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Sample records for mechanized mediterranean vineyard

  1. Plant biodiversity in French Mediterranean vineyards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Marianne; Bilodeau, Clelia; Alexandre, Frédéric; Godron, Michel; Gresillon, Etienne

    2017-04-01

    In a context of agricultural intensification and increasing urbanization, the biodiversity of farmed plots is a key to improve the sustainability of farmed landscapes. The medium life-duration of the vineyards as well as their location in Mediterranean region are favorable to plant biodiversity. We studied 35 vineyards and if present, their edges, located in three French Mediterranean terroirs: Bandol, Pic Saint Loup and Terrasses du Larzac. We collected botanical information (floral richness et diversity, biological traits), and analyzed their relationships with different factors: social (management, heritage or professional concern), environmental (slope, exposition, geology), spatial (edges, surrounding landscape in a 500 meters radius, distance to the nearest large city). Vineyards are generally heavily disturbed by intensive practices like tilling and application of herbicides, and for this reason their floral diversity is low. This is particularly true in Bandol terroir, in accordance with the standards of the Bandol PDO wine sector. Farmed landscapes and proximity to a large town impact on functional groups, generalist species being overrepresented. If vineyards are surrounded with natural edges, it doubles the floral richness at the plot and edges scale. Species present in vineyards edges are perennial herbaceous species with Euro- Asian and Mediterranean distribution ranges characteristic of prairie and wasteland stages, increasing the functional diversity of vineyards (generalist species). Environmental factors have a lower influence: vineyards are generally located on flat lands. These results suggest that some practices should be encouraged to avoid the biological degradation of vineyards: conservation of tree-lined edges and their extensive management, reduction of chemical weeding, grass-growing using non-cosmopolitan species. These recommendations should also contribute to soil conservation.

  2. Soil erosion and carbon budget in Mediterranean vineyards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novara, Agata; Santoro, Antonino; Gristina, Luciano

    2016-04-01

    Vineyards of Mediterranean regions are characterized by low organic matter level and high sediment and nutrient erosion rates, which are the main causes of soil degradation and low sustainability of vine production. Alternative soil management - cover crops, green manure of prune residues, buffer strip- has widely applied as soil management practices to reduce soil degradation processes. However, the effectiveness of innovative soil management should be evaluated in relation to climatic and soil conditions. Many studies have been carried out in Sicilian vineyards in order to improve the sustainability with particular attention to: reduction of erosion, increase of soil organic matter, managing of nitrogen content and prune residue input. Besides the ecosystem service and its related economic aspects of the different soil management has been evaluated to analyze the wine growers and researchers demands. The aim of this work is to describe the state of art of scientific results on different soil management in Sicilian vineyards in the last 15 years, highlighting criticisms and lack of knowledge.

  3. Soil water erosion on Mediterranean vineyards. A review based on published data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prosdocimi, Massimo; Cerdà, Artemi; Tarolli, Paolo

    2015-04-01

    Soil water erosion on cultivated lands is a severe threat to soil resources in the world (Leh et al., 2013; Zhao et al., 2013). In particular, Mediterranean areas deserve a particular attention because of their edaphic, topographic and climatic conditions. Among the cultivated lands, concerns have arisen about vineyards because, aside representing one of the most important crop in terms of income and employment, they also have proven to be the form of agricultural land that causes one of the highest soil losses (Tropeano et al., 1984; Leonard and Andrieux, 1998; Ferrero et al., 2005; Cerdà et al., 2007; Blavet et al., 2009; Casalí et al., 2009; Novara et al., 2011; Martínez Casasnovas et al., 2013; Ruiz Colmenero et al., 2013; Tarolli et al., 2014). Although the topic of soil water erosion on vineyards has been studied, it still raises uncertainties. These are due to the i) high complexity of processes involved, ii) different methodologies used to analyze them and iii) analyses carried out at different spatial and temporal scales. At this regard, this work aims to evaluate the impact of factors controlling erosion such as rainfall characteristics, topography, soil properties and soil and water conservation techniques. Data derived from experimental plots have been reviewed. At first, what emerges is the difficulty of comparing erosion rates obtained with different methodologies and at different spatial scales. Secondly, all the factors demonstrate to have a strong impact on soil erosion but a 'general rule' upon which to consider one factor always predominant over the others does not come out. Therefore, this work supports the importance of monitoring soil water erosion by field measurements to better understand the relationship between the factors. Variables like rainfall characteristics, topography and soil properties are much more difficult to modify than the soil and water management techniques. Hence, future researches are needed to both recommend the best

  4. Impact of vineyard abandonment and natural recolonization on metal content and availability in Mediterranean soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santiago-Martín, Ana de; Vaquero-Perea, Cristina; Valverde-Asenjo, Inmaculada; Quintana Nieto, Jose R.; González-Huecas, Concepción; Lafuente, Antonio L.; Vázquez de la Cueva, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Abandonment of vineyards after uprooting has dramatically increased in last decades in Mediterranean countries, often followed by vegetation expansion processes. Inadequate management strategies can have negative consequences on soil quality. We studied how the age and type of vegetation cover and several environmental characteristics (lithology, soil properties, vineyard slope and so on) after vineyard uprooting and abandonment contribute to the variation patterns in total, HAc (acetic acid-method, HAc) and EDTA-extractable (ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid-method) concentrations of Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn in soils. We sampled 141 points from vineyards and abandoned vineyard Mediterranean soils recolonized by natural vegetation in recent decades. The contribution of several environmental variables (e.g. age and type of vegetation cover, lithology, soil properties and vineyard slope) to the total and extractable concentrations of metals was evaluated by canonical ordination based on redundancy analysis, considering the interaction between both environmental and response variables. The ranges of total metal contents were: 0.01–0.15 (Cd), 2.6–34 (Cu), 6.6–30 (Pb), and 29–92 mg kg −1 (Zn). Cadmium (11–100%) had the highest relative extractability with both extractants, and Zn and Pb the lowest. The total and EDTA-extractable of Cd, Pb and Zn were positively related to the age of abandonment, to the presence of Agrostis castellana and Retama sphaerocarpa, and to the contents of Fe-oxides, clay and organic matter (OM). A different pattern was noted for Cu, positively related to vineyard soils. Soil properties successfully explained HAc-extractable Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn but the age and type of vegetation cover lost significance. Clay content was negatively related to HAc-extractable Cu and Pb; and OM was positively related to HAc-Cd and Zn. In conclusion, the time elapsed after vineyard uprooting, and subsequent land abandonment, affects the soil content and

  5. Impact of vineyard abandonment and natural recolonization on metal content and availability in Mediterranean soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santiago-Martín, Ana de, E-mail: anasanti@ucm.es [Department of Soil Science, Faculty of Pharmacy, Complutense University of Madrid, 28040, Madrid (Spain); Vaquero-Perea, Cristina, E-mail: crvaquer@farm.ucm.es [Department of Soil Science, Faculty of Pharmacy, Complutense University of Madrid, 28040, Madrid (Spain); Valverde-Asenjo, Inmaculada, E-mail: inma.valverde@farm.ucm.es [Department of Soil Science, Faculty of Pharmacy, Complutense University of Madrid, 28040, Madrid (Spain); Quintana Nieto, Jose R., E-mail: jrquinta@farm.ucm.es [Department of Soil Science, Faculty of Pharmacy, Complutense University of Madrid, 28040, Madrid (Spain); González-Huecas, Concepción, E-mail: chuecas@farm.ucm.es [Department of Soil Science, Faculty of Pharmacy, Complutense University of Madrid, 28040, Madrid (Spain); Lafuente, Antonio L., E-mail: lopezlafuente@farm.ucm.es [Department of Soil Science, Faculty of Pharmacy, Complutense University of Madrid, 28040, Madrid (Spain); Vázquez de la Cueva, Antonio, E-mail: vazquez@inia.es [INIA, Forest Research Centre, Carretera de A Coruña km 7.5, 28040, Madrid (Spain)

    2016-05-01

    Abandonment of vineyards after uprooting has dramatically increased in last decades in Mediterranean countries, often followed by vegetation expansion processes. Inadequate management strategies can have negative consequences on soil quality. We studied how the age and type of vegetation cover and several environmental characteristics (lithology, soil properties, vineyard slope and so on) after vineyard uprooting and abandonment contribute to the variation patterns in total, HAc (acetic acid-method, HAc) and EDTA-extractable (ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid-method) concentrations of Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn in soils. We sampled 141 points from vineyards and abandoned vineyard Mediterranean soils recolonized by natural vegetation in recent decades. The contribution of several environmental variables (e.g. age and type of vegetation cover, lithology, soil properties and vineyard slope) to the total and extractable concentrations of metals was evaluated by canonical ordination based on redundancy analysis, considering the interaction between both environmental and response variables. The ranges of total metal contents were: 0.01–0.15 (Cd), 2.6–34 (Cu), 6.6–30 (Pb), and 29–92 mg kg{sup −1} (Zn). Cadmium (11–100%) had the highest relative extractability with both extractants, and Zn and Pb the lowest. The total and EDTA-extractable of Cd, Pb and Zn were positively related to the age of abandonment, to the presence of Agrostis castellana and Retama sphaerocarpa, and to the contents of Fe-oxides, clay and organic matter (OM). A different pattern was noted for Cu, positively related to vineyard soils. Soil properties successfully explained HAc-extractable Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn but the age and type of vegetation cover lost significance. Clay content was negatively related to HAc-extractable Cu and Pb; and OM was positively related to HAc-Cd and Zn. In conclusion, the time elapsed after vineyard uprooting, and subsequent land abandonment, affects the soil content and

  6. Soil aggregates, organic matter turnover and carbon balance in a Mediterranean eroded vineyard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novara, Agata; Lo Papa, Giuseppe; Dazzi, Carmelo; Gristina, Luciano; Cerdà, Artemi

    2014-05-01

    dispersion, were isolated by mechanical shaking of 100 g, air-dried fine earth on a column with sieves of 250 and 63 μm using a Shaker AS 200 Sieve (RETSCH analytical, Haan, Germany) (200-mm sieves, amplitude of 2 cm, frequency of 1.6 Hz and a water flux of 2 litres minute-1). After the physical fractionation, we discriminate three main aggregate-size fractions: >250, 63-250 and Schillaci, C., Laudicina, V.A., La Mantia, T., 2013. Turnover and availability of soil organic carbon under different Mediterranean land use as estimated by 13C natural abundance. European Journal ofSoil science, 64, 466-475. DOI: 10.1111/ejss.12038 Novara, A., Gristina, L., Saladino, S., Santoro, A., Cerda, A. 2011. Soil erosion assessment on tillage and alternative soil managements in a Sicilian vineyard. Soil & Tillage Research 117:140-147. Novara, A., La Mantia, T., Barbera V., Gristina, L. 2012. Paired-site approach for studying soil organic carbon dynamics in a Mediterranean semiarid environment. Catena, 89 (1): 1-7, doi.org/10.1016/j.catena.2011.09.008 Yan-Gui, S., Xin-Rong, L., Ying-Wu, C., Zhi-Shan, Z., and Yan, L. 2013. Carbon fixaton of cyanobacterial-algal crusts after desert fixation and its implication to soil organic matter accumulation in Desert. Land Degradation & Development, 24: 342- 349. DOI 10.1002/ldr.1131

  7. Rainfall simulation and Structure-from-Motion photogrammetry for the analysis of soil water erosion in Mediterranean vineyards

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prosdocimi, Massimo; Burguet, Maria; Prima, Di Simone; Sofia, Giulia; Terol, Enric; Rodrigo Comino, Jesús; Cerda Bolinches, Artemio; Tarolli, Paolo

    2017-01-01

    Soil water erosion is a serious problem, especially in agricultural lands. Among these, vineyards deserve attention, because they constitute for the Mediterranean areas a type of land use affected by high soil losses. A significant problem related to the study of soil water erosion in these areas

  8. The immediate effectiveness of barley straw mulch in reducing soil erodibility and surface runoff generation in Mediterranean vineyards

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prosdocimi, Massimo; Jordán, Antonio; Tarolli, Paolo; Keesstra, Saskia; Novara, Agata; Cerdà, Artemi

    2016-01-01

    Soil and water loss in agriculture is a major problem throughout the world, and especially in Mediterranean areas. Non-conservation agricultural practices have further aggravated the situation, especially in vineyards, which are affected by one of the highest rates of soil loss among cultivated

  9. Spatial distribution models of erosion on slopes cultivated with vineyards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armaez, J.; Ortigosa, L.; Ruiz-Falno, P.; Llorente, J. A.; Lasanta, T.

    2009-01-01

    Soils cultivated with vineyards have high rates of erosion. In the Mediterranean area, this is related to the environmental characteristics and the management of cultivation techniques. Indeed, in this region the rainfall intensity and the location of vineyards on slopes favour the erosive activity of runoff. The total area of vineyards in La Rioja (Spain) is currently almost 40,000 ha. Vineyards are located on hillsides between 400 and 60 m.a.s.l. Of the vineyards of La Rioja 81,7% are planted on slopes with a gradient between 3 degree centigrade and 9 degree centigrade. (Author) 5 refs.

  10. Diuron mineralisation in a Mediterranean vineyard soil: impact of moisture content and temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Sebaï, Talaat; Devers, Marion; Lagacherie, Bernard; Rouard, Nadine; Soulas, Guy; Martin-Laurent, Fabrice

    2010-09-01

    The diuron-mineralising ability of the microbiota of a Mediterranean vineyard soil exposed each year to this herbicide was measured. The impact of soil moisture and temperature on this microbial activity was assessed. The soil microbiota was shown to mineralise diuron. This mineralising activity was positively correlated with soil moisture content, being negligible at 5% and more than 30% at 20% soil moisture content. According to a double Gaussian model applied to fit the dataset, the optimum temperature/soil moisture conditions were 27.9 degrees C/19.3% for maximum mineralisation rate and 21.9 degrees C/18.3% for maximum percentage mineralisation. The impact of temperature and soil moisture content variations on diuron mineralisation was estimated. A simulated drought period had a suppressive effect on subsequent diuron mineralisation. This drought effect was more marked when higher temperatures were used to dry (40 degrees C versus 28 degrees C) or incubate (28 degrees C versus 20 degrees C) the soil. The diuron kinetic parameters measured after drought conditions were no longer in accordance with those estimated by the Gaussian model. Although soil microbiota can adapt to diuron mineralisation, its activity is strongly dependent on climatic conditions. It suggests that diuron is not rapidly degraded under Mediterranean climate, and that arable Mediterranean soils are likely to accumulate diuron residues. (c) 2010 Society of Chemical Industry.

  11. Cover cropping in Vitis vinifera L. cv. Manto Negro vineyards under Mediterranean conditions: effects on plant vigour, yield and grape quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alícia Pou

    2011-12-01

    Significance and impact of the study: This study showed that the use of specific cover crops in vineyards under Mediterranean climates helps to reduce vegetative vigour. Nevertheless, yield reduction and slight quality improvement suggest that cover crops should be adjusted in order to reduce competition for water and thus prevent these negative effects of water scarcity.

  12. Minidisk against ring infiltrometer measurements to assess the saturated hydraulic conductivity in Mediterranean vineyards (Vitis vinifera L.) under Tillage and No-Tillage managements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burguet, Maria; Di Prima, Simone; Prosdocimi, Massimo; Taguas, Encarnación V.; Cerdà, Artemi

    2016-04-01

    Vineyard is one of the main crops in the Mediterranean region and it forms, along with wheat and olive, what it is known as the 'Mediterranean triad'. According to the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO, 2010), the European Union has 4.5 million hectares of land occupied by vineyards. Out of all, the Mediterranean region has the largest total area of vineyards. France, Italy and Spain together are responsible for 48% of global wine production. In Spain, the total surface occupied by vineyards is 1.048.104 ha (Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Environment, 2009), which is translated in a 13% of world total (Wine Institute, 2014). In terms of environmental factors, vineyards are a source of sediments and water due to the tillage and the soil compaction, the lack of vegetation cover and the soil organic matter depletion (Novara et al., 2011; Lieskovsky' et al., 2014; Rodrigo Comino et al., 2015). The infiltration capacity of soils is a key component of the hydrological cycle that can control the non-sustainable rates of runoff and erosion (Cerdà, 1997,1999). In this way research focused on the soil hydrological properties will bring knowledge on how to control the high erosion rates (Cammeraat et al., 2010). Saturated hydraulic conductivity, ks, is the most determining physical parameter in terms of quantifying the components of the global water balance as it interferes in all those processes which are related with water and solute movement and transport through the soil. ks values are required for an adequate modelling of the infiltration and runoff generation processes. However, it is a variable with high variability when it comes to agricultural soils due to different soil managements and the fact that the soil is not a continuous media (Polo et al., 2003). For instance, Leonard and Andrieux (1998) reported in a study done in untilled vineyards in France high differences in infiltration rates through the use of rainfall simulations, which

  13. Connectivity of rainfall and human activity impacts on soil erosion processes in Mediterranean vineyards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigo-Comino, Jesús; Terol Esparza, Enric; Damián Ruiz-Sinoga, José; Cerdà, Artemi

    2017-04-01

    Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013) under grant no. 603498 (RECARE Project). References Brenot, J., Quiquerez, A., Petit, C., Garcia, J.-P., 2008. Erosion rates and sediment budgets in vineyards at 1-m resolution based on stock unearthing (Burgundy, France). Geomorphology 100, 345-355. doi:10.1016/j.geomorph.2008.01.005 López-Vicente, M., Nadal-Romero, E., Cammeraat, E.L.H., 2016. Hydrological Connectivity Does Change Over 70 Years of Abandonment and Afforestation in the Spanish Pyrenees. Land Degrad. Dev. n/a-n/a. doi:10.1002/ldr.2531 Paroissien, J.-B., Lagacherie, P., Le Bissonnais, Y., 2010. A regional-scale study of multi-decennial erosion of vineyard fields using vine-stock unearthing-burying measurements. Catena 82, 159-168. doi:10.1016/j.catena.2010.06.002 Parras-Alcántara, L., Lozano-García, B., Keesstra, S., Cerdà, A., Brevik, E.C., 2016. Long-term effects of soil management on ecosystem services and soil loss estimation in olive grove top soils. Sci. Total Environ. 571, 498-506. doi:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2016.07.016 Prosdocimi, M., Cerdà, A., Tarolli, P., 2016. Soil water erosion on Mediterranean vineyards: A review. Catena 141, 1-21. doi:10.1016/j.catena.2016.02.010 Rodrigo Comino, J., Quiquerez, A., Follain, S., Raclot, D., Le Bissonnais, Y., Casalí, J., Giménez, R., Cerdà, A., Keesstra, S.D., Brevik, E.C., Pereira, P., Senciales, J.M., Seeger, M., Ruiz Sinoga, J.D., Ries, J.B., 2016. Soil erosion in sloping vineyards assessed by using botanical indicators and sediment collectors in the Ruwer-Mosel valley. Agric. Ecosyst. Environ. 233, 158-170. doi:10.1016/j.agee.2016.09.009 Vaudour, E., Costantini, E., Jones, G.V., Mocali, S., 2015. An overview of the recent approaches to terroir functional modelling, footprinting and zoning. SOIL 1, 287-312. doi:10.5194/soil-1-287-2015

  14. Organic farming benefits local plant diversity in vineyard farms located in intensive agricultural landscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimbene, Juri; Marini, Lorenzo; Paoletti, Maurizio G

    2012-05-01

    The majority of research on organic farming has considered arable and grassland farming systems in Central and Northern Europe, whilst only a few studies have been carried out in Mediterranean agro-systems, such as vineyards, despite their economic importance. The main aim of the study was to test whether organic farming enhances local plant species richness in both crop and non-crop areas of vineyard farms located in intensive conventional landscapes. Nine conventional and nine organic farms were selected in an intensively cultivated region (i.e. no gradient in landscape composition) in northern Italy. In each farm, vascular plants were sampled in one vineyard and in two non-crop linear habitats, grass strips and hedgerows, adjacent to vineyards and therefore potentially influenced by farming. We used linear mixed models to test the effect of farming, and species longevity (annual vs. perennial) separately for the three habitat types. In our intensive agricultural landscapes organic farming promoted local plant species richness in vineyard fields, and grassland strips while we found no effect for linear hedgerows. Differences in species richness were not associated to differences in species composition, indicating that similar plant communities were hosted in vineyard farms independently of the management type. This negative effect of conventional farming was probably due to the use of herbicides, while mechanical operations and mowing regime did not differ between organic and conventional farms. In grassland strips, and only marginally in vineyards, we found that the positive effect of organic farming was more pronounced for perennial than annual species.

  15. Assessing the efficiency of Mediterranean ditch networks in preventing vineyards soil erosion within landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levavasseur, Florent; Bailly, Jean-Stéphane; Lagacherie, Philippe

    2013-04-01

    Water erosion of cultivated soils is a threat to the sustainability of agriculture, especially in Mediterranean areas. For a long time, Mediterranean farmers have thus adopted some soil conservation practices. Actual ditch networks, which are generally associated with terraces, result from historical successive farmer settlements and are one of these soil conservation practices. By intercepting surface run-off, ditches decrease slope length and prevent soil erosion on downstream plots. However, since water erosion hazard and ditch network geometries are highly variable in vineyards landscape and since ditch building and maintaining are costly, the objective of this study was to identify and map the resulting efficiency of ditch networks in preventing soil erosion. For a given area, a ditch network efficiency is defined here as the balance between the network density, i.e. network cumulated length for a given area unit, and the erosion sensitivity over an area which measures the performance of the ditch network in limiting soil erosion. The erosion efficiency of ditch networks was thus identified using both i) computer generated ditch networks with various spatial configurations and ii) the stream power index as an erosion sensitivity indicator, computed from a DTM in which each ditch network was burned. The stream power index of the actual networks were compared with a set of generated networks whose density and topology were selected to maximize the performance in preventing soil erosion thanks to the use of a self-developed optimized stochastic network generator. For four 1 km² hillslopes, we showed that the performances of actual networks to prevent soil erosion was among the best that were obtained by simulated networks with even greater densities. Furthermore, we showed that the stream power index values that accounted for the actual ditch networks to prevent soil erosion hazard was both minimal and weakly variable in the whole study area (30 km²) at

  16. The immediate effectiveness of barley straw mulch in reducing soil erodibility and surface runoff generation in Mediterranean vineyards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prosdocimi, Massimo; Jordán, Antonio; Tarolli, Paolo; Keesstra, Saskia; Novara, Agata; Cerdà, Artemi

    2016-03-15

    Soil and water loss in agriculture is a major problem throughout the world, and especially in Mediterranean areas. Non-conservation agricultural practices have further aggravated the situation, especially in vineyards, which are affected by one of the highest rates of soil loss among cultivated lands. Therefore, it is necessary to find the right soil practices for more sustainable viticulture. In this regard, straw mulching has proven to be effective in other crop and fire affected soils, but, nonetheless, little research has been carried out in vineyards. This research tests the effect of barley straw mulching on soil erosion and surface runoff on vineyards in Eastern Spain where the soil and water losses are non-sustainable. An experiment was setup using rainfall simulation tests at 55 mm h(-1) over 1h on forty paired plots of 0.24 m(2): twenty bare and twenty straw covered. Straw cover varied from 48 to 90% with a median value of 59% as a result of the application of 75 g of straw per m(2). The use of straw mulch resulted in delayed ponding and runoff generation and, as a consequence, the median water loss decreased from 52.59 to 39.27% of the total rainfall. The straw cover reduced the median sediment concentration in runoff from 9.8 to 3.0 g L(-1) and the median total sediment detached from 70.34 to 15.62 g per experiment. The median soil erosion rate decreased from 2.81 to 0.63 Mg ha(-1)h(-1) due to the straw mulch protection. Straw mulch is very effective in reducing soil erodibility and surface runoff, and this benefit was achieved immediately after the application of the straw. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Spatial distribution models of erosion on slopes cultivated with vineyards; Modelos de distribucion espacial de la erosion en laderas cultivadas con vinedos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armaez, J.; Ortigosa, L.; Ruiz-Falno, P.; Llorente, J. A.; Lasanta, T.

    2009-07-01

    Soils cultivated with vineyards have high rates of erosion. In the Mediterranean area, this is related to the environmental characteristics and the management of cultivation techniques. Indeed, in this region the rainfall intensity and the location of vineyards on slopes favour the erosive activity of runoff. The total area of vineyards in La Rioja (Spain) is currently almost 40,000 ha. Vineyards are located on hillsides between 400 and 60 m.a.s.l. Of the vineyards of La Rioja 81,7% are planted on slopes with a gradient between 3 degree centigrade and 9 degree centigrade. (Author) 5 refs.

  18. Origin and fate of copper in a small Mediterranean vineyard catchment: New insights from combined chemical extraction and δ{sup 65}Cu isotopic composition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El Azzi, D. [Université de Toulouse (France); INPT, UPS (France); Laboratoire Ecologie Fonctionnelle et Environnement (ECOLAB), ENSAT, Avenue de l' Agrobiopole, 31326 Castanet Tolosan Cedex (France); CNRS (France); ECOLAB, ENSAT, Avenue de l' Agrobiopole, 31326 Castanet Tolosan Cedex (France); Viers, J. [Université de Toulouse (France); UPS, Géosciences Environnement Toulouse (GET), 14, avenue Édouard Belin, Toulouse31400 (France); CNRS, IRD, CNES (France); GET, 14, avenue Édouard Belin, Toulouse 31400 (France); Guiresse, M.; Probst, A. [Université de Toulouse (France); INPT, UPS (France); Laboratoire Ecologie Fonctionnelle et Environnement (ECOLAB), ENSAT, Avenue de l' Agrobiopole, 31326 Castanet Tolosan Cedex (France); CNRS (France); ECOLAB, ENSAT, Avenue de l' Agrobiopole, 31326 Castanet Tolosan Cedex (France); Aubert, D. [Université de Perpignan Via Domitia, CEntre de Formation et de Recherche sur les Environnements Méditérranéens (CEFREM), UMR 5110, F-66860, Perpignan (France); CNRS, CEFREM, UMR 5110, F-66860, Perpignan (France); Caparros, J.; Charles, F.; Guizien, K. [CNRS, FRE 3350, LECOB, Observatoire Océanologique, F-66651 Banyuls/mer (France); UPMC Université Paris 6, FRE 3350, LECOB, Observatoire Océanologique, F-66651 Banyuls/mer (France); Probst, J.L., E-mail: jean-luc.probst@ensat.fr [Université de Toulouse (France); INPT, UPS (France); Laboratoire Ecologie Fonctionnelle et Environnement (ECOLAB), ENSAT, Avenue de l' Agrobiopole, 31326 Castanet Tolosan Cedex (France); CNRS (France); ECOLAB, ENSAT, Avenue de l' Agrobiopole, 31326 Castanet Tolosan Cedex (France)

    2013-10-01

    For centuries, many Mediterranean catchments were covered with vineyards in which copper was widely applied to protect grapevines against fungus. In the Mediterranean-type flow regime, brief and intense flood events increase the stream water discharge by up to 10 times and cause soil leaching and storm runoff. Because vineyards are primarily cultivated on steep slopes, high Cu fluxes are discharged by surface water runoff into the rivers. The purpose of this work was to investigate the riverine behavior and transport of anthropogenic Cu by coupling a sequential chemical extraction (SCE) procedure, used to determine Cu partitioning between residual and non-residual fractions, with δ{sup 65}Cu isotopic measurements in each fraction. In the Baillaury catchment, France, we sampled soils (cultivated and abandoned), river bed sediments (BS), suspended particulate matter (SPM), and river water during the flash flood event of February 2009. Copper partitioning using SCE show that most of Cu in abandoned vineyard soil was in the residual phase (> 60%) whereas in cultivated soil, BS and SPM, Cu was mostly (> 25%) in non-residual fractions, mainly adsorbed onto iron oxide fractions. A small fraction of Cu was associated with organic matter (5 to 10%). Calculated enrichment factors (EF) are higher than 2 and the anthropogenic contribution was estimated between 50 to 85%. Values for δ{sup 65}Cu in bulk samples were similar to bedrock therefore; δ{sup 65}Cu on SCE fractions of superficial soils and SPM allowed for discrimination between Cu origin and distribution. Copper in residual fractions was of natural mineral origin (δ{sup 65}Cu close to local bedrock, + 0.07‰). Copper in water soluble fraction of SPM (δ{sup 65}Cu = + 0.26‰) was similar to dissolved river Cu (δ{sup 65}Cu = + 0.31‰). Copper from fungicide treatment (δ{sup 65}Cu = − 0.35‰) was bound to organic matter (δ{sup 65}Cu = − 0.20‰) without or with slight isotopic fractioning. A preferential

  19. Estimation of Evapotranspiration and Crop Coefficients of Tendone Vineyards Using Multi-Sensor Remote Sensing Data in a Mediterranean Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Vanino

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The sustainable management of water resources plays a key role in Mediterranean viticulture, characterized by scarcity and competition of available water. This study focuses on estimating the evapotranspiration and crop coefficients of table grapes vineyards trained on overhead “tendone” systems in the Apulia region (Italy. Maximum vineyard transpiration was estimated by adopting the “direct” methodology for ETp proposed by the Food and Agriculture Organization in Irrigation and Drainage Paper No. 56, with crop parameters estimated from Landsat 8 and RapidEye satellite data in combination with ground-based meteorological data. The modeling results of two growing seasons (2013 and 2014 indicated that canopy growth, seasonal and 10-day sums evapotranspiration values were strictly related to thermal requirements and rainfall events. The estimated values of mean seasonal daily evapotranspiration ranged between 4.2 and 4.1 mm·d−1, while midseason estimated values of crop coefficients ranged from 0.88 to 0.93 in 2013, and 1.02 to 1.04 in 2014, respectively. The experimental evapotranspiration values calculated represent the maximum value in absence of stress, so the resulting crop coefficients should be used with some caution. It is concluded that the retrieval of crop parameters and evapotranspiration derived from remotely-sensed data could be helpful for downscaling to the field the local weather conditions and agronomic practices and thus may be the basis for supporting grape growers and irrigation managers.

  20. Runoff initiation, soil detachment and connectivity are enhanced as a consequence of vineyards plantations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cerdà, Artemi; Keesstra, S.D.; Rodrigo Comino, Jesús; Novara, A.; Pereira, P.; Brevik, E.C.; Giménez-Morera, A.; Fernández-Raga, M.; Mahecha-Pulido, Juan D.; Prima, Di Simone; Jordán, Antonio

    2017-01-01

    Rainfall-induced soil erosion is a major threat, especially in agricultural soils. In the Mediterranean belt, vineyards are affected by high soil loss rates, leading to land degradation. Plantation of new vines is carried out after deep ploughing, use of heavy machinery, wheel traffic, and

  1. The effect of urban waste compost applied in a vineyard, olive grove and orange grove on soil proprieties in Mediterranean environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novara, Agata; Gristina, Luciano; Bono, Giuseppe; Guaitoli, Fabio; Pasciuta, Giuseppe; Santoro, Antonino

    2013-04-01

    The application to soil of compost produced from urban wastes not only could improve the soil properties but also could be a solution for disposal of large quantities of different refuses. Knowledge on compost characteristic, soil properties as well as on mineral crop nutrition are important to proper management of fertilization with compost and to understanding the impact on C and N dynamics in field. We present the results of soil physical and chemical changes after the application of urban waste compost in three different orchards (vineyard, olive grove, and orange grove) in Mediterranean environment (Sicily). The compost was applied on November 2010 and samples were collected 1 month after application for two years. Soil pH, carbon content, weight of soil aggregate fractions, nitrate content were examined during the trial, comparing with adjacent no fertilized plot. The application of compost caused a decrease in soil organic carbon stock of 14% and 28% after two years in vineyard and orange grove, respectively, while a significant increase under olive grove was registered. Nitrate monitoring showed for all crops high content of Nitrate for most of the year that involved SOC stock depletion. This was not observed in olive grove, where soil received further C input thanks to soil management with cover crop. In two years of observations there were no significant change in soil physic properties.

  2. Role of rock fragment cover on runoff generation and sediment yield in tilled vineyards

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodrigo Comino, Jesús; García-Díaz, Andrés; Brevik, Eric C.; Keesstra, Saskia; Pereira, P.; Novara, A.; Jordán, Antonio; Cerdà, Artemi

    2017-01-01

    The soil in conventional Mediterranean vineyards is an active and non-sustainable source of sediment and water. Lack of vegetation cover, small soil organic matter content and intense ploughing result in large rates of erosion in a millennia-old tillage system. There is a need for soil conservation

  3. Runoff, sediment and nutrient exports from a Portuguese vineyard under integrated production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Carla; Abrantes, Nelson; Santos, Leisly; Serpa, Dalila; Keizer, Jacob; Ferreira, António

    2017-04-01

    Vineyard is one of the most important fruit crops in the world, and particularly in Portugal, where it represents 27% of permanent crops (INE, 2011). It has an unquestionable impact on Portuguese economy, due to direct impacts on primary sector, since it embodies 49% of drink industry sales and it is the seventh vegetable product best quoted (INE, 2015), but also due to indirect impacts on tourism. Although the economical relevance of vineyards, crop sustainability may be endangered due to land degradation. In the Mediterranean region, vineyards are reported as being the land use with highest erosion rates, threatening the long-term agricultural sustainability (Biddoccu et al., 2016). Several research studies have investigated runoff and erosion processes on vineyards, but relatively few focused on nutrient losses. This study aims to (i) quantify surface runoff, sediment and nutrient losses in a Portuguese vineyard managed under integrated production; (ii) relate these losses with rainfall pattern; and (iii) discuss the sustainability of vineyards under integrated production. The study was carried out in a commercial vineyard framed in the specialized wine region of Bairrada, in North-Central Portugal. The vineyard was managed with minimum tillage (non-inversion), performed once per year in some plant rows (changing every year), in order to maintain partial vegetation cover. Fertilization, mostly foliar, is performed twice per year (between May and July), according with integrated production regulations. The climate is Mediterranean but with a significant influence of the Atlantic Ocean. The average annual rainfall is 1077 mm and the average annual temperature is 15.7°C. The soil is a Calcaric Cambisol, with clay texture, and gentle slopes (<10%). Six runoff plots were installed (78-122 m2) in September 2012. The plots were naturally bounded by a path on the top and by plant strips on the sides. At the bottom of each plot, a collector grid was buried and connected

  4. The role of rock fragment cover on soil erosion in conventional vineyards in Eastern Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigo Comino, Jesús; Jordán, Antonio; García-Díaz, Andrés; Brevik, Eric C.; Pereira, Paulo; Keesstra, Saskia; Novara, Agata; Cerdà, Artemi

    2017-04-01

    Soil erosion results in soil degradation and losses in crop production, specifically, in vineyards are active sources of sediments and water (Martínez-Casasnovas et al., 2005; Rodrigo Comino et al., 2016). Several studies confirm that the main causes of this degradation include lack of vegetative cover, widespread use of herbicides and sprays, and compaction by heavy machinery and trampling effect, suggesting the use of organic amendments and management of mulch covers as solutions (Prosdocimi et al., 2016). Local, inexpensive materials are easier to manage, less costly to apply, and more sustainable if already in the soil, such as the rock fragments. Rock fragments can improve soil quality by conserving the temperature such as the slates in German vineyards (Rodrigo Comino et al., 2015) or contributing to the forestation of degraded ecosystems (Jiménez et al., 2016), but no information exists from tilled vineyards. Therefore, the main goal of this research was to determine the impact of soil cover and soil properties (slope, soil organic carbon, vegetation cover, soil water content, and rock fragments) on soil erosion in tilled vineyards. To achieve this goal, simulated rainfall experiments were carried out to avoid the spatial variability of natural rainfall (Cerdà, 1999, 1997). After performing the rainfall simulations and assessing the statistical analysis, our interest was focused on the impact of one concrete parameter: the rock fragment cover. The main reason was because experimental results showed significant correlations with runoff (positive) and sediment yield (negative). The results of our study show that the rock fragments at the pedon scale can act as mulch in Mediterranean vineyards, but a pavement of embedded rock fragments will trigger high runoff rates. Acknowledgments This research was funded by the European Union Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013) under grant no. 603498 (RECARE Project). References Cerdà, A., 1999. Parent Material

  5. A Vineyard Agroecosystem: Disturbance and Precipitation Affect Soil Respiration under Mediterranean Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    We investigated impacts of agricultural management practices on soil respiration (Rs) in a Cabernet sauvignon (Vitis vinifera) vineyard (Oakville, CA; November 2003 – December 2005). We determined 1) Rs’s response to cover cropping, mowing and tillage, 2) environmental drivers of Rs and 3) total ann...

  6. Nitrogen losses in vineyards under different types of soil groundcover. A field runoff simulator approach in central Spain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    García-Díaz, Andrés; Bienes, Ramón; Sastre, Blanca; Novara, Agata; Gristina, Luciano; Cerda Bolinches, Artemio

    2017-01-01

    The soils of Mediterranean vineyards are usually managed with continuous tillage, resulting in bare soil, low infiltration and high soil erosion rates. Soil nutrients, such as nitrogen, could be lost dissolved in the runoff, causing a decrease in soil fertility on such degraded soils and producing

  7. Runoff initiation, soil detachment and connectivity are enhanced as a consequence of vineyards plantations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerdà, A; Keesstra, S D; Rodrigo-Comino, J; Novara, A; Pereira, P; Brevik, E; Giménez-Morera, A; Fernández-Raga, M; Pulido, M; di Prima, S; Jordán, A

    2017-11-01

    Rainfall-induced soil erosion is a major threat, especially in agricultural soils. In the Mediterranean belt, vineyards are affected by high soil loss rates, leading to land degradation. Plantation of new vines is carried out after deep ploughing, use of heavy machinery, wheel traffic, and trampling. Those works result in soil physical properties changes and contribute to enhanced runoff rates and increased soil erosion rates. The objective of this paper is to assess the impact of the plantation of vineyards on soil hydrological and erosional response under low frequency - high magnitude rainfall events, the ones that under the Mediterranean climatic conditions trigger extreme soil erosion rates. We determined time to ponding, Tp; time to runoff, Tr; time to runoff outlet, Tro; runoff rate, and soil loss under simulated rainfall (55 mm h -1 , 1 h) at plot scale (0.25 m 2 ) to characterize the runoff initiation and sediment detachment. In recent vine plantations (50 years; O). Slope gradient, rock fragment cover, soil surface roughness, bulk density, soil organic matter content, soil water content and plant cover were determined. Plantation of new vineyards largely impacted runoff rates and soil erosion risk at plot scale in the short term. Tp, Tr and Tro were much shorter in R plots. Tr-Tp and Tro-Tr periods were used as connectivity indexes of water flow, and decreased to 77.5 and 33.2% in R plots compared to O plots. Runoff coefficients increased significantly from O (42.94%) to R plots (71.92%) and soil losses were approximately one order of magnitude lower (1.8 and 12.6 Mg ha -1 h -1 for O and R plots respectively). Soil surface roughness and bulk density are two key factors that determine the increase in connectivity of flows and sediments in recently planted vineyards. Our results confirm that plantation of new vineyards strongly contributes to runoff initiation and sediment detachment, and those findings confirms that soil erosion control strategies

  8. Compaction of loamy soils due to tractor traffic in vineyards and orchards and its effect on infiltration in southern France

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijck, van S.J.E.; Asch, van T.W.J.

    2002-01-01

    Viticulture and fruit culture in Mediterranean areas demand frequent tractor traffic in vineyards and orchards for tillage and for the application of herbicides and pesticides, resulting in soil compaction. The aim of this study was to investigate theextent of soil compaction and its effect on

  9. Hillslope terracing effects on the spatial variability of plant development as assessed by NDVI in vineyards of the Priorat region (NE Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Casasnovas, José A; Ramos, María Concepción; Espinal-Utgés, Sílvia

    2010-04-01

    The availability of heavy machinery and the vineyard restructuring and conversion plans of the European Union Common Agricultural Policy (Commission Regulation EC no. 1227/2000 of 31 May 2000) have encouraged the restructuring of many vineyards on hillslopes of Mediterranean Europe, through the creation of terraces to favor the mechanization of agricultural work. Terrace construction requires cutting and filling operations that create soil spatial variability, which affects soil properties and plant development. In the present paper, we study the effects of hillslope terracing on the spatial variability of the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) in fields of the Priorat region (NE Spain) during 2004, 2005, and 2006. This index was computed from high-resolution remote sensing data (Quickbird-2). Detailed digital terrain models before and after terrace construction were used to assess the earth movements. The results indicate that terracing by heavy machinery induced high variability on the NDVI values over the years, showing significant differences as effect of the cut and fill operations.

  10. Modelling soil carbon fate under erosion process in vineyard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novara, Agata; Scalenghe, Riccardo; Minacapilli, Mario; Maltese, Antonino; Capodici, Fulvio; Borgogno Mondino, Enrico; Gristina, Luciano

    2017-04-01

    Soil erosion processes in vineyards beyond water runoff and sediment transport have a strong effect on soil organic carbon loss (SOC) and redistribution along the slope. The variation of SOC across the landscape determines a difference in soil fertility and vine productivity. The aim of this research was to study erosion of a Mediterranean vineyard, develop an approach to estimate the SOC loss, correlate the vines vigor with sediment and carbon erosion. The study was carried out in a Sicilian (Italy) vineyard, planted in 2011. Along the slope, six pedons were studied by digging 6 pits up to 60cm depth. Soil was sampled in each pedon every 10cm and SOC was analyzed. Soil erosion, detachment and deposition areas were measured by pole height method. The vigor of vegetation was expressed in term of NDVI (Normalized difference Vegetation Index) derived from a satellite image (RapidEye) acquired at berry pre-veraison stage (July) and characterized by 5 spectral bands in the shortwave region, including a band in the red wavelength (R, 630-685 nm) and in the near infrared (NIR, 760-850 nm) . Results showed that soil erosion, sediments redistribution and SOC across the hill was strongly affected by topographic features, slope and curvature. The erosion rate was 46Mg ha-1 y-1 during the first 6 years since planting. The SOC redistribution was strongly correlated with the detachment or deposition area as highlighted by pole height measurements. The approach developed to estimate the SOC loss showed that during the whole study period the off-farm SOC amounts to 1.6Mg C ha-1. As highlighted by NDVI results, the plant vigor is strong correlated with SOC content and therefore, developing an accurate NDVI approach could be useful to detect the vineyard areas characterized by low fertility due to erosion process.

  11. Sediment yield control in vineyards covered with cereal. Effect of tillage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruiz-Colmenero, M.; Bienes, R.; Marques, M. J.

    2009-01-01

    A study has been carried out about the use of plant cover treatment to avoid land degradation in a hillside rainfed vineyard in Madrid under Mediterranean semiarid climate. Three treatments were tested: traditional tillage (lab) soil covered by Brachypodium distrachyon (bra) with self-sowing, soil covered by Scale cereale (sec) mown in Spring. Three erosion plots per treatment were placed in the middle of the strips and 2 simulated rainfalls were carried out at each plot in autumn, before and after the tillage. (Author) 7 refs.

  12. The use of straw in vineyards and orchards to reduce soil and water losses in Eastern Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerdà, Artemi; García-Díaz, Andrés; Rodrigo Comino, Jesús; Pereira, Paulo; Novara, Agata; Jordán, Antonio; Brevik, Eric

    2017-04-01

    Straw has been demonstrated to be a very efficient mulch to reduce soil losses. This has been found by different authors and in different regions such as the Mediterranean Region, where there is a need to reduce the non-sustainable soil and water losses caused by the compaction of soil, lack of vegetation and intense thunderstorms. The Soil Erosion and Degradation Research Team from the University of Valencia with the collaboration of other research areas is developing a holistic research program to understand how straw mulch can be introduced and applied with success in traditional rainfed and modern irrigated orchards and vineyards. The research is based on three approaches: i) the perception of the farmers; ii) the economic cost; iii) and the biophysical impact of the straw mulch on soils, runoff generation and soil erosion. Farmer perception has been researched by means of interviews and the results shows that farmers prefer a tidy and clean soil (if possible ploughed in the vineyards) rather than vegetation or straw cover. There is a need to inform the farmers about how important it is to protect the soil and to find the right covers. It is also important to find adequate subsidies to encourage this management. Without financial support most farmers will be not convinced to use catch-crops, mulches or chipped branches. The cost of the straw is about 0.05 € Kg-1, the transport is 0.02 € Kg-1 and the application 0.04 € Kg-1. The cost is affordable for farms that have high incomes and mechanization. The results of rainfall simulation experiments and measurements under plot conditions demonstrate a reduction of one order of magnitude in soil erosion rates and 30 % in runoff discharge when straw mulch is used. The straw reduces soil erodibility due to the protective cover, which reduces raindrop impact energy on the soil surface and slows runoff, encouraging infiltration. Acknowledgements This research was funded by the European Union Seventh Framework

  13. Characterizing Vineyard Water Status Variability in a Premium Winegrape Vineyard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smart, David; Carvahlo, Angela

    2017-04-01

    One of the biggest challenges in viticulture and winemaking is managing and optimizing yield and quality across vineyard blocks that show high spatial variability. Studies have shown that zonal management of vine water status can contribute significantly to improving overall fruit quality and improving uniformity. Vine water status is a major parameter for vine management because it affects both wine quality and yield. In order to optimize vineyard management and harvesting practices, it is necessary to characterize vineyard variability in terms of water status. Establishing a targeted irrigation program first requires spatially characterizing the variability in vine water status of a vineyard. In California, due to the low or no rainfall during the active growing season, the majority of vineyards implement some type of irrigation management program. As water supplies continue to decrease as a consequence of persistent drought, establishing efficient and targeted water use programs is of growing importance in California. The aim of this work was to characterize the spatial variability of plant-water relations across a non-uniform 4 ha block in Napa Valley with the primary objective of establishing vineyard irrigation management zones. The study plot was divided into three sections, designated the North, Middle and South sections, each at about 1.3 hectares. Stem (Ψstem) and midday (Ψl) leaf water potential and predawn (ΨPD) water potential were measured at 36 locations within the block at 14 (Ψl), 10 (ΨPD) and 2 (Ψstem) points in time throughout the growing season. Of the three techniques utilized to evaluate water status, ΨPD and Ψstem were the most sensitive indicators of water stress conditions. An integrated overview of water use efficiency over the growing season was assessed by measuring the leaf carbon isotope ratio of δ13C. Fully mature leaves were sampled from 280 vines and results show, similarly to ΨPD and Ψstem, that the North section (-28

  14. Variability of vineyard peach tree characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zec Gordan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Vineyard peach seedlings are the most important rootstock for peach in Serbia and abroad. High variability is a characteristic of the vineyard peach planting material that is used as rootstock in nursery production. Through work of many years, vineyard peach genotypes with qualitative traits were selected and collected. Seedlings that are progeny of the nine selected genotypes and resulted from self and open pollination were examined. The vineyard peach seedlings resulted from uncontrolled pollination and with different geographical origin served as reference. A goal of research was to get vineyard peach genotypes that would give more uniform generative progeny with qualitative traits. This paper presents the results of two-year research of morphological traits of more than 500 vineyard seedlings. Based on the results, positive genotypes were selected for further inbreeding. Further, the seedlings of the selection 6 have the lowest coefficients of variation for trunk thickness, tree height and number of branches, which points to the self-pollination as a good method for getting more uniform progeny. .

  15. Nature and regulation: Management of vineyards and orchards on terraces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreja Škvarč

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with vineyards and terrace building as the best method of managing agricultural land on the steep slopes of the Primorska region. Data was gathered about the share of terraced vineyards and shares of vineyards according to inclination classes. We explained what the term renewal of permanent plantation implies and especially vineyards, as well as its scope. Reasons for terracing are elaborated, as well as difficulties that are coupled with such land management. We also point out the consequences of abandonment of vineyards on terraces.

  16. Agri-spillways as soil erosion protection tools in conventional sloping vineyards (Montes de Málaga, Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigo-Comino, Jesús

    2017-04-01

    Rainfall causes soil erosion on Mediterranean sloping vineyards (>25˚ of slope inclination), however, little is known about information related to cheap, effective and suitable soil erosion protection measures. In the vineyards of the Montes de Málaga (southern Spain), a concrete land management practice against soil erosion is actually conducted by building tilled rills to down-slope direction to canalize water and sediments. We decided to call them agri-spillways. In this study, by carrying out runoff experiments, we assessed two agri-spillways (from 10 m to 15 m length) under extreme conditions. A motor driven pump mobilizes a constant water inflow about of 1.33 L s-1during between 12 and 15 minutes (≈1000 litres). Finally, we observed: i) a high capacity of these agri-spillways to canalize a large volume of water and sediments; and, ii) higher speed of water flow (from 0.16 m s-1to 0.28 m s-1) and sediment concentration (SC) rates with ratios up to 1538.6 g l-1). By comparing among them, the speed of water flow and the SC were much higher in one of tested rills, which was 5 meters length less and 7 degrees more of inclination. So, we concluded that these agri-spillways, after correctly planning and long term maintenance from contribution area to down-slope direction, can be function as a potential tool for designing suitable and cheap plans to protect the soil in Mediterranean sloping vineyards. Acknowledgements Firstly, we acknowledge the farmer's syndicate UPA (Unión de Pequeños Agricultores) and the wine-grower Pepe Gámez (Almáchar) for providing access to the study area. Secondly, we thank the students of the Bachelor course and Master from Trier University for their hard efforts in the field and laboratory works in the Almáchar campaign. Thirdly, we acknowledge the geomorphology and soil laboratory technicians María Pedraza and Rubén Rojas of GSoilLab (Málaga University) for the soil analysis. Finally, we also thank the Ministerio de Educaci

  17. Remote sensing for vineyard management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philipson, W. R.; Erb, T. L.; Fernandez, D.; Mcleester, J. N.

    1980-01-01

    Cornell's Remote Sensing Program has been involved in a continuing investigation to assess the value of remote sensing for vineyard management. Program staff members have conducted a series of site and crop analysis studies. These include: (1) panchromatic aerial photography for planning artificial drainage in a new vineyard; (2) color infrared aerial photography for assessing crop vigor/health; and (3) color infrared aerial photography and aircraft multispectral scanner data for evaluating yield related factors. These studies and their findings are reviewed.

  18. Canopy management and water use efficiency in vineyards under Mediterranean semiarid conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de la Fuente Mario

    2015-01-01

    In addition, both positive effects of sprawl treatments (crop load and training system resulted in better yield and quality in Mediterranean semiarid conditions under the same inputs (sun, water and soil, causing higher efficiency of natural resources.

  19. Prevalent involvement of thenar motor fibres in vineyard workers with carpal tunnel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondelli, M; Baldasseroni, A; Aretini, A; Ginanneschi, F; Padua, L

    2010-08-01

    Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) has a high prevalence in agricultural workers, especially those engaged in vineyards. We postulated that vineyard CTS was electrophysiologically different from CTS of other subjects. We performed a retrospective cross-sectional electrophysiological study of two cohorts of consecutive patients with CTS, the first consisting of vineyard workers and the second, of other unselected types of workers, housewives and pensioners. Thirty-three vineyard workers (mean age 46.8years, 42% women) and 205 patients with other occupations (mean age 53.7years; 66% women) were enrolled. All patients underwent sensory and motor neurography of the median and ulnar nerves. Differences in demographic and electrophysiological findings between groups were calculated and multiple linear regression analysis was performed to eliminate the influence of potential confounding factors (age, sex, BMI, clinical severity of CTS) on the results of univariate difference analysis. Univariate analysis showed that DML was longer and compound muscle action potential amplitude of the median nerve, recorded from the abductor pollicis brevis muscle, was smaller in vineyard workers than in the other CTS patients. These differences remained significant after adjusting the results for confounding factors. The vineyard workers showed a different pattern of CTS than the other patients: thenar motor fibres were more affected, presumably due to chronic compression on the thenar branch. This suggests an association between "common" CTS and thenar mononeuropathy. Occupational physiologists should clarify the mechanisms of neuromuscular engagement in particular jobs and ergonomists design suitable working tools, because many "individual" risk factors are difficult to change, but workplace-related risk factors can be modified. Copyright 2010 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The genetic structure of fermentative vineyard-associated Saccharomyces cerevisiae populations revealed by microsatellite analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuller, Dorit; Casal, Margarida

    2007-02-01

    From the analysis of six polymorphic microsatellite loci performed in 361 Saccharomyces cerevisiae isolates, 93 alleles were identified, 52 of them being described for the first time. All these isolates have a distinct mtDNA RFLP pattern. They are derived from a pool of 1620 isolates obtained from spontaneous fermentations of grapes collected in three vineyards of the Vinho Verde Region in Portugal, during the 2001-2003 harvest seasons. For all loci analyzed, observed heterozygosity was 3-4 times lower than the expected value supposing a Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (random mating and no evolutionary mechanisms acting), indicating a clonal structure and strong populational substructuring. Genetic differences among S. cerevisiae populations were apparent mainly from gradations in allele frequencies rather than from distinctive "diagnostic" genotypes, and the accumulation of small allele-frequency differences across six loci allowed the identification of population structures. Genetic differentiation in the same vineyard in consecutive years was of the same order of magnitude as the differences verified among the different vineyards. Correlation of genetic differentiation with the distance between sampling points within a vineyard suggested a pattern of isolation-by-distance, where genetic divergence in a vineyard increased with size. The continuous use of commercial yeasts has a limited influence on the autochthonous fermentative yeast population collected from grapes and may just slightly change populational structures of strains isolated from sites very close to the winery where they have been used. The present work is the first large-scale approach using microsatellite typing allowing a very fine resolution of indigenous S. cerevisiae populations isolated from vineyards.

  1. The role of ecological infrastructure on beneficial arthropods in vineyards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franin, K.; Barić, B.; Kuštera, G.

    2016-11-01

    Weeds and non-cultivated plants have a great impact on abundance and diversity of beneficial arthropods in agriculture. The main aim of this work was to study the influence of the ecological infrastructure (meadows and weedy margins) on the arthropod composition in vineyard surrounding landscape. Research was carried out from May to October during three years. Sampling took place in the ecological infrastructure of three differently managed vineyards (organic, integrated and extensive). Three zones were chosen in each vineyard (3 m, 10 m, and 30 m from the edge of the vineyard). Samples were taken using a standardised sweep net method. In total, we captured 6032 spiders and 1309 insects belonging to 4 orders and 10 families. Arthropod fauna was numerically dominated by Aranea (82.1%); among insects, Coleoptera was the most abundant taxonomic group (10.6%); Neuroptera showed the lowest value (0.88%). Significant differences were found between sites and zones. Organic vineyard showed the highest abundance of arthropods (92.41% were spiders) and in the integrated vineyard there was a 23% of insects. Both the highest abundance of arthropods and the highest Shannon Index value (2.46) was found 3 m away from the edge of the vineyard. Results showed that spiders were the dominant arthropods and ladybugs the dominant insects. Weedy strips near the edge of the vineyard contained a high number of insects and spiders. Our results support the importance of weedy margins in enhancing the population of arthropods as well as in biodiversity promotion. Well-managed field margins could play important role in biological control of vineyard pests. (Author)

  2. The role of ecological infrastructure on beneficial arthropods in vineyards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabrijela Kuštera

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Weeds and non-cultivated plants have a great impact on abundance and diversity of beneficial arthropods in agriculture. The main aim of this work was to study the influence of the ecological infrastructure (meadows and weedy margins on the arthropod composition in vineyard surrounding landscape. Research was carried out from May to October during three years. Sampling took place in the ecological infrastructure of three differently managed vineyards (organic, integrated and extensive. Three zones were chosen in each vineyard (3 m, 10 m, and 30 m from the edge of the vineyard. Samples were taken using a standardised sweep net method. In total, we captured 6032 spiders and 1309 insects belonging to 4 orders and 10 families. Arthropod fauna was numerically dominated by Aranea (82.1%; among insects, Coleoptera was the most abundant taxonomic group (10.6%; Neuroptera showed the lowest value (0.88%. Significant differences were found between sites and zones. Organic vineyard showed the highest abundance of arthropods (92.41% were spiders and in the integrated vineyard there was a 23% of insects. Both the highest abundance of arthropods and the highest Shannon Index value (2.46 was found 3 m away from the edge of the vineyard. Results showed that spiders were the dominant arthropods and ladybugs the dominant insects. Weedy strips near the edge of the vineyard contained a high number of insects and spiders. Our results support the importance of weedy margins in enhancing the population of arthropods as well as in biodiversity promotion. Well-managed field margins could play important role in biological control of vineyard pests.

  3. Assessing Ecosystem Services and Multifunctionality for Vineyard Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klara J. Winkler

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Vineyards shape important economic, cultural, and ecological systems in many temperate biomes. Like other agricultural systems, they can be multifunctional landscapes that not only produce grapes, but also for example serve as wildlife habitat, sequester carbon, and are places of rich traditions. However, research and management practices often focus mostly on individual, specific ecosystem services, without considering multifunctionality. Therefore, we set out to meet four research objectives: (1 evaluate how frequently the ecosystem services approach has been applied in vineyard systems; (2 identify which individual ecosystem services have been most frequently studied in vineyard systems, (3 summarize knowledge on the key ecosystem services identified in (2, and (4 illustrate approaches to multifunctionality in vineyards to inform more holistic land management. For research objective (1, we identified 45 publications that used the term “ecosystem services” in relation to vineyards, but found that only seven fully apply the ecosystem service concept to their research. For research objective (2, we operationalized the Common International Classification of Ecosystem Services (CICES for 27 ecosystem services in vineyards, in order to consider provisioning, regulating, and cultural services through an analysis of more than 4,000 scientific papers that mentioned individual services. We found the six most frequently studied ecosystem services included (1 cultivated crops, (2 filtration, sequestration, storage and accumulation by the vineyards, (3 pest control and (4 disease control, (5 heritage, cultural and (6 scientific services. For research objective (3, we found that research on these six single ecosystem services is highly developed, but relationships between single ecosystem services are less studied. Therefore, we suggest that greater adoption of the ecosystem services approach could help scientists and practitioners to acknowledge the

  4. Remediation of copper in vineyards – A mini review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mackie, K.A.; Müller, T.; Kandeler, E.

    2012-01-01

    Viticulturists use copper fungicide to combat Downy Mildew. Copper, a non-degradable heavy metal, can accumulate in soil or leach into water sources. Its accumulation in topsoil has impacted micro and macro organisms, spurring scientists to research in situ copper removal methods. Recent publications suggest that microorganism assisted phytoextraction, using plants and bacteria to actively extract copper, is most promising. As vineyards represent moderately polluted sites this technique has great potential. Active plant extraction and chelate assisted remediation extract too little copper or risk leaching, respectively. However, despite interesting pot experiment results using microorganism assisted phytoextraction, it remains a challenge to find plants that primarily accumulate copper in their shoots, a necessity in vineyards where whole plant removal would be time consuming and financially cumbersome. Vineyard remediation requires a holistic approach including sustainable soil management, proper plant selection, increasing biodiversity and microorganisms. - Highlights: ► We describe copper distribution and availability in vineyards. ► We explain the environmental impact of copper on organisms, plants and processes. ► We detail possible remediation methods within vineyards. ► Microbially assisted phytoremediation is the most promising remediation method. ► A solution requires an interdisciplinary approach between plants, soil and vines. - This review is significant because it highlights prospective remediation methods usable in copper contaminated vineyards.

  5. Action plan against declining vineyards: An innovative approach

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    Riou Christophe

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Declining vineyards are assessed by a multi-year decrease in vine productivity and/or its sudden premature or gradual death, based on multiple factors. Since 2015, the French wine sector has been working on an original study to identify new research avenues while launching an innovative action plan to combat vineyard decline. First, a statistical analysis enabled to estimate research efforts in the different countries. 70 factors susceptible to contribute to vineyard decline were then identified by analyzing more than 500 publications. These factors are biological, physical or linked to growing practices. While the role of pathogens is fairly well-known, the impact of the land plot or the soil on decline is less understood. Secondly, a prospective methodology was used to better identify viticulture system factors and levers affecting vines. It was thus demonstrated that yield and longevity are strongly linked to agronomy, economic variables and plant matter, plant physiology, disease, etc... These are the key issues and leverage actions to combat more strongly vineyard decline. The matrix analysis was then complemented by interviews and statistical data to imagine leverage actions. The strategic action plan is focused on four objectives: promoting training of good practices, improving plant production organization, developing vineyard observation networks, implementing an innovative research plan.

  6. Fauna of ground-dwelling arthropods in vineyards of Zadar County (Croatia

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    Kristijan Franin

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Farming practices as well as land-use management have a great impact on biodiversity and composition of ground-dwelling arthropods. In this study, abundance and diversity of spiders and epigeic soil insects in three vineyards in Zadar County (Croatia were researched. In each vineyard 16 pitfall traps were placed, 4 in one row at the distance of 3 m. Samples were taken every fifteen days from the beginning of May till the end of October in 2014. A total of 469 individuals belonging to 6 orders and 23 families were collected. Significant differences were found among arthropod orders. The most abundant taxonomic group was Hymenoptera (38.8%, followed by Coleoptera (31.98% and Araneae (27.93%. The highest number of specimens (232 was recorded in the integrated vineyard, whereas in the conventional vineyard on karst only 63 individuals were found. However, these results showed significant differences in arthropod assemblage between integrated and conventional vineyards. Richness and diversity (Shannon Diversity Index were highest in the integrated vineyard (2.36 as opposed to the conventional vineyard Zaton (2.23. Our results confirmed the importance of ground cover, in the particular weeds, on arthropod abundance and diversity.

  7. Phosphorus fractions in sandy soils of vineyards in southern Brazil

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    Djalma Eugênio Schmitt

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Phosphorus (P applications to vineyards can cause P accumulation in the soil and maximize pollution risks. This study was carried out to quantify the accumulation of P fractions in sandy soils of vineyards in southern Brazil. Soil samples (layers 0-5, 6-10 and 11-20 cm were collected from a native grassland area and two vineyards, after 14 years (vineyard 1 and 30 years (vineyard 2 of cultivation, in Santana do Livramento, southern Brazil, and subjected to chemical fractionation of P. Phosphorus application, especially to the 30-year-old vineyard 2, increased the inorganic P content down to a depth of 20 cm, mainly in the labile fractions extracted by anion-exchange resin and NaHCO3, in the moderately labile fraction extracted by 0.1 and 0.5 mol L-1 NaOH, and in the non-labile fraction extracted by 1 mol L-1 HCl, indicating the possibility of water eutrophication. Phosphorus application and grapevine cultivation time increased the P content in the organic fraction extracted by NaHCO3 from the 0-5 cm layer, and especially in the moderately labile fraction extracted by 0.1 mol L-1 NaOH, down to a depth of 20 cm.

  8. Short term recovery of soil biological functions in a new vineyard cultivated in organic farming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costantini, Edoardo; Agnelli, Alessandro; Fabiani, Arturo; Gagnarli, Elena; Mocali, Stefano; Priori, Simone; Simoni, Sauro; Valboa, Giuseppe

    2014-05-01

    Deep earthwork activities carried out before vineyard plantation completely upset soil profile and characteristics. The resulting soil features are often much more similar to the underlying substratum than original soil profile. The time needed to recover soil functions is ecologically relevant and affects vine phenology and grape yield, particularly in organic viticulture. The general aim of this research work was to investigate the time needed to recover soil functions after the earthworks made before vine plantation. This study compared for a four years period physical and chemical properties, microbial and mesofauna communities, in new and old vineyards, cultivated on the same soil type. The experiment was conducted in a farm of the Chianti Classico district (Central Italy), on hills of high altitude (400-500 m a.s.l.) on clayey-calcareous flysches, with stony and calcareous soils (Haplic Cambisol (Calcaric, Skeletic)). The reference vine cultivar was Sangiovese. The older vineyard was planted in 2000, after slope reshaping by bulldozing and back hoe ploughing down to about 0.8-1.0 m. The new vineyard was planted in 2011 after an equivalent earthwork carried out in the summer of 2009. Both vineyards were organically managed and only compost at the rate of 1,000 kg ha-1 -a was added every year. The new vineyard was periodically cultivated by mechanical tillage, while the older only at alternate rows. Soil samples from the first 15 cm depth were collected in 4 replicates in the younger as well as in the older vineyard during the springtime of 2010-2013; in the older vineyard, two samples were from the periodically cultivated swaths and two under permanent grass cover. Samples were analysed for physical (particle size, field capacity, wilting point), chemical (pH, electrical conductivity, lime, active lime, organic carbon, total nitrogen), microbiological (soil respiration, microbial biomass, DGGE), and mesofauna features (abundance, taxa richness, BSQ index and

  9. Testing the Runoff Tool in Sicilian vineyards: adopting best management practices to prevent agricultural surface runoff

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Manpriet; Dyson, Jeremy; Capri, Ettore

    2016-04-01

    steep (>5%, with measured slopes of more than 22%) and soil textures were predominantly sandy loam and sandy silt loam with medium topsoil permeability. Subsurface traffic pans were observed in almost all tested fields from 20 to 40 cm depth. Where VSA scores were low, runoff potential scores were high, which shows a positive relation between both diagnostic tools. Lessons taken from field diagnosis are that farm managers cannot always implement "good" soil, water and input management practices. For example, grape quality may be adversely impacted which creates a reluctance to change (White 2003). In our paper, we review current advisory practices to mitigate runoff in Sicilian vineyards, such as residue management, continuous soil cover and no-till (Novara et al. 2011, 2013, Leys et al. 2010, Arneaz et al. 2007), against our observations and discussions with farm managers. Our findings, especially in the Regaleali vineyards, indicate that the focus for change should not only be at the edge of the field, but also in the field (Sabbagh et al. 2009). Runoff should be stopped at source first and discussion with farm managers is critical before advising on BMP plans for runoff mitigation, especially in viticulture since wine production is a multidisciplinary profession. References Arneaz, J., Lasanta, T., Ruiz-Flaño, Ortigosa, L. Factors affecting runoff and erosion under simulated rainfall in Mediterranean vineyards, Soil & Tillage Research 93 (2007) 324-334. ARPA, Water Incore, Sustainable water management through common responsibility enhancement in Mediterranean River Basins, 2010. Diodato, N., Bellocchi, G. Storminess and environmental changes in the Mediterranean Central Area, Earth Interactions (2010), 14, Paper No. 4. Leys, A. Govers, G., Gillijns K., Berckmoes E., Takken I. Scale effects on runoff and erosion losses from arable land under conservation and conventional tillage: the role of residue cover, Journal of Hydrology (2010), 390, 143-154. Novara, A

  10. Hydraulic characterization of a sealed loamy soil in a Mediterranean vineyard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alagna, Vincenzo; Di Prima, Simone; Bagarello, Vincenzo; Guaitoli, Fabio; Iovino, Massimo; Keesstra, Saskia; Cerdà, Artemi

    2017-04-01

    Water infiltration measurements constitute a common way for an indirect characterization of sealed/crusted soils (Alagna et al., 2013). The Beerkan Estimation of Soil Transfer (BEST) parameters procedure by Lassabatere et al. (2006) is very attractive for practical use since it allows an estimation of both the soil water retention and hydraulic conductivity functions. The BEST method considers certain analytical formulae for the hydraulic characteristic curves and estimates their shape parameters, which are texture dependent, from particle-size analysis by physical-empirical pedotransfer functions. Structure dependent scale parameters are estimated by a beerkan experiment, i.e. a three-dimensional (3D) field infiltration experiment at ideally zero pressure head. BEST substantially facilitates the hydraulic characterization of unsaturated soils, and it is gaining popularity in soil science (Bagarello et al., 2014a; Di Prima, 2015; Di Prima et al., 2016b). Bagarello et al. (2014b) proposed a beerkan derived procedure to explain surface runoff and disturbance phenomena at the soil surface occurring during intense rainfall events. Di Prima et al. (2016a) applied this methodology in a vineyard with a sandy-loam texture. These authors compared this simple methodology with rainfall simulation experiments establishing a physical link between the two methodologies through the kinetic energy of the rainfall and the gravitational potential energy of the water used for the beerkan runs. They also indirectly demonstrated the occurrence of a certain degree of compaction and mechanical breakdown using a minidisk infiltrometer (Decagon, 2014). With this device, they reported a reduction of the unsaturated hydraulic conductivity by 2.3 times, due to the seal formation. The ability of the BEST method to distinguish between crusted and non-crusted soils was demonstrated by Souza et al. (2014). However, the potential of the beerkan runs to detect the effect of the seal on flow and

  11. Time since plantation is the most important determining factor for soil erosion rates in vineyards. A case study in the valley of Les Alcusses valley, Eastern Spain

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    Rodrígo Comino, Jesús; Keesstra, Saskia; Novara, Agata; García Díaz, Andrés; Jordán, Antonio; Brevik, Eric C.; Cerdà, Artemi

    2017-04-01

    Vineyards are known to suffer from soil erosion around the world (Novara et al., 2011; 2013; 2015; Rodrigo Comino et al., 2015; Prosdocimi et al., 2016; Rodrigo-Comino et al., 2016a; 2016b, 2016b). As in other crops in the Mediterranean such as citrus (Cerdà et al., 2009), olives (Taguas et al., 2015), persimmon (Cerdà et al., 2016) or apricot (Keesstra et al., 2016) plantations, there is a need to survey the spatial and temporal changes in soil erosion in vineyards. Soil redistribution in agricultural land is determined by human management due to the control it exerts on the vegetation cover and soil properties. This is why the time since plantation is important in soil erosion spatial and temporal distribution. Especially because during the plantation of the saplings, the soil is compacted and all other vegetation is removed. In our experiment we selected four paired plot research sites in the Les Alcusses valley, in Eastern Spain. We selected recently planted vineyards (1-year old) and 40-years old plantations. In total 80 rainfall simulations were performed with an intensity of 55 mm h-1 on small 0.25 m2 circular plots to determine the soil detachment by rainfall. The results show that soil erosion rates in the 40-year old vineyards were high (### a rate??), and in the recently planted ones were extremely high, on average six times higher. Acknowledgements The research leading to these results has received funding from the European Union Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013) under grant agreement n 603498 (RECARE project) and the CGL2013- 47862-C2-1-R and CGL2016-75178-C2-2-R national research projects. References Cerdà, A., González-Pelayo, O., Giménez-Morera, A., Jordán, A., Pereira, P., Novara, A., Brevik, E.C., Prosdocimi, M., Mahmoodabadi, M., Keesstra, S., García Orenes, F., Ritsema, C., 2016. The use of barley straw residues to avoid high erosion and runoff rates on persimmon plantations in Eastern Spain under low frequency - high magnitude

  12. Sediment yield control in vineyards covered with cereal. Effect of tillage; Control de la perdida de suelo en vinedos con cubiertas de gramineas. Efecto del laboreo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruiz-Colmenero, M.; Bienes, R.; Marques, M. J.

    2009-07-01

    A study has been carried out about the use of plant cover treatment to avoid land degradation in a hillside rainfed vineyard in Madrid under Mediterranean semiarid climate. Three treatments were tested: traditional tillage (lab) soil covered by Brachypodium distachyon (bra) with self-sowing, soil covered by Scale cereale (sec) mown in Spring. Three erosion plots per treatment were placed in the middle of the strips and 2 simulated rainfalls were carried out at each plot in autumn, before and after the tillage. (Author) 7 refs.

  13. Organized turbulent motions in a hedgerow vineyard: effect of evolving canopy structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vendrame, Nadia; Tezza, Luca; Tha Paw U, Kyaw; Pitacco, Andrea

    2017-04-01

    Vegetation-atmosphere exchanges are determined by functional and structural properties of the plants together with environmental forcing. However, a fundamental aspect is the interaction of the canopy with the lower atmosphere. The vegetation deeply alters the composition and physical properties of the air flow, exchanging energy, matter and momentum with it. These processes take place in the bottom part of the atmospheric boundary layer where turbulence is the main mechanism transporting within-canopy air towards the mid- and upper atmospheric boundary layer and vice versa. Canopy turbulence is highly influenced by vegetation drag elements, determining the vertical profile of turbulent moments within the canopy. Canopies organized in rows, like vineyards, show peculiar turbulent transport dynamics. In addition, the morphological structure (phenology) of the vineyard is greatly variable seasonally, shifting from an empty canopy during vine dormancy to dense foliage in summer. The understanding of the canopy ventilation regime is related to several practical applications in vineyard management. For example, within-canopy turbulent motion is very important to predict small particles dispersion, like fungal spores, and minimize infection studying the effect on leaf wetness duration. Our study aims to follow the continuous evolution of turbulence characteristics and canopy structure during the growing season of a hedgerow vineyard, from bud break to fully developed canopy. The field experiment was conducted in a flat extensive vineyard in North-Eastern Italy, using a vertical array of five synchronous sonic anemometers within and above the canopy. Turbulent flow organization was greatly influenced by canopy structure. Turbulent coherent structures involved in momentum transport have been investigated using the classical quadrant analysis and a novel approach to identify dominant temporal scales. Momentum transport in the canopy was dominated by downward gusts showing

  14. Modeling the water balance of sloped vineyards under various climate change scenarios

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    Hofmann Marco

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Grapes for wine production are a highly climate sensitive crop and vineyard water budget is a decisive factor in quality formation. In order to conduct risk assessments for climate change effects in viticulture, models are needed which can be applied to complete growing regions. We first modified an existing simplified geometric vineyard model of radiation interception and resulting water use to incorporate numerical Monte Carlo simulations and the physical aspects of radiation interactions between canopy and vineyard slope and azimuth. We then used four regional climate models to assess for possible effects on the water budget of selected vineyard sites up to 2100. The model was developed to describe the partitioning of short-wave radiation between grapevine canopy and soil surface, respectively green cover, necessary to calculate vineyard evapotranspiration. Soil water storage was allocated to two sub reservoirs. The model was adopted for steep slope vineyards based on coordinate transformation and validated against measurements of grapevine sap flow and soil water content determined down to 1.6 m depth at three different sites over two years. The results showed good agreement of modelled and observed soil water dynamics of vineyards with large variations in site specific soil water holding capacity and viticultural management. Simulated sap flow was in overall good agreement with measured sap flow but site-specific responses of sap flow to potential evapotranspiration were observed. The analyses of climate change impacts on vineyard water budget demonstrated the importance of site-specific assessment due to natural variations in soil water holding capacity. The model was capable of describing seasonal and site-specific dynamics in soil water content and could be used in an amended version to estimate changes in the water budget of entire grape growing areas due to evolving climatic changes.

  15. Cavity-nesting bird use of nest boxes in vineyards of central-coast California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel P. Mummert; Laura Baines; William D. Tietje

    2002-01-01

    Oak woodland habitat is being degraded or replaced by vineyards in many areas of central-coastal California. Oak woodlands are home to many insectivorous, cavity-nesting birds that would be beneficial in and around vineyards. During March to June 2001, we used bluebird nest boxes to study nest box use and productivity of cavity-nesting birds in vineyards versus...

  16. THE CICADA FAUNA AS PHYTOPLASMA VECTORS IN ISTRIAN VINEYARDS

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    Đanfranko Pribetić

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The cicada fauna represents a considerable group of insects in vine-growing. Phytoplasma vine vectors insects are significant. They are fed from the phloem tissues of plants like cicadas from the families Cicadelidae, Coccidae, Fulgoridae and Psyilloidaea. Their phytoplasma is transmitted in a persistent way. Researches on cicada fauna, on the floristic structure of weeds and host plants of vine phytoplasma were done in 2005 and 2006 in Istrian vineyards. The research was being done in 10 vineyards on 11 localities. Cicade collecting was done with an entomological net by means of yellow sticky plates using an exhauster and a method of clonting. The collected cicadas were identified by means of binoculars and keys to identify species while the presence of phytoplasmas BN and Fd was defined by means of molecular analysis (PCR, RFLP. Listing and identifying the floristic structure of weeds were being cloned in the explored vineyards by means of keys to identify species. Samples of plant materials were taken for the analysis using PCR method by checking visually the typical symptoms caused by phytoplasma. Cicadas identifying and molecular analyses were being done at the Viticulture Institute for Research in Conegliano – Italy. During the researches, 243 insect samples were collected. Of the above mentioned number cicadas of 40 genus were identified in 207 samples. On the list of the floristic structure of Weeds 105 species of 36 families were identified. Corylus avellana L and Clematis vitalba L species were included in this list. These species showed sigus of phytoplasma disease and they were found near the explored vineyards. These two species were analysed on the presence for FD and BN phytoplasmas. The PCR method used in the molecular research on the presence of Fd and BN phytoplasmas was done on 34 insect samples and 22 plant samples. None of the mentioned sample was positive for FD and BN. The phytoplasma BN was found in the vine leaves of

  17. Yeast Communities of Chestnut Soils under Vineyards in Dagestan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullabekova, D. A.; Magomedova, E. S.; Magomedov, G. G.; Aliverdieva, D. A.; Kachalkin, A. V.

    2017-12-01

    The study of yeast communities in chestnut soils (Kastanozems) under vineyards in the Republic of Dagestan made it possible to isolate 20 yeast species. Most of the yeasts under vineyards belonged to ascomycetes, among which species of the Saccharomycetaceae family (in particular, Saccharomyces cerevisiae) comprised a significant part. The obtained results indicate that the soils under vineyards keep the pool of microbial diversity and ensure preservation of many species typical for grapes. The method of enrichment culture on grape juice medium proved to be more efficient than other methods of analysis with respect to the number of isolated species and the rate of their detection. However, implementation of different techniques to study yeasts' diversity can give somewhat different results; a set of methods should be used for an integrated analysis.

  18. A simplified Excel tool for implementation of RUSLE2 in vineyards for stakeholders with limited dataset

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Jose Alfonso; Biddoccu, Marcella; Guzmán, Gema; Cavallo, Eugenio

    2016-04-01

    adopted in vineyards could favor erosion. Cultivation with rows running up-and-down the slope on sloping vineyards, maintenance of bare soil, compaction due to high traffic of machinery are some of the vineyard's management practices that expose soil to degradation, favoring runoff and soil erosion processes. On the other side, the adoption of grass cover in vineyards has a fundamental role in soil protection against erosion, in case of high rainfall intensity and erosivity. This communication presents a preliminary version of a summary model to calibrate RUSLE for vines under different soil management options following an approach analogous to that used by Gómez et al. (2003) for olive orchards in a simplified situation of an homogeneous hillslope, including the latest RUSLE conceptual updates (RUSLE2, Dabney et al., 2012). It also presents preliminary results for different values of the C factor under different soil management and environmental conditions, as well as its impact on predicted soil losses in the long term in vineyards located in Southern Spain and N Italy. Keywords: vines, erosion, soil management, RUSLE, model. References Dabney, S.M. Yoder, D.C. Yoder, Vieira, D.A.N. 2012. The application of the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation, Version 2, to evaluate the impacts of alternative climate change scenarios on runoff and sediment yield. Journal of Soil and Water Conservation 67: 343 - 353. Gómez, J.A., Battany, M., Renschler, C.S., Fereres, E. 2003. Evaluating the impact of soil management on soil loss in olive orchards. Soil Use Manage. 19: 127- 134. Gómez, J.A., Llewellyn, C., Basch, G, Sutton, P.B., Dyson, J.S., Jones, C.A. 2011. The effects of cover crops and conventional tillage on soil and runoff loss in vineyards and olive groves in several Mediterranean countries. Soil Use and Management 27 502 - 514 Marín, V. 2013. Interfaz gráfica para la valoración de la pérdida de suelo en parcelas de olivar. Final Degree project. University of Cordoba

  19. Strategic development of varietal vineyards in the Czech Republic

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    Jiří Sedlo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes strategic changes in the structure of grapevine (Vitis vinifera L. varieties grown in the Czech Republic. In 2004–2005, (i.e. after the admission of the Czech Republic into the EU expenditures associated with restructuralisation and transformation of vineyards amounted for CZK 25,423 thous. The authors examine the development taking place in this domain within the last 50 years (i.e. from 1960 to 2010 and pay detailed attention to the period of 1989 to 2010. The paper analyses reasons of these changes and tries to describe the future development expected after 2010. The current production potential of the Czech Republic are 19,633.45 hectares of vineyards. For the time being, there are in average 1.07 wine growers per hectare of vineyards. As compared with 1960, the acreage of vineyards has doubled up and the number of the most frequent varieties has also increased. Within the period of 1989–1990, four varieties (i.e. Müller Thurgau, Green Veltliner, Italian Riesling and Sankt Laurent occupied more than 60 % of the total vineyards area in the Czech Republic, whereas at present there are altogether 8 varieties (Müller Thurgau, Green Veltliner, Italian Riesling, Rhein Riesling, Sauvignon, Sankt Laurent, Blaufrankish, and Zweigeltrebe at the nearly the same acreage.As far as the percentages of Müller Thurgau, Green Veltliner, Italian Riesling and Sankt Laurent varieties is concerned, it is anticipated that their acreages will further decrease, whereas those of Rhein Riesling, Sauvignon, Blaufrankish and Zweigeltrebe are expected to grow. The industry is under pressure of all Porter’s five forces of competition from external sources.

  20. The combined impact of vineyard origin and processing winery on the elemental profile of red wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopfer, Helene; Nelson, Jenny; Collins, Thomas S; Heymann, Hildegarde; Ebeler, Susan E

    2015-04-01

    The combined effects of vineyard origin and winery processing have been studied in 65 red wines samples. Grapes originating from five different vineyards within 40 miles of each other were processed in at least two different wineries. Sixty-three different elements were determined with inductively coupled-plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), and wines were classified according to vineyard origin, processing winery, and the combination of both factors. Vineyard origin as well as winery processing have an impact on the elemental composition of wine, but each winery and each vineyard change the composition to a different degree. For some vineyards, wines showed a characteristic elemental pattern, independent of the processing winery, but the same was found for some wineries, with similar elemental pattern for all grapes processed in these wineries, independent of the vineyard origin. Studying the combined effects of grapegrowing and winemaking provides insight into the determination of geographical origin of red wines. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Causal attributions of vineyard executives – A mental model study of vineyard management☆

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    Martin FG Schaffernicht

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This article contributes a reference of causal attributions made by vineyard executives in Chile, where increasing costs and stagnating prices challenge the vineyards’ profits. The investigation was motivated by the question how executives interpret the industry's mid term future and how they reflect on steering their companies. Based on in-depth interviews, causal maps were elaborated to represent the executives’ mental models. These are represented as sequences of attributions, connecting variables by causal links. It was found that some mental models guide policies bound to increase the prices, whereas other models suggest taking the prices as givens and control costs. The collection of causal attributions of the vineyard executives (CAVE has been made publicly available. As a result, CAVE can be used by other management scholars to elicit other executives’ mental models and increase the data base available. Since such research will be cumulative, a minimum size for meaningful statistical analysis can be reached, opening up an avenue for improving the design of business policies. CAVE can also serve executives and consultants in constructing causal argumentations and business policies. Future research and development of supporting software are called for. Keywords: Mental models, Strategy, Business model

  2. Potential of pest regulation by insectivorous birds in Mediterranean woody crops.

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    José M Rey Benayas

    Full Text Available Regulation of agricultural pests managing their natural enemies represents an alternative to chemical pesticides. We assessed the potential of insectivorous birds as pest regulators in woody crops located in central Spain. A total of 417 nest boxes installed in five field study sites (one vineyard, two fruit orchards, and two olive groves were monitored for use and breeding of insectivorous birds and other species for four consecutive years (2013-2016. At all field sites except the two olive groves, where birds never occupied the nest boxes, predation experiments were conducted with Greater wax moth (Galleria mellonella sentinel caterpillars, and food consumption by birds was estimated. Nesting of insectivorous birds, chiefly Great tit (Parus major, and sparrows (Passer domesticus and P. montanus increased over time, averaging 60% per field site in the vineyard and fruit orchards by the fourth year. Use of nest boxes by sparrows and by Garden dormouse (Eliomys quercinus was high at the fruit orchards (70% and the vineyard (30%, respectively. Micro-habitat characteristics (nest box level and meso-habitat characteristics (patch level strongly affected use of nest boxes and bird breeding (i.e. number of laid eggs and produced chicks in different years. Distance to natural or semi-natural vegetation did not consistently affect bird breeding, nor did we see consistent evidence of competition between adjacent breeding birds. Predation rates of sentinel caterpillars were approximately one-third higher near boxes with nesting birds (31.51 ± 43.13% than at paired distant areas without nest boxes (22.45% ± 38.58%. Food consumption by insectivorous birds per ha and breeding season were conservatively estimated to range from 0.02 kg in one fruit orchard to 0.15 kg in the vineyard. We conclude that installation of nest boxes in Mediterranean woody crops enhances populations of insectivorous birds that regulate pests, but that the effects are moderate and

  3. Analysis and Evaluation of The Main Ecoclimatic Conditions From Romania's Vineyards

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    Florin Dumitru Bora

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Vines act as indicators in relation ecoclimatic changes and they are particularly sensitive to temperature changes. Temperature is a limiting factor and define the distribution area for all plants. The main objective of this paper is to present the climatic conditions such as temperature, insolation, rainfall and cloudiness of Romanian main vineyards (Dealu Bujorului, Murfatlar, Târnave, Iași, Ștefănești-Argeși. The thermal balance with the highest values was recorded in Murfatlar vineyard having a value of 5288 (Σtg, the active thermal balance (Σta 4815, and the useful thermal balance (Σtu 2514. Insolation and precipitations are in normal parameters for viticulture. The highest values of the real heliothermic index (IHr, hydrothermal coefficient (CH and wine bioclimatic index (Ibcv were recorded in Murfatlar vineyard (IHr=4.1; CH=0.8 and Ibcv=11.4. The result show that the ecoclimatic conditions from the studied vineyards are favorable, that makes possible the production of both red and white wines of high quality in these areas.

  4. Discriminating impacts of geomorphological and human factors on vineyard soil erosion (Burgundy, France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chevigny, Emmanuel; Quiquerez, Amélie; Petit, Christophe; Curmi, Pierre

    2014-05-01

    The Burgundy vineyards have been recognized for the high diversity of Terroirs, controlled by complex interactions between natural features, historical parameters and soil management practices. Vineyards are known to undergo substantial soil loss in comparison with other types of agricultural land. Hydric erosion on vineyards is controlled by complex interactions of natural and anthropogenic factors leading to intra-plot spatial heterogeneities of topsoil at a scale of a metre. Studying the relationship between soils and their degradation is crucial in this situation where soil sustainability is threatened. This study explores the relative influences of historical and present-day anthropogenic factors and geomorphological processes controlling soil erosion on vineyard hillslopes. The selected area was located in the Monthelie vineyard (Côte de Beaune, France) where intensive erosion occurred during high-intensity rainfall events. Soil erosion quantification was performed at a square-metre scale using dendrogeomorphology. This method is based on the measurement of the unearthing of the stock located on the vine plants, considered as a passive marker of soil-surface vertical displacement since the year of plantation. The obtained maps, together with various complementary datasets, such as geological and geomorphological data, but also historical documents (cadastral plans, cadastral matrices and old aerial photographs) allow landscape evolution to be assessed. The combination of all these data shows that spatial distribution and intensity of erosion are controlled mainly by lithology and slope value. However, our study highlights that the sediment dynamics in this vineyard plot is highly related to historical former plot limits and present-day management practices. Nonetheless, quantification of sediment dynamic for the last decade reveals that the impacts of historical structures are disappearing gradually, in response to present-day management practices and

  5. Short term recovery of soil physical, chemical, micro- and mesobiological functions in a new vineyard under organic farming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costantini, E. A. C.; Agnelli, A. E.; Fabiani, A.; Gagnarli, E.; Mocali, S.; Priori, S.; Simoni, S.; Valboa, G.

    2014-12-01

    Deep earthwork activities carried out before vineyard plantation can severely upset soil profile properties. As a result, soil features in the root environment are often much more similar to those of the underlying substratum than those of the original profile. The time needed to recover the original soil functions is ecologically relevant and may strongly affect vine phenology and grape yield, particularly under organic viticulture. The general aim of this work was to investigate soil resilience after vineyard pre-planting earthworks. In particular, an old and a new vineyard, established on the same soil type, were compared over a five year period for soil chemical, physical, micro and mesobiological properties. The investigated vineyards (Vitis vinifera L., cv. Sangiovese) were located in the Chianti Classico district (Central Italy), on stony and calcareous soils and were not irrigated. The older vineyard was planted in 2000, after slope reshaping by bulldozing and back hoe ploughing down to about 0.8-1.0 m. The new vineyard was planted in 2011, after equivalent earthwork practices carried out in the summer of 2009. Both vineyards were organically managed and fertilized only with compost every autumn (1000 kg ha-1 per year). The new vineyard was cultivated by periodic tillage, while the old vineyard was managed with alternating grass-covered and tilled inter-rows. Soil samples were collected at 0-15 cm depth from the same plots of the new and old vineyards, during the springtime from 2010 to 2014. The old vineyard was sampled in both the tilled and the grass-covered swaths. According to the results from physical and chemical analyses, the new vineyard, during the whole 2010-2014 period, showed lower TOC, N, C/N and EC values, along with higher silt and total CaCO3 contents than the old vineyard, suggesting still evolving equilibrium conditions. The microarthropod analysis showed significantly different abundances and communities' structures, in relation to both

  6. The VINEYARD project: Versatile Integrated Accelerator-based Heterogeneous Data Centers

    OpenAIRE

    Kachris, Christoforos; Soudris, Dimitrios; Gaydadjiev, Georgi; Nguyen, Huy-Nam

    2016-01-01

    Emerging applications like cloud computing and big data analytics have created the need for powerful centers hosting hundreds of thousands of servers. Currently, the data centers are based on general purpose processors that provide high flexibility but lacks the energy efficiency of customized accelerators. VINEYARD1 aims to develop novel servers based on programmable hardware accelerators. Furthermore, VINEYARD will develop an integrated framework for allowing end-users to seamlessly utilize...

  7. Development of a unique product: Perception of guests in Tourism in vineyard cottages on the local environment

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    Le- Marija Colarič-Jakše

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose and Originality: Tourism in vineyard cottages is new, authentic, unique tourism product, which involves the area of wine-growing land Posavje, with districts of Dolenjska (Lower Carniola Region, Bela Krajina and Obsotelje-Kozjansko, where are the wine-growing areas with vineyards and vineyard cottages. Tourists in vineyard cottages bring economic benefits to the local community. Method: With the research we gained the information, where local residents can see positive and where negative impacts of guests who come to the vineyard cottages. As the part of descriptive approach in our research we used a method of a description about the opinion of local residents on impact of arriving tourists in tourist vineyard cottages on the local environment and the method of a compilation discoveries, observations and results. In the activities of analytical approach we are going on the base about the results of questioning individual cases and conclusion about opinion of local inhabitants in the area of marketing the tourism product Tourism in vineyard cottages. Results: Considering the results of the research, individual interviews with guests in the area of product Tourism in vineyard cottages and responses in the local environment, we evaluate, that the product has unique, authentic, original and attractive approach with all the possibilities, that it becomes one of the most recognizable, wanted and paraded integral product of Slovenian tourism. Society: New, innovative, attractive, unique and authentic product Tourism in vineyard cottages, which is developed in the wine-growing region Posavje, it has an extremely great potential, because it is one of the most recognizable forms of tourism in the countryside areas, and it has extra perspective with the creating local stories and connecting into the integral tourism products. Limitations / further research: It is necessary, that also other owners of the vineyard cottages, who are not included into

  8. Biomechanical and psychosocial work exposures and musculoskeletal symptoms among vineyard workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, Christophe; Courouve, Laurène; Bouée, Stéphane; Adjémian, Annie; Chrétien, Jean-Claude; Niedhammer, Isabelle

    2011-01-01

    This study explored the associations between biomechanical and psychosocial work factors and musculoskeletal symptoms in vineyard workers. This cross-sectional study was based on a random sample of 2,824 male and 1,123 female vineyard workers in France. Data were collected using a self-administered questionnaire. Neck/shoulder, back and upper and lower extremity symptoms were evaluated using the Nordic questionnaire. Biomechanical exposures included 15 tasks related to vineyard activities. Psychosocial work factors included effort-reward imbalance and overcommitment, measured using the effort-reward imbalance model, and low job control and insufficient material means. Statistical analysis was performed using logistic regression analysis, and the results were adjusted for age, body mass index, educational level, work status and years in vineyard. Pruning-related factors increased the risk of upper extremity pain for both genders, of back pain for men and of neck/shoulder and lower extremity pain for women. Driving increased the risk of neck/shoulder and back pain among men. Psychosocial work factors, which were insufficient material means, overcommitment (both genders), effort-reward imbalance (men) and low job control (women), were associated with musculoskeletal symptoms, back and upper extremity pain for both genders and neck/shoulder and lower extremity pain for men. These results underlined that both biomechanical and psychosocial work factors may play a role in musculoskeletal pain among vineyard workers. Prevention policies focusing on both biomechanical and psychosocial work exposures may be useful to prevent musculoskeletal symptoms.

  9. A proposal for soil cover and management factor (C) for RUSLE in vineyards with different soil management across Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, José Alfonso; Biddoccu, Marcella; Guzman, Gema; Bauer, Thomas; Strauss, Peter; Winter, Silvia; Zaller, Johann; Cavallo, Eugenio

    2017-04-01

    The Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation RUSLE (Dabney et al., 2012) is commonly used to estimate rates of soil erosion caused by rainfall and its associated overland flow on cropland and many other disturbed and undisturbed lands. Several studies have been focused on the evaluation of erosion risk in vineyards across Europe, which has four countries, France, Italy, Spain and Portugal, among the world's top ten vine growers. Other European countries, such as Romania, Greece, Austria, Serbia and Hungary, also have significant surface devoted to vineyards (FAO, 2014). However, literature shows a wide variability among C factors from different sources (Auerswald and Schwab, 1999; Kouli et al., 2009; Novara et al., 2011; Pacheco et al., 2014; Rodrigo Comino et al., 2016) that complicates their interpretation and use outside the area where they were developed. Gómez et al. (2016) presented a simplified erosion prediction model based on RUSLE, ORUSCAL, to demonstrate the possibility to calibrate RUSLE for a broad range of management conditions in vineyards with limited datasets. This approach have already been pursued successfully in olives (Gómez et al. 2003, Vanwalleghem et al., 2011). This communication reports the results of an evaluation of the calibration strategies and model predictions of ORUSCAL using a long-term experiment dataset (Bidoccu et al., 2016) in a vineyard in Northern Italy, and its implementation to develop soil cover and management factors (C) in three different soil, climate and management conditions across Europe: Southern Spain, Northern Italy and Austria. The communication, furthermore, explores and discusses of the application of the ORUSCAL model to additional vineyards areas in France and Romania in the context of the Vinedivers project (www.vinedivers.eu). Keywords: vineyard, erosion, soil management, RUSLE, model. References Auerswald K., Schwab, S. 1999. Erosion risk (C factor) of different viticultural practices. Vitic. Enol. Sci.54

  10. Yeast Biodiversity in Vineyard Environments Is Increased by Human Intervention.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Drumonde-Neves

    Full Text Available One hundred and five grape samples were collected during two consecutive years from 33 locations on seven oceanic islands of the Azores Archipelago. Grape samples were obtained from vineyards that were either abandoned or under regular cultivation involving common viticultural interventions, to evaluate the impact of regular human intervention on grape yeast biota diversity in vineyards. A total of 3150 yeast isolates were obtained and 23 yeast species were identified. The predominant species were Hanseniaspora uvarum, Pichia terricola, Starmerella bacillaris and Issatchenkia hanoiensis. The species Barnettozyma californica, Candida azymoides and Pichia cecembensis were reported in grapes or wine-associated environments for the first time. A higher biodiversity was found in active vineyards where regular human intervention takes place (Shannon index: 1.89 and 1.53 in the first and second years, respectively when compared to the abandoned ones (Shannon index: 0.76 and 0.31. This finding goes against the assumptions that human intervention can destroy biodiversity and lead to homogeneity in the environment. Biodiversity indices were considerably lower in the year with the heaviest rainfall. This study is the first to report on the grape yeast communities from several abandoned vineyards that have undergone no human intervention.

  11. ESOVYM – Enermeter's system of vineyard monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferreira Manuel João

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of the national project QREN number 24792 that consisted on the development of a mobile unit for acquiring and processing georeferenced images, to be applied in viticulture. The system has high resolution (approximately 2 cm2 and moves through the entire surface of the vineyard and of the field portions. During displacement, this unit performs simultaneously the acquisition of images (in the visible and infrared spectrum of left and right trellis for processing, analysis and visualization. The mobile unit is not autonomous, which means that it is linked to a 4 × 4 moto or to any agriculture tractor. It is easy to operate and has low cost, which allows its use at different stages of vineyard production.

  12. Short-term recovery of soil physical, chemical, micro- and mesobiological functions in a new vineyard under organic farming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costantini, E. A. C.; Agnelli, A. E.; Fabiani, A.; Gagnarli, E.; Mocali, S.; Priori, S.; Simoni, S.; Valboa, G.

    2015-06-01

    Deep earthwork activities carried out before vineyard plantation can severely affect soil profile properties. As a result, soil features in the root environment are often much more similar to those of the underlying substratum than those of the original profile. The time needed to recover the original soil functions is ecologically relevant and may strongly affect vine phenology and grape yield, particularly under organic viticulture. The general aim of this work was to investigate soil resilience after vineyard pre-planting earthworks. In particular, an old and a new vineyard, established on the same soil type, were compared over a 5-year period for soil chemical, physical, micro- and mesobiological properties. The investigated vineyards (Vitis vinifera L., cv. Sangiovese) were located in the Chianti Classico district (central Italy), on stony and calcareous soils, and were not irrigated. The older vineyard was planted in 2000, after slope reshaping by bulldozing and back-hoe ploughing down to about 0.8-1.0 m. The new vineyard was planted in 2011, after equivalent earthwork practices carried out in the summer of 2009. Both vineyards were organically managed, and they were fertilized with compost only every autumn (1000 kg ha-1 per year). The new vineyard was cultivated by periodic tillage, while the old vineyard was managed with alternating grass-covered and tilled inter-rows. Soil samples were collected at 0-15 cm depth from fixed locations in each vineyard every spring from 2010 to 2014. The old vineyard was sampled in both tilled and grass-covered inter-rows. According to the results from physical and chemical analyses, the new vineyard, during the whole 2010-2014 period, showed lower total organic carbon, total nitrogen, carbon to nitrogen ratio and electrical conductivity, along with higher silt and total CaCO3 contents than the old vineyard, suggesting still-evolving equilibrium conditions. The microarthropod analysis showed significantly different

  13. Translocation of threatened New Zealand falcons to vineyards increases nest attendance, brooding and feeding rates.

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    Sara M Kross

    Full Text Available Anthropogenic landscapes can be rich in resources, and may in some cases provide potential habitat for species whose natural habitat has declined. We used remote videography to assess whether reintroducing individuals of the threatened New Zealand falcon Falco novaeseelandiae into a highly modified agricultural habitat affected the feeding rates of breeding falcons or related breeding behavior such as nest attendance and brooding rates. Over 2,800 recording hours of footage were used to compare the behavior of falcons living in six natural nests (in unmanaged, hilly terrain between 4 km and 20 km from the nearest vineyard, with that of four breeding falcon pairs that had been transported into vineyards and nested within 500 m of the nearest vineyard. Falcons in vineyard nests had higher feeding rates, higher nest attendance, and higher brooding rates. As chick age increased, parents in vineyard nests fed chicks a greater amount of total prey and larger prey items on average than did parents in hill nests. Parents with larger broods brought in larger prey items and a greater total sum of prey biomass. Nevertheless, chicks in nests containing siblings received less daily biomass per individual than single chicks. Some of these results can be attributed to the supplementary feeding of falcons in vineyards. However, even after removing supplementary food from our analysis, falcons in vineyards still fed larger prey items to chicks than did parents in hill nests, suggesting that the anthropogenic habitat may be a viable source of quality food. Although agricultural regions globally are rarely associated with raptor conservation, these results suggest that translocating New Zealand falcons into vineyards has potential for the conservation of this species.

  14. Is Vector Control Sufficient to Limit Pathogen Spread in Vineyards?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daugherty, M P; O'Neill, S; Byrne, F; Zeilinger, A

    2015-06-01

    Vector control is widely viewed as an integral part of disease management. Yet epidemiological theory suggests that the effectiveness of control programs at limiting pathogen spread depends on a variety of intrinsic and extrinsic aspects of a pathosystem. Moreover, control programs rarely evaluate whether reductions in vector density or activity translate into reduced disease prevalence. In areas of California invaded by the glassy-winged sharpshooter (Homalodisca vitripennis Germar), Pierce's disease management relies heavily on chemical control of this vector, primarily via systemic conventional insecticides (i.e., imidacloprid). But, data are lacking that attribute reduced vector pressure and pathogen spread to sharpshooter control. We surveyed 34 vineyards over successive years to assess the epidemiological value of within-vineyard chemical control. The results showed that imidacloprid reduced vector pressure without clear nontarget effects or secondary pest outbreaks. Effects on disease prevalence were more nuanced. Treatment history over the preceding 5 yr affected disease prevalence, with significantly more diseased vines in untreated compared with regularly or intermittently treated vineyards. Yet, the change in disease prevalence between years was low, with no significant effects of insecticide treatment or vector abundance. Collectively, the results suggest that within-vineyard applications of imidacloprid can reduce pathogen spread, but with benefits that may take multiple seasons to become apparent. The relatively modest effect of vector control on disease prevalence in this system may be attributable in part to the currently low regional sharpshooter population densities stemming from area-wide control, without which the need for within-vineyard vector control would be more pronounced. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Review of Ecologically-Based Pest Management in California Vineyards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Houston; Daane, Kent M

    2017-10-11

    Grape growers in California utilize a variety of biological, cultural, and chemical approaches for the management of insect and mite pests in vineyards. This combination of strategies falls within the integrated pest management (IPM) framework, which is considered to be the dominant pest management paradigm in vineyards. While the adoption of IPM has led to notable and significant reductions in the environmental impacts of grape production, some growers are becoming interested in the use of an explicitly non-pesticide approach to pest management that is broadly referred to as ecologically-based pest management (EBPM). Essentially a subset of IPM strategies, EBPM places strong emphasis on practices such as habitat management, natural enemy augmentation and conservation, and animal integration. Here, we summarize the range and known efficacy of EBPM practices utilized in California vineyards, followed by a discussion of research needs and future policy directions. EBPM should in no way be seen in opposition, or as an alternative to the IPM framework. Rather, the further development of more reliable EBPM practices could contribute to the robustness of IPM strategies available to grape growers.

  16. Soil erosion and degradation in Mediterranean Type Ecosystems. The Soil Erosion and Degradation Research Group (SEDER) approach and findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerdà, Artemi; Keesstra, Saskia; Pulido, Manuel; Jordán, Antonio; Novara, Agata; Giménez-Morera, Antonio; Borja, Manuel Esteban Lucas; Francisco Martínez-Murillo, Juan; Rodrigo-Comino, Jesús; Pereira, Paulo; Nadal-Romero, Estela; Taguas, Tani; Úbeda, Xavier; Brevik, Eric C.; Tarolli, Paolo; Bagarello, Vicenzo; Parras Alcantara, Luis; Muñoz-Rojas, Miriam; Oliva, Marc; di Prima, Simone

    2017-04-01

    The Soil Erosion and Degradation Reseach Group (SEDER) is developing a research program since 2002 to assess the soil erosion and degradation processes at the Canyoles River watershed in Eastern Spain. The research study site was selected as representative of the environmental changes that take place in the Mediterranean: abandonment of the agriculture land in the mountains, forest fire expansion, intensification of the agriculture, impact of the infraesturctures such as rail and road embankments, and soil sealing due to the urban expansion. The research is based on the continuous measurements in the Montesa and El Teularet research stations and the sampling of the soils, topographical measurements and the use of rainfall simulators, minidisk infiltrometers, ring infiltrometers and Water Drop Penetration Time tests. The research is moving from a pure scientific approach to a more socio-economic view, and the stakeholders are being researched from a perception point of view. SEDER is also moving from pure to applied science, with the objective to design new managements that will satisfy the stakeholders and will achieve the sustainability. The research is being carried out in vineyards and orchards as they show extremely high erosion rates. But also we are interested in the impact of forest fires and the road embankments. In all three research topics, SEDER wish to find the sustainable managements. Acknowledgements The research leading to these results has received funding from the European Union Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013) under grant agreement n° 603498 (RECARE project) and the CGL2013- 47862-C2-1-R and CGL2016-75178-C2-2-R national research projects. References Bodí, M. B., Martin, D. A., Balfour, V. N., Santín, C., Doerr, S. H., Pereira, P., . . . Mataix-Solera, J. (2014). Corrigendum to "wildland fire ash: Production, composition and eco-hydro-geomorphic effects", earth sci. rev. 130 (2014) [103-127]. Earth-Science Reviews, 138, 503. doi:10

  17. Linkage of within vineyard soil properties, grapevine physiology, grape composition and sensory characteristics in a premium wine grape vineyard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smart, David; Hess, Sallie; Ebeler, Susan; Heymann, Hildegarde; Plant, Richard

    2014-05-01

    Analysis of numerous vineyards has revealed a very high degree of variation exists at the within vineyard scale and may outweigh in some cases broader mesoclimatic and geological factors. For this reason, selective harvest of high quality wine grapes is often conducted and based on subjective field sensory analysis (taste). This is an established practice in many wine growing regions. But the relationships between these subjective judgments to principle soil and grapevine physiological characteristics are not well understood. To move toward greater understanding of the physiological factors related to field sensory evaluation, physiological data was collected over the 2007 and 2008 growing seasons in a selectively harvested premium production Napa Valley estate vineyard, with a history of selective harvesting based on field sensory evaluation. Data vines were established and remained as individual study units throughout the data gathering and analysis phase, and geographic information systems science (GIS) was used to geographically scale physiological and other data at the vineyard level. Areas yielding grapes with perceived higher quality (subjective analysis) were characterized by vines with 1) statistically significantly lower (P grape berry diameter (R2 = 0.616 in 2007 and 0.413 in 2008) and similar strong correlations existed for berry weight (R2 = 0.626 in 2007 and 0.554 in 2008). A trained sensory panel performed a sensory analysis and characterized fruit using and a multivariate, principal components, analysis (PCA). This approach indicated that grapes from vines with lowest midday leaf water potential at veraison (grapes from vines of > -1.5 MPa were characterized by vegetal flavors and astringent and bitter seeds and skins. Data from vines were grouped into vines experiencing MD at veraison of -1.5 MPa and subjected to single factor analysis of variance. This analysis revealed statistically significant differences (P less than 0.05) in many of the above

  18. Effects of soil management in vineyard on soil physical and chemical characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linares Rubén

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cover crops in Mediterranean vineyards are scarcely used due to water competition between the cover crop and the grapevine; however, bare soil management through tillage or herbicides tends to have negative effects on the soil over time (organic matter decrease, soil structure and soil fertility degradation, compaction, etc. The objective of this study was to understand how soil management affects soil fertility, compaction and infiltration over time. To this end, two bare soil techniques were compared, tillage (TT and total herbicide (HT with two cover crops; annual cereal (CT and annual grass (AGT, established for 8 years. CT treatment showed the highest organic matter content, having the biggest amount of biomass incorporated into the soil. The annual adventitious vegetation in TT treatment (568 kg dry matter ha-1 that was incorporated into the soil, kept the organic matter content higher than HT levels and close to AGT level, in spite of the greater aboveground annual biomass production of this treatment (3632 kg dry matter ha-1 whereas only its roots were incorporated into the soil. TT presented the highest bulk density under the tractor track lines and a greatest resistance to penetration (at 0.2 m depth. AGT presented bulk density values (upper 0.4 m lower than TT and penetration resistance in CT lower (at 0.20 m depth than TT too. The HT decreased water infiltration due to a superficial crust generated for this treatment. These results indicate that the use of annual grass cover can be a good choice of soil management in Mediterranean climate due to soil quality improvement, with low competition and simple management.

  19. Soil application of neonicotinoid insecticides for control of insect pests in wine grape vineyards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Timmeren, Steven; Wise, John C; Isaacs, Rufus

    2012-04-01

    Soil application of systemic neonicotinoid insecticides can provide opportunities for long-term control of insect pests in vineyards, with minimal risk of pesticide drift or worker exposure. This study compared the effectiveness of neonicotinoid insecticides applied via irrigation injection on key early-season and mid-season insect pests of vineyards in the eastern United States. On vines trained to grow on drip irrigation, early-season application of imidacloprid, clothianidin, thiamethoxam and dinotefuran provided high levels of control against the potato leafhopper, Empoasca fabae. Protection of vines against Japanese beetle, Popillia japonica, and grape berry moth, Paralobesia viteana, was also observed after mid-season applications. Efficacy was poor in commercial vineyards when treatments were applied to the soil before irrigation or rain, indicating that vines must be grown with an irrigation system for efficient uptake of the insecticide. In drip-irrigated vineyards, soil-applied neonicotinoids can be used to provide long residual control of either early-season or mid- to late-season foliage pests of vineyards. This approach can reduce the dependence on foliar-applied insecticides, with associated benefits for non-target exposure to workers and natural enemies. Copyright © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. Genotoxic pressure of vineyard pesticides in fish: field and mesocosm surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bony, S; Gillet, C; Bouchez, A; Margoum, C; Devaux, A

    2008-09-17

    The present study deals with the genotoxicity assessment of vineyard pesticides in fish exposed in the field or in mesocosm conditions. Primary DNA damage was quantified as strand breaks using the single cell gel electrophoresis assay (Comet assay) applied to fish erythrocytes. In a first experiment, a significant genotoxic effect was observed following an upstream-downstream gradient in early life stages of brown trout (Salmo trutta fario) exposed in the Morcille River contaminated by a mixture of vineyard pesticides during three consecutive years. The pronounced response in terms of DNA damage reported in the present study could argue for a high sensitivity of fish early life stage and/or a high level of exposure to genotoxic compounds in the Morcille River. This stresses the interest in using trout larvae incubated in sediment bed to assess genotoxic compounds in the field. In a second experiment, adult European topminnow (Phoxinus phoxinus) were exposed in water running through artificial channels to a mixture of diuron and azoxystrobin, two of the main pesticides detected in the Morcille watershed. As compared with the unexposed channel, a 3-5-fold increase in the DNA damage was observed in fish exposed to chronic environmental pesticide concentrations (1-2 microg L(-1) for diuron and 0.5-1 microg L(-1) for axoxystrobin). A single 6h pulse of pesticide (14 microg L(-1) of diuron and 7 microg L(-1) of azoxystrobin) was applied to simulate transiently elevated chemical concentrations in the river following storm conditions. It did not increase genotoxicity. After a 1-month recovery period, DNA damage in exposed fish erythrocytes recovered to unexposed level, suggesting possible involvement of both repair mechanisms and cellular turnover in this transient response. This work highlights that vineyard treatment by pesticides and in particular diuron and azoxystrobin can represent a genotoxic threat to fish from contaminated watershed rivers.

  1. Genetic and technological characterisation of vineyard- and winery-associated lactic acid bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nisiotou, Aspasia A; Dourou, Dimitra; Filippousi, Maria-Evangelia; Diamantea, Ellie; Fragkoulis, Petros; Tassou, Chryssoula; Banilas, Georgios

    2015-01-01

    Vineyard- and winery-associated lactic acid bacteria (LAB) from two major PDO regions in Greece, Peza and Nemea, were surveyed. LAB were isolated from grapes, fermenting musts, and winery tanks performing spontaneous malolactic fermentations (MLF). Higher population density and species richness were detected in Nemea than in Peza vineyards and on grapes than in fermenting musts. Pediococcus pentosaceus and Lactobacillus graminis were the most abundant LAB on grapes, while Lactobacillus plantarum dominated in fermenting musts from both regions. No particular structure of Lactobacillus plantarum populations according to the region of origin was observed, and strain distribution seems random. LAB species diversity in winery tanks differed significantly from that in vineyard samples, consisting principally of Oenococcus oeni. Different strains were analysed as per their enological characteristics and the ability to produce biogenic amines (BAs). Winery-associated species showed higher resistance to low pH, ethanol, SO2, and CuSO4 than vineyard-associated isolates. The frequency of BA-producing strains was relatively low but not negligible, considering that certain winery-associated Lactobacillus hilgardii strains were able to produce BAs. Present results show the necessity of controlling the MLF by selected starters in order to avoid BA accumulation in wine.

  2. Ochratoxin A Management in Vineyards by Lobesia botrana Biocontrol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Cozzi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Grape berries attacked by Lobesia botrana larvae are more easily infected by Aspergillus section Nigri (black aspergilli ochratoxigenic species. Two-year field trials were carried out in Apulia (Italy to evaluate a bioinsecticide control strategy against L. botrana and the indirect effect on reducing ochratoxin A (OTA contamination in vineyards. A commercial Bacillus thuringiensis formulate and an experimental Beauveria bassiana (ITEM-1559 formulate were tested in two vineyards cultivated with the same grape variety, Negroamaro, but with two different training systems (espalier and little-arbor techniques. In both years and training systems the treatments by B. bassiana ITEM-1559 significantly controlled L. botrana larvae attacks with effectiveness similar to B. thuringensis (more than 20%. A significant reduction of OTA concentrations (up to 80% compared to untreated controls was observed only in the first year in both training systems, when the metereological parameters prior to harvest were more favorable to the insect attack. Results of field trials showed that B. bassiana ITEM-1559 is a valid bioinsecticide against L. botrana and that grape moth biocontrol is a strategy to reduce OTA contamination in vineyard in seasons with heavy natural infestation.

  3. Cover crops and pruning in Bobal and Tempranillo vineyards have little influence on grapevine nutrition

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    Pedro Pérez-Bermúdez

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Cover crops may improve vineyard soil properties, grapevine nutrient status and berry composition, however, factors such as cover crop type, annual rainfall, climate and irrigation may change their effects on vineyards. From 2008 to 2011, the effects of a non-permanent cover crop and two pruning techniques on soil as well as vine nutrients and grapevine performance of two vineyards (cv. Tempranillo and cv. Bobal were evaluated. For that purpose, two legumes were sown in inter-rows of hand-pruned vines in February and were tilled at flowering. Soil tillage, or cover cropping, was combined with either light pruning or severe pruning to study foliar nutrient variations. Soil N, P, K and total organic carbon (TOC were determined in samples taken from the Ap1 horizon in January prior to vine pruning. Foliar N, P, K contents were measured in leaves sampled upon grape veraison. The differences between vineyards with cover cropping and bare soils suggest that legumes positively affected soil N (1.55 vs. 1.68 g kg−1 and 1.49 vs. 1.76 g kg−1 in Bobal and Tempranillo vineyards, respectively and soil organic matter (SOM (12.5 vs. 15.5 g kg−1 and 12.9 vs. 17.2 g kg−1 in Bobal and Tempranillo vineyards, respectively. The use of cover crops did not affect grapevine yields nor quality of Bobal and Tempranillo berry . Cover crops, or light pruning, did not alter the foliar N, P, K contents of both cultivars since their concentrations were similar to those found in the leaves from vineyards with soil tillage or severe pruning.

  4. Pulsed Nonlinear Automatic Control System for Guidance of a Caterpillar Tractor Unit in Vineyards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sit M.L.

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The automatic guidance systems of tractors for soil cultivation in vineyards have attracted the attention of researchers since the second half of the twentieth century. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the driving quality of an automatic guidance system (AGS for a caterpillar tractor unit (CTU consisting of a crawler tractor and a vineyard plow and having the orientation system by grapes stamps. Compared with the known works (in which GPS, LIDAR, and video cameras are used for orientation, the proposed system is the least expensive. For this, the existence of stability of the AGS as a whole in the range of operating speeds of the unit was proved. The dynamic model of the vineyard plow was verified on a three-point hitching system of the tractor, field tests of the AGS were carried out, which confirmed the results of theoretical studies, and suggested directions for further research. The shape and parameters of the modulation characteristic (MC of the pulse-width modulator (PWM of the AGS control system, the rational values of the hydraulic drive speeds of the sequential control mechanism of the clutch of the turn and the crawler tractor belt brake, were established, depending on the slope angle and the speed of the unit, ensuring agrotechnical requirements for driving. New solutions, in comparison with the known ones, are the ways of forming the MC of PWM using a new design probe and the associated driver MC of PWM.

  5. Soil resilience and yield performance in a vineyard established after intense pre-planting earthworks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costantini, Edoardo; Valboa, Giuseppe; Gagnarli, Elena; Mocali, Stefano; Fabiani, Arturo; Priori, Simone; Simoni, Sauro; Storchi, Paolo; Perria, Rita; Vignozzi, Nadia; Agnelli, Alessandro

    2017-04-01

    Conventional earthworks undertaken before vine plantation may severely compromise soil functions and vine production, as a consequence of a decline of soil fertility caused by loss of organic matter and biological activity, along with changes in chemical and physical features of the topsoil due to the upset of the soil profile. This research was aimed at assessing the effects of conventional pre-planting earthworks on soil fertility and vine yield performance under organic farming. To this purpose, grape yield and quality along with soil chemical, physical and biological properties, were monitored over seven years in a young vineyard established in 2010 after soil leveling and deep ploughing, and in parallel in an older vineyard planted in 2000 after similar earthworks under the same soil and environment conditions. The vineyards (Vitis vinifera L., cv. Sangiovese) were located in the Chianti Classico district (Tuscany, Italy) on a stony calcareous soil classified as Cambic Skeletic Calcisol (loamic, aric) (WRB, 2014). Fertilization was based on annual applications of compost and shredded plant residues. According to the ordinary farming system, the older vineyard was kept free from grass covering during the first four years of growth by periodic tillage, in order to prevent nutritional competition, while in the following years it was managed by natural grass covering on alternate inter-rows. In the younger vineyard, grass covering needed to be postponed because of a delay in the vine development and grape yield induced by poor soil fertility. The results showed significant differences between the two vineyard, with the younger exhibiting lower total organic carbon (0.4 - 0.6 % vs 0.6 - 1.1 %), lower total nitrogen (0.07 - 0.11 % vs 0.10 - 0.15 %) and higher carbonate contents (32 - 38 % vs 21 -30 % total CaCO3), with no clear trend of recovery over time. Pre-planting earthworks also affected the structure and diversity of microbial and microarthropod communities

  6. Temporal and Spatial Scales Matter: Circannual Habitat Selection by Bird Communities in Vineyards.

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    Claire Guyot

    Full Text Available Vineyards are likely to be regionally important for wildlife, but we lack biodiversity studies in this agroecosystem which is undergoing a rapid management revolution. As vine cultivation is restricted to arid and warm climatic regions, biodiversity-friendly management would promote species typical of southern biomes. Vineyards are often intensively cultivated, mostly surrounded by few natural features and offering a fairly mineral appearance with little ground vegetation cover. Ground vegetation cover and composition may further strongly vary with respect to season, influencing patterns of habitat selection by ecological communities. We investigated season-specific bird-habitat associations to highlight the importance of semi-natural habitat features and vineyard ground vegetation cover throughout the year. Given that avian habitat selection varies according to taxa, guilds and spatial scale, we modelled bird-habitat associations in all months at two spatial scales using mixed effects regression models. At the landscape scale, birds were recorded along 10 1-km long transects in Southwestern Switzerland (February 2014 -January 2015. At the field scale, we compared the characteristics of visited and unvisited vineyard fields (hereafter called parcels. Bird abundance in vineyards tripled in winter compared to summer. Vineyards surrounded by a greater amount of hedges and small woods harboured higher bird abundance, species richness and diversity, especially during the winter season. Regarding ground vegetation, birds showed a season-specific habitat selection pattern, notably a marked preference for ground-vegetated parcels in winter and for intermediate vegetation cover in spring and summer. These season-specific preferences might be related to species-specific life histories: more insectivorous, ground-foraging species occur during the breeding season whereas granivores predominate in winter. These results highlight the importance of

  7. HEAVY METALS IN VINEYARDS AND ORCHARD SOILS

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    GUSTAVO BRUNETTO

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The application of foliar fungicides in vineyards and orchards can increase soil concentration of heavy metals such as copper (Cu and zinc (Zn, up to the toxicity threshold for fruit trees and cover crops. However, some agronomic practices, such as liming, addition of organic fertilizers, cultivation of soil cover crops and inoculation of young plants with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi can decrease the availability and the potential of heavy metal toxicity to fruit trees. This review aims to compile and present information about the effects of increasing concentrations of heavy metals, especially Cu and Zn, on soils cultivated with fruit trees and provides some agronomic practices of remediation. Information about the sources of heavy metals found in soils cultivated with fruit trees are presented; mechanisms of absorption, transport, accumulation and potential toxicity to plants are described.

  8. Effects of reduced soil functionality in European vineyards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costantini, Edoardo; Priori, Simone; Akca, Ehran; Castaldini, Maurizio; D'Avino, Lorenzo; Fulchin, Emma; Gagnarli, Elena; Giffard, Brice; Erdem Kiraz, Mehmet; Lagomarsino, Alessandra; Landi, Silvia; Pellegrini, Sergio; Perria, Rita; Puccioni, Sergio; Schroers, Hans-Josef; Tardaguila, Javier; Pelengić, Radojko; Simoni, Sauro; Storchi, Paolo; Tangolar, Semih

    2017-04-01

    Improper or excessive land preparation methods in vineyards before planting can have a considerable impact on soil functionality. They include excessive levelling and deep ploughing leading to disturbances of the natural contour of slopes and destruction, truncation and burial of soil horizons. Manipulations may significantly modify chemical, physical, biological and hydrological balance of soils. Problems that may arise from these interventions relate to the reduction of organic substances, enrichment of calcium carbonate and soluble salts, impacting development and health of grapevines. Reduced water retention capacity can lead to increased water stress during dry season, decreased water permeability and circulation of oxygen in the soil, increased runoff volume, surface erosion and landslide risk, reduced biodiversity and limitation of biochemical processes (organic matter mineralization, bioavailability of nutrients, etc.). Soil degradations can lead to the loss of soil functionality even after the planting as a result of accelerated erosion, compaction by agricultural vehicles, excessive loss of organic matter and nutrients, and the accumulation of heavy metals such as copper. In both conventional and organic vineyards, it is quite common to have areas with reduced soil functionality that have negative impact on vine health and grape production and quality. In the framework of the Core organic RESOLVE project, a study was conducted in organic vineyards showing areas with reduced and good soil functionality. Degraded soils resulted in significantly lower amounts of grapes. The chlorophyll index (SPAD) of the grapevine during veraison was significantly lower in areas of degraded soils compared with the situation in areas of the same vineyard with non-degraded soils. In general, causes of soil malfunctioning were related to a lower fertility, including reduced organic carbon, total nitrogen and cation exchange capacity, higher concentrations of carbonates, and

  9. Agroforestry management in vineyards: effects on soil microbial communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montagne, Virginie; Nowak, Virginie; Guilland, Charles; Gontier, Laure; Dufourcq, Thierry; Guenser, Josépha; Grimaldi, Juliette; Bourgade, Emilie; Ranjard, Lionel

    2017-04-01

    Some vineyard practices (tillage, chemical weeding or pest management) are generally known to impact the environment with particular negative effects on the diversity and the abundance of soil microorganisms, and cause water and soil pollutions. In an agro-ecological context, innovative cropping systems have been developed to improve ecosystem services. Among them, agroforestry offers strategies of sustainable land management practices. It consists in intercropping trees with annual/perennial/fodder crop on the same plot but it is weakly referenced with grapevine. The present study assesses the effects of intercropped and neighbouring trees on the soil of three agroforestry vineyards, in south-western France regions. More precisely soils of the different plots were sampled and the impact of the distance to the tree or to the neighbouring trees (forest) on soil microbial community has been considered. Indigenous soil microbial communities were characterized by a metagenomic approach that consisted in extracting the molecular microbial biomass, then in calculating the soil fungi/bacteria ratio - obtained by qPCR - and then in characterizing the soil microbial diversity - through Illumina sequencing of 16S and 18S regions. Our results showed a significant difference between the soil of agroforestry vineyards and the soil sampled in the neighbouring forest in terms of microbial abundance and diversity. However, only structure and composition of bacterial community seem to be influenced by the implanted trees in the vine plots. In addition, the comparison of microbial co-occurrence networks between vine and forest plots as well as inside vine plots according to distance to the tree allow revealing a more sensitive impact of agroforestry practices. Altogether, the results we obtained build up the first references for concerning the soil of agroforestry vineyards which will be interpreted in terms of soil quality, functioning and sustainability.

  10. Indirect Field Measurement of Wine-Grape Vineyard Canopy Leaf Area Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Lee F.; Pierce, Lars L.; Skiles, J. W. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Leaf area index (LAI) indirect measurements were made at 12 study plots in California's Napa Valley commercial wine-grape vineyards with a LI-COR LI-2000 Plant Canopy Analyzer (PCA). The plots encompassed different trellis systems, biological varieties, and planting densities. LAI ranged from 0.5 - 2.25 sq m leaf area/ sq m ground area according to direct (defoliation) measurements. Indirect LAI reported by the PCA was significantly related to direct LAI (r(exp 2) = 0.78, p less than 001). However, the PCA tended to underestimate direct LAI by about a factor of two. Narrowing the instrument's conical field of view from 148 deg to 56 deg served to increase readings by approximately 30%. The PCA offers a convenient way to discern relative differences in vineyard canopy density. Calibration by direct measurement (defoliation) is recommended in cases where absolute LAI is desired. Calibration equations provided herein may be inverted to retrieve actual vineyard LAI from PCA readings.

  11. Genetic and Technological Characterisation of Vineyard- and Winery-Associated Lactic Acid Bacteria

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    Aspasia A. Nisiotou

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Vineyard- and winery-associated lactic acid bacteria (LAB from two major PDO regions in Greece, Peza and Nemea, were surveyed. LAB were isolated from grapes, fermenting musts, and winery tanks performing spontaneous malolactic fermentations (MLF. Higher population density and species richness were detected in Nemea than in Peza vineyards and on grapes than in fermenting musts. Pediococcus pentosaceus and Lactobacillus graminis were the most abundant LAB on grapes, while Lactobacillus plantarum dominated in fermenting musts from both regions. No particular structure of Lactobacillus plantarum populations according to the region of origin was observed, and strain distribution seems random. LAB species diversity in winery tanks differed significantly from that in vineyard samples, consisting principally of Oenococcus oeni. Different strains were analysed as per their enological characteristics and the ability to produce biogenic amines (BAs. Winery-associated species showed higher resistance to low pH, ethanol, SO2, and CuSO4 than vineyard-associated isolates. The frequency of BA-producing strains was relatively low but not negligible, considering that certain winery-associated Lactobacillus hilgardii strains were able to produce BAs. Present results show the necessity of controlling the MLF by selected starters in order to avoid BA accumulation in wine.

  12. The tenants in the vineyard (GThom 65/Mark 12:1-12): A realistic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    p1243322

    that the killing of the son will lead to the inheritance of the vineyard and the owners' use of self-help; see ..... Thirdly, the parable focuses on the motif of inheritance, the question of true heirship of the land. From this point of ..... A vineyard owner also had to pay taxes, the level of which was. 17 Usurers belonged to the social ...

  13. A Wireless Sensor Network for Vineyard Monitoring That Uses Image Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloret, Jaime; Bosch, Ignacio; Sendra, Sandra; Serrano, Arturo

    2011-01-01

    The first step to detect when a vineyard has any type of deficiency, pest or disease is to observe its stems, its grapes and/or its leaves. To place a sensor in each leaf of every vineyard is obviously not feasible in terms of cost and deployment. We should thus look for new methods to detect these symptoms precisely and economically. In this paper, we present a wireless sensor network where each sensor node takes images from the field and internally uses image processing techniques to detect any unusual status in the leaves. This symptom could be caused by a deficiency, pest, disease or other harmful agent. When it is detected, the sensor node sends a message to a sink node through the wireless sensor network in order to notify the problem to the farmer. The wireless sensor uses the IEEE 802.11 a/b/g/n standard, which allows connections from large distances in open air. This paper describes the wireless sensor network design, the wireless sensor deployment, how the node processes the images in order to monitor the vineyard, and the sensor network traffic obtained from a test bed performed in a flat vineyard in Spain. Although the system is not able to distinguish between deficiency, pest, disease or other harmful agents, a symptoms image database and a neuronal network could be added in order learn from the experience and provide an accurate problem diagnosis. PMID:22163948

  14. A wireless sensor network for vineyard monitoring that uses image processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloret, Jaime; Bosch, Ignacio; Sendra, Sandra; Serrano, Arturo

    2011-01-01

    The first step to detect when a vineyard has any type of deficiency, pest or disease is to observe its stems, its grapes and/or its leaves. To place a sensor in each leaf of every vineyard is obviously not feasible in terms of cost and deployment. We should thus look for new methods to detect these symptoms precisely and economically. In this paper, we present a wireless sensor network where each sensor node takes images from the field and internally uses image processing techniques to detect any unusual status in the leaves. This symptom could be caused by a deficiency, pest, disease or other harmful agent. When it is detected, the sensor node sends a message to a sink node through the wireless sensor network in order to notify the problem to the farmer. The wireless sensor uses the IEEE 802.11 a/b/g/n standard, which allows connections from large distances in open air. This paper describes the wireless sensor network design, the wireless sensor deployment, how the node processes the images in order to monitor the vineyard, and the sensor network traffic obtained from a test bed performed in a flat vineyard in Spain. Although the system is not able to distinguish between deficiency, pest, disease or other harmful agents, a symptoms image database and a neuronal network could be added in order learn from the experience and provide an accurate problem diagnosis.

  15. Living terraced landscapes: Exploring the viability of mountain terraced vineyards in Cyprus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoumides, Christos; Giannakis, Elias; Bruggeman, Adriana; Camera, Corrado

    2017-04-01

    Dry-stone terracing is an intensive cultivation practice that has been implemented for centuries in the Mediterranean region. The Troodos Ophiolite Complex on the island of Cyprus covers an area of 2332 km2 with 31% mean slope gradient, and consists of 140 small communities with a total population of around 50,000 inhabitants. Agriculture is practiced on dry-stone terraces with narrow (1-3 m) to medium-base (3-6 m) bench, constructed by cutting and filling in slopes with gradient between 20 and 40%. The main crop grown on terraces is wine grapes. However, many of the vineyards on terraced hillsides are being gradually abandoned and dry-stone walls remain unmaintained, causing a domino effect of collapsing terraces and leading to soil erosion and sedimentation of downstream infrastructure. The main reasons for the gradual decline of terraced landscapes are the ageing of farming population, the depopulation and marginalization of Troodos communities, the small size of agricultural plots, the high cost of labour and the loss of know-how on dry-stone wall maintenance. Despite these socio-economic issues, policy reforms, especially after the accession of Cyprus to the European Union in 2004, have created new challenges and opportunities, and have focused on improving the viniculture's quality rather than quantity. The new appellation of origin launched in 2007 that define where the wine-grapes are grown, as well as the incentives to create small regional wineries, helped maintain the population of some communities and the vine cultivations on dry-stone terraces. The aim of this study is to analyse the determinants of success or failure in sustaining the terraced vineyards in Cyprus. More precisely, the study explores the characteristics that determine the investment (or not) in terrace maintenance and analyses the interlinkages between farming practices and business strategies. The analysis is based on grape and wine production cost data that is acquired by interviews

  16. Influence of vineyard peach selections on vigour and initial yield in peach and nectarine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zec Gordan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Seedlings (progenies of eight selected vineyard peach genotypes obtained by self and open pollination were examined in this study during three consecutive years. Two progenies from unselected vineyard peach genotypes with different geographic origin were used as a standard. Peach cv. Autumn Glo and nectarine cv. Stark Red Gold were grafted on F1 generation of eight vineyard peach selections and two standard progenies. Analysis of variance indicated statistically significant differences in vigour and fruit productivity between fruit trees grafted on different progenies of vineyard peach selections. A high correlation was found between rootstock vigour and fruit production of grafted cultivars. In addition, the principal component analysis made it possible to establish similar groups of rootstocks, depending on its influence to vigour, productivity and indexes of efficiency of grafted peach and nectarine cultivar. The most promising rootstocks for those two cultivars were PSK and 7S because grafted AG and SRG have high fruit weight, initial yields and very satisfactory rootstock, scion and canopy efficiency. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 31063

  17. Flux Measurements in Trees: Methodological Approach and Application to Vineyards

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    Francesca De Lorenzi

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a review of two sap flow methods for measuring the transpiration in vineyards is presented. The objective of this work is to examine the potential of detecting transpiration in trees in response to environmental stresses, particularly the high concentration of ozone (O3 in troposphere. The methods described are the stem heat balance and the thermal dissipation probe; advantages and disadvantages of each method are detailed. Applications of both techniques are shown, in two large commercial vineyards in Southern Italy (Apulia and Sicily, submitted to semi-arid climate. Sap flow techniques allow to measure transpiration at plant scale and an upscaling procedure is necessary to calculate the transpiration at the whole stand level. Here a general technique to link the value of transpiration at plant level to the canopy value is presented, based on experimental relationships between transpiration and biometric characteristics of the trees. In both vineyards transpiration measured by sap flow methods compares well with evapotranspiration measured by micrometeorological techniques at canopy scale. Moreover soil evaporation component has been quantified. In conclusion, comments about the suitability of the sap flow methods for studying the interactions between trees and ozone are given.

  18. Carbon budget of the vineyard – A new feature of sustainability

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    Pitacco Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Vineyards received scarce attention in relation to the continuous monitoring of carbon fluxes and the assessment of their overall budget, as a common believe is that agricultural crops cannot be net carbon sinks. Indeed, many technical inputs, massive periodical harvests, and the repeated disturbances of upper soil layers, all contribute to a substantial loss both of the old and newly-synthesized organic matter. Woody perennials, however, can behave differently: they grow a permanent structure, stand undisturbed in the same field for decades, originate abundant pruning debris, and are often grass-covered. We have been monitoring the Net Ecosystem Exchange (NEE by eddy covariance and the carbon partitioning in a temperate vineyard in North Eastern Italy. Five complete yearly budgets confirm a steady and substantial sink capacity of the system, with a yearly NEE around 800–900 gC m−2, grape harvest representing about 20–25% of it. Biometrical assessment of growth and partitioning show a good agreement with micrometeorological measurements and demonstrate a large input of organic matter into the soil. Even if it can be objected that this sink may be only temporary and the built-up can be substantially disrupted at the end of the vineyard life cycle, these results show that there is a concrete possibility of storing carbon in temperate-climate vineyards, possibly contributing to the global carbon budget. This sink capacity might be accounted in the official calculation of wine carbon footprint and represents a new, relevant feature of their sustainability.

  19. Application of CarboSOIL model to predict the effects of climate change on soil organic carbon stocks in agro-silvo-pastoral Mediterranean management systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Rojas, Miriam; Doro, Luca; Ledda, Luigi; Francaviglia, Rosa

    2014-05-01

    CarboSOIL is an empirical model based on regression techniques and developed to predict soil organic carbon contents (SOC) at standard soil depths of 0-25, 25-50 and 50-75 cm (Muñoz-Rojas et al., 2013). The model was applied to a study area of north-eastern Sardinia (Italy) (40° 46'N, 9° 10'E, mean altitude 285 m a.s.l.), characterized by extensive agro-silvo-pastoral systems which are typical of similar areas of the Mediterranean basin (e.g. the Iberian peninsula). The area has the same soil type (Haplic Endoleptic Cambisols, Dystric according to WRB), while cork oak forest (Quercus suber L.) is the potential native vegetation which has been converted to managed land with pastures and vineyards in recent years (Lagomarsino et al., 2011; Francaviglia et al., 2012; Bagella et al, 2013; Francaviglia et al., 2014). Six land uses with different levels of cropping intensification were compared: Tilled vineyards (TV); No-tilled grassed vineyards (GV); Hay crop (HC); Pasture (PA); Cork oak forest (CO) and Semi-natural systems (SN). The HC land use includes oats, Italian ryegrass and annual clovers or vetch for 5 years and intercropped by spontaneous herbaceous vegetation in the sixth year. The PA land use is 5 years of spontaneous herbaceous vegetation, and one year of intercropping with oats, Italian ryegrass and annual clovers or vetch cultivated as a hay crop. The SN land use (scrublands, Mediterranean maquis and Helichrysum meadows) arise from the natural re-vegetation of former vineyards which have been set-aside probably due to the low grape yields and the high cost of modern tillage equipment. Both PA and HC are grazed for some months during the year, and include scattered cork-oak trees, which are key components of the 'Dehesa'-type landscape (grazing system with Quercus L.) typical of this area of Sardinia and other areas of southern Mediterranean Europe. Dehesas are often converted to more profitable land uses such as vineyards (Francaviglia et al., 2012; Mu

  20. Studies on Biodiversity Diagnosis of Vineyard Farms at the Agro-Ecological Infrastructure Level

    OpenAIRE

    Liliana Lucia Tomoiagă; Ligia Ficiu; Gabriel Tabaranu; Cosmina Argatu; Gabi Zaldea; Diana Vizitiu

    2016-01-01

    In Romania, the vine farms are currently spread on approximately 180.000 ha, therefore an important part of biodiversity, functional or planned is present. To avoid a biodiversity decline it is necessary for the vineyards to have a clear evidence of the state of their biodiversity. Based on the results obtained from the studied vineyards, during 2015, the agro-ecological infrastructure or AEI percent based on the actual area occupied varies between 7% and 35%. Evaluation of the implementat...

  1. Soil bacterial community response to differences in agricultural management along with seasonal changes in a Mediterranean region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bevivino, Annamaria; Paganin, Patrizia; Bacci, Giovanni; Florio, Alessandro; Pellicer, Maite Sampedro; Papaleo, Maria Cristiana; Mengoni, Alessio; Ledda, Luigi; Fani, Renato; Benedetti, Anna; Dalmastri, Claudia

    2014-01-01

    Land-use change is considered likely to be one of main drivers of biodiversity changes in grassland ecosystems. To gain insight into the impact of land use on the underlying soil bacterial communities, we aimed at determining the effects of agricultural management, along with seasonal variations, on soil bacterial community in a Mediterranean ecosystem where different land-use and plant cover types led to the creation of a soil and vegetation gradient. A set of soils subjected to different anthropogenic impact in a typical Mediterranean landscape, dominated by Quercus suber L., was examined in spring and autumn: a natural cork-oak forest, a pasture, a managed meadow, and two vineyards (ploughed and grass covered). Land uses affected the chemical and structural composition of the most stabilised fractions of soil organic matter and reduced soil C stocks and labile organic matter at both sampling season. A significant effect of land uses on bacterial community structure as well as an interaction effect between land uses and season was revealed by the EP index. Cluster analysis of culture-dependent DGGE patterns showed a different seasonal distribution of soil bacterial populations with subgroups associated to different land uses, in agreement with culture-independent T-RFLP results. Soils subjected to low human inputs (cork-oak forest and pasture) showed a more stable bacterial community than those with high human input (vineyards and managed meadow). Phylogenetic analysis revealed the predominance of Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and Firmicutes phyla with differences in class composition across the site, suggesting that the microbial composition changes in response to land uses. Taken altogether, our data suggest that soil bacterial communities were seasonally distinct and exhibited compositional shifts that tracked with changes in land use and soil management. These findings may contribute to future searches for bacterial bio-indicators of soil

  2. Soil bacterial community response to differences in agricultural management along with seasonal changes in a Mediterranean region.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annamaria Bevivino

    Full Text Available Land-use change is considered likely to be one of main drivers of biodiversity changes in grassland ecosystems. To gain insight into the impact of land use on the underlying soil bacterial communities, we aimed at determining the effects of agricultural management, along with seasonal variations, on soil bacterial community in a Mediterranean ecosystem where different land-use and plant cover types led to the creation of a soil and vegetation gradient. A set of soils subjected to different anthropogenic impact in a typical Mediterranean landscape, dominated by Quercus suber L., was examined in spring and autumn: a natural cork-oak forest, a pasture, a managed meadow, and two vineyards (ploughed and grass covered. Land uses affected the chemical and structural composition of the most stabilised fractions of soil organic matter and reduced soil C stocks and labile organic matter at both sampling season. A significant effect of land uses on bacterial community structure as well as an interaction effect between land uses and season was revealed by the EP index. Cluster analysis of culture-dependent DGGE patterns showed a different seasonal distribution of soil bacterial populations with subgroups associated to different land uses, in agreement with culture-independent T-RFLP results. Soils subjected to low human inputs (cork-oak forest and pasture showed a more stable bacterial community than those with high human input (vineyards and managed meadow. Phylogenetic analysis revealed the predominance of Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and Firmicutes phyla with differences in class composition across the site, suggesting that the microbial composition changes in response to land uses. Taken altogether, our data suggest that soil bacterial communities were seasonally distinct and exhibited compositional shifts that tracked with changes in land use and soil management. These findings may contribute to future searches for bacterial bio

  3. Multi-method characterization of a landslide in Champagne vineyards: the case study of the Jacotines landslide (Marne, France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolas, Bollot; Guillaume, Pierre; Gilles, Grandjean

    2014-05-01

    Key words : landslide, Champagne vineyards , geomorphology, geophysical data, superficial structure The Champagne region is strongly impacted by landslides. Usually inactive, these landslides suffer from partial reactivations leading to important damages, especially when they occur in the vineyards. In the Marne valley, and particularly in the center of Champagne vineyards area (Reuil), the Jacotines site is representative of such landslides since it presents typical surface characteristics widely observed in the region. However, its size, and especially its internal structure, can't be deduced from the surface analysis only. The aim of this work is to combine surface patterns analysis, geophysical data and borehole data to produce an interpretative model of the landslide. Preliminary geomorphological cartography was used for determining the influence of the landslide. From this information, geophysical investigations were carried out to image the internal structure of the landslide. Geophysical data fusion (combination of seismic and geoelectrical tomograms) was used to estimate the mechanical behavior and the fissuring pattern of the slope. Three transverse and longitudinal tomograms were used to define an heterogeneous area between 20 and 50 meters depth and a weathered zone from 0 to 10-20 meters depth. A 60 meters depth borehole on the main transverse tomogram found the shear plane and clarified the structure of the heterogeneous area as well as the uppermost weathered layer composed by debris flows resulting from partial reactivations processes.

  4. Sequence-based analysis of the Vitis vinifera L. cv Cabernet Sauvignon grape must mycobiome in three South African vineyards employing distinct agronomic systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MATHABATHA EVODIA SETATI

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Recent microbiomic research of agricultural habitats has highlighted tremendous microbial biodiversity associated with such ecosystems. Data generated in vineyards have furthermore highlighted significant regional differences in vineyard biodiversity, hinting at the possibility that such differences might be responsible for regional differences in wine style and character, a hypothesis referred to as microbial terroir. The current study further contributes to this body of work by comparing the mycobiome associated with South African (SA Cabernet Sauvignon grapes in three neighboring vineyards that employ different agronomic approaches, and comparing the outcome with similar data sets from Californian vineyards. The aim of this study was to fully characterize the mycobiomes associated with the grapes from these vineyards. The data revealed approximately 10 times more fungal diversity than what is typically retrieved from culture-based studies. The Biodynamic vineyard was found to harbor a more diverse fungal community (H = 2.6 than the conventional (H = 2.1 and integrated (H = 1.8 vineyards. The data show that ascomycota are the most abundant phylum in the three vineyards, with Aureobasidium pullulans and its close relative Kabatiella microsticta being the most dominant fungi. This is the first report to reveal a high incidence of K. microsticta in the grape/wine ecosystem. Different common wine yeast species, such as Metschnikowia pulcherrima and Starmerella bacillaris dominated the mycobiome in the three vineyards. The data show that the filamentous fungi are the most abundant community in grape must although they are not regarded as relevant during wine fermentation. Comparison of metagenomic datasets from the three SA vineyards and previously published data from Californian vineyards revealed only 25% of the fungi in the SA dataset was also present in the Californian dataset, with greater variation evident amongst ubiquitous epiphytic fungi.

  5. Sequence-based Analysis of the Vitis vinifera L. cv Cabernet Sauvignon Grape Must Mycobiome in Three South African Vineyards Employing Distinct Agronomic Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setati, Mathabatha E; Jacobson, Daniel; Bauer, Florian F

    2015-01-01

    Recent microbiomic research of agricultural habitats has highlighted tremendous microbial biodiversity associated with such ecosystems. Data generated in vineyards have furthermore highlighted significant regional differences in vineyard biodiversity, hinting at the possibility that such differences might be responsible for regional differences in wine style and character, a hypothesis referred to as "microbial terroir." The current study further contributes to this body of work by comparing the mycobiome associated with South African (SA) Cabernet Sauvignon grapes in three neighboring vineyards that employ different agronomic approaches, and comparing the outcome with similar data sets from Californian vineyards. The aim of this study was to fully characterize the mycobiomes associated with the grapes from these vineyards. The data revealed approximately 10 times more fungal diversity than what is typically retrieved from culture-based studies. The Biodynamic vineyard was found to harbor a more diverse fungal community (H = 2.6) than the conventional (H = 2.1) and integrated (H = 1.8) vineyards. The data show that ascomycota are the most abundant phylum in the three vineyards, with Aureobasidium pullulans and its close relative Kabatiella microsticta being the most dominant fungi. This is the first report to reveal a high incidence of K. microsticta in the grape/wine ecosystem. Different common wine yeast species, such as Metschnikowia pulcherrima and Starmerella bacillaris dominated the mycobiome in the three vineyards. The data show that the filamentous fungi are the most abundant community in grape must although they are not regarded as relevant during wine fermentation. Comparison of metagenomic datasets from the three SA vineyards and previously published data from Californian vineyards revealed only 25% of the fungi in the SA dataset was also present in the Californian dataset, with greater variation evident amongst ubiquitous epiphytic fungi.

  6. Copper and zinc accumulation, fractionation and migration in vineyard soils from Santa Catarina State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Brunetto

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The purpose of this study was to evaluate Cu and Zn migration and fractions in sandy soil of vineyards. In Urussanga (SC, Brazil, soil samples were collected from a 4-year-old and 15-yearold vineyard, and from a forested area. In the soils, the chemical characteristics of Cu and Zn were analyzed by the EDTA method, which determines the fraction available in soil; 3050B method of the USEPA for total concentrations, which represents the pseudo-soil contents in the soil; and chemical fractionation, which estimates soluble fraction, exchangeable fraction, fraction associated with clay minerals, fraction associated with organic matter and residual fraction. The results show that there is accumulation of Cu and Zn in sandy soils cultivated with grapevines and with frequent fungicide applications. These higher levels were found in soils with longer cultivation time (15 years old, but were restricted to the superficial layers of the soil. Most of the Cu was extracted by EDTA method, and it may be considered as available to plants. The EDTA also extracted a small part of Zn. Most of the Cu in the vineyard soils can be characterized by low geochemical mobility, but in the uppermost soil layers of the oldest vineyard, there was an increase in Cu content associated with soil organic matter. Most of the Zn in the vineyard soil was associated with minerals, which indicates low mobility and also low potential for toxicity to plants and microorganisms.

  7. Assessment of Copper and Zinc in Soils of a Vineyard Region in the State of São Paulo, Brazil

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    Gláucia Cecília Gabrielli dos Santos

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This soil acidification may increase the bioavailability of copper (Cu and zinc (Zn in soils. The objective of this study was to verify the concentrations of Cu and Zn in soils of a vineyard region, including sample acidification, to simulate acid rain. The study was developed in an area of vineyard cultivation, with an adjacent land having other crops grown, in the state of São Paulo, Brazil. Soil samples were collected and GPS located under different uses and coverings. The extracted solutions used to determine the available Cu and Zn forms were diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA, pH 7.3, and calcium chloride 0.01 M. The total forms were obtained by HNO3 digestion. The amounts of Cu and Zn extracted using DTPA were considered high in most of the samples and were greater in the areas cultivated with vineyards that had received fungicide applications for several decades. The total forms were higher in vineyard soils. The amounts of Cu and Zn extracted using CaCl2 did not have good correlation with vineyards or with other metals' forms. The results confirmed that the soil was enriched with Cu and Zn due to the management of the vineyards with chemicals for several decades.

  8. Mapping the environmental risk potential on surface water of pesticide contamination in the Prosecco's vineyard terraced landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizarro, Patricia; Ferrarese, Francesco; Loddo, Donato; Eugenio Pappalardo, Salvatore; Varotto, Mauro

    2016-04-01

    Intensive cropping systems today represent a paramount issue in terms of environmental impacts, since agricultural pollutants can constitute a potential threat to surface water, non-target organisms and aquatic ecosystems. Levels of pesticide concentrations in surface waters are indeed unquestionably correlated to crop and soil management practices at field-scale. Due to the numerous applications of pesticides required, orchards and vineyards can represent relevant non-point sources for pesticide contamination of water bodies, mainly prompted by soil erosion, surface runoff and spray drift. To reduce risks of pesticide contamination of surface water, the Directive 2009/128/CET imposed the local implementation of agricultural good practices and mitigation actions such as the use of vegetative buffer filter strips and hedgerows along river and pond banks. However, implementation of mitigation actions is often difficult, especially in extremely fragmented agricultural landscapes characterized by a complex territorial matrix set up on urban sprawling, frequent surface water bodies, important geomorphological processes and protected natural areas. Typically, such landscape matrix is well represented by the, Prosecco-DOCG vineyards area (NE of Italy, Province of Treviso) which lays on hogback hills of conglomerate, marls and sandstone that ranges between 50 and 500 m asl. Moreover such vineyards landscape is characterized by traditional and non-traditional agricultural terraces The general aim of this paper is to identify areas of surface water bodies with high potential risk of pesticide contamination from surrounding vineyards in the 735 ha of Lierza river basin (Refrontolo, TV), one of the most representative terraced landscape of the Prosecco-DOCG area. Specific aims are i) mapping terraced Prosecco-DOCG vineyards, ii) classifying potential risk from pesticide of the different areas. Remote sensing technologies such as four bands aerial photos (RGB+NIR) and Light

  9. Airborne and Ground-Based Platforms for Data Collection in Small Vineyards: Examples from the UK and Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, David R.; Gómez, Cristina; Fahrentrapp, Johannes

    2015-04-01

    This paper presents an overview of some of the low-cost ground and airborne platforms and technologies now becoming available for data collection in small area vineyards. Low-cost UAV or UAS platforms and cameras are now widely available as the means to collect both vertical and oblique aerial still photography and airborne videography in vineyards. Examples of small aerial platforms include the AR Parrot Drone, the DJI Phantom (1 and 2), and 3D Robotics IRIS+. Both fixed-wing and rotary wings platforms offer numerous advantages for aerial image acquisition including the freedom to obtain high resolution imagery at any time required. Imagery captured can be stored on mobile devices such as an Apple iPad and shared, written directly to a memory stick or card, or saved to the Cloud. The imagery can either be visually interpreted or subjected to semi-automated analysis using digital image processing (DIP) software to extract information about vine status or the vineyard environment. At the ground-level, a radio-controlled 'rugged' model 4x4 vehicle can also be used as a mobile platform to carry a number of sensors (e.g. a Go-Pro camera) around a vineyard, thereby facilitating quick and easy field data collection from both within the vine canopy and rows. For the small vineyard owner/manager with limited financial resources, this technology has a number of distinct advantages to aid in vineyard management practices: it is relatively cheap to purchase; requires a short learning-curve to use and to master; can make use of autonomous ground control units for repetitive coverage enabling reliable monitoring; and information can easily be analysed and integrated within a GIS with minimal expertise. In addition, these platforms make widespread use of familiar and everyday, off-the-shelf technologies such as WiFi, Go-Pro cameras, Cloud computing, and smartphones or tablets as the control interface, all with a large and well established end-user support base. Whilst there are

  10. Does management intensity in inter rows effect soil physical properties in Austrian and Romanian vineyards?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Thomas; Strauss, Peter; Stiper, Katrin; Klipa, Vladimir; Popescu, Daniela; Winter, Silvia; Zaller, Johann G.

    2016-04-01

    Successful viticulture is mainly influenced by soil and climate. The availability of water during the growing season highly influences wine quality and quantity. To protect soil from being eroded most of the winegrowers keep the inter row zones of the vineyards green. Greening also helps to provide water-stress to the grapes for harvesting high quality wines. However, these greening strategies concerning the intensity of inter row management differ from farm to farm and are mainly based on personal experience of the winegrowers. However to what extent different inter row management practices affect soil physical properties are not clearly understood yet. To measure possible effects of inter row management in vineyards on soil physical parameters we selected paired vineyards with different inter row management in Austria and Romania. In total more than 7000 soil analysis were conducted for saturated and unsaturated hydraulic conductivity, soil water retention, water stable aggregates, total organic carbon, cation exchange capacity, potassium, phosphorous, soil texture, bulk density and water infiltration. The comparison between high intensity management with at least one soil disturbance per year, medium intensity with one soil disturbance every second inter row per year and low intensity management with no soil disturbance since at least 5 years indicates that investigated soil physical properties did not improve for the upper soil layer (3-8cm). This is in contrast to general perceptions of improved soil physical properties due to low intensity of inter row management, i.e. permanent vegetated inter rows. This may be attributed to long term and high frequency mechanical stress by agricultural machinery in inter rows.

  11. Contrasting land uses in Mediterranean agro-silvo-pastoral systems generated patchy diversity patterns of vascular plants and below-ground microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagella, Simonetta; Filigheddu, Rossella; Caria, Maria Carmela; Girlanda, Mariangela; Roggero, Pier Paolo

    2014-12-01

    The aims of this paper were (i) to define how contrasting land uses affected plant biodiversity in Mediterranean agro-silvo-pastoral-systems across a gradient of disturbance regimes: cork oak forests, secondary grasslands, hay crops, grass covered vineyards, tilled vineyards; (ii) to determine whether these patterns mirrored those of below-ground microorganisms and whether the components of γ-diversity followed a similar model. The disturbance regimes affected plant assemblage composition. Species richness decreased with increasing land use intensity, the Shannon index showed the highest values in grasslands and hay crops. Plant assemblage composition patterns mirrored those of Basidiomycota and Ascomycota. Richness in Basidiomycota, denitrifying bacteria and microbial biomass showed the same trend as that observed for vascular plant richness. The Shannon index pattern of below-ground microorganisms was different from that of plants. The plant γ-diversity component model weakly mirrored those of Ascomycota. Patchy diversity patterns suggest that the maintenance of contrasting land uses associated with different productions typical of agro-silvo-pastoral-systems can guarantee the conservation of biodiversity. Copyright © 2014 Académie des sciences. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Soil Copper and Zinc Accumulation and Bioavailability under a Long Term Vineyard Cultivation in South Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Lorenzoni

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Soil metal contamination, particularly by copper, is a phenomenon which often occurs in the surface layer of vineyard soils, due to the widespread application of Cu-based products in the plant disease management. Our study was focused on soil Cu and Zn accumulation and bioavailability as related to some soil properties under a long term vineyard cultivation, in a D.O.C. wine area of South Italy (Calabria region. Soils selected from different landscape units, ranging from acid to alkaline, under homogeneous climate conditions and vineyard management system, were investigated. Each soil was sampled in both a vineyard and a fallow area, at the depth levels of 0-10 cm, 10-25 cm and 25-50 cm. The experimental data were analysed by ANOVA, correlation and multiple stepwise regression procedures. As expected, the results indicated a contamination of the vineyard soils by Cu due to the repeated application of Cu-based products in the plant disease control, with increments of total Cu content up to 150% against the fallow soils. On the contrary, the results led to exclude any soil Zn pollution due to the vineyard management and to suppose a main pedogenic origin for this metal. According to the relationships between Cu content and soil properties, Cu accumulation was promoted by higher pH, clay and organic matter contents. These soil properties also showed a strong influence on metal bioavailability, which underwent a significant reduction in soils with higher pH and clay contents. A further result of great significance was the adverse impact of soil erosion, enhanced by the application of not suitable management systems in hilly areas, on soil capability to retain polluting metals. Soil pH, organic matter content and texture, as well as soil management system, are key factors in soil capability to limit polluting metal dispersion in the environment.

  13. Soil Copper and Zinc Accumulation and Bioavailability under a Long Term Vineyard Cultivation in South Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Maria Corea

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Soil metal contamination, particularly by copper, is a phenomenon which often occurs in the surface layer of vineyard soils, due to the widespread application of Cu-based products in the plant disease management. Our study was focused on soil Cu and Zn accumulation and bioavailability as related to some soil properties under a long term vineyard cultivation, in a D.O.C. wine area of South Italy (Calabria region. Soils selected from different landscape units, ranging from acid to alkaline, under homogeneous climate conditions and vineyard management system, were investigated. Each soil was sampled in both a vineyard and a fallow area, at the depth levels of 0-10 cm, 10-25 cm and 25-50 cm. The experimental data were analysed by ANOVA, correlation and multiple stepwise regression procedures. As expected, the results indicated a contamination of the vineyard soils by Cu due to the repeated application of Cu-based products in the plant disease control, with increments of total Cu content up to 150% against the fallow soils. On the contrary, the results led to exclude any soil Zn pollution due to the vineyard management and to suppose a main pedogenic origin for this metal. According to the relationships between Cu content and soil properties, Cu accumulation was promoted by higher pH, clay and organic matter contents. These soil properties also showed a strong influence on metal bioavailability, which underwent a significant reduction in soils with higher pH and clay contents. A further result of great significance was the adverse impact of soil erosion, enhanced by the application of not suitable management systems in hilly areas, on soil capability to retain polluting metals. Soil pH, organic matter content and texture, as well as soil management system, are key factors in soil capability to limit polluting metal dispersion in the environment.

  14. Mediterranean Diet and Diabetes: Prevention and Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgoulis, Michael; Kontogianni, Meropi D.; Yiannakouris, Nikos

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present review is to examine current scientific knowledge on the association between the Mediterranean diet and diabetes mellitus (mostly type 2 diabetes). A definition of the Mediterranean diet and the tools widely used to evaluate adherence to this traditional diet (Mediterranean diet indices) are briefly presented. The review focuses on epidemiological data linking adherence to the Mediterranean diet with the risk of diabetes development, as well as evidence from interventional studies assessing the effect of the Mediterranean diet on diabetes control and the management of diabetes-related complications. The above mentioned data are explored on the basis of evaluating the Mediterranean diet as a whole dietary pattern, rather than focusing on the effect of its individual components. Possible protective mechanisms of the Mediterranean diet against diabetes are also briefly discussed. PMID:24714352

  15. 46 CFR 7.20 - Nantucket Sound, Vineyard Sound, Buzzards Bay, Narragansett Bay, MA, Block Island Sound and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Nantucket Sound, Vineyard Sound, Buzzards Bay, Narragansett Bay, MA, Block Island Sound and easterly entrance to Long Island Sound, NY. 7.20 Section 7.20... Atlantic Coast § 7.20 Nantucket Sound, Vineyard Sound, Buzzards Bay, Narragansett Bay, MA, Block Island...

  16. ELECTROSPUN MESOFIBERS, A NOVEL BIODEGRADABLE PHEROMONE DISPENSER TECHNOLOGY, ARE COMBINED WITH MECHANICAL DEPLOYMENT FOR EFFICIENT IPM OF LOBESIA BOTRANA IN VINEYARDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hummel, Hans E; Langner, S S; Breuer, M

    2015-01-01

    Behaviour modifying pheromones are well known agents for disrupting mating communication of pest insects. For optimal activity, they must be dispensed in time and space at a quantitatively measurable, predetermined release rate covering the flight period of the target species. Pheromones appeal to environmentally conscientious entomologists for their biodegradability, non-toxicity and ecological compatibility. In attempts of combining the virtues of pheromones, suitable slow release dispensers, and their mechanical deployment, an ecologically sensible, reasonably priced and patented procedure was developed and tested with the vineyard pest Lobesia botrana (Lep.: Tortricidae). It is characterized by (1) Electrospun mesofibers with diameters ranging from 0.6 to 3.5 micrometres, containing disruptants and dispensing it by slow release diffusion into the crop, (2) simultaneous application of the fully biodegradable combination of pheromone with Ecoflex polyester mesofiber, (3) combination of mechanical deployment by multi-purpose cultivators of the prefabricated pheromone dispensers with other simultaneous cultivation measures, and thus further reducing labour time and treatment costs. The dispensers are biodegradable within half a year without leaving any objectionable residues. In the standard eco-toxicology tests pheromone dispensers are harmless to non-target organisms. The disruptive effect of one treatment lasts for seven weeks which covers well one of several flight periods of L. botrana.

  17. Impact of Commercial Strain Use on Saccharomyces cerevisiae Population Structure and Dynamics in Pinot Noir Vineyards and Spontaneous Fermentations of a Canadian Winery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan T Martiniuk

    Full Text Available Wine is produced by one of two methods: inoculated fermentation, where a commercially-produced, single Saccharomyces cerevisiae (S. cerevisiae yeast strain is used; or the traditional spontaneous fermentation, where yeast present on grape and winery surfaces carry out the fermentative process. Spontaneous fermentations are characterized by a diverse succession of yeast, ending with one or multiple strains of S. cerevisiae dominating the fermentation. In wineries using both fermentation methods, commercial strains may dominate spontaneous fermentations. We elucidate the impact of the winery environment and commercial strain use on S. cerevisiae population structure in spontaneous fermentations over two vintages by comparing S. cerevisiae populations in aseptically fermented grapes from a Canadian Pinot Noir vineyard to S. cerevisiae populations in winery-conducted fermentations of grapes from the same vineyard. We also characterize the vineyard-associated S. cerevisiae populations in two other geographically separate Pinot Noir vineyards farmed by the same winery. Winery fermentations were not dominated by commercial strains, but by a diverse number of strains with genotypes similar to commercial strains, suggesting that a population of S. cerevisiae derived from commercial strains is resident in the winery. Commercial and commercial-related yeast were also identified in the three vineyards examined, although at a lower frequency. There is low genetic differentiation and S. cerevisiae population structure between vineyards and between the vineyard and winery that persisted over both vintages, indicating commercial yeast are a driver of S. cerevisiae population structure. We also have evidence of distinct and persistent populations of winery and vineyard-associated S. cerevisiae populations unrelated to commercial strains. This study is the first to characterize S. cerevisiae populations in Canadian vineyards.

  18. Impact of Commercial Strain Use on Saccharomyces cerevisiae Population Structure and Dynamics in Pinot Noir Vineyards and Spontaneous Fermentations of a Canadian Winery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martiniuk, Jonathan T; Pacheco, Braydon; Russell, Gordon; Tong, Stephanie; Backstrom, Ian; Measday, Vivien

    2016-01-01

    Wine is produced by one of two methods: inoculated fermentation, where a commercially-produced, single Saccharomyces cerevisiae (S. cerevisiae) yeast strain is used; or the traditional spontaneous fermentation, where yeast present on grape and winery surfaces carry out the fermentative process. Spontaneous fermentations are characterized by a diverse succession of yeast, ending with one or multiple strains of S. cerevisiae dominating the fermentation. In wineries using both fermentation methods, commercial strains may dominate spontaneous fermentations. We elucidate the impact of the winery environment and commercial strain use on S. cerevisiae population structure in spontaneous fermentations over two vintages by comparing S. cerevisiae populations in aseptically fermented grapes from a Canadian Pinot Noir vineyard to S. cerevisiae populations in winery-conducted fermentations of grapes from the same vineyard. We also characterize the vineyard-associated S. cerevisiae populations in two other geographically separate Pinot Noir vineyards farmed by the same winery. Winery fermentations were not dominated by commercial strains, but by a diverse number of strains with genotypes similar to commercial strains, suggesting that a population of S. cerevisiae derived from commercial strains is resident in the winery. Commercial and commercial-related yeast were also identified in the three vineyards examined, although at a lower frequency. There is low genetic differentiation and S. cerevisiae population structure between vineyards and between the vineyard and winery that persisted over both vintages, indicating commercial yeast are a driver of S. cerevisiae population structure. We also have evidence of distinct and persistent populations of winery and vineyard-associated S. cerevisiae populations unrelated to commercial strains. This study is the first to characterize S. cerevisiae populations in Canadian vineyards.

  19. Identifying economic hurdles to early adoption of preventative practices: The case of trunk diseases in California winegrape vineyards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Kaplan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite the high likelihood of infection and substantial yield losses from trunk diseases, many California practitioners wait to adopt field-tested, preventative practices (delayed pruning, double pruning, and application of pruning-wound protectants until after disease symptoms appear in the vineyard at around 10 years old. We evaluate net benefits from adoption of these practices before symptoms appear in young Cabernet Sauvignon vineyards and after they become apparent in mature vineyards to identify economic hurdles to early adoption. We simulate winegrape production in select counties of California and find widespread benefits from early adoption, increasing vineyard profitable lifespans, in some cases, by close to 50%. However, hurdles may result from uncertainty about the cost and returns from adoption, labor constraints, long time lags in benefits from early adoption, growers’ perceived probabilities of infection, and their discount rate. Development of extension resources communicating benefits and potential hurdles to growers likely reduces uncertainty, increasing early adoption. Improvements in efficacy of preventative practices, perhaps by detecting when pathogen spores are released into the vineyard, will increase early adoption. Lastly, practice cost reductions will increase early adoption too, especially when the time it takes for adoption to payoff and infection uncertainty are influential in adoption decisions.

  20. Quantitative comparison of initial soil erosion processes and runoff generation in Spanish and German vineyards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigo Comino, J; Iserloh, T; Lassu, T; Cerdà, A; Keestra, S D; Prosdocimi, M; Brings, C; Marzen, M; Ramos, M C; Senciales, J M; Ruiz Sinoga, J D; Seeger, M; Ries, J B

    2016-09-15

    The aim of this study was to enable a quantitative comparison of initial soil erosion processes in European vineyards using the same methodology and equipment. The study was conducted in four viticultural areas with different characteristics (Valencia and Málaga in Spain, Ruwer-Mosel valley and Saar-Mosel valley in Germany). Old and young vineyards, with conventional and ecological planting and management systems were compared. The same portable rainfall simulator with identical rainfall intensity (40mmh(-1)) and sampling intervals (30min of test duration, collecting the samples at 5-min-intervals) was used over a circular test plot with 0.28m(2). The results of 83 simulations have been analysed and correlation coefficients were calculated for each study area to identify the relationship between environmental plot characteristics, soil texture, soil erosion, runoff and infiltration. The results allow for identification of the main factors related to soil properties, topography and management, which control soil erosion processes in vineyards. The most important factors influencing soil erosion and runoff were the vegetation cover for the ecological German vineyards (with 97.6±8% infiltration coefficients) and stone cover, soil moisture and slope steepness for the conventional land uses. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. From vineyard to winery: a source map of microbial diversity driving wine fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison-Whittle, Peter; Goddard, Matthew R

    2018-01-01

    Humans have been making wine for thousands of years and microorganisms play an integral part in this process as they not only drive fermentation, but also significantly influence the flavour, aroma and quality of finished wines. Since fruits are ephemeral, they cannot comprise a permanent microbial habitat; thus, an age-old unanswered question concerns the origin of fruit and ferment associated microbes. Here we use next-generation sequencing approaches to examine and quantify the roles of native forest, vineyard soil, bark and fruit habitats as sources of fungal diversity in ferments. We show that microbial communities in harvested juice and ferments vary significantly across regions, and that while vineyard fungi account for ∼40% of the source of this diversity, uncultivated ecosystems outside of vineyards also prove a significant source. We also show that while communities in harvested juice resemble those found on grapes, these increasingly resemble fungi present on vine bark as the ferment proceeds. © 2017 The Authors. Environmental Microbiology published by Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Saccharomyces cerevisiae vineyard strains have different nitrogen requirements that affect their fermentation performances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemos Junior, W J F; Viel, A; Bovo, B; Carlot, M; Giacomini, A; Corich, V

    2017-11-01

    In this work the fermentation performances of seven vineyard strains, together with the industrial strain EC1118, have been investigated at three differing yeast assimilable nitrogen (YAN) concentrations (300 mg N l -1 , 150 mg N l -1 and 70 mg N l -1 ) in synthetic musts. The results indicated that the response to different nitrogen levels is strain dependent. Most of the strains showed a dramatic decrease of the fermentation at 70 mg N l -1 but no significant differences in CO 2 production were found when fermentations at 300 mg N l -1 and 150 mg N l -1 were compared. Only one among the vineyard strains showed a decrease of the fermentation when 150 mg N l -1 were present in the must. These results contribute to shed light on strain nitrogen requirements and offer new perspectives to manage the fermentation process during winemaking. Selected vineyard Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains can improve the quality and the complexity of local wines. Wine quality is also influenced by nitrogen availability that modulates yeast fermentation activity. In this work, yeast nitrogen assimilation was evaluated to clarify the nitrogen requirements of vineyard strains. Most of the strains needed high nitrogen levels to express the best fermentation performances. The results obtained indicate the critical nitrogen levels. When the nitrogen concentration was above the critical level, the fermentation process increased, but if the level of nitrogen was further increased no effect on the fermentation was found. © 2017 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  3. Energy resources' utilization in organic and conventional vineyards: Energy flow, greenhouse gas emissions and biofuel production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kavargiris, Stefanos E.; Mamolos, Andreas P.; Tsatsarelis, Constantinos A.; Nikolaidou, Anna E.; Kalburtji, Kiriaki L.

    2009-01-01

    An energy analysis, in conventional and organic vineyards, combined with ethanol production and greenhouse gas emissions, is useful in evaluating present situation and deciding best management strategies. The objective of this study was to evaluate the differences in the energy flow between organic and conventional vineyards in three locations, to calculate CO 2 , CH 4 and N 2 O-emissions based on the used fossil energy and to explore if wine industry wastes can be used to extract bioethanol. The data were collected through personal interviews with farmers during 2004-2005. Eighteen farmers, who owned vineyards about 1 ha each, were randomly selected to participate in this study [(3 conventional and 3 organic) x 3 locations]. The means averaged over all locations for fertilizer application, plant protection products application, transportation, harvesting, labor, machinery, fuels, plant protections products and tools energy inputs, total energy inputs, outputs (grapes), outputs (grapes + shoots), grape yield, man hour, pomace and ethanol from pomace were significantly higher in conventional than in organic vineyards, while the opposite occurred for the pruning. Means averaged over two farming systems for harvesting, tools energy inputs, energy outputs (grapes), grape yield, pomace and ethanol from pomace were significantly higher at location A, followed by location C and location B. Finally, for irrigation, the means averaged over the two farming systems were significantly lower at location C. Greenhouse gas emissions were significant lower in organic than in conventional vineyards. The results show a clear response of energy inputs to energy outputs that resulted from the farming system and location.

  4. Bioavailability of Compounds Susceptible to Enzymatic Oxidation Enhances Growth of Shiitake Medicinal Mushroom (Lentinus edodes) in Solid-State Fermentation with Vineyard Prunings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera, Rosina; López-Peña, Damian; Asaff, Ali; Esqueda, Martín; Valenzuela-Soto, Elisa M

    2018-01-01

    Grapes are widely produced in northwestern Mexico, generating many wood trimmings (vineyard prunings) that have no further local use. This makes vineyard prunings a very attractive alternative for the cultivation of white-rot medicinal mushrooms such as Lentinus edodes. This type of wood can also offer a model for the evaluation of oxidative enzyme production during the fermentation process. We tested the effect of wood from vineyard prunings on the vegetative growth of and production of ligninolytic enzymes in L. edodes in solid-state fermentation and with wheat straw as the control substrate. The specific growth rate of the fungus was 2-fold higher on vineyard pruning culture (μM = 0.95 day-1) than on wheat straw culture (μM = 0.47 day-1). Laccase-specific production was 4 times higher in the vineyard prunings culture than on wheat straw (0.34 and 0.08 mU · mg protein-1 · ppm CO2-1, respectively), and manganese peroxidase production was 3.7 times higher on wheat straw culture than on vineyard prunings (2.21 and 0.60 mU · mg protein-1 · ppm CO2-1, respectively). To explain accurately these differences in growth and ligninolytic enzyme activity, methanol extracts were obtained from each substrate and characterized. Resveratrol and catechins were the main compounds identified in vineyard prunings, whereas epigallocatechin was the only one detected in wheat straw. Compounds susceptible to enzymatic oxidation are more bioavailable in vineyard prunings than in wheat straw, and thus the highest L. edodes growth rate is associated with the presence of these compounds.

  5. Life Cycle Assessment of Two Vineyards after the Application of Precision Viticulture Techniques: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athanasios T. Balafoutis

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Precision viticulture is the application of site-specific techniques to vineyard production to improve grape quality and yield and minimize the negative effects on the environment. While there are various studies on the inherent spatial and temporal variability of vineyards, the assessment of the environmental impact of variable rate applications has attracted limited attention. In this study, two vineyards planted with different grapevine cultivars (Sauvignon Blanc and Syrah were examined for four consecutive growing seasons (2013–2016. The first year, the two vineyards were only studied in terms of soil properties and crop characteristics, which resulted in the delineation of two distinct management zones for each field. For the following three years, variable rate nutrient application was applied to each management zone based on leaf canopy reflectance, where variable rate irrigation was based on soil moisture sensors, meteorological data, evapotranspiration calculation, and leaf canopy reflectance. Life cycle assessment was carried out to identify the effect of variable rate applications on vineyard agro-ecosystems. The results of variable rate nutrients and water application in the selected management zones as an average value of three growing seasons were compared to the conventional practice. It was found that the reduction of product carbon footprint (PCF of grapes in Sauvignon Blanc between the two periods was 25% in total. Fertilizer production and distribution (direct and application (indirect was the most important sector of greenhouse gas (GHG emissions reduction, accounting for 17.2%, and the within-farm energy use was the second ranked sector with 8.8% (crop residue management increase GHG emissions by 1.1%, while 0.1% GHG reduction is obtained by pesticide use. For the Syrah vineyard, where the production was less intensive, precision viticulture led to a PCF reduction of 28.3% compared to conventional production. Fertilizers

  6. Comparison of species-rich cover crop mixtures in Hungarian vineyards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donkó, Adam; Miglécz, Tamas; Valkó, Orsolya; Török, Peter; Deák, Balazs; Kelemen, Andras; Zanathy, Gabor; Drexler, Dora

    2014-05-01

    In case of vine growing, agricultural practices of the past decades - as mechanical cultivation on steep vineyard slopes - can endanger the soil of vineyards. Moreover, climate change scenarios predict heavier rainstorms, which can also promote the degradation of the soil. These are some of the reasons why sustainable floor management plays an increasingly important role in viticulture recently. The use of cover crops in the inter-row has a special importance, especially on steep slopes and in case of organic farming to provide conditions for environmental friendly soil management. Species-rich cover crop seed mixtures may help to prevent erosion and create easier cultivation circumstances. Furthermore they have a positive effect on soil structure, soil fertility and ecosystem functions. However, it is important to find suitable seed mixtures for specific production sites, consisting ideally of native species from local provenance, adapted to the local climate/vine region/vineyard. Requirements for suitable cover crop species are as follows: they should save the soil from erosion and also from compaction caused by the movement of workers and machines, they should not compete significantly with the grapevines, or influence produce quality. We started to develop and apply several species-rich cover crop seed mixtures in spring 2012. During the experiments, three cover crop seed mixtures (Biocont-Ecovin mixture, mixture of legumes, mixture of grasses and herbs) were compared in vineyards of the Tokaj and Szekszárd vine regions of Hungary. Each mixture was sown in three consecutive inter-rows at each experimental site (all together 10 sites). Besides botanical measurements, yield, must quality, and pruning weight was studied in every treatment. The botanical survey showed that the following species of the mixtures established successfully and prospered during the years 2012 and 2013: Coronilla varia, Lotus corniculatus, Medicago lupulina, Onobrychis viciifolia

  7. Phoma negriana, a new invasive pathogen for Moghan's vineyards ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2008-03-18

    Mar 18, 2008 ... Pathogenesity study were carried out on some separating grape- vines located in Moghan Junior College of Agriculture vineyards that were surface sterilized with 0.5% sodium hypochlorite by spraying on aerial parts of them. A spore suspension containing 106 conidia/ml were inoculated using a hand ...

  8. Growing Industries, Growing Invasions? The Case of the Argentine Ant in Vineyards of Northern Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Schulze-Sylvester; José A. Corronca; Carolina I. Paris

    2018-01-01

    The invasive Argentine ant causes ecological and economic damage worldwide. In 2011, this species was reported in vineyards of Cafayate, a wine-producing town in the Andes, Argentina. While the local xeric climate is unsuitable for Argentine ants, populations could establish in association with vineyards where human activity and irrigation facilitate propagule introduction and survival. In 2013–2014, we combined extensive sampling of the area using ant-baits with monitoring of the change in l...

  9. Landscape, Geology and Wines in the Jurançon vineyard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fasentieux, Bertrand; Burgio, Marion; Delfaud, Jean

    2015-04-01

    Located on the Pyrenean Northern Piedmont, in Bearn, the PDO vineyards of Jurançon are undergoing great development, which requires a study of soils. The landscape constitutes the main approach exploiting physical parameters - climatological, morphological and geological. Man has realized the cadastral map for agricultural land in which vineyards develop. The geological substratum falls into three units: the Cretaceous flysch to the South, the Cenozoic calcareous pudding stone of Jurançon to the North-East and the oligo-Miocene molasse of Monein to the North-West.The soils resulting from these units are varied, with different pHs, permeabilities and clay minerals. Each of these three ' terroirs ' produces dry or sweet wines with different characteristics well highlighted by winemakers. Thus, geology, associated with climatology, determines distinctive types. Their expression, the landscape, becomes a communication tool, with a view to develop wine tourism.

  10. Study of microarthopod communities to assess soil quality in different managed vineyards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagnarli, E.; Goggioli, D.; Tarchi, F.; Guidi, S.; Nannelli, R.; Vignozzi, N.; Valboa, G.; Lottero, M. R.; Corino, L.; Simoni, S.

    2015-01-01

    Land use influences the abundance and diversity of soil arthropods. The evaluation of the impact of different management strategies on soil quality is increasingly requested. The determination of communities' structures of edaphic fauna can represent an efficient tool. In this study, in some vineyards in Piedmont (Italy), the effects of two different management systems, organic and integrated pest management (IPM), on soil biota were evaluated. As microarthropods living in soil surface are an important component of soil ecosystem interacting with all the other system components, a multi disciplinary approach was adopted by characterizing also some soil physical and chemical characteristics (soil texture, soil pH, total organic carbon, total nitrogen, calcium carbonate). Soil samplings were carried out on Winter 2011 and Spring 2012. All specimens were counted and determined up to the order level. The biological quality of the soil was defined through the determination of ecological indices, such as QBS-ar, species richness and indices of Shannon-Weaver, Pielou, Margalef and Simpson. The mesofauna abundance was affected by both the type of management and the soil texture. The analysis of microarthropod communities by QBS-ar showed higher values in organic than in IPM managed vineyards; in particular, the values registered in organic vineyards were similar to those characteristic of preserved soils.

  11. Evaluation of mechanical harvesting in viticulture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Zemánek

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Harvesting by mashine was in CZ tested at bygones century (70th. Tests rekord were bad (high share of leaf, detritus of concrete column, losses of berries.Lasting fall of worker in agriculture and vehement growth floricultural surfaces – vineyard (somewhere 19.000 hectare, requires complex rationalization and mechanization of all works stages which needs needlework. Harvisting in viniculture needs perhaps 30% of all working time (200–250 o‘clock on 1 hectare. Incidence thereof begun most of bigger producers in our country with mechanical harvisting. Technical performance of this machines turn up. There are not available data about costs and their work quality.The benefit deal with classification of mechanical harvesting (juice adhering, berries lost, damage of vineyard transaction by the help of semi-trailer and self-propelled harvesters.

  12. Effects of reduced soil functionality in European vineyards

    OpenAIRE

    Costantini, E.A.C.; Priori, S.; Akca, S.; Castaldini, M.; D'Avino, L.; Fulchin, E.; Gagnarli, E.; Giffard, B.; Kìraz, M.E.; Lagomarsino, A.; Landi, S.; Martensson, A.; Pellegrini, S.; Perria, R.; Puccioni, S.

    2017-01-01

    Improper or excessive land preparation methods in vineyards before planting can have a considerable impact on soil functionality. They include excessive levelling and deep ploughing leading to disturbances of the natural contour of slopes and destruction, truncation and burial of soil horizons. Manipulations may significantly modify chemical, physical, biological and hydrological balance of soils. Problems that may arise from these interventions relate to the reduction of organic ...

  13. Protection against productivity versus erosion vineyards. Testing of vegetal covers in slope crops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marques, M. J.; Ruiz-Colmenero, M.; Garcia-Munoz, S.; Cabello, F.; Munoz-Organero, G.; Perez-Jimenez, M. A.; Bienes, R.

    2009-01-01

    Temporary and permanent cover crops were used in three rain fed vineyards in the Center of Spain. They were sown in the middle of the strips to assess their ability to control erosion as well as their influence on grape production. Data from the year 2008 are compared with those obtained with traditional tillage treatment. The permanent cover formed by Brachypodium distachyon showed better ability to control erosion but it produced a decrease in production in young vines. barley and rye treatments were temporary covers, mowed in spring. They also reduced the erosion compared with the tillage however they did not appear to affect the vineyard production. (Author)

  14. Rootstock and vineyard floor management influence on 'Cabernet Sauvignon' grape yeast assimilable nitrogen (YAN).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jungmin; Steenwerth, Kerri L

    2011-08-01

    This is a study on the influence that two rootstocks (110R, high vigour; 420A, low vigour) and three vineyard floor management regimes (tilled resident vegetation - usual practise in California, and barley cover crops that were either mowed or tilled) had upon grape nitrogen-containing compounds (mainly ammonia and free amino acids recalculated as YAN), sugars, and organic acids in 'Cabernet Sauvignon' clone 8. A significant difference was observed for some of the free amino acids between rootstocks. In both sample preparation methods (juiced or chemically extracted), 110R rootstock grapes were significantly higher in SER, GLN, THR, ARG, VAL, ILE, LEU, and YAN than were 420A rootstock grapes. Differences in individual free amino acid profiles and concentrations were observed between the two sample preparations, which indicate that care should be taken when comparing values from dissimilar methods. No significant differences among vineyard floor treatments were detected, which suggests that mowing offers vineyard managers a sustainable practise, alternative to tilling, without negatively affecting grape nitrogen compounds, sugars, or organic acids. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. THE PECULIARITIES OF THE ACCOUNTING OF CONSUMPTIONS CONCERNING GAPS REMOVAL IN VINEYARDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana ŞEVCIUC

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Today’s methodology of the accounting of the economic operations concerning gaps removal in vineyards is imperfect; it generates numerous uncertainties and it doesn’t take into account some factors that directly influence gaps removal technology. In our opinion, the rationality of gaps removal in fruitful vineyards may be argued from both economic and biological points. Some authors suggest solving this problem by classifying current accounts that is doubtful as these suggestions don’t have a sound accounting basis and they neglect the fundamental principles of the accounting. That is why, this article suggests the economic way of solving this problem by determining the time of consumptions recovery when planting, caring and growing the cuttings till they give fruit.

  16. Metal contamination of vineyard soils in wet subtropics (southern Brazil)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirlean, Nicolai; Roisenberg, Ari; Chies, Jaqueline O.

    2007-01-01

    The vine-growing areas in Brazil are the dampest in the world. Copper maximum value registered in this study was as much as 3200 mg kg -1 , which is several times higher than reported for vineyard soils in temperate climates. Other pesticide-derived metals accumulate in the topsoil layer, surpassing in the old vineyards the background value several times for Zn, Pb, Cr and Cd. Copper is transported to deeper soils' horizons and can potentially contaminate groundwater. The soils from basaltic volcanic rocks reveal the highest values of Cu extracted with CaCl 2 , demonstrating a high capacity of copper transference into plants. When evaluating the risks of copper's toxic effects in subtropics, the soils from rhyolitic volcanic rocks are more worrisome, as the Cu extracted with ammonium acetate 1 M surpasses the toxic threshold as much as 4-6 times. - Copper-based pesticide use in wet subtropics is environmentally more risky

  17. Conidia dispersal of Diplodia species  in a French vineyard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Kuntzmann

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Diseases caused by species of Botryosphaeriaceae lead to significant losses of grape yield. Species in this family produce foliar symptoms similar to, but distinguishable from esca, and the diseases they cause are generally named black dead arm (BDA. Botryosphaeriaceae species are ascomycetes frequently isolated from grapevine stocks showing decline or dieback symptoms. It is therefore useful to know what is the spore dissemination period of Botryosphaeriaceae in the vineyard. The objective of this study was to determine the peak periods of conidial release by some Diplodia spp. in the Botryosphaeriaceae in grapevines and to ascertain the climatic factors that influence inoculum availability and dispersal. Spore dispersal from Vitis vinifera was studied from 2005 to 2006 in a French vineyard. Spores of Diplodia seriata and D.  mutila were trapped throughout the year. Spore release from D. seriata peaked during the vegetative growth period, while D. mutila  released its spores later.

  18. Handling of vegetable biodiversity and the biological control of insect-plague: Case of an organic vineyard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicholls, Clara I

    2000-01-01

    In the handling of plagues it is feasible to increase natural enemies, populations diversifying the habitat. In the agro ecosystems the importance of the marginal vegetation is recognized for the parasitoids survival and predators. In commercial cultivations of vineyards, managed organically, was ahead this work, corridors of 65 different species from plants with flowers were settled down. The covering cultivations were sowed in array for half every year. The vineyards received 2 tons of compost on average for hectare. For the control of illnesses it was used sulfur preventively. It sought to be necessary if the corridor 200 meters long could increase the biological control of insect's plague in the vineyard. It was evaluated the contribution of the corridor like supplier of alternative nutritious resources, consistent, abundant and well distributed of natural enemies. It was proven the utility of the corridor to increase the populational levels of beneficent insects

  19. Geographical and Cultivar Features Differentiate Grape Microbiota in Northern Italy and Spain Vineyards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerio Mezzasalma

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have highlighted the role of the grapevine microbiome in addressing a wide panel of features, ranging from the signature of field origin to wine quality. Although the influence of cultivar and vineyard environmental conditions in shaping the grape microbiome have already been ascertained, several aspects related to this topic, deserve to be further investigated. In this study, we selected three international diffused grapevine cultivars (Cabernet Sauvignon, Syrah, and Sauvignon Blanc at three germplasm collections characterized by different climatic conditions [Northern Italy (NI, Italian Alps (AI, and Northern Spain (NS]. The soil and grape microbiome was characterized by 16s rRNA High Throughput Sequencing (HTS, and the obtained results showed that all grape samples shared some bacterial taxa, regardless of sampling locality (e.g., Bacillus, Methylobacterium, Sphingomonas, and other genera belonging to Alphaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, and Actinobacteria. However, some Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs could act as geographical signatures and in some cases as cultivar fingerprint. Concerning the origin of the grape microbiome, our study confirms that vineyard soil represents a primary reservoir for grape associated bacteria with almost 60% of genera shared between the soil and grape. At each locality, grapevine cultivars shared a core of bacterial genera belonging to the vineyard soil, as well as from other local biodiversity elements such as arthropods inhabiting or foraging in the vineyard. Finally, a machine learning analysis showed that it was possible to predict the geographical origin and cultivar of grape starting from its microbiome composition with a high accuracy (9 cases out of 12 tested samples. Overall, these findings open new perspectives for the development of more comprehensive and integrated research activities to test which environmental variables have an effective role in shaping the microbiome

  20. Potential phytoextraction and phytostabilization of perennial peanut on copper-contaminated vineyard soils and copper mining waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreazza, Robson; Bortolon, Leandro; Pieniz, Simone; Giacometti, Marcelo; Roehrs, Dione D; Lambais, Mácio R; Camargo, Flávio A O

    2011-12-01

    This study sought to evaluate the potential of perennial peanut (Arachis pintoi) for copper phytoremediation in vineyard soils (Inceptisol and Mollisol) contaminated with copper and copper mining waste. Our results showed high phytomass production of perennial peanut in both vineyard soils. Macronutrient uptakes were not negatively affected by perennial peanut cultivated in all contaminated soils. Plants cultivated in Mollisol showed high copper concentrations in the roots and shoots of 475 and 52 mg kg(-1), respectively. Perennial peanut plants showed low translocation factor values for Cu, although these plants showed high bioaccumulation factor (BCF) for both vineyard soils, Inceptisol and Mollisol, with BCF values of 3.83 and 3.24, respectively, being characterized as a copper hyperaccumulator plant in these soils. Copper phytoextraction from Inceptisol soil was the highest for both roots and entire plant biomass, with more than 800 mg kg(-1) of copper in whole plant. The highest potential copper phytoextraction by perennial peanut was in Inceptisol soil with copper removal of 2,500 g ha(-1). Also, perennial peanut showed high potential for copper phytoremoval in copper mining waste and Mollisol with 1,700 and 1,500 g of copper per hectare, respectively. In addition, perennial peanuts characterized high potential for phytoextraction and phytostabilization of copper in vineyard soils and copper mining waste.

  1. Soil management effect on soil quality indicators in vineyards of the Appellation of Origin "Montilla-Moriles" in southern Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzmán, Gema; Cabezas, José Manuel; Bauer, Thomas; Strauss, Peter; Winter, Silvia; Zaller, Johann; Gómez, José Alfonso

    2017-04-01

    The effect soil management on several indicators frequently used in the assessment of soil quality it is not always reflected unambiguously when measured at the field although it is normally assumed that this relation is straightforward. Within the European project VineDivers (www.vinedivers.eu), sixteen commercial vineyards belonging to the Appellation of Origin "Montilla-Moriles" (Córdoba) and covering a wide range of textural classes were selected. These farms were classified 'a priori' under two soil management categories: temporal cover crop and bare soil during the whole year. In each of the vineyards one representative inter-row was selected in order to characterise different physical, chemical and biological parameters to evaluate some aspects related to soil quality. Results indicate that the studied indicators respond clearly to soil textural class and vegetation cover biomass. However, there was no clear difference in above-ground biomass of the two management categories (Guzmán et al., 2016). These results suggest that the interpretation and extrapolation of the indicators evaluated should incorporate complementary information to characterise small variations of soil management intensity among vineyards that are apparently managed under the same management category. The communication presents this analysis based on the number and type of soil disturbance events of all vineyards. The high variability found among vineyards under the same management highlights the relevance of measuring these soil parameters used as quality indicators, instead of extrapolating from other vineyards or agricultural systems, and interpreting them according to baseline levels. References: Guzmán G., Cabezas J.M., Gómez J.A. 2016. Evaluación preliminar del efecto del manejo del suelo en indicadores que determinan su calidad en viñedos de la Denominación de Origen Montilla Moriles. II Jornadas de Viticultura SECH. Madrid.

  2. Tannin Composition of Cabernet-Sauvignon and Merlot Grapes from the Bordeaux Area for Different Vintages (2006 to 2009 and Comparison to Tannin Profile of Five 2009 Vintage Mediterranean Grapes Varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kleopatra Chira

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The proanthocyandin composition of skins and seeds of Bordeaux Merlot (M and Cabernet Sauvignon (CS grapes was evaluated by HPLC-UV-fluorescence for four consecutive vintages (2006 to 2009. The results indicated a strong vintage effect on the tannin profile of each variety. However, and in spite of the vintage effect, some tannin characteristics such as mDP, %G and %P allow discrimination of both Bordeaux varieties. The same analyses were carried out for the 2009 vintage of five Mediterranean grape varieties (Syrah, Grenache, Mourvedre, Carignan and Counoise. The results demonstrated differences among these five varieties. Syrah appeared to exhibit the highest concentrations of flavanol monomers and dimmers, especially in skins. The comparison study between Bordeaux and Mediterranean grape varieties for the same vintage (2009 revealed that mDP and %G for seed extracts were parameters specific to each vineyard area.

  3. Assessing the effects of soil liming with dolomitic limestone and sugar foam on soil acidity, leaf nutrient contents, grape yield and must quality in a Mediterranean vineyard

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olego, M.A.; Visconti, F.; Quiroga, M.J.; Paz, J.M. De; Garzón-Jimeno, E.

    2016-11-01

    Aluminium toxicity has been recognized as one of the most common causes of reduced grape yields in vineyard acid soils. The main aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of two liming materials, i.e. dolomitic lime and sugar foam, on a vineyard cultivated in an acid soil. The effects were studied in two soil layers (0-30 and 30-60 cm), as well as on leaf nutrient contents, must quality properties and grape yield, in an agricultural soil dedicated to Vitis vinifera L. cv. ‘Mencía’ cultivation. Data management and analysis were performed using analysis of variance (ANOVA). As liming material, sugar foam was more efficient than dolomitic limestone because sugar foam promoted the highest decrease in soil acidity properties at the same calcium carbonate equivalent dose. However, potassium contents in vines organs, including leaves and berries, seemed to decrease as a consequence of liming, with a concomitant increase in must total acidity. Soil available phosphorus also decreased as a consequence of liming, especially with sugar foam, though no effects were observed in plants. For these reasons fertilization of this soil with K and P is recommended along with liming. Grape yields in limed soils increased, although non-significantly, by 30%. This research has therefore provided an important opportunity to advance in our understanding of the effects of liming on grape quality and production in acid soils. (Author)

  4. Study of microarthropod communities to assess soil quality in different managed vineyards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagnarli, Elena; Vignozzi, Nadia; Valboa, Giuseppe; Bouneb, Mabrouk; Corino, Lorenzo; Goggioli, Donatella; Guidi, Silvia; Lottero, Mariarosa; Tarchi, Franca; Simoni, Sauro

    2014-05-01

    Land use type influences the abundance and diversity of soil arthropods. The evaluation of the effects of different crop managements on soil quality is commonly requested; it can be pursued by means of the determination of communities' structure of edaphic fauna. The development and application of biological indices may represent an efficient mean to assess soil quality. We evaluated the effect of crop managements (organic and Integrated Pest Management-IPM) in some vineyards in Piedmont (Italy) on soil biota in relation to some physical and chemical characteristics of the soil. The study was performed in eleven sites, including seven organic and four IPM managed vineyards located in the Costigliole d'Asti area. Samplings were carried out during the winter 2011 and the spring 2012. Soil samples were collected using a cylindrical soil core sampler (3cm diameter x 30cm height): each sample was a cylindrical soil core which was equally subdivided to study arthropod communities at different depth ranges. Additional samples were collected and analyzed for the following soil physical and chemical properties: texture (sedigraph method), pH (1:2.5 soil/water), total organic carbon (TOC), total nitrogen (NT) and calcium carbonate (dry combustion by CN analyzer). The extraction of microarthropods was performed using the selector Berlese-Tullgren. All specimens were counted and determined up to the order level. The influence of soil properties and of agronomic practices on the abundance of mesofauna was evaluated by multivariate analysis (MANOVA). The biological soil quality was also defined through the determination of biotic indices such as the qualitative and quantitative QBSar (Quality Biological Soil - arthropods), and biodiversity indices such as species richness and indices of Shannon-Wiener (H') and Simpson (D). Overall, more than four thousands arthropods were collected and the highest abundance was in biological management with about 2:1 ratio (biological vs

  5. Transformations, transport, and potential unintended consequences of high sulfur inputs to Napa Valley vineyards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinckley, Eve-Lyn S; Matson, Pamela A

    2011-08-23

    Unintended anthropogenic deposition of sulfur (S) to forest ecosystems has a range of negative consequences, identified through decades of research. There has been far less study of purposeful S use in agricultural systems around the world, including the application of elemental sulfur (S(0)) as a quick-reacting fungicide to prevent damage to crops. Here we report results from a three-year study of the transformations and flows of applied S(0) in soils, vegetation, and hydrologic export pathways of Napa Valley, CA vineyards, documenting that all applied S is lost from the vineyard ecosystem on an annual basis. We found that S(0) oxidizes rapidly to sulfate ( ) on the soil surface where it then accumulates over the course of the growing season. Leaf and grape tissues accounted for only 7-13% of applied S whereas dormant season cover crops accounted for 4-10% of applications. Soil S inventories were largely and ester-bonded sulfates; they decreased from 1,623 ± 354 kg ha(-1) during the dry growing season to 981 ± 526 kg ha(-1) (0-0.5 m) during the dormant wet season. Nearly all S applied to the vineyard soils is transported offsite in dissolved oxidized forms during dormant season rainstorms. Thus, the residence time of reactive S is brief in these systems, and largely driven by hydrology. Our results provide new insight into how S use in vineyards constitutes a substantial perturbation of the S cycle in Northern California winegrowing regions and points to the unintended consequences that agricultural S use may have at larger scales.

  6. INNOVATION SYSTEMS AND THE COMPETITION BETWEEN REGIONAL VINEYARDS

    OpenAIRE

    Touzard , Jean-Marc

    2010-01-01

    International audience; This paper presents a first overview of the evolution of institutions and networks that drive innovation processes in the French wine industry. The notion of “Systems of Innovation” (SI) is discussed and proposed as an analytical tool, contrasting two approaches : i) an interactionist approach, taking into account relations, actors and institutions involved in concrete changes observed in the vineyards ; ii) an institutional approach, assessing the evolution of the set...

  7. Rural Districts between Urbanization and Land Abandonment: Undermining Long-Term Changes in Mediterranean Landscapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilaria Zambon

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigates changes in the rural landscapes of a Mediterranean country (Greece over a long time period (1970–2015 encompassing economic expansions and recessions. Using a spatial distribution of 5 basic agricultural land-use classes (arable land, garden crop, vineyards, tree crop and fallow land derived from official statistics at 6 years (1970, 1979, 1988, 1997, 2006, 2015, a quantitative analysis based on correlation and multivariate techniques was carried out to identify recent changes in the Greek agricultural landscape at prefectural level during different economic waves. Empirical results evidenced both intuitive and counter-intuitive landscape transformations, including: (i a progressive, spatially-homogeneous reduction of cropland; (ii a (more or less rapid decrease in the surface of high-input crops, including arable land, horticulture and vineyards; (iii a parallel increase in the surface of tree crops, especially olive; (iv a spatially-heterogeneous decrease of fallow land concentrated in metropolitan and tourism districts, especially in the last decade; and, finally, (v increasingly diversified landscapes in rural, accessible areas close to the sea coast. Based on a correlation analysis with background socioeconomic indicators, our findings reflect the multiple impacts of urbanization and land abandonment on the composition and diversity of rural landscapes. Changes in agricultural land-use were moulded by multiple drivers depending on latent transformations in rural systems and inherent conflicts with expanding urban regions. Together with market conditions and the Common Agricultural Policy subsidy regime, social contexts and the economic cycle are important when identifying long-term changes in agricultural landscapes, especially in transitional socio-ecological systems.

  8. DETERMINATION OF THE OPTIMAL MOMENT OF HARVESTING FOR CABERNET SAUVIGNON AND MERLOT GRAPES IN DRĂGĂŞANI VINEYARD

    OpenAIRE

    Ovidiu Tiţa; Ciprian Tuşa; Axenia Rădulescu

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of the main characteristics of black grapes during ripening and determining the optimum moment to harvest the grapes in the vineyard Drăgăşani. Monitoring process of maturation of the grapes has been done on the varieties of grapes for red wines Cabernet Sauvignon and Merlot from Drăgăşani vineyard.

  9. Assessment of species-specific and temporal variations of major, trace and rare earth elements in vineyard ambient using moss bags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milićević, Tijana; Aničić Urošević, Mira; Vuković, Gordana; Škrivanj, Sandra; Relić, Dubravka; Frontasyeva, Marina V; Popović, Aleksandar

    2017-10-01

    Since the methodological parameters of moss bag biomonitoring have rarely been investigated for the application in agricultural areas, two mosses, Sphagnum girgensohnii (a species of the most recommended biomonitoring genus) and Hypnum cupressiforme (commonly available), were verified in a vineyard ambient. The moss bags were exposed along transects in six vineyard parcels during the grapevine season (March‒September 2015). To select an appropriate period for the reliable 'signal' of the element enrichment in the mosses, the bags were simultaneously exposed during five periods (3 × 2 months, 1 × 4 months, and 1 × 6 months). Assuming that vineyard is susceptible to contamination originated from different agricultural treatments, a wide range of elements (41) were determined in the moss and topsoil samples. The mosses were significantly enriched by the elements during the 2-month bag exposure which gradually increasing up to 6 months, but Cu and Ni exhibited the noticeable fluctuations during the grapevine season. However, the 6-month exposure of moss bags could be recommended for comparative studies among different vineyards because it reflects the ambient pollution comprising unpredictable treatments of grapevine applied during the whole season. Although higher element concentrations were determined in S. girgensohnii than H. cupressiforme, both species reflected the spatio-temporal changes in the ambient element content. Moreover, the significant correlation of the element (Cr, Cu, Sb, and Ti) concentrations between the mosses, and the same pairs of the elements correlated within the species, imply the comparable use of S. girgensohnii and H. cupressiforme in the vineyard (agricultural) ambient. Finally, both the moss bags and the soil analyses suggest that vineyard represents a dominant diffuse pollution source of As, Cr, Cu, Ni, Fe, and V. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Mediterranean diet and inflammaging within the hormesis paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martucci, Morena; Ostan, Rita; Biondi, Fiammetta; Bellavista, Elena; Fabbri, Cristina; Bertarelli, Claudia; Salvioli, Stefano; Capri, Miriam; Franceschi, Claudio; Santoro, Aurelia

    2017-06-01

    A coherent set of epidemiological data shows that the Mediterranean diet has beneficial effects capable of preventing a variety of age-related diseases in which low-grade, chronic inflammation/inflammaging plays a major role, but the underpinning mechanism(s) is/are still unclear. It is suggested here that the Mediterranean diet can be conceptualized as a form of chronic hormetic stress, similar to what has been proposed regarding calorie restriction, the most thoroughly studied nutritional intervention. Data on the presence in key Mediterranean foods of a variety of compounds capable of exerting hormetic effects are summarized, and the mechanistic role of the nuclear factor erythroid 2 pathway is highlighted. Within this conceptual framework, particular attention has been devoted to the neurohormetic and neuroprotective properties of the Mediterranean diet, as well as to its ability to maintain an optimal balance between pro- and anti-inflammaging. Finally, the European Commission-funded project NU-AGE is discussed because it addresses a number of variables not commonly taken into consideration, such as age, sex, and ethnicity/genetics, that can modulate the hormetic effect of the Mediterranean diet. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Life Sciences Institute.

  11. Effect of the different cover crops on the soil moisture in a Hungarian vineyard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donkó, Ádám; Miglécz, Tamás; Valkó, Orsolya; Deák, Balázs; Kelemen, András; Török, Péter; Tóthmérész, Béla; Drexler, Dóra

    2017-04-01

    Since many years it is well known that the one-sided mechanical soil cultivation of vineyard inter-rows has many disadvantages. Growers can choose from alternative tillage technologies, such as the usage of green manure, or covering the inter-rows with straw mulch. Another possible technology is tto cover the inter-rows with species-rich seed mixtures. However, selection of the most suitable species is crucial; we have to take into consideration the age of the vines, and the specific characteristics of the vineyards involved. Species rich cover crop technology has many advantages: 1) it helps to prevent erosion and creates easier cultivation circumstances, 2) it has a positive effect on soil structure, soil fertility and ecosystem services, 3) we can create native mixtures from local provenance, adapted to the local climate/vine region/vineyard which enhances the nature conservation value of our site. But, they should not compete significantly with the grapevines, or negatively influence produce quality. In the year of 2012 we created, and started to study three different cover-crop mixtures in Hungarian wine regions under on-farm conditions: Biocont-Ecovin mixture, Mixture of Legumes, Mixture of Grass and Herbs. The results of the botanical surveys, yield and pruning weight were published in many papers and presentations before (e.g. Miglécz et al. 2015, Donkó et al. 2016). Besides the above measures, one key point of the effectiveness and sustainability of the living mulch vegetation is the level of soil moisture. That is why we started to investigate the soil moisture (vol %) of different treatments (Biocont-Ecovin mixture, Mixture of Legumes, Mixture of Grass and Herbs, coverage with Lolium perenne, and Control (spontaneous weed flora)) in at the Feind Winery in Balatonfőkajár (Hungary). The investigated variety is Welschriesling on loamy soil (Tihany Formation), planted in 2010. The seed mixtures were sown in the spring of 2013. We measured soil moisture

  12. Effects of stimulation of copper bioleaching on microbial community in vineyard soil and copper mining waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreazza, Robson; Okeke, Benedict C; Pieniz, Simone; Bortolon, Leandro; Lambais, Márcio R; Camargo, Flávio A O

    2012-04-01

    Long-term copper application in vineyards and copper mining activities cause heavy metal pollution sites. Such sites need remediation to protect soil and water quality. Bioremediation of contaminated areas through bioleaching can help to remove copper ions from the contaminated soils. Thus, the aim of this work was to evaluate the effects of different treatments for copper bioleaching in two diverse copper-contaminated soils (a 40-year-old vineyard and a copper mining waste) and to evaluate the effect on microbial community by applying denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) of 16S ribosomal DNA amplicons and DNA sequence analysis. Several treatments with HCl, H(2)SO(4), and FeSO(4) were evaluated by stimulation of bioleaching of copper in the soils. Treatments and extractions using FeSO(4) and H(2)SO(4) mixture at 30°C displayed more copper leaching than extractions with deionized water at room temperature. Treatment with H(2)SO(4) supported bioleaching of as much as 120 mg kg(-1) of copper from vineyard soil after 115 days of incubation. DGGE analysis of the treatments revealed that some treatments caused greater diversity of microorganisms in the vineyard soil compared to the copper mining waste. Nucleotide Blast of PCR-amplified fragments of 16S rRNA gene bands from DGGE indicated the presence of Rhodobacter sp., Silicibacter sp., Bacillus sp., Paracoccus sp., Pediococcus sp., a Myxococcales, Clostridium sp., Thiomonas sp., a firmicute, Caulobacter vibrioides, Serratia sp., and an actinomycetales in vineyard soil. Contrarily, Sphingomonas was the predominant genus in copper mining waste in most treatments. Paracoccus sp. and Enterobacter sp. were also identified from DGGE bands of the copper mining waste. Paracoccus species is involved in the copper bioleaching by sulfur oxidation system, liberating the copper bounded in the soils and hence promoting copper bioremediation. Results indicate that stimulation of bioleaching with a combination of FeSO(4

  13. Modelling Water Stress in a Shiraz Vineyard Using Hyperspectral Imaging and Machine Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyle Loggenberg

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The detection of water stress in vineyards plays an integral role in the sustainability of high-quality grapes and prevention of devastating crop loses. Hyperspectral remote sensing technologies combined with machine learning provides a practical means for modelling vineyard water stress. In this study, we applied two ensemble learners, i.e., random forest (RF and extreme gradient boosting (XGBoost, for discriminating stressed and non-stressed Shiraz vines using terrestrial hyperspectral imaging. Additionally, we evaluated the utility of a spectral subset of wavebands, derived using RF mean decrease accuracy (MDA and XGBoost gain. Our results show that both ensemble learners can effectively analyse the hyperspectral data. When using all wavebands (p = 176, RF produced a test accuracy of 83.3% (KHAT (kappa analysis = 0.67, and XGBoost a test accuracy of 80.0% (KHAT = 0.6. Using the subset of wavebands (p = 18 produced slight increases in accuracy ranging from 1.7% to 5.5% for both RF and XGBoost. We further investigated the effect of smoothing the spectral data using the Savitzky-Golay filter. The results indicated that the Savitzky-Golay filter reduced model accuracies (ranging from 0.7% to 3.3%. The results demonstrate the feasibility of terrestrial hyperspectral imagery and machine learning to create a semi-automated framework for vineyard water stress modelling.

  14. The Mediterranean diet: health and science

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hoffman, Richard; Gerber, Mariette

    2012-01-01

    .... It discusses the Mediterranean diet in the light of recent developments in nutritional biochemistry, disease mechanisms and epidemiological studies, and also provides advice on nutrition policies...

  15. Influence of soil sampling approaches in the evaluation of soil organic carbon stocks under different land uses in a Mediterranean area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francaviglia, Rosa; Doro, Luca; Ledda, Luigi; Parras-Alcántara, Luis; Lozano-García, Beatriz

    2016-04-01

    Different approaches of soil sampling can provide significantly different estimates of soil organic carbon stocks (SOCs) (Parras-Alcántara et al., 2015a). Many studies have focused on SOC distribution only in the biologically active layers of topsoil, the IPCC carbon accounting method estimates the change in SOC storage for the top 30 cm of a soil profile, and indeed limited data are available for SOCs below this depth. Moreover, SOC estimates are more uncertain in areas with heterogeneous land uses and pedoclimatic conditions such as Mediterranean environments, which are more prone to land degradation due to SOC degradation and depletion and erosive processes (Muñoz-Rojas et al., 2015). Anyhow, the open question is whether soil should be sampled following the pedogenetic horizons with soil entire soil approach (ESP), or along fixed depth increments using the soil control section method (SCS) (Parras-Alcántara et al., 2015b). In addition, SOCs are often not adjusted for the soil volume occupied by coarse fragments as recommended by the IPCC Good Practice Guidance for LULUCF (IPCC, 2003) accordingly to the equation: SOCs = SOC (g kg-1) × bulk density (Mg m-3) × depth (m) × (1 - coarse fragment) × 10. The work deals with the comparison of SOCs using the ESP and SCS approaches, applied to a study area of northeastern Sardinia (Italy) under typical agro-silvo-pastoral systems (Francaviglia et al., 2014). The area lies within a hilly basin where elevation is in the range 275-340 m a.s.l., and slope ranges from 2-6% to 16-30%. The local climate is warm temperate with dry and hot summers, mean annual rainfall is 623 mm (range 367-811mm) and mean annual temperature is 15.0° C (13.8-16.4° C). The area has the same soil type (Haplic Endoleptic Cambisols, Dystric) according to IUSS Working Group WRB (2006), and the following land uses with different levels of cropping intensification were compared: Tilled vineyards (Tv), No-tilled grassed vineyards (Ntgv), Hay crop

  16. DETERMINATION OF THE OPTIMAL MOMENT OF HARVESTING FOR CABERNET SAUVIGNON AND MERLOT GRAPES IN DRĂGĂŞANI VINEYARD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ovidiu Tiţa

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an analysis of the main characteristics of black grapes during ripening and determining the optimum moment to harvest the grapes in the vineyard Drăgăşani. Monitoring process of maturation of the grapes has been done on the varieties of grapes for red wines Cabernet Sauvignon and Merlot from Drăgăşani vineyard.

  17. Vineyard water status assessment using on-the-go thermal imaging and machine learning.

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    Salvador Gutiérrez

    Full Text Available The high impact of irrigation in crop quality and yield in grapevine makes the development of plant water status monitoring systems an essential issue in the context of sustainable viticulture. This study presents an on-the-go approach for the estimation of vineyard water status using thermal imaging and machine learning. The experiments were conducted during seven different weeks from July to September in season 2016. A thermal camera was embedded on an all-terrain vehicle moving at 5 km/h to take on-the-go thermal images of the vineyard canopy at 1.2 m of distance and 1.0 m from the ground. The two sides of the canopy were measured for the development of side-specific and global models. Stem water potential was acquired and used as reference method. Additionally, reference temperatures Tdry and Twet were determined for the calculation of two thermal indices: the crop water stress index (CWSI and the Jones index (Ig. Prediction models were built with and without considering the reference temperatures as input of the training algorithms. When using the reference temperatures, the best models casted determination coefficients R2 of 0.61 and 0.58 for cross validation and prediction (RMSE values of 0.190 MPa and 0.204 MPa, respectively. Nevertheless, when the reference temperatures were not considered in the training of the models, their performance statistics responded in the same way, returning R2 values up to 0.62 and 0.65 for cross validation and prediction (RMSE values of 0.190 MPa and 0.184 MPa, respectively. The outcomes provided by the machine learning algorithms support the use of thermal imaging for fast, reliable estimation of a vineyard water status, even suppressing the necessity of supervised acquisition of reference temperatures. The new developed on-the-go method can be very useful in the grape and wine industry for assessing and mapping vineyard water status.

  18. Vineyard water status assessment using on-the-go thermal imaging and machine learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez, Salvador; Diago, María P; Fernández-Novales, Juan; Tardaguila, Javier

    2018-01-01

    The high impact of irrigation in crop quality and yield in grapevine makes the development of plant water status monitoring systems an essential issue in the context of sustainable viticulture. This study presents an on-the-go approach for the estimation of vineyard water status using thermal imaging and machine learning. The experiments were conducted during seven different weeks from July to September in season 2016. A thermal camera was embedded on an all-terrain vehicle moving at 5 km/h to take on-the-go thermal images of the vineyard canopy at 1.2 m of distance and 1.0 m from the ground. The two sides of the canopy were measured for the development of side-specific and global models. Stem water potential was acquired and used as reference method. Additionally, reference temperatures Tdry and Twet were determined for the calculation of two thermal indices: the crop water stress index (CWSI) and the Jones index (Ig). Prediction models were built with and without considering the reference temperatures as input of the training algorithms. When using the reference temperatures, the best models casted determination coefficients R2 of 0.61 and 0.58 for cross validation and prediction (RMSE values of 0.190 MPa and 0.204 MPa), respectively. Nevertheless, when the reference temperatures were not considered in the training of the models, their performance statistics responded in the same way, returning R2 values up to 0.62 and 0.65 for cross validation and prediction (RMSE values of 0.190 MPa and 0.184 MPa), respectively. The outcomes provided by the machine learning algorithms support the use of thermal imaging for fast, reliable estimation of a vineyard water status, even suppressing the necessity of supervised acquisition of reference temperatures. The new developed on-the-go method can be very useful in the grape and wine industry for assessing and mapping vineyard water status.

  19. Avian Conservation Practices Strengthen Ecosystem Services in California Vineyards

    OpenAIRE

    Jedlicka, Julie A.; Greenberg, Russell; Letourneau, Deborah K.

    2011-01-01

    Insectivorous Western Bluebirds (Sialia mexicana) occupy vineyard nest boxes established by California winegrape growers who want to encourage avian conservation. Experimentally, the provision of available nest sites serves as an alternative to exclosure methods for isolating the potential ecosystem services provided by foraging birds. We compared the abundance and species richness of avian foragers and removal rates of sentinel prey in treatments with songbird nest boxes and controls without...

  20. Detailed Geoecological Research of Terroir with the Focus on Georelief and Soil – A Case Study of Krátke Kesy Vineyards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Falťan Vladimír

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to present the application of the detailed geoecological research for use by the identification of natural elements of terroir, based on the example of cadastral area Krátke Kesy. The characteristics of georelief (influencing the microclimate of vineyards and soil characteristics (affecting the vineyard nutrition are the most important elements of a terroir on a local scale. We present maps of 10 types of geoecological complexes in topic dimension, whose borders were allocated on the base of georelief as a leading factor of regionalization. Foot slopes, transport slopes and terraces prevail in the vineyard. Cultivated Haplic and Luvi-Haplic Chernozem of the Danube Lowland have excellent conditions for precision agriculture. The impact of soil factors on vineyards was evaluated with the use of accredited laboratory analysis. Using statistical methods, we confirmed the hypothesis that the relationship between observed relevant soil elements in the study area and sugar content of grape is direct, and between the soil elements and acids in must is indirect. The biggest dependence was seen for magnesium, zinc and copper. Research results were presented in the form of maps and tables that can find use in vineyard and landscape-ecological practice.

  1. Quantifying and qualifying terroir: Empirical evidence linking climate, vineyards, and people across scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholas, Kimberly

    2014-05-01

    Climate affects the geographic range, yield, price, and biochemical composition of winegrapes. At the regional scale, historical climate and yield data were successfully used to develop simple models of crop yields using two or three monthly climate parameters for twelve major California crops, including winegrapes. These crop models were used to project the impact of future climate change on crop yields, showing that greater warming would increasingly push highly suitable areas for viticulture outside of their current range. Correlating temperature with price for Pinot noir throughout its growing range in California demonstrated higher prices for grapes grown in cooler climates, whereas prices dropped off rapidly above a ripening temperature threshold, indicating the vulnerability of grape price to climate change. At the vineyard scale, a three-year field study of eleven Pinot noir vineyards in California's North Coast showed that warm temperatures early in the growing season were correlated with increased phenolic compounds (anthocyanins and tannins), which likely benefits wine quality, but warmer periods later in the ripening process appeared to offset these effects. At the microclimate scale, high light intensities were measured on Pinot noir fruit in vertically shoot positioned vineyards, indicating a potential for changing canopy management to provide more optimal ripening conditions. Vineyards are highly managed, and there are many opportunities for viticulturists to shape the micro- and meso-climate that vines experience, thereby influencing the biophysical drivers of terroir through their site selection and vineyard planting and farming choices. An analysis of the precision agriculture and management strategies used by winegrowers in California and Australia showed that growers tend to rely more on short-term farming actions for adapting to environmental stresses; these may have considerable potential to enhance adaptive capacity, and are easier to

  2. Investing in Cognac Producing Vineyards to Hedge Wealth While Receiving High Returns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakob Hakobyan

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The general trend over the last decade for investments has been moving towards emerging markets, where investors are promised high returns for risky investments. These kind of investments favor the brave and bold, but are frightening for the risk averse. In this paper I will be presenting the opportunities that an investment into cognac producing vineyards can offer. High return and relatively low risk investment opportunities that exists in France. Included in the paper will be examples of large investments made recently into the industry. I will analyze the trends in the market over the past 8 years for the prices of land, cognac itself and the ease of sales of such products. There will also be an in-depth explanation of why cognac is today’s least risky product to invest into, comparing it to the Champagne regions’ similar historic trends. The findings show that land prices have increased at an average of 10% while simultaneously the price of cognac, has grow at an average of 14%. This product also has a unique hedging opportunity for investors. In short, excluding the growth of cognac prices in general the product itself gains value the longer it is stored, by an average of 12%. In this industry there are 5 big players that compete with each other on quality and also access to future stocks. This reality gives an investor the unique ability to sign futures contracts for 100% of their production over a 5 year period (standard market contract. Similar contracts can be signed with cooperatives who manage the lands for the investor, making the investment hassle free. This allows for an assured projection of both costs and returns for an unprecedented length of time compared to any other industry today. In conclusion, cognac producing vineyards are an investment that can potentially bring high returns, while being able to hedge the investment and see capital gains over the course of time. There will be a final simulation of a 5 year

  3. Assessing common birds' ecological requirements to address nature conservation in permanent crops: Lessons from Italian vineyards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assandri, Giacomo; Bogliani, Giuseppe; Pedrini, Paolo; Brambilla, Mattia

    2017-04-15

    Viticulture has contributed to shaping cultural landscapes in several regions across all continents. Recent farming intensification is causing landscape homogenization and biodiversity loss in several of those areas, but knowledge about the impacts on biodiversity in vineyards is still scarce. Simplified agro-ecosystems resulting from intensification host mainly generalist and common species, which still play a key role in the regulation of ecosystems and in the provision of ecosystem services. We assessed the abundance of 11 common bird species at 47 linear transects in a vineyard-dominated landscape in Trentino (NE Italy), in both spring and winter, and analysed abundance variation in relation to three independent groups of predictors: landscape, management, and topographic-climatic variables. In the majority of species (7), abundance was primarily or considerably affected by landscape attributes. However, an additional 5 species were largely affected by management practices, often with conspicuous seasonal differences. Overall, landscape and management heterogeneity positively affected the abundance of 6 species. Vineyard cover (and in particular the new spalliera trellising system) was negatively related with the abundance of 6 species, with the strongest impacts occurring in winter. On the contrary, the cover of marginal habitats had major positive effects over 8 species. Hedgerows, tree rows, and dry stone walls, as well as traditional pergola vineyards and landscape and management heterogeneity should be conserved or restored in viticultural landscapes to promote the abundance of common bird species. This strategy would ensure the maintenance of the ecosystem services they provide, while promoting the general sustainability of the agroecosystem. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Formulation of an alginate-vineyard pruning waste composite as a new eco-friendly adsorbent to remove micronutrients from agroindustrial effluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vecino, X; Devesa-Rey, R; Moldes, A B; Cruz, J M

    2014-09-01

    The cellulosic fraction of vineyard pruning waste (free of hemicellulosic sugars) was entrapped in calcium alginate beads and evaluated as an eco-friendly adsorbent for the removal of different nutrients and micronutrients (Mg, P, Zn, K, N-NH4, SO4, TN, TC and PO4) from an agroindustrial effluent (winery wastewater). Batch adsorption studies were performed by varying the amounts of cellulosic adsorbent (0.5-2%), sodium alginate (1-5%) and calcium chloride (0.05-0.9M) included in the biocomposite. The optimal formulation of the adsorbent composite varied depending on the target contaminant. Thus, for the adsorption of cationic contaminants (Mg, Zn, K, N-NH4 and TN), the best mixture comprised 5% sodium alginate, 0.05M calcium chloride and 0.5% cellulosic vineyard pruning waste, whereas for removal of anionic compounds (P, SO4 and PO4), the optimal mixture comprised 1% sodium alginate, 0.9M calcium chloride and 0.5% cellulosic vineyard pruning waste. To remove TC from the winery wastewater, the optimal mixture comprised 3% of sodium alginate, 0.475M calcium chloride and 0.5% cellulosic vineyard pruning waste. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Landscape Diversity and Crop Vigor Influence Biological Control of the Western Grape Leafhopper (E. elegantula Osborn in Vineyards.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Houston Wilson

    Full Text Available This study evaluated how the proportional area of natural habitat surrounding a vineyard (i.e. landscape diversity worked in conjunction with crop vigor, cultivar and rootstock selection to influence biological control of the western grape leafhopper (Erythroneura elegantula Osborn. The key natural enemies of E. elegantula are Anagrus erythroneurae S. Trjapitzin & Chiappini and A. daanei Triapitsyn, both of which are likely impacted by changes in landscape diversity due to their reliance on non-crop habitat to successfully overwinter. Additionally, E. elegantula is sensitive to changes in host plant quality which may influence densities on specific cultivars, rootstocks and/or vines with increased vigor. From 2010-2013, data were collected on natural enemy and leafhopper densities, pest parasitism rates and vine vigor from multiple vineyards that represented a continuum of landscape diversity. Early in the season, vineyards in more diverse landscapes had higher Anagrus spp. densities and lower E. elegantula densities, which led to increased parasitism of E. elegantula. Although late season densities of E. elegantula tended to be lower in vineyards with higher early season parasitism rates and lower total petiole nitrogen content, they were also affected by rootstock and cultivar. While diverse landscapes can support higher natural enemy populations, which can lead to increased biological control, leafhopper densities also appear to be mediated by cultivar, rootstock and vine vigor.

  6. Elemental profiling of Cabernet Sauvignon grapes as a function of geospatial variability in a Napa Valley vineyard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Angela; Hopfer, Helene; Nelson, Jenny; Ebeler, Sue; Jenkins, Christopher; Plant, Richard; Smart, David

    2015-04-01

    A primary tenant of the concept of geoscience and wine is that elemental composition of soils may be reflected in the elemental profile of fruit and discerned in the organoleptic assessment of wine. The extremely varied soil composition at the vineyard level in the Napa Valley region of California provides an ideal setting to study elemental pattern correlations between grape berries and soil samples. In the Napa Valley Cabernet Sauvignon is a wine grape variety of substantial economic value. Elemental profiling of Cabernet Sauvignon grapes in function of origin will provide a better understanding of the relationship between elemental accumulation in berries and soil element composition. The aim of this study was to explore the geospatial variability of elemental patterns in Cabernet Sauvignon grapes with respect to the soil elemental profiles at thirty-six geo-referenced vines in a 4 ha vineyard. Sixty-eight elements were determined via inductively coupled-plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS); this allowed for elemental profiling of both soil and berries at each sampling site. It was found that for the soil samples twenty-two elements contributed to a significant difference between sampling points, and thirty for the berries. Application of principal components analysis (PCA) showed that soil and berry elemental composition varied as a function of location in the vineyard. For the soil PCA, rare earth metals such as Dy, Ho, Ce, Er, Yb and Tm were driving separation towards the southern section of the vineyard while K, Ga, V, Al, Mg and P were correlated with the northern section. In the berry samples the Lanthanides, Gd, Pr, Yb, Dy, Er and Ho, also showed a higher influence in driving separation towards the southern section while Sr, Mo, Ba, Mg, P, K, Cd, Cu, B, Rb and Ti characterized the elemental profile of the northern part of the block. These findings showed that the rare earth metals, in particular Yb, Dy, Er and Ho, were the most distinguishing elemental

  7. Copper in soil fractions and runoff in a vineyard catchment: Insights from copper stable isotopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babcsányi, Izabella; Chabaux, François; Granet, Mathieu; Meite, Fatima; Payraudeau, Sylvain; Duplay, Joëlle; Imfeld, Gwenaël

    2016-07-01

    Understanding the fate of copper (Cu) fungicides in vineyard soils and catchments is a prerequisite to limit the off-site impact of Cu. Using Cu stable isotopes, Cu retention in soils and runoff transport was investigated in relation to the use of Cu fungicides and the hydrological conditions in a vineyard catchment (Rouffach, Haut-Rhin, France; mean slope: 15%). The δ(65)Cu values of the bulk vineyard soil varied moderately through the depth of the soil profiles (-0.12 to 0.24‰±0.08‰). The values were in the range of those of the fungicides (-0.21 to 0.11‰) and included the geogenic δ(65)Cu value of the untreated soil (0.08‰). However, δ(65)Cu values significantly differed between particle-size soil fractions (-0.37±0.10‰ in fine clays and 0.23±0.07‰ in silt). Together with the soil mineralogy, the results suggested Cu isotope fractionation primarily associated with the clay and fine clay fractions that include both SOM and mineral phases. The vegetation did not affect the Cu isotope patterns in the vineyard soils. Cu export by runoff from the catchment accounted for 1% of the applied Cu mass from 11th May to 20(th) July 2011, covering most of the Cu use period. 84% of the exported Cu mass was Cu bound to suspended particulate matter (SPM). The runoff displayed δ(65)Cu values from 0.52 to 1.35‰ in the dissolved phase (runoff. Overall, this study shows that Cu stable isotopes may allow identifying the Cu distribution in the soil fractions and their contribution to Cu export in runoff from Cu-contaminated catchments. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. The role of nitrogen uptake on the competition ability of three vineyard Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vendramini, Chiara; Beltran, Gemma; Nadai, Chiara; Giacomini, Alessio; Mas, Albert; Corich, Viviana

    2017-10-03

    Three vineyard strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, P301.4, P304.4 and P254.12, were assayed in comparison with a commercial industrial strain, QA23. The aim was to understand if nitrogen availability could influence strain competition ability during must fermentation. Pairwise-strain fermentations and co-fermentations with the simultaneous presence of the four strains were performed in synthetic musts at two nitrogen levels: control nitrogen condition (CNC) that assured the suitable assimilable nitrogen amount required by the yeast strains to complete the fermentation and low nitrogen condition (LNC) where nitrogen is present at very low level. Results suggested a strong involvement of nitrogen availability, as the frequency in must of the vineyard strains, respect to QA23, in LNC was always higher than that found in CNC. Moreover, in CNC only strain P304.4 reached the same strain frequency as QA23. P304.4 competition ability increased during the fermentation, indicating better performance when nitrogen availability was dropping down. P301.4 was the only strain sensitive to QA23 killer toxin. In CNC, when it was co-inoculated with the industrial strain QA23, P301.4 was never detected. In LNC, P301.4 after 12h accounted for 10% of the total population. This percentage increased after 48h (20%). Single-strain fermentations were also run in both conditions and the nitrogen metabolism further analyzed. Fermentation kinetics, ammonium and amino-acid consumptions and the expression of genes under nitrogen catabolite repression evidenced that vineyard yeasts, and particularly strain P304.4, had higher nitrogen assimilation rate than the commercial control. In conclusion, the high nitrogen assimilation rate seems to be an additional strategy that allowed vineyard yeasts successful competition during the growth in grape musts. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Mapping Rural Areas with Widespread Plastic Covered Vineyards Using True Color Aerial Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eufemia Tarantino

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Plastic covering is used worldwide to protect crops against damaging growing conditions. This agricultural practice raises some controversial issues. While it significantly impacts on local economic vitality, plasticulture also shows several environmental affects. In the Apulia Region (Italy the wide-spreading of artificial plastic coverings for vineyard protection has showed negative consequences on the hydrogeological balance of soils as well as on the visual quality of rural landscape. In order to monitor and manage this phenomenon, a detailed site mapping has become essential. In this study an efficient object-based classification procedure from Very High Spatial Resolution (VHSR true color aerial data was developed on eight test areas located in the Ionian area of the Apulia Region in order to support the updating of the existing land use database aimed at plastic covered vineyard monitoring.

  10. Phenotypic and molecular characterization of Rhizobium vitis strains from vineyards in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Didem CANIK OREL

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Crown gall-affected grapevine samples were collected during 2009–2010 from major vineyards, located in different Turkish provinces. One hundred and three bacterial strains were obtained from 88 vineyards and 18 grapevine varieties; they were tumorigenic when inoculated in tobacco, sunflower and Datura stramonium plants and were identified as Rhizobium vitis using biochemical and physiological tests as well as PCR and specific primers. Nineteen R. vitis strains presented a number of anomalous biochemical and physiological characters. PCR and opine-specific primers revealed the presence of octopine/cucumopine-type plasmid in 82 R. vitis strains, nopaline-type plasmids in 18 strains and vitopine-type plasmids in three strains. Clonal relationship of strains was determined using Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis following digestion of genomic DNA with the restriction endonuclease PmeI. The greatest genetic diversity was found for the strains from Denizli, Ankara and Nevşehir provinces. Nopaline and vitopine-types of Rhizobium vitis were detected for the first time in Turkey.

  11. Long-term relationships among pesticide applications, mobility, and soil erosion in a vineyard watershed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabatier, Pierre; Poulenard, Jérôme; Fanget, Bernard; Reyss, Jean-Louis; Develle, Anne-Lise; Wilhelm, Bruno; Ployon, Estelle; Pignol, Cécile; Naffrechoux, Emmanuel; Dorioz, Jean-Marcel; Montuelle, Bernard; Arnaud, Fabien

    2014-11-04

    Agricultural pesticide use has increased worldwide during the last several decades, but the long-term fate, storage, and transfer dynamics of pesticides in a changing environment are poorly understood. Many pesticides have been progressively banned, but in numerous cases, these molecules are stable and may persist in soils, sediments, and ice. Many studies have addressed the question of their possible remobilization as a result of global change. In this article, we present a retro-observation approach based on lake sediment records to monitor micropollutants and to evaluate the long-term succession and diffuse transfer of herbicides, fungicides, and insecticide treatments in a vineyard catchment in France. The sediment allows for a reliable reconstruction of past pesticide use through time, validated by the historical introduction, use, and banning of these organic and inorganic pesticides in local vineyards. Our results also revealed how changes in these practices affect storage conditions and, consequently, the pesticides' transfer dynamics. For example, the use of postemergence herbicides (glyphosate), which induce an increase in soil erosion, led to a release of a banned remnant pesticide (dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane, DDT), which had been previously stored in vineyard soil, back into the environment. Management strategies of ecotoxicological risk would be well served by recognition of the diversity of compounds stored in various environmental sinks, such as agriculture soil, and their capability to become sources when environmental conditions change.

  12. The influence of the surface roughness parameterization on remote sensing-based estimates of evapotranspiration from vineyards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfieri, J. G.; Kustas, W. P.; Gao, F.; Nieto, H.; Prueger, J. H.; Hipps, L.

    2017-12-01

    Because the judicious application of water is key to ensuring berry quality, information regarding evapotranspiration (ET) is critical when making irrigation and other crop management decisions for vineyards. Increasingly, wine grape producers seek to use remote sensing-based models to monitor ET and inform management decisions. However, the parameterization schemes used by these models do not fully account for the effects of the highly-structured canopy architecture on either the roughness characteristics of the vineyard or the turbulent transport and exchange within and above the vines. To investigate the effects of vineyard structure on the roughness length (zo) and displacement height (do) of vineyards, data collected from 2013 to 2016 as a part of the Grape Remote Sensing Atmospheric Profiling and Evapotranspiration Experiment (GRAPEX), an ongoing multi-agency field campaign conducted in the Central Valley of California, was used. Specifically, vertical profiles (2.5 m, 3.75 m, 5 m, and 8 m, agl) of wind velocity collected under near-neutral conditions were used to estimate do and zo and characterize how these roughness parameters vary in response changing environmental conditions. The roughness length was found to vary as a function of wind direction. It increased sigmoidally from a minimum near 0.15 m when the wind direction was parallel to the vine rows to a maximum between 0.3 m and 0.4 m when the winds were perpendicularly to the rows. Similarly, do was found responds strongly to changes in vegetation density as measured via leaf area index (LAI). Although the maximum varied from year-to-year, do increased rapidly after bud break in all cases and then remained constant for the remainder of the growing season. A comparison of the model output from the remote sensing-based two-source energy balance (TSEB) model using the standard roughness parameterization scheme and the empirical relationships derived from observations indicates a that the modeled ET

  13. Bacterial diversity of Grenache and Carignan grape surface from different vineyards at Priorat wine region (Catalonia, Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portillo, Maria del Carmen; Franquès, Judit; Araque, Isabel; Reguant, Cristina; Bordons, Albert

    2016-02-16

    Epiphytic bacteria on grape berries play a critical role in grape health and quality, which decisively influence the winemaking process. Despite their importance, the bacteria related with grape berry surface remain understudied and most previous work has been based on culture-dependent methods, which offer a limited view of the actual diversity. Herein, we used high-throughput sequencing to investigate the bacterial diversity on the surface from two grape varieties, Grenache and Carignan, and compared them across five vineyards included within the Priorat region (Spain). We could detect up to 14 bacterial phyla with Firmicutes (37.6% Bacillales and 14% Lactobacillales), Proteobacteria (16.8% Pseudomonadales and 11.6% Enterobacteriales) and Actinobacteria (3.4% Actinomycetales) being the most abundant. Bacterial community was different at each vineyard being grape varietal, geographical situation and orientation related with changes in bacterial populations. The most abundant bacterial taxa and those driving differences between the vineyards and grape varietals were identified. This study indicates that bacterial community heterogeneities can be influenced by geographic factors like orientation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Effects of inter-row management intensity on wild bee, plant and soil biota diversity in vineyards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kratschmer, Sophie; Pachinger, Bärbel; Winter, Silvia; Zaller, Johann G.; Buchholz, Jacob; Querner, Pascal; Strauß, Peter; Bauer, Thomas; Stiper, Katrin

    2016-04-01

    Vineyards may provide a range of essential ecosystem services, which interact with a diverse community of above- and belowground organisms. Intensive soil management like frequent tilling has resulted in the degradation of habitat quality with consequences on biodiversity and ecosystem services. This study is part of the European BiodivERsA project "VineDivers - Biodiversity-based ecosystem services in vineyards". We study the effects of different soil management intensities on above- and below-ground biodiversity (plants, insect pollinators, and soil biota), their interactions and the consequences for ecosystem services. We investigated 16 vineyards in Austria assessing the diversity of (1) wild bees using a semi-quantitative transect method, (2) earthworms by hand sorting, (3) Collembola (springtails) via pitfall trapping and soil coring, (4) plants by relevés and (5) litter decomposition (tea bag method). Management intensity differed in tillage frequency from intermediate intensity resulting in temporary vegetation cover to no tillage in permanent vegetation cover systems. First results show opposed relationships between the biodiversity of selected species groups and management intensity. We will discuss possible explanations and evaluate ecological interactions between wild bee, plant and soil biota diversity.

  15. Bat activity at remnant oak trees in California Central Coast vineyards

    Science.gov (United States)

    William D. Tietje; Ted Weller; Christopher C. Yim

    2015-01-01

    During 1990 to 2013, the area planted with wine grapes increased nearly 4.5 times in San Luis Obispo County. Much of this development occurred on open oak savanna with scattered oak (Quercus spp.) trees. Remnant trees are retained in some vineyards, but their value to biodiversity retention has not been quantified. During April to September 2014,...

  16. Soil redistribution and nutrient delivery in a Mediterranean rain-fed agro-ecosystem with different crops and management: environmental and economic aspects

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Vicente, Manuel; Álvarez, Sara

    2017-04-01

    Mediterranean agro-ecosystems are characterised by fragmented fields and patched vegetation. This shape governs the spatial patterns of water, soil and nutrient redistribution. Rainfall parameters, human infrastructures, crop management, support practices, and land use changes (set aside crops, land abandonment) control the magnitude of these processes. Under rain-fed water supply conditions, runoff generation and soil water content are two important factors in determining crop yield. Soil erosion and nutrient delivery are two of the factors which limit crop yield and thus, the gross earning of the landowner. In hilly landscapes, farmers usually supply extra soil to fill in the ephemeral gullies, and nutrient replenishment with fertilizers is a common practice. The aim of this study is to evaluate the environmental (runoff yield, soil erosion and nutrient delivery) and economic (replenishment of soil and nutrient losses with new soil and fertilizers) consequences of different conventional and conservative practices (fallow/crop rotation, cover crops, land abandonment, buffer strips) in a Mediterranean rain-fed agro-ecosystem (27 ha) with vineyards, cereal crops, cultivated and abandoned olive orchards, several trails and patches of natural vegetation. The five winter cereal fields (wheat and barley) follow fallow/crop rotation. The four vineyards are devoted to the Garnacha variety: one planted in 2007 with white wine grapes, and three planted in 2008 with red wine grapes. The inter-crop strips are managed with a mixture of plant species as cover crop (CC), including: i) spontaneous vegetation, and ii) plantation of common sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia). The maintenance of the CC includes one mowing pass at the end of spring, between May and June. The appearance and development of ephemeral gullies and the deposition of soil at the bottom of the hillslope are two of the main concerns of the landowners. In some places, the accumulation of soil complicates grape

  17. Investigation of the copper contents in vineyard soil, grape must and wine and the relationship among them in the Huaizhuo Basin Region, China: A preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiangyu; Ma, Tingting; Yu, Jing; Huang, Weidong; Fang, Yulin; Zhan, Jicheng

    2018-02-15

    The copper contents in vineyard soil, grape must and wine and the relationship among them in the Huaizhuo Basin Region, China, were investigated. The results showed that the copper pollution status in vineyard soils, grapes and wines in the investigated area in China is under control, with only 4 surface soil (0-20cm) samples over maximum residue limits (MRL) and no grape or wine samples over MRL. Different vineyards, grape varieties, vine ages, and training systems all significantly influenced the copper contents in the vineyard soils, grape and wines. Additionally, the copper levels in the vineyard soils, grapes and wines all had some correlation. In wine samples, the copper contents ranged from 0.52 to 663μg/L, which is only approximately one percent the level found in grapes and one ten-thousandth that found in soils. Of the wine samples, red wines showed a significantly higher copper content than white wines, while in the red/white grape and soil samples, no significant differences were observed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Copper in soil fractions and runoff in a vineyard catchment: Insights from copper stable isotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babcsányi, Izabella; Chabaux, François; Granet, Mathieu; Meite, Fatima; Payraudeau, Sylvain; Duplay, Joëlle; Imfeld, Gwenaël, E-mail: imfeld@unistra.fr

    2016-07-01

    Understanding the fate of copper (Cu) fungicides in vineyard soils and catchments is a prerequisite to limit the off-site impact of Cu. Using Cu stable isotopes, Cu retention in soils and runoff transport was investigated in relation to the use of Cu fungicides and the hydrological conditions in a vineyard catchment (Rouffach, Haut-Rhin, France; mean slope: 15%). The δ{sup 65}Cu values of the bulk vineyard soil varied moderately through the depth of the soil profiles (− 0.12 to 0.24‰ ± 0.08‰). The values were in the range of those of the fungicides (− 0.21 to 0.11‰) and included the geogenic δ{sup 65}Cu value of the untreated soil (0.08‰). However, δ{sup 65}Cu values significantly differed between particle-size soil fractions (− 0.37 ± 0.10‰ in fine clays and 0.23 ± 0.07‰ in silt). Together with the soil mineralogy, the results suggested Cu isotope fractionation primarily associated with the clay and fine clay fractions that include both SOM and mineral phases. The vegetation did not affect the Cu isotope patterns in the vineyard soils. Cu export by runoff from the catchment accounted for 1% of the applied Cu mass from 11th May to 20{sup th} July 2011, covering most of the Cu use period. 84% of the exported Cu mass was Cu bound to suspended particulate matter (SPM). The runoff displayed δ{sup 65}Cu values from 0.52 to 1.35‰ in the dissolved phase (< 0.45 μm) compared to − 0.34 to − 0.02‰ in the SPM phase, indicating that clay and fine clay fractions were the main vectors of SPM-bound Cu in runoff. Overall, this study shows that Cu stable isotopes may allow identifying the Cu distribution in the soil fractions and their contribution to Cu export in runoff from Cu-contaminated catchments. - Highlights: • We investigated Cu sorption processes in vineyard soils and runoff transport. • Cu export by runoff from the catchment accounted for 1% of the applied Cu mass. • δ{sup 65}Cu values differed between the particle-size soil

  19. Copper in soil fractions and runoff in a vineyard catchment: Insights from copper stable isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babcsányi, Izabella; Chabaux, François; Granet, Mathieu; Meite, Fatima; Payraudeau, Sylvain; Duplay, Joëlle; Imfeld, Gwenaël

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the fate of copper (Cu) fungicides in vineyard soils and catchments is a prerequisite to limit the off-site impact of Cu. Using Cu stable isotopes, Cu retention in soils and runoff transport was investigated in relation to the use of Cu fungicides and the hydrological conditions in a vineyard catchment (Rouffach, Haut-Rhin, France; mean slope: 15%). The δ"6"5Cu values of the bulk vineyard soil varied moderately through the depth of the soil profiles (− 0.12 to 0.24‰ ± 0.08‰). The values were in the range of those of the fungicides (− 0.21 to 0.11‰) and included the geogenic δ"6"5Cu value of the untreated soil (0.08‰). However, δ"6"5Cu values significantly differed between particle-size soil fractions (− 0.37 ± 0.10‰ in fine clays and 0.23 ± 0.07‰ in silt). Together with the soil mineralogy, the results suggested Cu isotope fractionation primarily associated with the clay and fine clay fractions that include both SOM and mineral phases. The vegetation did not affect the Cu isotope patterns in the vineyard soils. Cu export by runoff from the catchment accounted for 1% of the applied Cu mass from 11th May to 20"t"h July 2011, covering most of the Cu use period. 84% of the exported Cu mass was Cu bound to suspended particulate matter (SPM). The runoff displayed δ"6"5Cu values from 0.52 to 1.35‰ in the dissolved phase (< 0.45 μm) compared to − 0.34 to − 0.02‰ in the SPM phase, indicating that clay and fine clay fractions were the main vectors of SPM-bound Cu in runoff. Overall, this study shows that Cu stable isotopes may allow identifying the Cu distribution in the soil fractions and their contribution to Cu export in runoff from Cu-contaminated catchments. - Highlights: • We investigated Cu sorption processes in vineyard soils and runoff transport. • Cu export by runoff from the catchment accounted for 1% of the applied Cu mass. • δ"6"5Cu values differed between the particle-size soil fractions. • The clay soil

  20. Avian conservation practices strengthen ecosystem services in California vineyards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jedlicka, Julie A; Greenberg, Russell; Letourneau, Deborah K

    2011-01-01

    Insectivorous Western Bluebirds (Sialia mexicana) occupy vineyard nest boxes established by California winegrape growers who want to encourage avian conservation. Experimentally, the provision of available nest sites serves as an alternative to exclosure methods for isolating the potential ecosystem services provided by foraging birds. We compared the abundance and species richness of avian foragers and removal rates of sentinel prey in treatments with songbird nest boxes and controls without nest boxes. The average species richness of avian insectivores increased by over 50 percent compared to controls. Insectivorous bird density nearly quadrupled, primarily due to a tenfold increase in Western Bluebird abundance. In contrast, there was no significant difference in the abundance of omnivorous or granivorous bird species some of which opportunistically forage on grapes. In a sentinel prey experiment, 2.4 times more live beet armyworms (Spodoptera exigua) were removed in the nest box treatment than in the control. As an estimate of the maximum foraging services provided by insectivorous birds, we found that larval removal rates measured immediately below occupied boxes averaged 3.5 times greater than in the control. Consequently the presence of Western Bluebirds in vineyard nest boxes strengthened ecosystem services to winegrape growers, illustrating a benefit of agroecological conservation practices. Predator addition and sentinel prey experiments lack some disadvantages of predator exclusion experiments and were robust methodologies for detecting ecosystem services.

  1. Avian conservation practices strengthen ecosystem services in California vineyards.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie A Jedlicka

    Full Text Available Insectivorous Western Bluebirds (Sialia mexicana occupy vineyard nest boxes established by California winegrape growers who want to encourage avian conservation. Experimentally, the provision of available nest sites serves as an alternative to exclosure methods for isolating the potential ecosystem services provided by foraging birds. We compared the abundance and species richness of avian foragers and removal rates of sentinel prey in treatments with songbird nest boxes and controls without nest boxes. The average species richness of avian insectivores increased by over 50 percent compared to controls. Insectivorous bird density nearly quadrupled, primarily due to a tenfold increase in Western Bluebird abundance. In contrast, there was no significant difference in the abundance of omnivorous or granivorous bird species some of which opportunistically forage on grapes. In a sentinel prey experiment, 2.4 times more live beet armyworms (Spodoptera exigua were removed in the nest box treatment than in the control. As an estimate of the maximum foraging services provided by insectivorous birds, we found that larval removal rates measured immediately below occupied boxes averaged 3.5 times greater than in the control. Consequently the presence of Western Bluebirds in vineyard nest boxes strengthened ecosystem services to winegrape growers, illustrating a benefit of agroecological conservation practices. Predator addition and sentinel prey experiments lack some disadvantages of predator exclusion experiments and were robust methodologies for detecting ecosystem services.

  2. Using RPAS Multi-Spectral Imagery to Characterise Vigour, Leaf Development, Yield Components and Berry Composition Variability within a Vineyard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Rey-Caramés

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Implementation of precision viticulture techniques requires the use of emerging sensing technologies to assess the vineyard spatial variability. This work shows the capability of multispectral imagery acquired from a remotely piloted aerial system (RPAS, and the derived spectral indices to assess the vegetative, productive, and berry composition spatial variability within a vineyard (Vitis vinifera L.. Multi-spectral imagery of 17 cm spatial resolution was acquired using a RPAS. Classical vegetation spectral indices and two newly defined normalised indices, NVI1 = (R802 − R531/(R802 + R531 and NVI2 = (R802 − R570/(R802 + R570, were computed. Their spatial distribution and relationships with grapevine vegetative, yield, and berry composition parameters were studied. Most of the spectral indices and field data varied spatially within the vineyard, as showed through the variogram parameters. While the correlations were significant but moderate among the spectral indices and the field variables, the kappa index showed that the spatial pattern of the spectral indices agreed with that of the vegetative variables (0.38–0.70 and mean cluster weight (0.40. These results proved the utility of the multi-spectral imagery acquired from a RPAS to delineate homogeneous zones within the vineyard, allowing the grapegrower to carry out a specific management of each subarea.

  3. Accumulation of phosphorus fractions and contamination potential in vineyard soils in the southern region of the state of Santa Catarina, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djalma Eugênio Schmitt

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In vineyards, if phosphate is applied both before planting and at intervals during growth without consideration of technical criteria, the soil P fractions may be increased and their proportions altered. This study was carried out to evaluate the accumulation of P fractions and the parameters of the adsorption isotherm in a sandy Typic Hapludalf soil in vineyards with a history of successive and excessive phosphate fertilization. In December 2010, two vineyards were selected, one 4 and the other 15 years old, in Urussanga, State of Santa Catarina (Brazil. Three trenches were dug in each area and soil was collected from the 0-5, 5-10 and 10-20 cm depth ranges. The soil samples were dried in a forced-air oven, sieved and subjected to chemical analyses, P chemical fractionation and P adsorption isotherms. Excessive phosphate fertilization, before and during cultivation, particularly in the older vineyard and, consequently, with a longer history of phosphate fertilization, increased the inorganic P concentrations to the depth of 20 cm, especially in labile fractions extracted by anion exchange resin and NaHCO3 in the non-labile fraction, as well as in the non-labile fraction extracted by 1.0 mol L-1 HCl. The application of phosphate fertilizers and the long cultivation period increased the P levels in the organic labile fraction extracted by 0.5 mol L-1 NaHCO3, and especially in the moderately labile fraction extracted by 0.1 and 0.5 mol L-1 NaOH. Phosphate fertilization of older vineyards, i.e., cultivated for 15 years, increased the amounts of P desorbed in water, indicating a risk of contamination of surface waters and groundwater. The phosphate fertilization before planting, without considering the results of soil analysis, and during cultivation, disregarding the results of soil analysis, leaf analysis and expected yield, led to a reduction in the maximum P adsorption capacity in the 0-5 cm layer of vineyard 2, indicating saturation of part of

  4. Estimating MCC System Dryness Index using the Vineyard Water Indicator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conceição Marco Antônio Fonseca

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Dryness Index (DI is one of the three Geoviticulture Multicriteria Climatic Classification System (MCC System indices and its calculation is based on a soil water balance approach. However, other climatic indices can be used for the same purpose. One of them is the Vineyard Water Indicator (VWI that represents the ratio between the total rainfall and the vineyard water requirement during the productive period of the culture. When compared to DI, the VWI presents a simpler calculation methodology. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to establish a model to estimate DI based on VWI values. Climate data of 80 winegrowing regions in 18 countries were used. Four regression models were evaluated: linear, quadratic, logarithmic and the Mitscherlich model. Real and simulated data were compared using the confidence coefficient (c that corresponds to the product of the correlation coefficient (r by the exactness coefficient (d. The best fit was obtained employing the quadratic model and DI can be calculated using the following equation: DI = −363.84 VWI2+ 834.47 VWI – 257.17 (R2 = 0.93, for VHI <0.905. For VHI values equal to or greater than 0.905, DI is constant and equal to 200.

  5. Wine microbiology is driven by vineyard and winery anthropogenic factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grangeteau, Cédric; Roullier-Gall, Chloé; Rousseaux, Sandrine; Gougeon, Régis D; Schmitt-Kopplin, Philippe; Alexandre, Hervé; Guilloux-Benatier, Michèle

    2017-03-01

    The effects of different anthropic activities (vineyard: phytosanitary protection; winery: pressing and sulfiting) on the fungal populations of grape berries were studied. The global diversity of fungal populations (moulds and yeasts) was performed by pyrosequencing. The anthropic activities studied modified fungal diversity. Thus, a decrease in biodiversity was measured for three successive vintages for the grapes of the plot cultivated with Organic protection compared to plots treated with Conventional and Ecophyto protections. The fungal populations were then considerably modified by the pressing-clarification step. The addition of sulfur dioxide also modified population dynamics and favoured the domination of the species Saccharomyces cerevisiae during fermentation. The non-targeted chemical analysis of musts and wines by FT-ICR-MS showed that the wines could be discriminated at the end of alcoholic fermentation as a function of adding SO 2 or not, but also and above all as a function of phytosanitary protection, regardless of whether these fermentations took place in the presence of SO 2 or not. Thus, the existence of signatures in wines of chemical diversity and microbiology linked to vineyard protection has been highlighted. © 2016 The Authors. Microbial Biotechnology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Society for Applied Microbiology.

  6. Rainfall simulation experiments in ecological and conventional vineyards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adrian, Alexander; Brings, Christine; Rodrigo Comino, Jesús; Iserloh, Thomas; Ries, Johannes B.

    2015-04-01

    In October 2014, the Trier University started a measurement series, which defines, compares and evaluates the behavior of runoff and soil erosion with different farming productions in vineyards. The research area is located in Kanzem, a traditional wine village in the Saar Valley (Rheinland-Palatinate, Germany). The test fields show different cultivation methods: ecological (with natural vegetation cover under and around the vines) and conventional cultivated rows of wine. By using the small portable rainfall simulator of Trier University it shall be proved if the assumption that there is more runoff and soil erosion in the conventional part than in the ecological part of the tillage system. Rainfall simulations assess the generation of overland flow, soil erosion and infiltration. So, a trend of soil erosion and runoff of the different cultivation techniques are noted. The objective of this work is to compare the geomorphological dynamics of two different tillage systems. Therefore, 30 rainfall simulations plots were evenly distributed on a west exposition hillside with different slope angels (8-25°), vegetation- and stone-covers. In concrete, the plot surface reaches from strongly covered soil across lithoidal surfaces to bare soil often with compacted lanes of typical using machines. In addition, by using the collected substrate, an estimation and distribution of the grain size of the eroded material shall be given. The eroded substrate is compared to soil samples of the test plots. The first results have shown that there is slightly more runoff and soil erosion in the ecological area than on the conventional part of the vineyard.

  7. Dynamical Influence and Operational Impacts of an Extreme Mediterranean Cold Surge

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    in significant flooding over regions surrounding the Mediterranean Sea ( Trigo , Bigg, & Davies 2002). The cold air mass and associated cyclogenesis...119, 17–55. Trigo , I., G. Bigg, and T. Davies, 2002: Climatology of cyclogenesis mechanisms in the Mediterranean. Mon. Wea. Rev., 130, 549–569

  8. Seasonal Abundance and Natural Inoculativity of Insect Vectors of Xylella fastidiosa in Oklahoma Tree Nurseries and Vineyards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overall, Lisa M; Rebek, Eric J

    2015-12-01

    Xylella fastidiosa is the causative agent of diseases of perennial plants including peach, plum, elm, oak, pecan, and grape. This bacterial pathogen is transmitted by xylem-feeding insects. In recent years, Pierce's disease of grape has been detected in 10 counties in central and northeastern Oklahoma, prompting further investigation of the disease epidemiology in this state. We surveyed vineyards and tree nurseries in Oklahoma for potential insect vectors to determine species composition, infectivity, and natural inoculativity of commonly captured insect vectors. Yellow sticky cards were used to sample insect fauna at each location. Insects were removed from sticky cards and screened for X. fastidiosa using immunocapture-PCR to determine their infectivity. A second objective was to test the natural inoculativity of insect vectors that are found in vineyards. Graphocephala versuta (Say), Graphocephala coccinea (Forster), Paraulacizes irrorata (F.), Oncometopia orbona (F.), Cuerna costalis (F.), and Entylia carinata Germar were collected from vineyards and taken back to the lab to determine their natural inoculativity. Immunocapture-PCR was used to test plant and insect samples for presence of X. fastidiosa. The three most frequently captured species from vineyards and tree nurseries were G. versuta, Clastoptera xanthocephala Germar, and O. orbona. Of those insects screened for X. fastidiosa, 2.4% tested positive for the bacterium. Field-collected G. versuta were inoculative to both ragweed and alfalfa. Following a 7-d inoculation access period, a higher percentage of alfalfa became infected than ragweed. Results from this study provide insight into the epidemiology of X. fastidiosa in Oklahoma. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Influence of Plastic Covering on the Microclimate in Vineyards in the São Francisco River Valley Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mário de Miranda Vilas Boas Ramos Leitão

    Full Text Available Abstract Data from field experiments conducted in table grape vineyards variety of Festival in Petrolina-PE in the period from September 19 to October 12, 2010 were used to evaluate the influence of plastic cover on microclimate conditions of vineyards in São Francisco River Valley region. Three treatments were studied: canopies without plastic cover (WC; with plastic cover positioned at 50 cm (PC50, and at 100 cm (PC100 above canopy. The results indicate that the plastic cover prevented the passage of about 40% of the global and net radiation, retained the relative humidity inside the canopy, generated an increase of air temperature and marked reduction in wind speed over the canopy of treatment PC50. However, treatment PC100 had a higher incidence of short wavelength and net radiation under canopy (on the berries than WC and PC50 treatments, resulting in more favorable weather conditions, providing about 40% greater productivity in this treatment. Therefore, the vineyard with plastic cover placed at 100 cm above canopy represents a more suitable alternative to the climatic conditions of the region of the São Francisco River Valley.

  10. The Impact of the Age of Vines on Soil Hydraulic Conductivity in Vineyards in Eastern Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo Alagna

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Soil infiltration processes manage runoff generation, which in turn affects soil erosion. There is limited information on infiltration rates. In this study, the impact of vine age on soil bulk density (BD and hydraulic conductivity (Ks was assessed on a loam soil tilled by chisel plough. Soil sampling was conducted in the inter row area of six vineyards, which differed by the age from planting: 0 (Age 0; just planted, 1, 3, 6, 13, and 25 years (Age 1, Age 3, Age 6, Age 13, and Age 25, respectively. The One Ponding Depth (OPD approach was applied to ring infiltration data to estimate soil Ks with an α* parameter equal to 0.012 mm−1. Soil bulk density for Age 0 was about 1.5 times greater than for Age 25, i.e., the long-term managed vineyards. Saturated hydraulic conductivity at Age 0 was 86% less than at Age 25. The planting works were considered a major factor for soil compaction and the reduction of hydraulic conductivity. Compared to the long-term managed vineyards, soil compaction was a very short-term effect given that BD was restored in one year due to ploughing. Reestablishment of Ks to the long-term value required more time.

  11. Deaf Utopias? Reviewing the Sociocultural Literature on the World's "Martha's Vineyard Situations"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusters, Annelies

    2010-01-01

    Martha's Vineyard--an island off the East Coast of the United States--is known as a community where "everyone signed" for several hundred years, a utopia in the eyes of many Deaf people. Currently, there exist around the world a number of small similar "shared signing communities," for example, in Mexico, Bali, Israel, and…

  12. ARBUSCULAR MYCORRHIZAL FUNGI - AN ESSENTIAL TOOL TO SUSTAINABLE VINEYARD DEVELOPMENT: A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe Cristian Popescu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Grapevine is one of the most important horticultural perennial crops grown in many countries from worldwide. In this paper, we review the global benefits of arbuscular mycorrhiza application for grapevine production and the impact of viticultural practices for these natural microorganisms to establish symbiotic associations with vine roots. This review aims to provide a brief overview of the status of and to outline the most important application and effects of AMF in viticulture in order to increase the sustainability of vineyards. Viticulture has to adapt to new challenges of pest and chemicals fertilizers management, climate change, global urbanization, land erosions, increasing droughts, world population growth and others factors that can affect the sustainability of viticultural production systems. One of eco-friendly approaches is to use the application of arbuscular mycorrhiza fungi (AMF. Response of grapevine to AMF application demonstrated a lot of benefits for viticultural ecosystems. Technologies on sustainable agriculture and conservation of ecosystems vineyards may consider arbuscular mycorrhiza fungi as biofertilizers. Arbuscular mycorrhiza fungi could be an effective tool for improving the agro-enviromental perfomance in viticultural farms.

  13. Biochar and compost as amendments in copper-enriched vineyard soils - stabilization or mobilization of copper?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soja, Gerhard; Fristak, Vladimir; Wimmer, Bernhard; Bell, Stephen; Chamier Glisczinski, Julia; Pardeller, Georg; Dersch, Georg; Rosner, Franz; Wenzel, Walter; Zehetner, Franz

    2016-04-01

    Copper is an important ingredient for several fungicides that have been used in agriculture. For organic viticulture, several diseases as e.g. downy mildew (Plasmopara viticola) can only be antagonized with Cu-containing fungicides. This long-lasting dependence on Cu-fungicides has led to a gradual Cu enrichment of vineyard soils in traditional wine-growing areas, occasionally exceeding 300 mg/kg. Although these concentrations do not affect the vines or wine quality, they may impair soil microbiological functions in the top soil layer or the root growth of green cover plants. Therefore measures are demanded that reduce the bioavailability of copper, thereby reducing the ecotoxicological effects. The use of biochar and compost as soil amendment has been suggested as a strategy to immobilize Cu and reduce the exchangeable fractions. This study consisted of lab and greenhouse experiments that were designed to test the sorption and desorption behavior of copper in vineyard soils with or without biochar and/or compost as soil amendment. Slightly acidic soils (pHeffects were more evident for a reduction of the ionic form Cu2+ than for total soluble copper, even in alkaline soils. Biochar modified with citric or tartaric acid did not significantly decrease the solubility of copper based on total dissolved concentrations although CEC was higher than in unmodified biochar. Treatments consisting of compost only or that had an equal amount of compost and biochar rather had a mobilizing effect on biochar. Sorption experiments with different DOC concentrations and biochar, however, showed a positive effect on copper sorption. Apparently in vineyard soils the predisposition to form organic-Cu-complexes may outbalance the binding possibilities of these complexes to biochar, occasionally resulting in enhanced mobilization. Presumably immobilization of copper with biochar would work best in acidic soils low in organic carbon and with low or no compost addition although this might

  14. Towards a model-based understanding of the Mediterranean circulation during the Messinian Salinity Crisis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Dirk; Meijer, Paul

    2016-04-01

    Today, the Atlantic-Mediterranean gateway (the Strait of Gibraltar) and the strong evaporative loss in the east let the Mediterranean Sea attain a salinity of 2-3 g/l higher than the Atlantic Ocean. During the winter months, strong cooling of surface waters in the north forms deep water, which mixes the Mediterranean, while during summer the water column is stratified. During the Messinian Salinity Crisis (MSC, 5.97-5.33Ma) the salt concentration was high enough to reach the saturation of gypsum (~130-160 g/l) and halite (~350 g/l). This caused large deposits of these evaporites all over the basin, capturing 6% of the World Ocean salt within the Mediterranean at the time. Although several mechanisms have been proposed as to how the Mediterranean circulation might have functioned, these mechanisms have yet to be rooted in physics and tested quantitatively. Understanding circulation during the MSC becomes particularly important when comparing Mediterranean marginal to deep basins. On the one hand, many of the marginal basins in the Mediterranean are well studied, like the Sorbas basin (Spain) or the Vena del Gesso basin (Italy). On the other hand, the deep Mediterranean is less well studied, as no full record of the whole deep sequence exists. This makes it very complicated to correlate marginal and deep basin records. Here we are presenting the first steps in working towards a physics-based understanding of the mixing and stratification bahaviour of the Mediterranean Sea during the MSC. The final goal is to identify the physical mechanism needed to form such a salt brine and to understand how it differs from today's situation. We are hoping to compare our results to, and learn from, the much smaller but best available analog to the MSC, the Dead Sea, where recent overturning has been documented.

  15. KINEMATIC STUDY OF THE AIR FLOW PRODUCED BY SOME SPRAYERS USED IN “TENDONE” VINEYARDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Pascuzzi

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available A computerized measuring system to analyse the vector field of the air velocities in a volume surrounding the fan of air assisted sprayers usually used in tendone vineyards was designed and built. The performance of three different sprayers was tested: the first, a traditional air-convection sprayer, the other two, suitably designed for treatments in tendone vineyards. The air flow which exited through the discharge diffusers and moving towards the target sucked air from the surrounding environment that enlarged the flow rate on the target. The available flow was that which reached the vegetative and productive area, placed in a horizontal position respectively at 1.8 m and 2.0 m from the ground plane. The pneumatic sprayer produced an air flow clearly directed towards the top of the vines.

  16. Reuse of Winery Wastewater by Application to Vineyard Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosse, K. P.; Patti, A. F.; Parikh, S.; Steenwerth, K. L.; Buelow, M. C.; Cavagnaro, T. R.

    2010-12-01

    The ability to reuse winery wastewater (WWW) has potential benefits both with respect to treatment of a waste stream, as well as providing a beneficial water resource in water limited regions such as south-eastern Australia, California and South Africa. Our study in south-eastern Australia and California has focused on characterizing the physicochemical properties and microbial communities on soils following WWW application. Studies in the Yarra Valley, Victoria, Australia considered the effect of a single WWW application on paired soil sites, one of which was acclimatized to WWW application via 30 years of this practice, and the other of which was not. Soils that had received WWW appear to have a primed microbial population, with soil respiration showing a significantly greater spike following the single WWW application. In addition, the nitrate and ammonium spikes were impacted upon in the acclimatised site. Taken together, this information suggests that long-term WWW application causes an alteration to the microbial community, which may be more readily able to assimilate the carbon and nitrogen sources present in WWW. Studies are currently underway to assess the impacts of the application of a synthetic WWW on vineyard soils in Davis, California. In this study, four different synthetic WWWs are being applied as irrigation water, and soil will be sampled at the time of grape harvest. Results from this ongoing work will be presented with a view to informing long term vineyard management for sustainability.

  17. Elicitors as alternative strategy to pesticides in grapevine? Current knowledge on their mode of action from controlled conditions to vineyard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaunois, Bertrand; Farace, Giovanni; Jeandet, Philippe; Clément, Christophe; Baillieul, Fabienne; Dorey, Stéphan; Cordelier, Sylvain

    2014-04-01

    Development and optimisation of alternative strategies to reduce the use of classic chemical inputs for protection against diseases in vineyard is becoming a necessity. Among these strategies, one of the most promising consists in the stimulation and/or potentiation of the grapevine defence responses by the means of elicitors. Elicitors are highly diverse molecules both in nature and origins. This review aims at providing an overview of the current knowledge on these molecules and will highlight their potential efficacy from the laboratory in controlled conditions to vineyards. Recent findings and concepts (especially on plant innate immunity) and the new terminology (microbe-associated molecular patterns, effectors, etc.) are also discussed in this context. Other objectives of this review are to highlight the difficulty of transferring elicitors use and results from the controlled conditions to the vineyard, to determine their practical and effective use in viticulture and to propose ideas for improving their efficacy in non-controlled conditions.

  18. Assessing Spatial Variability of Grape Skin Flavonoids at the Vineyard Scale Based on Plant Water Status Mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brillante, Luca; Martínez-Luscher, Johann; Yu, Runze; Plank, Cassandra M; Sanchez, Luis; Bates, Terrence L; Brenneman, Charles; Oberholster, Anita; Kurtural, S Kaan

    2017-07-05

    Plant water stress affects grape (Vitis vinifera L. cv. Cabernet Sauvignon) berry composition and is variable in space due to variations in the physical environment at the growing site. We monitored the natural variability of grapevine water stress by stem water potential (Ψ stem ) and leaf gas exchange in an equi-distant grid in a commercial vineyard. Spatial differences were measured and related to topographical variation by modeling. Geospatial analysis and clustering allowed researchers to differentiate the vineyard block into two distinct zones having severe and moderate water stress where it varied by 0.2 MPa. Differences in stem water potential affected stomatal conductance, net carbon assimilation, and intrinsic water use efficiency that were different in all measurement dates. The two zones were selectively sampled at harvest for measurements of berry chemistry. The water status zones did not affect berry mass or yield per vine. Significant difference in total soluble solids was observed (3.56 Brix), and in titratable acidity, thus indicating a direct effect of water stress on ripening acceleration. Berry skin flavonol and anthocyanin composition and concentration were measured by C18 reversed-phased high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The anthocyanins were most affected by the two water stress zones. The dihydroxylated anthocyanins were more affected than trihydroxylated; therefore, the ratio of the two forms increased. Flavonols were different in total amounts, but hydroxylation patterns were not affected. Proanthocyanidin isolates were characterized by acid catalysis in the presence of excess phloroglucinol followed by reversed-phase HPLC. Proanthocyanidins showed the least significant difference, although (+)-catechin terminal subunits were important predictors in a partial least square model used to summarize the multivariate relationships, predicting Ψ stem or the management zone. The results provide fundamental information on vineyard

  19. Cohorts of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) in Vitis vinifera, a typical Mediterranean fruit crop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balestrini, Raffaella; Magurno, Franco; Walker, Christopher; Lumini, Erica; Bianciotto, Valeria

    2010-08-01

    In field conditions, grapevine roots normally are colonized by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF). However, little is published, from either morphological or molecular studies, on the species composition of these symbionts in production vineyards. The AMF biodiversity of two Piedmont vineyards (at Neive and Lessona), characterized by different soil features, was investigated by morphological and molecular analyses. Several morphotypes were identified from the two vineyard soils. Community composition of AMF, both in soil and root samples, was then analysed with molecular approach to amplify a portion (550 bp) of AM fungal SSU rDNA. Phylogenetic analyses show a different distribution of sequences from the two sites in the main glomeromycotan groups. In the Neive site, the Glomeraceae group A is the only one well represented whereas more groups were found at Lessona. Among the more representative operational taxonomic units (OTUs), only one related to the Glomus irregulare phylotype was shared between the two vineyard soils. The data obtained in this work together with similar results in literature on this important fruit crop reinforce the concept that the general AMF assemblage structure and composition in vineyards might be influenced more by soil type than by host plant features (age, vegetative stages) or management practices. © 2010 Society for Applied Microbiology and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  20. Occurrence of different phytoplasma infections in wild herbaceous dicots growing in vineyards affected by bois noir in Tuscany (Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guido MARCHI

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Wild herbaceous dicotyledonous plants (dicots showing symptoms ascribable to phytoplasma disorders were found to be widely distributed in organic vineyards in central Tuscany (Italy affected by bois noir, a grapevine yellows disease caused by “Candidatus Phytoplasma solani”. In 2010 symptomatic dicots were tentatively identified to species level and the incidence of symptoms estimated in two selected vineyards in the province of Florence. Incidence ranged from 2 to 77%, and was not related to the relative abundance of hosts since very common species as well as relatively rare ones were consistently found to be symptomatic. PCR indexing and 16S rRNA sequence analyses indicated that two phytoplasmas co-existed in the vineyards: “Ca. P. solani”, infecting the root systems of 17 taxa, and a phytoplasma closely related to “Ca. P. phoenicium”, infecting 11 taxa, and occasionally co-infecting the same plant. Regardless of the high frequency of both pathogens in the vineyards, only “Ca. P. solani” could be detected in the grapevines. Population screening by means of tuf sequence analyses revealed the presence of only the tuf-b “Ca. P. solani” type both in dicot hosts and grapevine. This supports current notions of bois noir epidemiology, indicating that some infected dicots act as sources of “Ca. P. solani” inoculum whereas others are dead-end hosts. When the same specimens were screened by sequence analysis of the vmp1 gene, evidence was found that different phytoplasma genotypes may be predominant in grapevines and dicots.

  1. Monitoring the latent and sensible heat fluxes in vineyard by applying the energy balance model METRIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. González-Piqueras

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The monitoring of the energy fluxes over vineyard applying the one source energy balance model METRIC (Allen et al., 2007b are shown in this work. This model is considered operaive because it uses an internalized calibration method derived from the selection of two extreme pixels in the scene, from the minimum ET values such as the bare soil to a maximum that corresponds to full cover active vegetation. The model provides the maps of net radiation (Rn, soil heat flux (G, sensible heat (H, latent heat (LE, evapotranspiration (ET and crop coefficient (Kc. The flux values have been validated with a flux tower installed in the plot, providing a RMSE for instantaneous fluxes of 43 W m2, 33 W m2, 55 W m2 y 40 W m2 on Rn, G, H and LE. In relative terms are 8%, 29%, 21% and 20% respectively. The RMSE at daily scale for the ET is 0.58 mm day-1, with a value in the crop coefficient for the mid stage of 0.42±0.08. These results allow considering the model adequate for crop monitoring and irrigation purposes in vineyard. The values obtained have been compared to other studies over vineyard and with alternative energy balance models showing similar results.

  2. Taking the pulse of the Mediterranean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osterberg, C.

    1977-01-01

    preconcentration prior to analysis by spectrometry is necessary. For some four or five metals, polarographic techniques can be used directly for their measurement in seawater. The work has defined the baselines of certain pollutants in the Mediterranean. It also places a greater emphasis on the processes and mechanisms of removal and transport of pollutants. Not until these are understood can much be said about the future of the Mediterranean - or the Atlantic and the Pacific. So far, it appears, the Mediterranean is not as badly off as we might have expected from its geography

  3. Modelling retention and dispersion mechanisms of bluefin tuna eggs and larvae in the northwest Mediterranean Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariani, Patrizio; MacKenzie, Brian R.; Iudicone, Daniele; Bozec, Alexandra

    2010-07-01

    Knowledge of early life history of most fish species in the Mediterranean Sea is sparse and processes affecting their recruitment are poorly understood. This is particularly true for bluefin tuna, Thunnus thynnus, even though this species is one of the world’s most valued fish species. Here we develop, apply and validate an individually based coupled biological-physical oceanographic model of fish early life history in the Mediterranean Sea. We first validate the general structure of the coupled model with a 12-day Lagrangian drift study of anchovy ( Engraulis encrasicolus) larvae in the Catalan Sea. The model reproduced the drift and growth of anchovy larvae as they drifted along the Catalan coast and yielded similar patterns as those observed in the field. We then applied the model to investigate transport and retention processes affecting the spatial distribution of bluefin tuna eggs and larvae during 1999-2003, and we compared modelled distributions with available field data collected in 2001 and 2003. Modelled and field distributions generally coincided and were patchy at mesoscales (10s-100s km); larvae were most abundant in eddies and along frontal zones. We also identified probable locations of spawning bluefin tuna using hydrographic backtracking procedures; these locations were situated in a major salinity frontal zone and coincided with distributions of an electronically tagged bluefin tuna and commercial bluefin tuna fishing vessels. Moreover, we hypothesized that mesoscale processes are responsible for the aggregation and dispersion mechanisms in the area and showed that these processes were significantly correlated to atmospheric forcing processes over the NW Mediterranean Sea. Interannual variations in average summer air temperature can reduce the intensity of ocean mesoscale processes in the Balearic area and thus potentially affect bluefin tuna larvae. These modelling approaches can increase understanding of bluefin tuna recruitment processes and

  4. Effects of irrigation on the seasonal abundance of Empoasca vitis in north-Italian vineyards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fornasiero, D; Duso, C; Pozzebon, A; Tomasi, D; Gaiotti, F; Pavan, F

    2012-02-01

    The effect of irrigation on the abundance of Empoasca vitis (Göthe) populations was investigated in four vineyards located in northeastern Italy. In two experiments, we compared leafhopper population densities in plots irrigated (micro-spray irrigation system) or nonirrigated. In another experiment, we studied the effect of various irrigation systems on E. vitis populations over two successive seasons. In particular, five treatments were compared: control (not irrigated), traditional drip system, three types of subirrigation varying in distance from the row (40, 135, and 95 cm). In this vineyard, stem water potential was monitored with a pressure chamber. E. vitis population densities were affected by irrigation, with higher densities of this pest recorded on irrigated vines. Highest E. vitis densities were detected in drip irrigation plots compared with nonirrigated plots where water stress was highest. Moderate water stress (subirrigation plots) was associated with intermediate leafhopper densities. Implications for integrated pest management are discussed.

  5. Modelling solar radiation interception in row plantation. 3. Application to a traditional vineyard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinoquet, H.; Valancogne, C.; Lescure, A.; Bonhomme, R.

    1992-01-01

    Modeling solar radiation interception in row plantation. III. Application to a traditional vineyard. A previously described model of solar radiation interception was applied to a spatially discontinuous canopy: that of a traditional vineyard in which the classical terms of the radiative balance and the spatial distribution of the radiation transmitted to the soil were measured. Comparison of measured and simulated data gave satisfactory agreement for reflected radiation (fig 4), but major discrepancies appeared for mean transmitted radiation (fig 5). The use of small stationary sensors for measuring the transmitted radiation explains the latter observation, since most of the time they measured radiation received on the ground in the sunflecks or in the shaded area rather than mean radiation. This was verified by comparing the measured and simulated spatial distribution of transmitted radiation (figs 7, 8). Finally, the influence of the woody parts which were not taken into consideration in the model was clearly identified : it significantly reduced the transmission of incident radiation (fig 9), and to a greater degrees the closer the sensor was to the vegetation row [fr

  6. Mediterranean diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000110.htm Mediterranean diet To use the sharing features on this page, ... and other health problems. How to Follow the Diet The Mediterranean diet is based on: Plant-based ...

  7. Rootstock and vineyard floor management influence on 'Cabernet Sauvignon' grape yeast assimilable nitrogen (YAN)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This is a preliminary study on the influence two rootstocks (110R, high vigor; 420A, low vigor) grafted to scion 'Cabernet Sauvignon' clone 8, and three vineyard floor management regimes (tilled resident vegetation – usual practice in California, and barley cover crops that were either mowed or till...

  8. On the forces that drive and resist deformation of the south-central Mediterranean: a mechanical model study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nijholt, Nicolai; Govers, Rob; Wortel, Rinus

    2018-04-01

    The geodynamics of the Mediterranean comprises a transitional setting in which slab rollback and plate convergence compete to shape the region. In the central Mediterranean, where the balance of driving and resisting forces changes continuously and rapidly since the Miocene, both kinematic and seismo-tectonic observations display a strong variation in deformation style and, therefore possibly, lithospheric forces. We aim to understand the current kinematics in southern Italy and Sicily in terms of lithospheric forces that cause them. The strong regional variation of geodetic velocities appears to prohibit such simple explanation. We use mechanical models to quantify the deformation resulting from large-scale Africa-Eurasia convergence, ESE retreat of the Calabrian subduction zone, pull by the Aegean slab, and regional variations in gravitational potential energy (topography). A key model element is the resistance to slip on major regional fault zones. We show that geodetic velocities, seismicity and sense of slip on regional faults can be understood to result from lithospheric forces. Our most important new finding is that regional variations in resistive tractions are required to fit the observations, with notably very low tractions on the Calabrian subduction contact, and a buildup towards a significant earthquake in the Calabrian fore-arc. We also find that the Calabrian net slab pull force is strongly reduced (compared to the value possible in view of the slab's dimensions) and that trench suction tractions are negligible. Such very small contributions to the present-day force balance in the south-central Mediterranean suggest that the Calabrian arc is now further transitioning towards a setting dominated by Africa-Eurasia plate convergence, whereas during the past 30 Myrs slab retreat continually was the dominant factor.

  9. Diuron mobility through vineyard soils contaminated with copper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobson, Astrid R.; Dousset, Sylvie; Guichard, Nathalie; Baveye, Philippe; Andreux, Francis

    2005-01-01

    The herbicide diuron is frequently applied to vineyard soils in Burgundy, along with repeated treatments with Bordeaux mixture (a blend of copper sulfate and calcium hydroxide) that result in elevated copper concentrations. Cu could in principle affect the fate and transport of diuron or its metabolites in the soil either directly by complexation or indirectly by altering the populations or activity of microbes involved in their degradation. To assess the effect of high Cu concentrations on diuron transport, an experiment was designed with ten undisturbed columns of calcareous and acidic soils contaminated with 17-509 mg kg -1 total Cu (field-applied). Grass was planted on three columns. Diuron was applied to the soils in early May and in-ground lysimeters were exposed to outdoor conditions until November. Less than 1.2% of the diuron applied was found in the leachates as diuron or its metabolites. Higher concentrations were found in the effluents from the grass-covered columns (0.1-0.45%) than from the bare-soil columns (0.02-0.14%), and they were correlated with increases in dissolved organic carbon. The highest amounts of herbicide were measured in acidic-soil column leachates (0.98-1.14%) due to the low clay and organic matter contents of these soils. Cu also leached more readily through the acidic soils (32.8-1042 μg) than in the calcareous soils (9.5-63.4 μg). Unlike in the leachates, the amount of diuron remaining in the soils at the end of the experiment was weakly related to the Cu concentrations in the soils. - Cu accumulation, from Bordeaux mixture, in vineyard soils may be affecting microbial activity and thus slightly increasing the persistence of diuron in the soils

  10. Diuron mobility through vineyard soils contaminated with copper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobson, Astrid R. [UMR INRA 1229 Microbiologie-Geochimie des Sols, Centre des Sciences de la Terre, Universite de Bourgogne, 6 Bd Gabriel, 21000 Dijon (France) and Department of Crop and Soil Sciences, Cornell University, 1002 Bradfield Hall, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States)]. E-mail: arj5@cornell.edu; Dousset, Sylvie [UMR INRA 1229 Microbiologie-Geochimie des Sols, Centre des Sciences de la Terre, Universite de Bourgogne, 6 Bd Gabriel, 21000 Dijon (France); Guichard, Nathalie [UMR CNRS 5561 Biogeosciences, Centre des Sciences de la Terre, Universite de Bourgogne, 6 Bd Gabriel, 21000 Dijon (France); Baveye, Philippe [Department of Crop and Soil Sciences, Cornell University, 1002 Bradfield Hall, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Andreux, Francis [UMR INRA 1229 Microbiologie-Geochimie des Sols, Centre des Sciences de la Terre, Universite de Bourgogne, 6 Bd Gabriel, 21000 Dijon (France)

    2005-11-15

    The herbicide diuron is frequently applied to vineyard soils in Burgundy, along with repeated treatments with Bordeaux mixture (a blend of copper sulfate and calcium hydroxide) that result in elevated copper concentrations. Cu could in principle affect the fate and transport of diuron or its metabolites in the soil either directly by complexation or indirectly by altering the populations or activity of microbes involved in their degradation. To assess the effect of high Cu concentrations on diuron transport, an experiment was designed with ten undisturbed columns of calcareous and acidic soils contaminated with 17-509 mg kg{sup -1} total Cu (field-applied). Grass was planted on three columns. Diuron was applied to the soils in early May and in-ground lysimeters were exposed to outdoor conditions until November. Less than 1.2% of the diuron applied was found in the leachates as diuron or its metabolites. Higher concentrations were found in the effluents from the grass-covered columns (0.1-0.45%) than from the bare-soil columns (0.02-0.14%), and they were correlated with increases in dissolved organic carbon. The highest amounts of herbicide were measured in acidic-soil column leachates (0.98-1.14%) due to the low clay and organic matter contents of these soils. Cu also leached more readily through the acidic soils (32.8-1042 {mu}g) than in the calcareous soils (9.5-63.4 {mu}g). Unlike in the leachates, the amount of diuron remaining in the soils at the end of the experiment was weakly related to the Cu concentrations in the soils. - Cu accumulation, from Bordeaux mixture, in vineyard soils may be affecting microbial activity and thus slightly increasing the persistence of diuron in the soils.

  11. Monitoring Evaporation/Transpiration in a Vineyard from Two-Source Energy Balance and Radiometric Temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Juan Manuel; Doña, Carolina; Cuxart, Joan; Caselles, Vicente; Niclòs, Raquel

    2014-05-01

    Water management and understanding of irrigation efficiency could be significantly improved if the components of evapotranspiration (ET) in row-crop systems (plants and soil interrows) could be quantified separately. This evaporation/transpiration (E/T) partition, and its daily and seasonal evolution, depends on a variety of biophysical and environmental factors. In this work we present an operational method to provide continuous E/T results avoiding soil or canopy disturbance. This technique is based on the combination of the surface-atmosphere energy exchange modeling together with an accurate remote thermal characterization of the crop elements. An experiment was carried out in a row-crop vineyard in Mallorca, Spain, from June 2012 to May 2013. A set of 6 thermal-infrared radiometers (IRTs) were mounted in a mast placed in the middle of a vineyard N-S row. Two IRTs pointed to the soil between rows and other two pointed to the plants from a frontal view, measuring both east and west sides of the row. A fifth IRT pointed upward to collect the downwelling sky radiance and the remaining IRT was mounted at 4.5-m height over the canopy measuring the composed soil-canopy temperature. Measurements of the four components of the net radiation over the canopy and soil heat fluxes, as well as air temperature, humidity, wind speed, and soil moisture, were collected and stored in 15-min averages. A two-source energy balance approach was applied to the vineyard from its appropriate thermal characterization. Total and separate soil/canopy components of net radiation, soil, sensible and latent heat fluxes were obtained every 15 minutes and averaged at hourly and daily scales. Comparison between observed and modeled values of available surface energy showed relative errors below 15%. An analysis of the partition E/T was conducted along the vineyard growing season and the different phenological stages. In this experiment, interrow soil evaporation reached as much as 1/3 of the

  12. Sequential extraction and availability of copper in Cu fungicide-amended vineyard soils from Southern Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Correa Nogueirol, Roberta; Ferracciu Alleoni, Luis Reynaldo; Ribeiro Nachtigall, Gilmar; Wellington de Melo, George

    2010-01-01

    The continuous use of cupric fungicides in vineyards, mainly copper sulfate (as a component of the bordeaux mixture), has increased Cu concentration in soils to levels near or even above the maximum established by the Commission of Soil Chemistry and Fertility of the States of Santa Catarina and Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Besides the total content, the fractions of the element along the soil profile must be known, because the total content of Cu in the soil is not sufficient to express its environmental impact. The objective of this study was to evaluate the variation of Cu contentes along the soil profile and its speciation and partitioning in 29 soil samples from vineyards in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Samples were collected in areas cropped with vineyards older than 15 years that had been frequently treated with the bordeaux mixture. These samples were from Nitosols, Acrisols, Cambisols and Leptosols and were analysed by sequential extractions and several chemical extractors. Soils had diverse chemical and physical attributes: clay content in the plowed layer (0-0.2 m) ranged from 120 to 610 g kg -1 , pH ranged from 5.3 to 7.3 and organic carbon contents varied from 2.9 to 51 g dm -3 . Among the 29 samples, 16 had the total Cu above the maximum limit allowed by the European Community regulations (140 mg kg -1 ). The average amount of Cu bonded to the oxide fraction accounted for 49.5% of the total Cu.

  13. Sequential extraction and availability of copper in Cu fungicide-amended vineyard soils from Southern Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Correa Nogueirol, Roberta [University of Sao Paulo (ESALQ/USP), C.P. 9, Piracicaba 13418-900, SP (Brazil); Ferracciu Alleoni, Luis Reynaldo, E-mail: alleoni@esalq.usp.br [Department of Soil Science, ESALQ/USP. C.P. 9, Piracicaba 13418-900, SP (Brazil); Ribeiro Nachtigall, Gilmar; Wellington de Melo, George [National Research Center of Grapes and Wine - Embrapa Uva e Vinho, C.P. 130, Bento Goncalves 95700-000, RS (Brazil)

    2010-09-15

    The continuous use of cupric fungicides in vineyards, mainly copper sulfate (as a component of the bordeaux mixture), has increased Cu concentration in soils to levels near or even above the maximum established by the Commission of Soil Chemistry and Fertility of the States of Santa Catarina and Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Besides the total content, the fractions of the element along the soil profile must be known, because the total content of Cu in the soil is not sufficient to express its environmental impact. The objective of this study was to evaluate the variation of Cu contentes along the soil profile and its speciation and partitioning in 29 soil samples from vineyards in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Samples were collected in areas cropped with vineyards older than 15 years that had been frequently treated with the bordeaux mixture. These samples were from Nitosols, Acrisols, Cambisols and Leptosols and were analysed by sequential extractions and several chemical extractors. Soils had diverse chemical and physical attributes: clay content in the plowed layer (0-0.2 m) ranged from 120 to 610 g kg{sup -1}, pH ranged from 5.3 to 7.3 and organic carbon contents varied from 2.9 to 51 g dm{sup -3}. Among the 29 samples, 16 had the total Cu above the maximum limit allowed by the European Community regulations (140 mg kg{sup -1}). The average amount of Cu bonded to the oxide fraction accounted for 49.5% of the total Cu.

  14. Non-invasive real-time monitoring of vineyard soils, berries and leaves with FT-NIR spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lopo Miguel

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Production of high quality wines requires a permanent monitoring during the entire winemaking process. A healthy production, ensured by tailor-made strategies that will lead to consumer's satisfaction is of the utmost importance. The influence of the terroir characteristics on the features of a wine has always been prone to much debate amongst the wine industry. The composition of grapes is the result of the characteristics of each individual terroir. Soil impact on growth of the vineyard, grape variety characteristics and ultimately wine quality is well known. Current strategy for analysing soils (pedology is based on wet chemistry methods, which are often laborious, expensive, time-consuming and may be of limited use. An efficient, high-throughput analytical method for estimating the impact of soil quality, tillage and thinning on the grapes quality is of paramount importance for the wine industry. Near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS is a rapid, non-destructive, inexpensive and accurate analysis technique and its use in soil evaluation for discriminating different types of soil as well as soil constituents is rapidly increasing. Results obtained from direct monitoring of four Portuguese vineyards in different locations (wine appellation regions “Alentejo”, “Dão”, “Douro” and “Vinhos Verdes” using two different portable near-infrared spectrometers are presented. In-situ measurements of soils (at different depths, plant leaves and berries were performed on different stages of the ripening period. Spectral analysis was performed with chemometric methods: PCA and PLS-DA. This monitoring approach revealed to be an excellent tool for the support of a vineyard's micro-zoning process.

  15. Transferability of the Mediterranean Diet to Non-Mediterranean Countries. What Is and What Is Not the Mediterranean Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-González, Miguel Ángel; Hershey, Maria Soledad; Zazpe, Itziar; Trichopoulou, Antonia

    2017-11-08

    Substantial evidence has verified the Mediterranean diet's (MedDiet) nutritional adequacy, long-term sustainability, and effectiveness for preventing hard clinical events from cardiovascular disease (CVD), as well as increasing longevity. This article includes a cumulative meta-analysis of prospective studies supporting a strong inverse association between closer adherence to the MedDiet and the incidence of hard clinical events of CVD. The MedDiet has become an increasingly popular topic of interest when focusing on overall food patterns rather than single nutrient intake, not only in Mediterranean countries, but also globally. However, several myths and misconceptions associated with the traditional Mediterranean diet should be clearly addressed and dispelled, particularly those that label as "Mediterranean" an eating pattern that is not in line with the traditional Mediterranean diet. The transferability of the traditional MedDiet to the non-Mediterranean populations is possible, but it requires a multitude of changes in dietary habits. New approaches for promoting healthy dietary behavior consistent with the MedDiet will offer healthful, sustainable, and practical strategies at all levels of public health. The following article presents practical resources and knowledge necessary for accomplishing these changes.

  16. Air quality modelling in the summer over the eastern Mediterranean using WRF-Chem: chemistry and aerosol mechanism intercomparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiou, George K.; Christoudias, Theodoros; Proestos, Yiannis; Kushta, Jonilda; Hadjinicolaou, Panos; Lelieveld, Jos

    2018-02-01

    We employ the WRF-Chem model to study summertime air pollution, the intense photochemical activity and their impact on air quality over the eastern Mediterranean. We utilize three nested domains with horizontal resolutions of 80, 16 and 4 km, with the finest grid focusing on the island of Cyprus, where the CYPHEX campaign took place in July 2014. Anthropogenic emissions are based on the EDGAR HTAP global emission inventory, while dust and biogenic emissions are calculated online. Three simulations utilizing the CBMZ-MOSAIC, MOZART-MOSAIC, and RADM2-MADE/SORGAM gas-phase and aerosol mechanisms are performed. The results are compared with measurements from a dense observational network of 14 ground stations in Cyprus. The model simulates T2 m, Psurf, and WD10 m accurately, with minor differences in WS10 m between model and observations at coastal and mountainous stations attributed to limitations in the representation of the complex topography in the model. It is shown that the south-eastern part of Cyprus is mostly affected by emissions from within the island, under the dominant (60 %) westerly flow during summertime. Clean maritime air from the Mediterranean can reduce concentrations of local air pollutants over the region during westerlies. Ozone concentrations are overestimated by all three mechanisms (9 % ≤ NMB ≤ 23 %) with the smaller mean bias (4.25 ppbV) obtained by the RADM2-MADE/SORGAM mechanism. Differences in ozone concentrations can be attributed to the VOC treatment by the three mechanisms. The diurnal variability of pollution and ozone precursors is not captured (hourly correlation coefficients for O3 ≤ 0.29). This might be attributed to the underestimation of NOx concentrations by local emissions by up to 50 %. For the fine particulate matter (PM2.5), the lowest mean bias (9 µg m-3) is obtained with the RADM2-MADE/SORGAM mechanism, with overestimates in sulfate and ammonium aerosols. Overestimation of sulfate aerosols by this mechanism may be

  17. Constructing a framework for risk analyses of climate change effects on the water budget of differently sloped vineyards with a numeric simulation using the Monte Carlo method coupled to a water balance model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco eHofmann

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Grapes for wine production are a highly climate sensitive crop and vineyard water budget is a decisive factor in quality formation. In order to conduct risk assessments for climate change effects in viticulture models are needed which can be applied to complete growing regions. We first modified an existing simplified geometric vineyard model of radiation interception and resulting water use to incorporate numerical Monte Carlo simulations and the physical aspects of radiation interactions between canopy and vineyard slope and azimuth. We then used four regional climate models to assess for possible effects on the water budget of selected vineyard sites up 2100. The model was developed to describe the partitioning of short-wave radiation between grapevine canopy and soil surface, respectively green cover, necessary to calculate vineyard evapotranspiration. Soil water storage was allocated to two sub reservoirs. The model was adopted for steep slope vineyards based on coordinate transformation and validated against measurements of grapevine sap flow and soil water content determined down to 1.6 m depth at three different sites over two years. The results showed good agreement of modelled and observed soil water dynamics of vineyards with large variations in site specific soil water holding capacity and viticultural management. Simulated sap flow was in overall good agreement with measured sap flow but site-specific responses of sap flow to potential evapotranspiration were observed. The analyses of climate change impacts on vineyard water budget demonstrated the importance of site-specific assessment due to natural variations in soil water holding capacity. The improved model was capable of describing seasonal and site-specific dynamics in soil water content and could be used in an amended version to estimate changes in the water budget of entire grape growing areas due to evolving climatic changes.

  18. Constructing a framework for risk analyses of climate change effects on the water budget of differently sloped vineyards with a numeric simulation using the Monte Carlo method coupled to a water balance model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Marco; Lux, Robert; Schultz, Hans R

    2014-01-01

    Grapes for wine production are a highly climate sensitive crop and vineyard water budget is a decisive factor in quality formation. In order to conduct risk assessments for climate change effects in viticulture models are needed which can be applied to complete growing regions. We first modified an existing simplified geometric vineyard model of radiation interception and resulting water use to incorporate numerical Monte Carlo simulations and the physical aspects of radiation interactions between canopy and vineyard slope and azimuth. We then used four regional climate models to assess for possible effects on the water budget of selected vineyard sites up 2100. The model was developed to describe the partitioning of short-wave radiation between grapevine canopy and soil surface, respectively, green cover, necessary to calculate vineyard evapotranspiration. Soil water storage was allocated to two sub reservoirs. The model was adopted for steep slope vineyards based on coordinate transformation and validated against measurements of grapevine sap flow and soil water content determined down to 1.6 m depth at three different sites over 2 years. The results showed good agreement of modeled and observed soil water dynamics of vineyards with large variations in site specific soil water holding capacity (SWC) and viticultural management. Simulated sap flow was in overall good agreement with measured sap flow but site-specific responses of sap flow to potential evapotranspiration were observed. The analyses of climate change impacts on vineyard water budget demonstrated the importance of site-specific assessment due to natural variations in SWC. The improved model was capable of describing seasonal and site-specific dynamics in soil water content and could be used in an amended version to estimate changes in the water budget of entire grape growing areas due to evolving climatic changes.

  19. Microwave-derived soil moisture over Mediterranean land uses: from ground-based radiometry to SMOS first observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh, Kauzar; Antolín, Carmen; Juglea, Silvia; Kerr, Yann; Millán-Scheiding, Cristina; Novello, Nathalie; Pardé, Mickael; Wigneron, Jean-Pierre; Zribi, Mehrez; López-Baeza, Ernesto

    2010-05-01

    This communication will present the main results of a series of airborne and ground-based experiments conducted at the Valencia Anchor Station (VAS) site for the implementation of the SMOS emission model L-MEB (L-band Microwave Emission model of the Biosphere, Wigneron et al., 2007), and will evaluate the performance of L-MEB against SMOS measurements. The L-MEB model has been implemented in the context of the SMOS mission and through numerous radiometry experiments over different land uses. Within L-MEB, each land use is characterised by model parameterisations that are used to describe the radiative transfer at L-band. They describe, for instance, the attenuation properties of different canopies, or the effect of soil roughness on the surface emission. In recent years, the Valencia Anchor Station site (VAS) has hosted various radiometry experiments. These were performed at different scales, from the plot scale to the regional scale (up to 50 km), using ground-based and airborne-based radiometry. The main results are discussed in this communication, and some preliminary comparisons with SMOS measurements are presented. 1) Ground-based experiments. MELBEX-I was a ground-radiometry experiment run in 2005 using the L-band radiometer EMIRAD over a plot of shrub land. We will present results from this experiment (Cano et al., 2009), that highlighted a constant (and small) contribution of Mediterranean shrub land to the overall emission, and investigated the role of exposed rocks in the surface emission. MELBEX-II was a ground-radiometry experiment run in 2007 using the EMIRAD L-band radiometer over a plot of vineyards throughout the whole vegetation cycle. Vineyards are the main land use at the VAS site, therefore parameterisations for vineyards are key for the validation of SMOS data at VAS. This communication will discuss, in particular, estimates of microwave surface roughness throughout the crop year, and changes in the canopy microwave properties throughout the

  20. Soil, vegetation and total organic carbon stock development in self-restoring abandoned vineyards

    Science.gov (United States)

    József Novák, Tibor; Incze, József; Spohn, Marie; Giani, Luise

    2016-04-01

    Abandoned vineyard's soil and vegetation development was studied on Tokaj Nagy-Hill, which is one of the traditional wine-producing regions of Hungary, it is declared as UNESCO World Heritage site as cultural landscape. Spatial distribution and pattern of vineyards were changing during the last several hundreds of years, therefore significant part of abandoned vineyards were subjected to long-term spontaneous secondary succession of vegetation and self-restoration of soils in absence of later cultivation. Two chronosequences of spontaneously regenerating vineyard abandonments, one on south (S-sequence) and one on southwest (SW-sequence) slope with differing times since their abandonment (193, 142, 101, 63, 39 and 14 years), were compiled and studied. The S-sequence was 25-35% sloped and strongly eroded, and the SW-sequence was 17-25% sloped and moderately eroded. The sites were investigated in respect of vegetation characteristics, soil physico-chemical characteristics, total organic carbon stocks (TOC stocks), accumulation rates of total organic carbon (TOC accumulation rates), and soil profiles, which were classified according to the World Reference Base (WRB) 2014. Vegetation development resulted in shrub-grassland mosaics, supplemented frequently by protected forb species and forest development at the earliest abandonment in S-sequence, and predominantly to forest vegetation in SW-sequence, where trees were only absent at the 63 and 14 years old abandonment sites. In all sites soils on level of reference groups according to WRB were classified, and Cambisols, Regosols, Calcisols, Leptosols, Chernozems and Phaeozems were found. Soils of the S-sequence show shallow remnants of loess cover with colluvic and redeposited soil materials containing 15-65% skeletal volcanic rock of weathering products coated by secondary calcium carbonates. The SW-sequence profiles are developed on deep loess or loess derivatives. The calcium-carbonate content was higher in profiles of

  1. European grapevine moth (Lobesia botrana Denis and Schiff. (Lepidoptera: Totricidae – occurence and management in Istrian vineyards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Bažok

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to identify European grapevine moths (Lobesia botrana Denis and Schiff. flight dynamics, larvae occurrence and degree-day accumulations (DDA for each moth generation in two Istrian vineyards with different pest management practices. The moth has developed three generations. During the third generation there was a significant flight peak in the vineyard without pest management. Predictions about larvae number and possible damage must be based on both, visual monitoring of grapevine and weekly adults catch. Developmental time with lower thermal threshold of 7 °C was calculated. The flight of the first generation was between 217.9 and 406.6 °C, second generation between 786.3 and 1329.8 °C, third generation between 1452.8 and 2108.2 °C.

  2. A water stress index based on water balance modelling for discrimination of grapevine quality and yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rémi Gaudin

    2014-01-01

    Significance and impact of the study: This water stress index is a valuable tool for explaining the variations in grape yield and quality among various locations and years because it reflects the vineyard water stress history in relation to rainfall regime and soil conditions. Improvement would come from the simulation of FTSW during winter, notably for soils of high Total Transpirable Soil Water. One potential application is the quantification of water stress change brought by irrigation in Mediterranean vineyards, and its relation to grapevine production.

  3. Fisheries in the Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. PAPACONSTANTINOU

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to give a description of the Mediterranean fisheries, and its level of exploitation and to address the main questions dealing with its management. The Mediterranean is a semi-enclosed marine area with generally narrow continental shelves. The primary production of the Mediterranean is among the lowest in the world (26-50g C m-2 y-1. The Mediterranean fisheries can be broken down into three main categories: small scale fisheries, trawling and seining fisheries, which operated on demersal, small pelagic and large pelagic resources. After a general description of the state of the resources in the different areas of the Mediterranean it is concluded that (a the overall pictures from the western to the eastern Mediterranean are not considerably different, (b the total landings in the Mediterranean have been increased the last decades, and (c from the perspective of stock assessment, the very few available time series data show stable yield levels. In general fisheries management in the Mediterranean is at a rela- tively early stage of development, judging by the criteria of North Atlantic fisheries. Quota systems are generally not applied, mesh-size regulations usually are set at low levels relative to scientific advice, and effort limitation is not usually applied or, if it is, is not always based on a formal resource assessment. The conservation/management measures applied by the Mediterranean countries can be broadly separated into two major categories: those aiming to keep the fishing effort under control and those aiming to make the exploitation pattern more rational. The most acute problems in the management of the Mediterranean resources are the multispecificity of the catches and the lack of reliable official statistics.

  4. BiodivERsA project VineDivers: Analysing interlinkages between soil biota and biodiversity-based ecosystem services in vineyards across Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaller, Johann G.; Winter, Silvia; Strauss, Peter; Querner, Pascal; Kriechbaum, Monika; Pachinger, Bärbel; Gómez, José A.; Campos, Mercedes; Landa, Blanca; Popescu, Daniela; Comsa, Maria; Iliescu, Maria; Tomoiaga, Liliana; Bunea, Claudiu-Ioan; Hoble, Adela; Marghitas, Liviu; Rusu, Teodor; Lora, Ángel; Guzmán, Gema; Bergmann, Holger

    2015-04-01

    Essential ecosystem services provided by viticultural landscapes result from diverse communities of above- and belowground organisms and their interactions. For centuries traditional viticulture was part of a multifunctional agricultural system including low-input grasslands and fruit trees resulting in a high functional biodiversity. However, in the last decades intensification and mechanisation of vineyard management caused a separation of production and conservation areas. As a result of management intensification including frequent tilling and/or use of pesticides several ecosystem services are affected leading to high rates of soil erosion, degradation of soil structure and fertility, contamination of groundwater and high levels of agricultural inputs. In this transdisciplinary BiodivERsA project we will examine to what extent differently intensive managed vineyards affect the activity and diversity of soil biota (e.g. earthworms, collembola, soil microorganisms) and how this feed back on aboveground biodiversity (e.g. weeds, pollinators). We will also investigate ecosystem services associated with soil faunal activity and biodiversity such as soil structure, the formation of stable soil aggregates, water infiltration, soil erosion as well as grape quality. These effects will become increasingly important as more extreme precipitation events are predicted with climate change. The socio-economic part of the project will investigate the role of diversely structured, species-rich viticultural landscapes as a cultural heritage providing aesthetic values for human well-being and recreation. The project objectives will be analysed at plot, field (vineyard) and landscape scales in vineyards located in Spain, France, Romania and Austria. A detailed engagement and dissemination plan for stakeholder at the different governance levels will accompany scientific research and will contribute to the implementation of best-practice recommendations for policy and farmers.

  5. Studies on Biodiversity Diagnosis of Vineyard Farms at the Agro-Ecological Infrastructure Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Lucia Tomoiagă

    2016-11-01

    Based on the results obtained from the studied vineyards, during 2015, the agro-ecological infrastructure or AEI percent based on the actual area occupied varies between 7% and 35%. Evaluation of the implementation AEI during 2015 in wine-growing farms in Romania showed that the amount of semi-natural elements is not sufficient to stop the loss of biodiversity and their quality needs to be favored also.

  6. Not all water becomes wine: Sulfur inputs as an opportune tracer of hydrochemical losses from vineyards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinckley, Eve-Lyn S.; Kendall, Carol; Loague, Keith

    2008-07-01

    California's widespread and economically important vineyards offer substantial opportunities to understand the interface between hydrology and biogeochemistry in agricultural soils. The common use of native sulfur (S) as a fumigant or soil additive provides a novel way to isotopically differentiate among sulfate (SO42-) pools, allowing the estimation of water and SO42- budgets. The objectives of this study were (1) to characterize the near-surface hydrological flow paths in a vineyard during irrigation and storm events and (2) to determine how those flow paths affect the fate and transport of SO42- across seasons. Integrating hydrological theory with measurements of SO42- concentration and sulfate-S isotopic ratios (expressed as [SO42-] and δ34S, respectively) in inputs, soil water, and leachate provided a means of determining flow paths. Low [SO42-] and δ34S in leachate during 4-h irrigation events reflect minimal engagement of the soil matrix, indicating that preferential flow was the dominant path for water in the near surface. In contrast, high [SO42-] and δ34S values during 8-h irrigation and storm events reflect near-complete engagement of the soil matrix, indicating that lateral flow was the dominant pathway. Because hydrologic response and SO42- mobility are tightly coupled in these soils, the magnitude of water fluxes through the near surface controls S cycling both on and off site. These results indicate that preferential flow is an important loss pathway to consider in managing both water resources and water quality (reactive elements) in vineyard land use systems.

  7. Spatial distribution of grape root borer (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae) infestations in Virginia vineyards and implications for sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rijal, J P; Brewster, C C; Bergh, J C

    2014-06-01

    Grape root borer, Vitacea polistiformis (Harris) (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae) is a potentially destructive pest of grape vines, Vitis spp. in the eastern United States. After feeding on grape roots for ≍2 yr in Virginia, larvae pupate beneath the soil surface around the vine base. Adults emerge during July and August, leaving empty pupal exuviae on or protruding from the soil. Weekly collections of pupal exuviae from an ≍1-m-diameter weed-free zone around the base of a grid of sample vines in Virginia vineyards were conducted in July and August, 2008-2012, and their distribution was characterized using both nonspatial (dispersion) and spatial techniques. Taylor's power law showed a significant aggregation of pupal exuviae, based on data from 19 vineyard blocks. Combined use of geostatistical and Spatial Analysis by Distance IndicEs methods indicated evidence of an aggregated pupal exuviae distribution pattern in seven of the nine blocks used for those analyses. Grape root borer pupal exuviae exhibited spatial dependency within a mean distance of 8.8 m, based on the range values of best-fitted variograms. Interpolated and clustering index-based infestation distribution maps were developed to show the spatial pattern of the insect within the vineyard blocks. The temporal distribution of pupal exuviae showed that the majority of moths emerged during the 3-wk period spanning the third week of July and the first week of August. The spatial distribution of grape root borer pupal exuviae was used in combination with temporal moth emergence patterns to develop a quantitative and efficient sampling scheme to assess infestations.

  8. Contribution of Black Carbon Aerosol to Drying of the Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, T.; Shindell, D. T.; Samset, B. H.; Boucher, O.; Forster, P.; Hodnebrog, Ø.; Myhre, G.; Sillmann, J.; Voulgarakis, A.; Andrews, T.; Faluvegi, G.; Fläschner, D.; Iverson, T.; Kasoar, M.; Kharin, V. V.; Kirkevag, A.; Lamarque, J. F.; Olivié, D.; Richardson, T.; Stjern, C.; Takemura, T.; Zwiers, F. W.

    2017-12-01

    Atmospheric aerosols affect cloud properties, radiative balance and thus, the hydrological cycle. Many studies have reported that precipitation has decreased in the Mediterranean since the mid-20th century, and investigated possible mechanisms. So far, however, the effects of aerosol forcing on Mediterranean precipitation remain largely unknown. Here we compare observed Mediterranean precipitation trends during 1951-2010 with responses to individual forcing in a set of state-of-the-art global climate models. Our analyses suggest that nearly one-third (30%) of the observed precipitation decrease may be attributable to black carbon forcing. The remainder is most strongly linked to forcing of well-mixed greenhouse gases (WMGHGs), with scattering sulfate aerosols having negligible impacts. Black carbon caused an enhanced positive North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO)/Arctic Oscillation (AO)-like sea level pressure (SLP) pattern, characterized by higher SLP at mid-latitudes and lower SLP at high-latitudes. This SLP change diverted the jet stream and storm tracks further northward, reducing precipitation in the Mediterranean while increasing precipitation in Northern Europe. The results from this study suggest that future black carbon emissions may significantly affect regional water resources, agricultural practices, ecosystems, and economy in the Mediterranean region.

  9. Blend chemistry and field attraction of commercial sex pheromone lures to grape berry moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), and a nontarget tortricid in vineyards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, T A; Zhang, A; Pfeiffer, D G

    2013-06-01

    Anecdotal reports by scientists and growers suggested commercial sex pheromone lures were ineffective with monitoring field populations of grape berry moth, Paralobesia viteana (Clemens), in vineyards. This study addressed the need to evaluate commercial sex pheromone lures for chemical purity and efficacy of attracting grape berry moth and a nontarget tortricid, the sumac moth, Episumus argutanus (Clemens). The percentage of chemical components from a set of eight lures from each manufacturer was found using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and confirmed by chemical standards. No lures adhered to the 9:1 blend of (Z)-9-dodecenyl acetate (Z9-12:Ac) to (Z)-11-tetradecenyl acetate (Z11-14:Ac), though Suterra (9.1:1), ISCA (5.7:1), and Trécé (5.4:1) lures were closest. The Trécé lures contained ≍98 μg Z9-12:Ac, which is 3-51 times more than the other lures. The Suterra and ISCA lures were loaded with ≍29 and 33 μg Z9-12:Ac, and the Alpha Scents lures only contained ≍2 μg Z9-12:Ac. An antagonistic impurity, (E)-9-tetradecenyl acetate (E9-12:Ac), was found in all manufacturer lures at concentrations from 3.2 to 4.8%. Field attraction studies were done in summer 2010, and again in 2011, to evaluate commercial lures for their potential to attract P. viteana and E. argutanus in the presence of lures from other manufacturers. Separate experiments were established in two vineyards in Augusta County, VA, one with open and the other with wooded surroundings. In field experiments, Suterra lures detected P. viteana most often, Trécé lures detected more E. argutanus, and ISCA lures detected P. viteana in the open vineyard the least, while Alpha Scents lures were least attractive to E. argutanus in both environments. Fewer P. viteana were captured in the wooded versus open vineyard, which may limit the potential for sex pheromone monitoring of P. viteana in wooded vineyards.

  10. The Importance of Rotational Crops for Biodiversity Conservation in Mediterranean Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiatante, Gianpasquale; Meriggi, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    results underlined the negative effects of permanent crops, such as vineyards, olive groves, and orchards, in particular during the winter season. This research highlights the importance of farmland areas mainly for wintering species and the importance of open areas for breeding species in the Mediterranean Basin. This may be true even when the species' spatial distribution could be affected by biogeography. An important result showed that the hotspots for breeding species cannot be used as a surrogate for the wintering species, which were often not considered in the planning of protected areas.

  11. The Importance of Rotational Crops for Biodiversity Conservation in Mediterranean Areas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianpasquale Chiatante

    . Moreover, the results underlined the negative effects of permanent crops, such as vineyards, olive groves, and orchards, in particular during the winter season. This research highlights the importance of farmland areas mainly for wintering species and the importance of open areas for breeding species in the Mediterranean Basin. This may be true even when the species' spatial distribution could be affected by biogeography. An important result showed that the hotspots for breeding species cannot be used as a surrogate for the wintering species, which were often not considered in the planning of protected areas.

  12. The Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suryawanshi, Vandana

    2017-04-01

    Learning is always a joyful experience for any human being and must always remain so. Children are happiest when they learn through play. The philosophy of my life is to keep encouraging children to think beyond they could achieve easily. I understand children are adaptive to change and take things with an open mind. They are ready to experiment new things and dare to dream big. I am fortunate to be a teacher by profession and thus I always attempt experimenting, observing and participating with other children and adults. Education is not about moulding children the way you think they should be. It is about organizing the natural longing in a human being to know. From birth children are active participants in building their own understanding. I always prepare the environment to help each child build on what they already know. It is such a great pleasure to observe every young kid become excited and curious to know when we teach them. Std 8 Geography the students are very excited to learn about this continent, with the help of Videos and a wall map the Political map of Europe with its countries shown I introduced the topic by asking 'If given a chance which place they would like to visit in Europe' , students are familiar with the countries of their favourite football players and happily pointed out their destination. The Mediterranean Region is a paradise the scenic beauty, the climate, the food along with a variety of fruits which are totally different from Asia increased the curiosity among the students. With the help of case study of the Mediterranean Sea the students were able to research and present the history, the adventure sports the aquatic life and the twenty three beautiful islands located in the Mediterranean Sea. Photos and videos helped me to explain the Mediterranean Sea The Formation of the Mediterranean Sea ( Youtube Video) which is otherwise completely enclosed by land. (The evaporating Mediterranean Sea - BBC (Video) Gibraltar Breach.mov . The

  13. Approaches and challenges of soil water monitoring in an irrigated vineyard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolz, Reinhard; Loiskandl, Willibald

    2016-04-01

    Monitoring of water content is an approved method to quantify certain components of the soil water balance, for example as basis for hydrological studies and soil water management. Temporal soil water data also allow controlling water status by means of demand-oriented irrigation. Regarding spatial variability of water content due to soil characteristics, plant water uptake and other non-uniformities, it is a great challenge to select a location that is most likely representing soil water status of a larger area (e.g. an irrigated field). Although such an approach might not satisfy the requirements of precision farming - which becomes more and more related to industrial agriculture - it can help improving water use efficiency of small-scale farming. In this regard, specific conditions can be found in typical vineyards in the eastern part of Austria, where grapes are grown for high quality wine production. Generally, the local dry-subhumid climate supports grape development. However, irrigation is temporarily essential in order to guarantee stable yields and high quality. As the local winegrowers traditionally control irrigation based on their experience, there is a potential to improve irrigation management by means of soil water data. In order to gain experience with regard to irrigation management, soil water status was determined in a small vineyard in Austria (47°48'16'' N, 17°01'57'' E, 118 m elevation). The vineyard was equipped with a subsurface drip irrigation system and access tubes for measuring water content in soil profiles. The latter was measured using a portable device as well as permanently installed multi-sensor capacitance probes. Soil samples were taken at chosen dates and gravimetrically analyzed in the laboratory. Water content data were analyzed using simple statistical procedures and the temporal stability concept. Soil water content was interpreted considering different environmental conditions, including rainfall and irrigation periods

  14. Investing in Cognac Producing Vineyards to Hedge Wealth While Receiving High Returns

    OpenAIRE

    Hakob Hakobyan

    2015-01-01

    The general trend over the last decade for investments has been moving towards emerging markets, where investors are promised high returns for risky investments. These kind of investments favor the brave and bold, but are frightening for the risk averse. In this paper I will be presenting the opportunities that an investment into cognac producing vineyards can offer. High return and relatively low risk investment opportunities that exists in France. Included in the paper will be examples of l...

  15. Indicators for taxonomic and functional aspects of biodiversity in the vineyard agroecosystem of Southern Switzerland

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Trivellone, V.; Schoenenberger, N.; Bellosi, B.; Jermini, M.; de Bello, Francesco; Mitchell, E.A.D.; Moretti, M.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 170, Feb 2014 (2014), s. 103-109 ISSN 0006-3207 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP505/12/1296 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : indicator species * Switzerland * vineyard floor vegetation Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 3.762, year: 2014

  16. Transferability of the Mediterranean Diet to Non-Mediterranean Countries. What Is and What Is Not the Mediterranean Diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-González, Miguel Ángel; Hershey, Maria Soledad; Zazpe, Itziar

    2017-01-01

    Substantial evidence has verified the Mediterranean diet’s (MedDiet) nutritional adequacy, long-term sustainability, and effectiveness for preventing hard clinical events from cardiovascular disease (CVD), as well as increasing longevity. This article includes a cumulative meta-analysis of prospective studies supporting a strong inverse association between closer adherence to the MedDiet and the incidence of hard clinical events of CVD. The MedDiet has become an increasingly popular topic of interest when focusing on overall food patterns rather than single nutrient intake, not only in Mediterranean countries, but also globally. However, several myths and misconceptions associated with the traditional Mediterranean diet should be clearly addressed and dispelled, particularly those that label as “Mediterranean” an eating pattern that is not in line with the traditional Mediterranean diet. The transferability of the traditional MedDiet to the non-Mediterranean populations is possible, but it requires a multitude of changes in dietary habits. New approaches for promoting healthy dietary behavior consistent with the MedDiet will offer healthful, sustainable, and practical strategies at all levels of public health. The following article presents practical resources and knowledge necessary for accomplishing these changes. PMID:29117146

  17. Transferability of the Mediterranean Diet to Non-Mediterranean Countries. What Is and What Is Not the Mediterranean Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Ángel Martínez-González

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Substantial evidence has verified the Mediterranean diet’s (MedDiet nutritional adequacy, long-term sustainability, and effectiveness for preventing hard clinical events from cardiovascular disease (CVD, as well as increasing longevity. This article includes a cumulative meta-analysis of prospective studies supporting a strong inverse association between closer adherence to the MedDiet and the incidence of hard clinical events of CVD. The MedDiet has become an increasingly popular topic of interest when focusing on overall food patterns rather than single nutrient intake, not only in Mediterranean countries, but also globally. However, several myths and misconceptions associated with the traditional Mediterranean diet should be clearly addressed and dispelled, particularly those that label as “Mediterranean” an eating pattern that is not in line with the traditional Mediterranean diet. The transferability of the traditional MedDiet to the non-Mediterranean populations is possible, but it requires a multitude of changes in dietary habits. New approaches for promoting healthy dietary behavior consistent with the MedDiet will offer healthful, sustainable, and practical strategies at all levels of public health. The following article presents practical resources and knowledge necessary for accomplishing these changes.

  18. Irrigation effects on soil attributes and grapevine performance in a 'Godello' vineyard of NW Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fandiño, María; Trigo-Córdoba, Emiliano; Martínez, Emma M.; Bouzas-Cid, Yolanda; Rey, Benjamín J.; Cancela, Javier J.; Mirás-Avalos, Jose M.

    2014-05-01

    Irrigation systems are increasingly being used in Galician vineyards. However, a lack of information about irrigation management can cause a bad use of these systems and, consequently, reductions in berry quality and loss of water resources. In this context, experiences with Galician cultivars may provide useful information. A field experiment was carried out over two seasons (2012-2013) on Vitis vinifera (L.) cv. 'Godello' in order to assess the effects of irrigation on soil attributes, grapevine performance and berry composition. The field site was a commercial vineyard located in A Rúa (Ourense-NW Spain). Rain-fed vines (R) were compared with two irrigation systems: surface drip irrigation (DI) and subsurface drip irrigation (SDI). Physical and chemical characteristics of soil were analyzed after installing irrigation systems at the beginning of each season, in order to assess the effects that irrigation might have on soil attributes. Soil water content, leaf and stem water potentials and stomatal conductance were periodically measured over the two seasons. Yield components including number of clusters, yield per plant and cluster average weight were taken. Soluble solids, pH, total acidity and amino acids contents were measured on the grapes at harvest. Pruning weight was also recorded. Soil attributes did not significantly vary due to the irrigation treatments. Stem water potentials were significantly lower for R plants on certain dates through the season, whereas stomatal conductance was similar for the three treatments in 2013, while in 2012 SDI plants showed greater stomatal conductance values. SDI plants yielded more than those R due to both a greater number of clusters per plant and to heavier clusters. Pruning weight was significantly higher in SI plants. Berry composition was similar for the three treatments except for the amino acids content, which was higher under SDI conditions. These results may be helpful for a sustainable management of irrigation

  19. Vertical variations in the turbulent structure of the surface boundary layer over vineyards under unstable atmospheric conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Due to their highly-structured canopy, turbulent characteristics within and above vineyards, may not conform to those typically exhibited by other agricultural and natural ecosystems. Using data collected as a part of the Grape Remote sensing and Atmospheric Profiling and Evapotranspiration Experime...

  20. Fungicides transport in runoff from vineyard plot and catchment: contribution of non-target areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefrancq, Marie; Payraudeau, Sylvain; García Verdú, Antonio Joaquín; Maillard, Elodie; Millet, Maurice; Imfeld, Gwenaël

    2014-04-01

    Surface runoff and erosion during the course of rainfall events are major processes of pesticides transport from agricultural land to aquatic ecosystem. These processes are generally evaluated either at the plot or the catchment scale. Here, we compared at both scales the transport and partitioning in runoff water of two widely used fungicides, i.e., kresoxim-methyl (KM) and cyazofamid (CY). The objective was to evaluate the relationship between fungicides runoff from the plot and from the vineyard catchment. The results show that seasonal exports for KM and CY at the catchment were larger than those obtained at the plot. This underlines that non-target areas within the catchment largely contribute to the overall load of runoff-associated fungicides. Estimations show that 85 and 62 % of the loads observed for KM and CY at the catchment outlet cannot be explained by the vineyard plots. However, the partitioning of KM and CY between three fractions, i.e., the suspended solids (>0.7 μm) and two dissolved fractions (i.e., between 0.22 and 0.7 µm and plot scales enable to evaluate the sources areas of pesticide off-site transport.

  1. Not all water becomes wine: Sulfur inputs as an opportune tracer of hydrochemical losses from vineyards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinckley, Eve-Lyn S.; Kendall, Carol; Loague, Keith

    2009-01-01

    California's widespread and economically important vineyards offer substantial opportunities to understand the interface between hydrology and biogeochemistry in agricultural soils. The common use of native sulfur (S) as a fumigant or soil additive provides a novel way to isotopically differentiate among sulfate (SO42−) pools, allowing the estimation of water and SO42− budgets. The objectives of this study were (1) to characterize the near‐surface hydrological flow paths in a vineyard during irrigation and storm events and (2) to determine how those flow paths affect the fate and transport of SO42− across seasons. Integrating hydrological theory with measurements of SO42−concentration and sulfate‐S isotopic ratios (expressed as [SO42−] and δ34S, respectively) in inputs, soil water, and leachate provided a means of determining flow paths. Low [SO42−] and δ34S in leachate during 4‐h irrigation events reflect minimal engagement of the soil matrix, indicating that preferential flow was the dominant path for water in the near surface. In contrast, high [SO42−] and δ34S values during 8‐h irrigation and storm events reflect near‐complete engagement of the soil matrix, indicating that lateral flow was the dominant pathway. Because hydrologic response and SO42− mobility are tightly coupled in these soils, the magnitude of water fluxes through the near surface controls S cycling both on and off site. These results indicate that preferential flow is an important loss pathway to consider in managing both water resources and water quality (reactive elements) in vineyard land use systems.

  2. Genetic characterization of commercial Saccharomyces cerevisiae isolates recovered from vineyard environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuller, Dorit; Pereira, Leonor; Alves, Hugo; Cambon, Brigitte; Dequin, Sylvie; Casal, Margarida

    2007-08-01

    One hundred isolates of the commercial Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain Zymaflore VL1 were recovered from spontaneous fermentations carried out with grapes collected from vineyards located close to wineries in the Vinho Verde wine region of Portugal. Isolates were differentiated based on their mitochondrial DNA restriction patterns and the evaluation of genetic polymorphisms was carried out by microsatellite analysis, interdelta sequence typing and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Genetic patterns were compared to those obtained for 30 isolates of the original commercialized Zymaflore VL1 strain. Among the 100 recovered isolates we found a high percentage of chromosomal size variations, most evident for the smaller chromosomes III and VI. Complete loss of heterozygosity was observed for two isolates that had also lost chromosomal heteromorphism; their growth and fermentative capacity in a synthetic must medium was also affected. A considerably higher number of variant patterns for interdelta sequence amplifications was obtained for grape-derived strains compared to the original VL1 isolates. Our data show that the long-term presence of strain VL1 in natural grapevine environments induced genetic changes that can be detected using different fingerprinting methods. The observed genetic changes may reflect adaptive mechanisms to changed environmental conditions that yeast cells encounter during their existence in nature. (c) 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Mediterranean diet for type 2 diabetes: cardiometabolic benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, Katherine; Maiorino, Maria Ida; Bellastella, Giuseppe; Panagiotakos, Demosthenes B; Giugliano, Dario

    2017-04-01

    Dietary patterns influence various cardiometabolic risk factors, including body weight, lipoprotein concentrations, and function, blood pressure, glucose-insulin homeostasis, oxidative stress, inflammation, and endothelial health. The Mediterranean diet can be described as a dietary pattern characterized by the high consumption of plant-based foods, olive oil as the main source of fat, low-to-moderate consumption of fish, dairy products and poultry, low consumption of red and processed meat, and low-to-moderate consumption of wine with meals. The American Diabetes Association and the American Heart Association recommend Mediterranean diet for improving glycemic control and cardiovascular risk factors in type 2 diabetes. Prospective studies show that higher adherence to the Mediterranean diet is associated with a 20-23 % reduced risk of developing type 2 diabetes, while the results of randomized controlled trials show that Mediterranean diet reduces glycosylated hemoglobin levels by 0.30-0.47 %, and is also associated with a 28-30 % reduced risk for cardiovascular events. The mechanisms by which Mediterranean diet produces its cardiometabolic benefits in type 2 diabetes are, for the most, anti-inflammatory and antioxidative: increased consumption of high-quality foods may cool down the activation of the innate immune system, by reducing the production of proinflammatory cytokines while increasing that of anti-inflammatory cytokines. This may favor the generation of an anti-inflammatory milieu, which in turn may improve insulin sensitivity in the peripheral tissues and endothelial function at the vascular level and ultimately act as a barrier to the metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes and development of atherosclerosis.

  4. Mediterranean, our sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markaki, Foteini

    2017-04-01

    My school (1o EPAL Ymittos -Athens, Greece) is a technical school of secondary education and throughout this school year being drafted a program of environmental education. The main theme is the Mediterranean Sea, the biggest closed sea extending between three continents. Topics studied: 1. Biodiversity and the risks threat. 2. The geophysics that characterize (earthquakes, volcanoes explosions, etc). 3. The Mediterranean Sea as environment anthropogenesis, a mosaic of other cultures and even place current notions of social phenomena (refugees). Pedagogical Objectives: Cognitive/Enviromental: 1. To investigate and understand the biodiversity of the Mediterranean Sea and the risks to threaten and phenomena that characterize. 2. To understand the position of the Mediterranean Sea in the land and the role of the historical, cultural and social human environment. 3. To come in contact with texts literary, social, articles on the Mediterranean. Psychomotor: 1. To work together and collect information for the Mediterranean Sea. 2. Experiential approach to the natural environment. 3. Develop critical thinking. 4. Undertake responsibilities for the presentation of the program. Emotional: 1. To feel joy from participation in the program. 2. Being sensitized and configure attitudes and actions of respect towards the environment. Methodology implementation: Teamwork. Interdisciplinary - holistic to dissemination of program recordings to courses curriculum. Study in the field. Gathering information from newspapers, magazines, internet, maps, and photographs. Experiential method- Project. Assessment methods and self-assessment. Fields of courses: Greek language- History- Biology- Chemistry- Technology Dissemination of results: Make a page of social media (facebook), a blog, enhancing environmental awareness via video, make an electronic poster.

  5. Implementing a Mediterranean-Style Diet Outside the Mediterranean Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Karen J; Parletta, Natalie

    2018-05-04

    Populations surrounding the Mediterranean basin have traditionally reaped health benefits from a Mediterranean diet (MedDiet), which may benefit Westernized countries plagued by chronic disease. But is it feasible to implement beyond the Mediterranean? To answer this question, we present evidence from randomized controlled trials that achieved high dietary compliance rates with subsequent physical and mental health benefits. In the 1960s, the Seven Countries Study identified dietary qualities of Mediterranean populations associated with healthy aging and longevity. The PREDIMED study confirmed reductions in CVD-related mortality with a MedDiet; a meta-analysis in over 4.7 million people showed reduced mortality, CVD-related mortality, and reduced risk of Parkinson's and Alzheimer's disease. Continually emerging research supports the MedDiet's benefits for chronic diseases including metabolic syndrome, cancers, liver disease, type 2 diabetes, depression, and anxiety. We summarize components of studies outside the Mediterranean that achieved high compliance to a Med-style diet: dietitian led, dietary education, goal setting, mindfulness; recipe books, meal plans, and food checklists; food hampers; regular contact between volunteers and staff through regular cooking classes; clinic visits; and recipes that are simple, palatable, and affordable. The next step is testing the MedDiet's feasibility in the community. Potential obstacles include access to dietetic/health care professionals, high meat intake, pervasive processed foods, and fast food outlets. For Western countries to promote a Med-style diet, collective support from government, key stakeholders and policy makers, food industry, retailers, and health professionals is needed to ensure the healthiest choice is the easiest choice.

  6. Postfire chaparral regeneration under mediterranean and non-mediterranean climates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeley, Jon E.; Fotheringham, Connie J.; Rundel, Philip W.

    2012-01-01

    This study compares postfire regeneration and diversity patterns in fire-prone chaparral shrublands from mediterranean (California) and non-mediterranean-type climates (Arizona). Vegetation sampling was conducted in tenth hectare plots with nested subplots for the first two years after fire. Floras in the two regions were compared with Jaccard's Index and importance of families and genera compared with dominance-diversity curves. Although there were 44 families in common between the two regions, the dominant families differed; Poaceae and Fabaceae in Arizona and Hydrophyllaceae and Rosaceae in California. Dominance diversity curves indicated in the first year a more equable distribution of families in Arizona than in California. Woody plants were much more dominant in the mediterranean climate and herbaceous plants more dominant in the bimodal rainfall climate. Species diversity was comparable in both regions at the lowest spatial scales but not at the tenth hectare scale. Due to the double growing season in the non-mediterranean region, the diversity for the first year comprised two different herbaceous floras in the fall and spring growing seasons. The Mediterranean climate in California, in contrast, had only a spring growing season and thus the total diversity for the first year was significantly greater in Arizona than in California for both annuals and herbaceous perennials. Chaparral in these two climate regimes share many dominant shrub species but the postfire communities are very different. Arizona chaparral has both a spring and fall growing season and these produce two very different postfire floras. When combined, the total annual diversity was substantially greater in Arizona chaparral.

  7. Rising Mediterranean Sea Surface Temperatures Amplify Extreme Summer Precipitation in Central Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volosciuk, Claudia; Maraun, Douglas; Semenov, Vladimir A.; Tilinina, Natalia; Gulev, Sergey K.; Latif, Mojib

    2016-08-01

    The beginning of the 21st century was marked by a number of severe summer floods in Central Europe associated with extreme precipitation (e.g., Elbe 2002, Oder 2010 and Danube 2013). Extratropical storms, known as Vb-cyclones, cause summer extreme precipitation events over Central Europe and can thus lead to such floodings. Vb-cyclones develop over the Mediterranean Sea, which itself strongly warmed during recent decades. Here we investigate the influence of increased Mediterranean Sea surface temperature (SST) on extreme precipitation events in Central Europe. To this end, we carry out atmosphere model simulations forced by average Mediterranean SSTs during 1970-1999 and 2000-2012. Extreme precipitation events occurring on average every 20 summers in the warmer-SST-simulation (2000-2012) amplify along the Vb-cyclone track compared to those in the colder-SST-simulation (1970-1999), on average by 17% in Central Europe. The largest increase is located southeast of maximum precipitation for both simulated heavy events and historical Vb-events. The responsible physical mechanism is increased evaporation from and enhanced atmospheric moisture content over the Mediterranean Sea. The excess in precipitable water is transported from the Mediterranean Sea to Central Europe causing stronger precipitation extremes over that region. Our findings suggest that Mediterranean Sea surface warming amplifies Central European precipitation extremes.

  8. Quantitative determination on heavy metals in different stages of wine production by Total Reflection X-ray Fluorescence and Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence: Comparison on two vineyards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pessanha, Sofia [Centro Fisica Atomica, Departamento de Fisica, Faculdade de Ciencias, Universidade de Lisboa, Av. Prof. Gama Pinto, 2, 1649-003 Lisboa (Portugal); Carvalho, Maria Luisa, E-mail: luisa@cii.fc.ul.p [Centro Fisica Atomica, Departamento de Fisica, Faculdade de Ciencias, Universidade de Lisboa, Av. Prof. Gama Pinto, 2, 1649-003 Lisboa (Portugal); Becker, Maria; Bohlen, Alex von [Institute for analytical Sciences, Bunsen-Kirchhoff-Str. 11, 44139 Dortmund (Germany)

    2010-06-15

    The purpose of this study is to determine the elemental content, namely heavy metals, of samples of vine-leaves, grapes must and wine. In order to assess the influence of the vineyard age on the elemental content throughout the several stages of wine production, elemental determinations of trace elements were made on products obtained from two vineyards aged 6 and 14 years from Douro region. The elemental content of vine-leaves and grapes was determined by Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence (EDXRF), while analysis of the must and wine was performed by Total Reflection X-ray Fluorescence (TXRF). Almost all elements present in wine and must samples did not exceed the recommended values found in literature for wine. Bromine was present in the 6 years old wine in a concentration 1 order of magnitude greater than what is usually detected. The Cu content in vine-leaves from the older vineyard was found to be extremely high probably due to excessive use of Cu-based fungicides to control vine downy mildew. Higher Cu content was also detected in grapes although not so pronounced. Concerning the wine a slightly higher level was detected on the older vineyard, even so not exceeding the recommended value.

  9. Quantitative determination on heavy metals in different stages of wine production by Total Reflection X-ray Fluorescence and Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence: Comparison on two vineyards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pessanha, Sofia; Carvalho, Maria Luisa; Becker, Maria; Bohlen, Alex von

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the elemental content, namely heavy metals, of samples of vine-leaves, grapes must and wine. In order to assess the influence of the vineyard age on the elemental content throughout the several stages of wine production, elemental determinations of trace elements were made on products obtained from two vineyards aged 6 and 14 years from Douro region. The elemental content of vine-leaves and grapes was determined by Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence (EDXRF), while analysis of the must and wine was performed by Total Reflection X-ray Fluorescence (TXRF). Almost all elements present in wine and must samples did not exceed the recommended values found in literature for wine. Bromine was present in the 6 years old wine in a concentration 1 order of magnitude greater than what is usually detected. The Cu content in vine-leaves from the older vineyard was found to be extremely high probably due to excessive use of Cu-based fungicides to control vine downy mildew. Higher Cu content was also detected in grapes although not so pronounced. Concerning the wine a slightly higher level was detected on the older vineyard, even so not exceeding the recommended value.

  10. Mediterranean Diet and Its Correlates among Adolescents in Non-Mediterranean European Countries: A Population-Based Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novak, Dario; Štefan, Lovro; Prosoli, Rebeka; Emeljanovas, Arunas; Mieziene, Brigita; Milanović, Ivana; Radisavljević-Janić, Snežana

    2017-02-22

    Little is known about the factors which might influence the adherence to a Mediterranean diet in non-Mediterranean European countries. Thus, the main purpose of this study was to determine the associations between socioeconomic, psychological, and physical factors on a Mediterranean diet. In this cross-sectional study, participants were 14-18-year-old adolescents ( N = 3071) from two non-Mediterranean countries: Lithuania ( N = 1863) and Serbia ( N = 1208). The dependent variable was Mediterranean diet, and was assessed with the Mediterranean Diet Quality Index for children and adolescents questionnaire. Independent variables were gender, body-mass index, self-rated health, socioeconomic status, psychological distress, physical activity, and sedentary behavior. The associations between dependent and independent variables were analyzed by using logistic regression. Results showed that higher adherence to a Mediterranean diet was associated with higher self-rated health, socioeconomic status, and physical activity, yet low adherence to a Mediterranean diet was associated with being female, having higher body-mass index, psychological distress, and sedentary behavior. Our findings suggest that future studies need to explore associations between lifestyle habits-especially in target populations, such as primary and secondary school students.

  11. The effects of the forward speed and air volume of an air-assisted sprayer on spray deposition in tendone trained vineyards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Pascuzzi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the results of spray application trials in a tendone trained vineyard in order to evaluate the influence of forward speed and air volume on the foliar deposition of plant protection products (PPPs, maintaining roughly constant the volume applied. The trials used an air-assisted sprayer with a centrifugal fan and 4+4 adjustable fan-shaped diffusers, each with a nozzle-holder group. A full factorial experimental design was implemented, with three forward speeds and two airflow rates, organised with a randomised complete block design including three replicates. In order to consider the influence of canopy development, the tests (one spray application for each replicate of a mixture containing a water-soluble food dye as a tracer were replicated during two phenological stages: i the end of flowering; and ii berry touch. Leaves were picked at random from the canopy after each spray treatment, and foliar PPP deposition was evaluated using a spectrophotometer. This analysis of foliar deposition showed that the airflow rates produced by the fan were unsuitable for the dense canopy typical of this type of vineyard. However, the special shape of the diffusers may make this sprayer effective if the main objective of pesticide applications in tendone trained table grape vineyards is to control bunch diseases.

  12. Spatial variability of potential pollutants in a vineyard of the Ribeiro D.O. (Galicia-NW Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varela, Irene; Vidal-Vázquez, Eva; Paz-González, Antonio; Lado, Marcos

    2015-04-01

    The Ribeiro is one of the five wine growing D.O. in the region of Galicia (NW Spain). Wine making is the most important economic activity in the area, and in the last years, the total area covered with vineyards has steadily increased. Some common farming activities related to wine growing, including fertilization or the application of fungicides, can result in an increase of the concentrations of several elements in the soil and contribute to its degradation. At the same time, soil properties can vary between cultivated plots, or even within a specific plot, the spatial variability of some properties, including pollutants, can be highly significant. Thus, the objective of the present work was to study the concentrations of different elements and their variability in a vineyard soil of the Ribeiro D.O. Sixty five samples separated by 80 cm each were collected along a transect from the topsoil (0-20 cm) of a vineyard located in the EVEGA experimental station in Leiro (Galicia-NW Spain). Samples were transported to the laboratory, air-dried, and sieved through a 2-mm-mesh sieve. Several soil properties, including macro and micronutrients, and heavy metals were measured using DTPA as extractant. Results showed that available Fe and Mn concentrations were high or very high, possibly due to the strongly-acid soil pH. An overfertilization with P was observed, which can contribute to the eutrophication of nearby water bodies. Available Zn concentrations fluctuated between medium and high, and available Cu showed a high concentration (CuDTPA 25,69 g kg-1), possibly resulting from the sustained application of fungicides including Cu in their composition. In general, the variability of the measured properties was medium or low.

  13. Soil erosion measurements by means of experimental plots to determine best land management strategies in vineyards and olive orchards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerdà, Artemi; Keesstra, Saskia; Jordan, Antonio; Brevik, Erik; Nova, Agata; Prosdocimi, Massimo; Azorín-Molina, César; Yazdanpanah, Najme; Mahmoodabadi, Majid; Pereira, Paulo; Burguet, María

    2016-04-01

    In order to design sustainable land management there is a need to have accurate information on the impact this land management strategies have on water and sediment dynamics. This is especially important when a proper management is designed to reduce the soil losses due to the complex interaction of mechanisms that interact within the soil erosion process. Soil erosion is an non-linear process, both spatially and temporally, and as a consequence of that only well-monitored and accurate measurements can give insights in the processes and how these processes can be influenced by management to reduce soil losses (Cerdà, 2007; Ligonja and Shrestha, 2015; Nanko et al., 2015; Seutloali and Beckedahl, 2015). This is necessary at different scales: pedon, slope, and watershed because the governing processes differ at different scale (Keesstra, 2007; Jordán and Martínez Zavala, 2008; Borrelli et al., 2015). Soil erosion plots can give information about the temporal and spatial variability of soil losses. We present here a strategy developed by the Soil Erosion and Degradation Research Group from the University of Valencia to assess the soil erosion rates in Eastern Spain. In 2002 the Soil Erosion Experimental Station in El Teularet-Sierra de Enguera was installed, to assess soil losses in rainfed agriculture orchards, and 73 plots of 1, 2, 4, 16 and 48 m2 were installed. In 2005 6 plots of 300 m2 were installed in the nearby Montesa soil erosion station to assess soil losses in citrus orchards. In 2011 16 plots of 2 m2 where installed in Les Alcusses to determine soil losses in olive orchards, and in 2015 8 plots in Celler del Roure vineyard to assess the impact of land management in vineyards and 8 plots in the El Teularet to study the impact of straw mulch on soil erosion rates. All erosion stations are located in several kilometres distance from each other. This research which we developed since 2002 is complementary to previous research where we used rainfall

  14. Effectiveness of control strategies against Botrytis cinerea in vineyard and evaluation of the residual fungicide concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabriolotto, Chiara; Monchiero, Matteo; Negre, Michele; Spadaro, Davide; Gullino, Maria Lodovica

    2009-05-01

    This investigation was undertaken to test different control strategies against Botrytis cinerea vineyards. Two commercial vineyards, "Barbera" and "Moscato," located in Piedmont (Northern Italy) were divided into seven plots and treated with different combinations of fungicides including fenhexamid, pyrimethanil, fludioxonil + cyprodinil, iprodione, and boscalid, a new carboxamide compound. An integrated strategy including a chemical (pyrimethanil) and a biocontrol agent (Trichoderma spp. t2/4ph1) was also included. At harvest, the percentage of bunches and berries attacked by B. cinerea and the concentration of the chemical fungicides were determined. All the pesticide residues at harvest were below the maximum residue level (MRL), except when two applications of pyrimethanil per season were applied. Boscalid was the most effective active ingredient against B. cinerea among the tested chemicals. When boscalid application was followed by a treatment with pyrimethanil, its efficacy was similar to that shown by two treatments of pyrimethanil. However, this second strategy was not feasible due to the risks of resistance development in the pathogen and to the residue accumulation as indicated by the analysis.

  15. Introducing renewable energy in vineyards and agricultural machinery: A way to reduce emissions and provide sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Carroquino

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Climate change, depletion of nonrenewable resources in the current energies, pollution from them and the greater ecological awareness of the population, are factors that suggest the change of energy sources in business. The wine industry is concerned about sustainability and with a clear awareness of what climate change may mean for it. This sector is supposed to have a high receptivity to the implementation of clean energy, as this favours not only the environment but also the essence of its business. This work shows how the use of renewable energy, on a small scale, can be profitable in both vineyards and wineries. For this purpose, the European project LIFE REWIND (Renewable energy in the wine industry has developed several actions, including the installation and operation of a prototype in a Spanish winery. This paper shows how to introduce renewable energy in wineries and vineyards in a profitable way, reducing the emissions of CO2 associated to the activity and the product, without changing the processes of cultivation or production.

  16. Dynamical response of Mediterranean precipitation to greenhouse gases and aerosols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Tang

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric aerosols and greenhouse gases affect cloud properties, radiative balance and, thus, the hydrological cycle. Observations show that precipitation has decreased in the Mediterranean since the beginning of the 20th century, and many studies have investigated possible mechanisms. So far, however, the effects of aerosol forcing on Mediterranean precipitation remain largely unknown. Here we compare the modeled dynamical response of Mediterranean precipitation to individual forcing agents in a set of global climate models (GCMs. Our analyses show that both greenhouse gases and aerosols can cause drying in the Mediterranean and that precipitation is more sensitive to black carbon (BC forcing than to well-mixed greenhouse gases (WMGHGs or sulfate aerosol. In addition to local heating, BC appears to reduce precipitation by causing an enhanced positive sea level pressure (SLP pattern similar to the North Atlantic Oscillation–Arctic Oscillation, characterized by higher SLP at midlatitudes and lower SLP at high latitudes. WMGHGs cause a similar SLP change, and both are associated with a northward diversion of the jet stream and storm tracks, reducing precipitation in the Mediterranean while increasing precipitation in northern Europe. Though the applied forcings were much larger, if forcings are scaled to those of the historical period of 1901–2010, roughly one-third (31±17 % of the precipitation decrease would be attributable to global BC forcing with the remainder largely attributable to WMGHGs, whereas global scattering sulfate aerosols would have negligible impacts. Aerosol–cloud interactions appear to have minimal impacts on Mediterranean precipitation in these models, at least in part because many simulations did not fully include such processes; these merit further study. The findings from this study suggest that future BC and WMGHG emissions may significantly affect regional water resources, agricultural practices, ecosystems and

  17. Commercial refining in the Mediterranean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Packer, P.

    1999-01-01

    About 9% of the world's oil refining capacity is on the Mediterranean: some of the world's biggest and most advanced refineries are on Sicily and Sardinia. The Mediterranean refineries are important suppliers to southern Europe and N. Africa. The article discusses commercial refining in the Mediterranean under the headings of (i) historic development, (ii) product demand, (iii) refinery configurations, (iv) refined product trade, (v) financial performance and (vi) future outlook. Although some difficulties are foreseen, refining in the Mediterranean is likely to continue to be important well into the 21st century. (UK)

  18. Case study of microarthropod communities to assess soil quality in different managed vineyards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagnarli, E.; Goggioli, D.; Tarchi, F.; Guidi, S.; Nannelli, R.; Vignozzi, N.; Valboa, G.; Lottero, M. R.; Corino, L.; Simoni, S.

    2015-07-01

    Land use influences the abundance and diversity of soil arthropods. The evaluation of the impact of different management strategies on soil quality is increasingly sought, and the determination of community structures of edaphic fauna can represent an efficient tool. In the area of Langhe (Piedmont, Italy), eight vineyards characterized for physical and chemical properties (soil texture, soil pH, total organic carbon, total nitrogen, calcium carbonate) were selected. We evaluated the effect of two types of crop management, organic and integrated pest management (IPM), on abundance and biodiversity of microarthropods living at the soil surface. Soil sampling was carried out in winter 2011 and spring 2012. All specimens were counted and determined up to the order level. The biodiversity analysis was performed using ecological indexes (taxa richness, dominance, Shannon-Wiener, Buzas and Gibson's evenness, Margalef, equitability, Berger-Parker), and the biological soil quality was assessed with the BSQ-ar index. The mesofauna abundance was affected by both the type of management and sampling time. On the whole, a higher abundance was in organic vineyards (N = 1981) than in IPM ones (N = 1062). The analysis performed by ecological indexes showed quite a high level of biodiversity in this environment, particularly in May 2012. Furthermore, the BSQ-ar values registered were similar to those obtained in preserved soils.

  19. Simulated stability tests of a small articulated tractor designed for extreme-sloped vineyards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Mazzetto

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A new reversible wheeled articulated tractor, designed to work in terraced vineyards trained with “pergola” system, common in mountain areas, is here described in its latest version and analysed through numerical simulations. This tractor has small dimensions, necessary to operate in that environment, and its central articulation has two rotational degrees-offreedom. The described features are surely strong design points but could be critical for vehicle’s stability, as affecting the supporting base’s dimensions and shape. Therefore, the tractor was equipped with a new automatic safety system: a self-locking articulation activated by contact sensors on the wheels. This device makes the vehicle partially-rigid in case of lateral unbalancing, so that rollover can happen only by overcoming the whole vehicle mass. A mathematical description of vehicle-ground interactions was implemented to deeply inquiry the tractor behaviour in different configurations (straight, angled at increasing values of ground slope; roll and pitch stability indexes were then computed and used for comparisons with conventional tractors. Thanks to the low centre-of-gravity, the resulting rollover angle with the vehicle in straight configuration is promising (43.8°→96%: it is greater than the maximum lateral (20°→36% and frontal (38°→78% slope angle ever recorded on terraced vineyards. The same rollover angle is lower when the tractor turns.

  20. Modeling ecotoxicity impacts in vineyard production: Addressing spatial differentiation for copper fungicides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peña, Nancy; Antón, Assumpció; Kamilaris, Andreas

    2018-01-01

    Application of plant protection products (PPP) is a fundamental practice for viticulture. Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) has proved to be a useful tool to assess the environmental performance of agricultural production, where including toxicity-related impacts for PPP use is still associated...... with methodological limitations, especially for inorganic (i.e. metal-based) pesticides. Downy mildew is one of the most severe diseases for vineyard production. For disease control, copper-based fungicides are the most effective and used PPP in both conventional and organic viticulture. This study aims to improve...

  1. Genetic diversity and biogeographical patterns of Caulerpa prolifera across the Mediterranean and Mediterranean/Atlantic transition zone

    KAUST Repository

    Varela-Á lvarez, Elena; Balau, Ana C.; Marbà , Nú rià N.; Afonso-Carrillo, Julio; Duarte, Carlos M.; Serrã o, Ester Á lvares

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge of spatial patterns of genetic differentiation between populations is key to understanding processes in evolutionary history of biological species. Caulerpa is a genus of marine green algae, which has attracted much public attention, mainly because of the impacts of invasive species in the Mediterranean. However, very little is known about the ecological and evolutionary history of the Mediterranean native Caulerpa prolifera, a species which is currently found at sites distributed worldwide. C. prolifera provides a good model to explore the patterns of genetic diversity at different scales across the Mediterranean and Atlantic area. This study aims to investigate the biogeographical patterns of diversity and differentiation of C. prolifera in the Mediterranean, with special focus on the Mediterranean/Atlantic transition zone. We used two nuclear (ITS rDNA and the hypervariable microsatellite locus CaPr_J2) and one chloroplast (tufA) DNA markers on samples of C. prolifera from its entire range. Analyses of 51 sequences of the cpDNA tufA of C. prolifera, 87 ITS2 sequences and genotypes of 788 ramets of C. prolifera for the locus CaPr_J2 revealed three different biogeographical areas: West Atlantic, East Atlantic and a larger area representing the Mediterranean, the Mediterranean/Atlantic transition zone and a Pacific site (Bali). It was found out that the Mediterranean/Atlantic transition zone is a biogeographical boundary for C. prolifera. A lack of connectivity was revealed between Atlantic and Mediterranean types, and identical sequences found in the Mediterranean and Indo-Pacific suggest either recent gene flow along the Red Sea connection or a possible ancient Indo-Pacific origin.

  2. Genetic diversity and biogeographical patterns of Caulerpa prolifera across the Mediterranean and Mediterranean/Atlantic transition zone

    KAUST Repository

    Varela-Álvarez, Elena

    2015-01-11

    Knowledge of spatial patterns of genetic differentiation between populations is key to understanding processes in evolutionary history of biological species. Caulerpa is a genus of marine green algae, which has attracted much public attention, mainly because of the impacts of invasive species in the Mediterranean. However, very little is known about the ecological and evolutionary history of the Mediterranean native Caulerpa prolifera, a species which is currently found at sites distributed worldwide. C. prolifera provides a good model to explore the patterns of genetic diversity at different scales across the Mediterranean and Atlantic area. This study aims to investigate the biogeographical patterns of diversity and differentiation of C. prolifera in the Mediterranean, with special focus on the Mediterranean/Atlantic transition zone. We used two nuclear (ITS rDNA and the hypervariable microsatellite locus CaPr_J2) and one chloroplast (tufA) DNA markers on samples of C. prolifera from its entire range. Analyses of 51 sequences of the cpDNA tufA of C. prolifera, 87 ITS2 sequences and genotypes of 788 ramets of C. prolifera for the locus CaPr_J2 revealed three different biogeographical areas: West Atlantic, East Atlantic and a larger area representing the Mediterranean, the Mediterranean/Atlantic transition zone and a Pacific site (Bali). It was found out that the Mediterranean/Atlantic transition zone is a biogeographical boundary for C. prolifera. A lack of connectivity was revealed between Atlantic and Mediterranean types, and identical sequences found in the Mediterranean and Indo-Pacific suggest either recent gene flow along the Red Sea connection or a possible ancient Indo-Pacific origin.

  3. Evaluation of methyl salicylate lures on populations of Typhlodromus pyri (Acari: Phytoseiidae) and other natural enemies in vineyards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Methyl salicylate (MeSA), an herbivore induced plant volatile, can potentially elicit control of pests through attraction of beneficial arthropods. This study evaluates the effect of synthetic MeSA lures (PredaLure) on arthropod populations during the 2009 and 2010 seasons in two Oregon vineyards (...

  4. Identification of Nematode Fauna in Vineyards of South of Western Azerbaijan and Determination of the Dominant Parasitic Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Mohajeri

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Grapevine belongs to the Vitaceae family that consists of 14 genera and about 700 species. Only in the genus Vitis fruits are edible. Italy is the largest producer of grapes and Iran has the seventh position in the world from this point of view. Western Azarbaijan province comprises a high diversity of crops including wild grapes. Although, some nematodes are free living and antagonists of another soil microfauna, the other are plant parasitic agents. Most of which live in the agricultural soils where they are widely dispersed. Effectiveness of the disease management strategies are affected by the accurate identification of the plant disease causal agents and the nematodal diseases are not the exception from this rule. Therefore, for control of the diseases caused by the nematodes, it is necessary to separate the parasitic nematodes from the suspected contaminated soils and identify them. Although separation and identification of the nematodes are partly time-consuming, it is not very complicated. Some nematodes likeXiphinema, Longidorus and Ditylenchus are cosmopolitan and catastrophic nematodes in vineyards worldwide. So far no study has been performed regarding the plant parasitic nematode in vineyards of the south of Western Azerbaijan. Therefore, in this study as an introduction to the management ofthe vineyard parasitic nematodes, the dominant nematodes of the plant were identified. In the next step, investigation of nematodes bioecology, the interaction of nematodes with the other plant pathogens, their host range and their damages to the host plants would be studied. Materials and Methods: In order to identify the fauna of plant parasitic nematodes in vineyards of the south of Western Azarbaijan, during 2013-2014, 50 soil samples were collected from the rhizosphere of grapevine. The sampling was carried out from the vineyards of five grapevine growing cities including Mahabad, Bookan, Sardasht, Piranshahr and Miyandoab. The

  5. Spatial and diurnal below canopy evaporation in a desert vineyard: Measurements and modeling

    OpenAIRE

    Kool, D; Ben-Gal, A; Agam, N; Šimůnek, J; Heitman, JL; Sauer, TJ; Lazarovitch, N

    2014-01-01

    Evaporation from the soil surface (E) can be a significant source of water loss in arid areas. In sparsely vegetated systems, E is expected to be a function of soil, climate, irrigation regime, precipitation patterns, and plant canopy development and will therefore change dynamically at both daily and seasonal time scales. The objectives of this research were to quantify E in an isolated, drip-irrigated vineyard in an arid environment and to simulate below canopy E using the HYDRUS (2-D/3-D) ...

  6. Benefits of the Mediterranean diet beyond the Mediterranean Sea and beyond food patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-González, Miguel A

    2016-10-14

    Abundant and growing evidence has accrued to demonstrate that the traditional Mediterranean diet is likely to be the ideal dietary pattern for the prevention of cardiovascular disease. A landmark randomized trial (PREDIMED) together with many well-conducted long-term observational prospective cohort studies support this causal effect.A new, large British cohort study by Tong et al. assessing the association between adherence to the Mediterranean diet and cardiovascular disease was recently published in BMC Medicine. Using a superb methodology, they followed-up 23,902 participants for 12.2 years on average and observed several thousand incident cases.The results of this cohort study showed a significant beneficial effect of the Mediterranean diet on cardiovascular events. These findings support the transferability of this dietary pattern beyond the shores of the Mediterranean Sea. The authors provided measures of population impact in cardiovascular prevention and estimated that 19,375 cases of cardiovascular death would be prevented each year in the UK by promoting the Mediterranean Diet.Please see related article: http://bmcmedicine.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12916-016-0677-4 .

  7. Mechanical decoupling along a subduction boundary fault: the case of the Tindari-Alfeo Fault System, Calabrian Arc (central Mediterranean Sea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maesano, F. E.; Tiberti, M. M.; Basili, R.

    2017-12-01

    In recent years an increasing number of studies have been focused in understanding the lateral terminations of subduction zones. In the Mediterranean region, this topic is of particular interest for the presence of a "land-locked" system of subduction zones interrupted by continental collision and back-arc opening. We present a 3D reconstruction of the area surrounding the Tindari-Alfeo Fault System (TAFS) based on a dense set of deep seismic reflection profiles. This fault system represents a major NNW-SSE trending subduction-transform edge propagator (STEP) that controls the deformation zone bounding the Calabrian subduction zone (central Mediterranean Sea) to the southwest. This 3D model allowed us to characterize the mechanical and kinematic evolution of the TAFS during the Plio-Quaternary. Our study highlights the presence of a mechanical decoupling between the deformation observed in the lower plate, constituted by the Ionian oceanic crust entering the subduction zone, and the upper plate, where a thick accretionary wedge has formed. The lower plate hosts the master faults of the TAFS, whereas the upper plate is affected by secondary deformation (bending-moment faulting, localized subsidence, stepovers, and restraining/releasing bends). The analysis of the syn-tectonic sedimentary basins related to the activity of the TAFS at depth allow us to constrain the propagation rate of the deformation and of the vertical component of the slip-rate. Our findings provide a comprehensive framework of the structural setting that can be expected along a STEP boundary where contractional and transtensional features coexist at close distance from one another.

  8. Familial Mediterranean Fever

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adem Kucuk

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Familial Mediterranean Fever is an autosomal recessive inherited disease with a course of autoinflammation, which is characterized by the episodes of fever and serositis. It affects the populations from Mediterranean basin. Genetic mutation of the disease is on MEFV gene located on short arm of Chromosome 16. The disease is diagnosed based on clinical evaluation. Amyloidosis is the most important complication. The only agent that decreases the development of amyloidosis and the frequency and severity of the episodes is colchicine, which has been used for about 40 years. In this review, we aimed to discuss especially the most recent advances about Familial Mediterranean Fever which is commonly seen in our population.

  9. Rainfall runoff and erosion in Napa Valley vineyards: effects of slope, cover and surface roughness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battany, M. C.; Grismer, M. E.

    2000-05-01

    The effects of slope, cover and surface roughness on rainfall runoff, infiltration and erosion were determined at two sites on a hillside vineyard in Napa County, California, using a portable rainfall simulator. Rainfall simulation experiments were carried out at two sites, with five replications of three slope treatments (5%, 10% and 15%) in a randomized block design at each site (0%bsol;64 m2 plots). Prior to initiation of the rainfall simulations, detailed assessments, not considered in previous vineyard studies, of soil slope, cover and surface roughness were conducted. Significant correlations (at the 95% confidence level) between the physical characteristics of slope, cover and surface roughness, with total infiltration, runoff, sediment discharge and average sediment concentration were obtained. The extent of soil cracking, a physical characteristic not directly measured, also affected analysis of the rainfall-runoff-erosion process. Average cumulative runoff and cumulative sediment discharge from site A was 87% and 242% greater, respectively, than at site B. This difference was linked to the greater cover, extent of soil cracking and bulk density at site B than at site A. The extent of soil cover was the dominant factor limiting soil loss when soil cracking was not present. Field slopes within the range of 4-16%, although a statistically significant factor affecting soil losses, had only a minor impact on the amount of soil loss. The Horton infiltration equation fit field data better than the modified Philip's equation. Owing to the variability in the treatment parameters affecting the rainfall-runoff-erosion process, use of ANOVA methods were found to be inappropriate; multiple-factor regression analysis was more useful for identifying significant parameters. Overall, we obtained similar values for soil erosion parameters as those obtained from vineyard erosion studies in Europe. In addition, it appears that results from the small plot studies may be

  10. Effect of Mediterranean Diet in Diabetes Control and Cardiovascular Risk Modification: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana eSleiman

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Over the past few years, there has been a worldwide significant increase in the incidence of type II diabetes (T2DM with both increase in morbidity and mortality. Controlling diabetes through life style modifications, including diet and exercise has always been the cornerstone in diabetes management. As a matter of fact, a number of studies addressed the potential protective role of Mediterranean diet in diabetic patients. Increasing evidence suggests that the Mediterranean diet could be of benefit in diseases associated with chronic inflammation, including metabolic syndrome, diabetes, obesity as well as atherosclerosis, cancer, pulmonary diseases, and cognition disorders. Methods: A systematic review was conducted on the effect of Mediterranean diet in diabetes control and cardiovascular risk modification as well as the possible mechanism through which this diet might exhibit its beneficial role. We did a comprehensive search of multiple electronic databases such as Medline, Google Scholars, PubMed, and the Cochrane central register data until May 2014. We included cross-sectional, prospective and controlled clinical trials that looked at the associations between Mediterranean diet and indices of diabetes control such HbA1c, fasting glucose, and HOMA, in addition to cardiovascular and peripheral vascular outcomes.Outcome/Conclusion: Most of the studies showed favorable effects of Mediterranean diet on glycemic control and CVD, although a certain degree of controversy remains regarding some issues, such as obesity. Important methodological differences and limitations in the studies make it difficult to compare results, thus further longer term studies are needed to evaluate the long-term efficacy of the Mediterranean diet along with the possibility of explaining its mechanism.

  11. Phytoplankton cell counts from a moored submersible flow cytometer at Martha's Vineyard (Massachusetts) Coastal Observatory, May - December 2006 (NODC Accession 0036656)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Phytoplankton cell counts were collected from using a moored submersible flow cytometer from the Martha's Vineyard Coastal Observatory in the Northwest Atlantic...

  12. Phytoplankton cell counts from a moored submersible flow cytometer at Martha's Vineyard Coastal Observatory, Massachusetts, May - September 2004 (NODC Accession 0002722)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Phytoplankton cell counts were collected from using a moored submersible flow cytometer from the Martha's Vineyard Coastal Observatory in the Northwest Atlantic...

  13. Sum Insured Determination for Cereal, Citrus and Vineyards in the Spanish Agricultural Insurance System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozano, C.; Tarquis, A. M.; Gómez-Barona, J. A.

    2012-04-01

    In general, insurance is a form of risk management used to hedge against a contingent loss. The conventional definition is the equitable transfer of a risk of loss from one entity to another in exchange for a premium or a guaranteed and quantifiable small loss to prevent a large and possibly devastating loss being agricultural insurance a special line of property insurance. Agriculture insurance, as actually are designed in the Spanish scenario, were established in 1978. At the macroeconomic insurance studies scale, it is necessary to know a basic element for the insurance actuarial components: sum insured. When a new risk assessment has to be evaluated in the insurance framework, it is essential to determinate venture capital in the total Spanish agriculture. In this study, three different crops (cereal, citrus and vineyards) cases are showed to determinate sum insured as they are representative of the cases found in the Spanish agriculture. Crop sum insured is calculated by the product of crop surface, unit surface production and crop price insured. In the cereal case, winter as spring cereal sowing, represents the highest Spanish crop surface, above to 6 millions of hectares (ha). Meanwhile, the four citrus species (oranges, mandarins, lemons and grapefruits) occupied an extension just over 275.000 ha. On the other hand, vineyard target to wine process shows almost one million of ha in Spain. A new method has been applied to estimate crop sum insured in these three cases. Under the maximum economic impact assumption, the maximum market price has been used to insurance each species. Depending on crop and reliability of the data base available, the insured area or insured production has been used in this estimation. When for a certain crop varieties or type of varieties show different insurance prices a geometric average was used as average insurance price for that particular crop. One extreme difficult case was vineyards, where differentiate prices based on

  14. Effects of a Worksite Supervised Adapted Physical Activity Program on Trunk Muscle Endurance, Flexibility, and Pain Sensitivity Among Vineyard Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balaguier, Romain; Madeleine, Pascal; Rose-Dulcina, Kévin; Vuillerme, Nicolas

    2017-01-01

    In viticulture, the prevalence of low back pain is particularly high among vineyard workers exposed to sustained and awkward postures. One promising setting for low back pain prevention resides in the implementation of workplace physical activity. This nonrandomized pilot study aims at evaluating the effects of a worksite supervised adapted physical activity program among 17 vineyard workers volunteered to enter either an intervention group (n = 10) or a control group (n = 7).The intervention group followed a physical activity program for 8 weeks involving (1) 15 minutes of warm-up every working day and (2) two weekly 1-hour adapted physical activity sessions targeting trunk muscle endurance and flexibility. The control group was advised to continue normal physical activity. Evaluations were carried out at weeks 0, 4, 8, and 12. Physical capacity was assessed using flexibility tests for the trunk, along with trunk muscle flexor and extensor endurance tests. Finally, pain sensitivity was evaluated by assessing pressure pain thresholds over 14 anatomical locations in the low back region. For the intervention group, the endurance of the trunk extensor and flexor significantly increased from baseline to week 8 as well as the pressure pain thresholds. No change was observed for the control group over the same period. These encouraging results in combination with the high adherence rate set interesting foundations for the promotion of worksite supervised adapted physical activity and, most likely, offer a new promising approach to prevent low back pain among vineyard workers.

  15. Local habitat and landscape influence predation of bird nests on afforested Mediterranean cropland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Oliver, J. S.; Rey Benayas, J. M.; Carrascal, L. M.

    2014-07-01

    Afforestation programs such as the one promoted by the EU Common Agrarian Policy have contributed to spread tree plantations on former cropland. Nevertheless these afforestations may cause severe damage to open habitat species, especially birds of high conservation value. We investigated predation of artificial bird nests at young tree plantations and at the open farmland habitat adjacent to the tree plantations in central Spain. Predation rates were very high at both tree plantations (95.6%) and open farmland habitat (94.2%) after two and three week exposure. Plantation edge/area ratio and development of the tree canopy decreased predation rates and plantation area and magpie (Pica pica) abundance increased predation rates within tree plantations, which were also affected by land use types around plantations. The area of nearby tree plantations (positive effect), distance to the tree plantation edge (negative effect), and habitat type (mainly attributable to the location of nests in vineyards) explained predation rates at open farmland habitat. We conclude that predation rates on artificial nests were particularly high and rapid at or nearby large plantations, with high numbers of magpies and low tree development, and located in homogenous landscapes dominated by herbaceous crops and pastures with no remnants of semi-natural woody vegetation. Landscape planning should not favour tree plantations as the ones studied here in Mediterranean agricultural areas that are highly valuable for ground-nesting bird species.

  16. Leaching of glyphosate and AMPA under two soil management practices in Burgundy vineyards (Vosne-Romanee, 21-France)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landry, David [UMR 1229 INRA/Universite de Bourgogne, Microbiologie et Geochimie des sols, Centre des Sciences de la Terre, Universite de Bourgogne, 6 bd Gabriel 21000 Dijon (France)]. E-mail: david.landry@u-bourgogne.fr; Dousset, Sylvie [UMR 1229 INRA/Universite de Bourgogne, Microbiologie et Geochimie des sols, Centre des Sciences de la Terre, Universite de Bourgogne, 6 bd Gabriel 21000 Dijon (France); Fournier, Jean-Claude [UMR 1229 INRA/Universite de Bourgogne, INRA, 17 rue Sully, 21000 Dijon (France); Andreux, Francis [UMR 1229 INRA/Universite de Bourgogne, Microbiologie et Geochimie des sols, Centre des Sciences de la Terre, Universite de Bourgogne, 6 bd Gabriel 21000 Dijon (France)

    2005-11-15

    Some drinking water reservoirs under the vineyards of Burgundy are contaminated with herbicides. Thus the effectiveness of alternative soil management practices, such as grass cover, for reducing the leaching of glyphosate and its metabolite, AMPA, through soils was studied. The leaching of both molecules was studied in structured soil columns under outdoor conditions for 1 year. The soil was managed under two vineyard soil practices: a chemically treated bare calcosol, and a vegetated calcosol. After 680 mm of rainfall, the vegetated calcosol leachates contained lower amounts of glyphosate and AMPA (0.02% and 0.03%, respectively) than the bare calcosol leachates (0.06% and 0.15%, respectively). No glyphosate and only low amounts of AMPA (<0.01%) were extracted from the soil. Glyphosate, and to a greater extent, AMPA, leach through the soils; thus, both molecules may be potential contaminants of groundwater. However, the alternative soil management practice of grass cover could reduce groundwater contamination by the pesticide. - Glyphosate and AMPA leached in greater amounts through a chemically treated bare calcosol than through a vegetated calcosol.

  17. Leaching of glyphosate and AMPA under two soil management practices in Burgundy vineyards (Vosne-Romanee, 21-France)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landry, David; Dousset, Sylvie; Fournier, Jean-Claude; Andreux, Francis

    2005-01-01

    Some drinking water reservoirs under the vineyards of Burgundy are contaminated with herbicides. Thus the effectiveness of alternative soil management practices, such as grass cover, for reducing the leaching of glyphosate and its metabolite, AMPA, through soils was studied. The leaching of both molecules was studied in structured soil columns under outdoor conditions for 1 year. The soil was managed under two vineyard soil practices: a chemically treated bare calcosol, and a vegetated calcosol. After 680 mm of rainfall, the vegetated calcosol leachates contained lower amounts of glyphosate and AMPA (0.02% and 0.03%, respectively) than the bare calcosol leachates (0.06% and 0.15%, respectively). No glyphosate and only low amounts of AMPA (<0.01%) were extracted from the soil. Glyphosate, and to a greater extent, AMPA, leach through the soils; thus, both molecules may be potential contaminants of groundwater. However, the alternative soil management practice of grass cover could reduce groundwater contamination by the pesticide. - Glyphosate and AMPA leached in greater amounts through a chemically treated bare calcosol than through a vegetated calcosol

  18. Assessing pesticide concentrations and fluxes in the stream of a small vineyard catchment - Effect of sampling frequency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabiet, M.; Margoum, C.; Gouy, V.; Carluer, N.; Coquery, M.

    2010-01-01

    This study reports on the occurrence and behaviour of six pesticides and one metabolite in a small stream draining a vineyard catchment. Base flow and flood events were monitored in order to assess the variability of pesticide concentrations according to the season and to evaluate the role of sampling frequency on the evaluation of fluxes estimates. Results showed that dissolved pesticide concentrations displayed a strong temporal and spatial variability. A large mobilisation of pesticides was observed during floods, with total dissolved pesticide fluxes per event ranging from 5.7 x 10 -3 g/Ha to 0.34 g/Ha. These results highlight the major role of floods in the transport of pesticides in this small stream which contributed to more than 89% of the total load of diuron during August 2007. The evaluation of pesticide loads using different sampling strategies and method calculation, showed that grab sampling largely underestimated pesticide concentrations and fluxes transiting through the stream. - This work brings new insights about the fluxes of pesticides in surface water of a vineyard catchment, notably during flood events.

  19. Assessing pesticide concentrations and fluxes in the stream of a small vineyard catchment - Effect of sampling frequency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rabiet, M., E-mail: marion.rabiet@unilim.f [Cemagref, UR QELY, 3bis quai Chauveau, CP 220, F-69336 Lyon (France); Margoum, C.; Gouy, V.; Carluer, N.; Coquery, M. [Cemagref, UR QELY, 3bis quai Chauveau, CP 220, F-69336 Lyon (France)

    2010-03-15

    This study reports on the occurrence and behaviour of six pesticides and one metabolite in a small stream draining a vineyard catchment. Base flow and flood events were monitored in order to assess the variability of pesticide concentrations according to the season and to evaluate the role of sampling frequency on the evaluation of fluxes estimates. Results showed that dissolved pesticide concentrations displayed a strong temporal and spatial variability. A large mobilisation of pesticides was observed during floods, with total dissolved pesticide fluxes per event ranging from 5.7 x 10{sup -3} g/Ha to 0.34 g/Ha. These results highlight the major role of floods in the transport of pesticides in this small stream which contributed to more than 89% of the total load of diuron during August 2007. The evaluation of pesticide loads using different sampling strategies and method calculation, showed that grab sampling largely underestimated pesticide concentrations and fluxes transiting through the stream. - This work brings new insights about the fluxes of pesticides in surface water of a vineyard catchment, notably during flood events.

  20. Development of a portable field rainfall simulator for use in hillside vineyard runoff and erosion studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battany, M. C.; Grismer, M. E.

    2000-04-01

    An inexpensive, mobile field rainfall simulator and runoff plot frame were developed for use on hillside vineyards. The simulator framework and components were lightweight, readily available and easily manageable such that they can be handled by one person during transport, set-up and operation. The vineyard rainfall simulator was simpler than many of the machines in recent use for similar studies, yet offered equal or improved performance for small-plot studies. The system developed consistent sized 2·58 mm raindrops at intensities ranging from 20 to 90 mm/h. The average distribution uniformity coefficient at an intensity of 60 mm/h was 91·7%, with a deviation of only 2·2%. This coefficient was similar to the range reported for a more complex rotating disk simulator, and was notably greater than that obtained for other similar devices. The system water capacity of 40 l allowed for 1-h storm durations at 60 mm/h, usually sufficient time for commencement of erosion and runoff. The runoff plot frame was designed to be quickly installed, and to discourage sediment deposition in the routing of runoff to collect containers.

  1. The Rhizosphere Bacterial Microbiota of Vitis vinifera cv. Pinot Noir in an Integrated Pest Management Vineyard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novello, Giorgia; Gamalero, Elisa; Bona, Elisa; Boatti, Lara; Mignone, Flavio; Massa, Nadia; Cesaro, Patrizia; Lingua, Guido; Berta, Graziella

    2017-01-01

    Microorganisms associated with Vitis vinifera (grapevine) can affect its growth, health and grape quality. The aim of this study was to unravel the biodiversity of the bacterial rhizosphere microbiota of grapevine in an integrated pest management vineyard located in Piedmont, Italy. Comparison between the microbial community structure in the bulk and rhizosphere soil (variable: space) were performed. Moreover, the possible shifts of the bulk and rhizosphere soil microbiota according to two phenological stages such as flowering and early fruit development (variable: time) were characterized. The grapevine microbiota was identified using metagenomics and next-generation sequencing. Biodiversity was higher in the rhizosphere than in the bulk soil, independent of the phenological stage. Actinobacteria were the dominant class with frequencies ≥ 50% in all the soil samples, followed by Proteobacteria, Gemmatimonadetes, and Bacteroidetes. While Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria are well-known as being dominant in soil, this is the first time the presence of Gemmatimonadetes has been observed in vineyard soils. Gaiella was the dominant genus of Actinobacteria in all the samples. Finally, the microbiota associated with grapevine differed from the bulk soil microbiota and these variations were independent of the phenological stage of the plant.

  2. The Rhizosphere Bacterial Microbiota of Vitis vinifera cv. Pinot Noir in an Integrated Pest Management Vineyard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorgia Novello

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Microorganisms associated with Vitis vinifera (grapevine can affect its growth, health and grape quality. The aim of this study was to unravel the biodiversity of the bacterial rhizosphere microbiota of grapevine in an integrated pest management vineyard located in Piedmont, Italy. Comparison between the microbial community structure in the bulk and rhizosphere soil (variable: space were performed. Moreover, the possible shifts of the bulk and rhizosphere soil microbiota according to two phenological stages such as flowering and early fruit development (variable: time were characterized. The grapevine microbiota was identified using metagenomics and next-generation sequencing. Biodiversity was higher in the rhizosphere than in the bulk soil, independent of the phenological stage. Actinobacteria were the dominant class with frequencies ≥ 50% in all the soil samples, followed by Proteobacteria, Gemmatimonadetes, and Bacteroidetes. While Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria are well-known as being dominant in soil, this is the first time the presence of Gemmatimonadetes has been observed in vineyard soils. Gaiella was the dominant genus of Actinobacteria in all the samples. Finally, the microbiota associated with grapevine differed from the bulk soil microbiota and these variations were independent of the phenological stage of the plant.

  3. Variation of NEE and its affecting factors in a vineyard of arid region of northwest China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, W. H.; Kang, S. Z.; Li, F. S.; Li, S. E.

    2014-02-01

    To understand the variation of net ecosystem CO2 exchange (NEE) in orchard ecosystem and it's affecting factors, carbon flux was measured using eddy covariance system in a wine vineyard in arid northwest China during 2008-2010. Results show that vineyard NEE was positive value at the early growth stage, higher negative value at the mid-growth stage, and lower negative value at the later growth stage. Diurnal variation of NEE was "W" shaped curve in sunny day, but "U" shaped curve in cloudy day. Irrigation and pruning did not affect diurnal variation shape of NEE, however, irrigation reduced the difference between maximal and minimal value of NEE and pruning reduced the carbon sink capacity. The main factors affecting hourly NEE were canopy conductance (gc) and net radiation (Rn). The hourly NEE increased with the increase of gc or Rn when gc was less than 0.02 m·s-1 or Rn was between 0 and 200 W·m-2. The main factors affecting both daily and seasonal NEE were gc, air temperature (Ta), atmospheric CO2 density, vapour pressure deficit (VPD) and soil moisture content.

  4. Erosion and Land Degradation in Mediterranean areas as a adaptive response to Mediterranean agriiculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imeson, Anton

    2014-05-01

    The motivation for this session is the statement or claim that Mediterranean areas are sensitive to erosion and desertification. One result of the LEDDRA Approach, which is applying the Complex Adaptive (CAS)paradigm at study sites in Mediterranean Spain, Greece and Italy is that there is just a single socio-environmental system in which land degradation is being caused by the actions of people and the Mediterranean soils have co-eveolved with people under the influence of fire and grazing. They are therefore resilient, and this was demonstrated by Naveh and Thornes. Also the Medalus field sites showed very low rates of erosion. With examples from different Mediterranean landscapes, it is considered that Mediterranean landscapes went through an initial phase of being sensitive to erosion which ended up with the original soils before ploughing or deforestation, being eroded from most of the areas, In some places these are found. LEDDRA The Leddra approach is to consider different states which are separated by transitions. The first state is that of the deforestaion and destruction of the forest that took place 6000 10000 years ago, in the Eastern and Northern Mediterranean, and 2000 to 4,000 years ago in large areas of the Western Mediterranean, and 100 to 400 years ago in California. Australia, New Zealand and Chile. The second state involves appropriating and settling the land from indigenous people and introducing cattle and sheep and Mediterranean crops. The current state of desertification is one in which erosion occurs because of the use of specific cultivation methods and subsidies for irrigating and producing crops outside of their range. In the Mediterranean landscape State, such as found near Santiago in Chile and in Crete, society gains many cultural benefits from grazing. However, the consequences of this are that the whole ecosystem is maintained in an arid state, so that areas in Crete receiving 800-1100 mm rainfall have a semi arid vegetation, instead

  5. Coal in the Mediterranean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sore, J.C.; Coiffard, J.

    1992-01-01

    Mediterranean countries are not traditionally coal producers. In France, the main mines were located in the North and East, and belonged to the great coal fields of northern Europe. Spain is a modest producer (ten million tonnes), as is Turkey with its three million tonnes. The only way most of these mines can stand up to international competition is by an array of protectionistic measures and subsidies. This state of affairs has marked events of quite another nature, as it relates to energy economics. That is, coal has taken on increasing importance in the energy supplies of all the countries of the Mediterranean zone over the past twenty years. In this article, we set out by describing coke supply for the Mediterranean ensemble, and then go on to analyze the development aspects of coal for electrical production, the future of Mediterranean lignite, and the supply of imported coal. 4 refs., 11 figs., 3 tabs

  6. Dimensioning the Irrigation Variables for Table Grape Vineyards in Litho-soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasquale Campi

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The pedo-climatic and farm characteristics of Bari’s hinterland have allowed for the diffusion of prestigious table viticulture. The typical “tendone” vineyard structure is set up after managing the surface of the soil. The karstic nature of the region and the thermo-rainfall trend during the vegetative season impede the vineyard from producing adequately without irrigation. Given the importance of water contributions to table grapes, it is necessary to correctly measure the water variables for economic and environmental reasons. Farmers often irrigate according to “fixed” turns and volumes, against the rules of “good irrigation practice” which consider monitoring the water status of the soil or plant as a prerequisite of irrigation scheduling. During this experiment, two methods of irrigation management were compared: “fixed-turn” and “on demand”. For “on demand” irrigation, the irrigation volume is calculated on the basis of the soil water status (estimated according to the “water balance” method described in the “Paper n. 56 FAO” and the irrigation is scheduled on the basis of the experimental relationship between “pre-dawn” leaf water potential and the water available in the soil. For this comparison, data from a 2-year “on farm” experimentation, in an area typical of table grape cultivation in Southern Italy, have been used. The results obtained show that, in respect to the “fixed-turn” management, the “on demand” management allows for a 20% reduction in water volumes, without compromising production. The water balance method proved to be a promising criterion for irrigation scheduling in these shallow soils, rich in stones (litho-soils. This only held true when the depth of the soil layer explored by the root system was defined by the “equivalent depth” and not by the actual soil’s depth.

  7. Application of the two-source energy balance model to partition evapotranspiration in an arid wine vineyard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kool, Dilia; Kustas, William P.; Agam, Nurit

    2016-04-01

    The partitioning of evapotranspiration (ET) into transpiration (T), a productive water use, and soil water evaporation (E), which is generally considered a water loss, is highly relevant to agriculture in the light of increasing desertification and water scarcity. This task is challenged by the complexity of soil and plant interactions, coupled with changes in atmospheric and soil water content conditions. Many of the processes controlling water/energy exchange are not adequately modeled. The two-source energy balance model (TSEB) was evaluated and adapted for independent E and T estimations in an isolated drip-irrigated wine vineyard in the arid Negev desert. The TSEB model estimates ET by computing vegetation and soil energy fluxes using remotely sensed composite surface temperature, local weather data (solar radiation, air temperature and humidity, and wind speed), and vegetation metrics (row spacing, canopy height and width, and leaf area). The soil and vegetation energy fluxes are computed numerically using a system of temperature gradient and resistance equations; where soil and canopy temperatures are derived from the composite surface temperature. For estimation of ET, the TSEB model has been shown to perform well for various agricultural crops under a wide range of environmental conditions, but validation of T and E fluxes is limited to one study in a well-watered cotton crop. Extending the TSEB approach to water-limited vineyards demands careful consideration regarding how the complex canopy structure of vineyards will influence the accuracy of the partitioning between E and T. Data for evaluation of the TSEB model were collected over a season (bud break till harvest). Composite, canopy, and soil surface temperatures were measured using infrared thermometers. The composite vegetation and soil surface energy fluxes were assessed using independent measurements of net radiation, and soil, sensible and latent heat flux. The below canopy energy balance was

  8. Cultivation of Vitis vinifera L. in the light of former publications and today in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krystyna Pudelska

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In the countries of the Mediterranean Basin viticulture has been dealt with for centuries. It was known to the ancient civilizations of the Middle East and grapevines were widely planted in Greece and Rome. The vineyard was part of the utility garden, usually occupying large areas and at the same time being a connection with the landscape. Creeper vine was also used in decorative gardens as an ornamental plant for various types of buildings and garden structures. The Polish tradition of planting vineyards dates back to the Middle Ages and is mainly associated with the activities of monks, although it was not as common as in the countries of southern Europe. However, in Polish gardening literature and in the literature that describes the development of the art of gardening, you can find lots of tips on how to grow grapevines, their varieties and the descriptions of the vineyards.

  9. A rapid method to assess grape rust mites on leaves and observations from case studies in western Oregon vineyards

    Science.gov (United States)

    A rapid method for extracting eriophyoid mites was adapted from previous studies to provide growers and IPM consultants with a practical, efficient, and reliable tool to monitor for rust mites in vineyards. The rinse in bag (RIB) method allows quick extraction of mites from collected plant parts (sh...

  10. Estimating soil erosion in Natura 2000 areas located on three semi-arid Mediterranean Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaimes, George N; Emmanouloudis, Dimitris; Iakovoglou, Valasia

    2012-03-01

    A major initiative in Europe is the protection of its biodiversity. To accomplish this, specific areas from all countries of the European Union are protected by the establishment of the "Natura 2000" network. One of the major threats to these areas and in general to ecosystems is soil erosion. The objective of this study was to quantitatively estimate surface soil losses for three of these protected areas that are located on semi-arid islands of the Mediterranean. One Natura 2000 area was selected from each of the following islands: Sicily in Italy, Cyprus and Rhodes in Greece. To estimate soil losses, Gerlach troughs were used. These troughs were established on slopes that ranged from 35-40% in four different vegetation types: i) Quercus ilex and Quercus rotundifolia forests, ii) Pinus brutia forests, iii) "Phrygana" shrublands and iv) vineyards. The shrublands had the highest soil losses (270 kg ha(-1) yr(-1)) that were 5-13 times more than the other three vegetation types. Soil losses in these shrublands should be considered a major concern. However, the other vegetation types also had high soil losses (21-50 kg ha(-1) yr(-1)). Conclusively, in order to enhance and conserve the biodiversity of these Natura 2000 areas protective management measures should be taken into consideration to decrease soil losses.

  11. Kaolin modulates ABA and IAA dynamics and physiology of grapevine under Mediterranean summer stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinis, L-T; Bernardo, S; Luzio, A; Pinto, G; Meijón, M; Pintó-Marijuan, M; Cotado, A; Correia, C; Moutinho-Pereira, J

    2018-01-01

    The foliar exogenous application of kaolin, a radiation-reflecting inert mineral, has proven to be an effective short-term climate change mitigation strategy for Mediterranean vineyards. In this work, we address the hypothesis that kaolin could improve both the hormonal dynamics and physiological responses of grapevines growing in Douro Region, northern Portugal. For this purpose, the leaf water potential, gas exchange and chlorophyll a fluorescence parameters were monitored, as well as the abscisic acid (ABA) and indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) quantification and immunolocalization were assessed. The study revealed a slight decrease in ABA and an increase in IAA in the kaolin treatment, which in turn were associated with the improvement of physiological performance. A month after spraying, kaolin improves the water potential respectively, 30% and 17% in the predawn and midday periods. Besides, plants treated with kaolin showed higher values of stomatal conductance, net CO 2 assimilation rate and intrinsic water use efficiency. Kaolin also ameliorates the effective PSII efficiency (67%), as well as the maximum quantum efficiency of photosystem II and the photosynthetic electron transport rate (>73%). These results were consistent with the higher photochemical quenching and the lower non-photochemical quenching observed in treated leaves and with the better performance obtained by the JIP test parameters. Physiological and hormonal analysis confirmed that kaolin effectively enhance grapevine summer stress tolerance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  12. Cancer prevention in Europe: the Mediterranean diet as a protective choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giacosa, Attilio; Barale, Roberto; Bavaresco, Luigi; Gatenby, Piers; Gerbi, Vincenzo; Janssens, Jaak; Johnston, Belinda; Kas, Koen; La Vecchia, Carlo; Mainguet, Paul; Morazzoni, Paolo; Negri, Eva; Pelucchi, Claudio; Pezzotti, Mario; Rondanelli, Mariangela

    2013-01-01

    In the coming years, European death rates because of cancer will further decline, but the overall number of cases will increase, mostly as a consequence of the ageing of the population. The target for cancer prevention in Europe will remain a healthy diet and control of obesity in addition to a decrease in smoking. A healthy diet model in European countries is the traditional Mediterranean diet, which is based on abundant and variable plant foods, high consumption of cereals, olive oil as the main (added) fat, low intake of (red) meat and moderate consumption of wine. The Mediterranean diet is associated with a reduced risk of cardiovascular disease and cancer. The biological mechanisms for cancer prevention associated with the Mediterranean diet have been related to the favourable effect of a balanced ratio of omega 6 and omega 3 essential fatty acids and high amounts of fibre, antioxidants and polyphenols found in fruit, vegetables, olive oil and wine. The Mediterranean diet also involves a 'Mediterranean way of drinking', that is, regular, moderate consumption of wine mainly with food. This pattern of drinking increases longevity, reduces the risk of cardiovascular disease and does not appreciably influence the overall risk of cancer. However, heavy alcohol drinking is associated with digestive, upper respiratory tract, liver and breast cancers; therefore, avoidance or restriction of alcohol consumption to two drinks/day in men and one drink/day in women is a global public health priority.

  13. Dissolved gaseous mercury and mercury flux measurements in Mediterranean coastal waters: A short review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fantozzi L.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available There is a general agreement in the scientific community that the marine ecosystem can be a sink and/or source of the mercury that is cycling in the global environment, and current estimates of the global mercury budget for the Mediterranean region are affected by high uncertainty, primarily due to the little progress made so far in evaluating the role of chemical, physical and biological processes in the water system and in the lower atmosphere above the sea water (air-water interface. The lack of knowledge of the magnitude of the air-sea exchange mechanisms is, therefore, one of the main factors affecting the overall uncertainty associated with the assessment of net fluxes of Hg between the atmospheric and marine environments in the Mediterranean region. Results obtained during the last 15 years in the Mediterranean basin indicate the quantitative importance of such emission in the biogeochemical cycle of this element, highlighting the need for thorough investigations on the mechanisms of production and volatilization of dissolved gaseous mercury in waters.

  14. Plant cell death and cellular alterations induced by ozone: Key studies in Mediterranean conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faoro, Franco; Iriti, Marcello

    2009-01-01

    An account of histo-cytological and ultrastructural studies on ozone effect on crop and forest species in Italy is given, with emphasis on induced cell death and the underlying mechanisms. Cell death phenomena possibly due to ambient O 3 were recorded in crop and forest species. In contrast, visible O 3 effects on Mediterranean vegetation are often unclear. Microscopy is thus suggested as an effective tool to validate and evaluate O 3 injury to Mediterranean vegetation. A DAB-Evans blue staining was proposed to validate O 3 symptoms at the microscopic level and for a pre-visual diagnosis of O 3 injury. The method has been positively tested in some of the most important crop species, such as wheat, tomato, bean and onion and, with some restriction, in forest species, and it also allows one to gain some very useful insights into the mechanisms at the base of O 3 sensitivity or tolerance. - Ozone-induced cell death is a frequent phenomenon in Mediterranean conditions, not only in the most sensitive crops but also in forest species.

  15. Soil and Water Assessment Tool soil loss simulation at the sub-basin scale in the Alt Penedès-Anoia vineyard region (Ne Spain) in the 2000s

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez Casasnovas, José Antonio; Ramos Martín, Ma. C. (Ma. Concepción); Benites, Grace

    2016-01-01

    This paper evaluates soil loss due to water erosion in an area of 32,362 ha with a predominant land use of vineyards (Alt Penedès-Anoia region, Catalonia, Spain). The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) was used incorporating daily climatic data for the period 2000-2010 and also detailed soil and land use maps. Particular attention was given to the universal soil loss equation cover and management factor (C factor) of vineyards, with a minimum value of 0·15 being determined for this crop. T...

  16. Rainfall effect on dissipation and movement of diuron and simazine in a vineyard soil

    OpenAIRE

    Alister,C.; Kogan,M.

    2010-01-01

    From 2003 to 2007, a field study was performed in a vineyard in Chile to investigate diuron and simazine soil behavior and the effect of additional rainfall. Both herbicides were applied once a year at a rate of 2.0 kg ha-1 a.i. Herbicide concentrations in soil were measured at 0, 10, 20, 40, 90 and 340 days after application, under two pluviometric conditions, natural rainfall and natural rainfall plus irrigation with 180 mm of simulated rainfall during the first 90 days after application. S...

  17. Mediterranean Diet and Diabetes: Prevention and Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Georgoulis, Michael; Kontogianni, Meropi D.; Yiannakouris, Nikos

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present review is to examine current scientific knowledge on the association between the Mediterranean diet and diabetes mellitus (mostly type 2 diabetes). A definition of the Mediterranean diet and the tools widely used to evaluate adherence to this traditional diet (Mediterranean diet indices) are briefly presented. The review focuses on epidemiological data linking adherence to the Mediterranean diet with the risk of diabetes development, as well as evidence from interventi...

  18. Euro-Mediterranean Partnership

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brach, Juliane

    2007-01-01

    The EU and 12 countries of the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) engaged in 1995 in the Euro-Mediterranean Partnership (EMP) in political, economic and cultural matters with the aim to foster cooperation, stability and prosperity around the Mediterranean Basin. The Economic and Financial...... and the past performance of the EFP. It analyses the association agreements, economic cooperation and financial assistance, discusses the major obstacles, and outlines the potential of the EFP to shape the European Neighborhood Policy....

  19. Spatiotemporal variation of crown-scale stomatal conductance in an arid Vitis vinifera L. cv. Merlot vineyard: direct effects of hydraulic properties and indirect effects of canopy leaf area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanqun; Oren, Ram; Kang, Shaozhong

    2012-03-01

    Vineyards were planted in the arid region of northwest China to meet the local economic strategy while reducing agricultural water use. Sap flow, environmental variables, a plant characteristic (sapwood-to-leaf area ratio, A(s)/A(l)) and a canopy characteristic (leaf area index, L) were measured in a vineyard in the region during the growing season of 2009, and hourly canopy stomatal conductance (G(si)) was estimated for individual vines to quantify the relationships between G(si) and these variables. After accounting for the effects of vapor pressure deficit (D) and solar radiation (R(s)) on G(si), much of the remaining variation of reference G(si) (G(siR)) was driven by that of leaf-specific hydraulic conductivity, which in turn was driven by that of A(s)/A(l). After accounting for that effect on G(siR), appreciable temporal variation remained in the decline rate of G(siR) with decreasing vineyard-averaged relative extractable soil water (θ(E)). This variation was related to the differential decline ofθ(E) near each monitored vine, decreasing faster between irrigation events near vines where L was greater, thus adding to the spatiotemporal variation of G(siR) observed in the vineyard. We also found that the vines showed isohydric-like behavior whenθ(E) was low, but switched to anisohydric-like behavior with increasingθ(E). Modeledθ(E) and associated G(s) of a canopy with even L (1.9 m(2) m(-2)) were greater than that of the same average L but split between the lowest and highest L observed along sections of rows in the vineyard (1.2 and 2.6 m(2) m(-2)) by 6 and 12%, respectively. Our results suggest that managing sectional L near the average, rather than allowing a wide variation, can reduce soil water depletion, maintaining G(s) higher, thus potentially enhancing yield.

  20. A neighborhood revealed by geophysical prospection: An example of urbanization at the Phoenician-Punic settlement of Mozia (western Sicily, Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Mauro, D.; Alfonsi, L.; Sapia, V.; Urbini, S.

    2014-05-01

    The archaeological site of Mozia, a small island in front of the western coast of Sicily (Italy), is one of the most important Phoenician-Punic settlements in the Mediterranean; it preserves important vestiges and remains, located in an uncontaminated site, inhabited and car-free. The remains are still partially hidden under vegetation and vineyards.

  1. Consensus paper on the "executive summary of the international conference on Mediterranean diet and health: a lifelong approach" an Italian initiative supported by the Mediterranean Diet Foundation and the Menarini Foundation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boccardi, Virginia; Calvani, Riccardo; Limongi, Federica; Marseglia, Anna; Mason, Alexandra; Noale, Marianna; Rogoli, Domenico; Veronese, Nicola; Crepaldi, Gaetano; Maggi, Stefania

    The Mediterranean Diet Foundation, in collaboration with the International Menarini Foundation, organized the "International Conference on Mediterranean Diet and Health: A Lifelong Approach." The Conference was held in Ostuni (Puglia, Italy) from March 30 to April 1, 2017. The event received the endorsement of the American Federation for Aging Research, the Research Consortium "Luigi Amaducci," the European Nutrition for Health Alliance, the European Union Geriatric Medicine Society, the Clinical Section of the International Association of Gerontology and Geriatrics-European Region, the National Research Council Research Project on Aging, the Italian Society of Gerontology and Geriatrics, and the Italian Society of Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. During the conference, results were presented from major studies on dietary interventions aiming to assess the efficacy of the Mediterranean diet in the prevention of chronic diseases and the potential underlying mechanisms. Twenty-six international speakers, in seven different sessions, discussed the biological basis, clinical impact, health policy, and behavioral implications of the Mediterranean diet, and its use in potential interventions for health promotion. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Modelling retention and dispersion mechanisms of bluefin tuna eggs and larvae in the Northwest Mediterranean Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mariani, Patrizio; MacKenzie, Brian; Iudicone, D.

    2010-01-01

    Knowledge of early life history of most fish species in the Mediterranean Sea is sparse and processes affecting their recruitment are poorly understood. This is particularly true for bluefin tuna, Thunnus thynnus, even though this species is one of the world's most valued fish species. Here we...... develop, apply and validate an individually based coupled biological-physical oceanographic model of fish early life history in the Mediterranean Sea. We first validate the general structure of the coupled model with a 12-day Lagrangian drift study of anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus) larvae in the Catalan...... mesoscale processes in the Balearic area and thus potentially affect bluefin tuna larvae. These modelling approaches can increase understanding of bluefin tuna recruitment processes and eventually contribute to management of bluefin tuna fisheries....

  3. Impact of phenylalanine and urea applications to Tempranillo and Monastrell vineyards on grape amino acid content during two consecutive vintages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garde-Cerdán, Teresa; Gutiérrez-Gamboa, Gastón; Portu, Javier; Fernández-Fernández, José Ignacio; Gil-Muñoz, Rocío

    2017-12-01

    Nitrogen plays a key role in the fermentation and secondary metabolites formation. The aim was to study the influence of vine nitrogen applications on grape amino acid composition. Nitrogen sources applied to Tempranillo and Monastrell grapevines were phenylalanine and urea, during two seasons. Results showed that the application of these compounds had little effect on grape amino acid composition, regardless of variety and vintage. This could be due to the fact that vineyards did not present nitrogenous requirements. Thus, variety was the determining factor in Asp, Glu, Gln, Cit, Met, Gly, Gaba, Val, Ile, and Leu while season was the factor that most affected Thr, Arg, Ala, and Lys due its implication on berry ripening. The concentration of the remaining amino acids was influenced by two or three of the factors studied. Therefore, when the vineyard has adequate nitrogen nutritional status, grape amino acid content was determined by variety and vintage. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Scenarios in the development of Mediterranean cyclones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Romem

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The Mediterranean is one of the most cyclogenetic regions in the world. The cyclones are concentrated along its northern coasts and their tracks are oriented more or less west-east, with several secondary tracks connecting them to Europe and to North Africa. The aim of this study is to examine scenarios in the development of Mediterranean cyclones, based on five selected winter seasons (October–March. We detected the cyclones subjectively using 6-hourly Sea-Level Pressure maps, based on the NCAR/NCEP reanalysis archive.

    HMSO (1962 has shown that most Mediterranean cyclones (58% enter the Mediterranean from the Atlantic Ocean (through Biscay and Gibraltar, and from the south-west, the Sahara Desert, while the rest are formed in the Mediterranean Basin itself. Our study revealed that only 13% of the cyclones entered the Mediterranean, while 87% were generated in the Mediterranean Basin. The entering cyclones originate in three different regions: the Sahara Desert (6%, the Atlantic Ocean (4%, and Western Europe (3%.

    The cyclones formed within the Mediterranean Basin were found to generate under the influence of external cyclonic systems, i.e. as "daughter cyclones" to "parent cyclones" or troughs. These parent systems are located in three regions: Europe (61%, North Africa and the Red Sea (34.5% and the Mediterranean Basin itself (4.5%. The study presents scenarios in the development of Mediterranean cyclones during the winter season, emphasizing the cyclogenesis under the influence of various external forcing.

    The large difference with respect to the findings of HMSO (1962 is partly explained by the dominance of spring cyclones generating in the Sahara Desert, especially in April and May that were not included in our study period.

  5. Phytoplankton cell counts from a moored submersible flow cytometer at Martha's Vineyard (Massachusetts) Coastal Observatory, May 10 - December 15, 2003 (NODC Accession 0002299)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Phytoplankton cell counts data were collected using a moored submersible flow cytometer from a Coastal Observatory at the Martha's Vineyard in Masschutsetts from 10...

  6. Usability study of a vineyard teleoperated compost spreader.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Ester; Cavallo, Eugenio

    2012-01-01

    Teleoperation has been widely applied in modern industry because of a variety of advantages, such as providing replaceable surrogates for humans in dangerous or difficult working environments over long distances. In this paper, a usability evaluation study of a teleoperation system for a compost spreader robotic machine is presented. The machine has been designed for the application of compost in small and stepping parcels of hilly vineyards. Driving and working tasks can be controlled remotely by a portable piloting unit, reducing the risk for the operator in the event of machine overturning. Participants of the study were asked to perform a series of tasks and sub-tasks and to vocalize their thoughts while working with the machine. The tasks were designed to simulate typical user experience. Once all the tasks were accomplished each participant was asked to fill a questionnaire. The evaluation considered aspects such as learnability, ease of use, understandability, controllability, frustration, mental effort, distraction, clarity of presentation, perceived usefulness, temporal efficiency and machine aesthetic. Results show that usability evaluation helped detecting design deficiencies in the teleoperated compost spreader machine.

  7. The Rhizosphere Bacterial Microbiota of Vitis vinifera cv. Pinot Noir in an Integrated Pest Management Vineyard

    OpenAIRE

    Novello, Giorgia; Gamalero, Elisa; Bona, Elisa; Boatti, Lara; Mignone, Flavio; Massa, Nadia; Cesaro, Patrizia; Lingua, Guido; Berta, Graziella

    2017-01-01

    Microorganisms associated with Vitis vinifera (grapevine) can affect its growth, health and grape quality. The aim of this study was to unravel the biodiversity of the bacterial rhizosphere microbiota of grapevine in an integrated pest management vineyard located in Piedmont, Italy. Comparison between the microbial community structure in the bulk and rhizosphere soil (variable: space) were performed. Moreover, the possible shifts of the bulk and rhizosphere soil microbiota according to two ph...

  8. Soil quality evaluation following the implementation of permanent cover crops in semi-arid vineyards. Organic matter, physical and biological soil properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Virto, I.; Imaz, M. J.; Fernandez-Ugalde, O.; Urrutia, I.; Enrique, A.; Bescansa, P.

    2012-07-01

    Changing from conventional vineyard soil management, which includes keeping bare soil through intense tilling and herbicides, to permanent grass cover (PGC) is controversial in semi-arid land because it has agronomic and environmental advantages but it can also induce negative changes in the soil physical status. The objectives of this work were (i) gaining knowledge on the effect of PGC on the soil physical and biological quality, and (ii) identifying the most suitable soil quality indicators for vineyard calcareous soils in semi-arid land. Key soil physical, organic and biological characteristics were determined in a Cambic Calcisol with different time under PGC (1 and 5 years), and in a conventionally managed control. Correlation analysis showed a direct positive relationship between greater aggregate stability (WSA), soil-available water capacity (AWC), microbial biomass and enzymatic activity in the topsoil under PGC. Total and labile organic C concentrations (SOC and POM-C) were also correlated to microbial parameters. Factor analysis of the studied soil attributes using principal component analysis (PCA) was done to identify the most sensitive soil quality indicators. Earthworm activity, AWC, WSA, SOC and POM-C were the soil attributes with greater loadings in the two factors determined by PCA, which means that these properties can be considered adequate soil quality indicators in this agrosystem. These results indicate that both soil physical and biological attributes are different under PGC than in conventionally-managed soils, and need therefore to be evaluated when assessing the consequences of PGC on vineyard soil quality. (Author) 65 refs.

  9. Rainfall simulations to study the types of groundcover on surface runoff and soil erosion in Champagne vineyards in France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xavier, Morvan; Christophe, Naisse; Issa Oumarou, Malam; Jean-François, Desprats; Anne, Combaud; Olivier, Cerdan

    2015-04-01

    In the literature, grass cover is often considered to be one of the best methods of limiting runoff in the vineyards; But results can vary, especially when the plot area is Champagne vineyards in France, was to quantify the influence of the cultivation practices in the inter-rows of vines and determine the influence of the density of the grass cover in the wheel tracks on the surface runoff and soil erosion in experimental plots of 0.25 m2 under simulated rainfall. Three types of ground cover were studied. In the bark-and-vine-prunings plots, the runoff coefficient ranged from 1.3 to 4.0% and soil losses were <1 g/m²/h. In the bare soil plot, the highest runoff coefficient of the study was found (80.0%) and soil losses reached 7.4 g/m²/h. In the grass cover plots, the runoff coefficient and amount of eroded soil were highly variable: the runoff coefficients ranged from 0.4 to 77.0%, and soil losses were between less than 1 and 13.4 g/m²/h. Soil type, soil moisture, slope and agricultural practices did not account for the variability. In fact, the density of grass cover in the wheel tracks explained a portion of this variability. The lack of grass in the centre of the inter-row allowed for a preferential flow and created an erosion line in the wheel tracks where the soil was compacted. This study showed that grass cover in a vineyard was not necessarily sufficient to reduce surface runoff and prevent soil erosion. To be effective, the grass cover must be dense enough in the wheel tracks of agricultural machinery to avoid runoff coefficients close to those achieved with bare soil.

  10. Qualitative Assessment of the Red Wine Varieties Grown in Dealu Bujorului Vineyard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florin Dumitru Bora

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Wine is considered to be a hydro alcoholic solution with more than 1000 components associated in an extremely complex manner, some of them can pass from grapes in an unchanged state, and some are formed during alcoholic and malolactic fermentation, while others appear due to the reactions between substances in their natural state, or based on the existing ones. The presence of phenolic substances in wine is essential, representing a major contribution in the forming of specific characteristics such as: colour, aroma and taste, thus allowing the distinction between different types of wine. The main purpose of this research is to evaluate the physicochemical composition of the three acknowledged varieties of young wine from the Dealu Bujorului vineyard (‘Merlot’, ‘Cabernet Sauvignon’ and ‘‘Fetească Neagră’’, obtained under the culture conditions of 2012 - 2013 - 2014 years. The oenological parameters were determined after the national STAS regulations and effectively OIV methods. Statistical methods were employed in order to assess the organic and inorganic potential of wine. The ecoclimatic conditions studied in the Dealu Bujorului, Bujoru Wine Centre, highlighted the exceptional viticultural character of Romania as well as the authenticity character encountered in the large variety of wines produced in this area. Results also show that the vine varieties of cultivated in the Vineyard of Dealu Bujorului have a high content of macroelements (‘Merlot’ (890.01 ± 6.35 mg/L (2013, ‘Cabernet Sauvignon’ (111.36 ± 3.53 mg/L (2013 and Feteasca neagră (97.30 ± 0.46 mg/L (2014 that are very important for human’s health. Wine quality parameters analyzed shows that are influenced by the area of culture of vine but also they are influenced by the technology of winemaking.

  11. Woodlands Grazing Issues in Mediterranean Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, P.

    2009-04-01

    In Mediterranean basin, woodlands grazing still continue to be important commercial owners' benefits. These owners manage woodlands vegetations as if they were not at risk of degradation and declining. Frequently, no temporally grazing set-aside is taken into account to avoid overgrazing of annual and perennial vegetations. Although less common, in the northern shore of Mediterranean basin undergrazing might increase the frequency and the number of catastrophic forest fires. This under/over grazing regime occurs in the Mediterranean basin woodlands with contrasted differences on land property rights, local economies and government livestock policy incentives. Spain and Tunisia are examples of these Mediterranean livestock contrasts. Most of Spanish Mediterranean woodlands and livestock herds are large private ownerships and owners could maintain their lands and livestock herds properties on the basis of moderate cash-income compensation against land revaluation and exclusive amenity self-consumption. The later is less tangible benefit and it could include family land legacy, nature enjoyment, country stile of life development, social status and so on. In public woodlands, social and environmental goals -as they are cultural heritage, biodiversity loss mitigation, soil conservation and employment- could maintain market unprofitable woodlands operations. Last three decades Spanish Mediterranean woodlands owners have increased the livestock herds incentivized by government subsidies. As result, grazing rent is pending on the level of European Union and Spanish government livestock subsidies. In this context, Spanish Mediterranean woodlands maintain a high extensive livestock stoking population, which economy could be called fragile and environmentally unsustainable because forest degradation and over/under grazing practices. Tunisian Mediterranean woodlands are state properties and livestock grazing is practice as a free private regimen. Livestock herds are small herd

  12. New Mediterranean Biodiversity Records (July 2016)

    OpenAIRE

    Dailianis, T.; Akyol, O.; Babali, N.; Bariche, M.; Crocetta, F.; Gerovasileiou, V.; Chanem, R.; Gökoğlu, M.; Hasiotis, T.; Izquierdo Muñoz, Andrés; Julian, D.; Katsanevakis, S.; Lipez, L.; Mancini, E.; Mytilineou, Ch.

    2016-01-01

    This contribution forms part of a series of collective articles published regularly in Mediterranean Marine Science that report on new biodiversity records from the Mediterranean basin. The current article presents 51 geographically distinct records for 21 taxa belonging to 6 Phyla, extending from the western Mediterranean to the Levantine. The new records, per country, are as follows: Spain: the cryptogenic calcareous sponge Paraleucilla magna is reported from a new location in the A...

  13. Cardiac manifestations of Familial Mediterranean fever

    OpenAIRE

    Alsarah, Ahmad; Alsara, Osama; Laird-Fick, Heather S.

    2017-01-01

    Familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) is autoinflammatory disorder characterized by sporadic attacks of fever, peritonitis, pleuritis, and arthritis. It is mainly seen in patients from Mediterranean origins, but it is now reported more frequently in Europe and North America due to immigration. To analyze the data on the cardiovascular manifestations in FMF patients, we searched PubMed using the terms “Familial Mediterranean Fever” or “FMF” in combination with other key words including “cardiovas...

  14. Mediterranean Diet and cancer risk: an open issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Alessandro, Annunziata; De Pergola, Giovanni; Silvestris, Franco

    2016-09-01

    The traditional Mediterranean Diet of the early 1960s meets the characteristics of an anticancer diet defined by the World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research (WCRF/AIRC). A diet rich of whole grains, pulses, vegetables and fruits, limited in high-calorie foods (foods high in sugar or fat), red meat and foods high in salt, without sugary drinks and processed meat is recommended by the WCRF/AIRC experts to reduce the risk of cancer. The aim of this review was to examine whether Mediterranean Diet is protective or not against cancer risk. Three meta-analyses of cohort studies reported that a high adherence to the Mediterranean Diet significantly reduces the risk of cancer incidence and/or mortality. Nevertheless, the Mediterranean dietary pattern defined in the studies' part of the meta-analyses has qualitative and/or quantitative differences compared to the Mediterranean Diet of the early 1960s. Therefore, the protective role of the Mediterranean Diet against cancer has not definitely been established. In epidemiological studies, a universal definition of the Mediterranean Diet, possibly the traditional Mediterranean Diet of the early 1960s, could be useful to understand the role of this dietary pattern in cancer prevention.

  15. Red to Mediterranean Sea bioinvasion: natural drift through the Suez Canal, or anthropogenic transport?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shefer, Sigal; Abelson, Avigdor; Mokady, Ofer; Geffen, Eli

    2004-08-01

    The biota of the eastern basin of the Mediterranean Sea has experienced dramatic changes in the last decades, in part as a result of the massive invasion of Red Sea species. The mechanism generally hypothesized for the 'Red-to-Med' invasion is that of natural dispersal through the Suez Canal. To date, however, this hypothesis has not been tested. This study examines the mode of invasion, using as a model the mussel Brachidontes pharaonis, an acclaimed 'Lessepsian migrant' that thrives along the eastern Mediterranean coast. Our findings reveal two distinct lineages of haplotypes, and five possible explanations are discussed for this observation. We show that the genetic exchange among the Mediterranean, Gulf of Suez and the northern Red Sea is sufficiently large to counteract the build up of sequential genetic structure. Nevertheless, these basins are rich in unique haplotypes of unknown origin. We propose that it is historic secondary contact, an ongoing anthropogenic transport or both processes, that participate in driving the population dynamics of B. pharaonis in the Mediterranean and northern Red Sea. Copyright 2004 Blackwell Publishing Ltd

  16. Biomass decomposition and nutrient release from black oat and hairy vetch residues deposited in a vineyard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Ademar Avelar Ferreira

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available A significant quantity of nutrients in vineyards may return to the soil each year through decomposition of residues from cover plants. This study aimed to evaluate biomass decomposition and nutrient release from residues of black oats and hairy vetch deposited in the vines rows, with and without plastic shelter, and in the between-row areas throughout the vegetative and productive cycle of the plants. The study was conducted in a commercial vineyard in Bento Gonçalves, RS, Brazil, from October 2008 to February 2009. Black oat (Avena strigosa and hairy vetch (Vicia villosa residues were collected, subjected to chemical (C, N, P, K, Ca, and Mg and biochemical (cellulose - Cel, hemicellulose - Hem, and lignin - Lig content analyses, and placed in litter bags, which were deposited in vines rows without plastic shelter (VPRWS, in vines rows with plastic shelter (VPRS, and in the between-row areas (BR. We collected the residues at 0, 33, 58, 76, and 110 days after deposition of the litter bags, prepared the material, and subjected it to analysis of total N, P, K, Ca, and Mg content. The VPRS contained the largest quantities and percentages of dry matter and residual nutrients (except for Ca in black oat residues from October to February, which coincides with the period from flowering up to grape harvest. This practice led to greater protection of the soil surface, avoiding surface runoff of the solution derived from between the rows, but it retarded nutrient cycling. The rate of biomass decomposition and nutrient release from hairy vetch residues from October to February was not affected by the position of deposition of the residues in the vineyard, which may especially be attributed to the lower values of the C/N and Lig/N ratios. Regardless of the type of residue, black oat or hairy vetch, the greatest decomposition and nutrient release mainly occurred up to 33 days after deposition of the residues on the soil surface, which coincided with the

  17. Distribution of transuranic nuclides in Mediterranean ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballestra, S.; Thein, M.; Fukai, R.

    1982-01-01

    For the comprehensive understanding of the behaviour of transuranic elements in the marine environment, the knowledge on the distribution of these elements in various components of marine ecosystems is essential. Since the Mediterranean Sea is considered a sufficiently self-contained system, our approach for studying the processes controlling the transuranic cycling in the sea has been to follow, step by step, the redistribution of plutonium and americium in different components of the marine environment, taking Mediterranean ecosystems as examples. While the studies in the past years have supplied quantitative information on the inputs of plutonium and americium into the Mediterranean from atmospheric fallout and rivers as well as on their behaviour in the Mediterranean water column, only scattered data have been made available so far on the occurrence of the transuranic nuclides in the Mediterranean marine biota or sediments. In order to fill up this information gap, biological and sediment samples were collected from the northwestern Mediterranean region during 1975-1978 for the transuranic measurements. The results of these determinations are given in the present report

  18. Mediterranean Diet: Choose This Heart-Healthy Diet Option

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Lifestyle Nutrition and healthy eating The heart-healthy Mediterranean diet is a healthy eating plan based on typical ... Mediterranean-style cooking. Here's how to adopt the Mediterranean diet. By Mayo Clinic Staff If you're looking ...

  19. The features of a "Mediterranean" Bioethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leone, Salvino

    2012-11-01

    Even if somebody considers inappropriate any geographic adjective for Bioethics, nevertheless we think that there are some specific features of "Mediterranean" Bioethics that could distinguish it from a "Northern-European and Northern-American" one. First of all we must consider that medical ethics was born and grew in Mediterranean area. First by the thought of great Greek philosophers as Aristotle (that analyse what ethics is), then by Hippocrates, the "father" of medical ethics. The ethical pattern of Aristotle was based on "virtues" and their practice. In this perspective we can already note a strong difference with actual North-European or American principialist ethics. But a second consideration concerns the role that great Mediterranean religions (Judaism, Christianity and Islam) had in the construction of the ethical thought especially on the matter of life and its respect. So, in our pluralistic and multicultural society is absolutely necessary to rescue an approach that considers both "lungs" of ethical thought (Mediterranean and Northern one) and highlights the role that Mediterranean Ethics still has in this way.

  20. Mediterranean Thermohaline Response to Large-Scale Winter Atmospheric Forcing in a High-Resolution Ocean Model Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cusinato, Eleonora; Zanchettin, Davide; Sannino, Gianmaria; Rubino, Angelo

    2018-04-01

    Large-scale circulation anomalies over the North Atlantic and Euro-Mediterranean regions described by dominant climate modes, such as the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), the East Atlantic pattern (EA), the East Atlantic/Western Russian (EAWR) and the Mediterranean Oscillation Index (MOI), significantly affect interannual-to-decadal climatic and hydroclimatic variability in the Euro-Mediterranean region. However, whereas previous studies assessed the impact of such climate modes on air-sea heat and freshwater fluxes in the Mediterranean Sea, the propagation of these atmospheric forcing signals from the surface toward the interior and the abyss of the Mediterranean Sea remains unexplored. Here, we use a high-resolution ocean model simulation covering the 1979-2013 period to investigate spatial patterns and time scales of the Mediterranean thermohaline response to winter forcing from NAO, EA, EAWR and MOI. We find that these modes significantly imprint on the thermohaline properties in key areas of the Mediterranean Sea through a variety of mechanisms. Typically, density anomalies induced by all modes remain confined in the upper 600 m depth and remain significant for up to 18-24 months. One of the clearest propagation signals refers to the EA in the Adriatic and northern Ionian seas: There, negative EA anomalies are associated to an extensive positive density response, with anomalies that sink to the bottom of the South Adriatic Pit within a 2-year time. Other strong responses are the thermally driven responses to the EA in the Gulf of Lions and to the EAWR in the Aegean Sea. MOI and EAWR forcing of thermohaline properties in the Eastern Mediterranean sub-basins seems to be determined by reinforcement processes linked to the persistency of these modes in multiannual anomalous states. Our study also suggests that NAO, EA, EAWR and MOI could critically interfere with internal, deep and abyssal ocean dynamics and variability in the Mediterranean Sea.

  1. Mediterranean Energy Perspectives 2011 - Executive summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    Mediterranean Energy Perspectives 2011 provides insights into the energy situation today and over the next two decades in the Mediterranean region. Its detailed data and analyses are of interest to stakeholders on both the supply and demand sides of the energy equation. This is the third edition in the MEP series, which highlights the extensive work of OME (Observatoire Mediterraneen de l'Energie). This outlook draws upon the expertise of OME and its members. MEP 2011 provides a unique and comprehensive analysis of the energy sector in the Mediterranean. It presents data ranging from the early days of the region's energy industry to the situation today and an outlook to 2030, based on OME's supply and demand model, the Mediterranean Energy Model. Current efforts related to renewable energy sources and energy efficiency are carefully considered as they are key issues for the Mediterranean energy sector and for the whole economic and environment future of the region. MEP 2011 presents: - A description of the Mediterranean countries in a global context. - Historical and forecast data on the supply and demand balance for each segment of the Mediterranean energy sector. - Energy demand to 2030, including two cases: the Conservative and Proactive Scenarios. - Trends in past, present and future oil and natural gas production and development. - Existing and planned oil and gas infrastructure. - Evolution of electricity generation and installed capacity. - Developments in innovative and renewable energy sources. - In-depth analysis of energy efficiency measures and policies. - Prospects for CO 2 emissions and sustainable development. MEP 2011 has been prepared by a joint-team of OME experts supported by related companies and independent expertise. Bringing this expertise together provides an important reference for industry analysts and investors who wish to get a complete picture of the energy industry and markets in the Mediterranean, the way they operate and their long

  2. Alimentary regimen in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: Mediterranean diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abenavoli, Ludovico; Milic, Natasa; Peta, Valentina; Alfieri, Francesco; De Lorenzo, Antonino; Bellentani, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common liver disease worldwide. The mechanisms of the underlying disease development and progression are awaiting clarification. Insulin resistance and obesity-related inflammation status, among other possible genetic, dietary, and lifestyle factors, are thought to play the key role. There is no consensus concerning the pharmacological treatment. However, the dietary nutritional management to achieve weight loss is an essential component of any treatment strategy. On the basis of its components, the literature reports on the effectiveness of the Mediterranean diet in reducing cardiovascular risk and in preventing major chronic diseases, including obesity and diabetes. New evidence supports the idea that the Mediterranean diet, associated with physical activity and cognitive behaviour therapy, may have an important role in the prevention and the treatment of NAFLD. PMID:25492997

  3. The contribution of Landsat 8 TIRS sensor data to the identification of plastic covered vineyards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novelli, Antonio; Tarantino, Eufemia

    2015-06-01

    Plastic covering is a common practice in agricultural fields. From an agronomic point of view, plastic coverings offer many advantages against unfavourable growing conditions. This explains their widespread utilization with consequent positive impact on local economy. On the other hand, plasticulture raises both environmental and landscape issues. In the Apulia Region (Italy) the wide implementation of such practice generally relates to vineyard cultivation. Continuous vineyard protection has resulted in negative effects on the hydrogeological balance of soils, causing a deep modification of the traditional rural landscape and therefore affecting its quality. To guarantee both the protection of local economy as well as the preservation of local environment and landscape features, a detailed site mapping of the areas involved is necessary. Indeed, the quantification of this phenomenon is essential in the periodic updating of the existing land use database and in the development of local policies. In this study we evaluate the potential of the novel Thermal Infrared Sensor bands (TIRS) provided by the LANDSAT 8 mission in plasticulture discrimination. Using the evident anomaly retrieved in the study area on the Quality Assessment (QA) band, a fast procedure involving TIRS data was developed, proposing a new index (Plastic Surface Index- PSI) able to emphasize plasticulture. For the aim of this study, two different acquisition dates on a test area in the Apulia region (Italy) were analyzed, one in the growing season with high plastic covering density and one in the post-harvest period with low plastic cover density.

  4. Potential ecosystem service delivery by endemic plants in New Zealand vineyards: successes and prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, Morgan W; Tompkins, Jean-Marie; Saville, David J; Meurk, Colin D; Wratten, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    Vineyards worldwide occupy over 7 million hectares and are typically virtual monocultures, with high and costly inputs of water and agro-chemicals. Understanding and enhancing ecosystem services can reduce inputs and their costs and help satisfy market demands for evidence of more sustainable practices. In this New Zealand work, low-growing, endemic plant species were evaluated for their potential benefits as Service Providing Units (SPUs) or Ecosystem Service Providers (ESPs). The services provided were weed suppression, conservation of beneficial invertebrates, soil moisture retention and microbial activity. The potential Ecosystem Dis-services (EDS) from the selected plant species by hosting the larvae of a key vine moth pest, the light-brown apple moth (Epiphyas postvittana), was also quantified. Questionnaires were used to evaluate winegrowers' perceptions of the value of and problems associated with such endemic plant species in their vineyards. Growth and survival rates of the 14 plant species, in eight families, were evaluated, with Leptinella dioica (Asteraceae) and Acaena inermis 'purpurea' (Rosaceae) having the highest growth rates in terms of area covered and the highest survival rate after 12 months. All 14 plant species suppressed weeds, with Leptinella squalida, Geranium sessiliforum (Geraniaceae), Hebe chathamica (Plantaginaceae), Scleranthus uniflorus (Caryophyllaceae) and L. dioica, each reducing weed cover by >95%. Plant species also differed in the diversity of arthropods that they supported, with the Shannon Wiener diversity index (H') for these taxa ranging from 0 to 1.3. G. sessiliforum and Muehlenbeckia axillaris (Polygonaceae) had the highest invertebrate diversity. Density of spiders was correlated with arthropod diversity and G. sessiliflorum and H. chathamica had the highest densities of these arthropods. Several plant species associated with higher soil moisture content than in control plots. The best performing species in this context

  5. Potential ecosystem service delivery by endemic plants in New Zealand vineyards: successes and prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morgan W. Shields

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Vineyards worldwide occupy over 7 million hectares and are typically virtual monocultures, with high and costly inputs of water and agro-chemicals. Understanding and enhancing ecosystem services can reduce inputs and their costs and help satisfy market demands for evidence of more sustainable practices. In this New Zealand work, low-growing, endemic plant species were evaluated for their potential benefits as Service Providing Units (SPUs or Ecosystem Service Providers (ESPs. The services provided were weed suppression, conservation of beneficial invertebrates, soil moisture retention and microbial activity. The potential Ecosystem Dis-services (EDS from the selected plant species by hosting the larvae of a key vine moth pest, the light-brown apple moth (Epiphyas postvittana, was also quantified. Questionnaires were used to evaluate winegrowers’ perceptions of the value of and problems associated with such endemic plant species in their vineyards. Growth and survival rates of the 14 plant species, in eight families, were evaluated, with Leptinella dioica (Asteraceae and Acaena inermis ‘purpurea’ (Rosaceae having the highest growth rates in terms of area covered and the highest survival rate after 12 months. All 14 plant species suppressed weeds, with Leptinella squalida, Geranium sessiliforum (Geraniaceae, Hebe chathamica (Plantaginaceae, Scleranthus uniflorus (Caryophyllaceae and L. dioica, each reducing weed cover by >95%. Plant species also differed in the diversity of arthropods that they supported, with the Shannon Wiener diversity index (H′ for these taxa ranging from 0 to 1.3. G. sessiliforum and Muehlenbeckia axillaris (Polygonaceae had the highest invertebrate diversity. Density of spiders was correlated with arthropod diversity and G. sessiliflorum and H. chathamica had the highest densities of these arthropods. Several plant species associated with higher soil moisture content than in control plots. The best performing species

  6. Precision Viticulture : is it relevant to manage the vineyard according to the within field spatial variability of the environment ?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tisseyre, Bruno

    2015-04-01

    For more than 15 years, research projects are conducted in the precision viticulture (PV) area around the world. These research projects have provided new insights into the within-field variability in viticulture. Indeed, access to high spatial resolution data (remote sensing, embedded sensors, etc.) changes the knowledge we have of the fields in viticulture. In particular, the field which was until now considered as a homogeneous management unit, presents actually a high spatial variability in terms of yield, vigour an quality. This knowledge will lead (and is already causing) changes on how to manage the vineyard and the quality of the harvest at the within field scale. From the experimental results obtained in various countries of the world, the goal of the presentation is to provide figures on: - the spatial variability of the main parameters (yield, vigor, quality), and how this variability is organized spatially, - the temporal stability of the observed spatial variability and the potential link with environmental parameters like soil, topography, soil water availability, etc. - information sources available at a high spatial resolution conventionally used in precision agriculture likely to highlight this spatial variability (multi-spectral images, soil electrical conductivity, etc.) and the limitations that these information sources are likely to present in viticulture. Several strategies are currently being developed to take into account the within field variability in viticulture. They are based on the development of specific equipments, sensors, actuators and site specific strategies with the aim of adapting the vineyard operations at the within-field level. These strategies will be presented briefly in two ways : - Site specific operations (fertilization, pruning, thinning, irrigation, etc.) in order to counteract the effects of the environment and to obtain a final product with a controlled and consistent wine quality, - Differential harvesting with the

  7. Sustainability of the energy sector in the Mediterranean region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cantore, Nicola

    2012-01-01

    Energy and climate change is a key priority issue mentioned by the Mediterranean Strategy for Sustainable Development (MSSD) which explicitly claims that “Control, reduce or stabilize GhG (Greenhouse Gas) emissions” is a crucial target for Mediterranean countries. This paper uses the integrated assessment model IFs (International Futures) to implement a scenario analysis to investigate the mitigation potential of Mediterranean regions. It analyzes if the Mediterranean regions will be able to reach the MSSD climate change target and recommends amendments of the MSSD to implement with effectiveness climate change policies in the Mediterranean area. -- Highlights: ► In the majority of scenarios emissions in Mediterranean countries are not decreasing over 2020. ► Even in scenarios incorporating multiple policy actions emissions may not be decreasing over 2020. ► The Mediterranean Strategy for Sustainable Development needs to go beyond the 2015 deadline to promote climate policies. ► The Mediterranean Strategy for Sustainable Development is key to promote coordinated multiple actions to reduce emissions. ► Partial interventions could compromise the effectiveness of the overall regional emissions stabilization policies.

  8. Polyphenols from the Mediterranean herb rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis for prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakina M Petiwala

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The Mediterranean diet is rich in fruits and vegetables and has been associated with a variety of health benefits including cancer prevention. One aspect of the diet that has not received enough attention is Mediterranean herbs. Specifically, rosemary and its polyphenolic diterpenes (carnosic acid and carnosol are known to possess antioxidant activity that may be beneficial for cancer control. Herein, we describe the in vitro and in vivo studies carried out towards understanding the molecular mechanisms of carnosic acid and carnosol leading to inhibition of prostate cancer. The reported findings suggest that these polyphenols target multiple signaling pathways involved in cell cycle modulation and apoptosis. Further work is required to understand its potential for health promotion and potential drug discovery for prostate cancer chemoprevention.

  9. The relationship between a Mediterranean diet and circulating adiponectin levels is influenced by cigarette smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Attas, Omar Salem; Hussain, Tajamul; Al-Daghri, Nasser Mohammad; De Rosas, Edgard; Kazmi, Usamah; Vinodson, Benjamin

    2013-01-01

    Adherence to a Mediterranean diet has been shown to lower the risk of developing several chronic diseases. The ability to augment circulating adiponectin levels is proposed as an underlying mechanism mediating the beneficial effects of this diet. We aimed to examine whether the positive relationship between the Mediterranean diet and adiponectin is altered by cigarette smoking, taking potential confounders into consideration. Plasma adiponectin levels were enzymatically measured in 45 never smokers, 61 smokers and 34 ex-smokers who adhered to a Mediterranean style diet and in 41 never smokers who did not adhere to the diet. Plasma adiponectin levels increased significantly in nonsmoking diet adherents compared to nonsmoking non-diet adherents. Among the diet adherents adiponectin decreased significantly in both moderate and heavy smokers compared to never smokers and significantly increased in quitters compared to smokers. Multiple regression analysis, controlling for age, obesity, Mediterranean diet and insulin resistance revealed an independent inverse association of smoking with adiponectin. Adiponectin levels remained significant and similar in subjects stratified according to age (50 years), BMI (25 kg/m(2)) and HOMA-IR (1.6). Despite its positive effects on adiponectin, the Mediterranean diet failed to negate the adiponectin-lowering effect of cigarette smoking, demonstrating the profound and independent capacity of cigarette smoke to negatively influence human health.

  10. Euro-mediterranean partnership in the energy field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perrin, F.

    1996-01-01

    The conference for a Euro-Mediterranean partnership in the energy field took place from the seventh to ninth of June 1996 and convened the officials of 15 european countries and 10 mediterranean countries; the discussions were about five themes: the adhesion of mediterranean countries to the european chart of energy or their association to this treaty; the harmonization of legislations and regulations concerning investments; the development of gas and electric networks in this area; the positioning of a system to guarantee energy investments; the creation of an Euro-Mediterranean energy forum proposed by the commission which allowed to associate the different partners to the following of this cooperation. (N.C.)

  11. Study of Anticyclogenesis Affecting the Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatzaki, M.; Flocas, H. A.; Simmonds, I.; Kouroutzoglou, J.; Garde, L.; Keay, K.; Bitsa, E.

    2014-12-01

    A comprehensive climatology of migratory anticyclones affecting the Mediterranean was generated by the University of Melbourne finding and tracking algorithm (MS algorithm), applied to 34 years (1979-2012) of ERA-Interim MSLP on a 1.5°x1.5° resolution. The algorithm was employed for the first time for anticyclones in this region, thus, its robustness and reliability in efficiently capturing the individual characteristics of the anticyclonic tracks in such a closed basin with complex topography were checked and verified. Then, the tracks and the statistical properties of the migratory systems were calculated and analyzed. Considering that cold-core anticyclones are shallow and weaken with height contrary to the warm-core that exhibit a vertically well-organized structure, the vertical thermal extend of the systems was studied with an algorithm developed as an extension module of the MS algorithm using ERA-Interim temperatures on several isobaric levels from 1000hPa to 100hPa on an 1.5°x1.5° resolution. The results verified that during both cold and warm period, cold-core anticyclones mainly affect the northern parts of the Mediterranean basin, with their behavior to be strongly regulated by cyclonic activity from the main storm track areas of the North Atlantic and Europe. On the other hand, warm-core anticyclones were found mainly in the southern Mediterranean and North African areas. Here, in order to get a perspective on the dynamic and thermodynamic processes in anticyclonic formation, a dynamical analysis at several vertical levels is performed. The study of mean fields of potential vorticity, temperature advection, vorticity advection at various levels can elucidate the role of upper and low levels during anticyclogenesis and system evolvement and help to further understand the dynamic mechanisms which are responsible for the anticyclogenesis over the Mediterranean region. Acknowledgement: This research project is implemented within the framework of the

  12. New Mediterranean Biodiversity Records (July 2016

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. DAILIANIS

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This contribution forms part of a series of collective articles published regularly in Mediterranean Marine Science that report on new biodiversity records from the Mediterranean basin. The current article presents 51 geographically distinct records for 21 taxa belonging to 6 Phyla, extending from the western Mediterranean to the Levantine. The new records, per country, are as follows: Spain: the cryptogenic calcareous sponge Paraleucilla magna is reported from a new location in the Alicante region. Algeria: the rare Atlanto-Mediterranean bivalve Cardium indicum is reported from Annaba. Tunisia: new distribution records for the Indo-Pacific lionfish Pterois miles from Zembra Island and Cape Bon. Italy: the ark clam Anadara transversa is reported from mussel cultures in the Gulf of Naples, while the amphipod Caprella scaura and the isopods Paracerceis sculpta and Paranthura japonica are reported as associated to the –also allochthonous–bryozoan Amathia verticillata in the Adriatic Sea; in the latter region, the cosmopolitan Atlantic tripletail Lobotes surinamensisis also reported, a rare finding for the Mediterranean. Slovenia: a new record of the non-indigenous nudibranch Polycera hedgpethi in the Adriatic. Greece: several new reports of the introduced scleractinian Oculina patagonica, the fangtooth moray Enchelycore anatina, the blunthead puffer Sphoeroides pachygaster (all Atlantic, and the lionfish Pterois miles (Indo-Pacific suggest their ongoing establishment in the Aegean Sea; the deepest bathymetric record of the invasive alga Caulerpa cylindracea in the Mediterranean Sea is also registered in the Kyklades, at depths exceeding 70 m. Turkey: new distribution records for two non indigenous crustaceans, the blue crab Callinectes sapidus (Atlantic origin and the moon crab Matuta victor (Indo-Pacific origin from the Bay of Izmir and Antalya, respectively; in the latter region, the Red Sea goatfish Parupeneus forsskali, is also reported

  13. Impact of global SST gradients on the Mediterranean runoff changes across the Plio-Pleistocene transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colleoni, Florence; Cherchi, Annalisa; Masina, Simona; Brierley, Christopher M.

    2015-06-01

    This work explores the impact of the development of global meridional and zonal sea surface temperature (SST) gradients on the Mediterranean runoff variability during the Plio-Pleistocene transition, about 3 Ma. Results show that total annual mean Pliocene Mediterranean runoff is about 40% larger than during the preindustrial period due to more increased extratropical specific humidity. As a consequence of a weakened and extended Hadley cell, the Pliocene northwest Africa hydrological network produces a discharge 30 times larger than today. Our results support the conclusion that during the Pliocene, the Mediterranean water deficit was reduced relative to today due to a larger river discharge. By means of a stand-alone atmospheric general circulation model, we simulate the separate impact of extratropical and equatorial SST cooling on the Mediterranean runoff. While cooling the equatorial SST does not imply significant changes to the Pliocene Mediterranean hydrological budget, the extratropical SST cooling increases the water deficit due to a decrease in precipitation and runoff. Consequently, river discharge from this area reduces to preindustrial levels. The main teleconnections acting upon the Mediterranean area today, i.e., the North Atlantic Oscillation during winter and the "monsoon-desert" mechanism during summer already have a large influence on the climate of our Pliocene simulations. Finally, our results also suggest that in a climate state significantly warmer than today, changes of the Hadley circulation could potentially lead to increased water resources in northwest Africa.

  14. Inferring differential evolutionary processes of plant persistence traits in Northern Hemisphere Mediterranean fire-prone ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pausas, J.G.; Keeley, J.E.; Verdu, M.

    2006-01-01

    1 Resprouting capacity (R) and propagule-persistence (P) are traits that are often considered to have evolved where there are predictable crown fires. Because several indicators suggest a stronger selective pressure for such traits in California than in the Mediterranean Basin, we hypothesize that plant species should have evolved to become R+ and P+ more frequently in California than in the Mediterranean Basin. 2 To test this hypothesis we studied the phylogenetic association between R and P states in both California and the Mediterranean Basin using published molecular phylogenies. 3 The results suggest that R and P evolved differently in the two regions. The occurrence of the states differs significantly between regions for trait P, but not for trait R. The different patterns (towards R+ and P+ in California and towards R+ and P- in the Mediterranean Basin) are reflected in the higher abundance and the wider taxonomic distribution of species with both persistence traits (R+P+ species) in California. 4 The differential acquisition of fire persistence mechanisms at the propagule level (P+) supports the idea that fire selective pressures has been higher in California than in the Mediterranean Basin. 5 Our comparative phylogenetic-informed analysis contributes to an understanding of the differential role of the Quaternary climate in determining fire persistence traits in different Mediterranean-type ecosystems and, thus, to the debate on the evolutionary convergence of traits. ?? 2006 British Ecological Society.

  15. Report on the Mediterranean Solar Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    The first part of this report presents the Mediterranean Solar Plan (MSP) as an ambitious political initiative which aims at creating a better context for the Northern (Mediterranean) countries which are looking for a secure energy supply, and for the Southern and Eastern (Mediterranean) countries where demand is strongly increasing. It highlights the fact that the cost of this plan is indeed important but still limited regarding the regional scale. Its success therefore needs projects with sufficient profitability to attract investors and to be realised within an adapted law environment. The report also outlines that the plan needs a regional vision and a cooperative approach between North and South, that it will have a strong impact of electric interconnections all around the Mediterranean Sea, and that its governance needs to be clarified to maintain the political momentum created by its co-presidents

  16. Chemical fingerprinting and source tracing of obsidian: the central Mediterranean trade in black gold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tykot, Robert H

    2002-08-01

    Chemical fingerprinting using major or trace element composition is used to characterize the Mediterranean island sources of obsidian and can even differentiate as many as nine flows in the Monte Arci region of Sardinia. Analysis of significant numbers of obsidian artifacts from Neolithic sites in the central Mediterranean reveals specific patterns of source exploitation and suggests particular trade mechanisms and routes. The use of techniques such as X-ray fluorescence, the electron microprobe, neutron activation analysis, and laser ablation ICP mass spectrometry are emphasized in order to produce quantitative results while minimizing damage to valuable artifacts.

  17. Copper mobilization affected by weather conditions in a stormwater detention system receiving runoff waters from vineyard soils (Champagne, France)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banas, D., E-mail: damien.banas@u-psud.f [Univ. Reims Champagne-Ardenne, Lab. Eco-Toxicologie, BP 1039, F-51687 Reims Cedex 2 (France); Univ. Nancy, UR-AFPA, INRA, 2 Av. Foret Haye, F-54505 Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France); Marin, B., E-mail: beatrice.marin@univ-reims.f [Univ. Reims Champagne-Ardenne, EA3795 GEGENA, 2 Esplanade Roland Garros, F-51100 Reims (France); Skraber, S., E-mail: skraber@lippmann.l [Centre de Recherche Public, Gabriel Lippmann, Department of Environment and Agro-biotechnologies (EVA), 41 rue du Brill, L-4422 Belvaux (Luxembourg); Chopin, E.I.B., E-mail: chopin@oakland.ed [Oakland University, Department of Chemistry, Rochester, MI 48309 (United States); Zanella, A., E-mail: augusto.zanella@unipd.i [Univ. Padova, Facolta di Agraria, Viale dell' Universita 16, I-35020 Legnaro (Italy)

    2010-02-15

    Copper, a priority substance on the EU-Water Framework Directive list, is widely used to protect grapevines against fungus diseases. Many vineyards being located on steep slopes, large amounts of Cu could be discharged in downstream systems by runoff water. The efficiency of stormwater detention basins to retain copper in a vineyard catchment was estimated. Suspended solids, dissolved (Cu{sub diss}) and total Cu (Cu{sub tot}) concentrations were monitored in runoff water, upstream, into and downstream from a detention pond. Mean Cu{sub tot} concentrations in entering water was 53.6 mug/L whereas it never exceeded 2.4 mug/L in seepage. Cu{sub tot} concentrations in basin water (>100 mug/L in 24% of the samples) exceeded LC{sub 50} values for several aquatic animals. Copper was principally sequestered by reduced compounds in the basin sediments (2/3 of Cu{sub tot}). Metal sequestration was reversible since sediment resuspension resulted in Cu remobilization. Wind velocity controlled resuspension, explained 70% of Cu{sub diss} variability and could help predicting Cu mobilization. - Copper in stormwater basin is efficiently retained but can be released during windy events or after dredging.

  18. Copper mobilization affected by weather conditions in a stormwater detention system receiving runoff waters from vineyard soils (Champagne, France)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banas, D.; Marin, B.; Skraber, S.; Chopin, E.I.B.; Zanella, A.

    2010-01-01

    Copper, a priority substance on the EU-Water Framework Directive list, is widely used to protect grapevines against fungus diseases. Many vineyards being located on steep slopes, large amounts of Cu could be discharged in downstream systems by runoff water. The efficiency of stormwater detention basins to retain copper in a vineyard catchment was estimated. Suspended solids, dissolved (Cu diss ) and total Cu (Cu tot ) concentrations were monitored in runoff water, upstream, into and downstream from a detention pond. Mean Cu tot concentrations in entering water was 53.6 μg/L whereas it never exceeded 2.4 μg/L in seepage. Cu tot concentrations in basin water (>100 μg/L in 24% of the samples) exceeded LC 50 values for several aquatic animals. Copper was principally sequestered by reduced compounds in the basin sediments (2/3 of Cu tot ). Metal sequestration was reversible since sediment resuspension resulted in Cu remobilization. Wind velocity controlled resuspension, explained 70% of Cu diss variability and could help predicting Cu mobilization. - Copper in stormwater basin is efficiently retained but can be released during windy events or after dredging.

  19. Semiochemical Strategies for Tortricid Moth Control in Apple Orchards and Vineyards in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ioriatti, Claudio; Lucchi, Andrea

    2016-07-01

    - This review summarizes work done in Italy in taking semiochemical-based management of orchard and vineyard pests from the research and development stage to successful commercial deployment. Mating disruption (MD) of codling moth Cydia pomonella (CM) was originally introduced into the Trentino-South Tyrol areas to address the development of CM resistance to insecticides, particularly insect growth regulators (IGRs), and to mitigate the conflict at the rural/urban interface related to the extensive use of insecticides. Although the mountainous terrain of the area was not optimal for the efficacy of MD, commitment and determination led to the rapid adoption of MD technology throughout the region. Grower cooperatives and their field consultants were strongly influential in convincing growers to accept MD technology. Public research institutions conducted extensive research and education, and provided credible assessments of various MD technologies. By 2016, the deployment of MD in effective area-wide strategies in apple (22,100 ha) and grapes (10,450 ha), has resulted in better control of tortricid moth pests and a substantial decrease in insecticide use. Collaboration between the research community and the pheromone industry has resulted in the development of increasingly effective single-species dispensers, as well as multi-species dispensers for the control of both target and secondary pests. Over the last 20 years, hand-applied reservoir dispensers have shown excellent efficacy in both apple and grapes. Recently, aerosol dispensing systems have been shown to be effective in apple orchards. Further research is needed on the efficacy of aerosols in vineyards before the technology can be widely adopted. The successful implementation of MD in apple and grape production in Trentino-South Tyrol is expediting adoption of the technology in other Italian fruit production regions.

  20. Assessment and restoring soil functionality in degraded areas of organic vineyards. The preliminary results of the ReSolVe project in Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priori, Simone; Agnelli, Alessandro; Castaldini, Maurizio; D'Avino, Lorenzo; D'Errico, Giada; Gagnarli, Elena; Giudi, Silvia; Goggioli, Donatella; Lagomarsino, Alessandra; Landi, Silvia; Leprini, Marco; Pellegrini, Sergio; Perria, Rita; Puccioni, Sergio; Simoni, Sauro; Storchi, Paolo; Valboa, Giuseppe; Zombardo, Alessandra; Costantini, Edoardo

    2016-04-01

    In both conventional and organic Italian vineyards, it is quite common to have areas characterized by problems in vine health, grape production and quality, often caused by improper land preparation before vine plantation and/or management. Causes for soil malfunctioning can include: reduced contribution of the soil fauna to the ecosystem services (i.e. nutrient cycles), poor organic matter content, imbalance of some element ratio, altered pH, water deficiency, soil compaction and/or scarce oxygenation. ReSolVe is a transnational and interdisciplinary 3-years research project aimed at testing the effects of selected organic strategies for restoring optimal soil functionality in degraded areas within vineyard. The different restoring strategies implemented in each plot will be: i) compost produced on farm by manure + pruning residue + grass, ii) faba bean and barley green manure, iii) sowing and dry mulching with Trifolium squarrosum L. During two years of such treatments, the trend of the soil features and the grapevine status will be monitored in detail, to reveal the positive and negative effects of such treatments. The project involves 8 research groups in 6 different EU countries (Italy, France, Spain, Sweden, Slovenia, and Turkey), with experts from several disciplines, including soil science, ecology, microbiology, grapevine physiology, viticulture, and biometry. The experimental vineyards are situated in Italy (Chianti hills and Maremma plain, Tuscany), France (Bordeaux and Languedoc), Spain (La Rioja) and Slovenia (Primorska) for winegrape, and in Turkey (Adana and Mersin) for table grape. Soil features before implementing restoring strategies showed lower content of soil organic matter and enzyme activities, and higher carbonates in degraded areas than in the non-degraded areas. The Biological Soil Quality values of microarthropods were always high, in comparison with data registered in similarly managed vineyards or stable ecosystems, and the data showed

  1. Effectiveness of the Mediterranean diet in the elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blanca Roman

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Blanca Roman1, Laura Carta2, Miguel Ángel Martínez-González3, Lluís Serra-Majem41Mediterranean Diet Foundation, University of Barcelona Science Park, Spain; 2Department of Biosystems and Applied Sciences, Unit of Physiology and Human Nutrition, University of Cagliari, Italy; 3Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, University of Navarra, Spain; 4Department of Clinical Sciences, University of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, SpainAbstract: The Mediterranean diet is known to be one of the healthiest dietary patterns in the world due to its relation with a low morbidity and mortality for some chronic diseases. The purpose of this study was to review literature regarding the relationship between Mediterranean diet and healthy aging. A MEDLINE search was conducted looking for literature regarding the relationship between Mediterranean diet and cardiovascular disease (or risk factors for cardiovascular disease, cancer, mental health and longevity and quality of life in the elderly population (65 years or older. A selection of 36 articles met the criteria of selection. Twenty of the studies were about Mediterranean diets and cardiovascular disease, 2 about Mediterranean diets and cancer, 3 about Mediterranean diets and mental health and 11 about longevity (overall survival or mental health. The results showed that Mediterranean diets had benefits on risks factors for cardiovascular disease such as lipoprotein levels, endothelium vasodilatation, insulin resistance, the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome, antioxidant capacity, the incidence of acute myocardial infarction, and cardiovascular mortality. Some positive associations with quality of life and inverse associations with the risk of certain cancers and with overall mortality were also reported.Keywords: Mediterranean diet, elderly, health, review

  2. Different intra- and interspecific facilitation mechanisms between two Mediterranean trees under a climate change scenario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gimeno, Teresa E; Escudero, Adrián; Valladares, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    In harsh environments facilitation alleviates biotic and abiotic constraints on tree recruitment. Under ongoing drier climate change, we expect facilitation to increase as a driver of coexistence. However, this might not hold under extreme abiotic stress and when the outcome depends on the interaction with other drivers such as altered herbivore pressure due to land use change. We performed a field water-manipulation experiment to quantify the importance of facilitation in two coexisting Mediterranean trees (dominant Juniperus thurifera and coexisting Quercus ilex subsp. ballota) under a climate change scenario. Shifts in canopy dominance favouring Q. ilex could be based on the extension of heterospecific facilitation to the detriment of conspecific alleviation. We found that saplings of both species transplanted under the canopy of nurse trees had greater survival probability, growth and photochemical efficiency. Intra- and interspecific facilitation mechanisms differed: alleviation of abiotic stress benefited both species during summer and J. thurifera during winter, whereas browsing protection was relevant only for Q. ilex. Facilitation was greater under the dry treatment only for Q. ilex, which partially agreed with the predictions of the stress gradient hypothesis. We conclude that present rainfall availability limits neither J. thurifera nor Q. ilex establishment. Nevertheless, under current global change scenarios, imposing increasing abiotic stress together with altered herbivore browsing, nurse trees could differentially facilitate the establishment of Q. ilex due to species-specific traits, i.e. palatability; drought, heat and cold tolerance, underlying species differences in the facilitation mechanisms and eventually triggering a change from pure juniper woodlands to mixed formations.

  3. Pre-collisional geodynamics of the Mediterranean Sea: the Mediterranean Ridge and the Tyrrhenian Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Chaumillon

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available Today the Mediterranean Sea consists of a series of small-sized and almost geographically disconnected oceanic or continental crust rooted marine basins. It is also an area almost totally surrounded by mountain ranges, which chiefly belong to the alpine realm. This overall geodynamic setting results from a long term convergence between the two major, African and European, plates. Previous collisions have led to the edification of surrounding chains, while subduction and new-collisional processes tend to create new extensional back-arc basins and wide tectonized accretionary prisms. In this paper we briefly outline the most recent and almost land-locked back-arc basin that has developed in the Mediterranean,i.e., the Tyrrhenian Sea, and the Mediterranean Ridge, which may be regarded as a collisional sedimentary wedge predating a future mountain chain.

  4. Protection against productivity versus erosion vineyards. Testing of vegetal covers in slope crops; Proteccion contra la erosion versus productividad en venidos. Ensayos de cubiertas vegetales en cultivos en pendiente

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marques, M. J.; Ruiz-Colmenero, M.; Garcia-Munoz, S.; Cabello, F.; Munoz-Organero, G.; Perez-Jimenez, M. A.; Bienes, R.

    2009-07-01

    Temporary and permanent cover crops were used in three rain fed vineyards in the Center of Spain. They were sown in the middle of the strips to assess their ability to control erosion as well as their influence on grape production. Data from the year 2008 are compared with those obtained with traditional tillage treatment. The permanent cover formed by Brachypodium distachyon showed better ability to control erosion but it produced a decrease in production in young vines. barley and rye treatments were temporary covers, mowed in spring. They also reduced the erosion compared with the tillage however they did not appear to affect the vineyard production. (Author)

  5. More than just drought: complexity of recruitment patterns in Mediterranean forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granda, Elena; Escudero, Adrián; Valladares, Fernando

    2014-12-01

    Understanding community dynamics during early life stages of trees is critical for the prediction of future species composition. In Mediterranean forests drought is a major constraint for regeneration, but likely not the only factor determining the observed spatial patterns. We carried out a sowing experiment aimed at identifying main filters during seed-seedling transition. Specifically, we studied seed fate (predation, fungi infection, emergence) and subsequent seedling performance (mortality during the first summer and overall recruitment after 2 years) of four co-occurring Mediterranean tree species (Quercus ilex, Quercus faginea, Juniperus thurifera, Pinus nigra). We related these processes to the dominant species composition, microhabitat heterogeneity, herb cover and seed mass. The identity of the dominant species in the forest canopy was more important for recruitment than the forest canopy being dominated by conspecific vs. heterospecific species. The patterns we found suggest that biotic interactions such as facilitation (lower mortality under the canopies) and herb competition (during emergence of J. thurifera) are relevant during recruitment. Moreover, our results pointed to ontogenetic conflicts regarding the seed mass of Q. faginea and to density-dependent seed mortality for Q. ilex, rarely described in Mediterranean ecosystems. We propose that our study species experience population growth in forests dominated by heterospecifics where the recruitment success depends on habitat heterogeneity and on moderated biotic and abiotic stresses created by each species. Our results reveal patterns and mechanisms involved in recruitment constraints that add complexity to the well-known drought-related processes in Mediterranean ecosystems.

  6. Q fever outbreak in the terraced vineyards of Lavaux, Switzerland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Bellini

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Coxiella burnetii infection (Q fever is a widespread zoonosis with low endemicity in Switzerland, therefore no mandatory public report was required. A cluster of initially ten human cases of acute Q fever infections characterized by prolonged fever, asthenia and mild hepatitis occurred in 2012 in the terraced vineyard of Lavaux. Epidemiological investigations based on patients’ interviews and veterinary investigations included environmental sampling as well as Coxiella-specific serological assay and molecular examinations (real-time PCR in vaginal secretions of suspected sheep. These investigations demonstrated that 43% of sheep carried the bacteria whereas 30% exhibited anti-Coxiella antibodies. Mitigation measures, including limiting human contacts with the flock, hygiene measures, flock vaccination and a public official alert, have permitted the detection of four additional human cases and the avoidance of a much larger outbreak. Since November 2012, mandatory reporting of Q fever to Swiss public health authorities has been reintroduced. A close follow up of human cases will be necessary to identify chronic Q fever.

  7. Vineyard management practices and the quality of grapes and grape products in the Pacific Northwest - USDA-ARS CRIS (Current Research Information System) project

    Science.gov (United States)

    One of our three program goals for this USDA-ARS-CRIS project is to determine the effects of vineyard and vine microclimate (sunlight, temperature, humidity, etc) upon fruit development, vine productivity, and fruit quality, particularly phenolic compounds. Plant phenolics are important due to their...

  8. [Mediterranean diet: not only food].

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Vico, Letizia; Agostini, Susanna; Brazzo, Silvia; Biffi, Barbara; Masini, Maria Luisa

    2012-09-01

    The proposal of a Mediterranean way of life is much more than advise how to eat. The Mediterranean Diet, a model of Sustainable Diet, is an example of how to combine personal choices, economic, social and cultural rights, protective of human health and the ecosystem. There is in fact fundamental interdependence between dietary requirements, nutritional recommendations, production and consumption of food. In literature studies and nutritional and epidemiological monitoring activities at national and international level have found a lack of adherence to this lifestyle, due to the spread of the economy, lifestyles of the Western type and globalization of the production and consumption. To encourage the spread of a culture and a constant practice of the Mediterranean Diet, there are some tools that are presented in this article. The Mediterranean Diet Pyramid in addition to the recommendations on the frequency and portions of food, focuses on the choice of how to cook and eat food. The "Double Food Pyramid" encourages conscious food choices based on "healthy eating and sustainability. All the nutrition professionals and dietitians in particular should be constantly striving to encourage the adoption of a sustainable and balanced nutrition.

  9. Balanço de energia em vinhedo de 'Niagara Rosada' Energy balance on 'Niagara Rosada' vineyard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ricardo Macedo Pezzopane

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available O método do balanço de energia foi utilizado para caracterizar a variação horária do saldo de radiação e dos fluxos de calor latente, sensível e no solo, em vinhedo cultivado com a cultivar NiagaraRosada', conduzida no sistema de espaldeira, em Jundiaí (SP. Além disso, foram determinadas as relações entre o saldo de radiação (SR no vinhedo e a radiação solar global (RG e a partição da energia disponível ao sistema nos fluxos de calor latente (LE, sensível (H e no solo (G. Em um dia característico de período seco, o LE representou 44% do SR e o H, 48%. Em um dia chuvoso, o LE representou 86% do SR e o H, 21%. Em um dia ensolarado, após um período de chuvas, LE e H foram, respectivamente, 68% e 29% do SR. O G foi, em média, 5,7% e 1,3% do SR para as ruas mantidas capinadas e com forro, respectivamente.The energy balance method was used to characterize the hourly variation of the net radiation, latent and sensible fluxes and soil heat flux on a mature vineyard grown at Jundiaí, São Paulo, Brazil. The grapevines, cv. Niagara Rosada, in the vineyard were wrapped to trellis wires, creating compact hedgerows 2 m apart, 1.7 m height and 0.4 wide, with the foliage 1m above the soil surface. Also, the net and incoming radiation relationships and the partioning of the available energy to the system into latent and heat flux, and soil heat flux were determined for the vineyard. During a sunny day (dry period the latent heat flux was 44% of the net radiation and the sensible heat flux, 48%. However during a rainy day, the latent heat flux was 86% of the net radiation and the sensible heat flux, 21%. During a sunny day, after the occurrence of rain, the latent and sensible heat fluxes were, respectively, 68% and 29% of the net radiation. The soil heat flux was 5.7 an 1.3% of the net radiation, for bare soil and mulched rows, respectively.

  10. Influence of cover crop treatments on the performance of a vineyard in a humid region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trigo-Córdoba, E.; Bouzas-Cid, Y.; Orriols-Fernández, I.; Díaz-Losada, E.; Mirás-Avalos, J.M.

    2015-07-01

    Vineyards are usually managed by tilling the inter-rows to avoid competition from other plants for soil water and nutrients. However, in humid and sub-humid climates, such as that of NW Spain, cover crops may be an advantage for controlling vine vegetative growth and improving berry composition, while reducing management costs. The current study was conducted over three consecutive growing seasons (2012-2014) to assess the effects of establishing three permanent cover crop treatments on water relations, vine physiology, yield and berry composition of a vineyard of the red cultivar ‘Mencía’ (Vitis vinifera L.) located in Leiro, Ourense. Treatments consisted of four different soil management systems: ST, soil tillage; NV, native vegetation; ER, English ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.); and SC, subterranean clover (Trifolium subterraneum L.). Midday stem water potential was more negative in the native vegetation treatment, causing significant reductions in leaf stomatal conductance on certain dates. Total vine leaf area and pruning weight was reduced in the cover crop treatments in the last year of the experiment. Yield was unaffected by the presence of a cover crop. No significant differences among treatments were observed for berry composition; however, wines were positively affected by the SC treatment (higher tannin content and colour intensity and lower malic acid concentration when compared with ST). Wines from the cover crop treatments were preferred by taste panelists. These results indicate that in humid climates cover crop treatments can be useful for reducing vine vegetative growth without compromising yield and berry quality. (Author)

  11. Detection and Segmentation of Vine Canopy in Ultra-High Spatial Resolution RGB Imagery Obtained from Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV: A Case Study in a Commercial Vineyard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Poblete-Echeverría

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The use of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs in viticulture permits the capture of aerial Red-Green-Blue (RGB images with an ultra-high spatial resolution. Recent studies have demonstrated that RGB images can be used to monitor spatial variability of vine biophysical parameters. However, for estimating these parameters, accurate and automated segmentation methods are required to extract relevant information from RGB images. Manual segmentation of aerial images is a laborious and time-consuming process. Traditional classification methods have shown satisfactory results in the segmentation of RGB images for diverse applications and surfaces, however, in the case of commercial vineyards, it is necessary to consider some particularities inherent to canopy size in the vertical trellis systems (VSP such as shadow effect and different soil conditions in inter-rows (mixed information of soil and weeds. Therefore, the objective of this study was to compare the performance of four classification methods (K-means, Artificial Neural Networks (ANN, Random Forest (RForest and Spectral Indices (SI to detect canopy in a vineyard trained on VSP. Six flights were carried out from post-flowering to harvest in a commercial vineyard cv. Carménère using a low-cost UAV equipped with a conventional RGB camera. The results show that the ANN and the simple SI method complemented with the Otsu method for thresholding presented the best performance for the detection of the vine canopy with high overall accuracy values for all study days. Spectral indices presented the best performance in the detection of Plant class (Vine canopy with an overall accuracy of around 0.99. However, considering the performance pixel by pixel, the Spectral indices are not able to discriminate between Soil and Shadow class. The best performance in the classification of three classes (Plant, Soil, and Shadow of vineyard RGB images, was obtained when the SI values were used as input data in trained

  12. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE CONTENT OF IRON AND COPPER IN THE SOILS AND WINES FROM THE LOCAL VINEYARDS OF THE CONTINENTAL CROATIA: A PRELIMINARY RESEARCH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanko Ružičić

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Samples of red and white wine together with corresponding soils from the domestic vineyards of the continental Croatia were selected for analysis. Vineyard soil cover (Stagnosols and Rendzina is developed over the Plio-Quaternary non-consolidated deposits (gravel, sand, silt, clay or marly limestones. Within soils overlying non-consolidated deposits containing clays pH value range from 5.4 to 6.6, whereas maximum measured pH of 7.5 is attributed to soil developed over marly limestones. Soil and wine samples was determined by the total content of copper and iron using flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS. Results are compared to the maximum permitted concentrations (MPC by the relevant Croatian regulations. Copper concentrations are elevated within all measured wines (from 1.7× to 2.0× with respect to MPC and two soil samples (up to 2.4× with respect to MPC, due to extensive use of agrochemicals in the vineyards. Increased concentrations of iron within wine and corresponding soil were determined at locality with low soil pH (5.5. Preliminary research demonstrates a plausible link between the content of elements within soils developed over a specific lithology and associated wines. Increased copper concentration within wines of domestic production points to need for education of population in line with use of eco-agrochemicals. Further extensive studies with detailed physico-chemical processing of soil samples are needed (the paper is published in Croatian.

  13. IRIS: A SIGNIFICANT ELEMENT OF THE MEDITERRANEAN LANDSCAPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. UBRIZSY SAVOIA

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The Southern European species of Iris growing in dry, rocky places, stony ground, terra rossa, sandy, basalt and/or calcareous hills, maquis and coastal rocky slopes, are a neglected bioplasm resource of the Mediterranean landscape. These species have traditional uses and cultural significance and have inspired artists. Both natural and naturalised ornamental Iris species may help to improve and maintain the Mediterranean landscape by avoiding land erosion, fixing dunes and preserving coastal zones. These Iris species are a significant component of Mediterranean floristic diversity. Their conservation and use in traditional Mediterranean landscape gardening are emphasised.

  14. IRIS: A SIGNIFICANT ELEMENT OF THE MEDITERRANEAN LANDSCAPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. PIGNATTI

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available The Southern European species of Iris growing in dry, rocky places, stony ground, terra rossa, sandy, basalt and/or calcareous hills, maquis and coastal rocky slopes, are a neglected bioplasm resource of the Mediterranean landscape. These species have traditional uses and cultural significance and have inspired artists. Both natural and naturalised ornamental Iris species may help to improve and maintain the Mediterranean landscape by avoiding land erosion, fixing dunes and preserving coastal zones. These Iris species are a significant component of Mediterranean floristic diversity. Their conservation and use in traditional Mediterranean landscape gardening are emphasised.

  15. [Endemic zoonosis in Mediterranean area].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenga, Concettina; Pugliese, Michela

    2013-01-01

    The Mediterranean is historically considered an area of high concentration of zoonoses. Mediterranean countries socio-economic features have favoured, over time, the onset of different types of zoonosis. Many of these may affect many occupational categories, first of all farmers, people working in abattoirs and processing products of animal origin. New farming activities and technologies have generated new occupational and zoonotic risks. These changes have influenced zoonosis epidemiology and have led to a gradual decrease in the number of diseases and to a reduction of some biological risks. However, brucellosis, Q fever, bovine tuberculosis cystic echinococcosis remain a strong example of zoonosis and a real risk, in the Mediterranean area especially. Therefore, an interdisciplinary collaboration between Veterinary Service, Public Health and Occupational medicine is necessary in order to plan territorial prevention.

  16. The Mediterranean Solar Plan: Project proposals for renewable energy in the Mediterranean Partner Countries region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jablonski, Sophie; Tarhini, Mohamad; Touati, Manaf; Gonzalez Garcia, David; Alario, Juan

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a first assessment of the renewable energy projects, proposed by the nine Mediterranean Partner Countries (MPCs) under the Mediterranean Solar Plan (MSP) and the associated potential economic impacts. As one of the priority projects of the Union for the Mediterranean (UfM), the MSP's objective which attracted most attention until now is the intention to deploy an additional 20 GW of renewable electrical capacity in the Southern and Eastern Mediterranean region (covering the MPCs plus Turkey) by 2020. The main findings of this research are: (1) as of February 2010, a total of 10.3 GW of renewable project proposals were identified in the MPCs, corresponding to about half of the 20 GW target; (2) investment needs for the identified projects could amount to EUR 21 billion by 2020, which represents about five times the amount invested by the region in conventional electricity generation in the last decade; and (3) the difference between the cost of renewable electricity generation and the economic cost of its fossil fuel alternatives could amount to EUR 1.2 billion. Insights stemming from the results of this research can generate useful regional messages for energy policy leaders in the MPCs to accelerate the development of renewable energy projects. - Highlights: ► We conducted a systematic survey of renewable energy projects in the Mediterranean. ► The identified projects correspond to half the MSP 20 GW target. ► Maturity assessment is used to classify the advancement of the projects. ► We estimated the investment needs and required subsidies in the region by 2020.

  17. Measuring Implicit European and Mediterranean Landscape Identity: A Tool Proposal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fornara, Ferdinando; Dentale, Francesco; Troffa, Renato; Piras, Simona

    2016-01-01

    This study presents a tool – the Landscape Identity Implicit Association Test (LI-IAT) – devoted to measure the implicit identification with European and Mediterranean landscapes. To this aim, a series of prototypical landscapes was selected as stimulus, following an accurate multi-step procedure. Participants (N = 174), recruited in two Italian cities, performed two LI-IATs devoted to assess their identification with European vs. Not-European and Mediterranean vs. Not-Mediterranean prototypical landscapes. Psychometric properties and criterion validity of these measures were investigated. Two self-report measures, assessing, respectively, European and Mediterranean place identity and pleasantness of the target landscapes, were also administered. Results showed: (1) an adequate level of internal consistency for both LI-IATs; (2) a higher identification with European and Mediterranean landscapes than, respectively, with Not-European and Not-Mediterranean ones; and (3) a significant positive relationship between the European and Mediterranean LI-IATs and the corresponding place identity scores, also when pleasantness of landscapes was controlled for. Overall, these findings provide a first evidence supporting the reliability and criterion validity of the European and Mediterranean LI-IATs. PMID:27642284

  18. LATE PLIOCENE-HOLOCENE DEBRIS FLOW DEPOSITS IN THE IONIAN SEA (EASTERN MEDITERRANEAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GIOVANNI ALOISI DE LARDEREL

    1997-11-01

    Full Text Available Widespread coring of the Eastern Mediterranean Basin has outlined the existence of a systematic relation between lithology of debris flow deposits and physiographic setting. Whilst the topographic highs are characterized by pelagic sedimentation, the basin floors are alternatively subject to pelagic sedimentation and re-sedimentation pro cesses. Amongst the latters, turbidity flows and debris flows are the most common transport mechanisms.In this paper we present the study of the debris flow pro cess in the Ionian Sea using visual description of cores, grain size, carbonate content and smear slide analysis carried out on gravity and piston cores recovered over the past 20 years. A distinction has been made between debris flow deposits originating from the continental margins (North Africa and Malta Escarpment and those emplaced in the small basins amidst the Calabrian and Mediterranean ridges "Cobblestone Topography". As a result of the difference in setting, the former debris flow deposits include a great variety of lithologies and ages whilst the latter involve the pelagic sediments forming the typical Eastern Mediterranean Plio-Quaternary succession. A detailed study of clast and matrix structures makes it possible to describe the flows in terms of existing classifications of sediment gravity flows and to assume a clast support mechanism. Finally, biostratigraphy coupled with the presence of widespread marker beds enabled us to estimate the age of emplacement of the deposits and to hypothesize a triggering mechanism for flow initiation. Three flows are strictly related to the pelagic turbidite named homogenite, triggered by the explosive eruption of the Santorini volcano (Minoan eruption and therefore have an estimated age of 3,500 BP. The other deposits have ages ranging from 9,000 BP to about 70,000 BP and were originated by debris flows triggered by events such as earthquakes and glacial low sea level stands.    

  19. PON1 and Mediterranean Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José M. Lou-Bonafonte

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The Mediterranean diet has been proven to be highly effective in the prevention of cardiovascular diseases. Paraoxonase 1 (PON1 has been implicated in the development of those conditions, especially atherosclerosis. The present work describes a systematic review of current evidence supporting the influence of Mediterranean diet and its constituents on this enzyme. Despite the differential response of some genetic polymorphisms, the Mediterranean diet has been shown to exert a protective action on this enzyme. Extra virgin olive oil, the main source of fat, has been particularly effective in increasing PON1 activity, an action that could be due to low saturated fatty acid intake, oleic acid enrichment of phospholipids present in high-density lipoproteins that favor the activity, and increasing hepatic PON1 mRNA and protein expressions induced by minor components present in this oil. Other Mediterranean diet constituents, such as nuts, fruits and vegetables, have been effective in modulating the activity of the enzyme, pomegranate and its compounds being the best characterized items. Ongoing research on compounds isolated from all these natural products, mainly phenolic compounds and carotenoids, indicates that some of them are particularly effective, and this may enhance the use of nutraceuticals and functional foods capable of potentiating PON1 activity.

  20. Hydrological response characteristics of Mediterranean catchments: a review

    OpenAIRE

    Merheb , M.; Moussa , R.; Abdallah , C.; Colin , F.; Perrin , C.; Baghdadi , N.

    2016-01-01

    International audience; This work examines 140 hydrological studies conducted in the Mediterranean region. It identifies key characteristics of the hydrological responses of Mediterranean catchments at various time scales and compares different methods and modelling approaches used for individualcatchmentstudies. The study area is divided into the northwestern (NWM), eastern (EM) and southern (SM) Mediterranean. The analysis indicates regional discrepancies in which the NWM shows the most ext...

  1. Understanding the North Atlantic Oscillation and Its Effects in the Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trigo, Ricardo M.; Serrano, Sergio M. Vicente

    2010-11-01

    ESF-MedCLIVAR Workshop on Hydrological, Socioeconomic and Ecological Impacts of the North Atlantic Oscillation in the Mediterranean; Zaragoza, Spain, 24-27 May 2010; According to the latest Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change report, the Mediterranean basin represents one of the most important hot spots of climate change in the world, with recent trends toward a hotter and drier climate being related to changes in atmospheric circulation patterns. Among these patterns the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) is the most important one and the only one that exerts a clear influence throughout the year, although with stronger intensity and extension during winter. In the framework of the European Science Foundation's Mediterranean Climate Variability and Predictability (MedCLIVAR) program (http://www.medclivar.eu/), a thematic workshop devoted to the hydrological, socioeconomic, and ecological impacts of the NAO in the Mediterranean area was held in Spain. The main objective of this 3-day workshop was to foster interaction in this increasingly interdisciplinary topic, in particular, among climatologists, hydrologists, geographers, agronomists, biologists, and other scientists. The workshop was attended by 62 participants from 15 different countries and included a mix of senior scientists and graduate students. The workshop was divided into five sessions focusing on (1) natural hazards, including droughts, severe precipitations, floods, heat waves, and cold spells; (2) vegetation activity and agriculture production; (3) natural ecosystems and environment, including forest dynamics, fisheries, dynamics of animal populations, and air quality; (4) geomorphology, including landslides and debris flows, erosivity mechanisms, and surface erosion processes; and (5) renewable energies production, including hydraulic, eolic, and solar.

  2. New Mediterranean Biodiversity Records (October 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. CROCETTA

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The Collective Article “New Mediterranean Biodiversity Records” of the Mediterranean Marine Science journal offers the means to publish biodiversity records in the Mediterranean Sea. The current article is divided per countries, listed according to a Mediterranean west-east geographic position. New biodiversity data are reported for 7 different countries, although one species hereby reported from Malta is overall new for the entire Mediterranean basin, and is presumably present also in Israel and Lebanon (see below in Malta. Italy: the rare native fish Gobius kolombatovici is first reported from the Ionian Sea, whilst the alien jellyfish Rhopilema nomadica and the alien fish Oplegnathus fasciatus are first reported from the entire country. The presence of O. fasciatus from Trieste is concomitantly the first for the entire Adriatic Sea. Finally, the alien bivalve Arcuatula senhousia is hereby first reported from Campania (Tyrrhenian Sea. Tunisia: a bloom of the alien crab Portunus segnis is first reported from the Gulf of Gabes, from where it was considered as casual. Malta: the alien flatworm Maritigrella fuscopunctata is first recorded from the Mediterranean Sea on the basis of 25 specimens. At the same time, web researches held possible unpublished records from Israel and Lebanon. The alien crab P. segnis, already mentioned above, is first formally reported from Malta based on specimens collected in 1972. Concomitantly, the presence of Callinectes sapidus in Maltese waters is excluded since based on misidentifications. Greece: the Atlantic northern brown shrimp Penaeus atzecus, previously known from the Ionian Sea from sporadic records only, is now well established in Greek and international Ionian waters. The alien sea urchin Diadema setosum is reported from the second time from Greece, and its first record date from the country is backdated to 2010 in Rhodes Island. The alien lionfish Pterois miles is first reported from Greece and

  3. Alkalinity of the Mediterranean Sea

    OpenAIRE

    Schneider, Anke; Wallace, Douglas W.R.; Körtzinger, Arne

    2007-01-01

    Total alkalinity (AT) was measured during the Meteor 51/2 cruise, crossing the Mediterranean Sea from west to east. AT concentrations were high (∼2600 μmol kg−1) and alkalinity-salinity-correlations had negative intercepts. These results are explained by evaporation coupled with high freshwater AT inputs into coastal areas. Salinity adjustment of AT revealed excess alkalinity throughout the water column compared to mid-basin surface waters. Since Mediterranean waters are supersaturated with r...

  4. Cover crops influence soil microorganisms and phytoextraction of copper from a moderately contaminated vineyard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackie, K A; Schmidt, H P; Müller, T; Kandeler, E

    2014-12-01

    We investigated the ability of summer (Avena sativa [oat], Trifolium incarnatum [crimson clover], Chenopodium [goosefoot]) and winter (Vicia villosa [hairy vetch], Secale Cereale L. [Rye], Brassica napus L. partim [rape]) cover crops, including a mixed species treatment, to extract copper from an organic vineyard soil in situ and the microbial communities that may support it. Clover had the highest copper content (14.3mgCukg(-1) DM). However, it was the amount of total biomass production that determined which species was most effective at overall copper removal per hectare. The winter crop rye produced significantly higher amounts of biomass (3532kgDMha(-1)) and, therefore, removed significantly higher amounts of copper (14,920mgCuha(-1)), despite less accumulation of copper in plant shoots. The maximum annual removal rate, a summation of best performing summer and winter crops, would be 0.033kgCuha(-1)y(-1). Due to this low annual extraction efficiency, which is less than the 6kgCuha(-1)y(-1) permitted for application, phytoextraction cannot be recommended as a general method of copper extraction from vineyards. Copper concentration did not influence aboveground or belowground properties, as indicated by sampling at two distances from the grapevine row with different soil copper concentrations. Soil microorganisms may have become tolerant to the copper levels at this site. Microbial biomass and soil enzyme activities (arylsulfatase and phosphatase) were instead driven by seasonal fluxes of resource pools. Gram+ bacteria were associated with high soil moisture, while fungi seemed to be driven by extractable carbon, which was linked to high plant biomass. There was no microbial group associated with the increased phytoextraction of copper. Moreover, treatment did not influence the abundance, activity or community structure of soil microorganisms. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Comparison of Mediterranean diet compliance between European and non-European populations in the Mediterranean basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benhammou, Samira; Heras-González, Leticia; Ibáñez-Peinado, Diana; Barceló, Carla; Hamdan, May; Rivas, Ana; Mariscal-Arcas, Miguel; Olea-Serrano, Fatima; Monteagudo, Celia

    2016-12-01

    Fruit, vegetables, cereals, and olive oil are common elements of the Mediterranean diet (MD), but each country in the Mediterranean basin has its own gastronomic customs influenced by socio-cultural, religious, and economic factors. This study compared the dietary habits of three Mediterranean populations with different cultures and lifestyles, a total of 600 adults (61.9% females) between 25 and 70 yrs from Spain, Morocco, and Palestine. All participants completed a self administered questionnaire, including sociodemographic and anthropometric items, a validated semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire adapted to the foods consumed in each country, and three 24-h recalls. MD adherence was estimated with the MD Serving Score (MDSS). All populations showed a moderate adherence to the Mediterranean dietary pattern. In comparison to the Palestine population, MDSS-assessed adherence to the MD was 6.36-fold higher in the Spanish population and 3.88-fold higher in the Moroccan population. Besides the country of origin, age was another predictive factor of MD adherence, which was greater (higher MDSS) in participants aged over 50 yrs than in those aged 30 yrs or younger. This preliminary study contributes initial data on dietary differences between European and non-European countries in the Mediterranean basin. The Spanish diet was shown to be closer to MD recommendations than the diet of Morocco or Palestine. Given the impact of good dietary habits on the prevention of chronic non-transmittable diseases, health policies should focus on adherence to a healthy diet, supporting traditional dietary patterns in an era of intense commercial pressures for change. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Plastic accumulation in the Mediterranean sea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Cózar

    Full Text Available Concentrations of floating plastic were measured throughout the Mediterranean Sea to assess whether this basin can be regarded as a great accumulation region of plastic debris. We found that the average density of plastic (1 item per 4 m2, as well as its frequency of occurrence (100% of the sites sampled, are comparable to the accumulation zones described for the five subtropical ocean gyres. Plastic debris in the Mediterranean surface waters was dominated by millimeter-sized fragments, but showed a higher proportion of large plastic objects than that present in oceanic gyres, reflecting the closer connection with pollution sources. The accumulation of floating plastic in the Mediterranean Sea (between 1,000 and 3,000 tons is likely related to the high human pressure together with the hydrodynamics of this semi-enclosed basin, with outflow mainly occurring through a deep water layer. Given the biological richness and concentration of economic activities in the Mediterranean Sea, the affects of plastic pollution on marine and human life are expected to be particularly frequent in this plastic accumulation region.

  7. Plastic Accumulation in the Mediterranean Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Có zar, André s; Sanz-Martí n, Marina; Martí , Elisa; Gonzá lez-Gordillo, J. Ignacio; Ubeda, Bá rbara; Gá lvez, José Á .; Irigoien, Xabier; Duarte, Carlos M.

    2015-01-01

    Concentrations of floating plastic were measured throughout the Mediterranean Sea to assess whether this basin can be regarded as a great accumulation region of plastic debris. We found that the average density of plastic (1 item per 4 m2), as well as its frequency of occurrence (100% of the sites sampled), are comparable to the accumulation zones described for the five subtropical ocean gyres. Plastic debris in the Mediterranean surface waters was dominated by millimeter-sized fragments, but showed a higher proportion of large plastic objects than that present in oceanic gyres, reflecting the closer connection with pollution sources. The accumulation of floating plastic in the Mediterranean Sea (between 1,000 and 3,000 tons) is likely related to the high human pressure together with the hydrodynamics of this semi-enclosed basin, with outflow mainly occurring through a deep water layer. Given the biological richness and concentration of economic activities in the Mediterranean Sea, the affects of plastic pollution on marine and human life are expected to be particularly frequent in this plastic accumulation region.

  8. Plastic Accumulation in the Mediterranean Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Cózar, Andrés

    2015-04-01

    Concentrations of floating plastic were measured throughout the Mediterranean Sea to assess whether this basin can be regarded as a great accumulation region of plastic debris. We found that the average density of plastic (1 item per 4 m2), as well as its frequency of occurrence (100% of the sites sampled), are comparable to the accumulation zones described for the five subtropical ocean gyres. Plastic debris in the Mediterranean surface waters was dominated by millimeter-sized fragments, but showed a higher proportion of large plastic objects than that present in oceanic gyres, reflecting the closer connection with pollution sources. The accumulation of floating plastic in the Mediterranean Sea (between 1,000 and 3,000 tons) is likely related to the high human pressure together with the hydrodynamics of this semi-enclosed basin, with outflow mainly occurring through a deep water layer. Given the biological richness and concentration of economic activities in the Mediterranean Sea, the affects of plastic pollution on marine and human life are expected to be particularly frequent in this plastic accumulation region.

  9. Plastic accumulation in the Mediterranean sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cózar, Andrés; Sanz-Martín, Marina; Martí, Elisa; González-Gordillo, J Ignacio; Ubeda, Bárbara; Gálvez, José Á; Irigoien, Xabier; Duarte, Carlos M

    2015-01-01

    Concentrations of floating plastic were measured throughout the Mediterranean Sea to assess whether this basin can be regarded as a great accumulation region of plastic debris. We found that the average density of plastic (1 item per 4 m2), as well as its frequency of occurrence (100% of the sites sampled), are comparable to the accumulation zones described for the five subtropical ocean gyres. Plastic debris in the Mediterranean surface waters was dominated by millimeter-sized fragments, but showed a higher proportion of large plastic objects than that present in oceanic gyres, reflecting the closer connection with pollution sources. The accumulation of floating plastic in the Mediterranean Sea (between 1,000 and 3,000 tons) is likely related to the high human pressure together with the hydrodynamics of this semi-enclosed basin, with outflow mainly occurring through a deep water layer. Given the biological richness and concentration of economic activities in the Mediterranean Sea, the affects of plastic pollution on marine and human life are expected to be particularly frequent in this plastic accumulation region.

  10. Plastic Accumulation in the Mediterranean Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cózar, Andrés; Sanz-Martín, Marina; Martí, Elisa; González-Gordillo, J. Ignacio; Ubeda, Bárbara; Gálvez, José Á.; Irigoien, Xabier; Duarte, Carlos M.

    2015-01-01

    Concentrations of floating plastic were measured throughout the Mediterranean Sea to assess whether this basin can be regarded as a great accumulation region of plastic debris. We found that the average density of plastic (1 item per 4 m2), as well as its frequency of occurrence (100% of the sites sampled), are comparable to the accumulation zones described for the five subtropical ocean gyres. Plastic debris in the Mediterranean surface waters was dominated by millimeter-sized fragments, but showed a higher proportion of large plastic objects than that present in oceanic gyres, reflecting the closer connection with pollution sources. The accumulation of floating plastic in the Mediterranean Sea (between 1,000 and 3,000 tons) is likely related to the high human pressure together with the hydrodynamics of this semi-enclosed basin, with outflow mainly occurring through a deep water layer. Given the biological richness and concentration of economic activities in the Mediterranean Sea, the affects of plastic pollution on marine and human life are expected to be particularly frequent in this plastic accumulation region. PMID:25831129

  11. Mediterranean climate and some tropical teleconnections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alpert, P.; Price, C.; Krichak, S.; Saaroni, H.; Osetinsky, I.; Barkan, J.; Kishcha, P.; Ziv, B.

    2006-01-01

    Some strong natural fluctuations of climate in the Eastern Mediterranean (EM) region are shown to be connected to the major tropical systems, e.g., El Ni no Southern Oscillation, South Asian Monsoon and hurricanes. Modelling of the severe floods suggests a relation to tropical hurricanes. For a specific event, high-resolution modelling of the severe flood on December 3-5, 2001 in Israel suggests a relation to hurricane Olga. In order to understand the factors governing the Eastern Mediterranean climate variability in the summer season, the relationship between extreme summer temperatures and the South Asian Monsoon was examined. Other tropical factors, like the Red Sea Trough system and the Saharan dust, also contribute to the Mediterranean climate variability

  12. Genesis and maintenance of "Mediterranean hurricanes"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Emanuel

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Cyclonic storms that closely resemble tropical cyclones in satellite images occasionally form over the Mediterranean Sea. Synoptic and mesoscale analyses of such storms show small, warm-core structure and surface winds sometimes exceeding 25ms-1 over small areas. These analyses, together with numerical simulations, reveal that in their mature stages, such storms intensify and are maintained by a feedback between surface enthalpy fluxes and wind, and as such are isomorphic with tropical cyclones. In this paper, I demonstrate that a cold, upper low over the Mediterranean can produce strong cyclogenesis in an axisymmetric model, thereby showing that baroclinic instability is not necessary during the mature stages of Mediterranean hurricanes.

  13. Observations on the Behaviour of Different Populations of Plasmopara viticola Resistant to QoI Fungicides in Italian Vineyards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.L. Gullino

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Grapevine downy mildew, caused by Plasmopara viticola, is probably the most damaging fungal disease of grapevine world-wide. Among the fungicides recently developed for downy mildew control is the QoI class of fungicides, which inhibits mitochondrial respiration. Since 1999, selected P. viticola populations in northern Italy have been monitored for resistance to QoI fungicides. Detached leaf discs and whole potted plants were used under controlled conditions to test the sampled populations. QoI-resistant populations of P. viticola were found in all the vineyards sampled in 2001 and 2002 in Trentino Alto Adige and Friuli Venezia Giulia, where failure in QoI control was reported. Many of the populations had minimum inhibition concentration (MIC values 3– 30 times higher than those of sensitive reference populations. Populations of P. viticola sampled from vineyards in Piedmont, where no QoI fungicides had previously been used, showed MIC values equal to, or lower than those of the reference populations. Most of the P. viticola populations collected in Trentino Alto Adige in 2001 showed high virulence in leaf disc test and were not controlled by QoI fungicides, applied both at field and double field rates in the whole plant test. Most of these populations retained their virulence in the subsequent leaf disc test in water.

  14. Spatio-temporal effects of soil and bedrock variability on grapevine water status in hillslope vineyards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brillante, Luca; Bois, Benjamin; Mathieu, Olivier; Leveque, Jean

    2014-05-01

    Hillslope vineyards show various and complex water dynamics between soil and plants, and in order to gain further insight into this phenomenon, 8 grapevine plots were monitored during three vintages, from 2010 to 2013, on Corton Hill, Burgundy, France. Plots were distributed along a topolithosequence from 330 to 270 metres a.s.l. Grapevine water status was monitored weekly by surveying water potential, and, at the end of the season, by the use of the δ13C analysis of grape juice. Soil profile of each plot was described and analysed (soil texture, gravel content, organic carbon, total nitrogen, pH, CEC). Soil volumetric humidity was measured weekly, using TDR probes. A pedotransfer function was developed to transform Electrical Resistivity Imaging (ERI) into soil volume wetness and therefore to spatialise and observe variation in the Fraction of Transpirable Soil Water (FTSW). During the three years of monitoring, grapevines experienced great variation in water status, which ranged from low to considerable water deficit (as expressed by pre-dawn leaf water potential and δ13C analysis of grape juice). With ERI imaging, it was possible to observe differences in water absorption pattern by roots, in different soils, and at different depth. In addition, significant differences were observed in grapevine water status in relation to variations in the physical characteristics of the terroir along the hillslope (i.e. the geo-pedological context, the elevation etc.). Grapevine water behaviour and plant-soil water relationships on the hillslope of Corton Hill have been extensively characterised in this study by ultimate technologies, allowing to present this terroir as a very interesting example for future generalisation and modelling of the hillslope vineyard water dynamics.

  15. Can vineyard biodiversity be beneficial for viticulture and tourism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hervé, Morgane; Kratschmer, Sophie; Gregorich, Claudia; Silvia, Winter; Montembault, David; Zaller, Johann G.; Guernion, Muriel; Jung, Vincent; Schuette, Rebekka; Paredes, Daniel; Guzman Diaz, Gema; Cabezas Luque, Jose Manuel; Hoble, Adela; Popescu, Daniela; Burel, Françoise; Cluzeau, Daniel; Bergmann, Holger; Potthoff, Martin; Nicolai, Annegret

    2017-04-01

    The European research BiodivERsA project VineDivers aims to link ecosystem services and vine production, in an integrative approach that considers both landscape structure and cultural practices (cover-crops versus bare soils), in vineyards of Austria, France, Romania and Spain. Such services studied are (i) provisioning and regulation services by soil biota and pollinators, and (ii) landscape cultural services. In this study, we want to know if landscape beneficial for biodiversity providing ecosystem services at a plot scale also have an aesthetical value. An interdisciplinary approach was chosen to include both ecological and sociological data. First, we analyzed the influence of soil management practices and landscape complexity on soil biota, inter-row flora and bees. Second, we implemented a questionnaire based on photographs about biodiversity perception and visual aesthetic evaluation. Our results highlighted the effect of landscape complexity and soil management intensity on biodiversity and their ecological and cultural ecosystem services. This allows us to discuss the global importance of biodiversity for a wine-producing region. Further analysis within the VineDivers project will focus on an assessment of the biodiversity importance for local viticulture economy.

  16. Persistent Acacia savannas replace Mediterranean sclerophyllous forests in South America

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wouw, van de P.; Echeverria, C.; Rey-Benayas, J.M.; Holmgren, M.

    2011-01-01

    Mediterranean ecosystems are global hotspots of biodiversity threaten by human disturbances. Growing evidence indicates that regeneration of Mediterranean forests can be halted under certain circumstances and that successional stages can become notoriously persistent. The Mediterranean

  17. Footprints of climate change on Mediterranean Sea biota

    KAUST Repository

    Marbà, Núria

    2015-08-13

    The Mediterranean Sea ranks among the ocean regions warming fastest. There is evidence for impacts of climate change on marine Mediterranean organisms but a quantitative assessment is lacking. We compiled the impacts of warming reported in the literature to provide a quantitative assessment for the Mediterranean Sea. During the last three decades the summer surface temperature has increased 1.15°C. Strong heat wave events have occurred in years 1994, 2003, and 2009. Impacts of warming are evident on growth, survival, fertility, migration and phenology of pelagic and benthic organisms, from phytoplankton to marine vegetation, invertebrates and vertebrates. Overall, 50% of biological impacts in the Mediterranean Sea occur at summer surface temperature anomaly ≤ 4.5°C and at summer surface temperature of 27.5°C. The activation energy (geometric mean 1.58 ± 0.48 eV), the slope of the Arrhenius equation describing the temperature-dependence of biological processes, for the response of Mediterranean marine biota to warming reveals that these responses in the Mediterranean are far steepest than possibly explained by the direct effect of warming alone. The observations are biased toward the northern and western sectors of the basin, likely underestimating the impacts of warming in areas where warming is particularly intense.

  18. Footprints of climate change on Mediterranean Sea biota

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Núria eMarbà

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The Mediterranean Sea ranks among the ocean regions warming fastest. There is evidence for impacts of climate change on marine Mediterranean organisms but a quantitative assessment is lacking. We compiled the impacts of warming reported in the literature to provide a quantitative assessment for the Mediterranean Sea. During the last three decades the summer surface temperature has increased 1.15 oC. Strong heat wave events have occurred in years 1994, 2003 and 2009. Impacts of warming are evident on growth, survival, fertility, migration and phenology of pelagic and benthic organisms, from phytoplankton to marine vegetation, invertebrates and vertebrates. Overall, 50 % of biological impacts in the Mediterranean Sea occur at summer surface temperature anomaly ≤ 4.5 ºC and at summer surface temperature of 27.5 ºC. The activation energy (geometric mean 1.58 ± 0.48 eV, the slope of the Arrhenius equation describing the temperature-dependence of biological processes, for the response of Mediterranean marine biota to warming reveals that these responses in the Mediterranean are far steepest than possibly explained by the direct effect of warming alone. The observations are biased toward the northern and western sectors of the basin, likely underestimating the impacts of warming in areas where warming is particularly intense.

  19. Adherence to the Mediterranean Diet and Inflammatory Markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoni Sureda

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim was to assess inflammatory markers among adults and adolescents in relation to the adherence to the Mediterranean diet. A random sample (219 males and 379 females of the Balearic Islands population (12–65 years was anthropometrically measured and provided a blood sample to determine biomarkers of inflammation. Dietary habits were assessed and the adherence to the Mediterranean dietary pattern calculated. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome increased with age in both sexes. The adherence to the Mediterranean diet in adolescent males was 51.3% and 45.7% in adults, whereas in females 53.1% and 44.3%, respectively. In males, higher adherence to the Mediterranean diet was associated with higher levels of adiponectin and lower levels of leptin, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α, plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1 and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP in adults, but not in young subjects. In females, higher adherence was associated with lower levels of leptin in the young group, PAI-1 in adults and hs-CRP in both groups. With increasing age in both sexes, metabolic syndrome increases, but the adherence to the Mediterranean diet decreases. Low adherence to the Mediterranean dietary pattern (MDP is directly associated with a worse profile of plasmatic inflammation markers.

  20. Evaluation of environmental and economic effectiveness of the Cross Compliance 4.3 Standards "Maintenance of olive groves and vineyards in good vegetative conditions"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi Sansone

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the first observations made in three farms of the Council for Agricultural Research and Economics (CREA relating to the environmental monitoring of the standard 4.3 maintenance of olive groves and vineyards in good vegetative conditions and analysis of differential of competitiveness  for both crops.

  1. Mediterranean dietary pattern and risk of breast cancer.

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    Elisabeth Couto

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A Mediterranean diet has a recognized beneficial effect on health and longevity, with a protective influence on several cancers. However, its association with breast cancer risk remains unclear. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to investigate whether adherence to a Mediterranean dietary pattern influences breast cancer risk. DESIGN: The Swedish Women's Lifestyle and Health cohort study includes 49,258 women aged 30 to 49 years at recruitment in 1991-1992. Consumption of foods and beverages was measured at enrollment using a food frequency questionnaire. A Mediterranean diet score was constructed based on the consumption of alcohol, vegetables, fruits, legumes, cereals, fish, the ratio of unsaturated to saturated fat, and dairy and meat products. Relative risks (RR for breast cancer and specific tumor characteristics (invasiveness, histological type, estrogen/progesterone receptor status, malignancy grade and stage associated with this score were estimated using Cox regression controlling for potential confounders. RESULTS: 1,278 incident breast cancers were diagnosed. Adherence to a Mediterranean dietary pattern was not statistically significantly associated with reduced risk of breast cancer overall, or with specific breast tumor characteristics. A RR (95% confidence interval for breast cancer associated with a two-point increment in the Mediterranean diet score was 1.08 (1.00-1.15 in all women, and 1.10 (1.01-1.21 and 1.02 (0.91-1.15 in premenopausal and postmenopausal women, respectively. When alcohol was excluded from the Mediterranean diet score, results became not statistically significant. CONCLUSIONS: Adherence to a Mediterranean dietary pattern did not decrease breast cancer risk in this cohort of relatively young women.

  2. Can Flowering Greencover Crops Promote Biological Control in German Vineyards?

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    Christoph Hoffmann

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Greencover crops are widely recommended to provide predators and parasitoids with floral resources for improved pest control. We studied parasitism and predation of European grapevine moth (Lobesia botrana eggs and pupae as well as predatory mite abundances in an experimental vineyard with either one or two sowings of greencover crops compared to spontaneous vegetation. The co-occurrence between greencover flowering time and parasitoid activity differed greatly between the two study years. Parasitism was much higher when flowering and parasitoid activity coincided. While egg predation was enhanced by greencover crops, there were no significant benefits of greencover crops on parasitism of L. botrana eggs or pupae. Predatory mites did not show an as strong increase on grapevines in greencover crop plots as egg predation. Overall, our study demonstrates only limited pest control benefits of greencover crops. Given the strong within- and between year variation in natural enemy activity, studies across multiple years will be necessary to adequately describe the role of greencover crops for pest management and to identify the main predators of L. botrana eggs.

  3. Geospatial variation of grapevine water status, soil water availability, grape composition and sensory characteristics in a spatially heterogeneous premium wine grape vineyard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smart, D. R.; Cosby Hess, S.; Plant, R.; Feihn, O.; Heymann, H.; Ebeler, S.

    2014-11-01

    The geoscience component of terroir in wine grape production continues to be criticized for its quasi-mystical nature, and lack of testable hypotheses. Nonetheless, recent relational investigations are emerging and most involve water availability as captured by available water capacity (AWC, texture) or plant available water (PAW) in the root zone of soil as being a key factor. The second finding emerging may be that the degree of microscale variability in PAW and other soil factors at the vineyard scale renders larger regional characterizations questionable. Cimatic variables like temperature are well mixed, and its influence on wine characteristic is fairly well established. The influence of mesogeology on mesoclimate factors has also been characterized to some extent. To test the hypothesis that vine water status mirrors soil water availability, and controls fruit sensory and chemical properties at the vineyard scale we examined such variables in a iconic, selectively harvested premium winegrape vineyard in the Napa Valley of California during 2007 and 2008 growing seasons. Geo-referenced data vines remained as individual study units throughout data gathering and analysis. Cartographic exercises using geographic information systems (GIS) were used to vizualize geospatial variation in soil and vine properties. Highly significant correlations (P grapes with perceived higher quality had vines with (1) lower leaf water potential (LWP) both pre-dawn and mid-day, (2) smaller berry diameter and weight, (3) lower pruning weights, and (4) higher °Brix. A trained sensory panel found grapes from the more water-stressed vines had significantly sweeter and softer pulp, absence of vegetal character, and browner and crunchier seeds. Metabolomic analysis of the grape skins showed significant differences in accumulation of amino acids and organic acids. Data vines were categorized as non-stressed (ΨPD ≥ -7.9 bars and ΨL ≥ -14.9 bars) and stressed (ΨPD ≤ -8.0 bars and

  4. Snow hydrology in Mediterranean mountain regions: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fayad, Abbas; Gascoin, Simon; Faour, Ghaleb; López-Moreno, Juan Ignacio; Drapeau, Laurent; Page, Michel Le; Escadafal, Richard

    2017-08-01

    Water resources in Mediterranean regions are under increasing pressure due to climate change, economic development, and population growth. Many Mediterranean rivers have their headwaters in mountainous regions where hydrological processes are driven by snowpack dynamics and the specific variability of the Mediterranean climate. A good knowledge of the snow processes in the Mediterranean mountains is therefore a key element of water management strategies in such regions. The objective of this paper is to review the literature on snow hydrology in Mediterranean mountains to identify the existing knowledge, key research questions, and promising technologies. We collected 620 peer-reviewed papers, published between 1913 and 2016, that deal with the Mediterranean-like mountain regions in the western United States, the central Chilean Andes, and the Mediterranean basin. A large amount of studies in the western United States form a strong scientific basis for other Mediterranean mountain regions. We found that: (1) the persistence of snow cover is highly variable in space and time but mainly controlled by elevation and precipitation; (2) the snowmelt is driven by radiative fluxes, but the contribution of heat fluxes is stronger at the end of the snow season and during heat waves and rain-on-snow events; (3) the snow densification rates are higher in these regions when compared to other climate regions; and (4) the snow sublimation is an important component of snow ablation, especially in high-elevation regions. Among the pressing issues is the lack of continuous ground observation in high-elevation regions. However, a few years of snow depth (HS) and snow water equivalent (SWE) data can provide realistic information on snowpack variability. A better spatial characterization of snow cover can be achieved by combining ground observations with remotely sensed snow data. SWE reconstruction using satellite snow cover area and a melt model provides reasonable information that

  5. The mediterranean diet model in inflammatory rheumatic diseases

    OpenAIRE

    P. Spinella; F. Oliviero; C. Sales

    2011-01-01

    The Mediterranean diet is based on a pattern of eating that’s closely tied to the Mediterranean region, which includes Greece and southern Italy. Essentially, the traditional diet emphasizes foods from plant sources, limited meat consumption, small amounts of wine and olive oil as the main fat source. The beneficial effects of the Mediterranean diet has been proven not only to cardiovascular diseases but also for diabetes, obesity, arthritis and cancer. Its anti-inflammatory and protective pr...

  6. LiDAR derived high resolution topography: the next challenge for the analysis of terraces stability and vineyard soil erosion

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    Federico Preti

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The soil erosion in the vineyards is a critical issue that could affect their productivity, but also, when the cultivation is organized in terraces, increase the risk due to derived slope failure processes. If terraces are not correctly designed or maintained, a progressively increasing of gully erosion affects the structure of the walls. The results of this process is the increasing of connectivity and runoff. In order to overcome such issues it is really important to recognize in detail all the surface drainage paths, thus providing a basis upon which develop a suitable drainage system or provide structural measures for the soil erosion risk mitigation. In the last few years, the airborne LiDAR technology led to a dramatic increase in terrain information. Airborne LiDAR and Terrestrial Laser Scanner derived high-resolution Digital Terrain Models (DTMs have opened avenues for hydrologic and geomorphologic studies (Tarolli et al., 2009. In general, all the main surface process signatures are correctly recognized using a DTM with cell sizes of 1 m. However sub-meter grid sizes may be more suitable in those situations where the analysis of micro topography related to micro changes is critical for slope failures risk assessment or for the design of detailed drainage flow paths. The Terrestrial Laser Scanner (TLS has been proven to be an useful tool for such detailed field survey. In this work, we test the effectiveness of high resolution topography derived by airborne LiDAR and TLS for the recognition of areas subject to soil erosion risk in a typical terraced vineyard landscape of “Chianti Classico” (Tuscany, Italy. The algorithm proposed by Tarolli et al. (2013, for the automatic recognition of anthropic feature induced flow direction changes, has been tested. The results underline the effectiveness of LiDAR and TLS data in the analysis of soil erosion signatures in vineyards, and indicate the high resolution topography as a useful tool to

  7. Familial Mediterranean Fever

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... people of Mediterranean origin — including Sephardic Jews, Arabs, Greeks, Italians, Armenians and Turks. But it may affect ... attacks, you'll likely feel normal. Symptom-free periods may be as short as a few days ...

  8. Evolution of Mediterranean diets and cuisine: concepts and definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radd-Vagenas, Sue; Kouris-Blazos, Antigone; Singh, Maria Fiatarone; Flood, Victoria M

    2017-01-01

    The Mediterranean diet has been demonstrated to provide a range of health benefits in observational and clinical trials and adopted by various dietary guidelines. However, a broad range of definitions exist impeding synthesis across trials. This review aims to provide a historical description of Mediterranean diets, from the ancient to the modern, to inform future educational and diet index tool development representing the 'traditional' Mediterranean diet. Nine databases were searched from inception to July 2015 to identify papers defining the Mediterranean diet. The definition accepted by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) was also reviewed. The 'traditional' Mediterranean diet is described as high in unprocessed plant foods (grains, vegetables, fruits, legumes, nuts/seeds and extra virgin olive oil), moderate in fish/shellfish and wine and low in meat, dairy, eggs, animal fats and discretionary foods. Additional elements relating to cuisine and eating habits identified in this review include frequent intake of home cooked meals; use of moist, lower temperature, cooking methods; eating main meals in company; reduced snacking occasions; fasting practice; ownership of a vegetable garden; use of traditional foods and combinations; and napping after the midday meal. Scope exists for future tools to incorporate additional elements of the 'traditional' Mediterranean diet to improve the quality, consistency, and synthesis of ongoing research on the Mediterranean diet.

  9. Morphological and Phenological characterization of Mediterranean species in Northern Sardinia, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piga, Alessandra; Duce, Pierpaolo; Cesaraccio, Carla

    2016-04-01

    Monitoring of vegetation, in particular methodologies for phenological and biometrical monitoring, are widely implied for climate change studies and their importance for understanding the consequences of global environmental change on vegetation is highlighted in the most recent IPCC reports. It is very likely that, during the next decades, the Mediterranean Regions will cope to the very negative effects of climatic changes. Consequently, due to the climate change impacts and the effects of anthropogenic pressures upon natural resources, these regions are among the most vulnerable ecosystems to the effects of climate change. Therefore, appears to be of crucial importance to better understand the physiological strategies for cope to climate change adaptation for the Mediterranean maquis shrub species which are key information for developing adaptation strategies guidelines. In this work, the biological and reproductive cycle of some Mediterranean species growing in an experimental area located within a nature reserve in the peninsula of Capo Caccia, north-west Sardinia, Italy, was investigated for a period of two years. In particular, the research was focused on: (1) the study of the development processes and the description of phenological phases, and (2) the analysis of the growth processes performed through biometric and floristic composition measurements. Specific BBCH scales for each species were developed. Shoot growth and floristic composition analysis did not show a clear trend in the response of the different species to climatic manipulations but a downward trend in the number of species. The results obtained in this study add useful information on the phenological cycle and growth of the Mediterranean species, improving the knowledge on the mechanisms of adaptation to adverse environmental conditions of these species

  10. Evaluation of environmental and economic effectiveness of the Cross Compliance 4.3 Standard ‘Maintenance of olive groves and vineyards in good vegetative conditions’

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    Luigi Sansone

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the first observations made in three farms of the Council for Agricultural Research and Economics (CREA relating to the environmental monitoring of the Standard 4.3 'Maintenance of olive groves and vineyards in good vegetative conditions' and analysis of differential of competitiveness for both crops.

  11. Genomic signatures of rapid adaptive evolution in the bluespotted cornetfish, a Mediterranean Lessepsian invader.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardi, Giacomo; Azzurro, Ernesto; Golani, Daniel; Miller, Michael Ryan

    2016-07-01

    Biological invasions are increasingly creating ecological and economical problems both on land and in aquatic environments. For over a century, the Mediterranean Sea has steadily been invaded by Indian Ocean/Red Sea species (called Lessepsian invaders) via the Suez Canal, with a current estimate of ~450 species. The bluespotted cornetfish, Fistularia commersonii, considered a 'Lessepsian sprinter', entered the Mediterranean in 2000 and by 2007 had spread through the entire basin from Israel to Spain. The situation is unique and interesting both because of its unprecedented rapidity and by the fact that it took this species c. 130 years to immigrate into the Mediterranean. Using genome scans, with restriction site-associated DNA (RAD) sequencing, we evaluated neutral and selected genomic regions for Mediterranean vs. Red Sea cornetfish individuals. We found that few fixed neutral changes were detectable among populations. However, almost half of the genes associated with the 47 outlier loci (potentially under selection) were related to disease resistance and osmoregulation. Due to the short time elapsed from the beginning of the invasion to our sampling, we interpret these changes as signatures of rapid adaptation that may be explained by several mechanisms including preadaptation and strong local selection. Such genomic regions are therefore good candidates to further study their role in invasion success. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. The Consequences of Precipitation Seasonality for Mediterranean-Ecosystem Vegetation of South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramer, Michael D; Hoffman, M Timm

    2015-01-01

    Globally, mediterranean-climate ecosystem vegetation has converged on an evergreen, sclerophyllous and shrubby growth form. The particular aspects of mediterranean-climate regions that contribute to this convergence include summer droughts and relatively nutrient-poor soils. We hypothesised that winter-precipitation implies stressful summer droughts and leaches soils due to greater water availability (i.e. balance between precipitation and potential evapotranspiration; P-PET) during cold periods. We conducted a comparative analysis of normalised difference vegetation indices (NDVI) and edaphic and climate properties across the biomes of South Africa. NDVI was strongly correlated with both precipitation and P-PET (r2 = 0.8). There was no evidence, however, that winter-precipitation reduces NDVI in comparison to similar amounts of summer-precipitation. Base saturation (BS), a measure of soil leaching was, however, negatively related to P-PET (r2 = 0.64). This led to an interaction between P-PET and BS in determining NDVI, indicating the existence of a trade-off between water availability and soil nutrients that enables NDVI to increase with precipitation, despite negative consequences for soil nutrient availability. The mechanism of this trade-off is suggested to be that water increases nutrient accessibility. This implies that along with nutrient-depauperate geologies and long periods of time since glaciation, the winter-precipitation may have contributed to the highly leached status of the soils. Since many of the ecophysiological characteristics of mediterranean-ecosystem flora are associated with low nutrient availabilities (e.g. evergreen foliage, sclerophylly, cluster roots), we conclude that mediterranean-climates promote convergence of growth-forms in these regions through high leaching capacity.

  13. Functional indicators of response mechanisms to nitrogen deposition, ozone, and their interaction in two Mediterranean tree species.

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    Lina Fusaro

    Full Text Available The effects of nitrogen (N deposition, tropospheric ozone (O3 and their interaction were investigated in two Mediterranean tree species, Fraxinus ornus L. (deciduous and Quercus ilex L. (evergreen, having different leaf habits and resource use strategies. An experiment was conducted under controlled condition to analyse how nitrogen deposition affects the ecophysiological and biochemical traits, and to explore how the nitrogen-induced changes influence the response to O3. For both factors we selected realistic exposures (20 kg N ha-1 yr-1 and 80 ppb h for nitrogen and O3, respectively, in order to elucidate the mechanisms implemented by the plants. Nitrogen addition resulted in higher nitrogen concentration at the leaf level in F. ornus, whereas a slight increase was detected in Q. ilex. Nitrogen enhanced the maximum rate of assimilation and ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate regeneration in both species, whereas it influenced the light harvesting complex only in the deciduous F. ornus that was also affected by O3 (reduced assimilation rate and accelerated senescence-related processes. Conversely, Q. ilex developed an avoidance mechanism to cope with O3, confirming a substantial O3 tolerance of this species. Nitrogen seemed to ameliorate the harmful effects of O3 in F. ornus: the hypothesized mechanism of action involved the production of nitrogen oxide as the first antioxidant barrier, followed by enzymatic antioxidant response. In Q. ilex, the interaction was not detected on gas exchange and photosystem functionality; however, in this species, nitrogen might stimulate an alternative antioxidant response such as the emission of volatile organic compounds. Antioxidant enzyme activity was lower in plants treated with both O3 and nitrogen even though reactive oxygen species production did not differ between the treatments.

  14. COENOLOGICAL SHIFT FOLLOWING FERTILIZATION IN MEDITERRANEAN GRASSLAND

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    ALESSANDRO SERAFINI SAULI

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available In Rome both meadows of CentraI-European affinity and Mediterranean dry grasslands are presento We studied a site (Parco Regionale Urbano de] Pineto in Rome with very diverse vegetation, where species belonging to both coenologica] groups oceur. Wc fertilized a grassland with a combination of phosphorus (P and nitrogen (N. After fertilization diagDostie species of Helianthemetea guttati (Thcrophytes dccrease while species of MolinioArrhenatheretea (Hemicriptophytes increase. In a climate as that of Rome, transition between Mediterranean (with summer drought and Central European (without summer drought, nutrients availability modulates the distribution of vegetation Classes with respectively Mediterranean or Central-Europe affinities.

  15. The Coupling of Back-arc Extension, Extrusion and Subduction Dynamics in the Eastern Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capitanio, Fabio A.

    2017-04-01

    Extension in the Aegean Sea and lateral Anatolian extrusion are contrasting and seemingly unrelated examples of continental tectonics In the Eastern Mediterranean. It is acknowledged that these must reconcile with the dynamics of Tethys closure and following continental collision along the convergent margin, however the underlying mechanisms have been difficult to pinpoint, thus far. Three-dimensional numerical modelling of the dynamics of subduction and coupling with the mantle and upper plates allows probing the evolution of similar areas, supporting inferences on the ultimate causes for the continental tectonics. I will present models that reproduce the force balance of subducting slabs' buoyancy, mantle flow and upper plate interiors, and emphasise the role of perturbations in the force balance that may have followed slab breakoff, collision and trench land-locking reconstructed during the oceanic closure in the Eastern Mediterranean. These perturbations lead to a range of different margin motions and strain regimes in the upper plate, from rollback and back-arc spreading, to indentation and extrusion along the collisional margin. Different spatial and temporal fingerprints are illustrated for these processes, and while the trench rollback and back-arc spreading are rather stable features, extrusion is transient. When these regimes overlap, rapid and complex rearrangements of the tectonics in the upper plate are the result. The remarkable similarity between the models' and the Eastern Mediterranean tectonic regimes and geophysical observable allows proposing viable driving mechanisms and support inferences on the Miocene-to-Pliocene evolution of this puzzling area.

  16. Fire regime in Mediterranean ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biondi, Guido; Casula, Paolo; D'Andrea, Mirko; Fiorucci, Paolo

    2010-05-01

    The analysis of burnt areas time series in Mediterranean regions suggests that ecosystems characterising this area consist primarily of species highly vulnerable to the fire but highly resilient, as characterized by a significant regenerative capacity after the fire spreading. In a few years the area burnt may once again be covered by the same vegetation present before the fire. Similarly, Mediterranean conifer forests, which often refers to plantations made in order to reforest the areas most severely degraded with high erosion risk, regenerate from seed after the fire resulting in high resilience to the fire as well. Only rarely, and usually with negligible damages, fire affects the areas covered by climax species in relation with altitude and soil types (i.e, quercus, fagus, abies). On the basis of these results, this paper shows how the simple Drossel-Schwabl forest fire model is able to reproduce the forest fire regime in terms of number of fires and burned area, describing whit good accuracy the actual fire perimeters. The original Drossel-Schwabl model has been slightly modified in this work by introducing two parameters (probability of propagation and regrowth) specific for each different class of vegetation cover. Using model selection methods based on AIC, the model with the optimal number of classes with different fire behaviour was selected. Two different case studies are presented in this work: Regione Liguria and Regione Sardegna (Italy). Both regions are situated in the center of the Mediterranean and are characterized by a high number of fires and burned area. However, the two regions have very different fire regimes. Sardinia is affected by the fire phenomenon only in summer whilst Liguria is affected by fires also in winter, with higher number of fires and larger burned area. In addition, the two region are very different in vegetation cover. The presence of Mediterranean conifers, (Pinus Pinaster, Pinus Nigra, Pinus halepensis) is quite spread in

  17. Mediterranean Diet in patients with acute ischemic stroke: Relationships between Mediterranean Diet score, diagnostic subtype, and stroke severity index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuttolomondo, Antonino; Casuccio, Alessandra; Buttà, Carmelo; Pecoraro, Rosaria; Di Raimondo, Domenico; Della Corte, Vittoriano; Arnao, Valentina; Clemente, Giuseppe; Maida, Carlo; Simonetta, Irene; Miceli, Giuseppe; Lucifora, Benedetto; Cirrincione, Anna; Di Bona, Danilo; Corpora, Francesca; Maugeri, Rosario; Iacopino, Domenico Gerardo; Pinto, Antonio

    2015-11-01

    Adherence to a Mediterranean Diet appears to reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease, cancer, Alzheimer's disease, and Parkinson's disease, as well as the risk of death due to cardiovascular disease. No study has addressed the association between diagnostic subtype of stroke and its severity and adherence to a Mediterranean Diet in subjects with acute ischemic stroke. To evaluate the association between Mediterranean Diet adherence, TOAST subtype, and stroke severity by means of a retrospective study. The type of acute ischemic stroke was classified according to the TOAST criteria. All patients admitted to our ward with acute ischemic stroke completed a 137-item validated food-frequency questionnaire adapted to the Sicilian population. A scale indicating the degree of adherence to the traditional Mediterranean Diet was used (Me-Di score: range 0-9). 198 subjects with acute ischemic stroke and 100 control subjects without stroke. Stroke subjects had a lower mean Mediterranean Diet score compared to 100 controls without stroke. We observed a significant positive correlation between Me-Di score and SSS score, whereas we observed a negative relationship between Me-Di score and NIHSS and Rankin scores. Subjects with atherosclerotic (LAAS) stroke subtype had a lower mean Me-Di score compared to subjects with other subtypes. Multinomial logistic regression analysis in a simple model showed a negative relationship between MeDi score and LAAS subtype vs. lacunar subtype (and LAAS vs. cardio-embolic subtype). Patients with lower adherence to a Mediterranean Diet are more likely to have an atherosclerotic (LAAS) stroke, a worse clinical presentation of ischemic stroke at admission and a higher Rankin score at discharge. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Texture Retrieval from VHR Optical Remote Sensed Images Using the Local Extrema Descriptor with Application to Vineyard Parcel Detection

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    Minh-Tan Pham

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we develop a novel method for the detection of vineyard parcels in agricultural landscapes based on very high resolution (VHR optical remote sensing images. Our objective is to perform texture-based image retrieval and supervised classification algorithms. To do that, the local textural and structural features inside each image are taken into account to measure its similarity to other images. In fact, VHR images usually involve a variety of local textures and structures that may verify a weak stationarity hypothesis. Hence, an approach only based on characteristic points, not on all pixels of the image, is supposed to be relevant. This work proposes to construct the local extrema-based descriptor (LED by using the local maximum and local minimum pixels extracted from the image. The LED descriptor is formed based on the radiometric, geometric and gradient features from these local extrema. We first exploit the proposed LED descriptor for the retrieval task to evaluate its performance on texture discrimination. Then, it is embedded into a supervised classification framework to detect vine parcels using VHR satellite images. Experiments performed on VHR panchromatic PLEIADES image data prove the effectiveness of the proposed strategy. Compared to state-of-the-art methods, an enhancement of about 7% in retrieval rate is achieved. For the detection task, about 90% of vineyards are correctly detected.

  19. The dependence of wintertime Mediterranean precipitation on the atmospheric circulation response to climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zappa, Giuseppe; Hoskins, Brian; Shepherd, Ted

    2016-04-01

    Climate models indicate a future wintertime precipitation reduction in the Mediterranean region which may have large socio-economic impacts. However, there is large uncertainty in the amplitude of the projected precipitation reduction and this limits the possibility to inform effective adaptation planning. We analyse CMIP5 climate model output to quantify the role of atmospheric circulation in the precipitation change and the time of emergence of the Mediterranean precipitation response. It is found that a simple circulation index, i.e. the 850 hPa zonal wind (U850) in North Africa, well describes the year to year fluctuations in the area-averaged Mediterranean precipitation, with positive (i.e. westerly) U850 anomalies in North Africa being associated with positive precipitation anomalies. Under climate change, U850 in North Africa and the Mediterranean precipitation are both projected to decrease consistently with the relationship found in the inter-annual variability. This enables us to estimate that about 85% of the CMIP5 mean precipitation response and 80% of the variance in the inter-model spread are related to changes in the atmospheric circulation. In contrast, there is no significant correlation between the mean precipitation response and the global-mean surface warming across the models. We also find that the precipitation response to climate change might already emerge from internal variability by 2025 relative to 1960-1990 according to the climate models with a large circulation response. This implies that it might soon be possible to test model projections using observations. Finally, some of the mechanisms which are important for the Mediterranean circulation response in the CMIP5 models are discussed.

  20. Med Diet 4.0: the Mediterranean diet with four sustainable benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dernini, S; Berry, E M; Serra-Majem, L; La Vecchia, C; Capone, R; Medina, F X; Aranceta-Bartrina, J; Belahsen, R; Burlingame, B; Calabrese, G; Corella, D; Donini, L M; Lairon, D; Meybeck, A; Pekcan, A G; Piscopo, S; Yngve, A; Trichopoulou, A

    2017-05-01

    To characterize the multiple dimensions and benefits of the Mediterranean diet as a sustainable diet, in order to revitalize this intangible food heritage at the country level; and to develop a multidimensional framework - the Med Diet 4.0 - in which four sustainability benefits of the Mediterranean diet are presented in parallel: major health and nutrition benefits, low environmental impacts and richness in biodiversity, high sociocultural food values, and positive local economic returns. A narrative review was applied at the country level to highlight the multiple sustainable benefits of the Mediterranean diet into a single multidimensional framework: the Med Diet 4.0. Setting/subjects We included studies published in English in peer-reviewed journals that contained data on the characterization of sustainable diets and of the Mediterranean diet. The methodological framework approach was finalized through a series of meetings, workshops and conferences where the framework was presented, discussed and ultimately refined. The Med Diet 4.0 provides a conceptual multidimensional framework to characterize the Mediterranean diet as a sustainable diet model, by applying principles of sustainability to the Mediterranean diet. By providing a broader understanding of the many sustainable benefits of the Mediterranean diet, the Med Diet 4.0 can contribute to the revitalization of the Mediterranean diet by improving its current perception not only as a healthy diet but also a sustainable lifestyle model, with country-specific and culturally appropriate variations. It also takes into account the identity and diversity of food cultures and systems, expressed within the notion of the Mediterranean diet, across the Mediterranean region and in other parts of the world. Further multidisciplinary studies are needed for the assessment of the sustainability of the Mediterranean diet to include these new dimensions.

  1. Mulch and groundcover effects on soil temperature and moisture, surface reflectance, grapevine water potential, and vineyard weed management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina M. Bavougian

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this research were to identify alternatives to glyphosate for intra-row (under-trellis vineyard floor management and to evaluate the potential for intra-row and inter-row (alleyway groundcovers to reduce vegetative vigor of ‘Marquette’ grapevines (Vitis spp. in a southeast Nebraska vineyard. The experiment was a randomized factorial design with five intra-row treatments (crushed glass mulch [CG], distillers’ grain mulch [DG], creeping red fescue [CRF], non-sprayed control [NSC], and glyphosate [GLY] and three inter-row treatments (creeping red fescue [CRF], Kentucky bluegrass [KB], and resident vegetation [RV]. Treatments were established in 2010–2011 and measurements were conducted during 2012 and 2013 on 5- and 6-year-old vines. Soil temperatures were mostly higher under mulches and lower under intra-row groundcovers, compared to GLY. Weed cover in CG, DG, and CRF treatments was the same or less than GLY. At most sampling dates, inter-row soil moisture was lowest under KB. Intra-row soil moisture was highest under DG mulch and lowest under CRF and NSC; CG had the same or lower soil moisture than GLY. Surprisingly, we did not detect differences in mid-day photosynthetically active radiation (PAR reflectance, despite visual differences among the intra-row treatments. Mid-day vine water potential did not differ among treatments. We concluded it is not necessary to maintain a bare soil strip under established vines in this region, where soil fertility and moisture are non-limiting.

  2. Weed control and cover crop management affect mycorrhizal colonization of grapevine roots and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal spore populations in a California vineyard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgartner, Kendra; Smith, Richard F; Bettiga, Larry

    2005-03-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi naturally colonize grapevines in California vineyards. Weed control and cover cropping may affect AM fungi directly, through destruction of extraradical hyphae by soil disruption, or indirectly, through effects on populations of mycorrhizal weeds and cover crops. We examined the effects of weed control (cultivation, post-emergence herbicides, pre-emergence herbicides) and cover crops (Secale cereale cv. Merced rye, x Triticosecale cv.Trios 102) on AM fungi in a Central Coast vineyard. Seasonal changes in grapevine mycorrhizal colonization differed among weed control treatments, but did not correspond with seasonal changes in total weed frequency. Differences in grapevine colonization among weed control treatments may be due to differences in mycorrhizal status and/or AM fungal species composition among dominant weed species. Cover crops had no effect on grapevine mycorrhizal colonization, despite higher spring spore populations in cover cropped middles compared to bare middles. Cover crops were mycorrhizal and shared four AM fungal species (Glomus aggregatum, G. etunicatum, G. mosseae, G. scintillans) in common with grapevines. Lack of contact between grapevine roots and cover crop roots may have prevented grapevines from accessing higher spore populations in the middles.

  3. Changes in rainfall patterns in Mediterranean ecosystems: the MIND project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Papale D

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Will Mediterranean terrestrial ecosystems be affected by the expected changes in precipitation regimes? If so, by how much and in which direction? These questions are at the basis of the research performed in context of the EU MIND project, whose key objectives were: i to investigate the potential effects of increasing drought on Mediterranean terrestrial ecosystems at the process, ecosystem and regional scales and ii to assess ecosystem vulnerability to changes in rainfall patterns. A network of experimental study sites has been created in Portugal, Spain, France and Italy, where field manipulations alter the amount of water available to the ecosystem. The most up-to-date methods of ecophysiology, micrometeorology, soil ecology and remote sensing have been used to elucidate the mechanisms that regulate the response of vegetation and soil to changes in water availability. This information is providing the basis for the implementation and validation of simulation models capable of predicting the drought response of Mediterranean terrestrial ecosystems, and their vulnerability to future climate change, on a larger scale. The out-coming results are elucidating how water availability affects plant ecophysiological processes, the dynamics of soil carbon and the overall exchange of mass and energy between the land and the atmosphere. This paper focuses on some of the important, yet preliminary, results on C and energy fluxes that have been obtained at the large scale troughfall manipulation experiment (Tolfa, Italy, in a forest dominated by Arbutus unedo L.

  4. Potential Mechanisms Underlying Response to Effects of the Fungicide Pyrimethanil from Gene Expression Profiling inSaccharomyces cerevisiae

    OpenAIRE

    Gil, Fátima N.; Becker, Jörg D.; Viegas, Cristina A.

    2014-01-01

    Pyrimethanil is a fungicide mostly applied in vineyards. When misused, residue levels detected in grape must or in the environment may be of concern. The present work aimed to analyze mechanisms underlying response to deleterious effects of pyrimethanil in the eukaryotic model Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Pyrimethanil concentration-dependent effects at phenotypic (inhibition of growth) and transcriptomic levels were examined. For transcriptional profiling, analysis focused on two sublethal expos...

  5. New Mediterranean Biodiversity Records (October, 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. KATSANEVAKIS

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The Collective Article ‘New Mediterranean Biodiversity Records’ of the Mediterranean Marine Science journal offers the means to publish biodiversity records in the Mediterranean Sea. The current article is divided in two parts, for records of alien and native species respectively. The new records of alien species include: the red alga Asparagopsis taxiformis (Crete and Lakonicos Gulf (Greece; the red alga Grateloupia turuturu (along the Israeli Mediterranean shore; the mantis shrimp Clorida albolitura (Gulf of Antalya, Turkey; the mud crab Dyspanopeus sayi (Mar Piccolo of Taranto, Ionian Sea; the blue crab Callinectes sapidus (Chios Island, Greece; the isopod Paracerceis sculpta (northern Aegean Sea, Greece; the sea urchin Diadema setosum (Gökova Bay, Turkey; the molluscs Smaragdia souverbiana, Murex forskoehlii, Fusinus verrucosus, Circenita callipyga, and Aplysia dactylomela (Syria; the cephalaspidean mollusc Haminoea cyanomarginata (Baia di Puolo, Massa Lubrense, Campania, southern Italy; the topmouth gudgeon Pseudorasbora parva (Civitavecchia, Tyrrhenian Sea; the fangtooth moray Enchelycore anatine (Plemmirio marine reserve, Sicily; the silver-cheeked toadfish Lagocephalus sceleratus (Saros Bay, Turkey; and Ibiza channel, Spain; the Indo-Pacific ascidian Herdmania momusin Kastelorizo Island (Greece; and the foraminiferal Clavulina multicam erata (Saronikos Gulf, Greece. The record of L. sceleratus in Spain consists the deepest (350-400m depth record of the species in the Mediterranean Sea. The new records of native species include: first record of the ctenophore Cestum veneris in Turkish marine waters; the presence of Holothuria tubulosa and Holothuria polii in the Bay of Igoumenitsa (Greece; the first recorded sighting of the bull ray Pteromylaeus bovinus in Maltese waters; and a new record of the fish Lobotes surinamensis from Maliakos Gulf.

  6. Water Demand Analysis for Tree Crops in Spanish Mediterranean Farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Angeles Fernández-Zamudio

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Olive, vine and almond in rainfed farming systems are the most traditional crops in the large inland extensions of the Spanish Mediterranean. Their economic contributions enable farming activities to be maintained meaning that the villages remain inhabited. In the rainfed-farms in the Mediterranean regions it is possible to find only a certain proportion of the farms with some type of irrigation system. Given the water scarcity, the aim of this work is to determine the impact that an irrigationwater pricing policy would have on these regions, as outlined in the European Water Framework Directive. After analysing the direct effect water price would have on the net margin in these crops, demand functions have been obtained, applying the Multiattribute Utility Theory. The calculations, with reference to a farm that is representative of these regions, have been applied to two model scenarios, each with a different level of mechanization. Results show the impact on economic, social and environmental aspects of the pricing policy under the current water allotment. The work is completed by analysing the different contexts of irrigation-water availability on the farm. The study leads to the conclusion that increasing mechanization may be the most straightforward strategy to ensure the survival of these farms in the short to medium term if the current trend of increasing irrigation-water prices is consolidated.

  7. Interactive Effect of UVR and Phosphorus on the Coastal Phytoplankton Community of the Western Mediterranean Sea: Unravelling Eco-Physiological Mechanisms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Presentación Carrillo

    Full Text Available Some of the most important effects of global change on coastal marine systems include increasing nutrient inputs and higher levels of ultraviolet radiation (UVR, 280-400 nm, which could affect primary producers, a key trophic link to the functioning of marine food webs. However, interactive effects of both factors on the phytoplankton community have not been assessed for the Mediterranean Sea. An in situ factorial experiment, with two levels of ultraviolet solar radiation (UVR+PAR vs. PAR and nutrients (control vs. P-enriched, was performed to evaluate single and UVR×P effects on metabolic, enzymatic, stoichiometric and structural phytoplanktonic variables. While most phytoplankton variables were not affected by UVR, dissolved phosphatase (APAEX and algal P content increased in the presence of UVR, which was interpreted as an acclimation mechanism of algae to oligotrophic marine waters. Synergistic UVR×P interactive effects were positive on photosynthetic variables (i.e., maximal electron transport rate, ETRmax, but negative on primary production and phytoplankton biomass because the pulse of P unmasked the inhibitory effect of UVR. This unmasking effect might be related to greater photodamage caused by an excess of electron flux after a P pulse (higher ETRmax without an efficient release of carbon as the mechanism to dissipate the reducing power of photosynthetic electron transport.

  8. Summer Flowering Cover Crops Support Wild Bees in Vineyards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Houston; Wong, Jessica S; Thorp, Robbin W; Miles, Albie F; Daane, Kent M; Altieri, Miguel A

    2018-02-08

    Agricultural expansion and intensification negatively affect pollinator populations and has led to reductions in pollination services across multiple cropping systems. As a result, growers and researchers have utilized the restoration of local and landscape habitat diversity to support pollinators, and wild bees in particular. Although a majority of studies to date have focussed on effects in pollinator-dependent crops such as almond, tomato, sunflower, and watermelon, supporting wild bees in self-pollinated crops, such as grapes, can contribute to broader conservation goals as well as provide other indirect benefits to growers. This study evaluates the influence of summer flowering cover crops and landscape diversity on the abundance and diversity of vineyard bee populations. We showed that diversity and abundance of wild bees were increased on the flowering cover crop, but were unaffected by changes in landscape diversity. These findings indicate that summer flowering cover crops can be used to support wild bees and this could be a useful strategy for grape growers interested in pollinator conservation as part of a broader farmscape sustainability agenda. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Measurements of transuranic elements in the Mediterranean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballestra, S.; Holm, E.; Fukai, R.

    1976-01-01

    In order to supplement the baseline data on the distribution of transuranic elements in the Mediterranean, which have already been reported, further measurements were carried out on sea water samples collected during 1974-75 cruises. In 1974 profile collections were conducted at a station approximately 50 km south of Monaco in addition to surface sampling at a few stations, while surface waters were taken from several stations covering wider regions of the western Mediterranean during the 1975 cruises. The measurement of 238 Pu as well as 241 Am were for the first time successful on the 1975 samples. These data are considered valuable as the basis for understanding transuranic biogeochemistry in the Mediterranean environment

  10. 137Cs baseline levels in the Mediterranean and Black Sea: A cross-basin survey of the CIESM Mediterranean Mussel Watch programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thebault, Herve; Rodriguez y Baena, Alessia M.; Andral, Bruno; Barisic, Delko; Albaladejo, Jose Benedicto; Bologa, Alexandru S.; Boudjenoun, Redouane; Delfanti, Roberta; Egorov, Victor N.; El Khoukhi, Tahar; Florou, Heleni; Kniewald, Goran; Noureddine, Abdelkader

    2008-01-01

    The common mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis was selected as unique biomonitor species to implement a regional monitoring programme, the CIESM Mediterranean Mussel Watch (MMW), in the Mediterranean and Black Seas. As of today, and upon standardization of the methodological approach, the MMW Network has been able to quantify 137 Cs levels in mussels from 60 coastal stations and to produce the first distribution map of this artificial radionuclide at the scale of the entire Mediterranean and Black Seas. While measured 137 Cs levels were found to be very low (usually -1 wet wt) 137 Cs activity concentrations in the Black Sea and North Aegean Sea were up to two orders of magnitude higher than those in the western Mediterranean Basin. Such effects, far from representing a threat to human populations or the environment, reflect a persistent signature of the Chernobyl fallout in this area

  11. The Mediterranean: A Corrupting Sea? A Review-Essay on Ecology and History, Anthropology and Synthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang, Peter Fibiger

    2004-01-01

    Historie, Mediterranean pre-industrial history, The Mediterranean, Ecological History, Economic History, Pre-industrial History, Finley, Ancient trade, Mediterranean unity......Historie, Mediterranean pre-industrial history, The Mediterranean, Ecological History, Economic History, Pre-industrial History, Finley, Ancient trade, Mediterranean unity...

  12. Mediterranean diet: from a healthy diet to a sustainable dietary pattern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandro eDernini

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The notion of the Mediterranean Diet has undergone a progressive evolution over the past 60 years, from a healthy dietary pattern to a sustainable dietary pattern, in which nutrition, food, cultures, people, environment and sustainability all interact into a new model of a sustainable diet. An overview of the historical antecedents and recent increased interest in the Mediterranean diet is presented and challenges related how to improve the sustainability of the Mediterranean diet are identified. Despite its increasing popularity worldwide, adherence to the Mediterranean diet model is decreasing for multifactorial influences – life styles changes, food globalization, economic and socio-cultural factors. These changes pose serious threats to the preservation and transmission of the Mediterranean diet heritage to present and future generations. Today’s challenge is to reverse such trends. A greater focus on the Mediterranean diet's potential as a sustainable dietary pattern, instead than just on its well documented healthy benefits, can contribute to its enhancement. More cross-disciplinary studies on environmental, economic and socio-cultural, sustainability dimensions of the Mediterranean diet are foreseen as a critical need.

  13. Mediterranean Diet: From a Healthy Diet to a Sustainable Dietary Pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dernini, Sandro; Berry, Elliot M

    2015-01-01

    The notion of the Mediterranean diet has undergone a progressive evolution over the past 60 years, from a healthy dietary pattern to a sustainable dietary pattern, in which nutrition, food, cultures, people, environment, and sustainability all interact into a new model of a sustainable diet. An overview of the historical antecedents and recent increased interest in the Mediterranean diet is presented and challenges related to how to improve the sustainability of the Mediterranean diet are identified. Despite its increasing popularity worldwide, adherence to the Mediterranean diet model is decreasing for multifactorial influences - life styles changes, food globalization, economic, and socio-cultural factors. These changes pose serious threats to the preservation and transmission of the Mediterranean diet heritage to present and future generations. Today's challenge is to reverse such trends. A greater focus on the Mediterranean diet's potential as a sustainable dietary pattern, instead than just on its well-documented healthy benefits, can contribute to its enhancement. More cross-disciplinary studies on environmental, economic and socio-cultural, and sustainability dimensions of the Mediterranean diet are foreseen as a critical need.

  14. A Mediterranean Diet Model in Australia: Strategies for Translating the Traditional Mediterranean Diet into a Multicultural Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Elena S; Kucianski, Teagan; Mayr, Hannah L; Moschonis, George; Tierney, Audrey C; Itsiopoulos, Catherine

    2018-04-09

    Substantial evidence supports the effect of the Mediterranean Diet (MD) for managing chronic diseases, although trials have been primarily conducted in Mediterranean populations. The efficacy and feasibility of the Mediterranean dietary pattern for the management of chronic diseases has not been extensively evaluated in non-Mediterranean settings. This paper aims to describe the development of a MD model that complies with principles of the traditional MD applied in a multiethnic context. Optimal macronutrient and food-based composition was defined, and a two-week menu was devised incorporating traditional ingredients with evidence based on improvements in chronic disease management. Strategies were developed for the implementation of the diet model in a multiethnic population. Consistent with the principles of a traditional MD, the MD model was plant-based and high in dietary fat, predominantly monounsaturated fatty acids from extra virgin olive oil. Fruits, vegetables and wholegrains were a mainstay, and moderate amounts of nuts and seeds, fish, dairy and red wine were recommended. The diet encompassed key features of the MD including cuisine, biodiversity and sustainability. The MD model preserved traditional dietary components likely to elicit health benefits for individuals with chronic diseases, even with the adaptation to an Australian multiethnic population.

  15. A Mediterranean Diet Model in Australia: Strategies for Translating the Traditional Mediterranean Diet into a Multicultural Setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena S. George

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Substantial evidence supports the effect of the Mediterranean Diet (MD for managing chronic diseases, although trials have been primarily conducted in Mediterranean populations. The efficacy and feasibility of the Mediterranean dietary pattern for the management of chronic diseases has not been extensively evaluated in non-Mediterranean settings. This paper aims to describe the development of a MD model that complies with principles of the traditional MD applied in a multiethnic context. Optimal macronutrient and food-based composition was defined, and a two-week menu was devised incorporating traditional ingredients with evidence based on improvements in chronic disease management. Strategies were developed for the implementation of the diet model in a multiethnic population. Consistent with the principles of a traditional MD, the MD model was plant-based and high in dietary fat, predominantly monounsaturated fatty acids from extra virgin olive oil. Fruits, vegetables and wholegrains were a mainstay, and moderate amounts of nuts and seeds, fish, dairy and red wine were recommended. The diet encompassed key features of the MD including cuisine, biodiversity and sustainability. The MD model preserved traditional dietary components likely to elicit health benefits for individuals with chronic diseases, even with the adaptation to an Australian multiethnic population.

  16. Mediterranean energy transition: 2040 scenario. Executive summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben Jannet Allal, Houda; Guarrera, Lisa; Karbuz, Sohbet; Menichetti, Emanuela; Lescoeur, Bruno; El Agrebi, Hassen; Harrouch, Hamdi; Campana, Dominique; Greaume, Francois; Bedes, Christelle; Bolinches, Christine; Meraud, Thierry; Tappero, Denis; Bosseboeuf, Didier; Lechevin, Bruno; Abaach, Hassan; Damasiotis, Markos; Darras, Marc; Hajjaji, Mourad; Keramane, Abdenour; Khalfallah, Ezzedine; Mourtada, Adel; Osman, Nejib

    2016-06-01

    The stakes of embarking upon a Mediterranean Energy Transition is essential for countries from both shores of the Mediterranean, especially taking into account the increasing demographics (+105 million by 2040) and the fast growing energy demand in an increasingly constrained context both in terms of energy availability and environmental impacts of conventional energy sources uses. There is a huge, but yet untapped, potential for energy efficiency and renewable energy sources, especially in the South Mediterranean region. By improving energy efficiency and deploying renewables on a large scale, the Mediterranean region would reduce tensions on energy security for importing countries, improve opportunities for exporting ones and reduce energy costs and environmental damages for the whole region. Embarking on an energy transition path will also help improve social welfare in the region and contribute to job creation, among other positive externalities. OME regularly conducts prospective works to 2040, assessing the impact of prolonging current energy trends. Under this Business-As-Usual or so-called 'Conservative' Scenario the situation would evolve critically on all counts over the next 25 years: doubling of energy demand and tripling of electricity consumption, soaring infrastructure and import bills (+443 GW to be installed and doubling of the fossil-fuel imports) and a critical rise in carbon emissions (+45%). Such a scenario, based essentially on fossil fuels, would put further strain on the environment and exacerbate geopolitical tensions in the region. A change of energy trajectory is therefore necessary for all Mediterranean countries to help change current trends and to increase efforts promoting energy efficiency and renewable energies. In this context, MEDENER and OME, based on the 2030-2050 visions of ADEME and the prospective tools of OME, have decided to jointly investigate a Mediterranean Energy Transition Scenario, an ambitious scenario that

  17. Mediterranean extension and the Africa-Eurasia collision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jolivet, Laurent; Faccenna, Claudio

    2000-12-01

    A number of tectonic events occurred contemporaneously in the Mediterranean region and the Middle East 30-25 Myr ago. These events are contemporaneous to or immediately followed a strong reduction of the northward absolute motion of Africa. Geological observations in the Neogene extensional basins of the Mediterranean region reveal that extension started synchronously from west to east 30-25 Myr ago. In the western Mediterranean it started in the Gulf of Lion, Valencia trough, and Alboran Sea as well as between the Maures massif and Corsica between 33 and 27 Ma ago. It then propagated eastward and southward to form to Liguro-Provençal basin and the Tyrrhenian Sea. In the eastern Mediterranean, extension started in the Aegean Sea before the deposition of marine sediments onto the collapsed Hellenides in the Aquitanian and before the cooling of high-temperature metamorphic core complexes between 20 and 25 Ma. Foundering of the inner zones of the Carpathians and extension in the Panonnian basin also started in the late Oligocene-early Miocene. The body of the Afro-Arabian plate first collided with Eurasia in the eastern Mediterranean region progressively from the Eocene to the Oligocene. Extensional tectonics was first recorded in the Gulf of Aden, Afar triple junction, and Red Sea region also in the Oligocene. A general magmatic surge occurred above all African hot spots, especially the Afar one. We explore the possibility that these drastic changes in the stress regime of the Mediterranean region and Middle East and the contemporaneous volcanic event were triggerred by the Africa/Arabia-Eurasia collision, which slowed down the motion of Africa. The present-day Mediterranean Sea was then locked between two collision zones, and the velocity of retreat of the African slab increased and became larger than the velocity of convergence leading to backarc extension. East of the Caucasus and northern Zagros collision zone the Afro-Arabian plate was still pulled by the slab

  18. The Mediterranean basin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tomas, Carmen; Sanchez Sanchez, Juan Jose; Barbaro, A.

    2008-01-01

    The X-chromosome has valuable characteristics for population genetic studies. In order to investigate the genetics of the human Mediterranean populations further, we developed a 25 X-chromosome SNP-multiplex typing system. The system was based on PCR multiplex amplification and subsequent multipl...

  19. Environmental control on Emiliania huxleyi coccolithophore calcification in the Mediterranean Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Amario, Barbara; Grelaud, Michael; Ziveri, Patrizia

    2016-04-01

    relationships between climate and calcifying phytoplankton. The Mediterranean is a marginal sea; nevertheless our results could be applicable to other regions and reflect ecological mechanisms taking place also in the open ocean.

  20. Impacts of Climate Change on Vector Borne Diseases in the Mediterranean Basin - Implications for Preparedness and Adaptation Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negev, Maya; Paz, Shlomit; Clermont, Alexandra; Pri-Or, Noemie Groag; Shalom, Uri; Yeger, Tamar; Green, Manfred S

    2015-06-15

    The Mediterranean region is vulnerable to climatic changes. A warming trend exists in the basin with changes in rainfall patterns. It is expected that vector-borne diseases (VBD) in the region will be influenced by climate change since weather conditions influence their emergence. For some diseases (i.e., West Nile virus) the linkage between emergence andclimate change was recently proved; for others (such as dengue) the risk for local transmission is real. Consequently, adaptation and preparation for changing patterns of VBD distribution is crucial in the Mediterranean basin. We analyzed six representative Mediterranean countries and found that they have started to prepare for this threat, but the preparation levels among them differ, and policy mechanisms are limited and basic. Furthermore, cross-border cooperation is not stable and depends on international frameworks. The Mediterranean countries should improve their adaptation plans, and develop more cross-sectoral, multidisciplinary and participatory approaches. In addition, based on experience from existing local networks in advancing national legislation and trans-border cooperation, we outline recommendations for a regional cooperation framework. We suggest that a stable and neutral framework is required, and that it should address the characteristics and needs of African, Asian and European countries around the Mediterranean in order to ensure participation. Such a regional framework is essential to reduce the risk of VBD transmission, since the vectors of infectious diseases know no political borders.

  1. The mediterranean diet model in inflammatory rheumatic diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Spinella

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The Mediterranean diet is based on a pattern of eating that’s closely tied to the Mediterranean region, which includes Greece and southern Italy. Essentially, the traditional diet emphasizes foods from plant sources, limited meat consumption, small amounts of wine and olive oil as the main fat source. The beneficial effects of the Mediterranean diet has been proven not only to cardiovascular diseases but also for diabetes, obesity, arthritis and cancer. Its anti-inflammatory and protective properties are linked to the large presence of ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, vitamins, but especially to the constituents of extra virgin olive oil: oleic acid, phenolic compounds olecanthal, a new recently discovered molecule, with natural anti-inflammatory properties. It has been shown that the Mediterranean diet can reduce disease activity, pain and stiffness in patients with inflammatory arthritis and may thus constitute a valuable support for patients suffering from these diseases.

  2. Global change and viticulture in the Mediterranean region: a case of study in north-eastern Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joan-Albert Lopez-Bustins

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Viticulture in the Mediterranean region has been improved by agronomic methods based on ecophysiological and genetic knowledge of the species and varieties cultivated. Plant growth, yield and quality are highly dependent on climate. Grape sugar content and wine alcohol content are considered as important quality parameters. The objective of our study is to analyse the effects of the current global change on the percentage of alcohol by volume (ABV in red wines from vineyards located in the Montsant Designation of Origin (DO (Priorat County, north-eastern Spain. We present an annual series of percentage of ABV in red wines over the 1984-2008 period (25 years, which is one of the longest series of this viticultural variable in Spain. We do not detect any significant trend of alcohol levels in red wines from the Montsant DO along the 1984-2004 subperiod, but a sharp increase about 1% (by volume is observed after 2004; we statistically checked that the last four years constitute an outlier period in the series. We consider climate evolution over the 1984-2004 period in the study area in order to find some relation with alcohol levels in red wines. Agronomic practices and land cover changes are also taken into account. Results show that the interannual variability of the alcohol levels in red wines are partially explained by temperature and precipitation conditions few days before the vintage. The high percentages of ABV since 2005 may be associated with new trends in viticulture techniques rather than with climate change.

  3. Global change and viticulture in the Mediterranean region: a case of study in north-eastern Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez-Bustins, J. A.; Pla, E.; Nadal, M.; Herralde, F. de; Save, R.

    2014-06-01

    Viticulture in the Mediterranean region has been improved by agronomic methods based on eco physiological and genetic knowledge of the species and varieties cultivated. Plant growth, yield and quality are highly dependent on climate. Grape sugar content and wine alcohol content are considered as important quality parameters. The objective of our study is to analyse the effects of the current global change on the percentage of alcohol by volume (ABV) in red wines from vineyards located in the Montsant Designation of Origin (DO) (Priorat County, north-eastern Spain). We present an annual series of percentage of ABV in red wines over the 1984-2008 period (25 years), which is one of the longest series of this viticultural variable in Spain. We do not detect any significant trend of alcohol levels in red wines from the Montsant DO along the 1984-2004 subperiod, but a sharp increase about 1% (by volume) is observed after 2004; we statistically checked that the last four years constitute an outlier period in the series. We consider climate evolution over the 1984-2004 period in the study area in order to find some relation with alcohol levels in red wines. Agronomic practices and land cover changes are also taken into account. Results show that the interannual variability of the alcohol levels in red wines are partially explained by temperature and precipitation conditions few days before the vintage. The high percentages of ABV since 2005 may be associated with new trends in viticulture techniques rather than with climate change. (Author)

  4. Central obesity and the Mediterranean diet: A systematic review of intervention trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendall, C L; Mayr, H L; Opie, R S; Bes-Rastrollo, M; Itsiopoulos, C; Thomas, C J

    2017-10-17

    Central obesity is associated with chronic low-grade inflammation, and is a risk factor for cardiometabolic syndrome. The Mediterranean diet pattern has a convincing evidence-base for improving cardiometabolic health. This review investigated the impact of Mediterranean diet interventions on central obesity, specifically. A systematic literature search was conducted in the MEDLINE, CINAHL, EMBASE and Cochrane library databases. Search terms included: 'Mediterranean Diet', 'Mediterranean dietary pattern', 'central obesity' and 'visceral fat'. The search was limited to English language and humans ≥18 years. Eighteen articles met the eligibility criteria and reported at least one outcome measure of central obesity with Mediterranean diet intervention. Central obesity measures included waist circumference (16 studies), waist-hip ratio (5 studies) and visceral fat (2 studies). Thirteen (72%) of the studies, totaling 7186 subjects (5168 subjects assigned to a Mediterranean Diet), reported a significant reduction in central obesity with a Mediterranean-type diet. However, seven out of these 13 interventions employed energy restriction, and only three showed a statistically significant favorable effect of the Mediterranean diet relative to a control group. This systematic review highlights the potential for a Mediterranean diet intervention to reduce central obesity and in turn reduce obesity-related chronic disease risk and associated public health burden.

  5. The Mediterranean diet, its components, and cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widmer, R Jay; Flammer, Andreas J; Lerman, Lilach O; Lerman, Amir

    2015-03-01

    One of the best-studied diets for cardiovascular health is the Mediterranean diet. This consists of fish, monounsaturated fats from olive oil, fruits, vegetables, whole grains, legumes/nuts, and moderate alcohol consumption. The Mediterranean diet has been shown to reduce the burden, or even prevent the development, of cardiovascular disease, breast cancer, depression, colorectal cancer, diabetes, obesity, asthma, erectile dysfunction, and cognitive decline. This diet is also known to improve surrogates of cardiovascular disease, such as waist-to-hip ratio, lipids, and markers of inflammation, as well as primary cardiovascular disease outcomes such as death and events in both observational and randomized controlled trial data. These enhancements easily rival those seen with more established tools used to fight cardiovascular disease such as aspirin, beta-blockers, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, and exercise. However, it is unclear if the Mediterranean diet offers cardiovascular disease benefit from its individual constituents or in aggregate. Furthermore, the potential benefit of the Mediterranean diet or its components is not yet validated by concrete cardiovascular disease endpoints in randomized trials or observational studies. This review will focus on the effects of the whole and parts of the Mediterranean diet with regard to both population-based and experimental data highlighting cardiovascular disease morbidity or mortality and cardiovascular disease surrogates when hard outcomes are not available. Our synthesis will highlight the potential for the Mediterranean diet to act as a key player in cardiovascular disease prevention, and attempt to identify certain aspects of the diet that are particularly beneficial for cardioprotection. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Carbon and nitrogen mineralization in vineyard acid soils amended with a bentonitic winery waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Calviño, David; Rodríguez-Salgado, Isabel; Pérez-Rodríguez, Paula; Díaz-Raviña, Montserrat; Nóvoa-Muñoz, Juan Carlos; Arias-Estévez, Manuel

    2015-04-01

    Carbon mineralization and nitrogen ammonification processes were determined in different vineyard soils. The measurements were performed in samples non-amended and amended with different bentonitic winery waste concentrations. Carbon mineralization was measured as CO2 released by the soil under laboratory conditions, whereas NH4+ was determined after its extraction with KCl 2M. The time evolution of both, carbon mineralization and nitrogen ammonification, was followed during 42 days. The released CO2 was low in the analyzed vineyard soils, and hence the metabolic activity in these soils was low. The addition of the bentonitic winery waste to the studied soils increased highly the carbon mineralization (2-5 fold), showing that the organic matter added together the bentonitic waste to the soil have low stability. In both cases, amended and non-amended samples, the maximum carbon mineralization was measured during the first days (2-4 days), decreasing as the incubation time increased. The NH4+ results showed an important effect of bentonitic winery waste on the ammonification behavior in the studied soils. In the non-amended samples the ammonification was no detected in none of the soils, whereas in the amended soils important NH4+ concentrations were detected. In these cases, the ammonification was fast, reaching the maximum values of NH4 between 7 and 14 days after the bentonitic waste additions. Also, the percentages of ammonification respect to the total nitrogen in the soil were high, showing that the nitrogen provided by the bentonitic waste to the soil is non-stable. The fast carbon mineralization found in the soils amended with bentonitic winery wastes shows low possibilities of the use of this waste for the increasing the organic carbon pools in the soil.On the other hand, the use of this waste as N-fertilizer can be possible. However, due its fast ammonification, the waste should be added to the soils during active plant growth periods.

  7. Influence of foliar riboflavin applications to vineyard on grape amino acid content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Santamaría, Rosario; Ruiz-González, Rubén; Nonell, Santi; Garde-Cerdán, Teresa; Pérez-Álvarez, Eva P

    2018-02-01

    Nitrogen is an important element for grapevine and winemaking, which affects plant development, grape juice fermentation and has a potential effect in modulating wine quality. The aim was to study the influence of foliar applications of riboflavin (vitamin B2) to vineyard on grape nitrogen composition. This vitamin has a reported capacity to protect different plant species, but its application to favor grape and grape juice quality had not previously been studied. This work reports the oenological properties and the effect on amino acid concentration of grape juices obtained from grapes treated with riboflavin at two different doses compared to control. Results showed that probable alcohol, malic acid, color intensity and hue had significant differences when the riboflavin treatments were applied. Most of the amino acids presented the highest concentrations when the lowest riboflavin dose was used. These results are promising in terms of fermentation development and grape juice nitrogen composition. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Precipitation Climatology over Mediterranean Basin from Ten Years of TRMM Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Amita V.; Yang, Song

    2008-01-01

    Climatological features of mesoscale rain activities over the Mediterranean region between 5 W-40 E and 28 N-48 N are examined using the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) 3B42 and 2A25 rain products. The 3B42 rainrates at 3-hourly, 0.25 deg x 0.25 deg spatial resolution for the last 10 years (January 1998 to July 2007) are used to form and analyze the 5-day mean and monthly mean climatology of rainfall. Results show considerable regional and seasonal differences of rainfall over the Mediterranean Region. The maximum rainfall (3-5 mm/day) occurs over the mountain regions of Europe, while the minimum rainfall is observed over North Africa (approximately 0.5 mm/day). The main rainy season over the Mediterranean Sea extends from October to March, with maximum rainfall occurring during November-December. Over the Mediterranean Sea, an average rainrate of approximately 1-2 mm/day is observed, but during the rainy season there is 20% larger rainfall over the western Mediterranean Sea than that over the eastern Mediterranean Sea. During the rainy season, mesoscale rain systems generally propagate from west to east and from north to south over the Mediterranean region, likely to be associated with Mediterranean cyclonic disturbances resulting from interactions among large-scale circulation, orography, and land-sea temperature contrast.

  9. The effect of the air blast sprayer speed on the chemical distribution in vineyard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celen, I H; Arin, S; Durgut, M R

    2008-06-01

    A study was conducted to determine the spray deposition patterns for air blast sprayers used to apply chemicals to the canopy of Semillon grapevine in vineyard. The application carried out in 12 bars and three sprayer speed (2.1-4.9-7.7 km h(-1)). The spray deposition was measured on the point in the different distances (1.5-3-6-9 m). Tartrazine were applied as tracer material. Maximum spray deposit was obtained 66.1 mg cm(-2) at sprayer speed of 2.1 km h(-1) and minimum deposit was obtained 37.1 mg cm(-2) at sprayer speed of 7.7 km h(-1). The results showed that the sprayer speeds had significant effect on spray deposit distribution and increasing of the sprayer speed increased drift.

  10. The Mediterranean Diet and ADHD in Children and Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ríos-Hernández, Alejandra; Alda, José A; Farran-Codina, Andreu; Ferreira-García, Estrella; Izquierdo-Pulido, Maria

    2017-02-01

    Although attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has been related to nutrient deficiencies and "unhealthy" diets, to date there are no studies that examined the relationship between the Mediterranean diet and ADHD. We hypothesized that a low adherence to a Mediterranean diet would be positively associated with an increase in ADHD diagnosis. A total of 120 children and adolescents (60 with newly diagnosed ADHD and 60 controls) were studied in a sex- and age-matched case-control study. ADHD diagnosis was made according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision. Energy, dietary intake, adherence to a Mediterranean diet, and familial background were measured. Logistic regression was used to determine associations between the adherence to a Mediterranean diet and ADHD. Lower adherence to a Mediterranean diet was associated with ADHD diagnosis (odds ratio: 7.07; 95% confidence interval: 2.65-18.84; relative risk: 2.80; 95% confidence interval: 1.54-5.25). Both remained significant after adjusting for potential confounders. Lower frequency of consuming fruit, vegetables, pasta, and rice and higher frequency of skipping breakfast and eating at fast-food restaurants were associated with ADHD diagnosis (P Mediterranean diet might play a role in ADHD development. Our data support the notion that not only "specific nutrients" but also the "whole diet" should be considered in ADHD. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  11. Climate change and viticulture in Mediterranean climates: the complex response of socio-ecosystems. A comparative case study from France and Australia (1955-2040)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lereboullet, A.-L.; Beltrando, G.; Bardsley, D. K.

    2012-04-01

    The wine industry is very sensitive to extreme weather events, especially to temperatures above 35°C and drought. In a context of global climate change, Mediterranean climate regions are predicted to experience higher variability in rainfall and temperatures and an increased occurrence of extreme weather events. Some viticultural systems could be particularly at risk in those regions, considering their marginal position in the growth climatic range of Vitis vinifera, the long commercial lifespan of a vineyard, the high added-value of wine and the volatile nature of global markets. The wine industry, like other agricultural systems, is inserted in complex networks of climatic and non-climatic (other physical, economical, social and legislative) components, with constant feedbacks. We use a socio-ecosystem approach to analyse the adaptation of two Mediterranean viticultural systems to recent and future increase of extreme weather events. The present analysis focuses on two wine regions with a hot-summer Mediterranean climate (CSb type in the Köppen classification): Côtes-du-Roussillon in southern France and McLaren Vale in southern Australia. Using climate data from two synoptic weather stations, Perpignan (France) and Adelaide (Australia), with time series running from 1955 to 2010, we highlight changes in rainfall patterns and an increase in the number of days with Tx >35°c since the last three decades in both regions. Climate models (DRIAS project data for France and CSIRO Mk3.5 for Australia) project similar trends in the future. To date, very few projects have focused on an international comparison of the adaptive capacity of viticultural systems to climate change with a holistic approach. Here, the analysis of climate data was complemented by twenty in-depth semi-structured interviews with key actors of the two regional wine industries, in order to analyse adaptation strategies put in place regarding recent climate evolution. This mixed-methods approach

  12. Mediterranean Diet: From a Healthy Diet to a Sustainable Dietary Pattern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dernini, Sandro; Berry, Elliot M.

    2015-01-01

    The notion of the Mediterranean diet has undergone a progressive evolution over the past 60 years, from a healthy dietary pattern to a sustainable dietary pattern, in which nutrition, food, cultures, people, environment, and sustainability all interact into a new model of a sustainable diet. An overview of the historical antecedents and recent increased interest in the Mediterranean diet is presented and challenges related to how to improve the sustainability of the Mediterranean diet are identified. Despite its increasing popularity worldwide, adherence to the Mediterranean diet model is decreasing for multifactorial influences – life styles changes, food globalization, economic, and socio-cultural factors. These changes pose serious threats to the preservation and transmission of the Mediterranean diet heritage to present and future generations. Today’s challenge is to reverse such trends. A greater focus on the Mediterranean diet’s potential as a sustainable dietary pattern, instead than just on its well-documented healthy benefits, can contribute to its enhancement. More cross-disciplinary studies on environmental, economic and socio-cultural, and sustainability dimensions of the Mediterranean diet are foreseen as a critical need. PMID:26284249

  13. Impact of ozone on Mediterranean forests: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paoletti, E.

    2006-01-01

    Ozone impact on Mediterranean forests remains largely under-investigated, despite strong photochemical activity and harmful effects on crops. As representative of O 3 impacts on Mediterranean vegetation, this paper reviews the current knowledge about O 3 and forests in Italy. The intermediate position between Africa and European mid-latitudes creates a complex patchwork of climate and vegetation. Available data from air quality monitoring stations and passive samplers suggest O 3 levels regularly exceed the critical level (CL) for forests. In contrast, relationships between O 3 exposure and effects (crown transparency, radial growth and foliar visible symptoms) often fail. Despite limitations in the study design or underestimation of the CL can also affect this discrepancy, the effects of site factors and plant ecology suggest Mediterranean forest vegetation is adapted to face oxidative stress, including O 3 . Implications for risk assessment (flux-based CL, level III, non-stomatal deposition) are discussed. - Why Mediterranean forests are more ozone tolerant than mesophilic vegetation is explored

  14. Effects of Mediterranean shrub species on rainfall interception

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia-Estringana, P.; Alonso-Blazquez, N.; Marques, M. J.; Bienes, R.; Alegre, J.

    2009-01-01

    Rainfall is intercepted by vegetation. Water intercepted could be evaporated, or it could drip from the leaves and stems to the soil or it could run down the stems to the base of the plant. In the Mediterranean, where water is a scant resource, interception loss could have an influence on hydrology. Water storage capacity depends on vegetation type. In the Mediterranean, there are many types of shrubs, and many of them are able to intercept large volumes of water depending on the shrub type. many lands of the Mediterranean basin of Europea Union have been abandoned in the last decades and consequently vegetation type changes too. This modifies hydrologic processes, changing the volume and the way in which the rainfall reaches the soil. The aim of this study was to characterize water storage capacity in 9 Mediterranean shrub species, working with the whole plant and comparing results obtained by two methods, rainfall simulation and submersion method in laboratory conditions. (Author) 12 refs.

  15. Origin and biogeography of the deep-water Mediterranean Hydromedusae including the description of two new species collected in submarine canyons of Northwestern Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Gili

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available Two new species of hydromedusae (Foersteria antoniae and Cunina simplex are described from plankton collected in sediment traps placed in the Lacaze-Duthiers Submarine Canyon and along Banyuls-sur-Mer coast (northwestern Mediterranean. The Mediterranean hydromedusan deep-water fauna contains 41 species which represent 45.5 % of the world-wide deep-sea hydromedusae fauna (90 and 20% of the total number of Mediterranean hydromedusae (204. The Mediterranean deep-water hydromedusan fauna is characterised by a large percentage of holoplanktonic species (61%, mainly Trachymedusae. Nevertheless, contrary to the general opinion, the percentage of meroplanktonic species is equally high. The most original features of this fauna lies however in the importance of the number of endemic species (22% and in the fact that the majority of them are meroplanktonic Leptomedusae with a supposed bathybenthic stage. Some of the endemic species could still represent relics of the primitive Tethys fauna having survived to the Messinian crisis. The origin of the Mediterranean deep-water hydromedusan fauna is discussed and a general hypothesis is proposed.

  16. Genetic or mechanical sexing system for the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wied.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walder, J.M.M.

    1990-01-01

    A black puparium, monofactorial mutant was isolated in 1983 from a laboratory colony of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann). The mutant was used to construct a genetic sexing strain based on pupal sorting. Translocations were induced in wild male adults, 48 hours old, by gamma radiation (55 Gy; 60 Co). These males were crossed to black pupae females and produced two pupal sorting strains (T-44 and T-213) in 1987. These strains were lost after six generations. In another series of translocation inductions the strain T-87B was screened. Rearing the strain for eight generations in the laboratory provided no indication of instability in the strain. T-87B is now being mass reared. (author). 16 refs, 4 tabs

  17. The Mediterranean and Black Sea fisheries at risk from overexploitation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athanassios C Tsikliras

    Full Text Available The status of the Mediterranean and Black Sea fisheries was evaluated for the period 1970-2010 on a subarea basis, using various indicators including the temporal variability of total landings, the number of recorded stocks, the mean trophic level of the catch, the fishing-in-balance index and the catch-based method of stock classification. All indicators confirmed that the fisheries resources of the Mediterranean and Black Sea are at risk from overexploitation. The pattern of exploitation and the state of stocks differed among the western (W, central (C and eastern (E Mediterranean subareas and the Black Sea (BS, with the E Mediterranean and BS fisheries being in a worst shape. Indeed, in the E Mediterranean and the BS, total landings, mean trophic level of the catch and fishing-in-balance index were declining, the cumulative percentage of overexploited and collapsed stocks was higher, and the percentage of developing stocks was lower, compared to the W and C Mediterranean. Our results confirm the need for detailed and extensive stock assessments across species that will eventually lead to stocks recovering through conservation and management measures.

  18. New Mediterranean Marine biodiversity records (June 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. SIOKOU

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper concerns records of species that have extended their distribution in the Mediterranean Sea. The finding of the rare brackish angiosperm Althenia filiformis in the island of Cyprus is interesting since its insertion in the Red Data Book of the Flora of Cyprus is suggested. The following species enriched the flora or fauna lists of the relevant countries: the red alga Sebdenia dichotoma (Greece, the hydrachnid mite Pontarachna adriatica (Slovenia, and the thalassinid Gebiacantha talismani (Turkey. Several alien species were recorded in new Mediterranean localities. The record of the burrowing goby Trypauchen vagina in the North Levantine Sea (Turkish coast, suggests the start of spreading of this Lessepsian immigrant in the Mediterranean Sea. The findings of the following species indicate the extension of their occurrence in the Mediterranean Sea: the foraminifer Amphistegina lobifera (island of Zakynthos, Greece, the medusa Cassiopea andromeda (Syria, the copepod Centropages furcatus (Aegean Sea, the decapod shrimp Melicertus hathor (island of Kastellorizo, Greece, the crab Menoethius monoceros (Gulf of Tunis, the barnacles Balanus trigonus, Megabalanus tintinnabulum, Megabalanus coccopoma and the bivalves Chama asperella, Cucurbitula cymbium (Saronikos Gulf, Greece.

  19. Plastic Accumulation in the Mediterranean Sea

    OpenAIRE

    C?zar, Andr?s; Sanz-Mart?n, Marina; Mart?, Elisa; Gonz?lez-Gordillo, J. Ignacio; Ubeda, B?rbara; G?lvez, Jos? ?.; Irigoien, Xabier; Duarte, Carlos M.

    2015-01-01

    Copyright: © 2015 Cózar et al. Concentrations of floating plastic were measured throughout the Mediterranean Sea to assess whether this basin can be regarded as a great accumulation region of plastic debris. We found that the average density of plastic (1 item per 4 m2), as well as its frequency of occurrence (100% of the sites sampled), are comparable to the accumulation zones described for the five subtropical ocean gyres. Plastic debris in the Mediterranean surface waters was dominated by ...

  20. Gaia and the Mediterranean Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth J. Hsü

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available The Earth is a self-organizing system liking a living organism. Lovelock proposed Gaia as a metaphor to designate the check and balance ofterrestrial temperatures: the Earth is never too hot so that the ocean could boil, and the Earth is never too cold that the ocean could freeze from top to bottom. Hsü proposed that Gaia is endothermic because the life on Earth has been alternate successions of air-conditioners and heaters which evolved and deactivate or reinforce the terrestial greenhouse of carbon dioxide in atmosphere. When Earth was heating up too much, the air-conditioneers, such as anaerobic bacteria, cyanobacteria, skeletal organisms and trees, and finally calcareous plankton, went to work to bring the terrestrial temperature down. When the Earth was freezing at times of continental glaciation, heaters went to work, such as methanogenic bacteria, Ediacaran faunas, tundra and desert plants, and now Homo sapiens. Gaia has to have other organs to keep the self-organizing system vital. This paper presents a postulate that the Miocene Mediterranean Sea acted as Gaia´s kidney. The steady influx of dissolved ions and debris into the ocean causes inevitable increase of ocean´s salinity. The fossil and geochemicl records indicate that the ocean has never been too saline nor too brackish for the survival of normal marine organisms: the salinity ranged from about 32 to 36 pro mil during the last billion years. Ocean-drilling cruises to the Mediterranean discovered a very large salt formation, deposited during some 5 million years ago when the Mediterranean dried up. A study of the geochemical balance of the oceans indicates that the deposition of very large salt bodies in isolated basins such as the Miocene Mediterranean every 100 million years or so. The saline giants have the function of Gaia´s kidney. With periodical removals of the salt ions and the heavy metals from seawater, the world´s ocean have been rendered forever habitable. Gaia

  1. The changing Mediterranean Sea — a sensitive ecosystem?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turley, Carol M.

    1999-08-01

    I was asked to present a keynote paper on the socio-economic aspects of oceanographic research in the Mediterranean Sea in the Session on From Oceanographic Science to Policy at the International Conference on Progress in Oceanography of the Mediterranean Sea, Rome November 1997. The session was unique in that it included papers from oceanographers, social scientists and economists. For this reason I have aimed this paper towards, what I consider to be, social and economic issues that may have important oceanographic outcomes and vice versa. I have attempted to express them in a manner that can be understood by economists, social scientists, policy makers and oceanographers alike. The Mediterranean is highly populated and the greatest tourist destination in the world, both of which are predicted by UNEP to rise substantially in the future. Its blue waters, however, include some of the most extreme oligotrophic waters in the world such that it is only capable of supplying 50% of its requirements for fish. The relatively clear, pigment poor surface waters of the Mediterranean have a general increasing oligotrophy eastward with substantially lower phytoplankton, benthic and fish production in the eastern basin. The Mediterranean Sea is highly sensitive to climatic changes; it has high evaporation rates, low land runoff from few rivers and seasonal rains resulting in a deficit in its hydrological balance. This has worsened with the damming of rivers such as the Nile. Nutrient depleted Atlantic water flows into the Mediterranean through the narrow Strait of Gibraltar and exits after circulating the basin with nearly 10% more salt content. This hydrological imbalance may have far-reaching consequences in the Atlantic, producing similar climate changes in Northern Europe, to that seen during the last glaciation, and may be linked to a hydrological deficit in the Mediterranean Sea resulting from a decline in the Nile outflow. The basin-wide circulation, hot-dry and

  2. Prototypical versus contemporary Mediterranean Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizza, W; De Gara, L; Antonelli Incalzi, R; Pedone, C

    2016-10-01

    To investigate the evolution of the Mediterranean Diet (MD) in a delimited area of Southern Italy, by comparing the diet adopted 60-70 years ago (Prototypical Mediterranean Diet, PMD) with the contemporary one (Contemporary Mediterranean Diet, CMD), and to verify to what extent they fitted the recommendations of the Italian and the USDA dietary guidelines. We recruited a total of 106 participants, divided in two groups. PMD group included 52 women aged >80 years, with a good cognitive function and full independence in basic and instrumental activities of daily living. CMD group included 20 men and 34 women aged 50-60 years. Food intake was assessed by administering the EPIC food frequency questionnaire to each participant, and an additional survey to the PMD subjects only. Both PMD and CMD showed adequate intakes of macronutrients, although some deficiencies related to micronutrient requirements were evident. CMD showed a slightly greater use of animal products, processed and sugary foods, and higher intakes of simple sugars, animal proteins (49.6 vs 28.3 g/day), animal lipids (37.8 vs 20.1 g/day), saturated fats (25.0 vs 15.8 g/day) and cholesterol (305.0 vs 258.5 g/day). PMD showed many similarities to the original version of the MD in terms of macronutrients distribution and food choices. The documented evolution of the dietary habits over a 70 years timespan suggests that nowadays Mediterranean regions adhere less strictly to the original MD, although nutrients intakes are adequate to LARN and USDA recommendations. Copyright © 2016 European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Is the Chilean Diet a Mediterranean-type Diet?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JAIME ROZOWSKI

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Food intake in Chile has changed markedly in the last decades, showing an increase in fat consumption and presently a small fruit and vegetables intake. A parallel is made between the Chilean and Mediterranean diet (mainly the one from Spain, Italy, and Greece, both currently and from 50 years ago. The main differences and similarities are based on food availability. Although Chilean diet seems to be approaching the traditional Mediterranean diet of the 60's, there is concern about changes that are moving away from Chilean traditional diet and towards a western one. A new food pyramid for Chile is proposed based on the traditional Mediterranean-type diet

  4. Modeling Climate and Societal Resilience in the Mediterranean During the Last Millennium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, S.; Xoplaki, E.; Luterbacher, J.; Zorita, E.; Fleitmann, D.; Preiser-Kapeller, J.; Toreti, A., , Dr; Sargent, A. M.; Bozkurt, D.; White, S.; Haldon, J. F.; Akçer-Ön, S.; Izdebski, A.

    2017-12-01

    Past civilisations were influenced by complex external and internal forces, including changes in the environment, climate, politics and economy. A geographical hotspot of the interplay between those agents is the Mediterranean, a cradle of cultural and scientific development. We analyse a novel compilation of high-quality hydroclimate proxy records and spatial reconstructions from the Mediterranean and compare them with two Earth System Model simulations (CCSM4, MPI-ESM-P) for three historical time intervals - the Crusaders, 1095-1290 CE; the Mamluk regime in Transjordan, 1260-1516 CE; and the Ottoman crisis and Celâlî Rebellion, 1580-1610 CE - when environmental and climatic stress tested the resilience of complex societies. ESMs provide important information on the dynamical mechanisms and underlying processes that led to anomalous hydroclimatic conditions of the past. We find that the multidecadal precipitation and drought variations in the Central and Eastern Mediterranean during the three periods cannot be explained by external forcings (solar variations, tropical volcanism); rather they were driven by internal climate dynamics. The integrated analysis of palaeoclimate proxies, climate reconstructions and model simulations sheds light on our understanding of past climate change and its societal impact. Finally, our research emphasises the need to further study the societal dimension of environmental and climate change in the past, in order to properly understand the role that climate has played in human history.

  5. Electricity, development and cooperation in mediterranean basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabra, J.

    1992-01-01

    Energy consumption along the southern rim of the Mediterranean basin is increasing much more quickly than on the northern side, in accordance with the different industrialization and urbanization rates. Over the last two decades, electric power consumption has been increasing throughout the basin at a rate exceeding not only that of total energy consumption but even that of the economy itself. The various electric power development strategies the countries of the Mediterranean have developed differ widely depending on the available energy resources they have. Power distribution systems are a strategic element of co-operation in the Mediterranean basin. Though all of these strategies involve cost trade-offs between diversification of energy sources, domestic supply and environmental protection, difficulties exist that may curtail the development of these programs. 2 figs., 4 tabs

  6. EVALUATION OF RAINFALL-RUNOFF MODELS FOR MEDITERRANEAN SUBCATCHMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Cilek

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The development and the application of rainfall-runoff models have been a corner-stone of hydrological research for many decades. The amount of rainfall and its intensity and variability control the generation of runoff and the erosional processes operating at different scales. These interactions can be greatly variable in Mediterranean catchments with marked hydrological fluctuations. The aim of the study was to evaluate the performance of rainfall-runoff model, for rainfall-runoff simulation in a Mediterranean subcatchment. The Pan-European Soil Erosion Risk Assessment (PESERA, a simplified hydrological process-based approach, was used in this study to combine hydrological surface runoff factors. In total 128 input layers derived from data set includes; climate, topography, land use, crop type, planting date, and soil characteristics, are required to run the model. Initial ground cover was estimated from the Landsat ETM data provided by ESA. This hydrological model was evaluated in terms of their performance in Goksu River Watershed, Turkey. It is located at the Central Eastern Mediterranean Basin of Turkey. The area is approximately 2000 km2. The landscape is dominated by bare ground, agricultural and forests. The average annual rainfall is 636.4mm. This study has a significant importance to evaluate different model performances in a complex Mediterranean basin. The results provided comprehensive insight including advantages and limitations of modelling approaches in the Mediterranean environment.

  7. Soil erosion in a man-made landscape: the Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerdà, A.; Ruiz Sinoga, J. D.; Cammeraat, L. H.

    2012-04-01

    Mediterranean-type ecosystems are characterised by a seasonally contrasted distribution of precipitation, by the coincidence of the driest and hottest season in summer, by an often-mountainous terrain, and by a long history of intense human occupation, especially around the Mediterranean Sea. The history of the Mediterranean lands is the history of human impacts on the soil system, and soil erosion is the most intense and widespread impact on this land where high intensity and uneven rainfall is found. A review of the soil erosion rates measured in the Mediterranean basin will be shown. The measurements done by means of erosion pins, topographical measurements, rainfall simulators, Gerlach collectors in open or close plots, watershed/basin measurements, reservoirs siltation and historical data will be shown. A review of the soil erosion models applied in the Mediterranean will be shown. The tentative approach done until October 2011 show that the soil erosion rates on Mediterranean type ecosystems are not as high as was supposed by the pioneers in the 70's. And this is probably due to the fact that the soils are very shallow and sediments are not available after millennia of high erosion rates. This is related to the large amount of rock fragments are covering the soil, and the rock outcrops that are found in the upper slope trams and the summits. Soil erosion in the Mediterranean is seasonal due to the rainfall concentration in winter, and highly variable within years as the high intensity rainfall events control the sediment production. Natural vegetation is adapted to the Mediterranean environmental conditions, and they are efficient to control the soil losses. An example are the forest fire that increase the soil losses but this is a temporal change as after 2-4 years the soil erosion rates are similar to the pre-fire period. Agriculture lands are the source of sediments although the highest erosion rates are found in badland areas that cover a small part of

  8. Narratology and Orality in African Biblical Hermeneutics: Reading the story of Naboth's vineyard and Jehu's revolution in light of Intsomi yamaXhosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ndikho Mtshiselwa

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available On the issue of methodology, oral literature has been decisive in the interpretation of the Hebrew Bible in Africa. For instance, Madipoane Masenya (ngwan�a Mphahlele convincingly employed the folktale of the �Rabbit and the Lion� in her interpretation of the Bible. That Narratology and Orality in African Biblical Hermeneutics is a rarely researched area within biblical scholarship provides room for further studies in this area. This article argues that the reading of the Deuteronomistic story of Naboth�s vineyard and Jehu�s revolution in the light of Intsomi yamaXhosa [the folktale of the Xhosa people] illustrates how biblical interpretation in Africa could be informed by Orality and Narratology. This article examines the light that the socio-economic function of the story of Naboth�s vineyard and Jehu�s revolution would throw on the function of the folktale of Intsimi yeenyamakazana, and vice versa. Furthermore, the present article probes the socio-economic implications that can be drawn from biblical and Xhosa Orality and Narratology for post-apartheid South Africa.Intradisciplinary and/or interdisciplinary implications: This article draws on the indigenous knowledge system, namely Xhosa Narratology and Orality, to interpret Old Testament texts with a view to offering liberating socio-economic possibilities for poor black people in South Africa.

  9. Total, technical, economic and social evaluation of a plan for defense of the vineyard according to the methodology of the "GREAT CHAIN".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spera, G; Cargnello, G; Moretti, S; Pezza, L

    2004-01-01

    In another work, proposed in this congress, we have presented the basic methodology of the "GREAT CHAIN" in which a plan of fight to vine diseases is evaluated in the globality using 54 variables, to which a weight (in %) in a scale of priority at technical, economic, social and ethical level has been given. This basic methodology has been favourably accepted at the XIII GESCO Congress (Groupe International Systèmes De Conduite de la Vigne)--February 2003 in Montevideo (Uruguay), and at the congress on "Paysages de Vignes et de Vins" in Fonteyraud (Val de Loire) (Carbonneau, Cargnello, 2003). In this work the results of researches on the total, technical, economic, social and ethical evaluation of a conventional phytopathologic defence plan led in a vineyard of the Latium according to the method of the "GREAT CHAIN" are exposed. These researches have shown that the model of conventional phytopathologic struggle, applied in the Latium, against pests of vine positively answers for how much concerns the plants protection: the answer is good at enterprise level, but negative for all that is defence and safeguard for man and environment, in the widest sense of the term. The researches have gone on the phytopathologic defence of biological and eco-compatible vineyards with very encouraging results.

  10. {sup 137}Cs baseline levels in the Mediterranean and Black Sea: A cross-basin survey of the CIESM Mediterranean Mussel Watch programme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thebault, Herve [IRSN, LERCM, Centre Ifremer, BP 330, F-83507 La Seyne sur Mer (France); Rodriguez y Baena, Alessia M. [International Commission for the Scientific Exploration of the Mediterranean Sea (CIESM), 16 Blvd de Suisse, MC-98000 Principality of Monaco (Monaco); Andral, Bruno [Ifremer, BP 330, F-83507 La Seyne sur Mer (France); Barisic, Delko [Center for Marine and Environmental Research, Lab. for Trace Physical Chemistry, Ruder Boskovic Inst., P.O. Box 1016, Bijenicka 54, 10002 Zagreb (Croatia); Albaladejo, Jose Benedicto [Inst. Espanol de Oceanografi' a (IEO), Centro Oceanografico de Murcia - Calle Varadero No. 1, 30740 San Pedro del Pinatar (Spain); Bologa, Alexandru S. [National Institute for Marine Research and Development ' Grigore Antipa' , RO-900581, Constantza (Romania); Boudjenoun, Redouane [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique (COMENA), Centre de Radioprotection Recherche Nucleaire d' Algeret de Surete, Lab. d' Etudes d' Impact Radiologique, 2 Blvd F. Fanon - BP 399 Alger-Gare, 16000 Alger (Algeria); Delfanti, Roberta [Ente per le Nuove Tecnologie, l' Energia, e l' Ambiente (ENEA), Marine Environment Research Centre, La Spezia (Italy); Egorov, Victor N. [Inst. of Biology of the Southern Seas (IBSS), National Academy of Sciences of the Ukraine, 2 Porspekt Nakhimova, 99 011 Sevastopol, Crimea (Ukraine); El Khoukhi, Tahar [Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de la Maamora (CNESTEN), BP 1382 RP Rabat 10001 (Morocco); Florou, Heleni [National Centre for Scientific Research ' Demokritos' , Aghia Paraskevi 153 10, P.O. Box 60228, Athens (Greece); Kniewald, Goran [Center for Marine and Environmental Research, Lab. for Trace Physical Chemistry, Ruder Boskovic Inst., P.O. Box 1016, Bijenicka 54, 10002 Zagreb (Croatia); Noureddine, Abdelkader [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique (COMENA), Centre de Radioprotection Recherche Nucleaire d' Algeret de Surete, Lab. d' Etudes d' Impact Radiologique, 2 Blvd F. Fanon - BP 399 Alger-Gare, 16000 Alger (Algeria)] (and others)

    2008-07-01

    The common mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis was selected as unique biomonitor species to implement a regional monitoring programme, the CIESM Mediterranean Mussel Watch (MMW), in the Mediterranean and Black Seas. As of today, and upon standardization of the methodological approach, the MMW Network has been able to quantify {sup 137}Cs levels in mussels from 60 coastal stations and to produce the first distribution map of this artificial radionuclide at the scale of the entire Mediterranean and Black Seas. While measured {sup 137}Cs levels were found to be very low (usually <1 Bq kg{sup -1} wet wt) {sup 137}Cs activity concentrations in the Black Sea and North Aegean Sea were up to two orders of magnitude higher than those in the western Mediterranean Basin. Such effects, far from representing a threat to human populations or the environment, reflect a persistent signature of the Chernobyl fallout in this area.

  11. Contrasting biogeographic and diversification patterns in two Mediterranean-type ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buerki, Sven; Jose, Sarah; Yadav, Shrirang R; Goldblatt, Peter; Manning, John C; Forest, Félix

    2012-01-01

    The five Mediterranean regions of the world comprise almost 50,000 plant species (ca 20% of the known vascular plants) despite accounting for less than 5% of the world's land surface. The ecology and evolutionary history of two of these regions, the Cape Floristic Region and the Mediterranean Basin, have been extensively investigated, but there have been few studies aimed at understanding the historical relationships between them. Here, we examine the biogeographic and diversification processes that shaped the evolution of plant diversity in the Cape and the Mediterranean Basin using a large plastid data set for the geophyte family Hyacinthaceae (comprising ca. 25% of the total diversity of the group), a group found mainly throughout Africa and Eurasia. Hyacinthaceae is a predominant group in the Cape and the Mediterranean Basin both in terms of number of species and their morphological and ecological variability. Using state-of-the-art methods in biogeography and diversification, we found that the Old World members of the family originated in sub-Saharan Africa at the Paleocene-Eocene boundary and that the two Mediterranean regions both have high diversification rates, but contrasting biogeographic histories. While the Cape diversity has been greatly influenced by its relationship with sub-Saharan Africa throughout the history of the family, the Mediterranean Basin had no connection with the latter after the onset of the Mediterranean climate in the region and the aridification of the Sahara. The Mediterranean Basin subsequently contributed significantly to the diversity of neighbouring areas, especially Northern Europe and the Middle East, whereas the Cape can be seen as a biogeographical cul-de-sac, with only a few dispersals toward sub-Saharan Africa. The understanding of the evolutionary history of these two important repositories of biodiversity would benefit from the application of the framework developed here to other groups of plants present in the two

  12. Contrasting biogeographic and diversification patterns in two Mediterranean-type ecosystems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sven Buerki

    Full Text Available The five Mediterranean regions of the world comprise almost 50,000 plant species (ca 20% of the known vascular plants despite accounting for less than 5% of the world's land surface. The ecology and evolutionary history of two of these regions, the Cape Floristic Region and the Mediterranean Basin, have been extensively investigated, but there have been few studies aimed at understanding the historical relationships between them. Here, we examine the biogeographic and diversification processes that shaped the evolution of plant diversity in the Cape and the Mediterranean Basin using a large plastid data set for the geophyte family Hyacinthaceae (comprising ca. 25% of the total diversity of the group, a group found mainly throughout Africa and Eurasia. Hyacinthaceae is a predominant group in the Cape and the Mediterranean Basin both in terms of number of species and their morphological and ecological variability. Using state-of-the-art methods in biogeography and diversification, we found that the Old World members of the family originated in sub-Saharan Africa at the Paleocene-Eocene boundary and that the two Mediterranean regions both have high diversification rates, but contrasting biogeographic histories. While the Cape diversity has been greatly influenced by its relationship with sub-Saharan Africa throughout the history of the family, the Mediterranean Basin had no connection with the latter after the onset of the Mediterranean climate in the region and the aridification of the Sahara. The Mediterranean Basin subsequently contributed significantly to the diversity of neighbouring areas, especially Northern Europe and the Middle East, whereas the Cape can be seen as a biogeographical cul-de-sac, with only a few dispersals toward sub-Saharan Africa. The understanding of the evolutionary history of these two important repositories of biodiversity would benefit from the application of the framework developed here to other groups of plants

  13. A phylogenetic perspective on the evolution of Mediterranean teleost fishes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine N Meynard

    Full Text Available The Mediterranean Sea is a highly diverse, highly studied, and highly impacted biogeographic region, yet no phylogenetic reconstruction of fish diversity in this area has been published to date. Here, we infer the timing and geographic origins of Mediterranean teleost species diversity using nucleotide sequences collected from GenBank. We assembled a DNA supermatrix composed of four mitochondrial genes (12S ribosomal DNA, 16S ribosomal DNA, cytochrome c oxidase subunit I and cytochrome b and two nuclear genes (rhodopsin and recombination activating gene I, including 62% of Mediterranean teleost species plus 9 outgroups. Maximum likelihood and Bayesian phylogenetic and dating analyses were calibrated using 20 fossil constraints. An additional 124 species were grafted onto the chronogram according to their taxonomic affinity, checking for the effects of taxonomic coverage in subsequent diversification analyses. We then interpreted the time-line of teleost diversification in light of Mediterranean historical biogeography, distinguishing non-endemic natives, endemics and exotic species. Results show that the major Mediterranean orders are of Cretaceous origin, specifically ~100-80 Mya, and most Perciformes families originated 80-50 Mya. Two important clade origin events were detected. The first at 100-80 Mya, affected native and exotic species, and reflects a global diversification period at a time when the Mediterranean Sea did not yet exist. The second occurred during the last 50 Mya, and is noticeable among endemic and native species, but not among exotic species. This period corresponds to isolation of the Mediterranean from Indo-Pacific waters before the Messinian salinity crisis. The Mediterranean fish fauna illustrates well the assembly of regional faunas through origination and immigration, where dispersal and isolation have shaped the emergence of a biodiversity hotspot.

  14. Ozone and carbon monoxide budgets over the Eastern Mediterranean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myriokefalitakis, S; Daskalakis, N; Fanourgakis, G S; Voulgarakis, A; Krol, M C; Aan de Brugh, J M J; Kanakidou, M

    2016-09-01

    The importance of the long-range transport (LRT) on O3 and CO budgets over the Eastern Mediterranean has been investigated using the state-of-the-art 3-dimensional global chemistry-transport model TM4-ECPL. A 3-D budget analysis has been performed separating the Eastern from the Western basins and the boundary layer (BL) from the free troposphere (FT). The FT of the Eastern Mediterranean is shown to be a strong receptor of polluted air masses from the Western Mediterranean, and the most important source of polluted air masses for the Eastern Mediterranean BL, with about 40% of O3 and of CO in the BL to be transported from the FT aloft. Regional anthropogenic sources are found to have relatively small impact on regional air quality in the area, contributing by about 8% and 18% to surface levels of O3 and CO, respectively. Projections using anthropogenic emissions for the year 2050 but neglecting climate change calculate a surface O3 decrease of about 11% together with a surface CO increase of roughly 10% in the Eastern Mediterranean. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Ecological impacts of atmospheric pollution and interactions with climate change in terrestrial ecosystems of the Mediterranean Basin: Current research and future directions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ochoa-Hueso, Raúl; Munzi, Silvana; Alonso, Rocío; Arróniz-Crespo, María; Avila, Anna; Bermejo, Victoria; Bobbink, Roland; Branquinho, Cristina; Concostrina-Zubiri, Laura; Cruz, Cristina; Cruz de Carvalho, Ricardo; De Marco, Alessandra; Dias, Teresa; Elustondo, David

    2017-01-01

    Mediterranean Basin ecosystems, their unique biodiversity, and the key services they provide are currently at risk due to air pollution and climate change, yet only a limited number of isolated and geographically-restricted studies have addressed this topic, often with contrasting results. Particularities of air pollution in this region include high O 3 levels due to high air temperatures and solar radiation, the stability of air masses, and dominance of dry over wet nitrogen deposition. Moreover, the unique abiotic and biotic factors (e.g., climate, vegetation type, relevance of Saharan dust inputs) modulating the response of Mediterranean ecosystems at various spatiotemporal scales make it difficult to understand, and thus predict, the consequences of human activities that cause air pollution in the Mediterranean Basin. Therefore, there is an urgent need to implement coordinated research and experimental platforms along with wider environmental monitoring networks in the region. In particular, a robust deposition monitoring network in conjunction with modelling estimates is crucial, possibly including a set of common biomonitors (ideally cryptogams, an important component of the Mediterranean vegetation), to help