scavenging ability may be important in the suppressive effects of these compounds on radiation-induced transformation in vitro. (author)

  8. Computer modelling of radiation-induced bystander effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khvostunov, Igor K.; Nikjoo, Hooshang

    2002-01-01

    Radiation-induced genomic instability and bystander effects are now well established consequences of exposure of living cells to ionising radiation. It has been observed that cells not directly hit by radiation tracks may still exhibit radiation effects. We present a quantitative modelling of the radiation-induced bystander effect based on a diffusion model of spreading the bystander signal. The model assumes the bystander factor to be a protein of low molecular weight, given out by the hit cell, diffusing in the medium and reacting with non-hit cells. The model calculations successfully predict the results of cell survival in an irradiated conditioned medium. The model predicts the shape of dose-effect relationship for cell survival and oncogenic transformation induced by broad-beam and micro-beam irradiation by alpha-particles. (author)

  9. Microwave radiative transfer intercomparison study for 3-D dichroic media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Battaglia, A.; Davis, C.P.; Emde, C.; Simmer, C.

    2007-01-01

    Three different numerical methods capable of solving the radiative transfer of microwave radiation within 3-D dichroic media are compared. A case study, represented by an intense rain shaft populated by perfectly oriented oblate raindrops, is analysed in detail, including a discussion of the behaviour of all four Stokes components. Results demonstrate an acceptable agreement between all Monte Carlo methods. The method based on a discrete ordinates scheme agrees only qualitatively with the Monte Carlo outputs. Because of its lower computational cost the backward Monte Carlo technique based on importance sampling represents the most efficient way to face passive microwave radiative transfer problems related to optically thick 3-D structured clouds including non-spherical preferentially oriented hydrometeors

  10. Radiation-induced chromosomal instability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritter, S.

    1999-01-01

    Recent studies on radiation-induced chromosomal instability in the progeny of exposed mammalian cells were briefly described as well as other related studies. For the analysis of chromosomal damage in clones, cells were seeded directly after exposure in cell well-dish to form single cell clones and post-irradiation chromosome aberrations were scored. Both exposure to isoeffective doses of X-ray or 270 MeV/u C-ions (13 keV/μm) increased the number of clones with abnormal karyotype and the increase was similar for X-ray and for C-ions. Meanwhile, in the progeny of cells for mass cultures, there was no indication of a delayed expression of chromosomal damage up to 40 population doublings after the exposure. A high number of aberrant cells were only observed directly after exposure to 10.7 MeV/u O-ions, i.e. in the first cycle cells and decreased with subsequent cell divisions. The reason for these differences in the radiation-induced chromosomal instability between clonal isolates and mass culture has not been clarified. Recent studies indicated that genomic instability occurs at a high frequency in the progeny of cells irradiated with both sparsely and densely ionizing radiation. Such genomic instability is thought likely to increase the risk of carcinogenesis, but more data are required for a well understanding of the health risks resulting from radiation-induced delayed instability. (M.N.)

  11. Protective effects of L-selenomethionine on space radiation induced changes in gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, J; Ko, Y-H; Kennedy, A R

    2007-06-01

    Ionizing radiation can produce adverse biological effects in astronauts during space travel. Of particular concern are the types of radiation from highly energetic, heavy, charged particles known as HZE particles. The aims of our studies are to characterize HZE particle radiation induced biological effects and evaluate the effects of L-selenomethionine (SeM) on these adverse biological effects. In this study, microarray technology was used to measure HZE radiation induced changes in gene expression, as well as to evaluate modulation of these changes by SeM. Human thyroid epithelial cells (HTori-3) were irradiated (1 GeV/n iron ions) in the presence or in the absence of 5 microM SeM. At 6 h post-irradiation, all cells were harvested for RNA isolation. Gene Chip U133Av2 from Affymetrix was used for the analysis of gene expression, and ANOVA and EASE were used for a determination of the genes and biological processes whose differential expression is statistically significant. Results of this microarray study indicate that exposure to small doses of radiation from HZE particles, 10 and 20 cGy from iron ions, induces statistically significant differential expression of 196 and 610 genes, respectively. In the presence of SeM, differential expression of 77 out of 196 genes (exposure to 10 cGy) and 336 out of 610 genes (exposure to 20 cGy) is abolished. In the presence or in the absence of SeM, radiation from HZE particles induces differential expression of genes whose products have roles in the induction of G1/S arrest during the mitotic cell cycle, as well as heat shock proteins. Some of the genes, whose expressions were affected by radiation from HZE particles and were unchanged in irradiated cells treated with SeM, have been shown to have altered expression levels in cancer cells. The conclusions of this report are that radiation from HZE particles can induce differential expression of many genes, some of which are known to play roles in the same processes that have

  12. Gray and multigroup radiation transport models for two-dimensional binary stochastic media using effective opacities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olson, Gordon L.

    2016-01-01

    One-dimensional models for the transport of radiation through binary stochastic media do not work in multi-dimensions. Authors have attempted to modify or extend the 1D models to work in multidimensions without success. Analytic one-dimensional models are successful in 1D only when assuming greatly simplified physics. State of the art theories for stochastic media radiation transport do not address multi-dimensions and temperature-dependent physics coefficients. Here, the concept of effective opacities and effective heat capacities is found to well represent the ensemble averaged transport solutions in cases with gray or multigroup temperature-dependent opacities and constant or temperature-dependent heat capacities. In every case analyzed here, effective physics coefficients fit the transport solutions over a useful range of parameter space. The transport equation is solved with the spherical harmonics method with angle orders of n=1 and 5. Although the details depend on what order of solution is used, the general results are similar, independent of angular order. - Highlights: • Gray and multigroup radiation transport is done through 2D stochastic media. • Approximate models for the mean radiation field are found for all test problems. • Effective opacities are adjusted to fit the means of stochastic media transport. • Test problems include temperature dependent opacities and heat capacities • Transport solutions are done with angle orders n=1 and 5.

  13. Classical radiation theory of charged particles moving in electromagnetic fields in nonabsorbable isotropic media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konstantinovich, A.V.; Melnychuk, S.V.; Konstantinovich, I.A.

    2002-01-01

    The integral expressions for spectral-angular and spectral distributions of the radiation power of heterogeneous charged particles system moving on arbitrary trajectory in nonabsorbable isotropic media media with ε≠1 , μ≠1 are obtained using the Lorentz's self-interaction method. In this method a proper electromagnetic field, acting on electron, is defined as a semi difference between retarded and advanced potentials (Dirac, 1938). The power spectrum of Cherenkov radiation for the linear uniformly moving heterogeneous system of charged particles are obtained. It is found that the expression for the radiation power of heterogeneous system of charged particles becomes simplified when a system of charged particles is homogeneous. In this case the radiation power includes the coherent factor. It is shown what the redistribution effects in energy of the radiation spectrum of the studied system are caused by the coherent factor. The radiation spectrum of the system of electrons moving in a circle in this medium is discrete. The Doppler effect causes the appearance of the new harmonics for the system of electrons moving in a spiral. These harmonics form the region of continuous radiation spectrum. (authors)

  14. Estimation of radiative parameters in participating media using shuffled frog leaping algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ren Ya-Tao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The transient radiative transfer in 1-D homogeneous media with ultra-short Gaussian pulse laser irradiated was investigation by the finite volume method. The concept of optimal detection distance was proposed. The radiation characteristic was studied thoroughly. Afterwards, a memetic meta-heuristic shuffled frog leaping algorithm was introduced to inverse transient radiative problems. It is demonstrated that the extinction coefficient and scattering albedo can be retrieved accurately even with noisy data in a homogeneous absorbing and isotropic scattering plane-parallel slab. Finally, a technique was proposed to accelerate the inverse process by reducing the searching space of the radiative parameters.

  15. Role of neurotensin in radiation-induced hypothermia in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kandasamy, S.B.; Hunt, W.A.; Harris, A.H.

    1991-01-01

    The role of neurotensin in radiation-induced hypothermia was examined. Intracerebroventricular (ICV) administration of neurotensin produced dose-dependent hypothermia. Histamine appears to mediate neurotensin-induced hypothermia because the mast cell stabilizer disodium cromoglycate and antihistamines blocked the hypothermic effects of neurotensin. An ICV pretreatment with neurotensin antibody attenuated neurotensin-induced hypothermia, but did not attenuate radiation-induced hypothermia, suggesting that radiation-induced hypothermia was not mediated by neurotensin

  16. Relationship between radiation induced activation of DNA repair genes and radiation induced apoptosis in human cell line A431

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bom, Hee Seung; Min, Jung Jun; Kim, Kyung Keun; Choi, Keun Hee

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between radiation-induced acivation of DNA repair genes and radiation induced apoptosis in A431 cell line. Five and 25 Gys of gamma radiation were given to A431 cells by a Cs-137 cell irradiator. Apoptosis was evaluated by flow cytometry using annexin V-fluorescein isothiocyanate and propidium iodide staining. The expression of DNA repair genes was evaluated by both Northern and Western blot analyses. The number of apoptotic cells increased with the increased radiation dose. It increased most significantly at 12 hours after irradiation. Expression of p53, p21, and ℎRAD50 reached the highest level at 12 hours after 5 Gy irradiation. In response to 25 Gy irradiation, ℎRAD50 and p21 were expressed maximally at 12 hours, but p53 and GADD45 genes showed the highest expression level after 12 hours. Induction of apoptosis and DNA repair by ionizing radiation were closely correlated. The peak time of inducing apoptosis and DNA repair was 12 hours in this study model. ℎRAD50, a recently discovered DNA repair gene, was also associated with radiation-induced apoptosis.=20

  17. Role of endothelium in radiation-induced normal tissue damages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milliat, F.

    2007-05-01

    More than half of cancers are treated with radiation therapy alone or in combination with surgery and/or chemotherapy. The goal of radiation therapy is to deliver enough ionising radiation to destroy cancer cells without exceeding the level that the surrounding healthy cells can tolerate. Unfortunately, radiation-induced normal tissue injury is still a dose limiting factor in the treatment of cancer with radiotherapy. The knowledge of normal tissue radiobiology is needed to determine molecular mechanisms involved in normal tissue pathogenic pathways in order to identify therapeutic targets and develop strategies to prevent and /or reduce side effects of radiation therapy. The endothelium is known to play a critical role in radiation-induced injury. Our work shows that endothelial cells promote vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation, migration and fibro-genic phenotype after irradiation. Moreover, we demonstrate for the first time the importance of PAI-1 in radiation-induced normal tissue damage suggesting that PAI-1 may represent a molecular target to limit injury following radiotherapy. We describe a new role for the TGF-b/Smad pathway in the pathogenesis of radiation-induced damages. TGF-b/Smad pathway is involved in the fibro-genic phenotype of VSMC induced by irradiated EC as well as in the radiation-induced PAI-1 expression in endothelial cells. (author)

  18. Hesperidin as radioprotector against radiation-induced lung damage in rat: A histopathological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholam Hassan Haddadi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Reactive oxygen species (ROS are generated by ionizing radiation, and one of the organs commonly affected by ROS is the lung. Radiation-induced lung injury including pneumonia and lung fibrosis is a dose-limiting factor in radiotherapy (RT of patients with thorax irradiation. Administration of antioxidants has been proved to protect against ROS. The present study was aimed to assess the protective effect of hesperidin (HES against radiation-induced lung injury of male rats. Fifty rats were divided into three groups. G1: Received no HES and radiation (sham. G2: Underwent γ-irradiation to the thorax. G3: Received HES and underwent γ-irradiation. The rats were exposed to a single dose of 18 Gy using cobalt-60 unit and were administered HES (100 mg/kg for 7 days before irradiation. Histopathological analysis was performed 24 h and 8 weeks after RT. Histopathological results in 24 h showed radiation-induced inflammation and presence of more inflammatory cells as compared to G1 (P < 0.05. Administration of HES significantly decreased such an effect when compared to G2 (P < 0.05. Histopathological evaluation in 8 weeks showed a significant increase in mast cells, inflammation, inflammatory cells, alveolar thickness, vascular thickness, pulmonary edema, and fibrosis in G2 when compared to G1 (P < 0.05. HES significantly decreased inflammatory response, fibrosis, and mast cells when compared to G2 (P < 0.05. Administration of HES resulted in decreased radiation pneumonitis and radiation fibrosis in the lung tissue. Thus, the present study showed HES to be an efficient radioprotector against radiation-induced damage in the lung of tissue rats.

  19. A second order radiative transfer equation and its solution by meshless method with application to strongly inhomogeneous media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, J.M., E-mail: jmzhao@hit.edu.cn [School of Energy Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, 92 West Dazhi Street, Harbin 150001, People' s Republic of China (China); Tan, J.Y., E-mail: tanjy@hit.edu.cn [School of Auto Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology at Weihai, 2 West Wenhua Road, Weihai 264209, People' s Republic of China (China); Liu, L.H., E-mail: lhliu@hit.edu.cn [School of Energy Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, 92 West Dazhi Street, Harbin 150001, People' s Republic of China (China); School of Auto Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology at Weihai, 2 West Wenhua Road, Weihai 264209, People' s Republic of China (China)

    2013-01-01

    A new second order form of radiative transfer equation (named MSORTE) is proposed, which overcomes the singularity problem of a previously proposed second order radiative transfer equation [J.E. Morel, B.T. Adams, T. Noh, J.M. McGhee, T.M. Evans, T.J. Urbatsch, Spatial discretizations for self-adjoint forms of the radiative transfer equations, J. Comput. Phys. 214 (1) (2006) 12-40 (where it was termed SAAI), J.M. Zhao, L.H. Liu, Second order radiative transfer equation and its properties of numerical solution using finite element method, Numer. Heat Transfer B 51 (2007) 391-409] in dealing with inhomogeneous media where some locations have very small/zero extinction coefficient. The MSORTE contains a naturally introduced diffusion (or second order) term which provides better numerical property than the classic first order radiative transfer equation (RTE). The stability and convergence characteristics of the MSORTE discretized by central difference scheme is analyzed theoretically, and the better numerical stability of the second order form radiative transfer equations than the RTE when discretized by the central difference type method is proved. A collocation meshless method is developed based on the MSORTE to solve radiative transfer in inhomogeneous media. Several critical test cases are taken to verify the performance of the presented method. The collocation meshless method based on the MSORTE is demonstrated to be capable of stably and accurately solve radiative transfer in strongly inhomogeneous media, media with void region and even with discontinuous extinction coefficient.

  20. Relationship between Eustachian tube dysfunction and otitis media with effusion in radiotherapy patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akazawa, K; Doi, H; Ohta, S; Terada, T; Fujiwara, M; Uwa, N; Tanooka, M; Sakagami, M

    2018-02-01

    This study evaluated the relationship between radiation and Eustachian tube dysfunction, and examined the radiation dose required to induce otitis media with effusion. The function of 36 Eustachian tubes in 18 patients with head and neck cancer were examined sonotubometrically before, during, and 1, 2 and 3 months after, intensity-modulated radiotherapy. Patients with an increase of 5 dB or less in sound pressure level (dB) during swallowing were categorised as being in the dysfunction group. Additionally, radiation dose distributions were assessed in all Eustachian tubes using three dose-volume histogram parameters. Twenty-two of 25 normally functioning Eustachian tubes before radiotherapy (88.0 per cent) shifted to the dysfunction group after therapy. All ears that developed otitis media with effusion belonged to the dysfunction group. The radiation dose threshold evaluation revealed that ears with otitis media with effusion received significantly higher doses to the Eustachian tubes. The results indicate a relationship between radiation dose and Eustachian tube dysfunction and otitis media with effusion.

  1. In vivo evidence for an endothelium-dependent mechanism in radiation-induced normal tissue injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rannou, Emilie; François, Agnès; Toullec, Aurore; Guipaud, Olivier; Buard, Valérie; Tarlet, Georges; Mintet, Elodie; Jaillet, Cyprien; Iruela-Arispe, Maria Luisa; Benderitter, Marc; Sabourin, Jean-Christophe; Milliat, Fabien

    2015-01-01

    The pathophysiological mechanism involved in side effects of radiation therapy, and especially the role of the endothelium remains unclear. Previous results showed that plasminogen activator inhibitor-type 1 (PAI-1) contributes to radiation-induced intestinal injury and suggested that this role could be driven by an endothelium-dependent mechanism. We investigated whether endothelial-specific PAI-1 deletion could affect radiation-induced intestinal injury. We created a mouse model with a specific deletion of PAI-1 in the endothelium (PAI-1KOendo) by a Cre-LoxP system. In a model of radiation enteropathy, survival and intestinal radiation injury were followed as well as intestinal gene transcriptional profile and inflammatory cells intestinal infiltration. Irradiated PAI-1KOendo mice exhibited increased survival, reduced acute enteritis severity and attenuated late fibrosis compared with irradiated PAI-1flx/flx mice. Double E-cadherin/TUNEL labeling confirmed a reduced epithelial cell apoptosis in irradiated PAI-1KOendo. High-throughput gene expression combined with bioinformatic analyses revealed a putative involvement of macrophages. We observed a decrease in CD68+cells in irradiated intestinal tissues from PAI-1KOendo mice as well as modifications associated with M1/M2 polarization. This work shows that PAI-1 plays a role in radiation-induced intestinal injury by an endothelium-dependent mechanism and demonstrates in vivo that the endothelium is directly involved in the progression of radiation-induced enteritis. PMID:26510580

  2. Drinking beer reduces radiation-induced chromosome aberrations in human lymphocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monobe, Manami

    2002-01-01

    We here investigated and reported the effects of beer drinking on radiation-induced chromosome aberrations in blood lymphocytes. Human blood that was collected either before or after drinking a 700 ml beer was in vitro irradiated with 200 kVp X rays or 50 keV/μm carbon ions. The relation between the radiation dose and the aberration frequencies (fragments and dicentrics) was significantly (P<0.05) lower for lymphocytes collected 3 h after beer drinking than those before drinking. Fitting the dose response to a linear quadratic model showed that the alpha term of carbon ions was significantly (P<0.05) decreased by beer drinking. A decrease of dicentric formation was detected as early as 0.5 h after beer drinking, and lasted not shorter than 4.5 h. The mitotic index of lymphocytes was higher after beer drinking than before, indicating that a division delay would not be responsible for the low aberrations induced by beer drinking. An in vitro treatment of normal lymphocytes with 0.1 M ethanol, which corresponded to a concentration of 6-times higher than the maximum ethanol concentration in the blood after beer drinking, reduced the dicentric formation caused by X-ray irradiation, but not by carbon-ion irradiation. The beer-induced reduction of dicentric formation was not affected by serum. It is concluded that beer could contain non-ethanol elements that reduce the chromosome damage of lymphocytes induced by high-LET radiation. (author)

  3. Radioprotective effects of sodium arginate on radiation induced intestinal damage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakatsugawa, Shigekazu; Yukawa, Yutaka; Abe, Mitsuyuki.

    1988-05-01

    Effects of sodium arginate were examined on radiation-induced intestinal death of mice and on the pathological changes of the ileum after whole or partial abdominal X-irradiation. BALB/c male mice (SPF, 7 approx. 8 week old, 21 approx. 28 g body weight) were irradiated with various doses of 10 MV of X-rays under general anesthesia (dose rate : 4 Gy/min). A radiation field covers either 2.5 or 5.0 cm width of abdomen from the anus. Sterilized water or 5 % sodium arginate solution (0.2 ml/body) was daily given per os through a stomach tube until the death of mice or 15 approx. 21 days after X-ray exposure. Intestinal death was examined daily. In another experiment, mice were daily sacrificed and pathological specimens were made. In order to study the effects of sodium arginate on peripheral blood circulation in the ileum after X-ray exposure, the microangiograms with Ba contrast media were also taken. Sodium arginate showed statistically significant radioprotective effects on intestinal death after 14.5 approx. 15.0 Gy of X-ray irradiation to the abdomen through a radiation field of 5.0 cm width or after 18.0 Gy of X-irradiation to the abdomen through a field of 2.5 cm width. The pathological studies suggest that the drug may protect the surface of the intestine against infection and potentiate the recovery processes of the mucosal membrane. This may elucidate the possible mechanisms of radioprotective effects of sodium arginate on esophagitis or on rectal ulcer induced by radiotherapy.

  4. Heavy-ion radiation induced bystander effect in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Shujian; Sun, Yeqing; Zhang, Meng; Wang, Wei; Cui, Changna

    2012-07-01

    Radiation-induced bystander effect is defined as the induction of damage in neighboring non-hit cells by signals released from directly-irradiated cells. Recently, Low dose of high LET radiation induced bystander effects in vivo have been reported more and more. It has been indicated that radiation induced bystander effect was localized not only in bystander tissues but also in distant organs. Genomic, epigenetic, metabolomics and proteomics play significant roles in regulating heavy-ion radiation stress responses in mice. To identify the molecular mechanism that underlies bystander effects of heavy-ion radiation, the male mice head were exposed to 2000mGy dose of 12C heavy-ion radiation and the distant organ liver was detected on 1h, 6h, 12h and 24h after radiation, respectively. MSAP was used to monitor the level of polymorphic DNA methylation changes. The results show that heavy-ion irradiate mouse head can induce liver DNA methylation changes significantly. The percent of DNA methylation changes are time-dependent and highest at 6h after radiation. We also prove that the hypo-methylation changes on 1h and 6h after irradiation. But the expression level of DNA methyltransferase DNMT3a is not changed. UPLC/Synapt HDMS G2 was employed to detect the proteomics of bystander liver 1h after irradiation. 64 proteins are found significantly different between treatment and control group. GO process show that six of 64 which were unique in irradiation group are associated with apoptosis and DNA damage response. The results suggest that mice head exposed to heavy-ion radiation can induce damage and methylation pattern changed in distant organ liver. Moreover, our findings are important to understand the molecular mechanism of radiation induced bystander effects in vivo.

  5. Radiation-induced heart injury. Radiopathological study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, Y; Niibe, H [Gunma Univ., Maebashi (Japan). School of Medicine

    1975-11-01

    In order to identify radiation-induced heart injury and to differentiate it from heart disease, an attempt was made to clarify post-irradiation heart injury by investigating the histological changes which occur during the interval between the irradiation and the time of demonstrable histological changes. A study was made of 83 autopsies in which most of the primary neoplasms were breast cancers, lung cancers and mediastinal tumors. In 43 of these autopsies the heart had been irradiated. Sixty eight dd-strain mice were also used for microautoradiographic study. Histological changes in the heart were observed in 27 of the 43 cases receiving irradiation. The limit of the tolerance dose to the heart for indicating histological changes was 1220 ret in humans. The latent period without histological changes was 2.7 months after initiation of radiation therapy. Greater heart injury was observed after re-irradiation or after the combined therapy of radiation and chemotherapy especially mitomycin (MMC). The histological findings after treatment with MMC were similar to those of radiation-induced heart injury. Results of the study indicate that the damage is secondary to radiation-induced changes of the vascula connective tissue.

  6. Mobile phone radiation as an inducer of human disease - a hypothesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    French, P.; Penny, R.

    2001-01-01

    There are several reports which indicate that electromagnetic radiation (such as from mobile phones) at non-thermal levels may elicit a biological effect in target cells or tissues. Whether or not these biological effects lead to adverse health effects, including cancer, is unclear. To date there is limited scientific evidence of health issues, and no mechanism by which mobile phone radiation could influence cancer development. In this paper, we develop a theoretical mechanism by which radiofrequency radiation from mobile phones could induce cancer, via the chronic activation of the heat shock response. Upregulation of heat shock proteins (Hsps) is a normal defence response to a cellular stress. However, chronic expression of Hsps is known to induce or promote oncogenesis, metastasis and/ or resistance to anti-cancer drugs. We propose that repeated exposure to mobile phone radiation acts as a repetitive stress leading to continuous expression of Hsps in exposed cells and tissues, which in turn affects their normal regulation, and cancer results. This hypothesis provides the possibility of a direct association between mobile phone use and cancer as well as other diseases of protein unfolding, and thus provides an important focus for future experimentation. Copyright (2001) Australasian Radiation Protection Society Inc

  7. Radiation-induced degradation of pollutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proksch, E.

    1988-01-01

    This article outlines the fundamentals of radiation-induced degradation of noxious substances in drinking water and waste water and discusses the relevant literature. Radiation methods present a number of advantages and disadvantages, which should carefully be considered in each case. In many cases, there seems to be merit in combining the radiation method with other techniques, as e.g. ozone treatement and biodegradation. 30 refs., 3 figs. (Author)

  8. Pyruvate metabolism: A therapeutic opportunity in radiation-induced skin injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, Hyun; Kang, Jeong Wook [Department of Radiation Oncology, Yonsei University College of Medicine, 50 Yonsei-ro, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 120-752 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Dong Won [Department of Plastic Surgery, Yonsei University College of Medicine, 50 Yonsei-ro, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 120-752 (Korea, Republic of); Oh, Sang Ho [Department of Dermatology, Yonsei University College of Medicine, 50 Yonsei-ro, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 120-752 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Yun-Sil [College of Pharmacy & Division of Life and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Ewah Womans University, Seoul 120-750 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Eun-Jung [Department of Radiation Oncology, Yonsei University College of Medicine, 50 Yonsei-ro, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 120-752 (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Jaeho, E-mail: jjhmd@yuhs.ac [Department of Radiation Oncology, Yonsei University College of Medicine, 50 Yonsei-ro, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 120-752 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-08

    Ionizing radiation is used to treat a range of cancers. Despite recent technological progress, radiation therapy can damage the skin at the administration site. The specific molecular mechanisms involved in this effect have not been fully characterized. In this study, the effects of pyruvate, on radiation-induced skin injury were investigated, including the role of the pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 2 (PDK2) signaling pathway. Next generation sequencing (NGS) identified a wide range of gene expression differences between the control and irradiated mice, including reduced expression of PDK2. This was confirmed using Q-PCR. Cell culture studies demonstrated that PDK2 overexpression and a high cellular pyruvate concentration inhibited radiation-induced cytokine expression. Immunohistochemical studies demonstrated radiation-induced skin thickening and gene expression changes. Oral pyruvate treatment markedly downregulated radiation-induced changes in skin thickness and inflammatory cytokine expression. These findings indicated that regulation of the pyruvate metabolic pathway could provide an effective approach to the control of radiation-induced skin damage. - Highlights: • The effects of radiation on skin thickness in mice. • Next generation sequencing revealed that radiation inhibited pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 2 expression. • PDK2 inhibited irradiation-induced cytokine gene expression. • Oral pyruvate treatment markedly downregulated radiation-induced changes in skin thickness.

  9. Location of alien bodies in a media according to the data of scattering gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasil'ev, M.B.; Chuvashov, N.F.; Skuchaev, Yu.K.; Markov, V.I.

    1995-01-01

    Locations of alien bodies in a medium are studied by the method of model experiment using scattering γ-radiation. 60 Co and 137 Cs were used as radiation sources. The scattering bodies were made in the form of aluminium, iron and lead cylinders of different diameters inserted inside hollow cylindrical water, aluminium and iron media. The cases are reviewed when the alien bodies are in the center of cylindrical media. The obtained data are presented in the graphical form and in the form of tables. 4 refs., 4 figs. 1 tab

  10. Radiation-induced Genomic Instability and Radiation Sensitivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varnum, Susan M.; Sowa, Marianne B.; Kim, Grace J.; Morgan, William F.

    2013-01-19

    The obvious relationships between reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, mitochondrial dysfunction, inflammatory type responses and reactive chemokines and cytokines suggests a general stress response induced by ionizing radiation most likely leads to the non-targeted effects described after radiation exposure. We argue that true bystander effects do not occur in the radiation therapy clinic. But there is no question that effects outside the target volume do occur. These “out of field effects” are considered very low dose effects in the context of therapy. So what are the implications of non-targeted effects on radiation sensitivity? The primary goal of therapy is to eradicate the tumor. Given the genetic diversity of the human population, lifestyle and environment factors it is likely some combination of these will influence patient outcome. Non-targeted effects may contribute to a greater or lesser extent. But consider the potential situation involving a partial body exposure due to a radiation accident or radiological terrorism. Non-targeted effects suggest that the tissue at risk for demonstrating possible detrimental effects of radiation exposure might be greater than the volume actually irradiated.

  11. Basic reactions induced by radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charlesby, A.

    1980-01-01

    This paper summarises some of the basic reactions resulting from exposure to high energy radiation. In the initial stages energy is absorbed, but not necessarily at random, giving radical and ion species which may then react to promote the final chemical change. However, it is possible to intervene at intermediate stages to modify or reduce the radiation effect. Under certain conditions enhanced reactions are also possible. Several expressions are given to calculate radiation yield in terms of energy absorbed. Some analogies between radiation-induced reactions in polymers, and those studied in radiobiology are outlined. (author)

  12. Radiation-Induced Differentiation in Human Lung Fibroblast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Sa-Rah; Ahn, Ji-Yeon; Han, Young-Soo; Shim, Jie-Young; Yun, Yeon-Sook; Song, Jie-Young

    2007-01-01

    One of the most common tumors in many countries is lung cancer and patients with lung cancer may take radiotherapy. Although radiotherapy may have its own advantages, it can also induce serious problems such as acute radiation pneumonitis and pulmonary fibrosis. Pulmonary fibrosis is characterized by excessive production of α-SMA and accumulation of extracellular matrix (ECM) such as collagen and fibronectin. There has been a great amount of research about fibrosis but the exact mechanism causing the reaction is not elucidated especially in radiation-induced fibrosis. Until now it has been known that several factors such as transforming growth factor (TGF-β), tumor necrosis factor (TNF), interleukin (IL)-1, IL-6, platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) and fibroblast growth factor (FGF) are related to fibrosis. Among them TGF-β with Smad signaling is known to be the main stream and other signaling molecules such as MAPK, ERK and JNK (3) also participates in the process. In addition to those above factors, it is thought that more diverse and complicate mechanisms may involve in the radiationinduced fibrosis. Therefore, to investigate the underlying mechanisms in radiation induced fibrosis, first of all, we confirmed whether radiation induces trans differentiation in human normal lung fibroblasts. Here, we suggest that not only TGF-β but also radiation can induce trans differentiation in human lung fibroblast WI-38 and IMR-90

  13. Radiation-Induced Alopecia after Endovascular Embolization under Fluoroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vipawee Ounsakul

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Radiation-induced alopecia after fluoroscopically guided procedures is becoming more common due to an increasing use of endovascular procedures. It is characterized by geometric shapes of nonscarring alopecia related to the area of radiation. We report a case of a 46-year-old man presenting with asymptomatic, sharply demarcated rectangular, nonscarring alopecic patch on the occipital scalp following cerebral angiography with fistula embolization under fluoroscopy. His presentations were compatible with radiation-induced alopecia. Herein, we also report a novel scalp dermoscopic finding of blue-grey dots in a target pattern around yellow dots and follicles, which we detected in the lesion of radiation-induced alopecia.

  14. Post-irradiation dietary vitamin E does not affect the development of radiation-induced lung damage in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiegman, EA; van Gameren, MA; Kampinga, HH; Szabo, BG; Coppes, RP

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether application of post-irradiation vitamin E, an anti-oxidant, could prevent the development of radiation induced lung damage. Wistar rats were given vitamin E enriched or vitamin E deprived food starting from 4 weeks after 18 Gy single dose

  15. Countermeasures for Space Radiation Induced Malignancies and Acute Biological Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Ann

    The hypothesis being evaluated in this research program is that control of radiation induced oxidative stress will reduce the risk of radiation induced adverse biological effects occurring as a result of exposure to the types of radiation encountered during space travel. As part of this grant work, we have evaluated the protective effects of several antioxidants and dietary supplements and observed that a mixture of antioxidants (AOX), containing L-selenomethionine, N-acetyl cysteine (NAC), ascorbic acid, vitamin E succinate, and alpha-lipoic acid, is highly effective at reducing space radiation induced oxidative stress in both in vivo and in vitro systems, space radiation induced cytotoxicity and malignant transformation in vitro [1-7]. In studies designed to determine whether the AOX formulation could affect radiation induced mortality [8], it was observed that the AOX dietary supplement increased the 30-day survival of ICR male mice following exposure to a potentially lethal dose (8 Gy) of X-rays when given prior to or after animal irradiation. Pretreatment of animals with antioxidants resulted in significantly higher total white blood cell and neutrophil counts in peripheral blood at 4 and 24 hours following exposure to doses of 1 Gy and 8 Gy. Antioxidant treatment also resulted in increased bone marrow cell counts following irradiation, and prevented peripheral lymphopenia following 1 Gy irradiation. Supplementation with antioxidants in irradiated animals resulted in several gene expression changes: the antioxidant treatment was associated with increased Bcl-2, and decreased Bax, caspase-9 and TGF-β1 mRNA expression in the bone marrow following irradiation. These results suggest that modulation of apoptosis may be mechanistically involved in hematopoietic system radioprotection by antioxidants. Maintenance of the antioxidant diet was associated with improved recovery of the bone marrow following sub-lethal or potentially lethal irradiation. Taken together

  16. Radiation-induced apoptosis in F9 teratocarcinoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langley, R.E.; Palayoor, S.T.; Coleman, C.N.; Bump, E.A.

    1994-01-01

    We have found that F9 murine teratocarcinoma cells undergo morphological changes and internucleosomal DNA fragmentation characteristic of apoptosis after exposure to ionizing radiation. We studied the time course, radiation dose-response, and the effects of protein and RNA synthesis inhibitors on this process. The response is dose dependent in the range 2-12 Gy. Internucleosomal DNA fragmentation can be detected as early as 6 h postirradiation and is maximal by 48 h. Cycloheximide, a protein synthesis inhibitor, and 5,6-dichloro-1-β-D-ribofuranosylbenzimidazole, an RNA synthesis inhibitor, both induced internucleosomal DNA fragmentation in the unirradiated cells and enhanced radiation-induced DNA fragmentation. F9 cells can be induced to differentiate into cells resembling endoderm with retinoic acid. After irradiation, differentiated F9 cells exhibit less DNA fragmentation than stem cells. This indicates that ionizing radiation can induce apoptosis in non-lymphoid tumours. We suggest that embryonic tumour cells may be particularly susceptible to agents that induce apoptosis. (Author)

  17. Radiation-induced apoptosis in F9 teratocarcinoma cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langley, R E; Palayoor, S T; Coleman, C N; Bump, E A [Joint Center for Radiation Therapy and Dana Farber Cancer Inst., Boston (United States)

    1994-05-01

    We have found that F9 murine teratocarcinoma cells undergo morphological changes and internucleosomal DNA fragmentation characteristic of apoptosis after exposure to ionizing radiation. We studied the time course, radiation dose-response, and the effects of protein and RNA synthesis inhibitors on this process. The response is dose dependent in the range 2-12 Gy. Internucleosomal DNA fragmentation can be detected as early as 6 h postirradiation and is maximal by 48 h. Cycloheximide, a protein synthesis inhibitor, and 5,6-dichloro-1-[beta]-D-ribofuranosylbenzimidazole, an RNA synthesis inhibitor, both induced internucleosomal DNA fragmentation in the unirradiated cells and enhanced radiation-induced DNA fragmentation. F9 cells can be induced to differentiate into cells resembling endoderm with retinoic acid. After irradiation, differentiated F9 cells exhibit less DNA fragmentation than stem cells. This indicates that ionizing radiation can induce apoptosis in non-lymphoid tumours. We suggest that embryonic tumour cells may be particularly susceptible to agents that induce apoptosis. (Author).

  18. Radiation induced crosslinking of polytetrafluoroethylene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oshima, Akihiro; Tabata, Yoneho; Ikeda, Shigetoshi; Otsuhata, Kazushige; Kudoh, Hisaaki; Seguchi, Tadao.

    1995-01-01

    The Irradiation temperature effect on polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) from room temperature to 380degC was investigated by tensile test and thermal analysis. The behavior of tensile properties and changes of crystallinity on irradiation indicated the formation of a network structure in PTFE by radiation induced crosslinking in inert gas in the molten state just above the melting temperature of PTFE (327degC). The crosslinked PTFE showed a much improved radiation resistance in an atmospheric radiation field. (author)

  19. Study of radiation-induced chromosomal aberrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolfring, E.

    2004-06-01

    A method for determining chromosomal aberrations was established for the purpose of examining the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of photon radiation with respect to mammary epithelium cells. Cells were exposed to 25 kV X-radiation and to 200 kV X-radiation for comparison and the resulting concentrations of chromosomal aberrations were compared. The RBE M value for radiation-induced fragmentation was found to be 4.2 ± 2.4, while the RBE M value for radiation-induced generation of dicentric chromosomes was found to be 0.5 ± 0.5. In addition to the evaluation of chromosomal aberrations the number of cell cycles undergone by the cells was monitored by means of BrDU staining. As expected, the proportion of cells which underwent more than one cell cycle following exposure to 5 Gy was very low in both cases, amounting to 1.9% (25 kV) and 3.2 (200 kV). Non-radiated cells yielded control values of 26.0% and 12.6%, suggesting variations in external conditions from day to day

  20. Cell cycle arrest induced by radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okaichi, Yasuo; Matsumoto, Hideki; Ohnishi, Takeo

    1994-01-01

    It is known that various chemical reactions, such as cell cycle arrest, DNA repair and cell killing, can occur within the cells when exposed to ionizing radiation and ultraviolet radiation. Thus protein dynamics involved in such chemical reactions has received considerable attention. In this article, cell cycle regulation is first discussed in terms of the G2/M-phase and the G1/S-phase. Then, radiation-induced cell cycle arrest is reviewed. Cell cycle regulation mechanism involved in the G2 arrest, which is well known to occur when exposed to radiation, has recently been investigated using yeasts. In addition, recent study has yielded a noticeable finding that the G1 arrest can occur with intracellular accumulation of p53 product following ionization radiation. p53 is also shown to play an extremely important role in both DNA repair and cell killing due to DNA damage. Studies on the role of genes in protein groups induced by radiation will hold promise for the elucidation of cell cycle mechanism. (N.K.) 57 refs

  1. Control of radiation-induced diarrhea with cholestyramine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heusinkveld, R.S.; Manning, M.R.; Aristizabal, S.A.

    1978-01-01

    Cholestyramine is a non-absorbable ion-exchange resin which specifically binds bile salts. We have treated seven patients with acute or chronic radiation-induced diarrhea that was refractory to the usual methods of control with cholestyramine. In each case, the diarrhea was controlled with cholestyramine. This observation supports previous experimental work with animals which indicated that bile salts contribute to the genesis of radiation-induced diarrhea. Cholestyramine is well-tolerated, but should not be administered with certain oral medications. The results of this small series are preliminary, but point the way toward a more extensive clinical trial to define the usefulness of cholestyramine in the treatment of refractory acute or chronic radiation-induced diarrhea

  2. Involvement of prostaglandins and histamine in radiation-induced temperature responses in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kandasamy, S.B.; Hunt, W.A.

    1990-01-01

    Exposure of rats to 1-15 Gy of gamma radiation induced hyperthermia, whereas exposure to 20-150 Gy produced hypothermia. Since radiation exposure induced the release of prostaglandins (PGs) and histamine, the role of PGs and histamine in radiation-induced temperature changes was examined. Radiation-induced hyper- and hypothermia were antagonized by pretreatment with indomethacin, a cyclooxygenase inhibitor. Intracerebroventricular administration of PGE2 and PGD2 induced hyper- and hypothermia, respectively. Administration of SC-19220, a specific PGE2 antagonist, attenuated PGE2- and radiation-induced hyperthermia, but it did not antagonize PGD2- or radiation-induced hypothermia. Consistent with an apparent role of histamine in hypothermia, administration of disodium cromoglycate (a mast cell stabilizer), mepyramine (H1-receptor antagonist), or cimetidine (H2-receptor antagonist) attenuated PGD2- and radiation-induced hypothermia. These results suggest that radiation-induced hyperthermia is mediated via PGE2 and that radiation-induced hypothermia is mediated by another PG, possibly PGD2, via histamine

  3. Molecular epidemiology of radiation-induced carcinogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trosko, J.E.

    1996-01-01

    The role of ionizing radiation in carcinogenesis is discussed. Every cell contains proto-oncogenes, which if damaged may lead to cell transformation. Every cell also contains tumor suppressor genes, which guard against transformation. Thus, transformation would seem to require a double injury to the DNA in a cell. Ionizing radiation is known to be a relatively weak mutagen, but a good clastogen (inducer of chromosome breaks, deletions and rearrangements). Ionizing radiation may therefore be a 'promoter' of cancer, i.e. a stimulant of the clonal expansion of transformed cells, if it kills enough cells to induce compensatory hyperplasia - i.e. rapid growth of cells. Ionizing radiation may be a 'progressor', if it deactivates tumor suppressor genes tending to suppress the growth of existing clones of transformed cells resulting from any of numerous causes. It may therefore be an oversimplification to say that radiation causes cancer; rather, it seems to be a weak initiator, an indirect promoter, and a late-stage progressor. 2 figs

  4. Radiation-induced tumors of the nervous system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernstein, M.; Laperriere, N.

    1991-01-01

    Therapeutic and nontherapeutic ionizing radiation has long been recognized as a putative carcinogenic agent, but the evidence that radiation causes tumors is circumstantial at worst and statistically significant at best. There are no distinct histological, biochemical, cytogenetic, or clinical criteria that can be used to determine if an individual tumor was caused directly by previous irradiation of the anatomic area. Additional supportive evidence for radiation-induced tumors includes a position correlation between radiation dose and tumor incidence (usually in the low dose range) and experimental induction of the same neoplasm in appropriate animal models. even if these criteria are fulfilled, coincidental development of a second tumor can never be discounted in an individual patient, particularly if there is an underlying diathesis to develop multiple tumors of different histology, such as in Recklinghausen's disease, or if there is an strong family history for the development of neoplastic disease. In this paper, the authors critically evaluate the available evidence to support the hypothesis that radiation induces tumors in the nervous system. The current concepts of radiation carcinogenesis are discussed and are followed by a discussion of animal data and clinical experience in humans. Finally, a brief discussion on treatment of radiation-induced nervous system tumors is presented

  5. Characterization of radiation-induced Apoptosis in rodent cell lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Min; Chen, Changhu; Ling, C.C.

    1997-01-01

    For REC:myc(ch1), Rat1 and Rat1:myc b cells, we determined the events in the development of radiation-induced apoptosis to be in the following order: cell division followed by chromatin condensation, membrane blebbing, loss of adhesion and the uptake of vital dye. Experimental data which were obtained using 4 He ions of well defined energies and which compared the dependence of apoptosis and clonogenic survival on 4 He range strongly suggested that in our cells both apoptosis and loss of clonogenic survival resulted from radiation damage to the cell nucleus. Corroboratory evidence was that BrdU incorporation sensitized these cells to radiation-induced apoptosis. Comparing the dose response for apoptosis and the clonogenic survival curves for Rat1 and Rat1:myc b cells, we concluded that radiation-induced cell inactivation as assayed by clonogenic survival, and that a modified linear-quadratic model, proposed previously, modeled such a contribution effectively. In the same context, the selective increase in radiation-induced apoptosis. Comparing the dose response for apoptosis and the clonogenic survival curves for Rat1 and Rat1:myc b cells, we concluded that radiation-induced apoptosis contributed to the overall radiation-induced cell inactivation as assayed by clonogenic survival, and that a modified linear-quadratic model, proposed previously, modeled such a contribution effectively. In the same context, the selective increase in radiation-induced apoptosis during late S and G 2 phases reduced the relative radioresistance observed for clonogenic survival during late S and G 2 phases. 30 refs., 8 figs

  6. Radiation-induced cross-linking and scissoring of proteins in egg white

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Josimovic, L.; Radojcic, M.; Milosavljevic, B.H.

    1996-01-01

    Two kinds of radiation-induced protein damages, cross-linking and scissoring, were studied using a thin fraction of avian egg white. It was found that at a dose of 10 kGy in N 2 O saturated samples only one third of the affected protein molecules underwent aggregation, while, contrary to the results obtained with diluted protein solutions, the rest took part in the fragmentation reaction. The fragments obtained had a uniform molecular weight distribution. The overall G-value was found to be 0.25. In air saturated samples the scissoring dominated ten times over cross-linking with the fragments of discrete and well resolved molecular weights. The overall G-value was equal to 0.3. Both G-values are three times smaller than the corresponding values obtained in the experiments with denatured and purified proteins. The egg white radiation stability was found to be, at least in part, due to the presence of glucose which, in turn, acts as an antioxidant. Other relevant factors which may affect the radiation chemistry of the egg white protein composite are also discussed. (author)

  7. Interaction of alpha radiation with thermally-induced defects in silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, Akbar; Majid, Abdul

    2008-01-01

    The interaction of radiation-induced defects created by energetic alpha particles and thermally-induced defects in silicon has been studied using a Deep Level Transient Spectroscopy (DLTS) technique. Two thermally-induced defects at energy positions E c -0.48 eV and E c -0.25 eV and three radiation-induced defects E2, E3 and E5 have been observed. The concentration of both of the thermally-induced defects has been observed to increase on irradiation. It has been noted that production rates of the radiation-induced defects are suppressed in the presence of thermally-induced defects. A significant difference in annealing characteristics of thermally-induced defects in the presence of radiation-induced defects has been observed compared to the characteristics measured in pre-irradiated samples

  8. Online Media Use and Adoption by Hurricane Sandy Affected Fire and Police Departments

    OpenAIRE

    Chauhan, Apoorva

    2014-01-01

    In this thesis work, I examine the use and adoption of online communication media by 840 fire and police departments that were affected by the 2012 Hurricane Sandy. I began by exploring how and why these fire and police departments used (or did not use) online media to communicate with the public during Hurricane Sandy. Results show that fire and police departments used online media during Hurricane Sandy to give timely and relevant information to the public about things such as evacuations, ...

  9. Radiation-induced cranial nerve palsy and its causative factors in nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kong Lin; Zhang Youwang; Wu Yongru; Guo Xiaomao; Li Longgen

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To analyze the incidence and causative factors of radiation-induced cranial nerve palsy in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Methods: 512 NPC patients who underwent radiotherapy from January 1, 1989 to December 31, 1990 and from January 1, 1994 to December 31, 1995 were retrospectively analyzed. According to Fuzhou' 92 NPC Staging Classification, there are 31 patients in stage I, 212 in stage II, 198 in stage III and 71 in stage IV. All patients were treated by 60 Co or 6 MV X-ray with faciocervical fields or pre-auricular fields to primary area. Some patients were boosted by post-auricular fields or cranial fields. The median dose to the nasopharyngeal region was 7130 cGy by external beam radiotherapy. Thirty-four patients were boosted by brachytherapy. The medial dose to cervical lymph nodes was 6410 cGy as definitive treatment and 5480 cGy as prophylactic treatment. 101 patients were treated with combined chemotherapy. Results: The median follow-up was 6.7 years . Radiation-induced cranial nerve palsies occurred in 81 among the 512 patients. The 5- and 10-year cumulative incidences were 10.3%, 25.4%, respectively. The most common affected nerve was XII. On multivariates analysis, cranial nerve invasion before radiation, chemotherapy, dose to the nasopharyngeal region and age were the independent factors of radiation-induced cranial nerve palsy on nerve I-VII, while the N stage and the radiation fields were independent factors on nerve IX-XII. The cumulative incidence of cranial nerve I-VII palsies increased in patients with cranial nerve invasion, chemotherapy and the dose to the nasopharyngeal region (>7000 cGy). The cumulative incidence of cranial nerve IX- XII palsies increased in patients with advanced N stage. Patients in the first group of treatment field had the highest risk to progress cranial nerve IX-XII palsies, followed by the second group, and the third group had the lowest risk. Only 1 in 34 patients with brachytherapy

  10. The influence of radiation-induced defects on thermoluminescence and optically stimulated luminescence of α-Al_2O_3:C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nyirenda, A.N.; Chithambo, M.L.

    2017-01-01

    It is known that when α-Al_2O_3:C is exposed to excessive amounts of ionising radiation, defects are induced within its matrix. We report the influence of radiation-induced defects on the thermoluminescence (TL) and optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) measured from α-Al_2O_3:C after irradiation to 1000 Gy. These radiation-induced defects are thermally unstable in the region 450–650 °C and result in TL peaks in this range when the TL is measured at 1 °C/s. Heating a sample to 700 °C obliterates the radiation-induced defects, that is, the TL peaks corresponding to the radiation induced defects are no longer observed in the subsequent TL measurements when moderate irradiation doses below 10 Gy are used. The charge traps associated with these radiation-induced defects are more stable than the dosimetric trap when the sample is exposed to either sunlight or 470-nm blue light from LEDs. TL glow curves measured following the defect-inducing irradiation produce a dosimetric peak that is broader and positioned at a higher temperature than observed in glow curves obtained before the heavy irradiation. In addition, sample sensitization/desensitization occurs due to the presence of these radiation-induced defects. Furthermore, both the activation energy and the kinetic order of the dosimetric peak evaluated when the radiation-induced defects are present in the sample are significantly lower in value than those obtained when these defects are absent. The radiation-induced defects also affect the shape and total light sum of the OSL signal as well as the position and width of the resultant residual phototransferred thermoluminescence main peak.

  11. Radiation-induced cognitive dysfunction: an experimental model in the old rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lamproglou, Ioannis; Chen, QI Ming; Boisserie, Gilbert; Mazeron, Jean-Jacques; Poisson, Michel; Baillet, Francois; Le Poncin, Monique; Delattre, Jean-Yves

    1995-01-01

    Purpose: To develop a model of radiation-induced behavioral dysfunction. Methods and Materials: A course of whole brain radiation therapy (30 Gy/10 fractions/12 days) was administered to 26 Wistar rats ages 16-27 months, while 26 control rats received sham irradiation. Sequential behavioral studies including one-way avoidance, two-way avoidance, and a standard operant conditioning method (press-lever avoidance) were undertaken. In addition, rats were studied in a water maze 7 months postradiation therapy. Results: Prior to radiation therapy, both groups were similar. No difference was found 1 and 3 months postradiation therapy. At 6-7 months postradiation therapy, irradiated rats had a much lower percentage of avoidance than controls for one-way avoidance (23% vs. 55%, p {<=} 0.001) and two-way avoidance (18% vs. 40%, p {<=} 0.01). Seven months postradiation therapy the reaction time was increased (press-lever avoidance, 11.20 s vs. 8.43 s, p {<=} 0.05) and the percentage of correct response was lower (water maze, 53% vs. 82%) in irradiated rats compared with controls. Pathological examination did not demonstrate abnormalities of the irradiated brains at the light microscopic level. Conclusion: Behavioral dysfunction affecting mainly memory can be demonstrated following conventional radiation therapy in old rats. This model can be used to study the pathogenesis of radiation-induced cognitive changes.

  12. Radiation-induced cognitive dysfunction: an experimental model in the old rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamproglou, Ioannis; Chen, QI Ming; Boisserie, Gilbert; Mazeron, Jean-Jacques; Poisson, Michel; Baillet, Francois; Le Poncin, Monique; Delattre, Jean-Yves

    1995-01-01

    Purpose: To develop a model of radiation-induced behavioral dysfunction. Methods and Materials: A course of whole brain radiation therapy (30 Gy/10 fractions/12 days) was administered to 26 Wistar rats ages 16-27 months, while 26 control rats received sham irradiation. Sequential behavioral studies including one-way avoidance, two-way avoidance, and a standard operant conditioning method (press-lever avoidance) were undertaken. In addition, rats were studied in a water maze 7 months postradiation therapy. Results: Prior to radiation therapy, both groups were similar. No difference was found 1 and 3 months postradiation therapy. At 6-7 months postradiation therapy, irradiated rats had a much lower percentage of avoidance than controls for one-way avoidance (23% vs. 55%, p ≤ 0.001) and two-way avoidance (18% vs. 40%, p ≤ 0.01). Seven months postradiation therapy the reaction time was increased (press-lever avoidance, 11.20 s vs. 8.43 s, p ≤ 0.05) and the percentage of correct response was lower (water maze, 53% vs. 82%) in irradiated rats compared with controls. Pathological examination did not demonstrate abnormalities of the irradiated brains at the light microscopic level. Conclusion: Behavioral dysfunction affecting mainly memory can be demonstrated following conventional radiation therapy in old rats. This model can be used to study the pathogenesis of radiation-induced cognitive changes

  13. Radiation-induced cognitive dysfunction: An experimental model in the old rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamproglou, I.; Chen, Q.M.; Poisson, M.

    1995-01-01

    To develop a model of radiation-induced behavioral dysfunction. A course of whole brain radiation therapy (30 Gy/10 fractions/12 days) was administered to 26 Wistar rats ages 16-27 months, while 26 control rats received sham irradiation. Sequential behavioral studies including one-way avoidance, two-way avoidance, and a standard operant conditioning method (press-lever avoidance) were undertaken. In addition, rats were studied in a water maze 7 months postradiation therapy. Prior to radiation therapy, both groups were similar. No difference was found 1 and 3 months postradiation therapy. At 6-7 months postradiation therapy, irradiated rats had a much lower percentage of avoidance than controls for one-way avoidance (23% vs. 55%, p ≤ 0.001) and two-way avoidance (18% vs. 40%, p ≤ 0.01). Seven months postradiation therapy the reaction time was increased (press-lever avoidance, 11.20 s vs. 8.43 s, p ≤ 0.05) and the percentage of correct response was lower (water maze, 53% vs. 82%) in irradiated rats compared with controls. Pathological examination did not demonstrate abnormalities of the irradiated brains at the light microscopic level. Behavioral dysfunction affecting mainly memory can be demonstrated following conventional radiation therapy in old rats. This model can be used to study the pathogenesis of radiation-induced cognitive changes. 15 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  14. Radiation-induced damage of membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yonei, Shuji

    1977-01-01

    An outline of membranous structure was stated, and radiation-induced damage of membranes were surveyed. By irradiation, permeability of membranes, especially passive transportation mechanism, was damaged, and glycoprotein in the surface layers of cells and the surface layer structures were changed. The intramembranous damage was induced by decrease of electrophoresis of nuclear mambranes and a quantitative change of cytochrome P450 of microsomal membranes of the liver, and peroxidation of membranous lipid and SH substitute damage of membranous protein were mentioned as the mechanism of membranous damage. Recovery of membranous damage depends on radiation dose and temperature, and membranous damage participates largely in proliferation death. (tsunoda, M.)

  15. Protection against radiation-induced performance decrement in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukherjee, S.K.; Pant, Kanchan; Goel, H.C.; Jain, Viney

    1997-01-01

    Recognizing that there is lack of information on the effects of low-level ionizing radiations and the modifying role of radioprotectors, an attempt has been made in this study to explore the relationship between impairment of spatial learning and low level of radiation exposure. A radial arm maze was utilised to evaluate radiation-induced behavioural alterations and performance decrement in mice. Immediately after whole body exposure to gamma radiation (absorbed dose, 1 Gy) significant perturbations in the learned behaviour of the animals were observed. The regular control movement became irregular and the food consumption time was reduced appreciably (40%). Recovery took place in four days. If diltiazem (7 mg/kg b.w.), a Ca 2+ channel blocker and a radioprotector, was administered i.p. 20-30 min prior to irradiation, radiation-induced behavioural abnormalities were reduced. Mechanisms underlying protection by diltiazem against radiation-induced performance decrement observed in the present study need to be investigated. (author). 23 refs., 2 figs

  16. Radiation-Induced Second Cancer Risk Estimates From Radionuclide Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bednarz, Bryan; Besemer, Abigail

    2017-09-01

    The use of radionuclide therapy in the clinical setting is expected to increase significantly over the next decade. There is an important need to understand the radiation-induced second cancer risk associated with these procedures. In this study the radiation-induced cancer risk in five radionuclide therapy patients was investigated. These patients underwent serial SPECT imaging scans following injection as part of a clinical trial testing the efficacy of a 131Iodine-labeled radiopharmaceutical. Using these datasets the committed absorbed doses to multiple sensitive structures were calculated using RAPID, which is a novel Monte Carlo-based 3D dosimetry platform developed for personalized dosimetry. The excess relative risk (ERR) for radiation-induced cancer in these structures was then derived from these dose estimates following the recommendations set forth in the BEIR VII report. The radiation-induced leukemia ERR was highest among all sites considered reaching a maximum value of approximately 4.5. The radiation-induced cancer risk in the kidneys, liver and spleen ranged between 0.3 and 1.3. The lifetime attributable risks (LARs) were also calculated, which ranged from 30 to 1700 cancers per 100,000 persons and were highest for leukemia and the liver for both males and females followed by radiation-induced spleen and kidney cancer. The risks associated with radionuclide therapy are similar to the risk associated with external beam radiation therapy.

  17. Radiation-induced changes in DNA methylation of repetitive elements in the mouse heart

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koturbash, Igor, E-mail: ikoturbash@uams.edu [Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, AR 72205 (United States); Miousse, Isabelle R. [Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, AR 72205 (United States); Sridharan, Vijayalakshmi [Division of Radiation Health, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, AR 72205 (United States); Nzabarushimana, Etienne; Skinner, Charles M. [Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, AR 72205 (United States); Melnyk, Stepan B.; Pavliv, Oleksandra [Department of Pediatrics, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, AR 72205 (United States); Hauer-Jensen, Martin [Division of Radiation Health, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, AR 72205 (United States); Surgical Service, Central Arkansas Veterans Healthcare System, Little Rock, AR 72205 (United States); Nelson, Gregory A. [Departments of Basic Sciences and Radiation Medicine, Loma Linda University, Loma Linda, CA 92354 (United States); Boerma, Marjan [Division of Radiation Health, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, AR 72205 (United States)

    2016-05-15

    Highlights: • Radiation-induced dynamic changes in cardiac DNA methylation were detected. • Early LINE-1 hypomethylation was followed by hypermethylation at a later time-point. • Radiation affected one-carbon metabolism in the heart tissue. • Irradiation resulted in accumulation of satellite DNA mRNA transcripts. - Abstract: DNA methylation is a key epigenetic mechanism, needed for proper control over the expression of genetic information and silencing of repetitive elements. Exposure to ionizing radiation, aside from its strong genotoxic potential, may also affect the methylation of DNA, within the repetitive elements, in particular. In this study, we exposed C57BL/6J male mice to low absorbed mean doses of two types of space radiation—proton (0.1 Gy, 150 MeV, dose rate 0.53 ± 0.08 Gy/min), and heavy iron ions ({sup 56}Fe) (0.5 Gy, 600 MeV/n, dose rate 0.38 ± 0.06 Gy/min). Radiation-induced changes in cardiac DNA methylation associated with repetitive elements were detected. Specifically, modest hypomethylation of retrotransposon LINE-1 was observed at day 7 after irradiation with either protons or {sup 56}Fe. This was followed by LINE-1, and other retrotransposons, ERV2 and SINE B1, as well as major satellite DNA hypermethylation at day 90 after irradiation with {sup 56}Fe. These changes in DNA methylation were accompanied by alterations in the expression of DNA methylation machinery and affected the one-carbon metabolism pathway. Furthermore, loss of transposable elements expression was detected in the cardiac tissue at the 90-day time-point, paralleled by substantial accumulation of mRNA transcripts, associated with major satellites. Given that the one-carbon metabolism pathway can be modulated by dietary modifications, these findings suggest a potential strategy for the mitigation and, possibly, prevention of the negative effects exerted by ionizing radiation on the cardiovascular system. Additionally, we show that the methylation status and

  18. Radiation induced changes in the airway - anaesthetic implications ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Radiation induced changes in the airway - anaesthetic implications: case report. Mallika Balakrishnan, Renju Kuriakose, Rachel Cherian Koshy. Abstract. Radiation induces a variety of changes in the airway that can potentially lead to difficult intubation. Osteoradionecrosis (ORN) of the mandible, a severe consequence of ...

  19. Poor outcome in radiation-induced constrictive pericarditis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karram, T.; Rinkevitch, D.; Markiewicz, W.

    1993-01-01

    The purpose was to compare the outcome of patients with radiation-induced constrictive pericarditis versus patients with constiction due to another etiology. Twenty patients with constrictive pericarditis were seen during 1975-1986 at a single medical center. Six had radiation-induced constrictive pericarditis (Group A). The etiology was idiopathic in ten subjects and secondary to carcinomatous encasement, chronic renal failure, purulent infection and tuberculosis in one patient each (Group B, N = 14). Meang age was 53.4 ± 15.5 years. Extensive pericardiectomy was performed in 3/6 Group A and 13/14 Group B patients. All Group A patients died, 4 weeks - 11 years post-diagnosis (median = 10 months). Two Group A patients died suddenly, one died post-operatively of respiratory failure, another of pneumonia and two of recurrent carcinoma. Thirteen Group B patients are alive (median follow-up = 72 months). The only death in this group was due to metastatic cancer. The poor outcome with radiation-induced constriction is probably multi-factorial. Poor surgical outcome is to be expected in patients with evidence of recurrent tumor, high-dose irradiation, pulmonary fibrosis or associated radiation-induced myocardinal, valvular or coronary damage

  20. Poor outcome in radiation-induced constrictive pericarditis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karram, T.; Rinkevitch, D.; Markiewicz, W. (Technion Medical School, Haifa (Israel))

    1993-01-15

    The purpose was to compare the outcome of patients with radiation-induced constrictive pericarditis versus patients with constiction due to another etiology. Twenty patients with constrictive pericarditis were seen during 1975-1986 at a single medical center. Six had radiation-induced constrictive pericarditis (Group A). The etiology was idiopathic in ten subjects and secondary to carcinomatous encasement, chronic renal failure, purulent infection and tuberculosis in one patient each (Group B, N = 14). Meang age was 53.4 [+-] 15.5 years. Extensive pericardiectomy was performed in 3/6 Group A and 13/14 Group B patients. All Group A patients died, 4 weeks - 11 years post-diagnosis (median = 10 months). Two Group A patients died suddenly, one died post-operatively of respiratory failure, another of pneumonia and two of recurrent carcinoma. Thirteen Group B patients are alive (median follow-up = 72 months). The only death in this group was due to metastatic cancer. The poor outcome with radiation-induced constriction is probably multi-factorial. Poor surgical outcome is to be expected in patients with evidence of recurrent tumor, high-dose irradiation, pulmonary fibrosis or associated radiation-induced myocardinal, valvular or coronary damage.

  1. Radiation induced pesticidal microbes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ki Yup; Lee, Y. K.; Kim, J. S.; Kim, J. K.; Lee, S. J.; Lim, D. S

    2001-01-01

    To isolate pesticidal microbes against plant pathogenic fungi, 4 strains of bacteria(K1. K3, K4, YS1) were isolated from mushroom compost and hot spring. K4, K1, K3, YS1 strain showed wide antifungal spectrum and high antifungal activities against 12 kinds of fungi. Specific proteins and the specific transcribed genes were found from the YS1 and its radiation-induced mutants. And knock-out mutants of antifungal activity were derived by transposon mutagenesis. From these knock-out mutants, the antifungal activity related genes and its modification by gamma-ray radiation are going to be studied. These results suggested that radiation could be an useful tool for the induction of functional mutants.

  2. Radiation induced pesticidal microbes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Ki Yup; Lee, Y. K.; Kim, J. S.; Kim, J. K.; Lee, S. J.; Lim, D. S.

    2001-01-01

    To isolate pesticidal microbes against plant pathogenic fungi, 4 strains of bacteria(K1. K3, K4, YS1) were isolated from mushroom compost and hot spring. K4, K1, K3, YS1 strain showed wide antifungal spectrum and high antifungal activities against 12 kinds of fungi. Specific proteins and the specific transcribed genes were found from the YS1 and its radiation-induced mutants. And knock-out mutants of antifungal activity were derived by transposon mutagenesis. From these knock-out mutants, the antifungal activity related genes and its modification by gamma-ray radiation are going to be studied. These results suggested that radiation could be an useful tool for the induction of functional mutants

  3. Is the primary event in radiation-induced chronic myelogenous leukemia the induction of the t(9; 22) translocation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holmberg, M. (Swedish Radiation Protection Inst., Stockholm (Sweden))

    1992-05-18

    The probability that ionizing radiation induces a t(9;22) reciprocal translocation with its break points confined to the same regions as the break points for the Philadelphia (Ph') translocation in chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) has been calculated to be 7 x 10[sup -12] per cell and gray. This figure was used to estimate the number of individuals among the atomic bomb survivors at Hiroshima and Nagasaki with such an induced translocation. For 9196 atomic bomb survivors who received a mean organ dose equivalent to bone marrow of 0.85 sievert, the estimate is done that the number of individuals with a radiation-induced t(9;22) translocation in one of the pluripotent stem cells in bone marrow is of the order of 50. The observed number of affected individuals with CML within the same cohort is 18. Even if the estimate of the number of individuals has relatively large errors, this indicates that the primary event in the radiation-induced CML cases can be a radiation-induced t(9;22) reciprocal translocation. (Author).

  4. Cataracts induced by microwave and ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lipman, R.M.; Tripathi, B.J.; Tripathi, R.C.

    1988-01-01

    Microwaves most commonly cause anterior and/or posterior subcapsular lenticular opacities in experimental animals and, as shown in epidemiologic studies and case reports, in human subjects. The formation of cataracts seems to be related directly to the power of the microwave and the duration of exposure. The mechanism of cataractogenesis includes deformation of heat-labile enzymes, such as glutathione peroxide, that ordinarily protect lens cell proteins and membrane lipids from oxidative damage. Oxidation of protein sulfhydryl groups and the formation of high-molecular-weight aggregates cause local variations in the orderly structure of the lens cells. An alternative mechanism is thermoelastic expansion through which pressure waves in the aqueous humor cause direct physical damage to the lens cells. Cataracts induced by ionizing radiation (e.g., X-rays and gamma rays) usually are observed in the posterior region of the lens, often in the form of a posterior subcapsular cataract. Increasing the dose of ionizing radiation causes increasing opacification of the lens, which appears after a decreasing latency period. Like cataract formation by microwaves, cataractogenesis induced by ionizing radiation is associated with damage to the lens cell membrane. Another possible mechanism is damage to lens cell DNA, with decreases in the production of protective enzymes and in sulfur-sulfur bond formation, and with altered protein concentrations. Until further definitive conclusions about the mechanisms of microwaves and ionizing radiation induced cataracts are reached, and alternative protective measures are found, one can only recommend mechanical shielding from these radiations to minimize the possibility of development of radiation-induced cataracts. 74 references

  5. Least-squares collocation meshless approach for radiative heat transfer in absorbing and scattering media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, L. H.; Tan, J. Y.

    2007-02-01

    A least-squares collocation meshless method is employed for solving the radiative heat transfer in absorbing, emitting and scattering media. The least-squares collocation meshless method for radiative transfer is based on the discrete ordinates equation. A moving least-squares approximation is applied to construct the trial functions. Except for the collocation points which are used to construct the trial functions, a number of auxiliary points are also adopted to form the total residuals of the problem. The least-squares technique is used to obtain the solution of the problem by minimizing the summation of residuals of all collocation and auxiliary points. Three numerical examples are studied to illustrate the performance of this new solution method. The numerical results are compared with the other benchmark approximate solutions. By comparison, the results show that the least-squares collocation meshless method is efficient, accurate and stable, and can be used for solving the radiative heat transfer in absorbing, emitting and scattering media.

  6. Least-squares collocation meshless approach for radiative heat transfer in absorbing and scattering media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, L.H.; Tan, J.Y.

    2007-01-01

    A least-squares collocation meshless method is employed for solving the radiative heat transfer in absorbing, emitting and scattering media. The least-squares collocation meshless method for radiative transfer is based on the discrete ordinates equation. A moving least-squares approximation is applied to construct the trial functions. Except for the collocation points which are used to construct the trial functions, a number of auxiliary points are also adopted to form the total residuals of the problem. The least-squares technique is used to obtain the solution of the problem by minimizing the summation of residuals of all collocation and auxiliary points. Three numerical examples are studied to illustrate the performance of this new solution method. The numerical results are compared with the other benchmark approximate solutions. By comparison, the results show that the least-squares collocation meshless method is efficient, accurate and stable, and can be used for solving the radiative heat transfer in absorbing, emitting and scattering media

  7. Steady state ensembles of thermal radiation in a layered media with a constant heat flux

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budaev, Bair V.; Bogy, David B.

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes steady-state ensembles of thermally excited electromagnetic radiation in nano-scale layered media with a constant non-vanishing heat flux across the layers. It is shown that Planck's law of thermal radiation, the principle of equivalence, and the laws of wave propagation in layered media, imply that in order for the ensemble of thermally excited electromagnetic fields to exist in a medium consisting of a stack of layers between two half-space, the net heat flux across the layers must exceed a certain threshold that is determined by the temperatures of the half spaces and by the reflective properties of the entire structure. The obtained results provide a way for estimating the radiative heat transfer coefficient of nano-scale layered structures. (copyright 2013 by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  8. Peculiarities of radiation induced craniopharyngioma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sataev, N.M. (Uzbekskij Nauchno-Issledovatel' skij Inst. Onkologii i Radiologii, Tashkent (USSR))

    1982-03-01

    Due to intracranial implantation of a radiosource in rabbit brain craniopharyngioma appeared. Its specific feature is grandular differentiation of embryonal epithelium of residuals of hypophysical (craniopharyngial) passage and the presence of focuses of blood vessel tumor degeneration of hemangioma type in its stroma. It is suggested that radiation craniopharyngioma is developed along the way of epigenetic changes of cellular elements of embryonal epithelium induced by radiation.

  9. Peculiarities of radiation induced craniopharyngioma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sataev, N.M.

    1982-01-01

    Due to intracranial implantation of a radiosource in rabbit brain craniopharyngioma appeared. Its specific feature is grandular differentiation of embryonal epithelium of residuals of hypophysical (craniopharyngial) passage and the presence of focuses of blood vessel tumor degeneration of hemangioma type in its stroma. It is suggested that radiation craniopharyngioma is developed along the way of epigenetic changes of cellular elements of embryonal epithelium induced by radiation

  10. Variable discrete ordinates method for radiation transfer in plane-parallel semi-transparent media with variable refractive index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarvari, S. M. Hosseini

    2017-09-01

    The traditional form of discrete ordinates method is applied to solve the radiative transfer equation in plane-parallel semi-transparent media with variable refractive index through using the variable discrete ordinate directions and the concept of refracted radiative intensity. The refractive index are taken as constant in each control volume, such that the direction cosines of radiative rays remain non-variant through each control volume, and then, the directions of discrete ordinates are changed locally by passing each control volume, according to the Snell's law of refraction. The results are compared by the previous studies in this field. Despite simplicity, the results show that the variable discrete ordinate method has a good accuracy in solving the radiative transfer equation in the semi-transparent media with arbitrary distribution of refractive index.

  11. Application of the lattice Boltzmann method to transient conduction and radiation heat transfer in cylindrical media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaabane, Raoudha; Askri, Faouzi; Ben Nasrallah, Sassi

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, the lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) is applied to solve the energy equation of a transient conduction-radiation heat transfer problem in a two-dimensional cylindrical enclosure filled with an emitting, absorbing and scattering media. The control volume finite element method (CVFEM) is used to obtain the radiative information. To demonstrate the workability of the LBM in conjunction with the CVFEM to conduction-radiation problems in cylindrical media, the energy equation of the same problem is also solved using the finite difference method (FDM). The effects of different parameters, such as the grid size, the scattering albedo, the extinction coefficient and the conduction-radiation parameter on temperature distribution within the medium are studied. Results of the present work are compared with those available in the literature. LBM-CVFEM results are also compared with those given by the FDM-CVFEM. In all cases, good agreement has been obtained.

  12. Radiation and desiccation response motif mediates radiation induced gene expression in D. radiodurans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anaganti, Narasimha; Basu, Bhakti; Apte, Shree Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Deinococcus radiodurans is an extremophile that withstands lethal doses of several DNA damaging agents such as gamma irradiation, UV rays, desiccation and chemical mutagens. The organism responds to DNA damage by inducing expression of several DNA repair genes. At least 25 radiation inducible gene promoters harbour a 17 bp palindromic sequence known as radiation and desiccation response motif (RDRM) implicated in gamma radiation inducible gene expression. However, mechanistic details of gamma radiation-responsive up-regulation in gene expression remain enigmatic. The promoters of highly radiation induced genes ddrB (DR0070), gyrB (DR0906), gyrA (DR1913), a hypothetical gene (DR1143) and recA (DR2338) from D. radiodurans were cloned in a green fluorescence protein (GFP)-based promoter probe shuttle vector pKG and their promoter activity was assessed in both E. coli as well as in D. radiodurans. The gyrA, gyrB and DR1143 gene promoters were active in E. coli although ddrB and recA promoters showed very weak activity. In D. radiodurans, all the five promoters were induced several fold following 6 kGy gamma irradiation. Highest induction was observed for ddrB promoter (25 fold), followed by DR1143 promoter (15 fold). The induction in the activity of gyrB, gyrA and recA promoters was 5, 3 and 2 fold, respectively. To assess the role of RDRM, the 17 bp palindromic sequence was deleted from these promoters. The promoters devoid of RDRM sequence displayed increase in the basal expression activity, but the radiation-responsive induction in promoter activity was completely lost. The substitution of two conserved bases of RDRM sequence yielded decreased radiation induction of PDR0070 promoter. Deletion of 5 bases from 5'-end of PDR0070 RDRM increased basal promoter activity, but radiation induction was completely abolished. Replacement of RDRM with non specific sequence of PDR0070 resulted in loss of basal expression and radiation induction. The results demonstrate that

  13. Biological stress responses induced by alpha radiation exposure in Lemna minor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Hoeck, A.; Horemans, N.; Van Hees, M.; Nauts, R. [Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK-CEN (Belgium); Knapen, D.; Blust, R. [University of Antwerp (Belgium)

    2014-07-01

    To enhance the robustness of radiation protection criteria for biota, additional information on the biological impact of radionuclides on non-human biota is needed. In particular the effects of alpha emitting isotopes have been poorly studied within a radioecological contextual though they exhibit a high linear energy transfer which can cause significant biological damage when taken up by organisms. Therefore, it is not only essential to measure alpha radiation toxicity, but also try to understand the underlying mechanisms of this stressor. The current study aimed to contribute to a better knowledge of the fundamental processes regulating alpha radiation stress response mechanisms in higher plants. {sup 241}Am was primarily selected as it is an almost pure alpha emitter and, as a daughter nuclide of {sup 241}Pu, it will become one of the dominant pollutants in plutonium affected areas. The aquatic macrophyte Lemna minor has proven its value in eco-toxicological research as representative of higher aquatic plants (OECD guideline nr. 221) and will be used to analyze alpha radiation stress in plant systems. An individual growth inhibition test was set up by means of single dose-response curve in order to identify the Effective Dose Rates (EDR-values) for frond size and biomass. As the mean path length is small for alpha particles, the accumulation of the radionuclide inside species represents almost exclusively the dosimetry. Therefore, quantification of {sup 241}Am uptake and {sup 241}Am distribution were evaluated separately for roots and fronds taking the activity concentrations of growth medium into account. Taken together with the respective dose conversion coefficients from the ERICA tool, this allowed to construct an accurate dosimetric model to determine internal and external dose rates. Different standard media were tested on growth rate and biomass to analyse the amount of {sup 241}Am taken up by the plants exposed from 2.5 to 100 kBq/L. From these

  14. Does ultraviolet radiation affect the xanthophyll cycle in marine phytoplankton?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Poll, W.H.; Buma, A.G.J.

    2009-01-01

    This Perspective summarizes the state of knowledge of the impact of ultraviolet radiation on the photoprotective xanthophyll cycle in marine phytoplankton. Excess photosynthetically active radiation (PAR; 400-700 nm) and ultraviolet radiation (UVR; 280-400 nm) affect various cellular processes and

  15. Analysis of the media coverage characteristics on radiation safety issues of the Saint-Petersburg and the Leningrad region population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Biblin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to examine the quantity and quality of publications on radiation safety of the population in the media on the example of Saint Petersburg and the Leningrad region for the period of the first three-quarters of 2016. An analysis of publications in the media is an essential part of the work on the formation of an adequate perception of the radiation risk by the population. The Information and Analytical Centre of Rospotrebnadzor on radiation safety of the population developed a pilot computer-assisted system for the media publication analysis. The study was performed by this system as a development and improvement of the Center’s works applicable to the registration, storage, and analysis of qualitative and quantitative information contained in the publications. The author selected 27 mass-media sources for analysis: 8 newspapers (2 of them are located in Sosnoviy Bor; 8 TV-channels (4 – federal, 2 – regional, 2 – local in Sosnoviy Bor; 10 online media and the web-site of the Sosnoviy Bor administration. During the analyzed period, 1075 informational materials on issues of radiation safety were collected and added to the database. The largest number of publications were in the second quarter of 2016. The peak of publication activity on issues of radiation safety was registered in April. This fact is related to the 30th anniversary of the Chernobyl accident. A significant part (over 50% of the publications were neutral in all media and in different types of media. A significant part of the publications is a brief informational note with the neutral nature of the character of the information. The number of materials with negative character of information among the publications on the subject of “radioactive waste” is more than 2 times larger than that for the publications on the subject of “nuclear energy”. The majority of publications belongs to the information genre. Analytical materials are a minor part

  16. Effect of top electrode material on radiation-induced degradation of ferroelectric thin film structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brewer, Steven J.; Bassiri-Gharb, Nazanin [G.W. Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia 30332 (United States); School of Materials Science and Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia 30332 (United States); Deng, Carmen Z.; Callaway, Connor P. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia 30332 (United States); Paul, McKinley K. [G.W. Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia 30332 (United States); Woodward Academy, College Park, Georgia 30337 (United States); Fisher, Kenzie J. [G.W. Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia 30332 (United States); Riverwood International Charter School, Atlanta, Georgia 30328 (United States); Guerrier, Jonathon E.; Jones, Jacob L. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina 27695 (United States); Rudy, Ryan Q.; Polcawich, Ronald G. [Army Research Laboratory, Adelphi, Maryland 20783 (United States); Glaser, Evan R.; Cress, Cory D. [Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375 (United States)

    2016-07-14

    The effects of gamma irradiation on the dielectric and piezoelectric responses of Pb[Zr{sub 0.52}Ti{sub 0.48}]O{sub 3} (PZT) thin film stacks were investigated for structures with conductive oxide (IrO{sub 2}) and metallic (Pt) top electrodes. The samples showed, generally, degradation of various key dielectric, ferroelectric, and electromechanical responses when exposed to 2.5 Mrad (Si) {sup 60}Co gamma radiation. However, the low-field, relative dielectric permittivity, ε{sub r}, remained largely unaffected by irradiation in samples with both types of electrodes. Samples with Pt top electrodes showed substantial degradation of the remanent polarization and overall piezoelectric response, as well as pinching of the polarization hysteresis curves and creation of multiple peaks in the permittivity-electric field curves post irradiation. The samples with oxide electrodes, however, were largely impervious to the same radiation dose, with less than 5% change in any of the functional characteristics. The results suggest a radiation-induced change in the defect population or defect energy in PZT with metallic top electrodes, which substantially affects motion of internal interfaces such as domain walls. Additionally, the differences observed for stacks with different electrode materials implicate the ferroelectric–electrode interface as either the predominant source of radiation-induced effects (Pt electrodes) or the site of healing for radiation-induced defects (IrO{sub 2} electrodes).

  17. Radiation-induced brain damage in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oi, Shizuo; Kokunai, Takashi; Ijichi, Akihiro; Matsumoto, Satoshi; Raimondi, A.J.

    1990-01-01

    The nature and sequence of the radiation-induced changes in the brain were studied postmortem in 34 children with glioma, 22 of whom underwent central nervous system radiation therapy. Twenty received whole-brain or whole-neuroaxis radiation at a total mean dosage of 4063 cGy. Brain tissue alternations were analyzed histologically by means of various staining methods, including immunohistochemical techniques. The histological features of irradiated brains were compared with those of non-irradiated brains. Microscopic findings included demyelination (seven cases), focal necrosis (six cases), cortical atrophy (four cases), endothelial proliferation (four cases), and telangiectatic vascular proliferation with vascular thickening and oozing of a thick fluid (one case). Such findings were rare in non-irradiated patients. Demyelination was observed earliest in a patient who died 5 months after radiation therapy and was more common after 9 months. Focal necrosis was first observed 9 months post-irradiation but was more advanced and extensive after 1 year. Calcified foci were found only after 60 months. Various vascular changes such as vascular thickening and thrombosis suggested ischemic insult to the brain as a late effect of radiation injury. The results of this study suggest that the immature brain may be more sensitive to radiation than is the adult brain, and that the manifestations of radiation-induced injury depend on the time elapsed after irradiation. (author)

  18. Radiation-induced xerostomia in a patient with nasopharyngeal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    OBJECTIVE: This study reports a case of radiation-induced xerstomia in a patient with nasopharyngeal cancer, to emphasize the need for prompt oral care to prevent untoward effects of xerostomia and to improve patients' quality of life. CASE REPORT: A 60 year old man diagnosed of radiation-induced xerostomia, after 6 ...

  19. Ionizing radiation induced genomic instability and its relation to radiation carcinogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Zhongwen

    2000-01-01

    There are widespread testimonies that the genomic instability induced by ionizing irradiation exits in mammal and its vitro cells. Genomic instability can enhance the frequency of genetic changes among the progeny of the original irradiated cells. In the radiation-leukemogenesis, there is no significant difference between controls and CBA/H mouses of PPI (preconception patent irradiation), but the offsprings of the PPI recipients show a different character (shorter latent period and higher incidence) after an extra γ-radiation. The radiation-induced genomic instability may get the genome on the verge of mutation and lead to carcinogens following mutation of some critical genes. The genomic instability, as the early event of initiation of carcinomas, may be play a specific or unique role

  20. Radiation induced deep level defects in bipolar junction transistors under various bias conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Chaoming; Yang, Jianqun; Li, Xingji; Ma, Guoliang; Xiao, Liyi; Bollmann, Joachim

    2015-01-01

    Bipolar junction transistor (BJT) is sensitive to ionization and displacement radiation effects in space. In this paper, 35 MeV Si ions were used as irradiation source to research the radiation damage on NPN and PNP bipolar transistors. The changing of electrical parameters of transistors was in situ measured with increasing irradiation fluence of 35 MeV Si ions. Using deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS), defects in the bipolar junction transistors under various bias conditions are measured after irradiation. Based on the in situ electrical measurement and DLTS spectra, it is clearly that the bias conditions can affect the concentration of deep level defects, and the radiation damage induced by heavy ions.

  1. Radiation-induced valvular heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gujral, Dorothy M; Lloyd, Guy; Bhattacharyya, Sanjeev

    2016-02-15

    Radiation to the mediastinum is a key component of treatment with curative intent for a range of cancers including Hodgkin's lymphoma and breast cancer. Exposure to radiation is associated with a risk of radiation-induced heart valve damage characterised by valve fibrosis and calcification. There is a latent interval of 10-20 years between radiation exposure and development of clinically significant heart valve disease. Risk is related to radiation dose received, interval from exposure and use of concomitant chemotherapy. Long-term outlook and the risk of valve surgery are related to the effects of radiation on mediastinal structures including pulmonary fibrosis and pericardial constriction. Dose prediction models to predict the risk of heart valve disease in the future and newer radiation techniques to reduce the radiation dose to the heart are being developed. Surveillance strategies for this cohort of cancer survivors at risk of developing significant heart valve complications are required. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  2. Effectiveness of the herbal medicine daikenchuto for radiation-induced enteritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Takashi; Kamiura, Shouji; Kimura, Tadashi

    2008-07-01

    Radiation-induced enteritis is a serious clinical problem for which there is currently no recommended standard management. Daikenchuto (DKT) is a Japanese herbal medicine that has been used to treat adhesive bowel obstruction in Japan. This report describes a patient with radiation-induced enteritis whose clinical symptoms were much improved by treatment with DKT. The patient was administered DKT, a traditional Japanese herbal formula, orally (2.5 g 3 times daily). Abdominal distention was evaluated objectively with computed tomography. Gastrointestinal symptoms associated with radiation-induced enteritis were controlled successfully with DKT treatment. DKT treatment may be useful for the management of radiation-induced enteritis.

  3. The Skin Microbiome: Is It Affected by UV-induced Immune Suppression?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patra, VijayKumar; Byrne, Scott N.; Wolf, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Human skin apart from functioning as a physical barricade to stop the entry of pathogens, also hosts innumerable commensal organisms. The skin cells and the immune system constantly interact with microbes, to maintain cutaneous homeostasis, despite the challenges offered by various environmental factors. A major environmental factor affecting the skin is ultraviolet radiation (UV-R) from sunlight. UV-R is well known to modulate the immune system, which can be both beneficial and deleterious. By targeting the cells and molecules within skin, UV-R can trigger the production and release of antimicrobial peptides, affect the innate immune system and ultimately suppress the adaptive cellular immune response. This can contribute to skin carcinogenesis and the promotion of infectious agents such as herpes simplex virus and possibly others. On the other hand, a UV-established immunosuppressive environment may protect against the induction of immunologically mediated skin diseases including some of photodermatoses such as polymorphic light eruption. In this article, we share our perspective about the possibility that UV-induced immune suppression may alter the landscape of the skin’s microbiome and its components. Alternatively, or in concert with this, direct UV-induced DNA and membrane damage to the microbiome may result in pathogen associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) that interfere with UV-induced immune suppression. PMID:27559331

  4. The skin microbiome: Is it affected by UV-induced immune suppression?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijaykumar Patra

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Human skin apart from functioning as a physical barricade to stop the entry of pathogens, also hosts innumerable commensal organisms. The skin cells and the immune system constantly interact with microbes, to maintain cutaneous homeostasis, despite the challenges offered by various environmental factors. A major environmental factor affecting the skin is ultraviolet radiation UV-R from sunlight. UV-R is well known to modulate the immune system, which can be both beneficial and deleterious. By targeting the cells and molecules within skin, UV-R can trigger the production and release of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs, affect the innate immune system and ultimately suppress the adaptive cellular immune response. This can contribute to skin carcinogenesis and the promotion of infectious agents such as herpes simplex virus and possibly others. On the other hand, a UV-established immunosuppressive environment may protect against the induction of immunologically mediated skin diseases including some of photodermatoses such as polymorphic light eruption. In this article, we share our perspective about the possibility that UV-induced immune suppression may alter the landscape of the skin's microbiome and its components. Alternatively, or in concert with this, direct UV-induced DNA and membrane damage to the microbiome may result in pathogen associated molecular patterns (PAMPs that interfere with UV-induced immune suppression.

  5. Kinetics of radiation-induced segregation in ternary alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lam, N.O.; Kumar, A.; Wiedersich, H.

    1982-01-01

    Model calculations of radiation-induced segregation in ternary alloys have been performed, using a simple theory. The theoretical model describes the coupling between the fluxes of radiation-induced defects and alloying elements in an alloy A-B-C by partitioning the defect fluxes into those occurring via A-, B-, and C-atoms, and the atom fluxes into those taking place via vacancies and interstitials. The defect and atom fluxes can be expressed in terms of concentrations and concentration gradients of all the species present. With reasonable simplifications, the radiation-induced segregation problem can be cast into a system of four coupled partial-differential equations, which can be solved numerically for appropriate initial and boundary conditions. Model calculations have been performed for ternary solid solutions intended to be representative of Fe-Cr-Ni and Ni-Al-Si alloys under various irradiation conditions. The dependence of segregation on both the alloy properties and the irradiation variables, e.g., temperature and displacement rate, was calculated. The sample calculations are in good qualitative agreement with the general trends of radiation-induced segregation observed experimentally

  6. Seven cases of radiation-induced cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugita, Kazunari; Yamamoto, Osamu; Suenaga, Yoshinori [Univ. of Occupational and Environmental Health, Kitakyushu, Fukuoka (Japan). School of Medicine

    2000-09-01

    We report 7 cases of radiation-induced skin cancer. The diagnosis was based on the history of radiotherapy for benign skin diseases (5 cases) and of occupational exposures to medical doctors (2 cases). All cases were squamous cell carcinomas which arose from chronic radiodermatitis. The estimated latent period of these tumors ranged from 6 to 64 years, with an average of 29.9 years. After surgical treatments of the lesions, no local recurrences were observed in all cases. Benign skin diseases had sometimes been treated with low-energy radiation before the 1960s. Considering the estimated latent period, the peak time point of developing risk of radiation-induced skin cancer by such treatment has been already passed, however, the danger of it should not be ignored in future. In association with multiplicity of radiation usage, occupational exposure of radiation may develop the risk of occurrence of skin cancer in future. Therefore, we should recognize that radiation-induced skin cancer is not in the past. In the cases of chronic skin diseases showing warty keratotic growth, erosion and ulcer, we should include chronic radio-dermatitis in the differential diagnosis. It is necessary to recall all patients about the history of radiotherapy or radiation exposure. Rapid histopathological examination is mandatory because of the suspicion of radiation-induced skin cancer. (author)

  7. Seven cases of radiation-induced cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugita, Kazunari; Yamamoto, Osamu; Suenaga, Yoshinori

    2000-01-01

    We report 7 cases of radiation-induced skin cancer. The diagnosis was based on the history of radiotherapy for benign skin diseases (5 cases) and of occupational exposures to medical doctors (2 cases). All cases were squamous cell carcinomas which arose from chronic radiodermatitis. The estimated latent period of these tumors ranged from 6 to 64 years, with an average of 29.9 years. After surgical treatments of the lesions, no local recurrences were observed in all cases. Benign skin diseases had sometimes been treated with low-energy radiation before the 1960s. Considering the estimated latent period, the peak time point of developing risk of radiation-induced skin cancer by such treatment has been already passed, however, the danger of it should not be ignored in future. In association with multiplicity of radiation usage, occupational exposure of radiation may develop the risk of occurrence of skin cancer in future. Therefore, we should recognize that radiation-induced skin cancer is not in the past. In the cases of chronic skin diseases showing warty keratotic growth, erosion and ulcer, we should include chronic radio-dermatitis in the differential diagnosis. It is necessary to recall all patients about the history of radiotherapy or radiation exposure. Rapid histopathological examination is mandatory because of the suspicion of radiation-induced skin cancer. (author)

  8. Membrane phospholipids and radiation-induced death of mammalian cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolters, H.

    1987-01-01

    Radiation-induced cell killing is generally believed to be a consequence of residual DNA damage or damage that is mis-repaired. However, besides this DNA damage, damage to other molecules or structures of the cell may be involved in the killing. Especially membranes have been suggested as a determinant in cellular radiosensitivity. In this thesis experiments are described, dealing with the possible involvement of membranes in radiation-induced killing of mammalian cells. A general treatise of membrane structure is followed by information concerning deleterious effects of radiation on membranes. Consequences of damage to structure and function of membranes are reviewed. Thereafter evidence relating to the possible involvement of membranes in radiation-induced cell killing is presented. (Auth.)

  9. Non-targeted bystander effects induced by ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morgan, William F.; Sowa, Marianne B.

    2007-01-01

    Radiation-induced bystander effects refer to those responses occurring in cells that were not subject to energy deposition events following ionizing radiation. These bystander cells may have been neighbors of irradiated cells, or physically separated but subject to soluble secreted signals from irradiated cells. Bystander effects have been observed in vitro and in vivo and for various radiation qualities. In tribute to an old friend and colleague, Anthony V. Carrano, who would have said 'well what are the critical questions that should be addressed, and so what?', we review the evidence for non-targeted radiation-induced bystander effects with emphasis on prevailing questions in this rapidly developing research field, and the potential significance of bystander effects in evaluating the detrimental health effects of radiation exposure

  10. Radiation-induced hondrosarcoma - a clinical case from our practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marinova, L.; Georgiev, R.; Mihaylova, I.

    2013-01-01

    We present a clinical case of radiation - induced occipital extracerebral chondrosarcoma in 36 years old young man. The patient had undergone two brain operations 8 years ago due to oligodendroglioma in the left temporo - parietal area. These surgical interventions were partial and subtotal tumor extirpation, followed by local radiotherapy to the brain to a total dose of 56Gy. The necessity of immunohistochemistry (IHH) analysis for pathologic differential diagnosis in high grade brain and peripheral tumors was discussed. In this particular case a precise differential diagnosis between peripheral chondrosarcoma and Ewing sarcoma/pPNET is needed. important risk factors for the development of radiation-induced brain tumors and chondrosarcoma, extremely rarely diagnosed, was discussed. A very accurate precising of the treatment radiation dose is needed in young patients with malignant brain tumors, not only in the surrounding healthy brain tissues, but also in other tissues, such as skin, subcutaneous layer and bone. The exceeding of the radiation dose in the bone above 45-50 Gy, increases the risk of radiation - induced sarcoma with latent period over 8 years. Key words: Hondrosarcoma. Radiotherapy. Radiation-induced Sarcoma. Complex Treatment. Immunohistochemistry

  11. Radiative characterization of random fibrous media with long cylindrical fibers: Comparison of single- and multi-RTE approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randrianalisoa, Jaona; Haussener, Sophia; Baillis, Dominique; Lipiński, Wojciech

    2017-11-01

    Radiative heat transfer is analyzed in participating media consisting of long cylindrical fibers with a diameter in the limit of geometrical optics. The absorption and scattering coefficients and the scattering phase function of the medium are determined based on the discrete-level medium geometry and optical properties of individual fibers. The fibers are assumed to be randomly oriented and positioned inside the medium. Two approaches are employed: a volume-averaged two-intensity approach referred to as multi-RTE approach and a homogenized single-intensity approach referred to as the single-RTE approach. Both approaches require effective properties, determined using direct Monte Carlo ray tracing techniques. The macroscopic radiative transfer equations (for single intensity or two volume-averaged intensities) with the corresponding effective properties are solved using Monte Carlo techniques and allow for the determination of the radiative flux distribution as well as overall transmittance and reflectance of the medium. The results are compared against predictions by the direct Monte Carlo simulation on the exact morphology. The effects of fiber volume fraction and optical properties on the effective radiative properties and the overall slab radiative characteristics are investigated. The single-RTE approach gives accurate predictions for high porosity fibrous media (porosity about 95%). The multi-RTE approach is recommended for isotropic fibrous media with porosity in the range of 79-95%.

  12. Bile acids in radiation-induced diarrhea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arlow, F.L.; Dekovich, A.A.; Priest, R.J.; Beher, W.T.

    1987-01-01

    Radiation-induced bowel disease manifested by debilitating diarrhea is an unfortunate consequence of therapeutic irradiation for pelvic malignancies. Although the mechanism for this diarrhea is not well understood, many believe it is the result of damage to small bowel mucosa and subsequent bile acid malabsorption. Excess amounts of bile acids, especially the dihydroxy components, are known to induce water and electrolyte secretion and increase bowel motility. We have directly measured individual and total bile acids in the stool samples of 11 patients with radiation-induced diarrhea and have found bile acids elevated two to six times normal in eight of them. Our patients with diarrhea and increased bile acids in their stools had prompt improvement when given cholestyramine. They had fewer stools and returned to a more normal life-style

  13. Ionizing radiation induces stemness in cancer cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Ghisolfi

    Full Text Available The cancer stem cell (CSC model posits the presence of a small number of CSCs in the heterogeneous cancer cell population that are ultimately responsible for tumor initiation, as well as cancer recurrence and metastasis. CSCs have been isolated from a variety of human cancers and are able to generate a hierarchical and heterogeneous cancer cell population. CSCs are also resistant to conventional chemo- and radio-therapies. Here we report that ionizing radiation can induce stem cell-like properties in heterogeneous cancer cells. Exposure of non-stem cancer cells to ionizing radiation enhanced spherogenesis, and this was accompanied by upregulation of the pluripotency genes Sox2 and Oct3/4. Knockdown of Sox2 or Oct3/4 inhibited radiation-induced spherogenesis and increased cellular sensitivity to radiation. These data demonstrate that ionizing radiation can activate stemness pathways in heterogeneous cancer cells, resulting in the enrichment of a CSC subpopulation with higher resistance to radiotherapy.

  14. Grey radiative transfer in binary statistical media with material temperature coupling: asymptotic limits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prinja, A.K.; Olson, G.L.

    2005-01-01

    Simplified models for the unconditional ensemble-averaged radiation intensity and material energy are developed for radiative transfer in binary statistical media. Asymptotic analysis is used to construct an effective transport model with homogenized opacities in two limits. In the first, the material properties are assumed to have low contrast on average, and is shown to correctly reproduce the well-known atomic mix model in both time-dependent and equilibrium situations. Our analysis successfully resolves an inconsistency previously noted in the literature with the application of the standard definition of the atomic mix limit to radiative transfer in participating random media. In the second limit considered, the materials are assumed to have highly contrasting opacities, yielding a reduced transport model with effective scattering. The existence of these limits requires the mean chunk sizes to be independent of the photon direction and this creates an ambiguity in the interpretation of the models when the underlying stochastic geometry is comprised of alternating one-dimensional slabs. A consistent one-dimensional setting is defined and the asymptotic models are numerically validated over a broad range of physical parameter values

  15. The influence of radiation-induced defects on thermoluminescence and optically stimulated luminescence of α-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}:C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nyirenda, A.N., E-mail: anyirenda@gmail.com; Chithambo, M.L.

    2017-04-15

    It is known that when α-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}:C is exposed to excessive amounts of ionising radiation, defects are induced within its matrix. We report the influence of radiation-induced defects on the thermoluminescence (TL) and optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) measured from α-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}:C after irradiation to 1000 Gy. These radiation-induced defects are thermally unstable in the region 450–650 °C and result in TL peaks in this range when the TL is measured at 1 °C/s. Heating a sample to 700 °C obliterates the radiation-induced defects, that is, the TL peaks corresponding to the radiation induced defects are no longer observed in the subsequent TL measurements when moderate irradiation doses below 10 Gy are used. The charge traps associated with these radiation-induced defects are more stable than the dosimetric trap when the sample is exposed to either sunlight or 470-nm blue light from LEDs. TL glow curves measured following the defect-inducing irradiation produce a dosimetric peak that is broader and positioned at a higher temperature than observed in glow curves obtained before the heavy irradiation. In addition, sample sensitization/desensitization occurs due to the presence of these radiation-induced defects. Furthermore, both the activation energy and the kinetic order of the dosimetric peak evaluated when the radiation-induced defects are present in the sample are significantly lower in value than those obtained when these defects are absent. The radiation-induced defects also affect the shape and total light sum of the OSL signal as well as the position and width of the resultant residual phototransferred thermoluminescence main peak.

  16. Specitic gene alterations in radiation-induced tumorigenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, Joo Mee; Kang, Chang Mo; Lee, Seung Sook; Cho, Chul Koo; Bae, Sang Woo; Lee, Su Jae; Lee, Yun Sil [Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-07-01

    To identify a set of genes involved in the development of radiation-induced tumorigenesis, we used DNA microarrays consisting of 1,176 mouse genes and compared expression profiles of radioresistant cells, designated NIH3T3-R1 and -R4. These cells were tumorigenic in a nude mouse grafting system, as compared to the parental NIH3T3 cells. Expressions of MDM2, CDK6 and CDC25B were found to increase more than 3-fold. Entactin protein levels were downregulated in NIH3T3-R1 and -R4 cells. Changes in expression genes were confirmed by reverse transcription-PCR or western blotting. When these genes were transfected to NIH3T3 cells, the CDC25B and MDM2 overexpressing NIH3T3 cells showed radioresistance, while 2 CDK6 overexpressing cells did not. In the case of entactin overexpressing NIH3T3-R1 or R-4 cells were still radioresistant. Furthermore, the CDC25B and MDM2 overexpressing cells grafted to nude mice, were tumorigenic. NIH3T3-R1 and R4 cells showed increased radiation-induced apoptosis, accompanied by faster growth rate, rather than and earlier radiation-induced G2/M phase arrest, suggesting that the radioresistance of NIH3T3-R1 and R4 cells was due to faster growth rate, rather than induction of apoptosis. In the case of MDM2 and CDC25B overexpressing cells, similar phenomena, such as increased apoptosis and faster growth rate, were shown. The above results, therefore, demonstrate involvement of CDC25B and MDM2 overexpression in radiation-induced tumorigenesis and provide novel targets for detection of radiation-induced carcinogenesis.

  17. Radiation-induced taste aversion: effects of radiation exposure level and the exposure-taste interval

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spector, A.C.; Smith, J.C.; Hollander, G.R.

    1986-01-01

    Radiation-induced taste aversion has been suggested to possibly play a role in the dietary difficulties observed in some radiotherapy patients. In rats, these aversions can still be formed even when the radiation exposure precedes the taste experience by several hours. This study was conducted to examine whether increasing the radiation exposure level could extend the range of the exposure-taste interval that would still support the formation of a taste aversion. Separate groups of rats received either a 100 or 300 R gamma-ray exposure followed 1, 3, 6, or 24 h later by a 10-min saccharin (0.1% w/v) presentation. A control group received a sham exposure followed 1 h later by a 10-min saccharin presentation. Twenty-four hours following the saccharin presentation all rats received a series of twelve 23-h two-bottle preference tests between saccharin and water. The results indicated that the duration of the exposure-taste interval plays an increasingly more important role in determining the initial extent of the aversion as the dose decreases. The course of recovery from taste aversion seems more affected by dose than by the temporal parameters of the conditioning trial

  18. Induced Compton-scattering effects in radiation-transport approximations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibson, D.R. Jr.

    1982-02-01

    The method of characteristics is used to solve radiation transport problems with induced Compton scattering effects included. The methods used to date have only addressed problems in which either induced Compton scattering is ignored, or problems in which linear scattering is ignored. Also, problems which include both induced Compton scattering and spatial effects have not been considered previously. The introduction of induced scattering into the radiation transport equation results in a quadratic nonlinearity. Methods are developed to solve problems in which both linear and nonlinear Compton scattering are important. Solutions to scattering problems are found for a variety of initial photon energy distributions

  19. The role of theophylline in prevention of radiocontrast media-induced nephropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malhis Mahmoud

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Contrast media induced nephropathy (CIN results in significant morbidity and mortality. We therefore investigated whether theophylline (adenosine antagonist reduces the inci-dence of contrast media induced nephropathy. Two hundred and eighty patients were randomly assigned to prophylactic administration of hydration with sodium bicarbonate plus theophylline (either orally or intravenously (n=128 or hydration with sodium bicarbonate only (n=152. Blood Urea, creatinine, and glomerular filtration rate (MDRD were measured before and after administration of contrast media. Both groups were similar in clinical characteristics and amount of contrast used. Theophylline prophylaxis significantly reduced the incidence of CIN (1.6% vs 7.9%; P= 0.015. Compared to low-risk patients, Theophylline prophylaxis significantly reduced the incidence of CIN in moderate and high-risk patients (0% vs 8.8%; P= 0.022 and 9.1% vs 42.1%; P= 0.014 respectively. In conclusion, prophylactic administration of theophylline re-duces the incidence of CIN in moderate and high-risk patients for CIN.

  20. Ambient ultraviolet radiation induces protective responses in soybean but does not attenuate indirect defense

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winter, Thorsten R.; Rostas, Michael

    2008-01-01

    We investigated the effects of ambient ultraviolet (UV) radiation on (i) the performance and chemistry of soybean plants, (ii) the performance of Spodoptera frugiperda and (iii) the foraging behavior of the herbivore's natural enemy Cotesia marginiventris which exploits herbivore-induced plant volatiles (VOC) for host location. The accumulation of protective phenolics was faster in plants receiving ambient UV than in controls exposed to sun light lacking UV. Accordingly, isorhamnetin- and quercetin-based flavonoids were increased in UV exposed plants. No UV effects were found on the performance and feeding behavior of S. frugiperda. Herbivore-damaged plants emitted the same VOC when grown under ambient or attenuated UV for 5, 10 or 30 days. Consequently, C. marginiventris was attracted but did not discriminate between exposed and unexposed soybeans. In summary, ambient UV radiation affected soybean morphology and physiology but did not destabilize interactions between trophic levels. - Ambient ultraviolet radiation does not alter induced VOC emission in soybean and thus host location of the parasitoid Cotesia marginiventris remains effective

  1. Onset of color decoherence for soft gluon radiation in a medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehtar-Tani, Y.; Salgado, C. A.; Tywoniuk, K.

    2011-12-01

    We report on recent studies of the phenomenon of color decoherence in jets in QCD media. The effect is most clearly observed in the radiation pattern of a quark-antiquark antenna, created in the same quantum state, traversing a dense color deconfined plasma. Multiple scattering with the medium color charges gradually destroys the coherence of the antenna. In the limit of opaque media, this ultimately leads to independent radiation off the antenna constituents. Accordingly, radiation off the total charge vanishes implying a memory loss effect induced by the medium.

  2. Construction of radiation - induced metastasis model in vivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jong Kuk; Jang, Su Jin; Kang, Sung Wook; Kim, Jae Sung; Hwang, Sang Gu; Kang, Joo Hyun [Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-05-15

    In treatment of cancer, distant metastases are important limiting factor because an estimated 50% of all cancer patients will develop metastases, and the metastases are major causing of cancer treatment failure. Recently a few reports indicated {gamma}-radiation induced an increase of invasiveness of several cancer cells. In this study, we had tried to show the possibility that radiation could also induce metastasis in vivo system. To prove our hypothesis, we constructed primary tumor by using C6-TL transfectant cell line expressing HSV1-tk and firefly luciferase (fLuc), and then {gamma}-radiation was treated to xenografts locally. Treatment of {gamma}-radiation to primary C6-TL xenografts of mice reduced size of xenografts and elongated survival of mice than those of mock control mice. But we also show that {gamma}-radiation treatment was followed by the growth of dormant metastases in various organs including lung and intestine after 2-4 weeks of {gamma}-radiation treatment. When bioluminescence imaging indicated growth of tumor in organs in mice, we sacrificed the mice and repeat acquired bioluminescence imaging after repeatedly. These images presented tumor growth locations exactly in organs. Because metastatic tumor candidates have morphology of foci, biopsies were performed for histological analysis or PCR analysis to confirm metastases. In most foci, histological analysis indicated several features of typical cancer tissue and PCR analysis showed present of fLuc gene in metastases. Detection of fLuc gene in metastases indicated these foci were originated from primary C6-TL xenografts, and the results suggest that {gamma}-radiation could promote metastasis in vivo as well as in vitro system. Although we need to understand changes of intracellular signaling or physiological phenomena of the radiation-induced metastasis yet, these results also imply that {gamma}-radiation treatment only to cancer patients need to pay attention carefully, and development of new

  3. Immunohistochemical study of p53 overexpression in radiation-induced colon cancers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minami, Kazunori; Hayashi, Nobuyuki; Mokarim, A.; Matsuzaki, Sumihiro; Ito, Masahiro; Sekine, Ichiro.

    1998-01-01

    The expressions of p53 and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) were studied immunohistochemically from paraffin sections of 7 cases (9 lesions) of radiation-induced colon cancer and 42 cases of spontaneous colon cancer. Age distribution of radiation-induced and spontaneous colon cancer were 68.1 years (range, 56 to 77 years) and 67.4 years (range, 31 to 85 years), respectively. Among the radiation-induced colon cancers, there were 3 lesions of mucinous carcinoma (33%), a much higher than found for spontaneous mucinous cancer. Immunohistochemically, p53 protein expression was detected in 7/9 (78%) of radiation-induced cancers and in 23/42 (55%) of spontaneous colon cancers. χ 2 analysis found no significant differences between radiation-induced and spontaneous colon cancers in age distribution or p53-positive staining for frequency, histopathology, or Dukes'' classification. In radiation colitis around the cancers including aberrant crypts, spotted p53 staining and abnormal and scattered PCNA-positive staining were observed. In histologically normal cells, p53 staining was almost absent and PCNA-positive staining was regularly observed in the lower half of the crypt. In radiation colitis including aberrant glands, cellular proliferation increased and spotted p53 expression was observed. This study suggests that radiation colitis and aberrant glands might possess malignant potential and deeply associate with carcinogenesis of radiation-induced colon cancer. (author)

  4. Non-classical radiation transport in random media with fluctuating densities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dyuldya, S.V.; Bratchenko, M.I.

    2012-01-01

    The ensemble averaged propagation kernels of the non-classical radiation transport are studied by means of the proposed application of the stochastic differential equation random medium generators. It is shown that the non-classical transport is favored in long-correlated weakly fluctuating media. The developed kernel models have been implemented in GEANT4 and validated against the d ouble Monte Carlo m odeling of absorptions curves of disperse neutron absorbers and γ-albedos from a scatterer/absorber random mix

  5. Application of controlled radiation-induced degradation in polymers: less exploited aspect of radiation processing of polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haji Saeid, M.; Guven, O.

    2007-01-01

    Industrial use of ionizing radiation treatment has been most successful in applications related to polymeric materials. The polymer, plastics and rubber industries have benefited from the unique advantages of ionizing radiation since its inception as an industrial tool to modify their properties and manufacture novel materials with value addition to the end product. The established and emerging applications of electron beam processing of polymers are based on the well known ultimate effects of ionizing radiation on polymers namely, crosslinking, curing, grafting and chain scissioning. Radiation-induced crosslinking dominates most applications, whereas the chain scissioning effect is much less explored and currently limited to radiation-induced degradation of Teflon, cellulose and polypropylene. The controlling of radiation-induced degradation for achieving a target average molecular weight or distribution has been evaluated for some polysaccharides, biopolymers and waste inner tubes whereas mitigation of the degradative effects of radiation has been analyzed from the point of view of using certain stabilizers, copolymers and annealing at an appropriate temperature. Several new or highly specialized techniques such as positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy. Rutherford backscattering, elastic recoil detection analysis and solid waste NMR spectroscopy and gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy have been applied to the study or radiation-induced degradation. New information has been collected on the morphological changes associated with radiation-induced degradation processes, including chain scission, oxidation and free volume alteration. The IAEA coordinated research project (CRP) on Controlling of Degradation Effects in Radiation Processing of Polymers dealt with the role and importance of using ionizing radiation in controlling properties of natural and synthetic polymers through its degradative effect. This paper provides a summary of most important results

  6. A report on radiation-induced gliomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salvati, M.; Artico, M.; Caruso, R.; Rocchi, G.; Orlando, E.R.; Nucci, F.

    1991-01-01

    Radiation-induced gliomas are uncommon, with only 73 cases on record to date. The disease that most frequently occasioned radiation therapy has been acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Three more cases are added here, two after irradiation for ALL and one after irradiation for tinea capitis. In a review of the relevant literature, the authors stress the possibility that the ALL-glioma and the retinoblastoma-glioma links point to syndromes in their own right that may occur without radiation therapy.56 references

  7. Epigenetic Analysis of Heavy-ion Radiation Induced Bystander Effects in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Meng; Sun, Yeqing; Cui, Changna; Xue, Bei

    Abstract: Radiation-induced bystander effect was defined as the induction of damage in neighboring non-hit cells by signals released from directly-irradiated cells. Recently, low dose of high LET radiation induced bystander effects in vivo have been reported more and more. It has been indicated that radiation induced bystander effect was localized not only in bystander tissues but also in distant organs. Genomic, epigenetic and proteomics plays significant roles in regulating heavy-ion radiation stress responses in mice. To identify the molecular mechanism that underlies bystander effects of heavy-ion radiation, the male Balb/c and C57BL mice were exposed head-only to 40, 200, 2000mGy dose of (12) C heavy-ion radiation, while the rest of the animal body was shielded. Directly radiation organ ear and the distant organ liver were detected on 1h, 6h, 12h and 24h after radiation, respectively. Methylation-sensitive amplification polymorphism (MSAP) was used to monitor the level of polymorphic genomic DNA methylation changed with dose and time effects. The results show that heavy-ion irradiated mouse head could induce genomic DNA methylation changes significantly in both the directly radiation organ ear and the distant organ liver. The percent of DNA methylation changes were time-dependent and tissue-specific. Demethylation polymorphism rate was highest separately at 1 h in 200 mGy and 6 h in 2000 mGy after irradiation. The global DNA methylation changes tended to occur in the CG sites. The results illustrated that genomic methylation changes of heavy ion radiation-induced bystander effect in liver could be obvious 1 h after radiation and achieved the maximum at 6 h, while the changes could recover gradually at 12 h. The results suggest that mice head exposed to heavy-ion radiation can induce damage and methylation pattern changed in both directly radiation organ ear and distant organ liver. Moreover, our findings are important to understand the molecular mechanism of

  8. Radiation-induced conductivity of polynaphthoyl benzimidazole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiutnev, A P; Berlin, A M; Saenko, V S; Rusanov, A L; Korshak, V V

    1985-01-01

    The nonstationary radiation-induced conductivity of polynaphthoyl benzimidazole, synthesized by single-stage high-temperature catalytic polycondensation, is investigated experimentally. It is shown that the radiation-induced conductivity of this material is characterized by an anomalous (non-Gaussian) transfer of excess charge carriers. The activation energy of the delayed component (0.1 ms after pulse termination) is determined to be 0.12 eV; the volt-ampere characteristic of this component is nonlinear, with the coefficient of nonlinearity increasing with the intensity of the external electric field. Experimental results are interpreted on the basis of the phenomenological theory of jump conductivity proposed by Zviagin. 15 references.

  9. High and Low LET Radiation Differentially Induce Normal Tissue Damage Signals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niemantsverdriet, Maarten; Goethem, Marc-Jan van; Bron, Reinier; Hogewerf, Wytse; Brandenburg, Sytze; Langendijk, Johannes A.; Luijk, Peter van; Coppes, Robert P.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Radiotherapy using high linear energy transfer (LET) radiation is aimed at efficiently killing tumor cells while minimizing dose (biological effective) to normal tissues to prevent toxicity. It is well established that high LET radiation results in lower cell survival per absorbed dose than low LET radiation. However, whether various mechanisms involved in the development of normal tissue damage may be regulated differentially is not known. Therefore the aim of this study was to investigate whether two actions related to normal tissue toxicity, p53-induced apoptosis and expression of the profibrotic gene PAI-1 (plasminogen activator inhibitor 1), are differentially induced by high and low LET radiation. Methods and Materials: Cells were irradiated with high LET carbon ions or low LET photons. Cell survival assays were performed, profibrotic PAI-1 expression was monitored by quantitative polymerase chain reaction, and apoptosis was assayed by annexin V staining. Activation of p53 by phosphorylation at serine 315 and serine 37 was monitored by Western blotting. Transfections of plasmids expressing p53 mutated at serines 315 and 37 were used to test the requirement of these residues for apoptosis and expression of PAI-1. Results: As expected, cell survival was lower and induction of apoptosis was higher in high -LET irradiated cells. Interestingly, induction of the profibrotic PAI-1 gene was similar with high and low LET radiation. In agreement with this finding, phosphorylation of p53 at serine 315 involved in PAI-1 expression was similar with high and low LET radiation, whereas phosphorylation of p53 at serine 37, involved in apoptosis induction, was much higher after high LET irradiation. Conclusions: Our results indicate that diverse mechanisms involved in the development of normal tissue damage may be differentially affected by high and low LET radiation. This may have consequences for the development and manifestation of normal tissue damage.

  10. X-ray semiotics of radiations affections of the lungs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabinovich, R.M.; Shapiro, I.V.

    1976-01-01

    On the hasis of analysis of roentgenograms, tomograms, and bronchograms in 189 patients a repeated study was made of the X-ray semiotics of radiation affections of the lungs. The leading roentgenological symptom of radiation affections of the lungs irrespective of their primary localization, was linear deformity and intensification of the broncho-vascular patten in the peripheral zone. This was expressed on roentgenograms in the form of radially- and cross- coursing shadows from the root: tomog.raphically it was manifested in narrowed shadows of the vessels, a change of their course, their approximation and a tendency to approach the centre; analogous disturbances of topography of the bronchi with phenomena of deforming bronchitis were seen in bronchography. A significant si.gn of radiation injuries of the lung tissue is a tendency to progressive development of connective tissue, which was expressed roentgenologically in extensive pneumosclerosis, sometimes with an outcome into fibrothorax with marked topographic disturbances. Radiation injuries are accompanied by an adhesive reaction of the pleura

  11. Ubiquitin-dependent system controls radiation induced apoptosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delic, J.; Magdelenat, H.; Glaisner, S.; Magdelenat, H.; Maciorowski, Z.

    1997-01-01

    The selective proteolytic pathway, dependent upon 'N-end rule' protein recognition/ubiquitination and on the subsequent proteasome dependent processing of ubiquitin conjugates, operates in apoptosis induced by γ-irradiation. The proteasome inhibitor peptide aldehyde, MG132, efficiently induced apoptosis and was also able (at doses lower than those required for apoptosis induction) to potentiate apoptosis induced by DNA damage. Its specificity is suggested by the induction of the ubiquitin (UbB and UbC) and E1 (ubiquitin activating enzyme) genes and by an altered ubiquitination pattern. More selectively, a di-peptide competitor of the 'N-end rule' of ubiquitin dependent protein processing inhibited radiation induced apoptosis. This inhibition is also followed by an altered ubiquitination pattern and by activation of Poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP). These data strongly suggest that early apoptosis radiation induced events are controlled by ubiquitin-dependent proteolytic processing. (author)

  12. A reaction-diffusion model for radiation-induced bystander effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olobatuyi, Oluwole; de Vries, Gerda; Hillen, Thomas

    2017-08-01

    We develop and analyze a reaction-diffusion model to investigate the dynamics of the lifespan of a bystander signal emitted when cells are exposed to radiation. Experimental studies by Mothersill and Seymour 1997, using malignant epithelial cell lines, found that an emitted bystander signal can still cause bystander effects in cells even 60 h after its emission. Several other experiments have also shown that the signal can persist for months and even years. Also, bystander effects have been hypothesized as one of the factors responsible for the phenomenon of low-dose hyper-radiosensitivity and increased radioresistance (HRS/IRR). Here, we confirm this hypothesis with a mathematical model, which we fit to Joiner's data on HRS/IRR in a T98G glioma cell line. Furthermore, we use phase plane analysis to understand the full dynamics of the signal's lifespan. We find that both single and multiple radiation exposure can lead to bystander signals that either persist temporarily or permanently. We also found that, in an heterogeneous environment, the size of the domain exposed to radiation and the number of radiation exposures can determine whether a signal will persist temporarily or permanently. Finally, we use sensitivity analysis to identify those cell parameters that affect the signal's lifespan and the signal-induced cell death the most.

  13. Radiation-induced cancer in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamashita, Shoji; Sekizuka, Eiichi; Yamashita, Hisao; Takami, Akira; Kubo, Atsushi

    2001-01-01

    Results of two questionnaire surveys on radiation-induced malignant tumors conducted in 1977 and 1984 in Japan are briefly summarized. A total of 234 universities and general hospitals (139 in 1977, and 95 in 1984) responded and provided data from 1945 to 1977 and from 1978 to 1984. The number of patients with benign disease who developed secondary malignant tumors following radiation therapy was 150 in the first survey (1977) and 86 in the second survey (1984). The underlying benign diseases of these patients included tuberculous lymphadenitis, skin disease, hemangioma, and thyroid disease, and the most frequent radiation-induced malignant tumors in these patients were malignant tumors of the pharynx (80), cancer of the larynx (26), malignant tumors of the thyroid gland (22), cancer of the esophagus (219), and skin cancer (21). In patients with head and neck diseases the highest correlation between underlying benign disease and radiation-induced malignant tumors was between cervical tuberculous lymphadenitis and tumors of the pharynx (67 patients), followed by cancer of the larynx (19), and malignant tumors of the thyroid gland (11). There were also correlations between thyroid disease and malignant tumors of the thyroid gland (8 patients), hemangioma and skin cancer (7), and skin disease and skin cancer (8). The ratio of the observed values to predicted values (O/E ratio) in these patients was highest for cancer of the pharynx (118), followed by cancer of the parotid gland (42), skin cancer (31), cancer of the esophagus (22), malignant tumors of the thyroid gland (21), and cancer of the larynx (16). The number of patients with malignant tumors who developed secondary malignant tumors following radiation therapy was 140 in 1977 and 108 in 1984, and the underlying malignant tumors in these patients included tumors of the uterus (106), breast (32), and head and neck (80). The most frequent secondary malignant tumors were soft tissue tumors, followed by leukemia, and

  14. Densely ionizing radiation affects DNA methylation of selective LINE-1 elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prior, Sara; Miousse, Isabelle R. [Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, Fay W. Boozman College of Public Health, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, AR 72205 (United States); Nzabarushimana, Etienne [Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, Fay W. Boozman College of Public Health, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, AR 72205 (United States); Department of Bioinformatics, School of Informatics and Computing, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN 47405 (United States); Pathak, Rupak [Division of Radiation Health, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, AR 72205 (United States); Skinner, Charles; Kutanzi, Kristy R. [Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, Fay W. Boozman College of Public Health, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, AR 72205 (United States); Allen, Antiño R. [Division of Radiation Health, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, AR 72205 (United States); Raber, Jacob [Departments of Behavioral Neuroscience, Neurology, and Radiation Medicine, Division of Neuroscience, ONPRC, Oregon Health & Science University, Portland, OR 97239 (United States); Tackett, Alan J. [Department of Biochemistry, College of Medicine, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, AR 72205 (United States); Hauer-Jensen, Martin [Division of Radiation Health, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, AR 72205 (United States); Nelson, Gregory A. [Department of Basic Sciences, Division of Radiation Research, Loma Linda University, Loma Linda, CA 92350 (United States); and others

    2016-10-15

    Long Interspersed Nucleotide Element 1 (LINE-1) retrotransposons are heavily methylated and are the most abundant transposable elements in mammalian genomes. Here, we investigated the differential DNA methylation within the LINE-1 under normal conditions and in response to environmentally relevant doses of sparsely and densely ionizing radiation. We demonstrate that DNA methylation of LINE-1 elements in the lungs of C57BL6 mice is dependent on their evolutionary age, where the elder age of the element is associated with the lower extent of DNA methylation. Exposure to 5-aza-2′-deoxycytidine and methionine-deficient diet affected DNA methylation of selective LINE-1 elements in an age- and promoter type-dependent manner. Exposure to densely IR, but not sparsely IR, resulted in DNA hypermethylation of older LINE-1 elements, while the DNA methylation of evolutionary younger elements remained mostly unchanged. We also demonstrate that exposure to densely IR increased mRNA and protein levels of LINE-1 via the loss of the histone H3K9 dimethylation and an increase in the H3K4 trimethylation at the LINE-1 5′-untranslated region, independently of DNA methylation. Our findings suggest that DNA methylation is important for regulation of LINE-1 expression under normal conditions, but histone modifications may dictate the transcriptional activity of LINE-1 in response to exposure to densely IR. - Highlights: • DNA methylation of LINE-1 elements is dependent on their evolutionary age. • Densely ionizing radiation affects DNA methylation of selective LINE-1 elements. • Radiation-induced reactivation of LINE-1 is DNA methylation-independent. • Histone modifications dictate the transcriptional activity of LINE-1.

  15. Densely ionizing radiation affects DNA methylation of selective LINE-1 elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prior, Sara; Miousse, Isabelle R.; Nzabarushimana, Etienne; Pathak, Rupak; Skinner, Charles; Kutanzi, Kristy R.; Allen, Antiño R.; Raber, Jacob; Tackett, Alan J.; Hauer-Jensen, Martin; Nelson, Gregory A.

    2016-01-01

    Long Interspersed Nucleotide Element 1 (LINE-1) retrotransposons are heavily methylated and are the most abundant transposable elements in mammalian genomes. Here, we investigated the differential DNA methylation within the LINE-1 under normal conditions and in response to environmentally relevant doses of sparsely and densely ionizing radiation. We demonstrate that DNA methylation of LINE-1 elements in the lungs of C57BL6 mice is dependent on their evolutionary age, where the elder age of the element is associated with the lower extent of DNA methylation. Exposure to 5-aza-2′-deoxycytidine and methionine-deficient diet affected DNA methylation of selective LINE-1 elements in an age- and promoter type-dependent manner. Exposure to densely IR, but not sparsely IR, resulted in DNA hypermethylation of older LINE-1 elements, while the DNA methylation of evolutionary younger elements remained mostly unchanged. We also demonstrate that exposure to densely IR increased mRNA and protein levels of LINE-1 via the loss of the histone H3K9 dimethylation and an increase in the H3K4 trimethylation at the LINE-1 5′-untranslated region, independently of DNA methylation. Our findings suggest that DNA methylation is important for regulation of LINE-1 expression under normal conditions, but histone modifications may dictate the transcriptional activity of LINE-1 in response to exposure to densely IR. - Highlights: • DNA methylation of LINE-1 elements is dependent on their evolutionary age. • Densely ionizing radiation affects DNA methylation of selective LINE-1 elements. • Radiation-induced reactivation of LINE-1 is DNA methylation-independent. • Histone modifications dictate the transcriptional activity of LINE-1.

  16. Radiation induced liver disease: A clinical update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benson, R.; Madan, R.; Chander, S.; Kilambi, R.

    2016-01-01

    Radiation-induced liver disease (RILD) or radiation hepatitis is a sub-acute form of liver injury due to radiation. It is one of the most dreaded complications of radiation which prevents radiation dose escalation and re irradiation for hepatobiliary or upper gastrointestinal malignancies. This complication should be kept in mind whenever a patient is planned for irradiation of these malignancies. Although, incidence of RILD is decreasing due to better knowledge of liver tolerance, improved investigation modalities and modern radiation delivery techniques, treatment options are still limited. In this review article, we have focussed on pathophysiology, risk factors, prevention and management of RILD

  17. Does altered fractionation influence the risk of radiation-induced optic neuropathy?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhandare, Niranjan; Monroe, Alan T.; Morris, Christopher G.; Bhatti, M. Tariq; Mendenhall, William M.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To analyze the parameters that influence the risk of radiation-induced optic neuropathy (RION) after radiotherapy for head-and-neck tumors. Methods and Materials: Between 1964 and 2000, 273 patients with tumors of the nasopharynx, paranasal sinuses, nasal cavity, and hard palate adenoid cystic carcinomas were treated with curative intent and had radiation fields that included the optic nerves and/or chiasm. Patients were followed for at least 1 year after radiotherapy. Results: Radiation-induced optic neuropathy developed in 32 eyes of 24 patients (9%). The 5-year rates of freedom from RION according to the total dose and once- vs. twice-daily fractionation were as follows: ≤63 Gy once daily, 95%; ≤63 Gy twice daily, 98%; >63 Gy once daily, 78%; and >63 Gy twice daily, 91%. Multivariate analysis revealed that the total dose affected the risk of RION (p = 0.0047), with patient age (p = 0.0909), once-daily vs. twice-daily fractionation (p = 0.0684), and overall treatment time (p = 0.0972) were marginally significant. The use of adjuvant chemotherapy did not significantly influence the likelihood of developing RION. Conclusion: The likelihood of developing RION is primarily influenced by the total dose. Hyperfractionation may reduce the risk of experiencing this complication

  18. Radiation-induced gene responses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woloschak, G.E.; Paunesku, T.; Shearin-Jones, P.; Oryhon, J.

    1996-01-01

    In the process of identifying genes that are differentially regulated in cells exposed to ultraviolet radiation (UV), we identified a transcript that was repressed following the exposure of cells to a combination of UV and salicylate, a known inhibitor of NF-kappaB. Sequencing this band determined that it has identify to lactate dehydrogenase, and Northern blots confirmed the initial expression pattern. Analysis of the sequence of the LDH 5' region established the presence of NF-kappaB, Sp1, and two Ap-2 elements; two partial AP- 1; one partial RE, and two halves of E-UV elements were also found. Electromobility shift assays were then performed for the AP-1, NF- kappaB, and E-UV elements. These experiments revealed that binding to NF-kappaB was induced by UV but repressed with salicylic acid; UV did not affect AP-1 binding, but salicylic acid inhibited it alone or following UV exposure; and E-UV binding was repressed by UV, and salicylic acid had little effect. Since the binding of no single element correlated with the expression pattern of LDH, it is likely that multiple elements govern UV/salicylate-mediated expression

  19. Radiation-induced meningiomas in pediatric patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moss, S.D.; Rockswold, G.L.; Chou, S.N.; Yock, D.; Berger, M.S.

    1988-01-01

    Radiation-induced meningiomas rarely have latency periods short enough from the time of irradiation to the clinical presentation of the tumor to present in the pediatric patient. Three cases of radiation-induced intracranial meningiomas in pediatric patients are presented. The first involved a meningioma of the right frontal region in a 10-year-old boy 6 years after the resection and irradiation of a 4th ventricular medulloblastoma. Review of our pediatric tumor cases produced a second case of a left temporal fossa meningioma presenting in a 15-year-old boy with a history of irradiation for retinoblastoma at age 3 years and a third case of a right frontoparietal meningioma in a 15-year-old girl after irradiation for acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Only three cases of meningiomas presenting in the pediatric age group after radiation therapy to the head were detected in our review of the literature

  20. Radiation-induced mutations and plant breeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naqvi, S.H.M.

    1985-01-01

    Ionizing radiation could cause genetic changes in an organism and could modify gene linkages. The induction of mutation through radiation is random and the probability of getting the desired genetic change is low but can be increased by manipulating different parameters such as dose rate, physical conditions under which the material has been irradiated, etc. Induced mutations have been used as a supplement to conventional plant breeding, particularly for creating genetic variability for specific characters such as improved plant structure, pest and disease resistance, and desired changes in maturity period; more than 200 varieties of crop plants have been developed by this technique. The Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission has used this technique fruitfully to evolve better germplasm in cotton, rice, chickpea, wheat and mungbean; some of the mutants have become popular commercial varieties. This paper describes some uses of radiation induced mutations and the results achieved in Pakistan so far

  1. Radiation recall dermatitis, panniculitis, and myositis following cyclophosphamide therapy: histopathologic findings of a patient affected by multiple myeloma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borroni, Giovanni; Vassallo, Camilla; Brazzelli, Valeria; Martinoli, Sara; Ardigò, Marco; Alessandrino, Paolo Emilio; Borroni, Riccardo Giovanni; Franchini, Pietro

    2004-06-01

    Radiation recall dermatitis is one of the skin sequelae that may affect oncology patients. It occurs in a previously irradiated field, when subsequent chemotherapy is given. The eruption may be elicited by chemotherapy, even several months after radiotherapy. Its mechanism is poorly understood, and the histopathologic findings have received, to date, only sketchy descriptions. A 55-year-old male affected by multiple myeloma received radiation therapy both on his left coxofemoral area, and lumbar region (D11-L1). After cyclophosphamide administration, he developed 2 well defined square-shaped, infiltrated erythematoviolaceous plaques in the prior irradiated fields. Histopathologic findings revealed a diffusely fibrosclerosing process, involving deep dermis, hypodermis, as well as the underlying muscle, while sparing the epidermis and superficial-mid dermis. Histopathology was indistinguishable from deep radio-dermatitis, panniculitis, and myositis. This is the first case providing clear evidence of the causative role of cyclophosphamide in inducing a cutaneous and subcutaneous radiation recall reaction.

  2. Induced Compton scattering effects in radiation transport approximations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibson, D.R. Jr.

    1982-01-01

    In this thesis the method of characteristics is used to solve radiation transport problems with induced Compton scattering effects included. The methods used to date have only addressed problems in which either induced Compton scattering is ignored, or problems in which linear scattering is ignored. Also, problems which include both induced Compton scattering and spatial effects have not been considered previously. The introduction of induced scattering into the radiation transport equation results in a quadratic nonlinearity. Methods are developed to solve problems in which both linear and nonlinear Compton scattering are important. Solutions to scattering problems are found for a variety of initial photon energy distributions

  3. Radiation-induced pseudotumor following therapy for soft tissue sarcoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, Lacey F.; Kransdorf, Mark J. [Mayo Clinic, Department of Radiology, Jacksonville, FL (United States); Buskirk, Steven J. [Mayo Clinic, Department of Radiation Oncology, Jacksonville, FL (United States); O' Connor, Mary I. [Mayo Clinic, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Jacksonville, FL (United States); Menke, David M. [Mayo Clinic, Department of Pathology, Jacksonville, FL (United States)

    2009-06-15

    The purpose of this study was to describe the prevalence and imaging appearance of radiation induced pseudotumors in patients following radiation therapy for extremity soft tissue sarcomas. We retrospectively reviewed the serial magnetic resonance (MR) images of 24 patients following radiation therapy for extremity soft tissue sarcomas. A total of 208 exams were reviewed (mean, 8.7 exams per patient) and included all available studies following the start of radiation therapy. Exams were analyzed for the identification of focal signal abnormalities within the surgical bed suggesting local tumor recurrence. Histopathologic correlation was available in nine patients suspected of having local tumor recurrence. Additional information recorded included patient demographics, tumor type and location, radiation type, and dose. The study group consisted of 12 men and 12 women, having an average age of 63 years (range, 39-88 years). Primary tumors were malignant fibrous histiocytoma (n = 13), leiomyosarcoma (n = 6), liposarcoma (n = 3), synovial sarcoma (n = 1), and extraskeletal chondrosarcoma (n = 1). All lesions were high-grade sarcomas, except for two myxoid liposarcomas. Average patient radiation dose was 5,658 cGy (range, 4,500-8,040 cGy). Average follow-up time was 63 months (range, 3-204 months). Focal signal abnormalities suggesting local recurrence were seen in nine (38%) patients. Three of the nine patients with these signal abnormalities were surgically proven to have radiation-induced pseudotumor. The pseudotumors developed between 11 and 61 months following the initiation of radiation therapy (mean, 38 months), with an average radiation dose of 5,527 cGy (range, 5,040-6,500 cGy). MR imaging demonstrated a relatively ill-defined ovoid focus of abnormal signal and intense heterogeneous enhancement with little or no associated mass effect. MR imaging of radiation-induced pseudotumor typically demonstrates a relatively ill-defined ovoid mass-like focus of intense

  4. Mechanistic issues for modeling radiation-induced segregation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simonen, E.P.; Bruemmer, S.M.

    1993-03-01

    Model calculations of radiation-induced chromium depletion and radiation-induced nickel enrichment at grain boundaries are compared to measured depletions and enrichments. The model is calibrated to fit chromium depletion in commercial purity 304 stainless steel irradiated in boiling water reactor (BWR) environments. Predicted chromium depletion profiles and the dose dependence of chromium concentration at grain boundaries are in accord with measured trends. Evaluation of chromium and nickel profiles in three neutron, and two ion, irradiation environments reveal significant inconsistencies between measurements and predictions

  5. Radiation induced genetic damage in Aspergillus nidulans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Georgiou, J.T.

    1984-01-01

    The mechanism by which ionizing radiation induces genetic damage in haploid and diploid conidia of Aspergillus nidulans was investigated. Although the linear dose-response curves obtained following low LET irradiation implied a 'single-hit' action of radiation, high LET radiations were much more efficient than low LET radiations, which suggests the involvement of a multiple target system. It was found that the RBE values for non-disjunction and mitotic crossing-over were very different. Unlike mitotic crossing-over, the RBE values for non-disjunction were much greater than for cell killing. This suggests that non-disjunction is a particularly sensitive genetical endpoint that is brought about by damage to a small, probably non-DNA target. Radiosensitisers were used to study whether radiation acts at the level of the DNA or some other cellular component. The sensitisation to electrons and/or X-rays by oxygen, and two nitroimidazoles (metronidazole and misonidazole) was examined for radiation induced non-disjunction, mitotic crossing-over, gene conversion, point mutation and cell killing. It was found that these compounds sensitised the cells considerably more to genetic damage than to cell killing. (author)

  6. Factors Affecting Mobile Tagging Awareness; A Research on Social Media Consumers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kübra DALDAL

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study is to identify the factors affecting awareness of mobile tagging on social media. The study assumes that the mobile tagging awareness levels of social media consumers are high. As a result of the literature review made in the scope of the purpose and assumption of the study, it was identified that the variables used in the measurement of brand awareness levels are recognition, remembering, being first in remembering, brand dominance, brand knowledge and brand opinion. A conceptual model showing the relation between these variables and mobile tagging awareness levels of social media consumers and hypotheses connected to this model were developed and a survey form, loyal to the relevant literature, was prepared in order to obtain the data necessary for the analyses. The universe of the study covers the consumers who are members of social media sites Facebook, Twitter and Linked In. For the analysis of the data obtained as a result of the survey conducted, descriptive statistics containing percentages and frequencies, factor analysis and Pearson’s Correlation Coefficient was used in the analysis of the hypotheses.

  7. Mechanisms of radiation-induced neoplastic cell transformation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, T.C.H.; Tobias, C.A.

    1984-04-01

    Studies with cultured mammalian cells demonstrated clearly that radiation can transform cells directly and can enhance the cell transformation by oncogenic DNA viruses. In general, high-LET heavy-ion radiation can be more effective than X and gamma rays in inducing neoplastic cell transformation. Various experimental results indicate that radiation-induced DNA damage, most likely double-strand breaks, is important for both the initiation of cell transformation and for the enhancement of viral transformation. Some of the transformation and enhancement lesions can be repaired properly in the cell, and the amount of irrepairable lesions produced by a given dose depends on the quality of radiation. An inhibition of repair processes with chemical agents can increase the transformation frequency of cells exposed to radiation and/or oncogenic viruses, suggesting that repair mechanisms may play an important role in the radiation transformation. The progression of radiation-transformed cells appears to be a long and complicated process that can be modulated by some nonmutagenic chemical agents, e.g., DMSO. Normal cells can inhibit the expression of transforming properties of tumorigenic cells through an as yet unknown mechanism. The progression and expression of transformation may involve some epigenetic changes in the irradiated cells. 38 references, 15 figures, 1 table.

  8. Mechanisms of radiation-induced neoplastic cell transformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, T.C.H.; Tobias, C.A.

    1984-04-01

    Studies with cultured mammalian cells demonstrated clearly that radiation can transform cells directly and can enhance the cell transformation by oncogenic DNA viruses. In general, high-LET heavy-ion radiation can be more effective than X and gamma rays in inducing neoplastic cell transformation. Various experimental results indicate that radiation-induced DNA damage, most likely double-strand breaks, is important for both the initiation of cell transformation and for the enhancement of viral transformation. Some of the transformation and enhancement lesions can be repaired properly in the cell, and the amount of irrepairable lesions produced by a given dose depends on the quality of radiation. An inhibition of repair processes with chemical agents can increase the transformation frequency of cells exposed to radiation and/or oncogenic viruses, suggesting that repair mechanisms may play an important role in the radiation transformation. The progression of radiation-transformed cells appears to be a long and complicated process that can be modulated by some nonmutagenic chemical agents, e.g., DMSO. Normal cells can inhibit the expression of transforming properties of tumorigenic cells through an as yet unknown mechanism. The progression and expression of transformation may involve some epigenetic changes in the irradiated cells. 38 references, 15 figures, 1 table

  9. Radiation induced glioblastoma. A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kato, Naoki; Kayama, Takamasa; Sakurada, Kaori; Saino, Makoto; Kuroki, Akira [Yamagata Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine

    2000-05-01

    We report a surgical case of a 54-year-old woman with a radiation induced glioblastoma. At the age of 34, the patient was diagnosed to have a non-functioning pituitary adenoma. It was partially removed followed by 50 Gy focal irradiation with a 5 x 5 cm lateral opposed field. Twenty years later, she suffered from rapidly increasing symptoms such as aphasia and right hemiparesis. MRI showed a large mass lesion in the left temporal lobe as well as small mass lesions in the brain stem and the right medial temporal lobe. These lesions situated within the irradiated field. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy revealed relatively high lactate signal and decreased N-acetyl aspartate, choline, creatine and phosphocreatine signals. Increased lactate signal meant anaerobic metabolism that suggested the existence of a rapidly growing malignant tumor. Thus, we planned surgical removal of the left temporal lesion with the diagnosis of a radiation induced malignant glioma. The histological examination revealed a glioblastoma with radiation necrosis. MIB-1 staining index was 65%. Postoperatively, her symptoms improved, but she died from pneumonia 1 month after the surgery. A autopsy was obtained. The lesion of the left temporal lobe was found to have continuity to the lesion in the midbrain, the pons and the right temporal lobe as well. High MIB-1 staining index suggested that a radiation induced glioblastoma had high proliferative potential comparing with a de novo and secondary glioblastoma. (author)

  10. Selectivity of radiation-induced processes in hydrocarbons, related polymers and organized polymer systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feldman, V.I.; Sukhov, F.F.; Zezin, A.A.; Orlov, A.Yu.

    1999-01-01

    was found that kinetics of radical decay was affected strongly by local molecular dynamics of polymeric chains in specific microphases. These features are especially important at low temperatures and for 'well-organized' polymeric systems, such as highly oriented and highly crystalline polymers or microheterogeneous bicomponent systems. The results obtained show that the radiation-induced chemical events in solid polymers are far more selective than it might be expected from formal energetic reasons. The localization of primary events is controlled by conformation, weak molecular interactions, and microstructure of polymeric system. Some important mechanisms of this selectivity could be understood taking into account the properties of prototype ionized molecules. Significance of the concept of 'selective radiation chemistry' for prediction and improvement of the radiation resistance of polymers and polymeric materials is discussed. (author)

  11. Indomethacin attenuation of radiation-induced hyperthermia does not modify radiation-induced motor hypoactivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferguson, J.L.; Kandasamy, S.B.; Harris, A.H.; Davis, H.D.; Landauer, M.R. [Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Inst., Bethesda, MD (United States)

    1996-09-01

    Exposure of rats to 5-10 Gy of ionizing radiation produces hyperthermia and reduces motor activity. Previous studies suggested that radiation-induced hyperthermia results from a relatively direct action on the brain and is mediated by prostaglandins. To test the hypothesis that hypoactivity may be, in part, a thermoregulatory response to this elevation in body temperature, adult male rats were given indomethacin (0.0, 0.5, 1.0, and 3.0 mg/kg, intraperitoneally), a blocker of prostaglandin synthesis, and were either irradiated (LINAC 18.6 MeV (nominal) high-energy electrons, 10 Gy at 10 Gy/min, 2.8 {mu}sec pulses at 2 Hz) or sham-irradiated. The locomotor activity of all rats was then measured for 30 min in a photocell monitor for distance traveled and number of vertical movements. Rectal temperatures of irradiated rats administered vehicle only were elevated by 0.9{+-}0.2degC at the beginning and the end of the activity session. Although indomethacin, at the two higher doses tested, attenuated the hyperthermia in irradiated rats by 52-75%, it did not attenuate radiation-induced reductions in motor activity. These results indicate that motor hypoactivity after exposure to 10 Gy of high-energy electrons is not due to elevated body temperature or to the increased synthesis of prostaglandins. (author)

  12. Indomethacin attenuation of radiation-induced hyperthermia does not modify radiation-induced motor hypoactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferguson, J.L.; Kandasamy, S.B.; Harris, A.H.; Davis, H.D.; Landauer, M.R.

    1996-01-01

    Exposure of rats to 5-10 Gy of ionizing radiation produces hyperthermia and reduces motor activity. Previous studies suggested that radiation-induced hyperthermia results from a relatively direct action on the brain and is mediated by prostaglandins. To test the hypothesis that hypoactivity may be, in part, a thermoregulatory response to this elevation in body temperature, adult male rats were given indomethacin (0.0, 0.5, 1.0, and 3.0 mg/kg, intraperitoneally), a blocker of prostaglandin synthesis, and were either irradiated (LINAC 18.6 MeV (nominal) high-energy electrons, 10 Gy at 10 Gy/min, 2.8 μsec pulses at 2 Hz) or sham-irradiated. The locomotor activity of all rats was then measured for 30 min in a photocell monitor for distance traveled and number of vertical movements. Rectal temperatures of irradiated rats administered vehicle only were elevated by 0.9±0.2degC at the beginning and the end of the activity session. Although indomethacin, at the two higher doses tested, attenuated the hyperthermia in irradiated rats by 52-75%, it did not attenuate radiation-induced reductions in motor activity. These results indicate that motor hypoactivity after exposure to 10 Gy of high-energy electrons is not due to elevated body temperature or to the increased synthesis of prostaglandins. (author)

  13. Auto-inducing media for uniform isotope labeling of proteins with 15N, 13C and 2H

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guthertz, Nicolas; Klopp, Julia; Winterhalter, Aurélie; Fernández, César; Gossert, Alvar D.

    2015-01-01

    Auto-inducing media for protein expression offer many advantages like robust reproducibility, high yields of soluble protein and much reduced workload. Here, an auto-inducing medium for uniform isotope labelling of proteins with 15 N, 13 C and/or 2 H in E. coli is presented. So far, auto-inducing media have not found widespread application in the NMR field, because of the prohibitively high cost of labeled lactose, which is an essential ingredient of such media. Here, we propose using lactose that is only selectively labeled on the glucose moiety. It can be synthesized from inexpensive and readily available substrates: labeled glucose and unlabeled activated galactose. With this approach, uniformly isotope labeled proteins were expressed in unattended auto-inducing cultures with incorporation of 13 C, 15 N of 96.6 % and 2 H, 15 N of 98.8 %. With the present protocol, the NMR community could profit from the many advantages that auto-inducing media offer

  14. Radiation induces aerobic glycolysis through reactive oxygen species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhong, Jim; Rajaram, Narasimhan; Brizel, David M.; Frees, Amy E.; Ramanujam, Nirmala; Batinic-Haberle, Ines; Dewhirst, Mark W.

    2013-01-01

    Background and purpose: Although radiation induced reoxygenation has been thought to increase radiosensitivity, we have shown that its associated oxidative stress can have radioprotective effects, including stabilization of the transcription factor hypoxia inducible factor 1 (HIF-1). HIF-1 is known to regulate many of the glycolytic enzymes, thereby promoting aerobic glycolysis, which is known to promote treatment resistance. Thus, we hypothesized that reoxygenation after radiation would increase glycolysis. We previously showed that blockade of oxidative stress using a superoxide dismutase (SOD) mimic during reoxygenation can downregulate HIF-1 activity. Here we tested whether concurrent use of this drug with radiotherapy would reduce the switch to a glycolytic phenotype. Materials and methods: 40 mice with skin fold window chambers implanted with 4T1 mammary carcinomas were randomized into (1) no treatment, (2) radiation alone, (3) SOD mimic alone, and (4) SOD mimic with concurrent radiation. All mice were imaged on the ninth day following tumor implantation (30 h following radiation treatment) following injection of a fluorescent glucose analog, 2-[N-(7-nitrobenz-2-oxa-1,3-diaxol-4-yl)amino]-2-deoxyglucose (2-NBDG). Hemoglobin saturation was measured by using hyperspectral imaging to quantify oxygenation state. Results: Mice treated with radiation showed significantly higher 2-NBDG fluorescence compared to controls (p = 0.007). Hemoglobin saturation analysis demonstrated reoxygenation following radiation, coinciding with the observed increase in glycolysis. The concurrent use of the SOD mimic with radiation demonstrated a significant reduction in 2-NBDG fluorescence compared to effects seen after radiation alone, while having no effect on reoxygenation. Conclusions: Radiation induces an increase in tumor glucose demand approximately 30 h following therapy during reoxygenation. The use of an SOD mimic can prevent the increase in aerobic glycolysis when used

  15. Radiation induced early onset of neuro-cognitive changes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Mayank; Haridas, Seenu; Gupta, Mamta; Trivedi, Richa; Khushu, Subhash; Manda, Kailash

    2012-01-01

    Exposure to ionizing radiations has been shown to cause many detrimental effects. Primarily, the effects observed are broadly classified into hematopoietic syndrome at lower doses, gastrointestinal syndrome and central nervous system dysfunctions at high doses. However, recent studies reported that even at lower doses, there is an effect seen on the nervous system which can be observed as a decline in cognitive abilities. This has been reported in patients undergoing radiotherapy. The cognitive decline, especially in young patients affects development and has been shown to persist for years after the therapy. Thus, the aim of this study was to study and consolidate the early effects of radiation exposure which result in behavioural alterations and cognitive decline. Since, radiation-induced early changes in behavioural functions are poorly understood, therefore, the present investigation aimed to conceptualize and design behavioural test batteries in order to systematically study the immediate alterations in behavioural function following irradiation with a-rays. The behavioural alterations were correlated to changes in the different area of brain like hippocampus, thalamus, hypothalamus and corpus callosum using Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) studies. Present study reported profound changes in behaviour, as well as alterations in the morphology of the brain tissue as perceived by DTI, 48 hours after exposure to ionizing radiations. These changes need to be correlated and clarified further to understand the mechanisms behind the cognitive dysfunctions occurring immediately after radiation exposure as well as to find out a therapeutic window to counteract or reduce the effect of long term cognitive changes following irradiation. (author)

  16. Radiation-induced mucositis pain in laryngeal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Atsuhito; Shoji, Kazuhiko; Iki, Takehiro; Mizuta, Masanobu; Matsubara, Mami

    2009-01-01

    Radiation therapy in those with head and neck malignancies often triggers painful mucositis poorly controlled by nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). To better understand how radiation-induced pain develops over time, we studied the numerical rating scale (NRS 0-5) pain scores from 32 persons undergoing radiation therapy of 60-72 Gy for newly diagnosed laryngeal cancer. The degree of mucositis was evaluated using Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version3.0 (CTCAE v3.0). We divided the 32 into a conventional fractionation (CF) group of 14 and a hyperfractionation (HF) group of 18, and further divided laryngeal cancer into a small-field group of 23 and a large-field group of 9. The mucositis pain course was similar in CF and HF, but mucositis pain was severer in the HF group, which also required more NSAIDs. Those in the large-field group had severer pain and mucositis and required more NSAIDs than those in the small-field group. We therefore concluded that small/large-field radiation therapy, rather fractionation type, was related to the incidence of radiation-induced mucositis pain. (author)

  17. New aspects of studies on stress response. Radiation-induced bystander effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, Hideki; Hayashi, Sachiko; Jin, Zhao-Hui; Hatashita, Masanori; Kano, Eiichi

    2001-01-01

    This review describes the bystander effect which is the secondary stress response induced by the primary target affected by radiation and other environmental factors. The bystander effect can be exerted from the primary target cells through the gap junction, through interaction between ligands and receptors, through interaction between secreted bystander factors and receptors and through secreted bystander factors. Through the first, the typical one firstly shown in AG1521 cells is that, despite the pass of only 2% of irradiated α-particles through the target cell nucleus, much more cells respond to express p53 and p21/WAF1. Through the second, the Fas/Fas ligand in the target induce apoptosis of the non-target cells. As for the third, participation of cytokines and growth factors is suggested. Many investigations concern the fourth of bystander effects by the bystander factors: e.g., authors have studied the effects of X-ray, carbon beam or hyperthermia on nitric oxide synthase induction in A-172 cells. Studies of bystander effects possibly extend the concept of radiation biology. (K.H.)

  18. Radiation-induced soft-tissue and bone sarcoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, J.H.; Chu, F.C.; Woodard, H.Q.; Melamed, R.; Huvos, A.; Cantin, J.

    1978-01-01

    From the records of Memorial Hospital of the past 50 years, 47 cases with an established diagnosis of radiation-induced sarcoma were identified and divided into two groups: the first included 20 cases of soft-tissue sarcoma arising from irradiated tissues, and the second comprised 27 cases of bone sarcoma arising from normal bones in the irradiated field. Medians for the latent periods from irradiation to diagnosis of bone and soft-tissue sarcoma were 11 and 12, years, respectively. In bone sarcomas, the latent period was longer after larger radiation doses and children appeared to be more susceptible to cancer induction than adults. Criteria for establishing the diagnosis of radiation-induced sarcoma and the magnitude of the risk of bone sarcoma are discussed

  19. Radiation-induced ηe-modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shukla, P.K.; Yu, M.Y.

    1990-01-01

    Impurity radiation in a plasma can cause not only static instabilities, but also dynamic instabilities related to the drift and acoustic waves. Radiative instabilities are of much interest because they are associated with relatively high frequency and short wavelength fluctuations, which have been suspected to be responsible for anomalous electron energy transport in tokamak edge plasmas. In this paper, we consider radiation-induced η e instabilities, taking into account electrostatic effects as well as density and temperature inhomogeneities. Also included are the effects of finite gyroradius and dissipation. It is found that the latter can cause strong linear coupling between the modes of interest. The resulting instabilities can have larger growth rates than the static radiative instability. Analytical expressions for the growth rates and instability regimes are given for the limiting cases of practical interest. In particular, it is shown that the η e -mode can couple to both radiation and dissipation to cause resistive instabilities. The parameter regimes of the original radiative as well as the dissipative modes are thereby broadened and shifted because of the interaction. (author) 3 refs

  20. Safety of contrast media. Focus on contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuwatsuru, Ryohei

    2011-01-01

    Despite advances in imaging diagnosis, contrast media still play an important role in diagnosing the existence of the disease, demonstrating the extent of disease, and determining the perfusion of the disease, which is important to make a differential diagnosis. However, the administration of contrast media may cause contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN), especially in patients with renal impairment. It is estimated that 20-30% of patients with renal impairment who received contrast media develop CIN. Though the precise cause of CIN currently remains unknown, almost all injected contrast media are excreted through the kidney and the effects of contrast media on the kidney are easily understood. As CIN is the most common cause of death due to complications after receiving contrast media, prevention of CIN is important. There are several known risk factors for CIN. Patients with renal impairment, diabetes mellitus, and dehydration are at high risk for CIN. Furthermore, a high osmolar contrast media, excessive amount of contrast media, and ionic contrast media are also risk factors for CIN. CIN can be prevented in several ways. Certain drugs seem to be useful to prevent CIN, while others are harmful. Hydration is useful to prevent CIN, although there is no widely acceptable hydration method to prevent CIN. Both sodium bicarbonate and N-acetylcysteine are promising candidates for prevention of CIN. There are few reports to study CIN after intravenous administration, although reports of CIN after percutaneous cardiac intervention (PCI) and angiography are well recognized. In clinical situations, intravenous administration of contrast media is common. Therefore, a study of CIN after intravenous administration of contrast media should be performed. (author)

  1. Radiation induced diffusion as a method to protect surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baumvol, I.J.R.

    1980-01-01

    Radiation induced diffusion forms a coating adeherent and without interface on the surface of metalic substrates. This coating improves the behaviour of metal to corrosion and abrasion. The effect of radiation induced diffusion of tin and calcium on pure iron surface is described and analyzed in this work. (author) [pt

  2. Time-independent hybrid enrichment for finite element solution of transient conduction–radiation in diffusive grey media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohamed, M. Shadi, E-mail: m.s.mohamed@durham.ac.uk [School of Engineering and Computing Sciences, University of Durham, South Road, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Seaid, Mohammed; Trevelyan, Jon [School of Engineering and Computing Sciences, University of Durham, South Road, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Laghrouche, Omar [Institute for Infrastructure and Environment, Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh EH14 4AS (United Kingdom)

    2013-10-15

    We investigate the effectiveness of the partition-of-unity finite element method for transient conduction–radiation problems in diffusive grey media. The governing equations consist of a semi-linear transient heat equation for the temperature field and a stationary diffusion approximation to the radiation in grey media. The coupled equations are integrated in time using a semi-implicit method in the finite element framework. We show that for the considered problems, a combination of hyperbolic and exponential enrichment functions based on an approximation of the boundary layer leads to improved accuracy compared to the conventional finite element method. It is illustrated that this approach can be more efficient than using h adaptivity to increase the accuracy of the finite element method near the boundary walls. The performance of the proposed partition-of-unity method is analyzed on several test examples for transient conduction–radiation problems in two space dimensions.

  3. Radiation-induced cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dutrillaux, B.; CEA Fontenay-aux-Roses, 92

    1998-01-01

    The induction of malignant diseases is one of the most concerning late effects of ionising radiation. A large amount of information has been collected form atomic bomb survivors, patients after therapeutic irradiation, occupational follow-up and accidentally exposed populations. Major uncertainties persist in the (very) low range i.e, population and workers radioprotection. A review of the biological mechanisms leading to cancer strongly suggests that the vast majority of radiation-induced malignancies arise as a consequence of recessive mutations can be unveiled by ageing, this process being possibly furthered by constitutional or acquired genomic instability. The individual risk is likely to be very low, probably because of the usual dose level. However, the magnitude of medical exposure and the reliance of our societies on nuclear industry are so high that irreproachable decision-making processes and standards for practice are inescapable. (author)

  4. Time evolution of photon-pulse propagation in scattering and absorbing media: The dynamic radiative transfer system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgakopoulos, A.; Politopoulos, K.; Georgiou, E.

    2018-03-01

    A new dynamic-system approach to the problem of radiative transfer inside scattering and absorbing media is presented, directly based on first-hand physical principles. This method, the Dynamic Radiative Transfer System (DRTS), employs a dynamical system formality using a global sparse matrix, which characterizes the physical, optical and geometrical properties of the material-volume of interest. The new system state is generated by the above time-independent matrix, using simple matrix-vector multiplication for each subsequent time step. DRTS is capable of calculating accurately the time evolution of photon propagation in media of complex structure and shape. The flexibility of DRTS allows the integration of time-dependent sources, boundary conditions, different media and several optical phenomena like reflection and refraction in a unified and consistent way. Various examples of DRTS simulation results are presented for ultra-fast light pulse 3-D propagation, demonstrating greatly reduced computational cost and resource requirements compared to other methods.

  5. A case of radiation-induced osteosarcoma of the maxilla

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Rie; Asato, Ryo; Tanaka, Shinzo; Hiratsuka, Yasuyuki; Ito, Juichi

    2003-01-01

    Radiation-induced osteosarcoma in the head and neck region is very rare. A 68-year-old female, who had been treated with radiation for malignant lymphoma of the right maxillary sinus, presented with right cheek swelling. Imaging examinations demonstrated a huge mass occupying the right nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses. Total maxillectomy was performed, and the tumor was histologically diagnosed as osteosarcoma. Diagnosis and treatment for radiation-induced osteosarcoma in the head and neck is discussed. (author)

  6. A case of radiation-induced osteosarcoma of the maxilla

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, Rie [Shimada City Hospital, Shizuoka (Japan); Asato, Ryo; Tanaka, Shinzo; Hiratsuka, Yasuyuki; Ito, Juichi [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine

    2003-02-01

    Radiation-induced osteosarcoma in the head and neck region is very rare. A 68-year-old female, who had been treated with radiation for malignant lymphoma of the right maxillary sinus, presented with right cheek swelling. Imaging examinations demonstrated a huge mass occupying the right nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses. Total maxillectomy was performed, and the tumor was histologically diagnosed as osteosarcoma. Diagnosis and treatment for radiation-induced osteosarcoma in the head and neck is discussed. (author)

  7. [The occupational radiation-induced cataract in five industrial radiographers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benzarti Mezni, A; Loukil, I; Hriz, N; Kallel, K; Mlaiki, N; Ben Jemaâ, A

    2012-04-01

    The industrial uses of ionizing radiation in Tunisia are expanding, especially in industry and most particularly in the nondestructive testing of welds. Thus workers operating in the non-destructive testing of welds may develop a radiation-induced cataract varying in time to onset depending on the dose. To describe the characteristics of the radiation-induced cataract in patients exposed to ionizing radiation, determine the risk factors of radiation-induced cataracts. This was an anamnestic, clinical, and environmental study of five cases of radiation-induced cataract in workers employed in non-destructive testing of welds. This series of five cases had a mean age of 30.2 years and 5.53 years of work experience, ranging from 14 months to 15 years. All the patients were male and industrial radiographers specialized in nondestructive testing of welds. The average duration of exposure to ionizing radiation was 5.53 years. None of the patients had worn protective gear such as eye goggles. The ophthalmic check-up for the five special industrial radiographers showed punctuate opacities in three cases, punctiform opacities in one eye in one case, and phacosclerosis with bilateral lens multiple crystalline stromal opacities in a case of micro-lens opacities in both eyes with opalescence of both eyes in one case. These cataracts had been declared as occupational diseases. The value of a specialized ophthalmologic surveillance among these workers and the early diagnosis of lens opacities must be emphasized. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Radiation-induced recurrent intestinal pseudo-obstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conklin, J.L.; Anuras, S.

    1981-01-01

    The syndrome of intestinal pseudo-obstruction is a complex of signs and symptoms of intestinal obstruction without evidence of mechanical obstruction of the intestinal lumen. A patient with radiation-induced intestinal pseudoobstruction is described. The patient is a 74-year old woman with a history of chronic diarrhea, recurrent episodes of crampy abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting since receiving a 13,000 rad radiation dose to the pelvis in 1954. She has been hospitalized on many occasions for symptoms and signs of bowel obstruction. Upper gastrointestinal contrast roentgenograms with small bowel follow-through done during these episodes revealed multiple dilated loops of small bowel with no obstructing lesion. Barium enemas revealed no obstructing lesion. Each episode resolved with conservative therapy. Other secondary causes for intestinal pseudo-obstruction were ruled out in our patient. She gave no history of familial gastrointestinal disorders. Although postirradiation motility abnormalities have been demonstrated experimentally this is the first report of radiation induced intestinal pseudo-obstruction

  9. Radiation-induced caries as the late effect of radiation therapy in the head and neck region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Dobroś

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Overall improvement in the nationwide system of medical services has consequently boosted the number of successfully treated patients who suffer from head and neck cancer. It is essential to effectively prevent development of radiation-induced caries as the late effect of radiation therapy. Incidence and severity of radiation-induced changes within the teeth individually vary depending on the patient’s age, actual radiation dose, size of radiation exposure field, patient’s general condition and additional risk factors. Inadequately managed treatment of caries may lead to loss of teeth, as well as prove instrumental in tangibly diminishing individual quality of life in patients. Furthermore, the need to have the teeth deemed unyielding or unsuitable for the application of conservative methods of treatment duly extracted is fraught for a patient with an extra hazard of developing osteoradionecrosis (ORN, while also increasing all attendant therapeutic expenditures. The present paper aims to offer some practical insights into currently available methods of preventing likely development of radiation-induced caries.

  10. Diseases induced by ionising radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-11-01

    An interim report is presented by the Industrial Injuries Advisory Council in accordance with Section 141 of the Social Security Act 1975 on the question whether the terms of prescription for occupational diseases induced by ionising radiation should be amended to cover a wider range of conditions. A lack of persuasive statistical data has prevented reliable estimates of health risks of radiation workers in the UK to be made. However the report gives details of the progress made so far and the difficulties encountered. (U.K.)

  11. Radiation-induced cancers of the head and neck, (3)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Umatani, Katsunori; Satoh, Takeo; Yoshino, Kunitoshi; Takagi, Tadashi; Fujii, Takashi; Hatta, Chihiro; Maetani, Chikahide; Lu, Bo

    1989-01-01

    This paper discusses twenty patients with radiation-induced cancers of the head and neck treated in the Department of Otorhinolaryngology, the Center for Adult Diseases, Osaka, from January 1979 to December 1985. The most common site of radiation-induced cancers was the hypopharynx and cervical esophagus (70%). We found synchronous double cancers in 2 out of the 20 patients (10%). One patient had hypopharyngeal cancer and thyroid cancer, and the other had oropharyngeal cancer and thyroid cancer. All of the laryngeal cancers were in the supraglottic area. Cancer of the hypopharynx and cervical esophagus occurred more frequently in females (1:3.7 males-females ratio). Half of the patients (10/20) had received irradiation for tuberculous cervical adenitis and 8 patients had been irradiated for malignant tumors. The averaged latent period in the patients who had irradiated for benign conditions was 37.4 years, and that for malignant diseases was 16.0 years. Therefore the latent period of the former was 2.3 times as long as that of the latter. The incidence of radiation-induced cancers in all the patients who had the cancer of the hypopharynx and cervical esophagus was 9% and that of the laryngeal cancer was 0.7%. The incidence of radiation-induced cancers in the hypopharynx and cervical esophagus remarkably differed from that in the larynx. However, it was suggested that the larynx was as resistant to radiation induction as the hypopharynx. Six of the 20 patients (30%) had radiation-induced thyroid tumors. Among them, the incidence of cancers was 33%. (author)

  12. γ-radiation induced tetracycline removal in an aqueous solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Fei; Guo Zhaobing; Zhang Chaozhi; Lin Mingyue; Wu Menglong; Zhao Yongfu

    2012-01-01

    Degradation effect of tetracycline (TC) by γ-radiation was investigated in an aqueous solution. The effects of initial concentrations of TC, pH values, combining with H 2 O 2 or CH 3 OH on degradation of TC were studied. Results showed that TC can be effectively degradated by γ-irradiation in an aqueous solution. Degradation of TC could be remarkably improved both in acid solution and alkaline solution, especially when pH value was 9.0. In addition, H 2 O 2 could gently promote degradation of TC induced by γ-radiation. While, CH 3 OH markedly restrained degradation of TC induced by γ-radiation. The degradation mechanism of TC was supposed by results of quantum chemical calculations and LC-MS. Results proved that degradation of TC induced by γ-radiation was mainly ascribed to · OH oxidation. (authors)

  13. Induced Kerr effects and self-guided beams in quasi-phase-matched quadratic media [CBC4

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Carl A. Balslev; Bang, Ole; Kivshar, Yuri S.

    1997-01-01

    We show that quasi-phase-matching of quadratic media induces Kerr effects, such as self- and cross-phase modulation, and leads to the existence of a novel class of solitary waves, QPM-solitons......We show that quasi-phase-matching of quadratic media induces Kerr effects, such as self- and cross-phase modulation, and leads to the existence of a novel class of solitary waves, QPM-solitons...

  14. Radiation safety in the Moscow region: Experience of cooperation SUE SIA Radon with mass media and public

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grishin, O.; Rakov, S. [SUE SIA RADON, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2012-07-01

    Radiation safety in the present period acquires complex character and closely corresponds with other elements of social and political process, with various spheres of public life. After earthquake in Japan in March 11, 2011 and emergency on the nuclear power plant Fukushima-1 the theme of radiating safety of megapolises has today become urgent, as never. Provision of radiation safety of the Moscow region, taking into account a number of factors, is an important problem in a context of modernization state. Today in sphere of radio ecological safety there are certain achievements: new monitoring systems are developed, technological processes are improved, new information-communicative channels of interaction with mass media and public are formed. Information policy of enterprises the functioning of which is connected with provision of safe ecological conditions and its monitoring is focused on constant and duly informing of public through mass-media. Experience and technologies of interaction with mass-media and public of Moscow State Unitary-Enterprise- united ecological, scientific and research centre of decontamination of radioactive waste and environmental protection (State Unitarian Enterprise, Scientific and Industrial Association Radon, SUE SIA RADON) is submitted in the article. (author)

  15. Radiation safety in the Moscow region: Experience of cooperation SUE SIA Radon with mass media and public

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grishin, O.; Rakov, S.

    2012-01-01

    Radiation safety in the present period acquires complex character and closely corresponds with other elements of social and political process, with various spheres of public life. After earthquake in Japan in March 11, 2011 and emergency on the nuclear power plant Fukushima-1 the theme of radiating safety of megapolises has today become urgent, as never. Provision of radiation safety of the Moscow region, taking into account a number of factors, is an important problem in a context of modernization state. Today in sphere of radio ecological safety there are certain achievements: new monitoring systems are developed, technological processes are improved, new information-communicative channels of interaction with mass media and public are formed. Information policy of enterprises the functioning of which is connected with provision of safe ecological conditions and its monitoring is focused on constant and duly informing of public through mass-media. Experience and technologies of interaction with mass-media and public of Moscow State Unitary-Enterprise- united ecological, scientific and research centre of decontamination of radioactive waste and environmental protection (State Unitarian Enterprise, Scientific and Industrial Association Radon, SUE SIA RADON) is submitted in the article. (author)

  16. Histone Deacetylase Inhibitor Induced Radiation Sensitization Effects on Human Cancer Cells after Photon and Hadron Radiation Exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariungerel Gerelchuluun

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA is a histone deacetylase inhibitor, which has been widely utilized throughout the cancer research field. SAHA-induced radiosensitization in normal human fibroblasts AG1522 and lung carcinoma cells A549 were evaluated with a combination of γ-rays, proton, and carbon ion exposure. Growth delay was observed in both cell lines during SAHA treatment; 2 μM SAHA treatment decreased clonogenicity and induced cell cycle block in G1 phase but 0.2 μM SAHA treatment did not show either of them. Low LET (Linear Energy Transfer irradiated A549 cells showed radiosensitization effects on cell killing in cycling and G1 phase with 0.2 or 2 μM SAHA pretreatment. In contrast, minimal sensitization was observed in normal human cells after low and high LET radiation exposure. The potentially lethal damage repair was not affected by SAHA treatment. SAHA treatment reduced the rate of γ-H2AX foci disappearance and suppressed RAD51 and RPA (Replication Protein A focus formation. Suppression of DNA double strand break repair by SAHA did not result in the differences of SAHA-induced radiosensitization between human cancer cells and normal cells. In conclusion, our results suggest SAHA treatment will sensitize cancer cells to low and high LET radiation with minimum effects to normal cells.

  17. Increased radiosensitivity and radiation-induced apoptosis in SRC-3 knockout mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin Jie; Wang Yu; Xu Yang; Chen Shilei; Wang Junping; Ran Xinze; Su Yongping; Wang Jin

    2014-01-01

    Steroid receptor coactivator-3 (SRC-3), a multifunctional transcriptional coactivator, plays an important role in regulation of cell apoptosis in chemoresistant cancer cells. However, its role in radiation-induced apoptosis in hematopoietic cells is still unclear. In this study, we used SRC-3 knockout (SRC-3 -/- ) mice to assess the role of SRC-3 in radiation-induced hematopoietic injury in vivo. After a range of doses of irradiation, SRC-3 -/- mice exhibited lower counts of peripheral blood cells and bone marrow (BM) mononuclear cells and excessive BM depression, which resulted in a significantly higher mortality compared with wildtype mice. Moreover, BM mononuclear cells obtained from SRC-3 -/- mice showed a remarkable increase in radiation-induced apoptosis. Collectively, our data demonstrate that SRC-3 plays a role in radiation-induced apoptosis of BM hematopoietic cells. Regulation of SRC-3 might influence the radiosensitivity of hematopoietic cells, which highlights a potential therapeutic target for radiation-induced hematopoietic injury. (author)

  18. Radiation induced changes in the airway - anaesthetic implications

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adele

    CASE REPORT. Southern African Journal of Anaesthesia & Analgesia - May 2004. 19. Radiation ... Summary: Radiation induces a variety of changes in the airway that can potentially lead to difficult intubation. ... Mask holding and ventilation is.

  19. Identification of molecular mechanisms of radiation-induced vascular damage in normal tissues using microarray analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruse, J.J.C.M.; Te Poele, J.A.M.; Russell, N.S.; Boersma, L.J.; Stewart, F.A.

    2003-01-01

    Radiation-induced telangiectasia, characterized by thin-walled dilated blood vessels, can be a serious late complication in patients that have been previously treated for cancer. It might cause cosmetic problems when occurring in the skin, and excessive bleeding requiring surgery when occurring in rectal mucosa. The mechanisms underlying the development of radiation-induced telangiectasia are unclear. The aim of the present study is to determine whether microarrays are useful for studying mechanisms of radiation-induced telangiectasia. The second aim is to test the hypotheses that telangiectasia is characterized by a final common pathway in different tissues. Microarray experiments were performed using amplified RNA from (sham)irradiated mouse tissues (kidney, rectum) at different intervals (1-30 weeks) after irradiation. After normalization procedures, the differentially expressed genes were identified. Control/repeat experiments were done to confirm that the observations were not artifacts of the array procedure. The mouse kidney experiments showed significant upregulation of 31 and 42 genes and downregulation of 9 and 4 genes at 10 and 20 weeks after irradiation, respectively. Irradiated mouse rectum has 278 upregulated and 537 downregulated genes at 10 weeks and 86 upregulated and 29 downregulated genes at 20 weeks. During the development of telangiectasia, 19 upregulated genes and 5 downregulated genes were common to both tissues. Upregulation of Jagged-1, known to play a role in angiogenesis, is particularly interesting in the context of radiation-induced telangiectasia. Microarrays are affective discovery tools to identify novel genes of interest, which may be involved in radiation-induced normal tissue injury. Using information from control arrays (particularly straight color, color reverse and self-self experiments) allowed for a more accurate and reproducible identification of differentially expressed genes than the selection of an arbitrary 2-fold change

  20. Principals Of Radiation Toxicology: Important Aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popov, Dmitri; Maliev, Slava; Jones, Jeffrey

    “All things are poison, and nothing is without poison; only the dose permits something not to be poisonous.” Paracelsus Key Words: Radiation Toxins (RT), Radiation Toxicants (RTc), Radiation Poisons (RP), Radiation Exposure (RE), Radiation Toxicology is the science about radiation poisons. [D.Popov et al. 2012,J.Zhou et al. 2007,] Radiation Toxins is a specific proteins with high enzymatic activity produced by living irradiated mammals. [D.Popov et al. 2012,] Radiation Toxicants is a substances that produce radiomimetics effects, adverse biological effects which specific for radiation. [D.Popov et al. 2012,] Radiation Toxic agent is specific proteins that can produce pathological biological effects specific for physical form of radiation.[D.Popov et al. 1990,2012,V. Maliev 2007] Different Toxic Substances isolated from cells or from blood or lymph circulation. [Kudriashov I. et al. 1970, D.Popov et al. 1990,2012,V. Maliev et al. 2007,] Radiation Toxins may affects many organs or specific organ, tissue, specific group of cells. [Kudriashov I. et al. 1970, D.Popov et al. 1990,2012,V. Maliev et al. 2007] For example: Radiation Toxins could induce collective toxic clinical states to include: systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS),toxic multiple organ injury (TMOI), toxic multiple organ dysfunction syndromes (TMODS),and finally, toxic multiple organ failure (TMOF). [T. Azizova et al. 2005, Konchalovsky et al., 2005, D. Popov et al 2012] However, Radiation Toxins could induce specific injury of organs or tissue and induce Acute Radiation Syndromes such as Acute Radiation Cerebrovascular Syndrome, Acute Radiation Cardiovascular Syndrome, Acute Radiation Hematopoietic Syndrome, Acute Radiation GastroIntestinal Syndrome. [ D.Popov et al. 1990, 2012, V. Maliev et al. 2007] Radiation Toxins correlates with Radiation Exposure and the dose-response relationship is a fundamental and essential concept in classic Toxicology and Radiation Toxicology.[ D.Popov et al

  1. Studies on protective effects of superoxide dismutase on radiation induced-chromosomal aberrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Siying; Jiang Jiagui; Lin Xingcheng

    1987-09-01

    This study demonstrates that radiation induced-chromosomal aberrations are not only due to the direct effect of radiation h it , but the indirect effect of free radical as well. Therefore, chromosome damage induced by radiation may be reduced by adding exogenous SOD into the radiation exposed lymphocyte culture to eliminate the superoxide free radical which damages DNA. On the other hand, however, the radiosensitivity of lymphocytes can be raised by adding SOD inhibitor (DDC) into the lymphocyte culture, which makes radiation induced-chromosomal damages more severely

  2. Toxic clinical hypoxic radiation sensitizers plus radiation-induced toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richmond, R.C.

    1984-01-01

    The operational definition espoused twelve years ago that clinical hypoxic radiation sensitizers should be nontoxic interferes with the recognition and research of useful radiation sensitizers. Eight years ago the toxic antitumor drug cis-dichlorodiammineplatinum(II) was reported to be a hypoxic radiation sensitizer and the selective antitumor action of this drug was stressed as potentially creating tumor-targeted radiation sensitization. This rationale of oxidative antitumor drugs as toxic and targeted clinical sensitizers is useful, and has led to the study reported here. The antitumor drug cis-(1,1-cyclobutane-dicarboxylato)diammineplatinum(II), or JM-8, is being tested in clinical trials. Cells of S. typhimurium in PBS in the presence of 0.2mM JM-8 are found to be sensitized to irradiation under hypoxic, but not oxic, conditions. JM-8 is nontoxic to bacteria at this concentration, but upon irradiation the JM-8 solution becomes highly toxic. This radiation induced toxicity of JM-8 preferentially develops from hypoxic solution, and thus contributes to the rationale of hypoxic tumor cell destruction

  3. Radiation induced genomic instability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morgan, W.

    2003-01-01

    This presentation will focus on delayed genetic effects occurring in the progeny of cells after exposure to ionizing radiation. We have developed a model system for investigating those genetic effects occurring multiple generations after radiation exposure. The presentation will describe some of the delayed effects observed after radiation exposures including delayed chromosomal rearrangements, and recombination events as determined by a plasmid based assay system. We will present new data on how changes in gene expression as measured by differential display and DNA microarray analysis provides a mechanism by which cells display a memory of irradiation, and introduce candidate genes that may play a role in initiating and perpetuation the unstable phenotype. These results will be discussed in terms of the recently described non-targeted Death Inducing Effect (DIE) where by secreted factors from clones of unstable cells can elicit effects in non irradiated cells and may serve to perpetuate the unstable phenotype in cells that themselves were not irradiated

  4. Carcinogenesis induced by low-dose radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotrowski Igor

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Although the effects of high dose radiation on human cells and tissues are relatively well defined, there is no consensus regarding the effects of low and very low radiation doses on the organism. Ionizing radiation has been shown to induce gene mutations and chromosome aberrations which are known to be involved in the process of carcinogenesis. The induction of secondary cancers is a challenging long-term side effect in oncologic patients treated with radiation. Medical sources of radiation like intensity modulated radiotherapy used in cancer treatment and computed tomography used in diagnostics, deliver very low doses of radiation to large volumes of healthy tissue, which might contribute to increased cancer rates in long surviving patients and in the general population. Research shows that because of the phenomena characteristic for low dose radiation the risk of cancer induction from exposure of healthy tissues to low dose radiation can be greater than the risk calculated from linear no-threshold model. Epidemiological data collected from radiation workers and atomic bomb survivors confirms that exposure to low dose radiation can contribute to increased cancer risk and also that the risk might correlate with the age at exposure.

  5. Convergence of the Bouguer-Beer law for radiation extinction in particulate media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankel, A.; Iaccarino, G.; Mani, A.

    2016-10-01

    Radiation transport in particulate media is a common physical phenomenon in natural and industrial processes. Developing predictive models of these processes requires a detailed model of the interaction between the radiation and the particles. Resolving the interaction between the radiation and the individual particles in a very large system is impractical, whereas continuum-based representations of the particle field lend themselves to efficient numerical techniques based on the solution of the radiative transfer equation. We investigate radiation transport through discrete and continuum-based representations of a particle field. Exact solutions for radiation extinction are developed using a Monte Carlo model in different particle distributions. The particle distributions are then projected onto a concentration field with varying grid sizes, and the Bouguer-Beer law is applied by marching across the grid. We show that the continuum-based solution approaches the Monte Carlo solution under grid refinement, but quickly diverges as the grid size approaches the particle diameter. This divergence is attributed to the homogenization error of an individual particle across a whole grid cell. We remark that the concentration energy spectrum of a point-particle field does not approach zero, and thus the concentration variance must also diverge under infinite grid refinement, meaning that no grid-converged solution of the radiation transport is possible.

  6. Ambient ultraviolet radiation induces protective responses in soybean but does not attenuate indirect defense

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winter, Thorsten R. [Department of Botany II, Julius-von-Sachs Institute for Biosciences, University of Wuerzburg, Julius-von-Sachs-Platz 3, 97082 Wuerzburg (Germany); Rostas, Michael [Department of Botany II, Julius-von-Sachs Institute for Biosciences, University of Wuerzburg, Julius-von-Sachs-Platz 3, 97082 Wuerzburg (Germany)], E-mail: rostas@botanik.uni-wuerzburg.de

    2008-09-15

    We investigated the effects of ambient ultraviolet (UV) radiation on (i) the performance and chemistry of soybean plants, (ii) the performance of Spodoptera frugiperda and (iii) the foraging behavior of the herbivore's natural enemy Cotesia marginiventris which exploits herbivore-induced plant volatiles (VOC) for host location. The accumulation of protective phenolics was faster in plants receiving ambient UV than in controls exposed to sun light lacking UV. Accordingly, isorhamnetin- and quercetin-based flavonoids were increased in UV exposed plants. No UV effects were found on the performance and feeding behavior of S. frugiperda. Herbivore-damaged plants emitted the same VOC when grown under ambient or attenuated UV for 5, 10 or 30 days. Consequently, C. marginiventris was attracted but did not discriminate between exposed and unexposed soybeans. In summary, ambient UV radiation affected soybean morphology and physiology but did not destabilize interactions between trophic levels. - Ambient ultraviolet radiation does not alter induced VOC emission in soybean and thus host location of the parasitoid Cotesia marginiventris remains effective.

  7. Radiation-induced physical ageing in network arsenic-sulfide/selenide glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shpotyuk, M; Golovchak, R; Kozdras, A; Shpotyuk, O

    2010-01-01

    Effect of radiation-induced physical ageing is investigated by differential scanning calorimetry method in As x Se 100-x (10 ≤ x ≤ 42) and As x S 100-x (30 ≤ x ≤ 42) glasses. Obtained results are compared with conventional physical ageing at normal conditions. Significant radiation-induced physical ageing is recorded for glassy As x S 100-x within 30 ≤ x x Se 100-x glasses from the same compositional interval do not show any measurable changes in DSC curves after γ-irradiation. Observed difference in radiation-induced physical ageing in arsenic-sulfide/selenide glasses is explained by a greater lifetime of γ-induced excitations within sulfur-based network in comparison with selenium-based one.

  8. Suppression of radiation-induced in vitro carcinogenesis by ascorbic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tauchi, Hiroshi; Sawada, Shozo

    1993-01-01

    The effects of ascorbic acid on radiation-induced in vitro carcinogenesis have been reported using neoplastic transformation system of C3H 10T1/2 cells. In these reports, no suppressive effect on X-ray-induced transformation was observed with 6 weeks' administration of ascorbic acid (daily addition for 5 days per week) by Kennedy (1984), whereas apparent suppression was observed with daily addition for 7 days by Yasukawa et al (1989). We have tested the effects of ascorbic acid on 60 Co gamma-ray or 252 Cf fission neutron-induced transformation in Balb/c 3T3 cells. The transformation induced by both types of radiations was markedly suppressed when ascorbic acid was daily added to the medium during first 8 days of the post-irradiation period. If ascorbic acid was added for a total of 8 days but with a day's interruption in the middle, the suppression of transformation was decreased. These results suggest that continuous presence of ascorbic acid for a certain number of days is needed to suppress radiation-induced transformation. Since ascorbic acid also suppressed the promotion of radiation-induced transformation by TPA when both chemicals were added together into the medium, ascorbic acid might act on the promotion stage of transformation. Therefore, the effect of ascorbic acid on the distribution of protein kinase C activity was also investigated, and possible mechanisms of suppression of radiation-induced transformation by ascorbic acid will be discussed. (author)

  9. SU-G-TeP3-10: Radiation Induces Prompt Live-Cell Metabolic Fluxes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campos, D [University of Wisconsin Madison, Madison, WI (United States); Peeters, W; Bussink, J [Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen, GA (United States); Nickel, K [University of Wisconsin - Madison, Madison, Wisconsin (United States); Burkel, B; Kimple, R; Kogel, A van der; Eliceiri, K [University of Wisconsin - Madison, Madison, WI (United States); Kissick, M [University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To compare metabolic dynamics and HIF-1α expression following radiation between a cancerous cell line (UM-SCC-22B) and a normal, immortalized cell line, NOK (Normal Oral Keratinocyte). HIF-1 is a key factor in metabolism and radiosensitivity. A better understanding of how radiation affects the interplay of metabolism and HIF-1 might give a better understanding of the mechanisms responsible for radiosensitivity. Methods: Changes in cellular metabolism in response to radiation are tracked by fluorescence lifetime of NADH. Expression of HIF-1α was measured by immunofluorescence for both cell lines with and without irradiation. Radiation response is also monitored with additional treatment of a HIF-1α inhibitor (chrysin) as well as a radical scavenger (glutathione). Changes in oxygen consumption and respiratory capacity are also monitored using the Seahorse XF analyzer. Results: An increase in HIF-1α was found to be in response to radiation for the cancer cell line, but not the normal cell line. Radiation was found to shift metabolism toward glycolytic pathways in cancer cells as measured by oxygen consumption and respiratory capacity. Radiation response was found to be muted by addition of glutathione to cell media. HIF-1α inhibition similarly muted radiation response in cancer. Conclusion: The HIF-1 protein complex is a key regulator cellular metabolism through the regulation of glycolysis and glucose transport enzymes. Moreover, HIF-1 has shown radio-protective effects in tumor vascular endothelia, and has been implicated in metastatic aggression. Monitoring interplay between metabolism and the HIF-1 protein complex can give a more fundamental understanding of radiotherapy response.

  10. SU-G-TeP3-10: Radiation Induces Prompt Live-Cell Metabolic Fluxes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campos, D; Peeters, W; Bussink, J; Nickel, K; Burkel, B; Kimple, R; Kogel, A van der; Eliceiri, K; Kissick, M

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To compare metabolic dynamics and HIF-1α expression following radiation between a cancerous cell line (UM-SCC-22B) and a normal, immortalized cell line, NOK (Normal Oral Keratinocyte). HIF-1 is a key factor in metabolism and radiosensitivity. A better understanding of how radiation affects the interplay of metabolism and HIF-1 might give a better understanding of the mechanisms responsible for radiosensitivity. Methods: Changes in cellular metabolism in response to radiation are tracked by fluorescence lifetime of NADH. Expression of HIF-1α was measured by immunofluorescence for both cell lines with and without irradiation. Radiation response is also monitored with additional treatment of a HIF-1α inhibitor (chrysin) as well as a radical scavenger (glutathione). Changes in oxygen consumption and respiratory capacity are also monitored using the Seahorse XF analyzer. Results: An increase in HIF-1α was found to be in response to radiation for the cancer cell line, but not the normal cell line. Radiation was found to shift metabolism toward glycolytic pathways in cancer cells as measured by oxygen consumption and respiratory capacity. Radiation response was found to be muted by addition of glutathione to cell media. HIF-1α inhibition similarly muted radiation response in cancer. Conclusion: The HIF-1 protein complex is a key regulator cellular metabolism through the regulation of glycolysis and glucose transport enzymes. Moreover, HIF-1 has shown radio-protective effects in tumor vascular endothelia, and has been implicated in metastatic aggression. Monitoring interplay between metabolism and the HIF-1 protein complex can give a more fundamental understanding of radiotherapy response.

  11. Radiation-induced segregation and phase stability in ferritic-martensitic alloy T 91

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wharry, Janelle P.; Jiao Zhijie; Shankar, Vani [University of Michigan, 2355 Bonisteel Blvd, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-2104 (United States); Busby, Jeremy T. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, 1 Bethel Valley Rd, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Was, Gary S., E-mail: gsw@umich.edu [University of Michigan, 2355 Bonisteel Blvd, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-2104 (United States)

    2011-10-01

    Radiation-induced segregation in ferritic-martensitic alloy T 91 was studied to understand the behavior of solutes as a function of dose and temperature. Irradiations were conducted using 2 MeV protons to doses of 1, 3, 7 and 10 dpa at 400 deg. C. Radiation-induced segregation at prior austenite grain boundaries was measured, and various features of the irradiated microstructure were characterized, including grain boundary carbide coverage, the dislocation microstructure, radiation-induced precipitation and irradiation hardening. Results showed that Cr, Ni and Si segregate to prior austenite grain boundaries at low dose, but segregation ceases and redistribution occurs above 3 dpa. Grain boundary carbide coverage mirrors radiation-induced segregation. Irradiation induces formation of Ni-Si-Mn and Cu-rich precipitates that account for the majority of irradiation hardening. Radiation-induced segregation behavior is likely linked to the evolution of the precipitate and dislocation microstructures.

  12. Radiation-induced mutagenicity and lethality in Ames tester strains of Salmonella

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isildar, M.; Bakale, G.

    1984-01-01

    Mutation and killing induced by X radiation and 60 Co γ radiation were studied in six different histidine-requiring auxotrophs of Salmonella typhimurium. Strain TA100, which is sensitive to base-pair substitutions, and strains TA2637 and TA98, which are sensitive to frameshifts, carry the pKM101 plasmid and exhibit significantly higher radiation-induced mutations compared to their plasmidless parent strains TA1535, TA1537, and TA1538, respectively. Among the plasmid-containing strains, TA98 and TA2637 are much more sensitive to the mutagenic action of radiation than is TA100 based on a comparison with their respective spontaneous mutation rates; however, no uniformity was observed in the responses of the strains to the lethal action of ionizing radiation. The following conclusions are consistent with these observations: (1) the standard Ames Salmonella assay correctly identifies ionizing radiation as a mutagenic agent; (2) frameshift-sensitive parent strains are more sensitive to the mutagenic effects of ionizing radiation than is the only strain studied that is sensitive to base-pair substitutions; and (3) enhancement of mutagenesis and survival is related to plasmid-mediated repair of DNA damage induced by ionizing radiation and does not involve damage induced by Cerenkov-generated uv radiation which is negligible for our irradiation conditions

  13. Radiation-induced cerebrovascular disease in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wright, T.L.; Bresnan, M.J.

    1976-01-01

    Radiation-induced internal carotid artery occlusion has not been well recognized previously as a cause of childhood cerebrovascular disease. A child who had received radiation as a neonate for a hemangioma involving the left orbit at the age of 6 years experienced a recurrent right-sided paresis, vascular headaches, and speech difficulties. Angiography showed a hypoplastic left carotid artery with occlusion of both the anterior and middle cerebral arteries. Collateral vessels bypassed the occluded-stenotic segments. Review of the literature showed two additional cases of large vessel occlusion in childhood associated with anastomatic telangiectatic vessel development following early radiation therapy of facial hemangioma

  14. Carcinomatous versus radiation-induced brachial plexus neuropathy in breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagley, F.H.; Walsh, J.W.; Cady, B.; Salzman, F.A.; Oberfield, R.A.; Pazianos, A.G.

    1978-01-01

    A retrospective study was performed of 18 women in whom ipsilateral brachial plexus neuropathy developed after treatment for carcinoma of the breast. In the absence of metastatic tumor elsewhere, the only distinguishing feature between carcinomatous neuropathy and radiation-induced neuropathy was the symptom-free interval after mastectomy and radiation therapy. Women with an interval of less than a year have radiation-induced neuropathy. Brachial plexus exploration in difficult diagnostic situations will permit early treatment and avoid debilitating loss of function. Brachial plexus exploration for biopsy is safe and free of complications if performed carefully. Treatment of carcinomatous neuropathy is most likely to succeed if the tumor is hormonally sensitive, but radiotherapy may also be effective. Treatment of radiation-induced neuropathy remains largely ineffective

  15. Single-source gamma radiation procedures for improved calibration and measurements in porous media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oostrom, M.; Hofstee, C.; Dane, H.; Lenhard, R.J.

    1998-01-01

    When dual-energy gamma radiation systems are employed for measurements in porous media, count rates from both sources are often used to compute parameter values. However, for several applications, the count rates of just one source are insufficient. These applications include the determination of volumetric liquid content values in two-liquid systems and salt concentration values in water-saturated porous media. Single-energy gamma radiation procedures for three applications are described in this paper. Through an error analysis, single-source procedures are shown to reduce the probable error in the determinations considerably. Example calculations and simple column experiments were conducted for each application to compare the performance of the new single-source and standard dual-source methods. In all cases, the single-source methods provided more reliable data than the traditional dual-source methods. In addition, a single-source calibration procedure is proposed to determine incident count rates indirectly. This procedure, which requires packing under saturated conditions, can be used in all single- and dual-source applications and yields accurate porosity and dry bulk density values

  16. Radiation-induced mouse chimeras: a cellular analysis of the major lymphoid compartments, factors affecting lethal graft versus host disease and host-tumor interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almaraz, R.

    1981-01-01

    The major lymphoid compartments of allogeneic bone marrow chimeras were evaluated for the extent of cell chimerism and distribution of Thy 1 and la bearing cells. These chimeras contained lymphoid cell primarily of donor origin. The bone marrow compartment was a mixture of host and donor origin cells. The distribution of Thy 1 and la bearing cells was similar as in normal mice. The effect of adult thymectomy alone or followed by whole-body irradiation and bone marrow reconstitution on the distribution of the Thy 1 positive cells was also investigated. Thymectomy with or without WBI and bone marrow reconstitution significantly lowered the number of Thy 1 bearing cells in the blood and spleen. The number of la bearing cells did not appear to be affected by thymectomy. The role of circulating lymphoid cells in the incidence of lethal graft versus host disease (GVHD) in radiation induced fully allogeneic mouse chimeras was studied. Mice reconstituted with allogeneic bone marrow from bled donors had a statistically lower incidence of GVHD than those reconstituted with bone marrow from unbled donors. Addition of mature peripheral lymphocytes from blood to the reconstituting bone marrow cells from bled donors reduplicated the high incidence of lethal GVHD. It was demonstrated that the bone marrow of mice not exsanguinated prior to harvesting of bone marrow contained significant numbers of peripheral contaminating cells in the harvested bone marrow. The role of suppressor cell elimination in resisting tumor growth was investigated using radiation induced mouse chimeras. Local effects of irradiation alone at the site of tumor inoculation could account for this lack of growth

  17. Low-dose radiation-induced endothelial cell retraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kantak, S.S.; Onoda, J.M.; Diglio, C.A.; Harper Hospital, Detroit, MI

    1993-01-01

    The data presented here are representative of a series of studies designed to characterize low-dose radiation effects on pulmonary microvascular endothelium. Data suggest that post-irradiation lung injuries (e.g. oedema) may be induced with only a single fraction of therapeutic radiation, and thus microscopic oedema may initiate prior to the lethal effects of radiation on the microvascular endothelium, and much earlier than would be suggested by the time course for clinically-detectable oedema. (author)

  18. Drift forces on vacancies and interstitials in alloys with radiation-induced segregation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolfer, W.G.

    1983-01-01

    Radiation-induced segregation in alloys leads to compositional gradients around point defect sinks such as voids and dislocations. These compositional gradients in turn affect the drift forces on both interstitials and vacancies and thereby modify the bias. Linear irreversible thermodynamics is employed to derive the total drift force on interstitials and vacancies in substitutional binary alloys. The obtained results are evaluated for binary Fe-Ni alloys. It is shown that radiation-induced segregation produces new drift forces which can be of the same order of magnitude as the stress-induced drift force produced by edge dislocations in an alloy with uniform composition. Hence, segregation results in a significant modification of the bias for void nucleation and swelling. The additional drift forces on interstitials and vacancies are due to the compositional dependence of the formation and migration energies; due to the dependence of the point defect's strain energy on the local elastic properties; due to a coherency strain field caused by lattice parameter variations; and finally due to the Kirkendall force produced by the difference in tracer mobilities. Estimates of these forces given for Fe-Ni alloys indicate that the Kirkendall force is small compared to the other segregation-induced forces on interstitials. In contrast, the Kirkendall force seems to be the dominant one for vacancies. (orig.)

  19. A note on G-functions within the scope of radiative transfer in turbid vegetation media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otto, Sebastian; Trautmann, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    This work reports on the use of leaf normal distribution functions (LNDFs) in the radiative transfer theory of turbid vegetation media to calculate the so-called G-function (GF). We revisit the normalisation condition of the LNDFs and present an extended set of fully explicit analytical expressions for GF considering commonly used standard LNDFs from purely vertical to purely horizontal model leaves. Applying them we derive GF for a generalised LNDF, which is written as a series of cosine functions with a number of free parameters. This generalisation opens up the possibility to fit leaf orientation measurements to our generalised LNDF and to determine the respective analytical GF. Thus, an extended range of leaf architectures, beyond the usual and less realistic standard LNDFs, can be considered with respect to applications of the radiative transfer theory in turbid vegetation media

  20. Effect of sulfhydryls on potentiation of radiation-induced cell lethality by substituted anthraquinones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimler, B.F.

    1984-01-01

    The effects of various substituted anthraquinones (SAQ's) and Adriamycin (ADR) were investigated in cultured Chinese hamster V79 cells. These drugs cause a potentiation of radiation-induced cell lethality, albeit by different mechanisms. One possibility is that these components operate through the production of free radicals which then produce DNA strand breaks and crosslinks. If so, then one should be able to change the degree of cell kill by modifying sulfhydryl (SH) levels such that free radical processes are altered. Diamide, buthionine-S, R-sulfoximine, and N-ethylmaleimide (NEM) were used to reduce intracellular SH levels. Cysteamine and dithiotheitol were used to increase SH levels. In general, altered SH levels did not affect SAQ-induced cytotoxicity at low drug concentrations. When drug-tested cells were also irradiated, survival levels were generally those predicted from assuming purely additive interactions. On the other hand, survival after treatment with high concentrations of ADR and one other SAQ were decreased by concomitant treatment with NEM. Since altered SH levels do not produce changes in the potentiation of radiation-induced cell lethality by SAQs, it is concluded that free radicals are not involved in this potentiation. A free radical-mediated process may be involved in the cytotoxicity induced by ADR and other SAQs; however, it is not a simple process

  1. Units related to radiation exposure and radioactivity in mass media: the Fukushima case study in Europe and Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perko, T.; Tomkiv, Y.; Oughton, D.H.; Cantone, M.C.; Gallego, E.; Prezelj, I.; Byrkina, E.

    2015-01-01

    Using an analysis of the way European newspapers covered the Fukushima nuclear accident, this article explores how the mass media transmit information about radiation risks from experts to the general public. The study applied a media content analysis method on a total of 1340 articles from 12 leading newspapers in 6 countries: Belgium (N = 260), Italy (N = 270), Norway (N = 133), Russia (N = 172), Slovenia (N = 190) and Spain (N = 315). All articles analysed were selected as being directly or indirectly related to the Fukushima accident by containing the word 'nuclear' and/or 'Fukushima' and were published between the 11 March and the 11 May 2011. The data presented here focus specifically on a cross-cultural comparison of the way the media use quantitative units. Results suggest that although experts are accustomed to communicating about radiological risks in technical language, often using quantitative units to describe the risks, mass media do not tend to use these units in their reporting. Although the study found a large variation in the measurement units used in different countries, it appeared that journalists in all the analysed countries preferred to describe radioactivity by comparing different radiation exposures, rather than reporting the actual measured units. The paper concludes with some practical guidelines for sound public communication about radiation risks. (authors)

  2. Pathophysiology of Radiation-Induced Dysphagia in Head and Neck Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Suzanne N; Dunlap, Neal E; Tennant, Paul A; Pitts, Teresa

    2016-06-01

    Oncologic treatments, such as curative radiotherapy and chemoradiation, for head and neck cancer can cause long-term swallowing impairments (dysphagia) that negatively impact quality of life. Radiation-induced dysphagia comprised a broad spectrum of structural, mechanical, and neurologic deficits. An understanding of the biomolecular effects of radiation on the time course of wound healing and underlying morphological tissue responses that precede radiation damage will improve options available for dysphagia treatment. The goal of this review is to discuss the pathophysiology of radiation-induced injury and elucidate areas that need further exploration.

  3. Phase III evaluation of sucralfate for radiation-induced esophagitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGinnis, W.L.; Loprinzi, C.L.; Buskirk, S.J.; Sloan, J.A.; Novotny, P.J.; Drummond, R.G.; Frank, A.R.; Shanahan, T.G.

    1996-01-01

    patients and 12 placebo patients dropping out during this period. The overwhelming reason for stopping the study medication was nausea, vomiting, and/or an upset stomach. This affected 58% ((28(48))) of the sucralfate patients compared to 14% ((7(49))) of those assigned to receive the placebo (p=0.0001). There did not appear to be any benefit from the sucralfate in terms of esophagitis scores determined by either the attending physicians or by the patient-completed questionnaires. Conclusion: The results of this study failed to support our prestudy hypothesis. The sucralfate did not alleviate esophagitis but was related to substantial gastrointestinal upset. Thus, this sucralfate solution should not be recommended for prevention or treatment of radiation-induced esophagitis

  4. Radiation induced dry eye: problem and potential remedies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vemuganti, Geeta K.; Tiwari, Shubha

    2016-01-01

    Advances in orbital radiotherapy have significantly increased therapeutic efficiency and reduced the side effects but a significant proportion of patients are still seen with ophthalmic complication like dry eye syndrome (DES). The treatment of DES involves temporary palliative therapies like ocular surface lubrication and rehydration. We aimed at establishing the human lacrimal gland cultures and evaluating for the presence of stem cells and secretory potential. Using human lacrimal gland tissues obtained from samples of therapeutic exenteration post-radiotherapy, we established a monolayer as well as 3D lacrispheres that show evidence of stem cells, secretory acinar cells, duct like formation and other cells like myoepithelial cells and duct like cells. The stem cells were identified as CD 117 positive that co-segregated with G0/G1 phase, ALDH high, label retaining cells and high clone forming ability. The most promising evidence of its secretory function was seen in the presence of tear substances like lysosymes, lactiferrin, and scIg A in the conditioned media of the lacrimal gland cultures. This novel development would pave way for development of a functionally competent 3D construct for potential clinical application in severe cases of radiation induced dry eye. (author)

  5. Radiation-induced osteosarcoma of the calvaria; Case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugita, Yasuo; Shigemori, Minoru; Miyagi, Jun; Ochiai, Satoshi; Lee, Souichi; Watanabe, Toshinori; Abe, Hitoshi; Morimatsu, Minoru [Kurume Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). School of Medicine

    1992-01-01

    The authors report a case of radiation-induced calvarial osteosarcoma. A 58-year-old female received subtotal removal of the pituitary adenoma and 5000 rads postoperative irradiation. Seven years later, an osteoblastic osteosarcoma occurred in the frontotemporal region. She received total tumor removal and chemotherapy. However, computed tomography subsequently revealed multiple small lesions at the margin of the bone flap. A chest x-ray film demonstrated lung metastasis. Local recurrence and lung metastasis require careful attention in radiation-induced osteosarcoma patients. (author).

  6. Effect of dose on radiation-induced conductivity in polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tyutnev, A.P.; Saenko, V.S.; Pozhidaev, E.D.; Ikhsanov, R.Sh.

    2007-01-01

    Numerical simulation of radiation-induced conductivity in polymers upon long-term irradiation on the basis of the generalized Rose-Fowler-Vaisberg model, which allows for both dipolar carrier transport and generation of radiation traps during irradiation, was performed. The unusual properties of radiation-induced conductivity, such as the appearance of a maximum on current transients, the absence of a steady state, and a substantial difference between these curves for the first and subsequent irradiation, are rationalized in terms of the formation of free radicals, the major feature of radiolysis in the chemical aspect. This interpretation does not require the involvement of degradation or crosslinking processes, unlike other interpretations that appear in the literature. With the use of low-density polyethylene as an example, it was shown that radiation-induced conductivity both upon pulse and continuous irradiation can satisfactorily be described with the unified set of parameters of the generalized Rose-Fowler-Vaisberg model [ru

  7. Radiation-induced gene amplification in rodent and human cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luecke-Huhle, C.; Gloss, B.; Herrlich, P.

    1990-01-01

    Ionizing and UV radiations induce amplification of SV40 DNA sequences integrated in the genome of Chinese hamster cells and increase amplification of the dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) gene during methotrexate selection in human skin fibroblasts of a patient with ataxia telangiectasia. Various types of external (60-Co-γ-rays, 241-Am-α-particles, UV) or internal radiation (caused by the decay of 125 I incorporated into DNA in form of I-UdR) were applied. By cell fusion experiments it could be shown that SV40 gene amplification is mediated by one or several diffusible trans-acting factors induced or activated in a dose dependent manner by all types of radiation. One of these factors binds to a 10 bp sequence within the minimal origin of replication of SV40. In vivo competition with an excess of a synthetic oligonucleotide comprising this sequence blocks radiation-induced amplification. (author) 25 refs.; 8 figs

  8. Radiation-induced spindle cell sarcoma: A rare case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khan Mubeen

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Ionizing radiation has been known to induce malignant transformation in human beings. Radiation-induced sarcomas are a late sequel of radiation therapy. Most sarcomas have been reported to occur after exposure to a radiation dose of 55 Gray (Gy and above, with a dose ranging from 16 to 112 Gys. Spindle cell sarcomas, arising after radiotherapy given to treat the carcinoma of head and neck region is a very uncommon sequel. This is a rare case report of spindle cell sarcoma of left maxilla, in a 24-year-old male, occurring as a late complication of radiotherapy with Cobalt-60 given for the treatment of retinoblastoma of the left eye 21 years back.

  9. Radiation induced microbial pesticide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Ki Yup; Lee, Young Keun; Kim, Jae Sung; Kim, Jin Kyu; Lee, Sang Jae

    2000-01-01

    To control plant pathogenic fungi, 4 strains of bacteria (K1, K3, K4, YS1) were isolated from mushroom compost and hot spring. K4, K1, K3, YS1 strain showed wide antifungal spectrum and high antifungal activities against 13 kinds of fungi. Mutants of K1 and YS1 strains were induced by gamma-ray radiation and showed promising antifungal activities. These wild type and mutants showed resistant against more than 27 kinds of commercial pesticides among 30 kinds of commercial pesticides test particularly, YS1-1006 mutant strain showed resistant against hydrogen oxide. And mutants had increased antifungal activity against Botryoshaeria dothidea. These results suggested that radiation could be an useful method for the induction of functional mutants. (author)

  10. Radiation-induced chondrosarcoma of the maxilla 7-year after combined chemoradiation for tonsillar lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadianpanah, M; Gramizadeh, B; Omidvari, Sh; Mosalaei, A

    2004-01-01

    Radiation-induced sarcoma is a rare complication of radiation therapy. We report a case of radiation-induced chondrosarcoma of the maxilla. An 80-year-old Persian woman developed radiation-induced chondrosarcoma of the left maxilla 7 years after combined chemotherapy and external beam radiation therapy for the Ann Arbor stage IE malignant lymphoma of the right tonsil. She underwent suboptimal tumour resection and died due to extensive locoregional disease 8 months later. An English language literature search of Medline using the terms chondrosarcoma, radiation-induced sarcoma and maxilla revealed only one earlier reported case. We describe the clinical and pathological features of this case and review the literature on radiation-induced sarcomas.

  11. Radiation-induced chondrosarcoma of the maxilla 7-year after combined chemoradiation for tonsillar lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammadianpanah M

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Radiation-induced sarcoma is a rare complication of radiation therapy. We report a case of radiation-induced chondrosarcoma of the maxilla. An 80-year-old Persian woman developed radiation-induced chondrosarcoma of the left maxilla 7 years after combined chemotherapy and external beam radiation therapy for the Ann Arbor stage IE malignant lymphoma of the right tonsil. She underwent suboptimal tumour resection and died due to extensive locoregional disease 8 months later. An English language literature search of Medline using the terms chondrosarcoma, radiation-induced sarcoma and maxilla revealed only one earlier reported case. We describe the clinical and pathological features of this case and review the literature on radiation-induced sarcomas.

  12. Radiation-induced physical ageing in network arsenic-sulfide/selenide glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shpotyuk, M; Golovchak, R; Kozdras, A; Shpotyuk, O, E-mail: shpotyuk@novas.lviv.ua

    2010-11-15

    Effect of radiation-induced physical ageing is investigated by differential scanning calorimetry method in As{sub x}Se{sub 100-x} (10 {<=} x {<=} 42) and As{sub x}S{sub 100-x} (30 {<=} x {<=} 42) glasses. Obtained results are compared with conventional physical ageing at normal conditions. Significant radiation-induced physical ageing is recorded for glassy As{sub x}S{sub 100-x} within 30 {<=} x < 40 range, while As{sub x}Se{sub 100-x} glasses from the same compositional interval do not show any measurable changes in DSC curves after {gamma}-irradiation. Observed difference in radiation-induced physical ageing in arsenic-sulfide/selenide glasses is explained by a greater lifetime of {gamma}-induced excitations within sulfur-based network in comparison with selenium-based one.

  13. ROS Mediates Radiation-Induced Differentiation in Human Lung Fibroblast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Sa Rah; Ahn, Ji Yeon; Kim, Mi Hyeung; Lim, Min Jin; Yun, Yeon Sook; Song, Jie Young

    2009-01-01

    One of the most common tumors worldwide is lung cancer and the number of patients with lung cancer received radiotherapy is increasing rapidly. Although radiotherapy may have lots of advantages, it can also induce serious adverse effects such as acute radiation pneumonitis and pulmonary fibrosis. Pulmonary fibrosis is characterized by excessive production of smooth muscle actin-alpha (a-SMA) and accumulation of extracellular matrix (ECM) such as collagen and fibronectin. There has been a great amount of research about fibrosis but the exact mechanism causing the reaction is not elucidated especially in radiation-induced fibrosis. Until now it has been known that several factors such as transforming growth factor (TGF-b), tumor necrosis factor (TNF), IL-6, platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) and reactive oxygen species are related to fibrosis. It is also reported that reactive oxygen species (ROS) can be induced by radiation and can act as a second messenger in various signaling pathways. Therefore we focused on the role of ROS in radiation induced fibrosis. Here, we suggest that irradiation generate ROS mainly through NOX4, result in differentiation of lung fibroblast into myofibroblast

  14. Prevention of radiation induced xerostomia and improved quality of life: Submandibular salivary gland transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heck, K.

    2003-01-01

    Over 60,000 new cases of head and neck cancers, and approximately 15,000 deaths occur every year in the United States (1). Head and neck cancers affect more men then women by a factor of 2:1, although the incidence of women is increasing as a result of increased tobacco use (2). Over 90% of all head and neck cancers are squamous cell carcinomas; most of the remaining cancers are adenocarcinomas. A combination of radiation therapy and surgery is used as the standard, primary treatment modality. Xerostomia occurs when the salivary glands are affected by irradiation. Patients experiencing xerostomia are at an increased risk for a wide variety of oral problems; all adversely affecting one's quality of life. Currently patients make lifestyle changes, dietary modifications, and use artificial salivas, sprays, gels, and lozenges to help mask their xerostomia. However, none of these products stimulate natural salivary production and act as a replacement therapy rather then a cure for xerostomia. A new protocol, RTOG 1083 has been approved by the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group, which involves a surgical transfer of a submandibular salivary gland to the submental space (where it can be easily shielded) as a method of prevention of radiation induced xerostomia. (author)

  15. Current study on ionizing radiation-induced mitochondial DNA damage and mutations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Xin; Wang Zhenhua; Zhang Hong

    2012-01-01

    Current advance in ionizing radiation-induced mitochondrial DNA damage and mutations is reviewed, in addition with the essential differences between mtDNA and nDNA damage and mutations. To extent the knowledge about radiation induced mitochondrial alterations, the researchers in Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences developed some technics such as real-time PCR, long-PCR for accurate quantification of radiation induced damage and mutations, and in-depth investigation about the functional changes of mitochondria based on mtDNA damage and mutations were also carried out. In conclusion, the important role of mitochondrial study in radiation biology is underlined, and further study on mitochondrial study associated with late effect and metabolism changes in radiation biology is pointed out. (authors)

  16. Cell kinetic studies on radiation induced leukemogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakao, Isamu; Suzuki, Gen; Imai, Yasufumi; Kawase, Yoshiko; Nose, Masako; Hirashima, Kunitake; Bessho, Masami

    1989-01-01

    The purpose of this study was threefold: (1) to determine the clonal origin of radiation-induced thymic lymphoma in mice with cellular mosaicism for phosphoglycerate kinase; (2) to determine the incidence and latent period of myeloid leukemia and thymic lymphoma induced by whole-body exposure to median doses (3.0 Gy or less) in RFM/MsNrs-2 mice; and (3) to examine the influence of human recombinant interleukin-2 (hrIL-2). Thymic lymphoma was of a single cell origin. The incidence of radiation-induced myeloid leukemia and thymic lymphoma in RFM mice increased in a dose dependent fashion. Mean latent periods of both myeloid leukemia and thymic lymphoma after irradiation became shorter in proportion to radiation doses. When hrIL-2 was injected to RFM mice receiving 3.0 Gy, mean survivals were shorter in thymoma-bearing mice than the control mice. This suggested that hrIL-2 shortens the promotion step of thymoma. Administration of hrIL-2 failed to alter the incidence of myeloid leukemia or the mean survival of mice having myeloid leukemia, indicating that the protocol of hrIL-2 administration was not so sufficient as to alter the myeloid leukemogenesis. (Namekawa, K)

  17. Image Guidance and Assessment of Radiation Induced Gene Therapy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pelizzari, Charles

    2004-01-01

    Image guidance and assessment techniques are being developed for combined radiation/gene therapy, which utilizes a radiation-inducible gene promoter to cause expression of tumor necrosis factor alpha...

  18. Formation of radiation induced chromosome aberrations: involvement of telomeric sequences and telomerase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pirzio, L.

    2004-07-01

    As telomeres are crucial for chromosome integrity; we investigated the role played by telomeric sequences in the formation and in the transmission of radio-induced chromosome rearrangements in human cells. Starting from interstitial telomeric sequences (ITS) as putative region of breakage, we showed that the radiation sensitivity is not equally distributed along chromosomes and. is not affected by ITS. On the contrary, plasmid integration sites are prone to radio-induced breaks, suggesting a possible integration at sites already characterized by fragility. However plasmids do not preferentially insert at radio-induced breaks in human cells immortalized by telomerase. These cells showed remarkable karyotype stability even after irradiation, suggesting a role of telomerase in the genome maintenance despite functional telomeres. Finally, we showed that the presence of more breaks in a cell favors the repair, leading to an increase of transmissible rearrangements. (author)

  19. Formation of radiation-induced defects and their influence on tritium extraction from lithium silicates in out-of-pile experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abramenkovs, A.A.; Tiliks, J.E.

    1991-01-01

    Formation and properties of radiation-induced defects and radiolysis products in lithium silicates irradiated in nuclear reactor till absorbed doses 1000 MGy were studied. Radiation-induced defects (RD) and radiolysis products (RP) were qualitatively and quantitatively determinated by methods of chemical scavengers (MHS), electron-spin resonance (ESR) and optical spectroscopy. Colloidal silicon and lithium, lithium and silicon oxides, oxygen, silicon and lithium peroxides are the final products of the lithium silicates radiolysis at absorbed energy doses D abs = 1000 MGy. The concentration of radiation defects and products of radiolysis strongly depend on the temperature of irradiation, humidity, granural size. The thermostimulated extraction of tritiated water (95-98% of the released tritium is in chemical form of water) from lithium silicates ceramics proceeds according to two independent mechanisms: a) chemidesorption of surface localized tritiated water (the first order chemical reaction); b) formation of the tritium water molecules limited by triton diffusion to the near-surface layer of grains. It has been found that the concentration of radiation-induced defects considerably affects the tritium localization and releasing processes from lithium silicates. (orig.)

  20. Simultaneous reconstruction of temperature distribution and radiative properties in participating media using a hybrid LSQR-PSO algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Chun-Yang; Qi, Hong; Huang, Xing; Ruan, Li-Ming; Wang, Wei; Tan, He-Ping

    2015-11-01

    A hybrid least-square QR decomposition (LSQR)-particle swarm optimization (LSQR-PSO) algorithm was developed to estimate the three-dimensional (3D) temperature distributions and absorption coefficients simultaneously. The outgoing radiative intensities at the boundary surface of the absorbing media were simulated by the line-of-sight (LOS) method, which served as the input for the inverse analysis. The retrieval results showed that the 3D temperature distributions of the participating media with known radiative properties could be retrieved accurately using the LSQR algorithm, even with noisy data. For the participating media with unknown radiative properties, the 3D temperature distributions and absorption coefficients could be retrieved accurately using the LSQR-PSO algorithm even with measurement errors. It was also found that the temperature field could be estimated more accurately than the absorption coefficients. In order to gain insight into the effects on the accuracy of temperature distribution reconstruction, the selection of the detection direction and the angle between two detection directions was also analyzed. Project supported by the Major National Scientific Instruments and Equipment Development Special Foundation of China (Grant No. 51327803), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 51476043), and the Fund of Tianjin Key Laboratory of Civil Aircraft Airworthiness and Maintenance in Civil Aviation University of China.

  1. The genetics of radiation-induced osteosarcoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosemann, M.; Kuosaite, V.; Nathrath, M.; Atkinson, M.J.

    2002-01-01

    Individual genetic variation can influence susceptibility to the carcinogenic effects of many environmental carcinogens. In radiation-exposed populations those individuals with a greater genetically determined susceptibility would be at greater risk of developing cancer. To include this modification of risk into radiation protection schemes it is necessary to identify the genes responsible for determining individual sensitivity. Alpha-particle-induced osteosarcoma in the mouse has been adopted as a model of human radiation carcinogenesis, and genome-wide screens have been conducted for allelic imbalance and genetic linkage. These studies have revealed a series of genes involved in determining the sensitivity to radiogenic osteosarcoma formation. (author)

  2. Turbid Media Extinction Coefficient for Near-Infrared Laser Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dreischuh, T; Gurdev, L; Vankov, O; Stoyanov, D; Avramov, L

    2015-01-01

    In this work, extended investigations are performed of the extinction coefficient of Intralipid-20% dilutions in distilled water depending on the Intralipid concentration, for laser radiation wavelengths in the red and near-infrared regions covering the so-called tissue optical window. The extinction is measured by using an approach we have developed recently based on the features of the spatial intensity distribution of laser-radiation beams propagating through semi-infinite turbid media. The measurements are conducted using separately two dilution- containing plexiglass boxes of different sizes and volumes, in order to prove the appropriateness of the assumption of semi-infinite turbid medium. The experimental results for the extinction are in agreement with our previous results and with empiric formulae found by other authors concerning the wavelength dependence of the scattering coefficient of Intralipid – 10% and Intralipid – 20%. They are also in agreement with known data of the water absorptance. It is estimated as well that the wavelengths around 1320 nm would be advantageous for deep harmless sensing and diagnostics of tissues

  3. Radiation induced DNA damage and repair in mutagenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strniste, G.F.; Chen, D.J.; Okinaka, R.T.

    1987-01-01

    The central theme in cellular radiobiological research has been the mechanisms of radiation action and the physiological response of cells to this action. Considerable effort has been directed toward the characterization of radiation-induced DNA damage and the correlation of this damage to cellular genetic change that is expressed as mutation or initiating events leading to cellular transformation and ultimately carcinogenesis. In addition, there has been a significant advancement in their understanding of the role of DNA repair in the process of mutation leading to genetic change in cells. There is extensive literature concerning studies that address radiation action in both procaryotic and eucaryotic systems. This brief report will make no attempt to summarize this voluminous data but will focus on recent results from their laboratory of experiments in which they have examined, at both the cellular and molecular levels, the process of ionizing radiation-induced mutagenesis in cultured human cells

  4. Study on DNA damages induced by UV radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doan Hong Van; Dinh Ba Tuan; Tran Tuan Anh; Nguyen Thuy Ngan; Ta Bich Thuan; Vo Thi Thuong Lan; Tran Minh Quynh; Nguyen Thi Thom

    2015-01-01

    DNA damages in Escherichia coli (E. coli) exposed to UV radiation have been investigated. After 30 min of exposure to UV radiation of 5 mJ/cm"2, the growth of E. coli in LB broth medium was about only 10% in compared with non-irradiated one. This results suggested that the UV radiation caused the damages for E. coli genome resulted in reduction in its growth and survival, and those lesions can be somewhat recovered. For both solutions of plasmid DNAs and E. coli cells containing plasmid DNA, this dose also caused the breakage on single and double strands of DNA, shifted the morphology of DNA plasmid from supercoiled to circular and linear forms. The formation of pyrimidine dimers upon UV radiation significantly reduced when the DNA was irradiated in the presence of Ganoderma lucidum extract. Thus, studies on UV-induced DNA damage at molecular level are very essential to determine the UV radiation doses corresponding to the DNA damages, especially for creation and selection of useful radiation-induced mutants, as well as elucidation the protective effects of the specific compounds against UV light. (author)

  5. Ultraviolet B (UVB) induced DNA damage affects alternative splicing in skin cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munoz, M.J.; Nieto Moreno, N.; Kornblihtt, A.R.

    2010-01-01

    The ultraviolet (UV) radiation from the Sun that reaches the Earth's surface is a combination of low (UVA, 320-400 nm) and high (UVB, 290-320 nm) energy light. UVB light causes two types of mutagenic DNA lesions: thymine dimers and (6-4) photo-products. UVB mutagenesis is a critical step in the generation of different forms of skin cancer, which develops almost exclusively in sun exposed areas. We have previously shown that RNA polymerase II (pol II) hyperphosphorylation induced by UVC (254 nm) irradiation of non-skin cells inhibits pol II elongation rates which in turn affects alternative splicing (AS) patterns, altering the synthesis of pro- and anti-apoptotic isoforms of key proteins like Bcl-x or Caspase 9 (C9). Since the UVC radiation is fully filtered by the ozone layer and AS regulation in skin pathologies has been poorly studied, we decided to extend our studies to human keratinocytes in culture treated with UVB (302 nm) light. We observed that pol II hyperphosphorylation is increased upon UVB irradiation, being this modification necessary for the observed change in AS of a model cassette exon. Moreover, UVB irradiation induces the proapoptotic mRNA isoforms of Bcl-x and C9 consistently with a key role of AS in skin response to DNA damage. (authors)

  6. Radiation-induced Pulmonary Damage in Lung Cancer Patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Su Mi; Choi, Ihl Bohng; Kang, Mi Mun; Kim, In Ah; Shinn, Kyung Sub

    1993-01-01

    Purpose: A retrospective analysis was performed to evaluate the incidence of radiation induced lung damage after the radiation therapy for the patients with carcinoma of the lung. Method and Materials: Sixty-six patients with lung cancer (squamous cell carcinoma 27, adenocarcinoma 14, large cell carcinoma 2, small cell carcinoma 13, unknown 10) were treated with definitive, postoperative or palliative radiation therapy with or without chemotherapy between July 1987 and December 1991. There were 50 males and 16 females with median age of 63 years(range: 33-80 years). Total lung doses ranged from 500 to 6,660 cGy (median 3960 cGy) given in 2 to 38 fractions (median 20) over a range of 2 to 150 days (median 40 days) using 6 MV or 15 MV linear accelerator. To represent different fractionation schedules of equivalent biological effect, the estimated single dose(ED) model, ED=D·N-0.377·T-0.058 was used in which D was the lung dose in cGy, N was the number of fractions, and T was the overall treatment time in days. The range of ED was 370 to 1357. The endpoint was a visible increase in lung density within the irradiated volume on chest X-ray as observed independently by three diagnostic radiologists. Patients were grouped according to ED, treatment duration, treatment modality and age, and the percent incidence of pulmonary damage for each group was determined. Result: In 40 of 66 patients, radiation induced change was seen on chest radiographs between 11 days and 314 days after initiation of radiation therapy. The incidence of radiation pneumonitis was increased according to increased ED, which was statistically significant (p=0.001). Roentgenographic charges consistent with radiation pneumonitis were seen in 100% of patients receiving radiotherapy after lobectomy or pneumonectomy, which was not statistically significant. In 32 patients who also received chemotherapy, there was no difference in the incidence of radiation induced charge between the group with radiation

  7. Characterization of radiation-induced emesis in the ferret

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, G.L.

    1988-01-01

    Forty-eight ferrets (Mustela putorius furo) were individually head-shielded and radiated with bilateral 60 Co gamma radiation at 100 cGy min-1 at doses ranging between 49 and 601 cGy. The emetic threshold was observed at 69 cGy, the ED50 was calculated at 77 cGy, and 100% incidence of emesis occurred at 201 cGy. With increasing doses of radiation, the latency to first emesis after radiation decreased dramatically, whereas the duration of the prodromal period increased. Two other sets of experiments suggest that dopaminergic mechanisms play a minor role in radiation-induced emesis in the ferret. Twenty-two animals were injected either intravenously or subcutaneously with 30 to 300 micrograms/kg of apomorphine. Fewer than 50% of the animals vomited to 300 micrograms/kg apomorphine; central dopaminergic receptor activation was apparent at all doses. Another eight animals received 1 mg/kg domperidone prior to either 201 (n = 4) or 401 (n = 4) cGy radiation and their emetic responses were compared with NaCl-injected-irradiated controls (n = 8). At 201 cGy, domperidone significantly reduced only the total time in emetic behavior. At 401 cGy, domperidone had no salutary effect on radiation-induced emesis. The emetic responses of the ferret to radiation and apomorphine are compared with these responses in other vomiting species

  8. Radiation induced estane polymer crosslinking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fletcher, M.; Foster, P.

    1997-01-01

    The exposure of polymeric materials to radiation has been known to induce the effects of crosslinking and degradation. The crosslinking phenomena comes about when two long chain polymers become linked together by a primary bond that extends the chain and increases the viscosity, molecular weight and the elastic modules of the polymer. This process has been observed in relatively short periods of time with fairly high doses of radiation, on the order of several megarads/hour. This paper address low dose exposure over long periods of time to determine what the radiation effects are on the polymeric binder material in PBX 9501. An experimental sample of binder material without explosives will be placed into a thermal and radiation field produced from a W-48 put mod 0. Another sample will be placed in a thermal environment without the radiation. The following is the test plan that was submitted to the Pantex process. The data presented here will be from the first few weeks of exposure and this test will be continued over the next few years. Subsequent data will hopefully be presented in the next compatibility and aging conference

  9. [Induced thymus aging: radiation model and application perspective for low intensive laser radiation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevost'ianova, N N; Trofimov, A V; Lin'kova, N S; Poliakova, V O; Kvetnoĭ, I M

    2010-01-01

    The influence of gamma-radiation on morphofunctional state of thymus is rather like as natural thymus aging. However gamma-radiation model of thymus aging widely used to investigate geroprotectors has many shortcomings and limitations. Gamma-radiation can induce irreversible changes in thymus very often. These changes are more intensive in comparison with changes, which can be observed at natural thymus aging. Low intensive laser radiation can not destroy structure of thymus and its effects are rather like as natural thymus aging in comparison with gamma-radiation effects. There are many parameters of low intensive laser radiation, which can be changed to improve morphofunctional thymus characteristics in aging model. Using low intensive laser radiation in thymus aging model can be very perspective for investigations of aging immune system.

  10. Radioprotective effect of Rapana thomasiana hemocyanin in gamma induced acute radiation syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kindekov, Ivan; Vassilieva, Vladimir; Aljakova, Mitko; Mileva, Milka; Krastev, Dimo; Raynova, Yuliana; Idakieva, Krassimira; Doumanov, Lyuba

    2014-01-01

    The radioprotective effect of Rapana thomasiana hemocyanin (RtH) against radiation-induced injuries (stomach ulcers, survival time and endogenous haemopoiesis) and post-radiation recovery was investigated in male albino mice (C3H strain). Radiation course was in a dose of 7.5 Gy (LD 100/30 - dose that kills 100% of the mice at 30 days) from "1"3"7Cs with a dose of 2.05 Gy/ min. Radiation injuries were manifested by inducing 2 hematopoietic form of acute radiation syndrome. RtH was administered intraperitoneally in a single dose of 50, 100, 150 and 200 mg/kg body weight (b. w.) once a day for five consecutive days before irradiation. The results obtained showed that radiation exposure led to (1) 100% mortality rate, (2) ulceration in the stomach mucosa and (3) decrease formation of spleen colonies as a marker of endogenous haemopoiesis. Administration of RtH at a dose of 200 mg/kg provided better protection against radiation-induced stomach ulceration, mitigated the lethal effects of radiation exposure and recovered endogenous haemopoiesis versus irradiated but not supplemented mice. It could be expected that RtH will find a use in mitigating radiation induced injury and enhanced radiorecovery. Keywords: Rapana thomasiana hemocyanin; acute radiation syndrome; radioprotective effect; spleen colony assay; stomach ulcerations

  11. Modulating factors in the expression of radiation-induced oncogenic transformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, E.J.; Hei, T.K.

    1990-01-01

    Many assays for oncogenic transformation have been developed ranging from those in established rodent cell lines where morphological alteration is scored, to those in human cells growing in nude mice where tumor invasiveness is scored. In general, systems that are most quantitaive are also the least relevant in terms of human carcinogenesis and human risk estimation. The development of cell culture systems has made it possible to assess at the cellular level the oncogenic potential of a variety of chemical, physical and viral agents. Cell culture systems afford the opportunity to identify factors and conditions that may prevent or enhance cellular transformation by radiation and chemicals. Permissive and protective factors in radiation-induced transformation include thyroid hormone and the tumor promoter TPA that increase the transformation incidence for a given dose of radiation, and retinoids, selenium, vitamin E, and 5-aminobenzamide that inhibit the expression of transformation. Densely ionizing α-particles, similar to those emitted by radon daughters, are highly effective in inducing transformations and appear to interact in a supra-additive fashion with asbestos fibers. The activation of a known dominant oncogene has not yet been demonstrated in radiation-induced oncogenic transformation. The most likely mechanism for radiation activation of an oncogene would be via the production of a chromosomal translocation. Radiation also efficiently induces deletions and may thus lead to the loss of a suppressor gene

  12. Radiation-induced chondrosarcomas: A case report with review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta G

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Radiation therapy has become an important component of various cancer treatments. The development of second malignancy as a result of radiation therapy is a well-known sinister complication. However, radiation-induced sarcomas (RIS are rare complications of radiation therapy. The timescale between completion of the radiotherapy and the development of a second malignancy, known as the latent period, can vary widely from as little as 5 years to 50 years later. Radiation-induced sarcomas per se are very rare and those with histomorphology of chondrosarcomas are even rarer. We report a rare case of RIS of left iliac bone in a 62-year-old lady after combined chemotherapy and external beam radiation therapy for cervical carcinoma (stage IIb. This case is being reported for its extreme rarity, vivid histology and clinical presentation.

  13. Bystander effects in UV-induced genomic instability: Antioxidants inhibit delayed mutagenesis induced by ultraviolet A and B radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dahle Jostein

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genomic instability is characteristic of many types of human cancer. Recently, we reported that ultraviolet radiation induced elevated mutation rates and chromosomal instability for many cell generations after ultraviolet irradiation. The increased mutation rates of unstable cells may allow them to accumulate aberrations that subsequently lead to cancer. Ultraviolet A radiation, which primarily acts by oxidative stress, and ultraviolet B radiation, which initially acts by absorption in DNA and direct damage to DNA, both produced genomically unstable cell clones. In this study, we have determined the effect of antioxidants on induction of delayed mutations by ultraviolet radiation. Delayed mutations are indicative of genomic instability. Methods Delayed mutations in the hypoxanthine phosphoribosyl transferase (hprt gene were detected by incubating the cells in medium selectively killing hprt mutants for 8 days after irradiation, followed by a 5 day period in normal medium before determining mutation frequencies. Results The UVB-induced delayed hprt mutations were strongly inhibited by the antioxidants catalase, reduced glutathione and superoxide dismutase, while only reduced glutathione had a significant effect on UVA-induced delayed mutations. Treatment with antioxidants had only minor effects on early mutation frequenies, except that reduced glutathione decreased the UVB-induced early mutation frequency by 24 %. Incubation with reduced glutathione was shown to significantly increase the intracellular amount of reduced glutathione. Conclusion The strong effects of these antioxidants indicate that genomic instability, which is induced by the fundamentally different ultraviolet A and ultraviolet B radiation, is mediated by reactive oxygen species, including hydrogen peroxide and downstream products. However, cells take up neither catalase nor SOD, while incubation with glutathione resulted in increased intracellular levels of

  14. Radiation-Induced Esophagitis is Mitigated by Soy Isoflavones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew D Fountain

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Lung cancer patients receiving radiotherapy present with acute esophagitis and chronic fibrosis, as a result of radiation injury to esophageal tissues. We have shown that soy isoflavones alleviate pneumonitis and fibrosis caused by radiation toxicity to normal lung. The effect of soy isoflavones on esophagitis histopathological changes induced by radiation was investigated. Methods: C57BL/6 mice were treated with 10 Gy or 25 Gy single thoracic irradiation and soy isoflavones for up to 16 weeks. Damage to esophageal tissues was assessed by H&E, Masson’s Trichrome and Ki-67 staining at 1, 4, 10, 16 weeks after radiation. The effects on smooth muscle cells and leukocyte infiltration were determined by immunohistochemistry using anti-αSMA and anti-CD45 respectively. Results: Radiation caused thickening of esophageal tissue layers that was significantly reduced by soy isoflavones. Major radiation alterations included hypertrophy of basal cells in mucosal epithelium and damage to smooth muscle cells in muscularis mucosae as well as disruption of collagen fibers in lamina propria connective tissue with leukocyte infiltration. These effects were observed as early as one week after radiation and were more pronounced with a higher dose of 25 Gy. Soy isoflavones limited the extent of tissue damage induced by radiation both at 10 and 25 Gy.Conclusions: Soy isoflavones have a radioprotective effect on the esophagus, mitigating the early and late effects of radiation injury in several esophagus tissue layers. Soy could be administered with radiotherapy to decrease the incidence and severity of esophagitis in lung cancer patients receiving thoracic radiation therapy.

  15. Units related to radiation exposure and radioactivity in mass media: the Fukushima case study in Europe and Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perko, T; Tomkiv, Y; Oughton, D H; Cantone, M C; Gallego, E; Prezelj, I; Byrkina, E

    2015-04-01

    Using an analysis of the way European newspapers covered the Fukushima nuclear accident, this article explores how the mass media transmit information about radiation risks from experts to the general public. The study applied a media content analysis method on a total of 1340 articles from 12 leading newspapers in 6 countries: Belgium (N = 260), Italy (N = 270), Norway (N = 133), Russia (N = 172), Slovenia (N = 190) and Spain (N = 315). All articles analysed were selected as being directly or indirectly related to the Fukushima accident by containing the word 'nuclear' and/or 'Fukushima' and were published between the 11th March and the 11th May 2011. The data presented here focus specifically on a cross-cultural comparison of the way the media use quantitative units. Results suggest that although experts are accustomed to communicating about radiological risks in technical language, often using quantitative units to describe the risks, mass media do not tend to use these units in their reporting. Although the study found a large variation in the measurement units used in different countries, it appeared that journalists in all the analysed countries preferred to describe radioactivity by comparing different radiation exposures, rather than reporting the actual measured units. The paper concludes with some practical guidelines for sound public communication about radiation risks. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Dose rate effectiveness in radiation-induced teratogenesis in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, F.; Ootsuyama, A.; Norimura, T.

    2000-01-01

    To investigate the role of p53 gene in tissue repair of teratogenic injury, we compared incidence of radiation-induced malformations in homozygous p53(-/-) mice, heterozygous p53(+/-) mice and wild-type p53(+/+) mice. After X-irradiation with 2 Gy at high dose rate on 9.5 days of gestation, p53(-/-) mice showed higher incidences of anomalies and higher resistance to prenatal deaths than p53(+/+) mice. This reciprocal relationship of radiosensitivity to anomalies and deaths supports the notion that embryos or fetuses have a p53-dependent 'guardian' that aborts cells bearing radiation-induced teratogenic DNA damage. In fact, after X-irradiation, the number of apoptotic cells was greatly increased in p53(+/+) fetuses but not in p53(-/-) fetuses. The same dose of γ-ray exposure at low dose rate on 9.5-10.5 day of gestation produced significant reduction of radiation-induced malformation in p53(+/+) and p53(+/-) mice, remained teratogenic for p53(-/-) mice. These results suggest that complete elimination of teratogenic damage from irradiated tissues requires the concerted cooperation of two mechanisms; proficient DNA repair and the p53-dependent apoptotic tissue repair. When concerted DNA repair and apoptosis functions efficiently, there is a threshold dose-rate for radiation-induced malformations. (author)

  17. Dark and bright vortex solitons in electromagnetically induced transparent media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Xuan; Xie Xiaotao; Yang Xiaoxue

    2006-01-01

    We show that dark and bright vortex solitons can exist in three-state electromagnetically induced transparent media under some appropriate conditions. We also analyse the stability of the dark and bright vortex solitons. This work may provide other research opportunities in nonlinear optical experiments and may result in a substantial impact on technology

  18. Retrospective results of radiation therapy of the Eustachian tube in chronic otitis media; Retrospektive Ergebnisse der perkutanen Strahlentherapie der Tuba Eustachii bei chronischer Otitis media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schultze, J.; Reinke, C.; Kimmig, B. [Klinik fuer Strahlentherapie (Radioonkologie), Universitaetsklinikum Kiel (Germany); Frese, K.A. [Klinik fuer Hals-, Nasen- und Ohrenheilkunde, Kopf- und Halschirurgie, Universitaetsklinikum Kiel (Germany)

    2003-01-01

    Background: The treatment results of symptomatic radiation therapy of the Eustachian tube in chronic otitis media had to be evaluated retrospectively. Patients and Methods: Between 1980 and 1997, 66 patients were referred for therapy. The median age was 58 years. In the clinical presentation, all the patients had a hearing impairment, 35 patients complained of pain, 21 had otorrhea. In their history, 20 patients indicated chronic recurrent infections. The complaints lasted for 4.7 years in the median, primary conservative (adstringentia, antibiotics) and surgical treatment (paracentesis, tympanic tubule, tympanoplastic) did not lead to lasting cure. In 40 of 66 patients, finally radiation therapy was done of both Eustachian tubes. With opposed fields and cobalt-60 photons a total dose of 6 Gy at single doses of 1 Gy, three times a week, was applied. Under the causes for exclusion of radiation therapy were non-acceptance of the patients (nine), prior radiation therapies (six) or spontaneous improvement after initial presentation in our department. The treatment results were evaluated by interviews of the patients and regular otorhinolaryngological examinations. Results: There were no side effects noticed. 28 of 40 (70%) patients reported a significant improvement that could be verified by objective otorhinolaryngological examinations. In the group of 26 nonirradiated patients, 22 could be interviewed indicating in 16 cases (72%) that the complaints were unchanged and chronic otitis media was lasting. In a subgroup analysis concerning the duration of otitis media radiation therapy proved more effective in an acute and subacute stadium of disease of up to 5 years duration, while the patients resistant to radiation therapy were entirely in a chronic stage of disease exceeding 5 years duration. (orig.) [German] Hintergrund: Die Behandlungsergebnisse der symptomatischen Radiotherapie bei chronischer Otitis media sollten retrospektiv evaluiert werden. Patienten und

  19. Radiation-induced premature menopause: a misconception

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madsen, Berit L.; Giudice, Linda; Donaldson, Sarah S.

    1995-01-01

    Purpose: To disprove the common view that women who have undergone irradiation to fields excluding the pelvis are at risk for radiation-induced premature menopause, we reviewed menstrual function and fertility among women treated with subtotal lymphoid irradiation for Hodgkin's Disease. Methods and Materials: Treatment and follow-up records of all women less than age 50 at the time of diagnosis of Stage I or II supradiaphragmatic Hodgkin's Disease, treated with subtotal lymphoid irradiation alone and enrolled in radiotherapy trials from 1967 to 1985, were reviewed. In addition, patients were surveyed regarding their menstrual status and fertility history. Results: Thirty-six women, aged 10 to 40 years, with normal menstrual function at the time of Hodgkin's diagnosis, were identified. Mean follow-up was 14 years, with a range of 1.25-22.75 years. The average radiation dose to mantle and paraaortic fields was 40-44 Gy; the calculated scatter radiation dose to the pelvis at the ovaries was 3.2 Gy. There were 38 pregnancies in 18 women; all offspring are normal. One of 36 women (2.7%) experienced premature menopause. The reported rate of premature menopause in women who have not undergone irradiation is 1-3%; not significantly different than the rate in our study. There is a syndrome whereby antibodies to several endocrine organs occur (including the ovary), which is associated with premature ovarian failure. This syndrome may be associated with prior radiation to the thyroid, such as that given by mantle-irradiation for Hodgkin's Disease. We report such a case. Conclusion: There is little risk of premature menopause in women treated with radiation fields that exclude the pelvis. Women with presumed radiation-induced premature menopause warrant an evaluation to exclude other causes of ovarian failure, such as autoimmune disorders

  20. Radiation-Induced Leukemia at Doses Relevant to Radiation Therapy: Modeling Mechanisms and Estimating Risks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuryak, Igor; Sachs, Rainer K.; Hlatky, Lynn; Mark P. Little; Hahnfeldt, Philip; Brenner, David J.

    2006-01-01

    Because many cancer patients are diagnosed earlier and live longer than in the past, second cancers induced by radiation therapy have become a clinically significant issue. An earlier biologically based model that was designed to estimate risks of high-dose radiation induced solid cancers included initiation of stem cells to a premalignant state, inactivation of stem cells at high radiation doses, and proliferation of stem cells during cellular repopulation after inactivation. This earlier model predicted the risks of solid tumors induced by radiation therapy but overestimated the corresponding leukemia risks. Methods: To extend the model to radiation-induced leukemias, we analyzed in addition to cellular initiation, inactivation, and proliferation a repopulation mechanism specific to the hematopoietic system: long-range migration through the blood stream of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) from distant locations. Parameters for the model were derived from HSC biologic data in the literature and from leukemia risks among atomic bomb survivors v^ ho were subjected to much lower radiation doses. Results: Proliferating HSCs that migrate from sites distant from the high-dose region include few preleukemic HSCs, thus decreasing the high-dose leukemia risk. The extended model for leukemia provides risk estimates that are consistent with epidemiologic data for leukemia risk associated with radiation therapy over a wide dose range. For example, when applied to an earlier case-control study of 110000 women undergoing radiotherapy for uterine cancer, the model predicted an excess relative risk (ERR) of 1.9 for leukemia among women who received a large inhomogeneous fractionated external beam dose to the bone marrow (mean = 14.9 Gy), consistent with the measured ERR (2.0, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.2 to 6.4; from 3.6 cases expected and 11 cases observed). As a corresponding example for brachytherapy, the predicted ERR of 0.80 among women who received an inhomogeneous low

  1. Better flocculants by radiation induced polymerization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laizier, J.; Gaussens, G.

    1978-01-01

    The use of radiation induced polymerization should theoritically allow to prepare better flocculants. The testings of several products prepared by such a process shows that better properties are indeed obtained: better efficiencies, lower amounts needed, better overall properties [fr

  2. Convergence of the Bouguer–Beer law for radiation extinction in particulate media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frankel, A.; Iaccarino, G.; Mani, A.

    2016-01-01

    Radiation transport in particulate media is a common physical phenomenon in natural and industrial processes. Developing predictive models of these processes requires a detailed model of the interaction between the radiation and the particles. Resolving the interaction between the radiation and the individual particles in a very large system is impractical, whereas continuum-based representations of the particle field lend themselves to efficient numerical techniques based on the solution of the radiative transfer equation. We investigate radiation transport through discrete and continuum-based representations of a particle field. Exact solutions for radiation extinction are developed using a Monte Carlo model in different particle distributions. The particle distributions are then projected onto a concentration field with varying grid sizes, and the Bouguer–Beer law is applied by marching across the grid. We show that the continuum-based solution approaches the Monte Carlo solution under grid refinement, but quickly diverges as the grid size approaches the particle diameter. This divergence is attributed to the homogenization error of an individual particle across a whole grid cell. We remark that the concentration energy spectrum of a point-particle field does not approach zero, and thus the concentration variance must also diverge under infinite grid refinement, meaning that no grid-converged solution of the radiation transport is possible. - Highlights: • Transmission of radiation through turbulent particle distributions is computed. • The continuum representation of discrete particles is grid dependent. • Error of radiation transmission decreases for mild grid refinement. • Homogenization error increases when the grid and particle sizes are comparable.

  3. Effect of epicatechin against radiation-induced oral mucositis: in vitro and in vivo study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoo Seob Shin

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Radiation-induced oral mucositis limits the delivery of high-dose radiation to head and neck cancer. This study investigated the effectiveness of epicatechin (EC, a component of green tea extracts, on radiation-induced oral mucositis in vitro and in vivo. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: The effect of EC on radiation-induced cytotoxicity was analyzed in the human keratinocyte line HaCaT. Radiation-induced apoptosis, change in mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP, reactive oxygen species (ROS generation and changes in the signaling pathway were investigated. In vivo therapeutic effects of EC for oral mucositis were explored in a rat model. Rats were monitored by daily inspections of the oral cavity, amount of oral intake, weight change and survival rate. For histopathologic evaluation, hematoxylin-eosin staining and TUNEL staining were performed. RESULTS: EC significantly inhibited radiation-induced apoptosis, change of MMP, and intracellular ROS generation in HaCaT cells. EC treatment markedly attenuated the expression of p-JNK, p-38, and cleaved caspase-3 after irradiation in the HaCaT cells. Rats with radiation-induced oral mucositis showed decreased oral intake, weight and survival rate, but oral administration of EC significantly restored all three parameters. Histopathologic changes were significantly decreased in the EC-treated irradiated rats. TUNEL staining of rat oral mucosa revealed that EC treatment significantly decreased radiation-induced apoptotic cells. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that EC significantly inhibited radiation-induced apoptosis in keratinocytes and rat oral mucosa and may be a safe and effective candidate treatment for the prevention of radiation-induced mucositis.

  4. The influence of infrared radiation on short-term ultraviolet-radiation-induced injuries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaidbey, K.H.; Witkowski, T.A.; Kligman, A.M.

    1982-01-01

    Because heat has been reported to influence adversely short- and long-term ultraviolet (UV)-radiation-induced skin damage in animals, we investigated the short-term effects of infrared radiation on sunburn and on phototoxic reactions to topical methoxsalen and anthracene in human volunteers. Prior heating of the skin caused suppression of the phototoxic response to methoxsalen as evidenced by an increase in the threshold erythema dose. Heat administered either before or after exposure to UV radiation had no detectable influence on sunburn erythema or on phototoxic reactions provoked by anthracene

  5. Investigation of the role of oncornavirus in radiation-induced osteosarcomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frazier, M.E.; Park, J.F.; Jee, W.S.S.; Taylor, G.

    1975-01-01

    Viruses of the RNA tumor group are etiologic agents of spontaneously occurring neoplastic disease in a number of animal species. These oncornaviruses possess certain biochemical properties which permit them to be easily detected in infected cells, including RNA-instructed DNA polymerase (RIDP) and a closely associated 70S RNA genome in a cytoplasmic particulate fraction having a density of 1.15-1.20 g/ml. Tissues from three dogs with radiation-induced lung tumors and four dogs without tumors did not contain RIDP. However, RIDP was detected in materials prepared from five beagles with radiation-induced osteosarcomas. The presence of RIDP in these radiation-induced osteosarcomas can be considered indicative of retravirus or oncornavirus infection

  6. Radiation-induced cationic curing of vinyl ethers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lapin, S.C.

    1992-01-01

    Recently there has been an increasing interest in nonacrylate radiation-curable coatings. Vinyl ethers are particularly reactive under cationic polymerization reaction conditions. The high efficiency of the photoacid initiators combined with the high reactivity of vinyl ether monomers makes this a potentially very useful system. This chapter discusses the preparation of vinyl ethers, introduces vinyl ether-functional monomers and oligomers, describes radiation-induced cationic polymerization of vinyl ethers, and discusses various coating systems. Throughout the chapter, an emphasis is placed on radiation-curable coating applications. 64 refs., 5 figs., 11 tabs

  7. Radiation-induced life-shortening and premature aging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walburg, H.E. Jr.

    1975-01-01

    Data from a number of studies on irradiated laboratory animals showed that almost none of the characteristic lesions associated with senescence that were studied adequately reflects a radiation effect analogous to premature aging. In fact, most of the age-related changes showed no effect of radiation at all, and many of those that did (for example, graying of hair, sterility, cataract formation) did not appear to be due to similar mechanisms. It is concluded that, in the light of more recent information, the hypothesis of radiation-induced premature aging requires reassessment. (80 references) (CH)

  8. An experimental study on renal damage induced by ionic contrast media in relation to iodine concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sung, Dong Wook; Yoon, Yup; Lim, Jae Hoon; Yang, Moon Ho

    1990-01-01

    Renal injury caused by iodinated contrast media has been widely known, but there has been few papers regarding the pathological change. A series of kidneys after injection of iodinated contrast media was examined to document pathological change. A total of 80 rats was divided into two groups; those given Urografin-60% by 5ml/kg; those given Urografin-76% by 5ml/kg. The kidneys were removed out 1, 2, 3, 5, 7, 10, 14 and 21 days after injection of contrast media and microscopically examined. The resulted were as follows: 1. Pathological changes induced by ionic contrast media were deposition of proteinaceous materials in the proximal convoluted tubules, congestion of interstitial vessels, and vasa rectae, and epithelial degeneration of collecting ducts. There was no detectable pathological changes in the glomerulus, loop of Henle, and distal convoluted tubules. 2. All pathological changes were severe, as the concentration of contrast media increased. 3. These pathologic changes appeared 1 day after injection of contrast media and persisted at least 3 weeks without improvement. Author concludes that the renal damage induced by ionic contrast media becomes severe with increase in concentration, and pathologic changes are not influence with time interval

  9. Radiation induced bystander effects in modification of cellular radio-sensitivity in human cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pandey, B.N.

    2012-01-01

    Radiation-induced Bystander Effect is manifestation of radiation effects in non-irradiated cells in the population. The phenomenon may have significant implication in risk of radiation induced cancer incidence and outcome of cancer radiotherapy. To understand the bystander interaction in tumor cells, we have studied secretion of diffusible factors from control and irradiated tumor cells of different origin. Our results showed a good correlation between magnitude of secretion of diffusible factors and survival of tumor cells. These diffusible factors are shown to affect proliferation and survival of tumor cells involving regulation of kinases and genes/proteins involved in apoptotic machinery. Our experiments using pharmacological inhibitors showed involvement of activating transcription factor 2 (ATF-2) signaling in survival of tumor cells after treatment with diffusible factors. These factors seem to be involved in exerting radio-resistance in tumor cells. Furthermore, in proton microbeam irradiation studies showed induction of double strand break measured as gH2AX foci in human lung carcinoma cells, which was found to propagate to bystander tumor cells during post-irradiation incubation. Implication of these observations in outcome of cancer radiotherapy scenario would be discussed. (author)

  10. Palliative or curative treatment intent affects communication in radiation therapy consultations.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmermans, L.; Maazen, R.W.M. van der; Leer, J.W.H.; Kraaimaat, F.W.

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess whether communication in radiotherapy consultations is affected by palliative or curative treatment intent. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: The study involved 160 patients and 8 radiation oncologists. Eighty patients visited the radiation oncologist (RO) for palliative treatment and 80

  11. Radiation-induced electron paramagnetic resonance signal and soybean isoflavones content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Marcos R.R. de; Mandarino, José M.G.; Mastro, Nelida L. del

    2012-01-01

    Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) is a well-known spectroscopic technique that detects paramagnetic centers and can detect free radicals with high sensitivity. In food, free radicals can be generated by several commonly used industrial processes, such as radiosterilization or heat treatment. EPR spectroscopy is used to detect radioinduced free radicals in food. In this work the relation between EPR signal induced by gamma irradiation treatment and soybean isoflavones content was investigated. Present results did not show correlation between total isoflavones content and the EPR signal. Nevertheless, some isoflavone contents had a negative correlation with the radiation-induced EPR signal. - Highlights: ► Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) detects free radicals. ► Ionizing radiation as free radicals inducer. ► Total soybean isoflvones do not correlate with radiation-induced EPR intensity but a soybean glucosyl glucoside isoflavone does.

  12. Total-dose radiation-induced degradation of thin film ferroelectric capacitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwank, J.R.; Nasby, R.D.; Miller, S.L.; Rodgers, M.S.; Dressendorfer, P.V.

    1990-01-01

    Thin film PbZr y Ti 1-y O 3 (PZT) ferroelectric memories offer the potential for radiation-hardened, high-speed nonvolatile memories with good retention and fatigue properties. In this paper we explore in detail the radiation hardness of PZT ferroelectric capacitors. Ferroelectric capacitors were irradiated using x-ray and Co-60 sources to dose levels up to 16 Mrad(Si). The capacitors were characterized for their memory properties both before and after irradiation. The radiation hardness was process dependent. Three out of four processes resulted in capacitors that showed less than 30% radiation-induced degradation in retained polarization charge and remanent polarization after irradiating to 16 Mrad(Si). On the other hand, one of the processes showed significant radiation-induced degradation in retained polarization charge and remanent polarization at dose levels above 1 Mrad(Si). The decrease in retained polarization charge appears to be due to an alteration of the switching characteristics of the ferroelectric due to changes in the internal fields. The radiation-induced degradation is recoverable by a postirradiation biased anneal and can be prevented entirely if devices are cycled during irradiation. The authors have developed a model to simulate the observed degradation

  13. Effects of an Amifostine analogue on radiation induced lung inflammation and fibrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arora, Aastha; Bhuria, Vikas; Soni, Ravi; Singh, Saurabh; Hazari, Puja Panwar; Bhatt, Anant Narayan; Dwarakanath, B.S.; Pathak, Uma; Mathur, Shweta; Sandhir, Rajat

    2014-01-01

    Radiation-induced pulmonary toxicity causes significant morbidity and mortality in patients irradiated for thoracic malignancies as well as in victims of accidental radiation exposure. We have recently established the efficacy of an analogue of Amifostine (DRDE-30) in reducing the mortality of whole body irradiated mice. The widely used radioprotector Amifostine has been found to reduce the incidence of radiation induced pneumonitis during radiation therapy for non small cell lung carcinoma. In the present study, we investigated the potential of DRDE-30 in ameliorating the radiation induced lung damage. Intra-peritoneal administration of DRDE-30 at 220 mg/kg b.wt 30 min. prior to 13.5 Gy thoracic radiation enhanced the 24-month survival of C57BL/6 mice to 80% compared to 0% with radiation alone. Reduced protein content and cell number in the broncheo-alveolar lavage fluid suggested reduction in radiation induced vascular permeability in DRDE-30 treated mice. Higher levels of MnSOD and Catalase observed under these conditions indicated that strengthening of the anti-oxidant defense system by DRDE-30 could also contribute to the protection against radiation induced lung damage. Reduced levels of p-p38 observed under these conditions suggested down-regulation of the p38/MAP kinase pathway as one of the plausible mechanisms underlying anti-inflammatory effects of DRDE-30, while lower levels of Vimentin seen, indicated inhibition of epithelial to mesenchymal transition revealing its anti-fibrotic effect as well. Structural analysis with X-ray CT indicated comparable lung architecture in control and drug treated mice in terms of reduced opacity, which correlated well with the lung morphology (H and E staining) and reduced collagen deposition (trichrome staining). These results demonstrate the potential of DRDE-30 in reducing radiation induced pulmonary toxicity by attenuating the inflammatory and fibrotic responses. (author)

  14. Radiation-induced gene expression in the nematode caenorhabditis elegans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, G.A.; Jones, T.A.; Chesnut, A.; Smith, A.L.

    2002-01-01

    We used the nematode C. elegans to characterize the genotoxic and cytotoxic effects of ionizing radiation in a simple animal model emphasizing the unique effects of charged particle radiation. Here we demonstrate by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) differential display and whole genome microarray hybridization experiments that gamma rays, accelerated protons and iron ions at the same physical dose lead to unique transcription profiles. 599 of 17871 genes analyzed (3.4%) showed differential expression 3 hrs after exposure to 3 Gy of radiation. 193 were up-regulated, 406 were down-regulated and 90% were affected only by a single species of radiation. A novel statistical clustering technique identified the regulatory relationships between the radiation-modulated genes and showed that genes affected by each radiation species were associated with unique regulatory clusters. This suggests that independent homeostatic mechanisms are activated in response to radiation exposure as a function of track structure or ionization density. (author)

  15. Study on the immobilization of alpha-amylase by radiation-induced polymerization at low-temperature, (1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Masaru; Kumakura, Minoru; Kaetsu, Isao

    1975-07-01

    The immobilization of enzymes by radiation-induced polymerization at low temperatures has been studied. It is important to know how the enzymes are affected by irradiation. The radiation effect of enzyme itself before immobilization must thus be investigated. In radiation effect on α-amylase from Bacillus subtilis, interesting results were obtained, as follows. The enzyme is very stable for irradiation in the total dose range of 1 x 10 4 to 1 x 10 7 R, and the activity is hardly affected. And further, the relative activity increases by irradiation, when the α-amylase is of high purity or contains some appropriate additive. A certain substance such as diatomaceous earth or CaCl 2 thus decreases the activity, while the addition of DRIERITE composed mainly of CaSO 4 increases the activity. α-Amylase is then more stable and higher in activity in the irradiation at lower temperatures. The activity is independent of presence or absence of the ambient air. In conclusion, α-amylase is very stable for irradiation at low temperatures; therefore, its immobilization by polymerization at low temperature is recommended. (auth.)

  16. Naturally occurring and radiation-induced tumors in SPF mice, and genetic influence in radiation leukemogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasuga, T.

    1979-01-01

    The data obtained so far in this study point to a strong genetic influence not only on the types and incidence of naturally occurring and radiation-induced tumors but also on radiation leukemogenesis. (Auth.)

  17. R and D on Radiation Hard Active Media Based on Quartz Plates

    CERN Document Server

    Onel, Yasar

    2014-01-01

    The need for radiation-hard active media in particle detectors is prominently dictated by the future colliders and the future operations of the Large Hadron Collider. The areas of implementation range from calorimetry to beamline instrumentation to specialized forward detectors e.g. luminosity monitors. In this context, we developed the idea of utilizing quartz plates with various surface coating properties as the active medium for such detectors. Plain quartz is a pure Cerenkov radiator which has quite limited photostatistics. In order to improve the efficiency of the photodetection, various methods were investigated including radiation hard wavelength shifters, p-terphenyl or 4pct gallium doped zinc oxide. The readout options include direct coupling of the photodetector to the quartz plate, or fibers. We have studied various geometries and readout options and constructed calorimeter prototypes. Here we report on the results of the previous tests, and the recent developments, which enable several factors of ...

  18. Combined Natural Convection and Radiation Heat Transfer of Various Absorbing-Emitting-Scattering Media in a Square Cavity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianglong Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A numerical model is developed to simulate combined natural convection and radiation heat transfer of various anisotropic absorbing-emitting-scattering media in a 2D square cavity based on the discrete ordinate (DO method and Boussinesq assumption. The effects of Rayleigh number, optical thickness, scattering ratio, scattering phase function, and aspect ratio of square cavity on the behaviors of heat transfer are studied. The results show that the heat transfer of absorbing-emitting-scattering media is the combined results of radiation and natural convection, which depends on the physical properties and the aspect ratio of the cavity. When the natural convection becomes significant, the convection heat transfer is enhanced, and the distributions of NuR and Nuc along the walls are obviously distorted. As the optical thickness increases, NuR along the hot wall decreases. As the scattering ratio decreases, the NuR along the walls decreases. At the higher aspect ratio, the more intensive thermal radiation and natural convection are formed, which increase the radiation and convection heat fluxes. This paper provides the theoretical research for the optimal thermal design and practical operation of the high temperature industrial equipments.

  19. Radiation-induced-radioresistance: mechanisms and modification radioprotection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bala, Madhu

    2005-01-01

    Full text: The term radiation-induced-radioresistance (RIR) has been chosen to explain a particular class of resistance against lethal doses of radiation, which is transient and is induced by pre-exposure to low doses of radiation. This is a genetically governed phenomenon and is different from adaptation which in one of its several senses, refers to evolutionary transformation into new behavioural patterns. RIR is understood to be an evolutionarily conserved fundamental cellular defense mechanism. Small doses of radiation acting as stress stimuli evoke a concerted action of molecular pathways which help the organism to cope-up with the genotoxic effects of lethal doses of radiation given subsequently. Such molecular pathways are a complex interplay of genetic and biochemical entities and are increasingly becoming the focus of research world over. Most of our information on this subject has been gathered from prokaryotes, simpler eukaryotes, human cells and the epidemiological studies. A number of genes such as GADD 45, CDKN1A, PBP74, DIR1, DDR have been reported by to participate in RIR. However, till date, the mechanism of RIR remain poorly understood. In this deliberation some of our findings on mechanisms of RIR will be presented. Further, modification of RIR by a metabolic modifier, presently under clinical investigations for tumor radiotherapy, will also be presented

  20. Radiation-induced malignant tumours: a specific cytogenetic profile?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chauveinc, L.; Gaboriaux, G.; Dutrillaux, A. M.; Dutrillaux, B.; Chauveinc, L.; Ricoul, M.; Sabatier, L.; Dutrillaux, B.

    1997-01-01

    To date, there is no criterion enabling to determine the spontaneous or radio-induced origin of malignant tumour occurring in a previously irradiated patient. Biological studies are rare. The cytogenetic data which could be found in the literature for eleven radio-induced tumours suggest that aneuploidies and polyclonality are frequent events. We studied, by R-Banding cytogenetic technique, five patients with short-term cultures (3 cases), short and long-term cultures (1 case) and xeno-grafting on nude pattern a high rate of balanced translocations, numerous random break points and a polyclonal evolution (10 clones). All other tumours, including the xeno-grafting sarcoma, had a monoclonal profile with complex karyotypes, hypo-diploid formulas and many deletions. These results show that the mechanism of radiation-induced tumours frequently involves chromosomes losses and deletions. The most likely explanation is that these alterations unmask radiation induced recessive mutations of tumour suppressor genes. (authors)

  1. Radiation-induced dental caries, prevention and treatment - A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Nishtha; Pal, Manoj; Rawat, Sheh; Grewal, Mandeep S; Garg, Himani; Chauhan, Deepika; Ahlawat, Parveen; Tandon, Sarthak; Khurana, Ruparna; Pahuja, Anjali K; Mayank, Mayur; Devnani, Bharti

    2015-01-01

    Treatment of head and neck cancers (HNCs) involves radiotherapy. Patients undergoing radiotherapy for HNCs are prone to dental complications. Radiotherapy to the head and neck region causes xerostomia and salivary gland dysfunction which dramatically increases the risk of dental caries and its sequelae. Radiation therapy (RT) also affects the dental hard tissues increasing their susceptibility to demineralization following RT. Postradiation caries is a rapidly progressing and highly destructive type of dental caries. Radiation-related caries and other dental hard tissue changes can appear within the first 3 months following RT. Hence, every effort should be focused on prevention to manage patients with severe caries. This can be accomplished through good preoperative dental treatment, frequent dental evaluation and treatment after RT (with the exception of extractions), and consistent home care that includes self-applied fluoride. Restorative management of radiation caries can be challenging. The restorative dentist must consider the altered dental substrate and a hostile oral environment when selecting restorative materials. Radiation-induced changes in enamel and dentine may compromise bonding of adhesive materials. Consequently, glass ionomer cements have proved to be a better alternative to composite resins in irradiated patients. Counseling of patients before and after radiotherapy can be done to make them aware of the complications of radiotherapy and thus can help in preventing them.

  2. Effects of ceramide inhibition on radiation-induced apoptosis in human leukemia MOLT-4 cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, Eriko; Inanami, Osamu; Asanuma, Taketoshi; Kuwabara, Mikinori [Hokkaido Univ., Graduate School of Veterinary Medicine, Sapporo, Hokkaido (Japan)

    2006-03-15

    In the present study, using inhibitors of ceramide synthase (fumonisin B{sub 1}), ketosphinganine synthetase (L-cycloserine), acid sphingomyelinase (D609 and desipramine) and neutral sphingomyelinase (GW4869), the role of ceramide in X-ray-induced apoptosis was investigated in MOLT-4 cells. The diacylglycerol kinase (DGK) assay showed that the intracellular concentration of ceramide increased time-dependently after X irradiation of cells, and this radiation-induced accumulation of ceramide did not occur prior to the appearance of apoptotic cells. Treatment with D609 significantly inhibited radiation-induced apoptosis, but did not inhibit the increase of intracellular ceramide. Treatment with desipramine or GW4869 prevented neither radiation-induced apoptosis nor the induced increase of ceramide. On the other hand, fumonisin B{sub 1} and L-cycloserine had no effect on the radiation-induced induction of apoptosis, in spite of significant inhibition of the radiation-induced ceramide. From these results, it was suggested that the increase of the intracellular concentration of ceramide was not essential for radiation-induced apoptosis in MOLT-4 cells. (author)

  3. Effects of ceramide inhibition on radiation-induced apoptosis in human leukemia MOLT-4 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Eriko; Inanami, Osamu; Asanuma, Taketoshi; Kuwabara, Mikinori

    2006-01-01

    In the present study, using inhibitors of ceramide synthase (fumonisin B 1 ), ketosphinganine synthetase (L-cycloserine), acid sphingomyelinase (D609 and desipramine) and neutral sphingomyelinase (GW4869), the role of ceramide in X-ray-induced apoptosis was investigated in MOLT-4 cells. The diacylglycerol kinase (DGK) assay showed that the intracellular concentration of ceramide increased time-dependently after X irradiation of cells, and this radiation-induced accumulation of ceramide did not occur prior to the appearance of apoptotic cells. Treatment with D609 significantly inhibited radiation-induced apoptosis, but did not inhibit the increase of intracellular ceramide. Treatment with desipramine or GW4869 prevented neither radiation-induced apoptosis nor the induced increase of ceramide. On the other hand, fumonisin B 1 and L-cycloserine had no effect on the radiation-induced induction of apoptosis, in spite of significant inhibition of the radiation-induced ceramide. From these results, it was suggested that the increase of the intracellular concentration of ceramide was not essential for radiation-induced apoptosis in MOLT-4 cells. (author)

  4. Controlled release of biofunctional substances by radiation-induced polymerization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, M.; Kumakura, M.; Kaetsu, I.

    1978-01-01

    The release behaviour of a drug from flat circular capsules obtained by radiation-induced polymerization at low temperatures and with different hydrophilic properties has been studied. The effect of various factors on release property was investigated. The release process could be divided into three parts, an initial quick release stage, stationary state release stage and a retarded release stage. Release behaviour in the stationary state was examined using Noyes-Whitney and Higuchi equations. It was shown that the hydrophilic property of polymer matrix expressed by water content was the most important effect on diffusion and release rate. Rigidity of the polymer may also affect diffusivity. The first quick release step could be attributed to rapid dissolution of drug in the matrix surface due to polymer swelling. (author)

  5. Free radicals in wood induced by γ-radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Honglin; Zhang Wenhui

    1994-01-01

    The free radicals in wood induced by γ-radiation were studied by electron spin resonance. The fine structure of the ESR signal from sawdust samples irradiated could be resolved into various radicals. These free radicals have a very long lifetime. The major spectrum for the free radicals will exponentially increased along with the radiation dose according to Y 1-Exp(-α a D). The intensity of radiation radicals is dependent on tree species. The stronger the intensity of mechanic free radicals is, the stronger the intensity of radiation free radicals

  6. Laser radiation effect on radiation-induced defects in heavy ion tracks in dielectrics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egorov, A.N.; Zhiryakov, B.M.; Kushin, V.V.; Lyapidevskij, V.K.; Khokhlov, N.B.

    1988-01-01

    Possibility of laser radiation resonance effect on radiation-induced defects in heavy ion tracks in dielectric materials is investigated. Absorption spectra in infrared, visible and ultraviolet ranges for cellulose nitrate samples irradiated by 6 MeV/nucleon 58 Ni ions and reactor gamma radiation are measured. Absorption spectra for irradiated and reference samples are presented. Two absorption bands λ 1 =0.33 μm (E 1 =3.9 eV) and λ 2 =0.72 μm (E 2 =1.7 eV) are detected. Etching rate decrease in a track under laser radiation effect is noticed. 3 refs.; 1 fig

  7. Electromagnetically induced transparency line shapes for large probe fields and optically thick media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pack, M. V.; Camacho, R. M.; Howell, J. C.

    2007-01-01

    We calculate the line shape and linewidths for electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) in optically thick, Doppler broadened media (buffer gasses are also considered). In generalizing the definition of the EIT linewidth to optically thick media, we find two different linewidth definitions apply depending on whether the experiment is pulsed or continuous wave (cw). Using the cw definition for the EIT line shape we derive analytic expressions describing the linewidth as a function of optical depth. We also review the EIT line shapes in optically thin media and provide physical arguments for how the line shapes change as a function of various parameters

  8. Anti-apoptotic peptides protect against radiation-induced cell death

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McConnell, Kevin W.; Muenzer, Jared T.; Chang, Kathy C.; Davis, Chris G.; McDunn, Jonathan E.; Coopersmith, Craig M.; Hilliard, Carolyn A.; Hotchkiss, Richard S.; Grigsby, Perry W.; Hunt, Clayton R.

    2007-01-01

    The risk of terrorist attacks utilizing either nuclear or radiological weapons has raised concerns about the current lack of effective radioprotectants. Here it is demonstrated that the BH4 peptide domain of the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-xL can be delivered to cells by covalent attachment to the TAT peptide transduction domain (TAT-BH4) and provide protection in vitro and in vivo from radiation-induced apoptotic cell death. Isolated human lymphocytes treated with TAT-BH4 were protected against apoptosis following exposure to 15 Gy radiation. In mice exposed to 5 Gy radiation, TAT-BH4 treatment protected splenocytes and thymocytes from radiation-induced apoptotic cell death. Most importantly, in vivo radiation protection was observed in mice whether TAT-BH4 treatment was given prior to or after irradiation. Thus, by targeting steps within the apoptosis signaling pathway it is possible to develop post-exposure treatments to protect radio-sensitive tissues

  9. Attenuation of a radiation-induced conditioned taste aversion after the development of ethanol tolerance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunt, W.A.; Rabin, B.M.

    1988-01-01

    An attempt to reduce a radiation-induced conditioned taste aversion (CTA) was undertaken by rendering animals tolerant to ethanol. Ethanol tolerance, developed over 5 days, was sufficient to block a radiation-induced taste aversion, as well as an ethanol-induced CTA. Several intermittent doses of ethanol, which did not induce tolerance but removed the novelty of the conditioning stimulus, blocked an ethanol-induced CTA but not the radiation-induced CTA. A CTA induced by doses of radiation up to 500 rads was attenuated. These data suggest that radioprotection developing in association with ethanol tolerance is a result of a physiological response to the chronic presence of ethanol not to the ethanol itself

  10. Affect in social media: The role of audience and the presence of contempt in cyberbullying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cocea, Mihaela

    2017-01-01

    Gervais & Fessler's Attitude-Scenario-Emotion (ASE) model is a useful tool for the detection of affect in social media. In this commentary, an addition to the model is proposed - the audience - and its role in the manifestation of affect is discussed using a cyberbullying scenario. The presence of contempt in cyberbullying is also discussed.

  11. PAI-1-dependent endothelial cell death determines severity of radiation-induced intestinal injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rym Abderrahmani

    Full Text Available Normal tissue toxicity still remains a dose-limiting factor in clinical radiation therapy. Recently, plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 (SERPINE1/PAI-1 was reported as an essential mediator of late radiation-induced intestinal injury. However, it is not clear whether PAI-1 plays a role in acute radiation-induced intestinal damage and we hypothesized that PAI-1 may play a role in the endothelium radiosensitivity. In vivo, in a model of radiation enteropathy in PAI-1 -/- mice, apoptosis of radiosensitive compartments, epithelial and microvascular endothelium was quantified. In vitro, the role of PAI-1 in the radiation-induced endothelial cells (ECs death was investigated. The level of apoptotic ECs is lower in PAI-1 -/- compared with Wt mice after irradiation. This is associated with a conserved microvascular density and consequently with a better mucosal integrity in PAI-1 -/- mice. In vitro, irradiation rapidly stimulates PAI-1 expression in ECs and radiation sensitivity is increased in ECs that stably overexpress PAI-1, whereas PAI-1 knockdown increases EC survival after irradiation. Moreover, ECs prepared from PAI-1 -/- mice are more resistant to radiation-induced cell death than Wt ECs and this is associated with activation of the Akt pathway. This study demonstrates that PAI-1 plays a key role in radiation-induced EC death in the intestine and suggests that this contributes strongly to the progression of radiation-induced intestinal injury.

  12. Breast cancer induced by protracted radiation exposures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elkind, M.M.

    1997-01-01

    The experience at Hiroshima/Nagasaki demonstrated that breast cancer can be induced by single doses of ionizing radiation following latencies of 10-40 years. Several epidemiological studies, usually involving ancillary low-LET radiation to the breast, have demonstrated that breast cancer can be induced by protracted exposures, with similar latencies, and with similar dependencies on dose. Radiobiologically these results suggest that the target cells involved were deficient in repair of low-LET damage even when the protraction was over months to years. Since three-quarters of breast tumors originate in the ducts where their proliferation is controlled by menstrual-cycle timed estrogen/progesterone secretions, these cells periodically were in cycle. Thus, the two main elements of a conceptual model for radon-induced lung cancer -- kinetics and deficient repair -- are satisfied. The model indicates that breast cancer could be the cumulative effect of protracted small exposures, the risk from any one of which ordinarily would be quite small. (author)

  13. The non-targeted effects of radiation are perpetuated by exosomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Mayah, Ammar; Bright, Scott; Chapman, Kim [Genomic Instability Group, Oxford Brookes University, Gipsy Lane Campus, Headington, Oxford OX3 0BP (United Kingdom); Irons, Sarah [Insect Virus Research Group, Oxford Brookes University, Gipsy Lane Campus, Headington, Oxford OX3 0BP (United Kingdom); Luo, Ping [Izon Science Ltd., The Oxford Science Park, Magdalen Centre, Robert Robinson Avenue, Oxford OX4 4GA (United Kingdom); Carter, David [Chromatin and non-coding RNA, Oxford Brookes University, Gipsy Lane Campus, Headington, Oxford OX3 0BP (United Kingdom); Goodwin, Edwin [The New Mexico Consortium, Los Alamos, NM 87544 (United States); Kadhim, Munira, E-mail: mkadhim@brookes.ac.uk [Genomic Instability Group, Oxford Brookes University, Gipsy Lane Campus, Headington, Oxford OX3 0BP (United Kingdom)

    2015-02-15

    Highlights: • Radiation induces a DNA damaging process in bystander cells through cell–cell signalling. • Exosome RNA and protein molecules play crucial roles in bystander effects. • Cell progeny inherit the ability to secret bystander effect-inducing exosomes. • This mechanism is most likely accountable for the propagation of GI. - Abstract: Exosomes contain cargo material from endosomes, cytosol, plasma membrane and microRNA molecules, they are released by a number of non-cancer and cancer cells into both the extracellular microenvironment and body fluids such as blood plasma. Recently we demonstrated radiation-induced non-targeted effects [NTE: genomic instability (GI) and bystander effects (BE)] are partially mediated by exosomes, particularly the RNA content. However the mechanistic role of exosomes in NTE is yet to be fully understood. The present study used MCF7 cells to characterise the longevity of exosome-induced activity in the progeny of irradiated and unirradiated bystander cells. Exosomes extracted from conditioned media of irradiated and bystander progeny were added to unirradiated cells. Analysis was carried out at 1 and 20/24 population doublings following medium/exosome transfer for DNA/chromosomal damage. Results confirmed exosomes play a significant role in mediating NTE of ionising radiation (IR). This effect was remarkably persistent, observed >20 doublings post-irradiation in the progeny of bystander cells. Additionally, cell progeny undergoing a BE were themselves capable of inducing BE in other cells via exosomes they released. Furthermore we investigated the role of exosome cargo. Culture media from cells exposed to 2 Gy X-rays was subjected to ultracentrifugation and four inoculants prepared, (a) supernatants with exosomes removed, and pellets with (b) exosome proteins denatured, (c) RNA degraded, and (d) a combination of protein–RNA inactivation. These were added to separate populations of unirradiated cells. The BE was

  14. The non-targeted effects of radiation are perpetuated by exosomes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Mayah, Ammar; Bright, Scott; Chapman, Kim; Irons, Sarah; Luo, Ping; Carter, David; Goodwin, Edwin; Kadhim, Munira

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Radiation induces a DNA damaging process in bystander cells through cell–cell signalling. • Exosome RNA and protein molecules play crucial roles in bystander effects. • Cell progeny inherit the ability to secret bystander effect-inducing exosomes. • This mechanism is most likely accountable for the propagation of GI. - Abstract: Exosomes contain cargo material from endosomes, cytosol, plasma membrane and microRNA molecules, they are released by a number of non-cancer and cancer cells into both the extracellular microenvironment and body fluids such as blood plasma. Recently we demonstrated radiation-induced non-targeted effects [NTE: genomic instability (GI) and bystander effects (BE)] are partially mediated by exosomes, particularly the RNA content. However the mechanistic role of exosomes in NTE is yet to be fully understood. The present study used MCF7 cells to characterise the longevity of exosome-induced activity in the progeny of irradiated and unirradiated bystander cells. Exosomes extracted from conditioned media of irradiated and bystander progeny were added to unirradiated cells. Analysis was carried out at 1 and 20/24 population doublings following medium/exosome transfer for DNA/chromosomal damage. Results confirmed exosomes play a significant role in mediating NTE of ionising radiation (IR). This effect was remarkably persistent, observed >20 doublings post-irradiation in the progeny of bystander cells. Additionally, cell progeny undergoing a BE were themselves capable of inducing BE in other cells via exosomes they released. Furthermore we investigated the role of exosome cargo. Culture media from cells exposed to 2 Gy X-rays was subjected to ultracentrifugation and four inoculants prepared, (a) supernatants with exosomes removed, and pellets with (b) exosome proteins denatured, (c) RNA degraded, and (d) a combination of protein–RNA inactivation. These were added to separate populations of unirradiated cells. The BE was

  15. Chromosome dosimetry: the influence of culture media on the proliferation of irradiated and unirradiated human lymphocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purrott, R.J.; Lloyd, D.C.; Vulpis, N.

    1981-01-01

    The proliferation of phytohaemagglutinin stimulated human lymphocytes in four types of synthetic culture medium has been studied using the fluorescence plus Giemsa staining technique to determine cell cycle status. 48 hour cultures of unirradiated cells containing Ham's F10 or RPMI 1640 media yielded significant numbers of second cycle metaphases. Cultures containing Eagle's MEM or TC 199 media, however, required longer incubation times to produce appreciable numbers of second division cells. Intrinsic differences between donors in the rate of proliferation had little effect on the relative ranking of the media. Radiation induced mitotic delay of about 1 hour per Gray was observed for each medium. The relevance of these results to the accuracy of radiation dose estimation by chromosome aberration analysis is discussed. (author)

  16. Radiation-induced void swelling in metals and alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zelinskij, V.F.; Neklyudov, I.M.; Ozhigov, L.S.; Reznichenko, Eh.A.; Rozhkov, V.V.; Chernyaeva, T.T.

    1979-01-01

    Main regularities in the development of radiation-induced void swelling are considered. Special attention is paid to consideration of a possibility to obtain information on material behaviour under conditions of reactor irradiation proceeding from the data of simulation experiments and to methods of rate control, for the processes which occur in material during irradiation and further annealing by the way of rationalized alloying, of thermomechanical treatment and programmed change of irradiation conditions under operation. Problems of initiation and growth of voids in irradiated materials are discussed as well as the ways to decrease the rate of radiation-induced void swelling

  17. The instability of the spiral wave induced by the deformation of elastic excitable media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Jun; Jia Ya; Wang Chunni; Li Shirong

    2008-01-01

    There are some similarities between the spiral wave in excitable media and in cardiac tissue. Much evidence shows that the appearance and instability of the spiral wave in cardiac tissue can be linked to one kind of heart disease. There are many models that can be used to investigate the formation and instability of the spiral wave. Cardiac tissue is excitable and elastic, and it is interesting to simulate the transition and instability of the spiral wave induced by media deformation. For simplicity, a class of the modified Fitzhugh-Nagumo (MFHN) model, which can generate a stable rotating spiral wave, meandering spiral wave and turbulence within appropriate parameter regions, will be used to simulate the instability of the spiral wave induced by the periodical deformation of media. In the two-dimensional case, the total acreage of elastic media is supposed to be invariable in the presence of deformation, and the problem is described with L x x L y = N x ΔxN x Δy = L' x L' y = N x Δx'N x Δy'. In our studies, elastic media are decentralized into N x N sites and the space of the adjacent sites is changed to simulate the deformation of elastic media. Based on the nonlinear dynamics theory, the deformation effect on media is simplified and simulated by perturbing the diffusion coefficients D x and D y with different periodical signals, but the perturbed diffusion coefficients are compensatory. The snapshots of our numerical results find that the spiral wave can coexist with the spiral turbulence, instability of the spiral wave and weak deformation of the spiral wave in different conditions. The ratio parameter ε and the frequency of deformation forcing play a deterministic role in inducing instability of the spiral wave. Extensive studies confirm that the instability of the spiral wave can be induced and developed only if an appropriate frequency for deformation is used. We analyze the power spectrum for the time series of the mean activator of four sampled sites

  18. The instability of the spiral wave induced by the deformation of elastic excitable media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jun; Jia, Ya; Wang, Chun-Ni; Li, Shi-Rong

    2008-09-01

    There are some similarities between the spiral wave in excitable media and in cardiac tissue. Much evidence shows that the appearance and instability of the spiral wave in cardiac tissue can be linked to one kind of heart disease. There are many models that can be used to investigate the formation and instability of the spiral wave. Cardiac tissue is excitable and elastic, and it is interesting to simulate the transition and instability of the spiral wave induced by media deformation. For simplicity, a class of the modified Fitzhugh-Nagumo (MFHN) model, which can generate a stable rotating spiral wave, meandering spiral wave and turbulence within appropriate parameter regions, will be used to simulate the instability of the spiral wave induced by the periodical deformation of media. In the two-dimensional case, the total acreage of elastic media is supposed to be invariable in the presence of deformation, and the problem is described with Lx × Ly = N × ΔxN × Δy = L'xL'y = N × Δx'N × Δy'. In our studies, elastic media are decentralized into N × N sites and the space of the adjacent sites is changed to simulate the deformation of elastic media. Based on the nonlinear dynamics theory, the deformation effect on media is simplified and simulated by perturbing the diffusion coefficients Dx and Dy with different periodical signals, but the perturbed diffusion coefficients are compensatory. The snapshots of our numerical results find that the spiral wave can coexist with the spiral turbulence, instability of the spiral wave and weak deformation of the spiral wave in different conditions. The ratio parameter ɛ and the frequency of deformation forcing play a deterministic role in inducing instability of the spiral wave. Extensive studies confirm that the instability of the spiral wave can be induced and developed only if an appropriate frequency for deformation is used. We analyze the power spectrum for the time series of the mean activator of four sampled sites

  19. Examination of the mass media process and personal factors affecting the assessment of mass media-disseminated health information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avcı, Kadriye; Çakır, Tülin; Avşar, Zakir; Üzel Taş, Hanife

    2015-06-01

    This study examined the mass media and personal characteristics leading to health communication inequality as well as the role of certain factors in health communication's mass media process. Using both sociodemographic variables and Maletzke's model as a basis, we investigated the relationship between selected components of the mass communication process, the receiving of reliable health information as a result of health communication, and the condition of its use. The study involved 1853 people in Turkey and was structured in two parts. The first part dealt with questions regarding sociodemographic characteristics, the use of the mass media and the public's ability to obtain health information from it, the public's perception of the trustworthiness of health information, and the state of translating this information into health-promoting behaviours. In the second part, questions related to the mass communication process were posed using a five-point Likert scale. This section tried to establish structural equation modelling using the judgements prepared on the basis of the mass media model. Through this study, it has been observed that sociodemographic factors such as education and age affect individuals' use of and access to communication channels; individuals' trust in and selection of health information from the programme content and their changing health behaviours (as a result of the health information) are related to both their perception of the mass communication process and to sociodemographic factors, but are more strongly related to the former. © The Author(s) 2014.

  20. Radiation-induced attenuation in integrated optical materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, B.D.

    1989-01-01

    This paper reports that three materials commonly employed in opto-electronic integrated circuits evaluated for radiation-induced optical attenuation in the range 300 nm to 3000 nm. These include optically clear epoxy and crystalline lithium niobate after Co-60 exposure and crystalline tellurium dioxide after mixed gamma/fast-neutron exposure. In all these materials, however, induced loss was restricted to shorter wavelengths; attenuation induced at the telecommunications windows near 850, 1300 and 1550 nm was <0.1 dB/cm

  1. Radiation-induced tritium labelling and product analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peng, C.T. (California Univ., San Francisco, CA (United States). Dept. of Pharmaceutical Chemistry)

    1993-05-01

    By-products formed in radiation-induced tritium labelling are identified by co-chromatography with authentic samples or by structure prediction using a quantitative structure-retention index relationship. The by-products, formed from labelling of steroids, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons, 7-membered heterocyclic ring structures, 1,4-benzodiazepines, 1-haloalkanes, etc. with activated tritium and adsorbed tritium, are shown to be specifically labelled and anticipated products from known chemical reactions. From analyses of the by-products, one can conclude that the hydrogen abstraction by tritium atoms and the substitution by tritium ions are the mechanisms of labelling. Classification of the tritium labelling methods, on the basis of the type of tritium reagent, clearly shows the active role played by tritium atoms and ions in radiation-induced methods. (author).

  2. Second primary tumor and radiation induced neoplasma in the uterine cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakurai, Tomoyasu; Nishio, Masamichi; Kagami, Yoshikazu; Murakami, Yoshitaka; Narimatsu, Naoto; Kanemoto, Toshitaka

    1984-01-01

    This report is concerned with multiple primary cancers developing in invasive uterine cancer. Second primary tumors were recorded 27 women with a total of 30 non-uterine cancer (exception of radiation-induced cancer). 17 patients of radiation-induced neoplasm were observed (Rectal cancer 4, soft part sarcoma 4, cancer of urinary bladder 3, bone tumor 3, uterin cancer 2 and cancer of Vulva 1). One case is 4 legions (corpus, sigma, thymoma and stomach), 2 cases are 3 lesions (uterine cervix, stomach and maxillay siuis: uterine cervix, thyroidal gland and radiation-induced soft part sarcoma). Only 5 of these 17 patients were known irradiated dose (50 Gy--55 Gy), however others unknown. The mean latent periods of 17 cases of radiation induced neoplasms are 19.4 years. 16 patients of late second cancers of the cervix appearing from 11 to 36 years (average 19.5 years) after initial radiotherapy were recorded. (author)

  3. Establishment of a Radiation-Induced Fibrosis Model in BALB/c Mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryu, Seung Hee; Lee, Sang Wook; Moon, Soo Young; Oh, Jeong Yoon; Yang, Youn Joo; Park, Jin Hong [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-11-15

    Although radiation-induced fibrosis is one of the common sequelae occurring after irradiation of skin and soft tissues, the treatment methods are not well standardized. This study aimed to establish the skin fibrosis mouse model by fractionated radiation for the further mechanism studies or testing the efficacy of therapeutic candidates. The right hind limbs of BALB/c mice received two fractions of 20 Gy using a therapeutic linear accelerator. Early skin damages were scored and tissue fibrosis was assessed by the measurement of a leg extension. Morphological changes were assessed by H and E staining and by Masson's Trichrome staining. TGF-{beta}1 expression from soft tissues was also detected by immunohistochemistry and PCR. Two fractions of 20 Gy irradiation were demonstrated as being enough to induce early skin damage effects such as erythema, mild skin dryness, dry and wet desquamation within several weeks of radiation. After 13 weeks of irradiation, the average radiation-induced leg contraction was 11.1 {+-} 6.2 mm. Morphologic changes in irradiated skin biopsies exhibited disorganized collagen and extracellular matrix fibers, as well as the accumulation of myofibroblasts compared to the non-irradiated skin. Moreover, TGF-{beta}1 expression in tissue was increased by radiation. These results show that two fractions of 20 Gy irradiation can induce skin fibrosis in BALB/c mice accompanied by other common characteristics of skin damages. This animal model can be a useful tool for studying skin fibrosis induced by radiation.

  4. Function and regulation of ATF 3 expression induced by ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan, Feiyue; Wang, Yong; Du, Liqin; Zhan, Qimin

    2008-01-01

    Full text: Ionizing radiation results in a series of damages of mammalian cells as a genotoxic stress. There are some genes expressed after cells damaged, in which ATF 3, a member of ATF/CREB family of transcription factors, is one of them. In this report, we demonstrate that ATF 3 can be induced by ionizing radiation. The induction of ATF 3 protein requires normal status of p53 function in cells. There are some quantitative relationships between ATF 3 induction and dosages of radiation or time post-irradiation. In another word, ATF 3 expression induced by ionizing radiation present dose- and time-dependent. The regulation of ATF 3 expression refers to program of promoter and transcription. Radiation induces ATF 3 expression by activating the promoter and RNA transcription. In method of tetracycline-inducible system (tet-off), we have found that over-expression of ATF 3 protein brings caspase/PARP proteins into cleavage, which induces cell programmed death, and suppresses cell growth. Meanwhile, it was found that ATF 3 expression could slow down progression of cell from G 1 to S phase. It indicates ATF 3 protein might play a negative role in the control of cell cycle progression. It is very excited that expression of ATF 3 protein did not only suppress cell growth, but also demonstrated protecting effect of cell growth suppression resulting from ionizing radiation. It is suggested that ATF 3 protein might take part in the damage repair process of cells. (author)

  5. Evidence for a high and a low sensitivity receptor site for radiation-induced vomiting in the dog

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harding, R.K.; Hugenholtz, H.; Kucharczyk, J.

    1987-01-01

    Ablation of the area postrema (AP) has been shown to prevent radiation-induced vomiting in the dog (induced by 6-8 By /sup 60/Co γ). In other species (cat, monkey) a higher dose of radiation is necessary to elicit emesis and visceral deafferentation has been more effective than AP ablation in preventing vomiting. The AP and the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus (DMV), an important visceral afferent terminus, are anatomically adjacent structures in the medulla oblongata. Aggressive AP ablation could affect the DMV. The author's removed the AP in 6 dogs. Previous work showed this surgery prevented vomiting following exposure to 6-8 Gy. To prove the lesion did not invade the underlying DMV, the animals were given a hypertonic saline gavage, to elicit vomiting via visceral receptors. Animals were later submitted to 15-20 Gy. Those with proved visceral afferent connections vomited. They conclude that the AP is the most sensitive site for the stimulation of radiation-induced vomiting and that a less sensitive visceral site also exists. Differences in the relative sensitivities of these 2 systems may account for published species differences

  6. Radiation induced peroxidation in model lipid systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahlan, K.Z.B.H.M.

    1981-08-01

    In the studies of radiation induced lipid peroxidation, lecithin-liposomes and aqueous micellar solutions of sodium linoleate (or linoleic acid) have been used as models of lipid membrane systems. The liposomes and aqueous linoleate micelles were irradiated in the presence of O 2 and N 2 O/O 2 (80/20 v/v). The peroxidation was initiated using gamma radiation from 60 Co radiation source and was monitored by measuring the increase in absorbance of conjugated diene at 232 nm and by the thiobarbituric acid (TBA) test. The oxidation products were also identified by GLC and GLC-MS analysis. (author)

  7. Comparison of gamma radiation - induced effects in two human prostate cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vucic, V.; Adzic, M.; Ruzdijic, S.; Radojcic, M.B. . E-mail address of corresponding author: vesnav@vin.bg.ac.yu; Vucic, V.)

    2005-01-01

    In this study, the effects of gamma radiation on two hormone refractory human prostate cancer cell lines, DU 145 and PC-3, were followed. It was shown that gamma radiation induced significant inhibition of cell proliferation and viability in dose dependent manner. Antiproliferative effects of radiation were similar in both cell lines, and more pronounced than cytotoxic effects. In addition to that, PC-3 cell line was more resistant to radiation -induced cytotoxicity. (author)

  8. A case of radiation-induced cancer of the hypopharynx

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyamoto, Kouji; Shimizu, Yukio; Yura, Jirou; Itoh, Yasufumi; Ikeda, Tsuneko; Outsubo, Toshio; Saitou, Hitoshi

    2001-01-01

    We report a case of radiation-induced cancer of the hypopharynx in a 65-year-old woman. The patient had received radiation treatment for Basedow's disease for several years starting at the age of 10 years. On June 26, 1993, she was examined at our hospital because of hoarseness and dysphagia. On July 22, right lobectomy was performed for suspected thyroid cancer. During this operation, endoscopy revealed hypopharyngeal cancer. Twenty-two days after surgery, total pharyngolaryngectomy and total esophagectomy were performed and a pharyngogastrostomy and a permanent tracheostomy were created. Histologic examination revealed moderately differentiated squamous cell cancer. This case was diagnosed as radiation-induced caner according to the diagnostic criteria of Sakai. (author)

  9. A case of radiation-induced cancer of the hypopharynx

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyamoto, Kouji; Shimizu, Yukio; Yura, Jirou; Itoh, Yasufumi; Ikeda, Tsuneko [Matsunami General Hospital, Kasamatsu, Gifu (Japan); Outsubo, Toshio; Saitou, Hitoshi

    2001-06-01

    We report a case of radiation-induced cancer of the hypopharynx in a 65-year-old woman. The patient had received radiation treatment for Basedow's disease for several years starting at the age of 10 years. On June 26, 1993, she was examined at our hospital because of hoarseness and dysphagia. On July 22, right lobectomy was performed for suspected thyroid cancer. During this operation, endoscopy revealed hypopharyngeal cancer. Twenty-two days after surgery, total pharyngolaryngectomy and total esophagectomy were performed and a pharyngogastrostomy and a permanent tracheostomy were created. Histologic examination revealed moderately differentiated squamous cell cancer. This case was diagnosed as radiation-induced caner according to the diagnostic criteria of Sakai. (author)

  10. Sensitive Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malinowska Anna

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper engages with what we refer to as “sensitive media,” a concept associated with developments in the overall media environment, our relationships with media devices, and the quality of the media themselves. Those developments point to the increasing emotionality of the media world and its infrastructures. Mapping the trajectories of technological development and impact that the newer media exert on human condition, our analysis touches upon various forms of emergent affect, emotion, and feeling in order to trace the histories and motivations of the sensitization of “the media things” as well as the redefinition of our affective and emotional experiences through technologies that themselves “feel.”

  11. Radiation-Induced Bystander Response: Mechanism and Clinical Implications

    OpenAIRE

    Suzuki, Keiji; Yamashita, Shunichi

    2014-01-01

    Significance: Absorption of energy from ionizing radiation (IR) to the genetic material in the cell gives rise to damage to DNA in a dose-dependent manner. There are two types of DNA damage; by a high dose (causing acute or deterministic effects) and by a low dose (related to chronic or stochastic effects), both of which induce different health effects. Among radiation effects, acute cutaneous radiation syndrome results from cell killing as a consequence of high-dose exposure.

  12. Imaging Features that Discriminate between Foci Induced by High- and Low-LET Radiation in Human Fibroblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costes, Sylvain V.; Boissiere, Arnaud; Ravani, Shraddha; Romano, Raquel; Parvin, Bahram; Barcellos-Hoff, Mary Helen

    2006-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the formation of radiation-induced foci in normal human fibroblasts exposed to X rays or 130 keV/mum nitrogen ions using antibodies to phosphorylated protein kinase ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATMp) and histone H2AX(gamma-H2AX). High-content automatic image analysis was used to quantify the immunofluorescence of radiation-induced foci. The size of radiation-induced foci increased for both proteins over a 2-h period after nitrogen-ion irradiation, while the size of radiation-induced foci did not change after exposure to low-LET radiation. The number of radiation-induced ATMp foci showed a more rapid rise and greater frequency after X-ray exposure and was resolved more rapidly such that the frequency of radiation-induced foci decreased by 90 percent compared to 60 percent after exposure to high-LET radiation 2 h after 30 cGy. In contrast, the kinetics of radiation-induced gamma-H2AX focus formation was similar for high- and low-LET radiation in that it reached a plateau early and remained constant for up to 2 h. High-resolution 3D images of radiation-induced gamma-H2AX foci and dosimetry computation suggest that multiple double-strand breaks from nitrogen ions are encompassed within large nuclear domains of 4.4 Mbp. Our work shows that the size and frequency of radiation-induced foci vary as a function of radiation quality, dose, time and protein target. Thus, even though double-strand breaks and radiation-induced foci are correlated, the dynamic nature of both contradicts their accepted equivalence for low doses of different radiation qualities

  13. Auto-inducing media for uniform isotope labeling of proteins with {sup 15}N, {sup 13}C and {sup 2}H

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guthertz, Nicolas [Institute of Cancer Research, Division of Structural Biology (United Kingdom); Klopp, Julia; Winterhalter, Aurélie; Fernández, César; Gossert, Alvar D., E-mail: alvar.gossert@novartis.com [Novartis Institutes for BioMedical Research (Switzerland)

    2015-06-15

    Auto-inducing media for protein expression offer many advantages like robust reproducibility, high yields of soluble protein and much reduced workload. Here, an auto-inducing medium for uniform isotope labelling of proteins with {sup 15}N, {sup 13}C and/or {sup 2}H in E. coli is presented. So far, auto-inducing media have not found widespread application in the NMR field, because of the prohibitively high cost of labeled lactose, which is an essential ingredient of such media. Here, we propose using lactose that is only selectively labeled on the glucose moiety. It can be synthesized from inexpensive and readily available substrates: labeled glucose and unlabeled activated galactose. With this approach, uniformly isotope labeled proteins were expressed in unattended auto-inducing cultures with incorporation of {sup 13}C, {sup 15}N of 96.6 % and {sup 2}H, {sup 15}N of 98.8 %. With the present protocol, the NMR community could profit from the many advantages that auto-inducing media offer.

  14. MRI appearance of radiation-induced changes of normal cervical tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noemayr, A.; Lell, M.; Bautz, W.; Sweeney, R.; Lukas, P.

    2001-01-01

    Irradiation causes specific MRI changes in anatomic morphology and signal intensity. To avoid misinterpretation, it is important to consider the potential radiation changes of normal tissue in MRI. The aim of this study was to describe the detected radiation effects on normal cervical tissues in MRI. Pretreatment and posttreatment MRI of 52 patients with primary neck tumors were evaluated retrospectively. The MR imaging was performed before initiating radiotherapy and at the end of the treatment period. Patients underwent follow-up studies within 24 months after the end of irradiation. Edema was the main radiation-induced effect. It was detected in the epiglottis, larynx, pharynx wall, retro- and parapharyngeal space, salivary glands, muscles, and subcutaneous tissue. In some cases the bone marrow of the mandible showed edema, due to osteonecrosis. We additionally detected fluid accumulation in the mastoid cells. Radiation caused volume reduction of the parotid gland, thickening of the pharynx wall, and fatty degeneration of bone marrow. Magnetic resonance imaging is an excellent method of depicting radiation-induced changes of normal tissue. Especially T2-weighted sequences allow the detection of even slight edema. It is important to be aware of the most common radiation-induced changes in MRI and to take them into account when assessing an examination. (orig.)

  15. Radiation-induced loss of unsaturation in 1,2-polybutadiene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golub, M.A.; Cormia, R.D.

    1982-01-01

    The radiation induced loss of unsaturation and methyl production in 1,2-polybutadiene (VB) was studied using IR spectroscopy. It was found that G(-1,2), which depends on the initial vinyl content, decreased from approximately 550 for VB with 98.5% 1,2 initially, to approximately 270 for VB with 85% 1,2 initially. G(-trans-1,4) ranged from approximately 21 for VB with 14% trans-1,4 to nearly zero for VB with less than 1% trans-1,4 initially. Methyl production was found to equal one methyl group formed for every 4-5 vinyl units consumed in the radiation-cyclized VB, in contrast to one methyl formed for every two vinyls reacted during cationic cyclization to give monocyclic structures. The IR spectra of gamma-irradiated VB were very similar to the spectra of UV-irradiated or thermally-treated VB at the same residual vinyl contents. It is suggested that the radiation-induced cyclization of VB occurs by a nonionic, nonradical 'energy chain' mechanism, which apparently holds for the cyclization of VB, whether induced by gamma-rays, UV radiation, or heat

  16. Radiation induced structural changes in alpha-copper-zinc alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuele, W.; Gieb, M.

    1991-01-01

    During irradiation of alpha-copper-zinc alloys with high energy electrons and protons a decrease of the electrical resistivity due to an increase of the degree of short range order is observed through radiation enhanced diffusion followed by an increase of the electrical resistivity through the formation of radiation induced interstitial clusters. The initial formation rate of interstitial clusters increases about linearly with the displacement rate for electron and proton irradiation. The largest initial formation rate is found between 60 and 130 0 C becoming negligibly small above 158 0 C and decreases drastically below 60 0 C. The dynamic steady state interstitial cluster concentration increases with decreasing irradiation temperature in the investigated temperature range between 158 and 40 0 C. Above 158 0 C the formation rate of interstitial clusters is negligibly small. Thus the transition temperature for radiation induced interstitial cluster formation is 158 0 C, depending mainly on the migration activation energy of vacancies. The radiation induced interstitial clusters are precipitates in those alloys in which the diffusion rate of the undersized component atoms via an interstitialcy diffusion mechanism is larger than that of the other atoms

  17. Study of radiation induced structural changes in nitrile rubber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardona, F.; Hill, D.J.T.; Pomery, P.J.; Whittaker, A.K.

    1996-01-01

    Full text: Copolymers of butadiene (BD) and acrylonitrile (AN) (NBR rubber), have become important commercial material. NBR rubbers are part of a larger classification of products often referred to as special-purpose rubbers. Oil resistance is the most important property of nitrile rubbers, and refer to the ability of the vulcanised product to retain its original physical properties such as modulus, tensile strength, abrasion resistance and dimensions, while in contact with oils and fuels. Despite these reported advantages very few studies have been conducted on the radiation yields and structural changes in nitrile rubbers during exposure to high energy radiation. In this study we are investigating the stability against gamma and UV radiation, to different doses in vacuum, of butadiene, acrylonitrile and NBR copolymers with different composition ratio BD/AN. The mechanism of radiation induced structural changes is being investigated using experimental techniques such as ESR, NMR (Solid-state), FT-IR, RAMAN and UV spectroscopy. Also is being investigated the effect of irradiation on the mechanical properties of stressed and unstressed samples by TGA, DSC, DMA, Instron and Creep Test measurements. So far the main effect have been a marked radiation-induced loss of unsaturation in the butadiene units, cis to trans isomerization and formation of crosslink structures (intermolecular and intramolecular). One of the main challenges in the studies of NBR polymers is to observe directly the crosslinks produces by the radiation induced chemical reactions. IR spectroscopy is unsuitable because of the low molar absorbity of the peaks related to intermolecular crosslinking and the overlapping of the peaks (1630-1670 cm-1) related to intramolecular crosslinking (cyclization), with conjugated and nonconjugated (-C=C-; -C=N-) double bonds. A. K. Whittaker has shown that crosslink structures in PBD can be detected and measured directly using solid-state 13 C NMR. This technique

  18. Susceptibility to radiation-induced mammary carcinoma in genetically resistant Copenhagen rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamiya, Kenji; Nitta, Yumiko; Gould, M.N.

    2000-01-01

    The objective of this experiment was to compare the cellular basis of mammary cancer induction by a chemical carcinogen with induction by ionizing radiation in three strains of rats (inbred that have different genetic susceptibilities: COP rats, F344 rats, and WF rats). Rats were given a single intraperitoneal injection of 50 mg MNU/kg body weight as a mammary-tumor-inducing chemical carcinogen and were irradiated with a 3.0 Gy dose of 60 Co gamma rays at a dose rate of 26.58±1.19 cGy/min. The rats were inspected weekly, and they were killed and necropsied whenever palpable tumors were detected or they became moribund. The histopathological and immunohistochemical characteristics of the mammary tumors were investigated. A transplantation experiment using selected primary mammary tumors that developed in COP rats exposed to gamma rays was also performed to investigate the transplantability of mammary tumors induced by ionizing radiation. The sensitivity of the WF and F344 rats and the resistance of the COP rats to mammary carcinoma induction by the chemical carcinogen MNU was confirmed. In contrast to the chemical carcinogens, no difference in susceptibility to radiation induction of mammary carcinomas was detected among the three strains of rats, and immunohistochemical examination indicated that the radiation-induced carcinomas consisted of more highly differentiated cells than the MNU-induced cancers. The results of the experiment appear to support the hypothesis that differentiated mammary gland tissue is more resistant to chemical carcinogens than to cancer induction by radiation. The authors conclude that radiation-induced cancers in rats may develop via different pathways or from different cell populations than chemically induced cancers. (K.H.)

  19. Susceptibility to radiation-induced mammary carcinoma in genetically resistant Copenhagen rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamiya, Kenji; Nitta, Yumiko [Hiroshima Univ. (Japan). Research Inst. for Radiation Biology and Medicine; Gould, M.N.

    2000-07-01

    The objective of this experiment was to compare the cellular basis of mammary cancer induction by a chemical carcinogen with induction by ionizing radiation in three strains of rats (inbred that have different genetic susceptibilities: COP rats, F344 rats, and WF rats). Rats were given a single intraperitoneal injection of 50 mg MNU/kg body weight as a mammary-tumor-inducing chemical carcinogen and were irradiated with a 3.0 Gy dose of {sup 60} Co gamma rays at a dose rate of 26.58{+-}1.19 cGy/min. The rats were inspected weekly, and they were killed and necropsied whenever palpable tumors were detected or they became moribund. The histopathological and immunohistochemical characteristics of the mammary tumors were investigated. A transplantation experiment using selected primary mammary tumors that developed in COP rats exposed to gamma rays was also performed to investigate the transplantability of mammary tumors induced by ionizing radiation. The sensitivity of the WF and F344 rats and the resistance of the COP rats to mammary carcinoma induction by the chemical carcinogen MNU was confirmed. In contrast to the chemical carcinogens, no difference in susceptibility to radiation induction of mammary carcinomas was detected among the three strains of rats, and immunohistochemical examination indicated that the radiation-induced carcinomas consisted of more highly differentiated cells than the MNU-induced cancers. The results of the experiment appear to support the hypothesis that differentiated mammary gland tissue is more resistant to chemical carcinogens than to cancer induction by radiation. The authors conclude that radiation-induced cancers in rats may develop via different pathways or from different cell populations than chemically induced cancers. (K.H.)

  20. Modulation of modeled microgravity on radiation-induced bystander effects in Arabidopsis thaliana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Ting [Key Laboratory of Ion Beam Bio-engineering, Hefei Institutes of Physical Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences and Anhui Province, Hefei, Anhui 230031 (China); Sun, Qiao [Space Molecular Biological Lab, China Academy of Space Technology, Beijing 100086 (China); Xu, Wei; Li, Fanghua [Key Laboratory of Ion Beam Bio-engineering, Hefei Institutes of Physical Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences and Anhui Province, Hefei, Anhui 230031 (China); Li, Huasheng; Lu, Jinying [Space Molecular Biological Lab, China Academy of Space Technology, Beijing 100086 (China); Wu, Lijun; Wu, Yuejin [Key Laboratory of Ion Beam Bio-engineering, Hefei Institutes of Physical Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences and Anhui Province, Hefei, Anhui 230031 (China); Liu, Min [Space Molecular Biological Lab, China Academy of Space Technology, Beijing 100086 (China); Bian, Po [Key Laboratory of Ion Beam Bio-engineering, Hefei Institutes of Physical Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences and Anhui Province, Hefei, Anhui 230031 (China)

    2015-03-15

    Highlights: • The effects of microgravity on the radiation-induced bystander effects (RIBE) were definitely demonstrated. • The effects of microgravity on RIBE might be divergent for different biological events. • The microgravity mainly modified the generation or transport of bystander signals at early stage. - Abstract: Both space radiation and microgravity have been demonstrated to have inevitable impact on living organisms during space flights and should be considered as important factors for estimating the potential health risk for astronauts. Therefore, the question whether radiation effects could be modulated by microgravity is an important aspect in such risk evaluation. Space particles at low dose and fluence rate, directly affect only a fraction of cells in the whole organism, which implement radiation-induced bystander effects (RIBE) in cellular response to space radiation exposure. The fact that all of the RIBE experiments are carried out in a normal gravity condition bring forward the need for evidence regarding the effect of microgravity on RIBE. In the present study, a two-dimensional rotation clinostat was adopted to demonstrate RIBE in microgravity conditions, in which the RIBE was assayed using an experimental system of root-localized irradiation of Arabidopsis thaliana (A. thaliana) plants. The results showed that the modeled microgravity inhibited significantly the RIBE-mediated up-regulation of expression of the AtRAD54 and AtRAD51 genes, generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and transcriptional activation of multicopy P35S:GUS, but made no difference to the induction of homologous recombination by RIBE, showing divergent responses of RIBE to the microgravity conditions. The time course of interaction between the modeled microgravity and RIBE was further investigated, and the results showed that the microgravity mainly modulated the processes of the generation or translocation of the bystander signal(s) in roots.

  1. Molecular analysis of radiation-induced experimental tumors in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niwa, O.; Muto, M.; Suzuki, F.

    1992-01-01

    Molecular analysis was made on mouse tumors induced by radiation and chemicals. Expression of oncogenes was studied in 12 types of 178 mouse tumors. Southern blotting was done on tumors in which overexpression of oncogenes was noted. Amplification of the myc oncogene was found in chemically induced sarcomas, but not those induced by radiations. Radiogenic thymomas were studied in detail. These thymomas were induced in two different ways. The first was thymomas induced by direct irradiation of F1 mice between C57BL/6NxC3H/He. Southern analysis of DNA revealed deletion of specific minisatellite bands in these tumors. DNA from directly induced thymomas induced focus formation when transfected into normal Golden hamster cells. The mouse K-ras oncogene was detected in these transformants. The second type of thymomas was induced by X-irradiation of thymectomized B10.thy1.2 mice in which normal thymus from congenic B10,thy1.1. mice was grafted. Thymomas of the donor origin was analysed by transfection and the transformants by DNA from those indirectly induced thymomas did not contain activated ras oncogenes. (author)

  2. Perspectives in the paradigm of radiation-induced carcinogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugakhara, T.; Vatanabe, M.; Niva, O.; Nikajdo, O.

    1995-01-01

    Carcinogenesis is analysed as a multistage process consisting of initiation, promotion and progression. This model includes the mutation of oncogenes and the loss of hetrezygosity by tumor-suppressor genes. The threshold concept of radiation cancerogenesis is proposed, under which ionizing radiation can induce in somatic cell genetic effects a s result of DNA damage and epigenetic changes as well. The epigenetic changes (through DNA or cytoplasma) can be stabilized as mutations observed in many cancer cells and play a dominant role in radiation cancerogenesis induction. The ration of epigenetic and genetic effects largely depends on radiation doses

  3. Radiation-induced organogenesis: effects of irradiated medium and its components on tobacco tissue culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Degani, N.

    1975-01-01

    Gamma irradiated medium induces the formation of buds in non-irradiated dark growth tobacco callus (Nicotiana tabacum Var. Wisconsin No.38). Experiments were conducted to determine the component(s) of the medium that is effective in this radiation-induced organogenesis. Fraction of medium were irradiated singly and in combination, then combined with non-irradiated fractions to form the complete growth medium. The results showed that irradiated indoleacetic acid (IAA) was not the effective component in the induction of organogensis. Omission of IAA from the medium resulted in the formation of buds, as expected. Irradiated myo-inositol induced organogenesis more consistently than the other irradiated components. The age of the inoculum tissue and its passage number from the tobacco stem affected the potency of the tobacco callus to organise. (author)

  4. Higher order perturbation theory applied to radiative transfer in non-plane-parallel media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Box, M.A.; Polonsky, I.N.; Davis, A.B.

    2003-01-01

    Radiative transfer in non-plane-parallel media is a very challenging problem, which is currently the subject of concerted efforts to develop computational techniques which may be used to tackle different tasks. In this paper we develop the full formalism for another technique, based on radiative perturbation theory. With this approach, one starts with a plane-parallel 'base model', for which many solution techniques exist, and treat the horizontal variability as a perturbation. We show that under the most logical assumption as to the base model, the first-order perturbation term is zero for domain-average radiation quantities, so that it is necessary to go to higher order terms. This requires the computation of the Green's function. While this task is by no means simple, once the various pieces have been assembled they may be re-used for any number of perturbations--that is, any horizontal variations

  5. Life Spectacles: Media, Business Synergy, and Affective Work in Neoliberal China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai Ren

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The way in which Chinese media communicates the meanings of everyday life has been significantly reconfigured since the late 1970s. ‘Folk television’ or ‘life television’ has been developed as a popular television genre that focuses on ordinary people and their lived experiences. This phenomenon reflects the neoliberal development of China’s cultural institutions in general and the privatization of television production and distribution in particular. Meanwhile, cultural enterprises also shape the way in which Chinese citizens conduct themselves. In such domains as leisure and consumption, operators of theme built environments such as theme parks, theme shopping malls, and even residential communities deploy spatial planning and engineering techniques to subtly train their users to behave in a particular way to become proper citizens. This type of business through real estate development, a dominant sector of the Chinese economy, contributes to the national project of managing social risks in China’s neoliberal process. To illustrate how media and leisure companies engage in cultural production appropriate to China’s neoliberal development, this paper examines both a television production of news about ‘ordinary people’ and a theme park operation of ethnic festival by focusing on the relationship between media convergence, business synergy, and affective work.

  6. Stimulation of respiration in rat thymocytes induced by ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gudz, T.I.; Pandelova, I.G.; Novgorodov, S.A.

    1994-01-01

    The effect of X irradiation on the respiration of rat thymocytes was studied. An increase in the rate of O 2 uptake was observed 1 h after cells were irradiated with doses of 6-10 Gy. The radiation-induced increase in respiration could be blocked by oligomycin, an inhibitor of mitochondrial ATP synthase, suggesting control by increased cytoplasmic ATP turnover. The stimulation of respiration was not associated with changes in the activity of mitochondrial electron transfer enzymes or permeability of the inner membrane. Several inhibitors of processes which used ATP were screened for their effects on the basal respiration rate and on the radiation response. In irradiated thymocytes, an enhancement of inhibition of respiration by ouabain, La 3+ and cycloheximide was observed. These results indicate that the radiation-induced stimulation of respiration is due to changes in ion homeostasis and protein synthesis. The effect of X irradiation was shown to be independent of the redox status of nonprotein thiols and was not associated with detectable changes in some products of lipid peroxidation. The radiation-induced decrease in activity of superoxide dismutase suggests free radical involvement in deleterious effects of radiation. 43 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs

  7. Physiological bases and treatment to the radiation-induced emetic reflex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mulen Napoles, Barbara M.; Torres Babie, Priscilla; Ropero Toirac, Ramon de J.

    2002-01-01

    In the course of the specific oncologic treatment, there are frequent complications such as nausea and vomiting. The radiation-induced emetic reflex depends on various factors: primary site of radiation, administered dose, fractioning, irradiated volume, the sensory and psychic characteristics of the patient as well as the chemotherapy association. It is known that the afferent path to the so-called center of vomiting is determined by chemical mediators, protuberance receptors of the intracranial pressure and the unleashing chemoreceptor zone. In radiation-induced emesis, the exact mechanism is yet to be determined but it is known that radiation stimulates the production of chemical mediators and serotonin released by enterochromaffin cells that act upon the center of vomiting and vagal nucleus. Most of patients who are exposed to irradiation of their upper and middle hemibody as well as all the patients exposed to whole-body irradiation present with nausea and vomiting. The therapeutical anti-emetic recommendations are based on the neurochemical control of vomiting and the emetogenic effect of radiotherapy. 5HT3 receptor-antagonists are evaluated as effective agents in the control of radiation-induced emesis

  8. Comparison of Radiation-Induced Bystander Effect in QU-DB Cells after Acute and Fractionated Irradiation: An In Vitro Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soleymanifard, Shokouhozaman; Bahreyni Toossi, Mohammad Taghi; Kamran Samani, Roghayeh; Mohebbi, Shokoufeh

    2016-01-01

    Radiation effects induced in non-irradiated cells are termed radiation-induced bystander effects (RIBE). The present study intends to examine the RIBE response of QU-DB bystander cells to first, second and third radiation fractions and compare their cumulative outcome with an equal, single acute dose. This experimental study irradiated three groups of target cells for one, two and three times with(60)Co gamma rays. One hour after irradiation, we transferred their culture media to non-irradiated (bystander) cells. We used the cytokinesis block micronucleus assay to evaluate RIBE response in the bystander cells. The numbers of micronuclei generated in bystander cells were determined. RIBE response to single acute doses increased up to 4 Gy, then decreased, and finally at the 8 Gy dose disappeared. The second and third fractions induced RIBE in bystander cells, except when RIBE reached to the maximum level at the first fraction. We split the 4 Gy acute dose into two fractions, which decreased the RIBE response. However, fractionation of 6 Gy (into two fractions of 3 Gy or three fractions of 2 Gy) had no effect on RIBE response. When we split the 8 Gy acute dose into two fractions we observed RIBE, which had disappeared following the single 8 Gy dose. The impact of dose fractionation on RIBE induced in QU-DB cells de- pended on the RIBE dose-response relationship. Where RIBE increased proportion- ally with the dose, fractionation reduced the RIBE response. In contrast, at high dos- es where RIBE decreased proportionally with the dose, fractionation either did not change RIBE (at 6 Gy) or increased it (at 8 Gy).

  9. The process and promotion of radiation-induced cell death

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, Hiroshi

    1998-01-01

    Radiation-induced cell death is divided into reproductive and interphase death, whose process can be revealed by time-lapse observations. Pedigree analyses of progenies derived from a surviving progenitor cell have shown that moribund cells appear in clusters among cells which are apparently undamaged (lethal sectoring). Sister cell fusion, which likely results from chromosome bridge, is the most frequently observed cell abnormality leading to reproductive death. While interphase death does not occur unless the dose exceeds 10 Gy for low LET radiation such as X-rays, high-LET radiation is very effective at inducing interphase death (RBE: ≅3 at 230 keV/μm). Expression or fixation of potentially lethal damage (PLD) is closely associated with cell cycle events and enhanced by inducing premature chromosome condensation (PCC) at a nonpermissive temperature in tsBN2 cells with a ts-defect in RCC1 protein (a regulator of chromatin condensation) which monitors the completion of DNA replication. Furthermore, higher-order structural changes in nuclear matrix such as induced by leptomycin B, an inhibitor of CRM1 (chromosome region maintenance) protein, also play an important role in the fixation of PLD. (author)

  10. A juvenile case of radiation-induced meningioma two years after radiation for craniopharyngioma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kano, Tomoaki; Zama, Akira; Ono, Nobuo; Nakamura, Tadashi; Tamura, Masaru; Ohe, Tihiro; Nakazato, Yoichi

    1994-01-01

    The patient was a 7-years-old boy who received radiation therapy of 50 Gy after total gross removal of a craniopharyngioma. After two years a follow up CT scan showed a new enhanced lesion in the right temporal tip within the previous irradiation field. Total removal of the tumor was performed and its histological examination showed it to be an atypical meningioma. This atypical meningioma satisfied Cahan's criteria. So we diagnosed this atypical meningioma as radiation-induced meningioma. Immunohistochemically this meningioma stained for Vimentin. An electron microscopical examination showed neither desmosome nor interdigitation. The score of Ki-67 and BrdU-L. I was very small. Compared with previously reported juvenile radiation-induced meningioma, the latency was very short. The patient received growth hormone (GH) replacement therapy. We suspected relation between GH replacement therapy and short latency. He was discharged without any new neurological deficits and we haven't detected tumor recurrence for two years. (author)

  11. A juvenile case of radiation-induced meningioma two years after radiation for craniopharyngioma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kano, Tomoaki; Zama, Akira; Ono, Nobuo; Nakamura, Tadashi; Tamura, Masaru; Ohe, Tihiro; Nakazato, Yoichi (Gunma Univ., Maebashi (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1994-04-01

    The patient was a 7-years-old boy who received radiation therapy of 50 Gy after total gross removal of a craniopharyngioma. After two years a follow up CT scan showed a new enhanced lesion in the right temporal tip within the previous irradiation field. Total removal of the tumor was performed and its histological examination showed it to be an atypical meningioma. This atypical meningioma satisfied Cahan's criteria. So we diagnosed this atypical meningioma as radiation-induced meningioma. Immunohistochemically this meningioma stained for Vimentin. An electron microscopical examination showed neither desmosome nor interdigitation. The score of Ki-67 and BrdU-L. I was very small. Compared with previously reported juvenile radiation-induced meningioma, the latency was very short. The patient received growth hormone (GH) replacement therapy. We suspected relation between GH replacement therapy and short latency. He was discharged without any new neurological deficits and we haven't detected tumor recurrence for two years. (author).

  12. Emotionally anesthetized: media violence induces neural changes during emotional face processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockdale, Laura A; Morrison, Robert G; Kmiecik, Matthew J; Garbarino, James; Silton, Rebecca L

    2015-10-01

    Media violence exposure causes increased aggression and decreased prosocial behavior, suggesting that media violence desensitizes people to the emotional experience of others. Alterations in emotional face processing following exposure to media violence may result in desensitization to others' emotional states. This study used scalp electroencephalography methods to examine the link between exposure to violence and neural changes associated with emotional face processing. Twenty-five participants were shown a violent or nonviolent film clip and then completed a gender discrimination stop-signal task using emotional faces. Media violence did not affect the early visual P100 component; however, decreased amplitude was observed in the N170 and P200 event-related potentials following the violent film, indicating that exposure to film violence leads to suppression of holistic face processing and implicit emotional processing. Participants who had just seen a violent film showed increased frontal N200/P300 amplitude. These results suggest that media violence exposure may desensitize people to emotional stimuli and thereby require fewer cognitive resources to inhibit behavior. © The Author (2015). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Treatment of Cerenkov radiation from electric and magnetic charges in dispersive and dissipative media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saffouri, M.H.

    1982-07-01

    A rigorous treatment of the problem of Cerenkov radiation from fast moving electric and magnetic charges is presented. This is based on the rigorous solution of Maxwell's equations in a general dispersive medium possessing dielectric and magnetic properties and with, and without, dissipation. It is shown that the fields are completely determined by one scalar function. Expressions for the exact fields are obtained. From the asymptotic fields all the relevant properties of Cerenkov radiation are reproduced. In particular, it is shown that in the absence of dissipation the energy in each mode travels with the phase velocity of that mode. For a dissipative medium the electric field develops a longitudinal component and the energy propagates at an angle to the phase velocity. Application to the case of a Tachyon shows that it must emit Cerenkov radiation in vacuum. An estimate is given for the resulting linear density of emitted radiation. Finally, two suggestions are made for the experimental detection of magnetic charges and electric dipole moments of elementary particles based upon the Cerenkov radiation which they would emit in dispersive media. (author)

  14. RAD9 deficiency enhances radiation induced bystander DNA damage and transcriptomal response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghandhi, Shanaz A; Ponnaiya, Brian; Panigrahi, Sunil K; Hopkins, Kevin M; Cui, Qingping; Hei, Tom K; Amundson, Sally A; Lieberman, Howard B

    2014-01-01

    Radiation induced bystander effects are an important component of the overall response of cells to irradiation and are associated with human health risks. The mechanism responsible includes intra-cellular and inter-cellular signaling by which the bystander response is propagated. However, details of the signaling mechanism are not well defined. We measured the bystander response of Mrad9 +/+ and Mrad9 −/− mouse embryonic stem cells, as well as human H1299 cells with inherent or RNA interference-mediated reduced RAD9 levels after exposure to 1 Gy α particles, by scoring chromosomal aberrations and micronuclei formation, respectively. In addition, we used microarray gene expression analyses to profile the transcriptome of directly irradiated and bystander H1299 cells. We demonstrated that Mrad9 null enhances chromatid aberration frequency induced by radiation in bystander mouse embryonic stem cells. In addition, we found that H1299 cells with reduced RAD9 protein levels showed a higher frequency of radiation induced bystander micronuclei formation, compared with parental cells containing inherent levels of RAD9. The enhanced bystander response in human cells was associated with a unique transcriptomic profile. In unirradiated cells, RAD9 reduction broadly affected stress response pathways at the mRNA level; there was reduction in transcript levels corresponding to genes encoding multiple members of the UVA-MAPK and p38MAPK families, such as STAT1 and PARP1, suggesting that these signaling mechanisms may not function optimally when RAD9 is reduced. Using network analysis, we found that differential activation of the SP1 and NUPR1 transcriptional regulators was predicted in directly irradiated and bystander H1299 cells. Transcription factor prediction analysis also implied that HIF1α (Hypoxia induced factor 1 alpha) activation by protein stabilization in irradiated cells could be a negative predictor of the bystander response, suggesting that local hypoxic stress

  15. Status and media use in the Netherlands : Do partners affect media tastes?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kraaykamp, Gerbert; Eijck, Koen van; Ultee, Wouter; Rees, Kees van

    2007-01-01

    In this article, we estimated the impact of respondents’ and partners’ status on media use, employing four waves of the Family Survey Dutch Population spanning the 1992–2003 period (n = 5600). Media use was measured by literary book reading, popular book reading, and television watching. Although

  16. Treatment of Radiation Induced Biological Changes by Bone Marrow Transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Missiry, M.A.; Shehata, G.; Roushdy, H.M; Fayed, Th.A.

    1999-01-01

    Preventing the propagation of radiation induced oxidative damage has been a subject of considerable investigations. The ultimate goal of the present study is to use bone marrow cells to ameliorate or to treat the radiation sickness. Transplantation of bone marrow cell has shown promising results in the present experimental radiation treatment. In this report, suspension of bone marrow cells was injected into rats 12 h. after exposure to 4.5 Gy whole body gamma irradiation. Significant results were recorded on the successful control of the radiation induced disorders in a number of biochemical parameters including certain enzymatic and nonenzymatic antioxidants (superoxide dismutase and glutathione) and certain parameters related to kidney function including creatinine, urea as well as Atpase Activity in blood serum, urine and kidney tissue

  17. Caffeine Markedly Enhanced Radiation-Induced Bystander Effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Erkang; Wu Lijun

    2009-01-01

    In this paper it is shown that incubation with 2 mM caffeine enhanced significantly the MN (micronucleus) formation in both the 1 cGy α-particle irradiated and non-irradiated bystander regions. Moreover, caffeine treatment made the non-irradiated bystander cells more sensitive to damage signals. Treated by c-PTIO(2-(4-carboxy-phenyl)- 4,4,5,5-tetramethyl-imidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide), a nitric oxide (NO) scavenger, the MN frequencies were effectively inhibited, showing that nitric oxide might be very important in mediating the enhanced damage. These results indicated that caffeine enhanced the low dose α-particle radiation-induced damage in irradiated and non-irradiated bystander regions, and therefore it is important to investigate the relationship between the radiosensitizer and radiation-induced bystander effects (RIBE). (ion beam bioengineering)

  18. Non-radiation induced signals in TL dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    German, U.; Weinstein, M.

    2002-01-01

    One source of background signals, which are non-radiation related, is the reader system and it includes dark current, external contaminants and electronic spikes. These factors can induce signals equivalent to several hundredths of mSv. Mostly, the effects are minimised by proper design of the TLD reader, but some effects are dependent on proper operation of the system. The other main group of background signals originate in the TL crystal and is due to tribothermoluminescence, dirt, chemical reactions and stimulation by visible or UV light. These factors can have a significant contribution, equivalent to over several mSv, depending on whether the crystal is bare or protected by PTFE. Working in clean environments, monitoring continuously the glow curve and performing glow curve deconvolution are suggested to minimise non-radiation induced spurious signals. (author)

  19. Radiation-induced transmission spectral variations of Ce3+-doped heavy germanate glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Yunxia; Baccaro, S.; Cecilia, A.; Rao Jinhua; Zhang Junbiao; Xia Fang; Chen Guorong

    2005-01-01

    Radiation-induced transmission spectral variations of Ce 3+ -doped heavy germanate glasses used as scintillating materials are presented. Glass matrix contains mainly GeO 2 , BaO and Gd 2 O 3 with a density higher than 5 g/cm 3 . Glasses are melted in the different atmosphere. The transmission spectra of glasses before and after radiation treatments are measured and compared. Unlike exhibiting the monotonous deterioration effect on the glass matrix, radiation plays the radiation protection role, even making enhanced transmission of Ce 3+ -doped glasses, depending upon glass melting atmosphere and radiation dose. Radiation-induced reducing and oxidizing mechanism is proposed to explain phenomena

  20. Binding of radiation-induced phenylalanine radicals to DNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schans, G.P. van der; Rijn, C.J.S. van; Bleichrodt, J.F.

    1975-11-01

    When an aqueous solution of double-stranded DNA of bacteriophage PM2 containing phenylalanine and saturated with N 2 O is irradiated with γ-rays, radiation-induced phenylalanine radicals are bound covalently. Under the conditions used about 25 phenylalanine molecules may be bound per lethal hit. Also for single-stranded PM2 DNA, most of the phenylalanine radicals bound are non-lethal. Evidence is presented that in double-stranded DNA an appreciable fraction of the single-strand breaks is induced by phenylalanine radicals. Radiation products of phenylalanine and the phenylalanine bound to the DNA decrease the sensitivity of the DNA to the induction of single-strand breaks. There are indications that the high efficiency of protection by radiation products of phenylalanine is due to their positive charge, which will result in a relatively high concentration of these compounds in the vicinity of the negatively charged DNA molecules

  1. Efficacy of ginger in alleviating the severe radiation-induced biochemical, histological and embryological impactions pregnant female albino rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rezk, R.G.; Ibrahim, M.F.; Darwish, M.M.

    2005-01-01

    Ginger (Zingiber officinale), a common part of the diet in many parts of the world, is one of the strongest plant antioxidants that has various pharmacological effects. Accordingly, this study was investigated to clarify the beneficial effect of maternal intake of ginger on radiation-induced maternal and fetal detrimental impacts. Pregnant albino rats were administered ginger tea from gestation day 10 to 14 at a dose rate of 10 ml/kg body weight before being exposed to a single dose of 6 Gy of whole body gamma irradiation at day 15 of gestation, after which they were excised on the 18th day of pregnancy. Maternal ginger pre-treatment before radiation exposure was able to diminish the high levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), glucose, lipids, follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) recorded in the serum of irradiated mother rats in addition to restoring the histopathological lesions induced in their aorta and uterus tissues. Moreover, ginger intake was found to reduce the severe deleterious symptoms of radiation-induced fetal mortality rate with increased growth in surviving fetuses and remarkable protection against severe morphological deformities.The present study suggests that ginger is an effective agent for improving the affected maternal biochemical and histological studied parameters and reducing the embryonic injuries induced by gamma irradiation

  2. Comparison of cavitation bubbles evolution in viscous media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasikova Darina

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available There have been tried many types of liquids with different ranges of viscosity values that have been tested to form a single cavitation bubble. The purpose of these experiments was to observe the behaviour of cavitation bubbles in media with different ranges of absorbance. The most of the method was based on spark to induced superheat limit of liquid. Here we used arrangement of the laser-induced breakdown (LIB method. There were described the set cavitation setting that affects the size bubble in media with different absorbance. We visualized the cavitation bubble with a 60 kHz high speed camera. We used here shadowgraphy setup for the bubble visualization. There were observed time development and bubble extinction in various media, where the size of the bubble in the silicone oil was extremely small, due to the absorbance size of silicon oil.

  3. A biological approach to the interspecies prediction of radiation-induced mortality risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carnes, B.A.; Grahn, D.; Olshansky, S.J.

    1997-01-01

    Evolutionary explanations for why sexually reproducing organisms grow old suggest that the forces of natural selection affect the ages when diseases occur that are subject to a genetic influence (referred to here as intrinsic diseases). When extended to the population level for a species, this logic leads to the general prediction that age-specific death rates from intrinsic causes should begin to rise as the force of selection wanes once the characteristic age of sexual maturity is attained. Results consistent with these predictions have been found for laboratory mice, beagles, and humans where, after adjusting for differences in life span, it was demonstrated that these species share a common age pattern of mortality for intrinsic causes of death. In quantitative models used to predict radiation-induced mortality, risks are often expressed as multiples of those observed in a control population. A control population, however, is an aging population. As such, mortality risks related to exposure must be interpreted relative to the age-specific risk of death associated with aging. Given the previous success in making interspecies predictions of age-related mortality, the purpose of this study was to determine whether radiation-induced mortality observed in one species could also be predicted quantitatively from a model used to describe the mortality consequences of exposure to radiation in a different species. Mortality data for B6CF 1 mice and beagles exposed to 60 Co γ-rays for the duration of life were used for analysis

  4. Influence of radiation-induced apoptosis on development brain in molecular regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu Guixiong

    2000-01-01

    An outline of current status on the influence of radiation on the development brain was given. Some genes as immediate early gene, Bcl-2 family, p53, heat shock protein and AT gene play an important regulation role in ionizing radiation-induced development brain cells apoptosis. And such biological factor as nerve growth factor, interleukin-1, tumor necrosis factor, basic fibroblast growth factor, transforming growth factor and so on have a vital protection function against ionizing radiation-induced cells apoptosis

  5. Radiation-induced reactions in polydimethyl siloxanes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menhofer, H.

    1988-01-01

    The dissertation reports an investigation into the behaviour of polydimethyl soloxanes (PDMS) subject to the radiation field of a 60 Co-γ radiation source at different irradiation conditions. Several different analytical methods have been applied for the detection of chemical changes in the material and their effects on the polymeric segment mobility. Application of the ESR-spintrap technique identifies the primary radicals x CH 3 , -Si x , and -Si-CH 2 x , induced by the radiolysis of the PDMS. The individual rates of radical formation have been found to be strongly dependent on temperature. (orig./LU) [de

  6. Injection profiles with radiation induced copolymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knight, B.L.; Rhudy, J.S.; Gogarty, W.B.

    1976-01-01

    The injectivity profile of a heterogeneous formation and/or vertical conformance is improved by injecting an aqueous solution into the formation, the solution containing a polymer obtained as a product of radiation-induced polymerization of acrylamide and/or methacrylamide and acrylic acid, methacrylic acid, and/or alkali metal salts thereof. The polymerization is preferably carried out in a 10 to 60 percent aqueous solution with gamma radiation; the aqueous monomer solution preferably contains 25 to 99 percent acrylamide and 1 to 75 percent sodium acrylate. Immiscible, miscible, or miscible-like displacing processes can be used in conjunction with this invention. 20 claims

  7. Radiation-induced mutations in mammals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehling, U.H.

    1993-01-01

    The aims of the proposed project are to provide a better basis for extrapolation of animal data to man. Genetic endpoint, strain and species comparisons are made, which will provide critical experimental data regarding strategies in extrapolating laboratory animal data to man. Experiments were conducted to systematically compare the spontaneous and radiation-induced mutation rates for recessive specific-locus, dominant cataract and enzyme activity alleles in the mouse as well as a comparison of the mutation rate in the mouse and hamster for dominant cataract and enzyme activity alleles. The comparison of the radiation-dose response for recessive specific-locus and dominant cataract mutations are extended. Selected mutations are characterized at the genetic, biochemical and molecular levels. (R.P.) 5 refs., 3 tabs

  8. Immobilization of yeast cells on hydrogel carriers obtained by radiation-induced polymerization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luzhao Xin; Carenza, M.; Kaetsu, Isao; Kumakura, Minoru; Yoshida, Masaru; Fujimura, Takashi

    1992-01-01

    Polymer hydrogels were obtained by radiation-induced copolymerization at -78 o C of aqueous solutions of acrylic and methacrylic esters. The matrices were characterized by equilibrium water content measurements, by optical microscopy observations and by scanning electron microscopy analysis. Yeast cells were immobilized on these hydrogels and the ethanol productivity by batch fermentation was determined. Matrix hydrophilicity and porosity were found to deeply influence the adhesion of yeast cells and, hence, the ethanol productivity. The latter as well as other physico-chemical properties were also affected by the presence of a crosslinking agent added in small amounts to the polymerizating mixture. (author)

  9. Spatiotemporal characterization of ionizing radiation induced DNA damage foci and their relation to chromatin organization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costes, Sylvain V; Chiolo, Irene; Pluth, Janice M.; Barcellos-Hoff, Mary Helen; Jakob, Burkhard

    2009-09-15

    DNA damage sensing proteins have been shown to localize to the sites of DSB within seconds to minutes following ionizing radiation (IR) exposure, resulting in the formation of microscopically visible nuclear domains referred to as radiation-induced foci (RIF). This review characterizes the spatio-temporal properties of RIF at physiological doses, minutes to hours following exposure to ionizing radiation, and it proposes a model describing RIF formation and resolution as a function of radiation quality and nuclear densities. Discussion is limited to RIF formed by three interrelated proteins ATM (Ataxia telangiectasia mutated), 53BP1 (p53 binding protein 1) and ?H2AX (phosphorylated variant histone H2AX). Early post-IR, we propose that RIF mark chromatin reorganization, leading to a local nuclear scaffold rigid enough to keep broken DNA from diffusing away, but open enough to allow the repair machinery. We review data indicating clear kinetic and physical differences between RIF emerging from dense and uncondensed regions of the nucleus. At later time post-IR, we propose that persistent RIF observed days following exposure to ionizing radiation are nuclear ?scars? marking permanent disruption of the chromatin architecture. When DNA damage is resolved, such chromatin modifications should not necessarily lead to growth arrest and it has been shown that persistent RIF can replicate during mitosis. Thus, heritable persistent RIF spanning over tens of Mbp may affect the transcriptome of a large progeny of cells. This opens the door for a non DNA mutation-based mechanism of radiation-induced phenotypes.

  10. Thioredoxin mitigates radiation-induced hematopoietic stem cell injury in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasupathi Sundaramoorthy

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Radiation exposure poses a significant threat to public health. Hematopoietic injury is one of the major manifestations of acute radiation sickness. Protection and/or mitigation of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs from radiation injury is an important goal in the development of medical countermeasure agents (MCM. We recently identified thioredoxin (TXN as a novel molecule that has marked protective and proliferative effects on HSCs. In the current study, we investigated the effectiveness of TXN in rescuing mice from a lethal dose of total body radiation (TBI and in enhancing hematopoietic reconstitution following a lethal dose of irradiation. Methods We used in-vivo and in-vitro methods to understand the biological and molecular mechanisms of TXN on radiation mitigation. BABL/c mice were used for the survival study and a flow cytometer was used to quantify the HSC population and cell senescence. A hematology analyzer was used for the peripheral blood cell count, including white blood cells (WBCs, red blood cells (RBCs, hemoglobin, and platelets. Colony forming unit (CFU assay was used to study the colongenic function of HSCs. Hematoxylin and eosin staining was used to determine the bone marrow cellularity. Senescence-associated β-galactosidase assay was used for cell senescence. Western blot analysis was used to evaluate the DNA damage and senescence protein expression. Immunofluorescence staining was used to measure the expression of γ-H2AX foci for DNA damage. Results We found that administration of TXN 24 h following irradiation significantly mitigates BALB/c mice from TBI-induced death: 70% of TXN-treated mice survived, whereas only 25% of saline-treated mice survived. TXN administration led to enhanced recovery of peripheral blood cell counts, bone marrow cellularity, and HSC population as measured by c-Kit+Sca-1+Lin– (KSL cells, SLAM + KSL cells and CFUs. TXN treatment reduced cell senescence and radiation-induced

  11. Radiation-induced neurobehavioral dysfunctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manda, Kailash

    2013-01-01

    There is a lacuna between sparsely reported immediate effects and the well documented delayed effects on cognitive functions seen after ionizing radiation exposure. We reported the radiation-dose dependent incongruity in the early cognitive changes and its correlation with the structural aberration as reported by imaging study. The delayed effect of radiation was investigated to understand the role of hippocampal neurogenesis in the functional recovery of cognition. C57BL/6 mice were exposed to different doses of γ-radiation and 24 hrs after exposure, the stress and anxiety levels were examined in the Open Field Exploratory Paradigms (OFT). 48hrs after irradiation, the hippocampal dependent recognition memory was observed by the Novel Object Recognition Test (NORT) and the cognitive function related to memory processing and recall was tested using the Elevated Plus Maze (EPM). Visualization of damage to the brain was done by diffusion tensor imaging at 48 hours post-irradiation. Results indicate a complex dose independent effect on the cognitive functions immediately after exposure to gamma rays. Radiation exposure caused short term memory dysfunctions at lower doses which were seen to be abrogated at higher doses, but the long term memory processing was disrupted at higher doses. The Hippocampus emerged as one of the sensitive regions to be affected by whole body exposure to gamma rays, which led to profound immediate alterations in cognitive functions. Furthermore, the results indicate a cognitive recovery process, which might be dependent on the extent of damage to the hippocampal region. While evaluating the delayed effect of radiation on the hippocampal neurogenesis, we observed that higher doses groups showed comparatively more adaptive regenerative neurogenic potential which they could not sustain at later stages. Our studies reported an important hitherto uncovered phenomenon of neurobehavioral dysfunctions in relation to radiation dose. Nevertheless, a

  12. Search for the lowest irradiation dose from literatures on radiation-induced breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshizawa, Y; Kusama, T [Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine

    1975-12-01

    A survey of past case reports concerning radiation-induced breast cancer was carried out in order to find the lowest irradiation dose. The search of literature published since 1951 revealed 10 cases of radiation-induced breast cancer. Only 5 cases had precise descriptions of the irradiation dose. The lowest irradiation dose was estimated at 1470 rads in the case of external X-ray irradiation for tuberous angioma. All of cases of radiation-induced breast cancer had received radiation for the treatment of nonmalignant tumors, such as pulmonary tuberculosis, mastitis, and tuberous angioma. There also were three statistical studies. The first concerned atomic bomb survivors, the second, pulmoanry tuberculous patients subjected to frequent fluoroscopies, and the third, patients of acute post partum mastitis. These statistical studies had revealed a significant increase in the incidence of breast cancer in the irradiated group, but there was little information about the lowest irradiation dose. It was noticed that radiation-induced breast cancer was more numerous in the upper inner quadrant of the breast. Most histopathological findings of radiation-induced breast cancer involved duct cell carcinoma. The latent period was about 15 years.

  13. Visual sensations induced by Cherenkov radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McNulty, P.J.; Pease, V.P.; Bond, V.P.

    1975-01-01

    Pulses of relativistic singly charged particles entering the eyeball induce a variety of visual phenomena by means of Cerenkov radiation generated during their passage through the vitreous. These phenomena are similar in appearance to many of the visual sensations experienced by Apollo astronauts exposed to the cosmic rays in deep space

  14. Saturation of the laser-induced narrowband coherent synchrotron radiation process: Experimental observation at a storage ring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosaka, M.; Yamamoto, N.; Takashima, Y.; Szwaj, C.; Le Parquier, M.; Evain, C.; Bielawski, S.; Adachi, M.; Zen, H.; Tanikawa, T.; Kimura, S.; Katoh, M.; Shimada, M.; Takahashi, T.

    2013-02-01

    We study the efficiency limitation affecting laser-induced coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) at high laser power. Experiments are made on the UVSOR-II storage ring in conditions of narrowband terahertz CSR emission. While, at moderate power, CSR power increases quadratically with laser power, a noticeable decrease in efficiency and eventually a decrease in CSR power is observed experimentally at high power. Details of the underlying process are analyzed numerically. As the saturation effect depends almost instantaneously on the laser intensity, the saturation occurs locally in longitudinal space. This has important consequences on the modulation pattern induced on the electron bunch.

  15. Challenges in Clinical Management of Radiation-Induced Illnesses in Exploration Spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blue, Rebecca; Chancellor, Jeffery; Suresh, Rahul; Carnell, Lisa; Reyes, David; Nowadly, Craig; Antonsen, Erik

    2018-01-01

    Historical solar particle events (SPEs) provide context for some understanding of acute radiation exposure risk to astronauts traveling outside of low Earth orbit. Modeling of potential doses delivered to exploration crewmembers anticipates limited radiation-induced health impacts, including prodromal symptoms of nausea, emesis, and fatigue, but suggests that more severe clinical manifestations are unlikely. Recent large animal-model research in space-analogs closely mimicking SPEs has identified coagulopathic events independent of the hematopoietic sequelae of higher radiation doses, similar in manifestation to disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC). We explored the challenges of clinical management of radiation-related clinical manifestations, using currently accepted modeling techniques and anticipated physiological sequelae, to identify medical capabilities needed to successfully manage SPE-induced radiation illnesses during exploration spaceflight.

  16. [Radiation-induced bystander effect: the important part of ionizing radiation response. Potential clinical implications].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wideł, Maria; Przybyszewski, Waldemar; Rzeszowska-Wolny, Joanna

    2009-08-18

    It has long been a central radiobiological dogma that the damaging effects of ionizing radiation, such as cell death, cytogenetic changes, apoptosis, mutagenesis, and carcinogenesis, are the results of the direct ionization of cell structures, particularly DNA, or indirect damage via water radiolysis products. However, several years ago attention turned to a third mechanism of radiation, termed the "bystander effect" or "radiation-induced bystander effect" (RIBE). This is induced by agents and signals emitted by directly irradiated cells and manifests as a lowering of survival, cytogenetic damage, apoptosis enhancement, and biochemical changes in neighboring non-irradiated cells. The bystander effect is mainly observed in in vitro experiments using very low doses of alpha particles (range; mGy, cGy), but also after conventional irradiation (X-rays, gamma rays) at low as well as conventional doses. The mechanisms responsible for the bystander effect are complex and still poorly understood. It is believed that molecular signals released from irradiated cells induce different signaling ways in non-irradiated neighboring cells, leading to the observed events. The molecular signals may be transmitted through gap junction intercellular communication and through a medium transfer mechanism. The nature of these transmitted factors are diverse, and still not definitely established. It seems that RIBE may have important clinical implications for health risk associated with radiation exposure. Potentially, this effect may have important implications in the creation of whole-body or localized side effects in tissues beyond the irradiation field and also in low-dose radiological and radioisotope diagnostics. Factors emitted by irradiated cells may result in the risk of genetic instability, mutations, and second primary cancer induction. They might also have their own part in inducing and extending post-radiation side effects in normal tissue. The bystander effect may be a

  17. Radiation-induced bystander effect: The important part of ionizing radiation response. Potential clinical implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Wideł

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available It has long been a central radiobiological dogma that the damaging effects of ionizing radiation, such as cell death, cytogenetic changes, apoptosis, mutagenesis, and carcinogenesis, are the results of the direct ionization of cell structures, particularly DNA, or indirect damage via water radiolysis products. However, several years ago attention turned to a third mechanism of radiation, termed the “bystander effect” or “radiation-induced bystander effect” (RIBE. This is induced by agents and signals emitted by directly irradiated cells and manifests as a lowering of survival, cytogenetic damage, apoptosis enhancement, and biochemical changes in neighboring non-irradiated cells. The bystander effect is mainly observed in in vitro experiments using very low doses of alpha particles (range; mGy, cGy, but also after conventional irradiation (X-rays, gamma rays at low as well as conventional doses. The mechanisms responsible for the bystander effect are complex and still poorly understood. It is believed that molecular signals released from irradiated cells induce different signaling ways in non-irradiated neighboring cells, leading to the observed events. The molecular signals may be transmitted through gap junction intercellular communication and through a medium transfer mechanism. The nature of these transmitted factors are diverse, and still not defi nitely established. It seems that RIBE may have important clinical implications for health risk associated with radiation exposure. Potentially, this effectmay have important implications in the creation of whole-body or localized side effects in tissues beyond the irradiation fi eld and also in low-dose radiological and radioisotope diagnostics. Factors emitted by irradiated cells may result in the risk of genetic instability, mutations, and second primary cancer induction. They might also have their own part in inducing and extending post-radiation side effects in normal tissue. The

  18. Casting of organic glass by radiation-induced polymerization of glass-forming monomers at low temperature. II. Optical strain of remaining stress type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okubo, H.; Yoshii, F.; Kaetsu, I.; Honda, S.

    1978-01-01

    Previously it was found that casting could be carried out efficiently without strain formation by radiation-induced polymerization of glass-forming monomers. Two types of strain were observed in casting: thermal stream type, which was studied previously, and remained stress type. In this report, the effect of various factors on the formation of remaining stress-type strain in radiation-induced casting polymerization was studied. It was found that the molecular weight of prepolymer did not affect strain formation, while prepolymer concentration and viscosity of the system had a serious influence on strain formation. It could be deduced that this type of strain formed as a result of remaining inner stress due to poor relaxation of the shrinking stress. It was realized that less volume shrinkage of glass-forming monomers accompanying casting polymerization reduced the strain formation of this type in radiation-induced casting polymerization at low temperatures

  19. Factors that modify risks of radiation-induced cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabrikant, J.I.

    1988-11-01

    The collective influence of biologic and physical factors that modify risks of radiation-induced cancer introduces uncertainties sufficient to deny precision of estimates of human cancer risk that can be calculated for low-dose radiation in exposed populations. The important biologic characteristics include the tissue sites and cell types, baseline cancer incidence, minimum latent period, time-to-tumor recognition, and the influence of individual host (age and sex) and competing etiologic influences. Physical factors include radiation dose, dose rate, and radiation quality. Statistical factors include time-response projection models, risk coefficients, and dose-response relationships. Other modifying factors include other carcinogens, and other biological sources (hormonal status, immune status, hereditary factors)

  20. Photographed by the Earth: War and media in light of nuclear events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Pringle

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article charts a media historical relation between radiation and celluloid film, ranging from the downwind 1956 production of The Conqueror to early scientific imaging practices, war photography, war documentaries, military industrial film, and contemporary artists working on radiation aesthetics. Posing the collection as a diagnostic media ecology, this article argues that the valuable evidence provided by the environmental metadata stored in celluloid film is the product of ecological warfare and violence. By turning to the material sciences for a better understanding of how nuclear weapons affect media on large spatial and temporal scales we gain a parallax view to how photographic practices – defined as the aesthetic exchange of light and energy – occur autonomously within our ecology, although some of these forces are mobilised in deadly and imperceptible ways. By demonstrating that non-human agencies released by Cold War energy policies have contaminated military industrial and commercial film archives alike, this article asserts that nuclear testing and warfare have contributed to a global condition of test-subjectivity that can be evidenced by diagnostic media ecology.

  1. Radiation-induced creep and swelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heald, P.T.

    1977-01-01

    The physical basis for radiation induced creep and swelling is reviewed. The interactions between the point defects and dislocations are recalled since these interactions are ultimately responsible for the observable deformation phenomena. Both the size misfit interaction and the induced inhomogeneity interaction are considered since the former gives rise to irradiation swelling while the latter, which depends on both internal and external stresses, results in irradiation creep. The defect kinetics leading to the deformation processes are discussed in terms of chemical rate theory. The rate equations for the spatially averaged interstitial and vacancy concentrations are expressed in terms of the microstructural sink strengths and the solution of these equations leads to general expressions for the deformation rates

  2. Radiological-morphological synopsis of radiation-induced lung fibrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bublitz, G.

    1977-01-01

    As delayed radiation damage after treatment of bronchial carcinoma and mamma carcinoma, fibroses occur as a reaction of the tissues. They have become a clinical-functional syndrome because of their uniform clinicaL-radiological symptomatology and pathophysiology. Pulmonary fibrosis as delayed radiation damage has a special importance with its two different radiation effects on connective tissue: a) on existing structures, b) delayed alterations of the connective tissue. As seen from experiments on lungs of men and rats, radiation-induced alterations can be measured by testing the different solubilities of the collagen types. In addition to the pathologically disordered collagen production, 9 weeks after the irradiation the radiation fibrosis leads to an isolated increase of insoluble collagen corresponding to the formation of metabolism-resistant fibrils. (MG) [de

  3. Modulation of radiation-induced apoptosis and G2/M block in murine T-lymphoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palayoor, S.T.; Macklis, R.M.; Bump, E.A.; Coleman, C.N.

    1995-01-01

    Radiation-induced apoptosis in lymphocyte-derived cell lines is characterized by endonucleolytic cleavage of cellular DNA within hours after radiation exposure. We have studied this phenomenon qualitatively (DNA gel electrophoresis) and quantitatively (diphenylamine reagent assay) in murine EL4 T-lymphoma cells exposed to 137 Cs γ irradiation. Fragmentation was discernible within 18-24 h after exposure. It increased with time and dose and reached a plateau after 8 Gy of γ radiation. We studied the effect of several pharmacological agents on the radiation-induced G 2 /M block and DNA fragmentation. The agents which reduced the radiation-induced G 2 /M-phase arrest (caffeine, theobromine, theophylline and 2-aminopurine) enhanced the degree of DNA fragmentation at 24 h. In contrast, the agents which sustained the radiation-induced G 2 /M-phase arrest (TPA, DBcAMP, IBMX and 3-aminobenzamide) inhibited the DNA fragmentation at 24 h. These studies on EL4 lymphoma cells are consistent with the hypothesis that cells with radiation-induced genetic damage are eliminated by apoptosis subsequent to a G 2 /M block. Furthermore, it may be possible to modulate the process of radiation-induced apoptosis in lymphoma cells with pharmacological agents that modify the radiation-induced G 2 /M block, and to use this effect in the treatment of patients with malignant disease. 59 refs., 7 figs

  4. Radiation-Induced Bystander Response: Mechanism and Clinical Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Keiji; Yamashita, Shunichi

    2014-01-01

    Significance: Absorption of energy from ionizing radiation (IR) to the genetic material in the cell gives rise to damage to DNA in a dose-dependent manner. There are two types of DNA damage; by a high dose (causing acute or deterministic effects) and by a low dose (related to chronic or stochastic effects), both of which induce different health effects. Among radiation effects, acute cutaneous radiation syndrome results from cell killing as a consequence of high-dose exposure. Recent advances: Recent advances in radiation biology and oncology have demonstrated that bystander effects, which are emerged in cells that have never been exposed, but neighboring irradiated cells, are also involved in radiation effects. Bystander effects are now recognized as an indispensable component of tissue response related to deleterious effects of IR. Critical issues: Evidence has indicated that nonapoptotic premature senescence is commonly observed in various tissues and organs. Senesced cells were found to secrete various proteins, including cytokines, chemokines, and growth factors, most of which are equivalent to those identified as bystander factors. Secreted factors could trigger cell proliferation, angiogenesis, cell migration, inflammatory response, etc., which provide a tissue microenvironment assisting tissue repair and remodeling. Future directions: Understandings of the mechanisms and physiological relevance of radiation-induced bystander effects are quite essential for the beneficial control of wound healing and care. Further studies should extend our knowledge of the mechanisms of bystander effects and mode of cell death in response to IR. PMID:24761341

  5. A novel topical protectant for the prevention of β-radiation induced moist desquamation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, L.; Wilcock, S.; Rezvani, M.; Hsia, C.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: Effective therapies for the prevention of radiation-induced skin burns that could be readily deployed under a nuclear accident or nuclear terrorism scenario are urgently needed. In this report we describe the efficacy of a novel radioprotectant (DMZ911) in a model of b-radiation induced moist desquamation (MD) in pig skin. DMZ911 is a nitroxide-based topical cream that effectively delivers the nitroxide into viable skin cells. Stable nitroxide compounds have been shown to be effective against both X-ray and ?-ray-induced damage in vivo and in vitro. A pig skin model of β-radiation-induced MD was employed in this study. Exposure to 30 Gy was used to induce skin lesions involving >80% moist desquamation in prescribed test sites on flank skin of female Large White pigs. DMZ911 or placebo was applied to various test sites 2 hours prior to radiation exposure. Lesions were scored based on the area of the test site containing 50% MD (severe) as determined by clinical assessment using blinded observers. Treatment with DMZ911 resulted in a 31% net reduction in MD when compared to placebo treated sites following an 8-week study period. This reduction was observed whether all sites or only those with severe MD were considered. Skin damage (as indicated by MD) from radiation exposure was significantly reduced by 31% (p = 0.05) following pretreatment with the novel topical radioprotectant DMZ911. This observation suggests that skin lesion development from radiation-induced oxidative damage cascades may be successfully inhibited by treatment with DMZ911. This topical therapeutic agent represents a novel treatment for nuclear radiation induced skin injury. DMZ911 may have unique applications in radiation oncology, cosmetic and therapeutic UV, laser, glycolic and dermabrasion procedures

  6. Time-dependent radiation transfer with rayleigh scattering in finite plane-parallel media using pomraning-eddington approximation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Wakil, S.A.; Sallah, M.; Degheidy, A.R.

    2005-01-01

    The time-dependent radiation transfer equation in plane geometry with Rayleigh scattering is studied. The traveling wave transformation is used to obtain the corresponding stationary-like equation. Pomraning-Eddington approximation is then used to calculate the radiation intensity in finite plane-parallel media. Numerical results and shielding calculations are shown for reflectivity and transmissivity at different times. The medium is assumed to have specular-reflecting boundaries. For the sake of comparison, two different weight functions are introduced and to force the boundary conditions to be fulfilled

  7. The effect of Mepitel Film on acute radiation-induced skin reactions in head and neck cancer patients: a feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wooding, Hayley; Yan, Jing; Yuan, Ling; Chyou, Te-Yu; Gao, Shanbao; Ward, Iain; Herst, Patries M

    2018-01-01

    Mepitel Film significantly decreases acute radiation-induced skin reactions in breast cancer patients. Here we investigated the feasibility of using Mepitel Film in head and neck cancer patients (ACTRN12614000932662). Out of a total of 36 head and neck cancer patients from New Zealand (NZ) (n = 24) and China (n = 12) recruited between June 2015 and December 2016, 33 patients complied with protocol. Of these, 11 NZ patients followed a management protocol; 11 NZ patients and 11 Chinese patients followed a prophylactic protocol. An area of the neck receiving a homogenous radiation dose of > 35 Gy was divided into two equal halves; one half was randomized to Film and the other to either Sorbolene cream (NZ) or Biafine cream (China). Skin reaction severity was measured by Radiation Induced Skin Reaction Assessment Scale and expanded Radiation Therapy Oncology Group toxicity criteria. Skin dose was measured by thermoluminescent dosimeters or gafchromic film. Film decreased overall skin reaction severity (combined Radiation Induced Skin Reaction Assessment Scale score) by 29% and moist desquamation rates by 37% in the Chinese cohort and by 27 and 28%, respectively in the NZ cohort. Mepitel Film did not affect head movements but did not adhere well to the skin, particularly in males with heavy beard stubble, and caused itchiness, particularly in Chinese patients. Mepitel Film reduced acute radiation-induced skin reactions in our head and neck cancer patients, particularly in patients without heavy stubble. Advances in knowledge: This is the first study to confirm the feasibility of using Mepitel Film in head and neck cancer patients.

  8. Caspase-independent cell death mediated by apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) nuclear translocation is involved in ionizing radiation induced HepG2 cell death

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Hengwen [Department of Radiation, Cancer Center of Guangdong General Hospital (Guangdong Academy of Medical Science), Guangzhou, 510080, Guangdong (China); Yang, Shana; Li, Jianhua [Department of Physiology, Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou, 510182, Guangdong (China); Zhang, Yajie [Department of Pathology, Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou, 510182, Guangdong (China); Gao, Dongsheng [Department of Oncology, Guangdong Medical College Affiliated Pengpai Memorial Hospital, Hai Feng, 516400, Gungdong (China); Zhao, Shenting, E-mail: zhaoshenting@126.com [Department of Physiology, Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou, 510182, Guangdong (China)

    2016-03-25

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the fifth most common cancer in the world. The aim of radiotherapy is to eradicate cancer cells with ionizing radiation. Except for the caspase-dependent mechanism, several lines of evidence demonstrated that caspase-independent mechanism is directly involved in the cell death responding to irradiation. For this reason, defining the contribution of caspase-independent molecular mechanisms represents the main goal in radiotherapy. In this study, we focused on the role of apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF), the caspase-independent molecular, in ionizing radiation induced hepatocellular carcinoma cell line (HepG2) cell death. We found that ionizing radiation has no function on AIF expression in HepG2 cells, but could induce AIF release from the mitochondria and translocate into nuclei. Inhibition of AIF could reduce ionizing radiation induced HepG2 cell death. These studies strongly support a direct relationship between AIF nuclear translocation and radiation induced cell death. What's more, AIF nuclear translocation is caspase-independent manner, but not caspase-dependent manner, in this process. These new findings add a further attractive point of investigation to better define the complex interplay between caspase-independent cell death and radiation therapy. - Highlights: • AIF nuclear translocation is involved in ionizing radiation induced hepatocellular carcinoma cell line HepG2 cell death. • AIF mediated cell death induced by ionizing radiation is caspase-independent. • Caspase-independent pathway is involved in ionzing radiation induced HepG2 cell death.

  9. Caspase-independent cell death mediated by apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) nuclear translocation is involved in ionizing radiation induced HepG2 cell death

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Hengwen; Yang, Shana; Li, Jianhua; Zhang, Yajie; Gao, Dongsheng; Zhao, Shenting

    2016-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the fifth most common cancer in the world. The aim of radiotherapy is to eradicate cancer cells with ionizing radiation. Except for the caspase-dependent mechanism, several lines of evidence demonstrated that caspase-independent mechanism is directly involved in the cell death responding to irradiation. For this reason, defining the contribution of caspase-independent molecular mechanisms represents the main goal in radiotherapy. In this study, we focused on the role of apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF), the caspase-independent molecular, in ionizing radiation induced hepatocellular carcinoma cell line (HepG2) cell death. We found that ionizing radiation has no function on AIF expression in HepG2 cells, but could induce AIF release from the mitochondria and translocate into nuclei. Inhibition of AIF could reduce ionizing radiation induced HepG2 cell death. These studies strongly support a direct relationship between AIF nuclear translocation and radiation induced cell death. What's more, AIF nuclear translocation is caspase-independent manner, but not caspase-dependent manner, in this process. These new findings add a further attractive point of investigation to better define the complex interplay between caspase-independent cell death and radiation therapy. - Highlights: • AIF nuclear translocation is involved in ionizing radiation induced hepatocellular carcinoma cell line HepG2 cell death. • AIF mediated cell death induced by ionizing radiation is caspase-independent. • Caspase-independent pathway is involved in ionzing radiation induced HepG2 cell death.

  10. Effects of phenobarbital on taste aversion induced by x-radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jolicoeur, F.B.; Wayner, M.J.; Rondeau, D.B.; Merkel, A.D.; Bassano, D.A.

    1979-01-01

    The effects of phenobarbital on taste aversion induced by x-radiation were examined. Rats were adapted to a 23 hr 50 min water deprivation schedule. On the Treatment Day animals were given a novel 0.125% Na saccharin solution during the 10 min drinking session and were then exposed to 100 rads of x-radiation. The saccharin solution was presented again on six subsequent Test Days. Phenobarbital in doses of 20, 40, 60 and 80 mg/kg was adminstered 15 min prior to drinking on the first Test Day. Results demonstrate the phenobarbital in all doses tested has a significant attenuating effect on radiation induced taste aversion

  11. Ability of radiation therapists to assess radiation-induced skin toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acharya, Urvi; Cox, Jennifer; Rinks, Marianne; Gaur, Pankaj; Back, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Radiation therapy has seen enhancement of the radiation therapist (RT) role, with RTs and nurses performing duties that were traditionally in the radiation oncologist's (RO) domain. This study aimed to assess whether RTs can consistently grade radiation-induced skin toxicity and their concordance with the gradings given by ROs. Digital photographs of skin reactions were taken at weeks 1, 3 and 6 of radiotherapy on nine patients with breast cancer. The randomly ordered photographs were reviewed once by eight ROs and four RO registrars and on two occasions separated by 6 weeks by 17 RTs. All graded the skin toxicities using the revised Radiation Therapy Oncology Group system. No significant difference was seen between the median scores of the RTs at the first scoring session and the RO/Registrar group. The RTs at both measurement times showed greater inter-rater reliability than the RO/Registrars (W=0.6866, time 1 and 0.6981 time 2, vs. 0.6517), with the experienced RTs the most consistent (W=0.7078). The RTs also showed high intra-rater reliability (rho=0.8461, P<0.0010). These results from RTs with no specific preparation indicate that experienced RTs could assess breast cancer skin toxicity as part of their role.

  12. Understanding the role of p53 in adaptive response to radiation-induced germline mutations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langlois, N.L.; Quinn, J.S.; Somers, C.M.; Boreham, D.R.; Mitchel, R.E.J.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: Radiation-induced adaptive response is now a widely studied area of radiation biology. Studies have demonstrated reduced levels of radiation-induced biological damage when an 'adaptive dose' is given before a higher 'challenge dose' compared to when the challenge dose is given alone. It has been shown in some systems to be a result of inducible cellular repair systems. The adaptive response has been clearly demonstrated in many model systems, however its impact on heritable effects in the mammalian germline has never been studied. Expanded Simple Tandem Repeat (ESTR) loci have been used as markers demonstrating that induced heritable mutations in mice follow a dose-response relationship. Recent data in our laboratory show preliminary evidence of radiation-induced adaptive response suppressing germline mutations at ESTR loci in wild type mice. The frequency of heritable mutations was significantly reduced when a priming dose of 0.1 Gy was given 24 hours prior to a 1 Gy acute challenging dose. We are now conducting a follow-up study to attempt to understand the mechanism of this adaptive response. P53 is known to play a significant role in governing apoptosis, DNA repair and cancer induction. In order to determine what function p53 has in the adaptive response for heritable mutations, we have mated radiation treated Trp53+/- male mice (C57Bl) to untreated, normal females (C57Bl). Using DNA fingerprinting, we are investigating the rate of inherited radiation-induced mutations on pre- and post-meiotic radiation-treated gametocytes by examining mutation frequencies in offspring DNA. If p53 is integral in the mechanism of adaptive response, we should not see an adaptive response in radiation-induced heritable mutations in these mice. This research is significant in that it will provide insight to understanding the mechanism behind radiation-induced adaptive response in the mammalian germline

  13. Non-targeted and delayed effects of exposure to ionizing radiation: I. Radiation-induced genomic instability and bystander effects in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, William F.

    2003-01-01

    A long-standing dogma in the radiation sciences is that energy from radiation must be deposited in the cell nucleus to elicit a biological effect. A number of non-targeted, delayed effects of ionizing radiation have been described that challenge this dogma and pose new challenges to evaluating potential hazards associated with radiation exposure. These effects include induced genomic instability and non-targeted bystander effects. The in vitro evidence for non-targeted effects in radiation biology will be reviewed, but the question as to how one extrapolates from these in vitro observations to the risk of radiation-induced adverse health effects such as cancer remains open.

  14. Radiation-induced cancer of the skin in man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiyono, Kunihiro; Moriya, Kumiko; Kobayashi, Toshio

    1981-01-01

    Eight cases of radiation induced cancer of the skin observed at the Shinshu University during 30 years from 1951 to 1938 were reported. All of the tumors were squamous cell carcinomas; 7 out of 8 cases occurred in males. Primary conditions for which irradiation was given were 6 cases of benign disorders of various skin disease and 2 cases of spinal tuberculosis. The mean age at which these patients were first subjected to radiation therapy was 31 years. At the time when the diagnosis of skin cancer was established, the mean age was 47 years, with a range from 35 to 58 years. The latent period distributed between 9 and 28 years, with the average of 16.4 years. The estimated radiation doses sufficient to induce cancer of the skin was found to be some thousands R or more, the lowest irradiation dose being about 2,000 R. There was no close correlation between the radiation dose and the latent period, nor between the age of the patient at the time of irradiation and the latent period. The tumors usually occurred in the skin areas where extensive irradiation changes were shown, especially in ulcerative area. (author)

  15. Advances in the discrete ordinates and finite volume methods for the solution of radiative heat transfer problems in participating media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coelho, Pedro J.

    2014-01-01

    Many methods are available for the solution of radiative heat transfer problems in participating media. Among these, the discrete ordinates method (DOM) and the finite volume method (FVM) are among the most widely used ones. They provide a good compromise between accuracy and computational requirements, and they are relatively easy to integrate in CFD codes. This paper surveys recent advances on these numerical methods. Developments concerning the grid structure (e.g., new formulations for axisymmetrical geometries, body-fitted structured and unstructured meshes, embedded boundaries, multi-block grids, local grid refinement), the spatial discretization scheme, and the angular discretization scheme are described. Progress related to the solution accuracy, solution algorithm, alternative formulations, such as the modified DOM and FVM, even-parity formulation, discrete-ordinates interpolation method and method of lines, and parallelization strategies is addressed. The application to non-gray media, variable refractive index media, and transient problems is also reviewed. - Highlights: • We survey recent advances in the discrete ordinates and finite volume methods. • Developments in spatial and angular discretization schemes are described. • Progress in solution algorithms and parallelization methods is reviewed. • Advances in the transient solution of the radiative transfer equation are appraised. • Non-gray media and variable refractive index media are briefly addressed

  16. Radiation-induced mutagenicity and lethality in Salmonella typhimurium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isildar, M.; Bakale, G.

    1983-01-01

    The mutagenic and lethal effects of ionizing radiation on histidine-deficient auxotrophs of Salmonella typhimurium were studied to improve the understanding of radiation damage to DNA. The auxotrophs were divided into two groups - one which is sensitive to base-pair substitutions and another sensitive to frameshifts. These groups were composed of parent-daughter pairs in which the chemical mutagenicity enhancing plasmid, pKM101, is absent in the parent strain and present in the daughter. Co-60 #betta#-radiation and 250 kV x-rays were used to irradiate the bacteria. Irradiation of the frameshift - sensitive strains which carry the pKm101 plasmid doubled the absolute number of induced revertants whereas irradiation of the base-pair substitution sensitive strain which also carries the pKm101 plasmid produced nearly no change in the number of induced revertants. A nearly negligible effect on the mutation rate was observed for all parent strains

  17. Effect of bFGF on radiation-induced apoptosis of vascular endothelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu Qingyang; Wang Dewen; Li Yuejuan; Peng Ruiyun; Dong Bo; Wang Zhaohai; Liu Jie; Deng Hua; Jiang Tao

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To study the effect of bFGF on radiation-induced apoptosis vascular endothelial cells. Methods: A cell line PAE (porcine aortic endothelial cells) and primary cultured HUVEC (human umbilical vein endothelial cells) were irradiated with 60 Co γ-rays to establish cell apoptosis models. Flow cytometry with annexin-V-FITC + PI labeling was used to evaluate cell apoptosis. Different amounts of bFGF were used to study their effects on radiation-induced endothelial cell apoptosis. Results and Conclusions: It is found that bFGF could inhibit radiation-induced endothelial cell apoptosis in a considerable degree

  18. Radiation hazards and biological effects of ionising radiation on man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siti Najila Mohd Janib

    2004-01-01

    The contents of this chapter are follows - Mechanism of damage: direct action of radiation, indirect action of radiation. Classification of effects: somatic effect, induction of cancer, factors, affecting somatic effects, genetic effect, inherited abnormalities, induced effects, early effects, late effects, deterministic effect, stochastic effect. Effect of specific group: development abnormality, childhood Cancer, fertile women, risk and uncertainty, comparison of risk

  19. Radiation-induced cell mutations as a function of dose rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiefer, J.

    1987-01-01

    A brief review of the data in the literature is presented and forms the background of the experimental data given by the author obtained with exponential long-term cultures of V79 hamster cells exposed over a period of up to 35 days to different dose rates of gamma radiation. The experimental results show that at a dose rate of 40 mGy/hour the number of induced mutations is reduced, - which is in agreement with literature data - , but a dose rate of less than 30 mGy/hour makes the induced mutations leap to a value clearly higher than those induced by acute irradiation. As in addition to the mutations recombination is a significant factor of the radiation risk, experiments with a heterozygotic yeast strain have been made, as there is to date no reliable mammalian cell system available for this kind of research. Long-term radiation exposure of the yeast cells over a period of six weeks drastically increased the rate of recombinations, to a value higher by a factor of about 4 than that induced by acute irradiation. (orig.) [de

  20. Origin of specific chromosome aberration in radiation-induced leukemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ban, Nobuhiko; Kai, Michiaki; Masuno, Yoko

    2005-01-01

    The theme in the title is discussed from the four aspects of specific chromosome aberration (sAb) patterns in radiation-induced leukemia (RIL), possibility for radiation to induce the sAb in RIL, any evidence for participation of delayed aberration to form sAb and the proportion of such healthy humans as having the specifically rearranged genome. Data of sAb observed in leukemia of 25 A-bomb survivors and of 38 patients post radiotherapy of cancers give a rather common pattern. However, many inconsistent results are obtained for sAb in patients post radiotherapy, A-bomb survivors, residents living in radio-contaminated houses in Taipei, in vitro exposure, and Chernobyl residents. At present, any clear evidence is available neither for sAb derived from the delayed aberration nor for estimating the proportion with the specifically rearranged gene. As above, it is unlikely that radiation induces such a translocation abnormality as BCR-ABL specifically seen in leukemia, and this aspect will be important for studies on the genesis of RIL and its risk assessment. (S.I.)

  1. An integrated model for radiation induced cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, E.J.; Varma, M.

    1994-01-01

    Risk estimates for radiation induced cancer are based on epidemiological data, principally the Japanese A bomb survivors. These estimates for radiation are better known than for any other environmental pollutant, but they do not relate directly to exposure to low doses and low dose rate. Recent rapid advances in molecular genetics, coupled with steady gains in cellular biology, radiation physics and chemistry led to the notion that the time may not be far off when it may be possible to arrive at human cancer risk estimates entirely from laboratory data. Whether risk estimates based on laboratory data will ever replace estimates based on epidemiological studies is an open question. What is clear is that laboratory data can supplement the present risk estimates by providing information on the relative effectiveness of high LET radiations, the importance of dose rate and dose protraction, and by identifying subpopulations which are unusually sensitive or resistant to radiation carcinogenesis. (author)

  2. GSK-3β Inhibition Attenuates LPS-Induced Death but Aggravates Radiation-Induced Death via Down-Regulation of IL-6

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bailong Li

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Exposure of high dose ionizing radiation is lethal. Signal pathways involved in radiation biology reaction still remain illdefined. Lipopolysaccharides (LPS, the ligands of Toll-like receptor 4(TLR4, could elicit strong immune responses. Glycogen synthase kinase-3β(GSK-3β promotes the production of inflammatory molecules and cell migration. Inhibition of GSK-3β provides protection against inflammation in animal models. The aim of the study was to investigate role of GSK-3β in LPS shock and ionizing radiation. Methods: WT or IL-6-/-mice or cells were pretreated with SB216763, a GSK-3β inhibitor, and survival of the mice was determined. Cell viability was assayed by Cell Counting Kit. Apoptosis was assayed by Annexin V-PI double staining. Serum concentrations of IL-6 and TNF-α were determined by ELISA. Results: SB216763 attenuated LPS induced mice or cell death but aggravated radiation induced mice or cell death. SB216763 reduced IL-6, but not TNF-α levels in vivo. IL-6-/- mice were more resistant to LPS-induced death but less resistant to radiation-induced death than wild type mice. Conclusions: Inhibition of GSK-3β conferred resistance to LPS shock but fostered death induced by ionizing radiation. Inhibition of GSK-3β was effective by reducing IL-6.

  3. Radiation induced effects in the developing central nervous system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gisone, P.; Dubner, D.; Michelin, S.C.; Perez, M.R. Del

    1997-01-01

    The embryo and the human foetus are particularly sensitive to ionizing radiation and this sensitivity presents various qualitative and quantitative functional changes during intra-uterine development. Apart from radiation induced carcinogenesis, the most serious consequence of prenatal exposure in human beings is severe mental retardation. The principal data on radiation effects on human beings in the development of the central nervous system come form epidemiological studies carried out in individuals exposed in utero during the atomic explosion at Hiroshima and Nagasaki. These observations demonstrate the existence of a time of maximum radiosensitivity between the weeks 8 and 15 of the gestational period, a period in which the proliferation and neuronal migration takes place. Determination of the characteristics of dose-response relationship and the possible existence of a threshold dose of radiation effects on the development of the central nervous system is relevant to radiation protection against low dose radiation and the establishment of dose limits for occupational exposure and the public. Studies were conducted on the generation of nitrous-oxide and its relation with the production of active species of oxygen in brains of exposed rats in utero exposed to doses of up to 1 Gy during their maximum radiosensitivity. The possible role of the mechanism of radiation induced damage in the development of the central nervous system is discussed

  4. Pharmacodynamics and tolerance of X-ray contrast media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmiedel, E.

    1987-01-01

    The improved tolerance of nonionic contrast media compared with conventional contrast media is mainly due to their lower osmolality and reduced allergoid potential. Tolerance advantages that have been definitely proven are, for example, low-pain contrast medium injection and superior systemic tolerance; side effects of an allergic pattern occur less often. Animals experiments have established that nonionic contrast media exercise a comparatively lower influence on the cardiovascular system. The haemodynamics of pulmonary circulation are less adversely affected on intravenous bolus injection. Reduced potential risk is to be expected especially in cardiac and bronchopulmonary high-risk patients. The reduced nephrotoxicity of nonionic contrast media was definitely established by clinical studies. Further systematic studies will however be required to provide an answer to the question whether this also entails a reduction in the incidence of renal failures induced by contrast media. (orig.) [de

  5. Myths and misconceptions concerning contrast media-induced anaphylaxis: a narrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böhm, Ingrid; Morelli, John; Nairz, Knud; Silva Hasembank Keller, Patricia; Heverhagen, Johannes T

    2017-03-01

    Contrast-enhanced radiological examinations are an increasingly important diagnostic tool in modern medicine. All approved and available contrast media (iodinated and gadolinium-based) are safe compounds that are well-tolerated by most patients. However, a small percentage of patients exhibit contrast medium-induced adverse drug reactions that are dose-dependent and predictable (type A) or an even smaller cohort experience so-called type B (dose-independent, non-predictable). To increase patients' safety, recommendations/guidelines have been put forth in the literature and advice passed down informally by radiologists in practice to ensure contrast media safety. Through these, both reasonable suggestions as well as misinterpretations and myths (such as the misleading terms "allergy-like" reactions, and "iodine-allergy", the wrong assumption that the initial contact to a contrast medium could not induce an allergy, the estimation that an anti-allergy premedication could suppress all possible adverse reactions, and interleukin-2 as a risk/trigger for contrast medium adverse events) have arisen. Since the latter are not only unhelpful but also potentially reduce patients' safety, such myths and misconceptions are the focus of this review.

  6. Appearance of radiation-induced lesions after radiotherapy for Hodgkin's disease of the mediastinum and lungs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zomer-Drozda, J [Instytut Onkologii, Warsaw (Poland)

    1976-01-01

    The incidence of radiation-induced lesions of lung tissue adjacent to the mediastinum and covered by radiation was established on the basis of a retrospective analysis of radiograms of 245 patients treated at the Institute of Oncology in Warsaw in the years 1951-1968, who received radiotherapy to the mediastinal lymph nodes. The radiation-induced lesions were divided into 4 grades depending on their extent and intensity of pulmonary tissue damage. Criteria for classification of radiation-induced fibrosis into the above mentioned grades were established. The correlation between radiation-induced injury and the doses of X-rays applied to the mediastinal lymph nodes was analysed. The importance of radiation-induced changes in the mediastinum and lungs for the diagnosis of recurrences in the irradiated fields, in the marginal areas and granulomatous infiltrations in pulmonary tissue is discussed.

  7. In vivo study of the adaptive response induced by radiation of different types

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klokov, D.Yu.; Zaichkina, S.I.; Rozanova, O.M.; Aptikaeva, G.F.; Akhmadieva, A.Kh.; Smirnova, E.N.; Surkenova, G.N.; Kuzin, A.M.

    2000-01-01

    Low doses of X- and gamma-rays are known to induce the adaptive response (AR), i.e. a reduction in the damage caused by subsequent high doses. Using micronucleus test, we investigated the in vivo induction of AR in mouse bone marrow cells by low doses of radiation of different types. In our experiments we used low-LET gamma-radiation, high-LET secondary radiation from 70 GeV protons and secondary biogenic radiation. The latter is a novel type of radiation discovered only recently. Secondary biogenic radiation is known to be induced in biological objects after exposure to radiation and thought to be responsible for stimulating and protecting effects in cells in response to external irradiation. To expose mice to the secondary biogenic radiation, animals were housed in plastic cages containing gamma-irradiated oat seeds as bedding and food for 2 weeks before challenging with a high dose (1.5 Gy at a dose rate of 1 Gy/min) of 60 Co gamma-radiation. It was found that the yield of cytogenetic damage in mice exposed to both secondary biogenic and gamma-radiation was significantly reduced as compared to that in animals exposed to the challenge dose alone, i.e. the AR was induced. Pretreatment of animals with a low dose of gamma-radiation (0.1 Gy at a dose rate of 0.125 Gy/min) also induced the AR. In contrast, preliminary exposure of mice to a low dose (0.09 Gy at a dose rate of 1 Gy/min) of secondary radiation from 70 GeV protons induced no AR, suggesting that triggering the cascade of events leading to the AR induction depends on the DNA single-strand to double- strand breaks ratio. The precise mechanisms underlying the AR are of great importance since the phenomenon of AR can be used for medical benefits and in assessment of risks for carcinogens. But they have not been elucidated well at present. Taken together, our results suggest the crucial role of particular types of initial DNA lesions and the secondary biogenic radiation induced in cells in response to external

  8. Study on radiation-induced polymerization of vinyl monomers adsorbed on inorganic substances. II. Radiation-induced polymerization of methyl methacrylate adsorbed on several inorganic substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukano, K.; Kageyama, E.

    1975-01-01

    The radiation-induced polymerization of methyl methacrylate (MMA) adsorbed on such inorganic substances as silica gel, white carbon, silicic acid anhydride, zeolite, and activated alumina was carried out to compare with the case of styrene. The rate of radiation-induced polymerization adsorbed on inorganic substances was high compared with that of radiation-induced bulk state polymerization, as was the case with styrene. Inorganic substrates which contain aluminum as a component element are more likely to be grafted than those which consist of SiO 2 alone, as with styrene. The molecular weight distribution of unextractable polymer and extractable polymer differs, depending on the type of inorganic substance. Experiments by a preirradiation method were carried out in case of silica gel, white carbon, and silicic acid anhydride. GPC spectra of the polymer obtained were different from those of polymer formed by the simultaneous irradiation method. It appears that all the unextractable polymer is grafted to the inorganic surface with chemical bond

  9. Information credibility for radiation contamination of foods after the Fukushima nuclear accident (3). Undergraduates panel data from one and four months after

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kusumi, Takashi; Miura, Asako; Ogura, Kanayo

    2011-01-01

    We examined the changes in information credibility, attitude of mass media, and risk perception concerning radiation contamination of foods after the Fukushima nuclear accident. We used a two-wave panel data of 277 undergraduates who completed the scales twice, one month and four months after the accident. Our findings indicated that the information credibility of optimistic experts, citizens' web pages and government press conferences decreased with time. On the other hand, the credibility of newspaper and TV news programs increased. In addition, while the critical attitude of mass media and the knowledge of radiation health effects increased after four months, the risk perception for foods under legal limits of radiation contamination decreased. A causal analysis carried out with the panel data found that (1) critical thinking attitude affected media literacy. In turn, (2) media literacy affected bias perception of mass media, information credibility, active information search, and risk perception of contamination foods. Finally, (3) this causal relationship was constant from the first to the fourth month after the accident. (author)

  10. The split-sting trait in Apis mellifera induced by cobalt 60 gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Vera Lucia Maciel

    1993-01-01

    The Split-Sting (SS) trait in honey bees, induced by gamma radiation, was discovered by Soares (1975). Bees with this trait are unable to sting, because the parts that compose the sting are separated. Many studies have been done in order to understand this new mutation. We studied the effect of gamma radiation on induction of the SS trait in feral bee strains. The doses were applied to the phase of larvae of queens with 5 days old. The following results were obtained: all doses of radiation induced the SS trait. There was an increase in the percentage of queens with SS with an increase in radiation dose; the SS trait induced by radiation is probably phenocopy; SS bees were observed in nature; increase of the rate mortality and malformation with an increase in radiation dose. (author)

  11. Trans-generational effects induced by alpha and gamma ionizing radiations at Daphnia magna

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parisot, Florian

    2015-01-01

    Anthropogenic activities related to the nuclear industry contribute to continuous discharges of radionuclides into terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. Over the past decades, the ecological risk of ionizing radiation has become a growing public, regulatory and scientific concern for ecosystems protection. Until recently, only few studies focus on exposure situations at low doses of irradiation, although these situations are representative of realistic environmental conditions. Understanding how ionizing radiation affects species over several generations and at various levels of biological organization is a major research goal in radioecology. The aim of this PhD was to bring new knowledge on the effects of ionizing radiation during a multi-generational expose of the aquatic invertebrate, Daphnia magna. A two-step strategy was implemented. First, an external gamma radiation at environmentally relevant dose rates was performed on D. magna over three successive generations (F0, F1 and F2). The objective of this experiment was to examine whether low dose rates of radiation induced increasing effects on survival, growth and reproduction of daphnids over generations and to test a possible accumulation and transmission of DNA alterations from adults to offspring. Results showed an accumulation and a transmission of DNA alterations over generations, together with an increase in effect severity on growth and reproduction from generation F0 to generation F2. Transiently more efficient DNA repair leading to some recovery at the organism level was suggested in generation F1. Second, data from the external gamma irradiation and those from an earlier study of internal alpha contamination were analyzed with DEBtox models (Dynamic Energy Budget applied to toxicology), to identify and compare the causes of the trans-generational increase in effect severity between the two types of radiation. In each case, two distinct metabolic modes of action were necessary to explain effects on

  12. International Activities in Radiation-Induced Carcinogenesis. Survey Paper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komarov, E. [World Health Organization, Geneva (Switzerland)

    1969-11-15

    During the past 10 years special attention has been paid to the problem of late effects of radiation and in particular to radiation-induced carcinogenesis and leukaemogenesis. In the UNSCEAR report of 1958-1962 this.problem was mentioned as being of considerable importance from the point of view of estimation of risk to the population from environmental radiation. In 1964 a special report was prepared by UNSCEAR on radiation- induced carcinogenesis. In the ICRP publication No. 8, a chapter dealing with assessment of somatic risks discussed the problem of leukaemia and other neoplasms and particularly stressed the problem of thyroid carcinoma-and bone sarcoma. WHO panels of experts discussed the problem in 1960-1966 and made some recommendations for international activity in this field. In spite of the amount of scientific attention that has been given in recent years to experimental radiobiology in animals and lower forms, it has become abundantly clear that information directly applicable to humans is woefully inadequate and that there is a desperate need for carefully collected data from man on which to base public health planning and day to day work in radiation protection. This has long been recognized in the technical program of WHO in the emphasis given to the practical importance of epidemiology in human radiobiology and the degree to which it depends upon international collaboration.

  13. The use of radiation-induced graft polymerization for modification of polymer track membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shtanko, N.I.; Kabanov, V.Ya.; Apel, P.Yu.; Yoshida, M.

    1999-01-01

    Track membranes (TM) made of poly(ethylene terephtalate) (PET) and polypropylene (PP) films have a number of peculiarities as compared with other ones. They have high mechanical strength at a low thickness, narrow pore size distribution, low content of extractables. However, TM have some disadvantages such as low chemical resistance in alkaline media (PET TM), the low water flow rate due to the hydrophobic nature of their surface. The use of radiation-induced graft polymerization makes it possible to improve the basic characteristics of TM. In this communication our results on the modification of PET and PP TM are presented. The modified membranes were prepared by radiation-induced graft polymerization from the liquid phase. Three methods of grafting were used: (a) the direct method in argon atmosphere; (b) the pre-irradiation of TM in air followed by grafting in argon atmosphere; (c) pre-irradiation in vacuum followed by grafting in vacuum without contacting oxygen. The aim of the work was to investigate some properties of TM modified by grafted poly(methylvinyl pyridine) (PMVP) and poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAAM). It was shown that the modification of TM with hydrophilic polymer results in the growth of the water flow rate. In the past few years many works have been devoted to the synthesis of new polymers - the so-called 'intelligent' materials - such as PNIPAAM. However, it is very difficult to make thin membranes of this polymer. Recently, it has been proposed to manufacture composite membranes by grafting stimulus-responsive polymers onto TM. Following this principle, we prepared thermosensitive membranes by the radiation-induced graft polymerization of N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPAAM) onto PET TM. PET TM with the pore size of about 1 μm and pore density of 10 6 cm -2 were first inserted into a solution of NIPAAM containing inhibitor of homopolymerization (CuCl 2 ) and then exposed to the γ-rays from a 60 Co source. The transport properties of the

  14. The use of radiation-induced graft polymerization for modification of polymer track membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shtanko, N. I.; Kabanov, V. Ya.; Apel, P. Yu.; Yoshida, M.

    1999-05-01

    Track membranes (TM) made of poly(ethylene terephtalate) (PET) and polypropylene (PP) films have a number of peculiarities as compared with other ones. They have high mechanical strength at a low thickness, narrow pore size distribution, low content of extractables. However, TM have some disadvantages such as low chemical resistance in alkaline media (PET TM), the low water flow rate due to the hydrophobic nature of their surface. The use of radiation-induced graft polymerization makes it possible to improve the basic characteristics of TM. In this communication our results on the modification of PET and PP TM are presented. The modified membranes were prepared by radiation-induced graft polymerization from the liquid phase. Three methods of grafting were used: (a) the direct method in argon atmosphere; (b) the pre-irradiation of TM in air followed by grafting in argon atmosphere; (c) pre-irradiation in vacuum followed by grafting in vacuum without contacting oxygen. The aim of the work was to investigate some properties of TM modified by grafted poly(methylvinyl pyridine) (PMVP) and poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAAM). It was shown that the modification of TM with hydrophilic polymer results in the growth of the water flow rate. In the past few years many works have been devoted to the synthesis of new polymers - the so-called "intelligent" materials - such as PNIPAAM. However, it is very difficult to make thin membranes of this polymer. Recently, it has been proposed to manufacture composite membranes by grafting stimulus-responsive polymers onto TM. Following this principle, we prepared thermosensitive membranes by the radiation-induced graft polymerization of N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPAAM) onto PET TM. PET TM with the pore size of about 1 μm and pore density of 10 6 cm -2 were first inserted into a solution of NIPAAM containing inhibitor of homopolymerization (CuCl 2) and then exposed to the γ-rays from a 60Co source. The transport properties of the grafted

  15. Fickle focus: Distraction, affect and the production of value in social media

    OpenAIRE

    Paasonen, Susanna

    2016-01-01

    The uses of social media can be seen as driven by a search for affective intensity translating as moments of paying attention, no matter how brief these instances may be. In the framework of attention economy, attention has been discussed as a valuable commodity whereas distraction, involving both pleasurable entertainment and dissatisfactory disorientation, has been associated with cognitive overload and the erosive lack of focus. By discussing clickbait sites and Facebook in particular, thi...

  16. Radiation induced mutations for plant selection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunner, H.

    1994-01-01

    The successful use of plant breeding for improving crops requires the existence of genetic variation of useful traits. Unfortunately, the desired variation is often lacking. However, radiation can be used to induce mutations and thereby generate genetic variation from which desired mutants may be selected. Mutation induction has become a proven way of creating variation within a crop variety. It offers the possibility of inducing desired attributes that either cannot be expressed in nature or have been lost during evolution. More than 1700 mutant cultivars of crop plants with significantly improved attributes such as increased yield, improved quality, disease and stress resistance, have been released worldwide in the last thirty years. The Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture has contributed to these achievements through the promotion of research and development in mutation breeding techniques using nuclear and related biotechnological methods and the provision of in plant breeding is then transferred to Member States of the IAEA and the FAO through training in mutation breeding methods and the provision of technical advice. Moreover, radiation treatment services are provided to foster applications of nuclear techniques in crop improvement programmes of member states and more specifically to render direct support to plant breeders by efficient generation of mutations. Plant materials are standardized prior to radiation exposure to warrant reproducibility of the induced effects within practical limits and a radiosensitivity test is implemented to affirm useful doses for applied objectives of a request. This review deals with irradiation methods applied at the IAEA laboratories for the efficient induction of mutations in seeds, vegetative propagules and tissue and cell cultures and the establishment of genetically variable populations upon which selection of desired traits can be based. 3 tabs., 18 refs. (author)

  17. Contrast media induced nephropathy: a literature review of the available evidence and recommendations for practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deek, Hiba; Newton, Phillip; Sheerin, Noella; Noureddine, Samar; Davidson, Patricia M