The donation of Mectizan® by Merck & Co Inc. in 1987 "as much as was needed for as long as was needed for onchocerciasis control" was a major change from traditional corporate drug donations. The company realised that those who needed the drug most would never be able to purchase it, and so gave it away. The donation enabled the Onchocerciasis Control Programme in West Africa to add Mectizan distribution to its ongoing control strategy. For the first time there was hope for those living in other areas of Africa, Latin America and Yemen. Governments and non-governmental development organizations quickly got together to begin treatment in these new areas. Two new programmes and partnerships were created; the African Programme for Onchocerciasis Control and the Onchocerciasis Elimination Programme for the Americas. These programmes have been in the forefront of developing new strategies, including the Community Directed approach, which has now expanded into other disease control programmes at the community level, such as Vitamin A distribution and malaria control. This donation has led not only to the probability of elimination of onchocerciasis in the Americas in the near future, but is stimulating approaches to the elimination in Africa, in areas considered impossible five years ago. Other major pharmaceutical donations have followed, initiating the plan to eliminate lymphatic filariasis worldwide, and also stimulating interest in controlling other "neglected tropical diseases," which affect the poorest billion of the world's population, making this now a reality.
... Collection; Comment Request; Prohibited Species Donation (PSD) Program AGENCY: National Oceanic and... species donation (PSD) program for Pacific salmon and Pacific halibut has effectively reduced regulatory... individuals through tax-exempt organizations. Vessels and processing plants participating in the donation...
Silvana Aparecida Mariano
Full Text Available The Brazilian social assistance policy is guided by the perspective of poverty fight efforts, which prioritize the conditioned income transfer. These programs privilege the income transfer to women and involve them in a net of obligations and conditions, as it is done in the Family Donation Program. The practice within Family Donation Program highlights some contradictions between the State actions and the feminist demands, especially those concerning the motherhood problem. This is thus a core question for the dialogue between the feminism and the social policies sponsored by the State.
Johnson, Jennifer Wiggins; Thomas, Veronica; Peck, Joann
A recent trend among universities shifts from traditional MBA programs to specialized MBA offerings. Specialized programs are believed to cultivate stronger relationships with students, which lead to stronger alumni relationships and increased donations. This research tests this empirically by examining relationship perceptions and donation…
Halvaei, Iman; Khalili, Mohammad Ali; Ghasemi-Esmailabad, Saeed; Nabi, Ali; Shamsi, Farimah
Background The main goal was to evaluate the attitudes and knowledge of Zoroastrians living in Iran towards oocyte donation (OD) and embryo donation (ED) program. Methods This cross sectional study consisted of 318 Zoroastrians (n=175 for OD and n=143 for ED) of both sexes. The questionnaire form comprised two parts of general demographic characteristics of the participants and twenty multiple-choice questions about attitude and knowledge of participants towards OD and ED. For statistical analysis, the chi-square test was applied for comparison of data generated from ED and OD groups. Results Majority of the participants supported OD (69.7%) and ED (71.3%) for infertile patients. In addition, 40% and 42% preferred donation program (OD and ED, respectively), compared to adoption. About 60% of the respondents believed that the donors have no right to find the child and claim it as their own. In addition, more than half of the respondents thought that the recipients of oocyte/embryo should never know the name and address of the donors. More than half of the participants did not know whether their religion accepts donation program or not. Approximately, 80% of respondents supported psychological counseling for both donors and recipients. Moreover, about 56% of the participants necessitated the advertisement on OD/ED program in the mass media. Conclusion Our preliminary data showed that Zoroastrians supported both OD and ED program equally for infertile couples. PMID:25473631
Linyear, A S; Tartaglia, A
To improve organ donation performance, the Medical College of Virginia Hospitals implemented a comprehensive family support and communication program, consisting of a standard family communications protocol, a hospital-based team from the Department of Pastoral Care, targeted staff education, and an ongoing quality assurance measuring and monitoring system. The 3 best-demonstrated request practices, private setting, "decoupling," and collaboration in the request between the organ procurement organization and hospital staff, were incorporated into the program. Improvement in the consent and donation rate was evident in the second calendar year of the program; the consent rate was 72% and the donation rate was 50%. During the second year, there was also a positive correlation between "decoupling," appropriate requestor, and the consent rate. Implementation of a hospital-based team and a standard protocol facilitated the clarification of roles and responsibilities toward clearer and more consistent family communication and support. Data suggest that staff experience is a major contributor to a positive donation outcome.
... the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Prohibited Species Donation Program AGENCY: National Marine... individuals under the prohibited species donation (PSD) program. Salmon and halibut are caught incidentally... 29 to the BSAI and GOA FMPs, respectively, authorize a salmon donation program and were approved by...
Porzionato, Andrea; Macchi, Veronica; Stecco, Carla; Mazzi, Anna; Rambaldo, Anna; Sarasin, Gloria; Parenti, Anna; Scipioni, Antonio; De Caro, Raffaele
Quality management improvement has become a recent focus of attention in medical education. The program for the donation of bodies and body parts (Body Donation Program) at the University of Padova has recently been subjected to a global quality management standard, the ISO 9001:2008 certification. The aim of the present work is to show how the…
... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Donations from a leave bank to an emergency leave transfer program. 630.1104 Section 630.1104 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS ABSENCE AND LEAVE Emergency Leave Transfer Program § 630.1104 Donations...
organ donation program as an essential component of a comprehensive approach to the problem of the organ shortage. PMID:25013561
Homeida, Mamoun M; Malcolm, Stephen B; ElTayeb, A Z; Eversole, Rob R; Elassad, Asma S; Geary, Timothy G; Ali, Magdi M; Mackenzie, Charles D
There is concern that extraneous factors, such as food and drink, may alter the pharmacodynamics of Mectizan(®) (ivermectin) in patients receiving this important anti-parasitic drug, and thus might put such individuals in danger of serious adverse events. The effects of a common local alcohol-containing beverage and a local food on plasma levels of ivermectin were studied in Sudanese volunteers after administration of the standard dose used in mass drug administration programs for onchocerciasis and filariasis. Plasma levels of ivermectin at various time points (0-48h) after administration of ivermectin were ascertained by HPLC assay in ten volunteers given 150μgkg(-1) ivermectin together with either a local sorghum-based food ('assida'), or a locally brewed alcoholic beverage ('arangi' made from sorghum grain) or in those who were fasting. Maximum mean (±SD) plasma levels of ivermectin (67±49ngml(-1)) were reached within 2h in fasting patients, and had dropped to 26±20ngml(-1) after 30h. The coadministration of local food or alcoholic beverage did not cause an increase in ivermectin plasma levels above those observed in people who were fasting. However, at 2h after ivermectin administration, patients given alcohol had significantly lower plasma ivermectin levels than fed patients or fasting patients. There were no significant differences among treatments for AUC0-30, Cmax, or tmax, and so the coadministration of local food or alcoholic beverage did not cause any change in pharmacokinetic parameters of ivermectin in the plasma in comparison with fasting. None of the measured levels of plasma ivermectin were greater than those reported in previous studies with this compound. These findings do not support the hypothesis that acute intake of alcohol is an important factor in the development of the serious adverse reactions that can occur during the treatment of loaisis patients with ivermectin (Mectizan(®)). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Subasinghe, Sandeepani Kanchana; Jones, D Gareth
Considerable attention is being given to the availability of bodies for anatomical education. This raises the question of the manner in which they are obtained, that is, whether they are unclaimed or donated. With increasing emphasis upon the ethical desirability of using body bequests, the spotlight tends to be focused on those countries with factors that militate against donations. However, little attention has been paid to cultures where donations are readily available. One such country is Sri Lanka where the majority of the Buddhist population follows Theravada Buddhism. Within this context, the expectation is that donations will be given selflessly without expecting anything in return. This is because donation of one's body has blessings for a better outcome now and in the afterlife. The ceremonies to honor donors are outlined, including details of the "Pirith Ceremony." The relevance for other cultures of these features of body donation is discussed paying especial attention to the meaning of altruism and consent, and justification for the anonymization of cadavers. The degree to which anatomy is integrated into the surrounding culture also emerges as significant. © 2015 American Association of Anatomists.
Otubanjo, O A; Mosuro, A A; Ladipo, T F
The in vivo effects of orally administered ivermectin (Mectizan) on sperm head morphology of albino mice were evaluated. Four different dose levels of 0.25, 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 x the human therapeutic dose of 150 g kg(-1) body weight, were administered to the animals. The animals were exposed to a single oral treatment. The sperm of the mice from the cauda epididymes were examined 5 and 7 weeks after treatment. Ivermectin (Mectizan) induced sperm head abnormalities; however, the induction was not significantly elevated above the negative control value. Furthermore, the induction of the sperm head abnormalities was not strictly dose-dependent and there was also no correlation between dose level of administered drug and incidence of abnormal sperms. This indicates that the drug might not be mutagenic.
Hancock, Jennifer; Shemie, Sam D; Lotherington, Ken; Appleby, Amber; Hall, Richard
The purpose of this survey was to determine how Canadian healthcare professionals perceive their deficiencies and educational requirements related to organ and tissue donation. We surveyed 641 intensive care unit (ICU) physicians, 1,349 ICU nurses, 1,561 emergency room (ER) physicians, and 1,873 ER nurses. The survey was distributed by the national organization for each profession (the Canadian Association of Emergency Physicians, the Canadian Association of Critical Care Nurses, and the National Emergency Nurses Association). Canadian Blood Services developed the critical care physician list in collaboration with the Canadian Critical Care Society. Survey development included questions related to comfort with, and knowledge of, key competencies in organ and tissue donation. Eight hundred thirty-one (15.3%) of a possible 5,424 respondents participated in the survey. Over 50% of respondents rated the following topics as highly important: knowledge of general organ and tissue donation, neurological determination of death, donation after cardiac death, and medical-legal donation issues. High competency comfort levels ranged from 14.7-50.9% for ICU nurses and 8.0-34.6% for ER nurses. Competency comfort levels were higher for ICU physicians (67.5-85.6%) than for ER physicians who rated all competencies lower. Respondents identified a need for a curriculum on national organ donation and preferred e-learning as the method of education. Both ICU nurses and ER practitioners expressed low comfort levels with their competencies regarding organ donation. Intensive care unit physicians had a much higher level of comfort; however, the majority of these respondents were specialty trained and working in academic centres with active donation and transplant programs. A national organ donation curriculum is needed.
Antoine, C; Mourey, F; Prada-Bordenave, E
On the basis of the literature and results presented at the 6th International Conference, donation after cardio-circulatory death provides a significant, practical, additional high quality source of transplantable organs. The vast majority of DCD are 'controlled' Maastricht category III donors. In 2010, the parliamentary information mission on the revision of the bioethics laws invited the Intensive Care Societies to debate and to make recommendations to implement controlled donation after circulatory death. They came to the conclusion that such retrieval is possible in France and insisted on the medical criteria that frame it: the writing of the medical procedures, the ethical aspects and the delay. The major recommendations of the ethics committees were firstly, The WLST decision is independent of the possibility of organ donation; secondly, the strict respect of "The dead donor and organ transplantation rule" and the updated national guidance for the WLST; thirdly, the drafting of a nationally agreed protocol defining the mandatory conditions to determine death and to perform procurement and transplantation. Organ donation after WLST will be authorised only in pilot centres with a locally agreed WLST policy including external second opinion and written transcript of the WLST decision, experienced intensive care staff, a local organ procurement coordination team familiar with DBD and DCD protocols and only in hospitals authorised for organ procurement. It is important to have an optimal and standardized national guidance to limit the known risk factors of graft failure (donor and recipient choice, warm and cold ischemia time), to increase acceptance by medical community and civil society and to improve results and allow more powerful analysis. Copyright © 2013 Société française d’anesthésie et de réanimation (Sfar). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.
Cole, Edward H; Nickerson, Peter; Campbell, Patricia; Yetzer, Kathy; Lahaie, Nick; Zaltzman, Jeffery; Gill, John S
Establishment of a national kidney paired donation (KPD) program represents a unique achievement in Canada's provincially organized health care system. Key factors enabling program implementation included consultation with international experts, formation of a unique organization with a mandate to facilitate interprovincial collaboration, and the volunteer efforts of members of the Canadian transplant community to overcome a variety of logistical barriers. As of December 2013, the program had facilitated 240 transplantations including 10% with Calculated panel reactive antibody (cPRA) ≥97%. Unique features of the Canadian KPD program include participation of n = 55 nondirected donors, performance of only donor specific antibody negative transplants, the requirement for donor travel, and nonuse of bridge donors. The national KPD program has helped maintain the volume of living kidney donor transplants in Canada over the past 5 years and serves as a model of inter-provincial collaboration to improve the delivery of health care to Canadians.
Hodgson, R; Young, A L; Attia, M A; Lodge, J P A
Organ transplantation is the most successful treatment for some forms of organ failure, yet a lack of organs means many die on the waiting list. In the United Kingdom, the Organ Donation Taskforce was set up to identify barriers to organ donation and in 2008 released its first report (Organ Donation Taskforce Report; ODTR). This study assesses the success since the ODTR and examines the impact of the United Kingdom's controlled donation after circulatory death (DCD) program and the controversies surrounding it. There were 12 864 intended donation after brain death (DBD) or DCD donors from April 2004 to March 2014. When the 5 years preceding the ODTR was compared to the 5 years following, intended DCD donors increased 292% (1187 to 4652), and intended DBD donors increased 11% (3327 to 3698). Organs retrieved per intended DBD donor remained static (3.30 to 3.26), whereas there was a decrease in DCD (1.54 to 0.99) due to a large rise in donors who did not proceed to donation (325 to 2464). The majority of DCD donors who proceeded did so within 30 min from time of withdrawal. Our study suggests further work on converting eligible referrals to organ donation and exploring methods of converting DCD to DBD donors. © 2017 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.
Yates, Brian T; Mannix, Danyelle; Freed, Michael C; Campbell, Jean; Johnsen, Matthew; Jones, Kristine; Blyler, Crystal R
Examine cost differences between Consumer Operated Service Programs (COSPs) as possibly determined by a) size of program, b) use of volunteers and other donated resources, c) cost-of-living differences between program locales, d) COSP model applied, and e) delivery system used to implement the COSP model. As part of a larger evaluation of COSP, data on operating costs, enrollments, and mobilization of donated resources were collected for eight programs representing three COSP models (drop-in centers, mutual support, and education/advocacy training). Because the 8 programs were operated in geographically diverse areas of the US, costs were examined with and without adjustment for differences in local cost of living. Because some COSPs use volunteers and other donated resources, costs were measured with and without these resources being monetized. Scale of operation also was considered as a mediating variable for differences in program costs. Cost per visit, cost per consumer per quarter, and total program cost were calculated separately for funds spent and for resources donated for each COSP. Differences between COSPs in cost per consumer and cost per visit seem better explained by economies of scale and delivery system used than by cost-of-living differences between program locations or COSP model. Given others' findings that different COSP models produce little variation in service effectiveness, minimize service costs by maximizing scale of operation while using a delivery system that allows staff and facilities resources to be increased or decreased quickly to match number of consumers seeking services.
Ross, Lainie Friedman; Rodrigue, James R; Veatch, Robert M
The advanced donation program was proposed in 2014 to allow an individual to donate a kidney in order to provide a voucher for a kidney in the future for a particular loved one. In this article, we explore the logistical and ethical issues that such a program raises. We argue that such a program is ethical in principle but there are many logistical issues that need to be addressed to ensure that the actual program is fair to both those who do and do not participate in this program. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press, on behalf of the Journal of Medicine and Philosophy Inc. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: email@example.com.
Full Text Available Background: Oocyte donation is an invaluable therapy for couples with impending or complete ovarian failure. In addition, oocyte donation affords a scientific opportunity to study the unique biologic participation of the uterus in the process of human embryo implantation. Aim: To identify the recipient variables that may have a significant impact on pregnancy outcome in order to optimize results of an oocyte donation program. Design and Settings: A prospective study conducted from March 1, 2010 to March 31, 2011 at a private tertiary care IVF Clinic. Materials and methods A total of 270 recipients resulting in embryo transfer as a result of oocyte donation were enrolled. Clinical and Ongoing pregnancy rates, Implantation rates were calculated according to different age groups, Endometrial thickness, Indication, Day and number of embryos transferred. Data was evaluated as chi square analyses with comparative significance determined at P 8 mm is considered ideal before transfer. Transfer of two selected embryos on day 3 yields a favorable pregnancy outcome with reduced multiple pregnancy rates. Recipient′s age above 45 years has negative impact on pregnancy outcome whereas embryo transfers on Day 3 yields better pregnancy
... Program, at a minimum, must head, gut, and freeze the fish in a manner that makes it fit for human... networks, or food bank distributors and that the fish will be maintained in a manner fit for human... distributed for human consumption. (ix) Quality control criteria to be followed by vessels, processors, hunger...
Although the possibilities for the treatment of infertility have been improved tremendously, not every couple will be treated successfully. Crude overall pregnancy rates of 50-65% per patient can be achieved nowadays, irrespective of the type of profertility treatment applied first. IVF only accounts for about 20% of the pregnancies achieved. Dropout is an important reason for not reaching the estimated pregnancy rate. Even after failed IVF, spontaneous pregnancies do occur. Sperm and oocyte donation (OD) offer additional chances to subfertile couples. Severity of the male factor (in sperm donation) and young donor age (in OD) are important determinants of success. Analysis of assisted reproduction technology outcomes would benefit from more universally accepted definitions and deserves better statistical analysis. Long-term cumulative live birth rates of 80% may be expected if dropout can be limited. Milder stimulation, a patient-friendlier approach and better counseling may help to keep more patients in the program.
Reubsaet, A.; Reinaerts, E. B. M.; Brug, J.; van Hooff, J. P.; van den Borne, H. W.
This paper describes the process evaluation of an organ donation education program for high school students aged 15-18 years of which the effectiveness was established. The program consisted of three components: a video with group discussion, an interactive computer-tailored program and a registration training session. A cross-sectional survey was…
Reville, P; Zhao, C; Perez, T; Nowacki, A S; Phillips, D; Bowen, G; Starling, N; Pflaum, B; Strickland, R; Fung, J; Askar, M
The global organ shortage is the strongest factor for the increase in transplant wait time and deaths on waitlists. Here we describe a model for involving high school students in education research around organ donation and transplantation and capitalize on the strength of a pre-existing educational program offered by the local organ procurement organization (OPO). While training in education research at Cleveland Clinic, a high school student embarked on a collaborative project with the local OPO. The project involved evaluating three educational programs, selecting the most appropriate program for administration at her school, coordinating with the student's school administration and teachers, administering an assessment tool for the effectiveness of the program, and analyzing the results. The local OPO program that was selected for implementation consisted of a video presentation entitled "Share your life, share your decision" prepared by the United States Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA), lectures by invited speakers and an educational assessment (pre- and post-education). The assessment survey included 3 multiple choice and 7 true/false questions. Compared to the over 2500 programs administered in the last 5 years by the local OPO, this program had a higher volume of participation (n = 353 compared to an average of 150 students/day). Students correctly classified transplantation status of more organ and tissues post-education (P education (P ≤ .002 for all). This experience included for the first time a formal assessment of the program which will be utilized to address targeted areas for specific improvements. This student collaborative model of involving students in organ donation and transplantation related education research has the potential to promote and maximize the effectiveness of educational programs targeting their peers. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Li, Yijiang; Song, Peter X-K; Zhou, Yan; Leichtman, Alan B; Rees, Michael A; Kalbfleisch, John D
The traditional concept of barter exchange in economics has been extended in the modern era to the area of living-donor kidney transplantation, where one incompatible donor-candidate pair is matched to another pair with a complementary incompatibility, such that the donor from one pair gives an organ to a compatible candidate in the other pair and vice versa. Kidney paired donation (KPD) programs provide a unique and important platform for living incompatible donor-candidate pairs to exchange organs in order to achieve mutual benefit. In this paper, we propose novel organ allocation strategies to arrange kidney exchanges under uncertainties with advantages, including (i) allowance for a general utility-based evaluation of potential kidney transplants and an explicit consideration of stochastic features inherent in a KPD program; and (ii) exploitation of possible alternative exchanges when the originally planned allocation cannot be fully executed. This allocation strategy is implemented using an integer programming (IP) formulation, and its implication is assessed via a data-based simulation system by tracking an evolving KPD program over a series of match runs. Extensive simulation studies are provided to illustrate our proposed approach.
Lindemann, Jessica; Dageforde, Leigh Anne; Vachharajani, Neeta; Stahlschmidt, Emily; Brockmeier, Diane; Wellen, Jason R; Khan, Adeel; Chapman, William C; Doyle, Mb Majella
Donation after cardiac death (DCD) is one method of organ donation. Nationally, more than half of evaluated DCD donors do not yield transplantable organs. There is no algorithm for predicting which DCD donors will be appropriate for organ procurement. Donation after cardiac death program costs from an organ procurement organization (OPO) accounting for all evaluated donors have not been reported. Hospital, transportation, and supply costs of potential DCD donors evaluated at a single OPO from January 2009 to June 2016 were collected. Mean costs per donor and per organ were calculated. Cost of DCD donors that did not yield a transplantable organ were included in cost analyses resulting in total cost of the DCD program. Donation after cardiac death donor costs were compared with costs of in-hospital donation after brain death (DBD) donors. There were 289 organs transplanted from 264 DCD donors evaluated. Mean cost per DCD donor yielding transplantable organs was $9,306. However, 127 donors yielded no organs, at a mean cost of $8,794 per donor. The total cost of the DCD program was $32,020 per donor and $15,179 per organ. Mean cost for an in-hospital DBD donor was $33,546 and $9,478 per organ transplanted. Mean organ yield for DBD donors was 3.54 vs 2.21 for DCD donors (p organ 63% of the cost of a DCD organ. Mean cost per DCD donor is comparable with DBD donors, however, individual cost of DCD organs increases by almost 40% when all costs of an entire DCD program are included. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Zhang, Luqing; Xiao, Ming; Gu, Mufeng; Zhang, Yongjie; Jin, Jianliang; Ding, Jiong
The use of human tissue is critical for gross anatomy education in the health professions. Chinese medical colleges have faced a shortage of anatomical specimens over the past decade. While body donation plays an important role in overcoming this gap, this practice has only recently been introduced in China, and the donation rate is relatively low…
Full Text Available Background/Aim. Given that in each country students represent the most progressive population group, as of 2001, the Blood Transfusion Institute of Serbia (BTIS has been carrying the program of voluntary blood donation promotion and education of volunteers at the University of Belgrade (UB. In 2011, the BTIS intensified all activities at the UB. The aim of this study was to present activities performed from 2001 at the Blood Donors` Motivation Department (DMD of the BTIS related with increasing the level of awareness on voluntary blood donation in the Belgrade students` population, enhancing their motivation to become voluntary blood donors (VBDs, increasing the number of blood donations at faculties of the UB, and increasing the number of blood donations in the UB students population compared with the total number of blood units collected by BTIS in Belgrade, with the emphasis on the year 2013. Methods. Initially, the applied methodology was based on encouraging students to donate blood through discussions and preparatory lectures, followed by organized blood drives. Appropriate selection of volunteers at each faculty was crucial. Besides their recognisable identity, they had to have remarkable communication skills and ability to positivly affect persons in their environment. The applied principle was based on retention of volunteers all through the final academic year, with the inclusion of new volunteers each year and 1,000 preparatory lectures on the annual basis. The activities were realized using two Facebook profiles, SMS messages and continuous notification of the public through the media. Results. There was an increase in the average number of students in blood drives at the faculties from 2011, when the average number of the students per blood drive was 39, followed by 43 in 2012 and 46 in 2013. The number of students who donated blood in 2013 increased by 21.3% compared with 2012 data. Conclusion. The applied concept highly
Organ donation takes healthy organs and tissues from one person for transplantation into another. Experts say that the organs ... and bone marrow Cornea Most organ and tissue donations occur after the donor has died. But some ...
... During your donation you can relax, watch a movie, listen to music…in a few hours you’ ... requirements may become eligible to donate platelets. Please review our eligibility requirements as some states require parental ...
A blood donation is organised by the Cantonal Hospital of Geneva On Thursday 19 March 2009 from 9 a.m. to 5 p.m. CERN RESTAURANT 2 Number of donations during the last blood donations :135 donors in July 2008 122 donors in November 2008 Let’s do better in 2009 !!! Give 30 minutes of your time to save lives...
... The medical history includes questions that help blood bank staff decide if a person is healthy enough to donate blood. They'll ... Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulates U.S. blood banks. All blood ... operating. Sometimes people who donate blood notice a few minor side ...
... time’ to unwind from the daily stresses of life while helping save lives. What are the benefits to donating platelets? Knowing you’re helping cancer ... of your arm. That pinch is similar to what you will feel when the needle is ... compared to a traditional whole blood donation so some donors find it to ...
Bajor, Grzegorz; Likus, Wirginia; Kuszewski, Piotr; Kostro, Karol; Łoś, Andrzej; Kłakus, Piotr
The Conscious Body Donation Program conducted since 2003 by the Department of Human Anatomy, Medical University of Silesia in Katowice was the first innovative project aimed at obtaining informed donors' bodies for the purpose of teaching anatomy in Poland. The aim of this prospective study was to determine the declared donors' characteristics and to establish the possible motivation for body donation. A total of 244 application files were reviewed and the following information was analyzed: donor's age, age at which the decision to donate the body was made, donor's place of residence and declared nationality, family background, education and profession, family structure and religion. Our results showed that mainly elderly people decided to donate their bodies (68.5 ± 11.84 years), living mostly in large and medium-sized cities. Men--donors often lived in small towns. Most of the donors were of blue-collar parentage, completed secondary education and at the time of taking decision to donate where married and retired. Widows were more likely to make the decision to donate than widowers. Most of our donors were Catholic. Our analysis of the profile of Polish donors may be useful to understand better for which groups of people death is not to be perceived as the end, and may become a value, which can be beneficial to living people.
Full Text Available The Conscious Body Donation Program conducted since 2003 by the Department of Human Anatomy, Medical University of Silesia in Katowice was the first innovative project aimed at obtaining informed donors' bodies for the purpose of teaching anatomy in Poland. The aim of this prospective study was to determine the declared donors' characteristics and to establish the possible motivation for body donation. A total of 244 application files were reviewed and the following information was analyzed: donor's age, age at which the decision to donate the body was made, donor's place of residence and declared nationality, family background, education and profession, family structure and religion. Our results showed that mainly elderly people decided to donate their bodies (68.5 ± 11.84 years, living mostly in large and medium-sized cities. Men--donors often lived in small towns. Most of the donors were of blue-collar parentage, completed secondary education and at the time of taking decision to donate where married and retired. Widows were more likely to make the decision to donate than widowers. Most of our donors were Catholic. Our analysis of the profile of Polish donors may be useful to understand better for which groups of people death is not to be perceived as the end, and may become a value, which can be beneficial to living people.
Owusu-Ofori, S; Asenso-Mensah, K; Boateng, P; Sarkodie, F; Allain, J-P
Most African countries are challenged in recruiting and retaining voluntary blood donors by cost and other complexities and in establishing and implementing national blood policies. The availability of replacement donors who are a cheaper source of blood has not enhanced repeat voluntary donor initiatives. An overview of activities for recruiting and retaining voluntary blood donors was carried out. Donor records from mobile sessions were reviewed from 2002 to 2008. A total of 71,701 blood donations; 45,515 (63.5%) being voluntary donations with 11,680 (25%) repeat donations were collected during the study period. Donations from schools and colleges contributed a steady 60% of total voluntary whilst radio station blood drives increased contribution from 10 to 27%. Though Muslim population is less than 20%, blood collection was above the 30-donation cost-effectiveness threshold with a repeat donation trend reaching 60%. In contrast Christian worshippers provided donations. Repeat donation trends amongst school donors and radio blood drives were 20% and 70% respectively. Repeat donations rates have been variable amongst different blood donor groups in Kumasi, Ghana. The impact of community leaders in propagating altruism cannot be overemphasized. Programs aiming at motivating replacement donors to be repeat donors should be developed and assessed. Copyright 2009 The International Association for Biologicals. All rights reserved.
... Red Cell Plasma Platelets Red Cells What blood donation type is best for me? **If you do ... type, a whole blood donation is recommended** Blood Donation Types: Volunteer Donations The standard or most common ...
A blood donation, organized by EFS (Etablissement Français du Sang) of Annemasse will take place On Wednesday 12 November 2008, from 8:30 to 16:00, at CERN Restaurant 2 If possible, please, bring your blood group Card.
Kovács, D Á; Mihály, S; Rajczy, K; Zsom, L; Zádori, G; Fedor, R; Eszter, K; Enikő, B; Asztalos, L; Nemes, B
Organ transplantation has become an organized, routine, widely used method in the treatment of several end-stage diseases. Kidney transplantation means the best life-quality and longest life expectancy for patients with end-stage renal diseases. Transplantation is the only available long-term medical treatment for patients with end-stage liver, heart, and lung diseases. Despite the number of transplantations increasing worldwide, the needs of the waiting lists remain below expectations. One of the few methods to increase the number of transplantations is public education. In cooperation with the University of Debrecen Institute for Surgery Department of Transplantation, the Hungarian National Blood Transfusion Service Organ Coordination Office, and the Local Committee Debrecen of Hungarian Medical Students' International Relations Committee (HuMSIRC), the Gerundium, a new educational program, has been established to serve this target. Gerundium is a special program designed especially for youth education. Peer education means that age-related medical student volunteers educate their peers during interactive unofficial sessions. Volunteers were trained during specially designed training. Medical students were honored by HuMSIRC, depending on their activity on the basis of their own regulations. Uniform slides and brochures to share were designed. Every Hungarian secondary school was informed. The Local Committee Budapest of HuMSIRC also joined the program, which helps to expand our activity throughout Hungary. The aim of the program is public education to help disperse disapproval, if presented. As a multiple effect, our program promotes medical students to have better skills in the field of transplantation, presentation, and communication skills. Our program is a voluntary program with strong professional support and is free of charge for the community. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
de Lange, Geertje M; Rademaker, Marleen; Boks, Marco P; Palmen, Saskia J M C
Human brain tissue is crucial to study the molecular and cellular basis of psychiatric disorders. However, the current availability of human brain tissue is inadequate. Therefore, the Netherlands Brain Bank initiated a program in which almost 4.000 participants of 15 large Dutch psychiatric research cohorts were asked to register as prospective brain donors. We approached patients with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, major depressive disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder, families with a child with autism or Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, healthy relatives and healthy unrelated controls, either face-to-face or by post. We investigated whether diagnosis, method of approach, age, and gender were related to the likelihood of brain-donor registration. We found a striking difference in registration efficiency between the diagnosis groups. Patients with bipolar disorder and healthy relatives registered most often (25% respectively 17%), followed by unrelated controls (8%) and patients with major depressive disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder, and obsessive-compulsive disorder (9%, 6% resp. 5%). A face-to-face approach was 1.3 times more effective than a postal approach and the likelihood of registering as brain donor significantly increased with age. Gender did not make a difference. Between 2013 and 2016, our prospective brain-donor program for psychiatry resulted in an almost eightfold increase (from 149 to 1149) in the number of registered psychiatric patients at the Netherlands Brain Bank. Based on our results we recommend, when starting a prospective brain donor program in psychiatric patients, to focus on face to face recruitment of people in their sixties or older.
... available for donation screening? 102-37.45 Section 102-37.45 Public Contracts and Property Management... 37-DONATION OF SURPLUS PERSONAL PROPERTY General Provisions Donation Overview § 102-37.45 How long is property available for donation screening? Entities authorized to participate in the donation program may...
Marchon-Silva, Verônica; Caër, Julien Charles; Post, Rory James; Maia-Herzog, Marilza; Fernandes, Octavio
Detection of Onchocerca volvulus in Simulium populations is of primary importance in the assessment of the effectiveness of onchocerciasis control programs. In Brazil, the main focus of onchocerciasis is in the Amazon region, in a Yanomami reserve. The main onchocerciasis control strategy in Brazil is the semi-annually mass distribution of the microfilaricide ivermectin. In accordance with the control strategy for the disease, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was applied in pools of simuliids from the area to detect the helminth infection in the vectors, as recommended by the Onchocerciasis Elimination Program for the Americas and the World Health Organization. Systematic sampling was performed monthly from September 1998 to October 1999, and a total of 4942 blackflies were collected from two sites (2576 from Balawaú and 2366 from Toototobi). The molecular methodology was found to be highly sensitive and specific for the detection of infected and/or infective blackflies in pools of 50 blackflies. The results from the material collected under field conditions showed that after the sixth cycle of distribution of ivermectin, the prevalence of infected blackflies with O. volvulus had decreased from 8.6 to 0.3% in Balawaú and from 4 to 0.1% in Toototobi.
... reporting or recordkeeping provisions that are subject to Office of Management and Budget review in.... This notice was reviewed by the Office of Management and Budget under Executive Order 12866. National.... SUMMARY: This notice announces the national average value of donated foods or, where applicable, cash in...
... reporting or recordkeeping provisions that are subject to Office of Management and Budget review in.... This notice was reviewed by the Office of Management and Budget under Executive Order 12866. National.... SUMMARY: This notice announces the national average value of donated foods or, where applicable, cash in...
... reporting or recordkeeping provisions that are subject to Office of Management and Budget review in.... This notice was reviewed by the Office of Management and Budget under Executive Order 12866. National.... SUMMARY: This notice announces the national average value of donated foods or, where applicable, cash in...
... that are subject to Office of Management and Budget review in accordance with the Paperwork Reduction... the Office of Management and Budget under Executive Order 12866. National Average Minimum Value of.... SUMMARY: This notice announces the national average value of donated foods or, where applicable, cash in...
... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Donations. 24.108 Section 24.108 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation UNIFORM RELOCATION ASSISTANCE AND REAL PROPERTY ACQUISITION FOR FEDERAL AND FEDERALLY-ASSISTED PROGRAMS Real Property Acquisition § 24.108 Donations. An owner whose real...
... Print this page My Cart Donating peripheral blood stem cells Peripheral blood stem cell (PBSC) donation is a nonsurgical procedure to collect ... Donating bone marrow Donor experiences videos Peripheral blood stem cell (PBSC) donation is one of two methods of ...
Medical and technical developments increase the difficulty to provide sufficient safe blood for all patients in developed countries and their sociodemographic and societal changes. Sufficient national blood supply remains a reached, however still actual, challenge. Tomorrow is prepared today: the management of blood donation programs both in line with these developments and with social marketing strategies is one of the keys to success. If the main components of this organization are well known (mobile blood drives in various appropriate environments, and permanent blood donation centers) their proportions in the whole process must evolve and their contents require adaptations, especially for whole blood donation in urban areas. We have to focus on the people's way of life changes related to increasing urbanization of the society and prominent position taken by very large cities. This requires targeting several goals: to draw the attention of the potential blood-giving candidate, to get into position to collect him when he will decide it, to give meaning and recognition to his "sacrifice" (give time rather than donate blood) and to give him desire and opportunity to come back and donate one more time. In this strategy, permanent blood centers in urban areas have significant potential for whole blood collection, highlighted by the decrease of apheresis technology requirements. This potential requires profound changes in their location, conception and organization. The concept of Maison Du Don (MDD) reflects these changes. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier SAS.
... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000367.htm Blood donation before surgery To use the sharing features on ... team. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Blood Transfusion and Donation Surgery Browse the Encyclopedia A.D.A.M., ...
... Blood Products Special Blood Donation Procedures Precautions and Adverse Reactions During Blood Transfusion (See Overview of Blood Transfusion .) Plateletpheresis (platelet donation) In plateletpheresis, a donor gives only platelets rather than whole blood. Whole ...
Mercado-Martínez, Francisco J; Díaz-Medina, Blanca A; Hernández-Ibarra, Eduardo
Donation coordinators play an important role in the success or failure of organ donation and transplant programs. Nevertheless, these professionals' perspectives and practices have hardly been explored, particularly in low- and middle-income countries. To examine donation coordinators' discourse on the organ donation process and the barriers they perceive. A critical qualitative study was carried out in Guadalajara, Mexico. Twelve donation coordinators from public and private hospitals participated. DATA GATHERING AND ANALYSIS: Data were gathered by using semistructured interviews and critical discourse analysis. Participants indicated that partial results have been achieved in deceased organ donation. Concomitantly, multiple obstacles have adversely affected the process and outcomes: at the structural level, the fragmentation of the health system and the scarcity of financial and material resources; at the relational level, nonegalitarian relationships between coordinators and hospital personnel; at the ideational level, the transplant domain and its specialists overshadow the donation domain and its coordinators. Negative images are associated with donation coordinators. Organ donation faces structural, relational, and ideational barriers; hence, complex interventions should be undertaken. Donation coordinators also should be recognized by the health system.
... safely and comfortably returns your plasma and platelets to you. With just a little extra time at your appointment, you can donate more red ... you. AB Elite maximizes your donation and takes just a few minutes longer than donating ... stop bleeding. Time it takes: About 1 hour and 15 minutes ...
... returns your plasma and platelets to you. With just a little extra time at your appointment, you can donate more red ... you. AB Elite maximizes your donation and takes just a few minutes longer than donating ... stop bleeding. Time it takes: About 1 hour and 15 minutes ...
Aijing, Luo; Wenzhao, Xie; Wei, Wei; Qiquan, Wan; Xuantong, Deng
BACKGROUND China officially launched a pilot program of organ donation after cardiac death to overcome the shortage of available organs since 2011. Voluntary organ donation by deceased citizens became the only source of transplant organs beginning January 1, 2015. To investigate public opinions on organ donation by deceased donors, and discuss the effect of these opinions on the willingness and attitude of the public regarding voluntary organ donation. MATERIAL AND METHODS We designed a questionnaire. The survey was conducted from December 2014 to January 2015 in Changsha City, and 417 valid questionnaires were recovered. RESULTS A total of 162 respondents explicitly expressed a willingness to donate organs, and 269 believed that the organ donors' relatives should be compensated. A total of 255 respondents thought it acceptable to complete the donation-consent form when receiving a driver's license. Among the respondents, 65.3% did not agree with the statement "My body is bestowed by my parents, and to donate my body parts would not display filial respect"; 88.9% agreed that "It is necessary to consider the willingness of my family"; 74.4% agreed that "Donated organs have not been fairly and appropriately used; the wealthy and celebrities have been favored"; and 61.4% agreed that "Organ donation laws and regulations are not well developed, and organ donations will result in unnecessary difficulties." More than 80% believed that organ donation and transplantation extend life. CONCLUSIONS Public opinions on organ donation after death are associated with various factors, including traditional values, religious beliefs, compensation mechanisms, donor registration, institutional credibility, and ideals.
Full Text Available Aims • To explore organ donation and transplantation knowledge and attitudes among medical students at the University of Auckland. • To understand students' perception of the extent of training received prior to and during the medical program. Method A validated web-based questionnaire consisting of 42 questions in five categories was anonymously administered to all enrolled medical students at the Faculty of Medical and Health Sciences, University of Auckland, in September 2012. Results In all, 419 out of 989 (42% Year 2–6 students responded. A total of 99.3% of medical students supported organ donation, but knowledge was limited (mean score 7.54/15±2.26. A total of 38% of students reported having participated in organ donation learning. A total of 96% of students believed that organ donation information should be available in primary care settings. A total of 69% of students reported that if a patient asked a question about organ donation that they did not know the answer to, they also would not know where to source the correct information from. Conclusion This study demonstrates that although medical students support organ donation, they lack the knowledge required to facilitate informative discussions with patients. Enhanced organ donation education in medical programs may enable students to develop skills and knowledge allowing them to better discuss donation with patients.
... for a stem cell transplant. Risks Bone marrow donation The most serious risk associated with donating bone ... you feel fully recovered. Peripheral blood stem cell donation The risks of this type of stem cell ...
Hoad, Veronica; Bentley, Peter; Bell, Barbara; Pathak, Praveen; Chan, Hiu Tat; Keller, Anthony
It has been suggested that blood donors with hereditary hemochromatosis may pose an increased infectious disease risk and adversely affect recipient outcomes. This study compares the infectious disease risk of whole blood (WB) donors enrolled as therapeutic (T) donors to voluntary WB donors to evaluate the safety of blood products provided by the T donors. This was a retrospective cohort study of all WB donations at the Australian Red Cross Blood Service who donated between January 1, 2011, and December 31, 2013, comparing a yearly mean of 11,789 T donors with 107,773 total donations and a yearly mean of 468,889 voluntary WB donors with 2,584,705 total donations. We compared postdonation notification of infectious illnesses, bacterial contamination screening results, and positive tests for blood borne viruses in T and WB donors. Rates of transfusion-transmissible infections in donations destined for component manufacture were significantly lower in therapeutic donations compared to voluntary donations (8.4 vs. 21.6 per 100,000 donations). Bacterial contamination (43.0 vs. 45.9 per 100,000 donations) and postdonation illness reporting (136.2 vs. 110.8 per 100,000 donations) were similar in both cohorts. The Australian therapeutic venisection program enables T donors to provide a safe and acceptable source of donated WB that has a low infectious disease risk profile. © 2016 AABB.
... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Donation of commodities. 226.5 Section 226.5 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS CHILD AND ADULT CARE FOOD PROGRAM Assistance to States § 226.5 Donation...
Sieverdes, John C; Price, Matthew; Ruggiero, Kenneth J; Baliga, Prabhakar K; Chavin, Kenneth D; Brunner-Jackson, Brenda; Patel, Sachin; Treiber, Frank A
To describe the rationale, methodology, design, and interventional approach of a mobile health education program designed for African Americans with end stage renal disease (ESRD) to increase knowledge and self-efficacy to approach others about their need for a living donor kidney transplant (LDKT). The Living Organ Video Educated Donors (LOVED) program is a theory-guided iterative designed, mixed methods study incorporating three phases: 1) a formative evaluation using focus groups to develop program content and approach; 2) a 2-month proof of concept trial (n=27) to primarily investigate acceptability, tolerability and investigate increases of LDKT knowledge and self-efficacy; and 3) a 6-month, 2-arm, 60-person feasibility randomized control trial (RCT) to primarily investigate increases in LDKT knowledge and self-efficacy, and secondarily, to increase the number of living donor inquiries, medical evaluations, and LDKTs. The 8-week LOVED program includes an interactive web-based app delivered on 10″ tablet computer incorporating weekly interactive video education modules, weekly group video chat sessions with an African American navigator who has had LDKT and other group interactions for support and improve strategies to promote their need for a kidney. Phase 1 and 2 have been completed and the program is currently enrolling for the feasibility RCT. Phase 2 experienced 100% retention rates with 91% adherence completing the video modules and 88% minimum adherence to the video chat sessions. We are in the early stages of an RCT to evaluate the LOVED program; to date, we have found high tolerability reported from Phase 2. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Liang, H.; Renneboog, Luc
Do corporate donations enhance shareholder wealth or reflect agency problems? We address this question for a global sample of firms whereby we distinguish between charitable and political donations, as well as between donations in cash and in kind. We find that charitable donations are positively
Full Text Available The link between serotonin (5-HT and one of the most important elements of prosocial behavior, charity, has remained largely uninvestigated. In the present study, we tested whether charitable donating can be promoted by administering the food supplement L-Tryptophan (TRP, the biochemical precursor of 5-HT. Participants were compared with respect to the amount of money they donated when given the opportunity to make a charitable donation. As expected, compared to a neutral placebo, TRP appears to increase the participants’ willingness to donate money to a charity. This result supports the idea that the food we eat may act as a cognitive enhancer modulating the way we think and perceive the world and others.
... Drive Biomedical Services Hospital Partners Blood Products Blood Banking Resources Order Blood Products Invoice Central Case Reports ... Speed up your donation by completing a RapidPass® online or on the Blood Donor app on the ...
Full Text Available The paper discusses public opinion on post-mortem organ donation, especially the difference between high support of public opinion to transplant activity, its general readiness to donate organs and the low number of signed organ donor cards. Through different approaches the article tries to point out possible factors relevant to the decision to donate organs. Early studies showed demographic variables and information as significant factors when deciding to donate organs after death. As there was not enough evidence that long-term effect through these factors is significant, the need for new investigation has grown. Social cognition theories helped understanding the difference mentioned above. It seems that the use of this approach might contribute to the understanding the problem and to delimit most useful factors when working with public.
Weiss, Julius; Elmer, Andreas; Mahíllo, Beatriz; Domínguez-Gil, Beatriz; Avsec, Danica; Costa, Alessandro Nanni; Haase-Kromwijk, Bernadette J J M; Laouabdia, Karim; Immer, Franz F
The donation rate (DR) per million population is not ideal for an efficiency comparison of national deceased organ donation programs. The DR does not account for variabilities in the potential for deceased donation which mainly depends on fatalities from causes leading to brain death. In this study, the donation activity was put into relation to the mortality from selected causes. Based on that metric, this study assesses the efficiency of different donation programs. This is a retrospective analysis of 2001-2015 deceased organ donation and mortality registry data. Included are 27 Council of Europe countries, as well as the USA. A donor conversion index (DCI) was calculated for assessing donation program efficiency over time and in international comparisons. According to the DCI and of the countries included in the study, Spain, France, and the USA had the most efficient donation programs in 2015. Even though mortality from the selected causes decreased in most countries during the study period, differences in international comparisons persist. This indicates that the potential for deceased organ donation and its conversion into actual donation is far from being similar internationally. Compared with the DR, the DCI takes into account the potential for deceased organ donation, and therefore is a more accurate metric of performance. National donation programs could optimize performance by identifying the areas where most potential is lost, and by implementing measures to tackle these issues.
knowledge, and unfavorable attitude to donation. Educational programs are necessary to increase the level of knowledge and improve the attitude of the Saudi public toward blood donation. Providing mobile blood collection units nearer to individuals' places of work to reduce their time costs of donating is a necessity. Keywords: knowledge, attitude, practice, blood donation, significant predictors, Saudi Arabia
... Support Reimbursement of Travel and Subsistence Expenses Toward Living Organ Donation Program AGENCY... of making living donations of their organs. For example, if the community thinks lost wages and... donation of the organ.'' 42 U.S.C. 274e(c)(2). As the Secretary considers rulemaking, she will consider...
Jones, D Gareth; Nie, Jing-Bao
Confucianism has been widely perceived as a major moral and cultural obstacle to the donation of bodies for anatomical purposes. The rationale for this is the Confucian stress on xiao (filial piety), whereby individuals' bodies are to be intact at death. In the view of many, the result is a prohibition on the donation of bodies to anatomy departments for the purpose of dissection. The role of dissection throughout the development of anatomy within a Confucian context is traced, and in contemporary China the establishment of donation programs and the appearance of memorial monuments is noted. In reassessing Confucian attitudes, the stress laid on a particular interpretation of filial piety is questioned, and an attempt is made to balance this with the Confucian emphasis on a moral duty to those outside one's immediate family. The authors argue that the fundamental Confucian norm ren (humaneness or benevolence) allows for body donation as people have a moral duty to help others. Moreover, the other central Confucian value, li (rites), offers important insights on how body donation should be performed as a communal activity, particularly the necessity of developing ethically and culturally appropriate rituals for body donation. In seeking to learn from this from a Western perspective, it is contended that in all societies the voluntary donation of bodies is a deeply human activity that is to reflect the characteristics of the community within which it takes place. This is in large part because it has educational and personal repercussions for students. Anat Sci Educ. © 2018 American Association of Anatomists. © 2018 American Association of Anatomists.
Rigourd, V; Meyer, V; Kieffer, F; Aubry, S; Magny, J-F
In France, the screening for human T-cell leukemia/ lymphoma virus type 1 and 2 (HTLV-1 and HTLV-2) during the donation of human milk has been carried out from 1992 with the application of the circular DGS 24 November 1992. The screening for antibodies against these viruses is regulated and done systematically during every donation of milk. Breast feeding being the main mode of transmission of the HTLV-1, the last ministerial decree of 25 August 2010 has made the screening test compulsory for the anonymous donation and for the personalized donation (of a mother for her own child) from all women including those affected by the infection. The milk delivered by milk banks is pasteurized (62.5 °C for 30 minutes) before freezing at -18 °C, which inactivates the pathogens. This double means of prevention of the transmission of the HTLV-1 paradoxically seems disproportionate in the absence of any precautionary measure in the case of direct breast-feeding and the use of mother's raw milk. Indeed, in most neonatal intensive care units in maternity hospitals, unpasteurized milk is administered to the neonates without any systematic preliminary testing of the serological HTLV-1 status of the mother. An increased sensitization of the community of the obstetricians, midwives and neonatologists by the Association of the Milk Banks of France (ADLF) and the Société de pathologie exotique could address the issue of screening for HTLV-1 in "donated" milk and breast-feeding.
Pulsipher, Michael A; Chitphakdithai, Pintip; Logan, Brent R; Shaw, Bronwen E; Wingard, John R; Lazarus, Hillard M; Waller, Edmund K; Seftel, Matthew; Stroncek, David F; Lopez, Angela M; Maharaj, Dipnarine; Hematti, Peiman; O'Donnell, Paul V; Loren, Alison W; Leitman, Susan F; Anderlini, Paolo; Goldstein, Steven C; Levine, John E; Navarro, Willis H; Miller, John P; Confer, Dennis L
Although peripheral blood stem cells (PBSCs) have replaced bone marrow (BM) as the most common unrelated donor progenitor cell product collected, a direct comparison of concurrent PBSC versus BM donation experiences has not been performed. We report a prospective study of 2726 BM and 6768 PBSC donors who underwent collection from 2004 to 2009. Pain and toxicities were assessed at baseline, during G-CSF administration, on the day of collection, within 48 hours of donation, and weekly until full recovery. Peak levels of pain and toxicities did not differ between the 2 donation processes for most donors. Among obese donors, PBSC donors were at increased risk of grade 2 to 4 pain as well as grade 2 to 4 toxicities during the pericollection period. In contrast, BM donors were more likely to experience grade 2 to 4 toxicities at 1 week and pain at 1 week and 1 month after the procedure. BM donors experienced slower recovery, with 3% still not fully recovered at 24 weeks, whereas 100% of PBSC donors had recovered. Other factors associated with toxicity included obesity, increasing age, and female sex. In summary, this study provides extensive detail regarding individualized risk patterns of PBSC versus BM donation toxicity, suggesting donor profiles that can be targeted with interventions to minimize toxicity.
Stephan, Antoine; Barbari, Antoine; Younan, Farida
Renal transplant remains the treatment of choice for patients with end-stage renal disease. Human organs can be harvested from 2 main sources: living and deceased donors. Preference should be given to deceased-donor transplants since they represent the only source of organs for several nonrenal solid-organ transplants and the only modality where there is no risk to the donor. Unfortunately, even the most well-developed deceased-donor program (eg, the Spanish program) can barely cover 50% of its waiting list because the demand for deceased-donor organs far exceeds supply. The success of transplant surgery has created a waiting list dilemma. Despite all efforts, deceased-donor donation cannot meet current needs and therefore, living donation demands serious consideration. This is supported by the fact that the risk to live donors is minimal, graft survival is significantly better than that of deceased-donor kidneys regardless of HLA matching, and professional ethical philosophers have fewer difficulties with voluntary living donations than with the removal of an organ from a cadaver. This is especially true in our region. Living-related donation has always been acceptable ethically. It is, however, limited by the number of willing and qualified donors, the high incidence of familial renal diseases, and donor coercion (especially in our area). Living-unrelated donation increases the availability of donors, decreases the chances of coercion, and eliminates the problem of consanguinity. It raises, however, the ethical issues of commercialism, transplant tourism, and organ trafficking. The arguments for and against living-unrelated donation are innumerable. They have been the subject of several international forums and have raised endless discussions. We have set long ago a series of rules and regulations that are in close agreement with the recent Amsterdam and Kuwait resolutions. We have been continually modifying them over the last 15 years to try to implement our
Balajee, K L; Ramachandran, N; Subitha, L
For many of the end-stage organ diseases, organ transplantation is the most preferred treatment. The need for the organ transplantation is higher than the availability. For the transplantation program to be successful, awareness regarding organ donation is needed and people must have a positive attitude toward donating organs. This study aims to assess the awareness and attitudes regarding organ donation among the rural population and to evaluate the sociodemographic factors associated with their awareness. This community-based cross-sectional study was conducted among 360 people living in 4 villages of Puducherry. Face-to-face interviews were carried out using pretested questionnaire, which included the sociodemographic data. Data were entered into Excel and analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences. Of 360 participants, 88% (317/360) were aware of organ donation. Among these 317 participants, awareness was highest in the age group 18-30 years 98.8% (87/88), male 91% (147/161), higher secondary and above 100% (58/58), and Class 1 socioeconomic status 92% (13/14). Source of awareness about organ donation was primarily through media 83% (263/317). The majority of the participants 88% (281/317) felt that the purpose of organ donation was to save life. Most of the participants 91% (290/317) said that all healthy adults are eligible organ donors and 87% (275/317) of the participants said that monetary benefits could not be accepted for organ donation. Most of the participants 70% (223/317) were willing to donate their organs after death. Among the participants who refused to donate their organs, family refusal 57% (25/44) was the most common reason. This study shows that there is a high level of awareness about organ donation among rural people and most of the participants are willing to donate their organs.
Altmann, Steffen; Falk, Armin; Heidhues, Paul
We study how website defaults affect consumer behavior in the domain of charitable giving. In a field experiment that was conducted on a large platform for making charitable donations over the web, we exogenously vary the default options in two distinct choice dimensions. The first pertains...
Yin, Zhike; Liu, Shan; Yan, Jin; Liu, Jia
BACKGROUND To align with guiding principles on human organ and tissue transplantation published by the World Health Organization (WHO), the Red Cross Society of China (RCSC) launched a new nationwide organ donation program in 2010 to recruit organ donation volunteers. Despite severe shortage of donated organs, there is a very low rate of volunteering for organ donation among the Chinese population (only 0.03 donors per million population) in the national program. Motivating organ donation is the key to the success of organ transplantation in China. MATERIAL AND METHODS Semi-structured 45- to 60-min interviews were conducted among 34 volunteers. Data analysis was performed with Nvivo 8.0 software. RESULTS Six motivations for organ donation were identified: helping others/altruism, fulfilling long-cherished wishes, reducing the burdens, making the best use of everything, giving back to society, and life extension. Factors affecting the motivation of organ donation among volunteers in China included traditional values, personal experiences, role model effect, family support, and problems in the donation system. Possible strategies to improve organ donation included fostering a scientific concept of the body and death, focusing donation promotion efforts on certain groups, and simplifying the process of organ donation. CONCLUSIONS There are multiple reasons for Chinese people to register for organ donation, with helping others as the central motivation.
Cahill, Kevin C
There is a worldwide shortage of organs for transplantation. It has been shown that the attitude of healthcare professionals can improve the rates of organ donation, and that educational programs aimed at improving both attitudes and knowledge base of professionals can have positive outcomes. Although there has been research carried out on this topic, there has been none in Ireland. Anatomy dissection can be a stressor to medical students-we investigate the attitudes of Irish students to organ donation and how they change with exposure to anatomy dissection. A questionnaire was administered to first year students in the School of Medicine in University College Dublin, Ireland, three times over a nine-week period at the commencement of classes in an academic year. The attitudes of the students were positive throughout regarding organ donation by a stranger, a family member, or themselves. There was, however, a significant decrease in support for the donation of a family member\\'s organs in a minority of students. Irish students\\' attitudes to postmortem organ donation are positive and are not changed by exposure to the dissecting room. There is support for the donation of organs, and willingness among students to donate their own organs and support donation by family members.
Carey, Patricia M.; High, Patrick M.; Schlumpf, Karen S.; Johnson, Bryce R.; Mast, Alan E.; Rios, Jorge A.; Simon, Toby L.; Wilkinson, Susan L.
BACKGROUND This study investigated the effect of blood donation environment, fixed or mobile with differing sponsor types, on donation return time. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS Data from 2006 through 2009 at six US blood centers participating in the Retrovirus Epidemiology Donor Study-II (REDS-II) were used for analysis. Descriptive statistics stratified by whole blood (WB), plateletpheresis (PP), and double red blood cell (R2) donations were obtained for fixed and mobile locations, including median number of donations and median interdonation interval. A survival analysis estimated median return time at fixed and mobile sites, while controlling for censored return times, demographics, blood center, and mandatory recovery times. RESULTS Two-thirds (67.9%) of WB donations were made at mobile sites, 97.4% of PP donations were made at fixed sites, and R2 donations were equally distributed between fixed and mobile locations. For donations at fixed sites only or alternating between fixed and mobile sites, the highest median numbers of donations were nine and eight, respectively, and the shortest model-adjusted median return times (controlling for mandatory eligibility times of 56 and 112 days) were 36 and 30 days for WB and R2 donations, respectively. For PP donations, the shortest model-adjusted median return time was 23 days at a fixed location and the longest was 693 days at community locations. CONCLUSION WB, PP, and R2 donors with the shortest time between donations were associated with fixed locations and those alternating between fixed and mobile locations, even after controlling for differing mandatory recovery times for the different blood donation procedures. PMID:21745215
Boudreau, Kevin J.; Jeppesen, Lars Bo; Reichstein, Toke
For a wide class of crowdfunding approaches, we argue that the reward structure (for funders) is closer to that of charitable donations to public goods than it is to traditional entrepreneurial finance. Many features of the design of crowdfunding platforms can therefore be understood as attempts...... to deal with attendant “free-rider” problems in motivating contributions. Reviewing institutional features of today’s crowdfunding, we clarify that there are often limits in the extent to which tangible rewards can be used to motivate contributions. Drawing on analogies with charitable donations, we...... theorize that intangible sources of motivation — (i) direct psychological rewards, (ii) reciprocity and (iii) social interactions — can play a role in entrepreneurial crowdfunding. In our detailed empirical analysis of a representative project we find abundant evidence consistent with this characterization...
Timsit, M-O; Kleinclauss, F; Mamzer Bruneel, M F; Thuret, R
To review ethical, legal and technical aspects of living kidney donor surgery. An exhaustive systematic review of the scientific literature was performed in the Medline database (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov) and Embase (http://www.embase.com) using different associations of the following keywords: Donor nephrectomy; Kidney paired donation; Kidney transplantation; Laparoscopic nephrectomy; Living donor; Organs trafficking; Robotic assisted nephrectomy; Vaginal extraction. French legal documents have been reviewed using the government portal (http://www.legifrance.gouv.fr). Articles were selected according to methods, language of publication and relevance. A total of 6421 articles were identified; after careful selection, 161 publications were considered of interest and were eligible for our review. The ethical debate focuses on organ shortage, financial incentive, organ trafficking and the recent data suggesting a small but significant increase risk for late renal disease in donor population. Legal decisions aim to increase the number of kidneys available for donation, such as kidney-paired donation that faces several obstacles in France. Laparoscopic approach became widely used, while robotic-assisted donor nephrectomy failed to demonstrate improved outcome as compared with other minimal invasive techniques. Minimally invasive living donor nephrectomy aims to limit side effects in the donor without increasing the morbidity in this specific population of healthy persons; long term surveillance to prevent the onset of renal disease in mandatory. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Tartaglia, Alexander; Dodd-McCue, Diane; Myer, Kevin A; Mullins, Andrew
The rate of organ donation by older potential donors is significantly declining even though recent studies show positive clinical outcomes with organs transplanted from older donors. This study examined the 50+ age demographic to identify the rationale for donation decisions, preferred media methods of donation information delivery, and responsiveness to an age-tailored donation message. Results from 579 surveys, 87% from the 50+ age demographic, found respondents prone to self-select themselves as medically ineligible based on current medication and health status, even though they might be medically suitable donors. Their incentive to pursue additional information on donation is limited except when motivated by personal accounts within their families and communities. In addition, even when computer literate, they continue to favor the printed or spoken word for donation information delivery. The results suggest an opportunity for those working with older adults to develop more personalized, localized donation education programs targeting this age demographic. © The Author(s) 2014.
A donor's or family's religious beliefs are to be ascertained in discussions about organ donation. The positions of the major faith groups about donation are reviewed, leading to the conclusion that the large majority of faiths take a positive stance toward donation. Other factors such as the emotional response, the cultural values, and the spiritual issues may be even more compelling for family members than religious beliefs. Conflicts between one's personal beliefs and the position of one's faith group about donation are to be assessed and processed.
Pedersen, Ole Birger; Axel, Skytthe; Rostgaard, Klaus
active Danish blood donors from 2002 to 2012, to establish blood donor status for Danish twins, who at age 17 years became eligible for donation in 2002 or later. Casewise concordance in monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twins were presented and heritability was estimated in Mx by variance component...... to donate blood, respectively. CONCLUSION: Becoming a volunteer blood donor is determined by both genetic and environmental factors shared within families.......BACKGROUND: Voluntary blood donation is believed to be mostly motivated by altruism. Because studies have suggested that altruistic personality is determined by both genetic and environmental factors, we speculated that willingness to donate blood could also be governed by constitutional factors...
Ernest L. Mramba
Full Text Available The study was determined to look on the relationship between socio-economic determinants and blood donation in Tanzania. It involved a sample of 128 respondents in which binary logistic regression results showed sex of respondents, level of education and religious beliefs to have a positively relationship with blood donation at 1%, 10%, 10% level respectively, with p values of 0.007, 0.077, 0.094 as theory suggested. Health status, cultural beliefs, fear for HIV test results, and health insurance were negatively related with blood donation at 1%, 5%, 10%, 1% level with p values of 0.000, 0.011, 0.070, 0.012, respectively, as per assumption. However, age, strong social network at community, employment status, and level of income were not significant determinants. Conclusively, blood donation was largely determined by sex, level of education, health status, cultural beliefs, religious beliefs, fear for HIV test results and health insurance. To increase blood donation, females must be encouraged, emphasis on education, eradication of the myths and misconception about blood donation, partnerships between national blood transfusion and religious bodies, need for more community’s awareness about blood donation so as to alleviate unfounded fear (i.e. fear for HIV test results, need of improving health status of the people and donor recruitments programs strategies must be improved.
Carroll, Katherine E; Lenne, Brydan S; McEgan, Kerri; Opie, Gillian; Amir, Lisa H; Bredemeyer, Sandra; Hartmann, Ben; Jones, Rachel; Koorts, Pieter; McConachy, Helen; Mumford, Patricia; Polverino, Jan
Lactation and breast milk can hold great value and meaning for grieving mothers who have experienced a recent death of an infant. Donation to a human milk bank (HMB) as an alternative to discarding breast milk is one means of respecting the value of breast milk. There is little research, national policy discussion, or organizational representation in Australia on the subject of breast milk donation after infant death. On 29 November 2013 the Mercy Hospital for Women in Melbourne, Australia hosted Australia's first National Stakeholder Meeting (NSM) on the topic of milk donation after neonatal death. The NSM drew together representatives from Australian HMBs, neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) currently using donor human milk, and Australia's chief NICU parent support organization. The NSM was video-recorded and transcribed, and analyzed thematically by researchers. This article reports the seven dominant themes discussed by stakeholders during the NSM: the spectrum of women's lactation and donation experiences after infant death; the roles of the HMB and NICU in meeting the needs of the bereaved donor; how bereaved mothers' lactation autonomy may interface with a HMB's donation guidelines; how milk donation may be discussed with bereaved mothers; the variation between four categories of milk donation after neonatal death; the impact of limited resources and few HMBs on providing donation programs for bereaved mothers in Australia. This article provides evidence from researchers and practitioners that can assist HMB staff in refining their bank's policy on milk donation after infant death, and provides national policy makers with key considerations to support lactation, human milk banking, and bereavement services nation-wide.
Mulder, H.; Olthuis, G.J.; Siebelink, M.; Gerritsen, R; Heurn, E. van
- The multidisciplinary guideline 'Organ donation following euthanasia' was published in March 2017 at request of the Minister of Health, Welfare and Sport.- This guideline provides recommendations for the organisation and implementation of a request to donate organs expressed by a patient who asks
Martínez-Alarcón, L.; Ramis, G.; Gómez-Laguna, J.; Quereda, J.J.; Herrero-Medrano, J.M.; Mrowiec, A.; Mendonça, L.; López-Navas, A.; Ríos, A.
Introduction Due to the current deficit of organs for transplantation, living kidney related donations (LKRD) should be promoted. Veterinarians often hold decision-making positions in the public health care system, and therefore can influence public opinion about organ donation. The objective was
Full Text Available The decision in 1987 by the pharmaceutical firm Merck & Co. to provide Mectizan® (ivermectin free of charge to river blindness control programs has challenged the international public health community to find effective ways to distribute the drug to rural populations most affected by onchocerciasis. In the Americas, PAHO responded to that challenge by calling for the elimination of all morbidity from onchocerciasis from the Region by the year 2007 through mass distribution of ivermectin. Since 1991, a multinational, multiagency partnership (consisting of PAHO, the endemic countries, nongovernmental development organizations, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in Atlanta, Georgia, as well as academic institutions and funding agencies has developed the political, financial, and technical support needed to move toward the realization of that goal. This partnership is embodied in the Onchocerciasis Elimination Program for the Americas (OEPA, which is supported by the River Blindness Foundation (RBF and now by the Carter Center. OEPA was conceived as a means of maintaining a regional initiative to eliminate what is otherwise a low priority disease. Since its inception in 1993, the OEPA has provided more than US$ 2 million in financial, managerial, and technical assistance to stimulate and/or support programs in Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Guatemala, Mexico, and Venezuela, so as to take full advantage of the Merck donation. Now halfway into a five-year, US$ 4 million grant provided through the Inter-American Development Bank, the OEPA's capacity to support the regional initiative is assured through 1999.La decisión tomada en 1987 por la Merck & Co., fabricante de productos farmacéuticos, de proveer Mectizan® (ivermectina gratuitamente a los programas de control de la oncocercosis ha obligado a la comunidad sanitaria internacional a buscar formas de distribuir el medicamento a las poblaciones rurales que se ven más afectadas por la
Oocyte donations have increased with improvements in oocyte cryopreservation procedures in recent years. Women with medical conditions that require chemotherapy or radiotherapy have begun to opt for oocyte cryo¬preservation prior to their treatment or to enroll in an oocyte donation program. Alternatively, some women apply for "third-party" oocyte donation programs for nonmedical reasons such as delayed childbearing. Although society seems to accept oocyte donations for medical reasons, it appears that there are still some moral issues surrounding nonmedical oocyte donations. In this review, the ethical aspects of oocyte donations and donors' perspectives are discussed. With developing technologies, the genetic screening of donors has expanded to include diseases. This review explores the ethical issues involved in genetic screening of gamete donors.
Yazer, Mark H; Delaney, Meghan; Germain, Marc; Karafin, Matthew S; Sayers, Merlyn; Vassallo, Ralph; Ziman, Alyssa; Shaz, Beth
To provide the appropriately diverse blood supply necessary to support alloimmunized and chronically transfused patients, minority donation recruitment programs have been implemented. This study investigated temporal changes in minority red blood cell (RBC) donation patterns in the United States. Data on donor race and ethnicity from 2006 through 2015, including the number of unique donors, collections, RBCs successfully donated, and average annual number of RBC donations per donor (donor fraction), were collected from eight US blood collectors. Minority donors were stratified into the following groups: Asian, black or African American, Hispanic or Latino, Native Indian or Alaska Native, Native Hawaiian or other Pacific Islander, white, multiracial/other, and no answer/not sure. Over the 10-year period, white donors annually constituted the majority of unique donors (range, 70.7%-73.9%), had the greatest proportion of collections (range, 76.1%-79.8%), and donated the greatest proportion of RBC units (range, 76.3%-80.2%). These donors also had the highest annual donor fraction (range, 1.82-1.91 units per donor). Black or African American donors annually constituted between 4.9 and 5.2% of all donors during the study period and donated between 4.0 and 4.3% of all RBC units. Linear regression analysis revealed decreasing numbers of donors, collections, and donated RBC units from white donors over time. Although the US population has diversified, and minority recruitment programs have been implemented, white donors constitute the majority of RBC donors and donations. Focused and effective efforts are needed to increase the proportion of minority donors. © 2017 AABB.
Full Text Available The study was set to determine whether knowledge and attitudes toward organ dona-tion differ according to geographical location. Self-administered questionnaires were employed to collect data such as demographic characteristics, basic knowledge, attitudes and source of information about organ donation from subjects in rural and urban areas. The questionnaires were distributed randomly to 1,000 individuals in both areas during 2008. The data were analyzed in a descriptive fashion. Despite similarities in knowledge and attitudes of respondents in both areas, rural res-pondents were less likely to have information about organ donation, to report willingness to donate organs, and to have knowledge about "brain death" or the "organ donation card" than their counter-parts in urban areas. The study identified that the principle respondents′ source of information about organ donation was the television. More than 90% of respondents in rural and urban areas reported that the contribution of health care providers in providing them with knowledge about organ dona-tion and transplantation was "none" or "little". Respondents identified several reasons, which may influence their decisions to donate organs. In conclusion, the deficit in knowledge and attitudes of rural respondents about organ donation may be justified by the lack of information about this signi-ficant issue. Accordingly, health facilities, local mass media and educational institutions should provide intensive educational programs to encourage the public donate organs.
Gill, John S; Klarenbach, Scott; Barnieh, Lianne; Caulfield, Timothy; Knoll, Greg; Levin, Adeera; Cole, Edward H
Unlike the United States, the potential to increase organ donation in Canada may be sufficient to meet the need for transplantation. However, there has been no national coordinated effort to increase organ donation. Strategies that do not involve payment for organs, such as investment in health care resources to support deceased donor organ donation and introduction of a remuneration framework for the work of deceased organ donation, should be prioritized for implementation. Financial incentives that may be permitted under existing legislation and that pose little risk to existing donation sources should be advanced, including the following: payment of funeral expenses for potential donors who register their decision on organ donation during life (irrespective of the decision to donate or actual organ donation) and removal of disincentives for directed and paired exchange living donation, such as payment of wages, payment for pain and suffering related to the donor surgery, and payment of directed living kidney donors for participation in Canada's paired exchange program. In contrast, it would be premature to contemplate a regulated system of organ sales that would require a paradigm shift in the current approach to organ donation and legislative change to implement. Copyright © 2013 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Donations. 553.6 Section 553.6 National Defense... NATIONAL CEMETERIES § 553.6 Donations. (a) Policy. Under Department of the Army policy, proffered donations... for the donation or gift. (2) Delivery is made to the cemetery or to another point designated by the...
Bharambe Vaishaly K.
Full Text Available Introduction. All over the world people on organ transplant waiting lists die due to shortage of donor organs. The success of organ donation program needs education of the population regarding organ donation for which healthcare professionals are most suitable. The present study was taken up to assess the knowledge and attitude of 1st, 2nd and 3rd year medical students about organ donation. Methods. A specially designed self-administered questionnaire was distributed amongst all willing 1st, 2nd and 3rd year medical students at our Medical College and later analyzed statistically. Results. A total of 157, 145 and 92 students from each year of medical education respectively gave their consent for participation in the study. Awareness regarding organ donation was found to be 98.7-100%, 69.4% claimed television as their source of information regarding organ donation and 46.7% stated that it is possible for patient to recover from brain death. The awareness regarding eye, liver, heart and kidney donations was found to be 92.4%, 87%, 87% and 97.8%, respectively. 87% of medical students were aware of need for legal supervision, and awareness regarding the existing laws was found to be 57.6%. Conclusion. Medical students had a high level of awareness and a positive attitude towards organ donation. However, knowledge regarding “brain-death”, organs and tissues donated, legislation and ethical issues was poor. A teaching intervention designed to specifically address these issues could help increase the confidence of the health-care professionals and may result finally in increased organ procurement rates.
... database. Most whole blood donations are spun in centrifuges to separate it into transfusable components: red cells, ... 2, your test tubes arrive at a testing laboratory. A dozen tests are performed, to establish the ...
... You are here Home » Organ Donation and Transplantation Statistics There are currently 121,678 people waiting for ... org/2015/view/v2_07.aspx Facts and statistics provided by the United States Renal Data System , ...
Aykas, A; Uslu, A; Şimşek, C
Contrary to TV programs projecting awareness about organ donation in society, concrete evidence exists about adverse influence of negative broadcasts on organ donation rates. We sought to determine the effect of mass media on public opinion toward organ donation and the efficacy of public campaigns and novel social media attempts on donation rates. We conducted a systematic review of relevant literature and national campaign results. Hoaxes about brain death and organ transplantation adversely affect organ donation rates in both Western and Eastern societies. Scientifically controversial and exaggerated press conferences and institutional advertisements create mistrust in doctors, thus reducing organ donation. The overall effect of public education campaigns in promoting organ donation is a temporary 5% gain. Increments in organ donation rates is expected with novel applications of social media (Facebook effect). Communication, based on mutual trust, must be established between medicine and the media. Continuing education programs with regard to public awareness on organ donation should be conducted over social media. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Vincent A Traag
Full Text Available Money is central in US politics, and most campaign contributions stem from a tiny, wealthy elite. Like other political acts, campaign donations are known to be socially contagious. We study how campaign donations diffuse through a network of more than 50,000 elites and examine how connectivity among previous donors reinforces contagion. We find that the diffusion of donations is driven by independent reinforcement contagion: people are more likely to donate when exposed to donors from different social groups than when they are exposed to equally many donors from the same group. Counter-intuitively, being exposed to one side may increase donations to the other side. Although the effect is weak, simultaneous cross-cutting exposure makes donation somewhat less likely. Finally, the independence of donors in the beginning of a campaign predicts the amount of money that is raised throughout a campaign. We theorize that people infer population-wide estimates from their local observations, with elites assessing the viability of candidates, possibly opposing candidates in response to local support. Our findings suggest that theories of complex contagions need refinement and that political campaigns should target multiple communities.
Traag, Vincent A
Money is central in US politics, and most campaign contributions stem from a tiny, wealthy elite. Like other political acts, campaign donations are known to be socially contagious. We study how campaign donations diffuse through a network of more than 50,000 elites and examine how connectivity among previous donors reinforces contagion. We find that the diffusion of donations is driven by independent reinforcement contagion: people are more likely to donate when exposed to donors from different social groups than when they are exposed to equally many donors from the same group. Counter-intuitively, being exposed to one side may increase donations to the other side. Although the effect is weak, simultaneous cross-cutting exposure makes donation somewhat less likely. Finally, the independence of donors in the beginning of a campaign predicts the amount of money that is raised throughout a campaign. We theorize that people infer population-wide estimates from their local observations, with elites assessing the viability of candidates, possibly opposing candidates in response to local support. Our findings suggest that theories of complex contagions need refinement and that political campaigns should target multiple communities.
Shaz, Beth H; Hillyer, Christopher D
In the United States, blood donation rates of African-Americans are 25-50% of that of white individuals. As African-Americans make up an ever increasing and now substantial minority, and African-American recipients of blood transfusion, both specialized, such as sickle cell disease patients, and general hospitalized patients, have a better chance of receiving phenotype-matched or appropriate red blood cell units when there is a significant percentage of products in the inventory from African-American donors, it is important to understand the reason for the observed difference. Possible reasons for this discrepancy in donation rates include increased rates of donor deferral and ineligibility; increased barriers to donation, such as fear and distrust; and different marketing and education strategies. Thus, to increase the blood availability to African-American recipients, the reasons for these donation rate differences must be better understood and subsequently addressed through improved blood donor recruitment programs. The majority of African-American donor recruitment programs have focused on donating for sickle cell disease patients, particularly children, which have been of limited success. Significant improvements in African-American donor recruitment are needed to adequately meet the demand of African-American patients as well as the entire population.
Alvarez Díaz, J A
To explore opinions of patients who undergone to complex ART towards gamete and embryo donation, as well as the reasons to do it or not. The seat was the Hospital Clínico de la Universidad de Chile. There were interviewed ten participants (seven women, three men), who had undergone at least to one ART, without comprising of donation programs. It was a cross-sectional study of descriptive bioethics, done with ethnographic qualitative methodology with a semistructured interview applying speech analysis to the resulting text. Regarding embryo donation, six participants would accept to donate them, five to fertility therapy and one to research. Regarding the cryopreservation, three participants would always accept it, and three with some restrictions, just one on them would rather to discard instead of donating a cryopreserved embryo. It could be suggested: gamete donation is more commented and generally accepted; embryo donation is a more conflicting and less discussed subject, as much to donate as to accept; cryopreservation is a complex subject, commented but also conflicting, whose acceptance or not, as well as the destiny of the probably cryopreserved embryos, depends on the believes that participants have about the origin of the life, personal ethics, and the religion. It could be possible to say that a hypothesis constructed in this study (to be verified in future quantitative researches) is that embryo donation could take place, for therapy of fertility, and exceptionally to research.
Susana A Cardenas
Full Text Available Willingness to donate money for the conservation of endangered species may depend on numerous factors. In this paper, we analyze data from a survey given to tourists visiting Ecuador’s Galapagos National Park and Marine Reserve to investigate determinants of their willingness to donate (WTD towards the conservation of two marine endangered species--the scalloped hammerhead shark (Sphyrna lewini and the green sea turtle (Chelonia mydas. Specifically, we use regression analysis to analyze the influence of attitudes and beliefs toward species conservation, levels of concern for specific species, recreational motivations, and past donation patterns on WTD, while also controlling for individual characteristics such as age, gender, place of residence, and other demographics. Additionally, we evaluate the sensitivity of WTD to the species being protected by conservation efforts. Our results demonstrate that specific concern about the species, beliefs about donating to the protection program, and past donation behavior significantly influence the intention to donate money towards the recovery of the two marine endangered species. The likelihood of donating to green sea turtle conservation efforts is marginally higher than for hammerhead sharks, possibly due to its more charismatic nature. In contrast, visitors who are more willing to donate for shark conservation appear to be those with a strong desire to see them in the wild. The results provide useful information on the heterogeneity of tourist preferences towards donating to species conservation efforts, which has broad implications for resource agencies seeking ways to fund conservation actions.
Full Text Available Background Among the young generation, medical and law students’ attitude towards third party reproduction is very important because they will be directly involved in restricting or developing the programs that will support it in the future. The aim of this survey was to investigate attitude of law and medical students to oocyte donation and key aspects of this kind of third party. Materials and Methods In analytical cross-sectional study, 345 medical and law students were randomly selected using stratified sampling. Data was collected using attitude toward donation- oocyte (ATOD-O questionnaire. Re- sponses were on a 5-point Likert scale. Data were analyzed according to established statistical approach by Heeren and D'Agostino. Results The majority of the participants agreed with oocyte donation being the last choice for infertility treatment. There was a significant difference between medical students and law students regarding the acceptance of oocyte donation (3.23 vs. 3.53, P=0.025. In addition, female participants were more tolerant on receiving donated oocytes from their sisters than male participants (3.01 vs. 2.58, P=0.002 and finally, a higher number of the participants had a positive attitude towards anonymity of the donor and the recipient to one another (3.93 vs. 3.86, P=0.580. The vast majority of female students believed that the oocyte recipient naturally likes that child (P<0.0001. Conclusion In the current study, a great majority of law and medical students support oocyte donation as an alternative way of starting a family. There is an interest among female students in donating oocytes anonymously. The majority believed that the oocyte recipient family will like the donor oocyte child naturally.
Francis L. Delmonico
Full Text Available Successful deceased organ donation requires a reproducible – consistent (scientific system that evaluates the potential for organ donation and determines objectively whether the national system is achieving its goals. The science of organ donation also pertains to the determination of death. We are a common humanity that dies similarly – a humanity whose ultimate criterion of life resides in the function of the human brain. The recent brain death law of Israel encouragingly enables a determination of death by the loss of neurologic function, but it has become complicated by a practice that may perpetuate societal misperceptions. As a result opportunities for deceased organ donation – to provide for Israelis in need of organ transplants – are being lost. A statured task force of society could be assembled to convey its support for deceased donation to influence society and resolve these misperceptions. The World Health Organization is now calling for each member state to achieve a self-sufficiency in organ donation and transplantation “equitably meeting the transplantation needs of a given population using resources from within that population”. Patients should not be compelled to go to foreign countries for their organs. Israel has been a leader in the development of a model program intended to address transplant tourism. Insurance companies are no longer permitted to provide resources for Israelis to undergo illegal transplants in foreign destinations. The social necessity of a scientifically and medically applied system of deceased organ donation is now evident so that a sufficient number of organs can be available for patients from within the country where they reside.
Cahill, Kevin C.; Ettarh, Rajunor R.
There is a worldwide shortage of organs for transplantation. It has been shown that the attitude of healthcare professionals can improve the rates of organ donation, and that educational programs aimed at improving both attitudes and knowledge base of professionals can have positive outcomes. Although there has been research carried out on this…
Huang, Jiefu; Millis, J Michael; Mao, Yilei; Millis, M Andrew; Sang, Xinting; Zhong, Shouxian
Organ donation and transplant systems have unique characteristics based on the local culture and socioeconomic context. China's transplant and organ donation systems developed without regulatory oversight until 2006 when regulation and policy were developed and then implemented over the next several years. Most recently, the pilot project of establishing a voluntary citizen-based deceased donor program was established. The pilot program addressed the legal, financial, and cultural barriers to organ donation in China. The pilot program has evolved into a national program. Significantly, it established a uniquely Chinese donor classification system. The Chinese donor classification system recognizes donation after brain death (category I), donation after circulatory death (category II), and donation after brain death followed by circulatory death (category III). Through August 2014, the system has identified 2326 donors and provided 6416 organs that have been allocated though a transparent organ allocation system. The estimated number of donors in 2014 is 1147. As China's attitudes toward organ donation have matured and evolved and as China, as a nation, is taking its place on the world stage, it is recognizing that its past practice of using organs from executed prisoners is not sustainable. It is time to recognize that the efforts to regulate transplantation and provide voluntary citizen-based deceased organ donation have been successful and that China should use this system to provide organs for all transplants in every province and hospital in China. At the national organ transplant congress on October 30, 2014, the Chairman of the China's national organ donation and transplantation committee, Jeifu Huang required all hospitals to stop using organs from executed prisoners immediately and the civilian organ donation will be sole source for organ transplant in China starting January 2015. © 2015 American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.
Ahmad, Ghazi; Iftikhar, Sadia
There is currently an organ shortage crisis in the United States. This paper analyzes the magnitude of the problem, the organ procurement programs in other developed countries as compared to the US, and discusses the changes that can be made to address this problem. With the opt-in or explicit-consent method currently practiced in the US, less that one third of the population consents to organ donation. In order to narrow the gap between the demand and supply of organs, steps need to be taken to improve the organ procurement infrastructure. The public needs to be educated about the dire need, the benefits and risks in organ donation, and living vs. deceased donation. [Full article available at http://rimed.org/rimedicaljournal-2016-05.asp, free with no login].
CERN has been requested by the Japanese High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK) to donate the UA1 Magnet for use within the T2K Experiment. The Finance Committee is invited to approve this donation.
Wu, Yijin; Elliott, Robert; Li, Linzi; Yang, Tongwei; Bai, Yusen; Ma, Wen
Abstract In this paper, we will discuss several ethical issues concerning cadaveric organ donation from the perspective of sociocultural factors that are unique to China under the condition that China has ended the use of executed prisoner's organs for transplants. It is found that though great developments have been made in organ transplantation, the ethical issues relating to organ transplantation still face dilemmas in China. It is argued that organ donation and transplantation in China could make further progress if the ethical issues proposed in this paper can be carefully considered. PMID:29517702
Wirken, Lieke; van Middendorp, Henriët; Hooghof, Christina W.; Sanders, Jan-Stephan F.; Dam, Ruth E.; van der Pant, Karlijn A. M. I.; Berendsen, Elsbeth C. M.; Wellink, Hiske; Dackus, Henricus J. A.; Hoitsma, Andries J.; Hilbrands, Luuk B.; Evers, Andrea W. M.
Background. Cognitions surrounding living organ donation, including the motivation to donate, expectations of donation and worries about donation, are relevant themes during living donor evaluation. However, there is no reliable psychometric instrument assessing all these different cognitions. This
Riederer, Beat M
There is considerable agreement that the use of human bodies for teaching and research remains important, yet not all universities use dissection to teach human gross anatomy. The concept of body donation has evolved over centuries and there are still considerable discrepancies among countries regarding the means by which human bodies are acquired and used for education and research. Many countries have well-established donation programs and use body dissection to teach most if not all human gross anatomy. In contrast, there are countries without donation programs that use unclaimed bodies or perhaps a few donated bodies instead. In several countries, use of cadavers for dissection is unthinkable for cultural or religious reasons. Against this background, successful donation programs are highlighted in the present review, emphasizing those aspects of the programs that make them successful. Looking to the future, we consider what best practice could look like and how the use of unclaimed bodies for anatomy teaching could be replaced. From an ethical point of view, countries that depend upon unclaimed bodies of dubious provenance are encouraged to use these reports and adopt strategies for developing successful donation programs. In many countries, the act of body donation has been guided by laws and ethical frameworks and has evolved alongside the needs for medical knowledge and for improved teaching of human anatomy. There will also be a future need for human bodies to ensure optimal pre- and post-graduate training and for use in biomedical research. Good body donation practice should be adopted wherever possible, moving away from the use of unclaimed bodies of dubious provenance and adopting strategies to favor the establishment of successful donation programs. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Donation. 596.301 Section 596.301 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN... Definitions § 596.301 Donation. The term donation means a transfer made in the form of a gift or charitable...
... NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION 12 CFR Parts 703 and 721 RIN 3133-AE17 Charitable Donation... authorized to fund a charitable donation account (CDA), a hybrid charitable and investment vehicle described... making charitable contributions and donations is among an FCU's incidental powers.\\2\\ \\1\\ 12 U.S.C. 1757...
... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Donations. 245.609 Section 245.609 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF... Inventory 245.609 Donations. Agencies may donate, with GSA approval and without expense to the United States...
... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Donations. 256.426.1 Section... COMPANY ACT OF 1935 Income and Expense Accounts § 256.426.1 Donations. This account shall include all payments or donations for charitable, social or community welfare purposes. ...
Full Text Available The legislation called the Transplantation of Human Organ Act (THO was passed in India in 1994 to streamline organ donation and transplantation activities. Broadly, the act accepted brain death as a form of death and made the sale of organs a punishable offence. With the acceptance of brain death, it became possible to not only undertake kidney transplantations but also start other solid organ transplants like liver, heart, lungs, and pancreas. Despite the THO legislation, organ commerce and kidney scandals are regularly reported in the Indian media. In most instances, the implementation of the law has been flawed and more often than once its provisions have been abused. Parallel to the living related and unrelated donation program, the deceased donation program has slowly evolved in a few states. In approximately one-third of all liver transplants, the organs have come from the deceased donor program as have all the hearts and pancreas transplants. In these states, a few hospitals along with committed NGOs have kept the momentum of the deceased donor program. The MOHAN Foundation (NGO based in Tamil Nadu and Andhra Pradesh has facilitated 400 of the 1,300 deceased organ transplants performed in the country over the last 14 years. To overcome organ shortage, developed countries are re-looking at the ethics of unrelated programs and there seems to be a move towards making this an acceptable legal alternative. The supply of deceased donors in these countries has peaked and there has been no further increase over the last few years. India is currently having a deceased donation rate of 0.05 to 0.08 per million population. We need to find a solution on how we can utilize the potentially large pool of trauma-related brain deaths for organ donation. This year in the state of Tamil Nadu, the Government has passed seven special orders. These orders are expected to streamline the activity of deceased donors and help increase their numbers. Recently, on
Schmidt, S; Schulte, A; Schwarz, S; Hofmann, N; Tietz, S; Boergel, M; Sixt, S U
The biggest obstacle to overcome for routine treatment of various pathologies with fresh osteochondral allograft is the availability of tissue for transplantation. Large fresh osteochondral allografts are usually harvested from organ donors, but in contrast to organs, tissues can be procured after cardiac arrest. Medical staff as well the general public are much less aware of the possibilities and requirements of tissue donation compared to organ donation. This review aims to highlight the current situation of organ and tissue donation in Europe and to raise this much needed awareness. For this research, PubMed database was scanned using the terms "tissue/organ donation", "bone donation/transplantation", "cartilage transplantation/allografts" and "osteochrondral allografts". Relatives of potential donors are often not approached because physicians and nurses do not feel sufficiently prepared for this task and, thus, are reluctant to address this topic. Different options could alleviate the pressure medical staff is feeling. Furthermore, there are different factors influencing consent that can be addressed to increase donation rates. Currently, a lot of potential concerning musculoskeletal tissue grafts remains unused. Most importantly, families should be encouraged to speak about their potenzial will to donate and educational programs should be established to increase trust in organ and tissue donation and the allocation system and to increase knowledge about the importance of transplantation medicine. But joined efforts of different parts of the medical systems and different organizations involved in tissue transplantation should improve the situation for patients waiting for much needed transplants.
Full Text Available Organ shortage is a major public health challenge for transplant programs globally. The sustenance of such programs as an effective therapy for end-stage organ failure (ESOF requires an exploration of public awareness and willingness to donate organs. This is imperative, especially in developing countries where ESOF is highly prevalent. We studied the awareness and predictors of public attitude toward organ donation in Kano city in northern Nigeria. Using interviewer-administered questionnaires, we assessed the awareness and willingness to donate solid organs among 400 adults in the Kano metropolis. Three hundred and five of the 383 respondents (79.6% reported that they had heard about organ donation. There was a significant variation of awareness by education and ethnicity (P <0.05. Most respondents, 303 (79.1%, were willing to donate an organ. Gender [adjusted odds ratio (AOR = 2.13; 95% confidence interval (CI: 1.40-4.95], educational attainment (AOR = 2.55; 95% CI: 1.35-5.88, marital status (AOR = 4.5; 95% CI: 2.97-9.1, religion (AOR = 3.40; 95% CI: 1.43-8.10 and ethnicity (AOR = 2.36; 95% CI 1.04-5.35 were significant predictors of willingness to donate an organ. Preferred organ recipients were parents (48.9%, children (21.3%, spouses (14.6% and other relatives (13.4%. Reasons for willingness to donate organs included religion (51.2%, moral obligation (21.4% and compassion (11.9%, among others. However, there was widespread ignorance of religious precepts concerning organ donation. The high level of awareness and willingness to donate organs in this society could be further enhanced by intensive information, education and communication strategies providing clear messages on societal benefits, religious aspects and bioethical guidance regarding organ donation.
Ester Silveira Ramos
Full Text Available Ovarian failure is a typical feature of Turner syndrome (TS. Patients are followed clinically with hormone replacement therapy (HRT and inclusion in the oocyte donation program, if necessary. For patients with spontaneous puberty, genetic counseling regarding preimplantation genetic diagnosis and prenatal diagnosis is indicated. Patients with dysgenetic gonads and a Y chromosome are at increased risk of developing gonadoblastoma. Even though this is not an invasive tumor, its frequent association with other malignant forms justifies prophylactic gonadectomy. It is important to perform gonadectomy before HRT and pregnancy with oocyte donation. Among patients with TS stigmata and female genitalia, many have the Y chromosome in one of the cell lines. For this reason, all patients should undergo cytogenetic analysis. Nevertheless, in cases of structural chromosomal alterations or hidden mosaicism, the conventional cytogenetic techniques may be ineffective and molecular investigation is indicated. The author proposes a practical approach for investigating women with TS stigmata in whom identification of the X or Y chromosome is important for clinical management and follow-up.
Doolin, Kerry S; Chan, Daniel L; Adamantos, Sophie; Humm, Karen
Describe unexpected events (UEs) that occurred during blood donation in cats with and without sedation. Retrospective observational study (2010-2013). University teaching hospital. Client-owned healthy cats enrolled in a blood donation program. None. Blood collection for transfusion was performed 115 times from 32 cats. Seventy donation events were in unsedated cats and 45 in sedated cats. For each collection, the anticipated blood volume to be collected, actual blood volume collected, sedation protocol, and any UE in the peridonation period were recorded. There were 6 categories of UEs: movement during donation, donor anxiety, inadequate collected blood volume, jugular vessel related UEs, additional sedation requirement, and cardiorespiratory distress. Fisher's exact test was used to compare the frequency of UEs between sedated and unsedated cats. UEs were recorded in 54 of 115 collections. In the donor population, movement was reported as an UE in 0 cats that donated under sedation and 24/70 (34.3%) cats that donated without sedation (P donated under sedation and 14/70 (20.0%) cats that donated unsedated (P = 0.014). Unsedated donation did not increase the likelihood of inadequate donation volume, jugular vessel related UEs, or cardiorespiratory distress. Eight of 45 (17.8%) sedated donations required additional sedation. Movement during donation and signs of donor anxiety were more frequent in unsedated cats. These were considered minor issues, expected in unsedated cats being gently restrained. Blood collection from unsedated feline donors is a viable alternative to sedated donation. © Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care Society 2017.
Ju, M K; Sim, M K; Son, S Y
The purpose of this study was to identify the knowledge, attitude, educational needs, and will of nursing students on organ donation from brain-dead donors. Data were collected by using a 40-item questionnaire to measure knowledge, attitude, educational needs, and will for organ donation of 215 nursing college students in one university in Dangjin city from May 11 to May 31, 2017. The data were analyzed using SPSS 22 program (Data Solution Inc, Seoul). In the general characteristics, 85.1% of the subjects did not receive education on donation, and 99.5% of the subjects responded that education is needed. The desired methods of education were special lecture in school (55.3%), "webtoons" on the Internet (19.5%), formal curriculum (15.8%). Points to improve to increase brain-death organ transplantation and donation included "active publicity through pan-national campaign activities" (56.3%), "respecting prior consent from brain-dead donors" (21.9%), and "encouragement and increased support for organ donors" (12.1%). There was a significant difference in knowledge according to will for organ donation (t = 3.29, P = .001) and consent to brain-death organ donation in family members (t = 3.29, P = .001). There was a statistically significant positive correlation between attitude and knowledge of the subjects regarding brain-death organ donation. The knowledge, attitude, educational need, and will for organ donation of nursing students revealed in this study will be used as basic data to provide systematic transplant education including contents about organ transplantation in the regular nursing curriculum in the future. It will contribute to the activation of organ donation. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
On Thursday 27 February, CERN was pleased to donate computer equipment to a physics institute in the Philippines. H.E. Leslie J. Baja and Rolf Heuer. Following donations of computer equipment to institutes in Morocco, Ghana, Bulgaria, Serbia and Egypt, CERN is to send 50 servers and 4 network switches to the National Institute of Physics at the University of the Philippines Diliman. CERN’s Director-General Rolf Heuer and the Ambassador of the Philippines to Switzerland and Lichtenstein, H.E. Leslie J. Baja, spoke of their enthusiasm for the project during an official ceremony. The equipment will be used for various high energy physics research programmes in the Philippines and for the University’s development of digital resources for science.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND Blood is the living force of our body and there is no substitute for it. It can only be replaced through blood donation. Blood donation can save millions of lives. Demand for safe blood is increasing every day because of increase in population, increased life-expectancy and urbanisation, trauma cases, major surgeries, patients with regular transfusion requirement like cases of thalassaemia, haemophilia and chemotherapy. To increase blood donor recruitment and retention, the level of knowledge and attitude of blood donors towards blood donation must be known as this affects donor’s decision of blood donation. This information helps for tailoring targeted programs and campaigns in order to recruit more people as regular voluntary blood donors. OBJECTIVE To assess the level of knowledge and attitude regarding blood donation amongst blood donors in Bijapur district, Karnataka. MATERIALS AND METHODS Blood donors registered for blood donation in B.L.D.E. University’s Shri B. M. Patil Medical College, Hospital and Research Centre’s Blood Bank, in Bijapur district were included in this study. The data was collected by filling a self-administered structured questionnaire. The questionnaire was administered to all the donors ready to participate in the study. Questionnaires were distributed at the time of registration and were collected after filling during the refreshment period. Also one-on-one individual interviews were conducted to know about the blood donation experience and willingness of donor for future donation. A scoring mechanism was used to understand the level of knowledge, a score of one was given for each correct response and zero for wrong and unaware response. RESULTS In this study, it was found that 61% of the participants had average knowledge [Cumulative score 4-6], 34% of the participants had good knowledge [Cumulative score 7-8] and 5% of participants had poor knowledge [Cumulative score 0-3] about the different
Martin, Dominique E; Danovitch, Gabriel M
Public surveys conducted in many countries report widespread willingness of individuals to donate a kidney while alive to a family member or close friend, yet thousands suffer and many die each year while waiting for a kidney transplant. Advocates of financial incentive programs or "regulated markets" in kidneys present the problem of the kidney shortage as one of insufficient public motivation to donate, arguing that incentives will increase the number of donors. Others believe the solutions lie-at least in part-in facilitating so-called "altruistic donation;" harnessing the willingness of relatives and friends to donate by addressing the many barriers which serve as disincentives to living donation. Strategies designed to minimize financial barriers to donation and the use of paired kidney exchange programs are increasingly enabling donation, and now, an innovative program designed to address what has been termed "chronologically incompatible donation" is being piloted at the University of California, Los Angeles, and elsewhere in the United States. In this program, a person whose kidney is not currently required for transplantation in a specific recipient may instead donate to the paired exchange program; in return, a commitment is made to the specified recipient that priority access for a living-donor transplant in a paired exchange program will be offered when or if the need arises in the future. We address here potential ethical concerns related to this form of organ "banking" from living donors, and argue that it offers significant benefits without undermining the well-established ethical principles and values currently underpinning living donation programs. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press, on behalf of the Journal of Medicine and Philosophy Inc. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Blood donation and transfusion are remarkably safe medical procedures. However, attitudes, beliefs and level of knowledge associated with blood donation and transfusion may affect such procedures. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the attitude, belief and knowledge about blood donation and transfusion in Saudi Population. The present study was conducted in the Department of Physiology, College of Medicine, King Saud University Hospitals, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. A well structured Arabic questionnaire was used to asses the attitude, belief and knowledge regarding blood donation and transfusion. The sample consisted of 335 male (55%) and 274 female (45%); the majority of the sample (65.84%) were non-donors. These non-donors (78.98%) were between the ages of 15-30 years. The 88.5% of the people who participated in the study believed that blood donation was not harmful, 20% of them stated that they would refuse blood transfusion even if they were in need because of the risk of acquiring infectious disease. 84.5% preferred direct donation, (49%) of the sample stated that they would accept blood donation only from relatives, 55.1% believed that blood transfusion was safe. However, 11.6% claimed to have acquired infectious disease after blood transfusion, 58% female in addition to 11.34% male preferred to receive blood from female donor and 69.5% did not know if the blood banks were in need of blood or not and 17.4% believed that all surgical procedures require blood transfusion. Different fears, mistrust in hospital and lack of information may serve as an important issue to be addressed when developing donors recruitment programs or campaigns to clear misconceptions about blood donation. In addition, public should know that numerous screening measures are implemented to ensure that blood donation is safe for the donor and that transfusion of the donated blood is safe for the recipient. (author)
Lippi, Giuseppe; Franchini, Massimo
The problem of using material of unsuitable quality, including "nontransparent turbid milky plasma" or more simply "turbid plasma", for producing blood components is not trivial for several epidemiological, technical, analytical, clinical and economical reasons. With some exception, most national and international guidelines mandate that blood components should preferably not be produced from lipaemic donations. The origin of lipaemic blood is variegated, and includes physiological or paraphysiological causes and metabolic disorders, whereas a broad range of common diseases and drugs can also be associated with hypertriglyceridaemia. Overall, the frequency of lipaemic donations ranges between 0.31% and 0.35%, although sporadic reports have highlighted that the frequency might be much higher, up to 13%. Lipaemic donations pose two leading problems in transfusion medicine, that are interference during laboratory testing, and safety of producing blood components from hypertriglyceridaemic materials. While the former issue can be overcome by using chemical or mechanical methods, the clinical use of lipaemic blood for producing components remains an unresolved question. Transfusion medicine should thereby embark on a landmark effort to find a universal agreement of behaviours and harmonization of policies worldwide. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Discretionary firm donation is usually related to the stakeholder theory and corporate social performance. Although theoretical explanations for this social behavior are pervasive in related literature, empirical modeling remains underdeveloped. We developed an explanatory structural model of discretionary firm donation using firm and industry level indicators. Unlike previous research, we estimated the explanatory power of the construct we called stakeholder orientation. Our tentative model was tested on a Brazilian sample of 101 publicly traded donor firms, using data on firm donations to social projects and to political candidates in electoral campaigns. The main results suggest that discretionary donation seems to be a strategy for managing conflicting claims in highly stakeholder oriented firms; the characteristics of the firm are more important than industry effects in explaining firm donations; and large firms, showing slack resources, and with a less concentrated ownership structure tend to engage in discretionary donation more intensively.
El Hage, S; Dos Santos, M J; de Moraes, E L; de Barros E Silva, L B
The aim of this study was to identify the percentage of bone tissue donation in a brain death situation and the tendency of donation rate of this tissue in an organ procurement organization in the county of Sao Paulo from 2001 to 2016. It is a retrospective and quantitative study, based on the Organ and Tissue Donation Term of donors who died of brain death between 2001 and 2016. A logistic regression model was applied, and the odds of donation were identified throughout the years, regarding the odds ratio different from zero. Finally, it was measured the accuracy of the odds ratio through the confidence interval. The analysis has shown a significant change on the trend of bone donation (P 1, indicating that the donation rate has increased. However, the percentage of growth is still considered low. The study evidences a growth trend regarding the donation of bone tissue, but the percentage is still too low to adequately meet the demand of patients who need this modality of therapeutic intervention. It is believed that educational campaigns of donation are not emphasizing the donation of tissues for transplantation, which may be directly impacting their consent rates. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
WANG Wei; TIAN Hui; YIN Hang; LIU Hang; ZHANG Xiao-dong
Background Organ transplantation represents an important advance in modern medical science,and it has benefited many patients with organ failure; however,the severe deficiency of organ sources has been a bottleneck that has limited the benefits -this technology can bring.The aim of this study was to show the results of a survey on Chinese people's awareness and attitudes toward organ donation.Methods We designed a questionnaire regarding organ donation consisting of 20 short questions,which were distributed to 10 groups.Most of the questions were multiple-choice; the core question related to people's attitudes to organ donation and the development of organ donation.The survey was held in the outpatient hall of Beijing Chao-Yang Hospital,a commercial district,and four professional colleges.Participants were randomly selected,and answered questions about gender,age,educational background,profession,and study major.Results In all,2930 valid responses were received.Male:female ratio was nearly 1:1.2 (mean age 38 years).Over 90.0％ of participants knew about organ transplantation and which organs could be transplanted; more than 95.0％ knew about organ donation,but the time they had been aware of it varied.Nearly 90.0％ of the participants approved of deceased organ donation; 73.0％ indicated they would like to donate their organs post mortem.Participants who knew more about organ failure and organ transplantation were more likely to support organ donation.College students were very positive about organ donation,though as they gain professional knowledge their attitudes may change.Altogether,65.3％ of participants approved of living organ donation,which was obviously lower than the figure for deceased organ donation (P ＜0.05).In all,85.7％ of participants approved of compensation to the deceased donor's family.To promote organ donation in China,62.9％ of participants indicated that the public's knowledge about organ donation should be increased via the media
Boyarsky, B J; Massie, A B; Alejo, J L; Van Arendonk, K J; Wildonger, S; Garonzik-Wang, J M; Montgomery, R A; Deshpande, N A; Muzaale, A D; Segev, D L
The impact of kidney donation on the ability to change or initiate health or life insurance following donation is unknown. To quantify this risk, we surveyed 1046 individuals who donated a kidney at our center between 1970 and 2011. Participants were asked whether they changed or initiated health or life insurance after donation, and if they had any difficulty doing so. Among 395 donors who changed or initiated health insurance after donation, 27 (7%) reported difficulty; among those who reported difficulty, 15 were denied altogether, 12 were charged a higher premium and 8 were told they had a preexisting condition because they were kidney donors. Among 186 donors who changed or initiated life insurance after donation, 46 (25%) reported difficulty; among those who reported difficulty, 23 were denied altogether, 27 were charged a higher premium and 17 were told they had a preexisting condition because they were kidney donors. In this single-center study, a high proportion of kidney donors reported difficulty changing or initiating insurance, particularly life insurance. These practices by insurers create unnecessary burden and stress for those choosing to donate and could negatively impact the likelihood of live kidney donation among those considering donation. © Copyright 2014 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.
Hyde, Melissa K.; White, Katherine M.
The authors explored common beliefs and preferences for posthumous and living organ donation in Australia where organ donation rates are low and little research exists. Content analysis of discussions revealed the advantage of prolonging/saving life whereas disadvantages differed according to donation context. A range of people/groups perceived to…
van Loo, Ellen S.; Krikke, Christina; Hofker, Hendrik S.; Berger, Stefan P.; Leuvenink, Henri G. D.; Pol, Robert A.
Introduction: To overcome the gap of organ shortage grafts from donation after circulatory death (DCD) can be used. This review evaluates the outcomes after DCD pancreas donation compared to donation after brain death (DBD). Materials and methods: A literature search was performed using Medline,
Dean, Benjamin W; Hewitt, Sarah N; Begos, Morgan C; Gomez, Angela; Messam, Locksley L McV
To estimate the associations of nationality, university program, donation history and gender, with blood donation barriers experienced by non-donating students on the day of a campus blood drive. This project focused particularly on nationality and the effect of the different blood donation cultures in the students' countries of origin. A retrospective cohort study of 398 North American and Caribbean university students was conducted at St. George's University, Grenada, in 2010. Data were collected from non-donating students on campus while a blood drive was taking place. Log-binomial regression was used to estimate associations between the exposures of interest and donation barriers experienced by the students. North American (voluntary blood donation culture) students were more likely than Caribbean (replacement blood donation culture) students to experience "Lack of Time" (relative risk (RR) = 1.57; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.19-2.07) and "Lack of Eligibility" (RR = 1.55; 95% CI: 1.08-2.22) as barriers to donation. Conversely, Caribbean students were a third as likely to state "Lack of Incentive" (RR = 0.32; 95% CI: 0.20-0.50), "Fear of Infection" (RR = 0.35; 95% CI: 0.21-0.58), and "Fear of Needles" (RR = 0.32; 95% CI: 0.21-0.48) were barriers than North American students. University students from voluntary blood donation cultures are likely to experience different barriers to donation than those from replacement cultures. Knowledge of barriers that students from contrasting blood donation systems face provides valuable information for blood drive promotion in university student populations that contain multiple nationalities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Rasiah, R; Manikam, R; Chandrasekaran, S K; Naghavi, N; Mubarik, S; Mustafa, R; Pushparajan, S
Organ donation rates have continued to fall seriously short of needs worldwide, with the lowest rates recorded among developing economies. This study seeks to analyze evidence from a developing economy to explore the usefulness of social psychological theory to solve the problem. The study deployed a large survey (n = 10 412) using a convenience sampling procedure targeted at increasing the number of Malaysians registered with the Ministry of Health, Malaysia who are willing to donate organs upon death. Structural equation modeling was deployed to estimate simultaneously the relative influence of cognitive and noncognitive variables on willingness to donate deceased organs. The cognitive factors of donation perception, socioeconomic status and financial incentives, and the noncognitive factors of demography and fear showed a high statistically significant (1%) relationship with willingness to donate organs after death. While financial incentives were significant, cash rewards showed the least impact. Donation perception showed the highest impact, which shows that the development of effective pedagogic programs with simultaneous improvements to the quality of services provided by medical personnel engaged in retrieving and transplanting deceased donor organs can help raise organ donation rates. © Copyright 2015 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.
Rajat Kumar Agarwal
Full Text Available Introduction: Complications associated with blood donation significantly lower odds of subsequent donations. The aim of the study is to assess the prevalence of complications related to blood donation, identify the influencing factors, and come up with suggestions for minimizing discomfort to donors and making outdoor voluntary blood donation camps safer. Materials and Methods: This study covered 181 blood donation camps organized by Sankalp India Foundation where 16 blood banks participated from 01-04-2011 to 01-08-2014 in Karnataka. Uniform protocols for donor selection, predonation preparation, counseling, postdonation care, and refreshments were used. The postdonation complications were recorded on a form immediately, after they were observed. Results: We observed 995 (3.2% complications in 30,928 whole blood donations. Of these 884 (2.86% mild, 77 (0.25% moderate, and 5 (0.02% severe complications were observed. Local symptoms (blood outside vessels, pain, and allergy contributed 1.0%, and generalized symptoms (vasovagal reaction contributed 2.2% to all the complications. Conclusion: We observed 322 complications for every 10,000 donations. Since 27 out of every 10000 experience moderate and severe complication, the readiness to manage complications is crucial. Women donors, young donors, and donors with a lower weight are at a significantly greater risk of experiencing complications, highlighting the need for specific guidelines for the management of higher risk donor groups. Complications varied significantly between various blood banks. Predonation hydration was effective in limiting complications with generalized symptoms. We recommend a robust donor hemovigilance program for voluntary blood donation for monitoring complications and enable assessment of effectiveness and implementation of appropriate interventions.
Abbasi, Mahmoud; Kiani, Mehrzad; Ahmadi, Mehdi; Salehi, Bahare
BACKGROUND Organ transplantation is one of the most critical topics in medical ethics that is commonplace in various countries. This study aimed to evaluate the knowledge and the ethical issues surrounding organ transplantation and organ donation among healthcare personnel in Tehran, Iran. MATERIAL AND METHODS In a cross-sectional study performed on 450 healthcare personnel, self-administered questionnaires were used to derive data from individuals. Among the 450 health personnel who received the questionnaires, 377 completed their questionnaires (83.77%). RESULTS The willingness and unwillingness to donate organs among individuals were 47.48% (n=179) and 52.51% (n=198), respectively. Among the individuals who signed the organ donation card, 96.5% (n=55) were willing to donate their organs and 3.5% (n=2) were unwilling to donate their organs. Most of the individuals that were willing (48.34%; n=175) and unwilling (51.66%; n=187) to donate their organs claimed religious support for organ donation (P=0.00). Out of these people, 110 willing people (67.48%) and 53 (32.52%) unwilling people were familiar with the idea of brain death. The individuals who selected cadavers (67.64%; n=255) and brain death (24.4%; n=92) were chosen as the best candidates for organ donation. Most individuals believed that young patients (n=123; 32.62%) and people who had not already had organ transplants (n=90; 23.87%) should be the preferred recipients of organs. Most individuals had learned about organ transplantation from television (30.24%; n=114), newspapers (23.61%; n=89), and the radio (19.89%; n=75). CONCLUSIONS In conclusion, there is a need for more educational programs for the improvement of knowledge and ethical consideration with regard to organ transplantation and organ donation among healthcare personnel.
Toews, Maeghan; Giancaspro, Mark; Richards, Bernadette; Ferrari, Paolo
As organ donation rates remain unable to meet the needs of individuals waiting for transplants, it is necessary to identify reasons for this shortage and develop solutions to address it. The introduction of kidney paired donation (KPD) programs represents one such innovation that has become a valuable tool in donation systems around the world. Although KPD has been successful in increasing kidney donation and transplantation, there are lingering questions about its legality. Donation through KPD is done in exchange for-and with the expectation of-a reciprocal kidney donation and transplantation. It is this reciprocity that has caused concern about whether KPD complies with existing law. Organ donation systems around the world are almost universally structured to legally prohibit the commercial exchange of organs. Australia, Canada, and the United States have accomplished this goal by prohibiting the exchange of an organ for "valuable consideration," which is a legal term that has not historically been limited to monetary exchange. Whether or not KPD programs violate this legislative prohibition will depend on the specific legislative provision being considered, and the legal system and case law of the particular jurisdiction in question. This article compares the experiences of Australia, Canada, and the United States in determining the legality of KPD and highlights the need for legal clarity and flexibility as donation and transplantation systems continue to evolve.
Boland, Kathleen; Baker, Kerrie
The current process of organ donation in the U.S. relies on the premise of altruism or voluntary consent. Yet, human organs available for donation and transplant do not meet current demands. The literature has suggested that college students, who represent a large group of potential healthy organ donors, often are not part of donor pools. Before…
Tarhan, Merve; Dalar, Levent; Yildirimoglu, Huseyin; Sayar, Adnan; Altin, Sedat
the issue with the public in conversations, meetings, and sermons. Fully 85 % asserted that for interest in organ donation in Turkey to increase, religious officials have to lead on the subject. Of those questioned, 52.5 % considered their knowledge on organ donation and transplantation to be adequate and that they had obtained 52.5 % of such information from seminars/conferences, 50 % from television/radio, and 45 % from Directorate of Religious Affairs publications. However, 40 % expressed that they did not know where organ donations were made. One reason for inadequate organ donation in Turkey is that of incorrect religious beliefs. Thus, it is necessary that informative efforts are made by the Directorate of Religious Affairs through in-house training programs, and that healthcare, religious, and legal officials work jointly to inform the public about organ donation, organ transplantation, and brain death. Additionally, religious officials should donate organs by the way of example and, to increase their sensitivity, healthcare professionals should go more frequently to mosques and Mufti Stations.
Kim, Eun A; Choi, So Eun
The purpose of this study was to test and validate a model to predict living and brain death organ donation intention in nursing students. The conceptual model was based on the theory planned behavior. Quota sampling methodology was used to recruit 921 nursing students from all over the country and data collection was done from October 1 to December 20, 2013. The model fit indices for the hypothetical model were suitable for the recommended level. Knowledge, attitude, subjective norm and perceived behavioral control explained 40.2% and 40.1% respectively for both living and brain death organ donation intention. Subjective norm was the most direct influential factor for organ donation intention. Knowledge had significant direct effect on attitude and indirect effect on subjective norm and perceived behavioral control. These effects were higher in brain death organ donation intention than in living donation intention. The overall findings of this study suggest the need to develop systematic education programs to increases knowledge about brain death organ donation. The development, application, and evaluation of intervention programs are required to improve subjective norm.
S. V. Gautier
Full Text Available Registry data analysis shows stabilization of indicators of donor and transplant activity in 2011 after continuous growth within five years, increase in a share of effective donors after brain death and multi-organ explantation, development of thoracic organs transplantation and living related donor kidney transplantation. In the conditions of decentralization of organ donation and transplant programs it is necessary to develop coope- ration between transplant centers and to expand the practice of an interregional exchange of donor organs. The federal law «About bases of health protection of citizens in the Russian Federation», accepted in 2011, creates a legal basis for development and acceptance of the new legislation in the sphere of organ donation and transplantation.
Farias, Roberta Jansen de Mello; Sousa, Luciene Barbosa de
Penetrating keratoplasty has been the leading and the most successful type of transplant in the world, however corneal deficiency is a commom problem usually presented to corneal surgeons. Impact evaluation of the number of corneal graft donations to the Sorocaba Eye Bank after the implementation of a corneal graft procurement system; to draw the socioeconomic profile of corneal graft donors of the Sorocaba Eye Bank (SEB). Retrospective study on donations to SEB from its creation and after the development of media marketing. Prospective analysis of the socioeconomic profile of corneal graft donors by a questionnaire sent as letters to the families of the donors in a certain month. SEB began its work in 1971 by spreading need of organ donation through lectures in churches, shopping malls, community meetings, radio programs, television programs, etc. In the 70s, the number of retrieved corneal grafts was 1 or 2/month. Between 1984 - 1989 a procurement coordination team was trained to act in mortuaries and by 2000 they also began to work in public hospitals. In 1984 only 260 corneal grafts were retrieved. This number has been increasing to 2,778 corneal graft donations in 2004. The questionnaire was answered by 76 of the 93 donor families, with a response rate of 81.7%. Donor age had a mean of 65.1 +/- 14.7 y/o, forty-two (55.3%) were men. Educational level of the donor families was an important factor for organ donation, once 36.8% had concluded high school and 34.2% completed university. The great majority, sixty-three (82.9%) of the corneal grafts were donated through the efforts of the procurement coordination team. The role of the media and institutional credibility are mandatory for public commitment to organ donation. The proficiency of the procurement coordination team requires intensive training, as the results show that 82.9% donations were made thanks to their efforts.
Provoost, Veerle; Van Rompuy, Florence; Pennings, Guido
The aim of this article is to study attitudes about sperm donation and willingness to donate sperm in students who have never shown an interest in sperm donation. The method used in this study is an electronic survey of 1012 male students. Only one third of the respondents (34.3%) would consider donating sperm. Overall, 85.7% indicated a positive attitude towards sperm donation while 14.3% indicated a neutral or negative attitude. The highest scored barriers to donating were the lack of practical information and the fear that the partner would not agree. Almost 40% of the respondents feared that the donation might have a negative impact on their current or future relationship. The majority (83.6%) of those who considered donating thought donors should receive a financial compensation. Money was also one of the main motivators. About 85% of the students thought positively about sperm donation but several factors such as perceived negative views by the social environment, especially the partner, may deter students from donating. This study indicates that the effect of strong incentives, for instance in monetary terms, on a donor pool consisting of students could be limited and that relational factors and donor's perceptions of the views of the wider social network should be taken into account when recruiting donors.
Emotionally-related live organ donation is different from almost all other medical treatments in that a family member or, in some countries, a friend contributes with an organ or parts of an organ to the recipient. Furthermore, there is a long-acknowledged but not well-understood gender-imbalance in emotionally-related live kidney donation. This article argues for the benefit of the concept of just love as an analytic tool in the analysis of emotionally-related live organ donation where the potential donor(s) and the recipient are engaged in a love relation. The concept of just love is helpful in the analysis of these live organ donations even if no statistical gender-imbalance prevails. It is particularly helpful, however, in the analysis of the gender-imbalance in live kidney donations if these donations are seen as a specific kind of care-work, if care-work is experienced as a labour one should perform out of love and if women still experience stronger pressures to engage in care-work than do men. The aim of the article is to present arguments for the need of just love as an analytic tool in the analysis of emotionally-related live organ donation where the potential donor(s) and the recipient are engaged in a love relation. The aim is also to elaborate two criteria that need to be met in order for love to qualify as just and to highlight certain clinical implications.
Alencar, Lucienne Christine Estevez de; Seidl, Eliane Maria Fleury
To describe the characteristics of donation behavior and identify reasons, beliefs and feelings relative to this practice, based on the reports of donor women. Personal and social-environmental aspects, which seem to affect donation behavior in donors and former donors, were also investigated. An exploratory, descriptive and cross-sectional study was carried out with women donors at two breast-milk banks within the public health system of the Brazilian Federal District. Data was collected from July to September 2005. The participants were 36 women, aged 14 to 33 years (average=24.78; SD=5.22), with different levels of schooling, 58.3% of which were first-time mothers. Data gathering was based on interviews carried out during home visits. In addition to descriptive statistical analyses of quantitative data, a qualitative data categorical analysis was also performed. The most frequently reported reasons for donating breast milk were altruism and excess milk production. The most frequent time interval for donation was 13 days after delivery. Contact by phone with the milk bank was the most common means of communication used by the majority of participants (n=22) to obtain information that enabled the donating process. Psychosocial aspects identified and the experience of donors can contribute to the empowerment of the formal and informal social donation-support network, in addition to serving as a driver for the implementation of technical and policy strategies in promoting future donation practices.
Konaka, S; Shimizu, S; Iizawa, M; Ohkawara, H; Kato, O; Ashikari, J; Fukushima, N
, 93% wanted more professional education. However, it was difficult for them to attend these activities, to manage a rare and sudden donation case, and to find time to learn about organ donation because they had another post. The topics that they wanted to learn were donor family care (72%), overall organ/tissue donation procedures (65%), the role of In-Hp PTC (67%), simulations of donation (65%), legislation and social system of organ donation (61%), medical indications for donation (61%), current status of donation and transplantation in Japan (57%), donor management (56%), and case studies (49%). There were significant variations in the topics of interest among the occupations. As they had another post, they could find only a short period (1 or 2 days) to take professional education, such as lectures. Therefore, it was difficult for them to attend practical on-the-job training. To establish an organ procurement system and increase organ donation, In-Hp PTC have important roles in Japan. However, none is a full-time In-Hp PTC. Most In-Hp PTC require more professional education. A systematic education program for each occupation must be established soon. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Kidney transplantation is a lifesaving medical treatment. However, very high demand for kidneys with low kidney donation causes a black market that exploits patients' desperation and donors' vulnerability. The current kidney donation programs fail to produce promising results to avoid illegal and unethical kidney trafficking and commercialism. Even though the primary goal of kidney donation is to increase the number of deceased organ donations, in some countries, like Turkey, due to religious or cultural concerns, it is impossible to supply adequate deceased kidney donations. In this view, the aim of this paper is to examine kidney trafficking in the scope of Turkey's current organ donation system and propose a new model, named the Incentivized Kidney Donation Model (IKDM), to increase kidney donation from living donors. The model encompasses the following benefits offered to kidney donors; lifetime health insurance, exemptions from copayments/contribution shares, priority when receiving an organ, priority when finding a job, income tax exemptions for salaried employees, and free or discounted public utilities. This normative model has the potential to promote donors' altruistic acts as well as the solidarity and loyalty among members of a society without violating ethical values and internationally accepted principles. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Sollberger, Silja; Bernauer, Thomas; Ehlert, Ulrike
Stress has been found to have both positive and negative effects on prosocial behavior, suggesting the involvement of moderating factors such as context and underlying motives. In the present study, we investigated the conditions under which acute stress leads to an increase vs. decrease in environmental donation behavior as an indicator of prosocial behavior. In particular, we examined whether the effects of stress depended on preexisting pro-environmental orientation and stage of the donation decision (whether or not to donate vs. the amount to be donated). Male participants with either high (N=40) or low (N=39) pro-environmental orientation were randomly assigned to a social stress test or a control condition. Salivary cortisol was assessed repeatedly before and after stress induction. At the end of the experiment, all subjects were presented with an opportunity to donate a portion of their monetary compensation to a climate protection foundation. We found that stress significantly increased donation frequency, but only in subjects with low pro-environmental orientation. Congruously, their decision to donate was positively associated with cortisol response to the stress test and the emotion regulation strategy mood repair, as well as accompanied by an increase in subjective calmness. In contrast, among the participants who decided to donate, stress significantly reduced the donated amount of money, regardless of pro-environmental orientation. In conclusion, our findings suggest that acute stress might generally activate more self-serving motivations, such as making oneself feel better and securing one's own material interests. Importantly, however, a strong pro-environmental orientation partially prevented these effects. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Harrington, M; Sweeney, M R; Bailie, K; Morris, K; Kennedy, A; Boilson, A; O'Riordan, J; Staines, A
Recent changes have resulted in the loss of 4% of the donor panel in the Republic of Ireland and 3% in Northern Ireland. In order to increase the number of donors in these two regions, it is important that transfusion service providers explore and understand the reasons, which prevent individuals from donating. The aim of this study was to explore these issues particularly in non-donors and those who had lapsed. This 7-month all-Ireland study was conducted by computer-assisted telephone interview. Data collected included sociodemographic history, donation status, as well as barriers/deterrents to donation. There were 4166 completed questionnaires (44% donors; 56% non-donors). Of the donors, 13% had donated blood within the last 2 years. Current donors cited 'awareness of patients needs' (88%), 'trust in the blood transfusion service' (70%), and 'an advertising campaign' (70%) as reasons encouraging them to donate blood. Lapsed donors and non-donors cited 'more frequent mobile clinics/sessions' (30% lapsed donors; 53% non-donors), 'if I was asked' (28% lapsed donors; 53% non-donors), and 'more flexible opening hours' (23% lapsed donors; 44% non-donors) as reasons that would encourage them to donate. The main reasons cited by non-donors for never having donated included 'medical reasons' (41% Republic of Ireland; 43% Northern Ireland), 'lack of information' (20% Republic of Ireland; 22% Northern Ireland), 'fear of needles' (15% Republic of Ireland; 17% Northern Ireland), and 'time constraints' (12% Republic of Ireland; 13% Northern Ireland). Among the non-donor group, 10% (Republic of Ireland) and 6% (Northern Ireland) claimed that they are not permitted to donate. Replacing regular donors is a major challenge for the transfusion service providers. This study shows that by facilitating the general public by introducing more mobile clinics/sessions, more flexible opening hours and having a better level of knowledge in the community about blood donation may encourage
... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Who may offer a donation? 2544.115 Section 2544... COMMUNITY SERVICE SOLICITATION AND ACCEPTANCE OF DONATIONS § 2544.115 Who may offer a donation? Anyone... donation to the Corporation. ...
Hoogerwerf, Maurits; Veldhuizen, Ingrid; Merz, E.M.; De Kort, Wim L.A.M.; Frings-Dresen, Monique H W; Sluiter, Judith
Background and Objectives Donating blood has been associated with increased stress responses, with scarce evidence indicating that levels of psychological and hormonal stress are higher pre-donation than post-donation. We investigated whether a blood donation induces psychological and/or hormonal
... procedures for reviewing and evaluating potential donors and donations. It lists delegations of authority for... employees authorized to accept donations. It provides guidance on soliciting donations, where appropriate... ``ETHICS AND CONDUCT, Employee Responsibilities and Conduct, Donations'' (374 DM 6), in 2007. This guidance...
Background: There is some evidence to suggest that the greater one's knowledge in the blood donation process and the need to donate blood, the more likely one would donate blood. Generally, the lack of knowledge among participants in most studies on blood donation issues seems to be a major concern. There is a ...
... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Donations to public... AND DISPOSAL 44-DONATION OF PERSONAL PROPERTY 44.7-Donations of Property to Public Bodies § 109-44.702 Donations to public bodies. ...
... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Acceptance of donations. 777.51 Section 777.51... ACQUISITION POLICIES Donations § 777.51 Acceptance of donations. Nothing in these regulations shall prevent a person from making a gift or donation of real property or any part thereof, or any interest therein, or...
... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Real property donations. 710.505 Section 710.505...-WAY AND REAL ESTATE Property Acquisition Alternatives § 710.505 Real property donations. (a) Donations..., whichever is greater. All donations of property received prior to the approval of the NEPA document must...
Hoogerwerf, M. D.; Veldhuizen, I. J. T.; Merz, E.-M.; de Kort, W. L. A. M.; Frings-Dresen, M. H. W.; Sluiter, J. K.
Background and ObjectivesDonating blood has been associated with increased stress responses, with scarce evidence indicating that levels of psychological and hormonal stress are higher pre-donation than post-donation. We investigated whether a blood donation induces psychological and/or hormonal
... need for donors and to find resources on how to donate. Together, we can save lives and give hope to... Donate Life Month, 2010 By the President of the United States of America A Proclamation As Americans, we..., tissue, stem cell, and blood donation. During National Donate Life Month, we honor donors who provide...
Taise Ribeiro Morais
Full Text Available Transplantation and human organ donation are controversial issues that have generated much interest and discussion. The lack of clarification and the sensationalist news about organ trafficking contribute to raise questions and render the myths and prejudices permanent.The donation of organs and tissues is seen by society in general, as an act of solidarity and love from the family. However, it requires decision-making at a time of extreme pain and distress, caused by the impact of breaking news of death, the feeling of loss and the unexpected interruption of a life course(1.As the criteria of death are modified, the concept of brain death arises, along with the possibility of using donor organs and tissues. When there is not a good understanding of the organ donation process, the relatives of potential donors feel apprehensive, doubtful and undecided at the time of occurrence, because it is a subject about which there hasn’t been much clarification(1.Brazil has the largest public transplants program in the world, since the government finances 92% of procedures done in the country. However, when we consider the rate of post mortem transplant into the population, Brazil’s results are little expressive(2.Family refusal is a major obstacle to the realization of transplants, and is also identified as major cause for the shortage of organs and tissues for transplantation. Families who understand well the diagnosis of brain death are more favorable to organ donation, compared to families who believe that death only occurs after the heart stops. Therefore, the poor level of information, either by the quality of information concerning brain death, either by not having exceeded the barrier of stigmatized fear of organ trading, propagated by the media, drastically reduces the number of patients who are benefited from receiving an organ(3.Although all people are responsible for disseminating information, we must also educate health professionals, since
Grazi, Richard V; Wolowelsky, Joel B
In 2000, the Consensus Statement on the Live Organ Donor reported that "direct financial compensation for an organ from a living donor remains controversial and illegal in the United States" and took note of the position of the Transplantation Society that "Organs and tissue should be given without commercial consideration or commercial profit." Christian authorities insist that organ donors must not accrue economic advantage, and "selling" organs deprives the donation of its ethical quality. The writings of major contemporary authorities of Jewish law and ethics whose halakhic positions on bioethical issues are regularly considered by Orthodox, Conservative, and Reform ethicists were reviewed. Their positions on this issue were contrasted with those of various contemporary secular and religious authorities. These Jewish authorities reject the notion that generosity and charity, rather than monetary gain and greed, must serve as the exclusive basis for donation of functioning organs. Although nonaltruistic sale of kidneys may be theoretically ethical, ultimately its ethical status in Jewish ethics and law is inextricably connected to solving a series of pragmatic programs, such as creating a system that ensures that potential vendors and donors are properly informed and not exploited. Lacking such arrangements, ethical nonaltruistic kidney donations remain but a theoretical possibility.
Montero Salinas, Alejandro; Martínez-Isasi, Santiago; Fieira Costa, Eva; Fernández García, Antón; Castro Dios, Diana Josefa; Fernández García, Daniel
The Spanish model is the model adopted by many countries to increase their donation rate, being the implication of the healthcare professionals one of the keys to this success. The attitude of these before the donation is crucial for the hour of influence on the population. Organ transplantation has been established as an effective treatment that has been improving over the years. The objective was to determine the knowledge and attitudes of health professionals before the donation of organs. Cross-sectional descriptive study. An ad hoc questionnaire was conducted and distributed among the health professionals (medical staff, nurses and nursing assistants) of a tertiary hospital during February 2015. A total of 615 potential participants were estimated in the different areas of the hospital. A total of 342 completed questionnaires were collected (55%). The statistical analysis with SPSS® Statistics for Windows. Version 20.0. A level of significance P lower than 0.05 was used in all the analyses. The average age of the respondents was 43.34 (SD = 10.37) years, being 86.6% women and 60% nurses. 35.5% showed good knowledge about the donation process, being higher in men (51.1% Vs 33.1%, p lower than 0.05), medical personnel (55% vs 34.3% vs 31.9%). %; p lower than 0.05) and lower in those services with a direct relationship with the donation process (36.8% vs 31.9%, p lower than 0.05). 71% of the professionals expressed their willingness to donate their organs, with special sensitivity towards donation those services in direct relation with the donation program (82.2% vs 65.9%, OR: 1.24, p lower than 0.001 ). 50% of the professionals would donate the organs of a family member; the medical group had the highest percentage (70% vs 50.7% vs 40.4%, OR: 3.8, p lower than 0.05). 74.5% knew some Spanish legal document about donation and transplants. Health professionals as a whole have a low level of knowledge; but a good attitude towards donation.
Fahrenwald, Nancy L; Stabnow, Wendy
social ecological model influenced beliefs about organ and tissue donation among the Lakota people in this study. Outreach programs aimed at increasing donation need to respect traditional beliefs yet present the choice about organ and tissue donation within the cultural context. Telling the stories of community members affected by both diabetes and donation is important. Promoting family conversation is critical. Healthcare systems must approach potential donor families with an understanding of traditional beliefs and respect for the process of family communication about organ and tissue donation.
Harrison, Tyler R; Morgan, Susan E; Chewning, Lisa V
While great strides have been made in persuading the public to become potential organ donors, actual behavior has not yet caught up with the nearly universally favorable attitudes the public expresses toward donation. This paper explores the issue by situating the social marketing of organ donation against a broader backdrop of entertainment and news media coverage of organ donation. Organ donation storylines are featured on broadcast television in medical and legal dramas, soap operas, and other television serials approximately four times per month (not including most cable networks), and feature storylines that promote myths and fears of the organ donation process. National news and other non-fictionalized coverage of organ donation are even more common, with stories appearing over twenty times a month on average. These stories tend to be one-dimensional and highly sensationalized in their coverage. The marketing of organ donation for entertainment essentially creates a counter-campaign to organ donation, with greater resources and reach than social marketers have access to. Understanding the broader environmental context of organ donation messages highlights the issues faced by social marketing campaigns in persuading the public to become potential donors.
Liao, Juhong; Devolder, Katrien
Gamete donation from third parties is controversial in China as it severs blood ties, which are considered of utmost importance in Confucian tradition. In recent years, infertile couples are increasingly demonstrating a preference for the use of gametes donated by family members to conceive children-known as "intra-family gamete donation." The main advantage of intra-family gamete donation is that it maintains blood ties between children and both parents. To date there is no practice of intra-family gamete donation in China. In this paper, we investigate intra-family adoption in China in order to illustrate that intra-family gamete donation is consistent with Confucian tradition regarding the importance of maintaining blood ties within the family. There are several specific ethical issues raised by intra-family gamete donation. It may, for example, result in consanguinity and the semblance of incest, lead to confused family relationships, and raise concerns about possible coercion of familial donors. Confucian tradition provides a new approach to understand and deal with these ethical issues in a way that Western tradition does not. As a result, we suggest intra-family gamete donation could be an acceptable solution to the problem of infertility in China. However, further discussion and open debates on the ethical issues raised by intra-family gamete donation are needed in China.
Lefrère, Jean-Jacques; Danic, Bruno
Originally pasted on walls and on locations reserved specially for that purpose, the poster is a medium for advertising and promotion to be seen on the streets and in public places. More recently, it has spread, in a smaller format, on dedicated indoor sites: billboards, columns, street furniture, and so forth. For transfusion, it appeared early on that the poster constitutes an important medium to promote blood donation. Thousands of posters supporting regional, national, or international blood donation campaigns have been created all over the planet, with a great variability of images, symbols, and slogans, which are particularly revealing about the image and the reality of blood donation. The topic is rich in information, particularly sociologic, on the variety of ways in which transfusion organizations promote blood donation. The authors present in this article the results of a study based on a total of 283 posters from nations on every continent, divided into 24 different themes. © 2011 American Association of Blood Banks.
K.W.J. Klop (Karel)
markdownabstract__Abstract__ This thesis describes several aspects of live kidney donation, such as surgical techniques, cost-effectivity, cosmetics en quality of life. Kidney transplantation offer several benefits when compared to dialysis. These benefits include better recipient and graft
... Biologics is affiliated with organ, eye and tissue procurement agencies throughout the U.S. They typically ... Visit DonateLife.net and learn how your gift of tissue can give bring new life to ...
An official ceremony marking the eighth donation of CERN computing equipment to an outside institute, this time a university in Pakistan, took place on Monday, 2 March. From left to right: Sajjad Mohsin, Dean at the COMSATS Institute of Information Technology (CIIT), Rolf Heuer, CERN Director-General, S. M. Junaid Zaidi, Rector of CIIT, Aumair Qayyum (CIIT) and Syed Ali Zahir Bukhari (CIIT). On this occasion, 224 servers and 30 network hubs were donated to the CIIT (COMSATS Institute of Information Technology) in Islamabad, Pakistan, where they will be used by scientists working on the LHC’s ALICE experiment. For several years now, CERN has regularly donated computing equipment that no longer meets its highly specific requirements but is still more than adequate for less exacting environments. To date, a total of 1,149 servers and 79 hubs have been donated to eight countries, namely Bulgaria, Egypt, Ghana, Morocco, the Philippines, Senegal, Serbia and now P...
Full Text Available Introduction: Nurses play a key role in the process of organ donation and transplantation, and previous studies have widely addressed the level of knowledge and attitude of intensive care unit (ICU nurses in this regard. Considering the direct correlation between the positive attitude of the healthcare team, especially nurses, and the level of consent on organ donation, knowledge and attitude of nurses are important factors that have been assessed in several studies. However, no definite conclusions have been drawn in this regard. The present study aimed to evaluate the knowledge and attitude of ICU nurses toward organ donation and the related factors.Methods: A systematic review was conducted via searching in databases such as ProQuest, Medscape, MedlinePlus, MagIran, PubMed, and ScienceDirect to identify the articles published during 1990-2015 using keywords such as knowledge, attitude, organ donation, and nurses.Result: Awareness and knowledge are the main determinants of attitude in nurses, which should be applied in order to foster positive attitudes in the process of organ donation. Furthermore, extensive clinical knowledge should be acquired on organ donation and communication skills by ICU nurses through proper training programs.Conclusion: According to the results, using standard guidelines or scheduled training programs in nursing schools could improve the level of knowledge in nurses, which in turn enhances nursing performance. In addition, our findings indicated that positive attitude and knowledge of nurses could largely infleunce the viewpoint of families toward organ donation.
Candelaria, Laura M; Spatz, Diane L; Giordano, Noreen
To examine the experiences of women who donated breast milk to a hospital-based milk bank regulated under the policies and procedures set forth by the Human Milk Banking Association of North America (HMBANA). Qualitative, phenomenological design. The Mothers' Milk Bank in a children's hospital in the Northeastern region of the United States. Twelve HMBANA-approved milk donors older than 21 years with infants hospitalized in the NICU. Edmund Husserl's design of interpretive phenomenology and Colaizzi's method of data analysis were used for this study. Participants were interviewed using a face-to-face, semistructured interview format. Four themes represented the experience of donating breast milk: Ripple of Hope and Help, Dynamic Interplay of Nurturance, Standing on the Shoulders of Others, and Sharing Their Stories. Donors felt proud and accomplished to provide hope for other infants and families. Nurses were crucial in facilitating and motivating donors and making donation achievable in a supportive environment. Donors felt compelled to share their experiences to teach and motivate others to donate. For our participants, donation of human milk was a positive, valuable, and nurturing experience. Donors reported feelings of increased self-esteem during donation that motivated them to "give back" and continue. The support of a well-trained nursing staff is essential for donors to meet their personal goals. Copyright © 2018 AWHONN, the Association of Women’s Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What information must FAA provide to GSA on its administration of the public airport donation program? 102-37.535 Section... Donations to Public Airports § 102-37.535 What information must FAA provide to GSA on its administration of...
Cutting-edge research requires a constantly high performance of the computing equipment. At the CERN Computing Centre, computers typically need to be replaced after about four years of use. However, while servers may be withdrawn from cutting-edge use, they are still good for other uses elsewhere. This week, 220 servers and 30 routers were donated to the Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology (KNUST) in Ghana. “KNUST will provide a good home for these computers. The university has also developed a plan for using them to develop scientific collaboration with CERN,” said John Ellis, a professor at King’s College London and a visiting professor in CERN’s Theory Group. John Ellis was heavily involved in building the relationship with Ghana, which started in 2006 when a Ghanaian participated in the CERN openlab student programme. Since 2007 CERN has hosted Ghanaians especially from KNUST in the framework of the CERN Summer Student Progr...
Ouhbi, Sofia; Fernández-Alemán, José Luis; Toval, Ambrosio; Idri, Ali; Pozo, José Rivera
Blood donation (BD) is a noble act and mobile applications (apps) can help increase awareness about it. This paper analyzes and assesses the characteristics of free apps for BD as regards features and functionality. A search in Google Play, Apple Apps store, Blackberry App World and Windows Mobile App store was carried out to select 169 free BD apps from the 188 apps identified. The results presented in this paper show that the majority of the apps selected have been developed for the Android operating system. Moreover, most of the apps selected are available to help users search for donors. Few of the apps could not be installed and/or accessed. Of those that could be installed: half of them do not require any kind of authentication; a few of them are available in more than one language; half of them have a geographical restriction; around 60 % of them do not notify the user of BD events and requests; one, which is available for Android and iOS, can connect with a laboratory; around 45 % of them allow users to share information via social networks, and the majority of them do not provide BD recommendations. These results are used as a basis to provide app developers with certain recommendations. There is a need for better BD apps with more features in order to increase the number of volunteer donors.
Next of kin decisive on organ donation Changing the donor registration systems is not expected to result in more donor organs. We better try to solve the bottlenecks in the donation process within hospitals and to reduce the number of refusals by next of kin, as NIVEL research shows, based on which
Esqalli, Imane; Knidiri, Hafssa; Mahoungou, Gael; Aitlahcen, Zineb; Fadili, Wafaa; Laouad, Inass
Morocco stays far behind other countries in the domain of organ donation and transplantation. Improving the knowledge of Moroccan students, about organ donation and transplantation, can be a key factor in the development of transplant activity. The aim of this study is to evaluate the knowledge, attitudes and beliefs of students concerning organ donation and transplantation. The opinion survey was conducted in Marrakech city, with four high education structures with a pre-established questionnaire. The survey questions answered four main themes, which are: the evaluation of knowledge, the opinion and attitude of citizen, the explanation of refusal and the propositions to encourage organ donation in Morocco. Hundred percent of surveyed subjects answered the questionnaire. Among them, 40.3% were men. The middle age was 21.5 years. Out of 503 surveyed students, 89.4% were aware of organ transplant in Morocco. A quarter of students believed that removal and transplant acts were realized just in public health establishments, which have the authorization. Two persons out of 3 were able to identify transplantable organs and tissues. More than half accepted to donate their organs after death. The religious reason was in the head list of refusal determinants of organ donation after death, with a prevalence of 39.7%. Young Moroccans have limited knowledge relating to organ donation. The development of this therapy needs to establish an adequate project of information and motivation of general population. Copyright © 2015 Association Société de néphrologie. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.
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Dos Santos, Marcelo José; Feito, Lydia
The family interview context is permeated by numerous ethical issues which may generate conflicts and impact on organ donation process. This study aims to analyze the family interview process with a focus on principlist bioethics. This exploratory, descriptive study uses a qualitative approach. The speeches were collected using the following prompt: "Talk about the family interview for the donation of organs and tissues for transplantation, from the preparation for the interview to the decision of the family to donate or not." For the treatment of qualitative data, we chose the method of content analysis and categorical thematic analysis. The study involved 18 nurses who worked in three municipal organ procurement organizations in São Paulo, Brazil, and who conducted family interviews for organ donation. Ethical considerations: The data were collected after approval of the study by the Research Ethics Committee of the School of Nursing of the University of São Paulo. The results were classified into four categories and three subcategories. The categories are the principles adopted by principlist bioethics. The principles of autonomy, beneficence, non-maleficence, and justice permeate the family interview and reveal their importance in the organs and tissues donation process for transplantation. The analysis of family interviews for the donation of organs and tissues for transplantation with a focus on principlist bioethics indicates that the process involves many ethical considerations. The elucidation of these aspects contributes to the discussion, training, and improvement of professionals, whether nurses or not, who work in organ procurement organizations and can improve the curriculum of existing training programs for transplant coordinators who pursue ethics in donation and transplantation as their foundation.
Eren, Emre A; Latchana, Nicholas; Beal, Eliza; Hayes, Don; Whitson, Bryan; Black, Sylvester M
The supply of liver grafts for treatment of end-stage liver disease continues to fall short of ongoing demands. Currently, most liver transplants originate from donations after brain death. Enhanced utilization of the present resources is prudent to address the needs of the population. Donation after circulatory or cardiac death is a mechanism whereby the availability of organs can be expanded. Donations after circulatory death pose unique challenges given their exposure to warm ischemia. Technical principles of donations after circulatory death procurement and pertinent studies investigating patient outcomes, graft outcomes, and complications are highlighted in this review. We also review associated risk factors to suggest potential avenues to achieve improved outcomes and reduced complications. Future considerations and alternative techniques of organ preservation are discussed, which may suggest novel strategies to enhance preservation and donor expansion through the use of marginal donors. Ultimately, without effective measures to bolster organ supply, donations after circulatory death should remain a consideration; however, an understanding of inherent risks and limitations is necessary.
Shah, Malay B; Vilchez, Valery; Goble, Adam; Daily, Michael F; Berger, Jonathan C; Gedaly, Roberto; DuBay, Derek A
Despite numerous initiatives to increase solid organs for transplant, the gap between donors and recipients widens. There is little in the literature identifying socioeconomic predictors for donation. We evaluate the correlation between socioeconomic factors and familial authorization for donation. A retrospective analysis of adult potential donor referrals between 2007 and 2012 to our organ procurement organization (OPO) was performed. Potential donor information was obtained from the OPO database, death certificates, and the US Census Report. Data on demographics, education, residence, income, registry status, cause and manner of death, as well as OPO assessments and approach for donation were collected. End point was familial authorization for donation. A total of 1059 potential donors were included, with an overall authorization rate of 47%. The majority was not on the donor registry (73%). Younger donors (18-39 y: odds ratio [OR] = 4.9, P donation first mentioned by the local health care provider (OR = 1.8, P = 0.01) were also independently associated with higher authorization rates. Donor registration correlated most strongly with the highest authorization rates. These results indicate that public educational efforts in populations with unfavorable socioeconomic considerations may be beneficial in improving donor registration. Collaborations with local providers as well as OPO in-hospital assessments and approach techniques can help with improving authorization rates. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Sojka, B Nilsson; Sojka, P
The aim of the study was to investigate motives for donating blood as well as difficulties and obstacles associated with blood donation as perceived by the donors themselves. Six hundred consecutive blood donors (i.e. all blood donors with a history of at least one previous whole blood donation attending, during nine working days, the Blood Centre of Umeå University Hospital) received a self-administered questionnaire that contained questions aimed at elucidating motives for donating blood (general motives for donating blood, specific motives for the first donation and motives for continuing to be an active blood donor). Questions concerning difficulties and obstacles that had to be overcome in order to continue being a blood donor were also included in the questionnaire. Altogether 531 whole blood donors filled in the questionnaire (88.5%; 322 men and 209 women). No statistically significant differences were found between male and female blood donors concerning general reasons and motives related to donating blood. The most frequently reported reasons for giving blood the first time were 'influence from a friend' (47.2% of donors) and 'request via media' (23.5% of donors). Among general reasons/motives with highest ranking of importance, the most commonly reported motive for donating blood were 'general altruism' (40.3%), 'social responsibility/obligation' (19.7%) and 'influence from friends' (17.9%). General altruism' and 'social responsibility/obligation' were also the most frequent reasons for continuing to donate blood (68.4 and 16.0%, respectively). The most commonly reported obstacle to becoming a regular blood donor was 'laziness' (19.1%) followed by 'fear of needles' (10.5%). Altruism was the most common general motive for donating blood and also for continuing to be an active blood donor. Yet, for the first blood donation, direct 'influence from friends/relatives', 'media appeal' and other types of recruitment were more commonly reported as reasons or
Kitchen, Alan D; Hewitt, Patricia E; Chiodini, Peter L
Trypanosoma cruzi is a parasitic infection endemic in Central and Southern America, but is spreading into nonendemic countries with migration of infected individuals from endemic countries. The parasite is transmitted by transfusion or transplantation and donation screening is performed routinely in endemic countries to prevent transmission. In situations where migrants from endemic countries have settled in nonendemic countries and present as donors (blood or other cellular products), intervention is required to prevent transfusion or transplantation transmission. A screening program for T. cruzi was developed and has been used successfully for over 10 years that includes donor selection and donation screening. Donor selection criteria to identify specific risk of T. cruzi infection were developed together with laboratory screening of donations for T. cruzi antibodies and the subsequent confirmation of screen reactivity. Since the introduction of T. cruzi screening in England in 1998, a total of 38,585 donors and donations have been screened for T. cruzi antibodies, of which 223 were repeat reactive on screening and referred for confirmation: 206 confirmed negative, 14 inconclusive, and three positive. Since the move in 2005 from donor qualification to donation release testing, 15,536 donations were collected and screened, of which 15,499 (99.8%) were T. cruzi antibody negative and released to inventory. An effective program to minimize risk of the transmission of T. cruzi infection via donations has been developed and implemented. Not only does the program minimize risk of transmission, it also minimizes the cumulative, and needless, loss of donors and donations that would ensue if permanent donor deferral alone was adopted. © 2012 American Association of Blood Banks.
Pereima, Rosane Suely May Rodrigues; Reibnitz, Kenya Schmidt; Martini, Jussara Gue; Nitschke, Rosane Gonçalves
The article offers a reflection of blood donation in an hemocenter of Santa Catarina, with a mechanic and organic solidarity approach. It discuss the way of life in contemporary globalization and the cult of speed in a context pervaded by uncertainties and adversities. People live in a fast world, making social interaction difficult, contributing to the weakening of values and attitudes that could improve the quality of life. Considering the difficulties of everyday contemporary society, concerning Brazilian hemotherapy history on blood donation, there is a perception that attitudes and values, such as solidarity, have been modifying in subtle ways with a background of current events. It searches for understanding of blood donation as mechanic and organic solidarity.
This article examines the ethics of egg donation. It begins by looking at objections to noncommercial gamete donation, and then takes up criticism of commercial egg donation. After discussing arguments based on concern for offspring, inequality, commodification, exploitation of donors, and threats to the family, I conclude that some payment to donors is ethically acceptable. Donors should not be paid for their eggs, but rather they should be compensated for the burdens of egg retrieval. Making the distinction between compensation for burdens and payment for a product has the advantages of limiting payment, not distinguishing between donors on the basis of their traits, and ensuring that donors are paid regardless of the number or quality of eggs retrieved.
Jacobs, Cheryl; Thomas, Charlie
The shortage of cadaveric organs and increased success of living donor transplantation support the use of living organ donors. Clinical social workers have the opportunity to explore a variety of donor-specific issues when performing psychosocial evaluations of living donors, including motivation, psychological stability, and personal and family consequences of donation, as well as the direct and indirect financial consequences faced by living donors. Although most donor-related medical costs are covered, other associated expenses are not reimbursable and may put donors at risk for financial hardship. Out-of-pocket expenses also serve as a disincentive to donate for some volunteers. During the evaluation process, healthcare professionals should openly discuss how surgery, recovery, and any potential complications might impact prospective donors' financial situation. Donors can then decide whether they are able to realistically handle the costs of donation. We present the financial dilemmas experienced by many living donors and highlight efforts that have been made to deal with them.
Siminoff, Laura A; Traino, Heather M; Gordon, Nahida H
This study explores the effects of tissue requesters' relational, persuasive, and nonverbal communication on families' final donation decisions. One thousand sixteen (N = 1,016) requests for tissue donation were audiotaped and analyzed using the Siminoff Communication Content and Affect Program, a computer application specifically designed to code and assist with the quantitative analysis of communication data. This study supports the important role of communication strategies in health-related decision making. Families were more likely to consent to tissue donation when confirmational messages (e.g., messages that expressed validation or acceptance) or persuasive tactics such as credibility, altruism, or esteem were used during donation discussions. Consent was also more likely when family members exhibited nonverbal immediacy or disclosed private information about themselves or the patient. The results of a hierarchical log-linear regression revealed that the use of relational communication during requests directly predicted family consent. The results provide information about surrogate decision making in end-of-life situations and may be used to guide future practice in obtaining family consent to tissue donation.
Mwachaka, Philip Maseghe; Mandela, Pamela; Saidi, Hassan
The use of unclaimed bodies for anatomical dissection has been the main method of instruction at our institution. There is however a shortage of cadavers for dissection given the increase in the number of medical schools as well as in the number of students enrolling in these schools. This shortage could be mitigated by having voluntary human body donation programs. This study aimed at assessing the attitudes of medical students and surgical residents towards body donation for anatomy learning. We conducted an online survey involving 72 first-year medical students and 41 surgical residents at University of Nairobi who had completed one year of anatomy dissection. For the medical students, this was their first dissection experience while it was the second exposure for the surgery trainees. Most of the surgical trainees (70.7%) and medical students (68.1%) were opposed to self-body donation. This was mainly due to cultural (37%) and religious (20%) barriers. Surprisingly, of those not willing to donate themselves, 67.9% (82.8% surgical trainees, 59.2% medical students) would recommend the practice to other people. Exposure to repeated dissection does not change the perceptions towards body donation. It is noteworthy that culture and religion rank high as clear barriers amongst this “highly informed” group of potential donors. PMID:27190650
Mwachaka, Philip Maseghe; Mandela, Pamela; Saidi, Hassan
The use of unclaimed bodies for anatomical dissection has been the main method of instruction at our institution. There is however a shortage of cadavers for dissection given the increase in the number of medical schools as well as in the number of students enrolling in these schools. This shortage could be mitigated by having voluntary human body donation programs. This study aimed at assessing the attitudes of medical students and surgical residents towards body donation for anatomy learning. We conducted an online survey involving 72 first-year medical students and 41 surgical residents at University of Nairobi who had completed one year of anatomy dissection. For the medical students, this was their first dissection experience while it was the second exposure for the surgery trainees. Most of the surgical trainees (70.7%) and medical students (68.1%) were opposed to self-body donation. This was mainly due to cultural (37%) and religious (20%) barriers. Surprisingly, of those not willing to donate themselves, 67.9% (82.8% surgical trainees, 59.2% medical students) would recommend the practice to other people. Exposure to repeated dissection does not change the perceptions towards body donation. It is noteworthy that culture and religion rank high as clear barriers amongst this "highly informed" group of potential donors.
Karacan, Eda; Cengiz Seval, Guldane; Aktan, Zeynep; Ayli, Meltem; Palabiyikoglu, Refia
Donations in Turkey are insufficient to cover the high transfusion needs arising from large numbers of thalassemia and sickle cell anemia patients and increasing demands for blood due to advanced surgery and cancer treatment. The most acceptable means to get blood is voluntary blood donation and the blood donor system in Turkey mostly depends on a combination of voluntary and involuntary donors. The main aim of this study is to explore the motivations of Turkish voluntary blood donors toward blood donation and to determine predictors of blood donation motivation. A cross-sectional sample survey of active blood donors in Ankara, Turkey was conducted. The sample consisted of 189 male volunteer blood donor adults. Donors filled in a self-administered questionnaire including the measures of demographic information, empathetic concern, altruism, social responsibility and blood donation motivation questionnaire during donation. Factor analysis of Blood Donation Motivation Measure with varimax rotation revealed a three-factor solution named as "values and moral duty", "positive feelings and esteem" and "self-benefit and external reasons". The results with regression analyses showed that only social responsibility had an significant effect independent of age, income, and education on blood donation motivation. These result reflects that blood donation motivation not only linked to a high degree of altruistic reasons, but also to a combination of some self-regarding motives. Additionally, feelings of empathy or altruism may be less strong at the time the decision to help, other factors may have a larger influence on helping decisions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Hyde, Melissa K; White, Katherine M
To use a theory of planned behaviour (TPB) framework to explore the beliefs underlying communication of the donation decision for people who had not previously registered their consent on a donor register or discussed their decision with significant others. Initially, a focus group study elicited the common TPB (behavioural, normative, and control) beliefs about registering and discussing the organ donation decision. The main study assessed the important TPB belief predictors of intentions to register and discuss the donation decision. University students and community members from Queensland, Australia (N=123) completed items assessing their intentions and the TPB behavioural, normative, and control beliefs for registering and discussing their donation decision. Structural equation modelling (SEM) analyses revealed significant paths between people's intentions to register their donation decisions and underlying behavioural (e.g. enabling efficient donation procedures), normative (e.g. friends, doctors/medical professionals), and control (e.g. lack of motivation, knowing details about transplant recipients) beliefs (R2=.30). There were also significant paths between people's intentions to discuss their donation decision and underlying behavioural (e.g. feeling uncomfortable talking about death related topics) and normative (e.g. partner/spouse, family members) beliefs, but not control beliefs (R2=.33). There was a significant path between intentions to register and intentions to discuss one's donation decision. Results highlight the importance of focusing on behavioural and normative beliefs about communicating the donation decision, specifically for people who have not previously communicated their decision, and suggest potential targets for interventions designed to promote decision communication.
Preaubert, Lise; Vincent-Rohfritsch, Aurélie; Santulli, Pietro; Gayet, Vanessa; Goffinet, François; Le Ray, Camille
Women increasingly resort to oocyte donation to become pregnant. The high risk of preeclampsia found in oocyte donation pregnancies and the separate risk of preeclampsia associated with sperm donation may be cumulative in double donation pregnancies. We aimed to study the obstetrical and perinatal outcomes of pregnancies obtained by double donation (both oocyte and sperm) in comparison with those obtained by oocyte donation alone (oocyte donation and partner's sperm). This cohort study included all women aged 43 and older who became pregnant after oocyte donation and gave birth between 2010 and 2016 in a tertiary maternity center. Primary outcomes were preeclampsia and hypertensive gestational disorders. Secondary outcomes were gestational diabetes, placental abnormalities, postpartum hemorrhage, perinatal death, and preterm delivery. We used univariate and multivariate analysis to compare IVF with double donation and IVF with oocyte donation alone for obstetric and perinatal outcomes. 247 women, 53 with double donations and 194 with oocyte donations alone, gave birth to 339 children. We observed no significant differences between groups for any obstetric or perinatal complications, except for the risk of gestational diabetes, which was more frequent in women with double donations compared with oocyte donation alone (26.4% vs. 12.9%, P = 0.02) and remained significant after adjustment (aOR = 2.80 95%CI[1.26-6.17]). Rates of gestational hypertension and preeclampsia were high, but similar between groups (20.7% vs. 26.3%, P = 0.41, and 18.9% vs. 17.5%, P = 0.82). Women undergoing oocyte donation should be fully informed of its high rates of obstetric and perinatal risks. However, except for a higher observed risk of gestational diabetes, double donation does not appear to be associated with a higher risk of complications than oocyte donation alone. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
highlights the integral role of nurses in the organ donation process, and elegantly shows ... leader in deceased organ donation, with a rate approaching 40 per million population and ... be completely independent of the transplant team..
... members, doctor, or faith leader about the decision to donate life. To find out more about donation and... call upon health care professionals, volunteers, educators, government agencies, faith-based and...
Park, Ui Jun; Han, Sang Youb; Han, Kum Hyun; Oh, Se Won; Jang, Hye-Yeon; Kim, Hyoung Tae; Roh, Young-Nam
This study aims to investigate the effects of phased education on attitudes toward organ donation and willingness to donate after brain death. A survey was conducted using a questionnaire to examine attitudes toward organ donation of the families of patients admitted to a surgical intensive care unit (SICU) between March 1, 2014 and September 30, 2016. Ninety-two people voluntarily participated in this survey. Before reviewing the educational material, 75.0% had a positive attitude toward organ donation, 60.9% were willing to donate their own organs, and 38.0% were willing to donate a family member's organs. After reviewing the educational material, these figures increased to 92.4%, 80.4%, and 56.5%, respectively. Before receiving an education, there was a significant difference in consistency between people's attitudes and willingness to donate their own organs, versus donating a family member's organs (79.3% vs 54.3%, p donating one's own organs, and from 54.3% to 64.1% with regard to donating a family member's organs. Phased education was effective overall, but it had a limited effect on changing the willingness to donate a family member's organs. It increased the consistency between people's attitudes toward organ donation and willingness to donate their own, or a family member's organs. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Taiwan.
After a patient died in a Veterans Administration hospital, a resident physician asked the next of kin to sign two identical autopsy forms, one of which was stamped "Eye Donor." The family signed, despite orally objecting to donation of tissue. Nevertheless, the patient's eyes were removed because other hospital staff were unaware of the objection. The family sued the hospital and eye bank. The Federal District Court in Minnesota dismissed the case before trial on the basis that both defendants were immune from liability because of the Uniform Anatomical Gift Act. Clear policies communicated to staff and separate autopsy and donation forms can help to avoid confusion and legal difficulties.
Lefrère, J-J; Garraud, O
The French pioneer for blood transfusion, who eventually organized the very early blood transfusion centers worldwide, went to imagine a scenario written in purpose for Charlie Chaplin, the unique character of "The Tramp" ("Charlot" in French). The movie Star was offered to feature a blood donation propagandist, and no longer the perpetual, well-known, "loser". This anecdote, besides being amusing, tells a lot on how Arnault Tzank encompassed all the difficulties in collecting blood enough to meet the demand, at all times; his proposal turns out to be extremely modern and questions nowadays marketing for blood donation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Bona fide donations. 433.54 Section 433.54 Public... Financial Participation § 433.54 Bona fide donations. (a) A bona fide donation means a provider-related donation, as defined in § 433.52, made to the State or unit of local government, that has no direct or...
... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Donation or loan. 12.36 Section 12.36... SEIZURE AND FORFEITURE PROCEDURES Disposal of Forfeited or Abandoned Property § 12.36 Donation or loan. (a... and security for the item. (b) Any donation or loan may be made only after execution of a transfer...
... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Account 426.1, Donations. 367.4261 Section 367.4261 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY..., Donations. This account must include all payments or donations for charitable, social or community welfare...
... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Permissible provider-related donations. 433.66... Requirements State Financial Participation § 433.66 Permissible provider-related donations. (a) General rule... provider-related donations without a reduction in FFP, only in accordance with the requirements of this...
... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Gifts and donations. 38...) NATIONAL CEMETERIES OF THE DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS § 38.603 Gifts and donations. (a) Gifts and donations will be accepted only after it has been determined that the donor has a clear understanding that...
... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Charitable contributions and donations. 701.25... ORGANIZATION AND OPERATION OF FEDERAL CREDIT UNIONS § 701.25 Charitable contributions and donations. (a) A... directors must approve charitable contributions and/or donations, and the approval must be based on a...
... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contributions or donations. 31.205-8 Section 31.205-8 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION... Organizations 31.205-8 Contributions or donations. Contributions or donations, including cash, property and...
Felts, W. Michael; Glascoff, Mary A.
Presents a primer for health educators about blood donation and transfusion, examining the nature of human blood, the background of blood transfusion, blood donation criteria, risks related to homologous blood transfusion, directed blood donation, potential alternatives to homologous transfusion, and resources for education on the subject. (SM)
Tavakol, Najmeh; Kheiri, Soleiman; Sedehi, Morteza
Time to donating blood plays a major role in a regular donor to becoming continues one. The aim of this study was to determine the effective factors on the interval between the blood donations. In a longitudinal study in 2008, 864 samples of first-time donors in Shahrekord Blood Transfusion Center, capital city of Chaharmahal and Bakhtiari Province, Iran were selected by a systematic sampling and were followed up for five years. Among these samples, a subset of 424 donors who had at least two successful blood donations were chosen for this study and the time intervals between their donations were measured as response variable. Sex, body weight, age, marital status, education, stay and job were recorded as independent variables. Data analysis was performed based on log-normal hazard model with gamma correlated frailty. In this model, the frailties are sum of two independent components assumed a gamma distribution. The analysis was done via Bayesian approach using Markov Chain Monte Carlo algorithm by OpenBUGS. Convergence was checked via Gelman-Rubin criteria using BOA program in R. Age, job and education were significant on chance to donate blood (Pdonation for the higher-aged donors, clericals, workers, free job, students and educated donors were higher and in return, time intervals between their blood donations were shorter. Due to the significance effect of some variables in the log-normal correlated frailty model, it is necessary to plan educational and cultural program to encourage the people with longer inter-donation intervals to donate more frequently.
Arage, Getachew; Ibrahim, Seada; Adimasu, Endeshaw
Blood donation has remained a challenge in developing countries, like Ethiopia. In Ethiopia there is a high reliance on family surrogate and waged blood donors which carries an attendant increased risk of transfusion transmissible infection. Health workers are expected to practice blood donation so as to create a good image to the public. A study on blood donation behavior may improve successful implementation of the blood donation programs. An institution based cross-sectional study was deployed from January to June 2015. An aggregate of 427 health workers were included in the study by using simple random sampling technique. Data were collected by using pre tested and structured questionnaire via self-administrated method. Descriptive and summary statistics were employed. Bivariate and multiple logistic regressions were computed. Odds ratios and their 95% confidence intervals were calculated to determine the level of significance. A total of 427 participants were included in the final analysis (response rate = 100%). Among these participants, 33.2% of them practice blood donation. Age above 25 years [AOR = 1.8 (95% CI 1.1, 3.0)], health professionals' knowledge of blood donation [AOR = 1.9 (95% CI 1.1, 3.1)], health professionals' attitude towards blood donation [AOR = 3.0, 95% CI 1. 8, 4.9)], and the presence of family members or relatives who received blood [AOR = 5.4, 95% CI 3.7, 8.7)] were significantly and independently associated with blood donation behavior of health professionals. Blood donation practice of health professionals in this study was found to be low as compared to other studies conducted in developing countries. Health professionals' knowledge, attitude, age and the presence of family members or relatives who received blood before were independently associated with blood donation practice. Thus, awareness has to be created for health professionals to improve blood donation practices.
Bolt, S.H.; Eisinga, R.N.; Venbrux, H.J.M.; Kuks, J.B.M.; Gerrits, P.O.
Background This study examines the relationship between motivation for body donation to science and personality characteristics using a body donor survey (N = 759) conducted by the University Medical Centre Groningen (UMCG) in The Netherlands. The survey expands on anthropological studies that
For the third year in a row, NCI at Frederick is participating in the Feds Feed Families campaign, which aims to stock food banks during the summer when donations are often limited. The 2016 campaign runs through August 31. This year, the Office of Scientific Operations (OSO) has decided to send the campaign off with a twist. Rich Folkers, public affairs specialist, Office of
Bolt, Sophie; Eisinga, Rob; Venbrux, Eric; Kuks, Jan B. M.; Gerrits, Peter O.
Background: This study examines the relationship between motivation for body donation to science and personality characteristics using a body donor survey (N = 759) conducted by the University Medical Centre Groningen (UMCG) in The Netherlands. The survey expands on anthropological studies that
Sperm donation is an increasingly common method of assisted reproduction. In the debate on sperm donation, the right to privacy - construed as a right that refers to the limits of the realm of information to which others have access - plays a pivotal role with regard to two questions. The first question is whether the sperm donor's right to privacy implies his right to retain his anonymity, the second is whether the gamete recipients' right to privacy entitles them to withhold information about the circumstances of their conception from their donor-conceived offspring. In this contribution, I tackle these two interrelated questions. In part (1), I defend the view that there is a prima facie right of sperm donors to remain anonymous. Part (2) widens the perspective by taking into consideration the welfare of donor-conceived offspring. I argue that anonymity may harm the child only if the gametes' recipients decide to disclose information about the circumstances of her birth to the child. Non-disclosure of these circumstances, however, is morally problematic because it may not necessarily harm, but wrong the child. In section (3), I attempt to rebut some arguments in defense of non-disclosure. In part (4), I defend the view that the best practice of sperm donation would be 'direct donation', i.e. that the identity of the donor is known from the time of conception. Part (5) concludes.
Full Text Available Objective: It was aimed to present the acceptance rate of organ donation of cases that were diagnosed with brain death and evaluated in terms of their demographic and clinical properties retrospectively in Adıyaman University Training and Research Hospital. Material and Method: In the intensive care unit of our hospital, cases that were diagnosed with brain death between the dates of January 2008 and December 2014 were retrospectively analyzed. Cases were evaluated in terms of age, sex, cause of brain death, blood groups, donation status, reasons for acceptance or rejection of donation, cardiac arrest, vasopressin treatment, laboratory test results, arterial blood gas values before and after the apnea test, intensive care unit follow-up durations, apnea test, seasonal and annual distribution. Also, potential donors and recipients were analyzed in accordance with their demographic characteristics. Results: The diagnosis of brain death was made in totally 57 cases; of those, 34 (59.6% were men and 23 (40.4% were women. The most common causes for brain death were traumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH and intracerebral hematoma. Most of the cases had A Rh+ blood type (n=18, 31.5% and the rate of brain death was 4.7 times higher in Rh (+ patients in comparison to Rh (- patients. The rate of incidence of cardiac arrest was 12.3% (n=7, and it was more common in traumatic SAH patients. The rate of receiving vasopressor therapy was 21.1% (n=12, and the mean duration of therapy was 1.3±0.8 days. It was more commonly used in traumatic SAH patients (n=10. The follow-up period was 2.7±3.2 (minimum: 1, maximum: 17 days. Five patients were considered to be organ donors. The most common reason for acceptance of donation was the effect of organ transplantation coordinator during family interviews (n=3, 60%. In total, 4 livers, 5 kidneys and 1 heart transplantation operations were performed to 10 patients. Conclusion: Due to problems in organ donation
Wirken, Lieke; van Middendorp, Henriët; Hooghof, Christina W; Sanders, Jan-Stephan F; Dam, Ruth E; van der Pant, Karlijn A M I; Berendsen, Elsbeth C M; Wellink, Hiske; Dackus, Henricus J A; Hoitsma, Andries J; Hilbrands, Luuk B; Evers, Andrea W M
Cognitions surrounding living organ donation, including the motivation to donate, expectations of donation and worries about donation, are relevant themes during living donor evaluation. However, there is no reliable psychometric instrument assessing all these different cognitions. This study developed and validated a questionnaire to assess pre-donation motivations, expectations and worries regarding donation, entitled the Donation Cognition Instrument (DCI). Psychometric properties of the DCI were examined using exploratory factor analysis for scale structure and associations with validated questionnaires for construct validity assessment. From seven Dutch transplantation centres, 719 potential living kidney donors were included. The DCI distinguishes cognitions about donor benefits, recipient benefits, idealistic incentives, gratitude and worries about donation (Cronbach's alpha 0.76-0.81). Scores on pre-donation cognitions differed with regard to gender, age, marital status, religion and donation type. With regard to construct validity, the DCI was moderately correlated with expectations regarding donor's personal well-being and slightly to moderately to health-related quality of life. The DCI is found to be a reliable instrument assessing cognitions surrounding living organ donation, which might add to pre-donation quality of life measures in facilitating psychosocial donor evaluation by healthcare professionals. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of ERA-EDTA. All rights reserved.
Trompeta, Joyce A; Cooper, Bruce A; Ascher, Nancy L; Kools, Susan M; Kennedy, Christine M; Chen, Jyu-Lin
Despite the growing need for organ donation among Asian Americans, studies suggest that they are reluctant to donate. To examine the association of attitudes and knowledge about organ donation and transplantation with willingness to donate and willingness to engage in family discussion about organ donation among Asian American adolescents. A cross-sectional study. The Big Island of Hawaii. Self-identified Asian American adolescents (Japanese, Chinese, Filipino, Korean), ages 16 to 17 years old, and each adolescent's parent or guardian. Asian American adolescents provided demographic information and completed the Modified Organ Donation Attitude Survey, the Organ Donation and Transplantation Knowledge Survey, and the Suinn-Lew Asian Self-Identity Acculturation Scale. A parent or guardian also provided demographic information. Linear regression analyses were used to examine the associations with willingness to donate and to engage in family discussion about organ discussion. Willingness to donate was associated with positive knowledge related to general aspects about organ donation and cultural limitations in receiving an organ transplant, a high level of acculturation, and a low level of negative attitudes (R2 = 0.402, F = 18.86, P = .005). Asian American adolescents with approving or positive attitudes were likely to engage in family discussion about organ donation (R2 = 0.195, F = 27.93, P = .005). To reinforce and maintain high levels of knowledge and positive attitudes, organ donation education is most likely needed in high schools.
Corman Dincer, Pelin; Birtan, Deniz; Arslantas, Mustafa Kemal; Tore Altun, Gulbin; Ayanoglu, Hilmi Omer
Organ donation is the most important stage for organ transplant. Studies reveal that attitudes of families of brain-dead patients toward donation play a significant role in their decision. We hypothesized that supporting family awareness about the meaning of organ donation, including saving lives while losing a loved one, combined with being informed about brain death and the donation process must be maintained by intensive care unit physicians through standardized interviews and questionnaires to increase the donation rate. We retrospectively evaluated the final decisions of families of 52 brain-dead donors treated at our institution between 2014 and 2017. Data underwent descriptive analyses. The standard interview content was generated after literature search results were reviewed by the authors. Previously, we examined the impact of standardized interviews done by intensive care unit physicians with relatives of potential brain-dead donors regarding decisions to donate or reasons for refusing organ donation. After termination of that study, interviews were done according to the intensivist's orientation, resulting in significantly decreased donation rates. Standardized interviews were then started again, resulting in increased donation rates. Of 17 families who participated in standardized interviews, 5 families (29.4%) agreed to donate organs of their brain-dead relatives. In the other group of families, intensivists governed informing the families of donation without standardized interviews. In this group of 35 families, 5 families (14.3%) approved organ donation. The decision regarding whether to agree to organ donation was statistically different between the 2 family groups (P donation process resulted in an increased rate of organ donation compared with routine protocols.
Hoogerwerf, M D; Veldhuizen, I J T; Merz, E-M; de Kort, W L A M; Frings-Dresen, M H W; Sluiter, J K
Donating blood has been associated with increased stress responses, with scarce evidence indicating that levels of psychological and hormonal stress are higher pre-donation than post-donation. We investigated whether a blood donation induces psychological and/or hormonal stress during the course of a blood donation, and whether responses differed between men and women, first-time and experienced donors and donors with high or low non-acute stress. In 363 donors, psychological (donation-stress and arousal) and hormonal (cortisol) stress were measured by questionnaire and salivary sample at seven key moments during a routine donation. Non-acute stress was assessed by a questionnaire. Repeated measurement analyses were performed, using the last measurement (leaving the donation center) as reference value. Levels of donation-stress, arousal and cortisol were significantly higher during donation than when leaving the donation center. When compared with men, women reported higher levels of donation-stress and cortisol in the first part of the visit. When compared with first-time donors, experienced donors reported lower levels of donation-stress during the first part of the visit, and higher levels of arousal but less reactivity throughout the visit. When compared to donors high on non-acute stress, donors low on non-acute stress reported lower levels of donation-stress during the first part of the visit, and showed less cortisol reactivity throughout the visit. Donating blood influences psychological and hormonal stress response patterns. The response patterns differ between women and men, first-time and experienced donors and between donors high and low on non-acute stress. © 2017 International Society of Blood Transfusion.
Weiss, Matthew J; Hornby, Laura; Witteman, William; Shemie, Sam D
Although pediatric donation after circulatory determination of death is increasing in frequency, there are no national or international donation after circulatory determination of death guidelines specific to pediatrics. This scoping review was performed to map the pediatric donation after circulatory determination of death literature, identify pediatric donation after circulatory determination of death knowledge gaps, and inform the development of national or regional pediatric donation after circulatory determination of death guidelines. Terms related to pediatric donation after circulatory determination of death were searched in Embase and MEDLINE, as well as the non-MEDLINE sources in PubMed from 1980 to May 2014. Seven thousand five hundred ninety-seven references were discovered and 85 retained for analysis. All references addressing pediatric donation after circulatory determination of death were considered. Exclusion criteria were articles that did not address pediatric patients, animal or laboratory studies, surgical techniques, and local pediatric donation after circulatory determination of death protocols. Narrative reviews and opinion articles were the most frequently discovered reference (25/85) and the few discovered studies were observational or qualitative and almost exclusively retrospective. Retained references were divided into themes and analyzed using qualitative methodology. The main discovered themes were 1) studies estimating the number of potential pediatric donation after circulatory determination of death donors and their impact on donation; 2) ethical issues in pediatric donation after circulatory determination of death; 3) physiology of the dying process after withdrawal of life-sustaining therapy; 4) cardiac pediatric donation after circulatory determination of death; and 5) neonatal pediatric donation after circulatory determination of death. Donor estimates suggest that pediatric donation after circulatory determination of death will
Hinck, Bryan D; Naelitz, Bryan D; Jackson, Brielle; Howard, Mariah; Nowacki, Amy; Modlin, Charles S
African Americans comprise 11 % of living organ donors, yet constitute 34 % of the kidney transplant waiting list. There are many barriers to organ donation among minorities that include decreased awareness of transplantation, cultural mistrust of the medical community, financial concerns, and fear of the transplant operation. This study investigates the societal misconceptions and demographic health factors that correlate with minority participation in organ and tissue donation. A 57 question Health and Wellness survey was designed to assess participants' demographic information, medical history, professional background, and opinions regarding organ transplantation. Participants were also asked to complete Quality Metric's Short Form-8 (SF-8) survey to assess physical health, mental health, and quality-of-life. Three hundred twenty-six surveys were administered to minority men. The majority of men were identified as African American, and 55 % were below the age of 40. Though 44 % of participants were willing to donate, only 27 % were registered as organ and tissue donors. Minorities who held misconceptions about organ donation-including the belief that they were too old or unhealthy to donate, for example-had lower general, physical, and mental health scores than those who did not (p = Minorities aware of the shortage for organs or who know a registered donor, an organ recipient, a dialysis patient, or someone on the waiting list were more willing to donate organs. Improving the general, physical, and mental health of minorities, coupled with an active educational outreach program, could result in a greater percentage of minorities registering and willing to be organ and tissue donors.
Baughn, Daniel; Auerbach, Stephen M; Siminoff, Laura A
Interpersonal relations with health care providers influence families' decisions to consent to solid-organ donation. However, previous research has been based on retrospective interviews with donation-eligible families and has not directly examined the interpersonal interactions between families and organ procurement coordinators. To increase understanding of the interpersonal interaction between procurement coordinators and families during the organ donation discussion, with special attention to the influence of the sex and race of the procurement coordinator and the race of the potential donor's family. A descriptive study in which standardized patients portrayed family members interacting with actual procurement coordinators in simulated donation request scenarios. Thirty-three videotaped interactions between standardized patients and 17 procurement coordinators involving 2 different scenarios depicting deceased donation were evaluated. Video recordings were rated by independent coders. Coders completed the Impact Message Inventory-Form C, the Participatory Style of Physician Scale, and the Siminoff Communication and Content and Affect Program-Global Observer Ratings scale. African American procurement coordinators, particularly African American women, were rated as more controlling and work-oriented than white procurement coordinators. Male procurement coordinators were more affiliative with the white family than the African American family, whereas female procurement coordinators were slightly less affiliative with the white family. African American procurement coordinators expressed more positive affect when interacting with the African American family than the white family, whereas the opposite was true for white procurement coordinators. Research is needed to cross-validate these exploratory findings and further examine cultural mistrust between procurement coordinators and families of ethnic minorities, especially given the negative attitudes of many
Beurel, A; Terrade, F; Lebaudy, J-P; Danic, B
The major contribution of Human Sciences in the understanding of the whole blood donation behavior has been through the study of individuals' motivations and deterrents to donate. However, if whole blood donation has been very widely studied in the last sixty years, we still know very little about plasma donation in voluntary non-remunerated environments. Yet, the need for plasma-derived products has been strongly increasing for some years, and blood collection agencies have to adapt if they want to meet this demand. This article aims to review the main motivations and deterrents to whole blood donation, and to compare them with those that we already know concerning plasma donation. Current evidence shows similarities between both behaviors, but also differences that indicate a need for further research regarding plasma donation. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier SAS.
Callé, N; Plainfossé, C; Georget, P; Sénémeaud, C; Rasonglès, P
The supply of blood cell products requires from the National French Blood Institute (Établissement Français du Sang - EFS) to rely upon regular blood donors. Contact with donors, tailored to individuals as much as possible, helps them to donate on a regular basis. Within the context of a research program conducted with the Psychology Department of the Université de Caen Basse-Normandie, persuasive theoretical models from social psychology have been tested. These models allow adapting messages according to the motivation of donors. The content is centred on the previous donation, differently labelled according to two types of labelling: functional labelling and social labelling. Functional labelling points out the efficiency of what "has been done" (the previous blood donation), whereas social labelling emphasizes the social value of the individual. Different types of mailing invitations have been sent to 1917 donors from the Normandy database, invited to three different blood collections. Every experimental letter worked better than the standard EFS letter (which was used as the "control" letter) in terms of effective blood donation after reception of the letter. Some of the letters are more efficient in motivating donors than other ones. The letters labelling the previous blood donation as functional (efficiency of the donation) appeared more efficient than those with social label (social value) in whichever motivation induced. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Ancillary personnel faced with living liver donation in a Spanish hospital with a transplant program El personal no sanitario de un hospital español con programa de trasplantes ante la donación de vivo hepática
Full Text Available Introduction: ancillary hospital personnel represent an important body of opinion because as they work in a hospital their opinion has more credibility for the general public as a result of their activity in hospitals. However, in most cases they do not have any health care training which means that their attitude could be based on a lack of knowledge or unfounded fears. The objective of this study is to analyze the attitude toward living liver donation among ancillary personnel in a hospital with a cadaveric and living liver organ transplant program and to analyze the variables that might influence such attitude. Patients and method: a random sample was taken which was stratified by service (n = 401 among ancillary personnel in the hospital. Attitude was evaluated using a survey that was validated in our geographical area. A representative from each service was contacted. This person was given an explanation of the study and was made responsible for the distribution of the questionnaire in selected work shifts. The survey was completed anonymously and was self-administered. The c2 test, Student's t-test and logistical regression analysis were used in the statistical analysis. Results: the questionnaire completion rate was 94% (n = 377. Of all the respondents, 20% (n = 74 are in favor of donating a living hemi-liver, but an additional 62% (n = 233 are in favor if donation is for a relative. Of the rest, 8% (n = 30 do not accept this type of donation and the remaining 11% (n = 40 are unsure. The following variables are related to attitude toward living liver donation: attitude toward cadaveric donation (p = 0.002; a respondent's belief that he or she might need a transplant in the future (p Introducción: los profesionales no sanitarios de centros hospitalarios representan un grupo de opinión importante, pues por el hecho de trabajar en un centro hospitalario su opinión tiene credibilidad entre la población, y sin embargo no tienen la
"Bravo! A huge success! A big thanks to everyone involved for their valuable participation this summer," says Ms. Troillet, the nurse responsible for the Transfusion Centre (CTS) at HUG. During the 24 July blood donation, blood was collected from 109 of the 150 people who attended (including 53 new donors). This excellent result is particularly noteworthy, since blood supplies are at their lowest levels in hospitals during the summer season. The CERN Medical Service joins CTS in thanking all donors for their generous gesture and Ms. Vuattaz, manager of the restaurant NOVAE No. 2 and her team, for their collaboration. Upcoming blood donations: Wednesday 16 October 2013 Thursday 3 April 2014 Wednesday 23 July 23 2014
Shaw, David M
In this article I argue that vagueness concerning consent to post-mortem organ donation causes considerable harm in several ways. First, the information provided to most people registering as organ donors is very vague in terms of what is actually involved in donation. Second, the vagueness regarding consent to donation increases the distress of families of patients who are potential organ donors, both during and following the discussion about donation. Third, vagueness also increases the chances that the patient's intention to donate will not be fulfilled due to the family's distress. Fourth, the consequent reduction in the number of donated organs leads to avoidable deaths and increased suffering among potential recipients, and distresses them and their families. There are three strategies which could be used to reduce the harmful effects of this vagueness. First, recategorizing the reasons (commonly referred to as 'overrules' under the current system) given by families who refuse donation from registered donors would bring greater clarity to donation discussions. Second, people who wish to donate their organs should be encouraged to discuss their wishes in detail with their families, and to consider recording their wishes in other ways. Finally, the consent system for organ donation could be made more detailed, ensuring both that more information is provided to potential donors and that they have more flexibility in how their intentions are indicated; this last strategy, however, could have the disadvantage of discouraging some potential donors from registering. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
For the third year in a row, NCI at Frederick is participating in the Feds Feed Families campaign, which aims to stock food banks during the summer when donations are often limited. The 2016 campaign runs through August 31. This year, the Office of Scientific Operations (OSO) has decided to send the campaign off with a twist. Rich Folkers, public affairs specialist, Office of Scientific Operations, came up with the idea for a "lock-in" event.
Dos Santos, M J; Leal de Moraes, E; Santini Martins, M; Carlos de Almeida, E; Borges de Barros E Silva, L; Urias, V; Silvano Corrêa Pacheco Furtado, M C; Brito Nunes, Á; El Hage, S
The goal of this study was to identify the tendency toward donations of tissue and organs from donors with brain death between 2001 and 2016 as registered by an organ procurement organization in São Paulo City. This quantitative, retrospective, exploratory study encompassed all Tissue and Organ Donation Terms signed between 2001 and 2016. A logistic regression model was applied to verify whether there was an upward or downward trend in donation. After statistical analysis, a significant change trend was identified in skin, bones, valve, vessel, heart, lung, and pancreas donations, indicating an increase in the donation rate through the years. The donation rate did not show changes over the years for donations of liver, kidneys, and corneas. The decision-making process regarding organ and tissue donation is restricted not only to the dilemma of whether to donate but another question then arises as well: which organs and tissues are to be donated? The discrepancy between the authorization for organ donation and the authorization for tissue donation, as well as the option for one or another organ and/or tissue, must be thoroughly examined because these factors directly affect the number of transplants and acquirements effectively accomplished. These factors may be related to explaining to one's relatives aspects of the surgery, body reassembling, and usage of such organs and/or tissues. They may also be related to the lack of knowledge concerning organ donation and the symbolism represented by the organ and/or tissue, among other factors. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Balwani, Manish R; Gumber, Manoj R; Shah, Pankaj R; Kute, Vivek B; Patel, Himanshu V; Engineer, Divyesh P; Gera, Dinesh N; Godhani, Umesh; Shah, Mehin; Trivedi, Hargovind L
To determine the knowledge, attitudes and practices regarding organ donation in western India. Convenience sampling was used to generate a sample of 250; 200 interviews were successfully completed and used for analysis. Data collection was carried out via face to face interviews based on a pre-tested questionnaire in selected public areas of Ahmedabad, Gujarat state of India. Data entry was made in excel software in codes and analysis was done by SPSS software. About 86% of participants were aware of the term organ donation but knowledge about its various aspects was low. About 48% aware people heard about organ donation through medical fraternity, whereas only about 21% became aware through mass media. About 59% of aware people believed there is a potential danger of donated organs being misused, abused or misappropriated. About 47% of aware people said they would consider donating organs, while only 16% said they would definitely donate irrespective of circumstances. Around 97.67% participants said they would prefer to donate to nonsmokers. About 74.41% participants were unaware about any legislation regarding organ donation. About 77% participants showed their will to donate to mentally sound persons, and 42.04% participants showed their will to donate even physically challenged people. Around 78 participants felt that they would donate organs to persons irrespective of their religion. About 81% of aware people were of the opinion that consent for organ donation after death should be given by family members. None of the interviewed participants had a donor card. Better knowledge and awareness will help in promoting organ donation. Effective campaign needs to be driven to educate people with relevant information with the involvement of media, doctors and religious scholars.
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Cooper, Crystale Purvis; Gelb, Cynthia A; Chu, Jennifer; Polonec, Lindsey
Donated media placements for public service announcements (PSAs) can be difficult to secure, and may not always reach intended audiences. Strategies used by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's (CDC) Screen for Life: National Colorectal Cancer Action Campaign (SFL) to obtain donated media placements include producing a diverse mix of high-quality PSAs, co-branding with state and tribal health agencies, securing celebrity involvement, monitoring media trends to identify new distribution opportunities, and strategically timing the release of PSAs. To investigate open-ended recall of PSAs promoting colorectal cancer screening, CDC conducted 12 focus groups in three U.S. cities with men and women either nearing age 50 years, when screening is recommended to begin, or aged 50-75 years who were not in compliance with screening guidelines. In most focus groups, multiple participants recalled exposure to PSAs promoting colorectal cancer screening, and most of these individuals reported having seen SFL PSAs on television, in transit stations, or on the sides of public buses. Some participants reported exposure to SFL PSAs without prompting from the moderator, as they explained how they learned about the disease. Several participants reported learning key campaign messages from PSAs, including that colorectal cancer screening should begin at age 50 years and screening can find polyps so they can be removed before becoming cancerous. Donated media placements can reach and educate mass audiences, including millions of U.S. adults who have not been screened appropriately for colorectal cancer.
Lefrère, Jean-Jacques; Danic, Bruno
The representation of blood transfusion and donation of blood in the comic strip has never been studied. The comic strip, which is a relatively recent art, emerged in the 19th century before becoming a mass medium during the 20th century. We have sought, by calling on collectors and using the resources of Internet, comic strips devoted, wholly or in part, to the themes of transfusion and blood donation. We present some of them here in chronologic order, indicating the title, country of origin, year of publication, and names of authors. The theme of the superhero using transfusion to transmit his virtues or his powers is repeated throughout the 20th century in North American comic strips. More recently, comic strips have been conceived from the outset with a promotional aim. They perpetuate positive images and are directed toward a young readership, wielding humor to reduce the fear of venipuncture. Few comic strips denounce the abuse of the commercialization of products derived from the human body. The image of transfusion and blood donation given by the comic strips is not to be underestimated because their readership is primarily children, some of whom will become blood donors. Furthermore, if some readers are transfused during their lives, the impact of a memory more or less conscious of these childhood readings may resurface, both in hopes and in fears. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Suguitan, G A; Cabanayan-Casasola, C B; Danguilan, R A; Jaro, J M A
The Human Organ Preservation Effort is a government organ procurement organization that pioneered the Deceased Organ Donation Program in the Philippines. Deceased organ donation comprises only 20% of kidney transplantation in the Philippines in the last 3 years. Various measures were implemented to improve deceased organ donor referrals and organ retrieval. To compare outcome of deceased organ donor referrals from 2002 to 2008 and 2009 to 2012 in the Philippines. This retrospective study reviewed the deceased organ donor referrals from 2002 to 2008 and 2009 to 2012. There were 437 referrals for potential deceased organ donors from 2009 to 2012, compared to 434 referrals from 2002 to 2008. Referrals were mainly trauma victims (76%) followed by those with cerebrovascular accidents (12%). In the recent cohort, 81% were approached and 60% consented for donation, but only 23% were retrieved and transplanted. Among those not retrieved, the majority (19%) were medically unsuitable and 6% retracted their consent. Although there was an increasing trend of organ donation referrals in the last 4 years, only 25% were procured. The reasons for nonprocurement should be addressed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Milaniak, I; Przybylowski, P; Wierzbicki, K; Sadowski, J
Organ shortage for transplantation is a crucial problem all over the world. Educational intervention may appeal to young people's altruism, increasing organ donation and decreasing the opposition. This study assessed the influence of an educational program, including organ donation and transplantation, to forming students' altruistic behaviors. A total 680 students of 25 secondary schools were asked about their attitudes, intentions, and knowledge about organ donation and transplantation from September 2008 to June 2009 during a 45-minute lesson. In this study, altruistic attitudes were measured through questions about the expression of will to give organs away after death; to give one kidney to relatives; to use the bone marrow from a foreign person; and to sign a donor card. Attitudes were assessed by questions about conversations with relatives, an evaluation of the educational project. More than 1500 donor card were distributed and more than 90% of students wanted to sign them; 73.6% agreed to sign a donor card with the ID card. Before the project, only 8% of students had a signed donor card. Almost everybody is ready to agree to give their organs after death (80.6% male; 92.2% female), or to relatives (100% male; 90.38% female), or bone marrow (80% male; 55.7% female). The students talked to their family, informing them about their decision (36.9% male; 45.9% female). The proposed educational project successfully encouraged teenagers to make well-considered choices with regard to organ donation and created altruistic behaviors.
Gillet, P; Rapaille, A; Benoît, A; Ceinos, M; Bertrand, O; de Bouyalsky, I; Govaerts, B; Lambermont, M
Whole blood donation is generally safe although vasovagal reactions can occur (approximately 1%). Risk factors are well known and prevention measures are shown as efficient. This study evaluates the impact of the donor's retention in relation to the occurrence of vasovagal reaction for the first three blood donations. Our study of data collected over three years evaluated the impact of classical risk factors and provided a model including the best combination of covariates predicting VVR. The impact of a reaction at first donation on return rate and complication until the third donation was evaluated. Our data (523,471 donations) confirmed the classical risk factors (gender, age, donor status and relative blood volume). After stepwise variable selection, donor status, relative blood volume and their interaction were the only remaining covariates in the model. Of 33,279 first-time donors monitored over a period of at least 15 months, the first three donations were followed. Data emphasised the impact of complication at first donation. The return rate for a second donation was reduced and the risk of vasovagal reaction was increased at least until the third donation. First-time donation is a crucial step in the donors' career. Donors who experienced a reaction at their first donation have a lower return rate for a second donation and a higher risk of vasovagal reaction at least until the third donation. Prevention measures have to be processed to improve donor retention and provide blood banks with adequate blood supply. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Marván, Maria Luisa; Álvarez Del Río, Asunción; Jasso, Kristian; Santillán-Doherty, Patricio
There is a severe shortage of organs for transplantation worldwide, and Mexico has one of the lowest organ donation rates. In this study, we explored the psychosocial barriers that prevent posthumous organ donation by Mexicans. We asked 218 adults who were not willing to be donors to complete the sentence "I don't want to donate my organs after death because organ donation is…" The data were analyzed using the Natural Semantic Networks Technique. The most important answers given by the participants were related to mistrust. Older participants and those with limited education gave more answers that reflect misconceptions about organ donation. Many participants acknowledged its benefits, even though they did not want to be donors, especially the youngest and those with a higher education. Mistrust and poor education are problems that urgently need to be addressed in order to increase acceptance of organ donation and transplantation. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
... become available for donation? 102-37.30 Section 102-37.30 Public Contracts and Property Management... 37-DONATION OF SURPLUS PERSONAL PROPERTY General Provisions Donation Overview § 102-37.30 When does property become available for donation? Excess personal property becomes available for donation the day...
... for public airport donations? 102-37.520 Section 102-37.520 Public Contracts and Property Management... 37-DONATION OF SURPLUS PERSONAL PROPERTY Donations to Public Airports § 102-37.520 What is the authority for public airport donations? The authority for public airport donations is 49 U.S.C. 47151. 49 U...
Shaw, David; Gardiner, Dale; Lewis, Penney; Jansen, Nichon; Wind, Tineke; Samuel, Undine; Georgieva, Denie; Ploeg, Rutger; Broderick, Andrew
In this article, we analyse the potential benefits and disadvantages of permitting healthcare professionals to invoke conscientious objection to deceased organ donation. There is some evidence that permitting doctors and nurses to register objections can ultimately lead to attitudinal change and acceptance of organ donation. However, while there may be grounds for conscientious objection in other cases such as abortion and euthanasia, the life-saving nature of donation and transplantation ren...
Araujo, C; Siqueira, M
Healthcare professionals have a crucial role in organ donation and transplantation processes. Their attitude toward organ donation can affect public opinion and the donation decision made by deceased donors' relatives. The objectives of the study were to analyze the attitude of medical and nursing personnel toward deceased organ donation in two hospitals in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, and the factors that can affect this attitude. A random sample (n = 162) was selected from the population of nurses and physicians in the hospitals analyzed. The sample was stratified by age, sex, marital status, religion, professional category, and educational level. A validated questionnaire addressing psychosocial aspects of organ donation was used to evaluate attitudes. The χ 2 and Mann-Whitney U tests were applied for statistical analysis. Of personnel surveyed, 86.4% (n = 140) were in favor of deceased organ donation, whereas 11.1% (n = 18) were not sure and 2.5% (n = 4) were against. The favorable attitude was related to the following aspects: (1) educational level, (2) having spoken with family members about organ donation, (3) having a chronic disease, (4) favorable attitude of one's family, (5) belief that organ donation can save lives, (6) concerns about body manipulation, illegal trade of organs, and organ donation being against God's will, (7) feeling proud of working with organ donation/transplantation, (8) self-assessment of experience and knowledge in organ donation/transplantation activities (P organ donation is well accepted among the healthcare professionals surveyed, and the attitude is affected by socio-personal variables. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Febrero, B; Almela, J; Ríos, A; Ros, I; Pérez-Sánchez, B; Martínez-Alarcón, L; Ruiz-Carreño, P; Ferreras, D; Ramírez, P; Parrilla, P
In rural areas it is common to find unfavorable attitudes toward organ donation, and therefore it is important to find out the attitude and profile of new generations for improving predisposition to organ donation in these areas. Our objective was to analyze the attitude toward organ donation and the related variables of teenagers in a rural area. Students in the final year of compulsory education (mostly 15-16 years of age) were selected from secondary schools in a rural area in southeastern Spain (n = 319; population density donating their organs, 30% (n = 90) were undecided, and 5% (n = 16) were against. Attitude toward the donation of one's own organs was related with sex (P = .015), previous experience of organ donation or transplantation (P = .046), comment on the topic of organ donation within the family (P = .003; odds ratio 2.155), knowing one's mother's opinion about the matter (P = .021), knowing the correct concept of brain death (P = .012; odds ratio 2.076), and religion (P = .014). A favorable attitude of teenagers in rural areas toward organ donation is slightly higher than in the adult population and is determined by many psychosocial variables, above all family discussion about organ donation and transplantation and correct knowledge of the brain death concept. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Today, oocyte donation has become well established, giving rise to thousands of children born worldwide annually. The introduction of oocyte cryopreservation through vitrification allows the introduction of egg banking, improving the efficiency and comfort of oocyte donation. Moreover, the vitrification technique can now enable autologous donation of oocytes to prevent future infertility. We evaluated fresh heterologous oocyte donation in terms of obstetrical and perinatal outcome as well as of the reproductive outcome of past donors. We then evaluated the efficiency of a closed vitrification device and its clinical applications within ART. Thirdly, we evaluated the opinion of women with regard to preventive egg freezing and the efficiency of a human oocyte in relation to age. Oocyte donation is associated with an increased risk of first trimester bleeding and pregnancy induced hypertension. Donating oocytes does not seem to increase the likelihood for a later need of fertility treatment. The chance of an oocyte to result in live birth (utilization rate) in women women would consider safeguarding their reproductive potential through egg freezing or are at least open to the idea. The introduction of efficient oocyte cryopreservation has revolutionized oocyte donation through the establishment of eggbank donation. The technique also enables women to perform autologous donation after preventive oocyte storage in order to circumvent their biological clock.
dosSantos, Marcelo José; Massarollo, Maria Cristina Komatsu Braga
This study aimed to disclose how relatives of cadaverous donors perceive the organ donation process for transplantation. A phenomenological, qualitative research was carried out on the basis of the "situated-phenomenon structure". The statements revealed that, for the relatives of the donors, the process of donation begins with the patients' hospital admission and only ends when they are buried. Furthermore, it is considered bureaucratic, long, consuming and tiring. This situation results in suffering and stress, but there is no regret about the organ donation since, although the pain caused by the loss does not end, the donation initiative comforts and brings satisfaction.
Hall, Bethany; Parkin, Matthew Sw
Organ donation has developed since the Human Tissue Act 1961, and even since the Human Tissue Act 2004, which replaced it. Given the demand for organ transplants, there have been various attempts to increase the number of people on the Organ Donation Register, including awareness campaigns and celebrity endorsement. However, as the UK-wide strategy Taking Organ Transplantation to 2020 indicates, increasing the number of donations will require more than simply increasing the number of registered donors. This article reviews the changes in policies relating to organ donation and the associated issues.
Flemming, Shauna St Clair; Redmond, Nakeva; Williamson, Dana Hz; Thompson, Nancy J; Perryman, Jennie P; Patzer, Rachel E; Arriola, Kimberly Jacob
Increasing public commitment to organ donation is critical to improving donor kidney availability for end-stage renal disease patients desiring transplant. This study surveyed ( N = 1339) African Americans, measuring perceived pros relative to cons of organ donation, to evaluate an existing Transtheoretical Model decisional balance scale and associations between decisional balance and expressing donation intentions. Findings supported the existing scale structure. More positive decisional balance ratios were associated with 1.76 times the odds of expressing intentions (95% confidence interval = 1.52-2.04). Pros were more strongly linked to donation intentions than cons. Greater understanding of organ donation decision-making is valuable for informing interventions that encourage donation.
Oliver, Mike; Ahmed, Aimun; Woywodt, Alexander
There is worldwide shortage of organs for solid-organ transplantation. Many obstacles to deceased and live donation have been described and addressed, such as lack of understanding of the medical process, the issue of the definition of brain death, public awareness of the need for transplants, and many others. However, it is clear that the striking differences in deceased and live donation rates between different countries are only partly explained by these factors and many cultural and social reasons have been invoked to explain these observations. We believe that one obstacle to both deceased and live donation that is less well appreciated is that of religious concerns. Looking at the major faiths and religions worldwide, it is reassuring to see that most of them encourage donation. However, there is also scepticism amongst some of them, often relating to the concept of brain death and/or the processes surrounding death itself. It is worthwhile for transplant teams to be broadly aware of the issues and also to be mindful of resources for counselling. We believe that increased awareness of these issues within the transplant community will enable us to discuss these openly with patients, if they so wish.
Koplin, Julian J
An innovative program recently initiated at the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) Medical Center allows people to donate a kidney in exchange for a voucher that a loved one can redeem for a kidney if and when needed. As a relatively new practice, the ethical implications of advanced kidney donation have not yet been widely discussed. This paper reflects on some of the bioethical issues at stake in this new donation program, as well as some broader philosophical issues related to the meaning and moral salience of commodification. I first consider whether the literature on commercial markets in organs--a longstanding topic of bioethical debate--can meaningfully inform ethical analysis of kidney voucher programs. Specifically, I consider whether and to what extent common objections to the exchange of kidneys for cash also apply to the exchange of kidneys for "kidney vouchers." Second, I argue that the contrast between the ethical issues raised by these two practices highlights the need to understand commodification as existing on a continuum, with different degrees of commodification giving rise to different ethical issues. Doing so can help sharpen our understanding of commodification as a moral concept, as well as its relevance to broader debates about the moral limits of markets. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press, on behalf of the Journal of Medicine and Philosophy Inc. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: email@example.com.
De Boeck, E; Jacxsens, L; Goubert, H; Uyttendaele, M
The food donation process in Belgium is mapped and analyzed to identify bottlenecks in compliance with the legal framework and implementation of food safety management, based on literature search and interviews with stakeholders (donors, acceptors, regulators and facilitators) in Belgium and at EU level. The study revealed that the food donation/acceptation chain is far less structured and organized than the conventional food supply chain. The fragmented landscape of many small food banks and charity organizations (acceptors), often directed by and working with volunteers without training in food safety and lack of knowledge of legal food hygiene requirements is a bottleneck to generate trust among food donors and restricts the provision of perishable products in food donations. Lack of refrigerated transport and insufficient cold/freezing capacity in food banks and charity organizations was identified as a barrier to distribute perishable products. Furthermore, in two cities in Flanders (Belgium), at some food donation centers, donated perishable food samples (n=72) were taken and subjected to microbiological analysis to determine their overall food quality, hygiene and food safety status. Twenty-two of 72 analyzed samples showed marginal microbiological quality based on numbers of yeast, lactic acid bacteria or total viable count. In three samples Listeria monocytogenes was detected per 25g among which one ready-to-eat cooked meat product which showed increased numbers of L. monocytogenes (3.5logCFU/g) and Enterobacteriaceae (6.7logCFU/g). Overall, in Belgium, most of the donated foods considers nonperishable foods, with more or less half of the food collected by the food banks being purchased with funds from FEAD (Fund for European Aid to the Most Deprived) and thus not derived from food losses. Efforts are being made by facilitators to provide a platform for better coordination of donors and acceptors to make more efficient use of food losses. Regulators at the
Samorinha, Catarina; Pereira, Margarida; Machado, Helena; Figueiredo, Bárbara; Silva, Susana
Systematic knowledge on the factors that influence the decisions of IVF users regarding embryo donation for research is a core need for patient-centred policies and ethics in clinical practice. However, no systematic review has been provided on the motivations of patients who must decide embryo disposition. This paper fills this gap, presenting a systematic review of quantitative and qualitative studies, which synthesizes the current body of knowledge on the factors and reasons associated with IVF patients' decisions to donate or not to donate embryos for research. A systematic search of studies indexed in PubMed, ISI WoK and PsycINFO, published before November 2013, was conducted. Only empirical, peer-reviewed, full-length, original studies reporting data on factors and reasons associated with the decision concerning donation or non-donation of embryos for research were included. Eligibility and data extraction were performed by two independent researchers and disagreements were resolved by discussion or a third reviewer, if required. The main quantitative findings were extracted and synthesized and qualitative data were assessed by thematic content analysis. A total of 39 studies met the inclusion criteria and were included in the review. More than half of the studies (n = 21) used a quantitative methodology, and the remaining were qualitative (n = 15) or mixed-methods (n = 3) studies. The studies were derived mainly from European countries (n = 18) and the USA (n = 11). The proportion of IVF users who donated embryos for research varied from 7% in a study in France to 73% in a Swiss study. Those who donate embryos for research reported feelings of reciprocity towards science and medicine, positive views of research and high levels of trust in the medical system. They described their decision as better than the destruction of embryos and as an opportunity to help others or to improve health and IVF treatments. The perception of risks, the lack of information
Mohammed, Hamish; Linnen, Jeffrey M; Muñoz-Jordán, Jorge L; Tomashek, Kay; Foster, Gregory; Broulik, Amy S; Petersen, Lyle; Stramer, Susan L
A single instance of transfusion-transmitted dengue infection has been reported. The high incidence of dengue in endemic countries, the high proportion of asymptomatic infection, and the median 5-day viremia, however, suggest that transfusion-associated dengue transmission may be more widespread than documented. The prevalence of dengue virus (DENV) RNA was determined in all blood donations to the American Red Cross in Puerto Rico from September 20 to December 4, 2005, using a specific type of nucleic acid amplification test called transcription-mediated amplification (TMA). TMA-positive donations were defined as those having two repeatedly reactive TMA results. TMA-positive donations were tested by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibodies, by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), and by viral culture. Twelve (0.07%) of 16,521 blood donations tested were TMA-positive. Four were positive by RT-PCR (DENV serotypes 2 and 3). Virus was cultured from 3 of 4 RT-PCR-positive donations. One of the 12 TMA-positive donations was IgM-positive. Only 5 donations remained TMA-positive when diluted 1:16, as is done for routine minipool screening for other transfusion-transmissible viral infections (hepatitis C, human immunodeficiency, West Nile viruses [WNVs]). Nearly 1 in 1000 blood donations contained DENV RNA, and virus could be cultured from TMA-positive donations, suggesting a transfusion transmission risk similar to that which existed in the United States for WNV before universal donation screening. Similar to WNV, IgM antibody screening is likely to be ineffective, and some potentially infectious donations will be missed by minipool screening. Transfusion transmission should be considered in patients with dengue after blood transfusion.
Luo, A J; Xie, W Z; Luo, J J; Ouyang, W
Our aim was to (1) survey public' perception and attitudes toward organ donation and (2) analyze the relationship between knowledge, attitudes, and willingness to donate. We developed a questionnaire, and conducted the survey with stratified random sampling. Overall, 600 residents, aged ≥18 who resided in Hunan, and 600 undergraduates from 3 universities in Hunan were surveyed randomly. For this study, 1085 valid questionnaires were completed, with a response rate of 90.4%. Of the 1085 participants, 581 (53.5%) were students, 504 (46.5%) were residents, and 519 (47.8%) were male and 566 (52.2%) female. The mean accuracy rate was 71.96%, and the students' mean accuracy rate was slightly higher than that of the resident population (73.06% vs 70.68%, respectively). The results showed that 82.2% of public support organ donation, and 53.5% were willing to donate their organs after death. Students scored higher than the residents (88% vs 75.6% and 55.6% vs 51.2%). Nearly 1.8% felt that organ donation was against their religion, 14.9% thought it was important to ensure the integrity of the body, 71.7% agreed that organ donation allowed a positive outcome after a person's death, and 61.5% agreed that organ donation represented a continuation of life, to help families cope with grief. Age and gender were related to attitudes. Public knowledge of organ donation and their attitudes were correlated positively (r = 0.666). Public knowledge of organ donation is poor, biased, and incomplete, and based on television, movies, and communication networks. Positive attitudes toward donation displayed in the surveys were not matched by actual organ donation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Reubsaet, A.; Brug, J.; Kitslaar, J.; Van Hooff, J. P.; van den Borne, H. W.
The present paper describes the impact and evaluation of two intervention components--a video with group discussion and an interactive computer-tailored program--in order to encourage adolescents to register their organ donation preference. Studies were conducted in school during regular school hours. The video with group discussion in class had a…
... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Donation to a public body. 644.495 Section 644.495 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) REAL... Land) § 644.495 Donation to a public body. A public body, as defined by GSA for this purpose, means any...
Lobo Gajiwala, Astrid
Amendments to India's Transplantation of Human Organs Act, 1994, have established the legality of tissue donation and transplantation from deceased donors and the conditions under which they are permitted. The amended Act, now known as The Transplantation of Human Organs and Tissues Act, 1994, seeks to prevent the commercialization of tissue donation and to guarantee the safety of indigenous allografts. Registration of tissue banks, compliance with national standards and the appointment of transplant co-ordinators in hospitals registered under the Act are now mandatory. A national registry and Regional and State networks for donation and transplantation of tissues have been introduced. Despite the amendments a few anomalies of the principal Act persist as some of the differences between tissue and organ donation and transplantation have been overlooked. These include the possibility of skin donation in locations other than hospitals; the donation of medical and surgical tissue residues which does not pose any risk to the living donor; the non-requirement for compatibility between donor and recipient; the delayed time factor between tissue donation and transplantation which makes identification of a recipient at the time of donation impossible; and the easy availability of alternatives to tissues which make waiting lists redundant for many tissues. Rules for the implementation of the amended Act were framed in 2014 but like the Act must be adopted by the State health assemblies to become universally applicable in the country.
... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Donation, abandonment or destruction. 644.494 Section 644.494 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) REAL... Land) § 644.494 Donation, abandonment or destruction. (a) General. Improvements may be abandoned...
Rokade, Shrikant A.; Gaikawad, Anjana P.
With the attendant rise of the number of medical colleges in India over past few decades, the demand for cadavers used in medical education and research is growing. However, there is an insufficient supply of donated cadavers available for dissection. This study was undertaken to assess the general population's awareness of body donation programs…
Taylor, Lauren J; Buffington, Anne; Scalea, Joseph R; Fost, Norman; Croes, Kenneth D; Mezrich, Joshua D; Schwarze, Margaret L
While donation after circulatory death (DCD) has expanded options for organ donation, many who wish to donate are still unable to do so. We conducted face-to-face interviews with family members (N = 15) who had direct experience with unsuccessful DCD and 5 focus groups with professionals involved in the donation process. We used qualitative content analysis to characterize the harms of nondonation as perceived by participants. Participants reported a broad spectrum of harms affecting organ recipients, donors, and donor families. Harms included waste of precious life-giving organs and hospital resources, inability to honor the donor's memory and character, and impaired ability for families to make sense of tragedy and cope with loss. Donor families empathized with the initial hope and ultimate despair of potential recipients who must continue their wait on the transplant list. Focus group members reinforced these findings and highlighted the struggle of families to navigate the uncertainty regarding the timing of death during the donation process. While families reported significant harm, many appreciated the donation attempt. These findings highlight the importance of organ donation to donor families and the difficult experiences associated with current processes that could inform development of alternative donation strategies. © 2017 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.
Feeley, Thomas Hugh; Anker, Ashley E.; Soriano, Rainier; Friedman, Erica
Medical students at Mount Sinai School of Medicine participated in an intervention designed to promote knowledge and improved communication skills related to cadaveric organ donation. The intervention required students to interact with a standardized patient for approximately 10 minutes and respond to questions posed about organ donation in a…
Background: Blood donation is an essential component of health care which saves millions of lives each year.Students of tertiary institutions in Nigeria constitute a significant percentage of the population who areconsidered to meet the criteria for voluntary blood donation. We sought to assess the knowledge, attitude ...
van Doorn, Janne; Zeelenberg, M.; Breugelmans, S.M.
This article investigates if and when anger appeals (communications that elicit anger in people), can be used to increase donations to charity. In an experimental study the idea was tested that anger leads to higher charitable donations, under the condition that people can restore equity with that
Gift items such as hematinics, T-shirts and wrist bands (29%) would motivate respondents to donate. Conclusion: The Students' Union body and other Organizations in the University should include a blood donation drive in their monthly/annual activities. The University authorities, the University health service centre and the ...
Saritha, S.; Rao, M. Vittoo; Sumangala; Supriya, G.; Kumar, Praveen
Body donation is a gracious act, Shankarcharaya firmly believed in concept of Body Donation or Organ Donation and said Iddham sharirum paropakarum i.e. the body is for use of others and death is not the end, it is the beginning. Anatomy is important basic subject for medicalstudents, both U.G. & P.G. Best method of Anatomy learning is by dissection on human cadavers, which remains principle teaching tool. Human cadavers for purpose of study are a scarcity with mushrooming of medical institutions in this country. Unclaimed bodies are no more origin of cadavers. Whole Body donation is the need of the hour. A Voluntary Body Donation is defined as the act of giving oneís Body after death for Medical research and education. In this article a survey was done in S.V.S. Medical & Dental Colleges Faculty members and medical exhibition visitors which include lawyers, engineers, teachers and others during the year of 2010. The body donation including organ donation and various factors such as age, religion, culture and donorís attitude are discussed. Body donation provides the students and medical researchers with unparalleled opportunities to study the human body. Computers nor books cannot totally replace body dissection in learning the anatomy.
Kasteren, Y.M. van; Braat, D.D.M.
The introduction ofoocyte donation has provided a new perspective on reproduction for women with premature ovarian failure. In contrast to other forms ofassisted reproductive technology, the success ofoocyte donation is not affected by the age of the future mother. This has prompted a discussion on
Kelly Anne Correa
Full Text Available Research on narrative persuasion has yet to investigate whether this process influences behavior. The current study explored whether: 1 a narrative could persuade participants to donate to a charity, a prosocial, behavioral decision; 2 psychophysiological metrics can delineate the differences between donation/non-donation behaviors; and 3 donation behavior can be correlated with measures of psychophysiology, self-reported reactions to the narrative, and intrinsic characteristics. Participants (n = 49 completed personality/disposition questionnaires, viewed one of two versions of a narrative while EEG and ECG were recorded, completed a questionnaire regarding their reactions to the narrative, and were given an opportunity to donate to a charity related to the themes of the narrative. Results showed that 1 34.7% of participants donated; 2 psychophysiological metrics successfully delineated between donation behaviors and the effects of narrative version; and 3 psychophysiology and reactions to the narrative were better able to explain the variance (88% and 65%, respectively in the amount donated than all 3 metrics combined as well as any metric alone. These findings demonstrate the promise of narrative persuasion for influencing prosocial, behavioral decisions. Our results also illustrate the utility of the previously stated metrics for understanding and possibly even manipulating behaviors resulting from narrative persuasion.
Malchau, Sara S; Loft, Anne; Larsen, Elisabeth C
To describe perinatal outcomes in children born after oocyte donation (OD) compared with in vitro fertilization (IVF), intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), and spontaneous conception (SC).......To describe perinatal outcomes in children born after oocyte donation (OD) compared with in vitro fertilization (IVF), intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), and spontaneous conception (SC)....
Müller-Steinhardt, M; Müller-Kuller, T; Weiss, C; Menzel, D; Wiesneth, M; Seifried, E; Klüter, H
Within the coming decades, a steadily growing demand for blood products will face a shrinking blood donor population in many countries. After increasing the donor age of repeat donors for whole blood donation (WB) from 68 to 70 years in 2009 in our Blood Service, we investigated whether this is sufficient as a safe and effective strategy to sustain future blood supply. Between 1 March 2009 and 28 February 2011, WB donations from donors aged between 69 and 70 and their proportion of total donations in 2010 were determined. We analysed adverse reaction rates in donors with respect to sex and age and calculated mean annual donation frequencies. Of all invited donors, 32·5% responded and contributed 0·98% (men) and 0·56% (women) to all WB units collected in 2010. The overall and systemic adverse reaction rate per 1·000 WB donations declined by age [men: 1·10 (95%CI: 0·84-1·35) vs. 0 (0-0·8), P donation frequencies were strongly correlated with increasing age (men: r = 0·953, P donate blood. Thus, we consider donations from repeat donors aged 69-70 safe and suggest it a powerful short- to midterm strategy to, at least partially, overcome the challenges of the demographic change. © 2011 The Author(s). Vox Sanguinis © 2011 International Society of Blood Transfusion.
Holtzman, Susan; Adcock, Lesley; Dubay, Derek A; Therapondos, George; Kashfi, Arash; Greenwood, Sarah; Renner, Eberhard L; Grant, David R; Levy, Gary A; Abbey, Susan E
The ability to inform prospective donors of the psychosocial risks of living liver donation is currently limited by the scant empirical literature. The present study was designed to examine donor perceptions of the impact of donation on financial, vocational, and interpersonal life domains and identify demographic and clinical factors related to longer recovery times and greater life interference. A total of 143 donors completed a retrospective questionnaire that included a standardized measure of life interference [Illness Intrusiveness Rating Scale (IIRS)] and additional questions regarding the perceived impact of donation. Donor IIRS scores suggested that donors experience a relatively low level of life interference due to donation [1.60 +/- 0.72, with a possible range of 1 ("not very much" interference) to 7 ("very much" interference)]. However, approximately 1 in 5 donors reported that donating was a significant financial burden. Logistic regression analysis revealed that donors with a psychiatric diagnosis at or prior to donation took longer to return to their self-reported predonation level of functioning (odds ratio = 3.78, P = 0.016). Medical complications were unrelated to self-reported recovery time. Multiple regression analysis revealed 4 independent predictors of greater life interference: less time since donation (b = 0.11, P financial burden of donation.
... Security Council or a duly authorized body subordinate thereto to govern the shipment of medical supplies... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Donations of medical supplies... SANCTIONS REGULATIONS Licenses, Authorizations, and Statements of Licensing Policy § 585.522 Donations of...
Hansen, Pelle Guldborg
Originaltitel: Getting the purpose of mandated choice wrong - Is Increasing Supply of Donated Cadaver Organs really what we want to nudge?......Originaltitel: Getting the purpose of mandated choice wrong - Is Increasing Supply of Donated Cadaver Organs really what we want to nudge?...
Background To determine the knowledge and ethical perception regarding organ donation amongst medical students in Karachi- Pakistan. Methods Data of this cross sectional study was collected by self administered questionnaire from MBBS students of Ziauddin University from 2010 to 2011. Sample size of 158 (83 First years and 75 Fourth years) were selected by convenient sampling and those students who were present and gave consent were included in the study. The data was analyzed by SPSS version 20. Results A total of 158 participants from Ziauddin Medical University filled out the questionnaire out of which 83(52.5%) were first years and 75(47.5%) were fourth year medical students. Mean age of sample was 20 ± 1.7. Majority of students were aware about organ donation with print and electronic media as the main source of information. 81.6% agreed that it was ethically correct to donate an organ. In the students’ opinion, most commonly donated organs and tissues were kidney, cornea, blood and platelet. Ideal candidates for donating organ were parents (81%). Regarding list of options for preference to receive an organ, most of the students agreed on young age group patients and persons with family. Willingness to donate was significantly associated with knowledge of allowance of organ donation in religion (P=0.000). Conclusion Both 1st year and 4th year students are aware of Organ Donation, but there is a significant lack of knowledge regarding the topic. PMID:24070261
Klenow, Daniel J.; Youngs, George A., Jr.
Presents findings from a mail survey of 414 persons regarding organ transplantation and donation policy issues. Gauged three measures of support for organ donation: donor card commitment, required request of next-of-kin support, and weak presumed consent support. High levels of support exist for organ donor cards and the next-of-kin law. Little…
Background. Nurses are intricately involved in organ donation; however, the referral of donors appears to be declining in Johannesburg, South Africa (SA). This may be due to barriers in the referral process. Objectives. The objectives of this study were to explore nurses' knowledge of the organ donation process and to ...
The association between blood donation practice and socio demographic .... maximum errors to be +/-5% plus 10 % contingency. The 95% .... population for donation, only a small proportion had ... significant in the model. .... journal of Business Economics, and Management ... Scholars Journal of Applied Medical Sciences.
The UK is at the forefront of mitochondrial science and is currently the only country in the world to legalize germ-line technologies involving mitochondrial donation. However, concerns have been raised about genetic modification and the 'slippery slope' to designer babies. This review uses academic articles, newspaper reports and public documents. Mitochondrial donation offers women with mitochondrial disease an opportunity to have healthy, genetically related children. Key areas of disagreement include safety, the creation of three-parent babies, impact on identity, implications for society, definitions of genetic modification and reproductive choice. The UK government legalized the techniques in March 2015. Scientific and medical communities across the world followed the developments with interest. It is expected that the first cohort of 'three parent' babies will be born in the UK in 2016. Their health and progress will be closely monitored. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Full Text Available Abstract The issue of organ donation and of how the donor pool can or should be increased is one with significant practical, ethical and logistic implications. Here we comment on an article advocating a paradigm change in the so-called "dead donor rule". Such change would involve the societal and legal abandonment of the above rule and the introduction of mandated choice. In this commentary, we review some of the problems associated with the proposed changes as well as the problems associated with the current model. We emphasize the continuing problems with the definition of death and the physiological process of dying; we discuss the difficulties associated with a dichotomous view of death; we review the difficulties with non-beating heart donation and emphasize the current limitations of society's understanding of these complex issues. We conclude that public education remains the best approach and that such education should not be merely promotion of a particular ideology but honest debate of what is socially and morally acceptable and appropriate given the changes in vital organ support technology and the need to respect patient autonomy.
....62 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE... Program (NSLP) and Other Child Nutrition Programs § 250.62 Summer Food Service Program (SFSP). (a... eligible for donated food support, in accordance with 7 CFR part 225. (c) Distribution of donated foods to...
Frech, Adrianne; Natale, Ginny; Hayes, Don; Tumin, Dmitry
Living kidney donation is safe and effective, but patients in need of a transplant continue to outnumber donors. Disincentives to living donation include lost income, risk of job loss, perioperative complications, and unreimbursed medical expenses. This study uses US registry and follow-up data on living kidney donors from 2013 to 2015 to identify social predictors of return to work across gender following living kidney donation. Using logistic regression, we find that predictors of return to work following living kidney donation differ for women and men. Among women, age, education, smoking status, and procedure type are associated with return to work. Among men, education, procedure type, and hospital readmission within 6 weeks postdonation are associated with return to work. Notably, single and divorced men are less likely to return to work compared to married men (odds ratio [OR] for single men 0.51, 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.37-0.69, P donation.
The issue of organ donation in Islam has been debated for decades, with most religious authorities sanctioning both living-organ and deceased-organ donation. However, disquiet among the Islamic community on the compatibility of organ donation with their faith remains, especially in relation to deceased-organ donation. This remains a topical, controversial, and challenging component of organ procurement at both local and international levels. In this article, I will explore Islamic arguments both for and against organ donation, in the context of both living-donor and deceased-donor models. By discussing both practical and philosophical perspectives, the aim is to facilitate discussion on how best to achieve consensus on this issue by driving the debate forward in an open and all-encompassing manner. Although every attempt should be made to achieve consensus among key Muslim opinion makers (individuals, authorities, and institutions), encouraging personalized decision making by intellectual effort should be the goal to achieve genuine informed consent.
The analogy between gift-giving and organ donation was first suggested at the beginning of the transplantation era, when policy makers and legislators were promoting voluntary organ donation as the preferred procurement procedure. It was believed that the practice of gift-giving had some features which were also thought to be necessary to ensure that an organ procurement procedure would be morally acceptable, namely voluntarism and altruism. Twenty-five years later, the analogy between gift-giving and organ donation is still being made in the literature and used in organ donation awareness campaigns. In this paper I want to challenge this analogy. By examining a range of circumstances in which gift-giving occurs, I argue that the significant differences between the various types of gift-giving and organ donation makes any analogy between the two very general and superficial, and I suggest that a more appropriate analogy can be found elsewhere.
Valdecyr Herdy Alves
Full Text Available This study aims at signifying the values related to the act of milk donation which emerges in the symbolic imaginary traumas of nursing mother’s values and understanding the meaning of the imaginary value structures which are revealed in the action of the donating women. This is a descriptive study with eleven nursing mothers of a bank of human milk of a university hospital through the systematized observation and individual interview. The concerning of the nursing mothers with a transforming action, willing to donate their milk, believing that this is a way for the transformation of the world. The values engendered in the action of donation of human milk emerge from the symbolic domains of acting of the health professionals, characterizing the imaginary myth of the nursing mothers. The donations require practices which reinforce the social imaginary during the care to health offered by the Milk Bank.
Colak, M Yavuz; Hekimoglu, D; Ersoy, K; Sozen, F; Haberal, M
The media affects individuals' behaviors, especially by means of news and advertisements. In this study, we evaluated health content of organ donation and transplantation news in the printed media and on television programs for a 1-year period in Turkey. We examined 2449 news items in 230 newspapers and magazines; 1179 news programs on 45 television channels, all concerning organ donation and transplantation. The news obtained from the Media Pursuit Center were transferred to an electronic file to evaluate the format and content of the news. Nine variables were examined about the scope and the formal characteristics of the news: the publication name, its type, the province, the date, the headline, the title length, the presence of a photograph, or its kind, the news size, and the page number. In the content analysis of the news, we also examined 9 variables: the topic, the message of the headline, the property of the words in the title, the identification of photographs in the news, the age, gender of actors in the news, as well as donor or recipient. In a summary, print media and television channels, failed to show sufficient information about organ donation and transplantation. The percentage of news about organ donation and transplantation was small and mostly negative items in the media. On television channels, sufficient place was not given to organ donation and transplantation. The news in printed media and on television channels was not about motivated or altruistic behavior. The pattern of organ donation and transplantation news is important in terms of perception and comment by the public. Furthermore it directly affects the perception of the news by the reader.
Techataweewan, N; Panthongviriyakul, C; Toomsan, Y; Mothong, W; Kanla, P; Chaichun, A; Amarttayakong, P; Tayles, N
Culture, society and spirituality contribute to variability in the characteristics of human body donors and donation programmes worldwide. The donors and the body donation programme at Khon Kaen University, northeast Thailand, reflect all these aspects of Thailand, including the status accorded to the donors and the ceremonial acknowledgement of the donors and their families. Data from the programme records and from surveys of samples of currently registering donors and recently received donor bodies are analysed to define the characteristics of both registering and received donors, including motivation, demography, socio-economic status, health, and use of the bodies. The body donation programme at Khon Kaen University currently has a very high rate of registration of body donors, with gender and age differences in the patterns of donation. Registrants include more females than males, a long-standing pattern, and are an average age of 50 years. The bodies of 12% of registrants are received after death and include more males than females. Both sexes are of an average age of 69 years. Males had registered their donation eight years prior to death and females ten years prior. Current registrants identified altruistic motives for their decision to donate, although the coincidence of body donation by a highly revered monk with a surge in donations in 2015 suggests that Buddhism plays a primary role in motivation. The opportunity to make merit for donors and their families, and respect shown to donors and the nature of the ceremonies acknowledging the donors and their families, including the use of the Royal Flame at the cremation ceremony, all contribute to decisions to donate. The characteristics of body donors and the body donation programme at Khon Kaen University are reflective of Thai society and the centrality of Buddhism to Thai culture. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.
Galel, Susan A; Williamson, Phillip C; Busch, Michael P; Stanek, Danielle; Bakkour, Sonia; Stone, Mars; Lu, Kai; Jones, Scott; Rossmann, Susan N; Pate, Lisa Lee
Zika virus (ZIKV) has spread in the Americas, including parts of the southern United States, and infection can be associated with serious complications, including congenital brain abnormalities. Probable transfusion transmission of ZIKV has been documented in Brazil. Preemptive testing of blood donations for ZIKV RNA was implemented in southern US states at risk of local transmission using a test approved under a Food and Drug Administration (FDA) investigational new drug application, cobas Zika. Screening was expanded after issuance of an updated FDA guidance. Donations reactive on initial screening were further tested by nucleic acid and antibody tests to determine the donor status. Of 358,786 donations from US states screened by individual donation testing, 23 were initially reactive on cobas Zika. Fourteen of these represented probable ZIKV infection based on reactivity on additional nucleic acid testing or anti-Zika immunoglobulin M. Ten of the 14 donors reported travel to an identified ZIKV-active area within 90 days before donation (median time from end of travel to donation, 25 days; range, 6-71 days). Three donors with travel history also had a potential sexual exposure. Only seven of the 14 donations with probable ZIKV infection were detectable upon 1:6 dilution to simulate minipool testing. The estimated specificity of the cobas Zika test was 99.997%. Screening of donations for ZIKV RNA can interdict ZIKV-infected donors. Donor risk factors include travel more than 4 weeks before donation and sexual exposure. Minipool screening would have detected only 50% of the RNA-positive donations. © 2017 The Authors Transfusion published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of AABB.
This article examines the impact of traditional Chinese culture on organ donation from the perspective of Confucianism, Buddhism, and Taoism. In each of these cultural systems, it appears that there are some particular sayings or remarks that are often taken in modern Chinese society to be contrary to organ donation, especially cadaveric organ donation. However, this article argues that the central concerns of Buddhism, Confucianism, and Taoism are "great love," "ren," and "dao," which can be reasonably interpreted to support organ donation. The author understands that each cultural system, in order to play its cultural function, must have its central concerns as well as relevant ritual practices (li) that incarnate its religious and ethical commitments. That is, each plays a general cultural role, which influences organ donation in particular not merely through abstract or general ethical principles and teachings, but through a combination of ethical teachings and the forming of particular ritual practices. This article contends that the primary reason Chinese individuals fail to donate sufficient cadaveric organs for transplantation is not because particular remarks or sayings from each of these systems appear to conflict with donation. Neither is it that the central concerns of these systems cannot support cadaveric donation. Rather, it is that modern Chinese individuals have failed to develop and secure relevant ritual practices that support the central concerns of organ transplantation. The article concludes that in order to promote more donations, there is a need to form relevant ritual practices supporting organ donation in conformity with the central concerns of these cultural systems.
Williams, Nicola Jane
For the majority of scholars concerned with the ethics of living organ donation, inflicting moderate harms on competent volunteers in order to save the lives or increase the life chances of others is held to be justifiable provided certain conditions are met. These conditions tend to include one, or more commonly, some combination of the following: (1) The living donor provides valid consent to donation. (2) Living donation produces an overall positive balance of harm-benefit for donors and recipients which cannot be obtained in a less harmful manner. (3) Donation is not liable to cause significant and long-term morbidity to, or the death of, the donor. This paper critically examines the suggestion that these criteria are not sufficient to offer a general account of justified living organ donation in the context of competent volunteers and that key to justified living organ donation is that donors receive sufficient benefits from their donation that these outweigh the harms they suffer. However, although this view-termed here 'The Donor Benefit Standard'-directs welcome attention to the many and complex motives which may underlie living organ donation, this paper ultimately concludes that given the threats this position poses to individual autonomy and the lives of those in need of organ transplants 'The Donor Benefit Standard' should ultimately be rejected.
Rice, Christopher; Tamburlin, Judith
The need for transplant exceeds the number of available organs. Antigen compatible organs are particularly scarce for African Americans because of their proportionately lower rate of donations. This study presents a measure of organ donation readiness. Examination of the factor structure and a test of weak invariance were conducted on…
Harel, Inbal; Kogut, Tehila; Pinchas, Meir; Slovic, Paul
We examine how presentations of organ donation cases in the media may affect people's willingness to sign organ donation commitment cards, donate the organs of a deceased relative, support the transition to an "opt-out" policy, or donate a kidney while alive. We found that providing identifying information about the prospective recipient (whose life was saved by the donation) increased the participants' willingness to commit to organ donation themselves, donate the organs of a deceased relative, or support a transition to an "opt-out" policy. Conversely, identifying the deceased donor tended to induce thoughts of death rather than about saving lives, resulting in fewer participants willing to donate organs or support measures that facilitated organ donation. A study of online news revealed that identification of the donor is significantly more common than identification of the recipient in the coverage of organ donation cases-with possibly adverse effects on the incidence of organ donations.
Cañigueral-Vila, Nuria; Chen, Jennifer C; Frenkel-Rorden, Lindsey; Laing, Richard
Some humanitarian and development organizations respond to major natural disasters and emergencies by donating medicines. Many provide medicines on a routine basis to support health systems, particularly those run by Faith-Based Organizations. Although such donations can provide essential medicines to populations in great need, inappropriate donations also take place, with burdensome consequences. The World Health Organization (WHO) has developed the interagency Guidelines for Medicine Donations for use by donors and recipients in the context of emergency aid and international development assistance. Although comprehensive in nature and transferable to various emergency situations, adjustments to both content and formatting would improve this resource. Recommendations for the next version of these guidelines include: specific wording and consistent formatting; definition of who is a recipient, clear distinction between acute and long-term emergencies, and proper donation procedures pertaining to each; inclusion of visual aides such as flowcharts, checklists, and photos; and improving the citations system.
Oosthuizen, Charlene Sherryl
Background Benefits of breastfeeding for infants and mothers are well recognized. South Africa has a very low breastfeeding rate. Strategies to improve and promote exclusive breastfeeding rates include implementation of human milk banks (HMB). The North West Province started its first HMB in 2012 and the success and sustainability will depend on numerous factors, including identification of possible barriers to donation or receiving donor human milk. In support of such an in...
Ballen, K K; Verter, F; Kurtzberg, J
Umbilical cord blood (UCB) is a graft source for patients with malignant or genetic diseases who can be cured by allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT), but who do not have an appropriately HLA-matched family or volunteer unrelated adult donor. Starting in the 1990s, unrelated UCB banks were established, accepting donations from term deliveries and storing UCB units for public use. An estimated 730 000 UCB units have been donated and stored to date and ~35 000 UCB transplants have been performed worldwide. Over the past 20 years, private and family banks have grown rapidly, storing ~4 million UCB units for a particular patient or family, usually charging an up-front and yearly storage fee; therefore, these banks are able to be financially sustainable without releasing UCB units. Private banks are not obligated to fulfill the same regulatory requirements of the public banks. The public banks have released ~30 times more UCB units for therapy. Some countries have transitioned to an integrated banking model, a hybrid of public and family banking. Today, pregnant women, their families, obstetrical providers and pediatricians are faced with multiple choices about the disposition of their newborn's cord blood. In this commentary, we review the progress of UCB banking technology; we also analyze the current data on pediatric and adult unrelated UCB, including the recent expansion of interest in transplantation for hemoglobinopathies, and discuss emerging studies on the use of autologous UCB for neurologic diseases and regenerative medicine. We will review worldwide approaches to UCB banking, ethical considerations, criteria for public and family banking, integrated banking ideas and future strategies for UCB banking.
Istrate, Melania G; Harrison, Tyler R; Valero, Ricard; Morgan, Susan E; Páez, Gloria; Zhou, Quan; Rébék-Nagy, Gábor; Manyalich, Martí
Training on organ donation and transplantation is relevant for transplantation improvement. This study aimed at investigating the perceived benefits of Transplant Procurement Management training programs on professional competence development and career evolutions of health care workers in organ donation and transplantation. An online survey was developed in 5 languages (Spanish, English, Italian, French, and Portuguese) and its link was emailed to 6839 individuals. They were asked to forward it to other professionals in organ donation and transplantation. The link was also shared on Facebook and at relevant congresses. Two research questions on the perceived influence of specialized training programs were identified. A total of 1102 participants (16.1%) took the survey; 87% reported participating in Transplant Procurement Management training programs, of which 95% selected Transplant Procurement Management courses as the most influential training they had participated in. For research question one, 98% reported influence on knowledge (score 4.5 [out of 5]), 93% on technical (4.2) and communication skills (4.1), 89% on attitude toward organ donation and transplantation (4.1), 92% on motivation to work (4.2), 91% on desire to innovate (4.0), 87% and 79% on ability to change organ donation and trans plantation practices (3.9) and policies (3.5). For research question 2, main and interaction effects for position at the time of training and type of training were reported. Transplant Procurement Management training programs had positive perceived effects.
Dunkel, Anke; Nakamoto, Kent; Schulz, Peter J
Organ transplantation is plagued by limited availability of organs. This study investigated the effect of messages promoting organ donation which were customized according to the language-defined micro-cultures in Switzerland. Community-, informative-, and emotional-oriented messages were carried by conventional flyers. A 3 × 3 between-subjects experiment was conducted with short- and long-term willingness to donate, long-term signing of organ donation card and long-term interpersonal communication on organ donation as outcome variables. The culturally customized interventions appeared to have no immediate effect and consequently no differential effect on willingness to donate organs and on signing a donor card. Among the Swiss Germans, of the three messages, the community-oriented one instigated less interpersonal communication. Findings are consistent with a mechanism in which the message does not have an immediate effect on willingness to donate organs but motivates further thought and related behaviors that lead to higher commitment and later increased willingness to donate. Targeting not only the message but also the objective that drives the messages must be considered. Campaigns should include elements that build on the unfolding commitment process to promote the follow-up actions that lead to greater willingness. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Grieco, Daniela; Lacetera, Nicola; Macis, Mario; Di Martino, Daniela
Umbilical cord blood is a source of hematopoietic stem cells essential to treat life-threatening diseases, such as leukemia and lymphoma. However, only a very small percentage of parents donate upon delivery. The decision to donate the cord blood occurs at a very specific time and when parents likely experience emotional, informational, and decisional overloads; these features of cord blood donation make it different from other pro-social activities. In collaboration with an OB-GYN clinic in Milan, Italy, we conducted the first randomized controlled trial that applies tools from behavioral science to foster cord blood donation, and quantified the gains that informational and behavioral "nudges" can achieve. We found that information and "soft" commitments increased donations; approaching expecting parents closer to the delivery date and providing them with multiple reminders, moreover, had the strongest impact. However, a significant portion of women who expressed consent to donate could not do so because of organizational constraints. We conclude that simple, non-invasive behavioral interventions that address information gaps and procrastination, and that increase the salience of the activity can substantially enhance altruistic donations of cord blood, especially when coupled with organizational support.
Randhawa, Gurch; Brocklehurst, Anna; Pateman, Ruth; Kinsella, Suzannah; Parry, Vivienne
This article reports the findings from the one-to-one interviews with the main UK faith and belief leaders which were commissioned by the Organ Donation Taskforce as part of its evidence gathering. Interviews were arranged with the main faith and belief organisations within the UK. Interviews covered a range of issues related to organ donation. Although some faith groups had some reservations regarding organ donation, interviews with these leaders demonstrated that none of these faith groups have reached a consensus against organ donation. The interviewees stated that the majority opinion in their faith or belief group is to permit organ donation, with some actively supporting it. Interviewees were keen to stress that there is a broad spectrum of opinion on organ transplantation within each faith and belief group and that consequently it is difficult to speak on behalf of an entire group. One complication mentioned by interviewees is that as organ transplantation is a relatively new medical procedure, there is no explicit reference to it in many original religious texts. Consequently, positions on the receipt and donation of organs are based on interpretation. It was felt that a much greater level of engagement is needed, as organ donation is currently not a priority for many faith and belief groups.
Full Text Available Canadian income tax law provides incentives for taxpayers to make charitable donations. Since only those donations to charities qualifying as charitable “gifts” are eligible for donation incentives, the definition of gift bodes significant revenue implications for charities and government alike. The Income Tax Act does not, however, define the term gift. The tests applied by courts and regulators to identify gifts in the absence of a statutory definition are contradictory, unnecessarily restrictive, and inconsistent with the tax policy behind donation incentives. The recent attempt to improve the law through the proposed “split-receipting” rules has achieved little in the way of meaningful reform. The ideal solution is to adopt a statutory definition of “charitable donation” that will both broaden and clarify the range of eligible donations. / La loi canadienne de l’impôt sur le revenu prévoit des incitatifs visant à encourager les contribuables à faire des dons. Étant donné que seuls les dons faits aux oeuvres de bienfaisance qui se qualifient en tant que « dons » de bienfaisance peuvent donner droit à ces incitatifs, la définition du terme « don » est porteuse d’importantes répercussions fiscales, tant pour les organisations caritatives que pour le gouvernement. Toutefois, la Loi de l’impôt sur le revenu ne définit pas le terme « don ». Les critères appliqués par les cours et les autorités de réglementation pour identifier ce qui constitue un don, en l’absence d’une définition établie par la loi, sont contradictoires, inutilement restrictives et incohérentes avec la politique fiscale concernant les incitatifs accordés au titre des dons de bienfaisance. La récente tentative d’améliorer la loi avec les règles proposées sur le fractionnement des reçus n’a eu que peu de résultats pour mener à une réforme significative. La solution idéale est d’adopter une définition législative du
Kane, Francis; Clement, Grace; Kane, Mary
In this paper, we seek to re-conceptualize the ethical framework through which ethicists and medical professionals view the practice of live kidney donations. The ethics of organ donation has been understood primarily within the framework of individual rights and impartiality, but we show that the ethic of care captures the moral situation of live kidney donations in a more coherent and comprehensive way, and offers guidance for practitioners that is more attentive to the actual moral transactions among donors and recipients. A final section offers guidelines for the practice of live kidney transplants that emerge from an ethic of care.
Shaw, David; Gardiner, Dale; Lewis, Penney; Jansen, Nichon; Wind, Tineke; Samuel, Undine; Georgieva, Denie; Ploeg, Rutger; Broderick, Andrew
In this article, we analyse the potential benefits and disadvantages of permitting healthcare professionals to invoke conscientious objection to deceased organ donation. There is some evidence that permitting doctors and nurses to register objections can ultimately lead to attitudinal change and acceptance of organ donation. However, while there may be grounds for conscientious objection in other cases such as abortion and euthanasia, the life-saving nature of donation and transplantation renders objection in this context more difficult to justify. In general, dialogue between healthcare professionals is a more appropriate solution, and any objections must be justified with a strong rationale in hospitals where such policies are put in place.
S. V. Gautier
Full Text Available Aim. To carry out monitoring of the organization and development of organ donation and transplantation in the Russian Federation according to 2014. Materials and methods. Questioning of heads of all the centers of transplantation is carried out. The comparative analysis of the obtained data in dynamics of years, between certain regions of the Russian Federation, the transplantation centers, and also with data of the international registers is made. Results. According to the Register in 2014 in the Russian Federation functioned 36 centers of kidney transplantation, 14 centers of liver transplantation and 9 centers of heart transplantation. The waiting list of kidney transplantation in 2014 included 4636 potential recipients that makes 16% of total number of the patients 29 000 receiving dialysis. The rate of donor activity in 2014 made 3.2 per million population (pmp. Efficiency of donor programs in 2014 continued to increase: the share of effective donors after brain death in 2014 increased to 77.2%, the share of multiorgan explantation made 50.5%, average number of organs received from one effective donor made 2.6. In 2014 the rate of kidney transplantation made 7.0 pmp, the rate of liver transplantation made 2.1 pmp and the rate of heart transplantation made 1.1 pmp. In the Russian Federation the number of transplantations of liver and heart continues to increase. The significant contribution to development of the organ donation and transplantation brings the Moscow region in which 11 centers of transplantation function and nearly a half from all kidney transplantations and more than 65% of all liver and heart transplantations are carried out. Conclusion. In theRussian Federation the potential for further development of the transplantology remains. In particular, at the expense of increase in the efficiency of regional donation programs, introduction of technologies, expansion of the practices of multiorgan donation and transplantations of
... costs associated with the donation? 102-37.580 Section 102-37.580 Public Contracts and Property... PROPERTY 37-DONATION OF SURPLUS PERSONAL PROPERTY Donations to Public Bodies in Lieu of Abandonment/Destruction § 102-37.580 Who is responsible for costs associated with the donation? The recipient public body...
... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false How should an offer of a donation be made? 2544... NATIONAL AND COMMUNITY SERVICE SOLICITATION AND ACCEPTANCE OF DONATIONS § 2544.135 How should an offer of a donation be made? (a) In general, an offer of donation should be made by providing a letter of tender that...
... property is available for donation? 102-37.40 Section 102-37.40 Public Contracts and Property Management... 37-DONATION OF SURPLUS PERSONAL PROPERTY General Provisions Donation Overview § 102-37.40 What type of surplus property is available for donation? All surplus property (including property held by...
... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Donation and loan of wildlife specimens... of Wildlife Reduction and Disposal § 31.11 Donation and loan of wildlife specimens. Wildlife specimens may be donated or loaned to public institutions for specific purposes. Donation or loans of...
... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false How will accepted donations be recorded and used... FOR NATIONAL AND COMMUNITY SERVICE SOLICITATION AND ACCEPTANCE OF DONATIONS § 2544.150 How will accepted donations be recorded and used? (a) All accepted donations of money and other property will be...
Steven R. Martin
Day-use visitors to the Desolation Wilderness were asked about making voluntary donations at the trailhead. Of the 111 visitors who used one of the four trailheads at which voluntary donations were requested, 55% reported making a donation, with an average reported donation amount of $4.20. Subjects were categorized into three groups: donors, would-be donors, and...
... provider-related donations. 433.67 Section 433.67 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES... permissible provider-related donations. (a)(1) Limitations on bona fide donations. There are no limitations on the amount of bona fide provider-related donations that a State may receive without a reduction in FFP...
... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What are some donations... PROPERTY 37-DONATION OF SURPLUS PERSONAL PROPERTY Holding Agency § 102-37.125 What are some donations that do not require GSA's approval? (a) Some donations of surplus property that do not require GSA's...
... for donations to public bodies? 102-37.565 Section 102-37.565 Public Contracts and Property Management... 37-DONATION OF SURPLUS PERSONAL PROPERTY Donations to Public Bodies in Lieu of Abandonment/Destruction § 102-37.565 What is the authority for donations to public bodies? Section 527 of title 40, United...
Diarra, A; Kouriba, B; Baby, M; Murphy, E; Lefrere, J-J
Good data on background seroprevalence of major transfusion transmitted infections is lacking in Mali. We gathered data on the rate of positive donations of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), hepatitis B virus (HBV) and syphilis among blood donations in Mali for calendar year 2007. Donations with repeatedly reactive results on screening enzyme immunoassay (EIA) were considered to be seropositive. Rate of positive donations per blood unit collected was 2.6% for HIV, 3.3% for HCV, 13.9% for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and 0.3% for syphilis. For HIV, HBsAg and syphilis, rate of positive donations was significantly (pdonations from replacement donors than those from volunteer donors, while HCV rate of positive donations was similar in the two groups. Rate of positive donations was also significantly (p<0.0001) lower in blood units from regular than from first-time donors. These data reinforce WHO recommendations for increasing the number of regular, volunteer blood donors in Africa.
Paez, G; Valero, R; Manyalich, M
Successes in organ donation and transplantation programs are directly evidence-based education. Transplant Procurement Management (TPM) is an international educational project on organ donation and transplantation. Our purpose was to evaluate the TPM educational project. We compared the data of 17 years of experience, strategies, and methods. We retrospectively performed a descriptive analysis of all educational activities developed between 1991 and 2008. We identified 7 crucial points. (1) In 1991, TPM was started under the auspices of the University of Barcelona (UB) and the National Spanish Transplant Organization (ONT; national training, face-to-face). (2) In 1994, TPM became international (international advanced training and country-based). (3) Since 1997 in Italy and 2006 in France, national training courses were organized adapting the same methodologies as the advanced international TPM courses. TPM also implemented short (1-3 days) introductory courses worldwide. (4) In 2002, the e-learning platform program was launched to facilitate the education of professionals. (5) In 2005, an international master's degree was created at UB under the Life-Long Learning Institute (IL3). (6) In 2006, the courses were expanded to include pregraduate health science faculties with the International Project on Education and Research in Donation at University of Barcelona (PIERDUB). (7) In 2007, the European-funded European Training Program on Organ Donation (ETPOD) project was started. Currently, TPM offers face-to-face, e-learning, and blended international courses. As of 2008, TPM has trained 6498 professionals in 89 countries on 5 continents. TPM has impacted positively on the various essential levels in the process of organ donation and transplantation, with lifelong follow-up and an international network through the capacity to adapt to specific country needs as well as continuous quality improvement thanks to the collaboration of expert teachers and consultants.
Allen, M B; Reese, P P
Recommendations from the 2014 Consensus Conference on Best Practices in Living Kidney Donation reflect increasing attention to overcoming barriers to donation as a means of expanding access to living donor kidney transplantation. "High priority" initiatives include empowering transplant candidates and their loved ones in their search for a living kidney donor. Transplant programs are assuming an unprecedented role as facilitators of patients' solicitation for donors, and nonprofits are promoting living kidney donation (LKD) in the community. New strategies to promote LKD incorporate "nonargumentative" forms of influence (i.e. approaches to shaping behavior that do not attempt to persuade through reason) such as appeals to emotion, messenger effects and social norms. These approaches have raised ethical concerns in other settings but have received little attention in the transplantation literature despite their increasing relevance. Previous work on using nonargumentative influence to shape patient behavior has highlighted implications for (1) the relationship between influencer and influenced and (2) patient autonomy. We argue that using nonargumentative influence to promote LKD is a promising strategy that can be compatible with ethical standards. We also outline potential concerns and solutions to be implemented in practice. © Copyright 2016 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.
Leiden, H; Haase-Kromwijk, B; Hoitsma, A; Jansen, N
The Netherlands was one of the first countries in Europe to stimulate controlled donation after circulatory death (cDCD) at a national level in addition to donation after brain death (DBD). With this program the number of organ transplants increased, but it also proved to have challenges as will be shown in this 15-year review. Data about deceased organ donation in the Netherlands, from 2000 until 2014, were analysed taking into account the whole donation process from donor referral to the number of organs transplanted. Donor referral increased by 58%, from 213 to 336 donors per year, and the number of organs transplanted rose by 42%. Meanwhile the contribution of cDCD donors increased from 14% in 2000 to 54% in 2014 among all referrals. The organs were transplanted from 92-99% of referred DBD donors, but this percentage was significantly lower for cDCD donors and also decreased from 86% in 2000-2002 to 67% in 2012-2014. In 16% of all referred cDCD donors, organs were not recovered because donors did not die within the expected two-hour time limit after withdrawal of life- upporting treatment. Furthermore, cDCD is more often performed at a higher donor age, which is associated with a lower percentage of transplanted organs. Although cDCD resulted in more transplants, the effort in donor recruitment is considerably higher. Important challenges in cDCD that need further attention are the time limit after withdrawal of life-supporting treatment and donor age, as well as the possibilities to stimulate non-renal transplants including the heart by machine preservation.
Rabiu, T B; Oshola, H A; Adebayo, B O
Organ transplantation is a developing field in Nigeria, and availability of organs for donation would be a determining factor of the success of the transplant programs. Patients with brainstem death (BSD) are a major source of organs for transplantation. The level of knowledge of BSD as well as attitudes toward organ donation are very important determinants of people's willingness or otherwise to donate organs. We conducted a survey of relations of our in-service neurosurgical patients to assess their knowledge of brainstem death and attitude toward organ donation. To our knowledge, this is the first study of its kind among the growing Nigerian neurosurgery patient and patient-relations population. Convenience sampling of randomly selected relations of neurosurgical patients on admission using interviewer-administered questionnaires was performed. Demographic information and information about brainstem death, attitude toward brainstem death, knowledge of organ donation, and attitude toward organ donation were obtained. The study comprised 127 respondents with a mean age of 36 years (range, 19-72). The majority of the respondents (87, 62.4%) were Christians, 122 (96.1%) were Yorubas, and 66 (52.0%) were women. Eighty-five (66.9%) of the respondents had at least a secondary level of education, and 77 (60.6%) were of low socioeconomic status. Twenty-eight (22.2%) of the respondents had heard of brainstem death. Twenty-six (92.9%) of those who had heard of brainstem death believed that the brain could die long before life finally ceases. One hundred twenty-five (98.4%) of the respondents believed that death only occurs when both breathing and heartbeat stop, and 107 (83.6%) would agree with the physician on a diagnosis of brainstem death in the relation. Sixty-five (51.2%) would want such patients put on a ventilator, and, of these, 43 (66.2%) would want such patients on the ventilator in hope that he or she may recover. One hundred twelve (88.2%) of the relations were
Conclusion: Despite positive attitudes towards posthumous organ donation, college students are hesitant to become donors because of lack of knowledge/publicity; cultural disdain; and lack of governmental assurance.
Frutos, M A; Mansilla, J J; Ruiz, P; Guerrero, F; Lebrón, M; Ortuño, R; Daga, D; Carballo, M
Organs donated from persons born outside Spain are becoming increasingly numerous. These persons now account for 26.1% of all donors in the "Malaga sector," an area of tourism with a high percentage of immigrants. Acceptance to donation among persons from Europe and South America is similar to that of Spanish persons but lower among those born in Africa. We must recognize the great help that cultural mediators provided not only by assistance with the language barrier but also by generating confidence among families and understanding their emotions, feelings, and traditions, mainly during interviews with families from different social and cultural miliere. To be efficient, the interpreters or cultural mediators need to have received specific training in the organ donation process and to be involved and convinced that organ donation and transplantation is the best solution for severe health problems.
Heng, B C
The rising demand for donor oocytes in developed countries has led to what is referred to as transnational or international oocyte donation, or the outsourcing of oocyte donation to poorer countries. In a further twist, frozen sperm from a recipient's partner can also be mailed to a foreign clinic to fertilize donor oocytes, and the resulting embryos are mailed back, cryopreserved, for transfer to the recipient. Among the numerous ethical concerns raised by this practice of mail order oocyte donation, the most obvious are that underprivileged women from poorer countries are often exploited; fertility physicians from richer counties abdicate responsibility for the welfare of donors; and responsibility could become an issue of contention if transmission of disease to the oocyte recipient or congenital defects in offspring born from such oocyte donation were to occur. Moreover, savings from utilizing donors from poorer countries ought to be shared with oocyte recipients.
... driver's license or state ID card. Donate the gift of life. OrganDonor.gov. http://www.organdonor.gov. Accessed Feb. 11, 2016. Organ procurement and transplantation network: Uniting people and information to ...
have been employed in an attempt to address this problem. ... as possible to ascertain whether public attitudes to organ donation in ..... Kahn D, McCurdie F, Michaelides A. Socioeconomic factors, as well as race, impact on consent rates.
Nivea Coelho Degasperi
Full Text Available Abstract The objective of this study is to identify external motivating factors that favor individual money donation. Methodologically, we adopted a descriptive and quantitative cross-sectional study. In order to collect data, we prepared a questionnaire containing 49 statements based on external motivating variables of regular individual money donation found in the literature on the subject. After testing the questionnaire, we applied it to 1073 Brazilians, regular money donors and we performed an exploratory factor analysis. Conclusively, we identified 8 external factors that motivate individual money donation: Trust, Reward, Leadership influences, Characteristics of the organization, Environmental influences, Personal benefits, Characteristics of beneficiaries and Future Interests. We expect that these 8 factors combined, could become a useful tool to improve the management of charitable organizations, especially in defining campaigns or other marketing strategies to attract new donors and raise funds on occasions that are favorable to individual money donation.
Newman, Bruce H
Approximately 3% to 3.5% of the US population donates whole blood each year. Physicians might be approached by a blood donor because of a donor suitability issue, a positive postdonation test, or a donation-related complication. Approximately 83% of blood donors successfully donate; but 13% are rejected because of a donor suitability issue; 1% have a positive test, which is often nonspecific or false-positive; and 2% to 4% of the phlebotomies are not successful. The most common adverse physical events based on donor interviews are bruise (23%), sore arm (10%), fatigue (8%), and vasovagal reaction (7%), while uncommon events include nerve irritation (0.9%), syncope (0.1-0.3%), and arterial puncture (0.01%). One in 3400 donors (0.033%) report seeking outside medical care. Serious injuries occur but are very rare. More often, blood donors do well and feel satisfied with the blood donation experience.
Singleton, Ashley; Spratling, Regena
Historically, African Americans (AAs) have been underrepresented as blood donors. Having a lack of racially diverse blood donors contributes to transfusion complications, particularly in patients with sickle cell disease, who are both disproportionately AA and the recipients of frequent transfusions. Increasing AA blood donation is a complex public health issue. This review article serves to fill a gap in translating research regarding known hindrances and facilitators of AA blood donation to improve real-world donation practice and ultimately, patient outcomes. We incorporate findings from a literature review to develop a tool that blood centers, provider organizations, and patient advocacy groups can use to aid strategic planning efforts aimed at increasing AA blood donation.
AJRH Managing Editor
Most felt surrogates should not be paid. Acceptance ... Keywords: infertility, IVF, gamete donation, surrogacy, Nigeria ... The International Federation of ... of exploiting the surrogate, who is often of a lower ..... Surrogacy Arrangements Act 1985.
Maggiore, Umberto; Budde, Klemens; Heemann, Uwe
Two recent matched cohort studies from the USA and Norway published in 2014 have raised some concerns related to the long-term safety of kidney living donation. Further studies on the long-term risks of living donation have since been published. In this position paper, Developing Education Science...... and Care for Renal Transplantation in European States (DESCARTES) board members critically review the literature in an effort to summarize the current knowledge concerning long-term risks of kidney living donation to help physicians for decision-making purposes and for providing information...... to the prospective live donors. Long-term risk of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) can be partially foreseen by trying to identify donors at risk of developing ‘de novo’ kidney diseases during life post-donation and by predicting lifetime ESRD risk. However, lifetime risk may be difficult to assess in young donors...
influence of cultural beliefs, racial prejudices and super- stitions on public attimdes ... added, free of charge, to existing market research ques- tionnaires. ..... changing attitude. The Xhosa ... lack of knowledge about brain death, organ donation.
Background: Renal transplantation is the optimal treatment for the majority of patients with end-stage renal disease. Objective: To examine the donor characteristics of kidney transplants in Syria and the impact of national Syrian legislation on the evolution of kidney transplantation activities in the private and public sectors. Methods: Available data on all kidney transplants performed in Syria over the last 2 decades was retrospectively analyzed to assess the characteristics of kidney don...
Donation of fresh breastmilk in neonatology is subject to guidelines set out in a 1997 memorandum and recommendations issued in 2005. The results of a survey carried out in 2013 show that practices in this area vary greatly from one neonatology unit to another. There is a clear need to adopt a national consensus regarding the conditions of this donation in neonatology, in order to adapt and standardise practices. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Ashkenazi, Tamar; Klein, Moti
CONTEXT-Most reports on organ donation have been related to the importance of support for families, explanations of brain death, and the appeal for organ donation. In contrast, no reports have addressed organ donation from the perspective of intervention in cases of "sudden mourning" and the practical aspects of how to facilitate donation in such cases. OBJECTIVE-To develop a specific strategy for professional intervention in cases of imminent death to bring the family to a state of cognitive and emotional preparedness that will enable them to accept the tragic news, donate organs, and then take leave of the deceased. METHOD-The strategy presented here was developed on the basis of the records of donor coordinators who documented their interaction with families; consultations with professionals in the fields of marketing, persuasion, and negotiating; research conducted on families who did or did not donate organs; and statements made by family members of donors in focus and support groups in more than 10 years. RESULTS-The strategic approach includes early-stage rules such as staff self-awareness, and then later, critical stages of the process that take place before and at the time of determination of brain death: preparation for and the notification of death itself and the request for organ donation, including persuasion skills, coping with resistance and expressions of anger, and physical leave-taking from the deceased. CONCLUSIONS-The flexible, strategic approach set out here is designed to maximize the chances of procuring organ donation while protecting the family's rights and welfare.
Carroll, Katherine E; Lenne, Brydan S; McEgan, Kerri; Opie, Gillian; Amir, Lisa H; Bredemeyer, Sandra; Hartmann, Ben; Jones, Rachel; Koorts, Pieter; McConachy, Helen; Mumford, Patricia; Polverino, Jan
Lactation and breast milk can hold great value and meaning for grieving mothers who have experienced a recent death of an infant. Donation to a human milk bank (HMB) as an alternative to discarding breast milk is one means of respecting the value of breast milk. There is little research, national policy discussion, or organizational representation in Australia on the subject of breast milk donation after infant death. On 29 November 2013 the Mercy Hospital for Women in Melbourne, Australia ho...
Rucinski, Dianne; Jones, Risé; Reyes, Brenda; Tidwell, Lawon; Phillips, RoiAnn; Delves, Denise
Despite higher birth rates among non-Hispanic blacks and Hispanics, the availability of umbilical cord blood from these groups is lower due to lower donation rates than that of non-Hispanic whites. Similar racial and ethnic disparities in donation rates have been found for blood and organ donation. This study is among the first to explore beliefs and attitudes toward umbilical cord blood donation among Hispanic and non-Hispanic black women. Five focus groups composed of Hispanic and non-Hispanic black women were conducted to explore how women conceptualize information needs about umbilical cord blood donation and from whom women want to receive information about donation. Participants were adult women who had given birth within the past year or were pregnant. Lack of basic information regarding umbilical cord blood, its harvesting and use, and the steps and conditions necessary to donate were primary barriers to donation. Women expressed confusion over the differences between "donation" and "banking." The social value of donation was explicitly weighed in terms of the cost of the donation effort. Doctors were viewed as critical sources for information about donation, although women expressed skepticism about doctors' ability to convey sufficient information during short office visits. Efforts to increase donation rates among Hispanic and non-Hispanic black women should include information about both the technical aspects and the social value of donation. The specific terms "umbilical" and "donation" should be used consistently to prevent misunderstanding. Information should be provided by physicians with follow-up by other health providers.
Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: The adequacy of blood depends on blood donation rates and numbers of blood donors. To prepare adequate blood supplies, it is essential to investigate the barriers and factors that stop individuals from donating. This study aimed to identify the causes of lapsed donation at our center. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-sectional study of volunteer blood donors in Shiraz, Iran. METHODS: We selected 850 donors who had donated between January 1, 2005 and June 1, 2005, but had not donated again by June 2008. The participants were recruited by letter and telephone, and were interviewed using a specially designed questionnaire that contained items on demographic characteristics, donor motivations and reasons for not returning to donate. We used the chi-square test to identify associations between lapsed donor characteristics and reasons for declining to donate. RESULTS: The greatest motivation for donation was altruism. The most frequent reasons for lapsed donation were lack of time because of work and self-exclusion for medical reasons. Among first-time donors, the most frequent reasons were unsuitability for donation and lack of time. CONCLUSIONS: The reasons for not returning to donate are varied and may correlate with demographic characteristics. In this study, the main reason for not returning was lack of time. Changing donation hours so that donors can donate after work, providing mobile teams at workplaces, and shortening the duration of the donation process may help increase repeat donation rates.
Tumin, Makmor; Noh, Abdillah; Mohd Satar, Nurulhuda; Chin-Sieng, Chong; Soo-Kun, Lim; Abdullah, Nawi; Kok-Peng, Ng
The aim of this paper is to look into the factors influencing Malaysian Muslims' decision to become deceased organ donors in Malaysia. We approached 900 Malaysian Muslims and 779 participated in our survey, conducted in Kuala Lumpur and its suburb. We examined their willingness to become donors and the willing donors were asked why they did not pledge to become donors. Non-donors were asked why they refuse to become donors. The survey found the main reason for Malaysian Muslims not pledging their organs was due to their lack of information on organ donation and/or their lack of confidence in the government's ability to properly administer organ donation procedures. Another interesting finding is that religion is not a main deterrent to organ donation. The survey suggests that Malaysia can explore many ways to encourage organ donation without having to resort to the highly controversial financial incentive option. A key to Malaysia's success or failure to increase organ donation rate lies in its ability to persuade its Muslim population (its largest population) to donate organs. This can be done by adopting a segmented, focused, and highly localized form of public education and by leveraging on existing networks involving local religious and community leaders as well as government and non-governmental institutions.
Zhu, Xiaodong; Wang, Yue; Li, Bangyi
Remanufactured products offer better environmental benefits, and governments encourage manufacturers to remanufacture through various subsidy policies. This practice has shown that, in addition to product sales, remanufactured product can also achieve its value through social donation. Based on the remanufactured product value realization approaches, governments provide two kinds of incentive policies, which are remanufactured product sales subsidies and remanufactured product donation subsidies. This paper constructs a two-stage Stackelberg game model including a government and a manufacturer under two different policies, which can be solved by backward induction. By comparing the optimal decision of the two policies, our results show that, compared with the remanufacturing sales subsidy, donation subsidy weakens the cannibalization of remanufactured products for new products and increases the quantity of new products. It reduces the sales quantity of remanufactured products, but increases their total quantity. Under certain conditions of low subsidy, the manufacturer adopting sales subsidy provides better economic and environmental benefits. Under certain conditions of high subsidy, the manufacturer adopting donation subsidy offers better economic and environmental benefits. When untreated product environmental impact is large enough, donation subsidy policy has a better social welfare. Otherwise, the choice of social welfare of these two different policies depends on the social impact of remanufactured product donated. PMID:29194411
Zhu, Xiaodong; Wang, Zhe; Wang, Yue; Li, Bangyi
Remanufactured products offer better environmental benefits, and governments encourage manufacturers to remanufacture through various subsidy policies. This practice has shown that, in addition to product sales, remanufactured product can also achieve its value through social donation. Based on the remanufactured product value realization approaches, governments provide two kinds of incentive policies, which are remanufactured product sales subsidies and remanufactured product donation subsidies. This paper constructs a two-stage Stackelberg game model including a government and a manufacturer under two different policies, which can be solved by backward induction. By comparing the optimal decision of the two policies, our results show that, compared with the remanufacturing sales subsidy, donation subsidy weakens the cannibalization of remanufactured products for new products and increases the quantity of new products. It reduces the sales quantity of remanufactured products, but increases their total quantity. Under certain conditions of low subsidy, the manufacturer adopting sales subsidy provides better economic and environmental benefits. Under certain conditions of high subsidy, the manufacturer adopting donation subsidy offers better economic and environmental benefits. When untreated product environmental impact is large enough, donation subsidy policy has a better social welfare. Otherwise, the choice of social welfare of these two different policies depends on the social impact of remanufactured product donated.
Israni, A K; Zaun, D; Rosendale, J D; Snyder, J J; Kasiske, B L
The status of deceased organ donation is assessed using several metrics, including donation/conversion rate (how often at least one organ is recovered for transplant from an eligible death), organ yield (ratio of observed/expected numbers of organs transplanted), and rate of organs discarded (number of organs discarded divided by the number of organs recovered for transplant). The 2012 donation/conversion rate was 72.5. eligible donors per 100 eligible deaths, slightly lower than the 2011 rate but higher than in previous years. The 2011-2012 yield ratio varied by donation service area from 0.91 (fewer organs transplanted per donor than expected) to 1.09 (more than expected), and also varied for specific organs. The mean number of organs transplanted per donor in 2012 was 3.02, lower than in 2011 and 2010; this number varied by donation service area from 2.04 to 3.76. The number of organs discarded is calculated by subtracting the number of organs transplanted from the number recovered for transplant; this number is used to calculate the discard rate. The discard rate in 2012 for all organs combined was 0.14 per recovered organ, slightly higher than in 2011 and 2011; it varied by donation service area and organ type. © Copyright 2013 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.
Embryo donation produces a family structure where neither rearing parent is genetically related to the child, as in adoption. It is not known how embryo donation parents view the donors compared with how adoptive parents view the birth parents. 21 couples with an embryo donation child aged 2-5 years were compared with 28 couples with an adopted child. Parents were administered a semi-structured interview, assessing knowledge of the donors/birth parents, frequency of thoughts and discussions about the donors/birth parents and disclosure of the donor conception/adoption to the child. Comparisons were made between mothers and fathers to examine gender differences. Embryo donation parents generally knew only the donors' physical characteristics, and thought about and talked about the donors less frequently than adoptive parents thought about and talked about the birth parents. Embryo donation fathers tended to think about the donors less often than did mothers. Disclosure of the child's origins in embryo donation families was far less common than in adoptive families (P parents' views on the donors differ from adoptive parents' views on the birth parents, with donors having little significance in family life once treatment is successful.
Christopher W. White
Full Text Available Cardiac transplantation has become limited by a critical shortage of suitable organs from brain-dead donors. Reports describing the successful clinical transplantation of hearts donated after circulatory death (DCD have recently emerged. Hearts from DCD donors suffer significant ischemic injury prior to organ procurement; therefore, the traditional approach to the transplantation of hearts from brain-dead donors is not applicable to the DCD context. Advances in our understanding of ischemic post-conditioning have facilitated the development of DCD heart resuscitation strategies that can be used to minimize ischemia-reperfusion injury at the time of organ procurement. The availability of a clinically approved ex situ heart perfusion device now allows DCD heart preservation in a normothermic beating state and minimizes exposure to incremental cold ischemia. This technology also facilitates assessments of organ viability to be undertaken prior to transplantation, thereby minimizing the risk of primary graft dysfunction. The application of a tailored approach to DCD heart transplantation that focuses on organ resuscitation at the time of procurement, ex situ preservation, and pre-transplant assessments of organ viability has facilitated the successful clinical application of DCD heart transplantation. The transplantation of hearts from DCD donors is now a clinical reality. Investigating ways to optimize the resuscitation, preservation, evaluation, and long-term outcomes is vital to ensure a broader application of DCD heart transplantation in the future.
Muhammet Ali TİLTAY; Behçet Yalın ÖZKARA
Nonprofit organizations provide products and services via online shopping websites in order to procure financial sources. The consumers that purchase these products and services both make donations and fulfill their needs. This study examines the role of donation motivations and online purchase elements on purchase intention. The study, which has been conducted via taking the online store of the Foundation for Children with Leukemia, lsvdukkan.com, has found out that the online purchase eleme...
Czeizler, Amalia; Garbarino, Ellen
The research extends construal theory by testing if a match between the temporal construal framing of a blood donation decision and a blood donation request leads to higher donation intentions than a mismatch. Results show participants considering future donation who read an abstract donation request have significantly higher donation intentions than those who read a concrete request. Conversely, participants considering donating today who read a concrete donation request have significantly higher donation intentions than those who read an abstract request. This study confirms the importance of matching the construal framing of the communication to the temporal framing of the decision.
Haimov-Kochman, Ronit; Har-Nir, Ruth; Ein-Mor, Eliana; Ben-Shoshan, Vered; Greenfield, Caryn; Eldar, Ido; Bdolah, Yuval; Hurwitz, Arye
Studies suggest that global semen quality is declining, but the debate remains open owing to geographic variation. To evaluate temporal trends of sperm parameters - namely concentration, motility and total motile sperm count - in sperm donated during the period 1995-2009. In a retrospective longitudinal cohort study we analyzed the sperm count and motility of 2182 semen samples provided on a weekly basis by 58 young, healthy, fertile, university-educated, paid donors. Despite the lowering of criteria for sperm parameters satisfactory for donation that were implemented in 2004, 38% of applicants for sperm donation are now rejected based on semen quality as compared to a third of applicants 10-15 years ago (P average sperm parameters dropped from a concentration of 106 +/- 25 million spermatozoa/ml with 79% +/- 4.3% motility to 68 +/- 14 million/ ml with 66% +/- 4.5% motile sperm (P sperm count per ejaculate also decreased, from 66.4 +/- 18.2 million to 48.7 +/- 12 million (P sperm donors, only 18% of donors had an acceptable sperm quality, with an average concentration of 87 +/- 12 million spermatozoa/ml, 73% +/- 2.6% motile sperm and total motile sperm count of 53.1 +/- 3.8 million per ejaculate - still significantly lower than 15 years ago (P= 0.01, P= 0.003, P= 0.058 respectively). The rapid deterioration of sperm quality among fertile semen donors is alarming and may lead to cessation of sperm donation programs.
Potter, Julie Elizabeth; Gatward, Jonathan J; Kelly, Michelle A; McKay, Leigh; McCann, Ellie; Elliott, Rosalind M; Perry, Lin
The approach, communication skills, and confidence of clinicians responsible for raising deceased organ donation may influence families' donation decisions. The aim of this study was to increase the preparedness and confidence of intensive care clinicians allocated to work in a "designated requester" role. We conducted a posttest evaluation of an innovative simulation-based training program. Simulation-based training enabled clinicians to rehearse the "balanced approach" to family donation conversations (FDCs) in the designated requester role. Professional actors played family members in simulated clinical settings using authentic scenarios, with video-assisted reflective debriefing. Participants completed an evaluation after the workshop. Simple descriptive statistical analysis and content analysis were performed. Between January 2013 and July 2015, 25 workshops were undertaken with 86 participants; 82 (95.3%) returned evaluations. Respondents were registered practicing clinicians; over half (44/82; 53.7%) were intensivists. Most attended a single workshop. Evaluations were overwhelmingly positive with the majority rating workshops as outstanding (64/80; 80%). Scenario fidelity, competence of the actors, opportunity to practice and receive feedback on performance, and feedback from actors, both in and out of character, were particularly valued. Most (76/78; 97.4%) reported feeling more confident about their designated requester role. Simulation-based communication training for the designated requester role in FDCs increased the knowledge and confidence of clinicians to raise the topic of donation.
Oocyte donation (OD), a technique successfully used in Assisted reproductive techniques (ART), has been effective for 20 years as the palliative treatment of certain exocrine ovarian failures. Its indications have also been extended to cover some genetic diseases and documented occult ovarian insufficiency. In France, after an extensive judicial and ethical deliberation, OD was deemed legal and its practice was proscribed in the Bioethics Laws 94-653 and 94-654 of 29 July 1994. Its essential underlying principles are: voluntary, free, anonymous and confidential OD; according to a French decree to meet safety concerns, OD-derived embryos must be quarantined for six months. In vitro fertilization (IVF) programs using donated oocytes are conducted in authorized centers under the responsibility of physicians authorized to retrieve and manipulate donated oocytes. The managers of these programs are the system's keystone, as their role includes, among other, the verification of indications, legal documents, public health safety, anonymous pairing of donor and recipient, and the collection of outcome data. At present, depending of the year, French programs have achieved 17-22% clinical pregnancy rates from transferred OD-derived frozen-thawed embryos, and follow-up studies reported excellent results concerning family relationships, and the physical and psychological development of the children. However, difficulties encountered in the daily practice of OD have led concerned physicians to form the Study group for OD (GEDO) to explore different topics with the aim of improving the overall management of this form of ART. We discussed these points herein, in comparison with the approaches of other European countries.
Mossialos, Elias; Costa-Font, Joan; Rudisill, Caroline
Maintaining adequately high organ donation rates proves essential to offering patients all appropriate and available treatment options. However, the act of donation is in itself an individual decision that requires a depth of understanding that interacts with the social setting and the institutional framework into which an individual is embedded. This study contributes to understanding factors driving organ donation rates by examining how country regulation, individuals' awareness of regulatory setting, social interactions and socio-demographic determinants influence individuals' willingness to donate their own organs or those of a relative. We draw representative data from the Eurobarometer survey 58.2 undertaken in 2002 with respondents throughout the European Union to capture heterogeneity in institutional setting. We use logistic regression techniques to estimate the determinants of willingness to donate one's own organs and those of a deceased relative. We employ interaction terms to examine the relationship between institutional setting and respondent's awareness of organ donation legislation in their country. Our findings indicate that individuals are more likely to donate their organs than to consent to the donation of a relative's organs. Both decisions are affected by regulation (presumed consent), awareness of regulation and social interactions such as the ability to count on others in case of a serious problem (reciprocity). Furthermore, education (more educated), age (younger), expressing some sort of political affiliation determine willingness to donate one's own organs and consent to the donation of those of a relative. This study confirms and develops further previous research findings that presumed consent organ donation policy positively affects the willingness of individuals to donate their own organs and those of relative by highlighting the importance of awareness of this regulation and an individual's level of social interactions in making
Bortoletto, Pietro; Farland, Leslie V; Ginsburg, Elizabeth S; Goldman, Randi H
To determine whether the general public supports intergenerational oocyte donation. Cross-sectional study. Not applicable. A nationally representative sample based on age distribution of United States residents. Not applicable. Characteristics of respondents who supported (strongly agree and agree) various oocyte donation practices were compared with participants who did not support them (disagree and strongly disagree) using log binomial regression to calculate risk ratios (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals of support (95% CIs). Models were adjusted for age, gender, and religion to yield adjusted risk ratios (aRR). A total of 1,915 people responded to the Web-based survey; 53% were female, and 24% were racial/ethnic minorities. Eighty-five percent had prior knowledge of oocyte donation, and 74% felt that a woman should be able to donate oocytes to a family member. The desire to help a family member was the most commonly perceived motivation for donors (79%). Christian-Catholics compared with Christian-non-Catholics (aRR 0.91, 95% CI 0.86-0.98), African Americans compared with non-Hispanic Caucasians (aRR 0.86, 95% CI 0.76-0.97), and Republicans compared with Democrats (RR 0.93, 95% CI 0.88-0.98) were less likely to support intergenerational oocyte donation. Respondents with three or more biological children (RR 1.06, 95% CI 1.00-1.11) compared with those with no children were less likely to support this practice. Eight percent of participants disapproved of donation to any family member. The most common reason for disapproval was the potential negative impact on the child (53%). A majority of Americans support the practice of intergenerational oocyte donation; however, support varies according to demographic characteristics. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Axdorph Nygell, Ulla; Sollén-Nilsson, Agneta; Lundahl, Joachim
Granulocyte transfusions are given to patients with life-threatening infections, refractory to treatment. The donors are stimulated with corticosteroids ± granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF). However, data regarding the donors' safety is sparse. The objective was therefore to evaluate short- and long-term adverse events (AE) in G-CSF stimulated donors. All consecutive granulocyte donors from 1994 to 2012 were identified through our registry. From the donation records, the number of aphereses, stimulation therapy, AE, blood values post donation, and recent status were evaluated. One hundred fifty-four volunteer donors were mobilized for 359 collections. Age at first granulocyte donation was 43 years (median; range 19-64 years). Follow-up was 60 months (median; range 0-229 months). The dose of G-CSF per collection was 3.8 ug/kg body weight (median; range 1.6-6.0 ug/kg). Sedimentation agent was HES. Short-term AE were mild. Blood values 4 weeks post donation with minor reductions/elevations mostly resolved in later donations. Fourteen donors were excluded from the registry due to hypertension (4), diabetes (2), atrial flutter (1), breast carcinoma (1), urethral carcinoma in situ (1), MGUS (1), thrombosis (1), anaphylaxis (1), primary biliary cirrhosis (1), and unknown (1). Three donors are deceased due to diabetes, acute myocardial infarction, and unknown cause. All excluded/deceased donors except one were excluded/died at least 6 months after first granulocyte donation. No serious short-term AE were observed. Due to the variability of diagnoses among excluded/deceased donors, we propose that it is less likely that granulocyte donations have a causative impact on these donors' exclusion or death. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Lin, Alice; Tsai, Karin; Rangel, Antonio; Adolphs, Ralph
People with autism have abnormal preferences, ranging from an apparent lack of preference for social stimuli to unusually strong preferences for restricted sets of highly idiosyncratic stimuli. Yet the profile of preferences across social and nonsocial domains has not been mapped out in detail, and the processes responsible remain poorly understood. To assess preferences across a range of stimuli, we measured real monetary donations to 50 charities spanning categories pertaining to people, mental health, animals, or the environment. We compared the donations made by 16 high-functioning adults with autism to those made by neurotypical controls matched on age, gender and education. We additionally collected ratings of how people evaluated the different charities. Compared with controls, high-functioning adults with autism donated less overall and also showed a significantly disproportionate reduction in donations to people charities compared with donations to the other charities. Furthermore, whereas controls discriminated strongly between different people charities, choosing to donate a lot of money to some and very little to others, much less discrimination was seen in the autism group. Ratings that probed how participants constructed their preferences did not differ between groups, except for a difference in the perceived impact of pictures and text information about people charities. Strikingly, there were some charities related to mental health, and autism in particular, to which the autism group donated considerably more than did the controls. People with autism were found to have reduced preference and sensitivity towards charities benefiting other people. The findings provide evidence for a domain-specific impairment in social cognition in autism spectrum disorder, and in particular in linking otherwise intact social knowledge to the construction of value signals on which preferences regarding other people are based.
Garozzo, Giovanni; Crocco, Isabella; Giussani, Barbara; Martinucci, Annalisa; Monacelli, Stefano; Randi, Vanda
In 2006 in Italy 2,404,267 donations of blood components were made by 1,539,454 donors; approximately 55% of the donations were collected directly by Transfusion Structures (TS), while about 45% were collected in Donation Centres managed by Associations and Federations of Donors. The aim of the READ (Rilevamento Eventi Avversi alla Donazione) project is to create a network of TS to test a standardised system for monitoring adverse events (AE) related to blood donations. Shared, standardised data collection forms, compatible with the forms produced by the ISBT-EHN, were prepared. Two types of form were used: (i) a form to collect data on single events (READ 1), to be used at the individual collection sites; (ii) a form for processing the data collected by each TS (READ 2). Between February and August 2008 six TS collected data related to the donation of 89,332 units of blood. Overall, 523 AE were recorded. The AE occurred in 0.59% of the donations. The mean duration of the symptoms was 17 minutes. Fifteen percent of the symptoms were related to the venipuncture (mainly haematomas) and 77% to vasovagal AE. The AE were defined severe (grade C) in 47 cases. The donations in which AE were recorded were completed in 81% of the cases; 59% of the AE did not require treatment. Three donors were monitored briefly (for less than 4 hours) in hospital. The use of standardised forms enabled the collection of data that could be analysed. Some problems related to the performance of the haemovigilance programme did, however, emerge: (i) organisational problems, (ii) limited sensitivity, (iii) inadequate training, and (iv) poorly defined responsibilities. These problems must be resolved at various levels: local, regional and national.
Full Text Available Abstract Background People with autism have abnormal preferences, ranging from an apparent lack of preference for social stimuli to unusually strong preferences for restricted sets of highly idiosyncratic stimuli. Yet the profile of preferences across social and nonsocial domains has not been mapped out in detail, and the processes responsible remain poorly understood. Methods To assess preferences across a range of stimuli, we measured real monetary donations to 50 charities spanning categories pertaining to people, mental health, animals, or the environment. We compared the donations made by 16 high-functioning adults with autism to those made by neurotypical controls matched on age, gender and education. We additionally collected ratings of how people evaluated the different charities. Results Compared with controls, high-functioning adults with autism donated less overall and also showed a significantly disproportionate reduction in donations to people charities compared with donations to the other charities. Furthermore, whereas controls discriminated strongly between different people charities, choosing to donate a lot of money to some and very little to others, much less discrimination was seen in the autism group. Ratings that probed how participants constructed their preferences did not differ between groups, except for a difference in the perceived impact of pictures and text information about people charities. Strikingly, there were some charities related to mental health, and autism in particular, to which the autism group donated considerably more than did the controls. Conclusions People with autism were found to have reduced preference and sensitivity towards charities benefiting other people. The findings provide evidence for a domain-specific impairment in social cognition in autism spectrum disorder, and in particular in linking otherwise intact social knowledge to the construction of value signals on which preferences
Batool Y. Bosakhar
Full Text Available Background and objectives: In Kuwait, information regarding public knowledge and attitudes towards organ donation are scanty. This study aimed to evaluate public knowledge and attitude regarding organ donation and determine factors which predict them. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted among 630 participants recruited from 27 randomly selected public cooperative societies and private supermarkets in Kuwait. A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect data. Results: The prevalence rate of knowledge about organ donation was 68%, with a significantly higher rate among females than males (73% vs. 63%, respectively, p = 0.01. A composite score of knowledge was also higher among females than males (8.4 ± 5.8 vs. 6.8 ± 5.8, respectively, p = 0.001. In multivariate analysis, female gender (OR = 1.7; 95% CI =1.2, 2.4 and an educational level of bachelor’s degree or higher (OR = 2.6, 95% CI = 1.7, 3.9 were significant predictors of the knowledge. Among the barriers, more females than males mentioned about the fear of the operative procedures (p<0.001 and complications after the surgery (p = 0.011. Overall, 73% accepted the idea of organ donation during life, and 67% actually opted for donating their organs during life. However, almost everybody wanted to donate organs to their relatives. Conclusion: The study identified factors predicting knowledge and attitude regarding organ donation. The results will help in planning how to improve the rate of donors in Kuwait. IMC J Med Sci 2016; 10(1: 01-09
Abdo, A; Ugarte, J C; Castellanos, R; González, L; López, O; Hernández, J C; Valdivia, J; Almora, E; Suárez, O; Diaz, J; Collera, S; Enamorado, A; Vázquez, A; Beníte, P; Dominguez, J; Wilford, M; Falcon, J
In 1998 in the Centro de Investigaciones Medico Quirurgicas the Transplant Coordination Office (TCO) was created, with the aim to organize a system to support a hepatic transplantation program. This organization, which changed the transplantation-donation process not only in our center but in the whole country, is described in this article. The files of donors generated in our hospital were studied together with the transplant coordination records, from 1999 till the first half of 2002. In the period studied, 21 potential donors were diagnosed with brain death, yielding a donation rate of 71.4%. Brain death was most frequently caused by vascular brain disease; however, in the realized donor group, the cranioencephalic trauma predominated. The typical donor was a man of average age 39.2 years (range, 18-86 years). Among the potential donors, 24% were excluded based on medical criteria, and 5% due to family objections. Forty liver transplantation were performed in 36 patients including 1 liver-kidney simultaneous procedure. The principal etiologies for transplant included hepatitis C virus cirrhosis, 22%; alcoholic, 19%; and acute hepatic failure, 13%. Kidney transplantations were performed in 70 patients, including 41 from cadaveric donors (53.6%) and 29 from living related donors (41.4%). In 2001, a pancreas-kidney transplantation program was started. The creation of the TCO has been of paramount importance to optimize transplantation program functions.
Jose Eduardo Levi
Full Text Available Objective: To describe general data on nucleic acid/serology testing and report the first hepatitis B-nucleic acid testing yield case of an immunized donor in Brazil. Methods: A total of 24,441 donations collected in 2010 and 2011 were submitted to individual nucleic acid testing for hepatitis B, hepatitis C and human immunodeficiency virus using the TaqMan® MPX kit (Roche on the Cobas s201 platform, in addition to routine screening for serological markers. Nucleic acid testing-reactive donations were further evaluated by real-time polymerase chain reaction using Cobas AmpliPrep/Cobas TaqMan hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus and human immunodeficiency virus tests. Results: Thirty-two donations were reactive by nucleic acid testing, 31 were also serologically reactive and one first-time donor was identified as having hepatitis B in the window period. Follow-up samples showed increasing titers of anti-HBs rising from 19 UI/mL in the index donation to 109 IU/mL seven months later attributable to his vaccination history. Curiously, this donor was never reactive for HbsAg nor for anti-HBc. In the yield donation, he was concomitantly reactive for syphilis (enzyme immunoassay and fluorescent treponemal antibody-absorption; venereal disease research laboratory non-reactive. Overall, six donors (0.02% were characterized as occult hepatitis B. A total of 35% of the confirmed (recombinant immunoblot assay positive hepatitis C donations were nucleic acid testing non-reactive and no human immunodeficiency virus "elite controller" was identified. Conclusion: The yield rate (1:24,441; 95% confidence interval: 1:9,537 - 1:89,717 contrasts to the North American rate (1:410,540 donations and strongly advocates the adoption of nucleic acid testing for hepatitis B in Brazil despite the increasing rate of anti-HBs reactive subjects due to the successful immunization program.
Reichman, T W; Fox, A; Adcock, L; Wright, L; Abbey, S E; Levy, G; Grant, D R
There are no published series of the assessment process, profiles and outcomes of anonymous, directed or nondirected live liver donation. The outcomes of 29 consecutive potential anonymous liver donors at our center were assessed. We used our standard live liver assessment process, augmented with the following additional acceptance criteria: a logical rationale for donation, a history of social altruism, strong social supports and a willingness to maintain confidentiality of patient information. Seventeen potential donors were rejected and 12 donors were ultimately accepted (six male, six female). All donors were strongly motivated by a desire and sense of responsibility to help others. Four donations were directed toward recipients who undertook media appeals. The donor operations included five left lateral segmentectomies and seven right hepatectomies. The overall donor morbidity was 40% with one patient having a transient Clavien level 3 complication (a pneumothorax). All donors are currently well. None expressed regret about their decision to donate, and all volunteered the opinion that donation had improved their lives. The standard live liver donor assessment process plus our additional requirements appears to provide a robust assessment process for the selection of anonymous live liver donors. Acceptance of anonymous donors enlarges the donor liver pool. © 2010 The Authors Journal compilation © 2010 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.
Rodrigue, James R; Cornell, Danielle L; Kaplan, Bruce; Howard, Richard J
Living donor kidney transplantation has several advantages for patients with end-stage renal disease. However, many patients are reluctant to pursue this treatment option, preferring instead to wait for a deceased donor organ. To examine predictors of patients' willingness to talk to others about living kidney donation. One hundred thirty-two adult patients awaiting kidney transplantation who were enrolled in a randomized trial examining the effectiveness of education on rates of live donor kidney transplantation completed a baseline rating of their willingness to talk to others about living kidney donation. Also, patients completed measures of knowledge and concerns about living donation and a rating of perceived health. Slightly more than half the patients (56.1%) had low willingness to talk to others about living donation. The following variables were associated with higher willingness to talk to others: white race (odds ratio, 3.31; confidence interval, 1.7-7.4), college education (odds ratio, 3.43, confidence interval, 2.0-5.6), fewer concerns about living donor kidney transplantation (odds ratio, 0.31; confidence interval, 0.2-0.6), and less favorable perceptions of their current health status (odds ratio, 4.31; confidence interval, 2.6-7.6). White race, more education, less concern about living donor kidney transplantation, and poorer perceived health are associated with greater willingness to talk to others about living kidney donation. These findings have important implications for educating patients about living donor kidney transplantation.
Hsu, Ho-Torng; Fong, Tze-Vun; Hassan, Nurulhuda Mat; Wong, Hoi-Ling; Rai, Jasminder Kaur; Khalid, Zorina
Human milk bank is a source of human milk supply in many neonatal intensive care units. However, there are some hospitals without this facility because of financial or religious impediments, such as the Muslim community. We introduced human milk donation as an alternative to human milk banking based on Islamic principles. The suitable donor is a healthy rooming-in mother whose expressed breastmilk is in excess of her baby's demand. The milk is used after 72 hours of freezing at -20°C. The donor must fulfill the criteria for selection of donors and be nonreactive to human immunodeficiency virus and syphilis. Once the recipient's family and the donor state their desire for the human milk donation, a meeting with both parties is made. Unpasteurized frozen-thawed donor's milk will be provided to the recipient after written consents are obtained from both parties. This study was carried out in the Duchess of Kent Hospital (Sandakan, Sabah, Malaysia) between January 2009 and December 2010. A total of 48 babies received donated breastmilk. Forty-two infants were from the special care nursery, and the remaining six were from the pediatric ward. Eighty-eight percent of the donors and 77% of the recipients were Muslims. Sixty percent of the infants who received donated human milk were premature. Two infants died because of the underlying nature of their disease. Human milk donation is an option for hospitals without a human milk bank or in the Muslim community.
Hoogerwerf, M D; Veldhuizen, I J T; Tarvainen, M P; Merz, E-M; Huis In 't Veld, E M J; de Kort, W L A M; Sluiter, J K; Frings-Dresen, M H W
Donating blood is associated with increased psychological stress. This study investigates whether a blood donation induces physiological stress and if response patterns differ by gender, donation experience and non-acute stress. In 372 donors, physiological stress [blood pressure, pulse rate, pulse rate variability (PRV)] was measured at seven moments during routine donation. PRV was assessed using time domain [root mean square of successive differences (RMSSD)] and frequency domain [high frequency (HF) and low frequency (LF) power] parameters. Non-acute stress was assessed by questionnaire. Shape and significance of time course patterns were assessed by fitting multilevel models for each stress measure and comparing men and women, first-time and experienced donors, and donors with high and low levels of non-acute stress. Significant response patterns were found for all stress measures, where levels of systolic blood pressure (F(1,1315) = 24·2, P blood pressure (F(1,1326) = 50·9, P blood pressure/pulse rate in women; higher pulse rate in first-time donors; higher RMSSD at arrival and from screening until leaving in first-time donors; and higher LF and HF in first-time donors. This study shows an increase in physiological stress related to needle insertion, followed by a decrease when leaving the donation centre. Some group effects were also found. © 2018 International Society of Blood Transfusion.
Dalal, Aparna R
Transplantation ethics is a philosophy that incorporates systematizing, defending and advocating concepts of right and wrong conduct related to organ donation. As the demand for organs increases, it is essential to ensure that new and innovative laws, policies and strategies of increasing organ supply are bioethical and are founded on the principles of altruism and utilitarianism. In the field of organ transplantation, role of altruism and medical ethics values are significant to the welfare of the society. This article reviews several fundamental ethical principles, prevailing organ donation consent laws, incentives and policies related to the field of transplantation. The Ethical and Policy Considerations in Organ Donation after Circulatory Determination of Death outline criteria for death and organ retrieval. Presumed consent laws prevalent mostly in European countries maintain that the default choice of an individual would be to donate organs unless opted otherwise. Explicit consent laws require organ donation to be proactively affirmed with state registries. The Declaration of Istanbul outlines principles against organ trafficking and transplant tourism. World Health Organization's Guiding Principles on Human Cell, Tissue and Organ Transplantation aim at ensuring transparency in organ procurement and allocation. The ethics of financial incentives and non-financial incentives such as incorporation of non-medical criteria in organ priority allocation have also been reviewed in detail.
Blaschke-Hellmessen, R; Henker, J; Futschik, M
From 1968 to 1989 altogether 37,000 specimens of donated and collected mother's milk were mycologically examined by means of a liquid medium (twofold concentrated Raulin solution). The yearly incidence of Candida albicans varied between 8.5 and 5.2%. 25% respectively 14.8% of the donors (n = 60 respectively 813) had delivered milk to the human milk bank which was contaminated by Candida albicans. The mother's milk was primarily contaminated by the donor's own suckling baby. 92.3% of these infants were infected with Candida albicans in the mouth and/or rectum and/or on the skin. Candida albicans was also detected in 46.2% on the nipples of the mothers. It is recommended to transport donated mother's milk at temperatures of 4-8 degrees C and to store the milk at -20 degrees C until the mycological examination is finished to exclude samples contaminated by Candida albicans. Judging our experience donated human milk to be fed in raw state should be regularly controlled mycologically. If the donated milk contains Candida albicans, the donation of milk should be interrupted and an antifungal treatment of the donor and her baby should be performed.
Woo, K T
In Asian countries, it is more difficult to obtain cadaver kidneys for renal transplantation because of certain socio-cultural beliefs and customs. The issues affecting living related kidney donation are more social than cultural. This is due to the web of family pressures and personal conflicts for both donor and recipient surrounding the donation. Important misconceptions and fears are: fear of death, the belief that removal of organ violates sanctity of decreased, concern about being cut up after death, desire to be buried whole, dislike of idea of kidneys inside another person, wrong concept of brain death, and the idea of donation being against religious conviction. In Singapore, with the introduction of the Human Organ Transplant Act (HOTA) in 1988, the number of cadaveric transplants have increased, including those from the Medical Therapy Act (MTA). HOTA and education have played pivotal roles in bringing about an increased yield of cadaveric kidneys. With the availability of living unrelated donor (LUD) transplants in India, our living related donor (LRD) transplant programme has suffered, because patients would rather buy a kidney from overseas than get a relative to donate one. Patients are also going to China for overseas cadaveric transplants where the kidneys come from executed convicts. People in countries like Hong Kong, Japan and the Philippines share the same Asian tradition of not parting with their organs after death. Muslim countries like Malaysia require the deceased to have earlier pledged his kidneys for donation prior to death before they can be harvested for transplantation at death.
Mulder, J G H; Sonneveld, J P C
Patients considering physician-hastened death (PHD) increasingly express a wish to donate organs after death. This fairly unique proposition stems from patients' desire to do something good with (parts of) the same diseased body that has prompted them to request physician-hastened death. In this article we describe a patient with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) who expressed this wish. In March 2017 a national guideline on 'Organ donation following physician-hastened death' (ODP) was presented to the Minister of Health, Welfare and Sport of the Netherlands. From the development of this guideline it emerged that, for PHD patients, being forced to experience their final conscious moments in hospital - in order to facilitate organ donation - was a key reason for not choosing ODP. Together with an anaesthesiologist-intensivist, the GP of the ALS patient developed a domestic ODP, thereby overcoming the hurdle of experiencing death in hospital and maintaining the possible option of organ donation. The applied solution is an 'anaesthesia bridge' which separates the experience of farewells, and losing consciousness under pre-medication at home, from biological death and organ donation in hospital.
Joseph, Bellal; Khalil, Mazhar; Pandit, Viraj; Orouji Jokar, Tahereh; Cheaito, Ali; Kulvatunyou, Narong; Tang, Andrew; O'Keeffe, Terence; Vercruysse, Gary; Green, Donald J; Friese, Randall S; Rhee, Peter
Organ donation after cardiac death (DCD) is not optimal but still remains a valuable source of organ donation in trauma donors. The aim of this study was to assess national trends in DCD from trauma patients. A 12-year (2002 to 2013) retrospective analysis of the United Network for Organ Sharing database was performed. Outcome measures were the following: proportion of DCD donors over the years and number and type of solid organs donated. DCD resulted in procurement of 16,248 solid organs from 8,724 donors. The number of organs donated per donor remained unchanged over the study period (P = .1). DCD increased significantly from 3.1% in 2002 to 14.6% in 2013 (P = .001). There was a significant increase in the proportion of kidney (2002: 3.4% vs 2013: 16.3%, P = .001) and liver (2002: 1.6% vs 2013: 5%, P = .041) donation among DCD donors over the study period. DCD from trauma donors provides a significant source of solid organs. The proportion of DCD donors increased significantly over the last 12 years. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Israni, A K; Zaun, D A; Rosendale, J D; Snyder, J J; Kasiske, B L
The status of deceased organ donation is assessed using metrics such as donation/conversation rate, organ yield, and rate of organs recovered for transplant and not transplanted. These metrics are based on eligible deaths (brain death of a person aged 70 years or younger) as well as on actual donors. The 9132 eligible deaths reported in 2013 represented a slight increase over 2012. The donation/conversion rate was 71.3 eligible donors per 100 eligible deaths, a slight decline from 2012, and varied by donation service area from 50.0 to 87.0. The number of organs recovered per donor, 3.55, also varied by donation service area, from 2.79 to 4.10. The mean number of organs transplanted per donor was 3.08 in 2013, slightly higher than 3.02 in 2012. The mean observed/expected organ yield ratio for kidneys varied from 0.86 to 1.18; for pancreata, from 0.29 to 2.59; for livers, from 0.69 to 1.17; for hearts, from 0.68 to 1.41; and for lungs, from 0.33 to 1.41. The rate of organs recovered for transplant and not transplanted in 2013 for all organs combined was 0.13 per recovered organ, slightly lower than the rate of 0.14 in 2012. © Copyright 2015 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.
Pennings, Guido; Ravel, Célia; Girard, Jean-Maxime; Domin-Bernhard, Mathilde; Provoost, Veerle
Finding out whether patients would be motivated by reciprocity when considering donating oocytes to others. This is a prospective monocentric study in the CECOS of the Centre Hospitalier Universitaire (CHU) of Rennes (France) on the opinion of patients regarding reciprocity. Couples who had a child with donor sperm were asked whether they would consider oocyte donation as a way of giving something back. Twenty six couples and one man answered the questionnaire. About half of the respondents (49%) felt that they should contribute to the system from which they benefitted. Although the patients would benefit from a reduction in waiting time, this advantage was only important for one in four persons. The only items on which the answers between men and women were significantly different concerned the results of the donation: women would think more often about the potential recipient and the child and they more often wanted to know whether children were born from their donation. The results show that beside altruism, reciprocity may be an important moral reason for people to donate gametes. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Summers, D. M.; Johnson, R. J.; Hudson, A. J.; Collett, D.; Murphy, P.; Watson, C. J. E.; Neuberger, J. M.; Bradley, J. A.
Background The UK has implemented a national strategy for organ donation that includes a centrally coordinated network of specialist nurses in organ donation embedded in all intensive care units and a national organ retrieval service for deceased organ donors. We aimed to determine whether despite the national approach to donation there is significant regional variation in deceased donor kidney donation rates. Methods The UK prospective audit of deaths in critical care was analysed for a cohort of patients who died in critical care between April 2010 and December 2011. Multivariate logistic regression was used to identify the factors associated with kidney donation. The logistic regression model was then used to produce risk-adjusted funnel plots describing the regional variation in donation rates. Results Of the 27 482 patients who died in a critical care setting, 1528 (5.5%) became kidney donors. Factors found to influence donation rates significantly were: type of critical care [e.g. neurointensive vs general intensive care: OR 1.53, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.34–1.75, P69 vs age 18–39 yr: OR 0.2, 0.15–0.25, Pdonation rates for the 20 UK kidney donor regions showed marked variation. The overall standardized donation rate ranged from 3.2 to 7.5%. Four regions had donation rates of >2 standard deviations (sd) from the mean (two below and two above). Regional variation was most marked for donation after circulatory death (DCD) kidney donors with 9 of the 20 regions demonstrating donation rates of >2 sd from the mean (5 below and 4 above). Conclusions The marked regional variation in kidney donation rates observed in this cohort after adjustment for factors strongly associated with donation rates suggests that there is considerable scope for further increasing kidney donation rates in the UK, particularly DCD. PMID:24335581
Livitz, Irina E; Fox, Kristen R; Himawan, Lina K; France, Christopher R
Recruitment and retention of first-time and repeat donors is essential to maintain a stable blood supply. Recent evidence has shown that promoting internal motivation may be an effective strategy to enhance donation behavior. We tested the efficacy of an in-person motivational interview at increasing internal motivation and intention to donate. A sample of 219 donors and nondonors (69.4% female; mean ± SD age, 19.2 ± 1.1 years; 52.1% nondonors) were randomly assigned to either a motivational or a knowledge interview. Immediately before and after the interview participants completed a measure of donation intention and the Blood Donor Identity Survey, which is a multidimensional measure of donor motivation. A latent profile analysis revealed three distinct latent classes, which were identified as low internal motivation, mid internal motivation, and high internal motivation. Comparison of change in latent class from pre- to postinterview revealed that a higher proportion of participants in the motivational interview group moved to a more internally motivated class compared to the knowledge interview group (i.e., 34% vs. 4%, respectively). Further, relative to the knowledge interview group, participants in the motivational interview group reported greater increases in intention to donate. A brief motivational interview may enhance donation intention and intrinsic motivation among both experienced donors and nondonors alike. © 2017 AABB.
Background Kidney transplantation is associated with greater long term survival rates and improved quality of life compared with dialysis. Continuous growth in the number of patients with kidney failure has not been matched by an increase in the availability of kidneys for transplantation. This leads to long waiting lists, higher treatment costs and negative health outcomes. Discussion Misunderstandings, public uncertainty and issues of trust in the medical system, that limit willingness to be registered as a potential donor, could be addressed by community dissemination of information and new family practice initiatives that respond to individuals' personal beliefs and concerns regarding organ donation and transplantation. Summary Tackling both personal and public inertia on organ donation is important for any community oriented kidney donation campaign. PMID:20478042
Ito, Nobuyuki; Takeuchi, Kenji; Tsuge, Takahiro; Kishimoto, Atsuo
This study applies a threshold model proposed by to analyze the diffusion process of donating behavior for renewable energy. We first use a stated preference survey to estimate the determinants of a decision to support the donation scheme under various predicted participation rates. Using the estimated coefficients, we simulate how herd behavior spreads and the participation rate reaches the equilibrium. The participation rate at the equilibrium is estimated as 37.88% when the suggested donation is 500 yen, while it is 17.76% when the suggested amount is 1000 yen. The influence of environmentalism and altruism is also examined, and we find that these motivations increase the participation rate by 31.51% on average.
One of the key fundaments of building a society is common interest or shared aims of the group members. This research work is a try to analyze web-based services oriented towards money collection for various social and charity projects. The phenomenon of social founding is worth a closer look at because its success strongly depends on the ability to build an ad-hoc or persistent groups of people sharing their believes and willing to support external institutions or individuals. The paper presents a review of money collection sites, various models of donation and money collection process as well as ways how the projects' results are reported to their founders. There is also a proposal of money collection service, where donators are not charged until total declared help overheads required resources to complete the project. The risk of missing real donations for declared payments, after the collection is closed, can be assessed and minimized by building a social network.
Kim, Youngwan; Nunnenkamp, Peter; Bagchi, Chandreyee
Non-governmental organisations (NGOs) are widely believed to raise their flag in humanitarian hotspots with a strong media presence in order to attract higher private donations. We assess this hypothesis by comparing the changes in donations between US-based NGOs with and without aid operations in the four countries most affected by the tsunami in the Indian Ocean in 2004. Simple before-after comparisons tend to support the hypothesis that 'flying the flag' helps attract higher private donations. However, performing a difference-in-difference-in-differences (DDD) approach, we find only weak indications that private donors systematically and strongly preferred NGOs with operations in the region. Extended specifications of the baseline regressions reveal that our major findings are robust. NGO heterogeneity matters in some respects, but the DDD results hold when accounting for proxies of the NGOs' reputation and experience. © 2016 The Author(s). Disasters © Overseas Development Institute, 2016.
Silva, Gilce Erbe de Miranda; Valadares, Glaucia Valente
The study aims at discussing the significations apprehended by the non-blood donators, considering the context and the consequences of the acting of the nurse in hemotherapy. It is a qualitative approach, with theoretical frame of Symbolic Interactionism and Grounded Theory method. The data production was carried out by intensive interview with subjects of three sample groups of a University Hospital of Rio de Janeiro City. The phenomenon originated two analysis categories: "Perceiving the blood matter" and "Reflecting about the blood donation campaigns". It was observed that the environment of the donor is not composed by contact with the other and the information that it can achieve, including the media. These were the main basis for the knowledge of blood donation according to their beliefs, culture and values. Therefore, all these aspects must be considered by the nurse acting on donors capture.
al-Naqeeb, N A; Azab, A; Eliwa, M S; Mohammed, B Y
Breast milk donation (wet-nursing) for full-term babies is a well-known practice in Kuwait, but it has never been organized formally in a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) for preterm babies. Donor milk banking as conducted in Western society is not considered to be ethical in Muslim society, where the milk donor and the recipient are required to know each other. Human milk is known to decrease the incidence of necrotizing enterocolitis; improve host defenses, digestion, absorption of nutrients, gastrointestinal function, and neurodevelopment of the child; and contribute to maternal physical and psychological well-being. A culturally accepted approach to donor milk banking is proposed as a means of overcoming the ethical issues surrounding milk donation in Muslim society. This report addresses the first step in raising awareness of the valuable contribution of donor milk to preterm babies and the organization of human milk donation for use in an NICU.
Kottow Lang, Miguel Hugo
The worldwide scarcity of cadaveric organs for transplants is on the rise, due in part to extended medical indications and longevity of chronic patients with organic insufficiencies. Chile has an extremely low donor rate of 6.7 per million. Although consent is presumed by law, and recently amended to include a reciprocity principle, nearly four million persons have expressed in writing their unwillingness to donate and, of those remaining, 53% of families have rejected donating the organs of their deceased. New proposals are urgently needed, even if some of them have previously been rejected: nonmaterial incentives, partial donations and unveiling anonymity to enhance personal ties between donors and recipients. Transparency, information and assistance are to be reinforced in order to regain trust in transplant procedures.
Sussman, Abigail B; Sharma, Eesha; Alter, Adam L
Many articles have examined the psychological drivers of charitable giving, but little is known about how people mentally budget for charitable gifts. The present research aims to address this gap by investigating how perceptions of donations as exceptional (uncommon and infrequent) rather than ordinary (common and frequent) expenses might affect budgeting for and giving to charity. We provide the first demonstration that exceptional framing of an identical item can directly influence mental budgeting processes, and yield societal benefits. In 5 lab and field experiments, exceptional framing increased charitable behavior, and diminished the extent to which people considered the effect of the donation on their budgets. The current work extends our understanding of mental accounting and budgeting for charitable gifts, and demonstrates practical techniques that enable fundraisers to enhance the perceived exceptionality of donations. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
Electrical Engineering Instructional Laboratories Student Resources Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Academic Programs Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Major Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Minor Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering
Perrin, Maryanne Tigchelaar; Goodell, L Suzanne; Fogleman, April; Pettus, Hannah; Bodenheimer, Amanda L; Palmquist, Aunchalee E L
Lactating women in the United States have several options for what they do with excess breast milk, including donating to milk banks that serve medically fragile infants, sharing directly with families seeking milk, and selling to individuals or for-profit entities. The World Health Organization and the US Surgeon General have issued calls to increase access to pasteurized donor milk for medically fragile infants. To explore how lactating women with a surplus of breast milk come to the decision to share their milk with a peer rather than donate to a milk bank. A qualitative design using a grounded theory approach was employed. Semistructured telephone interviews were conducted with 27 women who had shared milk with a peer but not with a milk bank. Five dominant themes were identified: a strong belief in the value of breast milk, unexpected versus planned donation, sources of information regarding milk exchange, concerns and knowledge gaps about milk banks, and helping and connecting. This research offers insights into potential strategies for promoting milk bank donation among peer-to-peer milk sharers, including developing donor education campaigns focused on knowledge gaps regarding milk banks and developing health care professional referral programs that can reduce barriers associated with the convenience of milk bank donation. © The Author(s) 2016.
Terbonssen, Tobias; Settmacher, Utz; Wurst, Christine; Dirsch, Olaf; Dahmen, Uta
It is well known that personal decision making in respect to organ donation is highly dependent on the balance of knowledge, trust, and fear. We wanted to explore the attitude of German medical students towards organ donation and investigate the relationship between knowledge, trust, and fear in this special subgroup. We conducted an online survey utilizing (1) the snowball effect of using Facebook groups and advertisement as well as (2) mailing lists of medical faculties in Germany for distribution. We surveyed 1370 medical students. 75.8 % (N = 988) of the participants stated to carry an organ donor card and allowed their organs to be donated. 1.8 % (N = 23) refused donation. 22.5 % (N = 293) did not carry an organ donor card. Analysis of the "decided" versus the "undecided" group revealed substantial differences regarding transplantation knowledge (mean knowledge score of 4.23 vs. 3.81; P < 0.001), trust in (mean trust score 4.11 vs. 3.39; P < 0.001), and fear of (mean fear score 1.63 vs. 2.22; P < 0.001) organ donation. 45.9 % of the undecided group (N = 134) opted for accessing additional information material. After reading the info material, 22.7 % (N = 29) stated their willingness to sign a donor card, whereas 76.6 % (N = 98) still could not reach a decision. The willingness to potentially act as organ donor was related to the pre-existent knowledge, trust, and fear. Access to information material did promote the decision towards organ donation in a group of previously undecided medical students. This advocates initiating information campaigns even in population groups with strong medical background.
Hagman, Anna; Loft, Anne; Wennerholm, Ulla-Britt
What are the obstetric and neonatal outcomes of deliveries after oocyte donation (OD) in women with Turner syndrome (TS)?......What are the obstetric and neonatal outcomes of deliveries after oocyte donation (OD) in women with Turner syndrome (TS)?...
Stevens, Jack; Keim, Sarah A
Many hospitalized preterm infants do not exclusively receive mother's own milk, so milk from another mother may be sought. Previous research indicated that just 1% of US women who express breast milk actually donate it for another family. Therefore, strategies to boost donation rates should be identified. We draw upon the experimental literature on charitable giving of monetary donations to offer 6 strategies to promote breast milk donations to milk banks in North America. These strategies include (1) highlighting a potential identifiable recipient of donated breast milk as opposed to highlighting groups of potential recipients; (2) emphasizing similarities between the potential donor and potential beneficiaries; (3) emphasizing similarities between the potential donor and previous donors; (4) using negative arousal to promote donations; (5) emphasizing the self-interest of those asking for breast milk donations; and (6) highlighting the specific effect of breast milk donations. Potential limitations of these strategies are discussed. © The Author(s) 2015.
This article follows the recent publication of the Organs for Donation Task Force report, "Organs for Transplants", and considers the debate surrounding a change in the law in favour of presumed consent in organ donation.
Ernest L. Mramba; Ismail J. Ismail
The study was determined to look on the relationship between socio-economic determinants and blood donation in Tanzania. It involved a sample of 128 respondents in which binary logistic regression results showed sex of respondents, level of education and religious beliefs to have a positively relationship with blood donation at 1%, 10%, 10% level respectively, with p values of 0.007, 0.077, 0.094 as theory suggested. Health status, cultural beliefs, fear for HIV test results, and health in...
Willum Adrian, Stine
as the use of donated sperm continuously has been debated as an ethical issue, and increasingly been regulated. In this presentation I will discuss how Denmark became a destination for fertility travelling (sperm donation) as a result of various subversive strategies of family making. The article inquires......-sited ethnography drawing on ethnographic research including observations and interviews from fertility clinics and sperm banks in Denmark during 2002/2003 and 2011- 2013, legislative documents and websites of fertility clinics and sperm banks. The presentation is methodologically inspired by Adele Clarke...
Fugate, Jennifer E; Stadtler, Maria; Rabinstein, Alejandro A; Wijdicks, Eelco F M
As donation after cardiac death practices expand, the number of institutional policies is increasing. We contacted organ procurement organizations throughout the United States and requested protocols in hospitals in their donor service areas. Sixty-four protocols were obtained with representation from 16 different states. The terminology and recommended practices varied substantially. The methods for death determination were not specified in 28 (44%) protocols. Most adhered to a 2- to 5-min observation time between circulatory arrest and organ procurement, but 10 (16%) provided no information. This variability reveals a need to define a uniform standard in donation after cardiac death protocols and death determination practices.
Chile, a middle-income country, recently joined Israel and Singapore as the world's only countries to require reciprocity as a precondition for organ transplantation. The Chilean reform includes opt-out provisions designed to foster donation and priority for organ transplantation for registered people. Although the reform has had serious difficulties in achieving its mission, it can be reviewed by other countries that seek to address the serious shortage of organs. As increased organ donation can substantially enhance or save more lives, the effect on organ availability due to incentives arising from rules of preference should not be underestimated.
Williams, Andrew M; Allingham, R Rand; Stamer, W Daniel; Muir, Kelly W
A centralized eye donation registry for research could help to bridge the gap between patients interested in donating their eyes to science and scientists who conduct research on human eye tissue. Previous research has demonstrated patient and family support for such a registry. In this study, we assessed the views that eye care professionals have toward an eye donation registry for research. Surveys were distributed to all 46 clinical faculty members of the Duke University Eye Center. In addition to collecting demographic information, the surveys assessed clinicians' experience with discussing eye donation with patients, described the proposed eye donation registry for research and asked how the registry would affect the clinicians' practice. A total of 21 eye care professionals returned the survey. Thirty-three percent reported discussing eye donation with patients, and 43% reported that a patient has asked about donating their eyes for research on their disease. Eighty-six percent of eye care professionals reported that a centralized registry would improve the way they work with patients who express a desire to donate their eyes for research. The majority of eye care professionals at our academic institution indicated that an eye donation registry for research would improve how they work with patients who are interested in donating their eyes for research on their disease. Future research should examine how best to communicate this registry to ophthalmic patients.
Salaudeen, A G; Odeh, E
Blood donation is the only way of acquiring blood to meet emergency requirements in cases of road traffic accidents, complications of pregnancy and childbirth, various anemic disorders and surgical emergencies among others. Globally, 80 million units of blood are donated each year, but only two million units are donated in sub-Saharan Africa where the need is enormous. The objective of this study was to determine the behavior of the students of a tertiary institution in Nigeria towards voluntary blood donation. This is a descriptive cross-sectional study, which involved students of a tertiary institution in Nigeria. A multistage sampling technique was employed in selecting the participants for this study. A semi-structured self-administered questionnaire was used to collect information on socio-demographic characteristics, knowledge, attitude and factors affecting voluntary blood donation. The data obtained were analyzed using EPI-INFO 2005 software Version 3.3.2. Less than two-thirds (61%) of total respondents had good knowledge of blood donation. More than three quarters (85%) of the respondents had never donated blood. Of the 15% that had donated, only 3% donated voluntarily. Among those that had ever donated, males (57%) were more than females. Many of the donors donated for relatives (57%). The majority of the respondents were compelled to donate because of emergency situations (75%). The reasons why many did not donate were lack of opportunity (45%) due to tight lecture schedule and inadequate knowledge (24%). Gift items such as hematinics, T-shirts and wrist bands (29%) would motivate respondents to donate. The Students' Union body and other Organizations in the University should include a blood donation drive in their monthly/annual activities. The University authorities, the University health service centre and the Hematology Department of the Teaching hospital should collaborate in promoting voluntary blood donation among the students.
Harun Tugcu; Mehmet Toygar; Ender Senol; I. Ozgur Can; Mukerrem Safali
Physicians have to write reports in accordance with the relevant laws, statutes and regulations when requested by the administrations for distribution of monetary donations and allowances. The Statutes for Distribution of Monetary Donations and Allowances show the conditions requiring monetary support, the people who need monetary donations and the types of making monetary donations in cases of disabilities and injuries. We retrospectively reviewed the reports written in accordance with the S...
services Operational Activity Collect and Manage Cash Donations Once activated, refer cash donations to appropriate voluntary organizations...recovery operations. Operational Activity Conduct Euthanasia /Disposal Provide humane methods to euthanize affected animals to stop the spread of the...issue stop movement orders, and initiate animal vaccination and treatment programs, euthanasia efforts, or other protective measures designed to control
Wang, Tso-Fu; Wen, Shu-Hui; Yang, Kuo-Liang; Yang, Shang-Hsien; Yang, Yun-Fan; Chang, Chu-Yu; Wu, Yi-Feng; Chen, Shu-Huey
To provide information for umbilical cord blood (UCB) banks to adopt optimal collection strategies and to make UCB banks operate efficiently, we investigated the reasons for exclusion of UCB units in a 3-year recruitment period. We analyzed records of the reasons for exclusion of the potential UCB donation from 2004 to 2006 in the Tzu-Chi Cord Blood Bank and compared the results over 3 years. We grouped these reasons for exclusion into five phases, before collection, during delivery, before processing, during processing, and after freezing according to the time sequence and analyzed the reasons at each phase. Between 2004 and 2006, there were 10,685 deliveries with the intention of UCB donation. In total, 41.2% of the UCB units were considered eligible for transplantation. The exclusion rates were 93.1, 48.4, and 54.1% in 2004, 2005, and 2006, respectively. We excluded 612 donations from women before their child birth, 133 UCB units during delivery, 80 units before processing, 5010 units during processing, and 421 units after freezing. There were 24 UCB units with unknown reasons of ineligibility. Low UCB weight and low cell count were the first two leading causes of exclusion (48.6 and 30.9%). The prevalence of artificial errors, holiday or transportation problem, low weight, and infant problems decreased year after year. The exclusion rate was high at the beginning of our study as in previous studies. Understanding the reasons for UCB exclusion may help to improve the efficiency of UCB banking programs in the future. © 2013 American Association of Blood Banks.
... property available for donation? 102-41.170 Section 102-41.170 Public Contracts and Property Management... Personal Property § 102-41.170 Is unclaimed personal property available for donation? No, unclaimed personal property is not available for donation because reimbursement at fair market value is required. ...
Lown, Robert N.; Tulpule, Sameer; Russell, Nigel H.; Craddock, Charles F.; Roest, Rochelle; Madrigal, J. Alejandro; Shaw, Bronwen E.
Approximately 1 in 20 unrelated donors are asked to make a second donation of hematopoietic progenitor cells, the majority for the same patient. Anthony Nolan undertook a study of subsequent hematopoietic progenitor cell donations made by its donors from 2005 to 2011, with the aims of predicting those donors more likely to be called for a second donation, assessing rates of serious adverse reactions and examining harvest yields. This was not a study of factors predictive of second allografts. During the study period 2591 donations were made, of which 120 (4.6%) were subsequent donations. The median time between donations was 179 days (range, 21–4016). Indications for a second allogeneic transplant included primary graft failure (11.7%), secondary graft failure (53.2%), relapse (30.6%) and others (1.8%). On multivariate analysis, bone marrow harvest at first donation was associated with subsequent donation requests (odds ratio 2.00, P=0.001). The rate of serious adverse reactions in donors making a subsequent donation appeared greater than the rate in those making a first donation (relative risk=3.29, P=0.005). Harvest yields per kilogram recipient body weight were equivalent between donations, although females appeared to have a lower yield at the subsequent donation. Knowledge of these factors will help unrelated donor registries to counsel their donors. PMID:23812935
... Donation Statutes A Appendix A to Part 102 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION PERSONAL PROPERTY 37-DONATION OF SURPLUS PERSONAL PROPERTY Pt. 102-37, App. A Appendix A to Part 102-37—Miscellaneous Donation Statutes The...
... Agricultural Commodities for Foreign Donation AGENCY: Commodity Credit Corporation, USDA ACTION: Notice... commodities for foreign donation. The Kansas City Commodity Office (KCCO) issues a public invitation... Agricultural Commodities for Foreign Donation. OMB Number: 0560-0258. Expiration Date: May 31, 2010. Type of...
... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Donation or loan of Federal... Donation or loan of Federal equipment and supplies. (a) In any major disaster or emergency, the... governments for use and distribution by them for the purposes of the Stafford Act. (b) A donation or loan may...
... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Donation of drug samples to charitable... SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL PRESCRIPTION DRUG MARKETING Samples § 203.39 Donation of drug samples... donation record accurately describes the drug sample delivered and that no drug sample is adulterated or...
...) Minimum donations. Foods shall be donated only in such quantities as will protect the lower truck load... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Distribution and control of donated foods. 250.13 Section 250.13 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION...
... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Valuation of donated equipment, buildings, and land...-Sharing or Matching § 3015.55 Valuation of donated equipment, buildings, and land. When a third party... donated property shall depend upon the purpose of the grant or subgrant as follows: (a) Awards for capital...
... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Storage and inventory management of donated foods. 250... management of donated foods. (a) General requirements. Distributing agencies, subdistributing agencies, and... management system, as defined in this part, unless the distributing agency requires donated foods to be...
... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Storage and inventory management of donated foods. 250... Donated Foods in Contracts With Food Service Management Companies § 250.52 Storage and inventory management of donated foods. (a) General requirements. The food service management company must meet the...
... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false In-kind donations of medicine....515 In-kind donations of medicine, medical devices, and medical services. (a) Effective July 6, 2006, nongovernmental organizations that are U.S. persons are authorized to provide in-kind donations of medicine...
... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false In-kind donations of medicine...-kind donations of medicine, medical devices, and medical services. (a) Effective July 6, 2006, nongovernmental organizations that are U.S. persons are authorized to provide in-kind donations of medicine...
... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Donations of food to relieve human... Donations of food to relieve human suffering authorized. (a) Specific licenses may be issued on a case-by.... (b) In general, specific licenses will only be granted for donations of food to be provided through...
van Dijk, D P; Dinant, G; Jacobs, J A
Drug donations to developing countries may be part of medical relief operations in acute emergencies, development aid in non-emergency situations, or a corporate donations programme. After a number of documented inappropriate drug donations, the World Health Organization developed the 'Guidelines for Drug Donations', with the second and final version published in 1999. We reviewed the medical literature on drug donations since the Guidelines publication in 1999. Literature was retrieved from PubMed and other on-line databases as well as from relevant websites providing medical literature for use in developing countries. We considered the following donations to be inappropriate: (i) essential drugs in excessive quantities; (ii) mixed unused drugs (unsorted medicines and free samples); and (iii) drug dumping (large quantities of useless medicines). We retrieved 25 publications dated after 1999, including 20 and 5 from the scientific literature and 'grey' literature (technical reports, working papers), respectively. New information concerned emergencies in East Timor, Mozambique, El Salvador, Gujarat State (India), Aceh (Indonesia) and Sri Lanka. Except for East Timor and Gujarat, inappropriate donations still occurred, accounting for 85%, 37%, 70% and 80% of donations in Mozambique, El Salvador, Aceh and Sri Lanka, respectively. Very little information was found on drug donations in non-emergency situations. There are few recent reports on the compliance of drug donations with the World Health Organization guidelines. For emergency situations, there is still room for improvement. Drug donations in non-emergency situations need to be evaluated. A reform of drug donations policy is needed.
... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false In-kind donations of medicine... Licensing Policy § 597.511 In-kind donations of medicine, medical devices, and medical services. (a... incident to the provision by nongovernmental organizations that are U.S. persons of in-kind donations of...
... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Services related to kidney donations: Conditions... Services § 410.55 Services related to kidney donations: Conditions. Medicare Part B pays for medical and other health services covered under this subpart that are furnished in connection with a kidney donation...
Chiu, Hei Yeung; Ng, Kwok Sing; Ma, Sin Kwan; Chan, Chi Hung; Ng, Sheung Wah; Tipoe, George L.; Chan, Lap Ki
Body donation is important for medical education and academic research. However, it is relatively rare in Hong Kong when compared with many Western countries. Comprehensive research has been performed on the motivation for body donation in Western countries; however, there is still insufficient research on body donation in Hong Kong to provide…
Peffer, K.; Verbeek, A.L.M.; Swinkels, D.W.; Geurts-Moespot, A.J.; den Heijer, M.; Atsma, F.
Background and Objectives: Increased iron and metabolic syndrome (MetS) go hand in hand. Frequent blood donation depletes iron stores. This study investigates whether high-intensity blood donation is associated with lower MetS prevalence compared with low-intensity blood donation, and whether iron
Oriji, Christian Chigozi
The study discusses improving safe blood donation in Nigeria and the roles of the mass media in achieving same in Nigerian hospitals. In this regard, it answers the questions: What is blood? What is blood donation? And is safe blood donation adequate in Nigeria? Beyond the relevant answers given on the above questions, it also explains the roles…
Coppen, R.; Friele, R.D.; Gevers, J.K.M.; Zee, J. van der
Next of kin play an important role in organ donation. The aim of this study was to assess the extent to which explicitness of consent to organ donation by the deceased impacts the likelihood that next of kin will agree to organ donation of the deceased by using hypothetical cases. Results indicate
Coppen, Remco; Friele, Roland D.; Gevers, Sjef K. M.; Van Der Zee, Jouke
Next of kin play an important role in organ donation. The aim of this study was to assess the extent to which explicitness of consent to organ donation by the deceased impacts the likelihood that next of kin will agree to organ donation of the deceased by using hypothetical cases. Results indicate that that people say they are more willing to…
Balwani, Manish R; Kute, Vivek B; Patel, Himanshu; Shah, Pankaj R; Goswami, Jitendra; Ghule, Pravin; Shah, Maulin; Gattani, Vipul; Trivedi, Hargovind L
Introduction: There is a wide discrepancy between demand for and availability of donor organs for organ transplantation. There is no study on awareness about organ donation in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients in India. Objectives: To study the awareness and beliefs towards organ donation in CKD patients on hemodialysis in western India. Patients and Methods: Authors conducted a cross sectional study among 85 CKD patients to evaluate knowledge about and attitude towards organ donation at a tertiary hospital. Results: Age of respondents ranged from 15 to 75 years. All were aware of term organ donation and cadaver donation. About 47% of people heard about organ donation through hospital or from doctor. Strikingly, radio was not the source of information to any of the respondents, despite radio being one of the most common medium of mass communication. Almost one third of patients were unaware about any legislation regarding organ donation. All respondents felt that organs should go to the needy irrespective of their religion. About 70% feel that medical colleges should make decisions about organ donation in case of unclaimed dead bodies. About 31.76% believe that there is a danger that donated organs could be misused, abused or misappropriated. Conclusion: Our study shows about 31.76% of our participants believe that there is a danger that donated organs could be misused, abused or misappropriated. There seems to be paucity of information and awareness regarding organ donation among CKD patients. Mass media, religious and political leaders may be involved to maximize awareness about organ donation.
Muhammet Ali TİLTAY
Full Text Available Nonprofit organizations provide products and services via online shopping websites in order to procure financial sources. The consumers that purchase these products and services both make donations and fulfill their needs. This study examines the role of donation motivations and online purchase elements on purchase intention. The study, which has been conducted via taking the online store of the Foundation for Children with Leukemia, lsvdukkan.com, has found out that the online purchase elements (trust, usefulness, interactivity and altruism motivation are effective on purchase intention. The results of the study will be able to create effective sale strategies for the online stores of nonprofit organizations.
This work draws on a review of the evidence and of the current situation, and on reflection following previous conference presentations and discussions rather than on empirical research, although it forms the basis of developing and on-going research. \\ud There are many ways in which breastmilk is donated informally, often using the terminology of ‘sharing’ and usually to full-term infants. In contrast breastmilk is donated, primarily to premature and sick infants, to ‘milk banks’ (with, in t...
Chen, Guodong; Wang, Chang; Ko, Dicken Shiu-Chung; Qiu, Jiang; Yuan, Xiaopeng; Han, Ming; Wang, Changxi; He, Xiaoshun; Chen, Lizhong
There are three categories of deceased donors of kidney transplantation in China, donation after brain death (DBD), donation after circulatory death (DCD), and donation after brain death followed by circulatory death (DBCD) donors. The aim of this study was to compare the outcomes of kidney transplantation from these three categories of deceased donors. We retrospectively reviewed 469 recipients who received deceased kidney transplantation in our hospital from February 2007 to June 2015. The recipients were divided into three groups according to the source of their donor kidneys: DBD, DCD, or DBCD. The primary endpoints were delayed graft function (DGF), graft loss, and patient death. The warm ischemia time was much longer in DCD group compared to DBCD group (18.4 minutes vs 12.9 minutes, P < .001). DGF rate was higher in DCD group than in DBD and DBCD groups (22.5% vs 10.2% and 13.8%, respectively, P = .021). Urinary leakage was much higher in DCD group (P = .049). Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that 1-, 2-, and 3-year patient survivals were all comparable among the three groups. DBCD kidney transplantation has lower incidences of DGF and urinary leakage than DCD kidney transplant. However, the overall patient and graft survival were comparable among DBD, DCD, and DBCD kidney transplantation. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Background: The cases of 66 female patients who needed transfusion and requested for interspousal directed blood donations from their husbands at the UMTH Blood Bank from 1997 to 2001 were reviewed. The patients required blood for elective procedures, and wanted to be transfused with the blood of their husbands ...
while almost equal proportions donated one or two units of blood which meets the blood needs of most elective surgeries. Therefore healthy patients going for elective surgeries in regions with limited blood supply must be encouraged to enter a PABD Programme. Further studies in this field should evaluate motivational ...
While structured and open-ended interview and relevant documents, including gift and donation files, acquisition records and library accession registers were used to collect data for the study. The population of the study consisted of the Special Federal Tertiary Institution Libraries under study while the subjects of the study ...
Public attitudes to organ donation may be influenced by cultural beliefs as well as racial prejudices and superstitions. In South Africa we are able to examine these issues from both a Firstand a Third-World perspective. In this study the attitudes of 1 299 urban white, 625 rural black and 826 urban black South Africans were ...
... for volunteer services should be consistent with those regular rates paid for similar work in the same....53 Valuation of donated services. (a) Volunteer services. Unpaid services provided to a recipient by an individual shall be valued at rates consistent with the rates normally paid for similar work in...
Talnack, G. Marie
The lines between basic and applied research and the sectors of the U.S. economy responsible for each type have begun to blur. No better case for the blurring of these lines and the benefits of technology transfer among research institutions can be provided than the recent phenomenon of corporate patent donations to non-profit research…
Hsee, Christopher K; Zhang, Jiao; Lu, Zoe Y; Xu, Fei
The solicitation of charitable donations costs billions of dollars annually. Here, we introduce a virtually costless method for boosting charitable donations to a group of needy persons: merely asking donors to indicate a hypothetical amount for helping one of the needy persons before asking donors to decide how much to donate for all of the needy persons. We demonstrated, in both real fund-raisers and scenario-based research, that this simple unit-asking method greatly increases donations for the group of needy persons. Different from phenomena such as the foot-in-the-door and identifiable-victim effects, the unit-asking effect arises because donors are initially scope insensitive and subsequently scope consistent. The method applies to both traditional paper-based fund-raisers and increasingly popular Web-based fund-raisers and has implications for domains other than fund-raisers, such as auctions and budget proposals. Our research suggests that a subtle manipulation based on psychological science can generate a substantial effect in real life.
Mejia, Gonzalo; Mejia Argueta, Christopher; Rangel, Vivian; García-Díaz, César; Montoya, Carlos; Agudelo, I. (Isabel)
Hundreds of thousands of tons of food are either lost or wasted while millions of people suffer from malnutrition. A plausible initiative are the food banks in which large retail chains and potentially other organizations can donate food. This food is collected and delivered by food banks to people
Up to 150,000 pregnancy-related deaths could be avoided each year through access to safe blood. Antenatal blood donation, which will increase access to safe blood, is one of the ways to reduce maternal mortality in this environment. This study assessed the knowledge, attitude, fears and preferences of pregnant mothers ...
Background: Blood for transfusion in Nigeria is largely collected from family members or commercial blood donors who would rather conceal information that could disqualify them from blood donation. The blood service is expected to transform blood sources to voluntary, guided by altruism and self-risk assessment and ...
Conceição, Vander Monteiro da; Araújo, Jeferson Santos; Oliveira, Rafaela Azevedo Abrantes de; Santana, Mary Elizabeth de; Zago, Márcia Maria Fontão
The aim of this study was to identify the perceptions of blood donors and recipients regarding the act of donating blood. This descriptive study with a survey design focuses on subjective and cultural aspects. Twenty donors and 20 recipients in the blood bank at the time of data collection participated in the study. Interviews were analyzed according to deductive thematic analysis. Two themes emerged - perceptions of donors and perceptions of recipients. Both groups saw the act of donating blood as something positive, though donors associated their reports with the experiences of people close to them who needed blood transfusions, while the recipients associated donations with the maintenance of their lives as, for them, a blood transfusion was a necessary medical treatment. Perceptions regarding blood donations are culturally constructed, as the participants associated knowledge acquired in the social world with moral issues and their life experiences. Hence, in addition to helping others, these individuals feel socially and morally rewarded. Copyright © 2016 Associação Brasileira de Hematologia, Hemoterapia e Terapia Celular. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.
Basil Mohammed Alhussain
Conclusions: Our findings suggest that the population has an acceptable understanding of the concept of brain death and that they are willing to donate in cases of brain death. It also shows an excellent understanding of the religious aspect, but with poor family and friends' communication regarding the subject.
Citerio, Giuseppe; Cypel, Marcelo; Dobb, Geoff J; Dominguez-Gil, Beatriz; Frontera, Jennifer A; Greer, David M; Manara, Alex R; Shemie, Sam D; Smith, Martin; Valenza, Franco; Wijdicks, Eelco F M
The shortage of organs for transplantation is an important medical and societal problem because transplantation is often the best therapeutic option for end-stage organ failure. We review the potential deceased organ donation pathways in adult ICU practice, i.e. donation after brain death (DBD) and controlled donation after circulatory death (cDCD), which follows the planned withdrawal of life-sustaining treatments (WLST) and subsequent confirmation of death using cardiorespiratory criteria. Strategies in the ICU to increase the number of organs available for transplantation are discussed. These include timely identification of the potential organ donor, optimization of the brain-dead donor by aggressive management of the physiological consequence of brain death, implementation of cDCD protocols, and the potential for ex vivo perfusion techniques. Organ donation should be offered as a routine component of the end-of-life care plan of every patient dying in the ICU where appropriate, and intensivists are the key professional in this process.
Babaie, Mohadese; Hosseini, Mahdi; Hamissi, Jalaleddin; Hamissi, Zahra
Introduction: Treatment team charged to help patients and their family making decision about donate organs in the final stage of life. Hence, their knowledge and attitude is important to plan of increasing the rate of organ donation. Materials and Methods: About 150 nurses recruited in this cross-sectional study randomly. After taking informed consent, questionnaires were filled. The data collection tool was a multipart questionnaire including demographic information, 18 questions about attitude and practice and 15 question about knowledge toward organ donation. Data were analyzed by SPSS software using K-squire, Pearson correlation test, T-test, variance analyze on 95% confidence interval. Results: Most of participants (76%) were 25-44 years old. About 81.3% of them were female (n=122). The attitude average score between males and females was 85.25±35.61 and 70.37±46.53, respectively. The practice average score in females was 34.43±47.71 and between males was 29.63±46.53. The knowledge average scores were 50.60±16.19 and 56.54±17.48 for two groups (p>0.05). The knowledge average scores between different age groups was significant (porgan donation, it seems that educational curriculum and facilities should applied to enhance attitude and behavior favorable change of personnel towards this issue. PMID:26153179
Full Text Available Greater knowledge and technological advancement in the field of transplantation has increased the demand for organ donation beyond the supply of organs, especially among the black communities. This imbalance arises from the few sources of organs, limitations on the techniques of organ retrieval, disparities in the allocation of organs and socio-cultural factors. The aim of this study was to investigate the extent to which Zulu cultural norms and social structures influence an individual’s decision to donate an organ or to undergo transplantation. A qualitative approach using an ethno-nursing method was selected. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with a transplant co-ordinator representing the professional sector, with traditional healers and religious leaders representing the folk sector, and with the general public representing the popular sector of the health care system. Both urban and rural settings were used. Conclusions arrived at showed that knowledge was lacking among Zulu speaking people about organ donation and transplantation and misconceptions about the topic were related to Zulu life patterns, beliefs about death, burial and life hereafter, and values and social structures. Recommendations with regard to the promotion of organ donation and transplantation among Zulu speaking people were made based on culture-sensitive and culture-congruent principles.
V. L. V.L. Vinogradov
Full Text Available Further development of transplantation is becoming increasingly problematic despite the impressive achievements. A deficit of donor organs is becoming the main constraint factor of its development in the world and in Russia. This article is an introduction to a series of review articles on actual issues of organ donation.
Gevers, S.; Janssen, A.; Friele, R.
In the Netherlands, like in many other European countries, there is a considerable shortage of vital organs (hearts, kidneys etc.) for transplantation purposes. While living organ donation is of increasing importance as an alternative source for at least some organs (such as kidneys), the supply is
Bhengu, B R; Uys, H H M
Greater knowledge and technological advancement in the field of transplantation has increased the demand for organ donation beyond the supply of organs, especially among the black communities. This imbalance arises from the few sources of organs, limitations on the techniques of organ retrieval, disparities in the allocation of organs and socio-cultural factors. The aim of this study was to investigate the extent to which Zulu cultural norms and social structures influence an individual's decision to donate an organ or to undergo transplantation. A qualitative approach using an ethno-nursing method was selected. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with a transplant co-ordinator representing the professional sector, with traditional healers and religious leaders representing the folk sector, and with the general public representing the popular sector of the health care system. Both urban and rural settings were used. Conclusions arrived at showed that knowledge was lacking among Zulu speaking people about organ donation and transplantation and misconceptions about the topic were related to Zulu life patterns, beliefs about death, burial and life hereafter, and values and social structures. Recommendations with regard to the promotion of organ donation and transplantation among Zulu speaking people were made based on culture-sensitive and culture-congruent principles.
Moorlock, Greg; Draper, Heather
In this article we explore some of the ethical dimensions of using social media to increase the number of living kidney donors. Social media provides a platform for changing non-identifiable 'statistical victims' into 'real people' with whom we can identify and feel empathy: the so-called 'identifiable victim effect', which prompts charitable action. We examine three approaches to promoting kidney donation using social media which could take advantages of the identifiable victim effect: (a) institutionally organized campaigns based on historical cases aimed at promoting non-directed altruistic donation; (b) personal case-based campaigns organized by individuals aimed at promoting themselves/or someone with whom they are in a relationship as a recipient of directed donation; (c) institutionally organized personal case-based campaigns aimed at promoting specific recipients for directed donation. We will highlight the key ethical issues raised by these approaches, and will argue that the third option, despite raising ethical concerns, is preferable to the other two. © 2018 The Authors Bioethics Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Oosterhof, Liesbeth; Heuvelman, A.; Peters, O.
number of very serious natural disasters have put an enormous pressure on relief organizations in the last few years. The present study exposes underlying social cognitive factors for donation to relief campaigns. A causal model was constructed, based on social cognitive theory, research on
Background: Kidney transplantation is a popular modality of RRT in the developed world. Objective: To assess the willingness of the general population of Nigerians across the country to donate a kidney. Methods: This is a multiregional, cross sectional, questionnaire based study. One thousand Three hundred respondents ...
The objectives of this study were to explore nurses' knowledge of the organ donation process and to explore personal ... national guidelines and protocols for clinical practice. ... factors through a formal empirical research project so that evidence- ... between knowledge score and categorical variables was assessed by the.
York, Nicholas J; Tinley, Christopher
Corneal pathology is one of the leading causes of preventable blindness in South Africa (SA). A corneal transplant can restore or significantly improve vision in most cases. However, in SA there is a gross shortage of corneal tissue available to ophthalmologists. Little has been published describing the magnitude of the problem. To describe trends in the number of corneal donors per year in SA, the number of corneal transplants performed each year, the origin of donors, the allocation of corneas to the public or private sector, and the demographics of donors. This was a retrospective review of all corneal donations to SA eye banks over the 15-year period 1 January 2002 - 31 December 2016. There was a progressive year-on-year decline in corneal donors over the study period, from 565 per year in 2002 to 89 in 2016. As a direct result, there has been an 85.5% decrease in the number of corneal transplants performed per year using locally donated corneas, from 1 049 in 2002 to 152 in 2016. Of the donors, 48.8% originated from mortuaries, 39.0% from private hospitals and 12.2% from government hospitals; donors from mortuaries showed the most significant decline over the 15-year period, decreasing by 94.8%. Of donated corneas, 79.3% were allocated to the private sector and 21.7% to the public sector. Males comprised 69.1% of donors, while 77.2% were white, 14.0% coloured, 6.3% black and 2.5% Indian/Asian. Donor age demonstrated a bimodal peak at 25 and 55 years. The number of corneal donations in SA has declined markedly, causing the burden of corneal disease requiring transplantation to rise steadily. Population groups with a low donor rate may have cultural and other objections to corneal donation, which should be a major focus of future research and initiatives aimed at reversing the current trends.
Billeter, Adrian T; Sklare, Seth; Franklin, Glen A; Wright, Jerry; Morgan, Gary; O'Flynn, Paul E; Polk, Hiram C
Organ demand exceeds availability of transplantable organs. Organ procurement continues to suffer from failures to identify potential donors, inability to obtain consent for donation, as well as failures to retrieve certain organs as donor demographics change. The purpose of this article is to propose how sequentially introduced measures can increase organ donation rates as well as improve organ procurement. We analysed the effect of stepwise improvements in the organ procurement process patients in a university-based surgical intensive care unit over a 20-year period. We related newly introduced measures in the organ retrieval process with changes in donation rates. We specifically targeted these three main steps in the donation process: donor identification, conversion of potential donors to actual donors, and organ protection during the procurement process. Finally, we assessed the effect of the same measures on organ procurement after introduction in other hospitals of the same organ procurement region. Introduction of quality improvement steps increased all of the observed parameters. The number of organ donors was stabilised due to a better identification of potential donors, a major increase in conversion from potential to actual donors, and an increase in extended criteria donor. Improvements in organ protection led to higher rates of organs transplanted per donor and increased recovery of lungs and hearts despite increasing donor age. The same measures were introduced successfully in other hospitals in our organ procurement region. Sequential improvements in organ procurement can increase the yield of retrieved organs. The same measures can be applied to other hospitals and lead to comparable improvements in organ donation. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Hyde, Melissa K; Wihardjo, Kylie R; White, Katherine M
The prevalence of myths preventing people partial to donation in Australia from consenting is unknown. Respondents (N = 468: 381 donors, 26 non-donors, 61 undecided) were surveyed about their (negative) donation beliefs. Approximately 30% of donors were neutral or supported negative beliefs about organ allocation, especially donation to undesirable organ recipients and a black market organ trade. Confusion about brain death, lack of family and religious support, and discomfort with donation were negative beliefs endorsed by some respondents irrespective of donor preference. Proportionally, donors had greater trust in hospitals/doctors than other groups. Some myths still exist but may vary with donation preference.
McGregor, Lesley M; Ferguson, Eamonn; O'Carroll, Ronan E
This experimental study investigates the impact of message frame and risk perceptions upon willingness to consider living organ donation. A 2 (gain vs. loss) by 2 (liver vs. kidney) by 2 (involved vs. not involved) between-group study was conducted. Eighty-seven participants completed a questionnaire after reading a vignette designed to invite participants to consider living kidney or liver donation. Within a gain frame scenario, willingness to donate was significantly higher when the risk of donating was lower. The results have important implications for the generalizability of framing theories and the promotion of living organ donation.
Manyalich, M; Paredes, D; Ballesté, C; Menjívar, A
Donation and transplantation is an accepted therapeutic option when organ failure or tissue replacements are needed to save or improve the quality of life. However, in most medical schools there is no specific training for it, thus disregarding the key role of university students for the future success of the process. Knowledge diffusion about the donation procedure to clarify doubts and stimulate positive attitudes toward donation. Training university students in the donation and transplantation process. Research about the previous donation knowledge and the impact in donation indexes. Three different phases have been designed: (1) Training the University of Barcelona Health Sciences School students; (2) Training the Health Sciences School students in other faculties of Catalonia, Spain, and International; and (3) research. Since 2005, we have offered yearly an Optional Credits Course to medical students with duration of 45 hours, and two Donation days opened to health sciences students. Since 2007, promotional campaigns have been carried out in medicine and other health sciences faculties. Until now, 818 answered surveys have been collected to evaluate previous knowledge among university students. Training medical and other health sciences students in the donation process will improve quality of medical education and develop a trainer role for future professionals to help improve donation rates.
von Schubert, H
The author applies the theory of public goods on donated blood. Donated blood may be taken as a 'public good' like water and air, police and fire brigades. This theory trends to imply a preference for voluntary donation and bloodbanking by public and nonprofit organisations as well as for low cost supply. An additional commercial supply of blood nevertheless is welcome. Quality as well as quantity of blood depend first of all on the willingness to donate and the honesty of the donors about their health. An altruistic motivation alone, which is not triggered by some material incentive, does not in all systems guarantee a sufficient quantity of safe blood. Both the altruistic as well as the reimbursement-oriented donor's willingness and honesty have to be guarded by sound practice in bloodbanking and adequate public control within a legal framework which reflects the vital role of blood supply. A legal implementation of product liability will certainly be an important instrument in this field.
Full Text Available Motivation represents a foundation cornerstone on which analyses in a number of humanities and social sciences are built. For a long time, economists have seen motivation as connected with the act of giving, trying to interpret it in the context of the neoclassical economics assumptions. The objective of this paper is to find answers to the question of what mainly motivates the Czech population in their decisions to make a donation and whether there is any interdependence among such motives. We also ask what the relationship is between the determining motives and the rate or frequency of donating. The donation models that we analyze and use as the basis of our research are nowadays considered being the principal or at least interesting donation models commonly taken into account by economists in their work. We have only focused on selected microeconomics models to make the text clearly targeted; specifically, we are examining the public goods model, private consumption model investment model and impure altruism model. The data were collected through a questionnaire survey and analysed by means of mathematical-statistical methods that are commonly used in similar cases, such as descriptive statistics, the Pearson correlation coefficient and the ANOVA method based on the F-test. The empirical testing confirmed several assumptions connecting with this type of a research; however, our paper opened a space for a follow-up research, too.
Sharp, Chloe; Randhawa, Gurch
Incentives and reciprocity have been widely debated within the literature as an alternative to altruism to motivate the public to register and consent to organ donation. This pilot study was the first to examine the views of the UK Polish migrant community toward these issues. One-to-one and small group interviews were conducted in English and Polish to collect data. The interviews were recorded and transcribed and interviews in Polish were translated into English. All transcripts were coded, codes were grouped by theme and emergent themes were constantly compared to the new data until saturation. Participants were motivated to donate altruistically but would accept reciprocity for organs once consent was given. Payment for organs was viewed as unfavourable but participants would accept contribution toward funeral expenses. Deceased organ donation was viewed as an 'altruistic gift'. 'Altruism' and 'gift' are problematic in deceased organ donation and could explain the challenges that arise in the incentives and reciprocity debate. Mauss's gift exchange theory could frame incentives as forming the 'obligation to give' and could encourage registration but could lead to coercion. Reciprocity could benefit families and be viewed as 'fair' and a token of gratitude.
Strong, M.; Neely, D.; Warnack, K.; Willits, M.; Yriondo, L.
Today the science of marketing is being applied more and more to increase the rate of tissue and organ donation in the United States. To benefit from the proven tools and techniques of successful marketing in the for-profit world transplantation agencies across the country are turning to integrated marketing communications strategies and strategic partnerships to help achieve their goals.The methods used in cause marketing include: Establishing clear and measurable outcomes and goals; building a marketing plan and timeline to achieve the goals; gathering resources (funding, personnel, organizations, partnerships) to execute the plan, implementation, and measurement of outcomes. This session will review the Tissue and Organ Donation campaign implemented in the Northwest and will touch on the national awareness program developed by United Network for Organ Sharing (UNOS) in the United States. Segments of the Northwest's integrated campaign will include market segmentation strategies and targeted marketing, campaign development, public service advertising and public education campaigns. Media utilized include print, bus signs and billboards, broadcast (radio and TV), video and the internet. Strategies include public service advertising, paid advertising through sponsorships, direct mail, workshops and public speaking. The success of traditional product marketing can be achieved in cause marketing with a long-term, focused public education campaign. The potential benefit to the international community warrants exploration of similar strategies to overcome cultural resistance to life saving transplantation
Rodrigue, J R; Tomich, D; Fleishman, A; Glazier, A K
Vascularized composite allograft (VCA) transplantation has emerged as a groundbreaking surgical intervention to return identity and function following traumatic injury, congenital deformity, or disfigurement. While public attitudes toward traditional organ/tissue donation are favorable, little is known about attitudes toward VCA donation and transplantation. A survey was conducted of 1485 U.S. residents in August 2016 to assess VCA donation attitudes. Participants also completed the Revised Health Care System Distrust Scale. Most respondents were willing to donate hands/forearms (67.4%) and legs (66.8%), and almost half (48.0%) were willing to donate the face. Three-quarters (74.4%) of women were willing to donate the uterus; 54.4% of men were willing to donate the penis. VCA donation willingness was more likely among whites and Hispanics (p donation expressed concerns about psychological discomfort, mutilation, identity loss, and the reaction of others to seeing familiar body parts on a stranger. Attitudes toward VCA donation are favorable overall, despite limited exposure to VCA messaging and confusion about how VCA donation occurs. These findings may help guide the development and implementation of VCA public education campaigns. © 2017 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.
Ríos, A; López-Navas, A I; Sánchez, Á; Martínez-Alarcón, L; Ayala, M A; Garrido, G; Sebastián, M J; Ramis, G; Hernández, A M; Ramírez, P; Parrilla, P
Living kidney donation is currently the most important kidney donor source in Latin America, and it is necessary to further increase its rates. To analyze the attitude toward living kidney donation among the Santiago de Cuba's population and to determine the sociopersonal factors with which it is associated. The population over 15 years old residing in Santiago de Cuba, stratified by sex and age, was screened. The "PCID-LKD Ríos" attitude questionnaire toward living kidney donation was administered to a random selection of the people surveyed according to the stratification and the census data. The completion was anonymized and self-administered. Verbal consent was obtained. The study was completed by 445 people, of whom the 86% (n = 389) were in favor of living related kidney donation. This attitude is associated with the level of education (P donation (P = .006); attitude toward cadaveric organ donation (P donation (P = .001); religious beliefs (P = .001); and assessment of the risk of living kidney donation (P donation; (3) carrying out of prosocial activities; and (4) risk assessment of living donation. Living related donation is very well accepted among the Santiago de Cuba's population. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Flayou, Kaoutar; Kouam, Nada; Miara, H; Raoundi, O; Ouzeddoun, Naima; Benamar, Loubna; Bayahia, Rabiaa; Rhou, Hakima
The medical staff could play a major role in promoting for organ donation. The aim of our study was to assess the attitudes of the medical staff toward organ donation. It is a prospective study conducted over a period of six months. A questionnaire was distributed and explained to the medical staff in our institute. Fifteen questions were designed to include four main themes: sociodemographic information, attitude toward organ donation, perceived knowledge about organ donation, and reasons for refusal or acceptance of organ donation. Among the 245 respondents, 36.3% had prior knowledge about organ transplantation, 31.8% knew about the law of organ donation, 43.2% had already donated blood sometimes, 65.7% expressed their consent to organ donation during their lifetime, and 82.8% expressed their agreement to donation after their death. The grounds for refusal were generally: a misunderstanding of risks, desire for respect of corpse. The religious and the ethical motive were present too as a ground for decision making. The medical staff is the key for organ donation. To promote organ transplantation, personnel should be well informed about ethical, moral, and religious dimensions of organ donation and transplantation.
Sayedalamin, Zaid; Imran, Muhammad; Almutairi, Osama; Lamfon, Mohammed; Alnawwar, Majd; Baig, Mukhtiar
To assess awareness and attitude of medical students about organ donation. This cross-sectional study was conducted in 2014 at King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, and comprised medical students. The participants were asked about their religious and other beliefs towards organ donation, their reasons for not donating organs, and their personal opinions about organ donation through a questionnaire. SPSS 21 was used for data analysis. Of the 481 participants, 250(52%) were females, and 231(48%) were males. The overall mean age was 21.36±1.63 years. Besides, 437(90.9%) students knew what organ donation means, 433(90%) supported organ donation, and 90(18.7%) knew someone who had donated an organ. Moreover, 245(50.9%) participants were willing to donate their organ to their family alone, 198(41.2%) were willing to donate to any deserving patient while 439(91.3%) rejected that religion precluded organ donation, and 354(73.6%) did not know about the grafting of organs from a man to a woman and vice versa. Awareness and attitude towards organ donation were not up to the mark among the participants.
Vetterli, D C M; Lava, S A G; Essig, S; Milosevic, G; Cajöri, G; Uehlinger, D E; Moor, M B
Lack of donor organs remains a major obstacle in organ transplantation. Our aim was to evaluate (1) the association between engaging in high-risk recreational activities and attitudes toward organ donation and (2) the degree of reciprocity between organ acceptance and donation willingness in young men. A 17-item, close-ended survey was offered to male conscripts ages 18 to 26 years in all Swiss military conscription centers. Predictors of organ donation attitudes were assessed in bivariate analyses and multiple logistic regression. Reciprocity of the intentions to accept and to donate organs was assessed by means of donor card status. In 1559 responses analyzed, neither motorcycling nor practicing extreme sports reached significant association with donor card holder status. Family communication about organ donation, student, or academic profession and living in a Latin linguistic region were predictors of positive organ donation attitudes, whereas residence in a German-speaking region and practicing any religion predicted reluctance. Significantly more respondents were willing to accept than to donate organs, especially among those without family communication concerning organ donation. For the first time, it was shown that high-risk recreational activities do not influence organ donation attitudes. Second, a considerable discrepancy in organ donation reciprocity was identified. We propose that increasing this reciprocity could eventually increase organ donation rates. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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Beard, J.; Ireland, L.; Robb, B.; Brown, P.
This paper is the result of the first evaluation of the Donor Tissue Bank of Victoria's (DTBV) approaches to families to offer the option of tissue donation. The DTBV has pioneered a new and developing community health service resulting in the provision of 2,318 allografts to surgeons throughout Australia from January 1994 to December 1997. Based within the Coronial Services Centre, the DTBV experience is with families associated with reportable deaths. The location of the program within a Coronial Centre is a significant feature and leads to a range of unique practice differences compared to a hospital donation/transplantation program. However there is a paucity of literature about tissue donation from cadaveric donor apart from what is known about organ donation, with most studies treating tissue and organ donation as the same. Thus ensuring differences between tissue donation and organ donation have not been articulated and to some extent have not been realised. The DTBV is the only tissue bank in Australia, which has been set up as part of Coronial Services. The DTBV was established in 1989 to provide a central facility for the acquisition, processing, storage and distribution of tissue for transplantation. Making a donation to a tissue bank does not have the same sense of immediacy as organ donation to a recipient. Tissue donation is not necessarily life-saving, but is it always life-enhancing. Whilst there are overlaps between hospital based programs and the DTBV program, significant differences exist. In this developing and unique area of practice, the role and functions of the transplant coordinators demands skills across two differing paradigms, the physical/biological sciences and the social sciences. The demands of meeting the requirements of both paradigms as central to many of the challenges and tensions in the Transplant Coordinator's work. The primary purpose of the evaluation was to describe, analyse and theorise the practice of the transplant
... transportation and other costs associated with a donation? 102-37.55 Section 102-37.55 Public Contracts and... REGULATION PERSONAL PROPERTY 37-DONATION OF SURPLUS PERSONAL PROPERTY General Provisions Donation Overview § 102-37.55 Who pays for transportation and other costs associated with a donation? The receiving...
... being offered for sale be withdrawn and approved for donation? 102-37.85 Section 102-37.85 Public... MANAGEMENT REGULATION PERSONAL PROPERTY 37-DONATION OF SURPLUS PERSONAL PROPERTY General Provisions Donation Overview § 102-37.85 Can surplus property being offered for sale be withdrawn and approved for donation...
... release any of the terms and conditions of donation? 102-37.465 Section 102-37.465 Public Contracts and... REGULATION PERSONAL PROPERTY 37-DONATION OF SURPLUS PERSONAL PROPERTY Donations to Public Agencies, Service... SASP modify or release any of the terms and conditions of donation? You may alter or grant releases...
... property that isn't transferred for donation? 102-37.80 Section 102-37.80 Public Contracts and Property... PROPERTY 37-DONATION OF SURPLUS PERSONAL PROPERTY General Provisions Donation Overview § 102-37.80 What happens to surplus property that isn't transferred for donation? Surplus property not transferred for...
... process for requesting surplus property for donation? 102-37.50 Section 102-37.50 Public Contracts and... REGULATION PERSONAL PROPERTY 37-DONATION OF SURPLUS PERSONAL PROPERTY General Provisions Donation Overview § 102-37.50 What is the general process for requesting surplus property for donation? The process for...
... solicit or accept a donation? 2544.130 Section 2544.130 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public... DONATIONS § 2544.130 How will the Corporation determine whether to solicit or accept a donation? (a) The Corporation will solicit and accept a donation only for the purpose of furthering the mission and goals of the...
... for donations to the American National Red Cross? 102-37.540 Section 102-37.540 Public Contracts and... REGULATION PERSONAL PROPERTY 37-DONATION OF SURPLUS PERSONAL PROPERTY Donations to the American National Red Cross § 102-37.540 What is the authority for donations to the American National Red Cross? Section 551...
... for holding agencies to process donations? 102-37.575 Section 102-37.575 Public Contracts and Property... PROPERTY 37-DONATION OF SURPLUS PERSONAL PROPERTY Donations to Public Bodies in Lieu of Abandonment/Destruction § 102-37.575 Is there a special form for holding agencies to process donations? There is no...
Taise Ribeiro Morais
Full Text Available Transplantation and human organ donation are controversial issues that have generated much interest and discussion. The lack of clarification and the sensationalist news about organ trafficking contribute to raise questions and render the myths and prejudices permanent.The donation of organs and tissues is seen by society in general, as an act of solidarity and love from the family. However, it requires decision-making at a time of extreme pain and distress, caused by the impact of breaking news of death, the feeling of loss and the unexpected interruption of a life course(1.As the criteria of death are modified, the concept of brain death arises, along with the possibility of using donor organs and tissues. When there is not a good understanding of the organ donation process, the relatives of potential donors feel apprehensive, doubtful and undecided at the time of occurrence, because it is a subject about which there hasn’t been much clarification(1.Brazil has the largest public transplants program in the world, since the government finances 92% of procedures done in the country. However, when we consider the rate of post mortem transplant into the population, Brazil’s results are little expressive(2.Family refusal is a major obstacle to the realization of transplants, and is also identified as major cause for the shortage of organs and tissues for transplantation. Families who understand well the diagnosis of brain death are more favorable to organ donation, compared to families who believe that death only occurs after the heart stops. Therefore, the poor level of information, either by the quality of information concerning brain death, either by not having exceeded the barrier of stigmatized fear of organ trading, propagated by the media, drastically reduces the number of patients who are benefited from receiving an organ(3.Although all people are responsible for disseminating information, we must also educate health professionals, since
Danzer, Enrico; Holzgreve, Wolfgang; Troeger, Carolyn; Kostka, Ulrike; Steimann, Sabine; Bitzer, Johanes; Gratwohl, Alois; Tichelli, André; Seelmann, Kurt; Surbek, Daniel V
During the past decade, the use of umbilical cord blood (CB) as a source of transplantable hematopoietic stem cells has been increasing. Little is known about the psychosocial consequences that later affect parents after unrelated CB donation. The objective of this study was to evaluate the attitudes of mothers toward unrelated donation of umbilical CB for transplantation 6 months after giving birth. A prospective study was performed with a standardized, anonymous questionnaire distributed to 131 women 6 months after CB donation. The questionnaire included topics concerning views about the ethical accuracy of having donated CB, emotional responses after donation, concerns about genetic testing and research with CB samples, attitude toward anonymity between her child and possible unrelated CB recipient, and willingness to repeatedly donate umbilical CB in a next pregnancy. The vast majority (96.1%) stated that they would donate umbilical CB again, and all respondents were certain that their decision to have donated umbilical CB was ethical. With regard to the potential risks of genetic testing and "experimentation" of umbilical CB, a significant correlation (p = 0.01) was found between negative attitudes and the decision not to donate umbilical CB again. Additionally, it was observed that women who had a negative experience concerning the donation of CB would not donate again (p = 0.004). This study shows a high degree of satisfaction of unrelated umbilical CB donation for banking in women 6 months after delivery. Despite a well-performed and detailed informed consent procedure, one of the ongoing issues for the donators in CB banking involves the concern regarding of improper use of the cells, such as genetic testing or experimentation. Accurate and detailed counseling of pregnant women and their partners therefore maximizes the likelihood that they will donate CB for unrelated banking. These data provide a basis for the improvement of donor selection procedures
Sellers, Marty T; McGinnis, H Scott; Alperin, Melissa; Sweeney, John F; Dodson, Thomas F
Although successful on many fronts, solid organ transplantation fails patients who die on waitlists. Too few organ donors beget this failure. Dispelling misperceptions associated with donation and transplantation would expectedly increase donation and decrease waitlist mortality; recipients would also receive transplants earlier in their disease process, leading to better post-transplantation outcomes. Survey responses to 7 questions pertaining to organ donation and transplantation were analyzed to determine their association with willingness to donate. Subgroup analyses according to race, residence status (rural vs nonrural), and education level were performed. There were 766 respondents; 84.6% were willing to be a donor, 76.2% were female, 79.7% were Caucasian, and 16.5% were African-American. Having concerns about getting inadequate medical care if registered as a donor was the strongest independent predictor of willingness to donate overall (odds ratio 0.21; 95% CI 0.13 to 0.36) and in each subgroup; African Americans were more likely than Caucasians to have this concern (20.2% vs 9.5%; p donate a family member's organs depended on whether a discussion about donation had hypothetically occurred: 61.0% would donate if there had been no discussion; 95.2% would donate if the family member had said "yes" to donation; and 11.0% would donate if the family member had said "no" (p donate a family member's organs (odds ratio 0.40; 95% CI 0.25 to 0.65). The strongest deterrent of willingness to donate one's own or a family member's organs is a misperception that should be correctable. Race and age are less predictive. Efforts to dispel misperceptions and increase donation remain desperately needed to improve waitlist mortality and post-transplantation outcomes. Copyright © 2018 American College of Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Thornton, J Daryl; Sullivan, Catherine; Albert, Jeffrey M; Cedeño, Maria; Patrick, Bridget; Pencak, Julie; Wong, Kristine A; Allen, Margaret D; Kimble, Linda; Mekesa, Heather; Bowen, Gordon; Sehgal, Ashwini R
Low organ donation rates remain a major barrier to organ transplantation. We aimed to determine the effect of a video and patient cueing on organ donation consent among patients meeting with their primary care provider. This was a randomized controlled trial between February 2013 and May 2014. The waiting rooms of 18 primary care clinics of a medical system in Cuyahoga County, Ohio. The study included 915 patients over 15.5 years of age who had not previously consented to organ donation. Just prior to their clinical encounter, intervention patients (n = 456) watched a 5-minute organ donation video on iPads and then choose a question regarding organ donation to ask their provider. Control patients (n = 459) visited their provider per usual routine. The primary outcome was the proportion of patients who consented for organ donation. Secondary outcomes included the proportion of patients who discussed organ donation with their provider and the proportion who were satisfied with the time spent with their provider during the clinical encounter. Intervention patients were more likely than control patients to consent to donate organs (22 % vs. 15 %, OR 1.50, 95%CI 1.10-2.13). Intervention patients were also more likely to have donation discussions with their provider (77 % vs. 18 %, OR 15.1, 95%CI 11.1-20.6). Intervention and control patients were similarly satisfied with the time they spent with their provider (83 % vs. 86 %, OR 0.87, 95%CI 0.61-1.25). How the observed increases in organ donation consent might translate into a greater organ supply is unclear. Watching a brief video regarding organ donation and being cued to ask a primary care provider a question about donation resulted in more organ donation discussions and an increase in organ donation consent. Satisfaction with the time spent during the clinical encounter was not affected. clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT01697137.
Zhang, Q-X; Xie, J-F; Zhou, J-D; Xiao, S-S; Liu, A-Z; Hu, G-Q; Chen, Y; Wang, C-Y
This study's purpose was to investigate the attitudes toward organ donation among renal transplantation patients and their caregivers. In addition, we sought to explore the impact factors that affect their attitudes toward deceased organ donation. A self-administrated questionnaire was used, which consisted of two parts: 1) demographic data, and 2) transplantation and donation-related data. This study was conducted in three transplantation follow-up centers in three hospitals using a cross-sectional approach. SPSS 17.0 software was used to analysis descriptive and inferential statistics for data. The responses were analyzed using descriptive statistics and logistic regression analysis. We received 426 effective questionnaires. The renal transplantation patients' mean age was 40.84 years. Among these patients, 67.8% were willing to accept the organ transplantation surgery for their relatives, 67.4% were willing to donate a living kidney to a close relative, 62.7% were willing to donate organs after death, 53.5% were willing to register in the national organ donation system, and 51.4% were willing to sign the organ donation consent when facing their relatives becoming a potential organ donor. Age, marriage status, education level, understanding of transplantation procedures and understanding of donation procedures had statistical significance in the difference of the attitudes toward donate their organs after death (P donate organs after death than their caregivers, but both their attitudes toward deceased donation were not very optimistic. There is a significant relationship between participants' willingness and knowledge of organ donation; patients with more understanding of the transplantation and donation procedure were more willing to donate organs after death. Affected by traditional values such as Confucianism, many people still cannot accept registering in the national organ donation system or sign the organ donation consent when facing their relatives
Arredondo, E; López-Fraga, M; Chatzixiros, E; Senemaud, B; Brezovsky, P; Carella, C; Ballesté, C; Aydin Mehmet, A; Tomadze, G; Codreanu, I; Sarkissian, A A; Simeonova, M; Nikonenko, A; Zota, V; Gómez, M P; Manyalich, M; Bolotinha, C; Franca, A; Costa, A N; Ott, M-O; Buchheit, K-H
In 2011, the European Directorate for the Quality of Medicines & Healthcare of the Council of Europe launched a 3-year collaborative project to address the organ shortage and improve access to transplant health services in Council of Europe member states in the Black Sea area (Armenia, Azerbaijan, Bulgaria, Georgia, Moldova, Romania, Turkey, Ukraine, and the Russian Federation) through the development of safe and ethical donation and transplantation programs. Support the development of donation and transplantation programs through close interstate cooperation between national health organizations and relevant stakeholders. Several work packages (WP) were established: WP1, project coordination (European Directorate for the Quality of Medicines & Healthcare); WP2, development and implementation of an effective legislative and financial framework (Czech Republic and France); WP3, establishment of National Transplant Authorities (Italy and Portugal); and WP4, clinical practices (DTI Foundation). Data collection, surveys, and expert visits allowed for the collection of first-hand information from each participant country at national, regional, and hospital levels. Data analysis showed the positive impact of the project represented by a tendency to increase the total donation rates (per million people) in the participant countries (2011 vs 2013): Azerbaijan, +7.3; Armenia, -0.7; Georgia, +3.3; Bulgaria, +0.9; Moldova, +2.5; Ukraine:, +0.8; Romania, +2.3; and Turkey, +2.7. Increases in total donation rates are the result of a number of initiatives in the Black Sea area, including the stepwise implementation of legislative, organizational and institutional country-specific recommendations tailored by the CoE, efforts of the respective Ministries of Health in each country and synergism with other European projects in the region. These countries should invest further in implementing the recommendations that emerged from this project to improve their organ donation
Kiberd, Bryce A; Tennankore, Karthik K
This study estimated the potential loss of life and the lifetime cumulative risk of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) from live kidney donation. Markov medical decision analysis. USA. 40-year-old live kidney donors of both sexes and black/white race. Live donor nephrectomy. Potential remaining life years lost, quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) lost and added lifetime cumulative risk of ESRD from donation. Overall 0.532-0.884 remaining life years were lost from donating a kidney. This was equivalent to 1.20%-2.34% of remaining life years (or 0.76%-1.51% remaining QALYs). The risk was higher in male and black individuals. The study showed that 1%-5% of average-age current live kidney donors might develop ESRD as a result of nephrectomy. The added risk of ESRD resulted in a loss of only 0.126-0.344 remaining life years. Most of the loss of life was predicted to be associated with chronic kidney disease (CKD) not ESRD. Most events occurred 25 or more years after donation. Reducing the increased risk of death associated with CKD had a modest overall effect on the per cent loss of remaining life years (0.72%-1.9%) and QALYs (0.58%-1.33%). Smoking and obesity reduced life expectancy and increased overall lifetime risks of ESRD in non-donors. However the percentage loss of remaining life years from donation was not very different in those with or without these risk factors. Live kidney donation may reduce life expectancy by 0.5-1 year in most donors. The development of ESRD in donors may not be the only measure of risk as most of the predicted loss of life predates ESRD. The study identifies the potential importance of following donors and treating risk factors aggressively to prevent ESRD and to improve donor survival. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.
Al-Labadi, Liana; Gammoh, Yazan; Shehada, Reham; Shahin, Reem; Jbarah, Walaa; Amro, Madleen; Athamny, Hanan
Access to corneal transplantation is limited worldwide because of poor knowledge. Ethical, religious, and cultural barriers contribute to low rates of corneal donation. In the occupied Palestinian territory, limited information is available on factors affecting corneal donation. The aim of this study was to assess the knowledge and willingness towards corneal donation in Palestinian students. This cross-sectional study included university students selected through convenience sampling in Nablus in the summer of 2016. The sample size was determined using the sample formulae and a 15% non-response rate. All students registered in obligatory courses were included in the study after verbal consent. Each participant was given a self-administered questionnaire consisting of 14 questions to assess knowledge, awareness, and willingness toward corneal donation. Frequencies were used for descriptive analysis, and associations were determined using multivariate analysis and χ 2 test, with a p value of less than 0·05 considered significant. Of the 634 students completing the questionnaire, 411 (65%) were women, 614 (97%) were Muslims, and 155 (25%) were health or medical students. 592 (93%) respondents were unaware of eye bank availability, and 407 (69%; p=0.002) of these respondents did not show willingness towards corneal donation. 431 (67%) respondents were aware of a lack in corneal donation, but 274 (64%; p=0·01) of these respondents did not show willingness towards corneal donation. 429 (68%) respondents were not willing to donate their corneas, the most common reasons being disapproval by family members and poor awareness. We found no association between sociodemographic factors and willingness was determined. Palestinian students are aware of the lack of local cornea donation but are unwilling to donate their corneas. The study results are not representative of the entire population because of the homogeneous nature of the sample. Large efforts are needed locally to
Danek, T; Protasiuk, R; Mańkowski, M; Brutkiewicz, A; Trześniewski, R; Podlińska, I; Milecka, A; Jonas, M; Danielewicz, R; Czerwiński, J
In 2010 the formation of the Polish Hospitals Network of Organ Donation Coordinators, originated by Poltransplant, began. One of the goals of this project is to report all deaths in hospital ICUs in which a coordinator is posted. The aim of this strategy is to monitor donation potential, following the recruitment process of potential donors and indicating stages of that process that may be improved to increase effective recruitment. Until the end of 2014 all data were forwarded to Poltransplant as Excel files, but since January 1, 2015, reporting and data collection have been are performed using web tool www.koordynator.net. The aim of the paper is to present the essentials in functioning principles, structure, and usage of the www.koordynator.net system, its technical construction, and to display good practices (know-how) tested by 1 country, for countries such as Poland, that contend with organ insufficiency. The application www.koordynator.net allows for remote addition of individual records with information about deceased patients in hospital ICUs, the forwarding of data about potential and actual organ donors, the generation of complete reports about deceased patients in each hospital monthly, and the introduction of historical data. Introduction of a potential donation monitoring system in 209 hospitals with transplant coordinators increases the number of identified potential and effective actual donors due to self-assessment analysis. Eventually, the www.koordynator.net reporting system allowed for external evaluation by coordinators from other hospitals, regional coordinators, and Poltransplant. The system is a modern tool that improves and increases the quality system in the organ donation field (quality assurance program). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Aurelio, M T; Aniasi, A; Haworth, S E; Colombo, M B; Dimonopoli, T; Mocellin, M C; Poli, F; Torelli, R; Crespiatico, L; Serafini, M; Scalamogna, M
The Italian Bone Marrow Donor Register is the institutional organization for management of unrelated hematopoietic stem cell donors. The law requires only a donor's clinical history, but not a psychosocial profile for registration. We have studied the donor's motivation for enlistment on the donor registry and the medical staff's need for this information to interact correctly with the donor. For this purpose we distributed a questionnaire to new donors at the 20 centers in the Lombardy Region over a period of 1 year. The analysis of the responses revealed a prevalence of extrinsic motivations that would not ensure continued registration for donation. Therefore, it is necessary that the donor be well informed and better educated about all aspects of donation, in order to produce a shift to an intrinsic motivation. This objective can be facilitated via professional training of health workers in communication. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Shaw, Rhonda M; Webb, Robert
The "gift of life" metaphor is used to promote organ donation where commercialization is prohibited. In this article, we explore how multiple parties involved in organ transfer procedures think of gift terminology by drawing on interview data with transplantation specialists, organ transplant recipients, living directed donors and living nondirected donors. The interviews took place across New Zealand between October 2008 and May 2012, in participants' homes and hospital workplaces. The interviews were transcribed verbatim, coded manually, and thematically analyzed. Although gift language is often viewed as clear-cut, the gift trope has multiple meanings for different constituent and cultural groups, ranging from positive descriptors to obscuring and romanticizing the complexities of transplantation processes. To account for these multiple perspectives, we suggest new ethical models to capture the nuanced phenomenon of organ transfer in ways that recognize the full range of donation and reception experiences. © The Author(s) 2014.
Edgren, Gustaf; Rostgaard, Klaus; Vasan, Senthil K
: It is possible to create a binational, nationwide database with almost 50 years of follow-up of blood donors and transfused patients for a range of health outcomes. We aim to use this database for further studies of donor health, transfusion-associated risks, and transfusion-transmitted disease....... AND METHODS: We have previously created the anonymized Scandinavian Donations and Transfusions (SCANDAT) database, containing data on blood donors, blood transfusions, and transfused patients, with complete follow-up of donors and patients for a range of health outcomes. Here we describe the re......-creation of SCANDAT with updated, identifiable data. We collected computerized data on blood donations and transfusions from blood banks covering all of Sweden and Denmark. After data cleaning, two structurally identical databases were created and the entire database was linked with nationwide health outcomes...
Casado Neira, David
Full Text Available Modern conceptions of health separate body from soul in the familiar Cartesian dualism. In blood donation this separation is easy to identify: embodiment is a civilizing process, and altruism is the moral basis that supports it. The donor is treated as essentially a vessel of blood, a mere container which can be directed to discharge its contents into blood banks. The biomedical use of blood is not morally neutral; indeed, the donor's moral conscience is mobilised in order to get them to donate blood as a gift, or offering. By associating donors' altruism with their bodies' physical nature as a container from which blood can be extracted, altruism is treated as a physiological phenomenon.
Henderson, M L; Clayville, K A; Fisher, J S; Kuntz, K K; Mysel, H; Purnell, T S; Schaffer, R L; Sherman, L A; Willock, E P; Gordon, E J
As the organ shortage continues to grow, the creation of social media communities by transplant hospitals and the public is rapidly expanding to increase the number of living donors. Social media communities are arranged in myriad ways and without standardization, raising concerns about transplant candidates' and potential donors' autonomy and quality of care. Social media communities magnify and modify extant ethical issues in deceased and living donation related to privacy, confidentiality, professionalism, and informed consent, and increase the potential for undue influence and coercion for potential donors and transplant candidates. Currently, no national ethical guidelines have been developed in the United States regarding the use of social media to foster organ transplantation. We provide an ethical framework to guide transplant stakeholders in using social media for public and patient communication about transplantation and living donation, and offer recommendations for transplant clinical practice and future research. © 2017 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.
Banas, B; Bleyer, B; Eckert, M; Gruber, H; Pfirstinger, J; Schaller, O; Dietl, B
As a result of the actual amendment of the German transplantation law, every citizen will be regularly asked by health insurance companies about his attitude towards post-mortem organ donation--without the obligation to decide. The aim is to increase the willingness of donations as well as the availability of organs. Therefore, we investigated the level of information of students at the University of Regensburg and their agreement to organ transplantation regarding an informed consent. Using an interdisciplinary developed questionnaire (Medicine, Theology, Educational Science) the level of information concerning process and possibilities of organ donation, the possession of an organ donor card, as well as the active or passive consent to donate organs was investigated. Out of 1225 respondents 31.5% had an organ donor card, 49.1% wanted to donate organs, 32.1% were unsure. 98% generally favoured organ donation. However, serious information deficits about brain death were identified: 37.4% did not know that brain death is a prerequisite for a post-mortem organ donation, 18% thought brain death is reversible, 52.7% were not aware of the necessity of intensive medical care. Furthermore, providing information about other potential donor organs including lungs, pancreas, small intestine, and tissue is required. Health insurance companies and responsible authorities need to close the identified gaps in knowledge in order to achieve "informed" consent with organ donation, which might increase the availability and number of donor organs. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Berkel, D.A.M. van; Candido, A.; Pijffers, W.H.
The object of the study was to investigate secrecy in non-anonymous egg donation, to explore some characteristics of this kind of egg donation arrangement and the relationship of the recipient with her non-genetic child. Forty-four egg recipients and 62 IVF patients with a child conceived through
Wongboonsin, Kua; Jindahra, Pavitra; Teerakapibal, Surat
Toward population wellness, an extreme scarcity of organ supply is proven to be an enormous hindrance. Preferences toward organ donation are vital to raise the organ donation rate. Notably, the area people live in can address the social influence on individual preference toward organ donation. This article studies the impact of the neighbor effect on organ donation decisions, addressing the social influence of urbanization on preferences. How neighborhood-specific variables, population density, and socioeconomic status drive the neighbor effect is investigated. The pursuit of organ donor traits is to be answered. The study uses organ donation interview survey data and neighborhood-specific data from Thailand to estimate a series of logistic regression models. Individuals residing in urban areas exhibit a greater likelihood to sign the donor card than those in rural areas. The neighborhood socioeconomic status is the key driver. An individual is more willing to be an organ donor when having neighbors with higher socioeconomic statuses. Results also reveal positive influences of males and education on the organ donation rate. This article documents the "neighbor effect" on the organ donation decision via living area type, offering an alternative exposition in raising the organ donation rate. In shifting the society norm toward organ donation consent, policy-makers should acknowledge the benefit of urbanization on organ donation decision derived from resourceful urban areas. Moreover, raising education levels does improve not only citizens' well-being but also their tendency to exhibit an altruistic act toward others.
Ansari, S; Bromberg, M B; Gibson, S B
Patients with Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) have expressed desire to become living organ donors but are unable to do so with current organ donation policies. Our objective is to assess ALS patient's interest in organ donation, and perceived concerns of this practice by ALS neurologists. An electronic survey was administered to ALS neurologists across the United States regarding living organ donation in ALS patients prior to respiratory failure. 52 complete responses were received from 121 invites. 67% (35/52) of neurologists expressed no concerns about living organ donation in ALS patients, and 33% had concerns. The concerns related to respiratory failure, anesthesia exposure and renal dysfunction. With their concerns addressed, 71% of neurologists reported that they would endorse living organ donation. 49% of neurologists reported being asked by a patient for information regarding living organ donation. ALS neurologists felt that 22.8% of ALS patients (median 19%) would be interested in learning more about organ donation, while only 6% of neurologists broach this subject with their patients. Our results indicate that 1 in every 4 ALS patients may be interested in exploring options for living organ donation, and this topic is not routinely addressed by ALS clinics. These results indicate an unexplored area of patient interest. To honor a patient's wishes to donate, the transplant community will have to accommodate living organ donation from terminally ill patients, and address neurologist concerns. Such a practice could benefit two groups of patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Ríos, A; Carrillo, J; López-Navas, A I; Ayala, M A; Garrido, G; Sebastián, M J; Martínez-Alarcón, L; Ramis, G; Hernández, A M; Ramírez, P; Parrilla, P
The Nigerian population is an emerging group in Spain and in Europe, but their sensitization toward living kidney donation has not been studied. The aim of this work was to analyze the attitude toward related renal donation while alive among the population born in Nigeria resident in Spain. A population older than 15 years born in Nigeria and resident in Spain, stratified by age and sex, was studied with the use of the attitude questionnaire about living kidney donation, "PCID-DVR-Ríos." People were randomly selected based on stratification. African immigration support associations advised on the location of potential respondents. Completion of the questionnaire was anonymous and self-administered. Verbal consent was requested to assist in the study. Statistical methods included Student t test, χ 2 , Fisher exact test, and logistic regression analysis. A total of 179 respondents were included in the study: 70% (n = 125) were in favor of living-related kidney donation, and 30% (n = 54) remained against or undecided. This attitude was associated with different psychosocial factors: marital status (P = .001), having offspring (P = .029), risk assessment of live donation (P donation (P donation and/or transplantation (P donation (P donation and/or transplantation (odds ratio, 8.064) persisted as the main related factor. The Nigerian immigrant population in Spain has a less favorable attitude toward living kidney donation than the native western European and Spanish population. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Verheijde Joseph L
Full Text Available Abstract Background Requirements for organ donation after cardiac or imminent death have been introduced to address the transplantable organs shortage in the United States. Organ procurement organizations (OPOs increasingly use the Internet for organ donation consent. Methods An analysis of OPO Web sites available to the public for enrollment and consent for organ donation. The Web sites and consent forms were examined for the minimal information recommended by the United States Department of Health and Human Services for informed consent. Content scores were calculated as percentages of data elements in four information categories: donor knowledge, donor consent reinforcement, donation promotion, and informed consent. Results There were 60 Web sites for organ donation enrollment serving the 52 states. The median percent (10 percentile-90 percentile content scores of the Web sites for donor knowledge, donor consent reinforcement, and donation promotion were 33% (20–47, 79% (57–86, and 75% (50–100, respectively. The informed consent score was 0% (0–33. The content scores for donor knowledge and informed consent were significantly lower than donor consent reinforcement and donation promotion for all Web sites (P Conclusion The Web sites and consent forms for public enrollment in organ donation do not fulfill the necessary requirements for informed consent. The Web sites predominantly provide positive reinforcement and promotional information rather than the transparent disclosure of organ donation process. Independent regulatory oversight is essential to ensure that Internet enrollment for organ donation complies with legal and ethical standards for informed consent.
Full Text Available Introduction: Blood Donation can save million lives. Voluntary blood donations are the cornerstone of a safe and adequate supply of blood and blood products. The safest blood donors are voluntary, non-remunerated blood donors from low-risk populations. Objectives: The present study was undertaken with an aim to understand the factors like knowledge, attitude and practices associated with voluntary blood donation among the medical students in a medical college. Materials & Methods: This is a cross sectional study with a sample size of 278. A pre-tested semi structured questionnaire was used to assess the level of knowledge, attitude and practices regarding blood donation in the study subjects. The data was analyzed by applying suitable statistical methods. Results: The knowledge about the recommended age and interval of blood donation was 90 % & 48.9% respectively. Nearly 23% of students had ever donated blood and the majority of subjects (56.5% did not have an opportunity to donate blood. 75.54 % of students were willing to donate blood at the time of study. Conclusion: Creating the opportunities regarding the blood donation may lead to the achievement of goal of 100% non-remunerated voluntary blood donation.
Traino, H M; Molisani, A J; Siminoff, L A
Although federal mandate prohibits the allocation of solid organs for transplantation based on "accidents of geography," geographic variation of transplantable organs is well documented. This study explores regional differences in communication in requests for organ donation. Administrative data from nine partnering organ procurement organizations and interview data from 1339 family decision makers (FDMs) were compared across eight geographically distinct US donor service areas (DSAs). Authorization for organ donation ranged from 60.4% to 98.1% across DSAs. FDMs from the three regions with the lowest authorization rates reported the lowest levels of satisfaction with the time spent discussing donation and with the request process, discussion of the least donation-related topics, the highest levels of pressure to donate, and the least comfort with the donation decision. Organ procurement organization region predicted authorization (odds ratios ranged from 8.14 to 0.24), as did time spent discussing donation (OR = 2.11), the number of donation-related topics discussed (OR = 1.14), and requesters' communication skill (OR = 1.14). Standardized training for organ donation request staff is needed to ensure the highest quality communication during requests, optimize rates of family authorization to donation in all regions, and increase the supply of organs available for transplantation. © 2016 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.
Reyes F, M.L.; Luna Z, D.
The first donation of human skin coming from a cadaverous donor was obtained in the State of Mexico. The skin was obtained of a 34 year-old multi organic donor, the extraction of the same was carried out in an operating theatre by medical personnel, supported by personal of the Radio sterilized Tissue Bank (BTR) of the ININ. The skin was transported to the BTR for it processing. (Author)
Shrestha, Ashish C; Flower, Robert L P; Seed, Clive R; Keller, Anthony J; Harley, Robert; Chan, Hiu-Tat; Hoad, Veronica; Warrilow, David; Northill, Judith; Holmberg, Jerry A; Faddy, Helen M
Hepatitis E virus (HEV) poses a risk to transfusion safety. In Australia, locally acquired HEV is rare and cases are mainly reported in travelers returning from countries endemic for HEV. The risk posed by HEV to transfusion safety in Australia is unknown; therefore, we aimed to measure the rate of current HEV infection in Australian blood donations. A total of 14,799 blood donations were tested for HEV RNA by transcription-mediated amplification, with confirmatory testing by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Viral load quantification and phylogenetic analysis was performed on HEV RNA-positive samples. One (0.0068%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.0002%-0.0376%) sample was confirmed positive for HEV RNA, resulting in a risk of collecting a HEV-viremic donation of 1 in 14,799 (95% CI, 1 in 584,530 to 1 in 2,657). The viral load in this sample was approximately 15,000 IU/mL, and it was determined to be Genotype 3. Our finding of 1 in 14,799 Australian donations positive for HEV RNA is lower than that from many other developed countries; this is consistent with the relatively low seroprevalence in Australia. As this HEV RNA-positive sample was Genotype 3, it seems likely that this infection was acquired through zoonotic transmission, either within Australia or overseas in a developed nation. HEV has the potential to pose a risk to transfusion safety in Australia; however, additional, larger studies are required to quantify the magnitude of this risk. © 2016 AABB.
Kandukuri Mahesh; Ravikanth; Chinthakindi; Shashi Kiran; Sudhir Kuma
BACKGROUND: Voluntary donors normally tolerate blood donation very well as the history and preliminary examination is clear without any hidden history or facts related to the health status of the donor, occasionally, adverse reactions of variable severity may occur during or at the end of the collection. AIM: Aim of this study is to estimate and possibly avoid the cause of unwanted reactions. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study is conducted over a period of three years, from ...
Dalal, Aparna R
Transplantation ethics is a philosophy that incorporates systematizing, defending and advocating concepts of right and wrong conduct related to organ donation. As the demand for organs increases, it is essential to ensure that new and innovative laws, policies and strategies of increasing organ supply are bioethical and are founded on the principles of altruism and utilitarianism. In the field of organ transplantation, role of altruism and medical ethics values are significant to the welfare ...
Marcela Cristina de Lemos
Full Text Available Objectives: To know the opinion of senior high school students in publicand private schools on the process of donating and transplanting organsand tissues, and their desire to be donors. Methods: A descriptive crosssectionalstudy, conducted from 2004 to 2005, on the opinion/knowledgeof senior high school students in public and private schools in the VilaMariana region of the city of São Paulo, on the process of organ and tissuedonation and transplantation. The convenience sample was made up of140 (81% students from two private schools and 167 (51% studentsfrom a public school. The project was approved by the Research EthicsCommittee of the UNIFESP. Results: Data showed that 163 (53.1%students believe that donation is by presumed consent and 147 (47.9%that consider that it occurs by informed consent. Of the public schoolstudents, 120 (71.9% believe that transplants are public and free ofcharge in Brazil versus 94 (67.1% of the students from private schools.Students know that donations may be made by living or dead donors(121 - 86.4% private schools versus 113 – 67.7% public school. Wehighlight that 22 (15.7% of the private school students and 16 (9.6%of those from the public school believe that the commerce of organs isallowed in Brazil. As to intentions of being a donor, 108 (77.1% of theprivate school students declared themselves organ and tissue donorsversus 106 (63.5% from the public school, and 63 (59.4% from thepublic versus 61 (56.5% from the private schools have already informedtheir families. Conclusion: There was no difference in knowledge andopinion among the students from the public and private schools as toaspects regarding donation and transplantation.
Alfieri, Sara; Guiddi, Paolo; Marta, Elena; Saturni, Vincenzo
The economic crisis has exasperated people's feelings of loneliness; job instability often does not allow people to commit to voluntary work. The present work proposes to examine whether the motivations to donate blood have changed before and during the period of economic crisis, taking into consideration donors' gender. We adopted Omoto & Snyder's functionalist approach, which states that blood donation serves different functions for any one person, who may have different motivations from those held by other people. We compared six-year pre-post (t1 "pre-crisis": 2008 - t2 "during the crisis": 2014) data on a sample of blood donors in a single blood donation center situated in Northern Italy. T-test was used for data analysis. Three hundred thirty donors (age range 18-60, M = 32.6, SD = 9.53; 54.5% male) were administered a survey at t1 and 444 (age range 18-60, M = 37.8, SD = 10.16; 68% male) six years later at t2. In both surveys, participants were administered a questionnaire with socio-demographic items and a version of Omoto & Snyder's Motivations to Volunteer scale adapted to blood donation. Donors' motivation priorities did not vary over time. Values and Self-enhancement motivations are the most prevalent. Knowledge and Ego-protection motivations decreased with the upsurge of the crisis. Women, in general, report higher mean values than men do for Values and Ego-protection motivations. These results can offer valuable clues for the agencies that manage blood collection. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Abstract Chile, a middle-income country, recently joined Israel and Singapore as the world?s only countries to require reciprocity as a precondition for organ transplantation. The Chilean reform includes opt-out provisions designed to foster donation and priority for organ transplantation for registered people. Although the reform has had serious difficulties in achieving its mission, it can be reviewed by other countries that seek to address the serious shortage of organs. As increased organ...
Manyalich, M; Guasch, X; Gomez, M P; Páez, G; Teixeira, L
Differences in the number of organ donors among hospitals cannot be explained only by the number of intensive care unit beds used or neurologic patients treated. The figures obtained are influenced by the organizational structure of the donation process and how efficient it is. The Organ Donation European Quality System (ODEQUS) is a 3-year project (from October 2010 to September 2013) co-financed by the European Agency for Health and Consumers (EAHC20091108) which aims to define a methodology to evaluate organ procurement performance at the hospital level. ODEQUS's specific objectives are to identify quality criteria and to develop quality indicators in three types of organ donation (after brain death, after cardiac death, and living donation). Those tools will be useful for hospitals' self-assessment as well as for developing an international auditing model. A consortium has been established involving 14 associated partners from Austria, Croatia, France, Germany, Italy, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Spain, Sweden, and the United Kingdom, as well as five collaborating partners from Greece, Hungary, Malta, Slovenia, and Turkey. The project has been established in three steps: 1) Design of a survey about the use of quality tools in a wide sample of European hospitals; 2) Development of quality criteria and quality indicators by the project experts. The main fields considered have been organizational structures, clinical procedures, and outcomes; and 3) Elaboration of an evaluation system to test the quality indicators in 11 European hospitals. Two types of training have been designed and performed: one concerns the development of quality criteria and quality indicators, whereas another is focused on how to use evaluation tools. Following this methodology, the project has so far identified 131 quality criteria and developed 31 quality indicators. Currently, the quality indicators are being tested in 11 selected hospitals. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights
Wale, J; Arthur, A; Faull, C
Only a minority of hospice patients eligible to donate tissue and organs choose to do so. Hospice care staff play a key role in discussions about donation, but their willingness to engage in these discussions and their understanding of issues around tissue and organ donation is poorly understood. To (i) identify factors associated with the wish of hospice doctors, nurses and healthcare assistants to donate their own organs after death; (ii) survey the experience of discussing the subject with patients; (iii) determine staff members' knowledge of organ and tissue donation and (iv) identify factors associated with knowledge of organ and tissue donation. Cross-sectional questionnaire survey of hospice care staff. 76 of the 94 care staff of one large UK hospice completed and returned the questionnaire. Staff wishing to donate their organs after death (43/76 56.6%) were more likely to be doctors or nurses than healthcare assistants (p=0.011) and more likely to have discussed organ or tissue donation with their family (pdonation with patients had more years' experience (p=0.045) and had similarly discussed donation with their own family (p=0.039). Those with greater knowledge were more likely to have discussed organ or tissue donation with a patient (p=0.042). A reluctance to instigate discussions about organ and tissue donation may prevent palliative patients and their families being allowed the opportunity to donate. Suboptimal knowledge among hospice staff suggests the need for greater liaison between hospice staff, and the organ and tissue donation teams.
Manzano, Ana; Pawson, Ray
Organ donation and transplantation services represent a microcosm of modern healthcare organisations. They are complex adaptive systems. They face perpetual problems of matching supply and demand. They operate under fierce time and resource constraints. And yet they have received relatively little attention from a systems perspective. The purpose of this paper is to consider some of the fundamental issues in evaluating, improving and policy reform in such complex systems. The paper advocates an approach based on programme theory evaluation. The paper explains how the death to donation to transplantation process depends on the accumulation of series of embedded, institutional sub-processes. Evaluators need to be concerned with this whole system rather than with its discrete parts or sectors. Policy makers may expect disappointment if they seek to improve donation rates by applying nudges or administrative reforms at a single point in the implementation chain. These services represent concentrated, perfect storms of complexity and the paper offers guidance to practitioners with bio-medical backgrounds on how such services might be evaluated and improved. For the methodological audience the paper caters for the burgeoning interest in programme theory evaluation while illustrating the design phase of this research strategy.
van Wijngaarden, A K S; van Westerloo, D J; Ringers, J
In 2014, there was still a shortage of available organs for transplantation, and 1044 patients were waiting for an organ in the Netherlands. Maximizing the pool of organ donors is part of the solution. In 2001, the Dutch Termination of Life on Request and Assisted Suicide Act was adopted, legalizing euthanasia under strict conditions. In 2010, 3136 reports were made of euthanasia and assisted suicide; in 2014, 5306 reports were made. Among them were patients with a desire to donate their organs after their deaths. Although a potential source of donor organs, only a few cases of organ donation after active euthanasia have been described. Since 2012, 16 combinations of these procedures have been performed in the Netherlands. The literature mentions 16 Belgian cases between 2005 and 2013. This limited number can be the result of lack of knowledge about this subject among healthcare professionals or because of practical, ethical, and/or legal considerations. Performing this combination has possible advantages, both in number as well as in transplantation outcomes. By describing a recent case in our center, we will try to outline the state of the art in the Netherlands and disseminate knowledge about the possibilities and limitations of organ donation after active euthanasia. Copyright Â© 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.
This study examines the content of and audience response to organ donation videos on YouTube, a Web 2.0 platform, with framing theory. Positive frames were identified in both video content and audience comments. Analysis revealed a reciprocity relationship between media frames and audience frames. Videos covered content categories such as kidney, liver, organ donation registration process, and youth. Videos were favorably rated. No significant differences were found between videos produced by organizations and individuals in the United States and those produced in other countries. The findings provide insight into how new communication technologies are shaping health communication in ways that differ from traditional media. The implications of Web 2.0, characterized by user-generated content and interactivity, for health communication and health campaign practice are discussed.
Carone, Laura; Alurkar, Shrirang; Kigozi, Phoebe; Vyas, Harish
Approximately 2% of those on the organ transplant list in the UK are children. Early identification of donors and referral to organ donation teams (ODT) has proven to increase both the success rate of gaining consent and the number of organs actually retrieved. To evaluate the practice relating to organ donation for children receiving end-of-life care on a paediatric intensive care unit (PICU) measured against the National Guidelines. All children 0-18 who received their end-of-life care and died on the PICU. A retrospective cohort study of organ donation patterns including referral, approach, consent and donation. This involved a review of case notes on PICU between the years 2009 and 2014. One hundred five deaths were identified and 100 notes were examined and data analysed to ascertain if religion, age and length of stay on PICU impacted on practice. Eighty-six children met the early identification criteria for potential donors, 40 (46.5%) children were referred to the ODT and 33 (38.3%) families were approached regarding donation. Twenty-one (24.4%) families consented to donation. Seventeen donations took place with a total of 41 sets of organs/tissues retrieved. Despite the majority of children meeting early identification for potential donors, many were not being referred. All children on end-of-life care should be referred for potential organ donation. Organ donation needs to be seen as a priority for hospitals as a part of routine end-of-life care to help increase referral rates and give families the opportunity to donate. Many paediatric deaths are not referred for consideration of organ donation, despite guidelines stating that this process should be standard of care. Further optimization of referral rates may aid in increasing the number of organs available for donation. What is Known: • Shortage of organs continues to be a national problem. • NICE guidelines state that all patients who are on end-of-life care should have the option of organ donation
Keel, Isabelle; Immer, Franz F.; Jüni, Peter
Background and Aim Switzerland has a low post mortem organ donation rate. Here we examine variables that are associated with the consent of the deceased’s next of kin (NOK) for organ donation, which is a prerequisite for donation in Switzerland. Methods and Analysis During one year, we registered information from NOK of all deceased patients in Swiss intensive care units, who were approached for consent to organ donation. We collected data on patient demographics, characteristics of NOK, factors related to the request process and to the clinical setting. We analyzed the association of collected predictors with consent rate using univariable logistic regression models; predictors with p-values donation, and respecting personal values and cultural differences, could be of importance for increasing donation rates. Additional measures are needed to address the pronounced differences in consent rates between language regions. PMID:25208215
Edgren, Gustaf; Reilly, Marie; Hjalgrim, Henrik
BACKGROUND: Long-term deleterious effects of repeated blood donations may be masked by the donors' healthy lifestyle. To investigate possible effects of blood donation and iron loss through blood donation on cancer incidence while minimizing "healthy donor effects," we made dose......-response comparisons within a cohort of Swedish and Danish blood donors. METHODS: We used a nested case-control study design, in which case patients were defined as all donors who were diagnosed with a malignancy between their first recorded blood donation and study termination (n = 10866). Control subjects (n...... plasma donors (> 25 vs 0 donations, OR = 2.14, 95% CI = 1.22 to 3.74). CONCLUSIONS: Repeated blood donation was not associated with increased or decreased risk of cancer overall. The lack of consistency across latency periods casts doubt on an apparent association between reduced cancer risk and iron...
Ou-Yang, J; Bei, C-H; He, B; Rong, X
The present study aimed to determine major factors that influence blood donation in China. Factors affecting blood donation often vary in various populations. This cross-sectional study used self-administered, standardised, structured questionnaires to survey selected donors and non-donors in Guangzhou, China between 10 December 2013 and 25 June 2014. Among the 1080 questionnaires collected, 1034 (95·7%) questionnaires were valid for this analysis, including 602 donors and 432 non-donors. Results revealed that helping patients (n = 405, 68·2%) was the main objective of blood donation, and self-perception of poor health (n = 138, 33·1%) was the main reason for not donating. Responses to questions raised by donors and inquiring about a donor's physical condition were thought to be the most important blood donation routines (n = 302, 65·5%). For non-donors, 90·3% (n = 390) expressed their intention to donate blood in the future, and usage of blood (n = 182, 46·7%) was the most asked question. Prepaid cellular phone cards were the most popular incentives. Raising the awareness of blood donation was the most effective way of enhancing blood donation programmes, and television ads and the internet were the most effective means. Helping patients was the main objective of blood donation in China. However, self-perception of poor health was a major barrier to donating blood. Raising the awareness of blood donation in combination with multiple aspects of campaigns that target different populations with potential blood donors is critical. Television and the internet are the most effective tools for promotion of and recruitment for blood donation. © 2017 British Blood Transfusion Society.
Balwani Manish R
Full Text Available Introduction: There is a wide discrepancy between demand for and availability of donor organs for organ transplantation. There is no study on awareness about organ donation in chronic kidney disease (CKD patients in India. Objectives: To study the awareness and beliefs towards organ donation in CKD patients on hemodialysis in western India. Patients and Methods: Authors conducted a cross sectional study among 85 CKD patients to evaluate knowledge about and attitude towards organ donation at a tertiary hospital. Results: Age of respondents ranged from 15 to 75 years. All were aware of term organ donation and cadaver donation. About 47% of people heard about organ donation through hospital or from doctor. Strikingly, radio was not the source of information to any of the respondents, despite radio being one of the most common medium of mass communication. Almost one third of patients were unaware about any legislation regarding organ donation. All respondents felt that organs should go to the needy irrespective of their religion. About 70% feel that medical colleges should make decisions about organ donation in case of unclaimed dead bodies. About 31.76% believe that there is a danger that donated organs could be misused, abused or misappropriated. Conclusion: Our study shows about 31.76% of our participants believe that there is a danger that donated organs could be misused, abused or misappropriated. There seems to be paucity of information and awareness regarding organ donation among CKD patients. Mass media, religious and political leaders may be involved to maximize awareness about organ donation.
Igissinov, Nurbek; Kulmirzayeva, Dariyana; Magzumova, Raushan; Sibinga, Cees Th Smit; Alpeissova, Sholpan
Each country faces a continuing challenge to collect enough blood to meet the national needs. According to WHO, there should be at least 20 blood donations per 1,000 population for developing countries, in Kazakhstan this indicator was only 16.8 in 2011. Thus, we conducted an epidemiological assessment and drew a map of the regional distribution of blood and plasma donations in Kazakhstan during the years 2000-2011. The retrospective study was conducted from 2000 to 2011. Data on blood and its components donations were acquired from the Ministry of Health (annual statistical reporting form N° 39). During 2000-2011, number of blood donors decreased to 17.4% and blood donations to 6.3%. The proportion of non-remunerated blood donations and donors decreased from 97.6% to 77.9% and 97.9% to 87.7%, respectively. The paid donations had the opposite trend. Number of plasma donors increased in 2.1 times, plasma donations in 2.4 times, nevertheless the proportion of non-remunerated plasma donations decreased from 60.1% to 29.8%. The average number of blood donations per 1,000 population decreased from 19.8 (2000) to 16.8 (2011), plasma donations increased from 1.4 to 3.1. Regionally, annual average rates of blood and plasma donations per 1,000 population over 12 years varied greatly. This is the first study conducted in Kazakhstan to provide detailed information, including the regional characteristics of blood and plasma donations over an extended period of time, which can be used in blood transfusion services work.
Moraes,Edvaldo Leal de; Santos,Marcelo José dos; Merighi,Miriam Aparecida Barbosa; Massarollo,Maria Cristina Komatsu Braga
OBJECTIVE: to investigate the meaning of the action of nurses in the donation process to maintain the viability of organs and tissues for transplantation.METHOD: this qualitative study with a social phenomenological approach was conducted through individual interviews with ten nurses of three Organ and Tissue Procurement Services of the city of São Paulo.RESULTS: the experience of the nurses in the donation process was represented by the categories: obstacles experienced in the donation proce...
BACKGROUND: Embryo donation produces a family structure where neither rearing parent is genetically related to the child, as in adoption. It is not known how embryo donation parents view the donors compared with how adoptive parents view the birth parents. \\ud METHODS: 21 couples with an embryo donation child aged 2–5 years were compared with 28 couples with an adopted child. Parents were administered a semi-structured interview, assessing knowledge of the donors/birth parents, frequency of t...
Zhou, Q; Yu, X; Cai, Y; Liu, L
This study aimed to investigate the changes of platelet (PLT) function and coagulation time before and after plateletpheresis donation. The healthy donors were divided into four groups according to the annual number of plateletpheresis donation: 20 times group, 15 times group, 10 times group and 5 times group. The healthy non-blood donors were selected as controls. The donation interval was 14 days. The blood samples were collected before plateletpheresis donation and after 30min, 7 d, and 14 d of donation for determination of coagulation time, PLT function, plasma protein, serum iron and blood routine change. After 30min of plateletpheresis donation, the PLT function decreased and the coagulation time was prolonged. However, PLT function recovered to the pre-collection after 7 d of plateletpheresis donation and coagulation time recovered to the pre-collection after 14 d of plateletpheresis donation. Additionally, there was no difference regarding blood coagulation time and PLT function among blood donors and controls. The plasma protein and serum iron levels in 20 times and 15 times groups were within the normal reference range. The frequency of plateletpheresis donation will not affect PLT function, coagulation time, plasma protein and serum iron in donors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Sque, Magi; Walker, Wendy; Long-Sutehall, Tracy; Morgan, Myfanwy; Randhawa, Gurch; Rodney, Amanda
To elicit bereaved families' experiences of organ and tissue donation. A specific objective was to determine families' perceptions of how their experiences influenced donation decision-making. Retrospective, qualitative interviews were undertaken with 43 participants of 31 donor families to generate rich, informative data. Participant recruitment was via 10 National Health Service Trusts, representative of five regional organ donation services in the UK. Twelve families agreed to DBD, 18 agreed to DCD, 1 unknown. Participants' responses were contextualised using a temporal framework of 'The Past', which represented families' prior knowledge, experience, attitudes, beliefs, and intentions toward organ donation; 'The Present', which incorporated the moment in time when families experienced the potential for donation; and 'The Future', which corresponded to expectations and outcomes arising from the donation decision. Temporally interwoven experiences appeared to influence families' decisions to donate the organs of their deceased relative for transplantation. The influence of temporality on donation-decision making is worthy of consideration in the planning of future education, policy, practice, and research for improved rates of family consent to donation. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Krupic, Ferid; Sayed-Noor, Arkan S; Fatahi, Nabi
Transplantation of organs is one of the most successful medical advances of the past 60 years and transplantation is the treatment of choice for severe organ failure worldwide. Despite this situation, and the general acknowledgement of organ donation as a global priority, demand for organs outstrips supply in virtually every country in the world. The aim of the study was to elucidate factors that influence immigrant's decisions regarding organ donation. Data were collected through three group interviews using open-ended questions and qualitative content analysis. 32 participants, 16 men and 16 women from Bosnia and Herzegovina, Somalia, Lebanon and Kosovo participated in focus group interviews (FGI). Analysis of the collected data resulted in two main categories: 'Information about organ donation' and 'Religious aspects of organ donation and a number of subcategories'. Some of the influencing factors concerning organ donation were mainly related to limited information from society as well as limited information from healthcare professionals. Religious aspects, fear and prejudices about organ donation were other factors that mentioned by participants as hamper regarding organ donation. In order to improve immigrants' attitude towards organ donation, information about this issue and identification of the hampering factors, particularly culturally related factors such as the religious aspect, is essential. In this context, different intervention studies are needed to increase monitories groups' attitude towards organ donations. © 2016 Nordic College of Caring Science.