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Sample records for mechanisms underlying stress

  1. Mechanical properties of cork under contact stresses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parralejo, A. D.; Guiberteau, F.; Fortes, M. A.; Rosa, M. E.

    2001-01-01

    In this work our interest is focussed on the mechanical behaviour of natural cork under contact stresses. Many of the applications of this curious material are related with its mechanical response under such a stress field, however this topic has not been still sufficiently considered in the scientific literature. For this purpose, we proposed the use of Hertzian indentation tests. By using this mythology we have investigated the cork structure influence on the corresponding mechanical properties. Our results reveal a clear mechanical anisotropy effect. Moreover, the elastic modulus corresponding to specific directions have been estimated. Several are the main advantages of this specific test mythology versus traditional uniaxial compression tests, specially simplicity and local character. (Author) 9 refs

  2. Mechanisms Underlying Stress Fracture and the Influence of Sex and Race/Ethnicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-16-1-0652 TITLE: Mechanisms Underlying Stress Fracture and the Influence of Sex and Race/Ethnicity PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR...5a. CONTRACT NUMBER W81XWH-16-1-0652 Mechanisms Underlying Stress Fracture and the Influence of Sex and Race/Ethnicity 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH...to stress fracture risk. In particular, in Study 1, we will perform advanced skeletal imaging along with gait-assessments in subjects with history of

  3. Biochemical mechanisms of signaling: perspectives in plants under arsenic stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Ejazul; Khan, Muhammad Tahir; Irem, Samra

    2015-04-01

    Plants are the ultimate food source for humans, either directly or indirectly. Being sessile in nature, they are exposed to various biotic and abiotic stresses because of changing climate that adversely effects their growth and development. Contamination of heavy metals is one of the major abiotic stresses because of anthropogenic as well as natural factors which lead to increased toxicity and accumulation in plants. Arsenic is a naturally occurring metalloid toxin present in the earth crust. Due to its presence in terrestrial and aquatic environments, it effects the growth of plants. Plants can tolerate arsenic using several mechanisms like phytochelation, vacuole sequestration and activation of antioxidant defense systems. Several signaling mechanisms have evolved in plants that involve the use of proteins, calcium ions, hormones, reactive oxygen species and nitric oxide as signaling molecules to cope with arsenic toxicity. These mechanisms facilitate plants to survive under metal stress by activating their defense systems. The pathways by which these stress signals are perceived and responded is an unexplored area of research and there are lots of gaps still to be filled. A good understanding of these signaling pathways can help in raising the plants which can perform better in arsenic contaminated soil and water. In order to increase the survival of plants in contaminated areas there is a strong need to identify suitable gene targets that can be modified according to needs of the stakeholders using various biotechnological techniques. This review focuses on the signaling mechanisms of plants grown under arsenic stress and will give an insight of the different sensory systems in plants. Furthermore, it provides the knowledge about several pathways that can be exploited to develop plant cultivars which are resistant to arsenic stress or can reduce its uptake to minimize the risk of arsenic toxicity through food chain thus ensuring food security. Copyright © 2015

  4. An analytical model of the mechanical properties of bulk coal under confined stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, G.X.; Wang, Z.T.; Rudolph, V.; Massarotto, P.; Finley, R.J.

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents the development of an analytical model which can be used to relate the structural parameters of coal to its mechanical properties such as elastic modulus and Poisson's ratio under a confined stress condition. This model is developed primarily to support process modeling of coalbed methane (CBM) or CO2-enhanced CBM (ECBM) recovery from coal seam. It applied an innovative approach by which stresses acting on and strains occurring in coal are successively combined in rectangular coordinates, leading to the aggregated mechanical constants. These mechanical properties represent important information for improving CBM/ECBM simulations and incorporating within these considerations of directional permeability. The model, consisting of constitutive equations which implement a mechanically consistent stress-strains correlation, can be used as a generalized tool to study the mechanical and fluid behaviors of coal composites. An example using the model to predict the stress-strain correlation of coal under triaxial confined stress by accounting for the elastic and brittle (non-elastic) deformations is discussed. The result shows a good agreement between the prediction and the experimental measurement. ?? 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Exact solution for stresses/displacements in a multilayered hollow cylinder under thermo-mechanical loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeo, W.H.; Purbolaksono, J.; Aliabadi, M.H.; Ramesh, S.; Liew, H.L.

    2017-01-01

    In this study, a new analytical solution by the recursive method for evaluating stresses/displacements in multilayered hollow cylinder under thermo-mechanical loading was developed. The results for temperature distribution, displacements and stresses obtained by using the proposed solution were shown to be in good agreement with the FEM results. The proposed analytical solution was also found to produce more accurate results than those by the analytical solution reported in literature. - Highlights: • A new analytical solution for evaluating stresses in multilayered hollow cylinder under thermo-mechanical loading. • A simple computational procedure using a recursive method. • A promising technique for evaluating the operating axial and hoop stresses in pressurized composite vessels.

  6. Ageing under mechanical stress: first experiments for a silver based multilayer mirror

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalo, Arnaud; Ravel, Guillaume; Ignat, Michel; Cousin, Bernard; Swain, Michael V.

    2017-11-01

    Improving materials and devices reliability is a major concern to the spatial industry. Results are reported for satellite mirrors-like specimens consisting in oxide-protected metal systems. Optical coatings were deposited by electron beam evaporation. Mechanical stress fields in multi-layered materials play an important role. The stress state can have far-reaching implications both in kinetics and thermodynamics. Therefore an integrated apparatus with four-point bending equipment was designed. The technique allowed us to exert stress into a film or a system of films on a substrate concurrently with thermal treatment. In order to achieve the first tests performed with the help of the apparatus, various preliminary characterizations were required. The article reports the preliminary micro-mechanical testing of the materials (ultra micro-indentation to evaluate the elastic modulus of the samples materials and wafer curvature technique to determine the specimen residual stress) and the first ageing experiment. Experimental evidence of accelerated ageing under stress is successfully reported.

  7. Mechanical stress analysis for a fuel rod under normal operating conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pino, Eddy S.; Giovedi, Claudia; Serra, Andre da Silva; Abe, Alfredo Y.

    2013-01-01

    Nuclear reactor fuel elements consist mainly in a system of a nuclear fuel encapsulated by a cladding material subject to high fluxes of energetic neutrons, high operating temperatures, pressure systems, thermal gradients, heat fluxes and with chemical compatibility with the reactor coolant. The design of a nuclear reactor requires, among a set of activities, the evaluation of the structural integrity of the fuel rod submitted to different loads acting on the fuel rod and the specific properties (dimensions and mechanical and thermal properties) of the cladding material and coolant, including thermal and pressure gradients produced inside the rod due to the fuel burnup. In this work were evaluated the structural mechanical stresses of a fuel rod using stainless steel as cladding material and UO 2 with a low degree of enrichment as fuel pellet on a PWR (pressurized water reactor) under normal operating conditions. In this sense, tangential, radial and axial stress on internal and external cladding surfaces considering the orientations of 0 deg, 90 deg and 180 deg were considered. The obtained values were compared with the limit values for stress to the studied material. From the obtained results, it was possible to conclude that, under the expected normal reactor operation conditions, the integrity of the fuel rod can be maintained. (author)

  8. Mechanical properties of jammed packings of frictionless spheres under an applied shear stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Hao; Tong Hua; Xu Ning

    2014-01-01

    By minimizing a thermodynamic-like potential, we unbiasedly sample the potential energy landscape of soft and frictionless spheres under a constant shear stress. We obtain zero-temperature jammed states under desired shear stresses and investigate their mechanical properties as a function of the shear stress. As a comparison, we also obtain the jammed states from the quasistatic-shear sampling in which the shear stress is not well-controlled. Although the yield stresses determined by both samplings show the same power-law scaling with the compression from the jamming transition point J at zero temperature and shear stress, for finite size systems the quasistatic-shear sampling leads to a lower yield stress and a higher critical volume fraction at point J. The shear modulus of the jammed solids decreases with increasing shear stress. However, the shear modulus does not decay to zero at yielding. This discontinuous change of the shear modulus implies the discontinuous nature of the unjamming transition under nonzero shear stress, which is further verified by the observation of a discontinuous jump in the pressure from the jammed solids to the shear flows. The pressure jump decreases upon decompression and approaches zero at the critical-like point J, in analogy with the well-known phase transitions under an external field. The analysis of the force networks in the jammed solids reveals that the force distribution is more sensitive to the increase of the shear stress near point J. The force network anisotropy increases with increasing shear stress. The weak particle contacts near the average force and under large shear stresses it exhibit an asymmetric angle distribution. (special topic — non-equilibrium phenomena in soft matters)

  9. Crack formation and crack propagation under multiaxial mechanical and thermal stresses. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The 25th meeting of the DV Fracture Group was held on 16/17 February 1993 at Karlsruhe Technical University. The main topic, ''Crack formation and crack propagation under multiaxial mechanical and thermal stresses'', was discussed by five invited papers (by K.J. Miller, D. Loehe, H.A. Richard, W. Brocks, A. Brueckner-Foit) and 23 short papers. The other 21 papers were devoted to various domains of fracture mechanics, with emphasis on elastoplastic fracture mechanics. (orig./MM) [de

  10. Coral bleaching under thermal stress: putative involvement of host/symbiont recognition mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal-Dupiol, Jeremie; Adjeroud, Mehdi; Roger, Emmanuel; Foure, Laurent; Duval, David; Mone, Yves; Ferrier-Pages, Christine; Tambutte, Eric; Tambutte, Sylvie; Zoccola, Didier; Allemand, Denis; Mitta, Guillaume

    2009-08-04

    Coral bleaching can be defined as the loss of symbiotic zooxanthellae and/or their photosynthetic pigments from their cnidarian host. This major disturbance of reef ecosystems is principally induced by increases in water temperature. Since the beginning of the 1980s and the onset of global climate change, this phenomenon has been occurring at increasing rates and scales, and with increasing severity. Several studies have been undertaken in the last few years to better understand the cellular and molecular mechanisms of coral bleaching but the jigsaw puzzle is far from being complete, especially concerning the early events leading to symbiosis breakdown. The aim of the present study was to find molecular actors involved early in the mechanism leading to symbiosis collapse. In our experimental procedure, one set of Pocillopora damicornis nubbins was subjected to a gradual increase of water temperature from 28 degrees C to 32 degrees C over 15 days. A second control set kept at constant temperature (28 degrees C). The differentially expressed mRNA between the stressed states (sampled just before the onset of bleaching) and the non stressed states (control) were isolated by Suppression Subtractive Hybridization. Transcription rates of the most interesting genes (considering their putative function) were quantified by Q-RT-PCR, which revealed a significant decrease in transcription of two candidates six days before bleaching. RACE-PCR experiments showed that one of them (PdC-Lectin) contained a C-Type-Lectin domain specific for mannose. Immunolocalisation demonstrated that this host gene mediates molecular interactions between the host and the symbionts suggesting a putative role in zooxanthellae acquisition and/or sequestration. The second gene corresponds to a gene putatively involved in calcification processes (Pdcyst-rich). Its down-regulation could reflect a trade-off mechanism leading to the arrest of the mineralization process under stress. Under thermal stress

  11. Maize water status and physiological traits as affected by root endophytic fungus Piriformospora indica under combined drought and mechanical stresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, Fatemeh; Mosaddeghi, Mohammad Reza; Dexter, Anthony Roger; Sepehri, Mozhgan

    2018-05-01

    Under combined drought and mechanical stresses, mechanical stress primarily controlled physiological responses of maize. Piriformospora indica mitigated the adverse effects of stresses, and inoculated maize experienced less oxidative damage and had better adaptation to stressful conditions. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of maize root colonization by an endophytic fungus P. indica on plant water status, physiological traits and root morphology under combined drought and mechanical stresses. Seedlings of inoculated and non-inoculated maize (Zea mays L., cv. single cross 704) were cultivated in growth chambers filled with moistened siliceous sand at a matric suction of 20 hPa. Drought stress was induced using PEG 6000 solution with osmotic potentials of 0, - 0.3 and - 0.5 MPa. Mechanical stress (i.e., penetration resistances of 1.05, 4.23 and 6.34 MPa) was exerted by placing weights on the surface of the sand medium. After 30 days, leaf water potential (LWP) and relative water content (RWC), root and shoot fresh weights, root volume (RV) and diameter (RD), leaf proline content, leaf area (LA) and catalase (CAT) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) activities were measured. The results show that exposure to individual drought and mechanical stresses led to higher RD and proline content and lower plant biomass, RV and LA. Moreover, increasing drought and mechanical stress severity increased APX activity by about 1.9- and 3.1-fold compared with the control. When plants were exposed to combined stresses, mechanical stress played the dominant role in controlling plant responses. P. indica-inoculated plants are better adapted to individual and combined stresses. The inoculated plants had greater RV, LA, RWC, LWP and proline content under stressful conditions. In comparison with non-inoculated plants, inoculated plants showed lower CAT and APX activities which means that they experienced less oxidative stress induced by stressful conditions.

  12. Coral bleaching under thermal stress: putative involvement of host/symbiont recognition mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tambutte Sylvie

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Coral bleaching can be defined as the loss of symbiotic zooxanthellae and/or their photosynthetic pigments from their cnidarian host. This major disturbance of reef ecosystems is principally induced by increases in water temperature. Since the beginning of the 1980s and the onset of global climate change, this phenomenon has been occurring at increasing rates and scales, and with increasing severity. Several studies have been undertaken in the last few years to better understand the cellular and molecular mechanisms of coral bleaching but the jigsaw puzzle is far from being complete, especially concerning the early events leading to symbiosis breakdown. The aim of the present study was to find molecular actors involved early in the mechanism leading to symbiosis collapse. Results In our experimental procedure, one set of Pocillopora damicornis nubbins was subjected to a gradual increase of water temperature from 28°C to 32°C over 15 days. A second control set kept at constant temperature (28°C. The differentially expressed mRNA between the stressed states (sampled just before the onset of bleaching and the non stressed states (control were isolated by Suppression Subtractive Hybridization. Transcription rates of the most interesting genes (considering their putative function were quantified by Q-RT-PCR, which revealed a significant decrease in transcription of two candidates six days before bleaching. RACE-PCR experiments showed that one of them (PdC-Lectin contained a C-Type-Lectin domain specific for mannose. Immunolocalisation demonstrated that this host gene mediates molecular interactions between the host and the symbionts suggesting a putative role in zooxanthellae acquisition and/or sequestration. The second gene corresponds to a gene putatively involved in calcification processes (Pdcyst-rich. Its down-regulation could reflect a trade-off mechanism leading to the arrest of the mineralization process under stress

  13. Thermal stability of nafion membranes under mechanical stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quintilii, M; Struis, R [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1997-06-01

    The feasibility of adequately modified fluoro-ionomer membranes (NAFION{sup R}) is demonstrated for the selective separation of methanol synthesis products from the raw reactor gas at temperatures around 200{sup o}C. For an economically relevant application of this concept on a technical scale the Nafion membranes should be thin ({approx_equal}10 {mu}m) and thermally stable over a long period of time (1-2 years). In cooperation with industry (Methanol Casale SA, Lugano (CH)), we test the thermal stability of Nafion hollow fibers and supported Nafion thin sheet membranes at temperatures between 160 and 200{sup o}C under mechanical stress by applying a gas pressure difference over the membrane surface ({Delta}P{<=} 40 bar). Tests with the hollow fibers revealed that Nafion has visco-elastic properties. Tests with 50 {mu}m thin Nafion sheets supported by a porous metal carrier at 200{sup o}C and {Delta}P=39 bar showed no mechanical defects over a period of 92 days. (author) 5 figs., 4 refs.

  14. Experimental study on the thermo-mechanical behaviour of stiff clay under non-isotropic stress state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, Anh Minh; Cui, Yu-Jun; Li, Xiang-Ling

    2012-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. Stiff clay is usually considered as possible host-rock for geological radioactive waste disposal due to its low permeability and its self-sealing capacity. Boom Clay, for instance, is one of the clays currently considered by the Belgian radioactive waste management agency Ondraf/Niras as a potential host for a geological repository. In order to analyse the performance of this material, it is important to understand its behaviour under the coupled thermo-hydro-mechanical solicitations. In laboratory, several studies have been performed to study the volume change of clay under coupled thermomechanical loading. The results show that heating under drained conditions can induce thermal dilation at low confining stress and thermal contraction at high confining stress. On the other hand, compression tests performed at constant temperature show that the compressibility parameters of soil can be modified by temperature change. These features are now well considered in constitutive laws based on the framework of elasto-plasticity. Under undrained conditions, heating can increase pore-water pressure and this behaviour can be simulated using the theoretical thermo-poro-elastic framework. The temperature effect on the soil behaviour under triaxial compression is also often considered. It is commonly accepted that heating decreases the shear strength of clay but this softening can be hidden by the thermal contraction that occurs during heating which can induce at the same time soil hardening. In spite of these existing works, laboratory tests considering the thermo-mechanical loading path that the soil can be subjected to are still rare. Actually, in the case of geological radioactive waste disposal, after the installation of waste canisters, the soil is expected to be heated under non-isotropic stress state. Most of the existing laboratory works show heating tests in odometer cell or triaxial cell under isotropic stress

  15. Kinetic theory approach to modeling of cellular repair mechanisms under genome stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinpeng Qi

    Full Text Available Under acute perturbations from outer environment, a normal cell can trigger cellular self-defense mechanism in response to genome stress. To investigate the kinetics of cellular self-repair process at single cell level further, a model of DNA damage generating and repair is proposed under acute Ion Radiation (IR by using mathematical framework of kinetic theory of active particles (KTAP. Firstly, we focus on illustrating the profile of Cellular Repair System (CRS instituted by two sub-populations, each of which is made up of the active particles with different discrete states. Then, we implement the mathematical framework of cellular self-repair mechanism, and illustrate the dynamic processes of Double Strand Breaks (DSBs and Repair Protein (RP generating, DSB-protein complexes (DSBCs synthesizing, and toxins accumulating. Finally, we roughly analyze the capability of cellular self-repair mechanism, cellular activity of transferring DNA damage, and genome stability, especially the different fates of a certain cell before and after the time thresholds of IR perturbations that a cell can tolerate maximally under different IR perturbation circumstances.

  16. Kinetic theory approach to modeling of cellular repair mechanisms under genome stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Jinpeng; Ding, Yongsheng; Zhu, Ying; Wu, Yizhi

    2011-01-01

    Under acute perturbations from outer environment, a normal cell can trigger cellular self-defense mechanism in response to genome stress. To investigate the kinetics of cellular self-repair process at single cell level further, a model of DNA damage generating and repair is proposed under acute Ion Radiation (IR) by using mathematical framework of kinetic theory of active particles (KTAP). Firstly, we focus on illustrating the profile of Cellular Repair System (CRS) instituted by two sub-populations, each of which is made up of the active particles with different discrete states. Then, we implement the mathematical framework of cellular self-repair mechanism, and illustrate the dynamic processes of Double Strand Breaks (DSBs) and Repair Protein (RP) generating, DSB-protein complexes (DSBCs) synthesizing, and toxins accumulating. Finally, we roughly analyze the capability of cellular self-repair mechanism, cellular activity of transferring DNA damage, and genome stability, especially the different fates of a certain cell before and after the time thresholds of IR perturbations that a cell can tolerate maximally under different IR perturbation circumstances.

  17. Strain-rate effect on initial crush stress of irregular honeycomb under dynamic loading and its deformation mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Peng; Zheng, Zhijun; Liao, Shenfei; Yu, Jilin

    2018-02-01

    The seemingly contradictory understandings of the initial crush stress of cellular materials under dynamic loadings exist in the literature, and a comprehensive analysis of this issue is carried out with using direct information of local stress and strain. Local stress/strain calculation methods are applied to determine the initial crush stresses and the strain rates at initial crush from a cell-based finite element model of irregular honeycomb under dynamic loadings. The initial crush stress under constant-velocity compression is identical to the quasi-static one, but less than the one under direct impact, i.e. the initial crush stresses under different dynamic loadings could be very different even though there is no strain-rate effect of matrix material. A power-law relation between the initial crush stress and the strain rate is explored to describe the strain-rate effect on the initial crush stress of irregular honeycomb when the local strain rate exceeds a critical value, below which there is no strain-rate effect of irregular honeycomb. Deformation mechanisms of the initial crush behavior under dynamic loadings are also explored. The deformation modes of the initial crush region in the front of plastic compaction wave are different under different dynamic loadings.

  18. Organ-specific proteomics analysis for identification of response mechanism in soybean seedlings under flooding stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatoon, Amana; Rehman, Shafiq; Hiraga, Susumu; Makino, Takahiro; Komatsu, Setsuko

    2012-10-22

    Flooding is one of the severe environmental factors which impair growth and yield in soybean plant. To investigate the organ specific response mechanism of soybean under flooding stress, changes in protein species were analyzed using a proteomics approach. Two-day-old soybeans were subjected to flooding for 5 days. Proteins were extracted from root, hypocotyl and leaf, and separated by two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. In root, hypocotyl and leaf, 51, 66 and 51 protein species were significantly changed, respectively, under flooding stress. In root, metabolism related proteins were increased; however these proteins were decreased in hypocotyl and leaf. In all 3 organs, cytoplasm localized proteins were decreased, and leaf chloroplastic proteins were also decreased. Isoflavone reductase was commonly decreased at protein level in all 3 organs; however, mRNA of isoflavone reductase gene was up-regulated in leaf under flooding stress. Biophoton emission was increased in all 3 organs under flooding stress. The up-regulation of isoflavone reductase gene at transcript level; while decreased abundance at protein level indicated that flooding stress affected the mRNA translation to proteins. These results suggest that concurrence in expression of isoflavone reductase gene at mRNA and protein level along with imbalance in other disease/defense and metabolism related proteins might lead to impaired growth of root, hypocotyl and leaf of soybean seedlings under flooding stress. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Mechanisms underlying the effects of prenatal psychosocial stress on child outcomes: beyond the HPA axis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beijers, R.; Buitelaar, J.K.; Weerth, C. de

    2014-01-01

    Accumulating evidence from preclinical and clinical studies indicates that maternal psychosocial stress and anxiety during pregnancy adversely affect child outcomes. However, knowledge on the possible mechanisms underlying these relations is limited. In the present paper, we review the most often

  20. Mechanical characteristics of fully mechanized top-coal caving face and surrounding rock stress shell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie Guang-xiang [Anhui University of Science and Technology, Huainan (China)

    2005-06-15

    The distribution of surrounding rock stress in fully mechanized top-coal caving (FMTC) face was fully researched by large-scale and non-linear three-dimensional numerical simulation and equivalent laboratory. The results show that, there is the structure that is made of macroscopical stress shell composed of high stress binds in overlying strata of FMTC face. Stress shell, which bears and pass load of overlying strata, is primary supporting body. The stress in skewback of stress shell forms abutment pressure of surrounding rock in vicinity of working face. Bond-beam structure lies in reducing zone under stress shell. It only bear partial burden of strata under stress shell. The uppermost mechanical characteristic of FMTC face is lying in the low stress area under stress shell. It is the essential cause of strata behaviors of FMTC face relaxation. On the basis of analyzing stress shell, the mechanical essence that top coal performs a function of bedding is demonstrated. 4 refs., 7 figs.

  1. The short-term stress response - Mother nature's mechanism for enhancing protection and performance under conditions of threat, challenge, and opportunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhabhar, Firdaus S

    2018-03-26

    Our group has proposed that in contrast to chronic stress that can have harmful effects, the short-term (fight-or-flight) stress response (lasting for minutes to hours) is nature's fundamental survival mechanism that enhances protection and performance under conditions involving threat/challenge/opportunity. Short-term stress enhances innate/primary, adaptive/secondary, vaccine-induced, and anti-tumor immune responses, and post-surgical recovery. Mechanisms and mediators include stress hormones, dendritic cell, neutrophil, macrophage, and lymphocyte trafficking/function and local/systemic chemokine and cytokine production. Short-term stress may also enhance mental/cognitive and physical performance through effects on brain, musculo-skeletal, and cardiovascular function, reappraisal of threat/anxiety, and training-induced stress-optimization. Therefore, short-term stress psychology/physiology could be harnessed to enhance immuno-protection, as well as mental and physical performance. This review aims to provide a conceptual framework and targets for further investigation of mechanisms and conditions under which the protective/adaptive aspects of short-term stress/exercise can be optimized/harnessed, and for developing pharmacological/biobehavioral interventions to enhance health/healing, and mental/cognitive/physical performance. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Effect of the fungus Piriformospora indica on physiological characteristics and root morphology of wheat under combined drought and mechanical stresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, Fatemeh; Mosaddeghi, Mohammad Reza; Dexter, Anthony Roger

    2017-09-01

    This study was done to evaluate the effects of the root-colonizing endophytic fungus Piriformospora indica on wheat growth under combined drought and mechanical stresses. Inoculated (colonized) and non-inoculated (uncolonized) wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv. Chamran) seedlings were planted in growth chambers filled with moist sand (at a matric suction of 20 hPa). Slight, moderate and severe mechanical stresses (i.e., penetration resistance, Q p , of 1.17, 4.17 and 5.96 MPa, respectively) were produced by a dead-load technique (i.e., placing a weight on the sand surface) in the root medium. Slight, moderate and severe drought stresses were induced using PEG 6000 solutions with osmotic potentials of 0, -0.3 and -0.5 MPa, respectively. After 30 days, plant physiological characteristics and root morphology were measured. An increase in Q p from 1.17 to 5.96 MPa led to greater leaf proline concentration and root diameter, and lower relative water content (RWC), leaf water potential (LWP), chlorophyll contents and root volume. Moreover, severe drought stress decreased root and shoot fresh weights, root volume, leaf area, RWC, LWP and chlorophyll content compared to control. Catalase (CAT) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) activities under severe drought stress were about 1.5 and 2.9 times greater than control. Interaction of the stresses showed that mechanical stress primarily controls plant water status and physiological responses. However, endophyte presence mitigated the adverse effects of individual and combined stresses on plant growth. Colonized plants were better adapted and had greater root length and volume, RWC, LWP and chlorophyll contents under stressful conditions due to higher absorption sites for water and nutrients. Compared with uncolonized plants, colonized plants showed lower CAT activity implying that wheat inoculated with P. indica was more tolerant and experienced less oxidative damage induced by drought and/or mechanical stress. Copyright

  3. Perspectives on deciphering mechanisms underlying plant heat stress response and thermotolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamila Lucia Bokszczanin

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Global warming is a major threat for agriculture and food safety and in many cases the negative effects are already apparent. The current challenge of basic and applied plant science is to decipher the molecular mechanisms of heat stress response and thermotolerance in detail and use this information to identify genotypes that will withstand unfavorable environmental conditions. Nowadays X-omics approaches complement the findings of previous targeted studies and highlight the complexity of heat stress response mechanisms giving information for so far unrecognized genes, proteins and metabolites as potential key players of thermotolerance. Even more, roles of epigenetic mechanisms and the involvement of small RNAs in thermotolerance are currently emerging and thus open new directions of yet unexplored areas of plant heat stress response. In parallel it is emerging that although the whole plant is vulnerable to heat, specific organs are particularly sensitive to elevated temperatures. This has redirected research from the vegetative to generative tissues. The sexual reproduction phase is considered as the most sensitive to heat and specifically pollen exhibits the highest sensitivity and frequently an elevation of the temperature just a few degrees above the optimum during pollen development can have detrimental effects for crop production. Compared to our knowledge on heat stress response of vegetative tissues, the information on pollen is still scarce. Nowadays, several techniques for high-throughput X-omics approaches provide major tools to explore the principles of pollen heat stress response and thermotolerance mechanisms in specific genotypes. The collection of such information will provide an excellent support for improvement of breeding programs to facilitate the development of tolerant cultivars. The review aims at describing the current knowledge of thermotolerance mechanisms and the technical advances which will foster new insights into

  4. Stress and reliability analyses of multilayered composite cylinder under thermal and mechanical loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaohua

    The coupling resulting from the mutual influence of material thermal and mechanical parameters is examined in the thermal stress analysis of a multilayered isotropic composite cylinder subjected to sudden axisymmetric external and internal temperature. The method of complex frequency response functions together with the Fourier transform technique is utilized. Because the coupling parameters for some composite materials, such as carbon-carbon, are very small, the effect of coupling is neglected in the orthotropic thermal stress analysis. The stress distributions in multilayered orthotropic cylinders subjected to sudden axisymmetric temperature loading combined with dynamic pressure as well as asymmetric temperature loading are also obtained. The method of Fourier series together with the Laplace transform is utilized in solving the heat conduction equation and thermal stress analysis. For brittle materials, like carbon-carbon composites, the strength variability is represented by two or three parameter Weibull distributions. The 'weakest link' principle which takes into account both the carbon-carbon composite cylinders. The complex frequency response analysis is performed on a multilayered orthotropic cylinder under asymmetrical thermal load. Both deterministic and random thermal stress and reliability analyses can be based on the results of this frequency response analysis. The stress and displacement distributions and reliability of rocket motors under static or dynamic line loads are analyzed by an elasticity approach. Rocket motors are modeled as long hollow multilayered cylinders with an air core, a thick isotropic propellant inner layer and a thin orthotropic kevlar-epoxy case. The case is treated as a single orthotropic layer or a ten layered orthotropic structure. Five material properties and the load are treated as random variable with normal distributions when the reliability of the rocket motor is analyzed by the first-order, second-moment method (FOSM).

  5. Failure mechanism of coated biomaterials under high impact-sliding contact stresses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ying

    This study uses a newly developed testing method--- inclined cyclic impact-sliding test to investigate the failure behaviors of different types of biomaterials, (SS316L, Ti6Al4V and CoCr) coated by different coatings (TiN, DLC and PEO), under extremely high dynamic contact stress conditions. This test method can simulate the combined impact and sliding/rolling loading conditions, which is very practical in many aspects of commercial usages. During the tests, fatigue cracking, chipping, peeling and material transferring were observed in damaged area. This research is mainly focused on the failure behaviors of load-bearing materials which cyclic impacting and sliding are always involved. This purpose was accomplished in the three stages: First, impact-sliding test was carried out on TiN coated unhardened M2. It was found that soft substrate can cause early failure of coating due to the considerable plastic deformation in the substrate. In this case, stronger substrate is required to support coating better when tested under high contact stresses. Second, PEO coated Ti-6Al-4V was tested under pure sliding and impact-sliding wear conditions. PEO coating was found not strong enough to afford the high contact pressure under cyclic impact-sliding wear test due to its porous surface structure. However, the wear performance of PEO coating was enhanced due to the sub-stoichiometric oxide. To sum up, for load-bearing biomedical implants involved in high impacting movement, PEO coating may not be a promising surface protection. Third, the dense, smooth PVD/CVD bio-inert coatings were reconsidered. DLC and TiN coatings, combined by different substrates together with different interface materials were tested under the cyclic impact-sliding test using a set of proper loading. The results show that to choose a proper combination of coating, interface and substrate based on their mechanical properties is of great importance under the test condition. Hard substrates provide support

  6. Changes Of Hydration Level In Type I Collagen And Glycosaminoglycans Synthesized In The Rat’s Skin Under The Mechanical Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandr M. Ponomarenko

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Changes of Hydratation Level Of Type I Collagen And Glycosaminoglycans That Are Synthesized In The Rat’s Skin Under The Mechanical Stress. The effect of the mechanical stress on the levels of hydratation of type I collagen and glycosaminoglycans that are synthesized in it, has been studied in vitro using the rats’ skin. The measured hydration of isotherms has shown that mechanical stress in the skin increases and decreases the amount of absorbed water in glycosaminoglycans and in collagen, respectively. Сalculated the average amounts of water molecules in collagen tripeptide and glycosaminoglycans disaccharide unit in the inside and outside layers of their hydrate shells

  7. Thermal–mechanical stress analysis of pressurized water reactor pressure vessel with/without a preexisting crack under grid load following conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohanty, Subhasish, E-mail: smohanty@anl.gov; Soppet, William K.; Majumdar, Saurin; Natesan, Krishnamurti

    2016-12-15

    Highlights: • Use of intermittent renewable-energy source in power grid is becoming a trend. • Gird load-following can leads to variable power demand from Nuclear power plant. • Reactor components can be stressed differently under gird load-following mode. • Estimation of stress–strain state under grid load-following condition is essential. - Abstract: In this paper, we present thermal–mechanical stress analysis of a pressurized water reactor pressure vessel and its hot-leg and cold-leg nozzles. Results are presented from thermal and thermal–mechanical stress analysis under reactor heat-up, cool-down, and grid load-following conditions. Analysis results are given with and without the presence of preexisting crack in the reactor nozzle (axial crack in hot leg nozzle). From the model results it is found that the stress–strain states are significantly higher in case of presence of crack than without crack. The stress–strain state under grid load following condition are more realistic compared to the stress–strain state estimated assuming simplified transients.

  8. Thermal–mechanical stress analysis of pressurized water reactor pressure vessel with/without a preexisting crack under grid load following conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohanty, Subhasish; Soppet, William K.; Majumdar, Saurin; Natesan, Krishnamurti

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Use of intermittent renewable-energy source in power grid is becoming a trend. • Gird load-following can leads to variable power demand from Nuclear power plant. • Reactor components can be stressed differently under gird load-following mode. • Estimation of stress–strain state under grid load-following condition is essential. - Abstract: In this paper, we present thermal–mechanical stress analysis of a pressurized water reactor pressure vessel and its hot-leg and cold-leg nozzles. Results are presented from thermal and thermal–mechanical stress analysis under reactor heat-up, cool-down, and grid load-following conditions. Analysis results are given with and without the presence of preexisting crack in the reactor nozzle (axial crack in hot leg nozzle). From the model results it is found that the stress–strain states are significantly higher in case of presence of crack than without crack. The stress–strain state under grid load following condition are more realistic compared to the stress–strain state estimated assuming simplified transients.

  9. Unraveling the Root Proteome Changes and Its Relationship to Molecular Mechanism Underlying Salt Stress Response in Radish (Raphanus sativus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaochuan Sun

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available To understand the molecular mechanism underlying salt stress response in radish, iTRAQ-based proteomic analysis was conducted to investigate the differences in protein species abundance under different salt treatments. In total, 851, 706, and 685 differential abundance protein species (DAPS were identified between CK vs. Na100, CK vs. Na200, and Na100 vs. Na200, respectively. Functional annotation analysis revealed that salt stress elicited complex proteomic alterations in radish roots involved in carbohydrate and energy metabolism, protein metabolism, signal transduction, transcription regulation, stress and defense and transport. Additionally, the expression levels of nine genes encoding DAPS were further verified using RT-qPCR. The integrative analysis of transcriptomic and proteomic data in conjunction with miRNAs was further performed to strengthen the understanding of radish response to salinity. The genes responsible for signal transduction, ROS scavenging and transport activities as well as several key miRNAs including miR171, miR395, and miR398 played crucial roles in salt stress response in radish. Based on these findings, a schematic genetic regulatory network of salt stress response was proposed. This study provided valuable insights into the molecular mechanism underlying salt stress response in radish roots and would facilitate developing effective strategies toward genetically engineered salt-tolerant radish and other root vegetable crops.

  10. Coupling effects of chemical stresses and external mechanical stresses on diffusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xuan Fuzhen; Shao Shanshan; Wang Zhengdong; Tu Shantung

    2009-01-01

    Interaction between diffusion and stress fields has been investigated extensively in the past. However, most of the previous investigations were focused on the effect of chemical stress on diffusion due to the unbalanced mass transport. In this work, the coupling effects of external mechanical stress and chemical stress on diffusion are studied. A self-consistent diffusion equation including the chemical stress and external mechanical stress gradient is developed under the framework of the thermodynamic theory and Fick's law. For a thin plate subjected to unidirectional tensile stress fields, the external stress coupled diffusion equation is solved numerically with the help of the finite difference method for one-side and both-side charging processes. Results show that, for such two types of charging processes, the external stress gradient will accelerate the diffusion process and thus increase the value of concentration while reducing the magnitude of chemical stress when the direction of diffusion is identical to that of the stress gradient. In contrast, when the direction of diffusion is opposite to that of the stress gradient, the external stress gradient will obstruct the process of solute penetration by decreasing the value of concentration and increasing the magnitude of chemical stress. For both-side charging process, compared with that without the coupling effect of external stress, an asymmetric distribution of concentration is produced due to the asymmetric mechanical stress field feedback to diffusion.

  11. Effect of nature-based sounds' intervention on agitation, anxiety, and stress in patients under mechanical ventilator support: a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saadatmand, Vahid; Rejeh, Nahid; Heravi-Karimooi, Majideh; Tadrisi, Sayed Davood; Zayeri, Farid; Vaismoradi, Mojtaba; Jasper, Melanie

    2013-07-01

    Few studies have been conducted to investigate the effect of nature-based sounds (N-BS) on agitation, anxiety level and physiological signs of stress in patients under mechanical ventilator support. Non-pharmacological nursing interventions such as N-BS can be less expensive and efficient ways to alleviate anxiety and adverse effects of sedative medications in patients under mechanical ventilator support. This study was conducted to identify the effect of the nature-based sounds' intervention on agitation, anxiety level and physiological stress responses in patients under mechanical ventilation support. A randomized placebo-controlled trial design was used to conduct this study. A total of 60 patients aged 18-65 years under mechanical ventilation support in an intensive care unit were randomly assigned to the control and experimental groups. The patients in the intervention group received 90 min of N-BS. Pleasant nature sounds were played to the patients using media players and headphones. Patients' physiological signs were taken immediately before the intervention and at the 30th, 60th, 90th minutes and 30 min after the procedure had finished. The physiological signs of stress assessed were heart rate, respiratory rate, and blood pressure. Data were collected over eight months from Oct 2011 to June 2012. Anxiety levels and agitation were assessed using the Faces Anxiety Scale and Richmond Agitation Sedation Scale, respectively. The experimental group had significantly lower systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, anxiety and agitation levels than the control group. These reductions increased progressively in the 30th, 60th, 90th minutes, and 30 min after the procedure had finished indicating a cumulative dose effect. N-BS can provide an effective method of decreasing potentially harmful physiological responses arising from anxiety in mechanically ventilated patients. Nurses can incorporate N-BS intervention as a non-pharmacologic intervention into the

  12. Regulation of Translation Initiation under Biotic and Abiotic Stresses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana B. Castro-Sanz

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Plants have developed versatile strategies to deal with the great variety of challenging conditions they are exposed to. Among them, the regulation of translation is a common target to finely modulate gene expression both under biotic and abiotic stress situations. Upon environmental challenges, translation is regulated to reduce the consumption of energy and to selectively synthesize proteins involved in the proper establishment of the tolerance response. In the case of viral infections, the situation is more complex, as viruses have evolved unconventional mechanisms to regulate translation in order to ensure the production of the viral encoded proteins using the plant machinery. Although the final purpose is different, in some cases, both plants and viruses share common mechanisms to modulate translation. In others, the mechanisms leading to the control of translation are viral- or stress-specific. In this paper, we review the different mechanisms involved in the regulation of translation initiation under virus infection and under environmental stress in plants. In addition, we describe the main features within the viral RNAs and the cellular mRNAs that promote their selective translation in plants undergoing biotic and abiotic stress situations.

  13. Shedding Light on the Mechanisms Underlying Health Disparities Through Community Participatory Methods: The Stress Pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schetter, Christine Dunkel; Schafer, Peter; Lanzi, Robin Gaines; Clark-Kauffman, Elizabeth; Raju, Tonse N. K.; Hillemeier, Marianne M.

    2015-01-01

    Health disparities are large and persistent gaps in the rates of disease and death between racial/ethnic and socioeconomic status subgroups in the population. Stress is a major pathway hypothesized to explain such disparities. The Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development formed a community/research collaborative—the Community Child Health Network—to investigate disparities in maternal and child health in five high-risk communities. Using community participation methods, we enrolled a large cohort of African American/Black, Latino/Hispanic, and non-Hispanic/White mothers and fathers of newborns at the time of birth and followed them over 2 years. A majority had household incomes near or below the federal poverty level. Home interviews yielded detailed information regarding multiple types of stress such as major life events and many forms of chronic stress including racism. Several forms of stress varied markedly by racial/ethnic group and income, with decreasing stress as income increased among Caucasians but not among African Americans; other forms of stress varied by race/ethnicity or poverty alone. We conclude that greater sophistication in studying the many forms of stress and community partnership is necessary to uncover the mechanisms underlying health disparities in poor and ethnic-minority families and to implement community health interventions. PMID:26173227

  14. Mechanical behavior and clinical application of nickel-titanium closed-coil springs under different stress levels and mechanical loading cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wichelhaus, Andrea; Brauchli, Lorenz; Ball, Judith; Mertmann, Matthias

    2010-05-01

    The main advantage of superelastic nickel-titanium (NiTi) products is their unique characteristic of force plateaus, which allow for clinically precise control of the force. The aims of this study were to define the mechanical characteristics of several currently available closed-coil retraction springs and to compare these products. A universal test frame was used to acquire force-deflection diagrams of 24 NiTi closed-coil springs at body temperature. Data analysis was performed with the superelastic algorithm. Also, the influence of temperature cycles and mechanical microcycles simulating ingestion of different foods and mastication, respectively, were considered. Mechanical testing showed significant differences between the various spring types (ANOVA, mechanical properties of the springs: strong superelasticity without bias stress, weak superelasticity without bias stress, strong superelasticity with bias stress, and weak superelasticity with bias stress. In sliding mechanics, the strongly superelastic closed-coil springs with preactivation are recommended. In addition, we found that the oral environment seems to have only a minor influence on their mechanical properties. Copyright (c) 2010 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Electromigration failures under bidirectional current stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Jiang; Cheung, Nathan W.; Hu, Chenming

    1998-01-01

    Electromigration failure under DC stress has been studied for more than 30 years, and the methodologies for accelerated DC testing and design rules have been well established in the IC industry. However, the electromigration behavior and design rules under time-varying current stress are still unclear. In CMOS circuits, as many interconnects carry pulsed-DC (local VCC and VSS lines) and bidirectional AC current (clock and signal lines), it is essential to assess the reliability of metallization systems under these conditions. Failure mechanisms of different metallization systems (Al-Si, Al-Cu, Cu, TiN/Al-alloy/TiN, etc.) and different metallization structures (via, plug and interconnect) under AC current stress in a wide frequency range (from mHz to 500 MHz) has been study in this paper. Based on these experimental results, a damage healing model is developed, and electromigration design rules are proposed. It shows that in the circuit operating frequency range, the "design-rule current" is the time-average current. The pure AC component of the current only contributes to self-heating, while the average (DC component) current contributes to electromigration. To ensure longer thermal-migration lifetime under high frequency AC stress, an additional design rule is proposed to limit the temperature rise due to self-joule heating.

  16. Influence of mechanical stress level in preliminary stress-corrosion testing on fatigue strength of a low-carbon steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aleskerova, S.A.; Pakharyan, V.A.

    1978-01-01

    Effect of corrosion and mechanical factors of preliminary stress corrosion of a metal in its fatigue strength, has been investigated. Smooth cylindrical samples of 20 steel have been tested. Preliminary corrosion under stress has been carried out under natural sea conditions. It is shown that mechanical stresses in the case of preliminary corrosion affect fatigue strength of low-carbon steels, decreasing the range of limited durability and fatigue limit. This effect increases with the increase of stress level and agressivity of corrosive medium

  17. Effect of the weld joint configuration on stressed components, residual stresses and mechanical properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cevik, Bekir; Oezer, Alpay; Oezcatalbas, Yusuf [Gazi Univ., Ankara (Turkey)

    2014-03-01

    The effect of the weld joint configuration on components has been studied, which are under service loads, under repair or construction and the residual stresses as well as the mechanical properties of the joint have been determined. For this purpose, a horizontal positioned tensile testing device and a semi-automatic MIG welding machine have been used and then the weld joints of the plates were subjected to different elastic stresses. When the temperature of the joined elements decreased to room temperature, applied elastic stresses were released. By this means, the effects of the existing tensile stresses in the joined parts and the tensile stresses created by the welding processes were investigated. The tensile stresses occurring in the joined elements were determined by using the photo-elasticity analysis method and the hole-drilling method. Also, tensile-shear tests were applied in order to determine the effect of permanent tensile loads on the mechanical properties of the joint. Experimental results showed that the application of corner welded lap joints for components under tensile loading significantly decrease the shear strength and yielding capacities of the joint. (orig.)

  18. Shedding Light on the Mechanisms Underlying Health Disparities Through Community Participatory Methods: The Stress Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunkel Schetter, Christine; Schafer, Peter; Lanzi, Robin Gaines; Clark-Kauffman, Elizabeth; Raju, Tonse N K; Hillemeier, Marianne M

    2013-11-01

    Health disparities are large and persistent gaps in the rates of disease and death between racial/ethnic and socioeconomic status subgroups in the population. Stress is a major pathway hypothesized to explain such disparities. The Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development formed a community/research collaborative-the Community Child Health Network-to investigate disparities in maternal and child health in five high-risk communities. Using community participation methods, we enrolled a large cohort of African American/Black, Latino/Hispanic, and non-Hispanic/White mothers and fathers of newborns at the time of birth and followed them over 2 years. A majority had household incomes near or below the federal poverty level. Home interviews yielded detailed information regarding multiple types of stress such as major life events and many forms of chronic stress including racism. Several forms of stress varied markedly by racial/ethnic group and income, with decreasing stress as income increased among Caucasians but not among African Americans; other forms of stress varied by race/ethnicity or poverty alone. We conclude that greater sophistication in studying the many forms of stress and community partnership is necessary to uncover the mechanisms underlying health disparities in poor and ethnic-minority families and to implement community health interventions. © The Author(s) 2013.

  19. Experimental Investigation on Shock Mechanical Properties of Red Sandstone under Preloaded 3D Static Stresses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niu Yong

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Triaxial impact mechanical performance experiment was performed to study the mechanical properties of red sandstone subjected to three-dimensional (3D coupled static and dynamic loads, i.e., three confining pressures (0, 5, and 10 MPa and three axial pressures (11, 27, and 43 MPa. A modified 3D split Hopkinson pressure bar testing system was used. The change trend in the deformation of red sandstone and the strength and failure modes under axial pressures and confining pressures were analyzed. Results show that, when the confining pressure is constant, the compressive strength, secant modulus, and energy absorbed per unit volume of red sandstone initially increases and subsequently decreases, whereas the average strain rate exhibits an opposite trend. When the axial pressure is constant, both the compressive strength and secant modulus of red sandstone are enhanced, but the average strain rate is decreased with increasing confining pressure. The energy absorbed per unit volume is initially increased and subsequently decreased as the confining pressure increases. Red sandstone exhibits a cone-shaped compression–shear failure mode under the 3D coupled static and dynamic loads. The conclusions serve as theoretical basis on the mechanical properties of deep medium-strength rock under a high ground stress and external load disturbance condition

  20. Tuning of redox regulatory mechanisms, reactive oxygen species and redox homeostasis under salinity stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossain eSazzad

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Soil salinity is a crucial environmental constraint which limits biomass production at many sites on a global scale. Saline growth conditions cause osmotic and ionic imbalances, oxidative stress and perturb metabolism, e.g. the photosynthetic electron flow. The plant ability to tolerate salinity is determined by multiple biochemical and physiological mechanisms protecting cell functions, in particular by regulating proper water relations and maintaining ion homeostasis. Redox homeostasis is a fundamental cell property. Its regulation includes control of reactive oxygen species (ROS generation, sensing deviation from and readjustment of the cellular redox state. All these redox related functions have been recognized as decisive factors in salinity acclimation and adaptation. This review focuses on the core response of plants to overcome the challenges of salinity stress through regulation of ROS generation and detoxification systems and to maintain redox homeostasis. Emphasis is given to the role of NADH oxidase (RBOH, alternative oxidase (AOX, the plastid terminal oxidase (PTOX and the malate valve with the malate dehydrogenase isoforms under salt stress. Overwhelming evidence assigns an essential auxiliary function of ROS and redox homeostasis to salinity acclimation of plants.

  1. Transcriptome Analysis of Sunflower Genotypes with Contrasting Oxidative Stress Tolerance Reveals Individual- and Combined- Biotic and Abiotic Stress Tolerance Mechanisms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vemanna S Ramu

    Full Text Available In nature plants are often simultaneously challenged by different biotic and abiotic stresses. Although the mechanisms underlying plant responses against single stress have been studied considerably, plant tolerance mechanisms under combined stress is not understood. Also, the mechanism used to combat independently and sequentially occurring many number of biotic and abiotic stresses has also not systematically studied. From this context, in this study, we attempted to explore the shared response of sunflower plants to many independent stresses by using meta-analysis of publically available transcriptome data and transcript profiling by quantitative PCR. Further, we have also analyzed the possible role of the genes so identified in contributing to combined stress tolerance. Meta-analysis of transcriptomic data from many abiotic and biotic stresses indicated the common representation of oxidative stress responsive genes. Further, menadione-mediated oxidative stress in sunflower seedlings showed similar pattern of changes in the oxidative stress related genes. Based on this a large scale screening of 55 sunflower genotypes was performed under menadione stress and those contrasting in oxidative stress tolerance were identified. Further to confirm the role of genes identified in individual and combined stress tolerance the contrasting genotypes were individually and simultaneously challenged with few abiotic and biotic stresses. The tolerant hybrid showed reduced levels of stress damage both under combined stress and few independent stresses. Transcript profiling of the genes identified from meta-analysis in the tolerant hybrid also indicated that the selected genes were up-regulated under individual and combined stresses. Our results indicate that menadione-based screening can identify genotypes not only tolerant to multiple number of individual biotic and abiotic stresses, but also the combined stresses.

  2. Modeling of the cold work stress relieved Zircaloy-4 cladding tubes mechanical behavior under PWR operating conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richard, F.; Delobelle, P.; Leclercq, S.; Bouffioux, P.; Rousselier, G.

    2003-01-01

    This paper proposes a damaged viscoplastic model to simulate, for different isotherms (320, 350, 380, 400 and 420 degC), the out-of-flux anisotropic mechanical behavior of cold work stress relieved Zircaloy-4 cladding tubes over the fluence range 0-85.1024 nm -2 (E > 1 MeV). The model, identified from uni and biaxial tests conducted at 350 and 400 degC, is validated from tests performed at 320, 380 and 420 degC. This model is able to simulate strain hardening under internal pressure followed by a stress relaxation period (thermal creep), which is representative of a pellet cladding mechanical interaction occurring during a power transient (class 2 incidental condition). Both the integration of a scalar state variable, characterizing the damage caused by a bombardment with neutrons, and the modification of the static recovery law allowed us to simulate the fast neutron flux effect (irradiation creep). (author)

  3. Molecular mechanism of catalase activity change under sodium dodecyl sulfate-induced oxidative stress in the mouse primary hepatocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Wang, Jiaxi; Xu, Chi; Liu, Rutao; Chen, Yadong

    2016-04-15

    Sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) contributes to adverse effects of organisms probably because of its ability to induce oxidative stress via changing the activity of antioxidant enzyme catalase (CAT). But the underlying molecular mechanisms still remain unclear. This study characterized the harmful effects of SDS-induced oxidative stress on the mouse primary hepatocytes as well as the structure and function of CAT molecule and investigated the underlying molecular mechanism. After 12h SDS (0.1μM to 0.2mM) exposure, no significant change was observed in CAT activity of the hepatocytes. After 0.5 and 0.8mM SDS exposure, the state of oxidative stress stimulated CAT production in the hepatocytes. The inhibition of CAT activity induced by directly interacting with SDS was unable to catch the synthesis of CAT and therefore resulted in the increased activity and elevated ROS level. Further molecular experiments showed that SDS prefers to bind to the interface with no direct effect on the active site and the structure of heme groups of CAT molecule. When the sites in the interface is saturated, SDS interacts with VAL 73, HIS 74, ASN 147 and PHE 152, the key residues of the enzyme activity, and leads to the decrease of CAT activity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. A study on the degradation mechanism of InGaZnO thin-film transistors under simultaneous gate and drain bias stresses based on the electronic trap characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Chan-Yong; Lee, Daeun; Song, Sang-Hun; Kwon, Hyuck-In; Kim, Jong In; Lee, Jong-Ho

    2014-01-01

    We discuss the device degradation mechanism of amorphous indium–gallium–zinc oxide (a-IGZO) thin-film transistors (TFTs) under simultaneous gate and drain bias stresses based on the electronic trap characterization results. The transfer curve exhibits an apparent negative shift as the stress time increases, and a formation of hump is observed in the transfer curve after stresses. A notable increase of the frequency dispersion is observed after stresses in both gate-to-drain capacitance–voltage (C GD –V G ) and gate-to-source capacitance–voltage (C GS –V G ) curves, which implies that the subgap states are generated by simultaneous gate and drain bias stresses, and the damaged location is not limited to the drain side of TFTs. The larger frequency dispersion is observed in C GD –V G  curves after stresses in a wider channel device, which implies that the heat is an important factor in the generation of the subgap states under simultaneous gate and drain bias stresses in a-IGZO TFTs. Based on the electronic trap characterization results, we conclude that the impact ionization near the drain side of the device is not a dominant mechanism causing the generation of subgap states and device degradation in a-IGZO TFTs under simultaneous gate and drain bias stresses. The generation of oxygen vacancy-related donor-like traps near the conduction band edge is considered as a possible mechanism causing the device degradation under simultaneous gate and drain bias stresses in a-IGZO TFTs. (paper)

  5. Dysregulated stress signal sensitivity and inflammatory disinhibition as a pathophysiological mechanism of stress-related chronic fatigue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strahler, Jana; Skoluda, Nadine; Rohleder, Nicolas; Nater, Urs M

    2016-09-01

    Chronic stress and its subsequent effects on biological stress systems have long been recognized as predisposing and perpetuating factors in chronic fatigue, although the exact mechanisms are far from being completely understood. In this review, we propose that sensitivity of immune cells to glucocorticoids (GCs) and catecholamines (CATs) may be the missing link in elucidating how stress turns into chronic fatigue. We searched for in vitro studies investigating the impact of GCs or CATs on mitogen-stimulated immune cells in chronically stressed or fatigued populations, with 34 original studies fulfilling our inclusion criteria. Besides mixed cross-sectional findings for stress- and fatigue-related changes of GC sensitivity under basal conditions or acute stress, longitudinal studies indicate a decrease with ongoing stress. Research on CATs is still scarce, but initial findings point towards a reduction of CAT sensitivity under chronic stress. In the long run, resistance of immune cells to stress signals under conditions of chronic stress might translate into self-maintaining inflammation and inflammatory disinhibition under acute stress, which in turn lead to fatigue. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Estimation of stress intensity factors for circumferential cracked pipes under welding residual stress filed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Chang Young; Kim, Yun Jae; Oh, Young Jin; Song, Tae Kwang; Kim, Yong Beum; Oh, Young Jin; Song, Tae Kwang; Kim, Yong Beum

    2012-01-01

    Recently, stress corrosion cracking(SCC) have been found in dissimilar metal welds of nozzles in some pressurized water reactors and on low carbon stainless steel piping systems of boiling water reactors. The important factor of SCC is the residual stress field caused by weld. For the evaluation of crack growth analysis due to SCC, stress intensity factor under a residual stress field should be estimated. Several solutions for stress intensity factor under residual stress field were recommended in flaw assessment codes such as the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Section XI, R6, American Petroleum Institute (API579). Some relevant works have been studied. Dong et al. evaluated stress intensity factors in welded structures. Miyazaki et al. estimated stress intensity factors of surface crack in simple stress fields. This paper presents a simple method to estimate stress intensity factors in welding residual stress field. For general application, results of structure integrity assessment codes KI solutions were compared Finite element analyses of welding simulation and cracked pipes are described. Comparison results of KI solutions and proposed simplified solution are presented in the works

  7. Understanding abiotic stress tolerance mechanisms in soybean: a comparative evaluation of soybean response to drought and flooding stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutava, Raymond N; Prince, Silvas Jebakumar K; Syed, Naeem Hasan; Song, Li; Valliyodan, Babu; Chen, Wei; Nguyen, Henry T

    2015-01-01

    Many sources of drought and flooding tolerance have been identified in soybean, however underlying molecular and physiological mechanisms are poorly understood. Therefore, it is important to illuminate different plant responses to these abiotic stresses and understand the mechanisms that confer tolerance. Towards this goal we used four contrasting soybean (Glycine max) genotypes (PI 567690--drought tolerant, Pana--drought susceptible, PI 408105A--flooding tolerant, S99-2281--flooding susceptible) grown under greenhouse conditions and compared genotypic responses to drought and flooding at the physiological, biochemical, and cellular level. We also quantified these variations and tried to infer their role in drought and flooding tolerance in soybean. Our results revealed that different mechanisms contribute to reduction in net photosynthesis under drought and flooding stress. Under drought stress, ABA and stomatal conductance are responsible for reduced photosynthetic rate; while under flooding stress, accumulation of starch granules played a major role. Drought tolerant genotypes PI 567690 and PI 408105A had higher plastoglobule numbers than the susceptible Pana and S99-2281. Drought stress increased the number and size of plastoglobules in most of the genotypes pointing to a possible role in stress tolerance. Interestingly, there were seven fibrillin proteins localized within the plastoglobules that were up-regulated in the drought and flooding tolerant genotypes PI 567690 and PI 408105A, respectively, but down-regulated in the drought susceptible genotype Pana. These results suggest a potential role of Fibrillin proteins, FBN1a, 1b and 7a in soybean response to drought and flooding stress. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Stress Corrosion Cracking of Basalt/Epoxy Composites under Bending Loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shokrieh, Mahmood M.; Memar, Mahdi

    2010-04-01

    The purpose of this research is to study the stress corrosion behavior of basalt/epoxy composites under bending loading and submerged in 5% sulfuric acid corrosive medium. There are limited numbers of research in durability of fiber reinforced polymer composites. Moreover, studies on basalt fibers and its composites are very limited. In this research, mechanical property degradation of basalt/epoxy composites under bending loading and submerged in acidic corrosive medium is investigated. Three states of stress, equal to 30%, 50% and 70% of the ultimate strength of composites, are applied on samples. High stress states are applied to the samples to accelerate the testing procedure. Mechanical properties degradation consists of bending strength, bending modulus of elasticity and fracture energy of samples are examined. Also, a normalized strength degradation model for stress corrosion condition is presented. Finally, microscopic images of broken cross sections of samples are examined.

  9. ACTIVATION MECHANISMS OF GUT-ASSOCIATED LYMPHOID TISSUE UNDER CHRONIC SOCIAL STRESS CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Kamyshnyi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Stress-induced immune disregulation is a risk factor of autoimmune and inflammatory diseases, but, so far, the mechanisms for this effect are not fully known. Expression levels of specific mRNAs were assessed in gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT from Wistar rats subjected to chronic social stress (CSS. Gene expression was evaluated for NR3C1, Adrβ2, as well as IL-1β, IL-17α pro-inflammatory cytokines, and Nlrp, an inflammasome gene. Under the CSS conditions, we have shown altered distribution of RORγt +, FoxP3+, LMP2+, XBP1+ lymphocytes in GALT.The experiments were carried out with female Wistar rats aged 5–6 months. Specific mRNA expression for the target genes was determined by means of real-time PCR performed in a CFX96™ thermocycler («BioRadLaboratories, Inc»,USA. Relative levels of a target gene expression were quantified by the ΔΔCt method, being compared with rat GAPDH reference gene expression. Statistical analysis was performed with available «BioRad СFX Manager 3.1» software. Specific monoclonal rat antibodes were used for detection of immunopositive lymphocytes by means of indirect immunofluorescence technique.CSS development leads to decreased levels of mRNA expression for Nr3c1 and Adrβ2-genes in the GALT cells, being accompanied with unidirectional changes, i.e., increased transcription of pro-inflammatory cytokine mRNAs (IL-1β, IL-17α and Nlrp3-inflammasome genes. These changes are accompanied by decreased FoxP3+/RORγt + cell ratio and predominant Th17 differentiation accompanied by suppressor failure. In addition, CSS development was characterized by unidirectional tendency for increasing total number of LMP2+ lymphocytes and reduced ХВР1+ cell population density in lymphoid structures of rat ileum.The events observed in GALT cell populations under CSS conditions are opposing classical paradigm of the stress response. The CSS-associated effects do not promote immunosuppression, however, are able to cause

  10. Six habits to enhance MET performance under stress: A discussion paper reviewing team mechanisms for improved patient outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fein, Erich C; Mackie, Benjamin; Chernyak-Hai, Lily; O'Quinn, C Richard V; Ahmed, Ezaz

    2016-05-01

    Effective team decision making has the potential to improve the quality of health care outcomes. Medical Emergency Teams (METs), a specific type of team led by either critical care nurses or physicians, must respond to and improve the outcomes of deteriorating patients. METs routinely make decisions under conditions of uncertainty and suboptimal care outcomes still occur. In response, the development and use of Shared Mental Models (SMMs), which have been shown to promote higher team performance under stress, may enhance patient outcomes. This discussion paper specifically focuses on the development and use of SMMs in the context of METs. Within this process, the psychological mechanisms promoting enhanced team performance are examined and the utility of this model is discussed through the narrative of six habits applied to MET interactions. A two stage, reciprocal model of both nonanalytic decision making within the acute care environment and analytic decision making during reflective action learning was developed. These habits are explored within the context of a MET, illustrating how applying SMMs and action learning processes may enhance team-based problem solving under stress. Based on this model, we make recommendations to enhance MET decision making under stress. It is suggested that the corresponding habits embedded within this model could be imparted to MET members and tested by health care researchers to assess the efficacy of this integrated decision making approach in respect to enhanced team performance and patient outcomes. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Oxidative stress-induced telomeric erosion as a mechanism underlying airborne particulate matter-related cardiovascular disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grahame Thomas J

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Particulate matter (PM pollution is responsible for hundreds of thousands of deaths worldwide, the majority due to cardiovascular disease (CVD. While many potential pathophysiological mechanisms have been proposed, there is not yet a consensus as to which are most important in causing pollution-related morbidity/mortality. Nor is there consensus regarding which specific types of PM are most likely to affect public health in this regard. One toxicological mechanism linking exposure to airborne PM with CVD outcomes is oxidative stress, a contributor to the development of CVD risk factors including atherosclerosis. Recent work suggests that accelerated shortening of telomeres and, thus, early senescence of cells may be an important pathway by which oxidative stress may accelerate biological aging and the resultant development of age-related morbidity. This pathway may explain a significant proportion of PM-related adverse health outcomes, since shortened telomeres accelerate the progression of many diseases. There is limited but consistent evidence that vehicular emissions produce oxidative stress in humans. Given that oxidative stress is associated with accelerated erosion of telomeres, and that shortened telomeres are linked with acceleration of biological ageing and greater incidence of various age-related pathology, including CVD, it is hypothesized that associations noted between certain pollution types and sources and oxidative stress may reflect a mechanism by which these pollutants result in CVD-related morbidity and mortality, namely accelerated aging via enhanced erosion of telomeres. This paper reviews the literature providing links among oxidative stress, accelerated erosion of telomeres, CVD, and specific sources and types of air pollutants. If certain PM species/sources might be responsible for adverse health outcomes via the proposed mechanism, perhaps the pathway to reducing mortality/morbidity from PM would become clearer

  12. Flux Balance Analysis of Escherichia coli under Temperature and pH Stress Conditions

    KAUST Repository

    Xu, Xiaopeng

    2015-05-12

    An interesting discovery in biology is that most genes in an organism are dispensable. That means these genes have minor effects on survival of the organism in standard laboratory conditions. One explanation of this discovery is that some genes play important roles in specific conditions and are essential genes under those conditions. E. coli is a model organism, which is widely used. It can adapt to many stress conditions, including temperature, pH, osmotic, antibiotic, etc. Underlying mechanisms and associated genes of each stress condition responses are usually different. In our analysis, we combined protein abundance data and mutant conditional fitness data into E. coli constraint-based metabolic models to study conditionally essential metabolic genes under temperature and pH stress conditions. Flux Balance Analysis was employed as the modeling method to analysis these data. We discovered lists of metabolic genes, which are E. coli dispensable genes, but conditionally essential under some stress conditions. Among these conditionally essential genes, atpA in low pH stress and nhaA in high pH stress found experimental evidences from previous studies. Our study provides new conditionally essential gene candidates for biologists to explore stress condition mechanisms.

  13. Mechanical Behavior of Shale Rock under Uniaxial Cyclic Loading and Unloading Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baoyun Zhao

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate the mechanical behavior of shale rock under cyclic loading and unloading condition, two kinds of incremental cyclic loading tests were conducted. Based on the result of the short-term uniaxial incremental cyclic loading test, the permanent residual strain, modulus, and damage evolution were analyzed firstly. Results showed that the relationship between the residual strains and the cycle number can be expressed by an exponential function. The deformation modulus E50 and elastic modulus ES first increased and then decreased with the peak stress under the loading condition, and both of them increased approximately linearly with the peak stress under the unloading condition. On the basis of the energy dissipation, the damage variables showed an exponential increasing with the strain at peak stress. The creep behavior of the shale rock was also analyzed. Results showed that there are obvious instantaneous strain, decay creep, and steady creep under each stress level and the specimen appears the accelerated creep stage under the 4th stress of 51.16 MPa. Based on the characteristics of the Burgers creep model, a viscoelastic-plastic creep model was proposed through viscoplastic mechanics, which agrees very well with the experimental results and can better describe the creep behavior of shale rock better than the Burgers creep model. Results can provide some mechanics reference evidence for shale gas development.

  14. In situ mechanical TEM: seeing and measuring under stress with electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Legros, M.

    2014-01-01

    From the first observation of moving dislocations in 1956 to the latest developments of piezo-actuated sample holders and direct electron sensing cameras in modern transmission electron microscopes (TEM), in situ mechanical testing has brought an unequaled view of the involved mechanisms during the plastic deformation of materials. Although MEMS-based or load-cell equipped holders provide an almost direct measure of these quantities, deriving stress and strain from in situ TEM experiments has an extensive history. Nowadays, the realization of a complete mechanical test while observing the evolution of a dislocation structure is possible, and it constitutes the perfect combination to explore size effects in plasticity. New cameras, data acquisition rates and intrinsic image-related techniques, such as holography, should extend the efficiency and capabilities of in situ deformation inside a TEM. (author)

  15. Polyamine biosynthesis in rice cultivars under salt stress and comparison with observations under drought stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phuc Thi Do

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Soil salinity affects a large proportion of rural area and limits agricultural productivity. To investigate differential adaptation to soil salinity, we studied salt tolerance of 18 varieties of Oryza sativa using a hydroponic culture system. Based on visual inspection and photosynthetic parameters, cultivars were classified according to their tolerance level. Additionally, biomass parameters were correlated with salt tolerance. Polyamines have frequently been demonstrated to be involved in plant stress responses and therefore soluble leaf polyamines were measured. Under salinity, putrescine (Put content was unchanged or increased in tolerant, while dropped in sensitive cultivars. Spermidine (Spd content was unchanged at lower NaCl concentrations in all, while reduced at 100 mM NaCl in sensitive cultivars. Spermine (Spm content was increased in all cultivars. A comparison with data from 21 cultivars under long-term, moderate drought stress revealed an increase of Spm under both stress conditions. While Spm became the most prominent polyamine under drought, levels of all three polyamines were relatively similar under salt stress. Put levels were reduced under both, drought and salt stress, while changes in Spd were different under drought (decrease or salt (unchanged conditions. Regulation of polyamine metabolism at the transcript level during exposure to salinity was studied for genes encoding enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of polyamines and compared to expression under drought stress. Based on expression profiles, investigated genes were divided into generally stress-induced genes (ADC2, SPD/SPM2, SPD/SPM3, one generally stress-repressed gene (ADC1, constitutively expressed genes (CPA1, CPA2, CPA4, SAMDC1, SPD/SPM1, specifically drought-induced genes (SAMDC2, AIH, one specifically drought-repressed gene (CPA3 and one specifically salt-stress repressed gene (SAMDC4, revealing both overlapping and specific stress responses under these

  16. Effect of Thermal Mechanical Behaviors of Cu on Stress Distribution in Cu-Filled Through-Silicon Vias Under Heat Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xuewei; Ma, Limin; Wang, Yishu; Guo, Fu

    2018-01-01

    Through-silicon vias (TSV) are facing unexpected thermo-mechanical reliability problems due to the coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) mismatch between various materials in TSVs. During applications, thermal stresses induced by CTE mismatch will have a negative impact on other devices connecting with TSVs, even leading to failure. Therefore, it is essential to investigate the stress distribution evolution in the TSV structure under thermal loads. In this report, TSVs were heated to 450°C at different heating rates, then cooled down to room temperature after a 30-min dwelling. After heating treatment, TSV samples exhibited different Cu deformation behaviors, including Cu intrusion and protrusion. Based on the different Cu deformation behaviors, stress in Si around Cu vias of these samples was measured and analyzed. Results analyzed by Raman spectrums showed that the stress distribution changes were associated with Cu deformation behaviors. In the area near the Cu via, Cu protrusion behavior might aggravate the stress in Si obtained from the Raman measurement, while Cu intrusion might alleviate the stress. The possible reason was that in this area, the compressive stress σ_{θ } induced by thermal loads might be the dominant stress. In the area far from the Cu via, thermal loads tended to result in a tensile stress state in Si.

  17. On equally and completely stressed hinged mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovalev, M. D.

    2018-05-01

    The following new question is investigated: is there any bar and joint planar linkage with every bar having the same nonzero stress in each position of the linkage, and with each angle between adjacent bars varying, when the linkage moves? The absence of such mechanisms under appropriate condition is prooved.

  18. Coordination of frontline defense mechanisms under severe oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Amardeep; Van, Phu T; Busch, Courtney R; Robinson, Courtney K; Pan, Min; Pang, Wyming Lee; Reiss, David J; DiRuggiero, Jocelyne; Baliga, Nitin S

    2010-07-01

    Complexity of cellular response to oxidative stress (OS) stems from its wide-ranging damage to nucleic acids, proteins, carbohydrates, and lipids. We have constructed a systems model of OS response (OSR) for Halobacterium salinarum NRC-1 in an attempt to understand the architecture of its regulatory network that coordinates this complex response. This has revealed a multi-tiered OS-management program to transcriptionally coordinate three peroxidase/catalase enzymes, two superoxide dismutases, production of rhodopsins, carotenoids and gas vesicles, metal trafficking, and various other aspects of metabolism. Through experimental validation of interactions within the OSR regulatory network, we show that despite their inability to directly sense reactive oxygen species, general transcription factors have an important function in coordinating this response. Remarkably, a significant fraction of this OSR was accurately recapitulated by a model that was earlier constructed from cellular responses to diverse environmental perturbations--this constitutes the general stress response component. Notwithstanding this observation, comparison of the two models has identified the coordination of frontline defense and repair systems by regulatory mechanisms that are triggered uniquely by severe OS and not by other environmental stressors, including sub-inhibitory levels of redox-active metals, extreme changes in oxygen tension, and a sub-lethal dose of gamma rays.

  19. Impact of Post-Translational Modifications of Crop Proteins under Abiotic Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akiko Hashiguchi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The efficiency of stress-induced adaptive responses of plants depends on intricate coordination of multiple signal transduction pathways that act coordinately or, in some cases, antagonistically. Protein post-translational modifications (PTMs can regulate protein activity and localization as well as protein–protein interactions in numerous cellular processes, thus leading to elaborate regulation of plant responses to various external stimuli. Understanding responses of crop plants under field conditions is crucial to design novel stress-tolerant cultivars that maintain robust homeostasis even under extreme conditions. In this review, proteomic studies of PTMs in crops are summarized. Although the research on the roles of crop PTMs in regulating stress response mechanisms is still in its early stage, several novel insights have been retrieved so far. This review covers techniques for detection of PTMs in plants, representative PTMs in plants under abiotic stress, and how PTMs control functions of representative proteins. In addition, because PTMs under abiotic stresses are well described in soybeans under submergence, recent findings in PTMs of soybean proteins under flooding stress are introduced. This review provides information on advances in PTM study in relation to plant adaptations to abiotic stresses, underlining the importance of PTM study to ensure adequate agricultural production in the future.

  20. Stress regimes in the northwest of Iran from stress inversion of earthquake focal mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afra, Mahsa; Moradi, Ali; Pakzad, Mehrdad

    2017-11-01

    Northwestern Iran is one of the seismically active regions with a high seismic risk in the world. This area is a part of the complex tectonic system due to the interaction between Arabia, Anatolia and Eurasia. The purpose of this study is to deduce the stress regimes in the northwestern Iran and surrounding regions from stress inversion of earthquake focal mechanisms. We compile 92 focal mechanisms data from the Global CMT catalogue and other sources and also determine the focal mechanisms of 14 earthquakes applying the moment tensor inversion. We divide the studied region into 9 zones using similarity of the horizontal GPS velocities and existing focal mechanisms. We implement two stress inversion methods, Multiple Inverse Method and Iterative Joint Inversion Method, which provide comparable results in terms of orientations of maximum horizontal stress axes SHmax. The similar results of the two methods should make us more confident about the interpretations. We consider zones of exclusion surrounding all the earthquakes according to independent focal mechanisms hypothesis. The hypothesis says that the inversion should involve events that are far enough from each other in order that any previous event doesn't affect the stress field near the earthquake under consideration. Accordingly we deal with the matter by considering zones of exclusion around all the events. The result of exclusion is only significant for eastern Anatolia. The stress regime in this region changes from oblique to strike slip faulting because of the exclusion. In eastern Anatolia, the direction of maximum horizontal stress is nearly north-south. The direction alters to east-west in Talesh region. Errors of σ1 are lower in all zones comparing with errors of σ2 and σ3 and there is a trade-off between data resolution and covariance of the model. The results substantiate the strike-slip and thrust faulting stress regimes in the northwest of Iran.

  1. Solving the cardiac hypertrophy riddle: The angiotensin II-mechanical stress connection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zablocki, Daniela; Sadoshima, Junichi

    2013-11-08

    A series of studies conducted 20 years ago, documenting the cardiac hypertrophy phenotype and its underlying signaling mechanism induced by angiotensin II (Ang II) and mechanical stress, showed a remarkable similarity between the effect of the Gαq agonist and that of mechanical forces on cardiac hypertrophy. Subsequent studies confirmed the involvement of autocrine/paracrine mechanisms, including stretch-induced release of Ang II in load-induced cardiac hypertrophy. Recent studies showed that the Ang II type 1 (AT1) receptor is also directly activated by mechanical forces, suggesting that AT1 receptors play an important role in mediating load-induced cardiac hypertrophy through both ligand- and mechanical stress-dependent mechanisms.

  2. Residual stresses and mechanical properties of metal matrix composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persson, Christer.

    1993-01-01

    The large difference in coefficient of thermal expansion of the matrix and particles in a metal matrix composite will introduce residual stresses during cooling from process temperature. These stresses are locally very high, and are known to influence the mechanical behaviour of the material. Changes in the stress state will occur during heat treatments and when the material is loaded due to different elastic, plastic, and creep properties of the constituents. The change of residual stresses in an Al-SiC particulate composite after different degree of plastic straining has been studied. The effect of plastic straining was modelled by an Eshelby model. The model and the measurements both show that the stress in the loading direction decreases for a tensile plastic strain and increases for a compressive plastic strain. By x-ray diffraction the stress response in the matrix and particles can be measured independently. This has been used to determine the stress state under and after heat treatments and under mechanical loading in two Al 15% SiC metal matrix composites. By analysing the line width from x-ray experiment the changes in the microstrains in the material were studied. A finite element model was used to model the generation of thermal residual stresses, stress relaxation during heat treatments, and load sharing during the first load cycle. Calculated stresses and microstrains were found to be in good agreement with the measured values. The elastic behaviour of the composite can be understood largely in terms of elastic load transfer between matrix and particles. However, at higher loads when the matrix becomes plastic residual stresses also become important. 21 refs

  3. The sex differences in nature of vascular endothelial stress: nitrergic mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sindeev, Sergey; Gekaluyk, Artem; Ulanova, Maria; Agranovich, Ilana; Sharref, Ali Esmat; Semyachkina-Glushkovskaya, Oxana

    2016-04-01

    Here we studied the role of nitric oxide in cardiovascular regulation in male and female hypertensive rats under normal and stress conditions. We found that the severity of hypertension in females was lower than in males. Hypertensive females demonstrated more favorable pattern of cardiovascular responses to stress. Nitric oxide blockade by NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) increased the mean arterial pressure and decreased the heart rate more effectively in females than in males. During stress, L-NAME modified the stress-induced cardiovascular responses more significantly in female compared with male groups. Our data show that hypertensive females demonstrated the more effective nitric oxide control of cardiovascular activity under normal and especially stress conditions than male groups. This sex differences may be important mechanism underlying greater in females vs. males stress-resistance of cardiovascular system and hypertension formation.

  4. Mechanical Design of AM Fabricated Prismatic Rods under Torsion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manzhirov Alexander V.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We study the stress-strain state of viscoelastic prismatic rods fabricated or repaired by additive manufacturing technologies under torsion. An adequate description of the processes involved is given by methods of a new scientific field, mechanics of growing solids. Three main stages of the deformation process (before the beginning of growth, in the course of growth, and after the termination of growth are studied. Two versions of statement of two problems are given: (i given the torque, find the stresses, displacements, and torsion; (ii given the torsion, find the stresses, displacements, and torque. Solution methods using techniques of complex analysis are presented. The results can be used in mechanical and instrument engineering.

  5. Thermodynamics of diffusion under pressure and stress: Relation to point defect mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aziz, M.J.

    1997-01-01

    A thermodynamic formalism is developed for illuminating the predominant point defect mechanism of self- and impurity diffusion in silicon and is used to provide a rigorous basis for point defect-based interpretation of diffusion experiments in biaxially strained epitaxial layers in the Si endash Ge system. A specific combination of the hydrostatic and biaxial stress dependences of the diffusivity is ±1 times the atomic volume, depending upon whether the predominant mechanism involves vacancies or interstitials. Experimental results for Sb diffusion in biaxially strained Si endash Ge films and ab initio calculations of the activation volume for Sb diffusion by a vacancy mechanism are in quantitative agreement with no free parameters. Key parameters are identified that must be measured or calculated for a quantitative test of interstitial-based mechanisms. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  6. Individual modulation of pain sensitivity under stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhardt, Tatyana; Kleindienst, Nikolaus; Treede, Rolf-Detlef; Bohus, Martin; Schmahl, Christian

    2013-05-01

    Stress has a strong influence on pain sensitivity. However, the direction of this influence is unclear. Recent studies reported both decreased and increased pain sensitivities under stress, and one hypothesis is that interindividual differences account for these differences. The aim of our study was to investigate the effect of stress on individual pain sensitivity in a relatively large female sample. Eighty female participants were included. Pain thresholds and temporal summation of pain were tested before and after stress, which was induced by the Mannheim Multicomponent Stress Test. In an independent sample of 20 women, correlation coefficients between 0.45 and 0.89 indicated relatively high test-retest reliability for pain measurements. On average, there were significant differences between pain thresholds under non-stress and stress conditions, indicating an increased sensitivity to pain under stress. No significant differences between non-stress and stress conditions were found for temporal summation of pain. On an individual basis, both decreased and increased pain sensitivities under stress conditions based on Jacobson's criteria for reliable change were observed. Furthermore, we found significant negative associations between pain sensitivity under non-stress conditions and individual change of pain sensitivity under stress. Participants with relatively high pain sensitivity under non-stress conditions became less sensitive under stress and vice versa. These findings support the view that pain sensitivity under stress shows large interindividual variability, and point to a possible dichotomy of altered pain sensitivity under stress. Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Reliability of mechanical components subjected to combined alternating and mean stresses with a nonconstant stress ratio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kececioglu, D.; Lamarre, G.B.

    1979-01-01

    The reliability of reactor mechanical components and structural members, submitted to external loads which induce alternating bending stresses and mean shear stresses at the critical section where failure has a high probability of occurring, is predicted assuming that the ratio of the distributed alternating stress to the mean stress is also distributed and yields a bivariate failure-governing, combined alternating and mean, stress distribution. A computer programmed methodology is developed to calculate the reliability under these conditions given the associated distributional Goodman diagram for a reactor component or structural member. (orig.)

  8. Micromechanical studies of cyclic creep fracture under stress controlled loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van der Giessen, Erik; Tvergaard, Viggo

    1996-01-01

    is based on numerical unit cell analyses for a planar polycrystal model with the grains and grain boundaries modeled individually, in order to investigate the interactions between the mechanisms involved and to account for the build-up of residual stress fields during cycling. The behaviour of a limiting......This paper deals with a study of intergranular failure by creep cavitation under stress-controlled cyclic loading conditions. Loading is assumed to be slow enough that diffusion and creep mechanisms (including grain boundary sliding) dominate, leading to intergranular creep fracture. This study...

  9. Mechanism of laser ablation for aqueous media irradiated under confined-stress conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oraevsky, A.A.; Jacques, S.L.; Tittel, F.K.

    1995-01-01

    Pulsed laser ablation of aqueous medium irradiated under conditions of temporal confinement of thermal stress is described. Time-resolved measurements of laser-induced transient stress waves with simultaneous imaging of ablation process by laser-flash photography were performed. Stress transients induced in aqueous solution of K 2 CrO 4 by ablative nanosecond laser pulses at 355 nm were studied by a broad-band lithium niobate acoustic transducer. Recoil momentum upon material ejection was measured from the temporal profiles of the acoustic transducer signal as a function of incident laser fluence. Cavitation bubbles produced in the irradiated volume during the tensile phase of thermoelastic stress were shown to drive material ejection at temperatures substantially below 100 degree C. Experimental data are evident that nanosecond-pulse laser ablation of aqueous media (when temporal stress-confinement conditions are satisfied) include the following two main stages of material ejection: (1) ejection of water microdroplets due to expansion and rupture of subsurface cavitation bubbles; (2) ejection of liquid streams with substantial volume upon collapse of initial crater and large cavitation bubbles in the depth of irradiated volume (after coalescence of smaller bubbles). copyright 1995 American Institute of Physics

  10. Stress assessment in piping under synthetic thermal loads emulating turbulent fluid mixing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa Garrido, Oriol, E-mail: oriol.costa@ijs.si; El Shawish, Samir, E-mail: samir.elshawish@ijs.si; Cizelj, Leon, E-mail: leon.cizelj@ijs.si

    2015-03-15

    Highlights: • Generation of complex space-continuous and time-dependent temperature fields. • 1D and 3D thermo-mechanical analyses of pipes under complex surface thermal loads. • Surface temperatures and stress fluctuations are highly linearly correlated. • 1D and 3D results agree for a wide range of Fourier and Biot numbers. • Global thermo-mechanical loading promotes non-equibiaxial stress state. - Abstract: Thermal fatigue assessment of pipes due to turbulent fluid mixing in T-junctions is a rather difficult task because of the existing uncertainties and variability of induced thermal stresses. In these cases, thermal stresses arise on three-dimensional pipe structures due to complex thermal loads, known as thermal striping, acting at the fluid-wall interface. A recently developed approach for the generation of space-continuous and time-dependent temperature fields has been employed in this paper to reproduce fluid temperature fields of a case study from the literature. The paper aims to deliver a detailed study of the three-dimensional structural response of piping under the complex thermal loads arising in fluid mixing in T-junctions. Results of three-dimensional thermo-mechanical analyses show that fluctuations of surface temperatures and stresses are highly linearly correlated. Also, surface stress fluctuations, in axial and hoop directions, are almost equi-biaxial. These findings, representative on cross sections away from system boundaries, are moreover supported by the sensitivity analysis of Fourier and Biot numbers and by the comparison with standard one-dimensional analyses. Agreement between one- and three-dimensional results is found for a wide range of studied parameters. The study also comprises the effects of global thermo-mechanical loading on the surface stress state. Implemented mechanical boundary conditions develop more realistic overall system deformation and promote non-equibiaxial stresses.

  11. Study of high density polyethylene under UV irradiation or mechanical stress by fluorescence spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Douminge, L.

    2010-05-01

    Due to their diversity and their wide range of applications, polymers have emerged in our environment. For technical applications, these materials can be exposed to aggressive environment leading to an alteration of their properties. The effects of this degradation are linked to the concept of life duration, corresponding to the time required for a property to reach a threshold below which the material becomes unusable. Monitoring the ageing of polymer materials constitute a major challenge. Fluorescence spectroscopy is a technique able to provide accurate information concerning this issue. In this study, emphasis was placed on the use of fluorescence spectroscopy to study the phenomena involved in either the UV radiation or mechanical stresses of a polymer. In the case of high density polyethylene, the lack of intrinsic fluorescent signal leads to the use of a dye. This dye gives a fluorescent response depending on its microenvironment. All modifications in the macromolecular chain generate a shift of the fluorescent peak. This work can be dissociated in two major parts, on one hand the influence of UV aging on the fluorescent response and in another hand the influence of mechanical stresses. In the first part, complementary analyses like FTIR or DSC are used to correlate fluorescent results with known photo degradation mechanisms. The results show the great sensibility of the technique to the microstructural rearrangement in the polymer. In the second part, the dependence between the stress and the fluorescence emission gives opportunity to evaluate internal stresses in the material during cyclic solicitations. (author)

  12. Effect of applied mechanical stress on absorption coefficient of compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, Manoj Kumar, E-mail: mkgupta.sliet@gmail.com [Department of Applied Sciences, Bhai Gurdas Institute of Engineering and Technology, Sangrur (India); Singh, Gurinderjeet; Dhaliwal, A. S.; Kahlon, K. S. [Department of Physics, Sant Longowal Institute of Engineering & Technology Deemed University, Longowal (Sangrur) India-148106 (India)

    2015-08-28

    The absorption coefficient of given materials is the parameter required for the basic information. The measurement of absorption coefficient of compounds Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, CaCO{sub 3}, ZnO{sub 2}, SmO{sub 2} and PbO has been taken at different incident photon energies 26, 59.54, 112, 1173, 1332keV. The studies involve the measurements of absorption coefficient of the self supporting samples prepared under different mechanical stress. This mechanical stress is render in terms of pressure up to 0-6 ton by using hydraulic press. Measurements shows that absorption coefficient of a material is directly proportional to applied mechanical stress on it up to some extent then become independent. Experimentally measured results are in fairly good agreement with in theoretical values obtained from WinXCOM.

  13. Emotion perception and overconfidence in errors under stress in psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köther, Ulf; Lincoln, Tania M; Moritz, Steffen

    2018-03-21

    Vulnerability stress models are well-accepted in psychosis research, but the mechanisms that link stress to psychotic symptoms remain vague. Little is known about how social cognition and overconfidence in errors, two putative mechanisms for the pathogenesis of delusions, relate to stress. Using a repeated measures design, we tested four groups (N=120) with different liability to psychosis (schizophrenia patients [n=35], first-degree relatives [n=24], participants with attenuated positive symptoms [n=19] and healthy controls [n=28]) and depression patients (n=14) as a clinical control group under three randomized experimental conditions (no stress, noise and social stress). Parallel versions of the Emotion Perception and Confidence Task, which taps both emotion perception and confidence, were used in each condition. We recorded subjective stress, heart rate, skin conductance level and salivary cortisol to assess the stress response across different dimensions. Independent of the stress condition, patients with schizophrenia showed poorer emotion perception performance and higher confidence in emotion perception errors than participants with attenuated positive symptoms and healthy controls. However, they did not differ from patients with depression or first-degree relatives. Stress did not influence emotion perception or the extent of high-confident errors, but patients with schizophrenia showed an increase in high-confident emotion perception errors conditional on higher arousal. A possible clinical implication of our findings is the necessity to provide stress management programs that aim to reduce arousal. Moreover, patients with schizophrenia might benefit from interventions that help them to reduce overconfidence in their social cognition judgements in times in which they feel being under pressure. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Emotional Reactivity in Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: Behavioural and Neurobiological Correlates of Underlying Mechanisms and the Role of Emotional Memory Modification

    OpenAIRE

    Thome, Janine

    2017-01-01

    The symptom pattern of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) comprises four clusters: “involuntary distressing memories”, “persistent avoidance of stimuli related to the traumatic event”, “negative alterations in cognition and mood”, and “in arousal and reactivity” (DSM 5, American Psychological Association). Increasing evidence points towards enhanced emotional reactivity as an underlying mechanism of the latter mentioned symptom pattern in individuals with PTSD. From a process oriented persp...

  15. Understanding the mechanisms of lung mechanical stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.S.N.B. Garcia

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Physical forces affect both the function and phenotype of cells in the lung. Bronchial, alveolar, and other parenchymal cells, as well as fibroblasts and macrophages, are normally subjected to a variety of passive and active mechanical forces associated with lung inflation and vascular perfusion as a result of the dynamic nature of lung function. These forces include changes in stress (force per unit area or strain (any forced change in length in relation to the initial length and shear stress (the stress component parallel to a given surface. The responses of cells to mechanical forces are the result of the cell's ability to sense and transduce these stimuli into intracellular signaling pathways able to communicate the information to its interior. This review will focus on the modulation of intracellular pathways by lung mechanical forces and the intercellular signaling. A better understanding of the mechanisms by which lung cells transduce physical forces into biochemical and biological signals is of key importance for identifying targets for the treatment and prevention of physical force-related disorders.

  16. Monitoring the effect of mechanical stress on mesenchymal stem cell collagen production by multiphoton microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei-Liang; Chang, Chia-Cheng; Chiou, Ling-Ling; Li, Tsung-Hsien; Liu, Yuan; Lee, Hsuan-Shu; Dong, Chen-Yuan

    2008-02-01

    Tissue engineering is emerging as a promising method for repairing damaged tissues. Due to cartilage's common wear and injury, in vitro production of cartilage replacements have been an active area of research. Finding the optimal condition for the generation of the collagen matrix is crucial in reproducing cartilages that closely match those found in human. Using multiphoton autofluorescence and second-harmonic generation (SHG) microscopy we monitored the effect of mechanical stress on mesenchymal stem cell collagen production. Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells in the form of pellets were cultured and periodically placed under different mechanical stress by centrifugation over a period of four weeks. The differently stressed samples were imaged several times during the four week period, and the collagen production under different mechanical stress is characterized.

  17. Mechanism of crack initiation and crack growth under thermal and mechanical fatigue loading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Utz, S.; Soppa, E.; Silcher, H.; Kohler, C. [Stuttgart Univ. (Germany). Materials Testing Inst.

    2013-07-01

    The present contribution is focused on the experimental investigations and numerical simulations of the deformation behaviour and crack development in the austenitic stainless steel X6CrNiNb18-10 under thermal and mechanical cyclic loading in HCF and LCF regimes. The main objective of this research is the understanding of the basic mechanisms of fatigue damage and the development of simulation methods, which can be applied further in safety evaluations of nuclear power plant components. In this context the modelling of crack initiation and crack growth inside the material structure induced by varying thermal or mechanical loads are of particular interest. The mechanisms of crack initiation depend among other things on the type of loading, microstructure, material properties and temperature. The Nb-stabilized austenitic stainless steel in the solution-annealed condition was chosen for the investigations. Experiments with two kinds of cyclic loading - pure thermal and pure mechanical - were carried out and simulated. The fatigue behaviour of the steel X6CrNiNb18-10 under thermal loading was studied within the framework of the joint research project [4]. Interrupted thermal cyclic tests in the temperature range of 150 C to 300 C combined with non-destructive residual stress measurements (XRD) and various microscopic investigations, e.g. in SEM (Scanning Electron Microscope), were used to study the effects of thermal cyclic loading on the material. This thermal cyclic loading leads to thermal induced stresses and strains. As a result intrusions and extrusions appear inside the grains (at the surface), at which microcracks arise and evolve to a dominant crack. Finally, these microcracks cause a continuous and significant decrease of residual stresses. The fatigue behaviour of the steel X6CrNiNb18-10 under mechanical loading at room temperature was studied within the framework of the research project [5], [8]. With a combination of interrupted LCF tests and EBSD

  18. Mechanism of crack initiation and crack growth under thermal and mechanical fatigue loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Utz, S.; Soppa, E.; Silcher, H.; Kohler, C.

    2013-01-01

    The present contribution is focused on the experimental investigations and numerical simulations of the deformation behaviour and crack development in the austenitic stainless steel X6CrNiNb18-10 under thermal and mechanical cyclic loading in HCF and LCF regimes. The main objective of this research is the understanding of the basic mechanisms of fatigue damage and the development of simulation methods, which can be applied further in safety evaluations of nuclear power plant components. In this context the modelling of crack initiation and crack growth inside the material structure induced by varying thermal or mechanical loads are of particular interest. The mechanisms of crack initiation depend among other things on the type of loading, microstructure, material properties and temperature. The Nb-stabilized austenitic stainless steel in the solution-annealed condition was chosen for the investigations. Experiments with two kinds of cyclic loading - pure thermal and pure mechanical - were carried out and simulated. The fatigue behaviour of the steel X6CrNiNb18-10 under thermal loading was studied within the framework of the joint research project [4]. Interrupted thermal cyclic tests in the temperature range of 150 C to 300 C combined with non-destructive residual stress measurements (XRD) and various microscopic investigations, e.g. in SEM (Scanning Electron Microscope), were used to study the effects of thermal cyclic loading on the material. This thermal cyclic loading leads to thermal induced stresses and strains. As a result intrusions and extrusions appear inside the grains (at the surface), at which microcracks arise and evolve to a dominant crack. Finally, these microcracks cause a continuous and significant decrease of residual stresses. The fatigue behaviour of the steel X6CrNiNb18-10 under mechanical loading at room temperature was studied within the framework of the research project [5], [8]. With a combination of interrupted LCF tests and EBSD

  19. Tests on mechanical behavior of 304 L stainless steel under constant stress associated with cyclic strain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lebey, J.; Roche, R.

    1979-01-01

    Mechanical analyses of structures, to be efficient, must incorporate materials behavior data. Among the mechanisms liable to cause collapse, progressive distortion (or ratcheting) has been the subject of only a few basic experiments, most of the investigations being theoretical. In order to get meaningful results to characterize materials behavior, an experimental study on ratcheting of austenitic steels has been undertaken at the C.E.A. This paper gives the first results of tests at room temperature on thin tubes of 304L steel submitted to an axial constant stress (primary stress) to which is added a cyclic shearing strain (secondary stress). The tests cover a large combination of the two loading modes. The main results consist of curves of cumulative iso-deformation in the primary and secondary stress field (Bree type diagrams). Results are given for plastic deformations ranging from 0.1 to 2.5% up to N=100 cycles

  20. Mechanical behavior and stress effects in hard superconductors: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, C.C.; Easton, D.S.

    1977-11-01

    The mechanical properties of type II superconducting materials are reviewed as well as the effect of stress on the superconducting properties of these materials. The bcc alloys niobium-titanium and niobium-zirconium exhibit good strength and extensive ductility at room temperature. Mechanical tests on these alloys at 4.2 0 K revealed serrated stress-strain curves, nonlinear elastic effects and reduced ductility. The nonlinear behavior is probably due to twinning and detwinning or a reversible stress-induced martensitic transformation. The brittle A-15 compound superconductors, such as Nb 3 Sn and V 3 Ga, exhibit unusual elastic properties and structural instabilities at cryogenic temperatures. Multifilamentary composites consisting of superconducting filaments in a normal metal matrix are generally used for superconducting devices. The mechanical properties of alloy and compound composites, tapes, as well as composites of niobium carbonitride chemically vapor deposited on high strength carbon fibers are presented. Hysteretic stress-strain behavior in the metal matrix composites produces significant heat generation, an effect which may lead to degradation in the performance of high field magnets. Measurements of the critical current density, J/sub c/, under stress in a magnetic field are reported. Modest stress-reversible degradation in J/sub c/ was observed in niobium-titanium composites, while more serious degradation was found in Nb 3 Sn samples. The importance of mechanical behavior to device performance is discussed

  1. Fracture permeability under effect of normal and shear stress: A preliminary experimental investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohanty, S.; Manteufel, R.D.; Chowdhury, A.H.

    1995-01-01

    The change in fracture permeability under mechanical loads have been investigated. An apparatus has been developed to measure change in fracture permeability, when a single fracture is subjected to normal and shear stress. Both radial and linear flow experiments have been conducted by modifying a direct shear test apparatus. Preliminary results suggest a 35-percent change in fracture permeability under normal stress to 8 MPa and nearly 350 percent under shear displacement of 9.9254 m (1 in.) at 5 MPa normal stress. Effort is underway to separate the permeability change due to gouge material production from that of due to dilation

  2. The role of silicon in higher plants under salinity and drought stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devrim Coskun

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Although deemed a non-essential mineral nutrient, silicon (Si is clearly beneficial to plant growth and development, particularly under stress conditions, including salinity and drought. Here, we review recent research on the physiological, biochemical, and molecular mechanisms underlying Si-induced alleviation of osmotic and ionic stresses associated with salinity and drought. We distinguish between changes observed in the apoplast (i.e. suberization, lignification, and silicification of the extracellular matrix; transpirational bypass flow of solutes and water, and those of the symplast (i.e. transmembrane transport of solutes and water; gene expression; oxidative stress; metabolism, and discuss these features in the context of Si biogeochemistry and bioavailability in agricultural soils, evaluating the prospect of using Si fertilization to increase crop yield and stress tolerance under salinity and drought conditions.

  3. Hot carrier injection degradation under dynamic stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Xiao-Hua; Cao Yan-Rong; Hao Yue; Zhang Yue

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we have studied hot carrier injection (HCI) under alternant stress. Under different stress modes, different degradations are obtained from the experiment results. The different alternate stresses can reduce or enhance the HC effect, which mainly depends on the latter condition of the stress cycle. In the stress mode A (DC stress with electron injection), the degradation keeps increasing. In the stress modes B (DC stress and then stress with the smallest gate injection) and C (DC stress and then stress with hole injection under V g = 0 V and V d = 1.8 V), recovery appears in the second stress period. And in the stress mode D (DC stress and then stress with hole injection under V g = −1.8 V and V d = 1.8 V), as the traps filled in by holes can be smaller or greater than the generated interface states, the continued degradation or recovery in different stress periods can be obtained. (condensed matter: electronic structure, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties)

  4. Mechanism of laser-induced stress relaxation in cartilage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobol, Emil N.; Sviridov, Alexander P.; Omelchenko, Alexander I.; Bagratashvili, Victor N.; Bagratashvili, Nodar V.; Popov, Vladimir K.

    1997-06-01

    The paper presents theoretical and experimental results allowing to discuss and understand the mechanism of stress relaxation and reshaping of cartilage under laser radiation. A carbon dioxide and a Holmium laser was used for treatment of rabbits and human cartilage. We measured temperature, stress, amplitude of oscillation by free and forced vibration, internal friction, and light scattering in the course of laser irradiation. Using experimental data and theoretical modeling of heat and mass transfer in cartilaginous tissue we estimated the values of transformation heat, diffusion coefficients and energy activation for water movement.

  5. Gas Bubble Dynamics under Mechanical Vibrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohagheghian, Shahrouz; Elbing, Brian

    2017-11-01

    The scientific community has a limited understanding of the bubble dynamics under mechanical oscillations due to over simplification of Navier-Stockes equation by neglecting the shear stress tensor and not accounting for body forces when calculating the acoustic radiation force. The current work experimental investigates bubble dynamics under mechanical vibration and resulting acoustic field by measuring the bubble size and velocity using high-speed imaging. The experimental setup consists of a custom-designed shaker table, cast acrylic bubble column, compressed air injection manifold and an optical imaging system. The mechanical vibrations resulted in accelerations between 0.25 to 10 times gravitational acceleration corresponding to frequency and amplitude range of 8 - 22Hz and 1 - 10mm respectively. Throughout testing the void fraction was limited to <5%. The bubble size is larger than resonance size and smaller than acoustic wavelength. The amplitude of acoustic pressure wave was estimated using the definition of Bjerknes force in combination with Rayleigh-Plesset equation. Physical behavior of the system was capture and classified. Bubble size, velocity as well as size and spatial distribution will be presented.

  6. Degradation mechanism of enhancement-mode AlGaN/GaN HEMTs using fluorine ion implantation under the on-state gate overdrive stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Wei-Wei; Zheng Xue-Feng; Fan Shuang; Wang Chong; Du Ming; Zhang Kai; Mao Wei; Zhang Jin-Cheng; Hao Yue; Chen Wei-Wei; Cao Yan-Rong; Ma Xiao-Hua

    2015-01-01

    The degradation mechanism of enhancement-mode AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs) fabricated by fluorine plasma ion implantation technology is one major concern of HEMT’s reliability. It is observed that the threshold voltage shows a significant negative shift during the typical long-term on-state gate overdrive stress. The degradation does not originate from the presence of as-grown traps in the AlGaN barrier layer or the generated traps during fluorine ion implantation process. By comparing the relationships between the shift of threshold voltage and the cumulative injected electrons under different stress conditions, a good agreement is observed. It provides direct experimental evidence to support the impact ionization physical model, in which the degradation of E-mode HEMTs under gate overdrive stress can be explained by the ionization of fluorine ions in the AlGaN barrier layer by electrons injected from 2DEG channel. Furthermore, our results show that there are few new traps generated in the AlGaN barrier layer during the gate overdrive stress, and the ionized fluorine ions cannot recapture the electrons. (paper)

  7. On minimizing mechanical stresses of the rail way wheels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moosavi, H.; Esfahanian, M.

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to study the behavior of elastic-plastic stresses under severe drag braking. A railway wheel performs three tasks, aiding in trian movement, supporting the car load, and acting as a brake drum. Finite element computer programs are developed for elasto-plastic stress analysis. An attempt is made here to find an improved fillet profile of the wheel with the intention of minimizing high tensile mechanical stresses. Three new fillet profiles for the wheel are tested. A penalty function is used as a criterion for comparison of stresses between the new designs and the old design. The design with the least penalty is chosen to be the improved one

  8. Investigation on stresses of superconductors under pulsed magnetic fields based on multiphysics model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Xiaobin; Li, Xiuhong; He, Yafeng; Wang, Xiaojun; Xu, Bo

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • The differential equation including temperature and magnetic field was derived for a long cylindrical superconductor. • Thermal stress and electromagnetic stress were studied at the same time under pulse field magnetizing. • The distributions of the magnetic field, the temperature and stresses are studied and compared for two pulse fields of the different duration. • The Role thermal stress and electromagnetic stress play in the process of pulse field magnetizing is discussed. - Abstract: A multiphysics model for the numerical computation of stresses, trapped field and temperature distribution of a infinite long superconducting cylinder is proposed, based on which the stresses, including the thermal stresses and mechanical stresses due to Lorentz force, and trapped fields in the superconductor subjected to pulsed magnetic fields are analyzed. By comparing the results under pulsed magnetic fields with different pulse durations, it is found that the both the mechanical stress due to the electromagnetic force and the thermal stress due to temperature gradient contribute to the total stress level in the superconductor. For pulsed magnetic field with short durations, the thermal stress is the dominant contribution to the total stress, because the heat generated by AC-loss builds up significant temperature gradient in such short durations. However, for a pulsed field with a long duration the gradient of temperature and flux, as well as the maximal tensile stress, are much smaller. And the results of this paper is meaningful for the design and manufacture of superconducting permanent magnets.

  9. Investigation on stresses of superconductors under pulsed magnetic fields based on multiphysics model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Xiaobin, E-mail: yangxb@lzu.edu.cn; Li, Xiuhong; He, Yafeng; Wang, Xiaojun; Xu, Bo

    2017-04-15

    Highlights: • The differential equation including temperature and magnetic field was derived for a long cylindrical superconductor. • Thermal stress and electromagnetic stress were studied at the same time under pulse field magnetizing. • The distributions of the magnetic field, the temperature and stresses are studied and compared for two pulse fields of the different duration. • The Role thermal stress and electromagnetic stress play in the process of pulse field magnetizing is discussed. - Abstract: A multiphysics model for the numerical computation of stresses, trapped field and temperature distribution of a infinite long superconducting cylinder is proposed, based on which the stresses, including the thermal stresses and mechanical stresses due to Lorentz force, and trapped fields in the superconductor subjected to pulsed magnetic fields are analyzed. By comparing the results under pulsed magnetic fields with different pulse durations, it is found that the both the mechanical stress due to the electromagnetic force and the thermal stress due to temperature gradient contribute to the total stress level in the superconductor. For pulsed magnetic field with short durations, the thermal stress is the dominant contribution to the total stress, because the heat generated by AC-loss builds up significant temperature gradient in such short durations. However, for a pulsed field with a long duration the gradient of temperature and flux, as well as the maximal tensile stress, are much smaller. And the results of this paper is meaningful for the design and manufacture of superconducting permanent magnets.

  10. Indirect Measurement of Energy Density of Soft PZT Ceramic Utilizing Mechanical Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unruan, Muangjai; Unruan, Sujitra; Inkong, Yutthapong; Yimnirun, Rattikorn

    2017-11-01

    This paper reports on an indirect measurement of energy density of soft PZT ceramic utilizing mechanical stress. The method works analogous to the Olsen cycle and allows for a large amount of electro-mechanical energy conversion. A maximum energy density of 350 kJ/m3/cycle was found under 0-312 MPa and 1-20 kV/cm of applied mechanical stress and electric field, respectively. The obtained result is substantially higher than the results reported in previous studies of PZT materials utilizing a direct piezoelectric effect.

  11. Analysis of Mechanical Stresses/Strains in Superconducting Wire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, Matthew; Chen, Jingping; Zhai, Yuhu

    2016-10-01

    The optimization of superconducting magnet performance and development of high-field superconducting magnets will greatly impact the next generation of fusion devices. A successful magnet development, however, relies deeply on the understanding of superconducting materials. Among the numerous factors that impact a superconductor's performance, mechanical stress is the most important because of the extreme operation temperature and large electromagnetic forces. In this study, mechanical theory is used to calculate the stresses/strains in typical superconducting strands, which consist of a stabilizer, a barrier, a matrix and superconducting filaments. Both thermal loads and mechanical loads are included in the analysis to simulate operation conditions. Because this model simulates the typical architecture of major superconducting materials, such as Nb3Sn, MgB2, Bi-2212 etc., it provides a good overall picture for us to understand the behavior of these superconductors in terms of thermal and mechanical loads. This work was supported in part by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Workforce Development for Teachers and Scientists (WDTS) under the Science Undergraduate Laboratory Internship (SULI) program.

  12. An Actomyosin-Arf-GEF Negative Feedback Loop for Tissue Elongation under Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Junior J; Zulueta-Coarasa, Teresa; Maier, Janna A; Lee, Donghoon M; Bruce, Ashley E E; Fernandez-Gonzalez, Rodrigo; Harris, Tony J C

    2017-08-07

    In response to a pulling force, a material can elongate, hold fast, or fracture. During animal development, multi-cellular contraction of one region often stretches neighboring tissue. Such local contraction occurs by induced actomyosin activity, but molecular mechanisms are unknown for regulating the physical properties of connected tissue for elongation under stress. We show that cytohesins, and their Arf small G protein guanine nucleotide exchange activity, are required for tissues to elongate under stress during both Drosophila dorsal closure (DC) and zebrafish epiboly. In Drosophila, protein localization, laser ablation, and genetic interaction studies indicate that the cytohesin Steppke reduces tissue tension by inhibiting actomyosin activity at adherens junctions. Without Steppke, embryogenesis fails, with epidermal distortions and tears resulting from myosin misregulation. Remarkably, actomyosin network assembly is necessary and sufficient for local Steppke accumulation, where live imaging shows Steppke recruitment within minutes. This rapid negative feedback loop provides a molecular mechanism for attenuating the main tension generator of animal tissues. Such attenuation relaxes tissues and allows orderly elongation under stress. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Molecular analysis of Hsp70 mechanisms in plants and their function in response to stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usman, Magaji G; Rafii, Mohd Y; Martini, Mohammad Y; Yusuff, Oladosu A; Ismail, Mohd R; Miah, Gous

    2017-04-01

    Studying the strategies of improving abiotic stress tolerance is quite imperative and research under this field will increase our understanding of response mechanisms to abiotic stress such as heat. The Hsp70 is an essential regulator of protein having the tendency to maintain internal cell stability like proper folding protein and breakdown of unfolded proteins. Hsp70 holds together protein substrates to help in movement, regulation, and prevent aggregation under physical and or chemical pressure. However, this review reports the molecular mechanism of heat shock protein 70 kDa (Hsp70) action and its structural and functional analysis, research progress on the interaction of Hsp70 with other proteins and their interaction mechanisms as well as the involvement of Hsp70 in abiotic stress responses as an adaptive defense mechanism.

  14. Central mechanisms underlying variability in the behavioral and neuroendocrine responses to stress in fish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moltesen, Maria Møller

    of the stress response. In mammals, the hippocampus and amygdala in the telencephalon play central roles in the process of discriminating sensory inputs that, potentially, will threaten the homeostasis of an individual. These regions are part of the limbic system, which interacts with the hypothalamic......-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA axis). This neuroendocrine stress axis includes corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF), which regulates the release of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) from the pituitary. A peptide is released to the circulation, inducing release of glucocorticoids from the adrenal cortex....... The neurotransmitter serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT) also plays an important role in the neuroendocrine stress response by controlling CRF release in hypothalamus. The transmission of 5-HT and CRF are under feedback control of glucocorticoids and interact with the stress response by affecting processes...

  15. Hydrogen solubility, diffusivity and trapping in a tempered Fe–C–Cr martensitic steel under various mechanical stress states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frappart, S.; Feaugas, X.; Creus, J.; Thebault, F.; Delattre, L.; Marchebois, H.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Engineering elasticity is divided into three mechanical behaviours. ► Apparent diffusion coefficient is affected in the generalized plasticity domain. ► Plasticity increases irreversibly trapped H related to dislocation creation. ► A local elastic distortion seems to affect hydrogen lattice concentration. ► Elastic field around precipitates seems to be reversible trapping sites. - Abstract: Electrochemical permeation test under stress conditions was carried out to determine the consequences of lattice distortion and defects on hydrogen solubility, diffusivity and trapping in a quenched and tempered martensitic steel. We focused our attention within the “engineering” elastic domain which can be divided into three domains: elasticity, micro-plasticity and generalized plasticity. The local elastic distortion associated with hydrogen atoms in lattice sites and residual vacancies seems to affect hydrogen lattice concentration. The hydrogen trapped in elastic fields shows a complex behaviour as a function of stress related to a possible internal relaxation of stresses around precipitates with the occurrence of plasticity. The plastic deformation caused a substantial increase of irreversible trapping sites in relation with the dislocation multiplication. Apparent diffusion coefficient decreased in this deformation domain in agreement with classical trapping models.

  16. Oxidative stress-induced overexpression of miR-25: the mechanism underlying the degeneration of melanocytes in vitiligo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Q; Zhang, W; Guo, S; Jian, Z; Li, S; Li, K; Ge, R; Dai, W; Wang, G; Gao, T; Li, C

    2016-01-01

    Oxidative stress has a critical role in the pathogenesis of vitiligo. However, the specific molecular mechanism involved in oxidative stress-induced melanocyte death is not well characterized. Given the powerful role of microRNAs (miRNAs) in the regulation of cell survival as well as the fact that the generation of miRNAs can be affected by oxidative stress, we hypothesized that miRNAs may participate in vitiligo pathogenesis by modulating the expression of vital genes in melanocytes. In the present study, we initially found that miR-25 was increased in both serum and lesion samples from vitiligo patients, and its serum level was correlated with the activity of vitiligo. Moreover, restoration of miR-25 promoted the H2O2-induced melanocyte destruction and led to the dysfunction of melanocytes. Further experiments proved that MITF, a master regulator in melanocyte survival and function, accounted for the miR-25-caused damaging impact on melanocytes. Notably, other than the direct role on melanocytes, we observed that miR-25 inhibited the production and secretion of SCF and bFGF from keratinocytes, thus impairing their paracrine protective effect on the survival of melanocytes under oxidative stress. At last, we verified that oxidative stress could induce the overexpression of miR-25 in both melanocytes and keratinocytes possibly by demethylating the promoter region of miR-25. Taken together, our study demonstrates that oxidative stress-induced overexpression of miR-25 in vitiligo has a crucial role in promoting the degeneration of melanocytes by not only suppressing MITF in melanocytes but also impairing the paracrine protective effect of keratinocytes. Therefore, it is worthy to investigate the possibility of miR-25 as a potential drug target for anti-oxidative therapy in vitiligo. PMID:26315342

  17. Mechanisms of yeast stress tolerance and its manipulation for efficient fuel ethanol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, X Q; Bai, F W

    2009-10-12

    Yeast strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae have been extensively studied in recent years for fuel ethanol production, in which yeast cells are exposed to various stresses such as high temperature, ethanol inhibition, and osmotic pressure from product and substrate sugars as well as the inhibitory substances released from the pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass. An in-depth understanding of the mechanism of yeast stress tolerance contributes to breeding more robust strains for ethanol production, especially under very high gravity conditions. Taking advantage of the "omics" technology, the stress response and defense mechanism of yeast cells during ethanol fermentation were further explored, and the newly emerged tools such as genome shuffling and global transcription machinery engineering have been applied to breed stress resistant yeast strains for ethanol production. In this review, the latest development of stress tolerance mechanisms was focused, and improvement of yeast stress tolerance by both random and rational tools was presented.

  18. Giant panda׳s tooth enamel: Structure, mechanical behavior and toughening mechanisms under indentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Z Y; Liu, Z Q; Ritchie, R O; Jiao, D; Li, D S; Wu, H L; Deng, L H; Zhang, Z F

    2016-12-01

    The giant panda׳s teeth possess remarkable load-bearing capacity and damage resistance for masticating bamboos. In this study, the hierarchical structure and mechanical behavior of the giant panda׳s tooth enamel were investigated under indentation. The effects of loading orientation and location on mechanical properties of the enamel were clarified and the evolution of damage in the enamel under increasing load evaluated. The nature of the damage, both at and beneath the indentation surfaces, and the underlying toughening mechanisms were explored. Indentation cracks invariably were seen to propagate along the internal interfaces, specifically the sheaths between enamel rods, and multiple extrinsic toughening mechanisms, e.g., crack deflection/twisting and uncracked-ligament bridging, were active to shield the tips of cracks from the applied stress. The giant panda׳s tooth enamel is analogous to human enamel in its mechanical properties, yet it has superior hardness and Young׳s modulus but inferior toughness as compared to the bamboo that pandas primarily feed on, highlighting the critical roles of the integration of underlying tissues in the entire tooth and the highly hydrated state of bamboo foods. Our objective is that this study can aid the understanding of the structure-mechanical property relations in the tooth enamel of mammals and further provide some insight on the food habits of the giant pandas. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Fracture mechanics and residual fatigue life analysis for complex stress fields. Technical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Besuner, P.M.

    1975-07-01

    This report reviews the development and application of an influence function method for calculating stress intensity factors and residual fatigue life for two- and three-dimensional structures with complex stress fields and geometries. Through elastic superposition, the method properly accounts for redistribution of stress as the crack grows through the structure. The analytical methods used and the computer programs necessary for computation and application of load independent influence functions are presented. A new exact solution is obtained for the buried elliptical crack, under an arbitrary Mode I stress field, for stress intensity factors at four positions around the crack front. The IF method is then applied to two fracture mechanics problems with complex stress fields and geometries. These problems are of current interest to the electric power generating industry and include (1) the fatigue analysis of a crack in a pipe weld under nominal and residual stresses and (2) fatigue analysis of a reactor pressure vessel nozzle corner crack under a complex bivariate stress field

  20. The impact of static stress change, dynamic stress change, and the background stress on aftershock focal mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardebeck, Jeanne L.

    2014-01-01

    The focal mechanisms of earthquakes in Southern California before and after four M ≥ 6.7 main shocks provide insight into how fault systems respond to stress and changes in stress. The main shock static stress changes have two observed impacts on the seismicity: changing the focal mechanisms in a given location to favor those aligned with the static stress change and changing the spatial distribution of seismicity to favor locations where the static stress change aligns with the background stress. The aftershock focal mechanisms are significantly aligned with the static stress changes for absolute stress changes of ≥ 0.02 MPa, for up to ~20 years following the main shock. The dynamic stress changes have similar, although smaller, effects on the local focal mechanisms and the spatial seismicity distribution. Dynamic stress effects are best observed at long periods (30–60 s) and for metrics based on repeated stress cycling in the same direction. This implies that dynamic triggering operates, at least in part, through cyclic shear stress loading in the direction of fault slip. The background stress also strongly controls both the preshock and aftershock mechanisms. While most aftershock mechanisms are well oriented in the background stress field, 10% of aftershocks are identified as poorly oriented outliers, which may indicate limited heterogeneity in the postmain shock stress field. The fault plane orientations of the outliers are well oriented in the background stress, while their slip directions are not, implying that the background stress restricts the distribution of available fault planes.

  1. Comparative transcriptome analysis of the Asteraceae halophyte Karelinia caspica under salt stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xia; Liao, Maoseng; Chang, Dan; Zhang, Fuchun

    2014-12-17

    Much attention has been given to the potential of halophytes as sources of tolerance traits for introduction into cereals. However, a great deal remains unknown about the diverse mechanisms employed by halophytes to cope with salinity. To characterize salt tolerance mechanisms underlying Karelinia caspica, an Asteraceae halophyte, we performed Large-scale transcriptomic analysis using a high-throughput Illumina sequencing platform. Comparative gene expression analysis was performed to correlate the effects of salt stress and ABA regulation at the molecular level. Total sequence reads generated by pyrosequencing were assembled into 287,185 non-redundant transcripts with an average length of 652 bp. Using the BLAST function in the Swiss-Prot, NCBI nr, GO, KEGG, and KOG databases, a total of 216,416 coding sequences associated with known proteins were annotated. Among these, 35,533 unigenes were classified into 69 gene ontology categories, and 18,378 unigenes were classified into 202 known pathways. Based on the fold changes observed when comparing the salt stress and control samples, 60,127 unigenes were differentially expressed, with 38,122 and 22,005 up- and down-regulated, respectively. Several of the differentially expressed genes are known to be involved in the signaling pathway of the plant hormone ABA, including ABA metabolism, transport, and sensing as well as the ABA signaling cascade. Transcriptome profiling of K. caspica contribute to a comprehensive understanding of K. caspica at the molecular level. Moreover, the global survey of differentially expressed genes in this species under salt stress and analyses of the effects of salt stress and ABA regulation will contribute to the identification and characterization of genes and molecular mechanisms underlying salt stress responses in Asteraceae plants.

  2. Flux Balance Analysis of Escherichia coli under Temperature and pH Stress Conditions

    KAUST Repository

    Xu, Xiaopeng

    2015-01-01

    important roles in specific conditions and are essential genes under those conditions. E. coli is a model organism, which is widely used. It can adapt to many stress conditions, including temperature, pH, osmotic, antibiotic, etc. Underlying mechanisms

  3. Mechanical and hypoxia stress can cause chondrocytes apoptosis through over-activation of endoplasmic reticulum stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ziwei; Zhou, Min; Wang, Qian; Zhu, Mengjiao; Chen, Sheng; Li, Huang

    2017-12-01

    contributed to the chondrocytes apoptosis. Mechanical stress can cause OA-like pathological change in rat mandibular condylar cartilage via ERS activation and hypoxia existed in the meantime. Both mechanical forces and hypoxia can induce ERS and cause chondrocytes apoptosis only if the stimulate was in higher level. Salubrinal can protect chondrocytes from apoptosis, and relieve OA-liked pathological change on mandibular condylar cartilage under mechanical stress stimulation. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Quantifying the Mechanical Properties of Materials and the Process of Elastic-Plastic Deformation under External Stress on Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Valíček

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper solves the problem of the nonexistence of a new method for calculation of dynamics of stress-deformation states of deformation tool-material systems including the construction of stress-strain diagrams. The presented solution focuses on explaining the mechanical behavior of materials after cutting by abrasive waterjet technology (AWJ, especially from the point of view of generated surface topography. AWJ is a flexible tool accurately responding to the mechanical resistance of the material according to the accurately determined shape and roughness of machined surfaces. From the surface topography, it is possible to resolve the transition from ideally elastic to quasi-elastic and plastic stress-strain states. For detecting the surface structure, an optical profilometer was used. Based on the analysis of experimental measurements and the results of analytical studies, a mathematical-physical model was created and an exact method of acquiring the equivalents of mechanical parameters from the topography of surfaces generated by abrasive waterjet cutting and external stress in general was determined. The results of the new approach to the construction of stress-strain diagrams are presented. The calculated values agreed very well with those obtained by a certified laboratory VÚHŽ.

  5. Quantifying the Mechanical Properties of Materials and the Process of Elastic-Plastic Deformation under External Stress on Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valíček, Jan; Harničárová, Marta; Öchsner, Andreas; Hutyrová, Zuzana; Kušnerová, Milena; Tozan, Hakan; Michenka, Vít; Šepelák, Vladimír; Mitaľ, Dušan; Zajac, Jozef

    2015-01-01

    The paper solves the problem of the nonexistence of a new method for calculation of dynamics of stress-deformation states of deformation tool-material systems including the construction of stress-strain diagrams. The presented solution focuses on explaining the mechanical behavior of materials after cutting by abrasive waterjet technology (AWJ), especially from the point of view of generated surface topography. AWJ is a flexible tool accurately responding to the mechanical resistance of the material according to the accurately determined shape and roughness of machined surfaces. From the surface topography, it is possible to resolve the transition from ideally elastic to quasi-elastic and plastic stress-strain states. For detecting the surface structure, an optical profilometer was used. Based on the analysis of experimental measurements and the results of analytical studies, a mathematical-physical model was created and an exact method of acquiring the equivalents of mechanical parameters from the topography of surfaces generated by abrasive waterjet cutting and external stress in general was determined. The results of the new approach to the construction of stress-strain diagrams are presented. The calculated values agreed very well with those obtained by a certified laboratory VÚHŽ. PMID:28793645

  6. Insights into the mechanisms underlying mercury-induced oxidative stress in gills of wild fish (Liza aurata) combining "1H NMR metabolomics and conventional biochemical assays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cappello, Tiziana; Brandão, Fátima; Guilherme, Sofia; Santos, Maria Ana; Maisano, Maria; Mauceri, Angela; Canário, João; Pacheco, Mário; Pereira, Patrícia

    2016-01-01

    Oxidative stress has been described as a key pathway to initiate mercury (Hg) toxicity in fish. However, the mechanisms underlying Hg-induced oxidative stress in fish still need to be clarified. To this aim, environmental metabolomics in combination with a battery of conventional oxidative stress biomarkers were applied to the gills of golden grey mullet (Liza aurata) collected from Largo do Laranjo (LAR), a confined Hg contaminated area, and São Jacinto (SJ), selected as reference site (Aveiro Lagoon, Portugal). Higher accumulation of inorganic Hg and methylmercury was found in gills of fish from LAR relative to SJ. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based metabolomics revealed changes in metabolites related to antioxidant protection, namely depletion of reduced glutathione (GSH) and its constituent amino acids, glutamate and glycine. The interference of Hg with the antioxidant protection of gills was corroborated through oxidative stress endpoints, namely the depletion of glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase activities at LAR. The increase of total glutathione content (reduced glutathione + oxidized glutathione) at LAR, in parallel with GSH depletion aforementioned, indicates the occurrence of massive GSH oxidation under Hg stress, and an inability to carry out its regeneration (glutathione reductase activity was unaltered) or de novo synthesis. Nevertheless, the results suggest the occurrence of alternative mechanisms for preventing lipid peroxidative damage, which may be associated with the enhancement of membrane stabilization/repair processes resulting from depletion in the precursors of phosphatidylcholine (phosphocholine and glycerophosphocholine), as highlighted by NMR spectroscopy. However, the observed decrease in taurine may be attributable to alterations in the structure of cell membranes or interference in osmoregulatory processes. Overall, the novel concurrent use of metabolomics and conventional oxidative stress endpoints demonstrated to

  7. Oxidative Stress-Related Mechanisms and Antioxidant Therapy in Diabetic Retinopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetic retinopathy (DR is one of the most common microvascular complications of diabetes and is the leading cause of blindness in young adults. Oxidative stress has been implicated as a critical cause of DR. Metabolic abnormalities induced by high-glucose levels are involved in the development of DR and appear to be influenced by oxidative stress. The imbalance between reactive oxygen species (ROS production and the antioxidant defense system activates several oxidative stress-related mechanisms that promote the pathogenesis of DR. The damage caused by oxidative stress persists for a considerable time, even after the blood glucose concentration has returned to a normal level. Animal experiments have proved that the use of antioxidants is a beneficial therapeutic strategy for the treatment of DR, but more data are required from clinical trials. The aims of this review are to highlight the improvements to our understanding of the oxidative stress-related mechanisms underlying the development of DR and provide a summary of the main antioxidant therapy strategies used to treat the disease.

  8. Effect of mechanical stress on the magnetic properties of amorphous Fe-B ribbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kecer, J.; Novak, L.

    2011-01-01

    From this point of view, we have dealt with the effect of mechanical stress in this work. It is one of the variables, together with an external magnetic field and temperature, in which it can be expected a significant impact on changes in magnetic properties of amorphous ferromagnets prepared by rapid quenching of the melt. Internal tensions, significantly affecting the magnetic parameters, are introduced into the material already under preparation. Although the rate of internal stresses in amorphous tape is high, we can see significant changes in the measured magnetic parameters induced by mechanical stresses. By applying mechanical stress on amorphous sample Fe 84 B 16 , is highlighted the impact of internal stresses in the direction of stress, which induces the direction of axis of easy magnetising and it results in filling the hysteresis loop to the J axis, coercivity values decreasing by half, constant of magnetoelastic anisotropy decreasing by half and change in the value of magnetostriction. (authors)

  9. Mechanisms of Alcohol-Induced Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress and Organ Injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Ji

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol is readily distributed throughout the body in the blood stream and crosses biological membranes, which affect virtually all biological processes inside the cell. Excessive alcohol consumption induces numerous pathological stress responses, part of which is endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress response. ER stress, a condition under which unfolded/misfolded protein accumulates in the ER, contributes to alcoholic disorders of major organs such as liver, pancreas, heart, and brain. Potential mechanisms that trigger the alcoholic ER stress response are directly or indirectly related to alcohol metabolism, which includes toxic acetaldehyde and homocysteine, oxidative stress, perturbations of calcium or iron homeostasis, alterations of S-adenosylmethionine to S-adenosylhomocysteine ratio, and abnormal epigenetic modifications. Interruption of the ER stress triggers is anticipated to have therapeutic benefits for alcoholic disorders.

  10. Characterization of proteins in soybean roots under flooding and drought stresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, MyeongWon; Komatsu, Setsuko

    2015-01-30

    Flooding and drought affect soybean growth because soybean is a stress-sensitive crop. In 2-day-old plants exposed to 2-day flooding or drought, the fresh weight of roots was markedly suppressed, although the root morphology clearly differed between two conditions. To understand the response mechanisms of soybean to flooding and drought stresses, a gel-free proteomic technique was used. A total of 97 and 48 proteins were significantly changed in response to flooding and drought stresses, respectively. Proteins involved in protein synthesis were decreased by flooding stress and increased by drought. Glycolysis-related proteins were increased in roots by both flooding and drought stresses. Fermentation, stress, and cell wall-related proteins were increased in response to flooding stress, whereas cell organization and redox-related proteins were increased under drought stress. Among the identified proteins, three S-adenosylmethionine synthetases were commonly decreased and increased in response to flooding and drought stresses, respectively. The mRNA expression levels of S-adenosylmethionine synthetase genes displayed a similar tendency to the changes in protein abundance. These results suggest that S-adenosylmethionine synthetase is involved in the regulation of stress response because it was changed in response to flooding and drought stresses. This study reported on the response mechanisms of soybean to flooding and drought stresses using the gel-free proteomic technique. Proteins involved in protein synthesis were decreased by flooding stress and increased by drought. Glycolysis-related proteins were increased in roots by both flooding and drought stresses. Fermentation, stress, and cell wall-related proteins were increased in response to flooding stress, whereas cell organization and redox-related proteins were increased under drought stress. Among the identified proteins, three S-adenosylmethionine synthetases were commonly decreased and increased in response to

  11. Multiaxial Fatigue Properties of 2A12 Aluminum Alloy Under Different Stress Amplitude Ratio Loadings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHEN Ya-jun

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The multiaxial fatigue behavior of 2A12 aluminum alloy was studied with SDN100/1000 electro-hydraulic servo tension-torsion fatigue tester under different stress amplitude ratios, the fracture morphology and the fatigue loading curve were observed to study the failure mechanism. The results show that, under the one stage loading condition, the fatigue life prolongs with the stress amplitude ratio increasing. Under pure torsion loading, smooth and even area exists in the fracture surface. As the stress amplitude ratio increases, the number of scratch reduces, the fatigue striation and some special morphology such as the fishbone pattern, scale pattern and honeycomb pattern can be observed; under cumulative paths of different stress amplitude ratios, the variation of multiaxial fatigue life changes with first stage loading cycles; under cumulative paths of high-low stress amplitude ratio, the cycle hardening occurs obviously in the axial direction for the first stage high stress amplitude ratio loading and 2A12 alloy shows training effect.

  12. Degradation of ultra-thin gate oxide LDD NMOSFET under GIDL stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Shigang; Hao Yue; Cao Yanrong; Ma Xiaohua; Wu Xiaofeng; Chen Chi; Zhou Qingjun

    2009-01-01

    The degradation of device under GIDL (gate-induced drain leakage current) stress has been studied using LDD NMOSFETs with 1.4 nm gate oxides. Experimental result shows that the degradation of device parameters depends more strongly on V d than on V g . The characteristics of the GIDL current are used to analyze the damage generated during the stress. It is clearly found that the change of GIDL current before and after stress can be divided into two stages. The trapping of holes in the oxide is dominant in the first stage, but that of electrons in the oxide is dominant in the second stage. It is due to the common effects of edge direct tunneling and band-to-band tunneling. SILC (stress induced leakage current) in the NMOSFET decreases with increasing stress time under GIDL stress. The degradation characteristic of SILC also shows saturating time dependence. SILC is strongly dependent on the measured gate voltage. The higher the measured gate voltage, the less serious the degradation of the gate current. A likely mechanism is presented to explain the origin of SILC during GIDL stress.

  13. A constitutive equation for creep fracture under constant, variable or cyclic positive stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snedden, J.D.

    1977-01-01

    Prediction of creep fracture of metals under variable stress is one of the most difficult problems of applied mechanics. At NEL this problem is under investigation using an approach in which creep is represented by two macroscopic components: an anelastic (reversible) component and a plastic (irreversible) component. Under variable loading conditions, the anelastic component's behaviour will be most important and, if an experimental programme is logically planned, the structural processes responsible will be implicit in the resulting constitutive equation describing the material's behaviour. The present paper deals with the development and application of a constitutive equation for creep fracture of RR58 Aluminium alloy at 180 0 C under variable stress and such a constitutive equation can be extrapolated to cover long-time behaviour just as with conventional constant stress creep fracture equations. Constant stress, in fact, is one of the boundary conditions of the general constitutive equation, representing zero prior damage. The other boundary condition is that of 'cadence loading' in which the stress is completely removed and then re-applied in a cyclic fashion. (Auth.)

  14. Improved Formula for the Stress Intensity Factor of Semi-Elliptical Surface Cracks in Welded Joints under Bending Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Yang; Wu, Chao; Zheng, Yifu; Dong, Jun

    2017-01-01

    Welded joints are prone to fatigue cracking with the existence of welding defects and bending stress. Fracture mechanics is a useful approach in which the fatigue life of the welded joint can be predicted. The key challenge of such predictions using fracture mechanics is how to accurately calculate the stress intensity factor (SIF). An empirical formula for calculating the SIF of welded joints under bending stress was developed by Baik, Yamada and Ishikawa based on the hybrid method. However, when calculating the SIF of a semi-elliptical crack, this study found that the accuracy of the Baik-Yamada formula was poor when comparing the benchmark results, experimental data and numerical results. The reasons for the reduced accuracy of the Baik-Yamada formula were identified and discussed in this paper. Furthermore, a new correction factor was developed and added to the Baik-Yamada formula by using theoretical analysis and numerical regression. Finally, the predictions using the modified Baik-Yamada formula were compared with the benchmark results, experimental data and numerical results. It was found that the accuracy of the modified Baik-Yamada formula was greatly improved. Therefore, it is proposed that this modified formula is used to conveniently and accurately calculate the SIF of semi-elliptical cracks in welded joints under bending stress. PMID:28772527

  15. The behavior of Kevlar fibers under environmental-stress conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Mark Charles

    There are a myriad of mechanisms by which polymers can degrade and fail. It is therefore important to understand the physical mechanics, chemistry, their interactions, and kinetics. This pursuit becomes more than just "academic" because these mechanisms might just change with service conditions (i.e. environment and loading). If one does not understand these processes from the molecular to macroscopic scale it would be exceedingly difficult to gain information from accelerated testing because the mechanisms just might change from one condition to another. The purpose of this study was to probe these processes on scales ranging from molecular to macroscopic in environmental stress conditions. This study reports the results of environmental-stress degradation of Kevlar 49 fibers. The environmental agent of focus was the ubiquitous air pollutant complex NOsb{x}. Other materials and environments were investigated to a lesser extent for purposes of comparison. Mechanical property (i.e., short-term strength, modulus, and creep lifetime) degradation was examined using single fiber, yarn, and epoxy coated yarn (composite) specimens under environmental-stress conditions. Optical and scanning electron microscopes were employed to examine and compare the appearance of fracture features resulting from the various testing conditions. Atomic force microscopy augmented these studies with detailed topographical mappings and measures of the fracture surface frictional and modulus properties. Molecular processes (i.e., chain scission and other mechanical-chemical reactions) were probed by measures of changes in viscosity average molecular weight and the infrared spectra. It was demonstrated that environmental-stress degradation effects do occur in the Kevlar-NOsb{x} gas system. Strength decay in environmentally exposed unloaded fibers was demonstrated and a synergistic response in creep reduced fiber lifetimes by three orders of magnitude at moderate loadings. That is to say, the

  16. Study of corrosion susceptibility of stainless steel-304 and stainless steel-316 under mechanical stress in diluted boiling nitric acid with chlorides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desjardins, D.; Puiggali, M.; El Kheloui, A.; Petit, M.C.; Clement, C.; Berge, J.P.

    1991-01-01

    A detailed study of corrosion of stressed 304 and 316 stainless steels in boiling solutions of diluted nitric acid in presence of chloride is presented. After a chemical study of the electrolyte, the different kinds of corrosion observed are represented on HNO 3 concentration - Cl - concentration diagrams. A more fundamental study based on several electrochemical techniques (forward scan and return potentiodynamic curves, potentiokinetic curves with different scan rates, sample depassivation by rapid straining under potentiostatic control) is carried out. The results allow to confirm the observations and to explain them in terms of competition between anodic dissolution, depassivation, repassivation processes with a precise analyze of the role of the solution and of the mechanical stress [fr

  17. The refractometry of the mechanically stressed RbNH4SO4 crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stadnik, V.J.; Romanyuk, M.O.

    2001-01-01

    The temperature (77-300K) and spectral (300-700hm) dependencies of refractive indices n i of mechanically unstressed and stressed by the pressures along general crystallophysic directions RbNH 4 SO 4 crystals were studied.the refractive indices were observed to decrease under pressure.The temperature and spectral dependencies of piezooptic constants were investigated.The changes of refraction,electron polarizability and the position of ultraviolet absorption effective center were calculated.The temperature and spectral dependencies of birefringence sign inversion of the mechanically unstressed and stressed RbNH 4 SO 4 crystals were analyzed

  18. Insights into the mechanisms underlying mercury-induced oxidative stress in gills of wild fish (Liza aurata) combining {sup 1}H NMR metabolomics and conventional biochemical assays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cappello, Tiziana, E-mail: tcappello@unime.it [Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences, University of Messina, 98166 Messina (Italy); Brandão, Fátima, E-mail: fatimabrandao@ua.pt [Department of Biology and CESAM, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Guilherme, Sofia; Santos, Maria Ana [Department of Biology and CESAM, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Maisano, Maria; Mauceri, Angela [Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences, University of Messina, 98166 Messina (Italy); Canário, João [Centro de Química Estrutural, Instítuto Superíor Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, 1049-001 Lisbon (Portugal); Pacheco, Mário; Pereira, Patrícia [Department of Biology and CESAM, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal)

    2016-04-01

    Oxidative stress has been described as a key pathway to initiate mercury (Hg) toxicity in fish. However, the mechanisms underlying Hg-induced oxidative stress in fish still need to be clarified. To this aim, environmental metabolomics in combination with a battery of conventional oxidative stress biomarkers were applied to the gills of golden grey mullet (Liza aurata) collected from Largo do Laranjo (LAR), a confined Hg contaminated area, and São Jacinto (SJ), selected as reference site (Aveiro Lagoon, Portugal). Higher accumulation of inorganic Hg and methylmercury was found in gills of fish from LAR relative to SJ. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based metabolomics revealed changes in metabolites related to antioxidant protection, namely depletion of reduced glutathione (GSH) and its constituent amino acids, glutamate and glycine. The interference of Hg with the antioxidant protection of gills was corroborated through oxidative stress endpoints, namely the depletion of glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase activities at LAR. The increase of total glutathione content (reduced glutathione + oxidized glutathione) at LAR, in parallel with GSH depletion aforementioned, indicates the occurrence of massive GSH oxidation under Hg stress, and an inability to carry out its regeneration (glutathione reductase activity was unaltered) or de novo synthesis. Nevertheless, the results suggest the occurrence of alternative mechanisms for preventing lipid peroxidative damage, which may be associated with the enhancement of membrane stabilization/repair processes resulting from depletion in the precursors of phosphatidylcholine (phosphocholine and glycerophosphocholine), as highlighted by NMR spectroscopy. However, the observed decrease in taurine may be attributable to alterations in the structure of cell membranes or interference in osmoregulatory processes. Overall, the novel concurrent use of metabolomics and conventional oxidative stress endpoints demonstrated to

  19. A switch from high-fidelity to error-prone DNA double-strand break repair underlies stress-induced mutation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponder, Rebecca G; Fonville, Natalie C; Rosenberg, Susan M

    2005-09-16

    Special mechanisms of mutation are induced in microbes under growth-limiting stress causing genetic instability, including occasional adaptive mutations that may speed evolution. Both the mutation mechanisms and their control by stress have remained elusive. We provide evidence that the molecular basis for stress-induced mutagenesis in an E. coli model is error-prone DNA double-strand break repair (DSBR). I-SceI-endonuclease-induced DSBs strongly activate stress-induced mutations near the DSB, but not globally. The same proteins are required as for cells without induced DSBs: DSBR proteins, DinB-error-prone polymerase, and the RpoS starvation-stress-response regulator. Mutation is promoted by homology between cut and uncut DNA molecules, supporting a homology-mediated DSBR mechanism. DSBs also promote gene amplification. Finally, DSBs activate mutation only during stationary phase/starvation but will during exponential growth if RpoS is expressed. Our findings reveal an RpoS-controlled switch from high-fidelity to mutagenic DSBR under stress. This limits genetic instability both in time and to localized genome regions, potentially important evolutionary strategies.

  20. Biological mechanisms underlying the role of physical fitness in health and resilience

    OpenAIRE

    Silverman, Marni N.; Deuster, Patricia A.

    2014-01-01

    Physical fitness, achieved through regular exercise and/or spontaneous physical activity, confers resilience by inducing positive psychological and physiological benefits, blunting stress reactivity, protecting against potentially adverse behavioural and metabolic consequences of stressful events and preventing many chronic diseases. In this review, we discuss the biological mechanisms underlying the beneficial effects of physical fitness on mental and physical health. Physical fitness appear...

  1. Effect of Ionizing Beta Radiation on the Mechanical Properties of Poly(ethylene under Thermal Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bednarik Martin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available It was found in this study, that ionizing beta radiation has a positive effect on the mechanical properties of poly(ethylene. In recent years, there have been increasing requirements for quality and cost effectiveness of manufactured products in all areas of industrial production. These requirements are best met with the polymeric materials, which have many advantages in comparison to traditional materials. The main advantages of polymer materials are especially in their ease of processability, availability, and price of the raw materials. Radiation crosslinking is one of the ways to give the conventional plastics mechanical, thermal, and chemical properties of expensive and highly resistant construction polymers. Several types of ionizing radiation are used for crosslinking of polymers. Each of them has special characteristics. Electron beta and photon gamma radiation are used the most frequently. The great advantage is that the crosslinking occurs after the manufacturing process at normal temperature and pressure. The main purpose of this paper has been to determine the effect of ionizing beta radiation on the tensile modulus, strength and elongation of low and high density polyethylene (LDPE and HDPE. These properties were examined in dependence on the dosage of the ionizing beta radiation (non-irradiated samples and those irradiated by dosage 99 kGy were compared and on the test temperature. Radiation cross-linking of LDPE and HDPE results in increased tensile strength and modulus, and decreased of elongation. The measured results indicate that ionizing beta radiation treatment is effective tool for improvement of mechanical properties of LDPE and HDPE under thermal stress.

  2. Selection of relatively exact reference genes for gene expression studies in goosegrass (Eleusine indica) under herbicide stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jingchao; Huang, Zhaofeng; Huang, Hongjuan; Wei, Shouhui; Liu, Yan; Jiang, Cuilan; Zhang, Jie; Zhang, Chaoxian

    2017-04-21

    Goosegrass (Eleusine indica) is one of the most serious annual grassy weeds worldwide, and its evolved herbicide-resistant populations are more difficult to control. Quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) is a common technique for investigating the resistance mechanism; however, there is as yet no report on the systematic selection of stable reference genes for goosegrass. This study proposed to test the expression stability of 9 candidate reference genes in goosegrass in different tissues and developmental stages and under stress from three types of herbicide. The results show that for different developmental stages and organs (control), eukaryotic initiation factor 4 A (eIF-4) is the most stable reference gene. Chloroplast acetolactate synthase (ALS) is the most stable reference gene under glyphosate stress. Under glufosinate stress, eIF-4 is the best reference gene. Ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme (UCE) is the most stable reference gene under quizalofop-p-ethyl stress. The gene eIF-4 is the recommended reference gene for goosegrass under the stress of all three herbicides. Moreover, pairwise analysis showed that seven reference genes were sufficient to normalize the gene expression data under three herbicides treatment. This study provides a list of reliable reference genes for transcript normalization in goosegrass, which will facilitate resistance mechanism studies in this weed species.

  3. Silicon in vascular plants: uptake, transport and its influence on mineral stress under acidic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pontigo, Sofía; Ribera, Alejandra; Gianfreda, Liliana; de la Luz Mora, María; Nikolic, Miroslav; Cartes, Paula

    2015-07-01

    So far, considerable advances have been achieved in understanding the mechanisms of Si uptake and transport in vascular plants. This review presents a comprehensive update about this issue, but also provides the new insights into the role of Si against mineral stresses that occur in acid soils. Such information could be helpful to understand both the differential Si uptake ability as well as the benefits of this mineral element on plants grown under acidic conditions. Silicon (Si) has been widely recognized as a beneficial element for many plant species, especially under stress conditions. In the last few years, great efforts have been made to elucidate the mechanisms involved in uptake and transport of Si by vascular plants and recently, different Si transporters have been identified. Several researches indicate that Si can alleviate various mineral stresses in plants growing under acidic conditions, including aluminium (Al) and manganese (Mn) toxicities as well as phosphorus (P) deficiency all of which are highly detrimental to crop production. This review presents recent findings concerning the influence of uptake and transport of Si on mineral stress under acidic conditions because a knowledge of this interaction provides the basis for understanding the role of Si in mitigating mineral stress in acid soils. Currently, only four Si transporters have been identified and there is little information concerning the response of Si transporters under stress conditions. More investigations are therefore needed to establish whether there is a relationship between Si transporters and the benefits of Si to plants subjected to mineral stress. Evidence presented suggests that Si supply and its subsequent accumulation in plant tissues could be exploited as a strategy to improve crop productivity on acid soils.

  4. Light energy dissipation under water stress conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stuhlfauth, T.; Scheuermann, R.; Fock, H.P.

    1990-01-01

    Using 14 CO 2 gas exchange and metabolite analyses, stomatal as well as total internal CO 2 uptake and evolution were estimated. Pulse modulated fluorescence was measured during induction and steady state of photosynthesis. Leaf water potential of Digitalis lanata EHRH. plants decreased to -2.5 megapascals after withholding irrigation. By osmotic adjustment, leaves remained turgid and fully exposed to irradiance even at severe water stress. Due to the stress-induced reduction of stomatal conductance, the stomatal CO 2 exchange was drastically reduced, whereas the total CO 2 uptake and evolution were less affected. Stomatal closure induced an increase in the reassimilation of internally evolved CO 2 . This CO 2 -recycling consumes a significant amount of light energy in the form of ATP and reducing equivalents. As a consequence, the metabolic demand for light energy is only reduced by about 40%, whereas net photosynthesis is diminished by about 70% under severe stress conditions. By CO 2 recycling, carbon flux, enzymatic substrate turnover and consumption of light energy were maintained at high levels, which enabled the plant to recover rapidly after rewatering. In stressed D. lanata plants a variable fluorescence quenching mechanism, termed coefficient of actinic light quenching, was observed. Besides water conservation, light energy dissipation is essential and involves regulated metabolic variations

  5. Mechanical Stresses in Carotid Plaques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Samuel, Samuel Alberg

    simulationer, som tillod beregning af longitudinelle stress-niveauer i den fibrøse kappe. Afhandlingen indeholder tre artikler, som beskriver denne metode. Den første; “Mechanical Stresses in Carotid Plaques using MRI-Based Fluid Structure Interaction Models”, beskriver i detaljer metoden til at danne de...

  6. A mechanical deformation model of metallic fuel pin under steady state conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, D. W.; Lee, B. W.; Kim, Y. I.; Han, D. H.

    2004-01-01

    As a mechanical deformation model of the MACSIS code predicts the cladding deformation due to the simple thin shell theory, it is impossible to predict the FCMI(Fuel-Cladding Mechanical Interaction). Therefore, a mechanical deformation model used the generalized plane strain is developed. The DEFORM is a mechanical deformation routine which is used to analyze the stresses and strains in the fuel and cladding of a metallic fuel pin of LMRs. The accuracy of the program is demonstrated by comparison of the DEFORM predictions with the result of another code calculations or experimental results in literature. The stress/strain distributions of elastic part under free thermal expansion condition are completely matched with the results of ANSYS code. The swelling and creep solutions are reasonably well agreed with the simulations of ALFUS and LIFE-M codes, respectively. The predicted cladding strains are under estimated than experimental data at the range of high burnup. Therefore, it is recommended that the fine tuning of the DEFORM based on various range of experimental data

  7. Experimental study of the anisotropic properties of argillite under moisture and mechanical loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, D.S.; Chanchole, S.; Wang, L.L.; Bornert, M.; Gatmiri, B.

    2012-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. Due to various factors, such as sedimentation, layered morphology of clay mineral, in-situ stress, etc., the behavior of argillite rocks is often anisotropic. In order to study the anisotropy of the Callovo-Oxfordian (COx) argillite considered as a possible host rock for high-level radioactive nuclear waste repository in France, a series of tests including uniaxial compression and dehydration and hydration at different constant applied stress levels, are carried out using a specific setup combining mechanical and moisture loading devices. During these hydro-mechanical tests, this specific setup can also continuously capture images of the sample surfaces to be subsequently analyzed using Digital Image Correlation techniques (DIC) in order to determine full-field strains. In this study, three sampling directions are used with the angle θ between the bedding plane and the cylindrical sample axis equal to 45 deg., 60 deg. and 90 deg.. To investigate the mechanical anisotropy, uniaxial compressive tests with mechanical loading and unloading cycles are performed on several different samples at the same moisture level. The results show that the mechanical parameters (apparent modulus, failure stress) depend on loading orientation relative to the stratification plane. For a given water content, the failure stress reaches maximum values for θ =90 deg. and minimum values for θ =45 deg.. To study the hydric anisotropy, dehydration and hydration tests under stress-free conditions are performed on two cylindrical samples (θ=90 deg. and θ=60 deg.). Three cycles of hydration and dehydration are carried out by varying the relative humidity between 40% and 95%. The sample weight, the deformation measured by strain gages and the relative humidity are continuously recorded during the test by means of another specific setup described in [Pham et al., 2007]. Fig.1a illustrates the evolution of the strains of the sample EST28030-No

  8. Cardiac reactivity and preserved performance under stress: two sides of the same coin?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pattyn, Nathalie; Mairesse, Olivier; Cortoos, Aisha; Morais, José; Soetens, Eric; Roelands, Bart; van den Nest, Annick; Kolinsky, Régine

    2014-07-01

    In the present experiment, cognitive control under stress was investigated using a real-life paradigm, namely an evaluation flight for military student pilots. The magnitude of cognitive interference on color-word, numerical and emotional Stroop paradigms was studied during a baseline recording and right before the test flight. Cardio-respiratory parameters were simultaneously assessed during rest and the performance of the Stroop tasks. Cognitive data suggested a different speed/accuracy trade-off under stress, and no modulation of the interference effect for color words or numerical stimuli. However, we observed a major increase in error rates for specific emotional stimuli related to the evaluation situation in the stress condition. The increase in cognitive interference from emotional stimuli, expressed as an increase in error rates, was correlated to the decreased cardiac reactivity to challenge in the stress situation. This relationship is discussed in the framework of Sanders' (1983) model of stress and performance. In terms of future research, this link warrants a fruitful lead to be followed for investigating the causal mechanism of performance decrements under the influence of stress. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Fracture criteria of reactor graphite under multiaxial stresses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, S.; Kawamata, K.; Kurumada, A.; Oku, T.

    1987-01-01

    New fracture criteria for graphite under multiaxial stresses are presented for designing core and support materials of a high temperature gas cooled reactor. Different kinds of fracture strength tests are carried out for a near isotropic graphite IG-11. Results show that, under the stress state in which tensile stresses are predominant, the maximum principal stress theory is seen as applicable for brittle fracture. Under the stress state in which compressive stresses are predominant there may be two fracture modes for brittle fracture, namely, slipping fracture and mode II fracture. For the former fracture mode the maximum shear stress criterion is suitable, but for the latter fracture mode a new mode II fracture criterion including a restraint effect for cracks is verified to be applicable. Also a statistical correction for brittle fracture criteria under multiaxial stresses is discussed. By considering the allowable stress values for safe design, the specified minimum ultimate strengths corresponding to a survival probability of 99% at the 95% confidence level are presented. (orig./HP)

  10. Cell-like pressure sensors reveal increase of mechanical stress towards the core of multicellular spheroids under compression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolega, M E; Delarue, M; Ingremeau, F; Prost, J; Delon, A; Cappello, G

    2017-01-27

    The surrounding microenvironment limits tumour expansion, imposing a compressive stress on the tumour, but little is known how pressure propagates inside the tumour. Here we present non-destructive cell-like microsensors to locally quantify mechanical stress distribution in three-dimensional tissue. Our sensors are polyacrylamide microbeads of well-defined elasticity, size and surface coating to enable internalization within the cellular environment. By isotropically compressing multicellular spheroids (MCS), which are spherical aggregates of cells mimicking a tumour, we show that the pressure is transmitted in a non-trivial manner inside the MCS, with a pressure rise towards the core. This observed pressure profile is explained by the anisotropic arrangement of cells and our results suggest that such anisotropy alone is sufficient to explain the pressure rise inside MCS composed of a single cell type. Furthermore, such pressure distribution suggests a direct link between increased mechanical stress and previously observed lack of proliferation within the spheroids core.

  11. Perinatal programming of neuroendocrine mechanisms connecting feeding behavior and stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah J Spencer

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Feeding behavior is closely regulated by neuroendocrine mechanisms that can be influenced by stressful life events. However, the feeding response to stress varies among individuals with some increasing and others decreasing food intake after stress. In addition to the impact of acute lifestyle and genetic backgrounds, the early life environment can have a life-long influence on neuroendocrine mechanisms connecting stress to feeding behavior and may partially explain these opposing feeding responses to stress. In this review I will discuss the perinatal programming of adult hypothalamic stress and feeding circuitry. Specifically I will address how early life (prenatal and postnatal nutrition, early life stress, and the early life hormonal profile can program the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis, the endocrine arm of the body’s response to stress long-term and how these changes can, in turn, influence the hypothalamic circuitry responsible for regulating feeding behavior. Thus, over- or under-feeding and / or stressful events during critical windows of early development can alter glucocorticoid (GC regulation of the HPA axis, leading to changes in the GC influence on energy storage and changes in GC negative feedback on HPA axis-derived satiety signals such as corticotropin-releasing-hormone. Furthermore, peripheral hormones controlling satiety, such as leptin and insulin are altered by early life events, and can be influenced, in early life and adulthood, by stress. Importantly, these neuroendocrine signals act as trophic factors during development to stimulate connectivity throughout the hypothalamus. The interplay between these neuroendocrine signals, the perinatal environment, and activation of the stress circuitry in adulthood thus strongly influences feeding behavior and may explain why individuals have unique feeding responses to similar stressors.

  12. Transcriptomic responses to darkness stress point to common coral bleaching mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desalvo, M. K.; Estrada, A.; Sunagawa, S.; Medina, Mónica

    2012-03-01

    Coral bleaching occurs in response to numerous abiotic stressors, the ecologically most relevant of which is hyperthermic stress due to increasing seawater temperatures. Bleaching events can span large geographic areas and are currently a salient threat to coral reefs worldwide. Much effort has been focused on understanding the molecular and cellular events underlying bleaching, and these studies have mainly utilized heat and light stress regimes. In an effort to determine whether different stressors share common bleaching mechanisms, we used complementary DNA (cDNA) microarrays for the corals Acropora palmata and Montastraea faveolata (containing >10,000 features) to measure differential gene expression during darkness stress. Our results reveal a striking transcriptomic response to darkness in A. palmata involving chaperone and antioxidant up-regulation, growth arrest, and metabolic modifications. As these responses were previously measured during thermal stress, our results suggest that different stressors may share common bleaching mechanisms. Furthermore, our results point to hypoxia and endoplasmic reticulum stress as critical cellular events involved in molecular bleaching mechanisms. On the other hand, we identified a meager transcriptomic response to darkness in M. faveolata where gene expression differences between host colonies and sampling locations were greater than differences between control and stressed fragments. This and previous coral microarray studies reveal the immense range of transcriptomic responses that are possible when studying two coral species that differ greatly in their ecophysiology, thus pointing to the importance of comparative approaches in forecasting how corals will respond to future environmental change.

  13. MD simulation of plastic deformation nucleation in stressed crystallites under irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korchuganov, A. V., E-mail: avkor@ispms.tsc.ru; Zolnikov, K. P., E-mail: kost@ispms.tsc.ru; Kryzhevich, D. S., E-mail: kryzhev@ispms.tsc.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Strength Physics and Materials Science, Siberian Branch (Russian Federation); Chernov, V. M., E-mail: VMChernov@bochvar.ru [National Research Tomsk State University (Russian Federation); Psakhie, S. G., E-mail: sp@ispms.tsc.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Strength Physics and Materials Science, Siberian Branch (Russian Federation)

    2016-12-15

    The investigation of plastic deformation nucleation in metals and alloys under irradiation and mechanical loading is one of the topical issues of materials science. Specific features of nucleation and evolution of the defect system in stressed and irradiated iron, vanadium, and copper crystallites were studied by molecular dynamics simulation. Mechanical loading was performed in such a way that the modeled crystallite volume remained unchanged. The energy of the primary knock-on atom initiating a cascade of atomic displacements in a stressed crystallite was varied from 0.05 to 50 keV. It was found that atomic displacement cascades might cause global structural transformations in a region far larger than the radiation-damaged area. These changes are similar to the ones occurring in the process of mechanical loading of samples. They are implemented by twinning (in iron and vanadium) or through the formation of partial dislocation loops (in copper).

  14. Focal adhesions, stress fibers and mechanical tension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burridge, Keith, E-mail: Keith_Burridge@med.unc.edu [Department of Cell Biology and Physiology, and Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center, 12-016 Lineberger, CB#7295, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC (United States); Guilluy, Christophe, E-mail: christophe.guilluy@univ-nantes.fr [Inserm UMR-S1087, CNRS UMR-C6291, L' institut du Thorax, and Université de Nantes, Nantes (France)

    2016-04-10

    Stress fibers and focal adhesions are complex protein arrays that produce, transmit and sense mechanical tension. Evidence accumulated over many years led to the conclusion that mechanical tension generated within stress fibers contributes to the assembly of both stress fibers themselves and their associated focal adhesions. However, several lines of evidence have recently been presented against this model. Here we discuss the evidence for and against the role of mechanical tension in driving the assembly of these structures. We also consider how their assembly is influenced by the rigidity of the substratum to which cells are adhering. Finally, we discuss the recently identified connections between stress fibers and the nucleus, and the roles that these may play, both in cell migration and regulating nuclear function. - Highlights: • The different types of stress fiber and focal adhesion are described. • We discuss the controversy about tension and assembly of these structures. • We describe the different models used to investigate assembly of these structures. • The influence of substratum rigidity is discussed. • Stress fiber connections to the nucleus are reviewed.

  15. Effects of stress on decisions under uncertainty: A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starcke, Katrin; Brand, Matthias

    2016-09-01

    [Correction Notice: An Erratum for this article was reported in Vol 142(9) of Psychological Bulletin (see record 2016-39486-001). It should have been reported that the inverted u-shaped relationship between cortisol stress responses and decision-making performance was only observed in female, but not in male participants as suggested by the study by van den Bos, Harteveld, and Stoop (2009). Corrected versions of the affected sentences are provided.] The purpose of the present meta-analysis was to quantify the effects that stress has on decisions made under uncertainty. We hypothesized that stress increases reward seeking and risk taking through alterations of dopamine firing rates and reduces executive control by hindering optimal prefrontal cortex functioning. In certain decision situations, increased reward seeking and risk taking is dysfunctional, whereas in others, this is not the case. We also assumed that the type of stressor plays a role. In addition, moderating variables are analyzed, such as the hormonal stress response, the time between stress onset and decisions, and the participants' age and gender. We included studies in the meta-analysis that investigated decision making after a laboratory stress-induction versus a control condition (k = 32 datasets, N = 1829 participants). A random-effects model revealed that overall, stress conditions lead to decisions that can be described as more disadvantageous, more reward seeking, and more risk taking than nonstress conditions (d = .17). In those situations in which increased reward seeking and risk taking is disadvantageous, stress had significant effects (d = .26), whereas in other situations, no effects were observed (d = .01). Effects were observed under processive stressors (d = .19), but not under systemic ones (d = .09). Moderation analyses did not reveal any significant results. We concluded that stress deteriorates overall decision-making performance through the mechanisms proposed. The effects differ

  16. Damage assessment of low-cycle fatigue by crack growth prediction. Fatigue life under cyclic thermal stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamaya, Masayuki

    2013-01-01

    The number of cycles to failure of specimens in fatigue tests can be estimated by predicting crack growth. Under a cyclic thermal stress caused by fluctuation of fluid temperature, due to the stress gradient in the thickness direction, the estimated fatigue life differs from that estimated for mechanical fatigue tests. In this paper, the influence of crack growth under cyclic thermal loading on the fatigue life was investigated. First, the thermal stress was derived by superposing analytical solutions, and then, the stress intensity factor was obtained by the weight function method. It was shown that the thermal stress depended not on the rate of the fluid temperature change but on the rise time, and the magnitude of the stress was increased as the rise time was decreased. The stress intensity factor under the cyclic thermal stress was smaller than that under the uniform stress distribution. The change in the stress intensity factor with the crack depth was almost the same regardless of the rise time. The estimated fatigue life under the cyclic thermal loading could be 1.6 times longer than that under the uniform stress distribution. The critical size for the fatigue life determination was assumed to be 3 mm for fatigue test specimens of 10 mm diameter. By evaluating the critical size by structural integrity analyses, the fatigue life was increased and the effect of the critical size on the fatigue life was more pronounced for the cyclic thermal stress. (author)

  17. Concurrent grain boundary motion and grain rotation under an applied stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorkaya, Tatiana; Molodov, Konstantin D.; Molodov, Dmitri A.; Gottstein, Guenter

    2011-01-01

    Simultaneous shear coupling and grain rotation were observed experimentally during grain boundary migration in high-purity Al bicrystals subjected to an external mechanical stress at elevated temperatures. This behavior is interpreted in terms of the structure of the investigated planar 18.2 o non-tilt grain boundary with a 20 o twist component. For characterization of the grain rotation after annealing under stress the bicrystal surface topography across the boundary was measured by atomic force microscopy. The temperature dependence of the boundary migration rate was measured and the migration activation energy determined.

  18. Mechanical characterisation of porcine rectus sheath under uniaxial and biaxial tension.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Lyons, Mathew

    2014-06-03

    Incisional hernia development is a significant complication after laparoscopic abdominal surgery. Intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) is known to initiate the extrusion of intestines through the abdominal wall, but there is limited data on the mechanics of IAP generation and the structural properties of rectus sheath. This paper presents an explanation of the mechanics of IAP development, a study of the uniaxial and biaxial tensile properties of porcine rectus sheath, and a simple computational investigation of the tissue. Analysis using Laplace׳s law showed a circumferential stress in the abdominal wall of approx. 1.1MPa due to an IAP of 11kPa, commonly seen during coughing. Uniaxial and biaxial tensile tests were conducted on samples of porcine rectus sheath to characterise the stress-stretch responses of the tissue. Under uniaxial tension, fibre direction samples failed on average at a stress of 4.5MPa at a stretch of 1.07 while cross-fibre samples failed at a stress of 1.6MPa under a stretch of 1.29. Under equi-biaxial tension, failure occurred at 1.6MPa with the fibre direction stretching to only 1.02 while the cross-fibre direction stretched to 1.13. Uniaxial and biaxial stress-stretch plots are presented allowing detailed modelling of the tissue either in silico or in a surrogate material. An FeBio computational model of the tissue is presented using a combination of an Ogden and an exponential power law model to represent the matrix and fibres respectively. The structural properties of porcine rectus sheath have been characterised and add to the small set of human data in the literature with which it may be possible to develop methods to reduce the incidence of incisional hernia development.

  19. Cytokinins induce transcriptional reprograming and improve Arabidopsis plant performance under drought and salt stress conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natali Shirron

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In nature, annual plants respond to abiotic stresses by activating a specific genetic program leading to early flowering and accelerated senescence. Although, in nature, this phenomenon supports survival under unfavorable environmental conditions, it may have negative agro-economic impacts on crop productivity. Overcoming this genetic programing by cytokinins (CK has recently been shown in transgenic plants that overproduce CK. These transgenic plants displayed a significant increase in plant productivity under drought stress conditions. We investigated the role of CK in reverting the transcriptional program that is activated under abiotic stress conditions and allowing sustainable plant growth. We employed 2 complementary approaches: Ectopic overexpression of CK, and applying exogenous CK to detached Arabidopsis leaves. Transgenic Arabidopsis plants transformed with the isopentyltransferase (IPT gene under the regulation of the senescence associated receptor kinase (SARK promoter displayed a significant drought resistance. A transcriptomic analysis using RNA sequencing was performed to explore the response mechanisms under elevated CK levels during salinity stress. This analysis showed that under such stress, CK triggered transcriptional reprograming that resulted in attenuated stress-dependent inhibition of vegetative growth and delayed premature plant senescence. Our data suggest that elevated CK levels led to stress tolerance by retaining the expression of genes associated with plant growth and metabolism whose expression typically decreases under stress conditions. In conclusion, we hypothesize that CK allows sustainable plant growth under unfavorable environmental conditions by activating gene expression related to growth processes and by preventing the expression of genes related to the activation of premature senescence.

  20. Experimental study of chemical-mechanical coupling during percolation of reactive fluid through rocks under stress, in the context of the CO2 geological sequestration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Guen, Y.

    2006-10-01

    CO 2 injection into geological repositories will induce chemical and mechanical instabilities. The study of these instabilities is based on experimental deformation of natural rock samples under stress, in the presence of fluids containing, or not, dissolved CO 2 . Triaxial cells used for the experiments permitted an independent control and measurement of stress, temperature, fluid pressure and composition. Vertical strains were measured during several months, with a resolution of 1.10 -12 s -1 on the strain rate. Simultaneously, fluids were analysed in order to quantify fluid-rock interactions. For limestone samples, percolation of CO 2 -rich fluids increases strain rate by a factor 1.7 up to 5; on the other hand, sandstone deformation remained almost the same. Increase in strain rate with limestone samples was explained by injected water acidification by the CO 2 which increases rock solubility and reaction kinetics. On the opposite, small effect of CO 2 on quartz explains the absence of deformation. X-ray observations confirmed the importance of rock composition and structure on the porosity evolution. Numerical simulations of rock elastic properties showed increasing shear stress into the sample. Measured deformation showed an evolution of reservoir rocks mechanical properties. It was interpreted as the consequence of pressure solution mechanisms both at grains contacts and on grain free surfaces. (author)

  1. Mechanical compatibility and stress analyses in composite materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schimmoeller, H.; Ruge, J.

    1976-01-01

    This paper gives a short description of the problem of mechanical interactions and mechanical compatibility in composite bodies. The formation of stress-strain states, caused by the mechanical compatibility by bonding of the interfaces, is discussed. The difference between the continuous and discontinuous type of material transition in the interface is described. Flat laminated materials are at first considered. For this type of composite bodies thermal stresses and thermal residual stresses are elastically-plastically calculated. (orig.) [de

  2. Light energy dissipation under water stress conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stuhlfauth, T.; Scheuermann, R.; Fock, H.P. (Universitaet Kaiserslautern (West Germany))

    1990-04-01

    Using {sup 14}CO{sub 2} gas exchange and metabolite analyses, stomatal as well as total internal CO{sub 2} uptake and evolution were estimated. Pulse modulated fluorescence was measured during induction and steady state of photosynthesis. Leaf water potential of Digitalis lanata EHRH. plants decreased to {minus}2.5 megapascals after withholding irrigation. By osmotic adjustment, leaves remained turgid and fully exposed to irradiance even at severe water stress. Due to the stress-induced reduction of stomatal conductance, the stomatal CO{sub 2} exchange was drastically reduced, whereas the total CO{sub 2} uptake and evolution were less affected. Stomatal closure induced an increase in the reassimilation of internally evolved CO{sub 2}. This CO{sub 2}-recycling consumes a significant amount of light energy in the form of ATP and reducing equivalents. As a consequence, the metabolic demand for light energy is only reduced by about 40%, whereas net photosynthesis is diminished by about 70% under severe stress conditions. By CO{sub 2} recycling, carbon flux, enzymatic substrate turnover and consumption of light energy were maintained at high levels, which enabled the plant to recover rapidly after rewatering. In stressed D. lanata plants a variable fluorescence quenching mechanism, termed coefficient of actinic light quenching, was observed. Besides water conservation, light energy dissipation is essential and involves regulated metabolic variations.

  3. Contact force and mechanical loss of multistage cable under tension and bending

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ru, Yanyun; Yong, Huadong; Zhou, Youhe

    2016-10-01

    A theoretical model for calculating the stress and strain states of cabling structures with different loadings has been developed in this paper. We solve the problem for the first- and second-stage cable with tensile or bending strain. The contact and friction forces between the strands are presented by two-dimensional contact model. Several theoretical models have been proposed to verify the results when the triplet subjected to the tensile strain, including contact force, contact stresses, and mechanical loss. It is found that loadings will affect the friction force and the mechanical loss of the triplet. The results show that the contact force and mechanical loss are dependent on the twist pitch. A shorter twist pitch can lead to higher contact force, while the trend of mechanical loss with twist pitch is complicated. The mechanical loss may be reduced by adjusting the twist pitch reasonably. The present model provides a simple analysis method to investigate the mechanical behaviors in multistage-structures under different loads.

  4. Growth of 2D and 3D plane cracks under thermo-mechanical loading with varying amplitudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sbitti, Amine

    2009-01-01

    After a presentation of the phenomenon of thermal fatigue (in industrial applications and nuclear plants), this research thesis reports the investigation of the growth and arrest of a 2D crack under thermal fatigue (temperature and stress distribution over thickness, calculation of stress intensity factors, laws of fatigue crack growth, growth under varying amplitude), and the investigation of 3D crack growth under cyclic loading with varying amplitudes (analytic and numerical calculation of stress intensity factors, variational formulation in failure mechanics, 3D crack propagation under fatigue, use of the Aster code, use of the extended finite element method or X-FEM). The author discusses the origin and influence of the 3D crack network under thermal fatigue

  5. Molecular characteristics of stress overshoot for polymer melts under start-up shear flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Sohdam; Kim, Jun Mo; Baig, Chunggi

    2017-12-21

    Stress overshoot is one of the most important nonlinear rheological phenomena exhibited by polymeric liquids undergoing start-up shear at sufficient flow strengths. Despite considerable previous research, the fundamental molecular characteristics underlying stress overshoot remain unknown. Here, we analyze the intrinsic molecular mechanisms behind the overshoot phenomenon using atomistic nonequilibrium molecular dynamics simulations of entangled linear polyethylene melts under shear flow. Through a detailed analysis of the transient rotational chain dynamics, we identify an intermolecular collision angular regime in the vicinity of the chain orientation angle θ ≈ 20° with respect to the flow direction. The shear stress overshoot occurs via strong intermolecular collisions between chains in the collision regime at θ = 15°-25°, corresponding to a peak strain of 2-4, which is an experimentally well-known value. The normal stress overshoot appears at approximately θ = 10°, at a corresponding peak strain roughly equivalent to twice that for the shear stress. We provide plausible answers to several basic questions regarding the stress overshoot, which may further help understand other nonlinear phenomena of polymeric systems.

  6. Cell-Nonautonomous Mechanisms Underlying Cellular and Organismal Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medkour, Younes; Svistkova, Veronika; Titorenko, Vladimir I

    2016-01-01

    Cell-autonomous mechanisms underlying cellular and organismal aging in evolutionarily distant eukaryotes have been established; these mechanisms regulate longevity-defining processes within a single eukaryotic cell. Recent findings have provided valuable insight into cell-nonautonomous mechanisms modulating cellular and organismal aging in eukaryotes across phyla; these mechanisms involve a transmission of various longevity factors between different cells, tissues, and organisms. Herein, we review such cell-nonautonomous mechanisms of aging in eukaryotes. We discuss the following: (1) how low molecular weight transmissible longevity factors modulate aging and define longevity of cells in yeast populations cultured in liquid media or on solid surfaces, (2) how communications between proteostasis stress networks operating in neurons and nonneuronal somatic tissues define longevity of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans by modulating the rates of aging in different tissues, and (3) how different bacterial species colonizing the gut lumen of C. elegans define nematode longevity by modulating the rate of organismal aging. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. Transcriptome profiling of Zymomonas mobilis under ethanol stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He Ming-xiong

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background High tolerance to ethanol is a desirable characteristics for ethanologenic strains used in industrial ethanol fermentation. A deeper understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying ethanologenic strains tolerance of ethanol stress may guide the design of rational strategies to increase process performance in industrial alcoholic production. Many extensive studies have been performed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Escherichia coli. However, the physiological basis and genetic mechanisms involved in ethanol tolerance for Zymomonas mobilis are poorly understood on genomic level. To identify the genes required for tolerance to ethanol, microarray technology was used to investigate the transcriptome profiling of the ethanologenic Z. mobilis in response to ethanol stress. Results We successfully identified 127 genes which were differentially expressed in response to ethanol. Ethanol up- or down-regulated genes related to cell wall/membrane biogenesis, metabolism, and transcription. These genes were classified as being involved in a wide range of cellular processes including carbohydrate metabolism, cell wall/membrane biogenesis, respiratory chain, terpenoid biosynthesis, DNA replication, DNA recombination, DNA repair, transport, transcriptional regulation, some universal stress response, etc. Conclusion In this study, genome-wide transcriptional responses to ethanol were investigated for the first time in Z. mobilis using microarray analysis.Our results revealed that ethanol had effects on multiple aspects of cellular metabolism at the transcriptional level and that membrane might play important roles in response to ethanol. Although the molecular mechanism involved in tolerance and adaptation of ethanologenic strains to ethanol is still unclear, this research has provided insights into molecular response to ethanol in Z. mobilis. These data will also be helpful to construct more ethanol resistant strains for cellulosic

  8. Survival pathways under stress

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Graphics. Survival pathways under stress. Bacteria survive by changing gene expression. pattern. Three important pathways will be discussed: Stringent response. Quorum sensing. Proteins performing function to control oxidative damage.

  9. Mechanical Behavior of Red Sandstone under Incremental Uniaxial Cyclical Compressive and Tensile Loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baoyun Zhao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Uniaxial experiments were carried out on red sandstone specimens to investigate their short-term and creep mechanical behavior under incremental cyclic compressive and tensile loading. First, based on the results of short-term uniaxial incremental cyclic compressive and tensile loading experiments, deformation characteristics and energy dissipation were analyzed. The results show that the stress-strain curve of red sandstone has an obvious memory effect in the compressive and tensile loading stages. The strains at peak stresses and residual strains increase with the cycle number. Energy dissipation, defined as the area of the hysteresis loop in the stress-strain curves, increases nearly in a power function with the cycle number. Creep test of the red sandstone was also conducted. Results show that the creep curve under each compressive or tensile stress level can be divided into decay and steady stages, which cannot be described by the conventional Burgers model. Therefore, an improved Burgers creep model of rock material is constructed through viscoplastic mechanics, which agrees very well with the experimental results and can describe the creep behavior of red sandstone better than the Burgers creep model.

  10. Survival, physical and physiological changes of Taenia hydatigena eggs under different conditions of water stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez Thevenet, Paula; Alvarez, Hector Manuel; Basualdo, Juan Angel

    2017-06-01

    Taenia hydatigena eggs were investigated for morphological and physiological changes under water stress conditions. Fresh eggs were exposed at 31%, 47% and 89% of relative humidity (RH), and survival, size and ultrastructural changes were accounted up to 365 days of exposition. The article shows how each RH environment affects the vitality of the eggs. Results of this study suggest that T. hydatigena eggs have mechanisms to withstand water stress, indicating that the eggs clustering improves protection against desiccation, and that endogenous metabolism using triacylglycerols play an important role in the maintenance of embryo vitality under low, medium and high relative humidity conditions. This contributes to understanding the water stress resistance mechanism in eggs belonging to Taeniidae family. The findings shown herein have provided a basis to better comprehend basic biology and epidemiology of the cysticercosis caused by T. hydatigena. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Damage assessment of low-cycle fatigue by crack growth prediction. Fatigue life under cyclic thermal stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamaya, Masayuki

    2013-01-01

    The number of cycles to failure of specimens in fatigue tests can be estimated by predicting crack growth. Under a cyclic thermal stress caused by fluctuation of fluid temperature, due to the stress gradient in the thickness direction, the estimated fatigue life differs from that estimated for mechanical fatigue tests. In this paper, the influence of crack growth under cyclic thermal loading on the fatigue life was investigated. First, the thermal stress was derived by superposing analytical solutions, and then, the stress intensity factor was obtained by the weight function method. It was shown that the thermal stress depended not on the rate of the fluid temperature change but on the rise time, and the magnitude of the stress was increased as the rise time was decreased. The stress intensity factor under the cyclic thermal stress was smaller than that under the uniform stress distribution. The change in the stress intensity factor with the crack depth did not depend on the heat transfer coefficient and only slightly depended on the rise time. The estimated fatigue life under the cyclic thermal loading could be 1.6 times longer than that under the uniform stress distribution. The critical size for the fatigue life determination was assumed to be 3 mm for fatigue test specimens of 10 mm diameter. By evaluating the critical size by structural integrity analyses, the fatigue life was increased and the effect of the critical size on the fatigue life was more pronounced for the cyclic thermal stress. (author)

  12. Soil mechanical stresses in high wheel load agricultural field traffic: a case study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lamandé, Mathieu; Schjønning, Per

    2017-01-01

    highly skewed. Across tyres, the maximum stress in the contact area correlated linearly with, but was much higher than, the mean ground pressure. For each of the three soil depths, the maximum stresses under the tyres were significantly correlated with the wheel load, but not with other loading......Subsoil compaction is a serious long-term threat to soil functions. Only a few studies have quantified the mechanical stresses reaching deep subsoil layers for modern high wheel load machinery. In the present study we measured the vertical stresses in the tyre–soil contact area and at 0.3, 0...

  13. Physiological Mechanism of Salicylic Acid for Alleviation of Salt Stress in Rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Jini

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Soil salinity is one of the most important problems of crop production in estuarine and coastal zones. Improvement in salt tolerance of major food crops is an important way for the economic utilization of coastal zones. This study proved that the application of salicylic acid (SA improved the growth and yield under salt stress conditions and investigated its physiological mechanisms for salt tolerance. The investigation on the effect of SA for salt tolerance during germination showed that the decreased rates of germination and growth (in terms of shoot and root lengths by the salt stress were significantly increased by the SA application (SA + NaCl. The treatment of SA to the high and low saline soils enhanced the growth, yield and nutrient values of rice. The effects of SA on Na+, K+ and Cl– ionic accumulation were traced under salt stress condition by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry and ion chromatography. It was revealed that the increased accumulation of Na+ and Clˉ ions by the salt stress were reduced by SA application. An increased concentration of endogenous SA level was detected from the SA-treated rice varieties (ASD16 and BR26 by liquid chromatography electrospray Ionization-tandem mass spectrometry. The activities of antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase, catalase and peroxidase were increased by salt stress whereas decreased by the SA application. The study proved that the application of SA could alleviate the adverse effects of salt stress by the regulation of physiological mechanism in rice plants. In spite of salt stress, it can be applied to the coastal and estuarine regions to increase the rice production.

  14. Stress State Analysis and Failure Mechanisms of Masonry Columns Reinforced with FRP under Concentric Compressive Load

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiří Witzany

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The strengthening and stabilization of damaged compressed masonry columns with composites based on fabrics of high-strength fibers and epoxy resin, or polymer-modified cement mixtures, belongs to novel, partially non-invasive and reversible progressive methods. The stabilizing and reinforcing effect of these fabrics significantly applies to masonry structures under concentric compressive loading whose failure mechanism is characterized by the appearance and development of vertical tensile cracks accompanied by an increase in horizontal masonry strain. During the appearance of micro and hairline cracks (10−3 to 10−1 mm, the effect of non-pre-stressed wrapping composite is very small. The favorable effect of passive wrapping is only intensively manifested after the appearance of cracks (10−1 mm and bigger at higher loading levels. In the case of “optimum” reinforcement of a masonry column, the experimental research showed an increase in vertical displacements δy (up to 247%, horizontal displacements δx (up to 742% and ultimate load-bearing capacity (up to 136% compared to the values reached in unreinforced masonry columns. In the case of masonry structures in which no intensive “bed joint filler–masonry unit” interaction occurs, e.g., in regular coursed masonry with little differences in the mechanical characteristics of masonry units and the binder, the reinforcing effect of the fabric applies only partially.

  15. Self-affirmation improves problem-solving under stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creswell, J David; Dutcher, Janine M; Klein, William M P; Harris, Peter R; Levine, John M

    2013-01-01

    High levels of acute and chronic stress are known to impair problem-solving and creativity on a broad range of tasks. Despite this evidence, we know little about protective factors for mitigating the deleterious effects of stress on problem-solving. Building on previous research showing that self-affirmation can buffer stress, we tested whether an experimental manipulation of self-affirmation improves problem-solving performance in chronically stressed participants. Eighty undergraduates indicated their perceived chronic stress over the previous month and were randomly assigned to either a self-affirmation or control condition. They then completed 30 difficult remote associate problem-solving items under time pressure in front of an evaluator. Results showed that self-affirmation improved problem-solving performance in underperforming chronically stressed individuals. This research suggests a novel means for boosting problem-solving under stress and may have important implications for understanding how self-affirmation boosts academic achievement in school settings.

  16. Characterization of degradation products of amorphous and polymorphic forms of clopidogrel bisulphate under solid state stress conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raijada, Dhara K; Prasad, Bhagwat; Paudel, Amrit

    2010-01-01

    The present study deals with the stress degradation studies on amorphous and polymorphic forms of clopidogrel bisulphate. The objective was to characterize the degradation products and postulate mechanism of decomposition of the drug under solid state stress conditions. For that, amorphous form, ...

  17. Depression and Chronic Liver Diseases: Are There Shared Underlying Mechanisms?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoqin Huang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of depression is higher in patients with chronic liver disease (CLD than that in the general population. The mechanism described in previous studies mainly focused on inflammation and stress, which not only exists in CLD, but also emerges in common chronic diseases, leaving the specific mechanism unknown. This review was to summarize the prevalence and risk factors of depression in CLD including chronic hepatitis B, chronic hepatitis, alcoholic liver disease, and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, and to point out the possible underlying mechanism of this potential link. Clarifying the origins of this common comorbidity (depression and CLD may provide more information to understand both diseases.

  18. Mechanical Stress Promotes Cisplatin-Induced Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cell Death

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riad, Sandra; Bougherara, Habiba

    2015-01-01

    Cisplatin (CisPt) is a commonly used platinum-based chemotherapeutic agent. Its efficacy is limited due to drug resistance and multiple side effects, thereby warranting a new approach to improving the pharmacological effect of CisPt. A newly developed mathematical hypothesis suggested that mechanical loading, when coupled with a chemotherapeutic drug such as CisPt and immune cells, would boost tumor cell death. The current study investigated the aforementioned mathematical hypothesis by exposing human hepatocellular liver carcinoma (HepG2) cells to CisPt, peripheral blood mononuclear cells, and mechanical stress individually and in combination. HepG2 cells were also treated with a mixture of CisPt and carnosine with and without mechanical stress to examine one possible mechanism employed by mechanical stress to enhance CisPt effects. Carnosine is a dipeptide that reportedly sequesters platinum-based drugs away from their pharmacological target-site. Mechanical stress was achieved using an orbital shaker that produced 300 rpm with a horizontal circular motion. Our results demonstrated that mechanical stress promoted CisPt-induced death of HepG2 cells (~35% more cell death). Moreover, results showed that CisPt-induced death was compromised when CisPt was left to mix with carnosine 24 hours preceding treatment. Mechanical stress, however, ameliorated cell death (20% more cell death). PMID:25685789

  19. Mechanical Stress Promotes Cisplatin-Induced Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cell Death

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laila Ziko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cisplatin (CisPt is a commonly used platinum-based chemotherapeutic agent. Its efficacy is limited due to drug resistance and multiple side effects, thereby warranting a new approach to improving the pharmacological effect of CisPt. A newly developed mathematical hypothesis suggested that mechanical loading, when coupled with a chemotherapeutic drug such as CisPt and immune cells, would boost tumor cell death. The current study investigated the aforementioned mathematical hypothesis by exposing human hepatocellular liver carcinoma (HepG2 cells to CisPt, peripheral blood mononuclear cells, and mechanical stress individually and in combination. HepG2 cells were also treated with a mixture of CisPt and carnosine with and without mechanical stress to examine one possible mechanism employed by mechanical stress to enhance CisPt effects. Carnosine is a dipeptide that reportedly sequesters platinum-based drugs away from their pharmacological target-site. Mechanical stress was achieved using an orbital shaker that produced 300 rpm with a horizontal circular motion. Our results demonstrated that mechanical stress promoted CisPt-induced death of HepG2 cells (~35% more cell death. Moreover, results showed that CisPt-induced death was compromised when CisPt was left to mix with carnosine 24 hours preceding treatment. Mechanical stress, however, ameliorated cell death (20% more cell death.

  20. Physiological Mechanism of Enhancing Salt Stress Tolerance of Perennial Ryegrass by 24-Epibrassinolide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenli Wu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Brassinosteroids (BR regulate plant tolerance to salt stress but the mechanisms underlying are not fully understood. This study was to investigate physiological mechanisms of 24-epibrassinolide (EBR's impact on salt stress tolerance in perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L. The grass seedlings were treated with EBR at 0, 10, and 100 nM, and subjected to salt stress (250 mM NaCl. The grass irrigated with regular water without EBR served as the control. Salt stress increased leaf electrolyte leakage (EL, malondialdehyde (MDA, and reduced photosynthetic rate (Pn. Exogenous EBR reduced EL and MDA, increased Pn, chlorophyll content, and stomatal conductance (gs. The EBR applications also alleviated decline of superoxide dismutase (SOD and catalase (CAT and ascorbate peroxidase (APX activity when compared to salt treatment alone. Salt stress increased leaf abscisic acid (ABA and gibberellin A4 (GA4 content but reduced indole-3-acetic acid (IAA, zeatin riboside (ZR, isopentenyl adenosine (iPA, and salicylic acid (SA. Exogenous EBR at 10 nm and 100 nM increased ABA, and iPA content under salt stress. The EBR treatment at 100 nM also increased leaf IAA, ZR, JA, and SA. In addition, EBR treatments increased leaf proline and ions (K+, Mg2+, and Ca2+ content, and reduced Na+/K+ in leaf tissues. The results of this study suggest that EBR treatment may improve salt stress tolerance by increasing the level of selected hormones and antioxidant enzyme (SOD and CAT activity, promoting accumulation of proline and ions (K+, Ca2+, and Mg2+ in perennial ryegrass.

  1. MicroRNA expression analysis in the cellulosic biofuel crop switchgrass (Panicum virgatum under abiotic stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guiling Sun

    Full Text Available Switchgrass has increasingly been recognized as a dedicated biofuel crop for its broad adaptation to marginal lands and high biomass. However, little is known about the basic biology and the regulatory mechanisms of gene expression in switchgrass, particularly under stress conditions. In this study, we investigated the effect of salt and drought stress on switchgrass germination, growth and the expression of small regulatory RNAs. The results indicate that salt stress had a gradual but significant negative effect on switchgrass growth and development. The germination rate was significantly decreased from 82% for control to 36% under 1% NaCl treatment. However, drought stress had little effect on the germination rate but had a significant effect on the growth of switchgrass under the severest salinity stress. Both salt and drought stresses altered the expression pattern of miRNAs in a dose-dependent manner. However, each miRNA responded to drought stress in a different pattern. Salt and drought stress changed the expression level of miRNAs mainly from 0.9-fold up-regulation to 0.7-fold down-regulation. miRNAs were less sensitive to drought treatment than salinity treatment, as evidenced by the narrow fold change in expression levels. Although the range of change in expression level of miRNAs was similar under salt and drought stress, no miRNAs displayed significant change in expression level under all tested salt conditions. Two miRNAs, miR156 and miR162, showed significantly change in expression level under high drought stress. This suggests that miR156 and miR162 may attribute to the adaption of switchgrass to drought stress and are good candidates for improving switchgrass as a biofuel crop by transgenic technology.

  2. Self-affirmation improves problem-solving under stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J David Creswell

    Full Text Available High levels of acute and chronic stress are known to impair problem-solving and creativity on a broad range of tasks. Despite this evidence, we know little about protective factors for mitigating the deleterious effects of stress on problem-solving. Building on previous research showing that self-affirmation can buffer stress, we tested whether an experimental manipulation of self-affirmation improves problem-solving performance in chronically stressed participants. Eighty undergraduates indicated their perceived chronic stress over the previous month and were randomly assigned to either a self-affirmation or control condition. They then completed 30 difficult remote associate problem-solving items under time pressure in front of an evaluator. Results showed that self-affirmation improved problem-solving performance in underperforming chronically stressed individuals. This research suggests a novel means for boosting problem-solving under stress and may have important implications for understanding how self-affirmation boosts academic achievement in school settings.

  3. Stress-constrained topology optimization for compliant mechanism design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Leon, Daniel M.; Alexandersen, Joe; Jun, Jun S.

    2015-01-01

    This article presents an application of stress-constrained topology optimization to compliant mechanism design. An output displacement maximization formulation is used, together with the SIMP approach and a projection method to ensure convergence to nearly discrete designs. The maximum stress...... is approximated using a normalized version of the commonly-used p-norm of the effective von Mises stresses. The usual problems associated with topology optimization for compliant mechanism design: one-node and/or intermediate density hinges are alleviated by the stress constraint. However, it is also shown...

  4. Mechanisms of food processing and storage-related stress tolerance in Clostridium botulinum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlsten, Elias; Lindström, Miia; Korkeala, Hannu

    2015-05-01

    Vegetative cultures of Clostridium botulinum produce the extremely potent botulinum neurotoxin, and may jeopardize the safety of foods unless sufficient measures to prevent growth are applied. Minimal food processing relies on combinations of mild treatments, primarily to avoid deterioration of the sensory qualities of the food. Tolerance of C. botulinum to minimal food processing is well characterized. However, data on effects of successive treatments on robustness towards further processing is lacking. Developments in genetic manipulation tools and the availability of annotated genomes have allowed identification of genetic mechanisms involved in stress tolerance of C. botulinum. Most studies focused on low temperature, and the importance of various regulatory mechanisms in cold tolerance of C. botulinum has been demonstrated. Furthermore, novel roles in cold tolerance were shown for metabolic pathways under the control of these regulators. A role for secondary oxidative stress in tolerance to extreme temperatures has been proposed. Additionally, genetic mechanisms related to tolerance to heat, low pH, and high salinity have been characterized. Data on genetic stress-related mechanisms of psychrotrophic Group II C. botulinum strains are scarce; these mechanisms are of interest for food safety research and should thus be investigated. This minireview encompasses the importance of C. botulinum as a food safety hazard and its central physiological characteristics related to food-processing and storage-related stress. Special attention is given to recent findings considering genetic mechanisms C. botulinum utilizes in detecting and countering these adverse conditions. Copyright © 2014 Institut Pasteur. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Methods for evaluation of mechanical stress condition of materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirchev Yordan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary attention is given to the following methods: method by drilling cylindrical holes (drill method and integrated ultrasonic method using volume (longitudinal and transverse, surface, and sub-surface waves. Drill method allows determination of residual mechanical stress in small depth of material surfaces, assessing type, size, and orientation of principal stresses. For the first time, parallel studies are carried out of mechanical stress in materials using the electroacoustic effect of volume, surface and sub-surface waves on the one hand, and effective mechanical stresses on the other. The experimental results present electroacoustic coefficients for different types of waves in the material of gas pipeline tube of 243 mm diameter and 14 mm thickness. These are used to evaluate mechanical stresses in pipelines, according to active GOST standards.

  6. Longitudinal and Lateral Stress Measurements in NiTi under One-Dimensional Shock Loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meziere, Y. J. E.; Millett, J. C. F.; Bourne, N. K.; Wallwork, A.; Workman, A.

    2006-01-01

    This paper investigates the influence of the impact stress on the magnitude of the shear stress under one-dimensional shock loading. The shear stress is calculated from the measured longitudinal and the lateral stresses. New data in terms of shock stress, particle velocity and shock velocity has been gathered. Results indicate that the lateral stress has a positive dependence on the impact stress. A general decrease of the lateral stress was also observed immediately after the impact, while the longitudinal stress remains constant for the duration of the pulse length. This suggests that the shear strength increases behind the shock front. This decrease had been found to reach a constant value for the specimens impacted at lower stress. A complex mechanism of deformation behind the shock front during loading was thus reveals. This limit, related to the inflexion point noted on the Hugoniot (Us-up), seems to be an effect of the martensitic phase transformation undergoes by the material

  7. Design and analysis of a toroidal tester for the measurement of core losses under axial compressive stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alatawneh, Natheer, E-mail: natheer80@yahoo.com [Department of Mining and Materials Engineering, McGill University, QC H3A 0G4 (Canada); Rahman, Tanvir; Lowther, David A. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, McGill University, QC H3A 0E9 (Canada); Chromik, Richard [Department of Mining and Materials Engineering, McGill University, QC H3A 0G4 (Canada)

    2017-06-15

    Highlights: • Develop a toroidal tester for magnetic measurements under compressive axial stress. • The shape of the toroidal ring has been verified using 3D stress analysis. • The developed design has been prototyped, and measurements were carried out. • Physical explanations for the core loss trend due to stress are provided. - Abstract: Electric machine cores are subjected to mechanical stresses due to manufacturing processes. These stresses include radial, circumferential and axial components that may have significant influences on the magnetic properties of the electrical steel and hence, on the output and efficiencies of electrical machines. Previously, most studies of iron losses due to mechanical stress have considered only radial and circumferential components. In this work, an improved toroidal tester has been designed and developed to measure the core losses and the magnetic properties of electrical steel under a compressive axial stress. The shape of the toroidal ring has been verified using 3D stress analysis. Also, 3D electromagnetic simulations show a uniform flux density distribution in the specimen with a variation of 0.03 T and a maximum average induction level of 1.5 T. The developed design has been prototyped, and measurements were carried out using a steel sample of grade 35WW300. Measurements show that applying small mechanical stresses normal to the sample thickness rises the delivered core losses, then the losses decrease continuously as the stress increases. However, the drop in core losses at high stresses does not go lower than the free-stress condition. Physical explanations for the observed trend of core losses as a function of stress are provided based on core loss separation to the hysteresis and eddy current loss components. The experimental results show that the effect of axial compressive stress on magnetic properties of electrical steel at high level of inductions becomes less pronounced.

  8. Different intra- and interspecific facilitation mechanisms between two Mediterranean trees under a climate change scenario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gimeno, Teresa E; Escudero, Adrián; Valladares, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    In harsh environments facilitation alleviates biotic and abiotic constraints on tree recruitment. Under ongoing drier climate change, we expect facilitation to increase as a driver of coexistence. However, this might not hold under extreme abiotic stress and when the outcome depends on the interaction with other drivers such as altered herbivore pressure due to land use change. We performed a field water-manipulation experiment to quantify the importance of facilitation in two coexisting Mediterranean trees (dominant Juniperus thurifera and coexisting Quercus ilex subsp. ballota) under a climate change scenario. Shifts in canopy dominance favouring Q. ilex could be based on the extension of heterospecific facilitation to the detriment of conspecific alleviation. We found that saplings of both species transplanted under the canopy of nurse trees had greater survival probability, growth and photochemical efficiency. Intra- and interspecific facilitation mechanisms differed: alleviation of abiotic stress benefited both species during summer and J. thurifera during winter, whereas browsing protection was relevant only for Q. ilex. Facilitation was greater under the dry treatment only for Q. ilex, which partially agreed with the predictions of the stress gradient hypothesis. We conclude that present rainfall availability limits neither J. thurifera nor Q. ilex establishment. Nevertheless, under current global change scenarios, imposing increasing abiotic stress together with altered herbivore browsing, nurse trees could differentially facilitate the establishment of Q. ilex due to species-specific traits, i.e. palatability; drought, heat and cold tolerance, underlying species differences in the facilitation mechanisms and eventually triggering a change from pure juniper woodlands to mixed formations.

  9. ANTHOCYANIN PIGMENTATION IN TRITICUM AESTIVUM L.: GENETIC BASIS AND ROLE UNDER ABIOTIC STRESS CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tereshchenko O.Yu.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Anthocyanins are secondary metabolites of plants. They have a wide range of biological activity such as antioxidant, photoprotection, osmoregulation, heavy metal ions chelation, antimicrobial and antifungal activities, which help plants to survive under different stress conditions. Bread wheat (T. aestivum L. can have purple pigmentation provided by anthocyanin compounds in different organs, such as grain pericarp, coleoptile, culm, leaf blades, leaf sheaths, glumes and anthers. However, the genetic mechanisms underlying formation of these traits as well as contribution of the pigmentation to stress tolerance have not been widely studied in wheat. The aim of the current study was to investigate molecular-genetic mechanisms underlying anthocyanin pigmentation in different wheat organs and to estimate the role of the pigmentation under different abiotic stress conditions in wheat seedlings. In the current study, near-isogenic lines (NILs: cv. ‘Saratovskaya 29’ (‘S29’ and lines i:S29Pp1Pp2PF and i:S29Pp1Pp3P developed on the ‘S29’ background but having grain pericarp coloration (genes Pp and more intense coleoptile (Rc, culm (Pc, leaf blade (Plb, leaf sheath (Pls pigmentation in comparison with ‘S29’, were used. Comparative transcriptional analysis of the five structural genes Chs, Chi, F3h, Dfr, Ans, encoding enzymes participating in the anthocyanin biosynthesis, was performed in different organs of NILs. It was shown that the presence of the Rc, Pc, Plb, Pls and Pp alleles conferring strong anthocyanin pigmentation induced more intense transcription of the structural genes, suggesting the genes Rc, Pc, Plb, Pls and Pp to play a regulatory role in anthocyanin biosynthesis network. To evaluate the role of anthocyanins in stress response at the seedling stage, growth ability of the NILs and anthocyanin content in their coleoptiles were assessed after treatments with NaCl (100 and 200 mM, CdCl2 (25 and 50 μM and 15% PEG 6000

  10. Transcriptional regulatory network triggered by oxidative signals configures the early response mechanisms of japonica rice to chilling stress

    KAUST Repository

    Yun, Kil-Young; Park, Myoung Ryoul; Mohanty, Bijayalaxmi; Herath, Venura; Xu, Fuyu; Mauleon, Ramil; Wijaya, Edward; Bajic, Vladimir B.; Bruskiewich, Richard; de los Reyes, Benildo G

    2010-01-01

    -plant level analyses established a holistic view of chilling stress response mechanism of japonica rice. Early response regulatory network triggered by oxidative signals is critical for prolonged survival under sub-optimal temperature. Integration of stress

  11. EDXS and XRD Analyses of Coleus with Different Concentration Selenium Supplements Under Lead Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    QIN Hui-yuan

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the changes of the morphologies and element composition in Coleus hlumei Benth(Coleusroots and leaves under1.0 mmol·L-1 Pb2+ stress with selenium ( Setreatments, and to preliminarily investigate the relief mechanism of Se level on lead toxicity from the perspective of spectroscopy, Coleus was cultivated in nutrient solutions with different concentrations of Se. The results showed that the content of C, K and Ca elements in roots decreased, while 0, Mg, Al, Si, Fe and Pb elements increased under Pb stress with Se treatments. In addi-tion, the content of C, Mg, Al, Si, K, Ca and Fe elements in leaves decreased, while 0 and Cl elements increased. The element species and its contents in roots were changed obviously under Pb stress with Se treatments, and crystalline solid and crystal phase in roots were correspond-ingly changed.

  12. Evaluation of the onset of failure under mechanical and thermal stresses on luting agent for metal-ceramic and metal crowns by finite element analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hema Agnihotri

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Long-term clinical failures of cemented prosthesis depend, to a large extent, on the integrity of the luting agent. The causative factors that lead to microfracture and, hence, failure of the luting agents are the stresses acting inside the oral cavity. Therefore, the present study was designed to develop an understanding of the relationship between stresses in the tooth and the failure potential of the luting agent. Two-dimensional finite element stress analysis was performed on the mandibular second premolar. The behavior of zinc-phosphate and glass-ionomer were studied under different crowns (metal-ceramic and metal crown and loading conditions (mechanical force of 450 N acting vertically over the occlusal surface, thermal loads of 60° and 0°C. It was observed from the study that failure threshold of the luting agent was influenced both by the elastic modulus of the luting agent and by the type of the crown.

  13. micro-mechanical experimental investigation and modelling of strain and damage of argillaceous rocks under combined hydric and mechanical loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, L.

    2012-01-01

    The hydro-mechanical behavior of argillaceous rocks, which are possible host rocks for underground radioactive nuclear waste storage, is investigated by means of micro-mechanical experimental investigations and modellings. Strain fields at the micrometric scale of the composite structure of this rock, are measured by the combination of environmental scanning electron microscopy, in situ testing and digital image correlation technique. The evolution of argillaceous rocks under pure hydric loading is first investigated. The strain field is strongly heterogeneous and manifests anisotropy. The observed nonlinear deformation at high relative humidity (RH) is related not only to damage, but also to the nonlinear swelling of the clay mineral itself, controlled by different local mechanisms depending on RH. Irreversible deformations are observed during hydric cycles, as well as a network of microcracks located in the bulk of the clay matrix and/or at the inclusion-matrix interface. Second, the local deformation field of the material under combined hydric and mechanical loadings is quantified. Three types of deformation bands are evidenced under mechanical loading, either normal to stress direction (compaction), parallel (microcracking) or inclined (shear). Moreover, they are strongly controlled by the water content of the material: shear bands are in particular prone to appear at high RH states. In view of understanding the mechanical interactions a local scale, the material is modeled as a composite made of non-swelling elastic inclusions embedded in an elastic swelling clay matrix. The internal stress field induced by swelling strain incompatibilities between inclusions and matrix, as well as the overall deformation, is numerically computed at equilibrium but also during the transient stage associated with a moisture gradient. An analytical micro-mechanical model based on Eshelby's solution is proposed. In addition, 2D finite element computations are performed. Results

  14. Memory dynamics under stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quaedflieg, Conny W E M; Schwabe, Lars

    2018-03-01

    Stressful events have a major impact on memory. They modulate memory formation in a time-dependent manner, closely linked to the temporal profile of action of major stress mediators, in particular catecholamines and glucocorticoids. Shortly after stressor onset, rapidly acting catecholamines and fast, non-genomic glucocorticoid actions direct cognitive resources to the processing and consolidation of the ongoing threat. In parallel, control of memory is biased towards rather rigid systems, promoting habitual forms of memory allowing efficient processing under stress, at the expense of "cognitive" systems supporting memory flexibility and specificity. In this review, we discuss the implications of this shift in the balance of multiple memory systems for the dynamics of the memory trace. Specifically, stress appears to hinder the incorporation of contextual details into the memory trace, to impede the integration of new information into existing knowledge structures, to impair the flexible generalisation across past experiences, and to hamper the modification of memories in light of new information. Delayed, genomic glucocorticoid actions might reverse the control of memory, thus restoring homeostasis and "cognitive" control of memory again.

  15. Proteomic analysis on roots of Oenothera glazioviana under copper-stress conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chong; Wang, Jie; Wang, Xiao; Xia, Yan; Chen, Chen; Shen, Zhenguo; Chen, Yahua

    2017-09-06

    Proteomic studies were performed to identify proteins involved in the response of Oenothera glazioviana seedlings under Cu stress. Exposure of 28-d-old seedlings to 50 μM CuSO4 for 3 d led to inhibition of shoot and root growth as well as a considerable increase in the level of lipid peroxidation in the roots. Cu absorbed by O. glazioviana accumulated more easily in the root than in the shoot. Label-free proteomic analysis indicated 58 differentially abundant proteins (DAPs) of the total 3,149 proteins in the roots of O. glazioviana seedlings, of which 36 were upregulated and 22 were downregulated under Cu stress conditions. Gene Ontology analysis showed that most of the identified proteins could be annotated to signal transduction, detoxification, stress defence, carbohydrate, energy, and protein metabolism, development, and oxidoreduction. We also retrieved 13 proteins from the enriched Kyoto Encyclopaedia of Genes and Genomes and the protein-protein interaction databases related to various pathways, including the citric acid (CA) cycle. Application of exogenous CA to O. glazioviana seedlings exposed to Cu alleviated the stress symptoms. Overall, this study provided new insights into the molecular mechanisms of plant response to Cu at the protein level in relation to soil properties.

  16. Physiological and proteomic analyses of Saccharum spp. grown under salt stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Melro Murad

    Full Text Available Sugarcane (Saccharum spp. is the world most productive sugar producing crop, making an understanding of its stress physiology key to increasing both sugar and ethanol production. To understand the behavior and salt tolerance mechanisms of sugarcane, two cultivars commonly used in Brazilian agriculture, RB867515 and RB855536, were submitted to salt stress for 48 days. Physiological parameters including net photosynthesis, water potential, dry root and shoot mass and malondialdehyde (MDA content of leaves were determined. Control plants of the two cultivars showed similar values for most traits apart from higher root dry mass in RB867515. Both cultivars behaved similarly during salt stress, except for MDA levels for which there was a delay in the response for cultivar RB867515. Analysis of leaf macro- and micronutrients concentrations was performed and the concentration of Mn(2+ increased on day 48 for both cultivars. In parallel, to observe the effects of salt stress on protein levels in leaves of the RB867515 cultivar, two-dimensional gel electrophoresis followed by MS analysis was performed. Four proteins were differentially expressed between control and salt-treated plants. Fructose 1,6-bisphosphate aldolase was down-regulated, a germin-like protein and glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase showed increased expression levels under salt stress, and heat-shock protein 70 was expressed only in salt-treated plants. These proteins are involved in energy metabolism and defense-related responses and we suggest that they may be involved in protection mechanisms against salt stress in sugarcane.

  17. The tunable mechanical property of water-filled carbon nanotubes under an electric field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Hongfei; Zhang, Zhongqiang; Zhang, Hongwu; Chen, Zhen; Zong, Zhi; Zheng, Yonggang

    2014-03-01

    The spring-induced compression of water-filled carbon nanotubes (CNTs) under an electric field is investigated by molecular dynamics simulations. Due to the incompressibility and polarity of water, the mechanical property of CNTs can be tuned through filling with water molecules and applying an electric field. To explore the variation of the mechanical property of water-filled CNTs, the effects of the CNT length, the filling density and the electric field intensity are examined. The simulation results indicate that the water filling and electric field can result in a slight change in the elastic property (the elastic modulus and Poisson's ratio) of water-filled CNTs. However, the yield stress and average post-buckling stress exhibit a significant response to the water density and electric field intensity. As compared to hollow CNTs, the increment in yield stress of the water-filled CNTs under an electric field of 2.0 V Å-1 is up to 35.29%, which is even higher than that resulting from metal filling. The findings from this study provide a valuable theoretical basis for designing and fabricating the controlling units at the nanoscale.

  18. Comparative transcriptome analysis of sweet corn seedlings under low-temperature stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jihua Mao

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Stress induced by low temperature, which represents a widespread environmental factor, strongly affects maize growth and yield. However, the physiological characteristics and molecular regulatory mechanisms of maize seedlings in response to cold remain poorly understood. In this study, using RNA-seq, we investigated the transcriptome profiles of two sweet corn inbred lines, “Richao” (RC and C5, under cold stress. A total of 357 and 455 differentially expressed genes (DEGs were identified in the RC and C5 lines, respectively, 94 DEGs were detected as common DEGs related to cold response in both genotypes, and a total of 589 DEGs were detected as cold tolerance-associated genes. By combining protein function clustering analysis and significantly enriched Gene Ontology (GO terms analysis, we suggest that transcription factors may play a dominating role in the cold stress response and tolerance of sweet corn. Furthermore, 74 differentially expressed transcription factors were identified, of those many genes involved in the metabolism and regulation of hormones. These results expand our understanding of the complex mechanisms involved in chilling tolerance in maize, and provide a set of candidate genes for further genetic analyses.

  19. Transcriptome analysis of the thermotolerant yeast Kluyveromyces marxianus CCT 7735 under ethanol stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diniz, Raphael Hermano Santos; Villada, Juan C; Alvim, Mariana Caroline Tocantins; Vidigal, Pedro Marcus Pereira; Vieira, Nívea Moreira; Lamas-Maceiras, Mónica; Cerdán, María Esperanza; González-Siso, María-Isabel; Lahtvee, Petri-Jaan; da Silveira, Wendel Batista

    2017-09-01

    The thermotolerant yeast Kluyveromyces marxianus displays a potential to be used for ethanol production from both whey and lignocellulosic biomass at elevated temperatures, which is highly alluring to reduce the cost of the bioprocess. Nevertheless, contrary to Saccharomyces cerevisiae, K. marxianus cannot tolerate high ethanol concentrations. We report the transcriptional profile alterations in K. marxianus under ethanol stress in order to gain insights about mechanisms involved with ethanol response. Time-dependent changes have been characterized under the exposure of 6% ethanol and compared with the unstressed cells prior to the ethanol addition. Our results reveal that the metabolic flow through the central metabolic pathways is impaired under the applied ethanol stress. Consistent with these results, we also observe that genes involved with ribosome biogenesis are downregulated and gene-encoding heat shock proteins are upregulated. Remarkably, the expression of some gene-encoding enzymes related to unsaturated fatty acid and ergosterol biosynthesis decreases upon ethanol exposure, and free fatty acid and ergosterol measurements demonstrate that their content in K. marxianus does not change under this stress. These results are in contrast to the increase previously reported with S. cerevisiae subjected to ethanol stress and suggest that the restructuration of K. marxianus membrane composition differs in the two yeasts which gives important clues to understand the low ethanol tolerance of K. marxianus compared to S. cerevisiae.

  20. Experimental studies of the deformation of carbonated rocks by dissolution crystallization under stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zubtsov, Sergey

    2003-01-01

    The first part of this research thesis reports the experimental investigation and the modelling of the deformation of poly-mineral rocks under the influence of mechanism of dissolution-crystallization under stress. This mechanism has a significant role in the compaction of sedimentary rocks, in the folding process of the earth's crust. The author notably reports the results of the experimental deformation of calcite in presence of water (calcite is present in marls in which the deposit of nuclear wastes in planned in France). The second part deals with the fact that healing is possible between two grains of similar mineralogy, and slows down or even stops deformation

  1. Transcriptomic Analysis Reveals the Molecular Mechanisms of Drought-Stress-Induced Decreases in Camellia sinensis Leaf Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Weidong; Xin, Huahong; Wang, Mingle; Ma, Qingping; Wang, Le; Kaleri, Najeeb A.; Wang, Yuhua; Li, Xinghui

    2016-01-01

    The tea plant [Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze] is an important commercial crop rich in bioactive ingredients, especially catechins, caffeine, theanine and other free amino acids, which the quality of tea leaves depends on. Drought is the most important environmental stress affecting the yield and quality of this plant. In this study, the effects of drought stress on the phenotype, physiological characteristics and major bioactive ingredients accumulation of C. sinensis leaves were examined, and the results indicated that drought stress resulted in dehydration and wilt of the leaves, and significant decrease in the total polyphenols and free amino acids and increase in the total flavonoids. In addition, HPLC analysis showed that the catechins, caffeine, theanine and some free amino acids in C. sinensis leaves were significantly reduced in response to drought stress, implying that drought stress severely decreased the quality of C. sinensis leaves. Furthermore, differentially expressed genes (DEGs) related to amino acid metabolism and secondary metabolism were identified and quantified in C. sinensis leaves under drought stress using high-throughput Illumina RNA-Seq technology, especially the key regulatory genes of the catechins, caffeine, and theanine biosynthesis pathways. The expression levels of key regulatory genes were consistent with the results from the HPLC analysis, which indicate a potential molecular mechanism for the above results. Taken together, these data provide further insights into the mechanisms underlying the change in the quality of C. sinensis leaves under environmental stress, which involve changes in the accumulation of major bioactive ingredients, especially catechins, caffeine, theanine and other free amino acids. PMID:27066035

  2. Experimental study on critical breaking stress of float glass under elevated temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yu; Wang, Qingsong; Shao, Guangzheng; Chen, Haodong; Sun, Jinhua; He, Linghui; Liew, K.M.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Critical breaking stresses of clear, ground and coated glass were measured. • Breaking stress and strain of smooth glass were measured from 25 °C to 400 °C. • At approximately 100 °C, critical stress reached the minimum value. • Surface treatment and ambient temperature have notable effects on glass breaking. - Abstract: Cracking and subsequent fallout of glass may significantly affect fire dynamics in compartments. Moreover, the breaking tensile stress of glass, a crucial parameter for breakage occurrence, is the least well known among mechanical properties. In this work, a series of experiments were conducted, through mechanical tensile tests, to directly measure the breaking stress of float glass using Material Testing System 810 apparatus. Clear, ground and coated glass samples with a thickness of 6 mm were measured under ambient conditions, with a room temperature of 25 °C. The breaking stress of smooth glass samples was also measured at 75 °C, 100 °C, 125 °C, 150 °C, 200 °C, 300 °C and 400 °C, respectively. The results show that surface treatment may decrease the critical tensile stress of glass panes. The average breaking stress also fluctuates considerably, from 26.60 to 35.72 MPa with the temperature variations investigated here. At approximately 100 °C, critical stress reached the minimum value at which glass breakage occurs more easily. In addition, the thermal expansion coefficient was established using a thermal dilatometer, to obtain the maximum temperature difference float glass can withstand. It is intended that these results will provide some practical guidelines for fire safety engineers

  3. A numerical study of crack interactions under thermo-mechanical load using EFGM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pant, Mohit; Singh, I. V.; Mishra, B. K.

    2011-01-01

    In this work, element free Galerkin method (EFGM) has been used to obtain the solution of various edge crack problems under thermo-mechanical loads as it provides a versatile technique to model stationary as well as moving crack problems without re-meshing. Standard diffraction criterion has been modified with multiple crack weight technique to characterize the presence of various cracks in the domain of influence of a particular node. The effect of crack inclination has been studied for single as well as two edge cracks, whereas the cracks interaction has been studied for two edge cracks lying on same as well as opposite edges under plane stress conditions. The values of mode-I and mode-II stress intensity factors have been evaluated by the interaction integral approach

  4. Molecular mechanisms underlying the emergence of bacterial pathogens: an ecological perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartoli, Claudia; Roux, Fabrice; Lamichhane, Jay Ram

    2016-02-01

    The rapid emergence of new bacterial diseases negatively affects both human health and agricultural productivity. Although the molecular mechanisms underlying these disease emergences are shared between human- and plant-pathogenic bacteria, not much effort has been made to date to understand disease emergences caused by plant-pathogenic bacteria. In particular, there is a paucity of information in the literature on the role of environmental habitats in which plant-pathogenic bacteria evolve and on the stress factors to which these microbes are unceasingly exposed. In this microreview, we focus on three molecular mechanisms underlying pathogenicity in bacteria, namely mutations, genomic rearrangements and the acquisition of new DNA sequences through horizontal gene transfer (HGT). We briefly discuss the role of these mechanisms in bacterial disease emergence and elucidate how the environment can influence the occurrence and regulation of these molecular mechanisms by directly impacting disease emergence. The understanding of such molecular evolutionary mechanisms and their environmental drivers will represent an important step towards predicting bacterial disease emergence and developing sustainable management strategies for crops. © 2015 BSPP AND JOHN WILEY & SONS LTD.

  5. Molecular Mechanisms of Stress-Induced Increases in Fear Memory Consolidation within the Amygdala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubry, Antonio V; Serrano, Peter A; Burghardt, Nesha S

    2016-01-01

    Stress can significantly impact brain function and increase the risk for developing various psychiatric disorders. Many of the brain regions that are implicated in psychiatric disorders and are vulnerable to the effects of stress are also involved in mediating emotional learning. Emotional learning has been a subject of intense investigation for the past 30 years, with the vast majority of studies focusing on the amygdala and its role in associative fear learning. However, the mechanisms by which stress affects the amygdala and amygdala-dependent fear memories remain unclear. Here we review the literature on the enhancing effects of acute and chronic stress on the acquisition and/or consolidation of a fear memory, as measured by auditory Pavlovian fear conditioning, and discuss potential mechanisms by which these changes occur in the amygdala. We hypothesize that stress-mediated activation of glucocorticoid receptors (GR) and norepinephrine release within the amygdala leads to the mobilization of α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptors to the synapse, which underlies stress-induced increases in fear memory. We discuss the implications of this hypothesis for evaluating the effects of stress on extinction and for developing treatments for anxiety disorders. Understanding how stress-induced changes in glucocorticoid and norepinephrine signaling might converge to affect emotional learning by increasing the trafficking of AMPA receptors and enhancing amygdala excitability is a promising area for future research.

  6. Molecular Mechanisms of Stress-Induced Increases in Fear Memory Consolidation Within the Amygdala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Aubry

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Stress can significantly impact brain function and increase the risk for developing various psychiatric disorders. Many of the brain regions that are implicated in psychiatric disorders and are vulnerable to the effects of stress are also involved in mediating emotional learning. Emotional learning has been a subject of intense investigation for the past 30 years, with the vast majority of studies focusing on the amygdala and its role in associative fear learning. However, the mechanisms by which stress affects the amygdala and amygdala-dependent fear memories remain unclear. Here we review the literature on the enhancing effects of acute and chronic stress on the acquisition and/or consolidation of a fear memory, as measured by auditory Pavlovian fear conditioning, and discuss potential mechanisms by which these changes occur in the amygdala. We hypothesize that stress-mediated activation of glucocorticoid receptors (GR and norepinephrine release within the amygdala leads to the mobilization of AMPA receptors to the synapse, which underlies stress-induced increases in fear memory. We discuss the implications of this hypothesis for evaluating the effects of stress on extinction and for developing treatments for anxiety disorders. Understanding how stress-induced changes in glucocorticoid and norepinephrine signaling might converge to affect emotional learning by increasing the trafficking of AMPA receptors and enhancing amygdala excitability is a promising area for future research.

  7. Mean load effect on fatigue of welded joints using structural stress and fracture mechanics approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jong Sung; Kim, Cheol; Jin, Tae Eun; Dong, P.

    2006-01-01

    In order to ensure the structural integrity of nuclear welded structures during design life, the fatigue life has to be evaluated by fatigue analysis procedures presented in technical codes such as ASME B and PV Code Section III. However, existing fatigue analysis procedures do not explicitly consider the presence of welded joints. A new fatigue analysis procedure based on a structural stress/fracture mechanics approach has been recently developed in order to reduce conservatism by erasing uncertainty in the analysis procedure. A recent review of fatigue crack growth data under various mean loading conditions using the structural stress/fracture mechanics approach, does not consider the mean loading effect, revealed some significant discrepancies in fatigue crack growth curves according to the mean loading conditions. In this paper, we propose the use of the stress intensity factor range ΔK characterized with loading ratio R effects in terms of the structural stress. We demonstrate the effectiveness in characterizing fatigue crack growth and S-N behavior using the well-known data. It was identified that the S-N data under high mean loading could be consolidated in a master S-N curve for welded joints

  8. Prognostics Approach for Power MOSFET Under Thermal-Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvan, Jose Ramon Celaya; Saxena, Abhinav; Kulkarni, Chetan S.; Saha, Sankalita; Goebel, Kai

    2012-01-01

    The prognostic technique for a power MOSFET presented in this paper is based on accelerated aging of MOSFET IRF520Npbf in a TO-220 package. The methodology utilizes thermal and power cycling to accelerate the life of the devices. The major failure mechanism for the stress conditions is dieattachment degradation, typical for discrete devices with leadfree solder die attachment. It has been determined that dieattach degradation results in an increase in ON-state resistance due to its dependence on junction temperature. Increasing resistance, thus, can be used as a precursor of failure for the die-attach failure mechanism under thermal stress. A feature based on normalized ON-resistance is computed from in-situ measurements of the electro-thermal response. An Extended Kalman filter is used as a model-based prognostics techniques based on the Bayesian tracking framework. The proposed prognostics technique reports on preliminary work that serves as a case study on the prediction of remaining life of power MOSFETs and builds upon the work presented in [1]. The algorithm considered in this study had been used as prognostics algorithm in different applications and is regarded as suitable candidate for component level prognostics. This work attempts to further the validation of such algorithm by presenting it with real degradation data including measurements from real sensors, which include all the complications (noise, bias, etc.) that are regularly not captured on simulated degradation data. The algorithm is developed and tested on the accelerated aging test timescale. In real world operation, the timescale of the degradation process and therefore the RUL predictions will be considerable larger. It is hypothesized that even though the timescale will be larger, it remains constant through the degradation process and the algorithm and model would still apply under the slower degradation process. By using accelerated aging data with actual device measurements and real

  9. Progressive damage analysis of carbon/epoxy laminates under couple laser and mechanical loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanlei Liu

    Full Text Available A multiscale model based bridge theory is proposed for the progressive damage analysis of carbon/epoxy laminates under couple laser and mechanical loading. The ablation model is adopted to calculate ablation temperature changing and ablation surface degradation. The polynomial strengthening model of matrix is used to improve bridging model for reducing parameter input. Stiffness degradation methods of bridging model are also improved in order to analyze the stress redistribution more accurately when the damage occurs. Thermal-mechanical analyses of the composite plate are performed using the ABAQUS/Explicit program with the developed model implemented in the VUMAT. The simulation results show that this model can be used to proclaim the mesoscale damage mechanism of composite laminates under coupled loading. Keywords: Laser irradiation, Multiscale analysis, Bridge model, Thermal-mechanical

  10. Arbuscular mycorrhizae under CuSO4 stress community structure of arbuscular mycorrhizae under CuSO4 stress in Capsicum annuum L. and Zea mays L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raza, A.; Chaudhry, M.S.

    2017-01-01

    Community structure and ecology of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi was studied in the present study using two host plant species i.e. Capsicum annuum L. and Zea mays L. under CuSO4 stress. Five levels of copper sulfate (CuSO4) i.e. 0 ppm (control), 25 ppm, 50 ppm, 75 ppm, and 100 ppm were used to elucidate their influence on mycorrhizal community. Results showed that some spores disappeared with increased metal content while other spores were abundant even at a high level of stress. Present studies supported the stress tolerance mechanism conferred by AMF spore density and diversity. Value of Simpson index was shown to decrease from 3.58 to 2.42. Shannon index value was changed from 0.27 to 0.51. Similar rise in the values was observed for spore diversity i.e. 20.94 to 79.13. However, it may be concluded that spore ecotypes might vary in their abundance depending upon the host plant and soil physical-chemical characters that control the metal availability to plants. Among all the four plant varieties, ghotki chilli seemed to have less species associated with it. It can be concluded that when compared to the control, more mycorrhizal types were found to be associated with plants under stress which could prove the tolerance of mycorrhizae against the heavy metals and their positive role in protecting plant from the toxicity of heavy metals. (author)

  11. Fracture mechanics of hydroxyapatite single crystals under geometric confinement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libonati, Flavia; Nair, Arun K; Vergani, Laura; Buehler, Markus J

    2013-04-01

    Geometric confinement to the nanoscale, a concept that refers to the characteristic dimensions of structural features of materials at this length scale, has been shown to control the mechanical behavior of many biological materials or their building blocks, and such effects have also been suggested to play a crucial role in enhancing the strength and toughness of bone. Here we study the effect of geometric confinement on the fracture mechanism of hydroxyapatite (HAP) crystals that form the mineralized phase in bone. We report a series of molecular simulations of HAP crystals with an edge crack on the (001) plane under tensile loading, and we systematically vary the sample height whilst keeping the sample and the crack length constant. We find that by decreasing the sample height the stress concentration at the tip of the crack disappears for samples with a height smaller than 4.15nm, below which the material shows a different failure mode characterized by a more ductile mechanism with much larger failure strains, and the strength approaching that of a flaw-less crystal. This study directly confirms an earlier suggestion of a flaw-tolerant state that appears under geometric confinement and may explain the mechanical stability of the reinforcing HAP platelets in bone. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Short- and long-term behavioural, physiological and stoichiometric responses to predation risk indicate chronic stress and compensatory mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Dievel, Marie; Janssens, Lizanne; Stoks, Robby

    2016-06-01

    Prey organisms are expected to use different short- and long-term responses to predation risk to avoid excessive costs. Contrasting both types of responses is important to identify chronic stress responses and possible compensatory mechanisms in order to better understand the full impact of predators on prey life history and population dynamics. Using larvae of the damselfly Enallagma cyathigerum, we contrasted the effects of short- and long-term predation risk, with special focus on consequences for body stoichiometry. Under short-term predation risk, larvae reduced growth rate, which was associated with a reduced food intake, increased metabolic rate and reduced glucose content. Under long-term predation risk, larvae showed chronic predator stress as indicated by persistent increases in metabolic rate and reduced food intake. Despite this, larvae were able to compensate for the short-term growth reduction under long-term predation risk by relying on physiological compensatory mechanisms, including reduced energy storage. Only under long-term predation risk did we observe an increase in body C:N ratio, as predicted under the general stress paradigm (GSP). Although this was caused by a predator-induced decrease in N content, there was no associated increase in C content. These stoichiometric changes could not be explained by GSP responses because, under chronic predation risk, there was no decrease in N-rich proteins or increase in C-rich fat and sugars; instead glycogen decreased. Our results highlight the importance of compensatory mechanisms and the value of explicitly integrating physiological mechanisms to obtain insights into the temporal dynamics of non-consumptive effects, including effects on body stoichiometry.

  13. Age influences the skin reaction pattern to mechanical stress and its repair level through skin care products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zouboulis, Christos C; Elewa, Rana; Ottaviani, Monica; Fluhr, Joachim; Picardo, Mauro; Bernois, Armand; Heusèle, Catherine; Camera, Emanuela

    2018-03-01

    Skin aging is associated with alterations of surface texture, sebum composition and immune response. Mechanical stress induces repair mechanisms, which may be dependent on the age and quality of the skin. The response to mechanical stress in young and aged individuals, their subjective opinion and the objective effectiveness of skin care products were evaluated by biophysical skin quality parameters (stratum corneum hydration, transepidermal water loss, skin pH, pigmentation and erythema) at baseline, 1, 6, 24h and 7days at the forearms of 2 groups of healthy volunteers, younger than 35 years (n=11) and older than 60 years (n=13). In addition, casual surface lipid composition was studied under the same conditions at the baseline and day 7 after mechanical stress induction. Evaluations were also performed in stressed skin areas treated daily with skin care products and the subjective opinion of the volunteers was additionally documented. The tested groups exhibited age-associated baseline skin functions as well as casual surface lipid composition and different reaction patterns to mechanical stress. Skin care was more effective in normalizing skin reaction to stress in the young than in the aged group. The subjective volunteer opinion correlated with the objective measurements. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Reliability-based optimization of maintenance scheduling of mechanical components under fatigue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaurepaire, P.; Valdebenito, M.A.; Schuëller, G.I.; Jensen, H.A.

    2012-01-01

    This study presents the optimization of the maintenance scheduling of mechanical components under fatigue loading. The cracks of damaged structures may be detected during non-destructive inspection and subsequently repaired. Fatigue crack initiation and growth show inherent variability, and as well the outcome of inspection activities. The problem is addressed under the framework of reliability based optimization. The initiation and propagation of fatigue cracks are efficiently modeled using cohesive zone elements. The applicability of the method is demonstrated by a numerical example, which involves a plate with two holes subject to alternating stress. PMID:23564979

  15. The TDDB Characteristics of Ultra-Thin Gate Oxide MOS Capacitors under Constant Voltage Stress and Substrate Hot-Carrier Injection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingyu Shen

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The breakdown characteristics of ultra-thin gate oxide MOS capacitors fabricated in 65 nm CMOS technology under constant voltage stress and substrate hot-carrier injection are investigated. Compared to normal thick gate oxide, the degradation mechanism of time-dependent dielectric breakdown (TDDB of ultra-thin gate oxide is found to be different. It is found that the gate current (Ig of ultra-thin gate oxide MOS capacitor is more likely to be induced not only by Fowler-Nordheim (F-N tunneling electrons, but also by electrons surmounting barrier and penetrating electrons in the condition of constant voltage stress. Moreover it is shown that the time to breakdown (tbd under substrate hot-carrier injection is far less than that under constant voltage stress when the failure criterion is defined as a hard breakdown according to the experimental results. The TDDB mechanism of ultra-thin gate oxide will be detailed. The differences in TDDB characteristics of MOS capacitors induced by constant voltage stress and substrate hot-carrier injection will be also discussed.

  16. Mapping of QTLs for Germination Characteristics under Non-stress and Drought Stress in Rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra MARDANI

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Identification of genetic factors controlling traits associated with seed germination under drought stress conditions, leads to identification and development of drought tolerant varieties. Present study by using a population of F2:4 derived from a cross between a drought tolerant variety, Gharib (indica and a drought sensitive variety, Sepidroud (indica, is to identify and compare QTLs associated with germination traits under drought stress and non-stress conditions. Through QTL analysis, using composite interval mapping, regarding traits such as germination rate (GR, germination percentage (GP, radicle length (RL, plumule length (PL, coleorhiza length (COL and coleoptile length (CL, totally 13 QTLs were detected under pole drought stress (−8 MPa poly ethylene glycol 6000 and 9 QTLs under non-stress conditions. Of the QTLs identified under non-stress conditions, QTLs associated with COL (qCOL-5 and GR (qGR-1 explained 21.28% and 19.73% of the total phenotypic variations, respectively. Under drought stress conditions, QTLs associated with COL (qCOL-3 and PL (qPL-5 explained 18.34% and 18.22% of the total phenotypic variations, respectively. A few drought-tolerance-related QTLs identified in previous studies are near the QTLs detected in this study, and several QTLs in this study are novel alleles. The major QTLs like qGR-1, qGP-4, qRL-12 and qCL-4 identified in both conditions for traits GR, GP, RL and CL, respectively, should be considered as the important and stable trait-controlling QTLs in rice seed germination. Those major or minor QTLs could be used to significantly improve drought tolerance by marker-assisted selection in rice.

  17. Identification of differentially expressed genes in flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) under saline-alkaline stress by digital gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Ying; Huang, Wengong; Chen, Hongyu; Wu, Guangwen; Yuan, Hongmei; Song, Xixia; Kang, Qinghua; Zhao, Dongsheng; Jiang, Weidong; Liu, Yan; Wu, Jianzhong; Cheng, Lili; Yao, Yubo; Guan, Fengzhi

    2014-10-01

    The salinization and alkalization of soil are widespread environmental problems, and alkaline salt stress is more destructive than neutral salt stress. Therefore, understanding the mechanism of plant tolerance to saline-alkaline stress has become a major challenge. However, little attention has been paid to the mechanism of plant alkaline salt tolerance. In this study, gene expression profiling of flax was analyzed under alkaline-salt stress (AS2), neutral salt stress (NSS) and alkaline stress (AS) by digital gene expression. Three-week-old flax seedlings were placed in 25 mM Na2CO3 (pH11.6) (AS2), 50mM NaCl (NSS) and NaOH (pH11.6) (AS) for 18 h. There were 7736, 1566 and 454 differentially expressed genes in AS2, NSS and AS compared to CK, respectively. The GO category gene enrichment analysis revealed that photosynthesis was particularly affected in AS2, carbohydrate metabolism was particularly affected in NSS, and the response to biotic stimulus was particularly affected in AS. We also analyzed the expression pattern of five categories of genes including transcription factors, signaling transduction proteins, phytohormones, reactive oxygen species proteins and transporters under these three stresses. Some key regulatory gene families involved in abiotic stress, such as WRKY, MAPKKK, ABA, PrxR and ion channels, were differentially expressed. Compared with NSS and AS, AS2 triggered more differentially expressed genes and special pathways, indicating that the mechanism of AS2 was more complex than NSS and AS. To the best of our knowledge, this was the first transcriptome analysis of flax in response to saline-alkaline stress. These data indicate that common and diverse features of saline-alkaline stress provide novel insights into the molecular mechanisms of plant saline-alkaline tolerance and offer a number of candidate genes as potential markers of tolerance to saline-alkaline stress. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Stress Distribution in Graded Cellular Materials Under Dynamic Compression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Wang

    Full Text Available Abstract Dynamic compression behaviors of density-homogeneous and density-graded irregular honeycombs are investigated using cell-based finite element models under a constant-velocity impact scenario. A method based on the cross-sectional engineering stress is developed to obtain the one-dimensional stress distribution along the loading direction in a cellular specimen. The cross-sectional engineering stress is contributed by two parts: the node-transitive stress and the contact-induced stress, which are caused by the nodal force and the contact of cell walls, respectively. It is found that the contact-induced stress is dominant for the significantly enhanced stress behind the shock front. The stress enhancement and the compaction wave propagation can be observed through the stress distributions in honeycombs under high-velocity compression. The single and double compaction wave modes are observed directly from the stress distributions. Theoretical analysis of the compaction wave propagation in the density-graded honeycombs based on the R-PH (rigid-plastic hardening idealization is carried out and verified by the numerical simulations. It is found that stress distribution in cellular materials and the compaction wave propagation characteristics under dynamic compression can be approximately predicted by the R-PH shock model.

  19. First-principles investigation of mechanical and electronic properties of tetragonal NbAl3 under tension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Zhen; Liu, Qi-Jun; Liu, Fu-Sheng; Tang, Bin

    2018-06-01

    Using the density functional theory calculations, the mechanical and electronic properties of NbAl3 under different tensile loads were investigated. The calculated lattice parameters, elastic constants and mechanical properties (bulk modulus, shear modulus, Young's modulus, Poisson's ratio, Pugh's criterion and Cauchy's pressure) indicated that our results were in agreement with the published experimental and theoretical data at zero tension. With respect to NbAl3 under tension in this paper, the crystal structure was changed from tetragonal to orthorhombic under tension along the [100] and [101] directions. The NbAl3 crystal has been classified as brittle material under tension from 0 to 20 GPa. The obtained Young's modulus and Debye temperature monotonically decreased with increasing tension stress. Combining with mechanical and electronic properties in detail, the decreased mechanical properties were mainly due to the weakening of covalency.

  20. Boron accumulation by Lemna minor L. under salt stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chunguang; Gu, Wancong; Dai, Zheng; Li, Jia; Jiang, Hongru; Zhang, Qian

    2018-06-12

    Excess boron (B) is toxic to aquatic organisms and humans. Boron is often present in water with high salinity. To evaluate the potential of duckweed (Lemna minor L.) for removing B from water under salt stress, we cultured duckweed in water with 2 mg/L of B and sodium chloride (NaCl) concentrations ranging from 0 to 200 mM for 4 days. The results show that with increasing salinity, the capacity of L. minor to accumulate B initially decreased and then increased. L. minor used different mechanisms to accumulate boron at lower and higher levels of salt stress. The growth and chlorophyll synthesis of L. minor were significantly inhibited when the concentration of NaCl reached 100 mM. Our results suggest that L. minor is suitable for the accumulation of B when NaCl salinity is below 100 mM.

  1. Perceived Stress, Stressors, and Coping Mechanisms among Doctor of Pharmacy Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer W. Beall

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The primary purpose of this study was to examine perceived stress in doctor of pharmacy students during their first, second, and third years of their program in a fully implemented new curriculum. The secondary objectives were to determine if there is a relationship between perceived stress and certain demographic variables, to compare student pharmacist perceived stress to the perceived stress in the general population, and to examine student reported stressors during pharmacy school and coping strategies employed for those stressors. A previously validated survey (Perceived Stress Scale-10 was given to first, second, and third year student pharmacists. Females exhibited higher mean stress scores than males. The under 22 years and over 32 years age categories exhibited higher mean stress scores than the 22 to 26 year old student population. There was no significant difference in perceived stress scores between classes of the program. Only a portion of the variation in stress scores was predicted by gender, age, marital status, race, and year in curriculum. Stress scores among these student pharmacists are higher overall than those in previously published probability samples in the general population. Class assignments and completing electronic portfolios were the top stressors reported. Spending time with family and friends was the most frequent coping mechanism reported. Programming related to stress reduction (particularly among female and nontraditional age students appears warranted.

  2. Investigation of abrupt degradation of drain current caused by under-gate crack in AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors during high temperature operation stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeng, Chang; Liao, XueYang; Li, RuGuan; Wang, YuanSheng; Chen, Yiqiang, E-mail: yiqiang-chen@hotmail.com; Su, Wei; Liu, Yuan; Wang, Li Wei; Lai, Ping; Huang, Yun; En, YunFei [Science and Technology on Reliability Physics and Application of Electronic Component Laboratory, The 5th Electronics Research Institute of the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology, 510610 Guangzhou (China)

    2015-09-28

    In this paper, we investigate the degradation mode and mechanism of AlGaN/GaN based high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs) during high temperature operation (HTO) stress. It demonstrates that there was abrupt degradation mode of drain current during HTO stress. The abrupt degradation is ascribed to the formation of crack under the gate which was the result of the brittle fracture of epilayer based on failure analysis. The origin of the mechanical damage under the gate is further investigated and discussed based on top-down scanning electron microscope, cross section transmission electron microscope and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy analysis, and stress simulation. Based on the coupled analysis of the failure physical feature and stress simulation considering the coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) mismatch in different materials in gate metals/semiconductor system, the mechanical damage under the gate is related to mechanical stress induced by CTE mismatch in Au/Ti/Mo/GaN system and stress concentration caused by the localized structural damage at the drain side of the gate edge. These results indicate that mechanical stress induced by CTE mismatch of materials inside the device plays great important role on the reliability of AlGaN/GaN HEMTs during HTO stress.

  3. Physio-biochemical and morphological characters of halophyte legume shrub, Acacia ampliceps seedlings in response to salt stress under greenhouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cattarin eTheerawitaya

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Acacia ampliceps (salt wattle, a leguminous shrub, has been introduced in salt-affected areas in northeast of Thailand for remediation of saline soils. However, the defense mechanisms underlying salt tolerance A. ampliceps are unknown. We investigated various physio-biochemical and morphological attributes of A. ampliceps in response to varying levels of salt treatment (200 to 600 mM NaCl. Seedlings of A. ampliceps (252 cm in plant height raised from seeds were treated with 200 mM (mild stress, 400 and 600 mM (extreme stress of salt treatment (NaCl under greenhouse conditions. Na+ and Ca2+ contents in the leaf tissues increased significantly under salt treatment, whereas K+ content declined in salt-stressed plants. Free proline and soluble sugar contents in plant grown under extreme salt stress (600 mM NaCl for 9 days significantly increased by 28.7 (53.33 mol g1 FW and 3.2 (42.11 mg g1 DW folds, respectively over the control, thereby playing a major role as osmotic adjustment. Na+ enrichment in the phyllode tissues of salt-stressed seedlings positively related to total chlorophyll degradation (R2=0.72. Photosynthetic pigments and chlorophyll fluorescence in salt-stressed plants increased under mild salt stress (200 mM NaCl. However, these declined under high level of salinity (400-600 mM NaCl, consequently resulting in reduced net photosynthetic rate (R2=0.81 and plant dry weight (R2= 0.91. The study concludes that A. ampliceps has an osmotic adjustment and Na+ compartmentation as effective salt defense mechanisms, and thus it could be an excellent species to grow in salt-affected soils.

  4. Structural phase transitions in boron carbide under stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korotaev, P; Pokatashkin, P; Yanilkin, A

    2016-01-01

    Structural transitions in boron carbide B 4 C under stress were studied by means of first-principles molecular dynamics in the framework of density functional theory. The behavior depends strongly on degree of non-hydrostatic stress. Under hydrostatic stress continuous bending of the three-atom C–B–C chain was observed up to 70 GPa. The presence of non-hydrostatic stress activates abrupt reversible chain bending, which is displacement of the central boron atom in the chain with the formation of weak bonds between this atom and atoms in the nearby icosahedra. Such structural change can describe a possible reversible phase transition in dynamical loading experiments. High non-hydrostatic stress achieved in uniaxial loading leads to disordering of the initial structure. The formation of carbon chains is observed as one possible transition route. (paper)

  5. Experimental study of vertical stress profiles of a confined granular bed under static and dynamic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandato, S; Cuq, B; Ruiz, T

    2012-07-01

    In a wet agglomeration process inside a low shear mixer, the blade function is to induce i) homogenization of the liquid sprayed on the powder surface and ii) a stress field able to transfer the mechanical energy at the particle scale. In this work we study the mechanical state of a confined powder bed through the analysis of stress distributions (by force measurements) in a rectangular cell in two cases: for a classical model powder (i.e. glass beads) and a complex powder (i.e. wheat semolina). Two types of vertical stress profiles are obtained according to the type of measurements carried out in the powder bed, either locally (at different positions in the cell) or globally (at the entire base). The global vertical stress profile follows Janssen's model and the local vertical stress profile highlights a critical length, identified as the percolation threshold of the force network, and a shielding length near the bottom, which is similar to an influence length of the side walls. In the context of wet agglomeration, the results allow to consider the role of the characteristic lengths in the mixing bowl under vertical mechanical solicitation.

  6. Numerical Analysis on Failure Modes and Mechanisms of Mine Pillars under Shear Loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tianhui Ma

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Severe damage occurs frequently in mine pillars subjected to shear stresses. The empirical design charts or formulas for mine pillars are not applicable to orebodies under shear. In this paper, the failure process of pillars under shear stresses was investigated by numerical simulations using the rock failure process analysis (RFPA 2D software. The numerical simulation results indicate that the strength of mine pillars and the corresponding failure mode vary with different width-to-height ratios and dip angles. With increasing dip angle, stress concentration first occurs at the intersection between the pillar and the roof, leading to formation of microcracks. Damage gradually develops from the surface to the core of the pillar. The damage process is tracked with acoustic emission monitoring. The study in this paper can provide an effective means for understanding the failure mechanism, planning, and design of mine pillars.

  7. Epigenetic mechanisms of alcoholism and stress-related disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmisano, Martina; Pandey, Subhash C

    2017-05-01

    Stress-related disorders, such as anxiety, early life stress, and posttraumatic stress disorder appear to be important factors in promoting alcoholism, as alcohol consumption can temporarily attenuate the negative affective symptoms of these disorders. Several molecules involved in signaling pathways may contribute to the neuroadaptation induced during alcohol dependence and stress disorders, and among these, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), corticotropin releasing factor (CRF), neuropeptide Y (NPY) and opioid peptides (i.e., nociceptin and dynorphin) are involved in the interaction of stress and alcohol. In fact, alterations in the expression and function of these molecules have been associated with the pathophysiology of stress-related disorders and alcoholism. In recent years, various studies have focused on the epigenetic mechanisms that regulate chromatin architecture, thereby modifying gene expression. Interestingly, epigenetic modifications in specific brain regions have been shown to be associated with the neurobiology of psychiatric disorders, including alcoholism and stress. In particular, the enzymes responsible for chromatin remodeling (i.e., histone deacetylases and methyltransferases, DNA methyltransferases) have been identified as common molecular mechanisms for the interaction of stress and alcohol and have become promising therapeutic targets to treat or prevent alcoholism and associated emotional disorders. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. Designing the Database of Speech Under Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabo Róbert

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This study describes the methodology used for designing a database of speech under real stress. Based on limits of existing stress databases, we used a communication task via a computer game to collect speech data. To validate the presence of stress, known psychophysiological indicators such as heart rate and electrodermal activity, as well as subjective self-assessment were used. This paper presents the data from first 5 speakers (3 men, 2 women who participated in initial tests of the proposed design. In 4 out of 5 speakers increases in fundamental frequency and intensity of speech were registered. Similarly, in 4 out of 5 speakers heart rate was significantly increased during the task, when compared with reference measurement from before the task. These first results show that proposed design might be appropriate for building a speech under stress database. However, there are still considerations that need to be addressed.

  9. Growth and stress response mechanisms underlying post-feeding regenerative organ growth in the Burmese python.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew, Audra L; Perry, Blair W; Card, Daren C; Schield, Drew R; Ruggiero, Robert P; McGaugh, Suzanne E; Choudhary, Amit; Secor, Stephen M; Castoe, Todd A

    2017-05-02

    Previous studies examining post-feeding organ regeneration in the Burmese python (Python molurus bivittatus) have identified thousands of genes that are significantly differentially regulated during this process. However, substantial gaps remain in our understanding of coherent mechanisms and specific growth pathways that underlie these rapid and extensive shifts in organ form and function. Here we addressed these gaps by comparing gene expression in the Burmese python heart, liver, kidney, and small intestine across pre- and post-feeding time points (fasted, one day post-feeding, and four days post-feeding), and by conducting detailed analyses of molecular pathways and predictions of upstream regulatory molecules across these organ systems. Identified enriched canonical pathways and upstream regulators indicate that while downstream transcriptional responses are fairly tissue specific, a suite of core pathways and upstream regulator molecules are shared among responsive tissues. Pathways such as mTOR signaling, PPAR/LXR/RXR signaling, and NRF2-mediated oxidative stress response are significantly differentially regulated in multiple tissues, indicative of cell growth and proliferation along with coordinated cell-protective stress responses. Upstream regulatory molecule analyses identify multiple growth factors, kinase receptors, and transmembrane receptors, both within individual organs and across separate tissues. Downstream transcription factors MYC and SREBF are induced in all tissues. These results suggest that largely divergent patterns of post-feeding gene regulation across tissues are mediated by a core set of higher-level signaling molecules. Consistent enrichment of the NRF2-mediated oxidative stress response indicates this pathway may be particularly important in mediating cellular stress during such extreme regenerative growth.

  10. MOSFET Degradation Under RF Stress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sasse, G.T.; Kuper, F.G.; Schmitz, Jurriaan

    2008-01-01

    We report on the degradation of MOS transistors under RF stress. Hot-carrier degradation, negative-bias temperature instability, and gate dielectric breakdown are investigated. The findings are compared to established voltage- and field-driven models. The experimental results indicate that the

  11. Investigations on the influence of the stress state on fracture-mechanical values

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, P.

    1979-01-01

    Fracture toughness obtained from specimen can be applied to construction elements only when the same stress state exists. In standardised fracture-mechanical tests plain strain is realised. Using the stress intensity factor, a critical crack length or a critical load can be obtained. Above these values a crack propagates in an unstable way. The specimen are tested under uni-axial load. In this paper investigations have been made whether a biaxial load increases the stress state over the plain strain and whether consequently a decrease of the critical fracture toughness and a shift of the temperatures Tsub(g)sub(y) and Tsub(s) results which characterise the fracture behaviour of steel. In order to answer these questions the tests were made which induced due to their geometry an additional nominal stress parallel to the crack front in spite of uni-axial loading. The results were compared with those from specimen without an additional nominal stress and having in their cross section under same test conditions nearly the same plain strain. The fracture toughness of both specimen types were compared at temperatures between 142 K and 252 K and correlated to other material-characterising values. The tests were completed by stress analysis and by comparing the crack opening displacement. Due to the additional stress, Tsub(g)sub(y) was found to be 20 K higher than for the reference specimen. The fracture toughness decreases significantly in certain temperature ranges. The plastic stress concentration factor was comperatively higher and the remaining plastic crack opening decreases up to 25%. (orig.) [de

  12. Stress-corrosion cracks behavior under underground disposal environment of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isei, Takehiro; Seto, Masahiro; Ogata, Yuji; Wada, Yuji; Utagawa, Manabu; Kosugi, Masayuki

    2000-01-01

    This study is composed by two sub-theme of study on stress-corrosion cracking under an environment of disposal on radioactive wastes and control technique on microscopic crack around the disposal cavity, and aims at experimental elucidation on forming mechanism of stress-corrosion cracking phenomenon on rocks and establishment of its control technique. In 1998 fiscal year, together with an investigation on effect of temperature on fracture toughness and on stress-corrosion cracks performance of sedimentary rocks (sandy rocks), an investigation on limit of the stress-corrosion cracking by addition of chemicals and on crack growth in a rock by in-situ observation using SEM were carried out. As a result, it was formed that fracture toughness of rocks reduced at more than 100 centigrade of temperature, that a region showing an equilibrium between water supply to crack end and crack speed appeared definitely, that a limit of stress-corrosion cracking appeared by addition of chemicals, and that as a result of observing crack advancement of saturated rock by in-situ observation of crack growth using SEM, a process zone was formed at the front of main crack due to grain boundary fracture. (G.K.)

  13. Autophagy as a Possible Underlying Mechanism of Nanomaterial Toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Cohignac

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The rapid development of nanotechnologies is raising safety concerns because of the potential effects of engineered nanomaterials on human health, particularly at the respiratory level. Since the last decades, many in vivo studies have been interested in the pulmonary effects of different classes of nanomaterials. It has been shown that some of them can induce toxic effects, essentially depending on their physico-chemical characteristics, but other studies did not identify such effects. Inflammation and oxidative stress are currently the two main mechanisms described to explain the observed toxicity. However, the exact underlying mechanism(s still remain(s unknown and autophagy could represent an interesting candidate. Autophagy is a physiological process in which cytoplasmic components are digested via a lysosomal pathway. It has been shown that autophagy is involved in the pathogenesis and the progression of human diseases, and is able to modulate the oxidative stress and pro-inflammatory responses. A growing amount of literature suggests that a link between nanomaterial toxicity and autophagy impairment could exist. In this review, we will first summarize what is known about the respiratory effects of nanomaterials and we will then discuss the possible involvement of autophagy in this toxicity. This review should help understand why autophagy impairment could be taken as a promising candidate to fully understand nanomaterials toxicity.

  14. Abscisic acid regulates root growth under osmotic stress conditions via an interacting hormonal network with cytokinin, ethylene and auxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, James H; Topping, Jennifer F; Liu, Junli; Lindsey, Keith

    2016-07-01

    Understanding the mechanisms regulating root development under drought conditions is an important question for plant biology and world agriculture. We examine the effect of osmotic stress on abscisic acid (ABA), cytokinin and ethylene responses and how they mediate auxin transport, distribution and root growth through effects on PIN proteins. We integrate experimental data to construct hormonal crosstalk networks to formulate a systems view of root growth regulation by multiple hormones. Experimental analysis shows: that ABA-dependent and ABA-independent stress responses increase under osmotic stress, but cytokinin responses are only slightly reduced; inhibition of root growth under osmotic stress does not require ethylene signalling, but auxin can rescue root growth and meristem size; osmotic stress modulates auxin transporter levels and localization, reducing root auxin concentrations; PIN1 levels are reduced under stress in an ABA-dependent manner, overriding ethylene effects; and the interplay among ABA, ethylene, cytokinin and auxin is tissue-specific, as evidenced by differential responses of PIN1 and PIN2 to osmotic stress. Combining experimental analysis with network construction reveals that ABA regulates root growth under osmotic stress conditions via an interacting hormonal network with cytokinin, ethylene and auxin. © 2016 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2016 New Phytologist Trust.

  15. The mechanical behaviour of NBR/FEF under compressive cyclic stress strain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoud, W. E.; El-Eraki, M. H. I.; El-Lawindy, A. M. Y.; Hassan, H. H.

    2006-06-01

    Acrylonitrile butadiene rubber compounds filled with different concentrations of fast extrusion furnace (FEF) carbon black were experimentally investigated. The stress-strain curves of the composites were studied, which suggest good filler-matrix adhesion. The large reinforcement effect of the filler followed the Guth model for non-spherical particles. The effect of FEF carbon black on the cyclic fatigue and hysteresis was also examined. The loading and unloading stress-strain relationships for any cycle were described by applying Ogden's model for rubber samples. The dissipation energy that indicates the vibration damping capacity for all samples was determined. A simple model was proposed, to investigate the relation between maximum stress and the number of cyclic fatigue.

  16. The mechanical behaviour of NBR/FEF under compressive cyclic stress-strain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahmoud, W E [Faculty of Science, Physics Department, Suez Canal University, Ismailia (Egypt); El-Eraki, M H I [Faculty of Science, Physics Department, Suez Canal University, Ismailia (Egypt); El-Lawindy, A M Y [Faculty of Science, Physics Department, Suez Canal University, Ismailia (Egypt); Hassan, H H [Faculty of Science, Physics Department, Cairo University, Giza (Egypt)

    2006-06-07

    Acrylonitrile butadiene rubber compounds filled with different concentrations of fast extrusion furnace (FEF) carbon black were experimentally investigated. The stress-strain curves of the composites were studied, which suggest good filler-matrix adhesion. The large reinforcement effect of the filler followed the Guth model for non-spherical particles. The effect of FEF carbon black on the cyclic fatigue and hysteresis was also examined. The loading and unloading stress-strain relationships for any cycle were described by applying Ogden's model for rubber samples. The dissipation energy that indicates the vibration damping capacity for all samples was determined. A simple model was proposed, to investigate the relation between maximum stress and the number of cyclic fatigue.

  17. The mechanical behaviour of NBR/FEF under compressive cyclic stress-strain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahmoud, W E; El-Eraki, M H I; El-Lawindy, A M Y; Hassan, H H

    2006-01-01

    Acrylonitrile butadiene rubber compounds filled with different concentrations of fast extrusion furnace (FEF) carbon black were experimentally investigated. The stress-strain curves of the composites were studied, which suggest good filler-matrix adhesion. The large reinforcement effect of the filler followed the Guth model for non-spherical particles. The effect of FEF carbon black on the cyclic fatigue and hysteresis was also examined. The loading and unloading stress-strain relationships for any cycle were described by applying Ogden's model for rubber samples. The dissipation energy that indicates the vibration damping capacity for all samples was determined. A simple model was proposed, to investigate the relation between maximum stress and the number of cyclic fatigue

  18. Mechanical properties of the human spinal cord under the compressive loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, Alireza; Shojaei, Ahmad; Tehrani, Pedram

    2017-12-01

    The spinal cord as the most complex and critical part of the human body is responsible for the transmission of both motor and sensory impulses between the body and the brain. Due to its pivotal role any types of physical injury in that disrupts its function following by shortfalls, including the minor motor and sensory malfunctions as well as complicate quadriplegia and lifelong ventilator dependency. In order to shed light on the injuries to the spinal cord, the application of the computational models to simulate the trauma impact loading to that are deemed required. Nonetheless, it has not been fulfilled since there is a paucity of knowledge about the mechanical properties of the spinal cord, especially the cervical one, under the compressive loading on the grounds of the difficulty in obtaining this tissue from the human body. This study was aimed at experimentally measuring the mechanical properties of the human cervical spinal cord of 24 isolated fresh samples under the unconfined compressive loading at a relatively low strain rate. The stress-strain data revealed the elastic modulus and maximum/failure stress of 40.12±6.90 and 62.26±5.02kPa, respectively. Owing to the nonlinear response of the spinal cord, the Yeoh, Ogden, and Mooney-Rivlin hyperelastic material models have also been employed. The results may have implications not only for understanding the linear elastic and nonlinear hyperelastic mechanical properties of the cervical spinal cord under the compressive loading, but also for providing a raw data for investigating the injury as a result of the trauma thru the numerical simulations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Interaction of thermal stress with mechanical stress in circumferentially cracked pipe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Tae Kwang; Kim, Yun Jae; Oh, Chang Kyun

    2008-01-01

    For the cracked component under combined primary and secondary stress, an interacion between the loads occurs and the secondary stress is relaxed by the primary load. To account for this phenomena, R6 code provides the correction factor which is called V-factor. However, evaluation corrected with V-factor need to be examined for its conservatism. In this paper the conservatism of the current V-factor is examined for the circumferentially cracked pipe under the combined load and new evaluation method is proposed to reduce the conservatism

  20. The mechanism underlying fast germination of tomato cultivar LA2711.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Rongchao; Chu, Zhuannan; Zhang, Haijun; Li, Ying; Wang, Jinfang; Li, Dianbo; Weeda, Sarah; Ren, Shuxin; Ouyang, Bo; Guo, Yang-Dong

    2015-09-01

    Seed germination is important for early plant morphogenesis as well as abiotic stress tolerance, and is mainly controlled by the phytohormones abscisic acid (ABA) and gibberellic acid (GA). Our previous studies identified a salt-tolerant tomato cultivar, LA2711, which is also a fast-germinating genotype, compared to its salt-sensitive counterpart, ZS-5. In an effort to further clarify the mechanism underlying this phenomenon, we compared the dynamic levels of ABA and GA4, the transcript abundance of genes involved in their biosynthesis and catabolism as well as signal transduction between the two cultivars. In addition, we tested seed germination sensitivity to ABA and GAs. Our results revealed that insensitivity of seed germination to exogenous ABA and low ABA content in seeds are the physiological mechanisms conferring faster germination rates of LA2711 seeds. SlCYP707A2, which encodes an ABA catabolic enzyme, may play a decisive role in the fast germination rate of LA2711, as it showed a significantly higher level of expression in LA2711 than ZS-5 at most time points tested during germination. The current results will enable us to gain insight into the mechanism(s) regarding seed germination of tomato and the role of fast germination in stress tolerance. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Natural variation in rosette size under salt stress conditions corresponds to developmental differences between Arabidopsis accessions and allelic variation in the LRR-KISS gene

    KAUST Repository

    Julkowska, Magdalena

    2016-02-11

    Natural variation among Arabidopsis accessions is an important genetic resource to identify mechanisms underlying plant development and stress tolerance. To evaluate the natural variation in salinity stress tolerance, two large-scale experiments were performed on two populations consisting of 160 Arabidopsis accessions each. Multiple traits, including projected rosette area, and fresh and dry weight were collected as an estimate for salinity tolerance. Our results reveal a correlation between rosette size under salt stress conditions and developmental differences between the accessions grown in control conditions, suggesting that in general larger plants were more salt tolerant. This correlation was less pronounced when plants were grown under severe salt stress conditions. Subsequent genome wide association study (GWAS) revealed associations with novel candidate genes for salinity tolerance such as LRR-KISS (At4g08850), flowering locus KH-domain containing protein and a DUF1639-containing protein. Accessions with high LRR-KISS expression developed larger rosettes under salt stress conditions. Further characterization of allelic variation in candidate genes identified in this study will provide more insight into mechanisms of salt stress tolerance due to enhanced shoot growth.

  2. A study of thermo-mechanical stress and its impact on through-silicon vias

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ranganathan, N; Balasubramanian, N; Prasad, K; Pey, K L

    2008-01-01

    The BOSCH etch process, which is commonly used in microelectromechanical system fabrication, has been extensively investigated in this work for implementation in through-silicon via (TSV) technology for 3D-microsystems packaging. The present work focuses on thermo-mechanical stresses caused by thermal loading due to post-TSV processes and their impact on the electrical performance of through-silicon copper interconnects. A test vehicle with deep silicon copper-plated comb structure was designed to study and evaluate different deep silicon via etch processes and its effect on the electrical leakage characteristics under various electrical and thermal stress conditions. It has been shown that the leakage current between the comb interconnect structures increases with an increase in sidewall roughness and that it can be significantly lowered by smoothening the sidewalls. It was also shown that by tailoring a non-BOSCH etch process with the normal BOSCH process, a similar leakage current reduction can be achieved. It was also shown through thermo-mechanical simulation studies that there is a clear correlation between high leakage current behavior due to non-uniform Ta barrier deposition over the rough sidewalls and the thermo-mechanical stress induced by post-TSV processes

  3. Scale effect in fatigue resistance under complex stressed state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sosnovskij, L.A.

    1979-01-01

    On the basis the of the fatigue failure statistic theory obtained is the formula for calculated estimation of probabillity of failure under complex stressed state according to partial probabilities of failure under linear stressed state with provision for the scale effect. Also the formula for calculation of equivalent stress is obtained. The verification of both formulae using literary experimental data for plane stressed state torsion has shown that the error of estimations does not exceed 10% for materials with the ultimate strength changing from 61 to 124 kg/mm 2

  4. Failure Mechanisms of Brittle Rocks under Uniaxial Compression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Taoying; Cao, Ping

    2017-09-01

    The behaviour of a rock mass is determined not only by the properties of the rock matrix, but mostly by the presence and properties of discontinuities or fractures within the mass. The compression test on rock-like specimens with two prefabricated transfixion fissures, made by pulling out the embedded metal inserts in the pre-cured period was carried out on the servo control uniaxial loading tester. The influence of the geometry of pre-existing cracks on the cracking processes was analysed with reference to the experimental observation of crack initiation and propagation from pre-existing flaws. Based on the rock fracture mechanics and the stress-strain curves, the evolution failure mechanism of the fissure body was also analyzed on the basis of exploring the law of the compression-shear crack initiation, wing crack growth and rock bridge connection. Meanwhile, damage fracture mechanical models of a compression-shear rock mass are established when the rock bridge axial transfixion failure, tension-shear combined failure, or wing crack shear connection failure occurs on the specimen under axial compression. This research was of significance in studying the failure mechanism of fractured rock mass.

  5. Numerical simulation of mechanisms of deformation,failure and energy dissipation in porous rock media subjected to wave stresses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The pore characteristics,mineral compositions,physical and mechanical properties of the subarkose sandstones were acquired by means of CT scan,X-ray diffraction and physical tests.A few physical models possessing the same pore characteristics and matrix properties but different porosities compared to the natural sandstones were developed.The 3D finite element models of the rock media with varied porosities were established based on the CT image processing of the physical models and the MIMICS software platform.The failure processes of the porous rock media loaded by the split Hopkinson pressure bar(SHPB) were simulated by satisfying the elastic wave propagation theory.The dynamic responses,stress transition,deformation and failure mechanisms of the porous rock media subjected to the wave stresses were analyzed.It is shown that an explicit and quantitative analysis of the stress,strain and deformation and failure mechanisms of porous rocks under the wave stresses can be achieved by using the developed 3D finite element models.With applied wave stresses of certain amplitude and velocity,no evident pore deformation was observed for the rock media with a porosity less than 15%.The deformation is dominantly the combination of microplasticity(shear strain),cracking(tensile strain) of matrix and coalescence of the cracked regions around pores.Shear stresses lead to microplasticity,while tensile stresses result in cracking of the matrix.Cracking and coalescence of the matrix elements in the neighborhood of pores resulted from the high transverse tensile stress or tensile strain which exceeded the threshold values.The simulation results of stress wave propagation,deformation and failure mechanisms and energy dissipation in porous rock media were in good agreement with the physical tests.The present study provides a reference for analyzing the intrinsic mechanisms of the complex dynamic response,stress transit mode,deformation and failure mechanisms and the disaster

  6. Interindividual differences in stress sensitivity: basal and stress-induced cortisol levels differentially predict neural vigilance processing under stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henckens, Marloes J A G; Klumpers, Floris; Everaerd, Daphne; Kooijman, Sabine C; van Wingen, Guido A; Fernández, Guillén

    2016-04-01

    Stress exposure is known to precipitate psychological disorders. However, large differences exist in how individuals respond to stressful situations. A major marker for stress sensitivity is hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA)-axis function. Here, we studied how interindividual variance in both basal cortisol levels and stress-induced cortisol responses predicts differences in neural vigilance processing during stress exposure. Implementing a randomized, counterbalanced, crossover design, 120 healthy male participants were exposed to a stress-induction and control procedure, followed by an emotional perception task (viewing fearful and happy faces) during fMRI scanning. Stress sensitivity was assessed using physiological (salivary cortisol levels) and psychological measures (trait questionnaires). High stress-induced cortisol responses were associated with increased stress sensitivity as assessed by psychological questionnaires, a stronger stress-induced increase in medial temporal activity and greater differential amygdala responses to fearful as opposed to happy faces under control conditions. In contrast, high basal cortisol levels were related to relative stress resilience as reflected by higher extraversion scores, a lower stress-induced increase in amygdala activity and enhanced differential processing of fearful compared with happy faces under stress. These findings seem to reflect a critical role for HPA-axis signaling in stress coping; higher basal levels indicate stress resilience, whereas higher cortisol responsivity to stress might facilitate recovery in those individuals prone to react sensitively to stress. © The Author (2015). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Laser-induced stresses versus mechanical stress power measurements during laser ablation of solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shannon, M.A.; Russo, R.E.

    1995-01-01

    Laser-induced stresses resulting from high-power laser-material interactions have been studied extensively. However, the rate of change in mechanical energy, or stress power, due to laser-induced stresses has only recently been investigated. An unanswered question for monitoring laser-material interactions in the far-field is whether stress power differs from stresses measured, particularly with respect to laser-energy coupling to a solid target. This letter shows experimental acoustic data which demonstrate that stress power measured in the far field of the target shows changes in laser-energy coupling, whereas the stresses measured do not. For the ambient medium above the target, stress power and stress together reflect changes in laser-energy coupling. copyright 1995 American Institute of Physics

  8. Early life stress, HPA axis adaptation and mechanisms contributing to later health outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayanthi eManiam

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Stress activates the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis, which then modulates the degree of adaptation and response to a later stressor. It is known that early life stress can impact on later health but less is known about how early life stress impairs HPA axis activity, contributing to maladaptation of the stress response system. Early life stress exposure (either prenatally or in the early postnatal period can impact developmental pathways resulting in lasting structural and regulatory changes that predispose to adulthood disease. Epidemiological, clinical and experimental studies have demonstrated that early life stress produces long-term hyper responsiveness to stress with exaggerated circulating glucocorticoids, and enhanced anxiety and depression-like behaviours. Recently, evidence has emerged on early life stress induced metabolic derangements, for example hyperinsulinemia and altered insulin sensitivity on exposure to a high energy diet later in life. This draws our attention to the contribution of later environment to disease vulnerability. Early life stress can alter the expression of genes in peripheral tissues, such as the glucocorticoid receptor and 11-beta hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (11β-HSD1. We propose that interactions between altered HPA axis activity and liver 11β-HSD1 modulates both tissue and circulating glucocorticoid availability, with adverse metabolic consequences. This review discusses the potential mechanisms underlying early life stress induced maladaptation of the HPA axis, and its subsequent effects on energy utilisation and expenditure. The effects of positive later environments as a means of ameliorating early life stress induced health deficits, and proposed mechanisms underpinning the interaction between early life stress and subsequent detrimental environmental exposures on metabolic risk will be outlined. Limitations in current methodology linking early life stress and later health outcomes will also

  9. Friction & Wear Under Very High Electromagnetic Stress

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cowan, Richard S; Danyluk, Steven; Moon, Francis; Ford, J. C; Brenner, Donald W

    2004-01-01

    This document summarizes initial progress toward advancing the fundamental understanding of the friction, wear and mechanics of interfaces subjected to extreme electromagnetic stress, high relative...

  10. Endoplasmic reticulum stress as a novel mechanism in amiodarone-induced destructive thyroiditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardi, Angela; Inabnet, William Barlow; Owen, Randall; Farenholtz, Kaitlyn Ellen; Tomer, Yaron

    2015-01-01

    Amiodarone (AMIO) is one of the most effective antiarrhythmic drugs available; however, its use is limited by a serious side effect profile, including thyroiditis. The mechanisms underlying AMIO thyroid toxicity have been elusive; thus, identification of novel approaches in order to prevent thyroiditis is essential in patients treated with AMIO. Our aim was to evaluate whether AMIO treatment could induce endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in human thyroid cells and the possible implications of this effect in AMIO-induced destructive thyroiditis. Here we report that AMIO, but not iodine, significantly induced the expression of ER stress markers including Ig heavy chain-binding protein (BiP), phosphoeukaryotic translation initiation factor 2α (eIF2α), CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein homologous protein (CHOP) and spliced X-box binding protein-1 (XBP-1) in human thyroid ML-1 cells and human primary thyrocytes. In both experimental systems AMIO down-regulated thyroglobulin (Tg) protein but had little effect on Tg mRNA levels, suggesting a mechanism involving Tg protein degradation. Indeed, pretreatment with the specific proteasome inhibitor MG132 reversed AMIO-induced down-regulation of Tg protein levels, confirming a proteasome-dependent degradation of Tg protein. Corroborating our findings, pretreatment of ML-1 cells and human primary thyrocytes with the chemical chaperone 4-phenylbutyric acid completely prevented the effect of AMIO on both ER stress induction and Tg down-regulation. We identified ER stress as a novel mechanism contributing to AMIO-induced destructive thyroiditis. Our data establish that AMIO-induced ER stress impairs Tg expression via proteasome activation, providing a valuable therapeutic avenue for the treatment of AMIO-induced destructive thyroiditis.

  11. Stress corrosion of alloy 600: mechanism proposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnin, T.

    1993-01-01

    A fissuring model by stress corrosion based on interactions corrosion-plasticity on the fissure top is proposed to describe the generally intergranular bursting of INCONEL 600 in the PWR. The calculation shows, and some observations check experimentally, that a pseudo intergranular cracking bound to the zigzag micro facets formation along the joints may be so that a completely intergranular bursting. This pseudo intergranular mode makes up a signature of the proposed mechanism. It may be suggested that it may exist one continuity mechanism between the trans and intergranular cracking by stress corrosion of ductile cubic centered faces materials. 2 figs

  12. Reservoir stress from microseismic source mechanisms

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Staněk, František; Jechumtálová, Z.; Eisner, L.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 34, č. 8 (2015), od 890 do 893, 895 ISSN 1070-485X Institutional support: RVO:67985891 Keywords : microseismic monitoring * source mechanisms * stress Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure

  13. Emotional memory consolidation under lower versus higher stress conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inna eKogan

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available An exposure to stress can enhance memory for emotionally arousing experiences. The phenomenon is suggested to be amygdala-dependent and in accordance with that view the amygdala was found to modulate mnemonic processes in other brain regions. Previously, we illustrated increased amygdala activation and reduced activation of CA1 following spatial learning under high versus low emotionality conditions. When spatial learning was followed by reversal training interference, impaired retention was detected only under high emotionality conditions. Here we further evaluate the potential implications of the difference in the level of amygdala activation on the quality of the memory formed under these stress conditions. We attempted to affect spatial memory consolidation under low or high stress conditions by either introducing a foot shock interference following massed training in the water maze; by manipulating the threshold for acquisition employing either brief (3 trials or full (12 trials training sessions; or by employing a spaced training (over three days rather than massed training protocol. The current findings reveal that under heightened emotionality, the process of consolidation seems to become less effective and more vulnerable to interference; however, when memory consolidation is not interrupted, retention is improved. These differential effects might underlie the complex interactions of stress, and, particularly, of traumatic stress with memory formation processes.

  14. Effects, tolerance mechanisms and management of salt stress in grain legumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farooq, Muhammad; Gogoi, Nirmali; Hussain, Mubshar; Barthakur, Sharmistha; Paul, Sreyashi; Bharadwaj, Nandita; Migdadi, Hussein M; Alghamdi, Salem S; Siddique, Kadambot H M

    2017-09-01

    Salt stress is an ever-present threat to crop yields, especially in countries with irrigated agriculture. Efforts to improve salt tolerance in crop plants are vital for sustainable crop production on marginal lands to ensure future food supplies. Grain legumes are a fascinating group of plants due to their high grain protein contents and ability to fix biological nitrogen. However, the accumulation of excessive salts in soil and the use of saline groundwater are threatening legume production worldwide. Salt stress disturbs photosynthesis and hormonal regulation and causes nutritional imbalance, specific ion toxicity and osmotic effects in legumes to reduce grain yield and quality. Understanding the responses of grain legumes to salt stress and the associated tolerance mechanisms, as well as assessing management options, may help in the development of strategies to improve the performance of grain legumes under salt stress. In this manuscript, we discuss the effects, tolerance mechanisms and management of salt stress in grain legumes. The principal inferences of the review are: (i) salt stress reduces seed germination (by up to more than 50%) either by inhibiting water uptake and/or the toxic effect of ions in the embryo, (ii) salt stress reduces growth (by more than 70%), mineral uptake, and yield (by 12-100%) due to ion toxicity and reduced photosynthesis, (iii) apoplastic acidification is a good indicator of salt stress tolerance, (iv) tolerance to salt stress in grain legumes may develop through excretion and/or compartmentalization of toxic ions, increased antioxidant capacity, accumulation of compatible osmolytes, and/or hormonal regulation, (v) seed priming and nutrient management may improve salt tolerance in grain legumes, (vi) plant growth promoting rhizobacteria and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi may help to improve salt tolerance due to better plant nutrient availability, and (vii) the integration of screening, innovative breeding, and the development of

  15. Design of durability and lifetime assessment method under thermomechanical stress for thermal barrier coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Hyun Gyoo; Choi, Young Kue; Jeon, Seol; Lee, Hee Soo [Pusan National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Jeon, Min Seok [Korea Testing Laboratory, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-01-15

    A durability testing method under thermo-mechanical stress for thermal barrier coatings (TBC) specimens was designed by a combination of an electric furnace and a tensile testing machine, which was done on TBCs on NIMONIC 263 substrates by an atmospheric plasma spraying (APS) deposition method. The testing conditions were chosen according to a preliminary experiment that identified the elastic deformation region of the top coating and the substrate during mechanical loading. Surface cracking and a decrease in the thickness of the top coating, which are typical degradation behaviors under conventional thermal shock testing, were observed after the designed thermal fatigue test, and delamination at the top coating-bond coating interface occurred by the mechanical load. Lifetime assessment was conducted by statistical software using life cycle data which were obtained after the thermal fatigue test.

  16. Nitric oxide signalling and neuronal nitric oxide synthase in the heart under stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yin Hua

    2017-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is an imperative regulator of the cardiovascular system and is a critical mechanism in preventing the pathogenesis and progression of the diseased heart. The scenario of bioavailable NO in the myocardium is complex: 1) NO is derived from both endogenous NO synthases (endothelial, neuronal, and/or inducible NOSs [eNOS, nNOS, and/or iNOS]) and exogenous sources (entero-salivary NO pathway) and the amount of NO from exogenous sources varies significantly; 2) NOSs are located at discrete compartments of cardiac myocytes and are regulated by distinctive mechanisms under stress; 3) NO regulates diverse target proteins through different modes of post-transcriptional modification (soluble guanylate cyclase [sGC]/cyclic guanosine monophosphate [cGMP]/protein kinase G [PKG]-dependent phosphorylation, S -nitrosylation, and transnitrosylation); 4) the downstream effectors of NO are multidimensional and vary from ion channels in the plasma membrane to signalling proteins and enzymes in the mitochondria, cytosol, nucleus, and myofilament; 5) NOS produces several radicals in addition to NO (e.g. superoxide, hydrogen peroxide, peroxynitrite, and different NO-related derivatives) and triggers redox-dependent responses. However, nNOS inhibits cardiac oxidases to reduce the sources of oxidative stress in diseased hearts. Recent consensus indicates the importance of nNOS protein in cardiac protection under pathological stress. In addition, a dietary regime with high nitrate intake from fruit and vegetables together with unsaturated fatty acids is strongly associated with reduced cardiovascular events. Collectively, NO-dependent mechanisms in healthy and diseased hearts are better understood and shed light on the therapeutic prospects for NO and NOSs in clinical applications for fatal human heart diseases.

  17. Modification of the microstructure of a weld of the same composition as X 20 CrMoV 12 1 by means of purely thermal aging and by aging under mechanical stress at 550 C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deimel, P.; Hoffmann, M.; Kuppler, D.

    1991-01-01

    The experiments were to contribute deeper insight into the mechanisms and effects induced by long-term, purely thermal aging and by aging over the same period under mechanical stress in a weld of the same composition as X 20 CrMoV 12 1, which are known to cause microstructural changes resulting in modified toughness of the weld. (orig.) [de

  18. Early-Life Stress, HPA Axis Adaptation, and Mechanisms Contributing to Later Health Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maniam, Jayanthi; Antoniadis, Christopher; Morris, Margaret J.

    2014-01-01

    Stress activates the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis, which then modulates the degree of adaptation and response to a later stressor. It is known that early-life stress can impact on later health but less is known about how early-life stress impairs HPA axis activity, contributing to maladaptation of the stress–response system. Early-life stress exposure (either prenatally or in the early postnatal period) can impact developmental pathways resulting in lasting structural and regulatory changes that predispose to adulthood disease. Epidemiological, clinical, and experimental studies have demonstrated that early-life stress produces long term hyper-responsiveness to stress with exaggerated circulating glucocorticoids, and enhanced anxiety and depression-like behaviors. Recently, evidence has emerged on early-life stress-induced metabolic derangements, for example hyperinsulinemia and altered insulin sensitivity on exposure to a high energy diet later in life. This draws our attention to the contribution of later environment to disease vulnerability. Early-life stress can alter the expression of genes in peripheral tissues, such as the glucocorticoid receptor and 11-beta hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (11β-HSD1). We propose that interactions between altered HPA axis activity and liver 11β-HSD1 modulates both tissue and circulating glucocorticoid availability, with adverse metabolic consequences. This review discusses the potential mechanisms underlying early-life stress-induced maladaptation of the HPA axis, and its subsequent effects on energy utilization and expenditure. The effects of positive later environments as a means of ameliorating early-life stress-induced health deficits, and proposed mechanisms underpinning the interaction between early-life stress and subsequent detrimental environmental exposures on metabolic risk will be outlined. Limitations in current methodology linking early-life stress and later health outcomes will also be

  19. Fatigue crack growth behavior under cyclic thermal transient stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueda, Masahiro; Kano, Takashi; Yoshitoshi, Atsushi.

    1986-01-01

    Thermal fatigue tests were performed using straight pipe specimens subjected to cyclic thermal shocks of liquid sodium, and crack growth behaviors were estimated using striation patterns observed clearly on any crack surface. Crack growth rate under cyclic thermal strain reaches the maximum at one depth, and after that it decreases gradually with crack depth. The peak location of crack growth rate becomes deeper by superposition of constant primary stress. Parallel cracks co-existing in the neighborhood move the peak to shallower location and decrease the maximum crack growth rate. The equivalent stress intensity factor range calculated by Walker's formula is successfully applied to the case of negative stress ratio. Fatigue crack growth rate under cyclic thermal strain agreed well with that under the constant temperature equal to the maximum value in the thermal cycle. Simplified methods for calculating the stress intensity factor and the crack interference factor have been developed. Crack growth behavior under thermal fatigue could be well predicted using numerical analysis results. (author)

  20. Fatigue crack growth behavior under cyclic transient thermal stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueda, Masahiro; Kano, Takashi; Yoshitoshi, Atsushi.

    1987-01-01

    Thermal fatigue tests were performed using straight pipe specimens subjected to cyclic thermal shocks of liquid sodium, and crack growth behaviors were estimated using striation patterns observed clearly on any crack surface. Crack growth rate under cyclic thermal strain reaches the maximum at one depth, and after that it decreases gradually with crack depth. The peak location of crack growth rate becomes deeper by superposition of constant primary stress. Parallel cracks co-existing in the neighborhood move the peak to shallower location and decrease the maximum crack growth rate. The equivalent stress intensity factor range calculated by Walker's formula is successfully applied to the case of negative stress ratio. Fatigue crack growth rate under cyclic thermal strain agreed well with that under the constant temperature equal to the maximum value in the thermal cycle. Simplified methods for calculating the stress intensity factor and the crack interference factor have been developed. Crack growth behavior under thermal fatigue could be well predicted using numerical analysis results. (author)

  1. Analytical modelling of acoustic emission from buried or surface-breaking cracks under stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben Khalifa, W; Jezzine, K; Hello, G; Grondel, S

    2012-01-01

    Acoustic emission (AE) is a non-destructive testing method used in various industries (aerospace, petrochemical and pressure-vessel industries in general, power generation, civil engineering, mechanical engineering, etc...) for the examination of large structures subjected to various stresses (e.g. mechanical loading).The energy released by a defect under stress (the AE phenomenon) can propagate as guided waves in thin structures or as surface Rayleigh waves in thick ones. Sensors (possibly permanently) are positioned at various locations on the structure under examination and are assumed to be sensitive to these waves. Then, post-processing tools typically based on signal processing and triangulation algorithms can be used to inverse these data, allowing one to estimate the position of the defect from which emanates the waves measured. The French Atomic Energy Commission is engaged in the development of tools for simulating AE examinations. These tools are based on specific models for the AE sources, for the propagation of guided or Rayleigh waves and for the behaviour of AE sensors. Here, the coupling of a fracture mechanics based model for AE source and surface/guided wave propagation models is achieved through an integral formulation relying on the elastodynamic reciprocity principle. As a first approximation, a simple piston-like model is used to predict the sensitivity of AE sensors. Predictions computed by our simulation tool are compared to results from the literature for validation purpose.

  2. Measurement of residual stresses using fracture mechanics weight functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan, Y.

    2000-01-01

    A residual stress measurement method has been developed to quantify through-the-thickness residual stresses. Accurate measurement of residual stresses is crucial for many engineering structures. Fabrication processes such as welding and machining generate residual stresses that are difficult to predict. Residual stresses affect the integrity of structures through promoting failures due to brittle fracture, fatigue, stress corrosion cracking, and wear. In this work, the weight function theory of fracture mechanics is used to measure residual stresses. The weight function theory is an important development in computational fracture mechanics. Stress intensity factors for arbitrary stress distribution on the crack faces can be accurately and efficiently computed for predicting crack growth. This paper demonstrates that the weight functions are equally useful in measuring residual stresses. In this method, an artificial crack is created by a thin cut in a structure containing residual stresses. The cut relieves the residual stresses normal to the crack-face and allows the relieved residual stresses to deform the structure. Strain gages placed adjacent to the cut measure the relieved strains corresponding to incrementally increasing depths of the cut. The weight functions of the cracked body relate the measured strains to the residual stresses normal to the cut within the structure. The procedure details, such as numerical integration of the singular functions in applying the weight function method, will be discussed

  3. Measurement of residual stresses using fracture mechanics weight functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan, Y.

    2001-01-01

    A residual stress measurement method has been developed to quantify through-the-thickness residual stresses. Accurate measurement of residual stresses is crucial for many engineering structures. Fabrication processes such as welding and machining generate residual stresses that are difficult to predict. Residual stresses affect the integrity of structures through promoting failures due to brittle fracture, fatigue, stress corrosion cracking, and wear. In this work, the weight function theory of fracture mechanics is used to measure residual stresses. The weight function theory is an important development in computational fracture mechanics. Stress intensity factors for arbitrary stress distribution on the crack faces can be accurately and efficiently computed for predicting crack growth. This paper demonstrates that the weight functions are equally useful in measuring residual stresses. In this method, an artificial crack is created by a thin cut in a structure containing residual stresses. The cut relieves the residual stresses normal to the crack-face and allows the relieved residual stresses to deform the structure. Strain gages placed adjacent to the cut measure the relieved strains corresponding to incrementally increasing depths of the cut. The weight functions of the cracked body relate the measured strains to the residual stresses normal to the cut within the structure. The procedure details, such as numerical integration of the singular functions in applying the weight function method, will be discussed. (author)

  4. Endogenous reward mechanisms and their importance in stress reduction, exercise and the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esch, Tobias; Stefano, George B

    2010-06-30

    Stress can facilitate disease processes and causes strain on the health care budgets. It is responsible or involved in many human ailments of our time, such as cardiovascular illnesses, particularly related to the psychosocial stressors of daily life, including work. Besides pharmacological or clinical medical treatment options, behavioral stress reduction is much-needed. These latter approaches rely on an endogenous healing potential via life-style modification. Hence, research has suggested different ways and approaches to self-treat stress or buffer against stressors and their impacts. These self-care-centred approaches are sometimes referred to as mind-body medicine or multi-factorial stress management strategies. They consist of various cognitive behavioral techniques, as well as relaxation exercises and nutritional counselling. However, a critical and consistent element of modern effective stress reduction strategies are exercise practices. With regard to underlying neurobiological mechanisms of stress relief, reward and motivation circuitries that are imbedded in the limbic regions of the brain are responsible for the autoregulatory and endogenous processing of stress. Exercise techniques clearly have an impact upon these systems. Thereby, physical activities have a potential to increase mood, i.e., decrease psychological distress by pleasure induction. For doing so, neurobiological signalling molecules such as endogenous morphine and coupled nitric oxide pathways get activated and finely tuned. Evolutionarily, the various activities and autoregulatory pathways are linked together, which can also be demonstrated by the fact that dopamine is endogenously converted into morphine which itself leads to enhanced nitric oxide release by activation of constitutive nitric oxide synthase enzymes. These molecules and mechanisms are clearly stress-reducing.

  5. Stress intensity factors of three parallel edge cracks under bending moments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ismail, A E

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports the study of stress intensity factors (SIF) of three edge cracks in a finite plate under bending moments. The goal of this paper was to analyze the three edge crack interactions under such loading. Several studies can be found in literature discussing on mode I SIF. However, most of these studies obtained the SIFs using tensile force. Lack of SIF reported discussing on the SIFs obtained under bending moments. ANSYS finite element program was used to develop the finite element model where singular elements were used to model the cracks. Different crack geometries and parameters were utilized in order to characterize the SIFs. According to the present results, crack geometries played a significant role in determining the SIFs and consequently induced the crack interaction mechanisms

  6. Individual differences in delay discounting under acute stress: the role of trait perceived stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolina M. Lempert

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Delay discounting refers to the reduction of the value of a future reward as the delay to that reward increases. The rate at which individuals discount future rewards varies as a function of both individual and contextual differences, and high delay discounting rates have been linked with problematic behaviors, including drug abuse and gambling. The current study investigated the effects of acute anticipatory stress on delay discounting, while considering two important factors: individual perceptions of stress and whether the stressful situation is future-focused or present-focused. Half of the participants experienced acute stress by anticipating giving a videotaped speech. This stress was either future-oriented (speech about future job or present-oriented (speech about physical appearance. They then performed a delay discounting task, in which they chose between smaller, immediate rewards and larger, delayed rewards. Their scores on the Perceived Stress Scale were also collected. The way in which one appraises a stressful situation interacts with acute stress to influence choices; under stressful conditions, delay discounting rate was highest in individuals with low perceived stress and lowest for individuals with high perceived stress. This result might be related to individual variation in reward responsiveness under stress. Furthermore, the time orientation of the task interacted with its stressfulness to affect the individual’s propensity to choose immediate rewards. These findings add to our understanding of the intermediary factors between stress and decision making.

  7. Design and analysis of a toroidal tester for the measurement of core losses under axial compressive stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alatawneh, Natheer; Rahman, Tanvir; Lowther, David A.; Chromik, Richard

    2017-06-01

    Electric machine cores are subjected to mechanical stresses due to manufacturing processes. These stresses include radial, circumferential and axial components that may have significant influences on the magnetic properties of the electrical steel and hence, on the output and efficiencies of electrical machines. Previously, most studies of iron losses due to mechanical stress have considered only radial and circumferential components. In this work, an improved toroidal tester has been designed and developed to measure the core losses and the magnetic properties of electrical steel under a compressive axial stress. The shape of the toroidal ring has been verified using 3D stress analysis. Also, 3D electromagnetic simulations show a uniform flux density distribution in the specimen with a variation of 0.03 T and a maximum average induction level of 1.5 T. The developed design has been prototyped, and measurements were carried out using a steel sample of grade 35WW300. Measurements show that applying small mechanical stresses normal to the sample thickness rises the delivered core losses, then the losses decrease continuously as the stress increases. However, the drop in core losses at high stresses does not go lower than the free-stress condition. Physical explanations for the observed trend of core losses as a function of stress are provided based on core loss separation to the hysteresis and eddy current loss components. The experimental results show that the effect of axial compressive stress on magnetic properties of electrical steel at high level of inductions becomes less pronounced.

  8. Association mapping of soybean seed germination under salt stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kan, Guizhen; Zhang, Wei; Yang, Wenming; Ma, Deyuan; Zhang, Dan; Hao, Derong; Hu, Zhenbin; Yu, Deyue

    2015-12-01

    Soil salinity is a serious threat to agriculture sustainability worldwide. Seed germination is a critical phase that ensures the successful establishment and productivity of soybeans in saline soils. However, little information is available regarding soybean salt tolerance at the germination stage. The objective of this study was to identify the genetic mechanisms of soybean seed germination under salt stress. One natural population consisting of 191 soybean landraces was used in this study. Soybean seeds produced in four environments were used to evaluate the salt tolerance at their germination stage. Using 1142 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), the molecular markers associated with salt tolerance were detected by genome-wide association analysis. Eight SNP-trait associations and 13 suggestive SNP-trait associations were identified using a mixed linear model and the TASSEL 4.0 software. Eight SNPs or suggestive SNPs were co-associated with two salt tolerance indices, namely (1) the ratio of the germination index under salt conditions to the germination index under no-salt conditions (ST-GI) and (2) the ratio of the germination rate under salt conditions to the germination rate under no-salt conditions (ST-GR). One SNP (BARC-021347-04042) was significantly associated with these two traits (ST-GI and ST-GR). In addition, nine possible candidate genes were located in or near the genetic region where the above markers were mapped. Of these, five genes, Glyma08g12400.1, Glyma08g09730.1, Glyma18g47140.1, Glyma09g00460.1, and Glyma09g00490.3, were verified in response to salt stress at the germination stage. The SNPs detected could facilitate a better understanding of the genetic basis of soybean salt tolerance at the germination stage, and the marker BARC-021347-04042 could contribute to future breeding for soybean salt tolerance by marker-assisted selection.

  9. The imperative for controlled mechanical stresses in unraveling cellular mechanisms of mechanotransduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorkin Adam M

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In vitro mechanotransduction studies are designed to elucidate cell behavior in response to a well-defined mechanical signal that is imparted to cultured cells, e.g. through fluid flow. Typically, flow rates are calculated based on a parallel plate flow assumption, to achieve a targeted cellular shear stress. This study evaluates the performance of specific flow/perfusion chambers in imparting the targeted stress at the cellular level. Methods To evaluate how well actual flow chambers meet their target stresses (set for 1 and 10 dyn/cm2 for this study at a cellular level, computational models were developed to calculate flow velocity components and imparted shear stresses for a given pressure gradient. Computational predictions were validated with micro-particle image velocimetry (μPIV experiments. Results Based on these computational and experimental studies, as few as 66% of cells seeded along the midplane of commonly implemented flow/perfusion chambers are subjected to stresses within ±10% of the target stress. In addition, flow velocities and shear stresses imparted through fluid drag vary as a function of location within each chamber. Hence, not only a limited number of cells are exposed to target stress levels within each chamber, but also neighboring cells may experience different flow regimes. Finally, flow regimes are highly dependent on flow chamber geometry, resulting in significant variation in magnitudes and spatial distributions of stress between chambers. Conclusion The results of this study challenge the basic premise of in vitro mechanotransduction studies, i.e. that a controlled flow regime is applied to impart a defined mechanical stimulus to cells. These results also underscore the fact that data from studies in which different chambers are utilized can not be compared, even if the target stress regimes are comparable.

  10. A novel perspective on neuron study: damaging and promoting effects in different neurons induced by mechanical stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yazhou; Wang, Wei; Li, Zong; Hao, Shilei; Wang, Bochu

    2016-10-01

    A growing volume of experimental evidence demonstrates that mechanical stress plays a significant role in growth, proliferation, apoptosis, gene expression, electrophysiological properties and many other aspects of neurons. In this review, first, the mechanical microenvironment and properties of neurons under in vivo conditions are introduced and analyzed. Second, research works in recent decades on the effects of different mechanical forces, especially compression and tension, on various neurons, including dorsal root ganglion neurons, retinal ganglion cells, cerebral cortex neurons, hippocampus neurons, neural stem cells, and other neurons, are summarized. Previous research results demonstrate that mechanical stress can not only injure neurons by damaging their morphology, impacting their electrophysiological characteristics and gene expression, but also promote neuron self-repair. Finally, some future perspectives in neuron research are discussed.

  11. S-Nitrosylated proteins in pea (Pisum sativum L.) leaf peroxisomes: changes under abiotic stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega-Galisteo, Ana P; Rodríguez-Serrano, María; Pazmiño, Diana M; Gupta, Dharmendra K; Sandalio, Luisa M; Romero-Puertas, María C

    2012-03-01

    Peroxisomes, single-membrane-bounded organelles with essentially oxidative metabolism, are key in plant responses to abiotic and biotic stresses. Recently, the presence of nitric oxide (NO) described in peroxisomes opened the possibility of new cellular functions, as NO regulates diverse biological processes by directly modifying proteins. However, this mechanism has not yet been analysed in peroxisomes. This study assessed the presence of S-nitrosylation in pea-leaf peroxisomes, purified S-nitrosylated peroxisome proteins by immunoprecipitation, and identified the purified proteins by two different mass-spectrometry techniques (matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization tandem time-of-flight and two-dimensional nano-liquid chromatography coupled to ion-trap tandem mass spectrometry). Six peroxisomal proteins were identified as putative targets of S-nitrosylation involved in photorespiration, β-oxidation, and reactive oxygen species detoxification. The activity of three of these proteins (catalase, glycolate oxidase, and malate dehydrogenase) is inhibited by NO donors. NO metabolism/S-nitrosylation and peroxisomes were analysed under two different types of abiotic stress, i.e. cadmium and 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (2,4-D). Both types of stress reduced NO production in pea plants, and an increase in S-nitrosylation was observed in pea extracts under 2,4-D treatment while no total changes were observed in peroxisomes. However, the S-nitrosylation levels of catalase and glycolate oxidase changed under cadmium and 2,4-D treatments, suggesting that this post-translational modification could be involved in the regulation of H(2)O(2) level under abiotic stress.

  12. Physiological and metabolomic analysis of Punica granatum (L.) under drought stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catola, Stefano; Marino, Giovanni; Emiliani, Giovanni; Huseynova, Taravat; Musayev, Mirza; Akparov, Zeynal; Maserti, Bianca Elena

    2016-02-01

    Punica granatum has a noticeable adaptation to drought stress. The levels of the green leaf volatile trans-2-hexenal increased in response to drought stress suggesting a possible role of this compound in drought stress response in pomegranate. Punica granatum (L.) is a highly valued fruit crop for its health-promoting effects and it is mainly cultivated in semi-arid areas. Thus, understanding the response mechanisms to drought stress is of great importance. In the present research, a metabolomics analysis was performed to evaluate the effects of drought stress on volatile organic compounds extracted from the leaves of pomegranate plants grown under water shortage conditions. The time course experiment (7 days of water deprivation and 24-h recovery) consisted of three treatments (control, drought stress, and rehydration of drought-stressed plants). Plant weights were recorded and control plants were irrigated daily at pot capacity to provide the lost water. Fraction of transpirable soil water has been evaluated as indicator of soil water availability in stressed plants. The levels of proline, hydrogen peroxide and lipid peroxidation as well as of the photosynthetic parameters such as photosynthesis rate (A), stomatal conductance (g s), photosynthetic efficiency of photosystem II, and photochemical quenching were monitored after the imposition of drought stress and recovery as markers of plant stress. Constitutive carbon volatile components were analyzed in the leaf of control and drought-stressed leaves using Head Space Solid Phase Micro Extraction sampling coupled with Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry. A total of 12 volatile compounds were found in pomegranate leaf profiles, mainly aldehydes, alcohols, and organic acids. Among them, the trans-2-hexenal showed a significant increase in water-stressed and recovered leaves respect to the well-watered ones. These data evidence a possible role of the oxylipin pathway in the response to water stress in pomegranate

  13. Interplay between Solo and keratin filaments is crucial for mechanical force-induced stress fiber reinforcement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiwara, Sachiko; Ohashi, Kazumasa; Mashiko, Toshiya; Kondo, Hiroshi; Mizuno, Kensaku

    2016-03-15

    Mechanical force-induced cytoskeletal reorganization is essential for cell and tissue remodeling and homeostasis; however, the underlying cellular mechanisms remain elusive. Solo (ARHGEF40) is a RhoA-targeting guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) involved in cyclical stretch-induced human endothelial cell reorientation and convergent extension cell movement in zebrafish gastrula. In this study, we show that Solo binds to keratin-8/keratin-18 (K8/K18) intermediate filaments through multiple sites. Solo overexpression promotes the formation of thick actin stress fibers and keratin bundles, whereas knockdown of Solo, expression of a GEF-inactive mutant of Solo, or inhibition of ROCK suppresses stress fiber formation and leads to disorganized keratin networks, indicating that the Solo-RhoA-ROCK pathway serves to precisely organize keratin networks, as well as to promote stress fibers. Of importance, knockdown of Solo or K18 or overexpression of GEF-inactive or deletion mutants of Solo suppresses tensile force-induced stress fiber reinforcement. Furthermore, knockdown of Solo or K18 suppresses tensile force-induced RhoA activation. These results strongly suggest that the interplay between Solo and K8/K18 filaments plays a crucial role in tensile force-induced RhoA activation and consequent actin cytoskeletal reinforcement. © 2016 Fujiwara et al. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). Two months after publication it is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  14. Sympathetic arousal, but not disturbed executive functioning, mediates the impairment of cognitive flexibility under stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marko, Martin; Riečanský, Igor

    2018-05-01

    Cognitive flexibility emerges from an interplay of multiple cognitive systems, of which lexical-semantic and executive are thought to be the most important. Yet this has not been addressed by previous studies demonstrating that such forms of flexible thought deteriorate under stress. Motivated by these shortcomings, the present study evaluated several candidate mechanisms implied to mediate the impairing effects of stress on flexible thinking. Fifty-seven healthy adults were randomly assigned to psychosocial stress or control condition while assessed for performance on cognitive flexibility, working memory capacity, semantic fluency, and self-reported cognitive interference. Stress response was indicated by changes in skin conductance, hearth rate, and state anxiety. Our analyses showed that acute stress impaired cognitive flexibility via a concomitant increase in sympathetic arousal, while this mediator was positively associated with semantic fluency. Stress also decreased working memory capacity, which was partially mediated by elevated cognitive interference, but neither of these two measures were associated with cognitive flexibility or sympathetic arousal. Following these findings, we conclude that acute stress impairs cognitive flexibility via sympathetic arousal that modulates lexical-semantic and associative processes. In particular, the results indicate that stress-level of sympathetic activation may restrict the accessibility and integration of remote associates and bias the response competition towards prepotent and dominant ideas. Importantly, our results indicate that stress-induced impairments of cognitive flexibility and executive functions are mediated by distinct neurocognitive mechanisms. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Examining the mechanical equilibrium of microscopic stresses in molecular simulations

    OpenAIRE

    Torres Sánchez, Alejandro; Vanegas, Juan Manuel; Arroyo Balaguer, Marino

    2015-01-01

    The microscopic stress field provides a unique connection between atomistic simulations and mechanics at the nanoscale. However, its definition remains ambiguous. Rather than a mere theoretical preoccupation, we show that this fact acutely manifests itself in local stress calculations of defective graphene, lipid bilayers, and fibrous proteins. We find that popular definitions of the microscopic stress violate the continuum statements of mechanical equilibrium, and we propose an unambiguous a...

  16. On the mechanical properties of tooth enamel under spherical indentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Herzl

    2014-11-01

    The mechanical properties of tooth enamel generally exhibit large variations, which reflect its structural and material complexity. Some key properties were evaluated under localized contact, simulating actual functioning conditions. Prominent cusps of extracted human molar teeth were polished down ~0.7 mm below the cusp tip and indented by tungsten carbide balls. The internal damage was assessed after unloading from longitudinal or transverse sections. The ultimate tensile stress (UTS) was determined using a novel bilayer specimen. The damage is characterized by penny-like radial cracks driven by hoop stresses and cylindrical cracks driven along protein-rich interrod materials by shear stresses. Shallow cone cracks typical of homogeneous materials which may cause rapid tooth wear under repeat contact are thus avoided. The mean stress vs. indentation strain curve is highly nonlinear, attributable to plastic shearing of protein between and within enamel rods. This curve is also affected by damage, especially radial cracks, the onset of which depends on ball radius. Several material properties were extracted from the tests, including shear strain at the onset of ring cracks γ(F) (=0.14), UTS (=119 MPa), toughness K(C) (=0.94 MPa m(1/2)), a crack propagation law and a constitutive response determined by trial and error with the aid of a finite-element analysis. These quantities, which are only slightly sensitive to anatomical location within the enamel region tested, facilitate a quantitative assessment of crown failure. Causes for variations in published UTS and K(C) values are discussed. Copyright © 2014 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Structure and properties of fluid-filled grain boundaries under stress in geological materials. Geologica Ultraiectina (290)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Noort, R.

    2008-01-01

    Two of the three processes making up the deformation mechanism of intergranular pressure solution, being dissolution and diffusion, take place in the grain boundary fluid phase. Hence, the structure and physical properties of wet grain boundaries under stress can be expected to influence the

  18. Mechanisms Underlying the Antidepressant Response and Treatment Resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjorie Rose Levinstein

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Depression is a complex and heterogeneous disorder affecting millions of Americans. There are several different medications and other treatments that are available and effective for many patients with depression. However, a substantial percentage of patients fail to achieve remission with these currently available interventions, and relapse rates are high. Therefore, it is necessary to determine both the mechanisms underlying the antidepressant response and the differences between responders and non-responders to treatment. Delineation of these mechanisms largely relies on experiments that utilize animal models. Therefore, this review provides an overview of the various mouse models that are currently used to assess the antidepressant response, such as chronic mild stress, social defeat, and chronic corticosterone. We discuss how these mouse models can be used to advance our understanding of the differences between responders and non-responders to antidepressant treatment. We also provide an overview of experimental treatment modalities that are used for treatment-resistant depression, such as deep brain stimulation and ketamine administration. We will then review the various genetic polymorphisms and transgenic mice that display resistance to antidepressant treatment. Finally, we synthesize the published data to describe a potential neural circuit underlying the antidepressant response and treatment resistance.

  19. Involvement of Reactive Oxygen Species and Mitochondrial Proteins in Biophoton Emission in Roots of Soybean Plants under Flooding Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamal, Abu Hena Mostafa; Komatsu, Setsuko

    2015-05-01

    To understand the mechanism of biophoton emission, ROS and mitochondrial proteins were analyzed in soybean plants under flooding stress. Enzyme activity and biophoton emission were increased in the flooding stress samples when assayed in reaction mixes specific for antioxidant enzymes and reactive oxygen species; although the level of the hydroxyl radicals was increased at day 4 (2 days of flooding) compared to nonflooding at day 4, the emission of biophotons did not change. Mitochondria were isolated and purified from the roots of soybean plants grown under flooding stress by using a Percoll gradient, and proteins were analyzed by a gel-free proteomic technique. Out of the 98 mitochondrial proteins that significantly changed abundance under flooding stress, 47 increased and 51 decreased at day 4. The mitochondrial enzymes fumarase, glutathione-S-transferase, and aldehyde dehydrogenase increased at day 4 in protein abundance and enzyme activity. Enzyme activity and biophoton emission decreased at day 4 by the assay of lipoxygenase under stress. Aconitase, acyl CoA oxidase, succinate dehydrogenase, and NADH ubiquinone dehydrogenase were up-regulated at the transcription level. These results indicate that oxidation and peroxide scavenging might lead to biophoton emission and oxidative damage in the roots of soybean plants under flooding stress.

  20. Influence of tensile stress on cavity growth in nickel under helium irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kusanagi, Hideo; Hide, Koichiro; Takaku, Hiroshi

    1989-01-01

    The influence of tensile stress on cavity behavior in pure nickel under helium irradiation was investigated by in-situ observation using the transmission electron microscope (TEM) in which an ion gun is installed. Specimens were irradiated at 500 0 C with 20 keV helium in the TEM. The dose rate was about 10 14 He/cm 2 s, and the angle between the helium beam and the normal direction of the specimens was about 60 0 . The damage rate estimated by the E-DEP-1 code was about 0.6x10 -3 dpa/s at its peak position. The main results are as follows: (1) cavity nucleation was accelerated by applying tensile stress, and cavity size in stressed specimens was several times larger than that in stress-free specimens; (2) cavity density in the stressed specimen increased more rapidly than in the stress-free specimen, and then decreased by cavity coalescences; (3) depth of cavity nucleation in the stress-free specimen was about 160 nm, while that in the stressed specimen was about 320 nm; that is, cavities nucleated in deeper regions in the stressed specimen than in the stress-free specimen. This result indicates that helium atoms and vacancies can migrate into the deeper region by applying tensile stress. (4) The experimental results obtained in this study can be explained qualitatively by the mechanism that mobile dislocations drag He-V complexes to the deeper region. This implies that there are similar phenomena in the case of compressive stress. (orig.)

  1. Capacity of 50Ti-47Ni-3Cu composite to convert heat energy to mechanical work under cyclic measurement of temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belyaev, S.P.; Kuz'min, S.L.; Likhachev, V.A.

    1984-01-01

    The TiNiCu alloy with a shape memory which may be used as a working medium for the martensite engine converting heat energy to mechanical one is studied for its energy characteristics. Mechanical characteristics of the material are studied under torsion of cylindrical specimens of stressed thermocycling through temperature intervals of martensite transformations. It is established that the shape memory and transformation ductility effects determining serviceability and power of the martensite enginem vary gradually with the number of heat changes reaching saturation after 10-15 thermocycles, The heating-and-cooling stress dependence of deformations due to the shape memory and transformation ductility effects also varied with the number of heat changes, Cooling conditions under stress of 50 MPa and heating conditions under 200 MPa and above proved to be most optimal. Serviceability of the engine made of the TiNiCu alloy exceeds 10 MJ/m 3 and its power reaches 10 5 MW m -3 under operation frequency of 10 3 Hz

  2. Stress and Memory: Behavioral Effects and Neurobiological Mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Teresa Pinelo-Nava

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Stress is a potent modulator of learning and memory processes. Although there have been a few attempts in the literature to explain the diversity of effects (including facilitating, impairing, and lack of effects described for the impact of stress on memory function according to single classification criterion, they have proved insufficient to explain the whole complexity of effects. Here, we review the literature in the field of stress and memory interactions according to five selected classifying factors (source of stress, stressor duration, stressor intensity, stressor timing with regard to memory phase, and learning type in an attempt to develop an integrative model to understand how stress affects memory function. Summarizing on those conditions in which there was enough information, we conclude that high stress levels, whether intrinsic (triggered by the cognitive challenge or extrinsic (induced by conditions completely unrelated to the cognitive task, tend to facilitate Pavlovian conditioning (in a linear-asymptotic manner, while being deleterious for spatial/explicit information processing (which with regard to intrinsic stress levels follows an inverted U-shape effect. Moreover, after reviewing the literature, we conclude that all selected factors are essential to develop an integrative model that defines the outcome of stress effects in memory processes. In parallel, we provide a brief review of the main neurobiological mechanisms proposed to account for the different effects of stress in memory function. Glucocorticoids were found as a common mediating mechanism for both the facilitating and impairing actions of stress in different memory processes and phases. Among the brain regions implicated, the hippocampus, amygdala, and prefrontal cortex were highlighted as critical for the mediation of stress effects.

  3. Behavior of NiTiNb SMA wires under recovery stress or prestressing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Eunsoo; Nam, Tae-Hyun; Chung, Young-Soo; Kim, Yeon-Wook; Lee, Seung-Yong

    2012-01-05

    The recovery stress of martensitic shape-memory alloy [SMA] wires can be used to confine concrete, and the confining effectiveness of the SMA wires was previously proved through experimental tests. However, the behavior of SMA wires under recovery stress has not been seriously investigated. Thus, this study conducted a series of tests of NiTiNb martensitic SMA wires under recovery stress with varying degrees of prestrain on the wires and compared the behavior under recovery stress with that under prestressing of the wires. The remaining stress was reduced by the procedure of additional strain loading and unloading. More additional strains reduced more remaining stresses. When the SMA wires were heated up to the transformation temperature under prestress, the stress on the wires increased due to the state transformation. Furthermore, the stress decreased with a decreasing temperature of the wires down to room temperature. The stress of the NiTiNb wires was higher than the prestress, and the developed stress seemed to depend on the composition of the SMAs. When an additional strain was subsequently loaded and unloaded on the prestressed SMA wires, the remaining stress decreased. Finally, the remaining stress becomes zero when loading and unloading a specific large strain.

  4. Experimental Study on Mechanical and Acoustic Emission Characteristics of Rock-Like Material Under Non-uniformly Distributed Loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao; Wen, Zhijie; Jiang, Yujing; Huang, Hao

    2018-03-01

    The mechanical and acoustic emission characteristics of rock-like materials under non-uniform loads were investigated by means of a self-developed mining-induced stress testing system and acoustic emission monitoring system. In the experiments, the specimens were divided into three regions and different initial vertical stresses and stress loading rates were used to simulate different mining conditions. The mechanical and acoustic emission characteristics between regions were compared, and the effects of different initial vertical stresses and different stress loading rates were analysed. The results showed that the mechanical properties and acoustic emission characteristics of rock-like materials can be notably localized. When the initial vertical stress and stress loading rate are fixed, the peak strength of region B is approximately two times that of region A, and the maximum acoustic emission hit value of region A is approximately 1-2 times that of region B. The effects of the initial vertical stress and stress loading rate on the peck strain, maximum hit value, and occurrence time of the maximum hit are similar in that when either of the former increase, the latter all decrease. However, peck strength will increase with the increase in loading rate and decrease with the increase in initial vertical stress. The acoustic emission hits can be used to analyse the damage in rock material, but the number of acoustic emission hits cannot be used alone to determine the degree of rock damage directly.

  5. Residual stresses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahotra, I.M.

    2006-01-01

    The principal effect of unloading a material strained into the plastic range is to create a permanent set (plastic deformation), which if restricted somehow, gives rise to a system of self-balancing within the same member or reaction balanced by other members of the structure., known as residual stresses. These stresses stay there as locked-in stresses, in the body or a part of it in the absence of any external loading. Residual stresses are induced during hot-rolling and welding differential cooling, cold-forming and extruding: cold straightening and spot heating, fabrication and forced fitting of components constraining the structure to a particular geometry. The areas which cool more quickly develop residual compressive stresses, while the slower cooling areas develop residual tensile stresses, and a self-balancing or reaction balanced system of residual stresses is formed. The phenomenon of residual stresses is the most challenging in its application in surface modification techniques determining endurance mechanism against fracture and fatigue failures. This paper discusses the mechanism of residual stresses, that how the residual stresses are fanned and what their behavior is under the action of external forces. Such as in the case of a circular bar under limit torque, rectangular beam under limt moment, reclaiming of shafts welds and peening etc. (author)

  6. Stress distribution in dental prosthesis under an occlusal combined dynamic loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merdji, A.; Bachir Bouiadjra, B.; Ould Chikh, B.; Mootanah, R.; Aminallah, L.; Serier, B.; Muslih, I.M.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► The mechanical stress reaches the highest in areas of cortical bones. ► The mechanical stress in the cancellous bone reaches greatest in the bottom of the dental implant. ► Implant with low-volume bone might cause increased stress concentration in the cortical bone. -- Abstract: The biomechanical behavior of osseointegrated dental prostheses systems plays an important role in its functional longevity inside the bone. Simulation of these systems requires an accurate modeling of the prosthesis components, the jaw bone, the implant–bone interface, and the response of the system to different types of applied forces. The purpose of this study was to develop a new three-dimensional model of an osseointegrated molar dental prosthesis and to carry out finite element analysis to evaluate stress distributions in the bone and the dental prosthesis compounds under an occlusal combined dynamic load was applied to the top of the occlusale face of the prosthesis crown. The jaw bone model containing cortical bone and cancellous bone was constructed by using computer tomography scan pictures and Computer Aided Design tools. The dental prosthesis compounds were constructed, simulating the commercially available cylindrical implant of 4.8 mm diameter and 10 mm length. Both finite element models were created in Abaqus finite element software. All materials used in the models were considered to be isotropic, homogeneous and linearly elastic. The elastic properties, loads and constraints used in the model were taken from published data. Results of our finite element analyses, indicated that the maximum stresses were located around the mesial neck of the implant, in the marginal bone. Thus, this area should be preserved clinically in order to maintain the bone–implant interface structurally and functionally.

  7. Operational decisionmaking and action selection under psychological stress in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gertman, D.I.; Haney, L.N.; Jenkins, J.P.; Blackman, H.S.

    1985-05-01

    An extensive review of literature on individual and group performance and decisionmaking under psychological stress was conducted and summarized. Specific stress-related variables relevant to reactor operation were pinpointed and incorporated in an experiment to assess the performance of reactor operators under psychological stress. The decisionmaking performance of 24 reactor operators under differing levels of workload, conflicting information, and detail of available written procedures was assessed in terms of selecting immediate, subsequent, and nonapplicable actions in response to 12 emergency scenarios resulting from a severe seismic event at a pressurized water reactor. Specific personality characteristics of the operators suggested by the literature to be related to performance under stress were assessed and correlated to decisionmaking under stress. The experimental results were statistically analyzed, and findings indicated that operator decisionmaking under stress was more accurate under lower levels of workload, with the availability of detailed procedures, and in the presence of high conflicting information

  8. Electromagnetic field and mechanical stress analysis code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    Analysis TEXMAGST is a two stage linear finite element code for the analysis of static magnetic fields in three dimensional structures and associated mechanical stresses produced by the anti J x anti B forces within these structures. The electromagnetic problem is solved in terms of magnetic vector potential A for a given current density anti J as curl 1/μ curl anti A = anti J considering the magnetic permeability as constant. The Coulombian gauge (div anti A = o) was chosen and was implemented through the use of Lagrange multipliers. The second stage of the problem - the calculation of mechanical stresses in the same three dimensional structure is solved by using the same code with few modifications - through a restart card. Body forces anti J x anti B within each element are calculated from the solution of the first stage run and represent the input to the second stage run which will give the solution for the stress problem

  9. Investigating the degradation behavior under hot carrier stress for InGaZnO TFTs with symmetric and asymmetric structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsai, Ming-Yen; Chang, Ting-Chang; Chu, Ann-Kuo; Chen, Te-Chih; Hsieh, Tien-Yu; Chen, Yu-Te; Tsai, Wu-Wei; Chiang, Wen-Jen; Yan, Jing-Yi

    2013-01-01

    This letter studies the hot-carrier effect in indium–gallium–zinc oxide (IGZO) thin film transistors with symmetric and asymmetric source/drain structures. The different degradation behaviors after hot-carrier stress in symmetric and asymmetric source/drain devices indicate that different mechanisms dominate the degradation. Since the C–V measurement is highly sensitive to trap states compared to the I–V characterization, C–V curves are utilized to analyze the hot-carrier stress-induced trap state generation. Furthermore, the asymmetric C–V measurements C GD (gate-to-drain capacitance) and C GS (gate-to-source capacitance) are used to analyze the trap state in channel location. The asymmetric source/drain structure under hot-carrier stress induces an asymmetric electrical field and causes different degradation behaviors. In this work, the on-current and subthreshold swing (S.S.) degrade under low electrical field, whereas an apparent V t shift occurs under large electrical field. The different degradation behaviors indicate that trap states are generated under a low electrical field and the channel-hot-electron (CHE) effect occurs under a large electrical field. - Highlights: ► Asymmetric structure thin film transistors improve kick-back effect. ► Asymmetric structures under hot-carrier stress induce different degradation. ► Hot-carrier stress leads to capacitance–voltage curve distortion. ► Extra trap states are generated during hot-carrier stress

  10. Sequence-dependent response of DNA to torsional stress: a potential biological regulation mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reymer, Anna; Zakrzewska, Krystyna; Lavery, Richard

    2018-02-28

    Torsional restraints on DNA change in time and space during the life of the cell and are an integral part of processes such as gene expression, DNA repair and packaging. The mechanical behavior of DNA under torsional stress has been studied on a mesoscopic scale, but little is known concerning its response at the level of individual base pairs and the effects of base pair composition. To answer this question, we have developed a geometrical restraint that can accurately control the total twist of a DNA segment during all-atom molecular dynamics simulations. By applying this restraint to four different DNA oligomers, we are able to show that DNA responds to both under- and overtwisting in a very heterogeneous manner. Certain base pair steps, in specific sequence environments, are able to absorb most of the torsional stress, leaving other steps close to their relaxed conformation. This heterogeneity also affects the local torsional modulus of DNA. These findings suggest that modifying torsional stress on DNA could act as a modulator for protein binding via the heterogeneous changes in local DNA structure.

  11. Hardening and softening mechanisms of pearlitic steel wire under torsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Tian-Zhang; Zhang, Shi-Hong; Zhang, Guang-Liang; Song, Hong-Wu; Cheng, Ming

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Mechanical behavior of pearlitic steel wire is studied using torsion. • Work hardening results from refinement lamellar pearlitic structure. • Softening results from recovery, shear bands and lamellar fragmentations. • A microstructure based analytical flow stress model is established. - Abstract: The mechanical behaviors and microstructure evolution of pearlitic steel wires under monotonic shear deformation have been investigated by a torsion test and a number of electron microscopy techniques including scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), with an aim to reveal the softening and hardening mechanisms of a randomly oriented pearlitic structure during a monotonic stain path. Significantly different from the remarkable strain hardening in cold wire drawing, the strain hardening rate during torsion drops to zero quickly after a short hardening stage. The microstructure observations indicate that the inter-lamellar spacing (ILS) decreases and the dislocations accumulate with strain, which leads to hardening of the material. Meanwhile, when the strain is larger than 0.154, the enhancement of dynamic recovery, shear bands (SBs) and cementite fragmentations results in the softening and balances the strain hardening. A microstructure based analytical flow stress model with considering the influence of ILS on the mean free path of dislocations and the softening caused by SBs and cementite fragmentations, has been established and the predicted flow shear curve meets well with the measured curve in the torsion test

  12. Stress and glucocorticoid receptor-dependent mechanisms in long-term memory: from adaptive responses to psychopathologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finsterwald, Charles; Alberini, Cristina M

    2014-07-01

    A proper response against stressors is critical for survival. In mammals, the stress response is primarily mediated by secretion of glucocorticoids via the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis and release of catecholamines through adrenergic neurotransmission. Activation of these pathways results in a quick physical response to the stress and, in adaptive conditions, mediates long-term changes in the brain that lead to the formation of long-term memories of the experience. These long-term memories are an essential adaptive mechanism that allows an animal to effectively face similar demands again. Indeed, a moderate stress level has a strong positive effect on memory and cognition, as a single arousing or moderately stressful event can be remembered for up to a lifetime. Conversely, exposure to extreme, traumatic, or chronic stress can have the opposite effect and cause memory loss, cognitive impairments, and stress-related psychopathologies such as anxiety disorders, depression and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). While more effort has been devoted to the understanding of the negative effects of chronic stress, much less has been done thus far on the identification of the mechanisms engaged in the brain when stress promotes long-term memory formation. Understanding these mechanisms will provide critical information for use in ameliorating memory processes in both normal and pathological conditions. Here, we will review the role of glucocorticoids and glucocorticoid receptors (GRs) in memory formation and modulation. Furthermore, we will discuss recent findings on the molecular cascade of events underlying the effect of GR activation in adaptive levels of stress that leads to strong, long-lasting memories. Our recent data indicate that the positive effects of GR activation on memory consolidation critically engage the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) pathway. We propose and will discuss the hypothesis that stress promotes the formation of

  13. Stress and glucocorticoid receptor-dependent mechanisms in long-term memory: from adaptive responses to psychopathologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finsterwald, Charles; Alberini, Cristina M.

    2013-01-01

    A proper response against stressors is critical for survival. In mammals, the stress response is primarily mediated by secretion of glucocorticoids via the hypothalamic-pituitaryadrenocortical (HPA) axis and release of catecholamines through adrenergic neurotransmission. Activation of these pathways results in a quick physical response to the stress and, in adaptive conditions, mediates long-term changes in the brain that lead to the formation of long-term memories of the experience. These long-term memories are an essential adaptive mechanism that allows an animal to effectively face similar demands again. Indeed, a moderate stress level has a strong positive effect on memory and cognition, as a single arousing or moderately stressful event can be remembered for up to a lifetime. Conversely, exposure to extreme, traumatic, or chronic stress can have the opposite effect and cause memory loss, cognitive impairments, and stress-related psychopathologies such as anxiety disorders, depression and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). While more effort has been devoted to the understanding of the effects of the negative effects of chronic stress, much less has been done thus far on the identification of the mechanisms engaged in the brain when stress promotes long-term memory formation. Understanding these mechanisms will provide critical information for use in ameliorating memory processes in both normal and pathological conditions. Here, we will review the role of glucocorticoids and glucocorticoid receptors (GRs) in memory formation and modulation. Furthermore, we will discuss recent findings on the molecular cascade of events underlying the effect of GR activation in adaptive levels of stress that leads to strong, long-lasting memories. Our recent data indicate that the positive effects of GR activation on memory consolidation critically engage the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) pathway. We propose and will discuss the hypothesis that stress promotes the

  14. Silicon improves seed germination and alleviates oxidative stress of bud seedlings in tomato under water deficit stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yu; Zhang, Yi; Yao, Hejin; Wu, Jiawen; Sun, Hao; Gong, Haijun

    2014-05-01

    The beneficial effects of silicon on plant growth and development under drought have been widely reported. However, little information is available on the effects of silicon on seed germination under drought. In this work, the effects of exogenous silicon (0.5 mM) on the seed germination and tolerance performance of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) bud seedlings under water deficit stress simulated by 10% (w/v) polyethylene glycol (PEG-6000) were investigated in four cultivars ('Jinpengchaoguan', 'Zhongza No.9', 'Houpi L402' and 'Oubao318'). The results showed that the seed germination percentage was notably decreased in the four cultivars under water stress, and it was significantly improved by added silicon. Compared with the non-silicon treatment, silicon addition increased the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT), and decreased the production of superoxide anion (O2·) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in the radicles of bud seedlings under water stress. Addition of silicon decreased the total phenol concentrations in radicles under water stress, which might contribute to the decrease of peroxidase (POD) activity, as observed in the in vivo and in vitro experiments. The decrease of POD activity might contribute to a less accumulation of hydroxyl radical (·OH) under water stress. Silicon addition also decreased the concentrations of malondialdehyde (MDA) in the radicles under stress, indicating decreased lipid peroxidation. These results suggest that exogenous silicon could improve seed germination and alleviate oxidative stress to bud seedling of tomato by enhancing antioxidant defense. The positive effects of silicon observed in a silicon-excluder also suggest the active involvement of silicon in biochemical processes in plants. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Damage mechanisms in PBT-GF30 under thermo-mechanical cyclic loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaaf, A.; De Monte, M.; Hoffmann, C.; Vormwald, M.; Quaresimin, M.

    2014-01-01

    The scope of this paper is the investigation of damage mechanisms at microscopic scale on a short glass fiber reinforced polybutylene terephthalate (PBT-GF30) under thermo-mechanical cyclic loading. In addition the principal mechanisms are verified through micro mechanical FE models. In order to investigate the fatigue behavior of the material both isothermal strain controlled fatigue (ISCF) tests at three different temperatures and thermo-mechanical fatigue (TMF) tests were conducted on plain and notched specimens, manufactured by injection molding. The goal of the work is to determine the damage mechanisms occurring under TMF conditions and to compare them with the mechanisms occurring under ISCF. For this reason fracture surfaces of TMF and ISCF samples loaded at different temperature levels were analyzed using scanning electron microscopy. Furthermore, specimens that failed under TMF were examined on microsections revealing insight into both crack initiation and crack propagation. The findings of this investigation give valuable information about the main damage mechanisms of PBT-GF30 under TMF loading and serve as basis for the development of a TMF life estimation methodology

  16. Designing the fiber volume ratio in SiC fiber-reinforced SiC ceramic composites under Hertzian stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Kee Sung; Jang, Kyung Soon; Park, Jae Hong; Kim, Tae Woo; Han, In Sub; Woo, Sang Kuk

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Optimum fiber volume ratios in the SiC/SiC composite layers were designed under Hertzian stress. → FEM analysis and spherical indentation experiments were undertaken. → Boron nitride-pyrocarbon double coatings on the SiC fiber were effective. → Fiber volume ratio should be designed against flexural stress. -- Abstract: Finite element method (FEM) analysis and experimental studies are undertaken on the design of the fiber volume ratio in silicon carbide (SiC) fiber-reinforced SiC composites under indentation contact stresses. Boron nitride (BN)/Pyrocarbon (PyC) are selected as the coating materials for the SiC fiber. Various SiC matrix/coating/fiber/coating/matrix structures are modeled by introducing a woven fiber layer in the SiC matrix. Especially, this study attempts to find the optimum fiber volume ratio in SiC fiber-reinforced SiC ceramics under Hertzian stress. The analysis is performed by changing the fiber type, fiber volume ratio, coating material, number of coating layers, and stacking sequence of the coating layers. The variation in the stress for composites in relation to the fiber volume ratio in the contact axial or radial direction is also analyzed. The same structures are fabricated experimentally by a hot process, and the mechanical behaviors regarding the load-displacement are evaluated using the Hertzian indentation method. Various SiC matrix/coating/fiber/coating/matrix structures are fabricated, and mechanical characterization is performed by changing the coating layer, according to the introduction (or omission) of the coating layer, and the number of woven fiber mats. The results show that the damage mode changes from Hertzian stress to flexural stress as the fiber volume ratio increases in composites because of the decreased matrix volume fraction, which intensifies the radial crack damage. The result significantly indicates that the optimum fiber volume ratio in SiC fiber-reinforced SiC ceramics should be designed for

  17. Decision-making in Sport under Mental and Physical Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teri J. Hepler

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Successful decision-making in sport requires good decisions to be made quickly, but little is understood about the decision process under stress. Objective: The purpose of this study was to compare decision outcomes and the Take the First (TTF heuristic under conditions of mental, physical, and no stress.  Method:  Participants (N=112 were divided into 3 stress groups:  mental stress (mental serial subtraction, physical stress (running on treadmill at 60-70% of maximum effort, and no stress (counting backwards by 1. Participants were exposed to 30 seconds of stress and then watched a video depicting an offensive situation in basketball requiring them to decide what the player with the ball should do next. Each participant performed 10 trials of the video decision-making task.  Results: No differences were found between the 3 stress groups on decision quality, TTF frequency, number of options generated, or quality of first generated option.  However, participants in the no stress and physical stress conditions were faster in generating their first option and making their final decision as compared to the mental stress group.  Conclusion: Overall, results suggest that mental stress impairs decision speed and that TTF is an ecologically rationale heuristic in dynamic, time-pressured situations.  Keywords: Take the first, Heuristic, Pressure, Cognitive performance

  18. Stress-reducing preventive maintenance model for a unit under stressful environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, J.H.; Chang, Woojin; Lie, C.H.

    2012-01-01

    We develop a preventive maintenance (PM) model for a unit operated under stressful environment. The PM model in this paper consists of a failure rate model and two cost models to determine the optimal PM scheduling which minimizes a cost rate. The assumption for the proposed model is that stressful environment accelerates the failure of the unit and periodic maintenances reduce stress from outside. The failure rate model handles the maintenance effect of PM using improvement and stress factors. The cost models are categorized into two failure recognition cases: immediate failure recognition and periodic failure detection. The optimal PM scheduling is obtained by considering the trade-off between the related cost and the lifetime of a unit in our model setting. The practical usage of our proposed model is tested through a numerical example.

  19. EXPRESSION OF CALCIUM-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASE (CDPK GENES IN VITIS AMURENSIS UNDER ABIOTIC STRESS CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dubrovina A.S.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abiotic stresses, such as extreme temperatures, soil salinity, or water deficit, are one of the major limiting factors of crop productivity worldwide. Examination of molecular and genetic mechanisms of abiotic stress tolerance in plants is of great interest to plant biologists. Calcium-dependent protein kinases (CDPKs, which are the most important Ca2+ sensors in plants, are known to play one of the key roles in plant adaptation to abiotic stress. CDPK is a multigene family of enzymes. Analysis of CDPK gene expression under various abiotic stress conditions would help identify those CDPKs that might play important roles in plant adaptation to abiotic stress. We focused on studying CDPK gene expression under osmotic, water deficit, and temperature stress conditions in a wild-growing grapevine Vitis amurensis Rurp., which is native to the Russian Far East and is known to possess high adaptive potential and high level of resistance against adverse environmental conditions. Healthy V. amurensis cuttings (excised young stems with one healthy leaf were used for the treatments. For the non-stress treatment, we placed the cuttings in distilled water for 12 h at room temperature. For the water-deficit stress, detached cuttings were laid on a paper towel for 12 h at room temperature. For osmotic stress treatments, the cuttings were placed in 0.4 М NaCl and 0.4 М mannitol solutions for 12 h at room temperature. To examine temperature stress tolerance, the V. amurensis cuttings were placed in a growth chamber at +10oC and +37oC for 12 h. The total expression of VaCDPK genes was examined by semiquantitative RT-PCR with degenerate primers designed to the CDPK kinase domain. The total level of CDPK gene expression increased under salt and decreased under low temperature stress conditions. We sequenced 300 clones of the amplified part of different CDPK transcripts obtained from the analyzed cDNA probes. Analysis of the cDNA sequences identified 8 different

  20. Genome-wide transcriptional reprogramming under drought stress

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Hao

    2012-01-01

    Soil water deficit is one of the major factors limiting plant productivity. Plants cope with this adverse environmental condition by coordinating the up- or downregulation of an array of stress responsive genes. Reprogramming the expression of these genes leads to rebalanced development and growth that are in concert with the reduced water availability and that ultimately confer enhanced stress tolerance. Currently, several techniques have been employed to monitor genome-wide transcriptional reprogramming under drought stress. The results from these high throughput studies indicate that drought stress-induced transcriptional reprogramming is dynamic, has temporal and spatial specificity, and is coupled with the circadian clock and phytohormone signaling pathways. © 2012 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. All rights are reserved.

  1. MtCAS31 Aids Symbiotic Nitrogen Fixation by Protecting the Leghemoglobin MtLb120-1 Under Drought Stress in Medicago truncatula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Li

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Symbiotic nitrogen fixation (SNF in legume root nodules injects millions of tons of nitrogen into agricultural lands and provides ammonia to non-legume crops under N-deficient conditions. During plant growth and development, environmental stresses, such as drought, salt, cold, and heat stress are unavoidable. This raises an interesting question as to how the legumes cope with the environmental stress along with SNF. Under drought stress, dehydrin proteins are accumulated, which function as protein protector and osmotic substances. In this study, we found that the dehydrin MtCAS31 (cold-acclimation-specific 31 functions in SNF in Medicago truncatula during drought stress. We found that MtCAS31 is expressed in nodules and interacts with leghemoglobin MtLb120-1. The interaction between the two proteins protects MtLb120-1 from denaturation under thermal stress in vivo. Compared to wild type, cas31 mutants display a lower nitrogenase activity, a lower ATP/ADP ratio, higher expression of nodule senescence genes and higher accumulation of amyloplasts under dehydration conditions. The results suggested that MtCAS31 protects MtLb120-1 from the damage of drought stress. We identified a new function for dehydrins in SNF under drought stress, which enriches the understanding of the molecular mechanism of dehydrins.

  2. An experimental study of the mechanism of failure of rocks under borehole jack loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van, T. K.; Goodman, R. E.

    1971-01-01

    Laboratory and field tests with an experimental jack and an NX-borehole jack are reported. The following conclusions were made: Under borehole jack loading, a circular opening in a brittle solid fails by tensile fracturing when the bearing plate width is not too small. Two proposed contact stress distributions can explain the mechanism of tensile fracturing. The contact stress distribution factor is a material property which can be determined experimentally. The borehole tensile strength is larger than the rupture flexural strength. Knowing the magnitude and orientation of the in situ stress field, borehole jack test results can be used to determine the borehole tensile strength. Knowing the orientation of the in situ stress field and the flexural strength of the rock substance, the magnitude of the in situ stress components can be calculated. The detection of very small cracks is essential for the accurate determination of the failure loads which are used in the calculation of strengths and stress components.

  3. Effect of temperature on cyclic deformation behavior and residual stress relaxation of deep rolled under-aged aluminium alloy AA6110

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juijerm, P.; Altenberger, I.

    2007-01-01

    Mechanical surface treatment (deep rolling) was performed at room temperature on the under-aged aluminium wrought alloy AA6110 (Al-Mg-Si-Cu). Afterwards, specimens were cyclically deformed at room and elevated temperatures up to 250 deg. C. The cyclic deformation behavior and s/n-curves of deep rolled under-aged AA6110 were investigated by stress-controlled fatigue tests and compared to the as-polished condition as a reference. The stability of residual stresses as well as diffraction peak broadening under high-loading and/or elevated-temperature conditions was investigated by X-ray diffraction methods before and after fatigue tests. Depth profiles of near-surface residual stresses as well as full width at half maximum (FWHM) values before and after fatigue tests at elevated temperatures are presented. Thermal residual stress relaxation of deep rolled under-aged AA6110 was investigated and analyzed by applying a Zener-Wert-Avrami function. Thermomechanical residual stress relaxation was analyzed through thermal residual stress relaxation and depth profiles of residual stresses before and after fatigue tests. Finally, an effective border line for the deep rolling treatment due to instability of near-surface work hardening was found and established in a stress amplitude-temperature diagram

  4. Propagation of edge waves in a thinly layered laminated medium with stress couples under initial stresses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pijush Pal Roy

    1987-01-01

    Full Text Available The propagation of edge waves in a thinly layered laminated medium with stress couples under initial stresses is examined. Based upon an approximate representation of a laminated medium by an equivalent anisotropic continuum with average initial and couple stresses, an explicit form of frequency equation is obtained to derive the phase velocity of edge waves. Edge waves exist under certain conditions. The inclusion of couple stresses increases the velocity of wave propagation. For a specific compression, the presence of couple stresses increases the velocity of wave propagation with the increase of wave number, whereas the reverse is the case when there is no couple stress. Numerical computation is performed with graphical representations. Several special cases are also examined.

  5. Natural variation in rosette size under salt stress conditions corresponds to developmental differences between Arabidopsis accessions and allelic variation in the LRR-KISS gene

    KAUST Repository

    Julkowska, Magdalena; Klei, Karlijn; Fokkens, Like; Haring, Michel A.; Schranz, M. Eric; Testerink, Christa

    2016-01-01

    Natural variation among Arabidopsis accessions is an important genetic resource to identify mechanisms underlying plant development and stress tolerance. To evaluate the natural variation in salinity stress tolerance, two large-scale experiments

  6. A comparative study on the uniaxial mechanical properties of the umbilical vein and umbilical artery using different stress-strain definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, Alireza; Navidbakhsh, Mahdi

    2014-12-01

    The umbilical cord is part of the fetus and generally includes one umbilical vein (UV) and two umbilical arteries (UAs). As the saphenous vein and UV are the most commonly used veins for the coronary artery disease treatment as a coronary artery bypass graft (CABG), understating the mechanical properties of UV has a key asset in its performance for CABG. However, there is not only a lack of knowledge on the mechanical properties of UV and UA but there is no agreement as to which stress-strain definition should be implemented to measure their mechanical properties. In this study, the UV and UA samples were removed after caesarean from eight individuals and subjected to a series of tensile testing. Three stress definitions (second Piola-Kichhoff stress, engineering stress, and true stress) and four strain definitions (Almansi-Hamel strain, Green-St. Venant strain, engineering strain, and true strain) were employed to determine the linear mechanical properties of UVs and UAs. The nonlinear mechanical behavior of UV/UA was computationally investigated using hyperelastic material models, such as Ogden and Mooney-Rivlin. The results showed that the effect of varying the stress definition on the maximum stress measurements of the UV/UA is significant but not when calculating the elastic modulus. In the true stress-strain diagram, the maximum strain of UV was 92 % higher, while the elastic modulus and maximum stress were 162 and 42 % lower than that of UA. The Mooney-Rivlin material model was designated to represent the nonlinear mechanical behavior of the UV and UA under uniaxial loading.

  7. Translational Upregulation of an Individual p21Cip1 Transcript Variant by GCN2 Regulates Cell Proliferation and Survival under Nutrient Stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stacey L Lehman

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Multiple transcripts encode for the cell cycle inhibitor p21(Cip1. These transcripts produce identical proteins but differ in their 5' untranslated regions (UTRs. Although several stresses that induce p21 have been characterized, the mechanisms regulating the individual transcript variants and their functional significance are unknown. Here we demonstrate through (35S labeling, luciferase reporter assays, and polysome transcript profiling that activation of the Integrated Stress Response (ISR kinase GCN2 selectively upregulates the translation of a p21 transcript variant containing 5' upstream open reading frames (uORFs through phosphorylation of the eukaryotic translation initiation factor eIF2α. Mutational analysis reveals that the uORFs suppress translation under basal conditions, but promote translation under stress. Functionally, ablation of p21 ameliorates G1/S arrest and reduces cell survival in response to GCN2 activation. These findings uncover a novel mechanism of p21 post-transcriptional regulation, offer functional significance for the existence of multiple p21 transcripts, and support a key role for GCN2 in regulating the cell cycle under stress.

  8. A cross-sectional study of the effects of load carriage on running characteristics and tibial mechanical stress: implications for stress-fracture injuries in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Chun; Silder, Amy; Zhang, Ju; Reifman, Jaques; Unnikrishnan, Ginu

    2017-03-23

    Load carriage is associated with musculoskeletal injuries, such as stress fractures, during military basic combat training. By investigating the influence of load carriage during exercises on the kinematics and kinetics of the body and on the biomechanical responses of bones, such as the tibia, we can quantify the role of load carriage on bone health. We conducted a cross-sectional study using an integrated musculoskeletal-finite-element model to analyze how the amount of load carriage in women affected the kinematics and kinetics of the body, as well as the tibial mechanical stress during running. We also compared the biomechanics of walking (studied previously) and running under various load-carriage conditions. We observed substantial changes in both hip kinematics and kinetics during running when subjects carried a load. Relative to those observed during running without load, the joint reaction forces at the hip increased by an average of 49.1% body weight when subjects carried a load that was 30% of their body weight (ankle, 4.8%; knee, 20.6%). These results indicate that the hip extensor muscles in women are the main power generators when running with load carriage. When comparing running with walking, finite element analysis revealed that the peak tibial stress during running (tension, 90.6 MPa; compression, 136.2 MPa) was more than three times as great as that during walking (tension, 24.1 MPa; compression, 40.3 MPa), whereas the cumulative stress within one stride did not differ substantially between running (15.2 MPa · s) and walking (13.6 MPa · s). Our findings highlight the critical role of hip extensor muscles and their potential injury in women when running with load carriage. More importantly, our results underscore the need to incorporate the cumulative effect of mechanical stress when evaluating injury risk under various exercise conditions. The results from our study help to elucidate the mechanisms of stress fracture in women.

  9. Acoustoelastic effect of textured (Ba,Sr)TiO{sub 3} thin films under an initial mechanical stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamel, Marwa; Mseddi, Souhir; Njeh, Anouar; Ben Ghozlen, Mohamed Hédi [Laboratoire de Physique des Matériaux, Faculté des Sciences de Sfax, Université de Sfax, Sfax (Tunisia); Donner, Wolfgang [Institute of Materials Science, University of Technology, Alarich-Weiss-Strasse.2, 64287 Darmstadt (Germany)

    2015-12-14

    Acoustoelastic (AE) analysis of initial stresses plays an important role as a nondestructive tool in current engineering. Two textured BST (Ba{sub 0.65}Sr{sub 0.35}TiO{sub 3}) thin films, with different substrate to target distance, were grown on Pt(111)/TiO{sub 2}/SiO{sub 2}/Si(001) substrate by rf-magnetron sputtering deposition techniques. A conventional “sin{sup 2} ψ” method to determine residual stress and strain in BST films by X-ray diffraction is applied. A laser acoustic waves (LA-waves) technique is used to generate surface acoustic waves (SAW) propagating in both samples. Young's modulus E and Poisson ratio ν of BST films in different propagation directions are derived from the measured dispersion curves. Estimation of effective second-order elastic constants of BST thin films in stressed states is served in SAW study. This paper presents an original investigation of AE effect in prestressed Ba{sub 0.65}Sr{sub 0.35}TiO{sub 3} films, where the effective elastic constants and the effect of texture on second and third order elastic tensor are considered and used. The propagation behavior of Rayleigh and Love waves in BST thin films under residual stress is explored and discussed. The guiding velocities affected by residual stresses, reveal some shifts which do not exceed four percent mainly in the low frequency range.

  10. Residual transpiration as a component of salinity stress tolerance mechanism: a case study for barley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasanuzzaman, Md; Davies, Noel W; Shabala, Lana; Zhou, Meixue; Brodribb, Tim J; Shabala, Sergey

    2017-06-19

    While most water loss from leaf surfaces occurs via stomata, part of this loss also occurs through the leaf cuticle, even when the stomata are fully closed. This component, termed residual transpiration, dominates during the night and also becomes critical under stress conditions such as drought or salinity. Reducing residual transpiration might therefore be a potentially useful mechanism for improving plant performance when water availability is reduced (e.g. under saline or drought stress conditions). One way of reducing residual transpiration may be via increased accumulation of waxes on the surface of leaf. Residual transpiration and wax constituents may vary with leaf age and position as well as between genotypes. This study used barley genotypes contrasting in salinity stress tolerance to evaluate the contribution of residual transpiration to the overall salt tolerance, and also investigated what role cuticular waxes play in this process. Leaves of three different positions (old, intermediate and young) were used. Our results show that residual transpiration was higher in old leaves than the young flag leaves, correlated negatively with the osmolality, and was positively associated with the osmotic and leaf water potentials. Salt tolerant varieties transpired more water than the sensitive variety under normal growth conditions. Cuticular waxes on barley leaves were dominated by primary alcohols (84.7-86.9%) and also included aldehydes (8.90-10.1%), n-alkanes (1.31-1.77%), benzoate esters (0.44-0.52%), phytol related compounds (0.22-0.53%), fatty acid methyl esters (0.14-0.33%), β-diketones (0.07-0.23%) and alkylresorcinols (1.65-3.58%). A significant negative correlation was found between residual transpiration and total wax content, and residual transpiration correlated significantly with the amount of primary alcohols. Both leaf osmolality and the amount of total cuticular wax are involved in controlling cuticular water loss from barley leaves under well

  11. Periodic mechanical stress activates EGFR-dependent Rac1 mitogenic signals in rat nucleus pulpous cells via ERK1/2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Gongming [Department of Orthopedics, The Affiliated Changzhou No. 2 Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Changzhou 213003 (China); Shen, Nan [Department of Clinical Pharmacy, The Affiliated Jiangyin Hospital of Southeast University Medical School, Jiangyin 214400 (China); Jiang, Xuefeng; Sun, Huiqing [Department of Orthopedics, The Affiliated Jiangyin Hospital of Southeast University Medical School, Jiangyin 214400 (China); Xu, Nanwei; Zhou, Dong [Department of Orthopedics, The Affiliated Changzhou No. 2 Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Changzhou 213003 (China); Nong, Luming, E-mail: lumingnong@hotmail.com [Department of Orthopedics, The Affiliated Changzhou No. 2 Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Changzhou 213003 (China); Ren, Kewei, E-mail: keweiren@hotmail.com [Department of Orthopedics, The Affiliated Jiangyin Hospital of Southeast University Medical School, Jiangyin 214400 (China)

    2016-01-15

    The mitogenic effects of periodic mechanical stress on nucleus pulpous cells have been studied extensively but the mechanisms whereby nucleus pulpous cells sense and respond to mechanical stimulation remain a matter of debate. We explored this question by performing cell culture experiments in our self-developed periodic stress field and perfusion culture system. Under periodic mechanical stress, rat nucleus pulpous cell proliferation was significantly increased (p < 0.05 for each) and was associated with increases in the phosphorylation and activation of EGFR, Rac1, and ERK1/2 (p < 0.05 for each). Pretreatment with the ERK1/2 selective inhibitor PD98059 reduced periodic mechanical stress-induced nucleus pulpous cell proliferation (p < 0.05 for each), while the activation levels of EGFR and Rac1 were not inhibited. Proliferation and phosphorylation of ERK1/2 were inhibited after pretreatment with the Rac1 inhibitor NSC23766 in nucleus pulpous cells in response to periodic mechanical stress (p < 0.05 for each), while the phosphorylation site of EGFR was not affected. Inhibition of EGFR activity with AG1478 abrogated nucleus pulpous cell proliferation (p < 0.05 for each) and attenuated Rac1 and ERK1/2 activation in nucleus pulpous cells subjected to periodic mechanical stress (p < 0.05 for each). These findings suggest that periodic mechanical stress promotes nucleus pulpous cell proliferation in part through the EGFR-Rac1-ERK1/2 signaling pathway, which links these three important signaling molecules into a mitogenic cascade. - Highlights: • The mechanism involved in nucleus pulpous cells to respond to mechanical stimuli. • Periodic mechanical stress can stimulate the phosphorylation of EGFR. • EGFR activates Rac1 and leads to rat nucleus pulpous cell proliferation. • EGFR and Rac1 activate ERK1/2 mitogenic signals in nucleus pulpous cells. • EGFR-Rac1-ERK1/2 is constitutes at least one critical signal transduction pathway.

  12. Periodic mechanical stress activates EGFR-dependent Rac1 mitogenic signals in rat nucleus pulpous cells via ERK1/2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, Gongming; Shen, Nan; Jiang, Xuefeng; Sun, Huiqing; Xu, Nanwei; Zhou, Dong; Nong, Luming; Ren, Kewei

    2016-01-01

    The mitogenic effects of periodic mechanical stress on nucleus pulpous cells have been studied extensively but the mechanisms whereby nucleus pulpous cells sense and respond to mechanical stimulation remain a matter of debate. We explored this question by performing cell culture experiments in our self-developed periodic stress field and perfusion culture system. Under periodic mechanical stress, rat nucleus pulpous cell proliferation was significantly increased (p < 0.05 for each) and was associated with increases in the phosphorylation and activation of EGFR, Rac1, and ERK1/2 (p < 0.05 for each). Pretreatment with the ERK1/2 selective inhibitor PD98059 reduced periodic mechanical stress-induced nucleus pulpous cell proliferation (p < 0.05 for each), while the activation levels of EGFR and Rac1 were not inhibited. Proliferation and phosphorylation of ERK1/2 were inhibited after pretreatment with the Rac1 inhibitor NSC23766 in nucleus pulpous cells in response to periodic mechanical stress (p < 0.05 for each), while the phosphorylation site of EGFR was not affected. Inhibition of EGFR activity with AG1478 abrogated nucleus pulpous cell proliferation (p < 0.05 for each) and attenuated Rac1 and ERK1/2 activation in nucleus pulpous cells subjected to periodic mechanical stress (p < 0.05 for each). These findings suggest that periodic mechanical stress promotes nucleus pulpous cell proliferation in part through the EGFR-Rac1-ERK1/2 signaling pathway, which links these three important signaling molecules into a mitogenic cascade. - Highlights: • The mechanism involved in nucleus pulpous cells to respond to mechanical stimuli. • Periodic mechanical stress can stimulate the phosphorylation of EGFR. • EGFR activates Rac1 and leads to rat nucleus pulpous cell proliferation. • EGFR and Rac1 activate ERK1/2 mitogenic signals in nucleus pulpous cells. • EGFR-Rac1-ERK1/2 is constitutes at least one critical signal transduction pathway.

  13. Mechanics of couple-stress fluid coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waxman, A. M.

    1982-01-01

    The formal development of a theory of viscoelastic surface fluids with bending resistance - their kinematics, dynamics, and rheology are discussed. It is relevant to the mechanics of fluid drops and jets coated by a thin layer of immiscible fluid with rather general rheology. This approach unifies the hydrodynamics of two-dimensional fluids with the mechanics of an elastic shell in the spirit of a Cosserat continuum. There are three distinct facets to the formulation of surface continuum mechanics. Outlined are the important ideas and results associated with each: the kinematics of evolving surface geometries, the conservation laws governing the mechanics of surface continua, and the rheological equations of state governing the surface stress and moment tensors.

  14. Changes in acetylcholine content, release and muscarinic receptors in rat hippocampus under cold stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fatranska, M.; Budai, D.; Gulya, K; Kvetnansky, R.

    1989-01-01

    The aim was to study the mechanism of the previously established decrease in acetylcholine (ACh) concentration in the rat hippocampus under cold stress. Male rats were exposed for 14 days to cold (5 degree C) or kept (controls) at room temperature (24 degree C). Acetylcholine content, release and muscarinic receptor binding were investigated in the hippocampus. Cold exposure resulted in a decrease of ACh concentration in the dorsal hippocampus. Moreover, the potassium-evoked release of ACh from hippocampal slices was increased and an increase of maximal binding capacity of [ 3 H](-) quinuclidinyl benzilate in the dorsal hippocampus of cold exposed animals was also observed. Thus the decrease of hippocampal ACh concentration under cold exposure is probably due to its increased release. On balance then, our results demonstrate that cold stress in the rat induces significant activation of the hippocampal cholinergic system

  15. Mechanical stress-controlled tunable active frequency-selective surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Bo-Cin; Hong, Jian-Wei; Lo, Cheng-Yao

    2017-01-01

    This study proposes a tunable active frequency-selective surface (AFSS) realized by mechanically expanding or contracting a split-ring resonator (SRR) array. The proposed AFSS transfers mechanical stress from its elastic substrate to the top of the SRR, thereby achieving electromagnetic (EM) modulation without the need for an additional external power supply, meeting the requirements for the target application: the invisibility cloak. The operating mechanism of the proposed AFSS differs from those of other AFSSs, supporting modulations in arbitrary frequencies in the target range. The proposed stress-controlled or strain-induced EM modulation proves the existence of an identical and linear relationship between the strain gradient and the frequency shift, implying its suitability for other EM modulation ranges and applications.

  16. Mechanisms involved in regulation of osteoclastic differentiation by mechanical stress-loaded osteoblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaneuji, Takeshi; Ariyoshi, Wataru; Okinaga, Toshinori; Toshinaga, Akihiro; Takahashi, Tetsu; Nishihara, Tatsuji

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Effect of compressive force on osteoblasts were examined. → Compressive force induced OPG expression and suppressed osteoclastogenesis. → This enhancement of OPG is dependent on Wnt/Ca2+ signal pathway. -- Abstract: Mechanical stress is known to be important for regulation of bone turnover, though the detailed mechanisms are not fully understood. In the present study, we examined the effect of mechanical stress on osteoblasts using a novel compression model. Mouse osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells were embedded in three-dimensional (3D) gels and cultured with continuous compressive force (0-10.0 g/cm 2 ) for 48 h, and the conditioned medium were collected. RAW264.7 cells were then incubated with the conditioned medium for various times in the presence of receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL). Conditioned medium was found to inhibit the differentiation of RAW264.7 cells into osteoclasts induced by RANKL via down-regulation of the expression of tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 6 (TRAF6), phosphorylation of IκBα, and nuclear translocation of p50 and p65. Interestingly, the conditioned medium also had a high level of binding activity to RANKL and blocked the binding of RANK to RANKL. Furthermore, the binding activity of conditioned medium to RANKL was reduced when the 3D gel was supplemented with KN-93, an inhibitor of non-canonical Wnt/Ca 2+ pathway. In addition, expression level of osteoprotegerin (OPG) mRNA was increased in time- and force-dependent manners, and remarkably suppressed by KN-93. These results indicate that osteoblastic cells subjected to mechanical stress produce OPG, which binds to RANKL. Furthermore, this binding activity strongly inhibited osteoclastogenesis through suppression of TRAF6 and the nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) signaling pathway, suggesting that enhancement of OPG expression induced by mechanical stress is dependent on non-canonical Wnt/Ca 2+ pathway.

  17. Mechanisms involved in regulation of osteoclastic differentiation by mechanical stress-loaded osteoblasts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaneuji, Takeshi [Division of Oral and Maxillofacial Reconstructive Surgery, Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Kyushu Dental College, 2-6-1 Manazuru, Kokurakita-ku, Kitakyushu 803-8580 (Japan); Division of Infections and Molecular Biology, Department of Health Promotion, Kyushu Dental College, 2-6-1 Manazuru, Kokurakita-ku, Kitakyushu 803-8580 (Japan); Ariyoshi, Wataru; Okinaga, Toshinori; Toshinaga, Akihiro [Division of Infections and Molecular Biology, Department of Health Promotion, Kyushu Dental College, 2-6-1 Manazuru, Kokurakita-ku, Kitakyushu 803-8580 (Japan); Takahashi, Tetsu [Division of Oral and Maxillofacial Reconstructive Surgery, Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Kyushu Dental College, 2-6-1 Manazuru, Kokurakita-ku, Kitakyushu 803-8580 (Japan); Oral Bioresearch Center, Kyushu Dental College, 2-6-1 Manazuru, Kokurakita-ku, Kitakyushu 803-8580 (Japan); Nishihara, Tatsuji, E-mail: tatsujin@kyu-dent.ac.jp [Division of Infections and Molecular Biology, Department of Health Promotion, Kyushu Dental College, 2-6-1 Manazuru, Kokurakita-ku, Kitakyushu 803-8580 (Japan); Oral Bioresearch Center, Kyushu Dental College, 2-6-1 Manazuru, Kokurakita-ku, Kitakyushu 803-8580 (Japan)

    2011-04-29

    Highlights: {yields} Effect of compressive force on osteoblasts were examined. {yields} Compressive force induced OPG expression and suppressed osteoclastogenesis. {yields} This enhancement of OPG is dependent on Wnt/Ca2+ signal pathway. -- Abstract: Mechanical stress is known to be important for regulation of bone turnover, though the detailed mechanisms are not fully understood. In the present study, we examined the effect of mechanical stress on osteoblasts using a novel compression model. Mouse osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells were embedded in three-dimensional (3D) gels and cultured with continuous compressive force (0-10.0 g/cm{sup 2}) for 48 h, and the conditioned medium were collected. RAW264.7 cells were then incubated with the conditioned medium for various times in the presence of receptor activator of nuclear factor-{kappa}B ligand (RANKL). Conditioned medium was found to inhibit the differentiation of RAW264.7 cells into osteoclasts induced by RANKL via down-regulation of the expression of tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 6 (TRAF6), phosphorylation of I{kappa}B{alpha}, and nuclear translocation of p50 and p65. Interestingly, the conditioned medium also had a high level of binding activity to RANKL and blocked the binding of RANK to RANKL. Furthermore, the binding activity of conditioned medium to RANKL was reduced when the 3D gel was supplemented with KN-93, an inhibitor of non-canonical Wnt/Ca{sup 2+} pathway. In addition, expression level of osteoprotegerin (OPG) mRNA was increased in time- and force-dependent manners, and remarkably suppressed by KN-93. These results indicate that osteoblastic cells subjected to mechanical stress produce OPG, which binds to RANKL. Furthermore, this binding activity strongly inhibited osteoclastogenesis through suppression of TRAF6 and the nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-{kappa}B) signaling pathway, suggesting that enhancement of OPG expression induced by mechanical stress is dependent on non-canonical Wnt

  18. Effect of temperature on the permeability of gas adsorbed coal under triaxial stress conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiangchen; Yan, Xiaopeng; Kang, Yili

    2018-04-01

    The combined effects of gas sorption, stress and temperature play a significant role in the changing behavior of gas permeability in coal seams. The effect of temperature on nitrogen and methane permeability of naturally fractured coal is investigated. Coal permeability, P-wave velocity and axial strain were simultaneously measured under two effective stresses and six different temperatures. The results showed that the behavior of nitrogen and methane permeability presented nonmonotonic changes with increasing temperature. The variation in the P-wave velocity and axial strain showed a good correspondence with coal permeability. A higher effective stress limited the bigger deformation and caused the small change in permeability. Methane adsorption and desorption significantly influence the mechanical properties of coal and play an important role in the variations in coal permeability. The result of coal permeability during a complete stress-strain process showed that the variation in permeability is determined by the evolution of the internal structure. The increase in the temperature of the gas saturated coal causes the complex interaction between matrix swelling, matrix shrinkage and micro-fracture generation, which leads to the complex changes in coal structure and permeability. These results are helpful to understand the gas transport mechanism for exploiting coal methane by heat injection.

  19. Glucocorticoid Mechanisms of Functional Connectivity Changes in Stress-Related Neuropsychiatric Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Baila S; Moda, Rachel N; Liston, Conor

    2015-01-01

    Stress-especially chronic, uncontrollable stress-is an important risk factor for many neuropsychiatric disorders. The underlying mechanisms are complex and multifactorial, but they involve correlated changes in structural and functional measures of neuronal connectivity within cortical microcircuits and across neuroanatomically distributed brain networks. Here, we review evidence from animal models and human neuroimaging studies implicating stress-associated changes in functional connectivity in the pathogenesis of PTSD, depression, and other neuropsychiatric conditions. Changes in fMRI measures of corticocortical connectivity across distributed networks may be caused by specific structural alterations that have been observed in the prefrontal cortex, hippocampus, and other vulnerable brain regions. These effects are mediated in part by glucocorticoids, which are released from the adrenal gland in response to a stressor and also oscillate in synchrony with diurnal rhythms. Recent work indicates that circadian glucocorticoid oscillations act to balance synapse formation and pruning after learning and during development, and chronic stress disrupts this balance. We conclude by considering how disrupted glucocorticoid oscillations may contribute to the pathophysiology of depression and PTSD in vulnerable individuals, and how circadian rhythm disturbances may affect non-psychiatric populations, including frequent travelers, shift workers, and patients undergoing treatment for autoimmune disorders.

  20. [Secondary metabolites accumulating and geoherbs formation under enviromental stress].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Lu-Qi; Guo, Lan-Ping

    2007-02-01

    This paper analyzed how habitat affected the formation of geoherbs after summarizing the influences of environmental stress on plants growth, especially on theirs secondary metabolites accumulating, and introducing 4 kinds hypothesis about environmental stress affects plants. It was then pointed out that environmental stress may have advantage on the formation of geoherbs. The stress effect hypothesis on forming geoherbs was brought forward, and the ways and methods on study the geoherbs under environmental stress was discussed.

  1. Leaf Physiological and Proteomic Analysis to Elucidate Silicon Induced Adaptive Response under Salt Stress in Rosa hybrida 'Rock Fire'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soundararajan, Prabhakaran; Manivannan, Abinaya; Ko, Chung Ho; Muneer, Sowbiya; Jeong, Byoung Ryong

    2017-08-14

    Beneficial effects of silicon (Si) on growth and development have been witnessed in several plants. Nevertheless, studies on roses are merely reported. Therefore, the present investigation was carried out to illustrate the impact of Si on photosynthesis, antioxidant defense and leaf proteome of rose under salinity stress. In vitro-grown, acclimatized Rosa hybrida 'Rock Fire' were hydroponically treated with four treatments, such as control, Si (1.8 mM), NaCl (50 mM), and Si+NaCl. After 15 days, the consequences of salinity stress and the response of Si addition were analyzed. Scorching of leaf edges and stomatal damages occurred due to salt stress was ameliorated under Si supplementation. Similarly, reduction of gas exchange, photosynthetic pigments, higher lipid peroxidation rate, and accumulation of reactive oxygen species under salinity stress were mitigated in Si treatment. Lesser oxidative stress observed was correlated with the enhanced activity and expression of antioxidant enzymes, such as superoxide dismutase, catalase, and ascorbate peroxidase in Si+NaCl treatment. Importantly, sodium transportation was synergistically restricted with the stimulated counter-uptake of potassium in Si+NaCl treatment. Furthermore, two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) results showed that out of 40 identified proteins, on comparison with control 34 proteins were down-accumulated and six proteins were up-accumulated due to salinity stress. Meanwhile, addition of Si with NaCl treatment enhanced the abundance of 30 proteins and downregulated five proteins. Differentially-expressed proteins were functionally classified into six groups, such as photosynthesis (22%), carbohydrate/energy metabolism (20%), transcription/translation (20%), stress/redox homeostasis (12%), ion binding (13%), and ubiquitination (8%). Hence, the findings reported in this work could facilitate a deeper

  2. Various Wolbachia genotypes differently influence host Drosophila dopamine metabolism and survival under heat stress conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruntenko, Nataly Е; Ilinsky, Yury Yu; Adonyeva, Natalya V; Burdina, Elena V; Bykov, Roman A; Menshanov, Petr N; Rauschenbach, Inga Yu

    2017-12-28

    One of the most widespread prokaryotic symbionts of invertebrates is the intracellular bacteria of Wolbachia genus which can be found in about 50% of insect species. Wolbachia causes both parasitic and mutualistic effects on its host that include manipulating the host reproductive systems in order to increase their transmission through the female germline, and increasing the host fitness. One of the mechanisms, promoting adaptation in biological organisms, is a non-specific neuroendocrine stress reaction. In insects, this reaction includes catecholamines, dopamine, serotonin and octopamine, which act as neurotransmitters, neuromodulators and neurohormones. The level of dopamine metabolism correlates with heat stress resistance in Drosophila adults. To examine Wolbachia effect on Drosophila survival under heat stress and dopamine metabolism we used five strains carrying the nuclear background of interbred Bi90 strain and cytoplasmic backgrounds with different genotype variants of Wolbachia (produced by 20 backcrosses of Bi90 males with appropriate source of Wolbachia). Non-infected Bi90 strain (treated with tetracycline for 3 generations) was used as a control group. We demonstrated that two of five investigated Wolbachia variants promote changes in Drosophila heat stress resistance and activity of enzymes that produce and degrade dopamine, alkaline phosphatase and dopamine-dependent arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase. What is especially interesting, wMelCS genotype of Wolbachia increases stress resistance and the intensity of dopamine metabolism, whereas wMelPop strain decreases them. wMel, wMel2 and wMel4 genotypes of Wolbachia do not show any effect on the survival under heat stress or dopamine metabolism. L-DOPA treatment, known to increase the dopamine content in Drosophila, levels the difference in survival under heat stress between all studied groups. The genotype of symbiont determines the effect that the symbiont has on the stress resistance of the host

  3. TensorCalculator: exploring the evolution of mechanical stress in the CCMV capsid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kononova, Olga; Maksudov, Farkhad; Marx, Kenneth A.; Barsegov, Valeri

    2018-01-01

    A new computational methodology for the accurate numerical calculation of the Cauchy stress tensor, stress invariants, principal stress components, von Mises and Tresca tensors is developed. The methodology is based on the atomic stress approach which permits the calculation of stress tensors, widely used in continuum mechanics modeling of materials properties, using the output from the MD simulations of discrete atomic and C_α -based coarse-grained structural models of biological particles. The methodology mapped into the software package TensorCalculator was successfully applied to the empty cowpea chlorotic mottle virus (CCMV) shell to explore the evolution of mechanical stress in this mechanically-tested specific example of a soft virus capsid. We found an inhomogeneous stress distribution in various portions of the CCMV structure and stress transfer from one portion of the virus structure to another, which also points to the importance of entropic effects, often ignored in finite element analysis and elastic network modeling. We formulate a criterion for elastic deformation using the first principal stress components. Furthermore, we show that von Mises and Tresca stress tensors can be used to predict the onset of a viral capsid’s mechanical failure, which leads to total structural collapse. TensorCalculator can be used to study stress evolution and dynamics of defects in viral capsids and other large-size protein assemblies.

  4. Mechanical stress and stress release channels in 10–350 nm palladium hydrogen thin films with different micro-structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, Stefan; Kramer, Thilo; Uchida, Helmut; Dobron, Patrik; Cizek, Jakub; Pundt, Astrid

    2016-01-01

    For thin metal films adhered to rigid substrates hydrogen uptake results in compressive stresses in the GPa range. Stresses affect the thermodynamics as well as the durability of thin films, but many films can release stress above critical stress values. Depending on the films' thickness, microstructure and adhesion to the substrate, which determine the energy available in the nano-sized system, stress release is conducted via different release mechanisms. To evaluate the different mechanisms, Palladium thin films ranging from 10 nm to 350 nm and with three different types of microstructures (nanocrystalline, multi-oriented epitaxy and three-fold epitaxy) are studied with special focus on the mechanical stress. In-situ substrate curvature measurements, XRD stress analyses and acoustic emission (AE) measurements are conducted to determine intrinsic stresses, hydrogen-induced stress changes and stress release signals. By this complementary experimental approach, different stress release mechanisms (named channels) are identified. Discrete stress relaxation (DSR) events are found already within the overall linear elastic stress-strain regime. Energies to stimulate DSRs lay well below the formation energy of dislocations, and may allow the movement of defects pre-existing in the films. For higher strain energies, all studied films can release stress by the formation of new dislocations and plastic deformation. When the adhesion to the substrate is small, an alternative release channel of film buckling opens for thick films.

  5. Mechanism of oxidative stress involved in the toxicity of ZnO nanoparticles against eukaryotic cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Saliani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ZnO NPs (zinc oxide nanoparticles has generated significant scientific interest as a novel antibacterial and anticancer agent. Since oxidative stress is a critical determinant of ZnO NPs-induced damage, it is necessary to characterize their underlying mode of action. Different structural and physicochemical properties of ZnO NPs such as particle surface, size, shape, crystal structure, chemical position, and presence of metals can lead to changes in biological activities including ROS (reactive oxygen species production. However, there are some inconsistencies in the literature on the relation between the physicochemical features of ZnO NPs and their plausible oxidative stress mechanism. Herein, the possible oxidative stress mechanism of ZnO NPs was reviewed. This is worthy of further detailed evaluations in order to improve our understanding of vital NPs characteristics governing their toxicity. Therefore, this study focuses on the different reported oxidative stress paradigms induced by ZnO NPs including ROS generated by NPs, oxidative stress due to the NPs-cell interaction, and role of the particle dissolution in the oxidative damage. Also, this study tries to characterize and understand the multiple pathways involved in oxidative stress induced by ZnO NPs. Knowledge about different cellular signaling cascades stimulated by ZnO NPs lead to the better interpretation of the toxic influences induced by the cellular and acellular parameters. Regarding the potential benefits of toxic effects of ZnO NPs, in-depth evaluation of their toxicity mechanism and various effects of these nanoparticles would facilitate their implementation for biomedical applications.

  6. Effect of thermal stresses on the mechanism of tooth pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oskui, Iman Z; Ashtiani, Mohammed N; Hashemi, Ata; Jafarzadeh, Hamid

    2014-11-01

    Daily hot and cold thermal loadings on teeth may result in structural deformation, mechanical stress, and pain signaling. The aim of this study was to compare the adverse effects of hot and cold beverages on an intact tooth and, then, to provide physical evidence to support the hydrodynamic theory of tooth pain sensation mechanism. Three-dimensional finite element analysis was performed on a premolar model subjected to hot and cold thermal loadings. Elapsed times for heat diffusion and stress detection at the pulp-dentin junction were calculated as measures of the pain sensation. Extreme tensile stress within the enamel resulted in damage in cold loadings. Also, extreme values of stress at the pulpal wall occurred 21.6 seconds earlier than extreme temperatures in hot and cold loadings. The intact tooth was remarkably vulnerable to cold loading. Earlier changes in mechanical stress rather than temperature at the pulp-dentin junction indicate that the dental pain caused by hot or cold beverages may be based on the hydrodynamic theory. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Survival under stress: molecular mechanisms of metabolic rate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Studies in my laboratory are analysing the molecular mechanisms and regulatory events that underlie transitions to and from hypometabolic states In systems including anoxia-tolerant turtles and molluscs, estivating snails and toads, hibernating small mammals, and freeze tolerant frogs and insects. Our newest research ...

  8. Physiological and Molecular Mechanism of Nitric Oxide (NO Involved in Bermudagrass Response to Cold Stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jibiao Fan

    Full Text Available Bermudagrass is widely utilized in parks, lawns, and golf courses. However, cold is a key factor limiting resource use in bermudagrass. Therefore, it is meaningful to study the mechanism of bermudagrass response to cold. Nitric oxide (NO is a crucial signal molecule with multiple biological functions. Thus, the objective of this study was to investigate whether NO play roles in bermudagrass response to cold. Sodium nitroprusside (SNP was used as NO donor, while 2-phenyl-4,4,5,5-tetramentylimidazoline-l-oxyl-3-xide (PTIO plus NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME were applied as NO inhibitor. Wild bermudagrass was subjected to 4 °C in a growth chamber under different treatments (Control, SNP, PTIO + L-NAME. The results indicated lower levels of malondialdehyde (MDA content and electrolyte leakage (EL, higher value for chlorophyll content, superoxide dismutase (SOD and peroxidase (POD activities after SNP treatment than that of PTIO plus L-NAME treatments under cold stress. Analysis of Chlorophyll (Chl a fluorescence transient displayed that the OJIP transient curve was higher after treatment with SNP than that of treated with PTIO plus L-NAME under cold stress. The values of photosynthetic fluorescence parameters were higher after treatment with SNP than that of treated with PTIO plus L-NAME under cold stress. Expression of cold-responsive genes was altered under cold stress after treated with SNP or PTIO plus L-NAME. In summary, our findings indicated that, as an important strategy to protect bermudagrass against cold stress, NO could maintain the stability of cell membrane, up-regulate the antioxidant enzymes activities, recover process of photosystem II (PSII and induce the expression of cold-responsive genes.

  9. Deformation and damage modes of deep argillaceous rocks under hydro-mechanical stresses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vales, F.

    2008-12-01

    An experimental identification of the hydro-mechanical behaviour of an argillite rock is proposed within a multi-scale approach. In particular, interest is focused on the spatial and temporal localization of strain and damage in a specimen during hydro-mechanical loading. Firstly, we describe the techniques used to follow the rock evolutions under loading, and in particular Digital Images Correlation (DIC), Acoustic Emission, microscopy and mercury intrusion porosimetry. Measurement errors and device limitations are discussed. The studied material is the Callovo-Oxfordian indurated argillaceous rock (or argillite) of the Bure site where ANDRA has built an underground research laboratory to study the radioactive waste storage. Petrophysical characterizations and microstructural observations by optical and scanning electron microscopy provide an identification of the constitutive phase and a characterization of their spatial distribution and typical sizes. Argillite can be described as a composite structure with a continuous clay matrix and embedded mineral particles, essentially quartz and carbonates. The typical size of these particles ranges from a few micrometers to a few hundreds micrometers, with an average close to 50 μ.m. The general experimental procedure combines two steps: in a fist time, imposed suctions bring samples to a given degree of water saturation, and, in a second time, uniaxial mechanical compression tests are performed. To understand the evolutions of the material under hydric and mechanical loading, samples are instrumented with standard measurement techniques, but also with Digital Image Correlation, at both the global scale of the sample and the local scale of the composite microstructure, and with Acoustic Emissions recording. Moisture transfers are imposed by controlled suctions on the range of 150 to 2.8 MPa, corresponding to the relative humidity range of 32 to 98%RH. During pure hydric solicitation, the changes in physical parameters

  10. Failure mechanism of monolayer graphene under hypervelocity impact of spherical projectile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Kang; Zhan, Haifei; Hu, De'An; Gu, Yuantong

    2016-09-01

    The excellent mechanical properties of graphene have enabled it as appealing candidate in the field of impact protection or protective shield. By considering a monolayer graphene membrane, in this work, we assessed its deformation mechanisms under hypervelocity impact (from 2 to 6 km/s), based on a serial of in silico studies. It is found that the cracks are formed preferentially in the zigzag directions which are consistent with that observed from tensile deformation. Specifically, the boundary condition is found to exert an obvious influence on the stress distribution and transmission during the impact process, which eventually influences the penetration energy and crack growth. For similar sample size, the circular shape graphene possesses the best impact resistance, followed by hexagonal graphene membrane. Moreover, it is found the failure shape of graphene membrane has a strong relationship with the initial kinetic energy of the projectile. The higher kinetic energy, the more number the cracks. This study provides a fundamental understanding of the deformation mechanisms of monolayer graphene under impact, which is crucial in order to facilitate their emerging future applications for impact protection, such as protective shield from orbital debris for spacecraft.

  11. Mechanisms Underlying the Delayed Activation of the Cap1 Transcription Factor in Candida albicans following Combinatorial Oxidative and Cationic Stress Important for Phagocytic Potency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kos, Iaroslava; Patterson, Miranda J; Znaidi, Sadri; Kaloriti, Despoina; da Silva Dantas, Alessandra; Herrero-de-Dios, Carmen M; d'Enfert, Christophe; Brown, Alistair J P; Quinn, Janet

    2016-03-29

    Following phagocytosis, microbes are exposed to an array of antimicrobial weapons that include reactive oxygen species (ROS) and cationic fluxes. This is significant as combinations of oxidative and cationic stresses are much more potent than the corresponding single stresses, triggering the synergistic killing of the fungal pathogenCandida albicansby "stress pathway interference." Previously we demonstrated that combinatorial oxidative plus cationic stress triggers a dramatic increase in intracellular ROS levels compared to oxidative stress alone. Here we show that activation of Cap1, the major regulator of antioxidant gene expression inC. albicans, is significantly delayed in response to combinatorial stress treatments and to high levels of H2O2 Cap1 is normally oxidized in response to H2O2; this masks the nuclear export sequence, resulting in the rapid nuclear accumulation of Cap1 and the induction of Cap1-dependent genes. Here we demonstrate that following exposure of cells to combinatorial stress or to high levels of H2O2, Cap1 becomes trapped in a partially oxidized form, Cap1(OX-1) Notably, Cap1-dependent gene expression is not induced when Cap1 is in this partially oxidized form. However, while Cap1(OX-1)readily accumulates in the nucleus and binds to target genes following high-H2O2stress, the nuclear accumulation of Cap1(OX-1)following combinatorial H2O2and NaCl stress is delayed due to a cationic stress-enhanced interaction with the Crm1 nuclear export factor. These findings define novel mechanisms that delay activation of the Cap1 transcription factor, thus preventing the rapid activation of the stress responses vital for the survival ofC. albicanswithin the host. Combinatorial stress-mediated synergistic killing represents a new unchartered area in the field of stress signaling. This phenomenon contrasts starkly with "stress cross-protection," where exposure to one stress protects against subsequent exposure to a different stress. Previously we

  12. [The study on metabolic difference of human body affected by active stress and passive stress under special events].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Guang-hong; Gu, Feng; Dong, Zhen-nan; Yuan, Xin-hong; Wang, Ling; Tian, Ya-ping

    2010-05-01

    To study the metabolic difference of body influenced by active stress and passive stress under special events. To detect serum multiple biochemistry index of 57 earthquake rescue medical team and 13 victims of a natural calamity in Wenchuan earthquake by using Hitachi 7600 automatic analyzer. Stress affected biochemistry index deeply. To compared with rescue medical team, the serum ADA, ALP and TG of victims increased obviously and TP, ALB, MAO, Cr, UA, K, Na, Cl, Ca, ApoA1 and HDL decreased obviously. Many biochemistry index have been changed under stress and it relate with stress extent. The human body function status was better in active stress than in passive stress.

  13. Relationship among perceived stress, anxiety, depression and craniocervical pain in nursing professionals under stress at work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Pozzebon

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: The appearance and evolution of some clinical pain conditions may be influenced by stress and other psychosocial factors. Face, head and cervical muscles may increase their activity and tension in the presence of stress, leading to craniocervicomandibular pain in individuals exposed to stress. Objective: To assess the relationship among perceived stress, anxiety, depression and craniocervicomandibular pain in nursing professionals under stress at work. Materials and Methods: Forty-three women under stress at work, according to the Job Stress Scale (JSS, were assessed by the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS, pressure pain threshold, measured by algometry, and muscle sensitivity to hand palpation of the masticatory and cervical muscles. Results: A low moderate level of perceived stress was found in 62.79% of the sample, anxiety in 11.63% and depression in 9.30%. The psychosocial scales correlated with each other. No correlation was found between pressure pain threshold and perceived stress, anxiety and depression. The level of pain to hand palpation correlated with the perceived stress scores. Conclusion: Pressure pain threshold was not influenced by the psychosocial factors assessed. Pain intensity to hand palpation, however, was higher as the perception of stress increased.

  14. Phosphoproteomics reveals the effect of ethylene in soybean root under flooding stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Xiaojian; Sakata, Katsumi; Komatsu, Setsuko

    2014-12-05

    Flooding has severe negative effects on soybean growth. To explore the flooding-responsive mechanisms in early-stage soybean, a phosphoproteomic approach was used. Two-day-old soybean plants were treated without or with flooding for 3, 6, 12, and 24 h, and root tip proteins were then extracted and analyzed at each time point. After 3 h of flooding exposure, the fresh weight of soybeans increased, whereas the ATP content of soybean root tips decreased. Using a gel-free proteomic technique, a total of 114 phosphoproteins were identified in the root tip samples, and 34 of the phosphoproteins were significantly changed with respect to phosphorylation status after 3 h of flooding stress. Among these phosphoproteins, eukaryotic translation initiation factors were dephosphorylated, whereas several protein synthesis-related proteins were phosphorylated. The mRNA expression levels of sucrose phosphate synthase 1F and eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4 G were down-regulated, whereas UDP-glucose 6-dehydrogenase mRNA expression was up-regulated during growth but down-regulated under flooding stress. Furthermore, bioinformatic protein interaction analysis of flooding-responsive proteins based on temporal phosphorylation patterns indicated that eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4 G was located in the center of the network during flooding. Soybean eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4 G has homology to programmed cell death 4 protein and is implicated in ethylene signaling. The weight of soybeans was increased with treatment by an ethylene-releasing agent under flooding condition, but it was decreased when plants were exposed to an ethylene receptor antagonist. These results suggest that the ethylene signaling pathway plays an important role, via the protein phosphorylation, in mechanisms of plant tolerance to the initial stages of flooding stress in soybean root tips.

  15. Lithospheric flexure under the Hawaiian volcanic load: Internal stresses and a broken plate revealed by earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Fred W.

    2016-01-01

    Several lines of earthquake evidence indicate that the lithospheric plate is broken under the load of the island of Hawai`i, where the geometry of the lithosphere is circular with a central depression. The plate bends concave downward surrounding a stress-free hole, rather than bending concave upward as with past assumptions. Earthquake focal mechanisms show that the center of load stress and the weak hole is between the summits of Mauna Loa and Mauna Kea where the load is greatest. The earthquake gap at 21 km depth coincides with the predicted neutral plane of flexure where horizontal stress changes sign. Focal mechanism P axes below the neutral plane display a striking radial pattern pointing to the stress center. Earthquakes above the neutral plane in the north part of the island have opposite stress patterns; T axes tend to be radial. The M6.2 Honomu and M6.7 Kiholo main shocks (both at 39 km depth) are below the neutral plane and show radial compression, and the M6.0 Kiholo aftershock above the neutral plane has tangential compression. Earthquakes deeper than 20 km define a donut of seismicity around the stress center where flexural bending is a maximum. The hole is interpreted as the soft center where the lithospheric plate is broken. Kilauea's deep conduit is seismically active because it is in the ring of maximum bending. A simplified two-dimensional stress model for a bending slab with a load at one end yields stress orientations that agree with earthquake stress axes and radial P axes below the neutral plane. A previous inversion of deep Hawaiian focal mechanisms found a circular solution around the stress center that agrees with the model. For horizontal faults, the shear stress within the bending slab matches the slip in the deep Kilauea seismic zone and enhances outward slip of active flanks.

  16. Enhancement of wind stress evaluation method under storm conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yingjian; Yu, Xiping

    2016-12-01

    Wind stress is an important driving force for many meteorological and oceanographical processes. However, most of the existing methods for evaluation of the wind stress, including various bulk formulas in terms of the wind speed at a given height and formulas relating the roughness height of the sea surface with wind conditions, predict an ever-increasing tendency of the wind stress coefficient as the wind speed increases, which is inconsistent with the field observations under storm conditions. The wave boundary layer model, which is based on the momentum and energy conservation, has the advantage to take into account the physical details of the air-sea interaction process, but is still invalid under storm conditions without a modification. By including the energy dissipation due to the presence of sea spray, which is speculated to be an important aspect of the air-sea interaction under storm conditions, the wave boundary layer model is improved in this study. The improved model is employed to estimate the wind stress caused by an idealized tropical cyclone motion. The computational results show that the wind stress coefficient reaches its maximal value at a wind speed of about 40 m/s and decreases as the wind speed further increases. This is in fairly good agreement with the field data.

  17. Overlapping mechanisms of stress-induced relapse to opioid use disorder and chronic pain: Clinical implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Udi E Ghitza

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Over the past two decades, a steeply growing number of persons with chronic non-cancer pain have been using opioid analgesics chronically to treat it, accompanied by a markedly increased prevalence of individuals with opioid-related misuse, opioid use disorders, emergency department visits, hospitalizations, admissions to drug treatment programs, and drug overdose deaths. This opioid misuse and overdose epidemic calls for well-designed randomized-controlled clinical trials into more skillful and appropriate pain management and for developing effective analgesics which have lower abuse liability and are protective against stress induced by chronic non-cancer pain. However, incomplete knowledge regarding effective approaches to treat various types of pain has been worsened by an under-appreciation of overlapping neurobiological mechanisms of stress, stress-induced relapse to opioid use, and chronic non-cancer pain in patients presenting for care for these conditions. This insufficient knowledge base has unfortunately encouraged common prescription of conveniently-available opioid pain-relieving drugs with abuse liability, as opposed to treating underlying problems using team-based multidisciplinary, patient-centered, collaborative-care approaches for addressing pain and co-occurring stress and risk for opioid use disorder. This paper reviews recent neurobiological findings regarding overlapping mechanisms of stress-induced relapse to opioid misuse and chronic non-cancer pain, and then discusses these in the context of key outstanding evidence gaps and clinical-treatment research directions which may be pursued to fill these gaps. Such research directions, if conducted through well-designed randomized controlled trials, may substantively inform clinical practice in general medical settings on how to effectively care for patients presenting with pain-related distress and these common co-occurring conditions.

  18. Grain boundary cavitation under reversed constant stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hales, R.

    1978-06-01

    The growth of grain boundary cavities by diffusion processes has been examined for cyclic stresses. It is found that the time required to grow a void by a predetermined amount (tsub(t)) is always longer than the time required to shrink the same defect to its original size (tsub(c)) under reversed stress. The ratio tsub(c)/tsub(t) is a function of the magnitude of the applied stress and tensile hold time. Similar calculations have been performed for gas filled bubbles. Similar results to those for voids are found at long hold times, but a significantly different ratio of tsub(c)/tsub(t) is obtained at short times. (author)

  19. Dissecting Regional Variations in Stress Fiber Mechanics in Living Cells with Laser Nanosurgery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanner, Kandice; Boudreau, Aaron; Bissell, Mina J; Kumar, Sanjay

    2010-03-02

    The ability of a cell to distribute contractile stresses across the extracellular matrix in a spatially heterogeneous fashion underlies many cellular behaviors, including motility and tissue assembly. Here we investigate the biophysical basis of this phenomenon by using femtosecond laser nanosurgery to measure the viscoelastic recoil and cell-shape contributions of contractile stress fibers (SFs) located in specific compartments of living cells. Upon photodisruption and recoil, myosin light chain kinase-dependent SFs located along the cell periphery display much lower effective elasticities and higher plateau retraction distances than Rho-associated kinase-dependent SFs located in the cell center, with severing of peripheral fibers uniquely triggering a dramatic contraction of the entire cell within minutes of fiber irradiation. Image correlation spectroscopy reveals that when one population of SFs is pharmacologically dissipated, actin density flows toward the other population. Furthermore, dissipation of peripheral fibers reduces the elasticity and increases the plateau retraction distance of central fibers, and severing central fibers under these conditions triggers cellular contraction. Together, these findings show that SFs regulated by different myosin activators exhibit different mechanical properties and cell shape contributions. They also suggest that some fibers can absorb components and assume mechanical roles of other fibers to stabilize cell shape.

  20. Iron overload in a murine model of hereditary hemochromatosis is associated with accelerated progression of osteoarthritis under mechanical stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camacho, A; Simão, M; Ea, H-K; Cohen-Solal, M; Richette, P; Branco, J; Cancela, M L

    2016-03-01

    Hereditary hemochromatosis (HH) is a disease caused by mutations in the Hfe gene characterised by systemic iron overload and associated with an increased prevalence of osteoarthritis (OA) but the role of iron overload in the development of OA is still undefined. To further understand the molecular mechanisms involved we have used a murine model of HH and studied the progression of experimental OA under mechanical stress. OA was surgically induced in the knee joints of 10-week-old C57BL6 (wild-type) mice and Hfe-KO mice. OA progression was assessed using histology, micro CT, gene expression and immunohistochemistry at 8 weeks after surgery. Hfe-KO mice showed a systemic iron overload and an increased iron accumulation in the knee synovial membrane following surgery. The histological OA score was significantly higher in the Hfe-KO mice at 8 weeks after surgery. Micro CT study of the proximal tibia revealed increased subchondral bone volume and increased trabecular thickness. Gene expression and immunohistochemical analysis showed a significant increase in the expression of matrix metallopeptidase 3 (MMP-3) in the joints of Hfe-KO mice compared with control mice at 8 weeks after surgery. HH was associated with an accelerated development of OA in mice. Our findings suggest that synovial iron overload has a definite role in the progression of HH-related OA. Copyright © 2015 Osteoarthritis Research Society International. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Consumption of polyphenol-rich Morus alba leaves extract attenuates early diabetic retinopathy: the underlying mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoud, Ayman M; Abd El-Twab, Sanaa M; Abdel-Reheim, Eman S

    2017-06-01

    Beneficial effects of white mulberry against diabetes mellitus have been reported. However, the molecular mechanisms of how white mulberry can attenuate diabetic retinopathy remain poorly understood. Here, the mechanism underlying the protective effect of Morus alba leaves ethanolic extract on oxidative stress, inflammation, apoptosis, and angiogenesis in diabetic retinopathy was investigated. Diabetes was induced by injection of streptozotocin. One week after, M. alba (100 mg/kg) was administrated to the rats daily for 16 weeks. Morus alba extract showed high content of polyphenolics and free radical scavenging activity. Oral M. alba administration significantly attenuated hyperglycemia and weight loss, and decreased sorbitol, fructose, protein kinase C, pro-inflammatory cytokines, and oxidative stress markers in retinas of the diabetic rats. Moreover, M. alba produced marked down-regulation of caspase-3 and Bax, with concomitant up-regulation of Bcl-2 in the diabetic retinas. M. alba also reduced the expression of VEGF in the retina. These results indicate that M. alba has protective effect on diabetic retinopathy with possible mechanisms of inhibiting hyperglycemia-induced oxidative stress, apoptosis, inflammation, polyol pathway activation, and VEGF expression in the retina.

  2. Stress-dislocation interaction mechanism in low-temperature thermo-compression sintering of Ag NPs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fuliang; Tang, Zikai; He, Hu

    2018-04-01

    The sintering of metal nanoparticles (NPs) has been widely studied in the field of nanotechnology, and low-temperature sintering has become the industry standard. In this study, a molecular dynamics (MD) model was established to study the sintering behaviour of silver NPs during low-temperature thermo-compression. Primarily, we studied the sintering process, in which the ratio of neck radius to particle radius (x/r) changes. Under a uniaxial pressure, the maximum ratio in the temperature range 420-425 K was 1. According to the change of x/r, the process can be broken down into three stages: the neck-formation stage, neck-growth stage, and neck-stability stage. In addition, the relationship between potential energy, internal stress, and dislocation density during sintering is discussed. The results showed that cycling internal stress played an important role in sintering. Under the uniaxial pressure, the stress-dislocation interaction was found to be the major mechanism for thermo-compression sintering because the plastic deformation product dislocation intensified the diffusion of atoms. Also, the displacement vector, the mean square displacement, and the changing crystal structure during sintering were studied.

  3. Stress-dislocation interaction mechanism in low-temperature thermo-compression sintering of Ag NPs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuliang Wang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The sintering of metal nanoparticles (NPs has been widely studied in the field of nanotechnology, and low-temperature sintering has become the industry standard. In this study, a molecular dynamics (MD model was established to study the sintering behaviour of silver NPs during low-temperature thermo-compression. Primarily, we studied the sintering process, in which the ratio of neck radius to particle radius (x/r changes. Under a uniaxial pressure, the maximum ratio in the temperature range 420–425 K was 1. According to the change of x/r, the process can be broken down into three stages: the neck-formation stage, neck-growth stage, and neck-stability stage. In addition, the relationship between potential energy, internal stress, and dislocation density during sintering is discussed. The results showed that cycling internal stress played an important role in sintering. Under the uniaxial pressure, the stress-dislocation interaction was found to be the major mechanism for thermo-compression sintering because the plastic deformation product dislocation intensified the diffusion of atoms. Also, the displacement vector, the mean square displacement, and the changing crystal structure during sintering were studied.

  4. Relationship among perceived stress, anxiety, depression and craniocervical pain in nursing professionals under stress at work

    OpenAIRE

    Pozzebon,Daniela; Piccin,Chaiane Facco; Silva,Ana Maria Toniolo da; Corrêa,Eliane Castilhos Rodrigues

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Introduction: The appearance and evolution of some clinical pain conditions may be influenced by stress and other psychosocial factors. Face, head and cervical muscles may increase their activity and tension in the presence of stress, leading to craniocervicomandibular pain in individuals exposed to stress. Objective: To assess the relationship among perceived stress, anxiety, depression and craniocervicomandibular pain in nursing professionals under stress at work. Materials and...

  5. Feeding Problems and Their Underlying Mechanisms in the Esophageal Atresia–Tracheoesophageal Fistula Patient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahoney, Lisa; Rosen, Rachel

    2017-01-01

    Feeding difficulties such as dysphagia, coughing, choking, or vomiting during meals, slow eating, oral aversion, food refusal, and stressful mealtimes are common in children with repaired esophageal atresia (EA) and the reasons for this are often multifactorial. The aim of this review is to describe the possible underlying mechanisms contributing to feeding difficulties in patients with EA and approaches to management. Underlying mechanisms for these feeding difficulties include esophageal dysphagia, oropharyngeal dysphagia and aspiration, and aversions related to prolonged gastrostomy tube feeding. The initial diagnostic evaluation for feeding difficulties in a patient with EA may involve an esophagram, videofluoroscopic imaging or fiberoptic endoscopic evaluation during swallowing, upper endoscopy with biopsies, pH-impedance testing, and/or esophageal motility studies. The main goal of management is to reduce the factors contributing to feeding difficulties and may include reducing esophageal stasis, maximizing reflux therapies, treating underlying lung disease, dilating strictures, and altering feeding methods, routes, or schedules. PMID:28620597

  6. Gel-free/label-free proteomic analysis of root tip of soybean over time under flooding and drought stresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin; Oh, MyeongWon; Sakata, Katsumi; Komatsu, Setsuko

    2016-01-01

    Growth in the early stage of soybean is markedly inhibited under flooding and drought stresses. To explore the responsive mechanisms of soybean, temporal protein profiles of root tip under flooding and drought stresses were analyzed using gel-free/label-free proteomic technique. Root tip was analyzed because it was the most sensitive organ against flooding, and it was beneficial to root penetration under drought. UDP glucose: glycoprotein glucosyltransferase was decreased and increased in soybean root under flooding and drought, respectively. Temporal protein profiles indicated that fermentation and protein synthesis/degradation were essential in root tip under flooding and drought, respectively. In silico protein-protein interaction analysis revealed that the inductive and suppressive interactions between S-adenosylmethionine synthetase family protein and B-S glucosidase 44 under flooding and drought, respectively, which are related to carbohydrate metabolism. Furthermore, biotin/lipoyl attachment domain containing protein and Class II aminoacyl tRNA/biotin synthetases superfamily protein were repressed in the root tip during time-course stresses. These results suggest that biotin and biotinylation might be involved in energy management to cope with flooding and drought in early stage of soybean-root tip. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Time dependent voiding mechanisms in polyamide 6 submitted to high stress triaxiality: experimental characterisation and finite element modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selles, Nathan; King, Andrew; Proudhon, Henry; Saintier, Nicolas; Laiarinandrasana, Lucien

    2017-08-01

    Double notched round bars made of semi-crystalline polymer polyamide 6 (PA6) were submitted to monotonic tensile and creep tests. The two notches had a root radius of 0.45 mm, which imposes a multiaxial stress state and a state of high triaxiality in the net (minimal) section of the specimens. Tests were carried out until the failure occurred from one of the notches. The other one, unbroken but deformed under steady strain rate or steady load, was inspected using the Synchrotron Radiation Computed Tomography (SRCT) technique. These 3D through thickness inspections allowed the study of microstructural evolution at the peak stress for the monotonic tensile test and at the beginning of the tertiary creep for the creep tests. Cavitation features were assessed with a micrometre resolution within the notched region. Spatial distributions of void volume fraction ( Vf) and void morphology were studied. Voiding mechanisms were similar under steady strain rates and steady loads. The maximum values of Vf were located between the axis of revolution of the specimens and the notch surface and voids were considered as flat cylinders with a circular basis perpendicular to the loading direction. A model, based on porous plasticity, was used to simulate the mechanical response of this PA6 material under high stress triaxiality. Both macroscopic behaviour (loading curves) and voiding micro-mechanisms (radial distributions of void volume fraction) were accurately predicted using finite element simulations.

  8. Effective Stress Law in Unconventional Reservoirs under Different Boundary Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saurabh, S.; Harpalani, S.

    2017-12-01

    Unconventional reservoirs have attracted a great deal of research interest worldwide during the past two decades. Low permeability and specialized techniques required to exploit these resources present opportunities for improvement in both production rates and ultimate recovery. Understanding subsurface stress modifications and permeability evolution are valuable when evaluating the prospects of unconventional reservoirs. These reservoir properties are functions of effective stress. As a part of this study, effective stress law, specifically the variation of anisotropic Biot's coefficient under various boundary conditions believed to exist in gas reservoirs by different researchers, has been established. Pressure-dependent-permeability (PdK) experiments were carried out on San Juan coal under different boundary conditions, that is, uniaxial strain condition and constant volume condition. Stress and strain in the vertical and horizontal directions were monitored throughout the experiment. Data collected during the experiments was used to determine the Biot's coefficient in vertical and horizontal directions under these two boundary conditions, treating coal as transversely isotropic. The variation of Biot's coefficient was found to be well correlated with the variation in coal permeability. Based on the estimated values of Biot's coefficients, a theory of variation in its value is presented for other boundary conditions. The findings of the study shed light on the inherent behavior of Biot's coefficient under different reservoir boundary conditions. This knowledge can improve the modeling work requiring estimation of effective stress in reservoirs, such as, pressure-/stress- dependent permeability. At the same time, if the effective stresses are known with more certainty by other methods, it enables assessment of the unknown reservoir boundary conditions.

  9. Work related stress and coping mechanisms among bankers in Lagos, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olatona, F A; Ezeobika, E N; Okafor, I P; Owoeye, O B A

    2014-03-01

    This study assessed knowledge, prevalence, associated factors and mechanisms of coping with stress among bankers in Lagos State. It was a descriptive cross sectional study. A two stage sampling technique was used to select two hundred and twenty seven (227) respondents. Data was collected using a structured self administered questionnaire. The analysis was done using Epi-info version 2002 software and Chi Square was used to determine association between variables at p value 0.05. Fischer's Exact test was used where Chi-square was not valid. The age range of respondents was between 20 and 49 years while the mean age was 31.3 +/- 5.0 years. Only 3.6% had good level of knowledge about stress, 42.2% had fair level while more than half of the respondents had poor level of knowledge about stress (54.3%). Majority (67.0%) of the respondents were moderately stressed while one quarter (24.7%) were highly stressed. Majority (92.4%) of the respondents used good coping mechanisms though 69.5% of the respondents also used bad coping mechanisms. A greater proportion of those who had poor knowledge about stress were stressed or highly stressed (p = 0.002). A statistically significant association was also found between the departments in the bank and level of stress of the respondents (p = 0.002). The prevalence of stress was high among the bank workers studied. It is recommended that effective stress management programmes are implemented to address the problem of stress among bank workers.

  10. [Corrective effect of aromatherapy on indices of heart rate variability in students under exam stress conditions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrahamyan, H T; Minasyan, S M

    2016-01-01

    There were investigated changes in indices of the activity of regulatory mechanisms of heart rhythm in student under exam stress conditions and the possibility of their correction with aid of aromatherapy. The examination stress was established to be accompanied by pronounced shifts of integral and spectral indices of heart rhythm in students, indicating to the activation of the sympathetic circuit of Autonomic Nervous System in conditions of examination stress. A positive, relaxation impact of the essential oil of orange on the investigated indices was also recorded. The latter is expressed by weakly pronounced changes or lack of them in data of integral and spectral heart rate indices in students from the experimental group, that indicates to the stabilizing effect of used ethereal oil on the psycho-physiological state of students in conditions of exam stress

  11. Dual mechanisms regulating glutamate decarboxylases and accumulation of gamma-aminobutyric acid in tea (Camellia sinensis) leaves exposed to multiple stresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Xin; Chen, Yiyong; Zhang, Lingyun; Fu, Xiumin; Wei, Qing; Grierson, Don; Zhou, Ying; Huang, Yahui; Dong, Fang; Yang, Ziyin

    2016-03-29

    γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) is one of the major inhibitory neurotransmitters in the central nervous system. It has multiple positive effects on mammalian physiology and is an important bioactive component of tea (Camellia sinensis). GABA generally occurs at a very low level in plants but GABA content increases substantially after exposure to a range of stresses, especially oxygen-deficiency. During processing of tea leaves, a combination of anoxic stress and mechanical damage are essential for the high accumulation of GABA. This is believed to be initiated by a change in glutamate decarboxylase activity, but the underlying mechanisms are unclear. In the present study we characterized factors regulating the expression and activity of three tea glutamate decarboxylase genes (CsGAD1, 2, and 3), and their encoded enzymes. The results suggests that, unlike the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana, there are dual mechanisms regulating the accumulation of GABA in tea leaves exposed to multiple stresses, including activation of CsGAD1 enzymatic activity by calmodulin upon the onset of the stress and accumulation of high levels of CsGAD2 mRNA induced by a combination of anoxic stress and mechanical damage.

  12. Leaf Physiological and Proteomic Analysis to Elucidate Silicon Induced Adaptive Response under Salt Stress in Rosa hybrida ‘Rock Fire’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prabhakaran Soundararajan

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Beneficial effects of silicon (Si on growth and development have been witnessed in several plants. Nevertheless, studies on roses are merely reported. Therefore, the present investigation was carried out to illustrate the impact of Si on photosynthesis, antioxidant defense and leaf proteome of rose under salinity stress. In vitro-grown, acclimatized Rosa hybrida ‘Rock Fire’ were hydroponically treated with four treatments, such as control, Si (1.8 mM, NaCl (50 mM, and Si+NaCl. After 15 days, the consequences of salinity stress and the response of Si addition were analyzed. Scorching of leaf edges and stomatal damages occurred due to salt stress was ameliorated under Si supplementation. Similarly, reduction of gas exchange, photosynthetic pigments, higher lipid peroxidation rate, and accumulation of reactive oxygen species under salinity stress were mitigated in Si treatment. Lesser oxidative stress observed was correlated with the enhanced activity and expression of antioxidant enzymes, such as superoxide dismutase, catalase, and ascorbate peroxidase in Si+NaCl treatment. Importantly, sodium transportation was synergistically restricted with the stimulated counter-uptake of potassium in Si+NaCl treatment. Furthermore, two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS results showed that out of 40 identified proteins, on comparison with control 34 proteins were down-accumulated and six proteins were up-accumulated due to salinity stress. Meanwhile, addition of Si with NaCl treatment enhanced the abundance of 30 proteins and downregulated five proteins. Differentially-expressed proteins were functionally classified into six groups, such as photosynthesis (22%, carbohydrate/energy metabolism (20%, transcription/translation (20%, stress/redox homeostasis (12%, ion binding (13%, and ubiquitination (8%. Hence, the findings reported in this work could facilitate a

  13. β1 subunit stabilises sodium channel Nav1.7 against mechanical stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Körner, Jannis; Meents, Jannis; Machtens, Jan-Philipp; Lampert, Angelika

    2018-06-01

    The voltage-gated sodium channel Nav1.7 is a key player in neuronal excitability and pain signalling. In addition to voltage sensing, the channel is also modulated by mechanical stress. Using whole-cell patch-clamp experiments, we discovered that the sodium channel subunit β1 is able to prevent the impact of mechanical stress on Nav1.7. An intramolecular disulfide bond of β1 was identified to be essential for stabilisation of inactivation, but not activation, against mechanical stress using molecular dynamics simulations, homology modelling and site-directed mutagenesis. Our results highlight the role of segment 6 of domain IV in fast inactivation. We present a candidate mechanism for sodium channel stabilisation against mechanical stress, ensuring reliable channel functionality in living systems. Voltage-gated sodium channels are key players in neuronal excitability and pain signalling. Precise gating of these channels is crucial as even small functional alterations can lead to pathological phenotypes such as pain or heart failure. Mechanical stress has been shown to affect sodium channel activation and inactivation. This suggests that stabilising components are necessary to ensure precise channel gating in living organisms. Here, we show that mechanical shear stress affects voltage dependence of activation and fast inactivation of the Nav1.7 channel. Co-expression of the β1 subunit, however, protects both gating modes of Nav1.7 against mechanical shear stress. Using molecular dynamics simulation, homology modelling and site-directed mutagenesis, we identify an intramolecular disulfide bond of β1 (Cys21-Cys43) which is partially involved in this process: the β1-C43A mutant prevents mechanical modulation of voltage dependence of activation, but not of fast inactivation. Our data emphasise the unique role of segment 6 of domain IV for sodium channel fast inactivation and confirm previous reports that the intracellular process of fast inactivation can be

  14. A study on spalling in soft rock under low confining stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomita, Atsunori; Ebina, Takahito; Toida, Masaru; Shirasagi, Suguru; Kishida, Kiyoshi; Adachi, Toshihisa

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to study spalling in soft rock excavation. During the test cavern excavation of the radioactive waste disposal project, spalling occurred. Therefore, it has been estimated performing the stress path simulation test and measuring the induced stress. In the stress path simulation test, the splitting failure has been confirmed under low confining stress. In the induced stress measurements, the rock mass around the cavern has shifted to the low radial confinement. Hence, spalling in soft rock was interpreted by the splitting failure caused by the induced stress under low confinement. Furthermore, the failure zone was proved by the numerical analysis applying the criterion based on the results of the above triaxial test. (author)

  15. Neuroimmune mechanisms of stress: sex differences, developmental plasticity, and implications for pharmacotherapy of stress-related disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deak, Terrence; Quinn, Matt; Cidlowski, John A; Victoria, Nicole C; Murphy, Anne Z; Sheridan, John F

    2015-01-01

    The last decade has witnessed profound growth in studies examining the role of fundamental neuroimmune processes as key mechanisms that might form a natural bridge between normal physiology and pathological outcomes. Rooted in core concepts from psychoneuroimmunology, this review utilizes a succinct, exemplar-driven approach of several model systems that contribute significantly to our knowledge of the mechanisms by which neuroimmune processes interact with stress physiology. Specifically, we review recent evidence showing that (i) stress challenges produce time-dependent and stressor-specific patterns of cytokine/chemokine expression in the CNS; (ii) inflammation-related genes exhibit unique expression profiles in males and females depending upon individual, cooperative or antagonistic interactions between steroid hormone receptors (estrogen and glucocorticoid receptors); (iii) adverse social experiences incurred through repeated social defeat engage a dynamic process of immune cell migration from the bone marrow to brain and prime neuroimmune function and (iv) early developmental exposure to an inflammatory stimulus (carageenin injection into the hindpaw) has a lasting influence on stress reactivity across the lifespan. As such, the present review provides a theoretical framework for understanding the role that neuroimmune mechanisms might play in stress plasticity and pathological outcomes, while at the same time pointing toward features of the individual (sex, developmental experience, stress history) that might ultimately be used for the development of personalized strategies for therapeutic intervention in stress-related pathologies.

  16. Influence of Interface Gap on the Stress Behaviour of Smart Single Lap Joints Under Time Harmonic Load

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanova Jordanka

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Adhesive joints are frequently used in different composite structures due to their improved mechanical performance and better understanding of the failure mechanics. The application of such structures can be seen in aerospace and high technology components. The authors developed and applied modified shear lag analysis to investigate the hygrothermalpiezoelectric response of a smart single lap joint at environmental conditions (with/without an interface gap along the overlap zone and under dynamic time harmonic mechanical and electric loads. The main key is the study of the appearance of possible delamination along the interface. As illustrative examples, the analytical closed form solution of the structure shear and the axial stresses response, as well as the interface debond length, including influence of mechanical, piezoelectric, thermal characteristics and frequencies is performed and discussed. All results are presented in figures. The comparison of the shear stress and electric fields for both cases of overlap zone (continuous or with a gap is also shown in figures and discussed.

  17. Failure of Sierra White granite under general states of stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingraham, M. D.; Dewers, T. A.; Lee, M.; Holdman, O.; Cheung, C.; Haimson, B. C.

    2017-12-01

    The effect of the intermediate principal stress on the failure of Sierra White granite was investigated by performing tests under true triaxial states of stress. Tests were performed under constant Lode angle conditions with Lode angles ranging from 0 to 30°, pure shear to axisymmetric compression. Results show that the failure of Sierra White granite is heavily dependent on the intermediate principal stress which became more dramatic as the mean stress increased. An analysis of the shear bands formed at failure was performed using an associated flow rule and the Rudnicki and Rice (1975) localization criteria. The localization analysis showed excellent agreement with experimental results. Sandia National Laboratories is a multimission laboratory managed and operated by National Technology and Engineering Solutions of Sandia LLC, a wholly owned subsidiary of Honeywell International Inc. for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-NA0003525.

  18. Stresses in a submarine topography under ocean waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mei, C.C.; McTigue, D.F.

    1984-09-01

    The problem of submarine slope stability is of interest to both offshore engineering and geology. In an uneven topography, the weight above a horizontal plane induces two-dimensional variation in the static stress field. The action of wave pressure, which changes with depth, further introduces excess pore pressure and dynamic stresses in the sea bottom. In the present paper, we combine a simple analytical theory for the static stress by the present authors, and the recent solution by Mei and Foda for wave-induced stresses in a plane poro-elastic sea bed to account for mild bottom slope and wave shoaling, and obtain the effective stress field in a submarine topography under sea waves. Sample results are given for a ridge and a canyon. In particular, the dynamic pore pressure and the combined static and dynamic effective stresses are presented.

  19. Nitrogen accumulation in lucerne (Medicago sativa L. under water deficit stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasileva Viliana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to study nitrogen accumulation in aboveground and root dry mass in lucerne (Medicago sativa L. under water deficit stress, a pot experiment was carried out at the Institute of Forage Crops, Pleven, Bulgaria. The plants were grown under optimum water supply (75-80% FC and 10-days water deficit stress was simulated at the stage of budding by interrupting the irrigation until soil moisture was reduced to 37-40% FC. Mineral nitrogen fertilization (ammonium nitrate at the doses of 40, 80, 120 and 160 mg N kg-1 soil was applied. It was found that nitrogen accumulation in dry aboveground mass was reduced to 18.0%, and in dry root mass to 26.5% under water deficit stress. Mineral nitrogen fertilization contributed to easily overcome the stress conditions of water deficit stress in lucerne.

  20. Role of phi cells and the endodermis under salt stress in Brassica oleracea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Garcia, N; Lopez-Perez, L; Hernandez, M; Olmos, E

    2009-01-01

    Phi cell layers were discovered in the 19th century in a small number of species, including members of the Brassicaceae family. A mechanical role was first suggested for this structure; however, this has never been demonstrated. The main objective of the present work was to analyse the ultrastructure of phi cells, their influence on ion movement from the cortex to the stele, and their contribution to salt stress tolerance in Brassica oleracea. Transmission electron microscopy and X-ray microanalysis studies were used to analyse the subcellular structure and distribution of ions in phi cells and the endodermis under salt stress. Ion movement was analysed using lanthanum as an apoplastic tracer. The ultrastructural results confirm that phi cells are specialized cells showing cell wall ingrowths in the inner tangential cell walls. X-ray microanalysis confirmed a build-up of sodium. Phi thickenings were lignified and lanthanum moved periplasmically at this level. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study reporting the possible role of the phi cells as a barrier controlling the movement of ions from the cortex to the stele. Therefore, the phi cell layer and endodermis seem to be regulating ion transport in Brassica oleracea under salt stress.

  1. Analytical Solution for Stress Field and Intensity Factor in CSTBD under Mixed Mode Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najaf Ali Ghavidel

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Considering the fact that rocks fail faster under tensile stress, rock tensile strength is of greatimportance in applications such as blasting, rock fragmentation, slope stability, hydraulic fracturing,caprock integrity, and geothermal energy extraction. There are two direct and indirect methods tomeasure tensile strength. Since direct methods always encompass difficulties in test setup, indirectmethods, specifically the Brazilian test, have often been employed for tensile strength measurement.Tensile failure is technically attributed to crack propagation in rock. Fracture mechanics hassignificant potential for the determination of crack behaviour as well as propagation pattern. To applyBrazilian tests, cracked disc geometry has been suggested by the International Society for RockMechanics ISRM. Accordingly, a comprehensive study is necessary to evaluate stress field and stressintensity factor (SIF around the crack in the centre of the specimen. In this paper, superpositionprinciple is employed to solve the problem of cracked straight-through Brazilian disc (CSTBD, usingtwo methods of dislocation and complex stress function. Stress field and SIF in the vicinity of thecrack tip are then calculated. With the proposed method, the magnitude of critical load for crackinitiation in structures can be predicted. This method is valid for any crack of any arbitrary length andangle. In addition, numerical modelling has been carried out for the Brazilian disc. Finally, theanalytical solution has been compared with numerical modelling results showing the same outcomefor both methods.

  2. Dynamic Response and Failure Mechanism of Brittle Rocks Under Combined Compression-Shear Loading Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yuan; Dai, Feng

    2018-03-01

    A novel method is developed for characterizing the mechanical response and failure mechanism of brittle rocks under dynamic compression-shear loading: an inclined cylinder specimen using a modified split Hopkinson pressure bar (SHPB) system. With the specimen axis inclining to the loading direction of SHPB, a shear component can be introduced into the specimen. Both static and dynamic experiments are conducted on sandstone specimens. Given carefully pulse shaping, the dynamic equilibrium of the inclined specimens can be satisfied, and thus the quasi-static data reduction is employed. The normal and shear stress-strain relationships of specimens are subsequently established. The progressive failure process of the specimen illustrated via high-speed photographs manifests a mixed failure mode accommodating both the shear-dominated failure and the localized tensile damage. The elastic and shear moduli exhibit certain loading-path dependence under quasi-static loading but loading-path insensitivity under high loading rates. Loading rate dependence is evidently demonstrated through the failure characteristics involving fragmentation, compression and shear strength and failure surfaces based on Drucker-Prager criterion. Our proposed method is convenient and reliable to study the dynamic response and failure mechanism of rocks under combined compression-shear loading.

  3. Disordered long-range internal stresses in deformed copper and the mechanisms underlying plastic deformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levine, Lyle E.; Geantil, Peter; Larson, Bennett C.; Tischler, Jonathan Z.; Kassner, Michael E.; Liu, Wenjun; Stoudt, Mark R.; Tavazza, Francesca

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Axial elastic strains were measured from numerous individual, contiguous dislocation cell walls and cell interiors. → The mean stresses for the cell walls and cell interiors were of opposite sign, in agreement with theoretical predictions. → The separation between the mean cell wall and cell interior stresses was about 20% of the flow stress. → Broad distributions of dipolar stresses were observed that are consistent with a simple size-scaling model. - Abstract: The strength of wavy glide metals increases dramatically during deformation as dislocations multiply and entangle, forming dense dislocation wall structures. Numerous competing models have been proposed for this process but experimental validation and guidance for further model development require new experimental approaches capable of resolving local stresses within the dislocation microstructure. We use three-dimensional X-ray microscopy combining submicrometer spatial resolution with diffracted-beam masking to make direct measurements of axial elastic strain (and thus stress) in individual dislocation cell walls and their adjacent cell interiors in heavily deformed copper. These spatially resolved measurements show broad, asymmetric distributions of dipolar stresses that directly discriminate between long-standing deformation models and demonstrate that the distribution of local stresses is statistically connected to the global behavior through simple rules.

  4. Polyamine modification by acrolein exclusively produces 1,5-diazacyclooctanes: a previously unrecognized mechanism for acrolein-mediated oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsutsui, Ayumi; Imamaki, Rie; Kitazume, Shinobu; Hanashima, Shinya; Yamaguchi, Yoshiki; Kaneda, Masato; Oishi, Shinya; Fujii, Nobutaka; Kurbangalieva, Almira; Taniguchi, Naoyuki; Tanaka, Katsunori

    2014-07-28

    Acrolein, a toxic unsaturated aldehyde generated as a result of oxidative stress, readily reacts with a variety of nucleophilic biomolecules. Polyamines, which produced acrolein in the presence of amine oxidase, were then found to react with acrolein to produce 1,5-diazacyclooctane, a previously unrecognized but significant downstream product of oxidative stress. Although diazacyclooctane formation effectively neutralized acrolein toxicity, the diazacyclooctane hydrogel produced through a sequential diazacyclooctane polymerization reaction was highly cytotoxic. This study suggests that diazacyclooctane formation is involved in the mechanism underlying acrolein-mediated oxidative stress.

  5. A biphasic endothelial stress-survival mechanism regulates the cellular response to vascular endothelial growth factor A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Latham, Antony M.; Odell, Adam F.; Mughal, Nadeem A.; Issitt, Theo; Ulyatt, Clare; Walker, John H.; Homer-Vanniasinkam, Shervanthi; Ponnambalam, Sreenivasan

    2012-01-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A) is an essential cytokine that regulates endothelial function and angiogenesis. VEGF-A binding to endothelial receptor tyrosine kinases such as VEGFR1 and VEGFR2 triggers cellular responses including survival, proliferation and new blood vessel sprouting. Increased levels of a soluble VEGFR1 splice variant (sFlt-1) correlate with endothelial dysfunction in pathologies such as pre-eclampsia; however the cellular mechanism(s) underlying the regulation and function of sFlt-1 are unclear. Here, we demonstrate the existence of a biphasic stress response in endothelial cells, using serum deprivation as a model of endothelial dysfunction. The early phase is characterized by a high VEGFR2:sFlt-1 ratio, which is reversed in the late phase. A functional consequence is a short-term increase in VEGF-A-stimulated intracellular signaling. In the late phase, sFlt-1 is secreted and deposited at the extracellular matrix. We hypothesized that under stress, increased endothelial sFlt-1 levels reduce VEGF-A bioavailability: VEGF-A treatment induces sFlt-1 expression at the cell surface and VEGF-A silencing inhibits sFlt-1 anchorage to the extracellular matrix. Treatment with recombinant sFlt-1 inhibits VEGF-A-stimulated in vitro angiogenesis and sFlt-1 silencing enhances this process. In this response, increased VEGFR2 levels are regulated by the phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase and PKB/Akt signaling pathways and increased sFlt-1 levels by the ERK1/2 signaling pathway. We conclude that during serum withdrawal, cellular sensing of environmental stress modulates sFlt-1 and VEGFR2 levels, regulating VEGF-A bioavailability and ensuring cell survival takes precedence over cell proliferation and migration. These findings may underpin an important mechanism contributing to endothelial dysfunction in pathological states. -- Highlights: ► Endothelial cells mount a stress response under conditions of low serum. ► Endothelial VEGFR levels are

  6. Poor maternal nutrition leads to alterations in oxidative stress, antioxidant defense capacity, and markers of fibrosis in rat islets: potential underlying mechanisms for development of the diabetic phenotype in later life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarry-Adkins, Jane L; Chen, Jian-Hua; Jones, Richard H; Smith, Noel H; Ozanne, Susan E

    2010-08-01

    Low birth weight is associated with glucose intolerance, insulin resistance, and type 2 diabetes (T2D) in later life. Good evidence indicates that the environment plays an important role in this relationship. However, the mechanisms underlying these relationships are defined poorly. Islets are particularly susceptible to oxidative stress, and this condition combined with fibrosis is thought to be instrumental in T2D pathogenesis. Here we use our maternal low-protein (LP) rat model to determine the effect of early diet on oxidative stress and fibrosis in pancreatic islets of male offspring at 3 and 15 mo of age. Islet xanthine oxidase (XO) expression was increased in 15-mo LP offspring, which suggests increased oxidative-stress. Manganese superoxide-dismutase (MnSOD), copper-zinc superoxide dismutase (CuZnSOD), and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) (antioxidant enzymes) were reduced significantly in LP offspring, which indicated impairment of oxidative defense. Expression of fibrosis markers collagen I and collagen III also increased in 15-mo LP offspring. Angiotensin II receptor type I (AT(II)R(1)), induced by hyperglycemia and oxidative-stress, was significantly up-regulated in 15-mo LP offspring. Lipid peroxidation was also increased in 15-mo LP animals. We conclude that maternal protein restriction causes age-associated increased oxidative stress, impairment of oxidative defense, and fibrosis. These findings provide mechanisms by which suboptimal early nutrition can lead to T2D development later in life.

  7. An Evaluation Of Academic Stress And Coping Mechanism Among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study assessed and evaluated academic stress coping mechanisms adopted by married female students in Nigerian tertiary institutions. This was with the aim of exploring the influence of academic stress on married female students‟ academic performance and their coping strategies used to enhance their academic ...

  8. Nrf2 Inhibits Periodontal Ligament Stem Cell Apoptosis under Excessive Oxidative Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanli Liu

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to analyze novel mechanisms underlying Nrf2-mediated anti-apoptosis in periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs in the periodontitis oxidative microenvironment. We created an oxidative stress model with H2O2-treated PDLSCs. We used real-time PCR, Western blotting, TUNEL staining, fluorogenic assay and transfer genetics to confirm the degree of oxidative stress and apoptosis as well as the function of nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2. We demonstrated that with upregulated levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS and malondialdehyde (MDA, the effect of oxidative stress was obvious under H2O2 treatment. Oxidative molecules were altered after the H2O2 exposure, whereby the signaling of Nrf2 was activated with an increase in its downstream effectors, heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1, NAD(PH:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1 and γ-glutamyl cysteine synthetase (γ-GCS. Additionally, the apoptosis levels gradually increased with oxidative stress by the upregulation of caspase-9, caspase-3, Bax and c-Fos levels in addition to the downregulation of Bcl-2. However, there was no alterations in levels of caspase-8. The enhanced antioxidant effect could not mitigate the occurrence of apoptosis. Furthermore, Nrf2 overexpression effectively improved the anti-oxidative levels and increased cell proliferation. At the same time, overexpression effectively restrained TUNEL staining and decreased the molecular levels of caspase-9, caspase-3, Bax and c-Fos, but not that of caspase-8. In contrast, silencing the expression of Nrf2 levels had the opposite effect. Collectively, Nrf2 alleviates PDLSCs via its effects on regulating oxidative stress and anti-intrinsic apoptosis by the activation of oxidative enzymes.

  9. Transmission of vertical soil stress under agricultural tyres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keller, Thomas; Berli, M.; Ruiz, S.

    2014-01-01

    and simulate soil stress under defined loads. Stress in the soil profile at 0.3, 0.5 and 0.7 m depth was measured during wheeling at a water content close to field capacity on five soils (13–66% clay). Stress transmission was then simulated with a semi-analytical model, using vertical stress at 0.1 m depth......The transmission of stress induced by agricultural machinery within an agricultural soil is typically modelled on the basis of the theory of stress transmission in elastic media, usually in the semi-empirical form that includes the “concentration factor” (v). The aim of this paper was to measure...... estimated from tyre characteristics as the upper boundary condition, and v was obtained at minimum deviation between measurements and simulations. For the five soils, we obtained an average v of 3.5 (for stress transmitting from 0.1 to 0.7 m depth). This was only slightly different from v = 3 for which...

  10. Investigating Resulting Residual Stresses during Mechanical Forming Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinlabi, Stephen A.; Fatoba, Olawale S.; Mashinini, Peter M.; Akinlabi, Esther T.

    2018-03-01

    Most manufacturing processes such as machining, welding, heat treatment, laser forming, laser cladding and, laser metal deposition, etc. are subjected to a form of heat or energy to change the geometrical shape thus changing the inherent engineering and structural properties of the material. These changes often cause the development of locked up stresses referred to as residual stresses as a result of these activities. This study reports on the residual stresses developed due to the mechanical forming process to maintain a suitable structural integrity for the formed components. The result of the analysis through the X-ray diffraction confirmed that residual stresses were induced in the manufactured parts and further revealed that residual stresses were compressive in nature as found in the parent material but with values less than the parent material.

  11. Degradation of Ultra-Thin Gate Oxide NMOSFETs under CVDT and SHE Stresses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi-Gang, Hu; Yan-Rong, Cao; Yue, Hao; Xiao-Hua, Ma; Chi, Chen; Xiao-Feng, Wu; Qing-Jun, Zhou

    2008-01-01

    Degradation of device under substrate hot-electron (SHE) and constant voltage direct-tunnelling (CVDT) stresses are studied using NMOSFET with 1.4-nm gate oxides. The degradation of device parameters and the degradation of the stress induced leakage current (SILC) under these two stresses are reported. The emphasis of this paper is on SILC and breakdown of ultra-thin-gate-oxide under these two stresses. SILC increases with stress time and several soft breakdown events occur during direct-tunnelling (DT) stress. During SHE stress, SILC firstly decreases with stress time and suddenly jumps to a high level, and no soft breakdown event is observed. For DT injection, the positive hole trapped in the oxide and hole direct-tunnelling play important roles in the breakdown. For SHE injection, it is because injected hot electrons accelerate the formation of defects and these defects formed by hot electrons induce breakdown. (condensed matter: electronic structure, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties)

  12. Macro-mesoscopic Fracture and Strength Character of Pre-cracked Granite Under Stress Relaxation Condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Junfeng; Yang, Haiqing; Xiao, Yang; Zhou, Xiaoping

    2018-05-01

    The fracture characters are important index to study the strength and deformation behavior of rock mass in rock engineering. In order to investigate the influencing mechanism of loading conditions on the strength and macro-mesoscopic fracture character of rock material, pre-cracked granite specimens are prepared to conduct a series of uniaxial compression experiments. For parts of the experiments, stress relaxation tests of different durations are also conducted during the uniaxial loading process. Furthermore, the stereomicroscope is adopted to observe the microstructure of the crack surfaces of the specimens. The experimental results indicate that the crack surfaces show several typical fracture characters in accordance with loading conditions. In detail, some cleavage fracture can be observed under conventional uniaxial compression and the fractured surface is relatively rough, whereas as stress relaxation tests are attached, relative slip trace appears between the crack faces and some shear fracture starts to come into being. Besides, the crack faces tend to become smoother and typical terrace structures can be observed in local areas. Combining the macroscopic failure pattern of the specimens, it can be deduced that the duration time for the stress relaxation test contributes to the improvement of the elastic-plastic strain range as well as the axial peak strength for the studied material. Moreover, the derived conclusion is also consistent with the experimental and analytical solution for the pre-peak stage of the rock material. The present work may provide some primary understanding about the strength character and fracture mechanism of hard rock under different engineering environments.

  13. Demographic Mechanisms of Reef Coral Species Winnowing from Communities under Increased Environmental Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernhard Riegl

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Winnowing of poorly-adapted species from local communities causes shifts/declines in species richness, making ecosystems increasingly ecologically depauperate. Low diversity can be associated with marginality of environments, which is increasing as climate change impacts ecosystems globally. This paper demonstrates the demographic mechanisms (size-specific mortality, growth, fertility; and metapopulation connectivity associated with population-level changes due to thermal stress extremes for five zooxanthellate reef-coral species. Effects vary among species, leading to predictable changes in population size and, consequently, community structure. The Persian/Arabian Gulf (PAG is an ecologically marginal reef environment with a subset of Indo-Pacific species, plus endemics. Local heating correlates with changes in coral population dynamics and community structure. Recent population dynamics of PAG corals were quantified in two phases (medium disturbed MD 1998–2010 and 2013–2017, severely disturbed SD 1996/8, 2010/11/12 with two stable states of declining coral frequency and cover. The strongest changes in life-dynamics, as expressed by transition matrices solved for MD and SD periods were in Acropora downingi and Porites harrisoni, which showed significant partial and whole-colony mortality (termed “shrinkers”. But in Dipsastrea pallida, Platygyra daedalea, Cyphastraea microphthalma the changes to life dynamics were more subtle, with only partial tissue mortality (termed “persisters”. Metapopulation models suggested recovery predominantly in species experiencing partial rather than whole-colony mortality. Increased frequency of disturbance caused progressive reduction in coral size, cover, and population fecundity. Also, the greater the frequency of disturbance, the more larval connectivity is required to maintain the metapopulation. An oceanographic model revealed important local larval retention and connectivity primarily between

  14. What molecular mechanism is adapted by plants during salt stress ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    What molecular mechanism is adapted by plants during salt stress tolerance? ... Salt stress harmfully shocks agricultural yield throughout the world affecting production whether it is for subsistence or economic outcomes. ... from 32 Countries:.

  15. Regulatory networks in pollen development under cold stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamal Dev Sharma

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Cold stress modifies anthers’ metabolic pathways to induce pollen sterility. Cold-tolerant plants, unlike the susceptible ones, produce high proportion of viable pollen. Anthers in susceptible plants, when exposed to cold stress, increase abscisic acid (ABA metabolism and reduce ABA catabolism. Increased ABA negatively regulates expression of tapetum cell wall bound invertase and monosaccharide transport genes resulting in distorted carbohydrate pool in anther. Cold-stress also reduces endogenous levels of the bioactive gibberellins (GAs, GA4 and GA7, in susceptible anthers by repression of the GA biosynthesis genes. Here we discuss recent findings on mechanisms of cold susceptibility in anthers which determine pollen sterility. We also discuss differences in regulatory pathways between cold-stressed anthers of susceptible and tolerant plants that decide pollen sterility or viability.

  16. Cyclic life of superalloy IN738LC under in-phase and out-of-phase thermo-mechanical fatigue loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Hongjun; Wahi, R.P.; Wever, H.

    1995-01-01

    The cyclic life of IN738LC, a widely used nickel base superalloy for blades in stationary gas turbines, was investigated under thermo-mechanical fatigue loading using a temperature variation range of 1023 to 1223 K, with temperature variation rate in the range of 6 to 15 K/min. Simple thermo-mechanical cycles with linear sequences corresponding to in-phase (IP) and out-of-phase (OP) tests were performed. Both the IP and OP tests were carried out at different constant mechanical strain ranges varied between 0.8 to 2.0% and at a constant mechanical strain rate of 10 -5 s -1 . Thermo-mechanical fatigue lives under both test conditions were compared with each other and with those of isothermal LCF tests at a temperature of 1223 K. The results show that the life under thermo-mechanical fatigue is strongly dependent on the nature of the test, i.e. stress controlled or strain controlled. (orig.)

  17. Examining an underlying mechanism between perceived stress and smoking cessation-related outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robles, Zuzuky; Garey, Lorra; Hogan, Julianna; Bakhshaie, Jafar; Schmidt, Norman B; Zvolensky, Michael J

    2016-07-01

    The mediational role of negative reinforcement smoking outcome expectancies in the relation between perceived stress and (1) perceived barriers to cessation, (2) severity of problematic symptoms during past quit attempts, and (3) smoking-specific experiential avoidance (AIS) was examined. Data were drawn from a baseline assessment of a larger clinical trial. Participants included 332 adult treatment-seeking smokers (47.3% female; Mage=38.45; SD=.50; age range: 18-65 years). Results indicated that perceived stress was indirectly related to perceived barriers to smoking cessation, severity of problematic symptoms during past quit attempts, and AIS through negative reinforcement outcome expectancies. These results were evident after accounting for the variance explained by gender, negative affectivity, and alternative outcome expectancies for smoking. The present findings suggest that smokers with greater perceived stress experience greater negative reinforcement smoking expectancies, which in turn, may be related to numerous processes involved in the maintenance of smoking. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Dissipative properties of materials with microplastic mechanism of damping under conditions of separate and joint action of static stresses and temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shpak, D.E.

    1985-01-01

    Static stress and temperature are studied experimentally for their separate and joint effect on dissipative properties of VT3-1 and Ehp 718 alloys whose dissipation energy is conditioned by microplastic strains. The results of the study are presented. It is shown that for the materials studied in contrast to the materials with other basic damping mechanisms joint effect of static stresses and temperature is close to a simple summation of the separate effect of these factors without any changes in the character of energy dissipation dependence

  19. Dissipative properties of materials with microplastic mechanism of damping under conditions of separate and joint action of static stresses and temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shpak, D.E.

    1985-01-01

    Static stress and temperature are studied experimentally for their separate and joint effect on dissipative properties of VT3-1 and Ehp 718 alloys whose dissipation energy is conditioned by microplastic strains. The results of the study are presented. It is shown that for the materials studied in contrast to the materials with other basic damping mechanisms joint effect of static stresses and temperature is close to a simple summation of the separate effect of these factors without any changes in the character of energy dissipation dependence.

  20. Investigations into stress shell characteristics of surrounding rock in fully mechanized top-coal caving face

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie, G.X.; Chang, J.C.; Yang, K. [Anhui University of Science and Technology, Huainan (China)

    2009-01-15

    A key issue in underground mining is to understand and master the evolving patterns of stress induced by mining, and to control and utilize the action of rock pressure. Numerical and physical modeling tests have been carried out to investigate the distribution patterns of stress in the rock surrounding a fully mechanized top-coal caving (FMTC) face. The results showed that a macro-stress shell composed of high stress exists in the rock surrounding an FMTC face. The stress of the shell is higher than its internal and external stress and the stresses at its skewback producing abutment pressure for the surrounding rock. The stress shell lies in the virgin coal and rock mass in the vicinity of the face and its sagging zone. The stress shell, which bears and transfers the loads of overlying strata, acts as the primary supporting system of forces, and is the corpus of characterizing three-dimensional and macro-rock pressure distribution of mining face. Its external and internal shape changes with the variations in the working face structure as the face advances. Within the low-stress zone inside the stress shell, another structure, i.e. voussoir beam, which only bears parts of the load from the lower-lying strata, will produce periodic pressures on the face instead of great dynamic pressure even if the beam ruptures and loses stability. The results show that the FMTC face is situated within the lower-stress zone, which is protected by the stress shell of the overlying surrounding rock. We give an explanation of lower occurrence of rock pressure on FMTC faces, and reveal the mechanical nature of the top coal of an FMTC face acting as a 'cushion'. The strata behaviors of the face and its neighboring gates are under control of the stress shell. Drastic rock pressure in mine may occur when the balance of the stress shell is destruction or the forces system of the stress shell transfers. Crown Copyright

  1. "Effects of Stress on Decisions Under Uncertainty: A Meta-Analysis": Correction to Starcke and Brand (2016).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    Reports an error in "Effects of Stress on Decisions Under Uncertainty: A Meta-Analysis" by Katrin Starcke and Matthias Brand ( Psychological Bulletin , Advanced Online Publication, May 23, 2016, np). It should have been reported that the inverted u-shaped relationship between cortisol stress responses and decision-making performance was only observed in female, but not in male participants as suggested by the study by van den Bos, Harteveld, and Stoop (2009). Corrected versions of the affected sentences are provided. (The following abstract of the original article appeared in record 2016-25465-001.) The purpose of the present meta-analysis was to quantify the effects that stress has on decisions made under uncertainty. We hypothesized that stress increases reward seeking and risk taking through alterations of dopamine firing rates and reduces executive control by hindering optimal prefrontal cortex functioning. In certain decision situations, increased reward seeking and risk taking is dysfunctional, whereas in others, this is not the case. We also assumed that the type of stressor plays a role. In addition, moderating variables are analyzed, such as the hormonal stress response, the time between stress onset and decisions, and the participants' age and gender. We included studies in the meta-analysis that investigated decision making after a laboratory stress-induction versus a control condition (k = 32 datasets, N = 1829 participants). A random-effects model revealed that overall, stress conditions lead to decisions that can be described as more disadvantageous, more reward seeking, and more risk taking than nonstress conditions (d = .17). In those situations in which increased reward seeking and risk taking is disadvantageous, stress had significant effects (d = .26), whereas in other situations, no effects were observed (d = .01). Effects were observed under processive stressors (d = .19), but not under systemic ones (d = .09). Moderation analyses did not

  2. Growth rate analysis and protein identification of Kappaphycus alvarezii (Rhodophyta, Gigartinales under pH induced stress culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mian Zi Tee

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Environmental pH is one of the factors contributing to abiotic stress which in turn influences the growth and development of macroalgae. This study was conducted in order to assess the growth and physiological changes in Kappaphycus alvarezii under different pH conditions: pHs 6, ∼8.4 (control and 9. K. alvarezii explants exhibited a difference in the daily growth rate (DGR among the different pH treatments (p ≤ 0.05. The highest DGR was observed in control culture with pH ∼8.4 followed by alkaline (pH 9 and acidic (pH 6 induced stress cultures. Protein expression profile was generated from different pH induced K. alvarezii cultures using sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE followed by protein identification and analysis using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometer (MALDI-TOF-MS and Mascot software. Ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase (Rubisco large chain was identified to be up-regulated under acidic (pH 6 condition during the second and fourth week of culture. The findings indicated that Rubisco can be employed as a biomarker for pH induced abiotic stress. Further study on the association between the expression levels of Rubisco large chain and their underlying mechanisms under pH stress conditions is recommended.

  3. Sex-specific mechanisms for responding to stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bangasser, Debra A; Wicks, Brittany

    2017-01-02

    Posttraumatic stress disorder and major depression share stress as an etiological contributor and are more common in women than in men. Traditionally, preclinical studies investigating the neurobiological underpinnings of stress vulnerability have used only male rodents; however, recent studies that include females are finding sex-specific mechanisms for responding to stress. This Mini-Review examines recent literature using a framework developed by McCarthy and colleagues (2012; J Neurosci 32:2241-2247) that highlights different types of sex differences. First, we detail how learned fear responses in rats are sexually dimorphic. Then, we contrast this finding with fear extinction, which is similar in males and females at the behavioral level but at the circuitry level is associated with sex-specific cellular changes and, thus, exemplifies a sex convergence. Next, sex differences in stress hormones are detailed. Finally, the effects of stress on learning, attention, and arousal are used to highlight the concept of a sex divergence in which the behavior of males and females is similar at baseline but diverges following stressor exposure. We argue that appreciating and investigating the diversity of sex differences in stress response systems will improve our understanding of vulnerability and resilience to stress-related psychiatric disorders and likely lead to the development of novel therapeutics for better treatment of these disorders in both men and women. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Microcracking in composite laminates under thermal and mechanical loading. Thesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddocks, Jason R.

    1995-01-01

    Composites used in space structures are exposed to both extremes in temperature and applied mechanical loads. Cracks in the matrix form, changing the laminate thermoelastic properties. The goal of the present investigation is to develop a predictive methodology to quantify microcracking in general composite laminates under both thermal and mechanical loading. This objective is successfully met through a combination of analytical modeling and experimental investigation. In the analysis, the stress and displacement distributions in the vicinity of a crack are determined using a shear lag model. These are incorporated into an energy based cracking criterion to determine the favorability of crack formation. A progressive damage algorithm allows the inclusion of material softening effects and temperature-dependent material properties. The analysis is implemented by a computer code which gives predicted crack density and degraded laminate properties as functions of any thermomechanical load history. Extensive experimentation provides verification of the analysis. AS4/3501-6 graphite/epoxy laminates are manufactured with three different layups to investigate ply thickness and orientation effects. Thermal specimens are cooled to progressively lower temperatures down to -184 C. After conditioning the specimens to each temperature, cracks are counted on their edges using optical microscopy and in their interiors by sanding to incremental depths. Tensile coupons are loaded monotonically to progressively higher loads until failure. Cracks are counted on the coupon edges after each loading. A data fit to all available results provides input parameters for the analysis and shows them to be material properties, independent of geometry and loading. Correlation between experiment and analysis is generally very good under both thermal and mechanical loading, showing the methodology to be a powerful, unified tool. Delayed crack initiation observed in a few cases is attributed to a

  5. Stresses in a submarine topography under ocean waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mei, C.C.; McTigue, D.F.

    1984-01-01

    The problem of submarine slope stability is of interest to both offshore engineering and geology. In an uneven topography, the weight above a horizontal plane induces two-dimensional variation in the static stress field. The action of wave pressure, which changes with depth, further introduces excess pore pressure and dynamic stresses in the sea bottom. In the present paper, we combine a simple analytical theory for the static stress by the present authors, and the recent solution by Mei and Foda for wave-induced stresses in a plane poro-elastic sea bed to account for mild bottom slope and wave shoaling, to obtain the effective stress field in a submarine topography under sea waves. Sample results are given for a ridge and a canyon. In particular the dynamic pore pressure and the combined static and dynamic effective stresses are presented. 10 references, 11 figures.

  6. Mechanisms Underlying HIV-Associated Noninfectious Lung Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presti, Rachel M; Flores, Sonia C; Palmer, Brent E; Atkinson, Jeffrey J; Lesko, Catherine R; Lau, Bryan; Fontenot, Andrew P; Roman, Jesse; McDyer, John F; Twigg, Homer L

    2017-11-01

    Pulmonary disease remains a primary source of morbidity and mortality in persons living with HIV (PLWH), although the advent of potent combination antiretroviral therapy has resulted in a shift from predominantly infectious to noninfectious pulmonary complications. PLWH are at high risk for COPD, pulmonary hypertension, and lung cancer even in the era of combination antiretroviral therapy. The underlying mechanisms of this are incompletely understood, but recent research in both human and animal models suggests that oxidative stress, expression of matrix metalloproteinases, and genetic instability may result in lung damage, which predisposes PLWH to these conditions. Some of the factors that drive these processes include tobacco and other substance use, direct HIV infection and expression of specific HIV proteins, inflammation, and shifts in the microbiome toward pathogenic and opportunistic organisms. Further studies are needed to understand the relative importance of these factors to the development of lung disease in PLWH. Copyright © 2017 American College of Chest Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Triathletes Lose Their Advantageous Pain Modulation under Acute Psychosocial Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geva, Nirit; Pruessner, Jens; Defrin, Ruth

    2017-02-01

    Triathletes, who constantly engage in intensely stressful sport, were recently found to exhibit greater pain tolerance and more efficient pain inhibition capabilities than nonathletes. However, pain inhibition correlated negatively with retrospective reports of mental stress during training and competition. The aim of the current study was to test pain inhibition capabilities of triathletes under acute, controlled psychological stress manipulation. Participants were 25 triathletes and ironman triathletes who underwent the measurement of pain threshold, pain intolerance, tonic suprathreshold pain, and conditioned pain modulation before and during exposure to the Montreal Imaging Stress Task (MIST). Perceived ratings of stress and anxiety, autonomic variables, and salivary cortisol levels were obtained as indices of stress. The MIST induced a significant stress reaction manifested in the subjective and objective indices. Overall, a significant reduction in pain threshold and in conditioned pain modulation efficacy was observed after the MIST, which reached the baseline levels observed previously in nonathletes. Paradoxically, the magnitude of this stress-induced hyperalgesia (SIH) correlated negatively with the magnitude of the stress response; low-stress responders exhibited greater SIH than high-stress responders. The results suggest that under acute psychological stress, triathletes not only react with SIH and a reduction in pain modulation but also lose their advantageous pain modulation over nonathletes. The stronger the stress response recorded, the weaker the SIH. It appears that triathletes are not resilient to stress, responding with an increase in the sensitivity to pain as well as a decrease in pain inhibition. The possible effects of athletes' baseline pain profile and stress reactivity on SIH are discussed.

  8. Stress analysis in high-temperature superconductors under pulsed field magnetization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Haowei; Yong, Huadong; Zhou, Youhe

    2018-04-01

    Bulk high-temperature superconductors (HTSs) have a high critical current density and can trap a large magnetic field. When bulk superconductors are magnetized by the pulsed field magnetization (PFM) technique, they are also subjected to a large electromagnetic stress, and the resulting thermal stress may cause cracking of the superconductor due to the brittle nature of the sample. In this paper, based on the H-formulation and the law of heat transfer, we can obtain the distributions of electromagnetic field and temperature, which are in qualitative agreement with experiment. After that, based on the dynamic equilibrium equations, the mechanical response of the bulk superconductor is determined. During the PFM process, the change in temperature has a dramatic effect on the radial and hoop stresses, and the maximum radial and hoop stress are 24.2 {{MPa}} and 22.6 {{MPa}}, respectively. The mechanical responses of a superconductor for different cases are also studied, such as the peak value of the applied field and the size of bulk superconductors. Finally, the stresses are also presented for different magnetization methods.

  9. Stress Biology and Aging Mechanisms: Toward Understanding the Deep Connection Between Adaptation to Stress and Longevity

    OpenAIRE

    Epel, Elissa S.; Lithgow, Gordon J.

    2014-01-01

    The rate of biological aging is modulated in part by genes interacting with stressor exposures. Basic research has shown that exposure to short-term stress can strengthen cellular responses to stress (“hormetic stress”). Hormetic stress promotes longevity in part through enhanced activity of molecular chaperones and other defense mechanisms. In contrast, prolonged exposure to stress can overwhelm compensatory responses (“toxic stress”) and shorten lifespan. One key question is whether the str...

  10. A Cascade Disaster Caused by Geological and Coupled Hydro-Mechanical Factors—Water Inrush Mechanism from Karst Collapse Column under Confining Pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Li

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The water inrush from karst collapse column (KCC is a cascading, vicious cycle disaster caused by geological and mining activities, that can cause serious casualties and property losses. The key to preventing this risk is to study the mechanism of water inrush under confining pressure. Aiming at the investigationg the characteristics of the KCC named X1 in Chensilou mine, a series of methods, including connectivity experiments, water pressure monitoring tests in two side-walls, and numerical simulations based on plastic damage-seepage (PD-S theory have been developed. The methods are used to test the security of the 2519 mining area, the damage thickness, pore water pressure, and seepage vector in the X1. The results indicate that the X1 has a certain water blocking capacity. In addition, with the decrease of confining pressure and increase of shear stress, deviatoric stress could cause the increase of permeability, the reduction of strength, and the reduction of pore water pressure in KCC. Therefore the increased effective stress in the rock will force the rock to become more fractured. Conversely, the broken rock could cause the change of stress, and further initiate new plastic strains, damage and pore water pressure until a new equilibrium is reached. This cascading water inrush mechanism will contribute to the exploitation of deep coal resources in complex geological and hydrogeological conditions.

  11. Measurement of the uniaxial mechanical properties of rat skin using different stress-strain definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, A; Navidbakhsh, M

    2015-05-01

    The mechanical properties of skin tissue may vary according to the anatomical locations of a body. There are different stress-strain definitions to measure the mechanical properties of skin tissue. However, there is no agreement as to which stress-strain definition should be implemented to measure the mechanical properties of skin at different anatomical locations. Three stress definitions (second Piola-Kichhoff stress, engineering stress, and true stress) and four strain definitions (Almansi-Hamel strain, Green-St. Venant strain, engineering strain, and true strain) are employed to determine the mechanical properties of skin tissue at back and abdomen locations of a rat body. The back and abdomen skins of eight rats are excised and subjected to a series of tensile tests. The elastic modulus, maximum stress, and strain of skin tissues are measured using three stress definitions and four strain definitions. The results show that the effect of varying the stress definition on the maximum stress measurements of the back skin is significant but not when calculating the elastic modulus and maximum strain. No significant effects are observed on the elastic modulus, maximum stress, and strain measurements of abdomen skin by varying the stress definition. In the true stress-strain diagram, the maximum stress (20%), and elastic modulus (35%) of back skin are significantly higher than that of abdomen skin. The true stress-strain definition is favored to measure the mechanical properties of skin tissue since it gives more accurate measurements of the skin's response using the instantaneous values. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Thermal and mechanical stresses in a functionally graded thick sphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eslami, M.R.; Babaei, M.H.; Poultangari, R.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, a general solution for the one-dimensional steady-state thermal and mechanical stresses in a hollow thick sphere made of functionally graded material is presented. The temperature distribution is assumed to be a function of radius, with general thermal and mechanical boundary conditions on the inside and outside surfaces of the sphere. The material properties, except Poisson's ratio, are assumed to vary along the radius r according to a power law function. The analytical solution of the heat conduction equation and the Navier equation lead to the temperature profile, radial displacement, radial stress, and hoop stress as a function of radial direction

  13. Neural mechanisms underlying changes in stress-sensitivity across the menstrual cycle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ossewaarde, Lindsey; Hermans, Erno J.; van Wingen, Guido A.; Kooijman, Sabine C.; Johansson, Inga-Maj; Bäckström, Torbjörn; Fernández, Guillén

    2010-01-01

    Hormonal fluctuations across the menstrual cycle are thought to play a central role in premenstrual mood symptoms. In agreement, fluctuations in gonadal hormone levels affect brain processes in regions involved in emotion regulation. Recent findings, however, implicate psychological stress as a

  14. Neural mechanisms underlying changes in stress-sensitivity across the menstrual cycle.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ossewaarde, L.; Hermans, E.J.; Wingen, G.A. van; Kooijman, S.C.; Johansson, I.M.; Backstrom, T.; Fernandez, G.S.E.

    2010-01-01

    Hormonal fluctuations across the menstrual cycle are thought to play a central role in premenstrual mood symptoms. In agreement, fluctuations in gonadal hormone levels affect brain processes in regions involved in emotion regulation. Recent findings, however, implicate psychological stress as a

  15. Relation between stress-precipitated seizures and the stress response in childhood epilepsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Campen, Jolien S.; Jansen, Floor E.; Pet, Milou A.; Otte, Willem M.; Hillegers, Manon H J; Joëls, Marian; Braun, Kees P J

    2015-01-01

    The majority of patients with epilepsy report that seizures are sometimes triggered or provoked. Stress is the most frequently self-reported seizure-precipitant. The mechanisms underlying stress-sensitivity of seizures are currently unresolved. We hypothesized that stress-sensitivity of seizures

  16. De novo transcriptome sequencing of two cultivated jute species under salinity stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zemao Yang

    Full Text Available Soil salinity, a major environmental stress, reduces agricultural productivity by restricting plant development and growth. Jute (Corchorus spp., a commercially important bast fiber crop, includes two commercially cultivated species, Corchorus capsularis and Corchorus olitorius. We conducted high-throughput transcriptome sequencing of 24 C. capsularis and C. olitorius samples under salt stress and found 127 common differentially expressed genes (DEGs; additionally, 4489 and 492 common DEGs were identified in the root and leaf tissues, respectively, of both Corchorus species. Further, 32, 196, and 11 common differentially expressed transcription factors (DTFs were detected in the leaf, root, or both tissues, respectively. Several Gene Ontology (GO terms were enriched in NY and YY. A Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes analysis revealed numerous DEGs in both species. Abscisic acid and cytokinin signal pathways enriched respectively about 20 DEGs in leaves and roots of both NY and YY. The Ca2+, mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling and oxidative phosphorylation pathways were also found to be related to the plant response to salt stress, as evidenced by the DEGs in the roots of both species. These results provide insight into salt stress response mechanisms in plants as well as a basis for future breeding of salt-tolerant cultivars.

  17. Tolerance analysis of chloroplast OsCu/Zn-SOD overexpressing rice under NaCl and NaHCO3 stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingjie Guan

    Full Text Available The 636-bp-long cDNA sequence of OsCu/Zn-SOD (AK059841 was cloned from Oryza sativa var. Longjing11 via reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR. The encoded protein comprised of 211 amino acids is highly homologous to Cu/Zn-SOD proteins from tuscacera rice and millet. Quantitative RT-PCR revealed that in rice, the level of OsCu/Zn-SOD gene expression was lowest in roots and was highest in petals and during the S5 leaf stage. Moreover, the expression level of OsCu/Zn-SOD gene expression decreased during the L5 leaf stage to maturity. The level of OsCu/Zn-SOD gene expression, however, was increased under saline-sodic stress and NaHCO3 stress. Germination tests under 125, 150, and 175 mM NaCl revealed that OsCu/Zn-SOD-overexpressing lines performed better than the non-transgenic (NT Longjing11 lines in terms of germination rate and height. Subjecting seedlings to NaHCO3 and water stress revealed that OsCu/Zn-SOD-overexpressing lines performed better than NT in terms of SOD activity, fresh weight, root length, and height. Under simulated NaHCO3 stress, OsCu/Zn-SOD-overexpressing lines performed better than NT in terms of survival rate (25.19% > 6.67% and yield traits (average grain weight 20.6 > 18.15 g. This study showed that OsCu/Zn-SOD gene overexpression increases the detoxification capacity of reactive oxygen species in O. sativa and reduces salt-induced oxidative damage. We also revealed the regulatory mechanism of OsCu/Zn-SOD enzyme in saline-sodic stress resistance in O. sativa. Moreover, we provided an experimental foundation for studying the mechanism of OsCu/Zn-SOD enzymes in the chloroplast.

  18. Evaluation of a miniature magnetostrictive actuator using Galfenol under tensile stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueno, Toshiyuki; Miura, Hidemitsu; Yamada, Sotoshi

    2011-01-01

    We are, at present, developing miniature actuators using an iron-gallium alloy (Galfenol). Galfenol is an iron-based magnetostrictive material with magnetostriction exceeding 200 ppm, Young's modulus of 70 GPa and a high relative permeability (>100). The advantages of an actuator using this material are capability of miniaturization, stability against external force, low voltage driving and high power. In this study, a miniature vibrator using an E core of Galfenol under tensile stress up to 20 MPa was investigated. The vibrator did not fracture and maintained the magnetostriction even under a high tensile stress. In addition, the resonance frequency, unchanged under the tensile stress, was lower than the cutoff frequency, hence the vibrator can be driven with a low voltage even in resonance driving. The temperature rise in resonance driving was low and creep was not observed in resonance driving under tensile stress. The vibrator will be applicable in flat panel or bone conductive speakers.

  19. Evaluation of a miniature magnetostrictive actuator using Galfenol under tensile stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueno, Toshiyuki; Miura, Hidemitsu; Yamada, Sotoshi

    2011-02-01

    We are, at present, developing miniature actuators using an iron-gallium alloy (Galfenol). Galfenol is an iron-based magnetostrictive material with magnetostriction exceeding 200 ppm, Young's modulus of 70 GPa and a high relative permeability (>100). The advantages of an actuator using this material are capability of miniaturization, stability against external force, low voltage driving and high power. In this study, a miniature vibrator using an E core of Galfenol under tensile stress up to 20 MPa was investigated. The vibrator did not fracture and maintained the magnetostriction even under a high tensile stress. In addition, the resonance frequency, unchanged under the tensile stress, was lower than the cutoff frequency, hence the vibrator can be driven with a low voltage even in resonance driving. The temperature rise in resonance driving was low and creep was not observed in resonance driving under tensile stress. The vibrator will be applicable in flat panel or bone conductive speakers.

  20. Regulation of Calcium on Peanut Photosynthesis Under Low Night Temperature Stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Yi-fei; HAN Xiao-ri; ZHAN Xiu-mei; YANG Jin-feng; WANG Yu-zhi; SONG Qiao-bo; CHEN Xin

    2013-01-01

    The effects of different levels of CaCl2 on photosynthesis under low night temperature (8°C) stress in peanuts were studied in order to ifnd out the appropriate concentration of Ca2+ through the artiifcial climate chamber potted culture test. The results indicated that Ca2+, by means of improving the stomatal conductivity of peanut leaves under low night temperature stress, may mitigate the decline of photosynthetic rate in the peanut leaves. The regulation with 15 mmol L-1 CaCl2 (Ca15) was the most effective, compared with other treatments. Subsequently, the improvement of Ca2+ on peanut photosynthesis under low night temperature stress was validated further through spraying withCa15, Ca2+ chelator (ethylene glycol bis(2-aminoethyl) tetraacetic acid; EGTA) and calmodulin antagonists (trilfuonerazine; TFP).And CaM (Ca2+-modulin) played an important role in the nutritional signal transduction for Ca2+ mitigating photosynthesis limitations in peanuts under low night temperature stress.

  1. Oxidative stress protection and stomatal patterning as components of salinity tolerance mechanism in quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabala, Lana; Mackay, Alex; Tian, Yu; Jacobsen, Sven-Erik; Zhou, Daowei; Shabala, Sergey

    2012-09-01

    Two components of salinity stress are a reduction in water availability to plants and the formation of reactive oxygen species. In this work, we have used quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa), a dicotyledonous C3 halophyte species displaying optimal growth at approximately 150 mM NaCl, to study mechanisms by which halophytes cope with the afore-mentioned components of salt stress. The relative contribution of organic and inorganic osmolytes in leaves of different physiological ages (e.g. positions on the stem) was quantified and linked with the osmoprotective function of organic osmolytes. We show that the extent of the oxidative stress (UV-B irradiation) damage to photosynthetic machinery in young leaves is much less when compared with old leaves, and attribute this difference to the difference in the size of the organic osmolyte pool (1.5-fold difference under control conditions; sixfold difference in plants grown at 400 mM NaCl). Consistent with this, salt-grown plants showed higher Fv/Fm values compared with control plants after UV-B exposure. Exogenous application of physiologically relevant concentrations of glycine betaine substantially mitigated oxidative stress damage to PSII, in a dose-dependent manner. We also show that salt-grown plants showed a significant (approximately 30%) reduction in stomatal density observed in all leaves. It is concluded that accumulation of organic osmolytes plays a dual role providing, in addition to osmotic adjustment, protection of photosynthetic machinery against oxidative stress in developing leaves. It is also suggested that salinity-induced reduction in stomatal density represents a fundamental mechanism by which plants optimize water use efficiency under saline conditions. Copyright © Physiologia Plantarum 2012.

  2. Investigating degradation behavior of InGaZnO thin-film transistors induced by charge-trapping effect under DC and AC gate bias stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsieh, Tien-Yu; Chang, Ting-Chang; Chen, Te-Chih; Tsai, Ming-Yen; Chen, Yu-Te

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates the degradation mechanism of amorphous InGaZnO thin-film transistors under DC and AC gate bias stress. Comparing the degradation behavior at equal accumulated effective stress time, more pronounced threshold voltage shift under AC positive gate bias stress in comparison with DC stress indicates extra electron-trapping phenomenon that occurs in the duration of rising/falling time in pulse. Contrarily, illuminated AC negative gate bias stress exhibits much less threshold voltage shift than DC stress, suggesting that the photo-generated hole does not have sufficient time to drift to the interface of IGZO/gate insulator and causes hole-trapping under AC operation. Since the evolution of threshold voltage fits the stretched-exponential equation well, the different degradation tendencies under DC/AC stress can be attributed to the different electron- and hole-trapping efficiencies, and this is further verified by varying pulse waveform. - Highlights: ► Static and dynamic gate bias stresses are imposed on InGaZnO TFTs. ► Dynamic positive gate bias induces more pronounced threshold voltage shift. ► Static negative-bias illumination stress induces more severe threshold voltage shift. ► Evolution of threshold voltage fits the stretched-exponential equation well

  3. Toward an understanding of mechanism of aging-induced oxidative stress in human mesenchymal stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benameur, Laila; Charif, Naceur; Li, Yueying; Stoltz, Jean-François; de Isla, Natalia

    2015-01-01

    Under physiological conditions, there is a production of limited range of free radicals. However, when the cellular antioxidant defence systems, overwhelm and fail to reverse back the free radicals to their normal basal levels, there is a creation of a condition of redox disequilibrium termed "oxidative stress", which is implicated in a very wide spectrum of genetic, metabolic, and cellular responses. The excess of free radicals can, cause unfavourable molecular alterations to biomolecules through oxidation of lipids, proteins, RNA and DNA, that can in turn lead to mutagenesis, carcinogenesis, and aging. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been proven to be a promising source of cells for regenerative medicine, and to be useful in the treatment of pathologies in which tissue damage is linked to oxidative stress. Moreover, MSCs appeared to efficiently manage oxidative stress and to be more resistant to oxidative insult than normal somatic cells, making them an interesting and testable model for the role of oxidative stress in the aging process. In addition, aging is accompanied by a progressive decline in stem cell function, resulting in less effective tissue homeostasis and repair. Also, there is an obvious link between intracellular reactive oxygen species levels and cellular senescence. To date, few studies have investigated the promotion of aging by oxidative stress on human MSCs, and the mechanism by which oxidative stress induce stem cell aging is poorly understood. In this context, the aim of this review is to gain insight the current knowledge about the molecular mechanisms of aging-induced oxidative stress in human MSCs.

  4. Factors affecting stress assisted corrosion cracking of carbon steel under industrial boiler conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Dong

    Failure of carbon steel boiler tubes from waterside has been reported in the utility boilers and industrial boilers for a long time. In industrial boilers, most waterside tube cracks are found near heavy attachment welds on the outer surface and are typically blunt, with multiple bulbous features indicating a discontinuous growth. These types of tube failures are typically referred to as stress assisted corrosion (SAC). For recovery boilers in the pulp and paper industry, these failures are particularly important as any water leak inside the furnace can potentially lead to smelt-water explosion. Metal properties, environmental variables, and stress conditions are the major factors influencing SAC crack initation and propagation in carbon steel boiler tubes. Slow strain rate tests (SSRT) were conducted under boiler water conditions to study the effect of temperature, oxygen level, and stress conditions on crack initation and propagation on SA-210 carbon steel samples machined out of boiler tubes. Heat treatments were also performed to develop various grain size and carbon content on carbon steel samples, and SSRTs were conducted on these samples to examine the effect of microstructure features on SAC cracking. Mechanisms of SAC crack initation and propagation were proposed and validated based on interrupted slow strain tests (ISSRT). Water chemistry guidelines are provided to prevent SAC and fracture mechanics model is developed to predict SAC failure on industrial boiler tubes.

  5. Anomalous jump of stress upon the variation of the rate of deformation of single crystals of the Ni3Ge alloys with L12 superstructure under the conditions of cubic slip

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Starenchenko, V.A.; Solov'eva, Yu.V.; Gettinger, M.V.; Kovalevskaya, T.A.

    2005-01-01

    Experimental results are given on variations of plastic strain rate for Ni 3 Ge alloy with L1 2 superstructure possessing anomalous temperature dependence of mechanical properties. For the first time an anomalous strain rate dependence of mechanical properties of the alloy is revealed under conditions of cubic slip. The mechanism is proposed to explain the observed form of stress jump. Using the mechanism proposed normal and anomalous constituents of stress jump are separated. Temperature dependences of stress jump, normal and anomalous constituents of stress jump are analyzed [ru

  6. The numerical high cycle fatigue damage model of fillet weld joint under weld-induced residual stresses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen Van Do, Vuong

    2018-04-01

    In this study, a development of nonlinear continuum damage mechanics (CDM) model for multiaxial high cycle fatigue is proposed in which the cyclic plasticity constitutive model has been incorporated in the finite element (FE) framework. T-joint FE simulation of fillet welding is implemented to characterize sequentially coupled three-dimensional (3-D) of thermo-mechanical FE formulation and simulate the welding residual stresses. The high cycle fatigue damage model is then taken account into the fillet weld joints under the various cyclic fatigue load types to calculate the fatigue life considering the residual stresses. The fatigue crack initiation and the propagation in the present model estimated for the total fatigue is compared with the experimental results. The FE results illustrated that the proposed high cycle fatigue damage model in this study could become a powerful tool to effectively predict the fatigue life of the welds. Parametric studies in this work are also demonstrated that the welding residual stresses cannot be ignored in the computation of the fatigue life of welded structures.

  7. Organ-specific proteomics of soybean seedlings under flooding and drought stresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin; Khodadadi, Ehsaneh; Fakheri, Baratali; Komatsu, Setsuko

    2017-06-06

    Organ-specific analyses enrich the understanding of plant growth and development under abiotic stresses. To elucidate the cellular responses in soybean seedlings exposed to flooding and drought stresses, organ-specific analysis was performed using a gel-free/label-free proteomic technique. Physiological analysis indicated that enzyme activities of alcohol dehydrogenase and delta-1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthase were markedly increased in leaf and root of plants treated with 6days of flooding and drought stresses, respectively. Proteins related to photosynthesis, RNA, DNA, signaling, and the tricarboxylic acid cycle were predominately affected in leaf, hypocotyl, and root in response to flooding and drought. Notably, the tricarboxylic acid cycle was suppressed in leaf and root under both stresses. Moreover, 17 proteins, including beta-glucosidase 31 and beta-amylase 5, were identified in soybean seedlings under both stresses. The protein abundances of beta-glucosidase 31 and beta-amylase 5 were increased in leaf and root under both stresses. Additionally, the gene expression of beta-amylase 5 was upregulated in leaf exposed to the flooding and drought, and the expression level was highly correlated with the protein abundance. These results suggest that beta-amylase 5 may be involved in carbohydrate mobilization to provide energy to the leaf of soybean seedlings exposed to flooding and drought. This study examined the effects of flooding and drought on soybean seedlings in different organs using a gel-free/label-free proteomic approach. Physiological responses indicated that enzyme activities of alcohol dehydrogenase and delta-1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthase were increased in leaf and root of soybean seedlings exposed to flooding and drought for 6days. Functional analysis of acquired protein profiles exhibited that proteins related to photosynthesis, RNA, DNA, signaling, and the tricarboxylic acid cycle were predominated affected in leaf, hypocotyl, and root

  8. Cyclic Elastoplastic Performance of Aluminum 7075-T6 Under Strain- and Stress-Controlled Loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agius, Dylan; Wallbrink, Chris; Kourousis, Kyriakos I.

    2017-12-01

    Elastoplastic investigations of aerospace aluminum are important in the development of an understanding of the possible cyclic transient effects and their contribution to the material performance under cyclic loading. Cyclic plasticity can occur in an aerospace aluminum component or structure depending on the loading conditions and the presence of external and internal discontinuities. Therefore, it is vital that the cyclic transient effects of aerospace aluminum are recognized and understood. This study investigates experimentally the cyclic elastoplastic performance of aluminum 7075-T6 loaded in symmetric strain control, and asymmetric stress and strain control. A combination of cyclic hardening and softening was noticed from high strain amplitude symmetric strain-controlled tests and at low stress amplitude asymmetric stress-controlled tests. From asymmetric strain control results, the extent of mean stress relaxation depended on the size of the strain amplitude. Additionally, saturation of the ratcheting strain (plastic shakedown) was also found to occur during asymmetric stress control tests. The experimental results were further analyzed using published microstructure research from the past two decades to provide added explanation of the micro-mechanism contribution to the cyclic transient behavior.

  9. Cross Talk between H2O2 and Interacting Signal Molecules under Plant Stress Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Ina; Srikanth, Sandhya; Chen, Zhong

    2016-01-01

    It is well established that oxidative stress is an important cause of cellular damage. During stress conditions, plants have evolved regulatory mechanisms to adapt to various environmental stresses. One of the consequences of stress is an increase in the cellular concentration of reactive oxygen species, which is subsequently converted to H2O2. H2O2 is continuously produced as the byproduct of oxidative plant aerobic metabolism. Organelles with a high oxidizing metabolic activity or with an intense rate of electron flow, such as chloroplasts, mitochondria, or peroxisomes are major sources of H2O2 production. H2O2 acts as a versatile molecule because of its dual role in cells. Under normal conditions, H2O2 immerges as an important factor during many biological processes. It has been established that it acts as a secondary messenger in signal transduction networks. In this review, we discuss potential roles of H2O2 and other signaling molecules during various stress responses. PMID:27200043

  10. Morphological substantiation for acute immobilization stress-related disorders of adaptation mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koptev, Mykhailo M; Vynnyk, Nataliia I

    Nowadays, an individual is being constantly accompanied by stresses in his/her everyday life. Stress reactions, produced in the process of evolution, have become the organisms' response to emergency action or pathological factors and are the important link in adaptation process. However, the adverse course of stress reaction can lead to derangement of the adaptation mechanisms in the body and become the element of the pathogenesis of various diseases. The study was aimed at morphological substantiation of derangement of adaptation mechanisms in white Wistar rats caused by the acute immobilization stress. 40 Wistar white male rats of 240-260 g body weight aged 8-10 months were involved into study. 20 laboratory animals were assigned to the main group and the rest 20 rats formed the control (II) group. Experimental stress model was simulated by immobilization of rats, lying supine, for 6 hours. Morphological examination of heart, lungs and kidneys was carried out after animals' decapitation, which proved the derangement of rats' adaptation mechanisms caused by the acute immobilization stress. It has been established that six-hour immobility of rats, lying in the supine position, led to the development of destructive phenomena, hemorrhagic lesions and impaired hemomicrocirculation. Microscopically, the acute immobilization stress causes significant subendocardial hemorrhages, plethora of vessels of hemomicrocirculatory flow with dysdiemorrhysis, myocardial intersticium edema in the heart. Histologically, immobilization-induced trauma causes significant hemodynamic disorders, spasm of arterioles and considerable venous hyperemia, concomitant with microthrombosis in kidneys; at the same time dystrophic lesions and desquamation of epithelium of renal tubules has been observed in renal corpuscles. The abovementioned structural changes can contribute to origination and development of multiple lesions, demonstrating the morphologically grounded role of the acute

  11. Cytokine production as a putative biological mechanism underlying stress sensitization in high combat exposed soldiers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smid, Geert E.; van Zuiden, Mirjam; Geuze, Elbert; Kavelaars, Annemieke; Heijnen, Cobi J.; Vermetten, Eric

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Combat stress exposed soldiers may respond to post-deployment stressful life events (SLE) with increases in symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), consistent with a model of stress sensitization. Several lines of research point to sensitization as a model to describe the

  12. Interplay between Solo and keratin filaments is crucial for mechanical force–induced stress fiber reinforcement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiwara, Sachiko; Ohashi, Kazumasa; Mashiko, Toshiya; Kondo, Hiroshi; Mizuno, Kensaku

    2016-01-01

    Mechanical force–induced cytoskeletal reorganization is essential for cell and tissue remodeling and homeostasis; however, the underlying cellular mechanisms remain elusive. Solo (ARHGEF40) is a RhoA-targeting guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) involved in cyclical stretch–induced human endothelial cell reorientation and convergent extension cell movement in zebrafish gastrula. In this study, we show that Solo binds to keratin-8/keratin-18 (K8/K18) intermediate filaments through multiple sites. Solo overexpression promotes the formation of thick actin stress fibers and keratin bundles, whereas knockdown of Solo, expression of a GEF-inactive mutant of Solo, or inhibition of ROCK suppresses stress fiber formation and leads to disorganized keratin networks, indicating that the Solo-RhoA-ROCK pathway serves to precisely organize keratin networks, as well as to promote stress fibers. Of importance, knockdown of Solo or K18 or overexpression of GEF-inactive or deletion mutants of Solo suppresses tensile force–induced stress fiber reinforcement. Furthermore, knockdown of Solo or K18 suppresses tensile force-induced RhoA activation. These results strongly suggest that the interplay between Solo and K8/K18 filaments plays a crucial role in tensile force–induced RhoA activation and consequent actin cytoskeletal reinforcement. PMID:26823019

  13. Stress Relaxation Of Superelastic Shape Memory Alloy Under Bending And Torsional Load

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakib Tanvir

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Stress Relaxation of Superelastic Shape memory NiTi Alloy under bending and torsion is uncommon in literature. Therefore experimental set up has been devised and test results are obtained for superelastic SMA.Unlike the other common engineering materials superelastic SMA it gives dramatic reduction in stress. In this paper therefore results of stress relaxation of superelastic shape memory alloy under bending and torsion are presented graphically and interpreted in terms of stress induced martensitic transformation.

  14. Cytokine production as a putative biological mechanism underlying stress sensitization in high combat exposed soldiers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smid, Geert E.; van Zuiden, Mirjam; Geuze, Elbert; Kavelaars, Annemieke; Heijnen, Cobi J.; Vermetten, Eric

    2015-01-01

    Combat stress exposed soldiers may respond to post-deployment stressful life events (SLE) with increases in symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), consistent with a model of stress sensitization. Several lines of research point to sensitization as a model to describe the relations between

  15. The stress and stress intensity factors computation by BEM and FEM combination for nozzle junction under pressure and thermal loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du, Q.; Cen, Z.; Zhu, H.

    1989-01-01

    This paper reports linear elastic fracture analysis based upon the stress intensity factor evaluation successfully applied to safety assessments of cracked structures. The nozzle junction are usually subjected to high pressure and thermal loads simultaneously. In validity of linear elastic fracture analysis, K can be decomposed into K P (caused by mechanic loads) and K τ (caused by thermal loads). Under thermal transient loading, explicit analysis (say by the FEM or BEM) of K tracing an entire history respectively for a range of crack depth may be much more time consuming. The techniques of weight function provide efficient means for transforming the problem into the stress computation of the uncracked structure and generation of influence function (for the given structure and size of crack). In this paper, a combination of BE-FEM has been used for the analysis of the cracked nozzle structure by techniques of weight function. The influence functions are obtained by coupled BE-FEM and the uncracked structure stress are computed by finite element methods

  16. Oxidative Stress and Mitochondrial Activation as the Main Mechanisms Underlying Graphene Toxicity against Human Cancer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Jarosz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the development of nanotechnology graphene and graphene-based nanomaterials have attracted the most attention owing to their unique physical, chemical, and mechanical properties. Graphene can be applied in many fields among which biomedical applications especially diagnostics, cancer therapy, and drug delivery have been arousing a lot of interest. Therefore it is essential to understand better the graphene-cell interactions, especially toxicity and underlying mechanisms for proper use and development. This review presents the recent knowledge concerning graphene cytotoxicity and influence on different cancer cell lines.

  17. Estimation of viscous dissipative stresses induced by a mechanical heart valve using PIV data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chi-Pei; Lo, Chi-Wen; Lu, Po-Chien

    2010-03-01

    Among the clinical complications of mechanical heart valves (MHVs), hemolysis was previously thought to result from Reynolds stresses in turbulent flows. A more recent hypothesis suggests viscous dissipative stresses at spatial scales similar in size to red blood cells may be related to hemolysis in MHVs, but the resolution of current instrumentation is insufficient to measure the smallest eddy sizes. We studied the St. Jude Medical (SJM) 27 mm valve in the aortic position of a pulsatile circulatory mock loop under physiologic conditions with particle image velocimetry (PIV). Assuming a dynamic equilibrium assumption between the resolved and sub-grid-scale (SGS) energy flux, the SGS energy flux was calculated from the strain rate tensor computed from the resolved velocity fields and the SGS stress was determined by the Smagorinsky model, from which the turbulence dissipation rate and then the viscous dissipative stresses were estimated. Our results showed Reynolds stresses up to 80 N/m2 throughout the cardiac cycle, and viscous dissipative stresses below 12 N/m2. The viscous dissipative stresses remain far below the threshold of red blood cell hemolysis, but could potentially damage platelets, implying the need for further study in the phenomenon of MHV hemolytic complications.

  18. Concurrent material-fabrication optimization of metal-matrix laminates under thermo-mechanical loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saravanos, D. A.; Morel, M. R.; Chamis, C. C.

    1991-01-01

    A methodology is developed to tailor fabrication and material parameters of metal-matrix laminates for maximum loading capacity under thermomechanical loads. The stresses during the thermomechanical response are minimized subject to failure constrains and bounds on the laminate properties. The thermomechanical response of the laminate is simulated using nonlinear composite mechanics. Evaluations of the method on a graphite/copper symmetric cross-ply laminate were performed. The cross-ply laminate required different optimum fabrication procedures than a unidirectional composite. Also, the consideration of the thermomechanical cycle had a significant effect on the predicted optimal process.

  19. Magnesium alloys as body implants: fracture mechanism under dynamic and static loadings in a physiological environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhary, Lokesh; Raman, R K Singh

    2012-02-01

    It is essential that a metallic implant material possesses adequate resistance to cracking/fracture under the synergistic action of a corrosive physiological environment and mechanical loading (i.e. stress corrosion cracking (SCC)), before the implant can be put to actual use. This paper presents a critique of the fundamental issues with an assessment of SCC of a rapidly corroding material such as magnesium alloys, and describes an investigation into the mechanism of SCC of a magnesium alloy in a physiological environment. The SCC susceptibility of the alloy in a simulated human body fluid was established by slow strain rate tensile (SSRT) testing using smooth specimens under different electrochemical conditions for understanding the mechanism of SCC. However, to assess the life of the implant devices that often possess fine micro-cracks, SCC susceptibility of notched specimens was investigated by circumferential notch tensile (CNT) testing. CNT tests also produced important design data, i.e. threshold stress intensity for SCC (KISCC) and SCC crack growth rate. Fractographic features of SCC were examined using scanning electron microscopy. The SSRT and CNT results, together with fractographic evidence, confirmed the SCC susceptibility of both smooth and notched specimens of a magnesium alloy in the physiological environment. Copyright © 2011 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Mechanical stress regulates insulin sensitivity through integrin-dependent control of insulin receptor localization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jung; Bilder, David; Neufeld, Thomas P

    2018-01-15

    Insulin resistance, the failure to activate insulin signaling in the presence of ligand, leads to metabolic diseases, including type 2 diabetes. Physical activity and mechanical stress have been shown to protect against insulin resistance, but the molecular mechanisms remain unclear. Here, we address this relationship in the Drosophila larval fat body, an insulin-sensitive organ analogous to vertebrate adipose tissue and livers. We found that insulin signaling in Drosophila fat body cells is abolished in the absence of physical activity and mechanical stress even when excess insulin is present. Physical movement is required for insulin sensitivity in both intact larvae and fat bodies cultured ex vivo. Interestingly, the insulin receptor and other downstream components are recruited to the plasma membrane in response to mechanical stress, and this membrane localization is rapidly lost upon disruption of larval or tissue movement. Sensing of mechanical stimuli is mediated in part by integrins, whose activation is necessary and sufficient for mechanical stress-dependent insulin signaling. Insulin resistance develops naturally during the transition from the active larval stage to the immotile pupal stage, suggesting that regulation of insulin sensitivity by mechanical stress may help coordinate developmental programming with metabolism. © 2018 Kim et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  1. Mechanical stress as a regulator of cell motility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putelat, T.; Recho, P.; Truskinovsky, L.

    2018-01-01

    The motility of a cell can be triggered or inhibited not only by an applied force but also by a mechanically neutral force couple. This type of loading, represented by an applied stress and commonly interpreted as either squeezing or stretching, can originate from extrinsic interaction of a cell with its neighbors. To quantify the effect of applied stresses on cell motility we use an analytically transparent one-dimensional model accounting for active myosin contraction and induced actin turnover. We show that stretching can polarize static cells and initiate cell motility while squeezing can symmetrize and arrest moving cells. We show further that sufficiently strong squeezing can lead to the loss of cell integrity. The overall behavior of the system depends on the two dimensionless parameters characterizing internal driving (chemical activity) and external loading (applied stress). We construct a phase diagram in this parameter space distinguishing between static, motile, and collapsed states. The obtained results are relevant for the mechanical understanding of contact inhibition and the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition.

  2. Fatigue criterion for the design of rotating shafts under combined stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loewenthal, S. H.

    1977-01-01

    A revised approach to the design of transmission shafting which considers the flexure fatigue characteristics of the shaft material under combined cyclic bending and static torsion stress is presented. A fatigue failure relation, corroborated by published combined stress test data, is presented which shows an elliptical variation of reversed bending endurance strength with static torsional stress. From this elliptical failure relations, a design formula for computing the diameter of rotating solid shafts under the most common condition of loading is developed.

  3. Proteomic profiling of Bacillus licheniformis reveals a stress response mechanism in the synthesis of extracellular polymeric flocculants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Wencheng; Chen, Zhen; Shen, Liang; Wang, Yuanpeng; Li, Qingbiao; Yan, Shan; Zhong, Chuan-Jian; He, Ning

    2016-04-01

    Some bioflocculants composed of extracellular polymeric substances are produced under peculiar conditions. Bacillus licheniformis CGMCC2876 is a microorganism that secretes both extracellular polysaccharides (EPS) and poly-gamma-glutamic acid (γ-PGA) under stress conditions. In this work, SWATH acquisition LC-MS/MS method was adopted for differential proteomic analysis of B. licheniformis, aiming at determining the bacterial stress mechanism. Compared with LB culture, 190 differentially expressed proteins were identified in B. licheniformis CGMCC2876 cultivated in EPS culture, including 117 up-regulated and 73 down-regulated proteins. In γ-PGA culture, 151 differentially expressed proteins, 89 up-regulated and 62 down-regulated, were found in the cells. Up-regulated proteins involved in amino acid biosynthesis were found to account for 43% and 41% of the proteomes in EPS and γ-PGA cultivated cells, respectively. Additionally, a series of proteins associated with amino acid degradation were found to be repressed under EPS and γ-PGA culture conditions. Transcriptional profiling via the qPCR detection of selected genes verified the proteomic analysis. Analysis of free amino acids in the bacterial cells further suggested the presence of amino acid starvation conditions. EPS or γ-PGA was synthesized to alleviate the effect of amino acid limitation in B. licheniformis. This study identified a stress response mechanism in the synthesis of macromolecules in B. licheniformis, providing potential culture strategies to improve the production of two promising bioflocculants. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Identification of drought-responsive miRNAs and physiological characterization of tea plant (Camellia sinensis L.) under drought stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yuqiong; Zhao, Shanshan; Zhu, Chen; Chang, Xiaojun; Yue, Chuan; Wang, Zhong; Lin, Yuling; Lai, Zhongxiong

    2017-11-21

    Drought stress is one of the major natural challenges in the main tea-producing regions of China. The tea plant (Camellia sinensis) is a traditional beverage plant whose growth status directly affects tea quality. Recent studies have revealed that microRNAs (miRNAs) play key functions in plant growth and development. Although some miRNAs have been identified in C. sinensis, little is known about their roles in the drought stress response of tea plants. Physiological characterization of Camellia sinensis 'Tieguanyin' under drought stress showed that the malondialdehyde concentration and electrical conductivity of leaves of drought-stressed plants increased when the chlorophyll concentration decreased under severe drought stress. We sequenced four small-RNA (sRNA) libraries constructed from leaves of plants subjected to four different treatments, normal water supply (CK); mild drought stress (T1); moderate drought stress (T2) and severe drought stress (T3). A total of 299 known mature miRNA sequences and 46 novel miRNAs were identified. Gene Ontology enrichment analysis revealed that most of the differentially expressed-miRNA target genes were related to regulation of transcription. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes analysis revealed that the most highly enriched pathways under drought stress were D-alanine metabolism, sulfur metabolism, and mineral absorption pathways. Real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) was used to validate the expression patterns of 21 miRNAs (2 up-regulated and 19 down-regulated under drought stress). The observed co-regulation of the miR166 family and their targets ATHB-14-like and ATHB-15-like indicate the presence of negative feedback regulation in miRNA pathways. Analyses of drought-responsive miRNAs in tea plants showed that most of differentially expressed-miRNA target genes were related to regulation of transcription. The results of study revealed that the expressions of phase-specific miRNAs vary with morphological, physiological, and

  5. Reductions in labour capacity from heat stress under climate warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunne, John P.; Stouffer, Ronald J.; John, Jasmin G.

    2013-06-01

    A fundamental aspect of greenhouse-gas-induced warming is a global-scale increase in absolute humidity. Under continued warming, this response has been shown to pose increasingly severe limitations on human activity in tropical and mid-latitudes during peak months of heat stress. One heat-stress metric with broad occupational health applications is wet-bulb globe temperature. We combine wet-bulb globe temperatures from global climate historical reanalysis and Earth System Model (ESM2M) projections with industrial and military guidelines for an acclimated individual's occupational capacity to safely perform sustained labour under environmental heat stress (labour capacity)--here defined as a global population-weighted metric temporally fixed at the 2010 distribution. We estimate that environmental heat stress has reduced labour capacity to 90% in peak months over the past few decades. ESM2M projects labour capacity reduction to 80% in peak months by 2050. Under the highest scenario considered (Representative Concentration Pathway 8.5), ESM2M projects labour capacity reduction to less than 40% by 2200 in peak months, with most tropical and mid-latitudes experiencing extreme climatological heat stress. Uncertainties and caveats associated with these projections include climate sensitivity, climate warming patterns, CO2 emissions, future population distributions, and technological and societal change.

  6. Proteome analysis of soybean roots under waterlogging stress at an ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Prakash

    To gain better insight into how soybean roots respond to waterlogging stress, ... death- and signal transduction-related proteins suggest that they have a role to play during stress. ...... work cooperatively to establish a new homeostasis under.

  7. Biocomputional construction of a gene network under acid stress in Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yi; Rao, Nini; Yang, Feng; Zhang, Ying; Yang, Yang; Liu, Han-ming; Guo, Fengbiao; Huang, Jian

    2014-01-01

    Acid stress is one of the most serious threats that cyanobacteria have to face, and it has an impact at all levels from genome to phenotype. However, very little is known about the detailed response mechanism to acid stress in this species. We present here a general analysis of the gene regulatory network of Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 in response to acid stress using comparative genome analysis and biocomputational prediction. In this study, we collected 85 genes and used them as an initial template to predict new genes through co-regulation, protein-protein interactions and the phylogenetic profile, and 179 new genes were obtained to form a complete template. In addition, we found that 11 enriched pathways such as glycolysis are closely related to the acid stress response. Finally, we constructed a regulatory network for the intricate relationship of these genes and summarize the key steps in response to acid stress. This is the first time a bioinformatic approach has been taken systematically to gene interactions in cyanobacteria and the elaboration of their cell metabolism and regulatory pathways under acid stress, which is more efficient than a traditional experimental study. The results also provide theoretical support for similar research into environmental stresses in cyanobacteria and possible industrial applications. Copyright © 2014 Institut Pasteur. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Study of Acoustic Emission and Mechanical Characteristics of Coal Samples under Different Loading Rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huamin Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available To study the effect of loading rate on mechanical properties and acoustic emission characteristics of coal samples, collected from Sanjiaohe Colliery, the uniaxial compression tests are carried out under various levels of loading rates, including 0.001 mm/s, 0.002 mm/s, and 0.005 mm/s, respectively, using AE-win E1.86 acoustic emission instrument and RMT-150C rock mechanics test system. The results indicate that the loading rate has a strong impact on peak stress and peak strain of coal samples, but the effect of loading rate on elasticity modulus of coal samples is relatively small. When the loading rate increases from 0.001 mm/s to 0.002 mm/s, the peak stress increases from 22.67 MPa to 24.99 MPa, the incremental percentage is 10.23%, and under the same condition the peak strain increases from 0.006191 to 0.007411 and the incremental percentage is 19.71%. Similarly, when the loading rate increases from 0.002 mm/s to 0.005 mm/s, the peak stress increases from 24.99 MPa to 28.01 MPa, the incremental percentage is 12.08%, the peak strain increases from 0.007411 to 0.008203, and the incremental percentage is 10.69%. The relationship between acoustic emission and loading rate presents a positive correlation, and the negative correlation relation has been determined between acoustic emission cumulative counts and loading rate during the rupture process of coal samples.

  9. Handling magnetic anisotropy and magnetoimpedance effect in flexible multilayers under external stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agra, K.; Bohn, F. [Departamento de Física Teórica e Experimental, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, 59078-900 Natal, RN (Brazil); Mori, T.J.A. [Laboratório Nacional de Luz Síncrotron, Rua Giuseppe Máximo Scolfaro, 1000, Guará, 13083-100 Campinas, SP (Brazil); Callegari, G.L.; Dorneles, L.S. [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, 97105-900 Santa Maria, RS (Brazil); Correa, M.A., E-mail: marciocorrea@dfte.ufrn.br [Departamento de Física Teórica e Experimental, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, 59078-900 Natal, RN (Brazil)

    2016-12-15

    We investigate the dynamic magnetic response though magnetoimpedance effect of ferromagnetic flexible NiFe/Ta and FeCuNbSiB/Ta multilayers under external stress. We explore the possibility of handling magnetic anisotropy, and consequently the magnetoimpedance effect, of magnetostrictive multilayers deposited onto flexible substrates. We quantify the sensitivity of the multilayers under external stress by calculating the ratio between impedance variations and external stress changes, and show that considerable values can be reached by tuning the magnetic field, frequency, magnetostriction constant, and external stress. The results extend possibilities of application of magnetostrictive multilayers deposited onto flexible substrates when under external stress and place them as very attractive candidates as element sensor for the development of sensitive smart touch sensors. - Highlights: • We investigate the magnetoimpedance effect in magnetostrictive flexible multilayers grown on flexible substrates. • The external applied stress enables to tuning the samples anisotropies, and consequently the MI performance. • The flexible substrate becomes promising candidate for RF-frequency devices.

  10. Effect of abiotic stress under light and dark conditions on carotenoid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to observe the effect of abiotic stress under light and dark conditions on pumpkin calluses carotenoid. Plant elicitors used to create abiotic stress in this study were Polyethylene Glycol 4000 for drought stress, Jasmonic Acid and Salicylic Acid for hormones stress and Murashige and Skoog Salt for ...

  11. Liquid organomineral fertilizer containing humic substances on soybean grown under water stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo R. V. Prado

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study evaluated the effect of an organomineral fertilizer enriched with humic substances on soybean grown under water stress. The experiment was performed in a greenhouse using a Red Latosol (Oxisol with adequate fertility as substrate, in which soybean plants were cultivated with and without water stress. The experimental design was randomized blocks, in a 2 x 5 factorial scheme (two moisture levels and five fertilizer doses: 0, 1, 2, 4 and 8 mL dm-3, totaling 10 treatments, with four replicates. The organomineral fertilizer was applied in the soil 21 days after plant emergence and the water regimes were established one week thereafter. The fertilizer was not able to attenuate the effects of water stress, reducing soybean grain yield by more than 50% compared with plants cultivated under no stress. Fertilizer doses caused positive response on soybean nutrition and grain yield and, under water stress condition, the most efficient dose was 5.4 mL dm-3. There were lower leaf concentrations of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium and higher concentrations of sulfur in plants under stress. Humic substances favor the absorption of micronutrients.

  12. Simulation of fatigue damage in ferroelectric polycrystals under mechanical/electrical loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozinov, S.; Kuna, M.

    2018-07-01

    The reliability of smart-structures made of ferroelectric ceramics is essentially reduced by the formation of cracks under the action of external electrical and/or mechanical loading. In the current research a numerical model for low-cycle fatigue in ferroelectric mesostructures is proposed. In the finite element simulations a combination of two user element routines is utilized. The first one is used to model a micromechanical ferroelectric domain switching behavior inside the grains. The second one is used to simulate fatigue damage of grain boundaries by a cohesive zone model (EMCCZM) based on an electromechanical cyclic traction-separation law (TSL). For numerical simulations a scanning electron microscope image of the ceramic's grain structure was digitalized and meshed. The response of this mesostructure to cyclic electrical or mechanical loading is systematically analyzed. As a result of the simulations, the distribution of electric potential, field, displacement and polarization as well as mechanical stresses and deformations inside the grains are obtained. At the grain boundaries, the formation and evolution of damage are analyzed until final failure and induced degradation of electric permittivity. It is found that the proposed model correctly mimics polycrystalline behavior during poling processes and progressive damage under cyclic electromechanical loading. To the authors' knowledge, it is the first model and numerical analysis of ferroelectric polycrystals taking into account both domain reorientation and cohesive modeling of intergranular fracture. It can help to understand failure mechanisms taking place in ferroelectrics during fatigue processes.

  13. Dynamic Stress Concentration at the Boundary of an Incision at the Plate Under the Action of Weak Shock Waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikulich Olena

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes the novel technique for analysis of dynamic stress state of multi-connected infinite plates under the action of weak shock waves. For solution of the problem it uses the integral and discrete Fourier transforms. Calculation of transformed dynamic stresses at the incisions of plates is held using the boundary-integral equation method and the theory of complex variable functions. The numerical implementation of the developed algorithm is based on the method of mechanical quadratures and collocation technique. For calculation of originals of the dynamic stresses it uses modified discrete Fourier transform. The algorithm is effective in the analysis of the dynamic stress state of defective plates.

  14. Transcriptome-Wide Profiling and Expression Analysis of Diploid and Autotetraploid Paulownia tomentosa × Paulownia fortunei under Drought Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Enkai; Fan, Guoqiang; Niu, Suyan; Zhao, Zhenli; Deng, Minjie; Dong, Yanpeng

    2014-01-01

    Paulownia is a fast-growing deciduous hardwood species native to China, which has high ecological and economic value. In an earlier study, we reported ploidy-dependent differences in Paulownia drought tolerance by the microscopic observations of the leaves. Autotetraploid Paulownia has a higher resistance to drought stress than their diploid relatives. In order to obtain genetic information on molecular mechanisms responses of Paulownia plants to drought, Illumina/Solexa Genome sequencing platform was used to de novo assemble the transcriptomes of leaves from diploid and autotetraploid Paulownia tomentosa × Paulownia fortunei seedlings (PTF2 and PTF4 respectively) grown under control conditions and under drought stress and obtained 98,671 nonredundant unigenes. A comparative transcriptome analysis revealed that hundreds of unigenes were predicted to be involved mainly in ROS-scavenging system, amino acid and carbohydrate metabolism, plant hormone biosynthesis and signal transduction, while these unigenes exhibited differential transcript alteration of the two accessions. This study provides a comprehensive map of how P. tomentosa × P. fortunei responds to drought stress at physiological and molecular levels, which may help in understanding the mechanisms involve in water-deficit response and will be useful for further study of drought tolerance in woody plants. PMID:25405758

  15. Finite element analysis of plantar fascia under stretch-the relative contribution of windlass mechanism and Achilles tendon force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Hsin-Yi Kathy; Lin, Chun-Li; Wang, Hsien-Wen; Chou, Shih-Wei

    2008-01-01

    Stretching plays an important role in the treatment of plantar fasciitis. Information on the internal stresses/strains of the plantar fascia under stretch is useful in enhancing knowledge on the stretch mechanisms. Although direct measurement can monitor plantar fascia changes, it is invasive and gathers only localized information. The purpose of this paper was to construct a three-dimensional finite element model of the foot to calculate the stretch effects on plantar fascia and monitor its stress/strain distributions and concentrations. A three-dimensional foot model was developed and contained 26 bones with joint cartilages, 67 ligaments and a fan-like solid plantar fascia modeling. All tissues were idealized as linear elastic, homogeneous and isotropic whilst the plantar fascia was assigned as hyperelastic to represent its nonlinearity. The plantar fascia was monitored for its biomechanical responses under various stretch combinations: three toe dorsiflexion angles (windlass effect: 15 degrees , 30 degrees and 45 degrees ) and five Achilles tendon forces (100, 200, 300, 400 and 500N). Our results indicated that the plantar fascia strain increased as the dorsiflexion angles increased, and this phenomenon was enhanced by increasing Achilles tendon force. A stress concentration was found near the medial calcaneal tubercle, and the fascia stress was higher underneath the first foot ray and gradually decreased as it moved toward the fifth ray. The current model recreated the position of the foot when stretch is placed on the plantar fascia. The results provided a general insight into the mechanical and biomechanical aspects of the influences of windlass mechanism and Achilles tendon force on plantar fascia stress and strain distribution. These findings might have practical implications onto plantar fascia stretch approaches, and provide guidelines to its surgical release.

  16. Measurement and modeling of magnetic hysteresis under field and stress application in iron–gallium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, Phillip G.; Dapino, Marcelo J.

    2013-01-01

    Measurements are performed to characterize the hysteresis in magnetomechanical coupling of iron–gallium (Galfenol) alloys. Magnetization and strain of production and research grade Galfenol are measured under applied stress at constant field, applied field at constant stress, and alternately applied field and stress. A high degree of reversibility in the magnetomechanical coupling is demonstrated by comparing a series of applied field at constant stress measurements with a single applied stress at constant field measurement. Accommodation is not evident and magnetic hysteresis for applied field and stress is shown to be coupled. A thermodynamic model is formulated for 3-D magnetization and strain. It employs a stress, field, and direction dependent hysteron that has an instantaneous loss mechanism, similar to Coulomb-friction or Preisach-type models. Stochastic homogenization is utilized to account for the smoothing effect that material inhomogeneities have on bulk processes. - Highlights: ► We conduct coupled experiments and develop nonlinear thermodynamic models for magnetostrictive iron–gallium (Galfenol) alloys. ► The measurements show unexpected kinematic reversibility in the magnetomechanical coupling. ► This is in contrast with the magnetomechanical coupling in steel which is both thermodynamically and kinematically irreversible. ► The model accurately describes the measurements and provides a framework for understanding hysteresis in ferromagnetic materials which exhibit kinematically reversible magnetomechanical coupling.

  17. Bread wheat progenitors: Aegilops tauschii (DD genome) and Triticum dicoccoides (AABB genome) reveal differential antioxidative response under water stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suneja, Yadhu; Gupta, Anil Kumar; Bains, Navtej Singh

    2017-01-01

    Antioxidant enzymes are known to play a significant role in scavenging reactive oxygen species and maintaining cellular homeostasis. Activity of four antioxidant enzymes viz., superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and glutathione reductase (GR) was examined in the flag leaves of nine Aegilops tauschii and three Triticum dicoccoides accessions along with two bread wheat cultivars under irrigated and rain-fed conditions. These accessions were shortlisted from a larger set on the basis of field performance for a set of morpho-physiological traits. At anthesis, significant differences were observed in enzyme activities in two environments. A 45% elevation in average GR activity was observed under rain-fed conditions. Genotypic variation was evident within each environment as well as in terms of response to stress environment. Aegilops tauschii accession 3769 (86% increase in SOD, 41% in CAT, 72% in APX, 48% in GR activity) and acc. 14096 (37% increase in SOD, 32% CAT, 25% APX, 42% GR) showed up-regulation in the activity of all the four studied antioxidant enzymes. Aegilops tauschii accessions-9809, 14189 and 14113 also seemed to have strong induction mechanism as elevated activity of at least three enzymes was observed in them under rain-fed conditions. T. dicoccoides , on the other hand, maintained active antioxidative machinery under irrigated condition with relatively lower induction under stress. A significant positive correlation (r = 0.760) was identified between change in the activity of CAT and GR under stress. Changes in plant height, spike length and grain weight were recorded under stress and non-stress conditions on the basis of which a cumulative tolerance index was deduced and accessions were ranked for drought tolerance. Overall, Ae. tauschii accession 3769, 14096, 14113 (DD-genome) and T. dicoccoides accession 7054 (AABB-genome) may be used as donors to combine beneficial stress adaptive traits of all the three sub

  18. Earthquake focal mechanisms and stress orientations in the eastern Swiss Alps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marschall, I.; Deichmann, N.; Marone, F.

    2013-01-01

    This study presents an updated set of earthquake focal mechanisms in the Helvetic and Penninic/Austroalpine domains of the eastern Swiss Alps. In eight cases, based on high-precision relative hypocentre locations of events within individual earthquake sequences, it was possible to identify the active fault plane. Whereas the focal mechanisms in the Helvetic domain are mostly strike-slip, the Penninic/Austroalpine domain is dominated by normal-faulting mechanisms. Given this systematic difference in faulting style, an inversion for the stress field was performed separately for the two regions. The stress field in the Penninic/Austroalpine domain is characterized by extension oriented obliquely to the E-W strike of the orogen. Hence, the Penninic nappes, which were emplaced as large-scale compressional structures during the Alpine orogenesis, are now deforming in an extensional mode. This contrasts with the more compressional strike-slip regime in the Helvetic domain towards the northern Alpine front. Relative to the regional stress field seen in the northern Alpine foreland with a NNW-SSE compression and an ENE-WSW extension, the orientation of the least compressive stress in the Penninic/Austroalpine domain is rotated counter-clockwise by about 40 °C. Following earlier studies, the observed rotation of the orientation of the least compressive stress in the Penninic/Austroalpine region can be explained as the superposition of the regional stress field of the northern foreland and a uniaxial extensional stress perpendicular to the local trend of the Alpine mountain belt. (authors)

  19. Neuroendocrine and oxidoreductive mechanisms of stress-induced cardiovascular diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pajović, S B; Radojcić, M B; Kanazir, D T

    2008-01-01

    The review concerns a number of basic molecular pathways that play a crucial role in perception, transmission, and modulation of the stress signals, and mediate the adaptation of the vital processes in the cardiovascular system (CVS). These highly complex systems for intracellular transfer of information include stress hormones and their receptors, stress-activated phosphoprotein kinases, stress-activated heat shock proteins, and antioxidant enzymes maintaining oxidoreductive homeostasis of the CVS. Failure to compensate for the deleterious effects of stress may result in the development of different pathophysiological states of the CVS, such as ischemia, hypertension, atherosclerosis and infarction. Stress-induced dysbalance in each of the CVS molecular signaling systems and their contribution to the CVS malfunctioning is reviewed. The general picture of the molecular mechanisms of the stress-induced pathophysiology in the CVS pointed out the importance of stress duration and intensity as etiological factors, and suggested that future studies should be complemented by the careful insights into the individual factors of susceptibility to stress, prophylactic effects of 'healthy' life styles and beneficial action of antioxidant-rich nutrition.

  20. Osmotic stress represses strigolactone biosynthesis in Lotus japonicus roots: exploring the interaction between strigolactones and ABA under abiotic stress

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, Junwei; He, Hanzi; Vitali, Marco; Visentin, Ivan; Charnikhova, Tatsiana V.; Haider, Imran; Schubert, Andrea; Ruyter-Spira, Carolien P.; Bouwmeester, Harro J J; Lovisolo, Claudio; Cardinale, Francesca

    2015-01-01

    Main conclusion: Strigolactone changes and cross talk with ABA unveil a picture of root-specific hormonal dynamics under stress.Abstract: Strigolactones (SLs) are carotenoid-derived hormones influencing diverse aspects of development and communication with (micro)organisms, and proposed as mediators of environmental stimuli in resource allocation processes; to contribute to adaptive adjustments, therefore, their pathway must be responsive to environmental cues. To investigate the relationship between SLs and abiotic stress in Lotus japonicus, we compared wild-type and SL-depleted plants, and studied SL metabolism in roots stressed osmotically and/or phosphate starved. SL-depleted plants showed increased stomatal conductance, both under normal and stress conditions, and impaired resistance to drought associated with slower stomatal closure in response to abscisic acid (ABA). This confirms that SLs contribute to drought resistance in species other than Arabidopsis. However, we also observed that osmotic stress rapidly and strongly decreased SL concentration in tissues and exudates of wild-type Lotus roots, by acting on the transcription of biosynthetic and transporter-encoding genes and independently of phosphate abundance. Pre-treatment with exogenous SLs inhibited the osmotic stress-induced ABA increase in wild-type roots and down-regulated the transcription of the ABA biosynthetic gene LjNCED2. We propose that a transcriptionally regulated, early SL decrease under osmotic stress is needed (but not sufficient) to allow the physiological increase of ABA in roots. This work shows that SL metabolism and effects on ABA are seemingly opposite in roots and shoots under stress.

  1. Osmotic stress represses strigolactone biosynthesis in Lotus japonicus roots: exploring the interaction between strigolactones and ABA under abiotic stress

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, Junwei

    2015-02-26

    Main conclusion: Strigolactone changes and cross talk with ABA unveil a picture of root-specific hormonal dynamics under stress.Abstract: Strigolactones (SLs) are carotenoid-derived hormones influencing diverse aspects of development and communication with (micro)organisms, and proposed as mediators of environmental stimuli in resource allocation processes; to contribute to adaptive adjustments, therefore, their pathway must be responsive to environmental cues. To investigate the relationship between SLs and abiotic stress in Lotus japonicus, we compared wild-type and SL-depleted plants, and studied SL metabolism in roots stressed osmotically and/or phosphate starved. SL-depleted plants showed increased stomatal conductance, both under normal and stress conditions, and impaired resistance to drought associated with slower stomatal closure in response to abscisic acid (ABA). This confirms that SLs contribute to drought resistance in species other than Arabidopsis. However, we also observed that osmotic stress rapidly and strongly decreased SL concentration in tissues and exudates of wild-type Lotus roots, by acting on the transcription of biosynthetic and transporter-encoding genes and independently of phosphate abundance. Pre-treatment with exogenous SLs inhibited the osmotic stress-induced ABA increase in wild-type roots and down-regulated the transcription of the ABA biosynthetic gene LjNCED2. We propose that a transcriptionally regulated, early SL decrease under osmotic stress is needed (but not sufficient) to allow the physiological increase of ABA in roots. This work shows that SL metabolism and effects on ABA are seemingly opposite in roots and shoots under stress.

  2. Corrosion under stress of AISI 304 steel in thiocyanate solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perillo, P.M.; Duffo, G.S.

    1989-01-01

    Corrosion susceptibility under stress of AISI 304 steel sensitized in a sodium thiocyanate solution has been studied and results were compared with those obtained with solutions of thiosulfate and tetrathionate. Sensitized steel type 304 is highly susceptible to corrosion when under intergranular stress (IGSCC) in thiocyanate solutions but the aggressiveness of this anion is less than that of the other sulphur anions studied (thiosulfate and tetrathionate). This work has been partly carried out in the Chemistry Department. (Author) [es

  3. Modified stress intensity factor as a crack growth parameter applicable under large scale yielding conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasuoka, Tetsuo; Mizutani, Yoshihiro; Todoroki, Akira

    2014-01-01

    High-temperature water stress corrosion cracking has high tensile stress sensitivity, and its growth rate has been evaluated using the stress intensity factor, which is a linear fracture mechanics parameter. Stress corrosion cracking mainly occurs and propagates around welded metals or heat-affected zones. These regions have complex residual stress distributions and yield strength distributions because of input heat effects. The authors previously reported that the stress intensity factor becomes inapplicable when steep residual stress distributions or yield strength distributions occur along the crack propagation path, because small-scale yielding conditions deviate around those distributions. Here, when the stress intensity factor is modified by considering these distributions, the modified stress intensity factor may be used for crack growth evaluation for large-scale yielding. The authors previously proposed a modified stress intensity factor incorporating the stress distribution or yield strength distribution in front of the crack using the rate of change of stress intensity factor and yield strength. However, the applicable range of modified stress intensity factor for large-scale yielding was not clarified. In this study, the range was analytically investigated by comparison with the J-integral solution. A three-point bending specimen with parallel surface crack was adopted as the analytical model and the stress intensity factor, modified stress intensity factor and equivalent stress intensity factor derived from the J-integral were calculated and compared under large-scale yielding conditions. The modified stress intensity was closer to the equivalent stress intensity factor when compared with the stress intensity factor. If deviation from the J-integral solution is acceptable up to 2%, the modified stress intensity factor is applicable up to 30% of the J-integral limit, while the stress intensity factor is applicable up to 10%. These results showed that

  4. Elucidation of salt stress defense and tolerance mechanisms of crop plants using proteomics--current achievements and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkla, Bronwyn J; Castellanos-Cervantes, Thelma; de León, José L Diaz; Matros, Andrea; Mock, Hans-Peter; Perez-Alfocea, Francisco; Salekdeh, Ghasem H; Witzel, Katja; Zörb, Christian

    2013-06-01

    Salinity is a major threat limiting the productivity of crop plants. A clear demand for improving the salinity tolerance of the major crop plants is imposed by the rapidly growing world population. This review summarizes the achievements of proteomic studies to elucidate the response mechanisms of selected model and crop plants to cope with salinity stress. We also aim at identifying research areas, which deserve increased attention in future proteome studies, as a prerequisite to identify novel targets for breeding strategies. Such areas include the impact of plant-microbial communities on the salinity tolerance of crops under field conditions, the importance of hormone signaling in abiotic stress tolerance, and the significance of control mechanisms underlying the observed changes in the proteome patterns. We briefly highlight the impact of novel tools for future proteome studies and argue for the use of integrated approaches. The evaluation of genetic resources by means of novel automated phenotyping facilities will have a large impact on the application of proteomics especially in combination with metabolomics or transcriptomics. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Stunted PFC activity during neuromuscular control under stress with obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Ranjana K

    2016-02-01

    Obesity is an established risk factor for impaired cognition, which is primarily regulated by the prefrontal cortex (PFC). However, very little is known about the neural pathways that underlie obesity-related declines in neuromuscular control, particularly under stress. The purpose of this study was to determine the role of the PFC on neuromuscular control during handgrip exertions under stress with obesity. Twenty non-obese and obese young adults performed submaximal handgrip exertions in the absence and presence of a concurrent stressful task. Primary dependent measures included oxygenated hemoglobin (HbO2: a measure of PFC activity) and force fluctuations (an indicator of neuromuscular control). Higher HbO2 levels in the PFC were observed in the non-obese compared to the obese group (P = 0.009). In addition, higher HbO2 levels were observed in the stress compared to the control condition in the non-obese group; however, this trend was reversed in the obese group (P = 0.043). In general, force fluctuations increased by 26% in the stress when compared to the control condition (P = 0.001) and obesity was associated with 39% greater force fluctuation (P = 0.024). Finally, while not significant, obesity-related decrements in force fluctuations were magnified under stress (P = 0.063). The current study provides the first evidence that neuromuscular decrements with obesity were associated with impaired PFC activity and this relationship was augmented in stress conditions. These findings are important because they provide new information on obesity-specific changes in brain function associated with neuromuscular control since the knowledge previously focused largely on obesity-specific changes in peripheral muscle capacity.

  6. Stress and Health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rod, Naja Hulvej

    2014-01-01

    Background Stress is an important public health issue. One in ten Danish adults experience high levels of stress in their daily lives and stress is one of the main occupational health problems in Europe. The link between stress and health is still debated in the scientific literature...... and the pathways underlying these potential health effects are far from elucidated. The dissertation contributions to the literature on stress and health by empirically testing the relationship between stress and major chronic disorders and by providing new evidence on the underlying physiological, psychological...... and behavioral mechanisms. Stress is a complex concept and in order to better understand the relation between stress and health, the dissertation works with a clear distinction between the health consequences of different types of stress including external stressors, perceived stress, and measures of the stress...

  7. Aquaporin-mediated increase in root hydraulic conductance is involved in silicon-induced improved root water uptake under osmotic stress in Sorghum bicolor L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Peng; Yin, Lina; Deng, Xiping; Wang, Shiwen; Tanaka, Kiyoshi; Zhang, Suiqi

    2014-09-01

    The fact that silicon application alleviates water deficit stress has been widely reported, but the underlying mechanism remains unclear. Here the effects of silicon on water uptake and transport of sorghum seedlings (Sorghum bicolor L.) growing under polyethylene glycol-simulated osmotic stress in hydroponic culture and water deficit stress in sand culture were investigated. Osmotic stress dramatically decreased dry weight, photosynthetic rate, transpiration rate, stomatal conductance, and leaf water content, but silicon application reduced these stress-induced decreases. Although silicon application had no effect on stem water transport capacity, whole-plant hydraulic conductance (Kplant) and root hydraulic conductance (Lp) were higher in silicon-treated seedlings than in those without silicon treatment under osmotic stress. Furthermore, the extent of changes in transpiration rate was similar to the changes in Kplant and Lp. The contribution of aquaporin to Lp was characterized using the aquaporin inhibitor mercury. Under osmotic stress, the exogenous application of HgCl2 decreased the transpiration rates of seedlings with and without silicon to the same level; after recovery induced by dithiothreitol (DTT), however, the transpiration rate was higher in silicon-treated seedlings than in untreated seedlings. In addition, transcription levels of several root aquaporin genes were increased by silicon application under osmotic stress. These results indicate that the silicon-induced up-regulation of aquaporin, which was thought to increase Lp, was involved in improving root water uptake under osmotic stress. This study also suggests that silicon plays a modulating role in improving plant resistance to osmotic stress in addition to its role as a mere physical barrier. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  8. Hyperosmotic stress stimulates autophagy via polycystin-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peña-Oyarzun, Daniel; Troncoso, Rodrigo; Kretschmar, Catalina; Hernando, Cecilia; Budini, Mauricio; Morselli, Eugenia; Lavandero, Sergio; Criollo, Alfredo

    2017-08-22

    Various intracellular mechanisms are activated in response to stress, leading to adaptation or death. Autophagy, an intracellular process that promotes lysosomal degradation of proteins, is an adaptive response to several types of stress. Osmotic stress occurs under both physiological and pathological conditions, provoking mechanical stress and activating various osmoadaptive mechanisms. Polycystin-2 (PC2), a membrane protein of the polycystin family, is a mechanical sensor capable of activating the cell signaling pathways required for cell adaptation and survival. Here we show that hyperosmotic stress provoked by treatment with hyperosmolar concentrations of sorbitol or mannitol induces autophagy in HeLa and HCT116 cell lines. In addition, we show that mTOR and AMPK, two stress sensor proteins involved modulating autophagy, are downregulated and upregulated, respectively, when cells are subjected to hyperosmotic stress. Finally, our findings show that PC2 is required to promote hyperosmotic stress-induced autophagy. Downregulation of PC2 prevents inhibition of hyperosmotic stress-induced mTOR pathway activation. In conclusion, our data provide new insight into the role of PC2 as a mechanosensor that modulates autophagy under hyperosmotic stress conditions.

  9. Comparative proteomic analysis provides new insights into cadmium accumulation in rice grain under cadmium stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xue, Dawei, E-mail: dwxue@hznu.edu.cn [College of Life and Environmental Sciences, Hangzhou Normal University, Hangzhou 310036 (China); State Key Laboratory of Rice Biology, China National Rice Research Institute, Hangzhou 310006 (China); Jiang, Hua [State Key Laboratory Breeding Base for Zhejiang Sustainable Pest and Disease Control, Zhejiang Academy of Agricultural Science, Hangzhou 310021 (China); Deng, Xiangxiong; Zhang, Xiaoqin [College of Life and Environmental Sciences, Hangzhou Normal University, Hangzhou 310036 (China); Wang, Hua [State Key Laboratory Breeding Base for Zhejiang Sustainable Pest and Disease Control, Zhejiang Academy of Agricultural Science, Hangzhou 310021 (China); Xu, Xiangbin [College of Life and Environmental Sciences, Hangzhou Normal University, Hangzhou 310036 (China); Hu, Jiang; Zeng, Dali [State Key Laboratory of Rice Biology, China National Rice Research Institute, Hangzhou 310006 (China); Guo, Longbiao, E-mail: guolongbiao@caas.cn [State Key Laboratory of Rice Biology, China National Rice Research Institute, Hangzhou 310006 (China); Qian, Qian, E-mail: qianqian188@hotmail.com [College of Life and Environmental Sciences, Hangzhou Normal University, Hangzhou 310036 (China); State Key Laboratory of Rice Biology, China National Rice Research Institute, Hangzhou 310006 (China)

    2014-09-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Cd is the most toxic heavy metal and is a major pollutant in rice grains. • The mechanism of Cd accumulation in rice grains has not been well demonstrated. • Proteomics analysis is carried out and the verification is implemented by QPCR. • Proteins associated with ROS and photosynthesis showed large variation in expression. - Abstract: Rice is one of the most important staple crops. During the growth season, rice plants are inevitably subjected to numerous stresses, among which heavy metal stress represented by cadmium contamination not only hindering the yield of rice but also affecting the food safety by Cd accumulating in rice grains. The mechanism of Cd accumulation in rice grains has not been well elucidated. In this study, we compare the proteomic difference between two genotypes with different Cd accumulation ability in grains. Verification of differentially expressed protein-encoding genes was analyzing by quantitative PCR (QPCR) and reanalysis of microarray expression data. Forty-seven proteins in total were successfully identified through proteomic screening. GO and KEGG enrichment analysis showed Cd accumulation triggered stress-related pathways in the cells, and strongly affecting metabolic pathways. Many proteins associated with nutrient reservoir and starch-related enzyme were identified in this study suggesting that a considerably damage on grain quality was caused. The results also implied stress response was initiated by the abnormal cells and the transmission of signals may mediated by reactive oxygen species (ROS). Our research will provide new insights into Cd accumulation in rice grain under Cd stress.

  10. Mechanisms of damage to the oxide layer of cladding of fuel rods under accident conditions like RI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Busser, Vincent

    2009-01-01

    During reactivity initiated accident, the importance of cladding tube oxidation on its thermomechanical behavior has been investigated. After RIA tests in experimental reactors oxide damage including radial cracking and spallation of the outer oxide layer has been evidenced. This work aims at better understanding the key mechanisms controlling these phenomena. Laboratory air-oxidation of Zircaloy-4 cladding tubes has been performed at 470 C. SEM micrographs show that radial cracks are initiated from the outer surface of the oxide layer and propagated radially towards the oxide-metal interface. A model predicting the stress evolution within the oxide and the depth of crack has been developed and validated on literature tests and tests of this study. Ring compression tests were used for the experimental study of the oxide degradation under mechanical loading. Experimental data revealed three mechanisms: densification of the radial crack network, propagation of these radial cracks, branching and spallation of oxide fragments. The influence of the circumferential cracks, periodically distributed in the oxide layer, on the stress distribution in oxide fragments has been analysed using finite element modelling. The determining influence of these cracks on the maximum stress oxide fragments has been demonstrated. (author)

  11. Subcellular and supracellular mechanical stress prescribes cytoskeleton behavior in Arabidopsis cotyledon pavement cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampathkumar, Arun; Krupinski, Pawel; Wightman, Raymond; Milani, Pascale; Berquand, Alexandre; Boudaoud, Arezki; Hamant, Olivier; Jönsson, Henrik; Meyerowitz, Elliot M

    2014-01-01

    Although it is a central question in biology, how cell shape controls intracellular dynamics largely remains an open question. Here, we show that the shape of Arabidopsis pavement cells creates a stress pattern that controls microtubule orientation, which then guides cell wall reinforcement. Live-imaging, combined with modeling of cell mechanics, shows that microtubules align along the maximal tensile stress direction within the cells, and atomic force microscopy demonstrates that this leads to reinforcement of the cell wall parallel to the microtubules. This feedback loop is regulated: cell-shape derived stresses could be overridden by imposed tissue level stresses, showing how competition between subcellular and supracellular cues control microtubule behavior. Furthermore, at the microtubule level, we identified an amplification mechanism in which mechanical stress promotes the microtubule response to stress by increasing severing activity. These multiscale feedbacks likely contribute to the robustness of microtubule behavior in plant epidermis. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.01967.001 PMID:24740969

  12. Transcriptional profiling of Medicago truncatula under salt stress identified a novel CBF transcription factor MtCBF4 that plays an important role in abiotic stress responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su Zhen

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Salt stress hinders the growth of plants and reduces crop production worldwide. However, different plant species might possess different adaptive mechanisms to mitigate salt stress. We conducted a detailed pathway analysis of transcriptional dynamics in the roots of Medicago truncatula seedlings under salt stress and selected a transcription factor gene, MtCBF4, for experimental validation. Results A microarray experiment was conducted using root samples collected 6, 24, and 48 h after application of 180 mM NaCl. Analysis of 11 statistically significant expression profiles revealed different behaviors between primary and secondary metabolism pathways in response to external stress. Secondary metabolism that helps to maintain osmotic balance was induced. One of the highly induced transcription factor genes was successfully cloned, and was named MtCBF4. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that MtCBF4, which belongs to the AP2-EREBP transcription factor family, is a novel member of the CBF transcription factor in M. truncatula. MtCBF4 is shown to be a nuclear-localized protein. Expression of MtCBF4 in M. truncatula was induced by most of the abiotic stresses, including salt, drought, cold, and abscisic acid, suggesting crosstalk between these abiotic stresses. Transgenic Arabidopsis over-expressing MtCBF4 enhanced tolerance to drought and salt stress, and activated expression of downstream genes that contain DRE elements. Over-expression of MtCBF4 in M. truncatula also enhanced salt tolerance and induced expression level of corresponding downstream genes. Conclusion Comprehensive transcriptomic analysis revealed complex mechanisms exist in plants in response to salt stress. The novel transcription factor gene MtCBF4 identified here played an important role in response to abiotic stresses, indicating that it might be a good candidate gene for genetic improvement to produce stress-tolerant plants.

  13. Transcriptional profiling of Medicago truncatula under salt stress identified a novel CBF transcription factor MtCBF4 that plays an important role in abiotic stress responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Salt stress hinders the growth of plants and reduces crop production worldwide. However, different plant species might possess different adaptive mechanisms to mitigate salt stress. We conducted a detailed pathway analysis of transcriptional dynamics in the roots of Medicago truncatula seedlings under salt stress and selected a transcription factor gene, MtCBF4, for experimental validation. Results A microarray experiment was conducted using root samples collected 6, 24, and 48 h after application of 180 mM NaCl. Analysis of 11 statistically significant expression profiles revealed different behaviors between primary and secondary metabolism pathways in response to external stress. Secondary metabolism that helps to maintain osmotic balance was induced. One of the highly induced transcription factor genes was successfully cloned, and was named MtCBF4. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that MtCBF4, which belongs to the AP2-EREBP transcription factor family, is a novel member of the CBF transcription factor in M. truncatula. MtCBF4 is shown to be a nuclear-localized protein. Expression of MtCBF4 in M. truncatula was induced by most of the abiotic stresses, including salt, drought, cold, and abscisic acid, suggesting crosstalk between these abiotic stresses. Transgenic Arabidopsis over-expressing MtCBF4 enhanced tolerance to drought and salt stress, and activated expression of downstream genes that contain DRE elements. Over-expression of MtCBF4 in M. truncatula also enhanced salt tolerance and induced expression level of corresponding downstream genes. Conclusion Comprehensive transcriptomic analysis revealed complex mechanisms exist in plants in response to salt stress. The novel transcription factor gene MtCBF4 identified here played an important role in response to abiotic stresses, indicating that it might be a good candidate gene for genetic improvement to produce stress-tolerant plants. PMID:21718548

  14. Better executive function under stress mitigates the effects of recent life stress exposure on health in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, Grant S; Moons, Wesley G; Slavich, George M

    2017-01-01

    Executive function is a neuropsychological construct that enables controlled cognitive processing, which has been hypothesized to enhance individuals' resilience to stress. However, little empirical work has directly examined how executive function under different conditions mitigates the negative effects of stress exposure on health. To address this issue, we recruited 110 healthy young adults and assessed their recent life stress exposure, executive function in either a stressful or non-stressful context, and current health complaints. Based on existing research, we hypothesized that individuals exhibiting better executive function following a laboratory-based stressor (but not a control task) would demonstrate weaker associations between recent stress exposure and health because they perceived recent life stressors as being less severe. Consistent with this hypothesis, better executive function during acute stress, but not in the absence of stress, was associated with an attenuated link between participants' recent life stress exposure and their current health complaints. Moreover, this attenuating effect was mediated by lesser perceptions of stressor severity. Based on these data, we conclude that better executive function under stress is associated with fewer health complaints and that these effects may occur by reducing individuals' perceptions of stressor severity. The data thus suggest the possibility of reducing stress-related health problems by enhancing executive function.

  15. Anticipatory stress influences decision making under explicit risk conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starcke, Katrin; Wolf, Oliver T; Markowitsch, Hans J; Brand, Matthias

    2008-12-01

    Recent research has suggested that stress may affect memory, executive functioning, and decision making on the basis of emotional feedback processing. The current study examined whether anticipatory stress affects decision making measured with the Game of Dice Task (GDT), a decision-making task with explicit and stable rules that taps both executive functioning and feedback learning. The authors induced stress in 20 participants by having them anticipate giving a public speech and also examined 20 comparison subjects. The authors assessed the level of stress with questionnaires and endocrine markers (salivary cortisol and alpha-amylase), both revealing that speech anticipation led to increased stress. Results of the GDT showed that participants under stress scored significantly lower than the comparison group and that GDT performance was negatively correlated with the increase of cortisol. Our results indicate that stress can lead to disadvantageous decision making even when explicit and stable information about outcome contingencies is provided.

  16. Mechanical characteristics under monotonic and cyclic simple shear of spark plasma sintered ultrafine-grained nickel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dirras, G.; Bouvier, S.; Gubicza, J.; Hasni, B.; Szilagyi, T.

    2009-01-01

    The present work focuses on understanding the mechanical behavior of bulk ultrafine-grained nickel specimens processed by spark plasma sintering of high purity nickel nanopowder and subsequently deformed under large amplitude monotonic simple shear tests and strain-controlled cyclic simple shear tests at room temperature. During cyclic tests, the samples were deformed up to an accumulated von Mises strain of about ε VM = 0.75 (the flow stress was in the 650-700 MPa range), which is extremely high in comparison with the low tensile/compression ductility of this class of materials at quasi-static conditions. The underlying physical mechanisms were investigated by electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction profile analysis. Lattice dislocation-based plasticity leading to cell formation and dislocation interactions with twin boundaries contributed to the work-hardening of these materials. The large amount of plastic strain that has been reached during the shear tests highlights intrinsic mechanical characteristics of the ultrafine-grained nickel studied here.

  17. Mechanical characteristics under monotonic and cyclic simple shear of spark plasma sintered ultrafine-grained nickel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dirras, G., E-mail: dirras@univ-paris13.fr [LPMTM - CNRS, Institut Galilee, Universite Paris 13, 99 Avenue J.B. Clement, 93430 Villetaneuse (France); Bouvier, S. [LPMTM - CNRS, Institut Galilee, Universite Paris 13, 99 Avenue J.B. Clement, 93430 Villetaneuse (France); Gubicza, J. [Department of Materials Physics, Eoetvoes Lorand University, P.O.B. 32, Budapest H-1518 (Hungary); Hasni, B. [LPMTM - CNRS, Institut Galilee, Universite Paris 13, 99 Avenue J.B. Clement, 93430 Villetaneuse (France); Szilagyi, T. [Department of Materials Physics, Eoetvoes Lorand University, P.O.B. 32, Budapest H-1518 (Hungary)

    2009-11-25

    The present work focuses on understanding the mechanical behavior of bulk ultrafine-grained nickel specimens processed by spark plasma sintering of high purity nickel nanopowder and subsequently deformed under large amplitude monotonic simple shear tests and strain-controlled cyclic simple shear tests at room temperature. During cyclic tests, the samples were deformed up to an accumulated von Mises strain of about {epsilon}{sub VM} = 0.75 (the flow stress was in the 650-700 MPa range), which is extremely high in comparison with the low tensile/compression ductility of this class of materials at quasi-static conditions. The underlying physical mechanisms were investigated by electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction profile analysis. Lattice dislocation-based plasticity leading to cell formation and dislocation interactions with twin boundaries contributed to the work-hardening of these materials. The large amount of plastic strain that has been reached during the shear tests highlights intrinsic mechanical characteristics of the ultrafine-grained nickel studied here.

  18. Residual stresses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macherauch, E.

    1978-01-01

    Residual stresses are stresses which exist in a material without the influence of external powers and moments. They come into existence when the volume of a material constantly changes its form as a consequence of mechanical, thermal, and/or chemical processes and is hindered by neighbouring volumes. Bodies with residual stress are in mechanical balance. These residual stresses can be manifested by means of all mechanical interventions disturbing this balance. Acoustical, optical, radiological, and magnetical methods involving material changes caused by residual stress can also serve for determining residual stress. Residual stresses have an ambivalent character. In technical practice, they are feared and liked at the same time. They cause trouble because they can be the cause for unexpected behaviour of construction elements. They are feared since they can cause failure, in the worst case with catastrophical consequences. They are appreciated, on the other hand, because, in many cases, they can contribute to improvements of the material behaviour under certain circumstances. But they are especially liked for their giving convenient and (this is most important) mostly uncontrollable explanations. For only in very few cases we have enough knowledge and possibilities for the objective evaluation of residual stresses. (orig.) [de

  19. Mechanical properties of cellulose electro-active paper under different environmental conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Heung Soo; Kim, Jaehwan; Jung, Woochul; Ampofo, Joshua; Craft, William; Sankar, Jagannathan

    2008-01-01

    The mechanical properties of cellulose-based electro-active paper (EAPap) are investigated under various environmental conditions. Cellulose EAPap has been discovered as a smart material that can be used as both sensor and actuator. Its advantages include low voltage operation, light weight, low power consumption, biodegradability and low cost. EAPap is made with cellulose paper coated with thin electrodes. EAPap shows a reversible and reproducible bending movement as well as longitudinal displacement under an electric field. However, EAPap is a complex anisotropic material which has not been fully characterized. This study investigates the mechanical properties of cellulose-based EAPap, including Young's modulus, yield strength, ultimate strength and creep, along with orientation directions, humidity and temperature levels. To test the materials in different humidity and temperature levels, a special material testing system was made that can control the testing environmental conditions. The initial Young's modulus of EAPap is in the range of 4–9 GPa, which was higher than that of other polymer materials. Also, the Young's modulus is orientation dependent, which may be associated with the piezoelectricity of EAPap materials. The elastic strength and stiffness gradually decreased when the humidity and temperature were increased. Creep and relaxation were observed under constant stress and strain, respectively. Through scanning electron microscopy, EAPap is shown to exhibit both layered and oriented cellulose macromolecular structures that impact both the elastic and plastic behavior

  20. High CO2 triggers preferential root growth of Arabidopsis thaliana via two distinct systems under low pH and low N stresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hachiya, Takushi; Sugiura, Daisuke; Kojima, Mikiko; Sato, Shigeru; Yanagisawa, Shuichi; Sakakibara, Hitoshi; Terashima, Ichiro; Noguchi, Ko

    2014-02-01

    Biomass allocation between shoots and roots is an important strategy used by plants to optimize growth in various environments. Root to shoot mass ratios typically increase in response to high CO2, a trend particularly evident under abiotic stress. We investigated this preferential root growth (PRG) in Arabidopsis thaliana plants cultivated under low pH/high CO2 or low nitrogen (N)/high CO2 conditions. Previous studies have suggested that changes in plant hormone, carbon (C) and N status may be related to PRG. We therefore examined the mechanisms underlying PRG by genetically modifying cytokinin (CK) levels, C and N status, and sugar signaling, performing sugar application experiments and determining primary metabolites, plant hormones and expression of related g