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Sample records for mechanisms underlying functional

  1. Mechanical properties of novel forms of graphyne under strain: A density functional theory study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majidi, Roya

    2017-06-01

    The mechanical properties of two forms of graphyne sheets named α-graphyne and α2-graphyne under uniaxial and biaxial strains were studied. In-plane stiffness, bulk modulus, and shear modulus were calculated based on density functional theory. The in-plane stiffness, bulk modulus, and shear modulus of α2-graphyne were found to be larger than that of α-graphyne. The maximum values of supported uniaxial and biaxial strains before failure were determined. The α-graphyne was entered into the plastic region with the higher magnitude of tension in comparison to α2-graphyne. The mechanical properties of α-graphyne family revealed that these forms of graphyne are proper materials for use in nanomechanical applications.

  2. Curcumin-mediated regulation of intestinal barrier function: The mechanism underlying its beneficial effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Siddhartha S; He, Hongliang; Wang, Jing; Gehr, Todd W; Ghosh, Shobha

    2018-01-02

    Curcumin has anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant and anti-proliferative properties established largely by in vitro studies. Accordingly, oral administration of curcumin beneficially modulates many diseases including diabetes, fatty-liver disease, atherosclerosis, arthritis, cancer and neurological disorders such as depression, Alzheimer's or Parkinson's disease. However, limited bioavailability and inability to detect curcumin in circulation or target tissues has hindered the validation of a causal role. We established curcumin-mediated decrease in the release of gut bacteria-derived lipopolysaccharide (LPS) into circulation by maintaining the integrity of the intestinal barrier function as the mechanism underlying the attenuation of metabolic diseases (diabetes, atherosclerosis, kidney disease) by curcumin supplementation precluding the need for curcumin absorption. In view of the causative role of circulating LPS and resulting chronic inflammation in the development of diseases listed above, this review summarizes the mechanism by which curcumin affects the several layers of the intestinal barrier and, despite negligible absorption, can beneficially modulate these diseases.

  3. A statistical mechanical approach to restricted integer partition functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Chi-Chun; Dai, Wu-Sheng

    2018-05-01

    The main aim of this paper is twofold: (1) suggesting a statistical mechanical approach to the calculation of the generating function of restricted integer partition functions which count the number of partitions—a way of writing an integer as a sum of other integers under certain restrictions. In this approach, the generating function of restricted integer partition functions is constructed from the canonical partition functions of various quantum gases. (2) Introducing a new type of restricted integer partition functions corresponding to general statistics which is a generalization of Gentile statistics in statistical mechanics; many kinds of restricted integer partition functions are special cases of this restricted integer partition function. Moreover, with statistical mechanics as a bridge, we reveal a mathematical fact: the generating function of restricted integer partition function is just the symmetric function which is a class of functions being invariant under the action of permutation groups. Using this approach, we provide some expressions of restricted integer partition functions as examples.

  4. Functional methods underlying classical mechanics, relativity and quantum theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kryukov, A

    2013-01-01

    The paper investigates the physical content of a recently proposed mathematical framework that unifies the standard formalisms of classical mechanics, relativity and quantum theory. In the framework states of a classical particle are identified with Dirac delta functions. The classical space is ''made'' of these functions and becomes a submanifold in a Hilbert space of states of the particle. The resulting embedding of the classical space into the space of states is highly non-trivial and accounts for numerous deep relations between classical and quantum physics and relativity. One of the most striking results is the proof that the normal probability distribution of position of a macroscopic particle (equivalently, position of the corresponding delta state within the classical space submanifold) yields the Born rule for transitions between arbitrary quantum states.

  5. [Conversion disorder : functional neuroimaging and neurobiological mechanisms].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lejeune, J; Piette, C; Salmon, E; Scantamburlo, G

    2017-04-01

    Conversion disorder is a psychiatric disorder often encountered in neurology services. This condition without organic lesions was and still is sometimes referred as an imaginary illness or feigning. However, the absence of organic lesions does not exclude the possibility of cerebral dysfunction. The etiologic mechanisms underlying this disorder remain uncertain even today.The advent of cognitive and functional imaging opens up a field of exploration for psychiatry in understanding the neurobiological mechanisms underlying mental disorders and especially the conversion disorder. This article reports several neuroimaging studies of conversion disorder and attempts to generate hypotheses about neurobiological mechanisms.

  6. Thymic function in the regulation of T cells, and molecular mechanisms underlying the modulation of cytokines and stress signaling (Review).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Fenggen; Mo, Xiumei; Liu, Junfeng; Ye, Siqi; Zeng, Xing; Chen, Dacan

    2017-11-01

    The thymus is critical in establishing and maintaining the appropriate microenvironment for promoting the development and selection of T cells. The function and structure of the thymus gland has been extensively studied, particularly as the thymus serves an important physiological role in the lymphatic system. Numerous studies have investigated the morphological features of thymic involution. Recently, research attention has increasingly been focused on thymic proteins as targets for drug intervention. Omics approaches have yielded novel insights into the thymus and possible drug targets. The present review addresses the signaling and transcriptional functions of the thymus, including the molecular mechanisms underlying the regulatory functions of T cells and their role in the immune system. In addition, the levels of cytokines secreted in the thymus have a significant effect on thymic functions, including thymocyte migration and development, thymic atrophy and thymic recovery. Furthermore, the regulation and molecular mechanisms of stress‑mediated thymic atrophy and involution were investigated, with particular emphasis on thymic function as a potential target for drug development and discovery using proteomics.

  7. Coupling functions: Universal insights into dynamical interaction mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stankovski, Tomislav; Pereira, Tiago; McClintock, Peter V. E.; Stefanovska, Aneta

    2017-10-01

    The dynamical systems found in nature are rarely isolated. Instead they interact and influence each other. The coupling functions that connect them contain detailed information about the functional mechanisms underlying the interactions and prescribe the physical rule specifying how an interaction occurs. A coherent and comprehensive review is presented encompassing the rapid progress made recently in the analysis, understanding, and applications of coupling functions. The basic concepts and characteristics of coupling functions are presented through demonstrative examples of different domains, revealing the mechanisms and emphasizing their multivariate nature. The theory of coupling functions is discussed through gradually increasing complexity from strong and weak interactions to globally coupled systems and networks. A variety of methods that have been developed for the detection and reconstruction of coupling functions from measured data is described. These methods are based on different statistical techniques for dynamical inference. Stemming from physics, such methods are being applied in diverse areas of science and technology, including chemistry, biology, physiology, neuroscience, social sciences, mechanics, and secure communications. This breadth of application illustrates the universality of coupling functions for studying the interaction mechanisms of coupled dynamical systems.

  8. Underlying mechanisms of improving physical activity behavior after rehabilitation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Ploeg, H.P.; Streppel, K.R.; van der Beek, A.J.; van der Woude, L.H.V.; van Harten, W.H.; van Mechelen, W.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Regular physical activity is beneficial for the health and functioning of people with a disability. Effective components of successful physical activity promotion interventions should be identified and disseminated. Purpose: To study the underlying mechanisms of the combined sport

  9. Underlying Mechanisms of Improving Physical Activity Behavior after Rehabilitation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Ploeg, Hidde P.; Streppel, Kitty R.M.; van der Beek, Allard J.; Woude, Luc H.V.; van Harten, Willem H.; Vollenbroek-Hutten, Miriam Marie Rosé; van Mechelen, Willem

    2008-01-01

    Background: Regular physical activity is beneficial for the health and functioning of people with a disability. Effective components of successful physical activity promotion interventions should be identified and disseminated. Purpose: To study the underlying mechanisms of the combined sport

  10. DNA under Force: Mechanics, Electrostatics, and Hydration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingqiang Li

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Quantifying the basic intra- and inter-molecular forces of DNA has helped us to better understand and further predict the behavior of DNA. Single molecule technique elucidates the mechanics of DNA under applied external forces, sometimes under extreme forces. On the other hand, ensemble studies of DNA molecular force allow us to extend our understanding of DNA molecules under other forces such as electrostatic and hydration forces. Using a variety of techniques, we can have a comprehensive understanding of DNA molecular forces, which is crucial in unraveling the complex DNA functions in living cells as well as in designing a system that utilizes the unique properties of DNA in nanotechnology.

  11. Two distinct neural mechanisms underlying indirect reciprocity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Takamitsu; Takezawa, Masanori; Nakawake, Yo; Kunimatsu, Akira; Yamasue, Hidenori; Nakamura, Mitsuhiro; Miyashita, Yasushi; Masuda, Naoki

    2014-03-18

    Cooperation is a hallmark of human society. Humans often cooperate with strangers even if they will not meet each other again. This so-called indirect reciprocity enables large-scale cooperation among nonkin and can occur based on a reputation mechanism or as a succession of pay-it-forward behavior. Here, we provide the functional and anatomical neural evidence for two distinct mechanisms governing the two types of indirect reciprocity. Cooperation occurring as reputation-based reciprocity specifically recruited the precuneus, a region associated with self-centered cognition. During such cooperative behavior, the precuneus was functionally connected with the caudate, a region linking rewards to behavior. Furthermore, the precuneus of a cooperative subject had a strong resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) with the caudate and a large gray matter volume. In contrast, pay-it-forward reciprocity recruited the anterior insula (AI), a brain region associated with affective empathy. The AI was functionally connected with the caudate during cooperation occurring as pay-it-forward reciprocity, and its gray matter volume and rsFC with the caudate predicted the tendency of such cooperation. The revealed difference is consistent with the existing results of evolutionary game theory: although reputation-based indirect reciprocity robustly evolves as a self-interested behavior in theory, pay-it-forward indirect reciprocity does not on its own. The present study provides neural mechanisms underlying indirect reciprocity and suggests that pay-it-forward reciprocity may not occur as myopic profit maximization but elicit emotional rewards.

  12. Music and Memory in Alzheimer's Disease and The Potential Underlying Mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peck, Katlyn J; Girard, Todd A; Russo, Frank A; Fiocco, Alexandra J

    2016-01-01

    With population aging and a projected exponential expansion of persons diagnosed with Alzheimer's disease (AD), the development of treatment and prevention programs has become a fervent area of research and discovery. A growing body of evidence suggests that music exposure can enhance memory and emotional function in persons with AD. However, there is a paucity of research that aims to identify specific underlying neural mechanisms associated with music's beneficial effects in this particular population. As such, this paper reviews existing anecdotal and empirical evidence related to the enhancing effects of music exposure on cognitive function and further provides a discussion on the potential underlying mechanisms that may explain music's beneficial effect. Specifically, this paper will outline the potential role of the dopaminergic system, the autonomic nervous system, and the default network in explaining how music may enhance memory function in persons with AD.

  13. Using stable isotopes and functional wood anatomy to identify underlying mechanisms of drought tolerance in different provenances of lodgepole pine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaac-Renton, Miriam; Montwé, David; Hamann, Andreas; Spiecker, Heinrich; Cherubini, Paolo; Treydte, Kerstin

    2016-04-01

    Choosing drought-tolerant seed sources for reforestation may help adapt forests to climate change. By combining dendroecological growth analysis with a long-term provenance trial, we assessed growth and drought tolerance of different populations of a wide-ranging conifer, lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta). This experimental design simulated a climate warming scenario through southward seed transfer, and an exceptional drought also occurred in 2002. We felled over 500 trees, representing 23 seed sources, which were grown for 32 years at three warm, dry sites in southern British Columbia, Canada. Northern populations showed poor growth and drought tolerance. These seed sources therefore appear to be especially at risk under climate change. Before recommending assisted migration of southern seeds towards the north, however, it is important to understand the physiological mechanisms underlying these responses. We combine functional wood anatomy with a dual-isotope approach to evaluate these mechanisms to drought response.

  14. Damage mechanisms in PBT-GF30 under thermo-mechanical cyclic loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaaf, A.; De Monte, M.; Hoffmann, C.; Vormwald, M.; Quaresimin, M.

    2014-01-01

    The scope of this paper is the investigation of damage mechanisms at microscopic scale on a short glass fiber reinforced polybutylene terephthalate (PBT-GF30) under thermo-mechanical cyclic loading. In addition the principal mechanisms are verified through micro mechanical FE models. In order to investigate the fatigue behavior of the material both isothermal strain controlled fatigue (ISCF) tests at three different temperatures and thermo-mechanical fatigue (TMF) tests were conducted on plain and notched specimens, manufactured by injection molding. The goal of the work is to determine the damage mechanisms occurring under TMF conditions and to compare them with the mechanisms occurring under ISCF. For this reason fracture surfaces of TMF and ISCF samples loaded at different temperature levels were analyzed using scanning electron microscopy. Furthermore, specimens that failed under TMF were examined on microsections revealing insight into both crack initiation and crack propagation. The findings of this investigation give valuable information about the main damage mechanisms of PBT-GF30 under TMF loading and serve as basis for the development of a TMF life estimation methodology

  15. Applications of tensor functions in creep mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Betten, J.

    1991-01-01

    Within this contribution a short survey is given of some recent advances in the mathematical modelling of materials behaviour under creep conditions. The mechanical behaviour of anisotropic solids requires a suitable mathematical modelling. The properties of tensor functions with several argument tensors constitute a rational basis for a consistent mathematical modelling of complex material behaviour. This paper presents certain principles, methods, and recent successfull applications of tensor functions in solid mechanics. The rules for specifying irreducible sets of tensor invariants and tensor generators for material tensors of rank two and four are also discussed. Furthermore, it is very important that the scalar coefficients in constitutive and evolutional equations are determined as functions of the integrity basis and experimental data. It is explained in detail that these coefficients can be determined by using tensorial interpolation methods. Some examples for practical use are discussed. (orig./RHM)

  16. Elsevier Trophoblast Research Award lecture: Molecular mechanisms underlying estrogen functions in trophoblastic cells--focus on leptin expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambino, Y P; Maymó, J L; Pérez Pérez, A; Calvo, J C; Sánchez-Margalet, V; Varone, C L

    2012-02-01

    The steroid hormone 17β-estradiol is an estrogen that influences multiple aspects of placental function and fetal development in humans. During early pregnancy it plays a role in the regulation of blastocyst implantation, trophoblast differentiation and invasiveness, remodeling of uterine arteries, immunology and trophoblast production of hormones such as leptin. Estradiol exerts some effects through the action of classical estrogen receptors ERα and ERβ, which act as ligand-activated transcription factors and regulate gene expression. In addition, estradiol can elicit rapid responses from membrane-associated receptors, like activation of protein-kinase pathways. Thus, the cellular effects of estradiol will depend on the specific receptors expressed and the integration of their signaling events. Leptin, the 16,000MW protein product of the obese gene, was originally considered an adipocyte-derived signaling molecule for the central control of metabolism. However, pleiotropic effects of leptin have been identified in reproduction and pregnancy. The leptin gene is expressed in placenta, where leptin promotes proliferation and survival of trophoblastic cells. Expression of leptin in placenta is highly regulated by key pregnancy molecules as hCG and estradiol. The aim of this paper is to review the molecular mechanisms underlying estrogen functions in trophoblastic cells; focusing on mechanisms involved in estradiol regulation of placental leptin expression. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Mechanics of advanced functional materials

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Biao

    2013-01-01

    Mechanics of Advanced Functional Materials emphasizes the coupling effect between the electric and mechanical field in the piezoelectric, ferroelectric and other functional materials. It also discusses the size effect on the ferroelectric domain instability and phase transition behaviors using the continuum micro-structural evolution models. Functional materials usually have a very wide application in engineering due to their unique thermal, electric, magnetic, optoelectronic, etc., functions. Almost all the applications demand that the material should have reasonable stiffness, strength, fracture toughness and the other mechanical properties. Furthermore, usually the stress and strain fields on the functional materials and devices have some important coupling effect on the functionality of the materials. Much progress has been made concerning the coupling electric and mechanical behaviors such as the coupled electric and stress field distribution in piezoelectric solids, ferroelectric domain patterns in ferr...

  18. Peripheral Receptor Mechanisms Underlying Orofacial Muscle Pain and Hyperalgesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saloman, Jami L.

    Musculoskeletal pain conditions, particularly those associated with temporomandibular joint and muscle disorders (TMD) are severely debilitating and affect approximately 12% of the population. Identifying peripheral nociceptive mechanisms underlying mechanical hyperalgesia, a prominent feature of persistent muscle pain, could contribute to the development of new treatment strategies for the management of TMD and other muscle pain conditions. This study provides evidence of functional interactions between ligand-gated channels, P2X3 and TRPV1/TRPA1, in trigeminal sensory neurons, and proposes that these interactions underlie the development of mechanical hyperalgesia. In the masseter muscle, direct P2X3 activation, via the selective agonist αβmeATP, induced a dose- and time-dependent hyperalgesia. Importantly, the αβmeATP-induced hyperalgesia was prevented by pretreatment of the muscle with a TRPV1 antagonist, AMG9810, or the TRPA1 antagonist, AP18. P2X3 was co-expressed with both TRPV1 and TRPA1 in masseter muscle afferents confirming the possibility for intracellular interactions. Moreover, in a subpopulation of P2X3 /TRPV1 positive neurons, capsaicin-induced Ca2+ transients were significantly potentiated following P2X3 activation. Inhibition of Ca2+-dependent kinases, PKC and CaMKII, prevented P2X3-mechanical hyperalgesia whereas blockade of Ca2+-independent PKA did not. Finally, activation of P2X3 induced phosphorylation of serine, but not threonine, residues in TRPV1 in trigeminal sensory neurons. Significant phosphorylation was observed at 15 minutes, the time point at which behavioral hyperalgesia was prominent. Similar data were obtained regarding another nonselective cation channel, the NMDA receptor (NMDAR). Our data propose P2X3 and NMDARs interact with TRPV1 in a facilitatory manner, which could contribute to the peripheral sensitization underlying masseter hyperalgesia. This study offers novel mechanisms by which individual pro-nociceptive ligand

  19. A randomised-controlled trial investigating potential underlying mechanisms of a functionality-based approach to improving women's body image.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alleva, Jessica M; Diedrichs, Phillippa C; Halliwell, Emma; Martijn, Carolien; Stuijfzand, Bobby G; Treneman-Evans, Georgia; Rumsey, Nichola

    2018-06-01

    Focusing on body functionality is a promising technique for improving women's body image. This study replicates prior research in a large novel sample, tests longer-term follow-up effects, and investigates underlying mechanisms of these effects (body complexity and body-self integration). British women (N = 261) aged 18-30 who wanted to improve their body image were randomised to Expand Your Horizon (three online body functionality writing exercises) or an active control. Trait body image was assessed at Pretest, Posttest, 1-week, and 1-month Follow-Up. To explore whether changes in body complexity and body-self integration 'buffer' the impact of negative body-related experiences, participants also completed beauty-ideal media exposure. Relative to the control, intervention participants experienced improved appearance satisfaction, functionality satisfaction, body appreciation, and body complexity at Posttest, and at both Follow-Ups. Neither body complexity nor body-self integration mediated intervention effects. Media exposure decreased state body satisfaction among intervention and control participants, but neither body complexity nor body-self integration moderated these effects. The findings underscore the value of focusing on body functionality for improving body image and show that effects persist one month post-intervention. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Insights into the Mechanisms Underlying Boron Homeostasis in Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akira Yoshinari

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Boron is an essential element for plants but is toxic in excess. Therefore, plants must adapt to both limiting and excess boron conditions for normal growth. Boron transport in plants is primarily based on three transport mechanisms across the plasma membrane: passive diffusion of boric acid, facilitated diffusion of boric acid via channels, and export of borate anion via transporters. Under boron -limiting conditions, boric acid channels and borate exporters function in the uptake and translocation of boron to support growth of various plant species. In Arabidopsis thaliana, NIP5;1 and BOR1 are located in the plasma membrane and polarized toward soil and stele, respectively, in various root cells, for efficient transport of boron from the soil to the stele. Importantly, sufficient levels of boron induce downregulation of NIP5;1 and BOR1 through mRNA degradation and proteolysis through endocytosis, respectively. In addition, borate exporters, such as Arabidopsis BOR4 and barley Bot1, function in boron exclusion from tissues and cells under conditions of excess boron. Thus, plants actively regulate intracellular localization and abundance of transport proteins to maintain boron homeostasis. In this review, the physiological roles and regulatory mechanisms of intracellular localization and abundance of boron transport proteins are discussed.

  1. Biogenetic mechanisms predisposing to complex phenotypes in parents may function differently in their children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kulminski, Alexander M; Arbeev, Konstantin G; Christensen, Kaare

    2013-01-01

    rule. Our findings suggest that biogenetic mechanisms underlying relationships among different phenotypes, even if they are causally related, can function differently in successive generations or in different age groups of biologically related individuals. The results suggest that the role of aging-related......This study focuses on the participants of the Long Life Family Study to elucidate whether biogenetic mechanisms underlying relationships among heritable complex phenotypes in parents function in the same way for the same phenotypes in their children. Our results reveal 3 characteristic groups...

  2. The Mediated MIMIC Model for Understanding the Underlying Mechanism of DIF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Ying; Shao, Can; Lathrop, Quinn N.

    2016-01-01

    Due to its flexibility, the multiple-indicator, multiple-causes (MIMIC) model has become an increasingly popular method for the detection of differential item functioning (DIF). In this article, we propose the mediated MIMIC model method to uncover the underlying mechanism of DIF. This method extends the usual MIMIC model by including one variable…

  3. [Study on mechanism of SOM stabilization of paddy soils under long-term fertilizations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Lu; Zhou, Ping; Tong, Cheng-Li; Shi, Hui; Wu, Jin-Shui; Huang, Tie-Ping

    2013-02-01

    Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) was applied to study the structure of soil organic matter (SOM) of paddy soils under long-term different fertilization treatments. The aim was to clarify the different distribution of SOM between different fertilization methods and between topsoil and subsoil, and to explore the stability mechanism of SOM under different fertilization treatments. The results showed that the content of topsoil organic carbon (SOC) was the highest under organic-inorganic fertilizations, with the increment of SOC by 18.5%, 12.9% and 18.4% under high organic manure (HOM), low organic manure (LOM) and straw returning (STW) respectively compared with no fertilization treatment (CK). The long-term fertilizations also changed the chemical structure of SOM. As compared with CK, different fertilization treatments increased the functional group absorbing intensity of chemical resistance compounds (aliphatic, aromaticity), carbohydrate and organo-silicon compounds, which was the most distinctive under treatments of HOM, LOM and STW. For example, the absorbing intensity of alkyl was 0.30, 0.25 and 0.29 under HOM, LOM and STW, respectively. These values were increased by 87% , 56% and 81% as compared with that under CK treatment. The functional group absorbing intensity of SOM in the topsoil was stronger than that in the subsoil, with the most distinctive difference under HOM, LOM and STW treatments. The present research indicated that the enhanced chemical resistance of functional group of SOM may contribute to the high contents of SOC in the paddy soils under long-term organic-inorganic fertilizations, which also suggested a chemical stabilization mechanism of SOM in the paddy soils.

  4. First-principles investigation of mechanical and electronic properties of tetragonal NbAl3 under tension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Zhen; Liu, Qi-Jun; Liu, Fu-Sheng; Tang, Bin

    2018-06-01

    Using the density functional theory calculations, the mechanical and electronic properties of NbAl3 under different tensile loads were investigated. The calculated lattice parameters, elastic constants and mechanical properties (bulk modulus, shear modulus, Young's modulus, Poisson's ratio, Pugh's criterion and Cauchy's pressure) indicated that our results were in agreement with the published experimental and theoretical data at zero tension. With respect to NbAl3 under tension in this paper, the crystal structure was changed from tetragonal to orthorhombic under tension along the [100] and [101] directions. The NbAl3 crystal has been classified as brittle material under tension from 0 to 20 GPa. The obtained Young's modulus and Debye temperature monotonically decreased with increasing tension stress. Combining with mechanical and electronic properties in detail, the decreased mechanical properties were mainly due to the weakening of covalency.

  5. Intrinsically aligned chemo-mechanical functionalization of twin cantilever structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toffoli, V; Esch, F; Melli, M; Pozzato, A; Tormen, M; Lazzarino, M; Cataruzza, F; Carrato, S; Scoles, G

    2008-01-01

    Mechanical oscillators became a main focus of research in recent years for potential applications in biomolecule detectors. We recently demonstrated the feasibility of a scheme based on twin cantilevers with a sensitivity down to the single molecule. This approach is extremely promising under the condition that the two terminals of the device can be functionalized with high selectivity and nanometric accuracy by linker molecules. Here we demonstrate a chemo-mechanical method to achieve the intrinsically aligned functionalization of two silicon surfaces, which can be separated by a gap controllable with nanometric precision. The chemical binding of the target molecules in the selected position is obtained through a cycloaddition reaction which exploits the reactivity of the freshly cleaved surfaces that form when the cantilever gap is created. The general validity of this approach is shown by the use in different chemical environments of two compounds with different reactive functional groups.

  6. Bandwidth Analysis of Functional Interconnects Used as Test Access Mechanism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van den Berg, A.; Ren, P.; Marinissen, E.J.; Gaydadjiev, G.; Goossens, K.

    2010-01-01

    Test data travels through a System on Chip (SOC) from the chip pins to the Core-Under-Test (CUT) and vice versa via a Test Access Mechanism (TAM). Conventionally, a TAM is implemented using dedicated communication infrastructure. However, also existing functional interconnect, such as a bus or

  7. Bandwidth analysis of functional interconnects used as test access mechanism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, van den Ardy; Ren, P.; Marinissen, Erik Jan; Gaydadjiev, G.N.; Goossens, K.G.W.

    2010-01-01

    Test data travels through a System on Chip (SOC) from the chip pins to the Core-Under-Test (CUT) and vice versa via a Test Access Mechanism (TAM). Conventionally, a TAM is implemented using dedicated communication infrastructure. However, also existing functional interconnect, such as a bus or

  8. Mechanical properties of graphene nanoribbons under uniaxial tensile strain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoneyama, Kazufumi; Yamanaka, Ayaka; Okada, Susumu

    2018-03-01

    Based on the density functional theory with the generalized gradient approximation, we investigated the mechanical properties of graphene nanoribbons in terms of their edge shape under a uniaxial tensile strain. The nanoribbons with armchair and zigzag edges retain their structure under a large tensile strain, while the nanoribbons with chiral edges are fragile against the tensile strain compared with those with armchair and zigzag edges. The fracture started at the cove region, which corresponds to the border between the zigzag and armchair edges for the nanoribbons with chiral edges. For the nanoribbons with armchair edges, the fracture started at one of the cove regions at the edges. In contrast, the fracture started at the inner region of the nanoribbons with zigzag edges. The bond elongation under the tensile strain depends on the mutual arrangement of covalent bonds with respect to the strain direction.

  9. Underlying mechanism in the water chemistry of nuclear systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walton, G.N.

    1978-01-01

    The equilibrium between dissolved hydrogen and oxygen in the molecular decomposition of water, and the equilibrium between hydrogen ions and hydroxyl ions in the ionic dissociation of water, both constitute important underlying mechanisms in the corrosion behaviour of water. The two equilibria, and the rates of the reactions involved in water and steam, will be compared and contrasted as a function of temperature, pressure and radiation. The effects of the equilibria on the hydrolysis and solubility of ferrous and ferric ions, and the ions of other metals, will be discussed in relation to the control of conditions in the coolant circuits of nuclear reactors. A third mechanism to discussed is the electrochemical exchange reactions that can contribute to the contamination of circuits. (author)

  10. Surface Damage Mechanism of Monocrystalline Si Under Mechanical Loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Qingliang; Zhang, Quanli; To, Suet; Guo, Bing

    2017-03-01

    Single-point diamond scratching and nanoindentation on monocrystalline silicon wafer were performed to investigate the surface damage mechanism of Si under the contact loading. The results showed that three typical stages of material removal appeared during dynamic scratching, and a chemical reaction of Si with the diamond indenter and oxygen occurred under the high temperature. In addition, the Raman spectra of the various points in the scratching groove indicated that the Si-I to β-Sn structure (Si-II) and the following β-Sn structure (Si-II) to amorphous Si transformation appeared under the rapid loading/unloading condition of the diamond grit, and the volume change induced by the phase transformation resulted in a critical depth (ductile-brittle transition) of cut (˜60 nm ± 15 nm) much lower than the theoretical calculated results (˜387 nm). Moreover, it also led to abnormal load-displacement curves in the nanoindentation tests, resulting in the appearance of elbow and pop-out effects (˜270 nm at 20 s, 50 mN), which were highly dependent on the loading/unloading conditions. In summary, phase transformation of Si promoted surface deformation and fracture under both static and dynamic mechanical loading.

  11. Acclimation of mechanical and hydraulic functions in trees:Impact of the thigmomorphogenetic process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric eBadel

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The secondary xylem (wood of trees mediates several functions including water transport and storage, mechanical support and storage of photosynthates. The optimal structures for each of these functions will most likely differ. The complex structure and function of xylem could lead to trade-offs between conductive efficiency, resistance to embolism and mechanical strength needed to count for mechanical loading due to gravity and wind. This has been referred to as the trade-off triangle, with the different optimal solutions to the structure/function problems depending on the environmental constraints as well as taxonomic histories. Thus, the optimisation of each function will lead to drastically different anatomical structures. Trees are able to acclimate the internal structure of their trunk and branches according to the stress they experience. These acclimations lead to specific structures that favour the efficiency or the safety of one function but can be antagonistic with other functions. Currently, there are no means to predict the way a tree will acclimate or optimize its internal structure in support of its various functions under differing environmental conditions. In this review, we will focus on the acclimation of xylem anatomy and its resulting mechanical and hydraulic functions to recurrent mechanical strain that usually result from wind-induced thigmomorphogenesis with a special focus on the construction cost and the possible trade-off between wood functions.

  12. Mechanisms by Which Different Functional States of Mitochondria Define Yeast Longevity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beach, Adam; Leonov, Anna; Arlia-Ciommo, Anthony; Svistkova, Veronika; Lutchman, Vicky; Titorenko, Vladimir I.

    2015-01-01

    Mitochondrial functionality is vital to organismal physiology. A body of evidence supports the notion that an age-related progressive decline in mitochondrial function is a hallmark of cellular and organismal aging in evolutionarily distant eukaryotes. Studies of the baker’s yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, a unicellular eukaryote, have led to discoveries of genes, signaling pathways and chemical compounds that modulate longevity-defining cellular processes in eukaryotic organisms across phyla. These studies have provided deep insights into mechanistic links that exist between different traits of mitochondrial functionality and cellular aging. The molecular mechanisms underlying the essential role of mitochondria as signaling organelles in yeast aging have begun to emerge. In this review, we discuss recent progress in understanding mechanisms by which different functional states of mitochondria define yeast longevity, outline the most important unanswered questions and suggest directions for future research. PMID:25768339

  13. Mechanisms by Which Different Functional States of Mitochondria Define Yeast Longevity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Beach

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Mitochondrial functionality is vital to organismal physiology. A body of evidence supports the notion that an age-related progressive decline in mitochondrial function is a hallmark of cellular and organismal aging in evolutionarily distant eukaryotes. Studies of the baker’s yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, a unicellular eukaryote, have led to discoveries of genes, signaling pathways and chemical compounds that modulate longevity-defining cellular processes in eukaryotic organisms across phyla. These studies have provided deep insights into mechanistic links that exist between different traits of mitochondrial functionality and cellular aging. The molecular mechanisms underlying the essential role of mitochondria as signaling organelles in yeast aging have begun to emerge. In this review, we discuss recent progress in understanding mechanisms by which different functional states of mitochondria define yeast longevity, outline the most important unanswered questions and suggest directions for future research.

  14. Mechanical properties of cork under contact stresses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parralejo, A. D.; Guiberteau, F.; Fortes, M. A.; Rosa, M. E.

    2001-01-01

    In this work our interest is focussed on the mechanical behaviour of natural cork under contact stresses. Many of the applications of this curious material are related with its mechanical response under such a stress field, however this topic has not been still sufficiently considered in the scientific literature. For this purpose, we proposed the use of Hertzian indentation tests. By using this mythology we have investigated the cork structure influence on the corresponding mechanical properties. Our results reveal a clear mechanical anisotropy effect. Moreover, the elastic modulus corresponding to specific directions have been estimated. Several are the main advantages of this specific test mythology versus traditional uniaxial compression tests, specially simplicity and local character. (Author) 9 refs

  15. Mechanical Behavior of Shale Rock under Uniaxial Cyclic Loading and Unloading Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baoyun Zhao

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate the mechanical behavior of shale rock under cyclic loading and unloading condition, two kinds of incremental cyclic loading tests were conducted. Based on the result of the short-term uniaxial incremental cyclic loading test, the permanent residual strain, modulus, and damage evolution were analyzed firstly. Results showed that the relationship between the residual strains and the cycle number can be expressed by an exponential function. The deformation modulus E50 and elastic modulus ES first increased and then decreased with the peak stress under the loading condition, and both of them increased approximately linearly with the peak stress under the unloading condition. On the basis of the energy dissipation, the damage variables showed an exponential increasing with the strain at peak stress. The creep behavior of the shale rock was also analyzed. Results showed that there are obvious instantaneous strain, decay creep, and steady creep under each stress level and the specimen appears the accelerated creep stage under the 4th stress of 51.16 MPa. Based on the characteristics of the Burgers creep model, a viscoelastic-plastic creep model was proposed through viscoplastic mechanics, which agrees very well with the experimental results and can better describe the creep behavior of shale rock better than the Burgers creep model. Results can provide some mechanics reference evidence for shale gas development.

  16. Investigation on the interaction of catalase with sodium lauryl sulfonate and the underlying mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Jia, Rui; Wang, Jiaxi; Sun, Zhiqiang; Wu, Zitao; Liu, Rutao; Zong, Wansong

    2018-02-01

    As a classic type of anionic surfactants, sodium lauryl sulfonate (SLS) might change the structure and function of antioxidant enzyme catalase (CAT) through their direct interactions. However, the underlying molecular mechanism is still unknown. This study investigated the direct interaction of SLS with CAT molecule and the underlying mechanisms using multi-spectroscopic methods, isothermal titration calorimetry, and molecular docking studies. No obvious effects were observed on CAT structure and activity under low SLS concentration exposure. The particle size of CAT molecule decreased and CAT activity was slightly inhibited under high SLS concentration exposure. SLS prefers to bind to the interface of CAT mainly via van der Waals' forces and hydrogen bonds. Subsequently, SLS interacts with the amino acid residues around the heme groups of CAT via hydrophobic interactions and might inhibit CAT activity. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Mechanical failure of zigzag graphene nanoribbons under tensile strain induced by edge reconstruction

    KAUST Repository

    Cheng, Yingchun

    2012-10-01

    The structural and mechanical properties of graphene nanoribbons (GNRs) under uniaxial tensile strain are studied by density functional theory. The ideal strength of a zigzag GNR (120 GPa) is close to that of pristine graphene. However, for a GNR with both edges reconstructed to pentagon–heptagon pairs (from hexagon–hexagon pairs) it decreases to 94 GPa and the maximum tensile strain is reduced to 15%. Our results constitute a comprehensive picture of the edge structure effect on the mechanical properties of GNRs.

  18. Mechanical failure of zigzag graphene nanoribbons under tensile strain induced by edge reconstruction

    KAUST Repository

    Cheng, Yingchun; Schwingenschlö gl, Udo; Zhu, Zhiyong

    2012-01-01

    The structural and mechanical properties of graphene nanoribbons (GNRs) under uniaxial tensile strain are studied by density functional theory. The ideal strength of a zigzag GNR (120 GPa) is close to that of pristine graphene. However, for a GNR with both edges reconstructed to pentagon–heptagon pairs (from hexagon–hexagon pairs) it decreases to 94 GPa and the maximum tensile strain is reduced to 15%. Our results constitute a comprehensive picture of the edge structure effect on the mechanical properties of GNRs.

  19. Giant panda׳s tooth enamel: Structure, mechanical behavior and toughening mechanisms under indentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Z Y; Liu, Z Q; Ritchie, R O; Jiao, D; Li, D S; Wu, H L; Deng, L H; Zhang, Z F

    2016-12-01

    The giant panda׳s teeth possess remarkable load-bearing capacity and damage resistance for masticating bamboos. In this study, the hierarchical structure and mechanical behavior of the giant panda׳s tooth enamel were investigated under indentation. The effects of loading orientation and location on mechanical properties of the enamel were clarified and the evolution of damage in the enamel under increasing load evaluated. The nature of the damage, both at and beneath the indentation surfaces, and the underlying toughening mechanisms were explored. Indentation cracks invariably were seen to propagate along the internal interfaces, specifically the sheaths between enamel rods, and multiple extrinsic toughening mechanisms, e.g., crack deflection/twisting and uncracked-ligament bridging, were active to shield the tips of cracks from the applied stress. The giant panda׳s tooth enamel is analogous to human enamel in its mechanical properties, yet it has superior hardness and Young׳s modulus but inferior toughness as compared to the bamboo that pandas primarily feed on, highlighting the critical roles of the integration of underlying tissues in the entire tooth and the highly hydrated state of bamboo foods. Our objective is that this study can aid the understanding of the structure-mechanical property relations in the tooth enamel of mammals and further provide some insight on the food habits of the giant pandas. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Short-term plasticity as a neural mechanism supporting memory and attentional functions

    OpenAIRE

    Jääskeläinen, Iiro P.; Ahveninen, Jyrki; Andermann, Mark L.; Belliveau, John W.; Raij, Tommi; Sams, Mikko

    2011-01-01

    Based on behavioral studies, several relatively distinct perceptual and cognitive functions have been defined in cognitive psychology such as sensory memory, short-term memory, and selective attention. Here, we review evidence suggesting that some of these functions may be supported by shared underlying neuronal mechanisms. Specifically, we present, based on an integrative review of the literature, a hypothetical model wherein short-term plasticity, in the form of transient center-excitatory ...

  1. Peeling mechanism of tomato under infrared heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Critical behaviors of peeling tomatoes using infrared heat are thermally induced peel loosening and subsequent cracking. However, the mechanism of peel loosening and cracking due to infrared heating remains unclear. This study aimed at investigating the mechanism of peeling tomatoes under infrared h...

  2. Novel instrument for characterizing comprehensive physical properties under multi-mechanical loads and multi-physical field coupling conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Changyi; Zhao, Hongwei; Ma, Zhichao; Qiao, Yuansen; Hong, Kun; Ren, Zhuang; Zhang, Jianhai; Pei, Yongmao; Ren, Luquan

    2018-02-01

    Functional materials represented by ferromagnetics and ferroelectrics are widely used in advanced sensor and precision actuation due to their special characterization under coupling interactions of complex loads and external physical fields. However, the conventional devices for material characterization can only provide a limited type of loads and physical fields and cannot simulate the actual service conditions of materials. A multi-field coupling instrument for characterization has been designed and implemented to overcome this barrier and measure the comprehensive physical properties under complex service conditions. The testing forms include tension, compression, bending, torsion, and fatigue in mechanical loads, as well as different external physical fields, including electric, magnetic, and thermal fields. In order to offer a variety of information to reveal mechanical damage or deformation forms, a series of measurement methods at the microscale are integrated with the instrument including an indentation unit and in situ microimaging module. Finally, several coupling experiments which cover all the loading and measurement functions of the instrument have been implemented. The results illustrate the functions and characteristics of the instrument and then reveal the variety in mechanical and electromagnetic properties of the piezoelectric transducer ceramic, TbDyFe alloy, and carbon fiber reinforced polymer under coupling conditions.

  3. Using Drosophila to discover mechanisms underlying type 2 diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald W. Alfa

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Mechanisms of glucose homeostasis are remarkably well conserved between the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster and mammals. From the initial characterization of insulin signaling in the fly came the identification of downstream metabolic pathways for nutrient storage and utilization. Defects in these pathways lead to phenotypes that are analogous to diabetic states in mammals. These discoveries have stimulated interest in leveraging the fly to better understand the genetics of type 2 diabetes mellitus in humans. Type 2 diabetes results from insulin insufficiency in the context of ongoing insulin resistance. Although genetic susceptibility is thought to govern the propensity of individuals to develop type 2 diabetes mellitus under appropriate environmental conditions, many of the human genes associated with the disease in genome-wide association studies have not been functionally studied. Recent advances in the phenotyping of metabolic defects have positioned Drosophila as an excellent model for the functional characterization of large numbers of genes associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Here, we examine results from studies modeling metabolic disease in the fruit fly and compare findings to proposed mechanisms for diabetic phenotypes in mammals. We provide a systematic framework for assessing the contribution of gene candidates to insulin-secretion or insulin-resistance pathways relevant to diabetes pathogenesis.

  4. The Relationships between Weight Functions, Geometric Functions,and Compliance Functions in Linear Elastic Fracture Mechanics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuan, Rong [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2007-01-01

    Linear elastic fracture mechanics is widely used in industry because it established simple and explicit relationships between the permissible loading conditions and the critical crack size that is allowed in a structure. Stress intensity factors are the above-mentioned functional expressions that relate load with crack size through geometric functions or weight functions. Compliance functions are to determine the crack/flaw size in a structure when optical inspection is inconvenient. As a result, geometric functions, weight functions and compliance functions have been intensively studied to determine the stress intensity factor expressions for different geometries. However, the relations between these functions have received less attention. This work is therefore to investigate the intrinsic relationships between these functions. Theoretical derivation was carried out and the results were verified on single-edge cracked plate under tension and bending. It is found out that the geometric function is essentially the non-dimensional weight function at the loading point. The compliance function is composed of two parts: a varying part due to crack extension and a constant part from the intact structure if no crack exists. The derivative of the compliance function at any location is the product of the geometric function and the weight function at the evaluation point. Inversely, the compliance function can be acquired by the integration of the product of the geometric function and the weight function with respect to the crack size. The integral constant is just the unchanging compliance from the intact structure. Consequently, a special application of the relations is to obtain the compliance functions along a crack once the geometric function and weight functions are known. Any of the three special functions can be derived once the other two functions are known. These relations may greatly simplify the numerical process in obtaining either geometric functions, weight

  5. Deciphering the Cognitive and Neural Mechanisms Underlying ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Deciphering the Cognitive and Neural Mechanisms Underlying Auditory Learning. This project seeks to understand the brain mechanisms necessary for people to learn to perceive sounds. Neural circuits and learning. The research team will test people with and without musical training to evaluate their capacity to learn ...

  6. The Immunomodulatory Effects of Macrolides—A Systematic Review of the Underlying Mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Zimmermann

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundThe mechanisms underlying the non-antimicrobial immunomodulatory properties of macrolides are not well understood.ObjectivesTo systematically review the evidence for the immunomodulatory properties of macrolides in humans and to describe the underlying mechanism and extent of their influence on the innate and adaptive immune system.MethodsA systematic literature search was done in MEDLINE using the OVID interface from 1946 to December 2016 according to the preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analysis (PRISMA. Original articles investigating the influence of four macrolides (azithromycin, clarithromycin, erythromycin, and roxithromycin on immunological markers in humans were included.ResultsWe identified 22 randomized, controlled trials, 16 prospective cohort studies, and 8 case–control studies investigating 47 different immunological markers (186 measurements in 1,834 participants. The most frequently reported outcomes were a decrease in the number of neutrophils, and the concentrations of neutrophil elastase, interleukin (IL-8, IL-6, IL-1beta, tumor necrosis factor (TNF-alpha, eosinophilic cationic protein, and matrix metalloproteinase 9. Inhibition of neutrophil function was reported more frequently than eosinophil function. A decrease in T helper (Th 2 cells cytokines (IL-4, IL-5, IL-6 was reported more frequently than a decrease in Th1 cytokines (IL-2, INF-gamma.ConclusionMacrolides influence a broad range of immunological mechanisms resulting in immunomodulatory effects. To optimize the treatment of chronic inflammatory diseases by macrolides, further studies are necessary, particularly comparing different macrolides and dose effect relationships.

  7. Gas Bubble Dynamics under Mechanical Vibrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohagheghian, Shahrouz; Elbing, Brian

    2017-11-01

    The scientific community has a limited understanding of the bubble dynamics under mechanical oscillations due to over simplification of Navier-Stockes equation by neglecting the shear stress tensor and not accounting for body forces when calculating the acoustic radiation force. The current work experimental investigates bubble dynamics under mechanical vibration and resulting acoustic field by measuring the bubble size and velocity using high-speed imaging. The experimental setup consists of a custom-designed shaker table, cast acrylic bubble column, compressed air injection manifold and an optical imaging system. The mechanical vibrations resulted in accelerations between 0.25 to 10 times gravitational acceleration corresponding to frequency and amplitude range of 8 - 22Hz and 1 - 10mm respectively. Throughout testing the void fraction was limited to <5%. The bubble size is larger than resonance size and smaller than acoustic wavelength. The amplitude of acoustic pressure wave was estimated using the definition of Bjerknes force in combination with Rayleigh-Plesset equation. Physical behavior of the system was capture and classified. Bubble size, velocity as well as size and spatial distribution will be presented.

  8. Evolution of the bonding mechanism of ZnO under isotropic compression: A first-principles study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, G.C.; Sun, L.Z.; Wang, J.B.; Zhong, X.L.; Zhou, Y.C.

    2008-01-01

    The electronic structure and the bonding mechanism of ZnO under isotropic pressure have been studied by using the full-potential linear augmented plane wave (FP-LAPW) method within the density-functional theory (DFT) based on LDA+U exchange correlation (EXC) potential. We used the theory of Atoms in Molecules (AIM) method to analyze the change of the charge transfer and the bonding strength under isotropic pressure. The results of the theoretical analysis show that charge transfer between Zn and O atomic basins nearly linearly increases with the increasing pressure. Charge density along the Zn-O bond increases under the high pressure. The bonding strength and the ionicity of Zn-O bond also increase with the increasing pressure. The linear evolution process of the bonding mechanism under isotropic pressure was shown clearly in the present paper

  9. On the distribution functions in the quantum mechanics and Wigner functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuz'menkov, L.S.; Maksimov, S.G.

    2002-01-01

    The problem on the distribution functions, leading to the similar local values of the particles number, pulse and energy, as in the quantum mechanics, is formulated and solved. The method is based on the quantum-mechanical determination of the probability density. The derived distribution function coincides with the Wigner function only for the spatial-homogeneous systems. The Bogolyubov equations chain, the Liouville equation for the distribution quantum functions by any number of particles in the system, the general expression for the tensor of the dielectric permittivity of the plasma electron component are obtained [ru

  10. Genomic interrogation of mechanism(s) underlying cellular responses to toxicants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amin, Rupesh P.; Hamadeh, Hisham K.; Bushel, Pierre R.; Bennett, Lee; Afshari, Cynthia A.; Paules, Richard S.

    2002-01-01

    Assessment of the impact of xenobiotic exposure on human health and disease progression is complex. Knowledge of mode(s) of action, including mechanism(s) contributing to toxicity and disease progression, is valuable for evaluating compounds. Toxicogenomics, the subdiscipline which merges genomics with toxicology, holds the promise to contributing significantly toward the goal of elucidating mechanism(s) by studying genome-wide effects of xenobiotics. Global gene expression profiling, revolutionized by microarray technology and a crucial aspect of a toxicogenomic study, allows measuring transcriptional modulation of thousands of genes following exposure to a xenobiotic. We use our results from previous studies on compounds representing two different classes of xenobiotics (barbiturate and peroxisome proliferator) to discuss the application of computational approaches for analyzing microarray data to elucidate mechanism(s) underlying cellular responses to toxicants. In particular, our laboratory demonstrated that chemical-specific patterns of gene expression can be revealed using cDNA microarrays. Transcript profiling provides discrimination between classes of toxicants, as well as, genome-wide insight into mechanism(s) of toxicity and disease progression. Ultimately, the expectation is that novel approaches for predicting xenobiotic toxicity in humans will emerge from such information

  11. Mechanical and Thermophysical Properties of Cubic Rock-Salt AlN Under High Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebga, Noudjoud; Daoud, Salah; Sun, Xiao-Wei; Bioud, Nadhira; Latreche, Abdelhakim

    2018-03-01

    Density functional theory, density functional perturbation theory, and the Debye model have been used to investigate the structural, elastic, sound velocity, and thermodynamic properties of AlN with cubic rock-salt structure under high pressure, yielding the equilibrium structural parameters, equation of state, and elastic constants of this interesting material. The isotropic shear modulus, Pugh ratio, and Poisson's ratio were also investigated carefully. In addition, the longitudinal, transverse, and average elastic wave velocities, phonon contribution to the thermal conductivity, and interesting thermodynamic properties were predicted and analyzed in detail. The results demonstrate that the behavior of the elastic wave velocities under increasing hydrostatic pressure explains the hardening of the corresponding phonons. Based on the elastic stability criteria under pressure, it is found that AlN with cubic rock-salt structure is mechanically stable, even at pressures up to 100 GPa. Analysis of the Pugh ratio and Poisson's ratio revealed that AlN with cubic rock-salt structure behaves in brittle manner.

  12. Functional mechanisms underlying pleiotropic risk alleles at the 19p13.1 breast–ovarian cancer susceptibility locus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrenson, Kate; Kar, Siddhartha; McCue, Karen; Kuchenbaeker, Karoline; Michailidou, Kyriaki; Tyrer, Jonathan; Beesley, Jonathan; Ramus, Susan J.; Li, Qiyuan; Delgado, Melissa K.; Lee, Janet M.; Aittomäki, Kristiina; Andrulis, Irene L.; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Arndt, Volker; Arun, Banu K.; Arver, Brita; Bandera, Elisa V.; Barile, Monica; Barkardottir, Rosa B.; Barrowdale, Daniel; Beckmann, Matthias W.; Benitez, Javier; Berchuck, Andrew; Bisogna, Maria; Bjorge, Line; Blomqvist, Carl; Blot, William; Bogdanova, Natalia; Bojesen, Anders; Bojesen, Stig E.; Bolla, Manjeet K.; Bonanni, Bernardo; Børresen-Dale, Anne-Lise; Brauch, Hiltrud; Brennan, Paul; Brenner, Hermann; Bruinsma, Fiona; Brunet, Joan; Buhari, Shaik Ahmad; Burwinkel, Barbara; Butzow, Ralf; Buys, Saundra S.; Cai, Qiuyin; Caldes, Trinidad; Campbell, Ian; Canniotto, Rikki; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Chiquette, Jocelyne; Choi, Ji-Yeob; Claes, Kathleen B. M.; Collonge-Rame, Marie- Agnès; Damette, Alexandre; Barouk-Simonet, Emmanuelle; Bonnet, Françoise; Bubien, Virginie; Sevenet, Nicolas; Longy, Michel; Berthet, Pascaline; Vaur, Dominique; Castera, Laurent; Ferrer, Sandra Fert; Bignon, Yves-Jean; Uhrhammer, Nancy; Coron, Fanny; Faivre, Laurence; Baurand, Amandine; Jacquot, Caroline; Bertolone, Geoffrey; Lizard, Sarab; Leroux, Dominique; Dreyfus, Hélène; Rebischung, Christine; Peysselon, Magalie; Peyrat, Jean-Philippe; Fournier, Joëlle; Révillion, Françoise; Adenis, Claude; Vénat-Bouvet, Laurence; Léone, Mélanie; Boutry-Kryza, Nadia; Calender, Alain; Giraud, Sophie; Verny-Pierre, Carole; Lasset, Christine; Bonadona, Valérie; Barjhoux, Laure; Sobol, Hagay; Bourdon, Violaine; Noguchi, Tetsuro; Remenieras, Audrey; Coupier, Isabelle; Pujol, Pascal; Sokolowska, Johanna; Bronner, Myriam; Delnatte, Capucine; Bézieau, Stéphane; Mari, Véronique; Gauthier-Villars, Marion; Buecher, Bruno; Rouleau, Etienne; Golmard, Lisa; Moncoutier, Virginie; Belotti, Muriel; de Pauw, Antoine; Elan, Camille; Fourme, Emmanuelle; Birot, Anne-Marie; Saule, Claire; Laurent, Maïté; Houdayer, Claude; Lesueur, Fabienne; Mebirouk, Noura; Coulet, Florence; Colas, Chrystelle; Soubrier, Florent; Warcoin, Mathilde; Prieur, Fabienne; Lebrun, Marine; Kientz, Caroline; Muller, Danièle; Fricker, Jean-Pierre; Toulas, Christine; Guimbaud, Rosine; Gladieff, Laurence; Feillel, Viviane; Mortemousque, Isabelle; Bressac-de-Paillerets, Brigitte; Caron, Olivier; Guillaud-Bataille, Marine; Cook, Linda S.; Cox, Angela; Cramer, Daniel W.; Cross, Simon S.; Cybulski, Cezary; Czene, Kamila; Daly, Mary B.; Damiola, Francesca; Dansonka-Mieszkowska, Agnieszka; Darabi, Hatef; Dennis, Joe; Devilee, Peter; Diez, Orland; Doherty, Jennifer A.; Domchek, Susan M.; Dorfling, Cecilia M.; Dörk, Thilo; Dumont, Martine; Ehrencrona, Hans; Ejlertsen, Bent; Ellis, Steve; Gregory, Helen; Miedzybrodzka, Zosia; Morrison, Patrick J.; Donaldson, Alan; Rogers, Mark T.; Kennedy, M. John; Porteous, Mary E.; Brady, Angela; Barwell, Julian; Foo, Claire; Lalloo, Fiona; Side, Lucy E.; Eason, Jacqueline; Henderson, Alex; Walker, Lisa; Cook, Jackie; Snape, Katie; Murray, Alex; McCann, Emma; Engel, Christoph; Lee, Eunjung; Evans, D. Gareth; Fasching, Peter A.; Feliubadalo, Lidia; Figueroa, Jonine; Flesch-Janys, Dieter; Fletcher, Olivia; Flyger, Henrik; Foretova, Lenka; Fostira, Florentia; Foulkes, William D.; Fridley, Brooke L.; Friedman, Eitan; Frost, Debra; Gambino, Gaetana; Ganz, Patricia A.; Garber, Judy; García-Closas, Montserrat; Gentry-Maharaj, Aleksandra; Ghoussaini, Maya; Giles, Graham G.; Glasspool, Rosalind; Godwin, Andrew K.; Goldberg, Mark S.; Goldgar, David E.; González-Neira, Anna; Goode, Ellen L.; Goodman, Marc T.; Greene, Mark H.; Gronwald, Jacek; Guénel, Pascal; Haiman, Christopher A.; Hall, Per; Hallberg, Emily; Hamann, Ute; Hansen, Thomas V. O.; Harrington, Patricia A.; Hartman, Mikael; Hassan, Norhashimah; Healey, Sue; Rookus, M. A.; van Leeuwen, F. E.; van der Kolk, L. E.; Schmidt, M. K.; Russell, N. S.; de Lange, J. L.; Wijnands, R.; Collée, J. M.; Hooning, M. J.; Seynaeve, C.; van Deurzen, C. H. M.; Obdeijn, I. M.; van Asperen, C. J.; Tollenaar, R. A. E. M.; van Cronenburg, T. C. T. E. F.; Kets, C. M.; Ausems, M. G. E. M.; van der Pol, C. C.; van Os, T. A. M.; Waisfisz, Q.; Meijers-Heijboer, H. E. J.; Gómez-Garcia, E. B.; Oosterwijk, J. C.; Mourits, M. J.; de Bock, G. H.; Vasen, H. F.; Siesling, S.; Verloop, J.; Overbeek, L. I. H.; Heitz, Florian; Herzog, Josef; Høgdall, Estrid; Høgdall, Claus K.; Hogervorst, Frans B. L.; Hollestelle, Antoinette; Hopper, John L.; Hulick, Peter J.; Huzarski, Tomasz; Imyanitov, Evgeny N.; Fox, Stephen; Kirk, Judy; Lindeman, Geoff; Price, Melanie; Bowtell, David; deFazio, Anna; Webb, Penny; Isaacs, Claudine; Ito, Hidemi; Jakubowska, Anna; Janavicius, Ramunas; Jensen, Allan; John, Esther M.; Johnson, Nichola; Kabisch, Maria; Kang, Daehee; Kapuscinski, Miroslav; Karlan, Beth Y.; Khan, Sofia; Kiemeney, Lambertus A.; Kjaer, Susanne Kruger; Knight, Julia A.; Konstantopoulou, Irene; Kosma, Veli-Matti; Kristensen, Vessela; Kupryjanczyk, Jolanta; Kwong, Ava; de la Hoya, Miguel; Laitman, Yael; Lambrechts, Diether; Le, Nhu; De Leeneer, Kim; Lester, Jenny; Levine, Douglas A.; Li, Jingmei; Lindblom, Annika; Long, Jirong; Lophatananon, Artitaya; Loud, Jennifer T.; Lu, Karen; Lubinski, Jan; Mannermaa, Arto; Manoukian, Siranoush; Le Marchand, Loic; Margolin, Sara; Marme, Frederik; Massuger, Leon F. A. G.; Matsuo, Keitaro; Mazoyer, Sylvie; McGuffog, Lesley; McLean, Catriona; McNeish, Iain; Meindl, Alfons; Menon, Usha; Mensenkamp, Arjen R.; Milne, Roger L.; Montagna, Marco; Moysich, Kirsten B.; Muir, Kenneth; Mulligan, Anna Marie; Nathanson, Katherine L.; Ness, Roberta B.; Neuhausen, Susan L.; Nevanlinna, Heli; Nord, Silje; Nussbaum, Robert L.; Odunsi, Kunle; Offit, Kenneth; Olah, Edith; Olopade, Olufunmilayo I.; Olson, Janet E.; Olswold, Curtis; O'Malley, David; Orlow, Irene; Orr, Nick; Osorio, Ana; Park, Sue Kyung; Pearce, Celeste L.; Pejovic, Tanja; Peterlongo, Paolo; Pfeiler, Georg; Phelan, Catherine M.; Poole, Elizabeth M.; Pylkäs, Katri; Radice, Paolo; Rantala, Johanna; Rashid, Muhammad Usman; Rennert, Gad; Rhenius, Valerie; Rhiem, Kerstin; Risch, Harvey A.; Rodriguez, Gus; Rossing, Mary Anne; Rudolph, Anja; Salvesen, Helga B.; Sangrajrang, Suleeporn; Sawyer, Elinor J.; Schildkraut, Joellen M.; Schmidt, Marjanka K.; Schmutzler, Rita K.; Sellers, Thomas A.; Seynaeve, Caroline; Shah, Mitul; Shen, Chen-Yang; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Sieh, Weiva; Singer, Christian F.; Sinilnikova, Olga M.; Slager, Susan; Song, Honglin; Soucy, Penny; Southey, Melissa C.; Stenmark-Askmalm, Marie; Stoppa-Lyonnet, Dominique; Sutter, Christian; Swerdlow, Anthony; Tchatchou, Sandrine; Teixeira, Manuel R.; Teo, Soo H.; Terry, Kathryn L.; Terry, Mary Beth; Thomassen, Mads; Tibiletti, Maria Grazia; Tihomirova, Laima; Tognazzo, Silvia; Toland, Amanda Ewart; Tomlinson, Ian; Torres, Diana; Truong, Thérèse; Tseng, Chiu-chen; Tung, Nadine; Tworoger, Shelley S.; Vachon, Celine; van den Ouweland, Ans M. W.; van Doorn, Helena C.; van Rensburg, Elizabeth J.; Van't Veer, Laura J.; Vanderstichele, Adriaan; Vergote, Ignace; Vijai, Joseph; Wang, Qin; Wang-Gohrke, Shan; Weitzel, Jeffrey N.; Wentzensen, Nicolas; Whittemore, Alice S.; Wildiers, Hans; Winqvist, Robert; Wu, Anna H.; Yannoukakos, Drakoulis; Yoon, Sook-Yee; Yu, Jyh-Cherng; Zheng, Wei; Zheng, Ying; Khanna, Kum Kum; Simard, Jacques; Monteiro, Alvaro N.; French, Juliet D.; Couch, Fergus J.; Freedman, Matthew L.; Easton, Douglas F.; Dunning, Alison M.; Pharoah, Paul D.; Edwards, Stacey L.; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Antoniou, Antonis C.; Gayther, Simon A.

    2016-01-01

    A locus at 19p13 is associated with breast cancer (BC) and ovarian cancer (OC) risk. Here we analyse 438 SNPs in this region in 46,451 BC and 15,438 OC cases, 15,252 BRCA1 mutation carriers and 73,444 controls and identify 13 candidate causal SNPs associated with serous OC (P=9.2 × 10−20), ER-negative BC (P=1.1 × 10−13), BRCA1-associated BC (P=7.7 × 10−16) and triple negative BC (P-diff=2 × 10−5). Genotype-gene expression associations are identified for candidate target genes ANKLE1 (P=2 × 10−3) and ABHD8 (P<2 × 10−3). Chromosome conformation capture identifies interactions between four candidate SNPs and ABHD8, and luciferase assays indicate six risk alleles increased transactivation of the ADHD8 promoter. Targeted deletion of a region containing risk SNP rs56069439 in a putative enhancer induces ANKLE1 downregulation; and mRNA stability assays indicate functional effects for an ANKLE1 3′-UTR SNP. Altogether, these data suggest that multiple SNPs at 19p13 regulate ABHD8 and perhaps ANKLE1 expression, and indicate common mechanisms underlying breast and ovarian cancer risk. PMID:27601076

  13. Neurite, a finite difference large scale parallel program for the simulation of electrical signal propagation in neurites under mechanical loading.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julián A García-Grajales

    Full Text Available With the growing body of research on traumatic brain injury and spinal cord injury, computational neuroscience has recently focused its modeling efforts on neuronal functional deficits following mechanical loading. However, in most of these efforts, cell damage is generally only characterized by purely mechanistic criteria, functions of quantities such as stress, strain or their corresponding rates. The modeling of functional deficits in neurites as a consequence of macroscopic mechanical insults has been rarely explored. In particular, a quantitative mechanically based model of electrophysiological impairment in neuronal cells, Neurite, has only very recently been proposed. In this paper, we present the implementation details of this model: a finite difference parallel program for simulating electrical signal propagation along neurites under mechanical loading. Following the application of a macroscopic strain at a given strain rate produced by a mechanical insult, Neurite is able to simulate the resulting neuronal electrical signal propagation, and thus the corresponding functional deficits. The simulation of the coupled mechanical and electrophysiological behaviors requires computational expensive calculations that increase in complexity as the network of the simulated cells grows. The solvers implemented in Neurite--explicit and implicit--were therefore parallelized using graphics processing units in order to reduce the burden of the simulation costs of large scale scenarios. Cable Theory and Hodgkin-Huxley models were implemented to account for the electrophysiological passive and active regions of a neurite, respectively, whereas a coupled mechanical model accounting for the neurite mechanical behavior within its surrounding medium was adopted as a link between electrophysiology and mechanics. This paper provides the details of the parallel implementation of Neurite, along with three different application examples: a long myelinated axon

  14. Mechanisms underlying epithelium-dependent relaxation in rat bronchioles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kroigaard, Christel; Dalsgaard, Thomas; Simonsen, Ulf

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the mechanisms underlying epithelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor (EpDHF)-type relaxation in rat bronchioles. Immunohistochemistry was performed, and rat bronchioles and pulmonary arteries were mounted in microvascular myographs for functional studies. An opener of small...... (SK(Ca)) and intermediate (IK(Ca))-conductance calcium-activated potassium channels, NS309 (6,7-dichloro-1H-indole-2,3-dione 3-oxime) was used to induce EpDHF-type relaxation. IK(Ca) and SK(Ca)3 positive immunoreactions were observed mainly in the epithelium and endothelium of bronchioles and arteries......, respectively. In 5-hydroxytryptamine (1 microM)-contracted bronchioles (828 +/- 20 microm, n = 84) and U46619 (0.03 microM)-contracted arteries (720 +/- 24 microm, n = 68), NS309 (0.001-10 microM) induced concentration-dependent relaxations that were reduced by epithelium/endothelium removal and by blocking IK...

  15. Neural mechanisms underlying cognitive control of men with lifelong antisocial behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiffer, Boris; Pawliczek, Christina; Mu Ller, Bernhard; Forsting, Michael; Gizewski, Elke; Leygraf, Norbert; Hodgins, Sheilagh

    2014-04-30

    Results of meta-analyses suggested subtle deficits in cognitive control among antisocial individuals. Because almost all studies focused on children with conduct problems or adult psychopaths, however, little is known about cognitive control mechanisms among the majority of persistent violent offenders who present an antisocial personality disorder (ASPD). The present study aimed to determine whether offenders with ASPD, relative to non-offenders, display dysfunction in the neural mechanisms underlying cognitive control and to assess the extent to which these dysfunctions are associated with psychopathic traits and trait impulsivity. Participants comprised 21 violent offenders and 23 non-offenders who underwent event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging while performing a non-verbal Stroop task. The offenders, relative to the non-offenders, exhibited reduced response time interference and a different pattern of conflict- and error-related activity in brain areas involved in cognitive control, attention, language, and emotion processing, that is, the anterior cingulate, dorsolateral prefrontal, superior temporal and postcentral cortices, putamen, thalamus, and amygdala. Moreover, between-group differences in behavioural and neural responses revealed associations with core features of psychopathy and attentional impulsivity. Thus, the results of the present study confirmed the hypothesis that offenders with ASPD display alterations in the neural mechanisms underlying cognitive control and that those alterations relate, at least in part, to personality characteristics. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  16. Structure-function relations in physiology education: Where's the mechanism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lira, Matthew E; Gardner, Stephanie M

    2017-06-01

    Physiology demands systems thinking: reasoning within and between levels of biological organization and across different organ systems. Many physiological mechanisms explain how structures and their properties interact at one level of organization to produce emergent functions at a higher level of organization. Current physiology principles, such as structure-function relations, selectively neglect mechanisms by not mentioning this term explicitly. We explored how students characterized mechanisms and functions to shed light on how students make sense of these terms. Students characterized mechanisms as 1 ) processes that occur at levels of organization lower than that of functions; and 2 ) as detailed events with many steps involved. We also found that students produced more variability in how they characterized functions compared with mechanisms: students characterized functions in relation to multiple levels of organization and multiple definitions. We interpret these results as evidence that students see mechanisms as holding a more narrow definition than used in the biological sciences, and that students struggle to coordinate and distinguish mechanisms from functions due to cognitive processes germane to learning in many domains. We offer the instructional suggestion that we scaffold student learning by affording students opportunities to relate and also distinguish between these terms so central to understanding physiology. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  17. Microstructure, mechanical and functional properties of NiTi-based shape memory ribbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehrabi, K.; Bruncko, M.; Kneissl, A.C.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Melt-spun samples exhibited martensite structure and shape memory effects immediately after processing at room temperature. ► Using a new etchant and interference contrast, it is possible to reveal the fine microstructures and grain boundaries. ► The martensite structure in NiTi is very fine, and nano-sized twin boundaries could be revealed using TEM only. ► Two-way effects have been successfully introduced by different thermomechanical training methods in NiTi, NiTiCu and NiTiW alloys, which can be used for several applications, e.g. microsensors and microactuators. - Abstract: The present work has been aimed to study the microstructures, functional properties and the influence of different thermomechanical training methods on the two-way shape memory effect in NiTi-based melt-spun ribbons. In order to get small-dimensioned shape memory alloys (SMAs) with good functional and mechanical properties, a rapid solidification technique was employed. Their fracture and elasticity characteristics have been determined, as well as shape memory properties by thermomechanical cycling. The ribbons were trained under tensile and bending deformation by thermal cycling through the phase transformation temperature range. The results displayed that all different training methods were effective in developing a two-way shape memory effect (TWSME). The influence of copper (5–25 at.% Cu) and tungsten (2 at.% W) on the microstructure, and the functional and mechanical behavior of NiTi thin ribbons was also investigated. All samples show a shape memory effect immediately after processing without further heat treatment. The melt-spun ribbons were trained under constant strain (bending and tensile deformation) by thermal cycling through the phase transformation temperature range. The addition of copper was effective to narrow the transformation hysteresis. The W addition has improved the TWSME stability of the NiTi alloys and mechanical properties. Results about

  18. [Advance in research on regulatory mechanism and functions of neutral sphingomyelinse 2].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lan; Guo, Jun

    2013-10-01

    Neutral sphingomyelinase 2 (nSMase2), which located mainly on the plasma membrane, hydrolyzes sphingomyelin into ceramide and plays an important role in the physiological and pathological regulation of cell apoptosis, cell growth arrest, and inflammation. nSMase2 is also involved in the development of Alzheimer's disease and the bone growth.Under neutral pH and the presence of Ca(2+), Mg(2+), and Mn(+), the activity of nSMase2 is induced by oxidative stress through phosphorylation. Furthermore, the induced interaction of anionic phospholipids and the signaling molecules like receptor for activated C-kinase 1/embryonic ectodermal development with nSMase2 are also crucial mechanisms of protein activation. In the review, recent research advances in the structure and function of nSMase2 and its underlying mechanisms are summarized.

  19. Neural correlate of resting-state functional connectivity under α2 adrenergic receptor agonist, medetomidine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasrallah, Fatima A; Lew, Si Kang; Low, Amanda Si-Min; Chuang, Kai-Hsiang

    2014-01-01

    Correlative fluctuations in functional MRI (fMRI) signals across the brain at rest have been taken as a measure of functional connectivity, but the neural basis of this resting-state MRI (rsMRI) signal is not clear. Previously, we found that the α2 adrenergic agonist, medetomidine, suppressed the rsMRI correlation dose-dependently but not the stimulus evoked activation. To understand the underlying electrophysiology and neurovascular coupling, which might be altered due to the vasoconstrictive nature of medetomidine, somatosensory evoked potential (SEP) and resting electroencephalography (EEG) were measured and correlated with corresponding BOLD signals in rat brains under three dosages of medetomidine. The SEP elicited by electrical stimulation to both forepaws was unchanged regardless of medetomidine dosage, which was consistent with the BOLD activation. Identical relationship between the SEP and BOLD signal under different medetomidine dosages indicates that the neurovascular coupling was not affected. Under resting state, EEG power was the same but a depression of inter-hemispheric EEG coherence in the gamma band was observed at higher medetomidine dosage. Different from medetomidine, both resting EEG power and BOLD power and coherence were significantly suppressed with increased isoflurane level. Such reduction was likely due to suppressed neural activity as shown by diminished SEP and BOLD activation under isoflurane, suggesting different mechanisms of losing synchrony at resting-state. Even though, similarity between electrophysiology and BOLD under stimulation and resting-state implicates a tight neurovascular coupling in both medetomidine and isoflurane. Our results confirm that medetomidine does not suppress neural activity but dissociates connectivity in the somatosensory cortex. The differential effect of medetomidine and its receptor specific action supports the neuronal origin of functional connectivity and implicates the mechanism of its sedative

  20. Quantum mechanics of history: The decoherence functional in quantum mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dowker, H.F.; Halliwell, J.J.

    1992-01-01

    We study a formulation of quantum mechanics in which the central notion is that of a quantum-mechanical history---a sequence of events at a succession of times. The primary aim is to identify sets of ''decoherent'' (or ''consistent'') histories for the system. These are quantum-mechanical histories suffering negligible interference with each other, and, therefore, to which probabilities may be assigned. These histories may be found for a given system using the so-called decoherence functional. When the decoherence functional is exactly diagonal, probabilities may be assigned to the histories, and all probability sum rules are satisfied exactly. We propose a condition for approximate decoherence, and argue that it implies that most probability sum rules will be satisfied to approximately the same degree. We also derive an inequality bounding the size of the off-diagonal terms of the decoherence functional. We calculate the decoherence functional for some simple one-dimensional systems, with a variety of initial states. For these systems, we explore the extent to which decoherence is produced using two different types of coarse graining. The first type of coarse graining involves imprecise specification of the particle's position. The second involves coupling the particle to a thermal bath of harmonic oscillators and ignoring the details of the bath (the Caldeira-Leggett model). We argue that both types of coarse graining are necessary in general. We explicitly exhibit the degree of decoherence as a function of the temperature of the bath, and of the width to within which the particle's position is specified. We study the diagonal elements of the decoherence functional, representing the probabilities for the possible histories of the system

  1. Molecular analysis of Hsp70 mechanisms in plants and their function in response to stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usman, Magaji G; Rafii, Mohd Y; Martini, Mohammad Y; Yusuff, Oladosu A; Ismail, Mohd R; Miah, Gous

    2017-04-01

    Studying the strategies of improving abiotic stress tolerance is quite imperative and research under this field will increase our understanding of response mechanisms to abiotic stress such as heat. The Hsp70 is an essential regulator of protein having the tendency to maintain internal cell stability like proper folding protein and breakdown of unfolded proteins. Hsp70 holds together protein substrates to help in movement, regulation, and prevent aggregation under physical and or chemical pressure. However, this review reports the molecular mechanism of heat shock protein 70 kDa (Hsp70) action and its structural and functional analysis, research progress on the interaction of Hsp70 with other proteins and their interaction mechanisms as well as the involvement of Hsp70 in abiotic stress responses as an adaptive defense mechanism.

  2. Neural mechanisms underlying transcranial direct current stimulation in aphasia: A feasibility study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lena eUlm

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about the neural mechanisms by which transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS impacts on language processing in post-stroke aphasia. This was addressed in a proof-of-principle study that explored the effects of tDCS application in aphasia during simultaneous functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI. We employed a single subject, cross-over, sham-tDCS controlled design and the stimulation was administered to an individualized perilesional stimulation site that was identified by a baseline fMRI scan and a picture naming task. Peak activity during the baseline scan was located in the spared left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG and this area was stimulated during a subsequent cross-over phase. tDCS was successfully administered to the target region and anodal- vs. sham-tDCS resulted in selectively increased activity at the stimulation site. Our results thus demonstrate that it is feasible to precisely target an individualized stimulation site in aphasia patients during simultaneous fMRI which allows assessing the neural mechanisms underlying tDCS application. The functional imaging results of this case report highlight one possible mechanism that may have contributed to beneficial behavioural stimulation effects in previous clinical tDCS trials in aphasia. In the future, this approach will allow identifying distinct patterns of stimulation effects on neural processing in larger cohorts of patients. This may ultimately yield information about the variability of tDCS-effects on brain functions in aphasia.

  3. Mechanical properties of the human spinal cord under the compressive loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, Alireza; Shojaei, Ahmad; Tehrani, Pedram

    2017-12-01

    The spinal cord as the most complex and critical part of the human body is responsible for the transmission of both motor and sensory impulses between the body and the brain. Due to its pivotal role any types of physical injury in that disrupts its function following by shortfalls, including the minor motor and sensory malfunctions as well as complicate quadriplegia and lifelong ventilator dependency. In order to shed light on the injuries to the spinal cord, the application of the computational models to simulate the trauma impact loading to that are deemed required. Nonetheless, it has not been fulfilled since there is a paucity of knowledge about the mechanical properties of the spinal cord, especially the cervical one, under the compressive loading on the grounds of the difficulty in obtaining this tissue from the human body. This study was aimed at experimentally measuring the mechanical properties of the human cervical spinal cord of 24 isolated fresh samples under the unconfined compressive loading at a relatively low strain rate. The stress-strain data revealed the elastic modulus and maximum/failure stress of 40.12±6.90 and 62.26±5.02kPa, respectively. Owing to the nonlinear response of the spinal cord, the Yeoh, Ogden, and Mooney-Rivlin hyperelastic material models have also been employed. The results may have implications not only for understanding the linear elastic and nonlinear hyperelastic mechanical properties of the cervical spinal cord under the compressive loading, but also for providing a raw data for investigating the injury as a result of the trauma thru the numerical simulations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Handedness is related to neural mechanisms underlying hemispheric lateralization of face processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frässle, Stefan; Krach, Sören; Paulus, Frieder Michel; Jansen, Andreas

    2016-06-01

    While the right-hemispheric lateralization of the face perception network is well established, recent evidence suggests that handedness affects the cerebral lateralization of face processing at the hierarchical level of the fusiform face area (FFA). However, the neural mechanisms underlying differential hemispheric lateralization of face perception in right- and left-handers are largely unknown. Using dynamic causal modeling (DCM) for fMRI, we aimed to unravel the putative processes that mediate handedness-related differences by investigating the effective connectivity in the bilateral core face perception network. Our results reveal an enhanced recruitment of the left FFA in left-handers compared to right-handers, as evidenced by more pronounced face-specific modulatory influences on both intra- and interhemispheric connections. As structural and physiological correlates of handedness-related differences in face processing, right- and left-handers varied with regard to their gray matter volume in the left fusiform gyrus and their pupil responses to face stimuli. Overall, these results describe how handedness is related to the lateralization of the core face perception network, and point to different neural mechanisms underlying face processing in right- and left-handers. In a wider context, this demonstrates the entanglement of structurally and functionally remote brain networks, suggesting a broader underlying process regulating brain lateralization.

  5. A noise level prediction method based on electro-mechanical frequency response function for capacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Lingyu; Ji, Shengchang; Shen, Qi; Liu, Yuan; Li, Jinyu; Liu, Hao

    2013-01-01

    The capacitors in high-voltage direct-current (HVDC) converter stations radiate a lot of audible noise which can reach higher than 100 dB. The existing noise level prediction methods are not satisfying enough. In this paper, a new noise level prediction method is proposed based on a frequency response function considering both electrical and mechanical characteristics of capacitors. The electro-mechanical frequency response function (EMFRF) is defined as the frequency domain quotient of the vibration response and the squared capacitor voltage, and it is obtained from impulse current experiment. Under given excitations, the vibration response of the capacitor tank is the product of EMFRF and the square of the given capacitor voltage in frequency domain, and the radiated audible noise is calculated by structure acoustic coupling formulas. The noise level under the same excitations is also measured in laboratory, and the results are compared with the prediction. The comparison proves that the noise prediction method is effective.

  6. First-principles predictions of structural, mechanical and electronic properties of βTiNb under high pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Z. P.; Fang, Q. H.; Li, J.; Liu, B.

    2018-04-01

    Structural, mechanical and electronic properties of βTiNb alloy under high pressure have been investigated based on the density functional theory (DFT). The dependences of dimensionless volume ratio, elastic constants, bulk modulus, Young's modulus, shear modulus, ductile/brittle, anisotropy and Poisson's ratio on applied pressure are all calculated successfully. The results reveal that βTiNb alloy is mechanically stable under pressure below 23.45 GPa, and the pressure-induced phase transformation could occur beyond this critical value. Meanwhile, the applied pressure can effectively promote the mechanical properties of βTiNb alloy, including the resistances to volume change, elastic deformation and shear deformation, as well as the material ductility and metallicity. Furthermore, the calculated electronic structures testify that βTiNb alloy performs the metallicity and the higher pressure reduces the structural stability of unit cell.

  7. H2B ubiquitination: Conserved molecular mechanism, diverse physiologic functions of the E3 ligase during meiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Liying; Cao, Chunwei; Wang, Fang; Zhao, Jianguo; Li, Wei

    2017-09-03

    RNF20/Bre1 mediated H2B ubiquitination (H2Bub) has various physiologic functions. Recently, we found that H2Bub participates in meiotic recombination by promoting chromatin relaxation during meiosis. We then analyzed the phylogenetic relationships among the E3 ligase for H2Bub, its E2 Rad6 and their partner WW domain-containing adaptor with a coiled-coil (WAC) or Lge1, and found that the molecular mechanism underlying H2Bub is evolutionarily conserved from yeast to mammals. However, RNF20 has diverse physiologic functions in different organisms, which might be caused by the evolutionary divergency of their domain/motif architectures. In the current extra view, we not only elucidate the evolutionarily conserved molecular mechanism underlying H2Bub, but also discuss the diverse physiologic functions of RNF20 during meiosis.

  8. Characterization of functional biopolymers under various external stimuli

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maleki, Atoosa

    2008-07-01

    Polymers are large molecules composed of repeating structural units connected by covalent chemical bonds. Biopolymers are a class of polymers produced by living organisms, which exhibit both biocompatible and biodegradable properties. The behavior of a biopolymer in solution is strongly dependent on the chemical and physical structure of the polymer chain, as well as external environmental conditions. To improve biopolymers in the direction of higher performance and better functionality, understanding of their physicochemical behavior and their response to external stimuli are of great importance. Rheology, rheo-small angle light scattering, dynamic light scattering, small angle neutron scattering, and asymmetric flow field-flow fractionation were utilized in this thesis to investigate the properties of hydroxyethyl cellulose and its hydrophobically modified analogue, as well as dextran, hyaluronan, and mucin under different conditions such as temperature, solvent, mechanical stress and strain, and radiation. Different novel hydrogels were prepared by using various chemical cross-linking agents. Specific features of these macromolecules provide them to be used as 'functional' materials, e.g., sensors, actuators, personal care products, enhanced oil recovery, and controlled drug delivery systems (author)

  9. Mechanisms underlying the promotion of functional recovery by deferoxamine after spinal cord injury in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Hao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Deferoxamine, a clinically safe drug used for treating iron overload, also repairs spinal cord injury although the mechanism for this action remains unknown. Here, we determined whether deferoxamine was therapeutic in a rat model of spinal cord injury and explored potential mechanisms for this effect. Spinal cord injury was induced by impacting the spinal cord at the thoracic T10 vertebra level. One group of injured rats received deferoxamine, a second injured group received saline, and a third group was sham operated. Both 2 days and 2 weeks after spinal cord injury, total iron ion levels and protein expression levels of the proinflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-1β and the pro-apoptotic protein caspase-3 in the spinal cords of the injured deferoxamine-treated rats were significantly lower than those in the injured saline-treated group. The percentage of the area positive for glial fibrillary acidic protein immunoreactivity and the number of terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling-positive cells were also significantly decreased both 2 days and 2 weeks post injury, while the number of NeuN-positive cells and the percentage of the area positive for the oligodendrocyte marker CNPase were increased in the injured deferoxamine-treated rats. At 14–56 days post injury, hind limb motor function in the deferoxamine-treated rats was superior to that in the saline-treated rats. These results suggest that deferoxamine decreases total iron ion, tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β, and caspase-3 expression levels after spinal cord injury and inhibits apoptosis and glial scar formation to promote motor function recovery.

  10. Mechanisms of prickle1a function in zebrafish epilepsy and retinal neurogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue Mei

    2013-05-01

    Epilepsy is a complex neurological disorder characterized by unprovoked seizures. The etiology is heterogeneous with both genetic and environmental causes. Genes that regulate neurotransmitters and ion channels in the central nervous system have been associated with epilepsy. However, a recent screening in human epilepsy patients identified mutations in the PRICKLE1 (PK1 locus, highlighting a potentially novel mechanism underlying seizures. PK1 is a core component of the planar cell polarity network that regulates tissue polarity. Zebrafish studies have shown that Pk1 coordinates cell movement, neuronal migration and axonal outgrowth during embryonic development. Yet how dysfunction of Pk1 relates to epilepsy is unknown. To address the mechanism underlying epileptogenesis, we used zebrafish to characterize Pk1a function and epilepsy-related mutant forms. We show that knockdown of pk1a activity sensitizes zebrafish larva to a convulsant drug. To model defects in the central nervous system, we used the retina and found that pk1a knockdown induces neurite outgrowth defects; yet visual function is maintained. Furthermore, we characterized the functional and biochemical properties of the PK1 mutant forms identified in human patients. Functional analyses demonstrate that the wild-type Pk1a partially suppresses the gene knockdown retinal defects but not the mutant forms. Biochemical analysis reveals increased ubiquitylation of one mutant form and decreased translational efficiency of another mutant form compared with the wild-type Pk1a. Taken together, our results indicate that mutation of human PK1 could lead to defects in neurodevelopment and signal processing, providing insight into seizure predisposition in these patients.

  11. Different neurophysiological mechanisms underlying word and rule extraction from speech.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth De Diego Balaguer

    Full Text Available The initial process of identifying words from spoken language and the detection of more subtle regularities underlying their structure are mandatory processes for language acquisition. Little is known about the cognitive mechanisms that allow us to extract these two types of information and their specific time-course of acquisition following initial contact with a new language. We report time-related electrophysiological changes that occurred while participants learned an artificial language. These changes strongly correlated with the discovery of the structural rules embedded in the words. These changes were clearly different from those related to word learning and occurred during the first minutes of exposition. There is a functional distinction in the nature of the electrophysiological signals during acquisition: an increase in negativity (N400 in the central electrodes is related to word-learning and development of a frontal positivity (P2 is related to rule-learning. In addition, the results of an online implicit and a post-learning test indicate that, once the rules of the language have been acquired, new words following the rule are processed as words of the language. By contrast, new words violating the rule induce syntax-related electrophysiological responses when inserted online in the stream (an early frontal negativity followed by a late posterior positivity and clear lexical effects when presented in isolation (N400 modulation. The present study provides direct evidence suggesting that the mechanisms to extract words and structural dependencies from continuous speech are functionally segregated. When these mechanisms are engaged, the electrophysiological marker associated with rule-learning appears very quickly, during the earliest phases of exposition to a new language.

  12. The effects of exercise under hypoxia on cognitive function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soichi Ando

    Full Text Available Increasing evidence suggests that cognitive function improves during a single bout of moderate exercise. In contrast, exercise under hypoxia may compromise the availability of oxygen. Given that brain function and tissue integrity are dependent on a continuous and sufficient oxygen supply, exercise under hypoxia may impair cognitive function. However, it remains unclear how exercise under hypoxia affects cognitive function. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of exercise under different levels of hypoxia on cognitive function. Twelve participants performed a cognitive task at rest and during exercise at various fractions of inspired oxygen (FIO2: 0.209, 0.18, and 0.15. Exercise intensity corresponded to 60% of peak oxygen uptake under normoxia. The participants performed a Go/No-Go task requiring executive control. Cognitive function was evaluated using the speed of response (reaction time and response accuracy. We monitored pulse oximetric saturation (SpO2 and cerebral oxygenation to assess oxygen availability. SpO2 and cerebral oxygenation progressively decreased during exercise as the FIO2 level decreased. Nevertheless, the reaction time in the Go-trial significantly decreased during moderate exercise. Hypoxia did not affect reaction time. Neither exercise nor difference in FIO2 level affected response accuracy. An additional experiment indicated that cognitive function was not altered without exercise. These results suggest that the improvement in cognitive function is attributable to exercise, and that hypoxia has no effects on cognitive function at least under the present experimental condition. Exercise-cognition interaction should be further investigated under various environmental and exercise conditions.

  13. The structural, mechanical, and electronic properties of LiAlB{sub 4} under pressure from first principles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tayran, Ceren; Aydin, Sezgin [Department of Physics, Sciences Faculty, Gazi University, 06500, Ankara (Turkey)

    2017-05-15

    The structural, elastic, mechanical, and electronic properties of lithium aluminum tetraboride (LiAlB{sub 4}) under hydrostatic pressure have been investigated by using first-principles density functional theory calculations. The effects of pressure on the lattice parameters, volume, and bond lengths are studied. It is indicated from the calculated elastic constants that LiAlB{sub 4} compound is mechanically stable on 0-40 GPa pressure range. And, by means of these elastic constants set, some mechanical properties such as bulk, shear and Young's moduli, and then Poisson's ratio are determined as a function of pressure. Also, the ductile or brittle nature of LiAlB{sub 4} is examined. Additionally, using the first-principles data obtained from the geometry optimizations, the hardness of LiAlB{sub 4} is calculated, and its nature is investigated under pressure. Furthermore, in order to reveal the effects of pressure on the electronic and binding behavior of the compound, band structures, total and partial density of states, charge densities, Mulliken atomic charges, and bond overlap populations are searched as a function of pressure. To check the stability of the compound, phonon dispersion curves are calculated. And, the results are compared with the other convenient borides. (copyright 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  14. [Functional impairment and radiologic fasciitis under erlotinib therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osdoit, S; Wierzbicka, E; Guillet, G

    2011-01-01

    Targeted molecules are recent and valuable weapons in the management of certain cancers. Among them, erlotinib is an inhibitor of epidermal growth factor receptor approved in non-small lung cancer and pancreatic cancer after failure of first line treatment. Erlotinib is responsible for many cutaneous side effects. We report a case of acute symptomatic fasciitis that has occurred during erlotinib therapy. To our knowledge it is the first case described. A 56-year-old man was treated with erlotinib for a metastatic non-small lung adenocarcinoma. Shortly after the treatment by erlotinib was introduced, he had a severe acneiform rash resistant to doxycycline treatment. After a year of treatment, he presented intense pain in the legs with functional impairment. Medical imaging confirmed fasciitis. It regressed along with the rash after using strong topical corticosteroids during ten days. Besides bacterial fasciitis, inflammatory and oedematous fasciitis have varied aetiologies. The occurrence of a documented fasciitis during anti EGFR-therapy is original and raises the question of underlying mechanism. We suggest three pathophysiological mechanisms: spreading by contiguity; paraneoplastic fasciitis, or specific lesion of the fascia due to anti-EGFR. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Nonlinear Mechanics of MEMS Rectangular Microplates under Electrostatic Actuation

    KAUST Repository

    Saghir, Shahid

    2016-12-01

    The first objective of the dissertation is to develop a suitable reduced order model capable of investigating the nonlinear mechanical behavior of von-Karman plates under electrostatic actuation. The second objective is to investigate the nonlinear static and dynamic behavior of rectangular microplates under small and large actuating forces. In the first part, we present and compare various approaches to develop reduced order models for the nonlinear von-Karman rectangular microplates actuated by nonlinear electrostatic forces. The reduced-order models aim to investigate the static and dynamic behavior of the plate under small and large actuation forces. A fully clamped microplate is considered. Different types of basis functions are used in conjunction with the Galerkin method to discretize the governing equations. First we investigate the convergence with the number of modes retained in the model. Then for validation purpose, a comparison of the static results is made with the results calculated by a nonlinear finite element model. The linear eigenvalue problem for the plate under the electrostatic force is solved for a wide range of voltages up to pull-in. In the second part, we present an investigation of the static and dynamic behavior of a fully clamped microplate. We investigate the effect of different non-dimensional design parameters on the static response. The forced-vibration response of the plate is then investigated when the plate is excited by a harmonic AC load superimposed to a DC load. The dynamic behavior is examined near the primary and secondary (superharmonic and subharmonic) resonances. The microplate shows a strong hardening behavior due to the cubic nonlinearity of midplane stretching. However, the behavior switches to softening as the DC load is increased. Next, near-square plates are studied to understand the effect of geometric imperfections of microplates. In the final part of the dissertation, we investigate the mechanical behavior of

  16. Investigating the mechanical function of the cervix during pregnancy using finite element models derived from high-resolution 3D MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, M; House, M; Jambawalikar, S; Zork, N; Vink, J; Wapner, R; Myers, K

    2016-01-01

    Preterm birth is a strong contributor to perinatal mortality, and preterm infants that survive are at risk for long-term morbidities. During most of pregnancy, appropriate mechanical function of the cervix is required to maintain the developing fetus in utero. Premature cervical softening and subsequent cervical shortening are hypothesized to cause preterm birth. Presently, there is a lack of understanding of the structural and material factors that influence the mechanical function of the cervix during pregnancy. In this study we build finite element models of the pregnant uterus, cervix, and fetal membrane based on magnetic resonance imagining data in order to examine the mechanical function of the cervix under the physiologic loading conditions of pregnancy. We calculate the mechanical loading state of the cervix for two pregnant patients: 22 weeks gestational age with a normal cervical length and 28 weeks with a short cervix. We investigate the influence of (1) anatomical geometry, (2) cervical material properties, and (3) fetal membrane material properties, including its adhesion properties, on the mechanical loading state of the cervix under physiologically relevant intrauterine pressures. Our study demonstrates that membrane-uterus interaction, cervical material modeling, and membrane mechanical properties are factors that must be deliberately and carefully handled in order to construct a high quality mechanical simulation of pregnancy.

  17. Thermo-Electro-Mechanical Analysis of a Curved Functionally Graded Piezoelectric Actuator with Sandwich Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liying Jiang

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the problem of a curved functionally graded piezoelectric (FGP actuator with sandwich structure under electrical and thermal loads is investigated. The middle layer in the sandwich structure is functionally graded with the piezoelectric coefficient g31 varying continuously along the radial direction of the curved actuator. Based on the theory of linear piezoelectricity, analytical solutions are obtained by using Airy stress function to examine the effects of material gradient and heat conduction on the performance of the curved actuator. It is found that the material gradient and thermal load have significant influence on the electroelastic fields and the mechanical response of the curved FGP actuator. Without the sacrifice of actuation deflection, smaller internal stresses are generated by using the sandwich actuator with functionally graded piezoelectric layer instead of the conventional bimorph actuator. This work is very helpful for the design and application of curved piezoelectric actuators under thermal environment.

  18. Thermo-Electro-Mechanical Analysis of a Curved Functionally Graded Piezoelectric Actuator with Sandwich Structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Zhi; Zaman, Mostafa; Jiang, Liying

    2011-12-12

    In this work, the problem of a curved functionally graded piezoelectric (FGP) actuator with sandwich structure under electrical and thermal loads is investigated. The middle layer in the sandwich structure is functionally graded with the piezoelectric coefficient g 31 varying continuously along the radial direction of the curved actuator. Based on the theory of linear piezoelectricity, analytical solutions are obtained by using Airy stress function to examine the effects of material gradient and heat conduction on the performance of the curved actuator. It is found that the material gradient and thermal load have significant influence on the electroelastic fields and the mechanical response of the curved FGP actuator. Without the sacrifice of actuation deflection, smaller internal stresses are generated by using the sandwich actuator with functionally graded piezoelectric layer instead of the conventional bimorph actuator. This work is very helpful for the design and application of curved piezoelectric actuators under thermal environment.

  19. Stress analysis in a functionally graded disc under mechanical loads ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Sadhana; Volume 36; Issue 1 ... Infinitesimal deformation theory of elasticity and power law distribution for functional ... are presented due to internal pressure, external pressure, centrifugal force and steady state temperature.

  20. Morphological and molecular variations induce mitochondrial dysfunction as a possible underlying mechanism of athletic amenorrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Ruo-Hong; Wen, Shi-Lei; Wang, Qiang; Zhou, Hong-Ying; Feng, Shi

    2018-01-01

    Female athletes may experience difficulties in achieving pregnancy due to athletic amenorrhea (AA); however, the underlying mechanisms of AA remain unknown. The present study focuses on the mitochondrial alteration and its function in detecting the possible mechanism of AA. An AA rat model was established by excessive swimming. Hematoxylin and eosin staining, and transmission electron microscopic methods were performed to evaluate the morphological changes of the ovary, immunohistochemical examinations and radioimmunoassays were used to detect the reproductive hormones and corresponding receptors. Reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) was used to test the mtDNA copy number. PCR and western blot analysis were used to test the expression of ND2. The change of morphological features of the rat ovaries revealed evident abnormalities. Particularly, the features of the mitochondria were markedly altered. In addition, reproductive hormones in the serum and tissues of AA rats were also detected to evaluate the function of the ovaries, and the levels of these hormones were significantly decreased. Furthermore, the mitochondrial DNA copy number (mtDNA) and expression of NADH dehydrogenase subunit 2 (ND2) were quantitated by qPCR or western blot analysis. Accordingly, the mtDNA copy number and expression of ND2 expression were markedly reduced in the AA rats. In conclusion, mitochondrial dysfunction in AA may affect the cellular energy supply and, therefore, result in dysfunction of the ovary. Thus, mitochondrial dysfunction may be considered as a possible underlying mechanism for the occurrence of AA.

  1. Turing mechanism underlying a branching model for lung morphogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Hui; Sun, Mingzhu; Zhao, Xin

    2017-01-01

    The mammalian lung develops through branching morphogenesis. Two primary forms of branching, which occur in order, in the lung have been identified: tip bifurcation and side branching. However, the mechanisms of lung branching morphogenesis remain to be explored. In our previous study, a biological mechanism was presented for lung branching pattern formation through a branching model. Here, we provide a mathematical mechanism underlying the branching patterns. By decoupling the branching model, we demonstrated the existence of Turing instability. We performed Turing instability analysis to reveal the mathematical mechanism of the branching patterns. Our simulation results show that the Turing patterns underlying the branching patterns are spot patterns that exhibit high local morphogen concentration. The high local morphogen concentration induces the growth of branching. Furthermore, we found that the sparse spot patterns underlie the tip bifurcation patterns, while the dense spot patterns underlies the side branching patterns. The dispersion relation analysis shows that the Turing wavelength affects the branching structure. As the wavelength decreases, the spot patterns change from sparse to dense, the rate of tip bifurcation decreases and side branching eventually occurs instead. In the process of transformation, there may exists hybrid branching that mixes tip bifurcation and side branching. Since experimental studies have reported that branching mode switching from side branching to tip bifurcation in the lung is under genetic control, our simulation results suggest that genes control the switch of the branching mode by regulating the Turing wavelength. Our results provide a novel insight into and understanding of the formation of branching patterns in the lung and other biological systems.

  2. Quantum mechanics with non-negative quantum distribution function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zorin, A.V.; Sevastianov, L.A.

    2010-01-01

    Full text: (author)Among numerous approaches to probabilistic interpretation of the conventional quantum mechanics the most close to the N. Bohr idea of the correspondence principle is the D.I. Blokhintzev - Ya.P. Terletsky approach using the quantum distribution function on the coordinate- momentum space. The detailed investigation of this approach has lead to the correspondence rule of V.V. Kuryshkin. Quantum mechanics of Kuryshkin (QMK) embody the program proposed by Yu.M. Shirokov for unifying classical and quantum mechanics in similar mathematical models. QMK develops and enhances Wigner's proposal concerning the calculation of quantum corrections to classical thermodynamic parameters using a phase distribution function. The main result of QMK is the possibility of description by mean of a positively-valued distribution function. This represents an important step towards a completely statistical model of quantum phenomena, compared with the quasi-probabilistic nature of Wigner distribution. Wigner's model does not permit to perform correctly the classical limit in quantum mechanics as well. On the other hand, QMK has a much more complex structure of operators of observables. One of the unsolved problems of QMK is the absence of a priori rules for establishing of auxiliary functions. Nevertheless, while it is impossible to overcome the complex form of operators, we find it quite possible to derive some methods of filing sets of auxiliary functions

  3. Functions and Mechanisms of Sleep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark R. Zielinski

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Sleep is a complex physiological process that is regulated globally, regionally, and locally by both cellular and molecular mechanisms. It occurs to some extent in all animals, although sleep expression in lower animals may be co-extensive with rest. Sleep regulation plays an intrinsic part in many behavioral and physiological functions. Currently, all researchers agree there is no single physiological role sleep serves. Nevertheless, it is quite evident that sleep is essential for many vital functions including development, energy conservation, brain waste clearance, modulation of immune responses, cognition, performance, vigilance, disease, and psychological state. This review details the physiological processes involved in sleep regulation and the possible functions that sleep may serve. This description of the brain circuitry, cell types, and molecules involved in sleep regulation is intended to further the reader’s understanding of the functions of sleep.

  4. Modulation of Protein Quality Control Systems as Novel Mechanisms Underlying Functionality of Food Phytochemicals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kohta Ohnishi

    2013-10-01

    phytochemicals, such as curcumin, phenethyl isothiocyanate, ursolic acid, and lycopene, were significantly active, whereas most nutrients were virtually inactive. These results may be associated with the fact that phytochemicals, but not nutrients, are foreign chemicals to animals, as noted above.Functional Foods in Health and Disease 2013; 3(10:400-415 Page 402 of 415 Conclusion: Up-regulation of antioxidant and xenobiotics-metabolizing enzymes has been reported to be an adaptive response in animals exposed to phytochemicals. Our present results imply that the process also increases the capacity to counteract proteo-stresses through activation of PQC systems. This putative phenomenon, representing the concept of hormesis[5], may be associated with mechanisms underlying the physiological functions of phytochemicals. Therefore, chronic ingestion of this class of chemicals may result in ‘chemical training’, in which self-defense systems are continuously activated for adaptation to phytochemical-driven stresses.

  5. Pluripotent Stem Cell Studies Elucidate the Underlying Mechanisms of Early Embryonic Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingyu Li

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Early embryonic development is a multi-step process that is intensively regulated by various signaling pathways. Because of the complexity of the embryo and the interactions between the germ layers, it is very difficult to fully understand how these signals regulate embryo patterning. Recently, pluripotent stem cell lines derived from different developmental stages have provided an in vitro system for investigating molecular mechanisms regulating cell fate decisions. In this review, we summarize the major functions of the BMP, FGF, Nodal and Wnt signaling pathways, which have well-established roles in vertebrate embryogenesis. Then, we highlight recent studies in pluripotent stem cells that have revealed the stage-specific roles of BMP,FGF and Nodal pathways during neural differentiation. These findings enhance our understanding of the stepwise regulation of embryo patterning by particular signaling pathways and provide new insight into the mechanisms underlying early embryonic development.

  6. Functional mechanisms underlying pleiotropic risk alleles at the 19p13.1 breast-ovarian cancer susceptibility locus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lawrenson, Kate; Kar, Siddhartha; McCue, Karen

    2016-01-01

    A locus at 19p13 is associated with breast cancer (BC) and ovarian cancer (OC) risk. Here we analyse 438 SNPs in this region in 46,451 BC and 15,438 OC cases, 15,252 BRCA1 mutation carriers and 73,444 controls and identify 13 candidate causal SNPs associated with serous OC (P=9.2 × 10(-20)), ER......'-UTR SNP. Altogether, these data suggest that multiple SNPs at 19p13 regulate ABHD8 and perhaps ANKLE1 expression, and indicate common mechanisms underlying breast and ovarian cancer risk....

  7. The Sphagnum microbiome supports bog ecosystem functioning under extreme conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bragina, Anastasia; Oberauner-Wappis, Lisa; Zachow, Christin; Halwachs, Bettina; Thallinger, Gerhard G; Müller, Henry; Berg, Gabriele

    2014-09-01

    Sphagnum-dominated bogs represent a unique yet widely distributed type of terrestrial ecosystem and strongly contribute to global biosphere functioning. Sphagnum is colonized by highly diverse microbial communities, but less is known about their function. We identified a high functional diversity within the Sphagnum microbiome applying an Illumina-based metagenomic approach followed by de novo assembly and MG-RAST annotation. An interenvironmental comparison revealed that the Sphagnum microbiome harbours specific genetic features that distinguish it significantly from microbiomes of higher plants and peat soils. The differential traits especially support ecosystem functioning by a symbiotic lifestyle under poikilohydric and ombrotrophic conditions. To realise a plasticity-stability balance, we found abundant subsystems responsible to cope with oxidative and drought stresses, to exchange (mobile) genetic elements, and genes that encode for resistance to detrimental environmental factors, repair and self-controlling mechanisms. Multiple microbe-microbe and plant-microbe interactions were also found to play a crucial role as indicated by diverse genes necessary for biofilm formation, interaction via quorum sensing and nutrient exchange. A high proportion of genes involved in nitrogen cycle and recycling of organic material supported the role of bacteria for nutrient supply. 16S rDNA analysis indicated a higher structural diversity than that which had been previously detected using PCR-dependent techniques. Altogether, the diverse Sphagnum microbiome has the ability to support the life of the host plant and the entire ecosystem under changing environmental conditions. Beyond this, the moss microbiome presents a promising bio-resource for environmental biotechnology - with respect to novel enzymes or stress-protecting bacteria. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Visualizing the complex functions and mechanisms of the anaphase promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfieri, Claudio; Zhang, Suyang

    2017-01-01

    The anaphase promoting complex or cyclosome (APC/C) is a large multi-subunit E3 ubiquitin ligase that orchestrates cell cycle progression by mediating the degradation of important cell cycle regulators. During the two decades since its discovery, much has been learnt concerning its role in recognizing and ubiquitinating specific proteins in a cell-cycle-dependent manner, the mechanisms governing substrate specificity, the catalytic process of assembling polyubiquitin chains on its target proteins, and its regulation by phosphorylation and the spindle assembly checkpoint. The past few years have witnessed significant progress in understanding the quantitative mechanisms underlying these varied APC/C functions. This review integrates the overall functions and properties of the APC/C with mechanistic insights gained from recent cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) studies of reconstituted human APC/C complexes. PMID:29167309

  9. Investigating the Mechanical Function of the Cervix during Pregnancy using Finite Element Models derived from High Resolution 3D MRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, M.; House, M.; Jambawalikar, S.; Zork, N.; Vink, J.; Wapner, R.; Myers, K.

    2015-01-01

    Preterm birth is a strong contributor to perinatal mortality, and preterm infants that survive are at risk for long-term morbidities. During most of pregnancy appropriate mechanical function of the cervix is required to maintain the developing fetus in utero. Premature cervical softening and subsequent cervical shortening are hypothesized to cause preterm birth. Presently, there is a lack of understanding of the structural and material factors that influence the mechanical function of the cervix during pregnancy. In this study we build finite element (FE) models of the pregnant uterus, cervix, and fetal membrane based on magnetic resonance imagining (MRI) data in order to examine the mechanical function of the cervix under the physiologic loading conditions of pregnancy. We calculate the mechanical loading state of the cervix for two pregnant patients: 22 weeks gestational age with a normal cervical length and 28 weeks with a short cervix. We investigate the influence of 1) anatomical geometry 2) cervical material properties, and 3) fetal membrane material properties, including its adhesion properties, on the mechanical loading state of the cervix under physiologically relevant intrauterine pressures. Our study demonstrates that membrane-uterus interaction, cervical material modeling, and membrane mechanical properties are factors that must be deliberately and carefully handled in order to construct a high quality mechanical simulation of pregnancy. PMID:25970655

  10. Functionalized magnetic nanowires for chemical and magneto-mechanical induction of cancer cell death

    KAUST Repository

    Martinez Banderas, Aldo; Aires, Antonio; Teran, Francisco J.; Perez, Jose E.; Cadenas, Jael F.; Alsharif, Nouf; Ravasi, Timothy; Cortajarena, Aitziber L.; Kosel, Jü rgen

    2016-01-01

    Exploiting and combining different properties of nanomaterials is considered a potential route for next generation cancer therapies. Magnetic nanowires (NWs) have shown good biocompatibility and a high level of cellular internalization. We induced cancer cell death by combining the chemotherapeutic effect of doxorubicin (DOX)-functionalized iron NWs with the mechanical disturbance under a low frequency alternating magnetic field. (3-aminopropyl)triethoxysilane (APTES) and bovine serum albumin (BSA) were separately used for coating NWs allowing further functionalization with DOX. Internalization was assessed for both formulations by confocal reflection microscopy and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. From confocal analysis, BSA formulations demonstrated higher internalization and less agglomeration. The functionalized NWs generated a comparable cytotoxic effect in breast cancer cells in a DOX concentration-dependent manner, (~60% at the highest concentration tested) that was significantly different from the effect produced by free DOX and non-functionalized NWs formulations. A synergistic cytotoxic effect is obtained when a magnetic field (1 mT, 10 Hz) is applied to cells treated with DOX-functionalized BSA or APTES-coated NWs, (~70% at the highest concentration). In summary, a bimodal method for cancer cell destruction was developed by the conjugation of the magneto-mechanical properties of iron NWs with the effect of DOX producing better results than the individual effects.

  11. Functionalized magnetic nanowires for chemical and magneto-mechanical induction of cancer cell death

    KAUST Repository

    Martinez Banderas, Aldo Isaac

    2016-10-24

    Exploiting and combining different properties of nanomaterials is considered a potential route for next generation cancer therapies. Magnetic nanowires (NWs) have shown good biocompatibility and a high level of cellular internalization. We induced cancer cell death by combining the chemotherapeutic effect of doxorubicin (DOX)-functionalized iron NWs with the mechanical disturbance under a low frequency alternating magnetic field. (3-aminopropyl)triethoxysilane (APTES) and bovine serum albumin (BSA) were separately used for coating NWs allowing further functionalization with DOX. Internalization was assessed for both formulations by confocal reflection microscopy and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. From confocal analysis, BSA formulations demonstrated higher internalization and less agglomeration. The functionalized NWs generated a comparable cytotoxic effect in breast cancer cells in a DOX concentration-dependent manner, (~60% at the highest concentration tested) that was significantly different from the effect produced by free DOX and non-functionalized NWs formulations. A synergistic cytotoxic effect is obtained when a magnetic field (1 mT, 10 Hz) is applied to cells treated with DOX-functionalized BSA or APTES-coated NWs, (~70% at the highest concentration). In summary, a bimodal method for cancer cell destruction was developed by the conjugation of the magneto-mechanical properties of iron NWs with the effect of DOX producing better results than the individual effects.

  12. Functionalized magnetic nanowires for chemical and magneto-mechanical induction of cancer cell death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Banderas, Aldo Isaac; Aires, Antonio; Teran, Francisco J; Perez, Jose Efrain; Cadenas, Jael F; Alsharif, Nouf; Ravasi, Timothy; Cortajarena, Aitziber L; Kosel, Jürgen

    2016-10-24

    Exploiting and combining different properties of nanomaterials is considered a potential route for next generation cancer therapies. Magnetic nanowires (NWs) have shown good biocompatibility and a high level of cellular internalization. We induced cancer cell death by combining the chemotherapeutic effect of doxorubicin (DOX)-functionalized iron NWs with the mechanical disturbance under a low frequency alternating magnetic field. (3-aminopropyl)triethoxysilane (APTES) and bovine serum albumin (BSA) were separately used for coating NWs allowing further functionalization with DOX. Internalization was assessed for both formulations by confocal reflection microscopy and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. From confocal analysis, BSA formulations demonstrated higher internalization and less agglomeration. The functionalized NWs generated a comparable cytotoxic effect in breast cancer cells in a DOX concentration-dependent manner, (~60% at the highest concentration tested) that was significantly different from the effect produced by free DOX and non-functionalized NWs formulations. A synergistic cytotoxic effect is obtained when a magnetic field (1 mT, 10 Hz) is applied to cells treated with DOX-functionalized BSA or APTES-coated NWs, (~70% at the highest concentration). In summary, a bimodal method for cancer cell destruction was developed by the conjugation of the magneto-mechanical properties of iron NWs with the effect of DOX producing better results than the individual effects.

  13. Exercise promotes motor functional recovery in rats with corticospinal tract injury: anti-apoptosis mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting-ting Hou

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies have shown that exercise interventions can improve functional recovery after spinal cord injury, but the mechanism of action remains unclear. To investigate the mechanism, we established a unilateral corticospinal tract injury model in rats by pyramidotomy, and used a single pellet reaching task and horizontal ladder walking task as exercise interventions postoperatively. Functional recovery of forelimbs and forepaws in the rat models was noticeably enhanced after the exercises. Furthermore, TUNEL staining revealed significantly fewer apoptotic cells in the spinal cord of exercised rats, and western blot analysis showed that spinal cord expression of the apoptosis-related protein caspase-3 was significantly lower, and the expression of Bcl-2 was significantly higher, while the expression of Bax was not signifiantly changed after exercise, compared with the non-exercised group. Expression of these proteins decreased with time after injury, towards the levels observed in sham-operated rats, however at 4 weeks postoperatively, caspase-3 expression remained significantly greater than in sham-operated rats. The present findings indicate that a reduction in apoptosis is one of the mechanisms underlying the improvement of functional recovery by exercise interventions after corticospinal tract injury.

  14. Microfluidics as a functional tool for cell mechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanapalli, Siva A; Duits, Michel H G; Mugele, Frieder

    2009-01-05

    Living cells are a fascinating demonstration of nature's most intricate and well-coordinated micromechanical objects. They crawl, spread, contract, and relax-thus performing a multitude of complex mechanical functions. Alternatively, they also respond to physical and chemical cues that lead to remodeling of the cytoskeleton. To understand this intricate coupling between mechanical properties, mechanical function and force-induced biochemical signaling requires tools that are capable of both controlling and manipulating the cell microenvironment and measuring the resulting mechanical response. In this review, the power of microfluidics as a functional tool for research in cell mechanics is highlighted. In particular, current literature is discussed to show that microfluidics powered by soft lithographic techniques offers the following capabilities that are of significance for understanding the mechanical behavior of cells: (i) Microfluidics enables the creation of in vitro models of physiological environments in which cell mechanics can be probed. (ii) Microfluidics is an excellent means to deliver physical cues that affect cell mechanics, such as cell shape, fluid flow, substrate topography, and stiffness. (iii) Microfluidics can also expose cells to chemical cues, such as growth factors and drugs, which alter their mechanical behavior. Moreover, these chemical cues can be delivered either at the whole cell or subcellular level. (iv) Microfluidic devices offer the possibility of measuring the intrinsic mechanical properties of cells in a high throughput fashion. (v) Finally, microfluidic methods provide exquisite control over drop size, generation, and manipulation. As a result, droplets are being increasingly used to control the physicochemical environment of cells and as biomimetic analogs of living cells. These powerful attributes of microfluidics should further stimulate novel means of investigating the link between physicochemical cues and the biomechanical

  15. Amount of fear extinction changes its underlying mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Bobae; Kim, Jihye; Park, Kyungjoon; Lee, Sukwon; Song, Sukwoon; Choi, Sukwoo

    2017-07-03

    There has been a longstanding debate on whether original fear memory is inhibited or erased after extinction. One possibility that reconciles this uncertainty is that the inhibition and erasure mechanisms are engaged in different phases (early or late) of extinction. In this study, using single-session extinction training and its repetition (multiple-session extinction training), we investigated the inhibition and erasure mechanisms in the prefrontal cortex and amygdala of rats, where neural circuits underlying extinction reside. The inhibition mechanism was prevalent with single-session extinction training but faded when single-session extinction training was repeated. In contrast, the erasure mechanism became prevalent when single-session extinction training was repeated. Moreover, ablating the intercalated neurons of amygdala, which are responsible for maintaining extinction-induced inhibition, was no longer effective in multiple-session extinction training. We propose that the inhibition mechanism operates primarily in the early phase of extinction training, and the erasure mechanism takes over after that.

  16. Thermo-Mechanical Properties of Semi-Degradable Poly(β-amino ester)-co-Methyl Methacrylate Networks under Simulated Physiological Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safranski, David L.; Crabtree, Jacob C.; Huq, Yameen R.; Gall, Ken

    2011-01-01

    Poly(β-amino ester) networks are being explored for biomedical applications, but they may lack the mechanical properties necessary for long term implantation. The objective of this study is to evaluate the effect of adding methyl methacrylate on networks' mechanical properties under simulated physiological conditions. The networks were synthesized in two parts: (1) a biodegradable crosslinker was formed from a diacrylate and amine, (2) and then varying concentrations of methyl methacrylate were added prior to photopolymerizing the network. Degradation rate, mechanical properties, and glass transition temperature were studied as a function of methyl methacrylate composition. The crosslinking density played a limited role on mechanical properties for these networks, but increasing methyl methacrylate concentration improved the toughness by several orders of magnitude. Under simulated physiological conditions, networks showed increasing toughness or sustained toughness as degradation occurred. This work establishes a method of creating degradable networks with tailorable toughness while undergoing partial degradation. PMID:21966028

  17. Metacognitive mechanisms underlying lucid dreaming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filevich, Elisa; Dresler, Martin; Brick, Timothy R; Kühn, Simone

    2015-01-21

    Lucid dreaming is a state of awareness that one is dreaming, without leaving the sleep state. Dream reports show that self-reflection and volitional control are more pronounced in lucid compared with nonlucid dreams. Mostly on these grounds, lucid dreaming has been associated with metacognition. However, the link to lucid dreaming at the neural level has not yet been explored. We sought for relationships between the neural correlates of lucid dreaming and thought monitoring. Human participants completed a questionnaire assessing lucid dreaming ability, and underwent structural and functional MRI. We split participants based on their reported dream lucidity. Participants in the high-lucidity group showed greater gray matter volume in the frontopolar cortex (BA9/10) compared with those in the low-lucidity group. Further, differences in brain structure were mirrored by differences in brain function. The BA9/10 regions identified through structural analyses showed increases in blood oxygen level-dependent signal during thought monitoring in both groups, and more strongly in the high-lucidity group. Our results reveal shared neural systems between lucid dreaming and metacognitive function, in particular in the domain of thought monitoring. This finding contributes to our understanding of the mechanisms enabling higher-order consciousness in dreams. Copyright © 2015 the authors 0270-6474/15/351082-07$15.00/0.

  18. Stereopsis in animals: evolution, function and mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Read, Jenny C. A.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Stereopsis is the computation of depth information from views acquired simultaneously from different points in space. For many years, stereopsis was thought to be confined to primates and other mammals with front-facing eyes. However, stereopsis has now been demonstrated in many other animals, including lateral-eyed prey mammals, birds, amphibians and invertebrates. The diversity of animals known to have stereo vision allows us to begin to investigate ideas about its evolution and the underlying selective pressures in different animals. It also further prompts the question of whether all animals have evolved essentially the same algorithms to implement stereopsis. If so, this must be the best way to do stereo vision, and should be implemented by engineers in machine stereopsis. Conversely, if animals have evolved a range of stereo algorithms in response to different pressures, that could inspire novel forms of machine stereopsis appropriate for distinct environments, tasks or constraints. As a first step towards addressing these ideas, we here review our current knowledge of stereo vision in animals, with a view towards outlining common principles about the evolution, function and mechanisms of stereo vision across the animal kingdom. We conclude by outlining avenues for future work, including research into possible new mechanisms of stereo vision, with implications for machine vision and the role of stereopsis in the evolution of camouflage. PMID:28724702

  19. Control of a perturbed under-actuated mechanical system

    KAUST Repository

    Zayane, Chadia; Laleg-Kirati, Taous-Meriem; Chemori, Ahmed

    2015-01-01

    In this work, the trajectory tracking problem for an under-actuated mechanical system in presence of unknown input disturbances is addressed. The studied inertia wheel inverted pendulum falls in the class of non minimum phase systems. The proposed

  20. Mechanical Behavior of Red Sandstone under Incremental Uniaxial Cyclical Compressive and Tensile Loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baoyun Zhao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Uniaxial experiments were carried out on red sandstone specimens to investigate their short-term and creep mechanical behavior under incremental cyclic compressive and tensile loading. First, based on the results of short-term uniaxial incremental cyclic compressive and tensile loading experiments, deformation characteristics and energy dissipation were analyzed. The results show that the stress-strain curve of red sandstone has an obvious memory effect in the compressive and tensile loading stages. The strains at peak stresses and residual strains increase with the cycle number. Energy dissipation, defined as the area of the hysteresis loop in the stress-strain curves, increases nearly in a power function with the cycle number. Creep test of the red sandstone was also conducted. Results show that the creep curve under each compressive or tensile stress level can be divided into decay and steady stages, which cannot be described by the conventional Burgers model. Therefore, an improved Burgers creep model of rock material is constructed through viscoplastic mechanics, which agrees very well with the experimental results and can describe the creep behavior of red sandstone better than the Burgers creep model.

  1. Systematic evaluation of skeletal mechanical function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Lauren; Bigelow, Erin M R; Jepsen, Karl J

    2013-06-01

    Many genetic and environmental perturbations lead to measurable changes in bone morphology, matrix composition, and matrix organization. The skeletal system is highly adaptive, such that genetic and environmental perturbations affecting one trait are often accompanied by compensatory changes in other traits. This adaptation should be considered when attempting to draw meaningful conclusions about the role of a gene, for example. The challenge is to figure out which alterations can be attributed to the perturbation and which result from adaptive changes associated with establishing mechanical function. The goal of this chapter is to describe straight-forward biomechanical methods that can be used to determine whether a genetic or environmental perturbation affected bone strength. We introduce a systematic method for evaluating how bone strength was altered in the context of morphology and tissue-level mechanical properties, which are determined in large part from matrix composition, matrix organization, and porosity. We present this work as a first step toward screening mice for a phenotypic effect and for establishing the associated biomechanical mechanism by which function was altered. The outcome of these analyses generally provides insight into the next set of experiments required to further connect the cellular perturbation with the functional changes. The protocols were written to enable researchers without a background in engineering to conduct the assays or to enable researchers to better understand the outcomes of similar assays conducted by colleagues knowledgeable in engineering.

  2. Exploration of mechanisms underlying the strain-rate-dependent mechanical property of single chondrocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, Trung Dung; Gu, YuanTong, E-mail: yuantong.gu@qut.edu.au [School of Chemistry, Physics and Mechanical Engineering, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, Queensland (Australia)

    2014-05-05

    Based on the characterization by Atomic Force Microscopy, we report that the mechanical property of single chondrocytes has dependency on the strain-rates. By comparing the mechanical deformation responses and the Young's moduli of living and fixed chondrocytes at four different strain-rates, we explore the deformation mechanisms underlying this dependency property. We found that the strain-rate-dependent mechanical property of living cells is governed by both of the cellular cytoskeleton and the intracellular fluid when the fixed chondrocytes are mainly governed by their intracellular fluid, which is called the consolidation-dependent deformation behavior. Finally, we report that the porohyperelastic constitutive material model which can capture the consolidation-dependent behavior of both living and fixed chondrocytes is a potential candidature to study living cell biomechanics.

  3. On quantum mechanical phase-space wave functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wlodarz, Joachim J.

    1994-01-01

    An approach to quantum mechanics based on the notion of a phase-space wave function is proposed within the Weyl-Wigner-Moyal representation. It is shown that the Schrodinger equation for the phase-space wave function is equivalent to the quantum Liouville equation for the Wigner distribution...... function. The relationship to the recent results by Torres-Vega and Frederick [J. Chem. Phys. 98, 3103 (1993)] is also discussed....

  4. Deformation Mechanisms of Gum Metals Under Nanoindentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankaran, Rohini Priya

    defect structures to applied loading, we perform ex-situ nanoindentation. Nanoindentation is a convenient method as the plastic deformation is localized and probes a nominally defect free volume of the material. We subsequently characterize the defect structures in these alloys with both conventional TEM and advanced techniques such as HAADF HRSTEM and nanoprobe diffraction. These advanced techniques allow for a more thorough understanding of the observed deformation features. The main findings from this investigation are as follows. As expected we observe that a non-equilibrium phase, o, is present in the leaner beta-stabilized alloy, ST Ref-1. We do not find any direct evidence of secondary phases in STGM, and we find the beta phase in CWGM, along with lath microstructure with subgrain structure consisting of dislocation cell networks. Upon nanoindentation, we find twinning accompanied by beta nucleation on the twin boundary in ST Ref-1 samples. This result is consistent with previous findings and is reasonable considering the alloy is unstable with respect to beta transformation. We find deformation nanotwinning in cold worked gum metals under nanoindentation, which is initially surprising. We argue that when viewed as a nanocrystalline material, such a deformation mechanism is consistent with previous work, and furthermore, a deformation nanotwinned structure does not preclude an ideal shear mechanism from operating in the alloy. Lastly, we observe continuous lattice rotations in STGM under nanoindentation via nanoprobe diffraction. With this technique, for the first time we can demonstrate that the lattice rotations are truly continuous at the nanoscale. We can quantify this lattice rotation, and find that even though the rotation is large, it may be mediated by a reasonable geometrically necessary dislocation density, and note that similar rotations are typically observed in other materials under nanoindentation. HRSTEM and conventional TEM data confirm the

  5. Cell-Nonautonomous Mechanisms Underlying Cellular and Organismal Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medkour, Younes; Svistkova, Veronika; Titorenko, Vladimir I

    2016-01-01

    Cell-autonomous mechanisms underlying cellular and organismal aging in evolutionarily distant eukaryotes have been established; these mechanisms regulate longevity-defining processes within a single eukaryotic cell. Recent findings have provided valuable insight into cell-nonautonomous mechanisms modulating cellular and organismal aging in eukaryotes across phyla; these mechanisms involve a transmission of various longevity factors between different cells, tissues, and organisms. Herein, we review such cell-nonautonomous mechanisms of aging in eukaryotes. We discuss the following: (1) how low molecular weight transmissible longevity factors modulate aging and define longevity of cells in yeast populations cultured in liquid media or on solid surfaces, (2) how communications between proteostasis stress networks operating in neurons and nonneuronal somatic tissues define longevity of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans by modulating the rates of aging in different tissues, and (3) how different bacterial species colonizing the gut lumen of C. elegans define nematode longevity by modulating the rate of organismal aging. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. Underlying Mechanisms of Tinnitus: Review and Clinical Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, James A.; Roberts, Larry E.; Caspary, Donald M.; Theodoroff, Sarah M.; Salvi, Richard J.

    2016-01-01

    Background The study of tinnitus mechanisms has increased tenfold in the last decade. The common denominator for all of these studies is the goal of elucidating the underlying neural mechanisms of tinnitus with the ultimate purpose of finding a cure. While these basic science findings may not be immediately applicable to the clinician who works directly with patients to assist them in managing their reactions to tinnitus, a clear understanding of these findings is needed to develop the most effective procedures for alleviating tinnitus. Purpose The goal of this review is to provide audiologists and other health-care professionals with a basic understanding of the neurophysiological changes in the auditory system likely to be responsible for tinnitus. Results It is increasingly clear that tinnitus is a pathology involving neuroplastic changes in central auditory structures that take place when the brain is deprived of its normal input by pathology in the cochlea. Cochlear pathology is not always expressed in the audiogram but may be detected by more sensitive measures. Neural changes can occur at the level of synapses between inner hair cells and the auditory nerve and within multiple levels of the central auditory pathway. Long-term maintenance of tinnitus is likely a function of a complex network of structures involving central auditory and nonauditory systems. Conclusions Patients often have expectations that a treatment exists to cure their tinnitus. They should be made aware that research is increasing to discover such a cure and that their reactions to tinnitus can be mitigated through the use of evidence-based behavioral interventions. PMID:24622858

  7. Crack assessment of pipe under combined thermal and mechanical load

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Tae Kwang; Kim, Yun Jae

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, J-integral and transient C(t)-integral, which were key parameters in low temperature and high temperature fracture mechanics, under combined thermal and mechanical load were estimated via 3-dimensional finite element analyses. Various type of thermal and mechanical load, material hardening were considered to decrease conservatism in existing solutions. As a results, V-factor and redistribution time for combined thermal and mechanical load were proposed to calculate J-integral and C(t)-integral, respectively.

  8. Effects of exercise training on pulmonary mechanics and functional status in patients with prolonged mechanical ventilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yen-Huey; Lin, Hui-Ling; Hsiao, Hsiu-Feng; Chou, Lan-Ti; Kao, Kuo-Chin; Huang, Chung-Chi; Tsai, Ying-Huang

    2012-05-01

    The functional status and outcomes in patients with prolonged mechanical ventilation (PMV) are often limited by poor endurance and pulmonary mechanics, which result from the primary diseases or prolonged time bedridden. We evaluate the impact of exercise training on pulmonary mechanics, physical functional status, and hospitalization outcomes in PMV patients. Twenty-seven subjects with PMV in our respiratory care center (RCC) were divided randomly into an exercise training group (n = 12) and a control group (n = 15). The exercise program comprised 10 sessions of exercise training. The measurement of pulmonary mechanics and physical functional status (Functional Independence Measurement and Barthel index) were performed pre-study and post-study. The hospitalization outcomes included: days of mechanical ventilation, hospitalization days, and weaning and mortality rates during RCC stay. The training group had significant improvement in tidal volume (143.6 mL vs 192.5 mL, P = .02) and rapid shallow breathing index after training (162.2 vs 110.6, P = .009). No significant change was found in the control group except respiratory rate. Both groups had significant improvement in functional status during the study. However, the training group had greater changes in FIM score than the control group (44.6 vs 34.2, P = .024). The training group also had shorter RCC stay and higher weaning and survival rates than the control group, although no statistical difference was found. Subjects with PMV in our RCC demonstrated significant improvement in pulmonary mechanics and functional status after exercise training. The application of exercise training may be helpful for PMV patients to improve hospitalization outcomes.

  9. Microcracking in composite laminates under thermal and mechanical loading. Thesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddocks, Jason R.

    1995-01-01

    Composites used in space structures are exposed to both extremes in temperature and applied mechanical loads. Cracks in the matrix form, changing the laminate thermoelastic properties. The goal of the present investigation is to develop a predictive methodology to quantify microcracking in general composite laminates under both thermal and mechanical loading. This objective is successfully met through a combination of analytical modeling and experimental investigation. In the analysis, the stress and displacement distributions in the vicinity of a crack are determined using a shear lag model. These are incorporated into an energy based cracking criterion to determine the favorability of crack formation. A progressive damage algorithm allows the inclusion of material softening effects and temperature-dependent material properties. The analysis is implemented by a computer code which gives predicted crack density and degraded laminate properties as functions of any thermomechanical load history. Extensive experimentation provides verification of the analysis. AS4/3501-6 graphite/epoxy laminates are manufactured with three different layups to investigate ply thickness and orientation effects. Thermal specimens are cooled to progressively lower temperatures down to -184 C. After conditioning the specimens to each temperature, cracks are counted on their edges using optical microscopy and in their interiors by sanding to incremental depths. Tensile coupons are loaded monotonically to progressively higher loads until failure. Cracks are counted on the coupon edges after each loading. A data fit to all available results provides input parameters for the analysis and shows them to be material properties, independent of geometry and loading. Correlation between experiment and analysis is generally very good under both thermal and mechanical loading, showing the methodology to be a powerful, unified tool. Delayed crack initiation observed in a few cases is attributed to a

  10. An easily reversible structural change underlies mechanisms enabling desert crust cyanobacteria to survive desiccation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bar-Eyal, Leeat; Eisenberg, Ido; Faust, Adam; Raanan, Hagai; Nevo, Reinat; Rappaport, Fabrice; Krieger-Liszkay, Anja; Sétif, Pierre; Thurotte, Adrien; Reich, Ziv; Kaplan, Aaron; Ohad, Itzhak; Paltiel, Yossi; Keren, Nir

    2015-10-01

    Biological desert sand crusts are the foundation of desert ecosystems, stabilizing the sands and allowing colonization by higher order organisms. The first colonizers of the desert sands are cyanobacteria. Facing the harsh conditions of the desert, these organisms must withstand frequent desiccation-hydration cycles, combined with high light intensities. Here, we characterize structural and functional modifications to the photosynthetic apparatus that enable a cyanobacterium, Leptolyngbya sp., to thrive under these conditions. Using multiple in vivo spectroscopic and imaging techniques, we identified two complementary mechanisms for dissipating absorbed energy in the desiccated state. The first mechanism involves the reorganization of the phycobilisome antenna system, increasing excitonic coupling between antenna components. This provides better energy dissipation in the antenna rather than directed exciton transfer to the reaction center. The second mechanism is driven by constriction of the thylakoid lumen which limits diffusion of plastocyanin to P700. The accumulation of P700(+) not only prevents light-induced charge separation but also efficiently quenches excitation energy. These protection mechanisms employ existing components of the photosynthetic apparatus, forming two distinct functional modes. Small changes in the structure of the thylakoid membranes are sufficient for quenching of all absorbed energy in the desiccated state, protecting the photosynthetic apparatus from photoinhibitory damage. These changes can be easily reversed upon rehydration, returning the system to its high photosynthetic quantum efficiency. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Computational study on the behaviors of granular materials under mechanical cycling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Xiaoliang; Ye, Minyou; Chen, Hongli

    2015-01-01

    Considering that fusion pebble beds are probably subjected to the cyclic compression excitation in their future applications, we presented a computational study to report the effect of mechanical cycling on the behaviors of granular matter. The correctness of our numerical experiments was confirmed by a comparison with the effective medium theory. Under the cyclic loads, the fast granular compaction was observed to evolve in a stretched exponential law. Besides, the increasing stiffening in packing structure, especially the decreasing moduli pressure dependence due to granular consolidation, was also observed. For the force chains inside the pebble beds, both the internal force distribution and the spatial distribution of force chains would become increasingly uniform as the external force perturbation proceeded and therefore produced the stress relief on grains. In this case, the originally proposed 3-parameter Mueth function was found to fail to describe the internal force distribution. Thereby, its improved functional form with 4 parameters was proposed here and proved to better fit the data. These findings will provide more detailed information on the pebble beds for the relevant fusion design and analysis

  12. Observing trends in the functionalization of cnts using same oxidizing acids under two different conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aftab, S.

    2013-01-01

    Excellent electrical, mechanical, optical and thermal properties are attributed to carbon nanotubes. Carbon nanotubes need to be functionalized to form a homogeneous dispersion. In this work, catalytically produced carbon nanotubes have been functionalized under two different conditions using the same acid medium. The effect of the two reaction routes on the carbon nanotubes, in terms of the extent of covalent functionalization has been determined by several techniques. Scanning electron microscopy aided in the observation of their morphology and X-ray diffraction was used to ascertain their structure. Other analytical characterization tools employed were Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, Zeta potential measurement, UV spectroscopy, Oxygen percentage analysis, Boehm's titration and visual dispersion. Results show that carbon nanotubes functionalized by refluxing in the acids are much better dispersed. (author)

  13. Mechanism of Cerebralcare Granule® for Improving Cognitive Function in Resting-State Brain Functional Networks of Sub-healthy Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Li

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Cerebralcare Granule® (CG, a Chinese herbal medicine, has been used to ameliorate cognitive impairment induced by ischemia or mental disorders. The ability of CG to improve health status and cognitive function has drawn researchers' attention, but the relevant brain circuits that underlie the ameliorative effects of CG remain unclear. The present study aimed to explore the underlying neurobiological mechanisms of CG in ameliorating cognitive function in sub-healthy subjects using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI. Thirty sub-healthy participants were instructed to take one 2.5-g package of CG three times a day for 3 months. Clinical cognitive functions were assessed with the Chinese Revised Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS-RC and Wechsler Memory Scale (WMS, and fMRI scans were performed at baseline and the end of intervention. Functional brain network data were analyzed by conventional network metrics (CNM and frequent subgraph mining (FSM. Then 21 other sub-healthy participants were enrolled as a blank control group of cognitive functional. We found that administrating CG can improve the full scale of intelligence quotient (FIQ and Memory Quotient (MQ scores. At the same time, following CG treatment, in CG group, the topological properties of functional brain networks were altered in various frontal, temporal, occipital cortex regions, and several subcortical brain regions, including essential components of the executive attention network, the salience network, and the sensory-motor network. The nodes involved in the FSM results were largely consistent with the CNM findings, and the changes in nodal metrics correlated with improved cognitive function. These findings indicate that CG can improve sub-healthy subjects' cognitive function through altering brain functional networks. These results provide a foundation for future studies of the potential physiological mechanism of CG.

  14. A Hybrid Imperative and Functional Molecular Mechanics Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Deboni

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Molecular mechanics applications model the interactions among large ensembles of discrete particles. They are used where probabilistic methods are inadequate, such as drug chemistry. This methodology is difficult to parallelize with good performance, due to its poor locality, uneven partitions, and dynamic behavior. Imperative programs have been written that attempt this on shared and distributed memory machines. Given such a program, the computational kernel can be rewritten in Sisal, a functional programming language, and integrated with the rest of the imperative program under the Sisal Foreign Language Interface. This allows minimal effort and maximal return from parallelization work, and leaves the work appropriate to imperative implementation in its original form. We describe such an effort, focusing on the parts of the application that are appropriate for Sisal implementation, the specifics of mixed-language programming, and the complex performance behavior of the resulting hybrid code.

  15. Prediction study on mechanical and thermodynamic properties of orthorhombic Mg2SiO4 under high temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Jianting; Zhang, Hong; Chen, Yue; Shong, Jun; Chen, Zhuo; Yang, Juan; Zheng, Zhou; Wang, Feng

    2014-01-01

    In this work, based on density functional theory and quasi-harmonic Debye model, mechanical and thermodynamic properties of orthorhombic Mg 2 SiO 4 under high temperature are predicted. We found out that α-Mg 2 SiO 4 is mechanically stable under the condition from about 0 to 74 GPa. Results indicate that the main cause of mechanical instability is high pressure, and the effect caused by high temperature is small. C 11 , C 22 , C 33 , B and v p reduce with temperature just a little and increase with pressure obviously. Mg 2 SiO 4 has excellent resistance to strong compression; however the resistance to shear is unsatisfactory. The C v tends to the Petit and Dulong limit at high temperature under any pressure, and it is proportional to T 3 at extremely low temperature. Pressure has an opposite effect on C v than temperature. The suppressed effect on C v caused by pressure is not obvious under low and very high temperature. Mg 2 SiO 4 has three different thermal expansion coefficients (α) along a-, b- and c-axes, and α a <α c <α b . α increases rapidly at low temperature (about <300 K), and slows down at high temperature. High pressure would greatly suppress expansion caused by temperature. Nevertheless, increasing tendency of α b and α c is still obvious under high pressure, especially α b . All the properties are mainly due to Si–O covalent bonds and their directions

  16. Thermal optimality of net ecosystem exchange of carbon dioxide and underlying mechanisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niu, Shuli; Luo, Yiqi; Fei, Shenfeng

    2012-01-01

    distributed sites of eddy covariance and quantified the temperature response functions of net ecosystem exchange (NEE), an ecosystem‐level property, to determine whether NEE shows thermal optimality and to explore the underlying mechanisms. We found that the temperature response of NEE followed a peak curve......, with the optimum temperature (corresponding to the maximum magnitude of NEE) being positively correlated with annual mean temperature over years and across sites. Shifts of the optimum temperature of NEE were mostly a result of temperature acclimation of gross primary productivity (upward shift of optimum...... ecosystem–climate change feedbacks. The thermal optimality of NEE has implications for understanding fundamental properties of ecosystems in changing environments and benchmarking global models....

  17. Functional integral in supersymmetric quantum mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ktitarev, D.V.

    1990-01-01

    The solution of the square root of the Schroedinger equation for the supersymmetric quantum mechanics is expressed in the form of series. The formula may be considered as a functional integral of the chronological exponent of the super-pseudodifferential operator symbol over the superspace. 10 refs

  18. Mechanism of crack initiation and crack growth under thermal and mechanical fatigue loading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Utz, S.; Soppa, E.; Silcher, H.; Kohler, C. [Stuttgart Univ. (Germany). Materials Testing Inst.

    2013-07-01

    The present contribution is focused on the experimental investigations and numerical simulations of the deformation behaviour and crack development in the austenitic stainless steel X6CrNiNb18-10 under thermal and mechanical cyclic loading in HCF and LCF regimes. The main objective of this research is the understanding of the basic mechanisms of fatigue damage and the development of simulation methods, which can be applied further in safety evaluations of nuclear power plant components. In this context the modelling of crack initiation and crack growth inside the material structure induced by varying thermal or mechanical loads are of particular interest. The mechanisms of crack initiation depend among other things on the type of loading, microstructure, material properties and temperature. The Nb-stabilized austenitic stainless steel in the solution-annealed condition was chosen for the investigations. Experiments with two kinds of cyclic loading - pure thermal and pure mechanical - were carried out and simulated. The fatigue behaviour of the steel X6CrNiNb18-10 under thermal loading was studied within the framework of the joint research project [4]. Interrupted thermal cyclic tests in the temperature range of 150 C to 300 C combined with non-destructive residual stress measurements (XRD) and various microscopic investigations, e.g. in SEM (Scanning Electron Microscope), were used to study the effects of thermal cyclic loading on the material. This thermal cyclic loading leads to thermal induced stresses and strains. As a result intrusions and extrusions appear inside the grains (at the surface), at which microcracks arise and evolve to a dominant crack. Finally, these microcracks cause a continuous and significant decrease of residual stresses. The fatigue behaviour of the steel X6CrNiNb18-10 under mechanical loading at room temperature was studied within the framework of the research project [5], [8]. With a combination of interrupted LCF tests and EBSD

  19. Mechanism of crack initiation and crack growth under thermal and mechanical fatigue loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Utz, S.; Soppa, E.; Silcher, H.; Kohler, C.

    2013-01-01

    The present contribution is focused on the experimental investigations and numerical simulations of the deformation behaviour and crack development in the austenitic stainless steel X6CrNiNb18-10 under thermal and mechanical cyclic loading in HCF and LCF regimes. The main objective of this research is the understanding of the basic mechanisms of fatigue damage and the development of simulation methods, which can be applied further in safety evaluations of nuclear power plant components. In this context the modelling of crack initiation and crack growth inside the material structure induced by varying thermal or mechanical loads are of particular interest. The mechanisms of crack initiation depend among other things on the type of loading, microstructure, material properties and temperature. The Nb-stabilized austenitic stainless steel in the solution-annealed condition was chosen for the investigations. Experiments with two kinds of cyclic loading - pure thermal and pure mechanical - were carried out and simulated. The fatigue behaviour of the steel X6CrNiNb18-10 under thermal loading was studied within the framework of the joint research project [4]. Interrupted thermal cyclic tests in the temperature range of 150 C to 300 C combined with non-destructive residual stress measurements (XRD) and various microscopic investigations, e.g. in SEM (Scanning Electron Microscope), were used to study the effects of thermal cyclic loading on the material. This thermal cyclic loading leads to thermal induced stresses and strains. As a result intrusions and extrusions appear inside the grains (at the surface), at which microcracks arise and evolve to a dominant crack. Finally, these microcracks cause a continuous and significant decrease of residual stresses. The fatigue behaviour of the steel X6CrNiNb18-10 under mechanical loading at room temperature was studied within the framework of the research project [5], [8]. With a combination of interrupted LCF tests and EBSD

  20. Mechanical modeling of skeletal muscle functioning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Linden, B.J.J.J.

    1998-01-01

    For movement of body or body segments is combined effort needed of the central nervous system and the muscular-skeletal system. This thesis deals with the mechanical functioning of skeletal muscle. That muscles come in a large variety of geometries, suggest the existence of a relation between muscle

  1. Fracture mechanics of hydroxyapatite single crystals under geometric confinement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libonati, Flavia; Nair, Arun K; Vergani, Laura; Buehler, Markus J

    2013-04-01

    Geometric confinement to the nanoscale, a concept that refers to the characteristic dimensions of structural features of materials at this length scale, has been shown to control the mechanical behavior of many biological materials or their building blocks, and such effects have also been suggested to play a crucial role in enhancing the strength and toughness of bone. Here we study the effect of geometric confinement on the fracture mechanism of hydroxyapatite (HAP) crystals that form the mineralized phase in bone. We report a series of molecular simulations of HAP crystals with an edge crack on the (001) plane under tensile loading, and we systematically vary the sample height whilst keeping the sample and the crack length constant. We find that by decreasing the sample height the stress concentration at the tip of the crack disappears for samples with a height smaller than 4.15nm, below which the material shows a different failure mode characterized by a more ductile mechanism with much larger failure strains, and the strength approaching that of a flaw-less crystal. This study directly confirms an earlier suggestion of a flaw-tolerant state that appears under geometric confinement and may explain the mechanical stability of the reinforcing HAP platelets in bone. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Believing versus interacting: Behavioural and neural mechanisms underlying interpersonal coordination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Konvalinka, Ivana; Bauer, Markus; Kilner, James

    When two people engage in a bidirectional interaction with each other, they use both bottom-up sensorimotor mechanisms such as monitoring and adapting to the behaviour of the other, as well as top-down cognitive processes, modulating their beliefs and allowing them to make decisions. Most research...... in joint action has investigated only one of these mechanisms at a time – low-level processes underlying joint coordination, or high-level cognitive mechanisms that give insight into how people think about another. In real interactions, interplay between these two mechanisms modulates how we interact...

  3. Mechanism Underlying the Spatial Pattern Formation of Dominant Tree Species in a Natural Secondary Forest.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guodong Jia

    Full Text Available Studying the spatial pattern of plant species may provide significant insights into processes and mechanisms that maintain stand stability. To better understand the dynamics of naturally regenerated secondary forests, univariate and bivariate Ripley's L(r functions were employed to evaluate intra-/interspecific relationships of four dominant tree species (Populus davidiana, Betula platyphylla, Larix gmelinii and Acer mono and to distinguish the underlying mechanism of spatial distribution. The results showed that the distribution of soil, water and nutrients was not fragmented but presented clear gradients. An overall aggregated distribution existed at most distances. No correlation was found between the spatial pattern of soil conditions and that of trees. Both positive and negative intra- and interspecific relationships were found between different DBH classes at various distances. Large trees did not show systematic inhibition of the saplings. By contrast, the inhibition intensified as the height differences increased between the compared pairs. Except for Larix, universal inhibition of saplings by upper layer trees occurred among other species, and this reflected the vertical competition for light. Therefore, we believe that competition for light rather than soil nutrients underlies the mechanism driving the formation of stand spatial pattern in the rocky mountainous areas examined.

  4. Linear Analytical Solutions of Mechanical Sensitivity in Large Deflection of Unsymmetrically Layered Piezoelectric Plate under Pretension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Fu Chen

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Linear analytical study on the mechanical sensitivity in large deflection of unsymmetrically layered and laterally loaded piezoelectric plate under pretension is conducted. von Karman plate theory for large deflection is utilized but extended to the case of an unsymmetrically layered plate embedded with a piezoelectric layer. The governing equations thus obtained are simplified by omitting the arising nonlinear terms, yielding a Bessel or modified Bessel equation for the lateral slope. Depending on the relative magnitude of the piezoelectric effect, for both cases, analytical solutions of various geometrical responses are developed and formulated via Bessel and modified Bessel functions. The associated ultimate radial stresses are further derived following lamina constitutive law to evaluate the mechanical sensitivity of the considered plate. For a nearly monolithic plate under a very low applied voltage, the results are in good agreement with those for a single-layered case due to pure mechanical load available in literature, and thus the present approach is checked. For a two-layered unsymmetric plate made of typical silicon-based materials, a sound piezoelectric effect is illustrated particularly in a low pretension condition.

  5. Mechanical behavior of silicon carbide nanoparticles under uniaxial compression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Qiuxiang; Fei, Jing; Tang, Chao; Zhong, Jianxin; Meng, Lijun, E-mail: ljmeng@xtu.edu.cn [Xiangtan University, Hunan Key Laboratory for Micro-Nano Energy Materials and Devices, Faculty of School of Physics and Optoelectronics (China)

    2016-03-15

    The mechanical behavior of SiC nanoparticles under uniaxial compression was investigated using an atomic-level compression simulation technique. The results revealed that the mechanical deformation of SiC nanocrystals is highly dependent on compression orientation, particle size, and temperature. A structural transformation from the original zinc-blende to a rock-salt phase is identified for SiC nanoparticles compressed along the [001] direction at low temperature. However, the rock-salt phase is not observed for SiC nanoparticles compressed along the [110] and [111] directions irrespective of size and temperature. The high-pressure-generated rock-salt phase strongly affects the mechanical behavior of the nanoparticles, including their hardness and deformation process. The hardness of [001]-compressed nanoparticles decreases monotonically as their size increases, different from that of [110] and [111]-compressed nanoparticles, which reaches a maximal value at a critical size and then decreases. Additionally, a temperature-dependent mechanical response was observed for all simulated SiC nanoparticles regardless of compression orientation and size. Interestingly, the hardness of SiC nanocrystals with a diameter of 8 nm compressed in [001]-orientation undergoes a steep decrease at 0.1–200 K and then a gradual decline from 250 to 1500 K. This trend can be attributed to different deformation mechanisms related to phase transformation and dislocations. Our results will be useful for practical applications of SiC nanoparticles under high pressure.

  6. The short-term stress response - Mother nature's mechanism for enhancing protection and performance under conditions of threat, challenge, and opportunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhabhar, Firdaus S

    2018-03-26

    Our group has proposed that in contrast to chronic stress that can have harmful effects, the short-term (fight-or-flight) stress response (lasting for minutes to hours) is nature's fundamental survival mechanism that enhances protection and performance under conditions involving threat/challenge/opportunity. Short-term stress enhances innate/primary, adaptive/secondary, vaccine-induced, and anti-tumor immune responses, and post-surgical recovery. Mechanisms and mediators include stress hormones, dendritic cell, neutrophil, macrophage, and lymphocyte trafficking/function and local/systemic chemokine and cytokine production. Short-term stress may also enhance mental/cognitive and physical performance through effects on brain, musculo-skeletal, and cardiovascular function, reappraisal of threat/anxiety, and training-induced stress-optimization. Therefore, short-term stress psychology/physiology could be harnessed to enhance immuno-protection, as well as mental and physical performance. This review aims to provide a conceptual framework and targets for further investigation of mechanisms and conditions under which the protective/adaptive aspects of short-term stress/exercise can be optimized/harnessed, and for developing pharmacological/biobehavioral interventions to enhance health/healing, and mental/cognitive/physical performance. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Nonlinear Mechanics of MEMS Rectangular Microplates under Electrostatic Actuation

    KAUST Repository

    Saghir, Shahid

    2016-01-01

    The first objective of the dissertation is to develop a suitable reduced order model capable of investigating the nonlinear mechanical behavior of von-Karman plates under electrostatic actuation. The second objective is to investigate the nonlinear

  8. Effect of fiber distribution and realignment on the nonlinear and inhomogeneous mechanical properties of human supraspinatus tendon under longitudinal tensile loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lake, Spencer P; Miller, Kristin S; Elliott, Dawn M; Soslowsky, Louis J

    2009-12-01

    Tendon exhibits nonlinear stress-strain behavior that may be partly due to movement of collagen fibers through the extracellular matrix. While a few techniques have been developed to evaluate the fiber architecture of other soft tissues, the organizational behavior of tendon under load has not been determined. The supraspinatus tendon (SST) of the rotator cuff is of particular interest for investigation due to its complex mechanical environment and corresponding inhomogeneity. In addition, SST injury occurs frequently with limited success in treatment strategies, illustrating the need for a better understanding of SST properties. Therefore, the objective of this study was to quantitatively evaluate the inhomogeneous tensile mechanical properties, fiber organization, and fiber realignment under load of human SST utilizing a novel polarized light technique. Fiber distributions were found to become more aligned under load, particularly during the low stiffness toe-region, suggesting that fiber realignment may be partly responsible for observed nonlinear behavior. Fiber alignment was found to correlate significantly with mechanical parameters, providing evidence for strong structure-function relationships in tendon. Human SST exhibits complex, inhomogeneous mechanical properties and fiber distributions, perhaps due to its complex loading environment. Surprisingly, histological grade of degeneration did not correlate with mechanical properties.

  9. Resveratrol increases nucleus pulposus matrix synthesis through activating the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway under mechanical compression in a disc organ culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Xiaorui; Leng, Xiaoming; Zhao, Man; Wu, Mei; Chen, Amei; Hong, Guoju; Sun, Ping

    2017-12-22

    Disc nucleus pulposus (NP) matrix homeostasis is important for normal disc function. Mechanical overloading seriously decreases matrix synthesis and increases matrix degradation. The present study aims to investigate the effects of resveratrol on disc NP matrix homeostasis under a relatively high-magnitude mechanical compression and the potential mechanism underlying this process. Porcine discs were perfusion-cultured and subjected to a relatively high-magnitude mechanical compression (1.3 MPa at a frequency of 1.0 Hz for 2 h once per day) for 7 days in a mechanically active bioreactor. The non-compressed discs were used as controls. Resveratrol was added along with culture medium to observe the effects of resveratrol on NP matrix synthesis under mechanical load respectively. NP matrix synthesis was evaluated by histology, biochemical content (glycosaminoglycan (GAG) and hydroxyproline (HYP)), and expression of matrix macromolecules (aggrecan and collagen II). Results showed that this high-magnitude mechanical compression significantly decreased NP matrix content, indicated by the decreased staining intensity of Alcian Blue and biochemical content (GAG and HYP), and the down-regulated expression of NP matrix macromolecules (aggrecan and collagen II). Further analysis indicated that resveratrol partly stimulated NP matrix synthesis and increased activity of the PI3K/Akt pathway in a dose-dependent manner under mechanical compression. Together, resveratrol is beneficial for disc NP matrix synthesis under mechanical overloading, and the activation of the PI3K/Akt pathway may participate in this regulatory process. Resveratrol may be promising to regenerate mechanical overloading-induced disc degeneration. © 2017 The Author(s).

  10. Chemi- vs physisorption in the radical functionalization of single-walled carbon nanotubes under microwaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Mamane

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The effect of microwaves on the functionalization of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs by the diazonium method was studied. The usage of a new approach led to the identification of the strength of the interaction (physical or chemical between the functional groups and the carbon nanotube surface. Moreover, the nature (chemical formula of the adsorbed/grafted functional groups was determined. According to thermogravimetric analysis coupled with mass spectrometry and Raman spectroscopy, the optimal functionalization level was reached after 5 min of reaction. Prolonged reaction times can lead to undesired reactions such as defunctionalization, solvent addition and polymerization of the grafted functions. The strength (chemi- vs physisorption of the bonds between the grafted functional groups and the SWNTs is discussed showing the occurrence of physical adsorption as a consequence of defunctionalization after 15 min of reaction under microwaves. Several chemical mechanisms of grafting could be identified, and it was possible to distinguish conditions leading to the desired chemical grafting from those leading to undesired reactions such as physisorption and polymerization.

  11. Dysfunction in endoplasmic reticulum-mitochondria crosstalk underlies SIGMAR1 loss of function mediated motor neuron degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard-Marissal, Nathalie; Médard, Jean-Jacques; Azzedine, Hamid; Chrast, Roman

    2015-04-01

    Mutations in Sigma 1 receptor (SIGMAR1) have been previously identified in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and disruption of Sigmar1 in mouse leads to locomotor deficits. However, cellular mechanisms underlying motor phenotypes in human and mouse with disturbed SIGMAR1 function have not been described so far. Here we used a combination of in vivo and in vitro approaches to investigate the role of SIGMAR1 in motor neuron biology. Characterization of Sigmar1(-/-) mice revealed that affected animals display locomotor deficits associated with muscle weakness, axonal degeneration and motor neuron loss. Using primary motor neuron cultures, we observed that pharmacological or genetic inactivation of SIGMAR1 led to motor neuron axonal degeneration followed by cell death. Disruption of SIGMAR1 function in motor neurons disturbed endoplasmic reticulum-mitochondria contacts, affected intracellular calcium signalling and was accompanied by activation of endoplasmic reticulum stress and defects in mitochondrial dynamics and transport. These defects were not observed in cultured sensory neurons, highlighting the exacerbated sensitivity of motor neurons to SIGMAR1 function. Interestingly, the inhibition of mitochondrial fission was sufficient to induce mitochondria axonal transport defects as well as axonal degeneration similar to the changes observed after SIGMAR1 inactivation or loss. Intracellular calcium scavenging and endoplasmic reticulum stress inhibition were able to restore mitochondrial function and consequently prevent motor neuron degeneration. These results uncover the cellular mechanisms underlying motor neuron degeneration mediated by loss of SIGMAR1 function and provide therapeutically relevant insight into motor neuronal diseases. © The Author (2015). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Guarantors of Brain. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. On the dynamic mechanical property and deformation mechanism of as-extruded Mg-Sn-Ca alloys under tension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Qiuyan; Pan, Hucheng; Tang, Aitao; Ren, Yuping; Song, Bo; Qin, Gaowu; Zhang, Mingxing; Pan, Fusheng

    2016-01-01

    To further understand the deformation mechanism of magnesium alloys and expand their applications under dynamic conditions, the newly developed Mg-2Sn-1Ca alloy (TX21) is selected as the representative sample and tested under wide loading rate ranging from quasi-static to dynamic level (10"−"3–500/s). Both ultimate tensile strength and elongation of the as-extruded TX21 alloys increase with strain rate. Although twinning is accompanied due to the enhanced activity at higher strain rate, the preferential activation of dislocations is readily clarified and confirmed as the dominant deformation modes. Active interactions of pyramidal dislocations result in the higher strain hardening ability and could be correlated to the obviously positive strain-rate sensitivity for mechanical properties. Moreover, it is observed that the larger grain size and higher content of solute atoms dissolved in matrix would lead to the more active dislocations and twinning formations. The present results would provide insight into further understanding the deformation mechanism under dynamic rate loading and designing Mg alloy suitable for impact conditions.

  13. On the dynamic mechanical property and deformation mechanism of as-extruded Mg-Sn-Ca alloys under tension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Qiuyan [National Engineering Research Center for Magnesium Alloys, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); Pan, Hucheng [Key Laboratory for Anisotropy and Texture of Materials (Ministry of Education), Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819 (China); Tang, Aitao, E-mail: tat@cqu.edu.cn [National Engineering Research Center for Magnesium Alloys, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); Ren, Yuping [Key Laboratory for Anisotropy and Texture of Materials (Ministry of Education), Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819 (China); Song, Bo [Faculty of Materials and Energy, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715 (China); Qin, Gaowu, E-mail: qingw@smm.neu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory for Anisotropy and Texture of Materials (Ministry of Education), Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819 (China); Zhang, Mingxing [School of Mechanical and Mining Engineering, University of Queensland, St Lucia, QLD 4072 (Australia); Pan, Fusheng [National Engineering Research Center for Magnesium Alloys, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China)

    2016-05-10

    To further understand the deformation mechanism of magnesium alloys and expand their applications under dynamic conditions, the newly developed Mg-2Sn-1Ca alloy (TX21) is selected as the representative sample and tested under wide loading rate ranging from quasi-static to dynamic level (10{sup −3}–500/s). Both ultimate tensile strength and elongation of the as-extruded TX21 alloys increase with strain rate. Although twinning is accompanied due to the enhanced activity at higher strain rate, the preferential activation of dislocations is readily clarified and confirmed as the dominant deformation modes. Active interactions of pyramidal dislocations result in the higher strain hardening ability and could be correlated to the obviously positive strain-rate sensitivity for mechanical properties. Moreover, it is observed that the larger grain size and higher content of solute atoms dissolved in matrix would lead to the more active dislocations and twinning formations. The present results would provide insight into further understanding the deformation mechanism under dynamic rate loading and designing Mg alloy suitable for impact conditions.

  14. Animal behavior models of the mechanisms underlying antipsychotic atypicality.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geyer, M.A.; Ellenbroek, B.A.

    2003-01-01

    This review describes the animal behavior models that provide insight into the mechanisms underlying the critical differences between the actions of typical vs. atypical antipsychotic drugs. Although many of these models are capable of differentiating between antipsychotic and other psychotropic

  15. Protein mislocalization: mechanisms, functions and clinical applications in cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaohong; Li, Shulin

    2014-01-01

    The changes from normal cells to cancer cells are primarily regulated by genome instability, which foster hallmark functions of cancer through multiple mechanisms including protein mislocalization. Mislocalization of these proteins, including oncoproteins, tumor suppressors, and other cancer-related proteins, can interfere with normal cellular function and cooperatively drive tumor development and metastasis. This review describes the cancer-related effects of protein subcellular mislocalization, the related mislocalization mechanisms, and the potential application of this knowledge to cancer diagnosis, prognosis, and therapy. PMID:24709009

  16. THE FUNCTIONS OF THE CIVIL SOCIETY UNDER THE CONDITIONS OF MODERN RUSSIAN MODERNIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Василий Вячеславович Рябев

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the functions of the civil society in contemporary Russian realias. The purpose is to identify and classify the most important functions of the civil society under the conditions of comprehensive modern Russian modernization. The article presents the author's classification of the functions of the civil society, based on the analysis of significant studies of foreign and Russian researchers. Here is a detailed analysis of each function focused on the most relevant to a modern Russian society, the potential of Russian civil society is revealed dealing with following issues: the institutionalization of the civic activity, the anti-corruption policy, the consolidation of democratic forces, the formation of the legal culture. The conclusions can be used in studies related to the civil society, the specific mechanisms for dealing with current social issues by means of civic participation, presented in this article, may be the object of interest for government institutions.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-10-6

  17. Computer-controlled mechanical lung model for application in pulmonary function studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.F.M. Verbraak (Anton); J.E.W. Beneken; J.M. Bogaard (Jan); A. Versprille (Adrian)

    1995-01-01

    textabstractA computer controlled mechanical lung model has been developed for testing lung function equipment, validation of computer programs and simulation of impaired pulmonary mechanics. The construction, function and some applications are described. The physical model is constructed from two

  18. Neural Mechanisms Underlying Risk and Ambiguity Attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blankenstein, Neeltje E; Peper, Jiska S; Crone, Eveline A; van Duijvenvoorde, Anna C K

    2017-11-01

    Individual differences in attitudes to risk (a taste for risk, known probabilities) and ambiguity (a tolerance for uncertainty, unknown probabilities) differentially influence risky decision-making. However, it is not well understood whether risk and ambiguity are coded differently within individuals. Here, we tested whether individual differences in risk and ambiguity attitudes were reflected in distinct neural correlates during choice and outcome processing of risky and ambiguous gambles. To these ends, we developed a neuroimaging task in which participants ( n = 50) chose between a sure gain and a gamble, which was either risky or ambiguous, and presented decision outcomes (gains, no gains). From a separate task in which the amount, probability, and ambiguity level were varied, we estimated individuals' risk and ambiguity attitudes. Although there was pronounced neural overlap between risky and ambiguous gambling in a network typically related to decision-making under uncertainty, relatively more risk-seeking attitudes were associated with increased activation in valuation regions of the brain (medial and lateral OFC), whereas relatively more ambiguity-seeking attitudes were related to temporal cortex activation. In addition, although striatum activation was observed during reward processing irrespective of a prior risky or ambiguous gamble, reward processing after an ambiguous gamble resulted in enhanced dorsomedial PFC activation, possibly functioning as a general signal of uncertainty coding. These findings suggest that different neural mechanisms reflect individual differences in risk and ambiguity attitudes and that risk and ambiguity may impact overt risk-taking behavior in different ways.

  19. Molecular mechanisms underlying the emergence of bacterial pathogens: an ecological perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartoli, Claudia; Roux, Fabrice; Lamichhane, Jay Ram

    2016-02-01

    The rapid emergence of new bacterial diseases negatively affects both human health and agricultural productivity. Although the molecular mechanisms underlying these disease emergences are shared between human- and plant-pathogenic bacteria, not much effort has been made to date to understand disease emergences caused by plant-pathogenic bacteria. In particular, there is a paucity of information in the literature on the role of environmental habitats in which plant-pathogenic bacteria evolve and on the stress factors to which these microbes are unceasingly exposed. In this microreview, we focus on three molecular mechanisms underlying pathogenicity in bacteria, namely mutations, genomic rearrangements and the acquisition of new DNA sequences through horizontal gene transfer (HGT). We briefly discuss the role of these mechanisms in bacterial disease emergence and elucidate how the environment can influence the occurrence and regulation of these molecular mechanisms by directly impacting disease emergence. The understanding of such molecular evolutionary mechanisms and their environmental drivers will represent an important step towards predicting bacterial disease emergence and developing sustainable management strategies for crops. © 2015 BSPP AND JOHN WILEY & SONS LTD.

  20. NEUROBIOLOGICAL AND PSYCHOPATHOLOGICAL MECHANISMS UNDERLYING ADDICTION-LIKE BEHAVIORS: AN OVERVIEW AND THEMATIC SYNTHESIS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loredana Scala

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The term dependency is increasingly being used also to explain symptoms resulting from the repetition of a behavior or legalized and socially accepted activities that do not involve substance assumption. These activities, although considered normal habits of daily life can become real addictions that may affect and disrupt socio-relational and working functioning. Growing evidence suggests to consider behavioral addictions similar to drug dependence for their common symptoms, the high frequency of poly-dependence conditions, and the correlation in risk (impulsivity, sensation seeking, early exposure, familiarity and protective (parental control, adequate metacognitive skills factors. The aim of this paper is to describe addiction in its general aspects, highlighting the underlying neurobiological and psychopathological mechanisms.

  1. Functional mechanisms of drought tolerance in subtropical maize (Zea mays L.) identified using genome-wide association mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thirunavukkarasu, Nepolean; Hossain, Firoz; Arora, Kanika; Sharma, Rinku; Shiriga, Kaliyugam; Mittal, Swati; Mohan, Sweta; Namratha, Pottekatt Mohanlal; Dogga, Sreelatha; Rani, Tikka Shobha; Katragadda, Sumalini; Rathore, Abhishek; Shah, Trushar; Mohapatra, Trilochan; Gupta, Hari Shankar

    2014-12-24

    Earlier studies were focused on the genetics of temperate and tropical maize under drought. We identified genetic loci and their association with functional mechanisms in 240 accessions of subtropical maize using a high-density marker set under water stress. Out of 61 significant SNPs (11 were false-discovery-rate-corrected associations), identified across agronomic traits, models, and locations by subjecting the accessions to water stress at flowering stage, 48% were associated with drought-tolerant genes. Maize gene models revealed that SNPs mapped for agronomic traits were in fact associated with number of functional traits as follows: stomatal closure, 28; flowering, 15; root development, 5; detoxification, 4; and reduced water potential, 2. Interactions of these SNPS through the functional traits could lead to drought tolerance. The SNPs associated with ABA-dependent signalling pathways played a major role in the plant's response to stress by regulating a series of functions including flowering, root development, auxin metabolism, guard cell functions, and scavenging reactive oxygen species (ROS). ABA signalling genes regulate flowering through epigenetic changes in stress-responsive genes. ROS generated by ABA signalling are reduced by the interplay between ethylene, ABA, and detoxification signalling transductions. Integration of ABA-signalling genes with auxin-inducible genes regulates root development which in turn, maintains the water balance by regulating electrochemical gradient in plant. Several genes are directly or indirectly involved in the functioning of agronomic traits related to water stress. Genes involved in these crucial biological functions interacted significantly in order to maintain the primary as well as exclusive functions related to coping with water stress. SNPs associated with drought-tolerant genes involved in strategic biological functions will be useful to understand the mechanisms of drought tolerance in subtropical maize.

  2. A novel approach to mechanical foot stimulation during human locomotion under body weight support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gravano, S; Ivanenko, Y P; Maccioni, G; Macellari, V; Poppele, R E; Lacquaniti, F

    2011-04-01

    Input from the foot plays an essential part in perceiving support surfaces and determining kinematic events in human walking. To simulate adequate tactile pressure inputs under body weight support (BWS) conditions that represent an effective form of locomotion training, we here developed a new method of phasic mechanical foot stimulation using light-weight pneumatic insoles placed inside the shoes (under the heel and metatarsus). To test the system, we asked healthy participants to walk on a treadmill with different levels of BWS. The pressure under the stimulated areas of the feet and subjective sensations were higher at high levels of BWS and when applied to the ball and toes rather than heels. Foot stimulation did not disturb significantly the normal motor pattern, and in all participants we evoked a reliable step-synchronized triggering of stimuli for each leg separately. This approach has been performed in a general framework looking for "afferent templates" of human locomotion that could be used for functional sensory stimulation. The proposed technique can be used to imitate or partially restore surrogate contact forces under body weight support conditions. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Thermal and mechanical stresses in a functionally graded thick sphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eslami, M.R.; Babaei, M.H.; Poultangari, R.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, a general solution for the one-dimensional steady-state thermal and mechanical stresses in a hollow thick sphere made of functionally graded material is presented. The temperature distribution is assumed to be a function of radius, with general thermal and mechanical boundary conditions on the inside and outside surfaces of the sphere. The material properties, except Poisson's ratio, are assumed to vary along the radius r according to a power law function. The analytical solution of the heat conduction equation and the Navier equation lead to the temperature profile, radial displacement, radial stress, and hoop stress as a function of radial direction

  4. The Brain Mechanisms Underlying the Cognitive Benefits of Bilingualism may be Extraordinarily Difficult to Discover

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth R. Paap

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The hypothesis that coordinating two or more languages leads to an enhancement in executive functioning has been intensely studied for the past decade with very mixed results. The purpose of this review and analysis is to consider why it has been (and will continue to be difficult to discover the brain mechanisms underlying any cognitive benefits to bilingualism. Six reasons are discussed: 1 the phenomenon may not actually exist; 2 the cognitive neuroscientists investigating bilingual advantages may have been studying the wrong component of executive functioning; 3 most experiments use risky small numbers of participants and are underpowered; 4 the neural differences between groups do not align with the behavioral differences; 5 neural differences sometimes suffer from valence ambiguity, that is, disagreements whether “more” implies better or worse functioning and 6 neural differences often suffer from kind ambiguity, that is, disagreements regarding what type of mental events the pattern of activation in a region-of-interest actually reflects.

  5. Mechanisms underlying UV-induced immune suppression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ullrich, Stephen E.

    2005-01-01

    Skin cancer is the most prevalent form of human neoplasia. Estimates suggest that in excess of one million new cases of skin cancer will be diagnosed this year alone in the United States (www.cancer.org/statistics). Fortunately, because of their highly visible location, skin cancers are more rapidly diagnosed and more easily treated than other types of cancer. Be that as it may, approximately 10,000 Americans a year die from skin cancer. The cost of treating non-melanoma skin cancer is estimated to be in excess of US$ 650 million a year [J.G. Chen, A.B. Fleischer, E.D. Smith, C. Kancler, N.D. Goldman, P.M. Williford, S.R. Feldman, Cost of non-melanoma skin cancer treatment in the United States, Dermatol. Surg. 27 (2001) 1035-1038], and when melanoma is included, the estimated cost of treating skin cancer in the United States is estimated to rise to US$ 2.9 billion annually (www.cancer.org/statistics). Because the morbidity and mortality associated with skin cancer is a major public health problem, it is important to understand the mechanisms underlying skin cancer development. The primary cause of skin cancer is the ultraviolet (UV) radiation found in sunlight. In addition to its carcinogenic potential, UV radiation is also immune suppressive. In fact, data from studies with both experimental animals and biopsy proven skin cancer patients suggest that there is an association between the immune suppressive effects of UV radiation and its carcinogenic potential. The focus of this manuscript will be to review the mechanisms underlying the induction of immune suppression following UV exposure. Particular attention will be directed to the role of soluble mediators in activating immune suppression

  6. Functional Catastrophe Analysis of Collapse Mechanism for Shallow Tunnels with Considering Settlement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Limit analysis is a practical and meaningful method to predict the stability of geomechanical properties. This work investigates the pore water effect on new collapse mechanisms and possible collapsing block shapes of shallow tunnels with considering the effects of surface settlement. The analysis is performed within the framework of upper bound theorem. Furthermore, the NL nonlinear failure criterion is used to examine the influence of different factors on the collapsing shape and the minimum supporting pressure in shallow tunnels. Analytical solutions derived by functional catastrophe theory for the two different shape curves which describe the distinct characteristics of falling blocks up and down the water level are obtained by virtual work equations under the variational principle. By considering that the mechanical properties of soil are not affected by the presence of underground water, the strength parameters in NL failure criterion can be taken to be the same under and above the water table. According to the numerical results in this work, the influences on the size of collapsing block different parameters have are presented in the tables and the upper bounds on the loads required to resist collapse are derived and illustrated in the form of supporting forces graphs that account for the variation of the embedded depth and other factors.

  7. High concentration of vitamin E decreases thermosensation and thermotaxis learning and the underlying mechanisms in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yiping; Li, Yinxia; Wu, Qiuli; Ye, Huayue; Sun, Lingmei; Ye, Boping; Wang, Dayong

    2013-01-01

    α-tocopherol is a powerful liposoluble antioxidant and the most abundant isoform of vitamin E in the body. Under normal physiological conditions, adverse effects of relatively high concentration of vitamin E on organisms and the underlying mechanisms are still largely unclear. In the present study, we used the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans as an in vivo assay system to investigate the possible adverse effects of high concentration of vitamin E on thermosensation and thermotaxis learning and the underlying mechanisms. Our data show that treatment with 100-200 µg/mL of vitamin E did not noticeably influence both thermosensation and thermotaxis learning; however, treatment with 400 µg/mL of vitamin E altered both thermosensation and thermotaxis learning. The observed decrease in thermotaxis learning in 400 µg/mL of vitamin E treated nematodes might be partially due to the moderate but significant deficits in thermosensation, but not due to deficits in locomotion behavior or perception to food and starvation. Treatment with 400 µg/mL of vitamin E did not noticeably influence the morphology of GABAergic neurons, but significantly decreased fluorescent intensities of the cell bodies in AFD sensory neurons and AIY interneurons, required for thermosensation and thermotaxis learning control. Treatment with 400 µg/mL of vitamin E affected presynaptic function of neurons, but had no remarkable effects on postsynaptic function. Moreover, promotion of synaptic transmission by activating PKC-1 effectively retrieved deficits in both thermosensation and thermotaxis learning induced by 400 µg/mL of vitamin E. Therefore, relatively high concentrations of vitamin E administration may cause adverse effects on thermosensation and thermotaxis learning by inducing damage on the development of specific neurons and presynaptic function under normal physiological conditions in C. elegans.

  8. Mechanisms Underlying Stress Fracture and the Influence of Sex and Race/Ethnicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-16-1-0652 TITLE: Mechanisms Underlying Stress Fracture and the Influence of Sex and Race/Ethnicity PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR...5a. CONTRACT NUMBER W81XWH-16-1-0652 Mechanisms Underlying Stress Fracture and the Influence of Sex and Race/Ethnicity 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH...to stress fracture risk. In particular, in Study 1, we will perform advanced skeletal imaging along with gait-assessments in subjects with history of

  9. The Conditions for Functional Mechanisms of Compensation and Reward for Environmental Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brent M. Swallow

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Mechanisms of compensation and reward for environmental services (CRES are becoming increasingly contemplated as means for managing human-environment interactions. Most of the functional mechanisms in the tropics have been developed within the last 15 years; many developing countries still have had little experience with functional mechanisms. We consider the conditions that foster the origin and implementation of functional mechanisms. Deductive and inductive approaches are combined. Eight hypotheses are derived from theories of institution and policy change. Five case studies, from Latin America, Africa, and Asia, are then reviewed according to a common framework. The results suggest the following to be important conditions for functional CRES mechanisms: (1 localized scarcity for particular environmental services, (2 influence from international environmental agreements and international organizations, (3 government policies and public attitudes favoring a mixture of regulatory and market-based instruments, and (4 security of individual and group property rights.

  10. Acupuncture Mechanisms: Anesthesia, Analgesia and Protection on Organ Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Acupuncture, as a healing art in traditional Chinese medicine, has been widely used to treat various diseases. In the history of acupuncture anesthesia, in the past decades, mechanisms of acupuncture analgesia has been widely investigated, and in recent years, acupuncture protection on organ functions has attracted great interest. This review summarized the research progress on mechanisms of acupuncture for analgesia and its protection against organ function injury in anesthesia, and its perspective of analgesia, immunomodulation, neuroendocrine regulation and multiple organ protection. The current evidence supports that acupuncture analgesia and its organ protection in anesthesia is associated with the integration of neuroendocrine-immune networks in the level of neurotransmitters, cytokines, hormones, neuronal ensembles, lymphocytes, and endocrine cells. Although the mechanisms of acupuncture analgesia and its organ protection are still not completely understood, basic as well as clinic researches on the mechanisms and applications of acupuncture and related techniques are being carried out.

  11. Mechanical and Thermal Analysis of Classical Functionally Graded Coated Beam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toudehdehghan Abdolreza

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The governing equation of a classical rectangular coated beam made of two layers subjected to thermal and uniformly distributed mechanical loads are derived by using the principle of virtual displacements and based on Euler-Bernoulli deformation beam theory (EBT. The aim of this paper was to analyze the static behavior of clamped-clamped thin coated beam under thermo-mechanical load using MATLAB. Two models were considered for composite coated. The first model was consisting of ceramic layer as a coated and substrate which was metal (HC model. The second model was consisting of Functionally Graded Material (FGM as a coated layer and metal substrate (FGC model. From the result it was apparent that the superiority of the FGC composite against conventional coated composite has been demonstrated. From the analysis, the stress level throughout the thickness at the interface of the coated beam for the FGC was reduced. Yet, the deflection in return was observed to increase. Therefore, this could cater to various new engineering applications where warrant the utilization of material that has properties that are well-beyond the capabilities of the conventional or yesteryears materials.

  12. Failure Mechanisms of Brittle Rocks under Uniaxial Compression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Taoying; Cao, Ping

    2017-09-01

    The behaviour of a rock mass is determined not only by the properties of the rock matrix, but mostly by the presence and properties of discontinuities or fractures within the mass. The compression test on rock-like specimens with two prefabricated transfixion fissures, made by pulling out the embedded metal inserts in the pre-cured period was carried out on the servo control uniaxial loading tester. The influence of the geometry of pre-existing cracks on the cracking processes was analysed with reference to the experimental observation of crack initiation and propagation from pre-existing flaws. Based on the rock fracture mechanics and the stress-strain curves, the evolution failure mechanism of the fissure body was also analyzed on the basis of exploring the law of the compression-shear crack initiation, wing crack growth and rock bridge connection. Meanwhile, damage fracture mechanical models of a compression-shear rock mass are established when the rock bridge axial transfixion failure, tension-shear combined failure, or wing crack shear connection failure occurs on the specimen under axial compression. This research was of significance in studying the failure mechanism of fractured rock mass.

  13. [Startup mechanism of moxibustion warming and dredging function].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Kaiyu; Liang, Shuang; Sun, Zheng; Zhang, Jianbin

    2017-09-12

    With "moxibustion" and "warm stimulation" as the keywords, the literature on moxibustion mechanism of warming and dredging from June 1st, 1995 to June 1st, 2016 was collected from PubMed, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) and Wanfang database. The startup mechanism of moxibustion warming and dredging function was analyzed in terms of moxibustion warming stimulation. The results were found that moxibustion was based on local rising temperature of acupoint. It activated local specific receptors, heat sensitive immune cells, heat shock proteins and so on to start the warming and dredging function and produce various local effects. The warming stimulation signals as well as subsequent effects through nerve and body fluid pathways induced the effects of further specific target organs and body systems.

  14. Mechanisms Underlying Cytotoxicity Induced by Engineered Nanomaterials: A Review of In Vitro Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira, Daniele R.; Mitjans, Montserrat; Rolim, Clarice M. B.; Vinardell, M. Pilar

    2014-01-01

    Engineered nanomaterials are emerging functional materials with technologically interesting properties and a wide range of promising applications, such as drug delivery devices, medical imaging and diagnostics, and various other industrial products. However, concerns have been expressed about the risks of such materials and whether they can cause adverse effects. Studies of the potential hazards of nanomaterials have been widely performed using cell models and a range of in vitro approaches. In the present review, we provide a comprehensive and critical literature overview on current in vitro toxicity test methods that have been applied to determine the mechanisms underlying the cytotoxic effects induced by the nanostructures. The small size, surface charge, hydrophobicity and high adsorption capacity of nanomaterial allow for specific interactions within cell membrane and subcellular organelles, which in turn could lead to cytotoxicity through a range of different mechanisms. Finally, aggregating the given information on the relationships of nanomaterial cytotoxic responses with an understanding of its structure and physicochemical properties may promote the design of biologically safe nanostructures. PMID:28344232

  15. Functional neurological symptom disorder (conversion disorder): A role for microglial-based plasticity mechanisms?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, Chris P; Baguley, Ian J

    2018-02-01

    Functional Neurological Symptom Disorder (FND) is a relatively common neurological condition, accounting for approximately 3-6% of neurologist referrals. FND is considered a transient disorder of neuronal function, sometimes linked to physical trauma and psychological stress. Despite this, chronic disability is common, for example, around 40% of adults with motor FND have permanent disability. Building on current theoretical models, this paper proposes that microglial dysfunction could perpetuate functional changes within acute motor FND, thus providing a pathophysiological mechanism underlying the chronic stage of the motor FND phenotypes seen clinically. Core to our argument is microglia's dual role in modulating neuroimmunity and their control of synaptic plasticity, which places them at a pathophysiological nexus wherein coincident physical trauma and psychological stress could cause long-term change in neuronal networks without producing macroscopic structural abnormality. This model proposes a range of hypotheses that are testable with current technologies. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Different routes, same pathways: Molecular mechanisms under silver ion and nanoparticle exposures in the soil sentinel Eisenia fetida

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novo, Marta; Lahive, Elma; Díez-Ortiz, María; Matzke, Marianne; Morgan, Andrew J.; Spurgeon, David J.; Svendsen, Claus; Kille, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Use of nanotechnology products is increasing; with silver (Ag) nanoparticles particularly widely used. A key uncertainty surrounding the risk assessment of AgNPs is whether their effects are driven through the same mechanism of action that underlies the toxic effects of Ag ions. We present the first full transcriptome study of the effects of Ag ions and NPs in an ecotoxicological model soil invertebrate, the earthworm Eisenia fetida. Gene expression analyses indicated similar mechanisms for both silver forms with toxicity being exerted through pathways related to ribosome function, sugar and protein metabolism, molecular stress, disruption of energy production and histones. The main difference seen between Ag ions and NPs was associated with potential toxicokinetic effects related to cellular internalisation and communication, with pathways related to endocytosis and cilia being significantly enriched. These results point to a common final toxicodynamic response, but initial internalisation driven by different exposure routes and toxicokinetic mechanisms. - Highlights: • Molecular effects underlying Ag ions and NPs exposure were studied in Eisenia fetida. • Full transcriptomic study of a genetically characterised lineage. • NPs and ions presented a similar toxicodynamic response. • Internalisation of the two Ag forms by different toxicokinetic mechanisms. - Transcriptomic analyses after exposure of earthworms to silver NPs or ions showed a final common toxicodynamic response, but internalisation by different toxicokinetic mechanisms

  17. ESTIMATION OF PARAMETERS AND RELIABILITY FUNCTION OF EXPONENTIATED EXPONENTIAL DISTRIBUTION: BAYESIAN APPROACH UNDER GENERAL ENTROPY LOSS FUNCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay Kumar Singh

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In this Paper we propose Bayes estimators of the parameters of Exponentiated Exponential distribution and Reliability functions under General Entropy loss function for Type II censored sample. The proposed estimators have been compared with the corresponding Bayes estimators obtained under Squared Error loss function and maximum likelihood estimators for their simulated risks (average loss over sample space.

  18. Mechanical response of collagen molecule under hydrostatic compression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saini, Karanvir; Kumar, Navin

    2015-01-01

    Proteins like collagen are the basic building blocks of various body tissues (soft and hard). Collagen molecules find their presence in the skeletal system of the body where they bear mechanical loads from different directions, either individually or along with hydroxy-apatite crystals. Therefore, it is very important to understand the mechanical behavior of the collagen molecule which is subjected to multi-axial state of loading. The estimation of strains of collagen molecule along different directions resulting from the changes in hydrostatic pressure magnitude, can provide us new insights into its mechanical behavior. In the present work, full atomistic simulations have been used to study global (volumetric) as well as local (along different directions) mechanical properties of the hydrated collagen molecule which is subjected to different hydrostatic pressure magnitudes. To estimate the local mechanical properties, the strains of collagen molecule along its longitudinal and transverse directions have been acquired at different hydrostatic pressure magnitudes. In spite of non-homogeneous distribution of atoms within the collagen molecule, the calculated values of local mechanical properties have been found to carry the same order of magnitude along the longitudinal and transverse directions. It has been demonstrated that the values of global mechanical properties like compressibility, bulk modulus, etc. as well as local mechanical properties like linear compressibility, linear elastic modulus, etc. are functions of magnitudes of applied hydrostatic pressures. The mechanical characteristics of collagen molecule based on the atomistic model have also been compared with that of the continuum model in the present work. The comparison showed up orthotropic material behavior for the collagen molecule. The information on collagen molecule provided in the present study can be very helpful in designing the future bio-materials.

  19. Mechanical response of collagen molecule under hydrostatic compression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saini, Karanvir; Kumar, Navin

    2015-04-01

    Proteins like collagen are the basic building blocks of various body tissues (soft and hard). Collagen molecules find their presence in the skeletal system of the body where they bear mechanical loads from different directions, either individually or along with hydroxy-apatite crystals. Therefore, it is very important to understand the mechanical behavior of the collagen molecule which is subjected to multi-axial state of loading. The estimation of strains of collagen molecule along different directions resulting from the changes in hydrostatic pressure magnitude, can provide us new insights into its mechanical behavior. In the present work, full atomistic simulations have been used to study global (volumetric) as well as local (along different directions) mechanical properties of the hydrated collagen molecule which is subjected to different hydrostatic pressure magnitudes. To estimate the local mechanical properties, the strains of collagen molecule along its longitudinal and transverse directions have been acquired at different hydrostatic pressure magnitudes. In spite of non-homogeneous distribution of atoms within the collagen molecule, the calculated values of local mechanical properties have been found to carry the same order of magnitude along the longitudinal and transverse directions. It has been demonstrated that the values of global mechanical properties like compressibility, bulk modulus, etc. as well as local mechanical properties like linear compressibility, linear elastic modulus, etc. are functions of magnitudes of applied hydrostatic pressures. The mechanical characteristics of collagen molecule based on the atomistic model have also been compared with that of the continuum model in the present work. The comparison showed up orthotropic material behavior for the collagen molecule. The information on collagen molecule provided in the present study can be very helpful in designing the future bio-materials. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights

  20. Mechanical response of collagen molecule under hydrostatic compression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saini, Karanvir, E-mail: karans@iitrpr.ac.in; Kumar, Navin

    2015-04-01

    Proteins like collagen are the basic building blocks of various body tissues (soft and hard). Collagen molecules find their presence in the skeletal system of the body where they bear mechanical loads from different directions, either individually or along with hydroxy-apatite crystals. Therefore, it is very important to understand the mechanical behavior of the collagen molecule which is subjected to multi-axial state of loading. The estimation of strains of collagen molecule along different directions resulting from the changes in hydrostatic pressure magnitude, can provide us new insights into its mechanical behavior. In the present work, full atomistic simulations have been used to study global (volumetric) as well as local (along different directions) mechanical properties of the hydrated collagen molecule which is subjected to different hydrostatic pressure magnitudes. To estimate the local mechanical properties, the strains of collagen molecule along its longitudinal and transverse directions have been acquired at different hydrostatic pressure magnitudes. In spite of non-homogeneous distribution of atoms within the collagen molecule, the calculated values of local mechanical properties have been found to carry the same order of magnitude along the longitudinal and transverse directions. It has been demonstrated that the values of global mechanical properties like compressibility, bulk modulus, etc. as well as local mechanical properties like linear compressibility, linear elastic modulus, etc. are functions of magnitudes of applied hydrostatic pressures. The mechanical characteristics of collagen molecule based on the atomistic model have also been compared with that of the continuum model in the present work. The comparison showed up orthotropic material behavior for the collagen molecule. The information on collagen molecule provided in the present study can be very helpful in designing the future bio-materials.

  1. Antioxidant Property of Jobelyn as the Possible Mechanism Underlying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solomon Umukoro

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available   Introduction: Amnesia or loss of memory is the cardinal hallmark of Alzheimer’s disease (AD, a progressive neurodegenerative disorder associated with ageing process. Although, AD had been discovered over a century ago, drugs which could cure or halt the progression of the disease are yet to see the light of the day. However, there has been a growing interest in the use of phytomedicines with multipronged mechanisms of action that could target various aspects of the pathologies of AD. Jobelyn (JB is a potent antioxidant African polyherbal formulation with active components that have been acclaimed to show neuroprotection. T his investigation was carried out to evaluate whether JB has anti-amnesic and antioxidant activities.   Methods: The alteration of alternation behavior in the Y-maze paradigm was utilized as the test for memory function in mice. The effect of JB on a cetylcholinesterase (AChE activity, malondialdehyde (MDA level and the concentrations of glutathione (GSH in the frontal cortex and hippocampus were assessed in rats as means of providing insight into the mechanism underlying its anti-amnesic activity. The animals were given JB (1, 2.5 or 5mg/kg, i.p. daily for 7 days before the biochemical assays or test for memory functions were carried out.   Results: JB was found to produce a significant increase in the level of alternation behavior compared with the control, suggesting anti-amnesic activity. Also, JB reversed the memory impairment induced by scopolamine, which further indicates anti-amnesic property. Furthermore, JB demonstrated a significant inhibition of MDA formation in the frontal cortex and hippocampus of rats, indicating antioxidant property. In addition, it increased the defense armory of the brain tissues, as it significantly increased the concentrations of GSH in the frontal cortex and hippocampus of rats. However, JB did not demonstrate any inhibitory effect against AChE activity in the frontal cortex and

  2. High temperature mechanisms and kinetics of SiC oxidation under low partial pressures of oxygen: application to the fuel cladding of gas fast reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hun, N.

    2011-01-01

    Gas Fast Reactor (GFR) is one of the different Generation IV concepts under investigation for energy production. SiC/SiC composites are candidates of primary interest for a GFR fuel cladding use, thanks to good corrosion resistance among other properties. The mechanisms and kinetics of SiC oxidation under operating conditions have to be identified and quantified as the corrosion can decrease the mechanical properties of the composite. An experimental device has been developed to study the oxidation of silicon carbide under high temperature and low oxygen partial pressure. The results pointed out that not only parabolic oxidation, but also interfacial reactions and volatilization occur under such conditions. After determining the kinetics of each mechanism, as functions of oxygen partial pressure and temperature, the data are used for the modeling of the composites oxidation. The model will be used to predict the lifetime of the composite in operating conditions. (author) [fr

  3. Coral bleaching under thermal stress: putative involvement of host/symbiont recognition mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal-Dupiol, Jeremie; Adjeroud, Mehdi; Roger, Emmanuel; Foure, Laurent; Duval, David; Mone, Yves; Ferrier-Pages, Christine; Tambutte, Eric; Tambutte, Sylvie; Zoccola, Didier; Allemand, Denis; Mitta, Guillaume

    2009-08-04

    Coral bleaching can be defined as the loss of symbiotic zooxanthellae and/or their photosynthetic pigments from their cnidarian host. This major disturbance of reef ecosystems is principally induced by increases in water temperature. Since the beginning of the 1980s and the onset of global climate change, this phenomenon has been occurring at increasing rates and scales, and with increasing severity. Several studies have been undertaken in the last few years to better understand the cellular and molecular mechanisms of coral bleaching but the jigsaw puzzle is far from being complete, especially concerning the early events leading to symbiosis breakdown. The aim of the present study was to find molecular actors involved early in the mechanism leading to symbiosis collapse. In our experimental procedure, one set of Pocillopora damicornis nubbins was subjected to a gradual increase of water temperature from 28 degrees C to 32 degrees C over 15 days. A second control set kept at constant temperature (28 degrees C). The differentially expressed mRNA between the stressed states (sampled just before the onset of bleaching) and the non stressed states (control) were isolated by Suppression Subtractive Hybridization. Transcription rates of the most interesting genes (considering their putative function) were quantified by Q-RT-PCR, which revealed a significant decrease in transcription of two candidates six days before bleaching. RACE-PCR experiments showed that one of them (PdC-Lectin) contained a C-Type-Lectin domain specific for mannose. Immunolocalisation demonstrated that this host gene mediates molecular interactions between the host and the symbionts suggesting a putative role in zooxanthellae acquisition and/or sequestration. The second gene corresponds to a gene putatively involved in calcification processes (Pdcyst-rich). Its down-regulation could reflect a trade-off mechanism leading to the arrest of the mineralization process under stress. Under thermal stress

  4. New application of functional integrals to classical mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zherebtsov, Anton; Ilinski, Kirill

    2005-01-01

    In this Letter a new functional integral representation for classical dynamics is introduced. It is achieved by rewriting the Liouville picture in terms of bosonic creation-annihilation operators and utilizing the standard derivation of functional integrals for dynamical quantities in the coherent states representation. This results in a new class of functional integrals which are exactly solvable and can be found explicitly when the underlying classical systems are integrable

  5. Mechanisms Underlying the Antidepressant Response and Treatment Resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjorie Rose Levinstein

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Depression is a complex and heterogeneous disorder affecting millions of Americans. There are several different medications and other treatments that are available and effective for many patients with depression. However, a substantial percentage of patients fail to achieve remission with these currently available interventions, and relapse rates are high. Therefore, it is necessary to determine both the mechanisms underlying the antidepressant response and the differences between responders and non-responders to treatment. Delineation of these mechanisms largely relies on experiments that utilize animal models. Therefore, this review provides an overview of the various mouse models that are currently used to assess the antidepressant response, such as chronic mild stress, social defeat, and chronic corticosterone. We discuss how these mouse models can be used to advance our understanding of the differences between responders and non-responders to antidepressant treatment. We also provide an overview of experimental treatment modalities that are used for treatment-resistant depression, such as deep brain stimulation and ketamine administration. We will then review the various genetic polymorphisms and transgenic mice that display resistance to antidepressant treatment. Finally, we synthesize the published data to describe a potential neural circuit underlying the antidepressant response and treatment resistance.

  6. Depression and Chronic Liver Diseases: Are There Shared Underlying Mechanisms?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoqin Huang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of depression is higher in patients with chronic liver disease (CLD than that in the general population. The mechanism described in previous studies mainly focused on inflammation and stress, which not only exists in CLD, but also emerges in common chronic diseases, leaving the specific mechanism unknown. This review was to summarize the prevalence and risk factors of depression in CLD including chronic hepatitis B, chronic hepatitis, alcoholic liver disease, and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, and to point out the possible underlying mechanism of this potential link. Clarifying the origins of this common comorbidity (depression and CLD may provide more information to understand both diseases.

  7. Explore the reaction mechanism of the Maillard reaction: a density functional theory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Ge-Rui; Zhao, Li-Jiang; Sun, Qiang; Xie, Hu-Jun; Lei, Qun-Fang; Fang, Wen-Jun

    2015-05-01

    The mechanism of Maillard reaction has been investigated by means of density functional theory calculations in the gaseous phase and aqueous solution. The Maillard reaction is a cascade of consecutive and parallel reaction. In the present model system study, glucose and glycine were taken as the initial reactants. On the basis of previous experimental results, the mechanisms of Maillard reaction have been proposed, and the possibility for the formation of different compounds have been evaluated through calculating the relative energy changes for different steps of reaction under different pH conditions. Our calculations reveal that the TS3 in Amadori rearrangement reaction is the rate-determining step of Maillard reaction with the activation barriers of about 66.7 and 68.8 kcal mol(-1) in the gaseous phase and aqueous solution, respectively. The calculation results are in good agreement with previous studies and could provide insights into the reaction mechanism of Maillard reaction, since experimental evaluation of the role of intermediates in the Maillard reaction is quite complicated.

  8. Vascular mechanisms underlying the hypotensive effect of Rumex acetosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qamar, Hafiz Misbah-Ud-Din; Qayyum, Rahila; Salma, Umme; Khan, Shamim; Khan, Taous; Shah, Abdul Jabbar

    2018-12-01

    Rumex acetosa L. (Polygonaceae) is well known in traditional medicine for its therapeutic efficacy as an antihypertensive. The study investigates antihypertensive potential of crude methanol extract (Ra.Cr) and fractions of Rumex acetosa in normotensive and hypertensive rat models and probes the underlying vascular mechanisms. Ra.Cr and its fractions were tested in vivo on normotensive and hypertensive Sprague-Dawley rats under anaesthesia for blood pressure lowering effect. In vitro experiments on rat and Oryctolagus cuniculus rabbit aortae were employed to probe the underlying vasorelaxant mechanism. In normotensive rats under anaesthesia, Ra.Cr caused fall in MAP (40 mmHg) at 50 mg/kg with % fall of 27.88 ± 4.55. Among the fractions tested, aqueous fraction was more potent at the dose of 50 mg/kg with % fall of 45.63 ± 2.84. In hypertensive rats under similar conditions, extract and fractions showed antihypertensive effect at same doses while aqueous fraction being more potent, exhibited 68.53 ± 4.45% fall in MAP (70 mmHg). In isolated rat aortic rings precontracted with phenylephrine (PE), Ra.Cr and fractions induced endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation, which was partially blocked in presence of l-NAME, indomethacin and atropine. In isolated rabbit aortic rings pre-contracted with PE and K + -(80 mM), Ra.Cr induced vasorelaxation and shifted Ca 2+ concentration-response curves to the right and suppressed PE peak formation, similar to verapamil, in Ca 2+ -free medium. The data indicate that l-NAME and atropine-sensitive endothelial-derived NO and COX enzyme inhibitors and Ca 2+ entry blocking-mediated vasodilator effect of the extract explain its antihypertensive potential.

  9. Thermoluminescence under an exponential heating function: I. Theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitis, G; Chen, R; Pagonis, V; Carinou, E; Kamenopoulou, V

    2006-01-01

    Constant temperature hot gas readers are widely employed in thermoluminescence dosimetry. In such readers the sample is heated according to an exponential heating function. The single glow-peak shape derived under this heating condition is not described by the TL kinetics equation corresponding to a linear heating rate. In the present work TL kinetics expressions, for first and general order kinetics, describing single glow-peak shapes under an exponential heating function are derived. All expressions were modified from their original form of I(n 0 , E, s, b, T) into I(I m , E, T m , b, T) in order to become more efficient for glow-curve deconvolution analysis. The efficiency of all algorithms was extensively tested using synthetic glow-peaks

  10. A micromechanical study of the damage mechanics of acrylic particulate composites under thermomechanical loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Shihua

    The main aim of this dissertation was to characterize the damage mechanism and fatigue behavior of the acrylic particulate composite. This dissertation also investigated how the failure mechanism is influenced by changes in certain parameters including the volume fraction of particle, the interfacial bonding strength, the stiffness and thickness of the interphase, and the CTE mismatch between the particle and the matrix. Monotonic uniaxial tensile and compressive testing under various temperatures and strain rates, isothermal low-cycle mechanical testing and thermal cycling of a plate with a cutout were performed. The influence of the interfacial bonding strength between the particle and the matrix on the failure mechanism of the ATH filled PMMA was investigated using in situ observations under uniaxial loading conditions. For composites with weak interfacial bonding, the debonding is the major damage mode. For composites with strong interfacial bonding, the breakage of the agglomerate of particles is the major damage mode. Experimental studies also demonstrated the significant influence of interfacial bonding strength on the fatigue life of the ATH filled PMMA. The damage was characterized in terms of the elastic modulus degradation, the load-drop parameter, the plastic strain range and the hysteresis dissipation. Identifying the internal state variables that quantify material degradation under thermomechanical loading is an active research field. In this dissertation, the entropy production, which is a measure of the irreversibility of the thermodynamic system, is used as the metric for damage. The close correlation between the damage measured in terms of elastic modulus degradation and that obtained from the finite element simulation results validates the entropy based damage evolution function. A micromechanical model for acrylic particulate composites with imperfect interfacial bonds was proposed. Acrylic particulate composites are treated as three

  11. A possible realization of Einstein's causal theory underlying quantum mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yussouff, M.

    1979-06-01

    It is shown that a new microscopic mechanics formulated earlier can be looked upon as a possible causal theory underlying quantum mechanics, which removes Einstein's famous objections against quantum theory. This approach is free from objections raised against Bohm's hidden variable theory and leads to a clear physical picture in terms of familiar concepts, if self interactions are held responsible for deviations from classical behaviour. The new level of physics unfolded by this approach may reveal novel frontiers in high-energy physics. (author)

  12. [Underlying Mechanisms and Management of Refractory Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kwang Jae

    2015-08-01

    The prevalence of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) in South Korea has increased over the past 10 years. Patients with erosive reflux disease (ERD) shows better response to proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) than those with non-erosive reflux disease (NERD). NERD is a heterogeneous condition, showing pathological gastroesophageal reflux or esophageal hypersensitivity to reflux contents. NERD patients with pathological gastroesophageal reflux or hypersensitivity to acid may respond to PPIs. However, many patients with esophageal hypersensitivity to nonacid or functional heartburn do not respond to PPIs. Therefore, careful history and investigations are required when managing patients with refractory GERD who show poor response to conventional dose PPIs. Combined pH-impedance studies and a PPI diagnostic trial are recommended to reveal underlying mechanisms of refractory symptoms. For those with ongoing reflux-related symptoms, split dose administration, change to long-acting PPIs or PPIs less influenced by CYP2C19 genotypes, increasing dose of PPIs, and the addition of alginate preparations, prokinetics, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, or tricyclic antidepressants can be considered. Pain modulators, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, or tricyclic antidepressants are more likely to be effective for those with reflux-unrelated symptoms. Surgery or endoscopic per oral fundoplication may be effective in selected patients.

  13. Deciding where to attend: Large-scale network mechanisms underlying attention and intention revealed by graph-theoretic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuelu; Hong, Xiangfei; Bengson, Jesse J; Kelley, Todd A; Ding, Mingzhou; Mangun, George R

    2017-08-15

    The neural mechanisms by which intentions are transformed into actions remain poorly understood. We investigated the network mechanisms underlying spontaneous voluntary decisions about where to focus visual-spatial attention (willed attention). Graph-theoretic analysis of two independent datasets revealed that regions activated during willed attention form a set of functionally-distinct networks corresponding to the frontoparietal network, the cingulo-opercular network, and the dorsal attention network. Contrasting willed attention with instructed attention (where attention is directed by external cues), we observed that the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex was allied with the dorsal attention network in instructed attention, but shifted connectivity during willed attention to interact with the cingulo-opercular network, which then mediated communications between the frontoparietal network and the dorsal attention network. Behaviorally, greater connectivity in network hubs, including the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex, and the inferior parietal lobule, was associated with faster reaction times. These results, shown to be consistent across the two independent datasets, uncover the dynamic organization of functionally-distinct networks engaged to support intentional acts. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Cognitive mechanisms underlying disorganization of thought in a genetic syndrome (47,XXY)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Rijn, Sophie; Aleman, Andre; De Sonneville, Leo; Swaab, Hanna

    Because of the risk for development of psychopathology such as psychotic symptoms, it has been suggested that studying men with the XXY karyotype may help in the search for underlying cognitive, neural and genetic mechanisms. The aim of this study was to identify cognitive mechanisms that may

  15. Role of the placenta in fetal programming: underlying mechanisms and potential interventional approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansson, Thomas; Powell, Theresa L

    2007-07-01

    Adverse influences during fetal life alter the structure and function of distinct cells, organ systems or homoeostatic pathways, thereby 'programming' the individual for an increased risk of developing cardiovascular disease and diabetes in adult life. Fetal programming can be caused by a number of different perturbations in the maternal compartment, such as altered maternal nutrition and reduced utero-placental blood flow; however, the underlying mechanisms remain to be fully established. Perturbations in the maternal environment must be transmitted across the placenta in order to affect the fetus. Here, we review recent insights into how the placenta responds to changes in the maternal environment and discuss possible mechanisms by which the placenta mediates fetal programming. In IUGR (intrauterine growth restriction) pregnancies, the increased placental vascular resistance subjects the fetal heart to increased work load, representing a possible direct link between altered placental structure and fetal programming of cardiovascular disease. A decreased activity of placental 11beta-HSD-2 (type 2 isoform of 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase) activity can increase fetal exposure to maternal cortisol, which programmes the fetus for later hypertension and metabolic disease. The placenta appears to function as a nutrient sensor regulating nutrient transport according to the ability of the maternal supply line to deliver nutrients. By directly regulating fetal nutrient supply and fetal growth, the placenta plays a central role in fetal programming. Furthermore, perturbations in the maternal compartment may affect the methylation status of placental genes and increase placental oxidative/nitrative stress, resulting in changes in placental function. Intervention strategies targeting the placenta in order to prevent or alleviate altered fetal growth and/or fetal programming include altering placental growth and nutrient transport by maternally administered IGFs (insulin

  16. Kinetic theory approach to modeling of cellular repair mechanisms under genome stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinpeng Qi

    Full Text Available Under acute perturbations from outer environment, a normal cell can trigger cellular self-defense mechanism in response to genome stress. To investigate the kinetics of cellular self-repair process at single cell level further, a model of DNA damage generating and repair is proposed under acute Ion Radiation (IR by using mathematical framework of kinetic theory of active particles (KTAP. Firstly, we focus on illustrating the profile of Cellular Repair System (CRS instituted by two sub-populations, each of which is made up of the active particles with different discrete states. Then, we implement the mathematical framework of cellular self-repair mechanism, and illustrate the dynamic processes of Double Strand Breaks (DSBs and Repair Protein (RP generating, DSB-protein complexes (DSBCs synthesizing, and toxins accumulating. Finally, we roughly analyze the capability of cellular self-repair mechanism, cellular activity of transferring DNA damage, and genome stability, especially the different fates of a certain cell before and after the time thresholds of IR perturbations that a cell can tolerate maximally under different IR perturbation circumstances.

  17. Kinetic theory approach to modeling of cellular repair mechanisms under genome stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Jinpeng; Ding, Yongsheng; Zhu, Ying; Wu, Yizhi

    2011-01-01

    Under acute perturbations from outer environment, a normal cell can trigger cellular self-defense mechanism in response to genome stress. To investigate the kinetics of cellular self-repair process at single cell level further, a model of DNA damage generating and repair is proposed under acute Ion Radiation (IR) by using mathematical framework of kinetic theory of active particles (KTAP). Firstly, we focus on illustrating the profile of Cellular Repair System (CRS) instituted by two sub-populations, each of which is made up of the active particles with different discrete states. Then, we implement the mathematical framework of cellular self-repair mechanism, and illustrate the dynamic processes of Double Strand Breaks (DSBs) and Repair Protein (RP) generating, DSB-protein complexes (DSBCs) synthesizing, and toxins accumulating. Finally, we roughly analyze the capability of cellular self-repair mechanism, cellular activity of transferring DNA damage, and genome stability, especially the different fates of a certain cell before and after the time thresholds of IR perturbations that a cell can tolerate maximally under different IR perturbation circumstances.

  18. Control of a perturbed under-actuated mechanical system

    KAUST Repository

    Zayane, Chadia

    2015-11-05

    In this work, the trajectory tracking problem for an under-actuated mechanical system in presence of unknown input disturbances is addressed. The studied inertia wheel inverted pendulum falls in the class of non minimum phase systems. The proposed high order sliding mode control architecture including a controller and differentiator allows to track accurately the predefined trajectory and to stabilize the internal dynamics. The robustness of the proposed approach is illustrated through different perturbation and output noise configurations.

  19. Tuning of redox regulatory mechanisms, reactive oxygen species and redox homeostasis under salinity stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossain eSazzad

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Soil salinity is a crucial environmental constraint which limits biomass production at many sites on a global scale. Saline growth conditions cause osmotic and ionic imbalances, oxidative stress and perturb metabolism, e.g. the photosynthetic electron flow. The plant ability to tolerate salinity is determined by multiple biochemical and physiological mechanisms protecting cell functions, in particular by regulating proper water relations and maintaining ion homeostasis. Redox homeostasis is a fundamental cell property. Its regulation includes control of reactive oxygen species (ROS generation, sensing deviation from and readjustment of the cellular redox state. All these redox related functions have been recognized as decisive factors in salinity acclimation and adaptation. This review focuses on the core response of plants to overcome the challenges of salinity stress through regulation of ROS generation and detoxification systems and to maintain redox homeostasis. Emphasis is given to the role of NADH oxidase (RBOH, alternative oxidase (AOX, the plastid terminal oxidase (PTOX and the malate valve with the malate dehydrogenase isoforms under salt stress. Overwhelming evidence assigns an essential auxiliary function of ROS and redox homeostasis to salinity acclimation of plants.

  20. Ecological mechanisms underlying soil bacterial responses to rainfall along a steep natural precipitation gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waring, Bonnie; Hawkes, Christine V

    2018-02-01

    Changes in the structure and function of soil microbial communities can drive substantial ecosystem feedbacks to altered precipitation. However, the ecological mechanisms underlying community responses to environmental change are not well understood. We used an 18-month soil reciprocal transplant experiment along a steep precipitation gradient to quantify how changes in rainfall affected bacterial community structure. We also conducted an enhanced dispersal treatment to ask whether higher immigration rates of taxa from the surrounding environment would accelerate community responses to climate change. Finally, we addressed how the composition of soil bacteria communities was related to the functional response of soil respiration to moisture in these treatments. Bacterial community structure (OTU abundance) and function (respiration rates) changed little in response to manipulation of either rainfall environment or dispersal rates. Although most bacteria were ecological generalists, a subset of specialist taxa, over 40% of which were Actinobacteria, tended to be more abundant in the rainfall environment that matched their original conditions. Bacteria community composition was an important predictor of the respiration response to moisture. Thus, the high compositional resistance of microbial communities dictated respiration responses to altered rainfall in this system.

  1. Mechanisms underlying astringency: introduction to an oral tribology approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upadhyay, Rutuja; Brossard, Natalia; Chen, Jianshe

    2016-03-01

    Astringency is one of the predominant factors in the sensory experience of many foods and beverages ranging from wine to nuts. The scientific community is discussing mechanisms that explain this complex phenomenon, since there are no conclusive results which correlate well with sensory astringency. Therefore, the mechanisms and perceptual characteristics of astringency warrant further discussion and investigation. This paper gives a brief introduction of the fundamentals of oral tribology forming a basis of the astringency mechanism. It discusses the current state of the literature on mechanisms underlying astringency describing the existing astringency models. The review discusses the crucial role of saliva and its physiology which contributes significantly in astringency perception in the mouth. It also provides an overview of research concerned with the physiological and psychophysical factors that mediate the perception of this sensation, establishing the ground for future research. Thus, the overall aim of the review is to establish the critical roles of oral friction (thin-film lubrication) in the sensation of astringency and possibly of some other specific sensory features.

  2. Study on Mechanical Properties of Barite Concrete under Impact Load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Z. F.; Cheng, K.; Wu, D.; Gan, Y. C.; Tao, Q. W.

    2018-03-01

    In order to research the mechanical properties of Barite concrete under impact load, a group of concrete compression tests was carried out under the impact load by using the drop test machine. A high-speed camera was used to record the failure process of the specimen during the impact process. The test results show that:with the increase of drop height, the loading rate, the peak load, the strain under peak load, the strain rate and the dynamic increase factor (DIF) all increase gradually. The ultimate tensile strain is close to each other, and the time of impact force decreases significantly, showing significant strain rate effect.

  3. Functional neuroimaging of psychotherapeutic processes in anxiety and depression: from mechanisms to predictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lueken, Ulrike; Hahn, Tim

    2016-01-01

    The review provides an update of functional neuroimaging studies that identify neural processes underlying psychotherapy and predict outcomes following psychotherapeutic treatment in anxiety and depressive disorders. Following current developments in this field, studies were classified as 'mechanistic' or 'predictor' studies (i.e., informing neurobiological models about putative mechanisms versus aiming to provide predictive information). Mechanistic evidence points toward a dual-process model of psychotherapy in anxiety disorders with abnormally increased limbic activation being decreased, while prefrontal activity is increased. Partly overlapping findings are reported for depression, albeit with a stronger focus on prefrontal activation following treatment. No studies directly comparing neural pathways of psychotherapy between anxiety and depression were detected. Consensus is accumulating for an overarching role of the anterior cingulate cortex in modulating treatment response across disorders. When aiming to quantify clinical utility, the need for single-subject predictions is increasingly recognized and predictions based on machine learning approaches show high translational potential. Present findings encourage the search for predictors providing clinically meaningful information for single patients. However, independent validation as a crucial prerequisite for clinical use is still needed. Identifying nonresponders a priori creates the need for alternative treatment options that can be developed based on an improved understanding of those neural mechanisms underlying effective interventions.

  4. micro-mechanical experimental investigation and modelling of strain and damage of argillaceous rocks under combined hydric and mechanical loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, L.

    2012-01-01

    The hydro-mechanical behavior of argillaceous rocks, which are possible host rocks for underground radioactive nuclear waste storage, is investigated by means of micro-mechanical experimental investigations and modellings. Strain fields at the micrometric scale of the composite structure of this rock, are measured by the combination of environmental scanning electron microscopy, in situ testing and digital image correlation technique. The evolution of argillaceous rocks under pure hydric loading is first investigated. The strain field is strongly heterogeneous and manifests anisotropy. The observed nonlinear deformation at high relative humidity (RH) is related not only to damage, but also to the nonlinear swelling of the clay mineral itself, controlled by different local mechanisms depending on RH. Irreversible deformations are observed during hydric cycles, as well as a network of microcracks located in the bulk of the clay matrix and/or at the inclusion-matrix interface. Second, the local deformation field of the material under combined hydric and mechanical loadings is quantified. Three types of deformation bands are evidenced under mechanical loading, either normal to stress direction (compaction), parallel (microcracking) or inclined (shear). Moreover, they are strongly controlled by the water content of the material: shear bands are in particular prone to appear at high RH states. In view of understanding the mechanical interactions a local scale, the material is modeled as a composite made of non-swelling elastic inclusions embedded in an elastic swelling clay matrix. The internal stress field induced by swelling strain incompatibilities between inclusions and matrix, as well as the overall deformation, is numerically computed at equilibrium but also during the transient stage associated with a moisture gradient. An analytical micro-mechanical model based on Eshelby's solution is proposed. In addition, 2D finite element computations are performed. Results

  5. Progressive damage analysis of carbon/epoxy laminates under couple laser and mechanical loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanlei Liu

    Full Text Available A multiscale model based bridge theory is proposed for the progressive damage analysis of carbon/epoxy laminates under couple laser and mechanical loading. The ablation model is adopted to calculate ablation temperature changing and ablation surface degradation. The polynomial strengthening model of matrix is used to improve bridging model for reducing parameter input. Stiffness degradation methods of bridging model are also improved in order to analyze the stress redistribution more accurately when the damage occurs. Thermal-mechanical analyses of the composite plate are performed using the ABAQUS/Explicit program with the developed model implemented in the VUMAT. The simulation results show that this model can be used to proclaim the mesoscale damage mechanism of composite laminates under coupled loading. Keywords: Laser irradiation, Multiscale analysis, Bridge model, Thermal-mechanical

  6. Self-DNA inhibitory effects: Underlying mechanisms and ecological implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartenì, Fabrizio; Bonanomi, Giuliano; Giannino, Francesco; Incerti, Guido; Vincenot, Christian Ernest; Chiusano, Maria Luisa; Mazzoleni, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    DNA is usually known as the molecule that carries the instructions necessary for cell functioning and genetic inheritance. A recent discovery reported a new functional role for extracellular DNA. After fragmentation, either by natural or artificial decomposition, small DNA molecules (between ∼50 and ∼2000 bp) exert a species specific inhibitory effect on individuals of the same species. Evidence shows that such effect occurs for a wide range of organisms, suggesting a general biological process. In this paper we explore the possible molecular mechanisms behind those findings and discuss the ecological implications, specifically those related to plant species coexistence.

  7. An NMDA Receptor-Dependent Mechanism Underlies Inhibitory Synapse Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinglong Gu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the mammalian brain, GABAergic synaptic transmission provides inhibitory balance to glutamatergic excitatory drive and controls neuronal output. The molecular mechanisms underlying the development of GABAergic synapses remain largely unclear. Here, we report that NMDA-type ionotropic glutamate receptors (NMDARs in individual immature neurons are the upstream signaling molecules essential for GABAergic synapse development, which requires signaling via Calmodulin binding motif in the C0 domain of the NMDAR GluN1 subunit. Interestingly, in neurons lacking NMDARs, whereas GABAergic synaptic transmission is strongly reduced, the tonic inhibition mediated by extrasynaptic GABAA receptors is increased, suggesting a compensatory mechanism for the lack of synaptic inhibition. These results demonstrate a crucial role for NMDARs in specifying the development of inhibitory synapses, and suggest an important mechanism for controlling the establishment of the balance between synaptic excitation and inhibition in the developing brain.

  8. Age-related mechanical strength evolution of trabecular bone under fatigue damage for both genders: Fracture risk evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Kahla, Rabeb; Barkaoui, Abdelwahed; Merzouki, Tarek

    2018-05-04

    Bone tissue is a living composite material, providing mechanical and homeostatic functions, and able to constantly adapt its microstructure to changes in long term loading. This adaptation is conducted by a physiological process, known as "bone remodeling". This latter is manifested by interactions between osteoclasts and osteoblasts, and can be influenced by many local factors, via effects on bone cell differentiation and proliferation. In the current work, age and gender effects on damage rate evolution, throughout life, have been investigated using a mechanobiological finite element modeling. To achieve the aim, a mathematical model has been developed, coupling both cell activities and mechanical behavior of trabecular bone, under cyclic loadings. A series of computational simulations (ABAQUS/UMAT) has been performed on a 3D human proximal femur, allowing to investigate the effects of mechanical and biological parameters on mechanical strength of trabecular bone, in order to evaluate the fracture risk resulting from fatigue damage. The obtained results revealed that mechanical stimulus amplitude affects bone resorption and formation rates, and indicated that age and gender are major factors in bone response to the applied loadings. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Wave Functions for Time-Dependent Dirac Equation under GUP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Meng-Yao; Long, Chao-Yun; Long, Zheng-Wen

    2018-04-01

    In this work, the time-dependent Dirac equation is investigated under generalized uncertainty principle (GUP) framework. It is possible to construct the exact solutions of Dirac equation when the time-dependent potentials satisfied the proper conditions. In (1+1) dimensions, the analytical wave functions of the Dirac equation under GUP have been obtained for the two kinds time-dependent potentials. Supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant No. 11565009

  10. Damage evolution of TBC system under in-phase thermo-mechanical tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitazawa, R.; Tanaka, M.; Kagawa, Y.; Liu, Y.F.

    2010-01-01

    In-phase thermo-mechanical tests (TMF) of EB-PVD Y 2 O 3 -ZrO 2 thermal barrier coating (TBC) system (8 wt% Y 2 O 3 -ZrO 2 /CoNiCrAlY/IN-738 substrate) were done under a through-the-thick-direction thermal gradient from TBC surface temperature at 1150 deg. C to substrate temperature at 1000 deg. C. Deformation and failure behaviors of the TBC system were observed at the macroscopic and microscopic scales and damage evolution of the system under in-phase thermo-mechanical test was discussed. Special attention was paid to TBC layer cracking, thermally grown oxide (TGO) layer formation and void formation in bond coat and substrate. Effect of TMF conditions on the damage evolution behaviors was also discussed.

  11. Reward functioning in PTSD: a systematic review exploring the mechanisms underlying anhedonia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nawijn, Laura; van Zuiden, Mirjam; Frijling, Jessie L.; Koch, Saskia B. J.; Veltman, Dick J.; Olff, Miranda

    2015-01-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a debilitating psychiatric disorder. An important diagnostic feature of PTSD is anhedonia, which may result from deficits in reward functioning. This has however never been studied systematically in PTSD. To determine if PTSD is associated with reward

  12. Mechanical characterization of hybrid and functionally-graded aluminum open-cell foams with nanocrystalline-copper coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yi

    absorption capacity. The behavior of Al/Cu hybrid foams under high-strain-rate condition was then investigated using experiments on a split Hopkinson pressure bar. It was found that the ED nano-copper coating can also effectively enhance the energy absorption capacities of aluminum open-cell foams under high strain rate. Similar to the quasi-static behavior, a large stress drop was observed in the compressive response of Al/Cu hybrid foams under high strain rate, which was accompanied by dramatic shattering of material. It is shown that a more ductile behavior and better energy absorption performance under high strain rate condition can be also obtained by introducing an annealing process. Finally, the manufacturing process of Al/Cu hybrid foams was customized to fabricate FGHMF systems with two dimensional property gradients. The performance of these FGHMFs at both quasi-static and dynamic conditions was evaluated. Under quasi-static condition, two flexural type loading conditions were considered, namely, a three point bending condition and a cantilever beam condition. The dynamic behavior of FGHMFs was investigated by conducting drop weight tower tests on a three point bending setup. It was found that the failure mechanism of hybrid metal foams can be modified and the mechanical properties, such as stiffness and strength, and energy absorption capacities of hybrid metal foams can be optimized under both quasi-static and dynamic conditions by introducing strategically designed coating patterns. The presented novel approach and findings in this study provide valuable information on the development of high performance hybrid and functionally-graded cellular materials.

  13. Neural mechanisms underlying the induction and relief of perceptual curiosity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marieke eJepma

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Curiosity is one of the most basic biological drives in both animals and humans, and has been identified as a key motive for learning and discovery. Despite the importance of curiosity and related behaviors, the topic has been largely neglected in human neuroscience; hence little is known about the neurobiological mechanisms underlying curiosity. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI to investigate what happens in our brain during the induction and subsequent relief of perceptual curiosity. Our core findings were that (i the induction of perceptual curiosity, through the presentation of ambiguous visual input, activated the anterior insula and anterior cingulate cortex, brain regions sensitive to conflict and arousal; (ii the relief of perceptual curiosity, through visual disambiguation, activated regions of the striatum that have been related to reward processing; and (iii the relief of perceptual curiosity was associated with hippocampal activation and enhanced incidental memory. These findings provide the first demonstration of the neural basis of human perceptual curiosity. Our results provide neurobiological support for a classic psychological theory of curiosity, which holds that curiosity is an aversive condition of increased arousal whose termination is rewarding and facilitates memory.

  14. Bayesian inverse problems for functions and applications to fluid mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cotter, S L; Dashti, M; Robinson, J C; Stuart, A M

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we establish a mathematical framework for a range of inverse problems for functions, given a finite set of noisy observations. The problems are hence underdetermined and are often ill-posed. We study these problems from the viewpoint of Bayesian statistics, with the resulting posterior probability measure being defined on a space of functions. We develop an abstract framework for such problems which facilitates application of an infinite-dimensional version of Bayes theorem, leads to a well-posedness result for the posterior measure (continuity in a suitable probability metric with respect to changes in data), and also leads to a theory for the existence of maximizing the posterior probability (MAP) estimators for such Bayesian inverse problems on function space. A central idea underlying these results is that continuity properties and bounds on the forward model guide the choice of the prior measure for the inverse problem, leading to the desired results on well-posedness and MAP estimators; the PDE analysis and probability theory required are thus clearly dileneated, allowing a straightforward derivation of results. We show that the abstract theory applies to some concrete applications of interest by studying problems arising from data assimilation in fluid mechanics. The objective is to make inference about the underlying velocity field, on the basis of either Eulerian or Lagrangian observations. We study problems without model error, in which case the inference is on the initial condition, and problems with model error in which case the inference is on the initial condition and on the driving noise process or, equivalently, on the entire time-dependent velocity field. In order to undertake a relatively uncluttered mathematical analysis we consider the two-dimensional Navier–Stokes equation on a torus. The case of Eulerian observations—direct observations of the velocity field itself—is then a model for weather forecasting. The case of

  15. Microfluidics as a functional tool for cell mechanics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vanapalli, Srinivas; Vanapalli Veera, V.S.A.R.; Duits, Michael H.G.; Mugele, Friedrich Gunther

    2009-01-01

    Living cells are a fascinating demonstration of nature’s most intricate and well-coordinated micromechanical objects. They crawl, spread, contract, and relax—thus performing a multitude of complex mechanical functions. Alternatively, they also respond to physical and chemical cues that lead to

  16. DMPD: Molecular mechanisms of the anti-inflammatory functions of interferons. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 18086388 Molecular mechanisms of the anti-inflammatory functions of interferons. Ko....csml) Show Molecular mechanisms of the anti-inflammatory functions of interferons. PubmedID 18086388 Title ...Molecular mechanisms of the anti-inflammatory functions of interferons. Authors K

  17. Mechanical Design of AM Fabricated Prismatic Rods under Torsion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manzhirov Alexander V.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We study the stress-strain state of viscoelastic prismatic rods fabricated or repaired by additive manufacturing technologies under torsion. An adequate description of the processes involved is given by methods of a new scientific field, mechanics of growing solids. Three main stages of the deformation process (before the beginning of growth, in the course of growth, and after the termination of growth are studied. Two versions of statement of two problems are given: (i given the torque, find the stresses, displacements, and torsion; (ii given the torsion, find the stresses, displacements, and torque. Solution methods using techniques of complex analysis are presented. The results can be used in mechanical and instrument engineering.

  18. On the mechanical properties of tooth enamel under spherical indentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Herzl

    2014-11-01

    The mechanical properties of tooth enamel generally exhibit large variations, which reflect its structural and material complexity. Some key properties were evaluated under localized contact, simulating actual functioning conditions. Prominent cusps of extracted human molar teeth were polished down ~0.7 mm below the cusp tip and indented by tungsten carbide balls. The internal damage was assessed after unloading from longitudinal or transverse sections. The ultimate tensile stress (UTS) was determined using a novel bilayer specimen. The damage is characterized by penny-like radial cracks driven by hoop stresses and cylindrical cracks driven along protein-rich interrod materials by shear stresses. Shallow cone cracks typical of homogeneous materials which may cause rapid tooth wear under repeat contact are thus avoided. The mean stress vs. indentation strain curve is highly nonlinear, attributable to plastic shearing of protein between and within enamel rods. This curve is also affected by damage, especially radial cracks, the onset of which depends on ball radius. Several material properties were extracted from the tests, including shear strain at the onset of ring cracks γ(F) (=0.14), UTS (=119 MPa), toughness K(C) (=0.94 MPa m(1/2)), a crack propagation law and a constitutive response determined by trial and error with the aid of a finite-element analysis. These quantities, which are only slightly sensitive to anatomical location within the enamel region tested, facilitate a quantitative assessment of crown failure. Causes for variations in published UTS and K(C) values are discussed. Copyright © 2014 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Measurement of residual stresses using fracture mechanics weight functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan, Y.

    2000-01-01

    A residual stress measurement method has been developed to quantify through-the-thickness residual stresses. Accurate measurement of residual stresses is crucial for many engineering structures. Fabrication processes such as welding and machining generate residual stresses that are difficult to predict. Residual stresses affect the integrity of structures through promoting failures due to brittle fracture, fatigue, stress corrosion cracking, and wear. In this work, the weight function theory of fracture mechanics is used to measure residual stresses. The weight function theory is an important development in computational fracture mechanics. Stress intensity factors for arbitrary stress distribution on the crack faces can be accurately and efficiently computed for predicting crack growth. This paper demonstrates that the weight functions are equally useful in measuring residual stresses. In this method, an artificial crack is created by a thin cut in a structure containing residual stresses. The cut relieves the residual stresses normal to the crack-face and allows the relieved residual stresses to deform the structure. Strain gages placed adjacent to the cut measure the relieved strains corresponding to incrementally increasing depths of the cut. The weight functions of the cracked body relate the measured strains to the residual stresses normal to the cut within the structure. The procedure details, such as numerical integration of the singular functions in applying the weight function method, will be discussed

  20. Measurement of residual stresses using fracture mechanics weight functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan, Y.

    2001-01-01

    A residual stress measurement method has been developed to quantify through-the-thickness residual stresses. Accurate measurement of residual stresses is crucial for many engineering structures. Fabrication processes such as welding and machining generate residual stresses that are difficult to predict. Residual stresses affect the integrity of structures through promoting failures due to brittle fracture, fatigue, stress corrosion cracking, and wear. In this work, the weight function theory of fracture mechanics is used to measure residual stresses. The weight function theory is an important development in computational fracture mechanics. Stress intensity factors for arbitrary stress distribution on the crack faces can be accurately and efficiently computed for predicting crack growth. This paper demonstrates that the weight functions are equally useful in measuring residual stresses. In this method, an artificial crack is created by a thin cut in a structure containing residual stresses. The cut relieves the residual stresses normal to the crack-face and allows the relieved residual stresses to deform the structure. Strain gages placed adjacent to the cut measure the relieved strains corresponding to incrementally increasing depths of the cut. The weight functions of the cracked body relate the measured strains to the residual stresses normal to the cut within the structure. The procedure details, such as numerical integration of the singular functions in applying the weight function method, will be discussed. (author)

  1. Differences in functional traits between invasive and native Amaranthus species under simulated acid deposition with a gradient of pH levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Congyan; Wu, Bingde; Jiang, Kun; Zhou, Jiawei

    2018-05-01

    Co-occurring invasive plant species (invaders hereafter) and natives receive similar or even the same environmental selection pressures. Thus, the differences in functional traits between natives and invaders have become widely recognized as a major driving force of the success of plant invasion. Meanwhile, increasing amounts of acid are deposited into ecosystems. Thus, it is important to elucidate the potential effects of acid deposition on the functional traits of invaders in order to better understand the potential mechanisms for the successful invasion. This study aims to address the differences in functional traits between native red amaranth (Amaranthus tricolor L.; amaranth hereafter) and invasive redroot pigweed (A. retroflexus L.; pigweed hereafter) under simulated acid deposition with a gradient of pH levels. Pigweed was significantly taller than amaranth under most treatments. The greater height of pigweed can lead to greater competitive ability for resource acquisition, particularly for sunlight. Leaf shape index of pigweed was also significantly greater than that of amaranth under all treatments. The greater leaf shape index of pigweed can enhance the efficiency of resource capture (especially sunlight capture) via adjustments to leaf shape and size. Thus, the greater height and leaf shape index of pigweed can significantly enhance its competitive ability, especially under acid deposition. Acid deposition of pH 5.6 significantly increased amaranth leaf width in the co-cultivation due to added nutrients. The pH 4.5 acid deposition treatment significantly increased the specific leaf area of amaranth in the monoculture compared with the pH 5.6 acid deposition treatment and the control. The main mechanism explaining this pattern may be due to acid deposition mediating a hormesis effect on plants, promoting plant growth. The values of the relative competition intensity between amaranth and pigweed for most functional traits were lower than zero under most

  2. Mechanical and tribological behaviour of molten salt processed self-lubricated aluminium composite under different treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannan, C.; Ramanujam, R.

    2018-05-01

    The aim of this research work is to evaluate the mechanical and tribological behaviour of Al 7075 based self-lubricated hybrid nanocomposite under different treated conditions viz. as-cast, T6 and deep cryo treated. In order to overcome the drawbacks associated with conventional stir casting, a combinational approach that consists of molten salt processing, ultrasonic assistance and optimized mechanical stirring is adopted in this study to fabricate the nanocomposite. The mechanical characterisation tests carried out on this nanocomposite reveals an improvement of about 39% in hardness and 22% in ultimate tensile strength possible under T6 condition. Under specific conditions, the wear rate can be reduced to the extent of about 63% through the usage of self-lubricated hybrid nanocomposite under T6 condition.

  3. Molecular mechanics of silk nanostructures under varied mechanical loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bratzel, Graham; Buehler, Markus J

    2012-06-01

    Spider dragline silk is a self-assembling tunable protein composite fiber that rivals many engineering fibers in tensile strength, extensibility, and toughness, making it one of the most versatile biocompatible materials and most inviting for synthetic mimicry. While experimental studies have shown that the peptide sequence and molecular structure of silk have a direct influence on the stiffness, toughness, and failure strength of silk, few molecular-level analyses of the nanostructure of silk assemblies, in particular, under variations of genetic sequences have been reported. In this study, atomistic-level structures of wildtype as well as modified MaSp1 protein from the Nephila clavipes spider dragline silk sequences, obtained using an in silico approach based on replica exchange molecular dynamics and explicit water molecular dynamics, are subjected to simulated nanomechanical testing using different force-control loading conditions including stretch, pull-out, and peel. The authors have explored the effects of the poly-alanine length of the N. clavipes MaSp1 peptide sequence and identify differences in nanomechanical loading conditions on the behavior of a unit cell of 15 strands with 840-990 total residues used to represent a cross-linking β-sheet crystal node in the network within a fibril of the dragline silk thread. The specific loading condition used, representing concepts derived from the protein network connectivity at larger scales, have a significant effect on the mechanical behavior. Our analysis incorporates stretching, pull-out, and peel testing to connect biochemical features to mechanical behavior. The method used in this study could find broad applications in de novo design of silk-like tunable materials for an array of applications. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Temporomandibular disorders and painful comorbidities: clinical association and underlying mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Yuri Martins; Conti, Paulo César Rodrigues; de Faria, Flavio Augusto Cardoso; Bonjardim, Leonardo Rigoldi

    2017-03-01

    The association between temporomandibular disorders (TMDs) and headaches, cervical spine dysfunction, and fibromyalgia is not artefactual. The aim of this review is to describe the comorbid relationship between TMD and these three major painful conditions and to discuss the clinical implications and the underlying pain mechanisms involved in these relationships. Common neuronal pathways and central sensitization processes are acknowledged as the main factors for the association between TMD and primary headaches, although the establishment of cause-effect mechanisms requires further clarification and characterization. The biomechanical aspects are not the main factors involved in the comorbid relationship between TMD and cervical spine dysfunction, which can be better explained by the neuronal convergence of the trigeminal and cervical spine sensory pathways as well as by central sensitization processes. The association between TMD and fibromyalgia also has supporting evidence in the literature, and the proposed main mechanism underlying this relationship is the impairment of the descending pain inhibitory system. In this particular scenario, a cause-effect relationship is more likely to occur in one direction, that is, fibromyalgia as a risk factor for TMD. Therefore, clinical awareness of the association between TMD and painful comorbidities and the support of multidisciplinary approaches are required to recognize these related conditions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Peer influence: neural mechanisms underlying in-group conformity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stallen, Mirre; Smidts, Ale; Sanfey, Alan G

    2013-01-01

    People often conform to the behavior of others with whom they identify. However, it is unclear what fundamental mechanisms underlie this type of conformity. Here, we investigate the processes mediating in-group conformity by using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Participants completed a perceptual decision-making task while undergoing fMRI, during which they were exposed to the judgments of both in-group and out-group members. Our data suggest that conformity to the in-group is mediated by both positive affect as well as the cognitive capacity of perspective taking. Examining the processes that drive in-group conformity by utilizing a basic decision-making paradigm combined with neuroimaging methods provides important insights into the potential mechanisms of conformity. These results may provide an integral step in developing more effective campaigns using group conformity as a tool for behavioral change.

  6. Carbon Footprint Management of Road Freight Transport under the Carbon Emission Trading Mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Growing concern over environmental issues has considerably increased the number of regulations and legislation that aim to curb carbon emissions. Carbon emission trading mechanism, which is one of the most effective means, has been broadly adopted by several countries. This paper presents a road truck routing problem under the carbon emission trading mechanism. By introducing a calculation method of carbon emissions that considers the load and speed of the vehicle among other factors, a road truck routing optimizing model under the cap and trade mechanism based on the Travelling Salesman Problem (TSP is described. Compared with the classical TSP model that only considers the economic cost, this model suggests that the truck routing decision under the cap and trade mechanism is more effective in reducing carbon emissions. A modified tabu search algorithm is also proposed to obtain solutions within a reasonable amount of computation time. We theoretically and numerically examine the impacts of carbon trading, carbon cap, and carbon price on truck routing decision, carbon emissions, and total cost. From the results of numerical experiments, we derive interesting observations about how to control the total cost and reduce carbon emissions.

  7. Cavitation behavior observed in three monoleaflet mechanical heart valves under accelerated testing conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Chi-Wen; Liu, Jia-Shing; Li, Chi-Pei; Lu, Po-Chien; Hwang, Ned H

    2008-01-01

    Accelerated testing provides a substantial amount of data on mechanical heart valve durability in a short period of time, but such conditions may not accurately reflect in vivo performance. Cavitation, which occurs during mechanical heart valve closure when local flow field pressure decreases below vapor pressure, is thought to play a role in valve damage under accelerated conditions. The underlying flow dynamics and mechanisms behind cavitation bubble formation are poorly understood. Under physiologic conditions, random perivalvular cavitation is difficult to capture. We applied accelerated testing at a pulse rate of 600 bpm and transvalvular pressure of 120 mm Hg, with synchronized videographs and high-frequency pressure measurements, to study cavitation of the Medtronic Hall Standard (MHS), Medtronic Hall D-16 (MHD), and Omni Carbon (OC) valves. Results showed cavitation bubbles between 340 and 360 micros after leaflet/housing impact of the MHS, MHD, and OC valves, intensified by significant leaflet rebound. Squeeze flow, Venturi, and water hammer effects each contributed to cavitation, depending on valve design.

  8. Mechanisms underlying KCNQ1channel cell volume sensitivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammami, Sofia

    Cells are constantly exposed to changes in cell volume during cell metabolism, nutrient uptake, cell proliferation, cell migration and salt and water transport. In order to cope with these perturbations, potassium channels in line with chloride channels have been shown to be likely contributors...... to the process of cell volume adjustments. A great diversity of potassium channels being members of either the 6TM, 4 TM or 2 TM K+ channel gene family have been shown to be strictly regulated by small, fast changes in cell volume. However, the precise mechanism underlying the K+ channel sensitivity to cell...... volume alterations is not yet fully understood. The KCNQ1 channel belonging to the voltage gated KCNQ family is considered a precise sensor of volume changes. The goal of this thesis was to elucidate the mechanism that induces cell volume sensitivity. Until now, a number of investigators have implicitly...

  9. Crack formation and crack propagation under multiaxial mechanical and thermal stresses. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The 25th meeting of the DV Fracture Group was held on 16/17 February 1993 at Karlsruhe Technical University. The main topic, ''Crack formation and crack propagation under multiaxial mechanical and thermal stresses'', was discussed by five invited papers (by K.J. Miller, D. Loehe, H.A. Richard, W. Brocks, A. Brueckner-Foit) and 23 short papers. The other 21 papers were devoted to various domains of fracture mechanics, with emphasis on elastoplastic fracture mechanics. (orig./MM) [de

  10. A mechanical deformation model of metallic fuel pin under steady state conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, D. W.; Lee, B. W.; Kim, Y. I.; Han, D. H.

    2004-01-01

    As a mechanical deformation model of the MACSIS code predicts the cladding deformation due to the simple thin shell theory, it is impossible to predict the FCMI(Fuel-Cladding Mechanical Interaction). Therefore, a mechanical deformation model used the generalized plane strain is developed. The DEFORM is a mechanical deformation routine which is used to analyze the stresses and strains in the fuel and cladding of a metallic fuel pin of LMRs. The accuracy of the program is demonstrated by comparison of the DEFORM predictions with the result of another code calculations or experimental results in literature. The stress/strain distributions of elastic part under free thermal expansion condition are completely matched with the results of ANSYS code. The swelling and creep solutions are reasonably well agreed with the simulations of ALFUS and LIFE-M codes, respectively. The predicted cladding strains are under estimated than experimental data at the range of high burnup. Therefore, it is recommended that the fine tuning of the DEFORM based on various range of experimental data

  11. [Neural mechanism underlying autistic savant and acquired savant syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahata, Keisuke; Kato, Motoichiro

    2008-07-01

    , especially that of the prefrontal cortex and the posterior regions of the brain. (3) Autistic models, including those based on weak central coherence theory (Frith, 1989), that focus on how savant skills emerge from an autistic brain. Based on recent neuroimaging studies of ASD, Just et al. (2004) suggested the underconnectivity theory, which emphasizes the disruption of long-range connectivity and the relative intact or even more enhanced local connectivity in the autistic brain. All the models listed above have certain advantages and shortcomings. At the end of this review, we propose another integrative model of savant syndrome. In this model, we predict an altered balance of local/global connectivity patterns that contribute to an altered functional segregation/integration ratio. In particular, we emphasize the crucial role played by the disruption of global connectivity in a parallel distributed cortical network, which might result in impairment in integrated cognitive processing, such as impairment in executive function and social cognition. On the other hand, the reduced inter-regional collaboration could lead to a disinhibitory enhancement of neural activity and connectivity in local cortical regions. In addition, enhanced connectivity in the local brain regions is partly due to the abnormal organization of the cortical network as a result of developmental and pathological states. This enhanced local connectivity results in the specialization and facilitation of low-level cognitive processing. The disruption of connectivity between the prefrontal cortex and other regions is considered to be a particularly important factor because the prefrontal region shows the most influential inhibitory control on other cortical areas. We propose that these neural mechanisms as the underlying causes for the emergence of savant ability in ASD and FTD patients.

  12. Coral bleaching under thermal stress: putative involvement of host/symbiont recognition mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tambutte Sylvie

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Coral bleaching can be defined as the loss of symbiotic zooxanthellae and/or their photosynthetic pigments from their cnidarian host. This major disturbance of reef ecosystems is principally induced by increases in water temperature. Since the beginning of the 1980s and the onset of global climate change, this phenomenon has been occurring at increasing rates and scales, and with increasing severity. Several studies have been undertaken in the last few years to better understand the cellular and molecular mechanisms of coral bleaching but the jigsaw puzzle is far from being complete, especially concerning the early events leading to symbiosis breakdown. The aim of the present study was to find molecular actors involved early in the mechanism leading to symbiosis collapse. Results In our experimental procedure, one set of Pocillopora damicornis nubbins was subjected to a gradual increase of water temperature from 28°C to 32°C over 15 days. A second control set kept at constant temperature (28°C. The differentially expressed mRNA between the stressed states (sampled just before the onset of bleaching and the non stressed states (control were isolated by Suppression Subtractive Hybridization. Transcription rates of the most interesting genes (considering their putative function were quantified by Q-RT-PCR, which revealed a significant decrease in transcription of two candidates six days before bleaching. RACE-PCR experiments showed that one of them (PdC-Lectin contained a C-Type-Lectin domain specific for mannose. Immunolocalisation demonstrated that this host gene mediates molecular interactions between the host and the symbionts suggesting a putative role in zooxanthellae acquisition and/or sequestration. The second gene corresponds to a gene putatively involved in calcification processes (Pdcyst-rich. Its down-regulation could reflect a trade-off mechanism leading to the arrest of the mineralization process under stress

  13. Elucidation of possible molecular mechanisms underlying the estrogen-induced disruption of cartilage development in zebrafish larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Hanliang; Wang, Chunqing; Tang, Qifeng; Yang, Fan; Xu, Youjia

    2018-06-01

    Estrogen can affect the cartilage development of zebrafish; however, the mechanism underlying its effects is not completely understood. Four-day-old zebrafish larvae were treated with 0.8 μM estrogen, the 5 days post fertilization (dpf) zebrafish larvae did not demonstrate obvious abnormalities during development; however, the 6 dpf and 7 dpf larvae exhibited abnormal craniofacial bone development along with craniofacial bone degradation. RNA deep sequencing was performed to elucidate the mechanism involved. Gene Ontology functional and KEGG pathway enrichment analysis of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) showed that the extracellular matrix (ECM), extracellular region, ECM-interaction receptor, focal adhesion, cell cycle, apoptosis, and bone-related signaling pathways were disrupted. In these signaling pathways, the expressions of key genes, such as collagen encoded (col19a1a, col7a1, col7al, col18a1, and col9a3), MAPK signaling pathway (fgf19, fgf6a), TGF-beta signaling pathway (tgfbr1), and cell cycle (cdnk1a) genes were altered. The qRT-PCR results showed that after treatment with 0.8 μM 17-β estradiol (E2), col19a1a, col7a1, col7al, col18a1, col9a3, fgf6a, cdkn1a were downregulated, and fgf19, tgfr1 were upregulated, which were consistent with deep sequencing analysis. Therefore, the effect of estrogen on cartilage development might occur via multiple mechanisms. The study results demonstrate the mechanism underlying the effect of estrogen on cartilage development. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Damage evolution of TBC system under in-phase thermo-mechanical tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kitazawa, R.; Tanaka, M.; Kagawa, Y. [Research Center for Advanced Science and Technology, University of Tokyo, 4-6-1 Komaba, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 153-8904 (Japan); Liu, Y.F., E-mail: yfliu@hyper.rcast.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Research Center for Advanced Science and Technology, University of Tokyo, 4-6-1 Komaba, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 153-8904 (Japan)

    2010-10-15

    In-phase thermo-mechanical tests (TMF) of EB-PVD Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}-ZrO{sub 2} thermal barrier coating (TBC) system (8 wt% Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}-ZrO{sub 2}/CoNiCrAlY/IN-738 substrate) were done under a through-the-thick-direction thermal gradient from TBC surface temperature at 1150 deg. C to substrate temperature at 1000 deg. C. Deformation and failure behaviors of the TBC system were observed at the macroscopic and microscopic scales and damage evolution of the system under in-phase thermo-mechanical test was discussed. Special attention was paid to TBC layer cracking, thermally grown oxide (TGO) layer formation and void formation in bond coat and substrate. Effect of TMF conditions on the damage evolution behaviors was also discussed.

  15. Estimated conditional score function for missing mechanism model with nonignorable nonresponse

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CUI Xia; ZHOU Yong

    2017-01-01

    Missing data mechanism often depends on the values of the responses,which leads to nonignorable nonresponses.In such a situation,inference based on approaches that ignore the missing data mechanism could not be valid.A crucial step is to model the nature of missingness.We specify a parametric model for missingness mechanism,and then propose a conditional score function approach for estimation.This approach imputes the score function by taking the conditional expectation of the score function for the missing data given the available information.Inference procedure is then followed by replacing unknown terms with the related nonparametric estimators based on the observed data.The proposed score function does not suffer from the non-identifiability problem,and the proposed estimator is shown to be consistent and asymptotically normal.We also construct a confidence region for the parameter of interest using empirical likelihood method.Simulation studies demonstrate that the proposed inference procedure performs well in many settings.We apply the proposed method to a data set from research in a growth hormone and exercise intervention study.

  16. Mechanical properties of jammed packings of frictionless spheres under an applied shear stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Hao; Tong Hua; Xu Ning

    2014-01-01

    By minimizing a thermodynamic-like potential, we unbiasedly sample the potential energy landscape of soft and frictionless spheres under a constant shear stress. We obtain zero-temperature jammed states under desired shear stresses and investigate their mechanical properties as a function of the shear stress. As a comparison, we also obtain the jammed states from the quasistatic-shear sampling in which the shear stress is not well-controlled. Although the yield stresses determined by both samplings show the same power-law scaling with the compression from the jamming transition point J at zero temperature and shear stress, for finite size systems the quasistatic-shear sampling leads to a lower yield stress and a higher critical volume fraction at point J. The shear modulus of the jammed solids decreases with increasing shear stress. However, the shear modulus does not decay to zero at yielding. This discontinuous change of the shear modulus implies the discontinuous nature of the unjamming transition under nonzero shear stress, which is further verified by the observation of a discontinuous jump in the pressure from the jammed solids to the shear flows. The pressure jump decreases upon decompression and approaches zero at the critical-like point J, in analogy with the well-known phase transitions under an external field. The analysis of the force networks in the jammed solids reveals that the force distribution is more sensitive to the increase of the shear stress near point J. The force network anisotropy increases with increasing shear stress. The weak particle contacts near the average force and under large shear stresses it exhibit an asymmetric angle distribution. (special topic — non-equilibrium phenomena in soft matters)

  17. Peroxisomal monodehydroascorbate reductase. Genomic clone characterization and functional analysis under environmental stress conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leterrier, Marina; Corpas, Francisco J; Barroso, Juan B; Sandalio, Luisa M; del Río, Luis A

    2005-08-01

    In plant cells, ascorbate is a major antioxidant that is involved in the ascorbate-glutathione cycle. Monodehydroascorbate reductase (MDAR) is the enzymatic component of this cycle involved in the regeneration of reduced ascorbate. The identification of the intron-exon organization and the promoter region of the pea (Pisum sativum) MDAR 1 gene was achieved in pea leaves using the method of walking polymerase chain reaction on genomic DNA. The nuclear gene of MDAR 1 comprises nine exons and eight introns, giving a total length of 3,770 bp. The sequence of 544 bp upstream of the initiation codon, which contains the promoter and 5' untranslated region, and 190 bp downstream of the stop codon were also determined. The presence of different regulatory motifs in the promoter region of the gene might indicate distinct responses to various conditions. The expression analysis in different plant organs by northern blots showed that fruits had the highest level of MDAR. Confocal laser scanning microscopy analysis of pea leaves transformed with Agrobacterium tumefaciens having the binary vectors pGD, which contain the autofluorescent proteins enhanced green fluorescent protein and enhanced yellow fluorescent protein with the full-length cDNA for MDAR 1 and catalase, indicated that the MDAR 1 encoded the peroxisomal isoform. The functional analysis of MDAR by activity and protein expression was studied in pea plants grown under eight stress conditions, including continuous light, high light intensity, continuous dark, mechanical wounding, low and high temperature, cadmium, and the herbicide 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid. This functional analysis is representative of all the MDAR isoforms present in the different cell compartments. Results obtained showed a significant induction by high light intensity and cadmium. On the other hand, expression studies, performed by semiquantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction demonstrated differential expression patterns of

  18. Glucocorticoid Mechanisms of Functional Connectivity Changes in Stress-Related Neuropsychiatric Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Baila S; Moda, Rachel N; Liston, Conor

    2015-01-01

    Stress-especially chronic, uncontrollable stress-is an important risk factor for many neuropsychiatric disorders. The underlying mechanisms are complex and multifactorial, but they involve correlated changes in structural and functional measures of neuronal connectivity within cortical microcircuits and across neuroanatomically distributed brain networks. Here, we review evidence from animal models and human neuroimaging studies implicating stress-associated changes in functional connectivity in the pathogenesis of PTSD, depression, and other neuropsychiatric conditions. Changes in fMRI measures of corticocortical connectivity across distributed networks may be caused by specific structural alterations that have been observed in the prefrontal cortex, hippocampus, and other vulnerable brain regions. These effects are mediated in part by glucocorticoids, which are released from the adrenal gland in response to a stressor and also oscillate in synchrony with diurnal rhythms. Recent work indicates that circadian glucocorticoid oscillations act to balance synapse formation and pruning after learning and during development, and chronic stress disrupts this balance. We conclude by considering how disrupted glucocorticoid oscillations may contribute to the pathophysiology of depression and PTSD in vulnerable individuals, and how circadian rhythm disturbances may affect non-psychiatric populations, including frequent travelers, shift workers, and patients undergoing treatment for autoimmune disorders.

  19. Mechanisms and genetic factors underlying co-use of nicotine and alcohol or other drugs of abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Sarah J; Lotfipour, Shahrdad; Leslie, Frances M

    2017-03-01

    Concurrent use of tobacco and alcohol or psychostimulants represents a major public health concern, with use of one substance influencing consumption of the other. Co-abuse of these drugs leads to substantial negative health outcomes, reduced cessation, and high economic costs, but the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Epidemiological data suggest that tobacco use during adolescence plays a particularly significant role. Adolescence is a sensitive period of development marked by major neurobiological maturation of brain regions critical for reward processing, learning and memory, and executive function. Nicotine exposure during this time produces a unique and long-lasting vulnerability to subsequent substance use, likely via actions at cholinergic, dopaminergic, and serotonergic systems. In this review, we discuss recent clinical and preclinical data examining the genetic factors and mechanisms underlying co-use of nicotine and alcohol or cocaine and amphetamines. We evaluate the critical role of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors throughout, and emphasize the dearth of preclinical studies assessing concurrent drug exposure. We stress important age and sex differences in drug responses, and highlight a brief, low-dose nicotine exposure paradigm that may better model early use of tobacco products. The escalating use of e-cigarettes among youth necessitates a closer look at the consequences of early adolescent nicotine exposure on subsequent alcohol and drug abuse.

  20. First-principles investigation of mechanical and electronic properties of LaAg5 Laves phase under pressure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高恩强; 黄福祥; 陈志谦; 王兰兰; 张照超

    2016-01-01

    The effects of applied pressure on the structural, mechanical, and electronic properties of LaAg5 compound were investi-gated employing the first-principles method based on the density functional theory. The mechanical results demonstrated that bulk modulus, shear modulus and Young’s modulus presented the linearly increasing dependences on the external pressure; theB/G and Poisson’s ratio indicated that LaAg5 compound was a ductile material with central forces in interatomic under pressure from 0 to 40 GPa; the universal anisotropic index was performed to investigate the elastic anisotropic of LaAg5. Additionally, the pressure de-pendence of the density of states and Mulliken charge were also discussed. The bonding characterization in LaAg5 was composed of metallic, covalent and ionic. The metallic component was derived from free-electron transferring from Ag-s and Ag-d to Ag-p, and from La-s to La-d. The ionic component was due to the charge movement from La to Ag. The covalent was owing to Ag-p-La-d bonding hybridization and Ag-s-Ag-p in the Ag atomic chains. The covalent and ionic bonds were stronger under pressure but there was no significant change in metallic nature.

  1. Clathrin-independent endocytosis: mechanisms and function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandvig, Kirsten; Pust, Sascha; Skotland, Tore

    2011-01-01

    It is now about 20 years since we first wrote reviews about clathrin-independent endocytosis. The challenge at the time was to convince the reader about its existence. Then the suggestion came up that caveolae might be responsible for the uptake. However, clearly this could not be the case since ...... having several functions of their own. This article aims at providing a brief update on the importance of clathrin-independent endocytic mechanisms, how the processes are regulated differentially, for instance on the poles of polarized cells, and the challenges in studying them....

  2. Quantum-mechanical Green's functions and nonlinear superposition law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nassar, A.B.; Bassalo, J.M.F.; Antunes Neto, H.S.; Alencar, P. de T.S.

    1986-01-01

    The quantum-mechanical Green's function is derived for the problem of a time-dependent variable mass particle subject to a time-dependent forced harmonic oscillator potential by taking direct recourse of the corresponding Schroedinger equation. Through the usage of the nonlinear superposition law of Ray and Reid, it is shown that such a Green's function can be obtained from that for the problem of a particle with unit (constant) mass subject to either a forced harmonic potential with constant frequency or only to a time-dependent linear field. (Author) [pt

  3. Quantum-mechanical Green's function and nonlinear superposition law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nassar, A.B.; Bassalo, J.M.F.; Antunes Neto, H.S.; Alencar, P.T.S.

    1986-01-01

    It is derived the quantum-mechanical Green's function for the problem of a time-dependent variable mass particle subject to a time-dependent forced harmonic-oscillator potential by taking direct recourse of the corresponding Schroedinger equation. Through the usage of the nonlinear superposition law of Ray and Reid, it is shown that such a Green's function can be obtained from that for the problem of a particle with unit (constant) mass subject to either a forced harmonic potential with constant frequency or only to a time-dependent linear field

  4. Fracture-mechanical results of non-destructive testing - function, goals, methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herter, K.H.; Kockelmann, H.; Schuler, X.; Waidele, H.

    2004-01-01

    Non-destructive testing provides data for fracture-mechanical analyses, e.g. defect size and orientation. On the other hand, fracture-mechanical analyses may help to define criteria for non-destructive testing, e.g. sensitivity, inspection intervals and inspection sites. The criteria applied differ as a function of the safety relevance of a component. (orig.) [de

  5. Assessing the functional mechanical properties of bioengineered organs with emphasis on the lung.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suki, Béla

    2014-09-01

    Recently, an exciting new approach has emerged in regenerative medicine pushing the forefront of tissue engineering to create bioartificial organs. The basic idea is to create biological scaffolds made of extracellular matrix (ECM) that preserves the three-dimensional architecture of an entire organ. These scaffolds are then used as templates for functional tissue and organ reconstruction after re-seeding the structure with stem cells or appropriately differentiated cells. In order to make sure that these bioartificial organs will be able to function in the mechanical environment of the native tissue, it is imperative to fully characterize their mechanical properties and match them with those of the normal native organs. This mini-review briefly summarizes modern measurement techniques of mechanical function characterized mostly by the material or volumetric stiffness. Micro-scale and macro-scale techniques such as atomic force microscopy and the tissue strip stress-strain approach are discussed with emphasis on those that combine mechanical measurements with structural visualization. Proper micro-scale stiffness helps attachment and differentiation of cells in the bioartificial organ whereas macro-scale functionality is provided by the overall mechanical properties of the construct. Several approaches including failure mechanics are also described, which specifically probe the contributions of the main ECM components including collagen, elastin, and proteoglycans to organ level ECM function. Advantages, drawbacks, and possible pitfalls as well as interpretation of the data are given throughout. Finally, specific techniques to assess the functionality of the ECM of bioartificial lungs are separately discussed. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Phosphorene under strain:electronic, mechanical and piezoelectric responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drissi, L. B.; Sadki, S.; Sadki, K.

    2018-01-01

    Structural, electronic, elastic and piezoelectric properties of pure phosphorene under in-plane strain are investigated using first-principles calculations based on density functional theory. The two critical yielding points are determined along armchair and zigzag directions. It is shown that the buckling, the band gap and the charge transfer can be controlled under strains. A semiconductor to metallic transition is observed in metastable region. Polar plots of Young's modulus, Poisson ratio, sound velocities and Debye temperature exhibit evident anisotropic feature of phosphorene and indicate auxetic behavior for some angles θ. Our calculations show also that phosphorene has both in-plane and out-of-plane piezoelectric responses comparable to known 2D materials. The findings of this work reveal the great potential of pure phosphorene in nanomechanical applications.

  7. Plant-insect interactions under bacterial influence: ecological implications and underlying mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugio, Akiko; Dubreuil, Géraldine; Giron, David; Simon, Jean-Christophe

    2015-02-01

    Plants and insects have been co-existing for more than 400 million years, leading to intimate and complex relationships. Throughout their own evolutionary history, plants and insects have also established intricate and very diverse relationships with microbial associates. Studies in recent years have revealed plant- or insect-associated microbes to be instrumental in plant-insect interactions, with important implications for plant defences and plant utilization by insects. Microbial communities associated with plants are rich in diversity, and their structure greatly differs between below- and above-ground levels. Microbial communities associated with insect herbivores generally present a lower diversity and can reside in different body parts of their hosts including bacteriocytes, haemolymph, gut, and salivary glands. Acquisition of microbial communities by vertical or horizontal transmission and possible genetic exchanges through lateral transfer could strongly impact on the host insect or plant fitness by conferring adaptations to new habitats. Recent developments in sequencing technologies and molecular tools have dramatically enhanced opportunities to characterize the microbial diversity associated with plants and insects and have unveiled some of the mechanisms by which symbionts modulate plant-insect interactions. Here, we focus on the diversity and ecological consequences of bacterial communities associated with plants and herbivorous insects. We also highlight the known mechanisms by which these microbes interfere with plant-insect interactions. Revealing such mechanisms in model systems under controlled environments but also in more natural ecological settings will help us to understand the evolution of complex multitrophic interactions in which plants, herbivorous insects, and micro-organisms are inserted. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions

  8. Short-term plasticity as a neural mechanism supporting memory and attentional functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jääskeläinen, Iiro P; Ahveninen, Jyrki; Andermann, Mark L; Belliveau, John W; Raij, Tommi; Sams, Mikko

    2011-11-08

    Based on behavioral studies, several relatively distinct perceptual and cognitive functions have been defined in cognitive psychology such as sensory memory, short-term memory, and selective attention. Here, we review evidence suggesting that some of these functions may be supported by shared underlying neuronal mechanisms. Specifically, we present, based on an integrative review of the literature, a hypothetical model wherein short-term plasticity, in the form of transient center-excitatory and surround-inhibitory modulations, constitutes a generic processing principle that supports sensory memory, short-term memory, involuntary attention, selective attention, and perceptual learning. In our model, the size and complexity of receptive fields/level of abstraction of neural representations, as well as the length of temporal receptive windows, increases as one steps up the cortical hierarchy. Consequently, the type of input (bottom-up vs. top down) and the level of cortical hierarchy that the inputs target, determine whether short-term plasticity supports purely sensory vs. semantic short-term memory or attentional functions. Furthermore, we suggest that rather than discrete memory systems, there are continuums of memory representations from short-lived sensory ones to more abstract longer-duration representations, such as those tapped by behavioral studies of short-term memory. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. PHYSIOLOGICAL QUALITY OF SOYBEAN SEEDS UNDER MECHANICAL INJURIES CAUSED BY COMBINES

    OpenAIRE

    FÁBIO PALCZEWSKI PACHECO; LÚCIA HELENA PEREIRA NÓBREGA; GISLAINE PICOLLO DE LIMA; MÁRCIA SANTORUM; WALTER BOLLER; LORIVAN FORMIGHIERI

    2015-01-01

    The mechanical harvesting causes injuries on seeds and may affect their quality. Different threshing mechanisms and their adjustments may also affect the intensity of impacts that machines cause on seeds. So, this study aimed at diagnosing and evaluating the effect of two combines: the first one with a threshing system of axial flow and the other one with a threshing system of tangential flow, under adjustments of concave opening (10 mm, 30 mm and 10 mm for a combine with axial ...

  10. Damage and service life of nickel-base alloys under thermal-mechanical fatigue stress at different phase positions; Schaedigung und Lebensdauer von Nickelbasislegierungen unter thermisch-mechanischer Ermuedungsbeanspruchung bei verschiedenen Phasenlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guth, Stefan

    2016-07-01

    This work considers the behaviour of two nickel-base alloys (NiCr22Co12Mo9 and MAR-M247 LC) under thermo-mechanical fatigue loading with varying phase angles between mechanical strain and temperature. The investigations focus on the characterisation of microstructures and damage mechanisms as a function of the phase angle. Based on the results, a life prediction model is proposed.

  11. Frictional behaviour of polymer films under mechanical and electrostatic loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ginés, R; Christen, R; Motavalli, M; Bergamini, A; Ermanni, P

    2013-01-01

    Different polymer foils, namely polyimide, FEP, PFA and PVDF were tested on a setup designed to measure the static coefficient of friction between them. The setup was designed according to the requirements of a damping device based on electrostatically tunable friction. The foils were tested under different mechanically applied forces and showed reproducible results for the static coefficient of friction. With the same setup the measurements were performed under an electric field as the source of the normal force. Up to a certain electric field the values were in good agreement. Beyond this field discrepancies were found. (paper)

  12. Failure mechanism of monolayer graphene under hypervelocity impact of spherical projectile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Kang; Zhan, Haifei; Hu, De'An; Gu, Yuantong

    2016-09-01

    The excellent mechanical properties of graphene have enabled it as appealing candidate in the field of impact protection or protective shield. By considering a monolayer graphene membrane, in this work, we assessed its deformation mechanisms under hypervelocity impact (from 2 to 6 km/s), based on a serial of in silico studies. It is found that the cracks are formed preferentially in the zigzag directions which are consistent with that observed from tensile deformation. Specifically, the boundary condition is found to exert an obvious influence on the stress distribution and transmission during the impact process, which eventually influences the penetration energy and crack growth. For similar sample size, the circular shape graphene possesses the best impact resistance, followed by hexagonal graphene membrane. Moreover, it is found the failure shape of graphene membrane has a strong relationship with the initial kinetic energy of the projectile. The higher kinetic energy, the more number the cracks. This study provides a fundamental understanding of the deformation mechanisms of monolayer graphene under impact, which is crucial in order to facilitate their emerging future applications for impact protection, such as protective shield from orbital debris for spacecraft.

  13. Behavior of duplex stainless steel casting defects under mechanical loadings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jayet-Gendrot, S [Electricite de France, 77 - Moret-sur-Loing (France). Dept. of Materials Study; Gilles, P; Migne, C [Societe Franco-Americaine de Constructions Atomiques (FRAMATOME), 92 - Paris-La-Defense (France)

    1997-04-01

    Several components in the primary circuit of pressurized water reactors are made of cast duplex stainless steels. This material contains small casting defects, mainly shrinkage cavities, due to the manufacturing process. In safety analyses, the structural integrity of the components is studied. In order to assess the real severity of the casting defects under mechanical loadings, an experimental program was carried out. It consisted of testing, under both cyclic and monotonic solicitations, three-point bend specimens containing either a natural defect (in the form of a localized cluster of cavities) or a machined notch having the dimensions of the cluster`s envelope. The tests are analyzed in order to develop a method that takes into account the behavior of castings defects in a more realistic fashion than by an envelope crack. Various approaches are investigated, including the search of equivalent defects or of criteria based on continuum mechanics concepts, and compared with literature data. This study shows the conservatism of current safety analyses in modelling casting defects by envelope semi-elliptical cracks and contributes to the development of alternative approaches. (author) 18 refs.

  14. The neuronal mechanisms underlying improvement of impulsivity in ADHD by theta/beta neurofeedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bluschke, Annet; Broschwitz, Felicia; Kohl, Simon; Roessner, Veit; Beste, Christian

    2016-08-12

    Neurofeedback is increasingly recognized as an intervention to treat core symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Despite the large number of studies having been carried out to evaluate its effectiveness, it is widely elusive what neuronal mechanisms related to the core symptoms of ADHD are modulated by neurofeedback. 19 children with ADHD undergoing 8 weeks of theta/beta neurofeedback and 17 waiting list controls performed a Go/Nogo task in a pre-post design. We used neurophysiological measures combining high-density EEG recording with source localization analyses using sLORETA. Compared to the waiting list ADHD control group, impulsive behaviour measured was reduced after neurofeedback treatment. The effects of neurofeedback were very specific for situations requiring inhibitory control over responses. The neurophysiological data shows that processes of perceptual gating, attentional selection and resource allocation processes were not affected by neurofeedback. Rather, neurofeedback effects seem to be based on the modulation of response inhibition processes in medial frontal cortices. The study shows that specific neuronal mechanisms underlying impulsivity are modulated by theta/beta neurofeedback in ADHD. The applied neurofeedback protocol could be particularly suitable to address inhibitory control. The study validates assumed functional neuroanatomical target regions of an established neurofeedback protocol on a neurophysiological level.

  15. Quaternary ammonium-functionalized silica sorbents for the solid-phase extraction of aromatic amines under normal phase conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal, Lorena; Robin, Orlane; Parshintsev, Jevgeni; Mikkola, Jyri-Pekka; Riekkola, Marja-Liisa

    2013-04-12

    Quaternary ammonium-functionalized silica materials were synthesized and applied for solid-phase extraction (SPE) of aromatic amines, which are classified as priority pollutants by US Environmental Protection Agency. Hexamethylenetetramine used for silica surface modification for the first time was employed as SPE sorbent under normal phase conditions. Hexaminium-functionalized silica demonstrated excellent extraction efficiencies for o-toluidine, 4-ethylaniline and quinoline (recoveries 101-107%), while for N,N-dimethylaniline and N-isopropylaniline recoveries were from low to moderate (14-46%). In addition, the suitability of 1-alkyl-3-(propyl-3-sulfonate) imidazolium-functionalized silica as SPE sorbent was tested under normal phase conditions. The recoveries achieved for the five aromatic amines ranged from 89 to 99%. The stability of the sorbent was evaluated during and after 150 extractions. Coefficients of variation between 4.5 and 10.2% proved a high stability of the synthesized sorbent. Elution was carried out using acetonitrile in the case of hexaminium-functionalized silica and water for 1-alkyl-3-(propyl-3-sulfonate) imidazolium-functionalized silica sorbent. After the extraction the analytes were separated and detected by liquid chromatography ultraviolet detection (LC-UV). The retention mechanism of the materials was primarily based on polar hydrogen bonding and π-π interactions. Comparison made with activated silica proved the quaternary ammonium-functionalized materials to offer different selectivity and better extraction efficiencies for aromatic amines. Finally, 1-alkyl-3-(propyl-3-sulfonate) imidazolium-functionalized silica sorbent was successfully tested for the extraction of wastewater and soil samples. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Neural mechanisms underlying morphine withdrawal in addicted patients: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nima Babhadiashar

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Morphine is one of the most potent alkaloid in opium, which has substantial medical uses and needs and it is the first active principle purified from herbal source. Morphine has commonly been used for relief of moderate to severe pain as it acts directly on the central nervous system; nonetheless, its chronic abuse increases tolerance and physical dependence, which is commonly known as opiate addiction. Morphine withdrawal syndrome is physiological and behavioral symptoms that stem from prolonged exposure to morphine. A majority of brain regions are hypofunctional over prolonged abstinence and acute morphine withdrawal. Furthermore, several neural mechanisms are likely to contribute to morphine withdrawal. The present review summarizes the literature pertaining to neural mechanisms underlying morphine withdrawal. Despite the fact that morphine withdrawal is a complex process, it is suggested that neural mechanisms play key roles in morphine withdrawal.

  17. Progranulin facilitates conversion and function of regulatory T cells under inflammatory conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fanhua Wei

    Full Text Available The progranulin (PGRN is known to protect regulatory T cells (Tregs from a negative regulation by TNF-α, and its levels are elevated in various kinds of autoimmune diseases. Whether PGRN directly regulates the conversion of CD4+CD25-T cells into Foxp3-expressing regulatory T cells (iTreg, and whether PGRN affects the immunosuppressive function of Tregs, however, remain unknown. In this study we provide evidences demonstrating that PGRN is able to stimulate the conversion of CD4+CD25-T cells into iTreg in a dose-dependent manner in vitro. In addition, PGRN showed synergistic effects with TGF-β1 on the induction of iTreg. PGRN was required for the immunosuppressive function of Tregs, since PGRN-deficient Tregs have a significant decreased ability to suppress the proliferation of effector T cells (Teff. In addition, PGRN deficiency caused a marked reduction in Tregs number in the course of inflammatory arthritis, although no significant difference was observed in the numbers of Tregs between wild type and PGRN deficient mice during development. Furthermore, PGRN deficiency led to significant upregulation of the Wnt receptor gene Fzd2. Collectively, this study reveals that PGRN directly regulates the numbers and function of Tregs under inflammatory conditions, and provides new insight into the immune regulatory mechanism of PGRN in the pathogenesis of inflammatory and immune-related diseases.

  18. Molecular Mechanism Underlying Lymphatic Metastasis in Pancreatic Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiwen Xiao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available As the most challenging human malignancies, pancreatic cancer is characterized by its insidious symptoms, low rate of surgical resection, high risk of local invasion, metastasis and recurrence, and overall dismal prognosis. Lymphatic metastasis, above all, is recognized as an early adverse event in progression of pancreatic cancer and has been described to be an independent poor prognostic factor. It should be noted that the occurrence of lymphatic metastasis is not a casual or stochastic but an ineluctable and designed event. Increasing evidences suggest that metastasis-initiating cells (MICs and the microenvironments may act as a double-reed style in this crime. However, the exact mechanisms on how they function synergistically for this dismal clinical course remain largely elusive. Therefore, a better understanding of its molecular and cellular mechanisms involved in pancreatic lymphatic metastasis is urgently required. In this review, we will summarize the latest advances on lymphatic metastasis in pancreatic cancer.

  19. Global transcriptomic profiling of aspen trees under elevated [CO2] to identify potential molecular mechanisms responsible for enhanced radial growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Hairong; Gou, Jiqing; Yordanov, Yordan; Zhang, Huaxin; Thakur, Ramesh; Jones, Wendy; Burton, Andrew

    2013-03-01

    Aspen (Populus tremuloides) trees growing under elevated [CO(2)] at a free-air CO(2) enrichment (FACE) site produced significantly more biomass than control trees. We investigated the molecular mechanisms underlying the observed increase in biomass by producing transcriptomic profiles of the vascular cambium zone (VCZ) and leaves, and then performed a comparative study to identify significantly changed genes and pathways after 12 years exposure to elevated [CO(2)]. In leaves, elevated [CO(2)] enhanced expression of genes related to Calvin cycle activity and linked pathways. In the VCZ, the pathways involved in cell growth, cell division, hormone metabolism, and secondary cell wall formation were altered while auxin conjugation, ABA synthesis, and cytokinin glucosylation and degradation were inhibited. Similarly, the genes involved in hemicellulose and pectin biosynthesis were enhanced, but some genes that catalyze important steps in lignin biosynthesis pathway were inhibited. Evidence from systemic analysis supported the functioning of multiple molecular mechanisms that underpin the enhanced radial growth in response to elevated [CO(2)].

  20. The Survival Advantage: Underlying Mechanisms and Extant Limitations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie A. Kazanas

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Recently, researchers have begun to investigate the function of memory in our evolutionary history. According to Nairne and colleagues (e.g., Nairne, Pandeirada, and Thompson, 2008; Nairne, Thompson, and Pandeirada, 2007, the best mnemonic strategy for learning lists of unrelated words may be one that addresses the same problems that our Pleistocene ancestors faced: fitness-relevant problems including securing food and water, as well as protecting themselves from predators. Survival processing has been shown to promote better recall and recognition memory than many well-known mnemonic strategies (e.g., pleasantness ratings, imagery, generation, etc.. However, the survival advantage does not extend to all types of stimuli and tasks. The current review presents research that has replicated Nairne et al.'s (2007 original findings, in addition to the research designs that fail to replicate the survival advantage. In other words, there are specific manipulations in which survival processing does not appear to benefit memory any more than other strategies. Potential mechanisms for the survival advantage are described, with an emphasis on those that are the most plausible. These proximate mechanisms outline the memory processes that may contribute to the advantage, although the ultimate mechanism may be the congruity between the survival scenario and Pleistocene problem-solving.

  1. Survival Bayesian Estimation of Exponential-Gamma Under Linex Loss Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizki, S. W.; Mara, M. N.; Sulistianingsih, E.

    2017-06-01

    This paper elaborates a research of the cancer patients after receiving a treatment in cencored data using Bayesian estimation under Linex Loss function for Survival Model which is assumed as an exponential distribution. By giving Gamma distribution as prior and likelihood function produces a gamma distribution as posterior distribution. The posterior distribution is used to find estimatior {\\hat{λ }}BL by using Linex approximation. After getting {\\hat{λ }}BL, the estimators of hazard function {\\hat{h}}BL and survival function {\\hat{S}}BL can be found. Finally, we compare the result of Maximum Likelihood Estimation (MLE) and Linex approximation to find the best method for this observation by finding smaller MSE. The result shows that MSE of hazard and survival under MLE are 2.91728E-07 and 0.000309004 and by using Bayesian Linex worths 2.8727E-07 and 0.000304131, respectively. It concludes that the Bayesian Linex is better than MLE.

  2. Study of elastic and thermodynamic properties of uranium dioxide under high temperature and pressure with density functional theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Mu; Wang Feng; Zheng Zhou; Liu Xiankun; Jiang Tao

    2013-01-01

    The elastic and thermodynamic properties of UO 2 under extreme physical condition are studied by using the density functional theory and quasi-harmonic Debye model. Results show that UO 2 is still stable ionic crystal under high temperatures, and pressures. Tetragonal shear constant is steady under high pressures and temperatures, while elastic constant C 44 is stable under high temperatures, but rises with pressure sharply. Bulk modulus, shear modulus and Young's modulus increase with pressure rapidly, but temperature would not cause evident debasement of the moduli, all of which indicate that UO 2 has excellent mechanical properties. Heat capacity of different pressures increases with temperature and is close to the Dulong-Petit limit near 1000 K. Debye temperature decreases with temperature, and increases with pressure. Under low pressure, thermal expansion coefficient raises with temperature rapidly, and then gets slow at higher pressure and temperature. Besides, the thermal expansion coefficient of UO 2 is much lower than that of other nuclear materials. (authors)

  3. Augmenting static and dynamic mechanical strength of carbon nanotube/epoxy soft nanocomposites via modulation of purification and functionalization routes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billing, Beant Kaur; Dhar, Purbarun; Singh, Narinder; Agnihotri, Prabhat K

    2018-01-03

    A detailed experimental investigation was carried out to establish the relationship between CNT purification and functionalization routes and the average response of CNT/epoxy nanocomposites under static and dynamic loading. It was shown that the relative improvement in the mechanical properties of the epoxy matrix due to the addition of CNTs depends on the choice of purification and functionalization steps. A better dispersion of CNTs was recorded for the functionalized CNTs as compared to the oxidized and CVD grown CNTs. Moreover, tensile, 3-point bending and nanoDMA testing performed on nanocomposites processed with CVD-grown, oxidized and functionalized CNTs revealed that COOH functionalization after the oxidation of CNTs at 350 °C is the optimized processing route to harness the excellent properties of CNTs in CNT/epoxy nanocomposites.

  4. Defended to the Nines: 25 Years of Resistance Gene Cloning Identifies Nine Mechanisms for R Protein Function[OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    Plants have many, highly variable resistance (R) gene loci, which provide resistance to a variety of pathogens. The first R gene to be cloned, maize (Zea mays) Hm1, was published over 25 years ago, and since then, many different R genes have been identified and isolated. The encoded proteins have provided clues to the diverse molecular mechanisms underlying immunity. Here, we present a meta-analysis of 314 cloned R genes. The majority of R genes encode cell surface or intracellular receptors, and we distinguish nine molecular mechanisms by which R proteins can elevate or trigger disease resistance: direct (1) or indirect (2) perception of pathogen-derived molecules on the cell surface by receptor-like proteins and receptor-like kinases; direct (3) or indirect (4) intracellular detection of pathogen-derived molecules by nucleotide binding, leucine-rich repeat receptors, or detection through integrated domains (5); perception of transcription activator-like effectors through activation of executor genes (6); and active (7), passive (8), or host reprogramming-mediated (9) loss of susceptibility. Although the molecular mechanisms underlying the functions of R genes are only understood for a small proportion of known R genes, a clearer understanding of mechanisms is emerging and will be crucial for rational engineering and deployment of novel R genes. PMID:29382771

  5. Defended to the Nines: 25 Years of Resistance Gene Cloning Identifies Nine Mechanisms for R Protein Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kourelis, Jiorgos; van der Hoorn, Renier A L

    2018-02-01

    Plants have many, highly variable resistance ( R ) gene loci, which provide resistance to a variety of pathogens. The first R gene to be cloned, maize ( Zea mays ) Hm1 , was published over 25 years ago, and since then, many different R genes have been identified and isolated. The encoded proteins have provided clues to the diverse molecular mechanisms underlying immunity. Here, we present a meta-analysis of 314 cloned R genes. The majority of R genes encode cell surface or intracellular receptors, and we distinguish nine molecular mechanisms by which R proteins can elevate or trigger disease resistance: direct (1) or indirect (2) perception of pathogen-derived molecules on the cell surface by receptor-like proteins and receptor-like kinases; direct (3) or indirect (4) intracellular detection of pathogen-derived molecules by nucleotide binding, leucine-rich repeat receptors, or detection through integrated domains (5); perception of transcription activator-like effectors through activation of executor genes (6); and active (7), passive (8), or host reprogramming-mediated (9) loss of susceptibility. Although the molecular mechanisms underlying the functions of R genes are only understood for a small proportion of known R genes, a clearer understanding of mechanisms is emerging and will be crucial for rational engineering and deployment of novel R genes. © 2018 American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved.

  6. Aroma Effects on Physiologic and Cognitive Function Following Acute Stress: A Mechanism Investigation

    OpenAIRE

    Chamine, Irina; Oken, Barry S.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Aromas may improve physiologic and cognitive function after stress, but associated mechanisms remain unknown. This study evaluated the effects of lavender aroma, which is commonly used for stress reduction, on physiologic and cognitive functions. The contribution of pharmacologic, hedonic, and expectancy-related mechanisms of the aromatherapy effects was evaluated.

  7. Underlying mechanisms of transient luminous events: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Surkov

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Transient luminous events (TLEs occasionally observed above a strong thunderstorm system have been the subject of a great deal of research during recent years. The main goal of this review is to introduce readers to recent theories of electrodynamics processes associated with TLEs. We examine the simplest versions of these theories in order to make their physics as transparent as possible. The study is begun with the conventional mechanism for air breakdown at stratospheric and mesospheric altitudes. An electron impact ionization and dissociative attachment to neutrals are discussed. A streamer size and mobility of electrons as a function of altitude in the atmosphere are estimated on the basis of similarity law. An alternative mechanism of air breakdown, runaway electron mechanism, is discussed. In this section we focus on a runaway breakdown field, characteristic length to increase avalanche of runaway electrons and on the role played by fast seed electrons in generation of the runaway breakdown. An effect of thunderclouds charge distribution on initiation of blue jets and gigantic jets is examined. A model in which the blue jet is treated as upward-propagating positive leader with a streamer zone/corona on the top is discussed. Sprite models based on streamer-like mechanism of air breakdown in the presence of atmospheric conductivity are reviewed. To analyze conditions for sprite generation, thunderstorm electric field arising just after positive cloud-to-ground stroke is compared with the thresholds for propagation of positively/negatively charged streamers and with runway breakdown. Our own estimate of tendril's length at the bottom of sprite is obtained to demonstrate that the runaway breakdown can trigger the streamer formation. In conclusion we discuss physical mechanisms of VLF (very low frequency and ELF (extremely low frequency phenomena associated with sprites.

  8. Roles, Functions, and Mechanisms of Long Non-coding RNAs in Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiwen Fang

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs play important roles in cancer. They are involved in chromatin remodeling, as well as transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation, through a variety of chromatin-based mechanisms and via cross-talk with other RNA species. lncRNAs can function as decoys, scaffolds, and enhancer RNAs. This review summarizes the characteristics of lncRNAs, including their roles, functions, and working mechanisms, describes methods for identifying and annotating lncRNAs, and discusses future opportunities for lncRNA-based therapies using antisense oligonucleotides.

  9. An analytical model of the mechanical properties of bulk coal under confined stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, G.X.; Wang, Z.T.; Rudolph, V.; Massarotto, P.; Finley, R.J.

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents the development of an analytical model which can be used to relate the structural parameters of coal to its mechanical properties such as elastic modulus and Poisson's ratio under a confined stress condition. This model is developed primarily to support process modeling of coalbed methane (CBM) or CO2-enhanced CBM (ECBM) recovery from coal seam. It applied an innovative approach by which stresses acting on and strains occurring in coal are successively combined in rectangular coordinates, leading to the aggregated mechanical constants. These mechanical properties represent important information for improving CBM/ECBM simulations and incorporating within these considerations of directional permeability. The model, consisting of constitutive equations which implement a mechanically consistent stress-strains correlation, can be used as a generalized tool to study the mechanical and fluid behaviors of coal composites. An example using the model to predict the stress-strain correlation of coal under triaxial confined stress by accounting for the elastic and brittle (non-elastic) deformations is discussed. The result shows a good agreement between the prediction and the experimental measurement. ?? 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Mechanisms underlying stage-1 TRPL channel translocation in Drosophila photoreceptors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minh-Ha Lieu

    Full Text Available TRP channels function as key mediators of sensory transduction and other cellular signaling pathways. In Drosophila, TRP and TRPL are the light-activated channels in photoreceptors. While TRP is statically localized in the signaling compartment of the cell (the rhabdomere, TRPL localization is regulated by light. TRPL channels translocate out of the rhabdomere in two distinct stages, returning to the rhabdomere with dark-incubation. Translocation of TRPL channels regulates their availability, and thereby the gain of the signal. Little, however, is known about the mechanisms underlying this trafficking of TRPL channels.We first examine the involvement of de novo protein synthesis in TRPL translocation. We feed flies cycloheximide, verify inhibition of protein synthesis, and test for TRPL translocation in photoreceptors. We find that protein synthesis is not involved in either stage of TRPL translocation out of the rhabdomere, but that re-localization to the rhabdomere from stage-1, but not stage-2, depends on protein synthesis. We also characterize an ex vivo eye preparation that is amenable to biochemical and genetic manipulation. We use this preparation to examine mechanisms of stage-1 TRPL translocation. We find that stage-1 translocation is: induced with ATP depletion, unaltered with perturbation of the actin cytoskeleton or inhibition of endocytosis, and slowed with increased membrane sterol content.Our results indicate that translocation of TRPL out of the rhabdomere is likely due to protein transport, and not degradation/re-synthesis. Re-localization from each stage to the rhabdomere likely involves different strategies. Since TRPL channels can translocate to stage-1 in the absence of ATP, with no major requirement of the cytoskeleton, we suggest that stage-1 translocation involves simple diffusion through the apical membrane, which may be regulated by release of a light-dependent anchor in the rhabdomere.

  11. Influence of different functionalization on mechanical and interface behavior of MWCNTs/NBR sealing composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kun; Gu, Boqin

    2017-04-01

    Rubber sealants are key components in processing industries. Carbon nanotubes (CNTs), which are randomly dispersed in polymer, are able to generate exciting effects. Focusing on mechanical properties of composites and interface characteristic between the fillers and matrix, carrying out SEM, DMA and uniaxial tensile tests, the tensile strength of the composites with 4 phr (parts by weight per hundred parts of rubber) multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) is obviously improved. MWNTs with different functionalization have different influence on the viscoelastic and mechanical properties of the composites. Results indicate that MWNTs-COOH are broken when composites fractured. While MWNTs, MWNTs-OH and MWNTs-NH2 are pulled out from the matrix because interface debonds under the tensile failure. The interfacial shear stress (IFSS) is about 4.7 MPa in composites. The glass transition temperature (T g) shifts higher temperatures compared to pure NBR (Acrylonitrile-butadiene Rubber). The presence of the nanotubes limite the movement of NBR macromolecules.

  12. Fatigue response of a PZT multilayer actuator under high-field electric cycling with mechanical preload

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hong; Wereszczak, Andrew A.; Lin, Hua-Tay

    2009-01-01

    An electric fatigue test system was developed for evaluating the reliability of piezoelectric actuators with a mechanical loading capability. Fatigue responses of a lead zirconate titanate (PZT) multilayer actuator with a platethrough electrode configuration were studied under an electric field (1.7 times that of the coercive field of PZT material) and a concurrent mechanical preload (30.0 MPa). A total of 109 cycles was carried out. Variations in charge density and mechanical strain under the high electric field and constant mechanical loads were observed during the fatigue test. The dc and the first harmonic (at 10 Hz) dielectric and piezoelectric coefficients were subsequently characterized using fast Fourier transformation. Both the dielectric and the piezoelectric coefficients exhibited a monotonic decrease prior to 2.86×108 cycles under certain preloading conditions, and then fluctuated. Both the dielectric loss tangent and the piezoelectric loss tangent also fluctuated after a decrease. The results are interpreted and discussed with respect to domain wall activities, microdefects, and other anomalies.

  13. Simulation of fatigue damage in ferroelectric polycrystals under mechanical/electrical loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozinov, S.; Kuna, M.

    2018-07-01

    The reliability of smart-structures made of ferroelectric ceramics is essentially reduced by the formation of cracks under the action of external electrical and/or mechanical loading. In the current research a numerical model for low-cycle fatigue in ferroelectric mesostructures is proposed. In the finite element simulations a combination of two user element routines is utilized. The first one is used to model a micromechanical ferroelectric domain switching behavior inside the grains. The second one is used to simulate fatigue damage of grain boundaries by a cohesive zone model (EMCCZM) based on an electromechanical cyclic traction-separation law (TSL). For numerical simulations a scanning electron microscope image of the ceramic's grain structure was digitalized and meshed. The response of this mesostructure to cyclic electrical or mechanical loading is systematically analyzed. As a result of the simulations, the distribution of electric potential, field, displacement and polarization as well as mechanical stresses and deformations inside the grains are obtained. At the grain boundaries, the formation and evolution of damage are analyzed until final failure and induced degradation of electric permittivity. It is found that the proposed model correctly mimics polycrystalline behavior during poling processes and progressive damage under cyclic electromechanical loading. To the authors' knowledge, it is the first model and numerical analysis of ferroelectric polycrystals taking into account both domain reorientation and cohesive modeling of intergranular fracture. It can help to understand failure mechanisms taking place in ferroelectrics during fatigue processes.

  14. Genetic and Epigenetic Mechanisms That Maintain Hematopoietic Stem Cell Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosan, Christian; Godmann, Maren

    2016-01-01

    All hematopoiesis cells develop from multipotent progenitor cells. Hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) have the ability to develop into all blood lineages but also maintain their stemness. Different molecular mechanisms have been identified that are crucial for regulating quiescence and self-renewal to maintain the stem cell pool and for inducing proliferation and lineage differentiation. The stem cell niche provides the microenvironment to keep HSC in a quiescent state. Furthermore, several transcription factors and epigenetic modifiers are involved in this process. These create modifications that regulate the cell fate in a more or less reversible and dynamic way and contribute to HSC homeostasis. In addition, HSC respond in a unique way to DNA damage. These mechanisms also contribute to the regulation of HSC function and are essential to ensure viability after DNA damage. How HSC maintain their quiescent stage during the entire life is still matter of ongoing research. Here we will focus on the molecular mechanisms that regulate HSC function. PMID:26798358

  15. Genetic and Epigenetic Mechanisms That Maintain Hematopoietic Stem Cell Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Kosan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available All hematopoiesis cells develop from multipotent progenitor cells. Hematopoietic stem cells (HSC have the ability to develop into all blood lineages but also maintain their stemness. Different molecular mechanisms have been identified that are crucial for regulating quiescence and self-renewal to maintain the stem cell pool and for inducing proliferation and lineage differentiation. The stem cell niche provides the microenvironment to keep HSC in a quiescent state. Furthermore, several transcription factors and epigenetic modifiers are involved in this process. These create modifications that regulate the cell fate in a more or less reversible and dynamic way and contribute to HSC homeostasis. In addition, HSC respond in a unique way to DNA damage. These mechanisms also contribute to the regulation of HSC function and are essential to ensure viability after DNA damage. How HSC maintain their quiescent stage during the entire life is still matter of ongoing research. Here we will focus on the molecular mechanisms that regulate HSC function.

  16. Gravity induced corrections to quantum mechanical wave functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, T.P.

    1990-03-01

    We perform a semiclassical expansion in the Wheeler-DeWitt equation, in powers of the gravitational constant. We then show that quantum gravitational fluctuations can provide a correction to the wave-functions which are solutions of the Schroedinger equation for matter. This also implies a correction to the expectation values of quantum mechanical observables. (author). 6 refs

  17. The slow oscillation in cortical and thalamic networks: mechanisms and functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garrett T. Neske

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available During even the most quiescent behavioral periods, the cortex and thalamus express rich spontaneous activity in the form of slow (<1 Hz, synchronous network state transitions. Throughout this so-called slow oscillation, cortical and thalamic neurons fluctuate between periods of intense synaptic activity (Up states and almost complete silence (Down states. The two decades since the original characterization of the slow oscillation in the cortex and thalamus have seen considerable advances in deciphering the cellular and network mechanisms associated with this pervasive phenomenon. There are, nevertheless, many questions regarding the slow oscillation that await more thorough illumination, particularly the mechanisms by which Up states initiate and terminate, the functional role of the rhythmic activity cycles in unconscious or minimally conscious states, and the precise relation between Up states and the activated states associated with waking behavior. Given the substantial advances in multineuronal recording and imaging methods in both in vivo and in vitro preparations, the time is ripe to take stock of our current understanding of the slow oscillation and pave the way for future investigations of its mechanisms and functions. My aim in this Review is to provide a comprehensive account of the mechanisms and functions of the slow oscillation, and to suggest avenues for further exploration.

  18. Identifying serotonergic mechanisms underlying the corticolimbic response to threat in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fisher, Patrick M; Hariri, Ahmad R

    2013-01-01

    . Integrating these methodological approaches offers novel opportunities to identify mechanisms through which serotonin signalling contributes to differences in brain function and behaviour, which in turn can illuminate factors that confer risk for illness and inform the development of more effective treatment...

  19. Electronic, mechanical and dielectric properties of silicane under tensile strain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jamdagni, Pooja; Sharma, Munish; Ahluwalia, P. K.; Kumar, Ashok; Thakur, Anil

    2015-01-01

    The electronic, mechanical and dielectric properties of fully hydrogenated silicene i.e. silicane in stable configuration are studied by means of density functional theory based calculations. The band gap of silicane monolayer can be flexibly reduced to zero when subjected to bi-axial tensile strain, leading to semi-conducting to metallic transition, whereas the static dielectric constant for in-plane polarization increases monotonically with increasing strain. Also the EEL function show the red shift in resonance peak with tensile strain. Our results offer useful insight for the application of silicane monolayer in nano-optical and electronics devices

  20. An investigation of the mechanism underlying teacher aggression : Testing I3 theory and the General Aggression Model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Montuoro, Paul; Mainhard, Tim

    2017-01-01

    Background: Considerable research has investigated the deleterious effects of teachers responding aggressively to students who misbehave, but the mechanism underlying this dysfunctional behaviour remains unknown. Aims: This study investigated whether the mechanism underlying teacher aggression

  1. The mechanisms underlying the enhanced resolution of atomic force microscopy with functionalized tips

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moll, Nikolaj; Gross, Leo; Mohn, Fabian; Curioni, Alessandro; Meyer, Gerhard

    2010-01-01

    By functionalizing the tip of an atomic force microscope (AFM) with a molecule or an atom that significantly contributes to the tip-sample interaction, the resolution can be dramatically enhanced. The interaction and therefore the resolution crucially depend on the chemical nature of the tip termination. Employing a tip functionalized with a CO molecule, atomic resolution of a pentacene molecule was recently demonstrated. In this work, the interaction between the CO tip and the pentacene imaged are studied with first principles calculations. The calculated frequency shifts compare very well with the experiment. The different energy contributions are analyzed and the Pauli energy is computed. We demonstrate that the source of the high resolution is Pauli repulsion, whereas van der Waals and electrostatic interactions only add a diffuse attractive background.

  2. Reliability Issues and Solutions in Flexible Electronics Under Mechanical Fatigue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Seol-Min; Choi, In-Suk; Kim, Byoung-Joon; Joo, Young-Chang

    2018-03-01

    Flexible devices are of significant interest due to their potential expansion of the application of smart devices into various fields, such as energy harvesting, biological applications and consumer electronics. Due to the mechanically dynamic operations of flexible electronics, their mechanical reliability must be thoroughly investigated to understand their failure mechanisms and lifetimes. Reliability issue caused by bending fatigue, one of the typical operational limitations of flexible electronics, has been studied using various test methodologies; however, electromechanical evaluations which are essential to assess the reliability of electronic devices for flexible applications had not been investigated because the testing method was not established. By employing the in situ bending fatigue test, we has studied the failure mechanism for various conditions and parameters, such as bending strain, fatigue area, film thickness, and lateral dimensions. Moreover, various methods for improving the bending reliability have been developed based on the failure mechanism. Nanostructures such as holes, pores, wires and composites of nanoparticles and nanotubes have been suggested for better reliability. Flexible devices were also investigated to find the potential failures initiated by complex structures under bending fatigue strain. In this review, the recent advances in test methodology, mechanism studies, and practical applications are introduced. Additionally, perspectives including the future advance to stretchable electronics are discussed based on the current achievements in research.

  3. MECHANISMS IN ENDOCRINOLOGY

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Allin, Kristine H.; Nielsen, Trine; Pedersen, Oluf.

    2015-01-01

    Perturbations of the composition and function of the gut microbiota have been associated with metabolic disorders including obesity, insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. Studies on mice have demonstrated several underlying mechanisms including host signalling through bacterial lipopolysacchari...

  4. Biochemical mechanisms of signaling: perspectives in plants under arsenic stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Ejazul; Khan, Muhammad Tahir; Irem, Samra

    2015-04-01

    Plants are the ultimate food source for humans, either directly or indirectly. Being sessile in nature, they are exposed to various biotic and abiotic stresses because of changing climate that adversely effects their growth and development. Contamination of heavy metals is one of the major abiotic stresses because of anthropogenic as well as natural factors which lead to increased toxicity and accumulation in plants. Arsenic is a naturally occurring metalloid toxin present in the earth crust. Due to its presence in terrestrial and aquatic environments, it effects the growth of plants. Plants can tolerate arsenic using several mechanisms like phytochelation, vacuole sequestration and activation of antioxidant defense systems. Several signaling mechanisms have evolved in plants that involve the use of proteins, calcium ions, hormones, reactive oxygen species and nitric oxide as signaling molecules to cope with arsenic toxicity. These mechanisms facilitate plants to survive under metal stress by activating their defense systems. The pathways by which these stress signals are perceived and responded is an unexplored area of research and there are lots of gaps still to be filled. A good understanding of these signaling pathways can help in raising the plants which can perform better in arsenic contaminated soil and water. In order to increase the survival of plants in contaminated areas there is a strong need to identify suitable gene targets that can be modified according to needs of the stakeholders using various biotechnological techniques. This review focuses on the signaling mechanisms of plants grown under arsenic stress and will give an insight of the different sensory systems in plants. Furthermore, it provides the knowledge about several pathways that can be exploited to develop plant cultivars which are resistant to arsenic stress or can reduce its uptake to minimize the risk of arsenic toxicity through food chain thus ensuring food security. Copyright © 2015

  5. Thermal stability of nafion membranes under mechanical stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quintilii, M; Struis, R [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1997-06-01

    The feasibility of adequately modified fluoro-ionomer membranes (NAFION{sup R}) is demonstrated for the selective separation of methanol synthesis products from the raw reactor gas at temperatures around 200{sup o}C. For an economically relevant application of this concept on a technical scale the Nafion membranes should be thin ({approx_equal}10 {mu}m) and thermally stable over a long period of time (1-2 years). In cooperation with industry (Methanol Casale SA, Lugano (CH)), we test the thermal stability of Nafion hollow fibers and supported Nafion thin sheet membranes at temperatures between 160 and 200{sup o}C under mechanical stress by applying a gas pressure difference over the membrane surface ({Delta}P{<=} 40 bar). Tests with the hollow fibers revealed that Nafion has visco-elastic properties. Tests with 50 {mu}m thin Nafion sheets supported by a porous metal carrier at 200{sup o}C and {Delta}P=39 bar showed no mechanical defects over a period of 92 days. (author) 5 figs., 4 refs.

  6. Language Learning Enhanced by Massive Multiple Online Role-Playing Games (MMORPGs) and the Underlying Behavioral and Neural Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yongjun; Song, Hongwen; Liu, Xiaoming; Tang, Dinghong; Chen, Yue-e; Zhang, Xiaochu

    2017-01-01

    Massive Multiple Online Role-Playing Games (MMORPGs) have increased in popularity among children, juveniles, and adults since MMORPGs’ appearance in this digital age. MMORPGs can be applied to enhancing language learning, which is drawing researchers’ attention from different fields and many studies have validated MMORPGs’ positive effect on language learning. However, there are few studies on the underlying behavioral or neural mechanism of such effect. This paper reviews the educational application of the MMORPGs based on relevant macroscopic and microscopic studies, showing that gamers’ overall language proficiency or some specific language skills can be enhanced by real-time online interaction with peers and game narratives or instructions embedded in the MMORPGs. Mechanisms underlying the educational assistant role of MMORPGs in second language learning are discussed from both behavioral and neural perspectives. We suggest that attentional bias makes gamers/learners allocate more cognitive resources toward task-related stimuli in a controlled or an automatic way. Moreover, with a moderating role played by activation of reward circuit, playing the MMORPGs may strengthen or increase functional connectivity from seed regions such as left anterior insular/frontal operculum (AI/FO) and visual word form area to other language-related brain areas. PMID:28303097

  7. Language Learning Enhanced by Massive Multiple Online Role-Playing Games (MMORPGs) and the Underlying Behavioral and Neural Mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yongjun; Song, Hongwen; Liu, Xiaoming; Tang, Dinghong; Chen, Yue-E; Zhang, Xiaochu

    2017-01-01

    Massive Multiple Online Role-Playing Games (MMORPGs) have increased in popularity among children, juveniles, and adults since MMORPGs' appearance in this digital age. MMORPGs can be applied to enhancing language learning, which is drawing researchers' attention from different fields and many studies have validated MMORPGs' positive effect on language learning. However, there are few studies on the underlying behavioral or neural mechanism of such effect. This paper reviews the educational application of the MMORPGs based on relevant macroscopic and microscopic studies, showing that gamers' overall language proficiency or some specific language skills can be enhanced by real-time online interaction with peers and game narratives or instructions embedded in the MMORPGs. Mechanisms underlying the educational assistant role of MMORPGs in second language learning are discussed from both behavioral and neural perspectives. We suggest that attentional bias makes gamers/learners allocate more cognitive resources toward task-related stimuli in a controlled or an automatic way. Moreover, with a moderating role played by activation of reward circuit, playing the MMORPGs may strengthen or increase functional connectivity from seed regions such as left anterior insular/frontal operculum (AI/FO) and visual word form area to other language-related brain areas.

  8. Alternative splicing and expression of the insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1) gene in osteoblasts under mechanical stretch

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIAN Chengyu; WANG Yuanliang; ZHANG Bingbing; TANG Liling; PAN Jun; LUO Yanfeng; JIANG Peng; LI Dajun

    2006-01-01

    Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) promotes osteoblasts differentiation and bone formation,and its expression is induced by mechanical stretch,thus IGF-1 has been considered an effector molecule that links mechanical stimulation and local tissue responses. In this study, a mechanical stretching device was designed to apply physiological level static or cyclic stretching stimulation to osteoblasts.Different isoforms of IGF-1 mRNA were amplified by RT-PCR from the cells using respective primers and these amplified products were sequenced. An isoform of IGF-1 splicing product was found to be selectively produced by osteoblasts under stretching stimulation. This IGF-1 isoform had identical sequence with the mechano growth factor (MGF) which was originally identified in muscle cells. Regulations of the expression of the liver-type IGF (L.IGF-1) and MGF in osteoblasts under stretch stimulation were further studied using semi-quantitative RT-PCR.Stretch stimulation was found to promot the expression of IGF-1 (L.IGF-1 and MGF), and for both isoforms expression was more effectively stimulated by cyclic stretch than static stretch. MGF was detected only in osteoblasts subjected to mechanical stretch,suggesting MGF was a stretch sensitive growth factor.Expression of MGF peaked earlier than that of L.IGF-1, which was similar to their regulation in muscie and suggested similar roles of MGF and L.IGF-1in bone as in muscle cells. The functions of MGF and L.IGF-1 in osteoblasts shall be established by further experimental studies.

  9. Dynamic Response and Failure Mechanism of Brittle Rocks Under Combined Compression-Shear Loading Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yuan; Dai, Feng

    2018-03-01

    A novel method is developed for characterizing the mechanical response and failure mechanism of brittle rocks under dynamic compression-shear loading: an inclined cylinder specimen using a modified split Hopkinson pressure bar (SHPB) system. With the specimen axis inclining to the loading direction of SHPB, a shear component can be introduced into the specimen. Both static and dynamic experiments are conducted on sandstone specimens. Given carefully pulse shaping, the dynamic equilibrium of the inclined specimens can be satisfied, and thus the quasi-static data reduction is employed. The normal and shear stress-strain relationships of specimens are subsequently established. The progressive failure process of the specimen illustrated via high-speed photographs manifests a mixed failure mode accommodating both the shear-dominated failure and the localized tensile damage. The elastic and shear moduli exhibit certain loading-path dependence under quasi-static loading but loading-path insensitivity under high loading rates. Loading rate dependence is evidently demonstrated through the failure characteristics involving fragmentation, compression and shear strength and failure surfaces based on Drucker-Prager criterion. Our proposed method is convenient and reliable to study the dynamic response and failure mechanism of rocks under combined compression-shear loading.

  10. "Shape function + memory mechanism"-based hysteresis modeling of magnetorheological fluid actuators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Li-Jun; Chen, Peng; Cai, Fei-Long; Bai, Xian-Xu

    2018-03-01

    A hysteresis model based on "shape function + memory mechanism" is presented and its feasibility is verified through modeling the hysteresis behavior of a magnetorheological (MR) damper. A hysteresis phenomenon in resistor-capacitor (RC) circuit is first presented and analyzed. In the hysteresis model, the "memory mechanism" originating from the charging and discharging processes of the RC circuit is constructed by adopting a virtual displacement variable and updating laws for the reference points. The "shape function" is achieved and generalized from analytical solutions of the simple semi-linear Duhem model. Using the approach, the memory mechanism reveals the essence of specific Duhem model and the general shape function provides a direct and clear means to fit the hysteresis loop. In the frame of the structure of a "Restructured phenomenological model", the original hysteresis operator, i.e., the Bouc-Wen operator, is replaced with the new hysteresis operator. The comparative work with the Bouc-Wen operator based model demonstrates superior performances of high computational efficiency and comparable accuracy of the new hysteresis operator-based model.

  11. Design options for cooperation mechanisms under the new European renewable energy directive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klessmann, Corinna; Lamers, Patrick; Ragwitz, Mario; Resch, Gustav

    2010-01-01

    In June 2009, a new EU directive on the promotion of renewable energy sources (RES) entered into effect. The directive 2009/28/EC, provides for three cooperation mechanisms that will allow member states to achieve their national RES target in cooperation with other member states: statistical transfer, joint projects, and joint support schemes. This article analyses the pros and cons of the three mechanisms and explores design options for their implementation through strategic and economic questions: How to counterbalance the major drawbacks of each mechanism? How to reflect a balance of costs and benefits between the involved member states? The analysis identifies a number of design options that respond to these questions, e.g. long term contracts to ensure sufficient flexibility for statistical transfers, a coordinated, standardised joint project approach to increase transparency in the European market, and a stepwise harmonisation of joint support schemes that is based on a cost-effective accounting approach. One conclusion is that the three cooperation mechanisms are closely interlinked. One can consider their relation to be a gradual transition from member state cooperation under fully closed national support systems in case of statistical transfers, to cooperation under fully open national support systems in a joint support scheme.

  12. Mechanisms underlying the associations of maternal age with adverse perinatal outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lawlor, Debbie A; Mortensen, Laust; Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo

    2011-01-01

    The mechanisms underlying the association between maternal age (both young and older maternal age) and adverse perinatal outcomes are unclear. Methods We examined the association of maternal age at first birth with preterm birth (<37 weeks gestation) and small for gestational age (SGA) in a cohor...

  13. Wigner functions for noncommutative quantum mechanics: A group representation based construction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chowdhury, S. Hasibul Hassan, E-mail: shhchowdhury@gmail.com [Chern Institute of Mathematics, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China); Department of Mathematics and Statistics, Concordia University, Montréal, Québec H3G 1M8 (Canada); Ali, S. Twareque, E-mail: twareque.ali@concordia.ca [Department of Mathematics and Statistics, Concordia University, Montréal, Québec H3G 1M8 (Canada)

    2015-12-15

    This paper is devoted to the construction and analysis of the Wigner functions for noncommutative quantum mechanics, their marginal distributions, and star-products, following a technique developed earlier, viz, using the unitary irreducible representations of the group G{sub NC}, which is the three fold central extension of the Abelian group of ℝ{sup 4}. These representations have been exhaustively studied in earlier papers. The group G{sub NC} is identified with the kinematical symmetry group of noncommutative quantum mechanics of a system with two degrees of freedom. The Wigner functions studied here reflect different levels of non-commutativity—both the operators of position and those of momentum not commuting, the position operators not commuting and finally, the case of standard quantum mechanics, obeying the canonical commutation relations only.

  14. Glucocorticoid mechanisms of functional connectivity changes in stress-related neuropsychiatric disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baila S. Hall

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Stress—especially chronic, uncontrollable stress—is an important risk factor for many neuropsychiatric disorders. The underlying mechanisms are complex and multifactorial, but they involve correlated changes in structural and functional measures of neuronal connectivity within cortical microcircuits and across neuroanatomically distributed brain networks. Here, we review evidence from animal models and human neuroimaging studies implicating stress-associated changes in functional connectivity in the pathogenesis of PTSD, depression, and other neuropsychiatric conditions. Changes in fMRI measures of corticocortical connectivity across distributed networks may be caused by specific structural alterations that have been observed in the prefrontal cortex, hippocampus, and other vulnerable brain regions. These effects are mediated in part by glucocorticoids, which are released from the adrenal gland in response to a stressor and also oscillate in synchrony with diurnal rhythms. Recent work indicates that circadian glucocorticoid oscillations act to balance synapse formation and pruning after learning and during development, and chronic stress disrupts this balance. We conclude by considering how disrupted glucocorticoid oscillations may contribute to the pathophysiology of depression and PTSD in vulnerable individuals, and how circadian rhythm disturbances may affect non-psychiatric populations, including frequent travelers, shift workers, and patients undergoing treatment for autoimmune disorders.

  15. Investigation of sheet steel St 37.2 under mechanical impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berg, H.P.; Brennecke, P.; Koester, R.; Friehmelt, V.

    1990-01-01

    Special waste originating, e.g. from chemical industry and radioactive wastes are emplaced in disposal mines. Slinger stowing is an approved technique to fill up residual voids in emplacement rooms. If it should be applied, possible mechanical loads on the integrity of sheet steel containers have to be considered. By theoretical calculations and by experiments under variation of different parameters using test specimen and backfill material from the Konrad mine using the container type V as an example it has been shown that sheet steel St 37.2 with a wall thickness of 3 mm will withstand mechanical impact imposed by backfill particles having a speed of 24 m/s. (orig.) [de

  16. The mechanisms underlying overgeneral autobiographical memory: an evaluative review of evidence for the CaR-FA-X model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumner, Jennifer A

    2012-02-01

    Overgeneral autobiographical memory (OGM) has been found to be an important cognitive phenomenon with respect to depression and trauma-related psychopathology (e.g., posttraumatic stress disorder), and researchers have been interested in better understanding the factors that contribute to this proposed vulnerability factor. The most prominent model of mechanisms underlying OGM to date is Williams et al.'s (2007) CaR-FA-X model. This model proposes that three processes influence OGM: capture and rumination, functional avoidance, and impaired executive control. The author reviews the current state of support for the CaR-FA-X model by evaluating 38 studies that have examined OGM and one or more mechanisms of the model. Collectively, these studies reveal robust support for associations between OGM and both rumination and impaired executive control. OGM also appears to be a cognitive avoidance strategy, and there is evidence that avoiding the retrieval of specific memories reduces distress after an aversive event, at least in the short term. Important issues that have been left unresolved are highlighted, including the nature of the capture phenomenon, the role of trauma in functional avoidance, and the developmental nature of functional avoidance. Recommendations for future research that will enhance understanding of the factors that contribute to OGM are suggested. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The Underlying Mechanism of Preventing Facial Nerve Stimulation by Triphasic Pulse Stimulation in Cochlear Implant Users Assessed With Objective Measure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahmer, Andreas; Baumann, Uwe

    2016-10-01

    Triphasic pulse stimulation prevents from facial nerve stimulation (FNS) because of a different electromyographic input-output function compared with biphasic pulse stimulation. FNS is sometimes observed in cochlear implant users as an unwanted side effect of electrical stimulation of the auditory nerve. The common stimulation applied in current cochlear implant consists of biphasic pulse patterns. Two common clinical remedies to prevent unpleasant FNS caused by activation of certain electrodes are to expand their pulse phase duration or simply deactivate them. Unfortunately, in some patients these methods do not provide sufficient FNS prevention. In these patients triphasic pulse can prevent from FNS. The underlying mechanism is yet unclear. Electromyographic (EMG) recordings of muscles innervated by the facial nerve (musculi orbicularis ori and oculi) were applied to quantitatively assess the effects on FNS. Triphasic and biphasic fitting maps were compared in four subjects with severe FNS. Based on the recordings, a model is presented which intends to explain the beneficial effects of triphasic pulse application. Triphasic stimulation provided by fitting of an OPUS 2 speech processor device. For three patients, EMG was successfully recorded depending on stimulation level up to uncomfortable and intolerable FNS stimulation as upper boarder. The obtained EMG recordings demonstrated high individual variability. However, a difference between the input-output function for biphasic and triphasic pulse stimulation was visually observable. Compared with standard biphasic stimulation, triphasic pulses require higher stimulation levels to elicit an equal amount of FNS, as reflected by EMG amplitudes. In addition, we assume a steeper slope of the input-output function for biphasic pulse stimulation compared with triphasic pulse stimulation. Triphasic pulse stimulation prevents from FNS because of a smaller gradient of EMG input-output function compared with biphasic pulse

  18. Nutritional Proteomics: Investigating molecular mechanisms underlying the health beneficial effect of functional foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuke Kawashima

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTObjective: We introduce a new technical and conceptual term “nutritional proteomics” by identifying and quantifying the proteins and their changes in a certain organ or tissue dependent on the food intake by utilizing a mass spectrometry-based proteomics technique.Purpose: Food intake is essentially important for every life on earth to sustain the physical as well as mental functions. The outcome of food intake will be manifested in the health state and its dysfunction. The molecular information about the protein expression change caused by diets will assist us to understand the significance of functional foods. We wish to develop nutritional proteomics to promote a new area in functional food studies for a better understanding of the role of functional foods in health and disease.Methods: We chose two classes of food ingredients to show the feasibility of nutritional proteomics, omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids both of which are involved in the inflammation/anti-inflammation axis. Each class of the polyunsaturated fatty acids was mixed in mouse chow respectively. The liver tissue of mice fed with omega-3 diet or omega-3 diet was analyzed by the state-of-the-art shotgun proteomics using nano-HPLC-ESI-MS/MS. The data were analyzed by the number of differentially expressed proteins that were guaranteed by 1% false discovery rate for protein identification and by the statistical significance of variance evaluated by p-value in two-tailed distribution analysis better than 0.05 (n=4. The differential pattern of protein expression was characterized with Gene Ontology designation.Results: The data analysis of the shotgun nutritional proteomics identified 2,810 proteins that are validated with 1% FDR. Among these 2,810 proteins, 125 were characterized with statistical significance of variance (p<0.05; n=4 between the omega-3 diet and the omega-6 diet by twotailed distribution analysis. The results

  19. Mechanism underlying unaltered cortical inhibitory synaptic transmission in contrast with enhanced excitatory transmission in CaV2.1 knockin migraine mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vecchia, Dania; Tottene, Angelita; van den Maagdenberg, Arn M.J.M.; Pietrobon, Daniela

    2014-01-01

    Familial hemiplegic migraine type 1 (FHM1), a monogenic subtype of migraine with aura, is caused by gain-of-function mutations in CaV2.1 (P/Q-type) calcium channels. In FHM1 knockin mice, excitatory neurotransmission at cortical pyramidal cell synapses is enhanced, but inhibitory neurotransmission at connected pairs of fast-spiking (FS) interneurons and pyramidal cells is unaltered, despite being initiated by CaV2.1 channels. The mechanism underlying the unaltered GABA release at cortical FS interneuron synapses remains unknown. Here, we show that the FHM1 R192Q mutation does not affect inhibitory transmission at autapses of cortical FS and other types of multipolar interneurons in microculture from R192Q knockin mice, and investigate the underlying mechanism. Lowering the extracellular [Ca2+] did not reveal gain-of-function of evoked transmission neither in control nor after prolongation of the action potential (AP) with tetraethylammonium, indicating unaltered AP-evoked presynaptic calcium influx at inhibitory autapses in FHM1 KI mice. Neither saturation of the presynaptic calcium sensor nor short duration of the AP can explain the unaltered inhibitory transmission in the mutant mice. Recordings of the P/Q-type calcium current in multipolar interneurons in microculture revealed that the current density and the gating properties of the CaV2.1 channels expressed in these interneurons are barely affected by the FHM1 mutation, in contrast with the enhanced current density and left-shifted activation gating of mutant CaV2.1 channels in cortical pyramidal cells. Our findings suggest that expression of specific CaV2.1 channels differentially sensitive to modulation by FHM1 mutations in inhibitory and excitatory cortical neurons underlies the gain-of-function of excitatory but unaltered inhibitory synaptic transmission and the likely consequent dysregulation of the cortical excitatory–inhibitory balance in FHM1. PMID:24907493

  20. Detecting method for crude oil price fluctuation mechanism under different periodic time series

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, Xiangyun; Fang, Wei; An, Feng; Wang, Yue

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • We proposed the concept of autoregressive modes to indicate the fluctuation patterns. • We constructed transmission networks for studying the fluctuation mechanism. • There are different fluctuation mechanism under different periodic time series. • Only a few types of autoregressive modes control the fluctuations in crude oil price. • There are cluster effects during the fluctuation mechanism of autoregressive modes. - Abstract: Current existing literatures can characterize the long-term fluctuation of crude oil price time series, however, it is difficult to detect the fluctuation mechanism specifically under short term. Because each fluctuation pattern for one short period contained in a long-term crude oil price time series have dynamic characteristics of diversity; in other words, there exhibit various fluctuation patterns in different short periods and transmit to each other, which reflects the reputedly complicate and chaotic oil market. Thus, we proposed an incorporated method to detect the fluctuation mechanism, which is the evolution of the different fluctuation patterns over time from the complex network perspective. We divided crude oil price time series into segments using sliding time windows, and defined autoregressive modes based on regression models to indicate the fluctuation patterns of each segment. Hence, the transmissions between different types of autoregressive modes over time form a transmission network that contains rich dynamic information. We then capture transmission characteristics of autoregressive modes under different periodic time series through the structure features of the transmission networks. The results indicate that there are various autoregressive modes with significantly different statistical characteristics under different periodic time series. However, only a few types of autoregressive modes and transmission patterns play a major role in the fluctuation mechanism of the crude oil price, and these

  1. Functional hierarchy underlies preferential connectivity disturbances in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Genevieve J; Murray, John D; Wang, Xiao-Jing; Glahn, David C; Pearlson, Godfrey D; Repovs, Grega; Krystal, John H; Anticevic, Alan

    2016-01-12

    Schizophrenia may involve an elevated excitation/inhibition (E/I) ratio in cortical microcircuits. It remains unknown how this regulatory disturbance maps onto neuroimaging findings. To address this issue, we implemented E/I perturbations within a neural model of large-scale functional connectivity, which predicted hyperconnectivity following E/I elevation. To test predictions, we examined resting-state functional MRI in 161 schizophrenia patients and 164 healthy subjects. As predicted, patients exhibited elevated functional connectivity that correlated with symptom levels, and was most prominent in association cortices, such as the fronto-parietal control network. This pattern was absent in patients with bipolar disorder (n = 73). To account for the pattern observed in schizophrenia, we integrated neurobiologically plausible, hierarchical differences in association vs. sensory recurrent neuronal dynamics into our model. This in silico architecture revealed preferential vulnerability of association networks to E/I imbalance, which we verified empirically. Reported effects implicate widespread microcircuit E/I imbalance as a parsimonious mechanism for emergent inhomogeneous dysconnectivity in schizophrenia.

  2. Quantum Statistical Mechanics, L-Series and Anabelian Geometry I: Partition Functions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marcolli, Matilde; Cornelissen, Gunther

    2014-01-01

    The zeta function of a number field can be interpreted as the partition function of an associated quantum statistical mechanical (QSM) system, built from abelian class field theory. We introduce a general notion of isomorphism of QSM-systems and prove that it preserves (extremal) KMS equilibrium

  3. Reliability-based optimization of maintenance scheduling of mechanical components under fatigue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaurepaire, P.; Valdebenito, M.A.; Schuëller, G.I.; Jensen, H.A.

    2012-01-01

    This study presents the optimization of the maintenance scheduling of mechanical components under fatigue loading. The cracks of damaged structures may be detected during non-destructive inspection and subsequently repaired. Fatigue crack initiation and growth show inherent variability, and as well the outcome of inspection activities. The problem is addressed under the framework of reliability based optimization. The initiation and propagation of fatigue cracks are efficiently modeled using cohesive zone elements. The applicability of the method is demonstrated by a numerical example, which involves a plate with two holes subject to alternating stress. PMID:23564979

  4. Mechanical and Thermal Properties of Styrene Butadiene Rubber - Functionalized Carbon Nanotubes Nanocomposites

    KAUST Repository

    Laoui, Tahar

    2013-01-01

    The effect of reinforcing styrene butadiene rubber (SBR) with functionalized carbon nanotubes on the mechanical and thermal properties of the nanocomposite was investigated. Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were functionalized with phenol

  5. Behavior of duplex stainless steel casting defects under mechanical loadings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jayet-Gendrot, S.; Gilles, P.

    2000-01-01

    Several components in the primary circuit of pressurized water reactors are made of cast duplex stainless steels. This material contains small casting defects, mainly shrinkage cavities, due to the manufacturing process. In safety analyses, the structural integrity of the components is studied under the most severe assumptions: presence of a large defect, accidental loadings and end-of-life material properties accounting for its thermal aging embrittlement at the service temperature. The casting defects are idealized as semi-circular surface cracks or notches that have envelope dimensions. In order to assess the real severity of the casting defects under mechanical loadings, an experimental program was carried out. It consisted of testing, under both cyclic and monotonic solicitations, three-point bend specimens containing either a natural defect (in the form of a localized cluster of cavities) or a machined notch having the dimensions of the cluster's envelope. The results show that shrinkage cavities are far less harmful than envelope notches thanks to the metal bridges between cavities. Under fatigue loadings, the generalized initiation of a cluster of cavities (defined when the cluster becomes a crack of the same global size) is reached for a number of cycles that is much higher than the one leading to the initiation of a notch. In the case of monotonic loadings, specimens with casting defects offer a very high resistance to ductile tearing. The tests are analyzed in order to develop a method that takes into account the behavior of casting defects in a more realistic fashion than by an envelope crack. Various approaches are investigated, including the search of equivalent defects or of criteria based on continuum mechanics concepts, and compared with literature data. This study shows the conservatism of current safety analyses in modeling casting defects by envelope semi-elliptical cracks and contributes to the development of alternative approaches. (orig.)

  6. Contact force and mechanical loss of multistage cable under tension and bending

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ru, Yanyun; Yong, Huadong; Zhou, Youhe

    2016-10-01

    A theoretical model for calculating the stress and strain states of cabling structures with different loadings has been developed in this paper. We solve the problem for the first- and second-stage cable with tensile or bending strain. The contact and friction forces between the strands are presented by two-dimensional contact model. Several theoretical models have been proposed to verify the results when the triplet subjected to the tensile strain, including contact force, contact stresses, and mechanical loss. It is found that loadings will affect the friction force and the mechanical loss of the triplet. The results show that the contact force and mechanical loss are dependent on the twist pitch. A shorter twist pitch can lead to higher contact force, while the trend of mechanical loss with twist pitch is complicated. The mechanical loss may be reduced by adjusting the twist pitch reasonably. The present model provides a simple analysis method to investigate the mechanical behaviors in multistage-structures under different loads.

  7. Materials properties utilization in a cumulative mechanical damage function for LMFBR fuel pin failure analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobs, D.C.

    1977-01-01

    An overview is presented of one of the fuel-pin analysis techniques used in the CRBRP program, the cumulative mechanical damage function. This technique, as applied to LMFBR's, was developed along with the majority of models used to describe the mechanical properties and environmental behavior of the cladding (i.e., 20 percent cold-worked, 316 stainless steel). As it relates to fuel-pin analyses the Cumulative Mechanical Damage Function (CDF) continually monitors cladding integrity through steady state and transient operation; it is a time dependent function of temperature and stress which reflects the effects of both the prior mechanical history and the variations in mechanical properties caused by exposure to the reactor environment

  8. Approximation solutions for indifference pricing under general utility functions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, An; Pelsser, Antoon; Vellekoop, M.H.

    2008-01-01

    With the aid of Taylor-based approximations, this paper presents results for pricing insurance contracts by using indifference pricing under general utility functions. We discuss the connection between the resulting "theoretical" indifference prices and the pricing rule-of-thumb that practitioners

  9. Approximate Solutions for Indifference Pricing under General Utility Functions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, A.; Pelsser, A.; Vellekoop, M.

    2007-01-01

    With the aid of Taylor-based approximations, this paper presents results for pricing insurance contracts by using indifference pricing under general utility functions. We discuss the connection between the resulting "theoretical" indifference prices and the pricing rule-of-thumb that practitioners

  10. Friction Stir Weld Failure Mechanisms in Aluminum-Armor Structures Under Ballistic Impact Loading Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    REPORT Friction Stir Weld Failure Mechanisms in Aluminum-Armor Structures Under Ballistic Impact Loading Conditions 14. ABSTRACT 16. SECURITY...properties and of the attendant ballistic-impact failure mechanisms in prototypical friction stir welding (FSW) joints found in armor structures made of high...mechanisms, friction stir welding M. Grujicic, B. Pandurangan, A. Arakere, C-F. Yen, B. A. Cheeseman Clemson University Office of Sponsored Programs 300

  11. Mechanisms underlying prorenin actions on hypothalamic neurons implicated in cardiometabolic control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soledad Pitra

    2016-10-01

    Conclusions: We identified novel neuronal targets and cellular mechanisms underlying PR/PRR actions in critical hypothalamic neurons involved in cardiometabolic regulation. This fundamental mechanistic information regarding central PR/PRR actions is essential for the development of novel RAS-based therapeutic targets for the treatment of cardiometabolic disorders in obesity and hypertension.

  12. Structure-Function Relations in Physiology Education: Where's the Mechanism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lira, Matthew E.; Gardner, Stephanie M.

    2017-01-01

    Physiology demands systems thinking: reasoning within and between levels of biological organization and across different organ systems. Many physiological mechanisms explain how structures and their properties interact at one level of organization to produce emergent functions at a higher level of organization. Current physiology principles, such…

  13. Biomechanical mechanisms underlying exosuit-induced improvements in walking economy after stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Jaehyun; Awad, Louis N; Long, Andrew; O'Donnell, Kathleen; Hendron, Katy; Holt, Kenneth G; Ellis, Terry D; Walsh, Conor J

    2018-03-07

    Stroke-induced hemiparetic gait is characteristically asymmetric and metabolically expensive. Weakness and impaired control of the paretic ankle contribute to reduced forward propulsion and ground clearance - walking subtasks critical for safe and efficient locomotion. Targeted gait interventions that improve paretic ankle function after stroke are therefore warranted. We have developed textile-based, soft wearable robots that transmit mechanical power generated by off-board or body-worn actuators to the paretic ankle using Bowden cables (soft exosuits) and have demonstrated the exosuits can overcome deficits in paretic limb forward propulsion and ground clearance, ultimately reducing the metabolic cost of hemiparetic walking. This study elucidates the biomechanical mechanisms underlying exosuit-induced reductions in metabolic power. We evaluated the relationships between exosuit-induced changes in the body center of mass (COM) power generated by each limb, individual joint power and metabolic power. Compared with walking with an exosuit unpowered, exosuit assistance produced more symmetrical COM power generation during the critical period of the step-to-step transition (22.4±6.4% more symmetric). Changes in individual limb COM power were related to changes in paretic ( R 2 =0.83, P= 0.004) and non-paretic ( R 2 = 0.73, P= 0.014) ankle power. Interestingly, despite the exosuit providing direct assistance to only the paretic limb, changes in metabolic power were related to changes in non-paretic limb COM power ( R 2 =0.80, P= 0.007), not paretic limb COM power ( P> 0.05). These findings contribute to a fundamental understanding of how individuals post-stroke interact with an exosuit to reduce the metabolic cost of hemiparetic walking. © 2018. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  14. Model test study of evaporation mechanism of sand under constant atmospheric condition

    OpenAIRE

    CUI, Yu Jun; DING, Wenqi; SONG, Weikang

    2014-01-01

    The evaporation mechanism of Fontainebleau sand using a large-scale model chamber is studied. First, the evaporation test on a layer of water above sand surface is performed under various atmospheric conditions, validating the performance of the chamber and the calculation method of actual evaporation rate by comparing the calculated and measured cumulative evaporations. Second,the evaporation test on sand without water layer is conducted under constant atmospheric condition. Both the evoluti...

  15. Gigaseal Mechanics: Creep of the Gigaseal under the Action of Pressure, Adhesion, and Voltage

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Patch clamping depends on a tight seal between the cell membrane and the glass of the pipet. Why does the seal have such high electric resistance? Why does the patch adhere so strongly to the glass? Even under the action of strong hydrostatic, adhesion, and electrical forces, it creeps at a very low velocity. To explore possible explanations, we examined two physical models for the structure of the seal zone and the adhesion forces and two respective mechanisms of patch creep and electric conductivity. There is saline between the membrane and glass in the seal, and the flow of this solution under hydrostatic pressure or electroosmosis should drag a patch. There is a second possibility: the lipid core of the membrane is liquid and should be able to flow, with the inner monolayer slipping over the outer one. Both mechanisms predict the creep velocity as a function of the properties of the seal and the membrane, the pipet geometry, and the driving force. These model predictions are compared with experimental data for azolectin liposomes with added cholesterol or proteins. It turns out that to obtain experimentally observed creep velocities, a simple viscous flow in the seal zone requires ∼10 Pa·s viscosity; it is unclear what structure might provide that because that viscosity alone severely constrains the electric resistance of the gigaseal. Possibly, it is the fluid bilayer that allows the motion. The two models provide an estimate of the adhesion energy of the membrane to the glass and membrane’s electric characteristics through the comparison between the velocities of pressure-, adhesion-, and voltage-driven creep. PMID:25295693

  16. Contraction and elongation: Mechanics underlying cell boundary deformations in epithelial tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hara, Yusuke

    2017-06-01

    The cell-cell boundaries of epithelial cells form cellular frameworks at the apical side of tissues. Deformations in these boundaries, for example, boundary contraction and elongation, and the associated forces form the mechanical basis of epithelial tissue morphogenesis. In this review, using data from recent Drosophila studies on cell boundary contraction and elongation, I provide an overview of the mechanism underlying the bi-directional deformations in the epithelial cell boundary, that are sustained by biased accumulations of junctional and apico-medial non-muscle myosin II. Moreover, how the junctional tensions exist on cell boundaries in different boundary dynamics and morphologies are discussed. Finally, some future perspectives on how recent knowledge about single cell boundary-level mechanics will contribute to our understanding of epithelial tissue morphogenesis are discussed. © 2017 Japanese Society of Developmental Biologists.

  17. Neurotrophin Propeptides: Biological Functions and Molecular Mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafieva, Lola M; Gasanov, Eugene V

    2016-01-01

    Neurotrophins constitute a family of growth factors that play a key role in the regulation of the development and function of the central and peripheral nervous systems. A common feature of all the neurotrophins is their synthesis in cells as long precursors (pre-pro-neurotrophins) that contain an N-terminal signal peptide, a following propeptide and the mature neurotrophin. Although the signal peptide functions have been well studied, the role of neurotrophin propeptides is not so clear. Here, we briefly summarize the biochemistry of neurotrophin propeptides, including their role as folding-assistants for the mature factor and their role in processing and in secretion of neurotrophins. In the main part of the review we summarize our current state of knowledge of the biological activity of neurotrophin propeptides, their possible mechanisms of action, and their potential influence on the activity of the mature neurotrophins.

  18. The meaning of the wave function in search of the ontology of quantum mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Gao, Shan

    2017-01-01

    At the heart of quantum mechanics lies the wave function, a powerful but mysterious mathematical object which has been a hot topic of debate from its earliest stages. Covering much of the recent debate and providing a comprehensive and critical review of competing approaches, this ambitious text provides new, decisive proof of the reality of the wave function. Aiming to make sense of the wave function in quantum mechanics and to find the ontological content of the theory, this book explores new ontological interpretations of the wave function in terms of random discontinuous motion of particles. Finally, the book investigates whether the suggested quantum ontology is complete in solving the measurement problem and if it should be revised in the relativistic domain. A timely addition to the literature on the foundations of quantum mechanics, this book is of value to students and researchers with an interest in the philosophy of physics. Presents a concise introduction to quantum mechanics, including the c...

  19. Regulatory mechanisms of RNA function: emerging roles of DNA repair enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jobert, Laure; Nilsen, Hilde

    2014-07-01

    The acquisition of an appropriate set of chemical modifications is required in order to establish correct structure of RNA molecules, and essential for their function. Modification of RNA bases affects RNA maturation, RNA processing, RNA quality control, and protein translation. Some RNA modifications are directly involved in the regulation of these processes. RNA epigenetics is emerging as a mechanism to achieve dynamic regulation of RNA function. Other modifications may prevent or be a signal for degradation. All types of RNA species are subject to processing or degradation, and numerous cellular mechanisms are involved. Unexpectedly, several studies during the last decade have established a connection between DNA and RNA surveillance mechanisms in eukaryotes. Several proteins that respond to DNA damage, either to process or to signal the presence of damaged DNA, have been shown to participate in RNA quality control, turnover or processing. Some enzymes that repair DNA damage may also process modified RNA substrates. In this review, we give an overview of the DNA repair proteins that function in RNA metabolism. We also discuss the roles of two base excision repair enzymes, SMUG1 and APE1, in RNA quality control.

  20. Mechanical Behaviour of Bolted Joints Under Impact Rates of Loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    M. (1995). Bearing Strength of Autoclave and oven cured kevlar / epoxy laminates under static and dynamic loading. Compostes, 451-456. Kretsis, G...Joints in Glass Fibre/ Epoxy Laminates. Composites, Volume 16. No 2. Kolsky, H. (1949). An Investigation of the Mechanical Properties of Materials at...elongating the pulse width. The responses are read by the strain gages bonded on the incident and transmission bar with Vishay AE-10 epoxy . The gages

  1. Conformational transitions and interactions underlying the function of membrane embedded receptor protein kinases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bocharov, Eduard V; Sharonov, Georgy V; Bocharova, Olga V; Pavlov, Konstantin V

    2017-09-01

    Among membrane receptors, the single-span receptor protein kinases occupy a broad but specific functional niche determined by distinctive features of the underlying transmembrane signaling mechanisms that are briefly overviewed on the basis of some of the most representative examples, followed by a more detailed discussion of several hierarchical levels of organization and interactions involved. All these levels, including single-molecule interactions (e.g., dimerization, liganding, chemical modifications), local processes (e.g. lipid membrane perturbations, cytoskeletal interactions), and larger scale phenomena (e.g., effects of membrane surface shape or electrochemical potential gradients) appear to be closely integrated to achieve the observed diversity of the receptor functioning. Different species of receptor protein kinases meet their specific functional demands through different structural features defining their responses to stimulation, but certain common patterns exist. Signaling by receptor protein kinases is typically associated with the receptor dimerization and clustering, ligand-induced rearrangements of receptor domains through allosteric conformational transitions with involvement of lipids, release of the sequestered lipids, restriction of receptor diffusion, cytoskeleton and membrane shape remodeling. Understanding of complexity and continuity of the signaling processes can help identifying currently neglected opportunities for influencing the receptor signaling with potential therapeutic implications. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Interactions between membrane receptors in cellular membranes edited by Kalina Hristova. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Studies on Molecular Mechanisms Underlying Spinocerebellar Ataxia Type 3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Line Vildbrad

    . Even though a range of mechanisms contributing to polyQ diseases have been uncovered, there is still no treatment available. One of the more common polyQ diseases is SCA3, which is caused by a polyQ expansion in the ataxin-3 protein that normally functions as a deubiquitinating enzyme involved...... in protein quality control. In SCA3 patients polyQ expanded ataxin-3 forms intranuclear inclusions in various brain areas, but why the polyQ expansion of ataxin-3 leads to neuronal dysfunction is still not well understood. This thesis describes molecular biological investigations of ataxin-3 biology, aimed...... at furthering our understanding of SCA3 disease mechanisms. In manuscript I, we investigated if post-translational modifications of ataxin-3 were changed by the polyQ expansion. The ubiquitin chain topology and ubiquitination pattern of ataxin-3 were unaltered by the polyQ expansion. In contrast...

  3. Mechanical system reliability analysis using a combination of graph theory and Boolean function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, J.

    2001-01-01

    A new method based on graph theory and Boolean function for assessing reliability of mechanical systems is proposed. The procedure for this approach consists of two parts. By using the graph theory, the formula for the reliability of a mechanical system that considers the interrelations of subsystems or components is generated. Use of the Boolean function to examine the failure interactions of two particular elements of the system, followed with demonstrations of how to incorporate such failure dependencies into the analysis of larger systems, a constructive algorithm for quantifying the genuine interconnections between the subsystems or components is provided. The combination of graph theory and Boolean function provides an effective way to evaluate the reliability of a large, complex mechanical system. A numerical example demonstrates that this method an effective approaches in system reliability analysis

  4. A mechanical design principle for tissue structure and function in the airway tree.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaPrad, Adam S; Lutchen, Kenneth R; Suki, Béla

    2013-01-01

    With every breath, the dynamically changing mechanical pressures must work in unison with the cells and soft tissue structures of the lung to permit air to efficiently traverse the airway tree and undergo gas exchange in the alveoli. The influence of mechanics on cell and tissue function is becoming apparent, raising the question: how does the airway tree co-exist within its mechanical environment to maintain normal cell function throughout its branching structure of diminishing dimensions? We introduce a new mechanical design principle for the conducting airway tree in which mechanotransduction at the level of cells is driven to orchestrate airway wall structural changes that can best maintain a preferred mechanical microenvironment. To support this principle, we report in vitro radius-transmural pressure relations for a range of airway radii obtained from healthy bovine lungs and model the data using a strain energy function together with a thick-walled cylinder description. From this framework, we estimate circumferential stresses and incremental Young's moduli throughout the airway tree. Our results indicate that the conducting airways consistently operate within a preferred mechanical homeostatic state, termed mechanical homeostasis, that is characterized by a narrow range of circumferential stresses and Young's moduli. This mechanical homeostatic state is maintained for all airways throughout the tree via airway wall dimensional and mechanical relationships. As a consequence, cells within the airway walls throughout the airway tree experience similar oscillatory strains during breathing that are much smaller than previously thought. Finally, we discuss the potential implications of how the maintenance of mechanical homeostasis, while facilitating healthy tissue-level alterations necessary for maturation, may lead to airway wall structural changes capable of chronic asthma.

  5. A mechanical design principle for tissue structure and function in the airway tree.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam S LaPrad

    Full Text Available With every breath, the dynamically changing mechanical pressures must work in unison with the cells and soft tissue structures of the lung to permit air to efficiently traverse the airway tree and undergo gas exchange in the alveoli. The influence of mechanics on cell and tissue function is becoming apparent, raising the question: how does the airway tree co-exist within its mechanical environment to maintain normal cell function throughout its branching structure of diminishing dimensions? We introduce a new mechanical design principle for the conducting airway tree in which mechanotransduction at the level of cells is driven to orchestrate airway wall structural changes that can best maintain a preferred mechanical microenvironment. To support this principle, we report in vitro radius-transmural pressure relations for a range of airway radii obtained from healthy bovine lungs and model the data using a strain energy function together with a thick-walled cylinder description. From this framework, we estimate circumferential stresses and incremental Young's moduli throughout the airway tree. Our results indicate that the conducting airways consistently operate within a preferred mechanical homeostatic state, termed mechanical homeostasis, that is characterized by a narrow range of circumferential stresses and Young's moduli. This mechanical homeostatic state is maintained for all airways throughout the tree via airway wall dimensional and mechanical relationships. As a consequence, cells within the airway walls throughout the airway tree experience similar oscillatory strains during breathing that are much smaller than previously thought. Finally, we discuss the potential implications of how the maintenance of mechanical homeostasis, while facilitating healthy tissue-level alterations necessary for maturation, may lead to airway wall structural changes capable of chronic asthma.

  6. Mechanical responses of a-axis GaN nanowires under axial loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, R. J.; Wang, C. Y.; Feng, Y. T.; Tang, Chun

    2018-03-01

    Gallium nitride (GaN) nanowires (NWs) hold technological significance as functional components in emergent nano-piezotronics. However, the examination of their mechanical responses, especially the mechanistic understanding of behavior beyond elasticity (at failure) remains limited due to the constraints of in situ experimentation. We therefore performed simulations of the molecular dynamics (MD) of the mechanical behavior of [1\\bar{2}10]-oriented GaN NWs subjected to tension or compression loading until failure. The mechanical properties and critical deformation processes are characterized in relation to NW sizes and loading conditions. Detailed examinations revealed that the failure mechanisms are size-dependent and controlled by the dislocation mobility on shuffle-set pyramidal planes. The size dependence of the elastic behavior is also examined in terms of the surface structure determined modification of Young’s modulus. In addition, a comparison with c-axis NWs is made to show how size-effect trends vary with the growth orientation of NWs.

  7. Unraveling the mechanisms underlying postural instability in Parkinson's disease using dynamic posturography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nonnekes, J.H.; Kam, D. de; Geurts, A.C.; Weerdesteijn, V.G.M.; Bloem, B.R.

    2013-01-01

    Postural instability, one of the cardinal symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD), has devastating consequences for affected patients. Better strategies to prevent falls are needed, but this calls for an improved understanding of the complex mechanisms underlying postural instability. We must also

  8. Feeding Problems and Their Underlying Mechanisms in the Esophageal Atresia–Tracheoesophageal Fistula Patient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahoney, Lisa; Rosen, Rachel

    2017-01-01

    Feeding difficulties such as dysphagia, coughing, choking, or vomiting during meals, slow eating, oral aversion, food refusal, and stressful mealtimes are common in children with repaired esophageal atresia (EA) and the reasons for this are often multifactorial. The aim of this review is to describe the possible underlying mechanisms contributing to feeding difficulties in patients with EA and approaches to management. Underlying mechanisms for these feeding difficulties include esophageal dysphagia, oropharyngeal dysphagia and aspiration, and aversions related to prolonged gastrostomy tube feeding. The initial diagnostic evaluation for feeding difficulties in a patient with EA may involve an esophagram, videofluoroscopic imaging or fiberoptic endoscopic evaluation during swallowing, upper endoscopy with biopsies, pH-impedance testing, and/or esophageal motility studies. The main goal of management is to reduce the factors contributing to feeding difficulties and may include reducing esophageal stasis, maximizing reflux therapies, treating underlying lung disease, dilating strictures, and altering feeding methods, routes, or schedules. PMID:28620597

  9. Intercellular Ca2+ Waves: Mechanisms and Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanderson, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    Intercellular calcium (Ca2+) waves (ICWs) represent the propagation of increases in intracellular Ca2+ through a syncytium of cells and appear to be a fundamental mechanism for coordinating multicellular responses. ICWs occur in a wide diversity of cells and have been extensively studied in vitro. More recent studies focus on ICWs in vivo. ICWs are triggered by a variety of stimuli and involve the release of Ca2+ from internal stores. The propagation of ICWs predominately involves cell communication with internal messengers moving via gap junctions or extracellular messengers mediating paracrine signaling. ICWs appear to be important in both normal physiology as well as pathophysiological processes in a variety of organs and tissues including brain, liver, retina, cochlea, and vascular tissue. We review here the mechanisms of initiation and propagation of ICWs, the key intra- and extracellular messengers (inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate and ATP) mediating ICWs, and the proposed physiological functions of ICWs. PMID:22811430

  10. Mechanical properties of cellulose electro-active paper under different environmental conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Heung Soo; Kim, Jaehwan; Jung, Woochul; Ampofo, Joshua; Craft, William; Sankar, Jagannathan

    2008-01-01

    The mechanical properties of cellulose-based electro-active paper (EAPap) are investigated under various environmental conditions. Cellulose EAPap has been discovered as a smart material that can be used as both sensor and actuator. Its advantages include low voltage operation, light weight, low power consumption, biodegradability and low cost. EAPap is made with cellulose paper coated with thin electrodes. EAPap shows a reversible and reproducible bending movement as well as longitudinal displacement under an electric field. However, EAPap is a complex anisotropic material which has not been fully characterized. This study investigates the mechanical properties of cellulose-based EAPap, including Young's modulus, yield strength, ultimate strength and creep, along with orientation directions, humidity and temperature levels. To test the materials in different humidity and temperature levels, a special material testing system was made that can control the testing environmental conditions. The initial Young's modulus of EAPap is in the range of 4–9 GPa, which was higher than that of other polymer materials. Also, the Young's modulus is orientation dependent, which may be associated with the piezoelectricity of EAPap materials. The elastic strength and stiffness gradually decreased when the humidity and temperature were increased. Creep and relaxation were observed under constant stress and strain, respectively. Through scanning electron microscopy, EAPap is shown to exhibit both layered and oriented cellulose macromolecular structures that impact both the elastic and plastic behavior

  11. Deterioration of mechanical properties of high strength structural steel S460N under transient state fire condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiang, Xuhong; Bijlaard, Frans S.K.; Kolstein, Henk

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Mechanical properties of S460N under transient state fire condition are obtained. ► Elevated-temperature mechanical properties of steels are dependent on steel grades. ► No design standard is applicable to HSS S460N under transient state fire condition. ► Specific statements on various HSS in fire should be proposed in design standards. ► Research results offer accurate material property for structural design engineers. -- Abstract: 911 World Trade Centre Tragedy put fire safety of constructional steel structures into question. Since then, more and more research attention has been paid to the elevated-temperature mechanical properties of structural steels, which is a critical basis of evaluating the fire performance of steel structures. In the literature the available mechanical properties of structural steels under fire conditions were mainly obtained from steady state test method, as steady state test method is easier to perform than transient state test method and offers stress–strain curves directly. However, the transient state fire condition is considered to be more realistic to represent the real condition when constructions are exposed to fire. In order to reveal the deterioration of mechanical properties of the commonly used high strength structural steel S460N under transient state fire condition, tensile tests were conducted under various constant stress levels up to 800 MPa. The reduction factors of elastic modulus, yield and ultimate strengths of S460N under transient state fire condition were obtained and compared with current leading design standards and available literature. The application of such accurate elevated-temperature mechanical properties reduction factors of S460N can ensure a safe fire-resistance design and evaluation of steel structures with high strength steel S460N under transient state fire condition. This experimental study also supports other relative research on fire performance of steel structures with

  12. Power System Stabilizer Design Based on a Particle Swarm Optimization Multiobjective Function Implemented Under Graphical Interface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghouraf Djamel Eddine

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Power system stability considered a necessary condition for normal functioning of an electrical network. The role of regulation and control systems is to ensure that stability by determining the essential elements that influence it. This paper proposes a Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO based multiobjective function to tuning optimal parameters of Power System Stabilizer (PSS; this later is used as auxiliary to generator excitation system in order to damp electro mechanicals oscillations of the rotor and consequently improve Power system stability. The computer simulation results obtained by developed graphical user interface (GUI have proved the efficiency of PSS optimized by a Particle Swarm Optimization, in comparison with a conventional PSS, showing stable   system   responses   almost   insensitive   to   large parameter variations.Our present study was performed using a GUI realized under MATLAB in our work.

  13. Temporal shifts in clinical presentation and underlying mechanisms of atherosclerotic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasterkamp, Gerard; den Ruijter, Hester M; Libby, Peter

    2017-01-01

    The concept of the 'vulnerable plaque' originated from pathological observations in patients who died from acute coronary syndrome. This recognition spawned a generation of research that led to greater understanding of how complicated atherosclerotic plaques form and precipitate thrombotic events. In current practice, an increasing number of patients who survive their first event present with non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI) rather than myocardial infarction (MI) with ST-segment elevation (STEMI). The culprit lesions that provide the pathological substrate for NSTEMI can vary considerably from the so-called 'vulnerable plaque'. The shift in clinical presentation of MI and stroke corresponds temporally to a progressive change in the characteristics of human plaques away from the supposed characteristics of vulnerability. These alterations in the structure and function of human atherosclerotic lesions might mirror the modifications that are produced in experimental plaques by lipid lowering, inspired by the vulnerable plaque construct. The shift in the clinical presentations of the acute coronary syndromes mandates a critical reassessment of the underlying mechanisms, proposed risk scores, the results and interpretation of preclinical experiments, as well as recognition of the limitations of the use of population data and samples collected before the application of current preventive interventions.

  14. How diagnostic tests help to disentangle the mechanisms underlying neuropathic pain symptoms in painful neuropathies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truini, Andrea; Cruccu, Giorgio

    2016-02-01

    Neuropathic pain, ie, pain arising directly from a lesion or disease affecting the somatosensory afferent pathway, manifests with various symptoms, the commonest being ongoing burning pain, electrical shock-like sensations, and dynamic mechanical allodynia. Reliable insights into the mechanisms underlying neuropathic pain symptoms come from diagnostic tests documenting and quantifying somatosensory afferent pathway damage in patients with painful neuropathies. Neurophysiological investigation and skin biopsy studies suggest that ongoing burning pain primarily reflects spontaneous activity in nociceptive-fiber pathways. Electrical shock-like sensations presumably arise from high-frequency ectopic bursts generated in demyelinated, nonnociceptive, Aβ fibers. Although the mechanisms underlying dynamic mechanical allodynia remain debatable, normally innocuous stimuli might cause pain by activating spared and sensitized nociceptive afferents. Extending the mechanistic approach to neuropathic pain symptoms might advance targeted therapy for the individual patient and improve testing for new drugs.

  15. Passaged adult chondrocytes can form engineered cartilage with functional mechanical properties: a canine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Kenneth W; Lima, Eric G; Bian, Liming; O'Conor, Christopher J; Jayabalan, Prakash S; Stoker, Aaron M; Kuroki, Keiichi; Cook, Cristi R; Ateshian, Gerard A; Cook, James L; Hung, Clark T

    2010-03-01

    It was hypothesized that previously optimized serum-free culture conditions for juvenile bovine chondrocytes could be adapted to generate engineered cartilage with physiologic mechanical properties in a preclinical, adult canine model. Primary or passaged (using growth factors) adult chondrocytes from three adult dogs were encapsulated in agarose, and cultured in serum-free media with transforming growth factor-beta3. After 28 days in culture, engineered cartilage formed by primary chondrocytes exhibited only small increases in glycosaminoglycan content. However, all passaged chondrocytes on day 28 elaborated a cartilage matrix with compressive properties and glycosaminoglycan content in the range of native adult canine cartilage values. A preliminary biocompatibility study utilizing chondral and osteochondral constructs showed no gross or histological signs of rejection, with all implanted constructs showing excellent integration with surrounding cartilage and subchondral bone. This study demonstrates that adult canine chondrocytes can form a mechanically functional, biocompatible engineered cartilage tissue under optimized culture conditions. The encouraging findings of this work highlight the potential for tissue engineering strategies using adult chondrocytes in the clinical treatment of cartilage defects.

  16. TRPA1 mediates changes in heart rate variability and cardiac mechanical function in mice exposed to acrolein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurhanewicz, Nicole [Curriculum in Toxicology, School of Medicine, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 (United States); McIntosh-Kastrinsky, Rachel [Department of Environmental Sciences and Engineering, Gillings School of Global Public Health, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 (United States); Tong, Haiyan; Ledbetter, Allen; Walsh, Leon; Farraj, Aimen [Environmental Public Health Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, US Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711 (United States); Hazari, Mehdi, E-mail: hazari.mehdi@epa.gov [Environmental Public Health Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, US Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711 (United States)

    2017-06-01

    Short-term exposure to ambient air pollution is linked with adverse cardiovascular effects. While previous research focused primarily on particulate matter-induced responses, gaseous air pollutants also contribute to cause short-term cardiovascular effects. Mechanisms underlying such effects have not been adequately described, however the immediate nature of the response suggests involvement of irritant neural activation and downstream autonomic dysfunction. Thus, this study examines the role of TRPA1, an irritant sensory receptor found in the airways, in the cardiac response of mice to acrolein and ozone. Conscious unrestrained wild-type C57BL/6 (WT) and TRPA1 knockout (KO) mice implanted with radiotelemeters were exposed once to 3 ppm acrolein, 0.3 ppm ozone, or filtered air. Heart rate (HR) and electrocardiogram (ECG) were recorded continuously before, during and after exposure. Analysis of ECG morphology, incidence of arrhythmia and heart rate variability (HRV) were performed. Cardiac mechanical function was assessed using a Langendorff perfusion preparation 24 h post-exposure. Acrolein exposure increased HRV independent of HR, as well as incidence of arrhythmia. Acrolein also increased left ventricular developed pressure in WT mice at 24 h post-exposure. Ozone did not produce any changes in cardiac function. Neither gas produced ECG effects, changes in HRV, arrhythmogenesis, or mechanical function in KO mice. These data demonstrate that a single exposure to acrolein causes cardiac dysfunction through TRPA1 activation and autonomic imbalance characterized by a shift toward parasympathetic modulation. Furthermore, it is clear from the lack of ozone effects that although gaseous irritants are capable of eliciting immediate cardiac changes, gas concentration and properties play important roles. - Highlights: • Acute acrolein exposure causes autonomic imbalance and altered CV function in mice. • TRPA1 mediates acrolein-induced autonomic nervous system cardiac

  17. TRPA1 mediates changes in heart rate variability and cardiac mechanical function in mice exposed to acrolein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurhanewicz, Nicole; McIntosh-Kastrinsky, Rachel; Tong, Haiyan; Ledbetter, Allen; Walsh, Leon; Farraj, Aimen; Hazari, Mehdi

    2017-01-01

    Short-term exposure to ambient air pollution is linked with adverse cardiovascular effects. While previous research focused primarily on particulate matter-induced responses, gaseous air pollutants also contribute to cause short-term cardiovascular effects. Mechanisms underlying such effects have not been adequately described, however the immediate nature of the response suggests involvement of irritant neural activation and downstream autonomic dysfunction. Thus, this study examines the role of TRPA1, an irritant sensory receptor found in the airways, in the cardiac response of mice to acrolein and ozone. Conscious unrestrained wild-type C57BL/6 (WT) and TRPA1 knockout (KO) mice implanted with radiotelemeters were exposed once to 3 ppm acrolein, 0.3 ppm ozone, or filtered air. Heart rate (HR) and electrocardiogram (ECG) were recorded continuously before, during and after exposure. Analysis of ECG morphology, incidence of arrhythmia and heart rate variability (HRV) were performed. Cardiac mechanical function was assessed using a Langendorff perfusion preparation 24 h post-exposure. Acrolein exposure increased HRV independent of HR, as well as incidence of arrhythmia. Acrolein also increased left ventricular developed pressure in WT mice at 24 h post-exposure. Ozone did not produce any changes in cardiac function. Neither gas produced ECG effects, changes in HRV, arrhythmogenesis, or mechanical function in KO mice. These data demonstrate that a single exposure to acrolein causes cardiac dysfunction through TRPA1 activation and autonomic imbalance characterized by a shift toward parasympathetic modulation. Furthermore, it is clear from the lack of ozone effects that although gaseous irritants are capable of eliciting immediate cardiac changes, gas concentration and properties play important roles. - Highlights: • Acute acrolein exposure causes autonomic imbalance and altered CV function in mice. • TRPA1 mediates acrolein-induced autonomic nervous system cardiac

  18. Mechanisms of astrocytic K(+) clearance and swelling under high extracellular K(+) concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Shingo; Kurachi, Yoshihisa

    2016-03-01

    In response to the elevation of extracellular K(+) concentration ([K(+)]out), astrocytes clear excessive K(+) to maintain conditions necessary for neural activity. K(+) clearance in astrocytes occurs via two processes: K(+) uptake and K(+) spatial buffering. High [K(+)]out also induces swelling in astrocytes, leading to edema and cell death in the brain. Despite the importance of astrocytic K(+) clearance and swelling, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Here, we report results from a simulation analysis of astrocytic K(+) clearance and swelling. Astrocyte models were constructed by incorporating various mechanisms such as intra/extracellular ion concentrations of Na(+), K(+), and Cl(-), cell volume, and models of Na,K-ATPase, Na-K-Cl cotransporter (NKCC), K-Cl cotransporter, inwardly-rectifying K(+) (KIR) channel, passive Cl(-) current, and aquaporin channel. The simulated response of astrocyte models under the uniform distribution of high [K(+)]out revealed significant contributions of NKCC and Na,K-ATPase to increases of intracellular K(+) and Cl(-) concentrations, and swelling. Moreover, we found that, under the non-uniform distribution of high [K(+)]out, KIR channels localized at synaptic clefts absorbed excess K(+) by depolarizing the equivalent potential of K(+) (E K) above membrane potential, while K(+) released through perivascular KIR channels was enhanced by hyperpolarizing E K and depolarizing membrane potential. Further analysis of simulated drug effects revealed that astrocyte swelling was modulated by blocking each of the ion channels and transporters. Our simulation analysis revealed controversial mechanisms of astrocytic K(+) clearance and swelling resulting from complex interactions among ion channels and transporters.

  19. Wigner's function and other distribution functions in mock phase spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balazs, N.L.; Jennings, B.K.

    1983-06-01

    This review deals with the methods of associating functions with quantum mechanical operators in such a manner that these functions should furnish conveniently semiclassical approximations. We present a unified treatment of methods and result which usually appear under the expressions Wigner's functions, Weyl's association, Kirkwood's expansion, Glauber's coherent state representation, etc.; we also construct some new associations. The mathematical paraphernalia are collected in the appendices

  20. A novel bioreactor to simulate urinary bladder mechanical properties and compliance for bladder functional tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Xin; Li, Dao-bing; Xu, Feng; Wang, Yan; Zhu, Yu-chun; Li, Hong; Wang, Kun-jie

    2011-02-01

    Bioreactors are pivotal tools for generating mechanical stimulation in functional tissue engineering study. This study aimed to create a bioreactor that can simulate urinary bladder mechanical properties, and to investigate the effects of a mechanically stimulated culture on urothelial cells and bladder smooth muscle cells. We designed a bioreactor to simulate the mechanical properties of bladder. A pressure-record system was used to evaluate the mechanical properties of the bioreactor by measuring the pressure in culture chambers. To test the biocompatibility of the bioreactor, viabilities of urothelial cells and smooth muscle cells cultured in the bioreactor under static and mechanically changed conditions were measured after 7-day culture. To evaluate the effect of mechanical stimulations on the vital cells, urethral cells and smooth muscle cells were cultured in the simulated mechanical conditions. After that, the viability and the distribution pattern of the cells were observed and compared with cells cultured in non-mechanical stimulated condition. The bioreactor system successfully generated waveforms similar to the intended programmed model while maintaining a cell-seeded elastic membrane between the chambers. There were no differences between viabilities of urothelial cells ((91.90 ± 1.22)% vs. (93.14 ± 1.78)%, P > 0.05) and bladder smooth muscle cells ((93.41 ± 1.49)% vs. (92.61 ± 1.34)%, P > 0.05). The viability of cells and tissue structure observation after cultured in simulated condition showed that mechanical stimulation was the only factor affected cells in the bioreactor and improved the arrangement of cells on silastic membrane. This bioreactor can effectively simulate the physiological and mechanical properties of the bladder. Mechanical stimulation is the only factor that affected the viability of cells cultured in the bioreactor. The bioreactor can change the growth behavior of urothelial cells and bladder smooth muscle cells, resulting in

  1. How Does Subclinical Hyperthyroidism Affect Right Heart Function and Mechanics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadic, Marijana; Celic, Vera; Cuspidi, Cesare; Ilic, Sanja; Zivanovic, Vladimir; Marjanovic, Tamara

    2016-02-01

    Right heart function and mechanics have not been investigated in patients with subclinical hyperthyroidism. Our aim was to investigate right ventricular (RV) and right atrial (RA) function and deformation as evaluated by 3-dimensional echocardiography (3DE) and speckle-tracking 2-dimensional echocardiography (2DE) in these individuals. We included 39 untreated women with endogenous subclinical hyperthyroidism and 39 healthy women matched by age. All participants underwent laboratory analyses that included thyroid hormone levels and comprehensive 2DE and 3DE examinations. Three-dimensional echocardiographic RV volumes were significantly elevated in the patients with subclinical hyperthyroidism (P < .05), whereas the 3DE RV ejection fraction was reduced in this group, but with borderline significance. Two-dimensional echocardiographic longitudinal RV and RA strain were significantly reduced in the patients with subclinical hyperthyroidism. Two-dimensional echocardiographic RV systolic and early diastolic strain rates were reduced, whereas late diastolic strain rates were increased in the patients with subclinical hyperthyroidism. The same changes were detected in RA mechanics among the patients with subclinical hyperthyroidism. The thyrotropin (TSH) level correlated with the left ventricular mass index, transmitral early diastolic peak flow velocity (E)/late diastolic flow velocity (A) ratio, tricuspid E/A ratio, 2DE RV global strain, 2DE RA, strain, and 3DE RV end-diastolic volume. A multivariate regression analysis showed that the mitral E/A ratio, 2DE RV global strain, and 3DE RV end-diastolic volume were independently associated with the TSH level. Right ventricular and RA function as evaluated by 3DE and speckle-tracking 2DE is significantly impaired in patients with subclinical hyperthyroidism. The TSH level correlated with parameters for RV function and mechanics in the whole study population. © 2016 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.

  2. Microscale failure mechanisms leading to internal short circuit in Li-ion batteries under complex loading scenarios

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sahraei, E.; Bosco, E.; Dixon, B.; Lai, B.

    2016-01-01

    One of the least understood mechanisms of Li-ion batteries is the development of internal short circuits under mechanical loads. In this study, a micro mechanical model is developed and subjected to various loading scenarios to understand the sequence of failure in the multi-layer, multi-material

  3. Numerical modelling of crack initiation and propagation in concrete structure under hydro-mechanical loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bian, H.B.; Jia, Y.; Shao, J.F.

    2012-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. This subject is devoted to numerical analysis of crack initiation and propagation in concrete structures due to hydro-mechanical coupling processes. When the structures subjected to the variation in hydraulic conditions, fractures occur as a consequence of coalescence of diffuse damage. Consequently, the mechanical behaviour of concrete is described by an isotropic damage model. Once the damage reaches a critical value, a macroscopic crack is initiated. In the framework of extended Finite Element Method (XFEM), the propagation of localized crack is studied in this paper. Each crack is then considered as a discontinuity surface of displacement. According to the determination of crack propagation orientations, a tensile stress-based criterion is used. Furthermore, spatial variations of mechanical properties of concrete are also taken into account using the Weibull distribution function. Finally, the proposed model is applied to numerical analysis of a concrete liner in the context of feasibility studies for geological storage of radioactive wastes. The numerical results show that the proposed approach is capable to reproduce correctly the initiation and propagation crack process until the complete failure of concrete structures during hydro-mechanical loading. The concrete is most widely used construction material in many engineering applications. It is generally submitted to various environmental loading: such as the mechanical loading, the variation of relative humidity and the exposure to chemical risk, etc. In order to evaluate the safety and durability of concrete structures, it is necessary to get a good knowledge on the influence of loading path on the concrete behaviour. The objective of this paper is to study numerically the crack propagation in concrete structure under hydro-mechanical loading,.i.e. the mechanical behaviour of concrete subjected to drying process. The drying process leads to desiccation

  4. The pathologic mechanisms underlying lumbar distraction spinal cord injury in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Di; Zheng, Chao; Wu, Ji; Xue, Jing; Huang, Rongrong; Wu, Di; Song, Yueming

    2017-11-01

    A reliable experimental rabbit model of distraction spinal cord injury (SCI) was established to successfully simulate gradable and replicable distraction SCI. However, further research is needed to elucidate the pathologic mechanisms underlying distraction SCI. The aim of this study was to investigate the pathologic mechanisms underlying lumbar distraction SCI in rabbits. This is an animal laboratory study. Using a self-designed spine distractor, the experimental animals were divided into a control group and 10%, 20%, and 30% distraction groups. Pathologic changes to the spinal cord microvessels in the early stage of distraction SCI were identified by perfusion of the spinal cord vasculature with ink, production of transparent specimens, observation by light microscopy, and observation of corrosion casts of the spinal cord microvascular architecture by scanning electron microscopy. Malondialdehyde (MDA) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) concentrations in the injured spinal cord tissue were measured after 8 hours. With an increasing degree and duration of distraction, the spinal cord microvessels were only partially filled and had the appearance of spasm until rupture and hemorrhage were observed. The MDA concentration increased and the SOD concentration decreased in the spinal cord tissue. Changes to the internal and external spinal cord vessels led to spinal cord ischemia, which is a primary pathologic mechanism of distraction SCI. Lipid peroxidation mediated by free radicals took part in secondary pathologic damage of distraction SCI. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Enhanced mechanical properties of epoxy nanocomposites by mixing noncovalently functionalized boron nitride nanoflakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dongju; Song, Sung Ho; Hwang, Jaewon; Jin, Sung Hwan; Park, Kwang Hyun; Kim, Bo Hyun; Hong, Soon Hyung; Jeon, Seokwoo

    2013-08-12

    The influence of surface modifications on the mechanical properties of epoxy-hexagonal boron nitride nanoflake (BNNF) nanocomposites is investigated. Homogeneous distributions of boron nitride nanoflakes in a polymer matrix, preserving intrinsic material properties of boron nitride nanoflakes, is the key to successful composite applications. Here, a method is suggested to obtain noncovalently functionalized BNNFs with 1-pyrenebutyric acid (PBA) molecules and to synthesize epoxy-BNNF nanocomposites with enhanced mechanical properties. The incorporation of noncovalently functionalized BNNFs into epoxy resin yields an elastic modulus of 3.34 GPa, and 71.9 MPa ultimate tensile strength at 0.3 wt%. The toughening enhancement is as high as 107% compared to the value of neat epoxy. The creep strain and the creep compliance of the noncovalently functionalized BNNF nanocomposite is significantly less than the neat epoxy and the nonfunctionalized BNNF nanocomposite. Noncovalent functionalization of BNNFs is effective to increase mechanical properties by strong affinity between the fillers and the matrix. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Mechanisms for closing bores and releasably securing articles within the bores under longitudinal load

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klahn, F.C.; Nolan, J.H.; Wills, C.

    1979-01-01

    This invention relates to mechanisms for closing bores of tubular passages and for releasably securing articles within the bores under longitudinal load. The system includes an axially movable latch, an actuator and locking devices. Embodiments of the invention can be used as closure mechanisms for tubular irradiation surveillance specimen assembly holders used in nuclear reactors. (UK)

  7. Mechanisms for closing bores and releasably securing articles within the bores under longitudinal load

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalen, D.D.; Mitchem, J.W.

    1979-01-01

    This invention relates to mechanisms for closing bores of tubular passages and for releasably securing articles within the bores under longitudinal load. The system includes an axially movable actuator and a latch which engages the tubular opening. Embodiments of the invention can be used as closure mechanisms for tubular irradiation surveillance specimen assembly holders used in nuclear reactors. (UK)

  8. Nonlinear Dynamic Analysis of Telescopic Mechanism for Truss Structure Bridge Inspection Vehicle Under Pedestrian Excitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenwen Sui

    Full Text Available Abstract Nonlinear dynamic analysis of an axially moving telescopic mechanism for truss structure bridge inspection vehicle under pedestrian excitation is carried out. A biomechanically inspired inverted-pendulum model is utilized to simplify the pedestrian. The nonlinear equations of motion for the beam-pedestrian system are derived using the Hamilton's principle. The equations are transformed into two ordinary differential equations by applying the Galerkin's method at the first two orders. The solutions to the equations are acquired by using the Newmark-β method associated with the Newton-Raphson method. The time-dependent feature of the eigenfunctions for the two beams are taken into consideration in the solutions. Accordingly, the equations of motion for a simplified system, in which the pedestrian is regarded as moving cart, are given. In the numerical examples, dynamic responses of the telescopic mechanism in eight conditions of different beam-telescoping and pedestrian-moving directions are simulated. Comparisons between the vibrations of the beams under pedestrian excitation and corresponding moving cart are carried out to investigate the influence of the pedestrian excitation on the telescopic mechanism. The results show that the displacement of the telescopic mechanism under pedestrian excitation is smaller than that under moving cart especially when the pedestrian approaches the beams end. Additionally, compared with moving cart, the pedestrian excitation can effectively strengthen the vibration when the beam extension is small or when the pedestrian is close to the beams end.

  9. An Investigation of the Mechanism Underlying Teacher Aggression: Testing I[superscript 3] Theory and the General Aggression Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montuoro, Paul; Mainhard, Tim

    2017-01-01

    Background: Considerable research has investigated the deleterious effects of teachers responding aggressively to students who misbehave, but the mechanism underlying this dysfunctional behaviour remains unknown. Aims: This study investigated whether the mechanism underlying teacher aggression follows I[superscript 3] theory or General Aggression…

  10. Mechanical response of common millet (Panicum miliaceum) seeds under quasi-static compression: Experiments and modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasseldine, Benjamin P J; Gao, Chao; Collins, Joseph M; Jung, Hyun-Do; Jang, Tae-Sik; Song, Juha; Li, Yaning

    2017-09-01

    The common millet (Panicum miliaceum) seedcoat has a fascinating complex microstructure, with jigsaw puzzle-like epidermis cells articulated via wavy intercellular sutures to form a compact layer to protect the kernel inside. However, little research has been conducted on linking the microstructure details with the overall mechanical response of this interesting biological composite. To this end, an integrated experimental-numerical-analytical investigation was conducted to both characterize the microstructure and ascertain the microscale mechanical properties and to test the overall response of kernels and full seeds under macroscale quasi-static compression. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was utilized to examine the microstructure of the outer seedcoat and nanoindentation was performed to obtain the material properties of the seedcoat hard phase material. A multiscale computational strategy was applied to link the microstructure to the macroscale response of the seed. First, the effective anisotropic mechanical properties of the seedcoat were obtained from finite element (FE) simulations of a microscale representative volume element (RVE), which were further verified from sophisticated analytical models. Then, macroscale FE models of the individual kernel and full seed were developed. Good agreement between the compression experiments and FE simulations were obtained for both the kernel and the full seed. The results revealed the anisotropic property and the protective function of the seedcoat, and showed that the sutures of the seedcoat play an important role in transmitting and distributing loads in responding to external compression. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Cyclic life of superalloy IN738LC under in-phase and out-of-phase thermo-mechanical fatigue loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Hongjun; Wahi, R.P.; Wever, H.

    1995-01-01

    The cyclic life of IN738LC, a widely used nickel base superalloy for blades in stationary gas turbines, was investigated under thermo-mechanical fatigue loading using a temperature variation range of 1023 to 1223 K, with temperature variation rate in the range of 6 to 15 K/min. Simple thermo-mechanical cycles with linear sequences corresponding to in-phase (IP) and out-of-phase (OP) tests were performed. Both the IP and OP tests were carried out at different constant mechanical strain ranges varied between 0.8 to 2.0% and at a constant mechanical strain rate of 10 -5 s -1 . Thermo-mechanical fatigue lives under both test conditions were compared with each other and with those of isothermal LCF tests at a temperature of 1223 K. The results show that the life under thermo-mechanical fatigue is strongly dependent on the nature of the test, i.e. stress controlled or strain controlled. (orig.)

  12. Atrial conduction times and left atrial mechanical functions and their relation with diastolic function in prediabetic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudul, Naile Eris; Karabag, Turgut; Sayin, Muhammet Rasit; Bayraktaroglu, Taner; Aydin, Mustafa

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate atrial conduction times and left atrial mechanical functions, the noninvasive predictors of atrial fibrillation, in prediabetic patients with impaired fasting glucose (IFG) and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT). Study included 59 patients (23 males, 36 females; mean age 52.5 ± 10.6 years) diagnosed with IFG or IGT by the American Diabetes Association criteria, and 43 healthy adults (22 males, 21 females; mean age 48.5 ± 12.1 years). Conventional and tissue Doppler echocardiography were performed. The electromechanical delay parameters were measured from the onset of the P wave on the surface electrocardiogram to the onset of the atrial systolic wave on tissue Doppler imaging from septum, lateral, and right ventricular annuli. The left atrial volumes were calculated by the disk method. Left atrial mechanical functions were calculated. The mitral E/A and E'/A' ratios measured from the lateral and septal annuli were significantly lower in the prediabetics compared to the controls. The interatrial and left atrial electromechanical delay were significantly longer in prediabetic group compared to the controls. Left atrial active emptying volume (LAAEV) and fraction (LAAEF) were significantly higher in the prediabetics than the controls. LAAEV and LAAEF were significantly correlated with E/A, lateral and septal E'/A'. In the prediabetic patients, the atrial conduction times and P wave dispersion on surface electrocardiographic were longer before the development of overt diabetes. In addition, the left atrial mechanical functions were impaired secondary to a deterioration in the diastolic functions in the prediabetic patients.

  13. Nanomaterials modulate stem cell differentiation: biological interaction and underlying mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Min; Li, Song; Le, Weidong

    2017-10-25

    Stem cells are unspecialized cells that have the potential for self-renewal and differentiation into more specialized cell types. The chemical and physical properties of surrounding microenvironment contribute to the growth and differentiation of stem cells and consequently play crucial roles in the regulation of stem cells' fate. Nanomaterials hold great promise in biological and biomedical fields owing to their unique properties, such as controllable particle size, facile synthesis, large surface-to-volume ratio, tunable surface chemistry, and biocompatibility. Over the recent years, accumulating evidence has shown that nanomaterials can facilitate stem cell proliferation and differentiation, and great effort is undertaken to explore their possible modulating manners and mechanisms on stem cell differentiation. In present review, we summarize recent progress in the regulating potential of various nanomaterials on stem cell differentiation and discuss the possible cell uptake, biological interaction and underlying mechanisms.

  14. Mechanisms Underlying HIV-Associated Noninfectious Lung Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presti, Rachel M; Flores, Sonia C; Palmer, Brent E; Atkinson, Jeffrey J; Lesko, Catherine R; Lau, Bryan; Fontenot, Andrew P; Roman, Jesse; McDyer, John F; Twigg, Homer L

    2017-11-01

    Pulmonary disease remains a primary source of morbidity and mortality in persons living with HIV (PLWH), although the advent of potent combination antiretroviral therapy has resulted in a shift from predominantly infectious to noninfectious pulmonary complications. PLWH are at high risk for COPD, pulmonary hypertension, and lung cancer even in the era of combination antiretroviral therapy. The underlying mechanisms of this are incompletely understood, but recent research in both human and animal models suggests that oxidative stress, expression of matrix metalloproteinases, and genetic instability may result in lung damage, which predisposes PLWH to these conditions. Some of the factors that drive these processes include tobacco and other substance use, direct HIV infection and expression of specific HIV proteins, inflammation, and shifts in the microbiome toward pathogenic and opportunistic organisms. Further studies are needed to understand the relative importance of these factors to the development of lung disease in PLWH. Copyright © 2017 American College of Chest Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Neural mechanisms underlying human consensus decision-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Shinsuke; Adachi, Ryo; Dunne, Simon; Bossaerts, Peter; O'Doherty, John P

    2015-04-22

    Consensus building in a group is a hallmark of animal societies, yet little is known about its underlying computational and neural mechanisms. Here, we applied a computational framework to behavioral and fMRI data from human participants performing a consensus decision-making task with up to five other participants. We found that participants reached consensus decisions through integrating their own preferences with information about the majority group members' prior choices, as well as inferences about how much each option was stuck to by the other people. These distinct decision variables were separately encoded in distinct brain areas-the ventromedial prefrontal cortex, posterior superior temporal sulcus/temporoparietal junction, and intraparietal sulcus-and were integrated in the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex. Our findings provide support for a theoretical account in which collective decisions are made through integrating multiple types of inference about oneself, others, and environments, processed in distinct brain modules. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Autophagy as a Possible Underlying Mechanism of Nanomaterial Toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Cohignac

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The rapid development of nanotechnologies is raising safety concerns because of the potential effects of engineered nanomaterials on human health, particularly at the respiratory level. Since the last decades, many in vivo studies have been interested in the pulmonary effects of different classes of nanomaterials. It has been shown that some of them can induce toxic effects, essentially depending on their physico-chemical characteristics, but other studies did not identify such effects. Inflammation and oxidative stress are currently the two main mechanisms described to explain the observed toxicity. However, the exact underlying mechanism(s still remain(s unknown and autophagy could represent an interesting candidate. Autophagy is a physiological process in which cytoplasmic components are digested via a lysosomal pathway. It has been shown that autophagy is involved in the pathogenesis and the progression of human diseases, and is able to modulate the oxidative stress and pro-inflammatory responses. A growing amount of literature suggests that a link between nanomaterial toxicity and autophagy impairment could exist. In this review, we will first summarize what is known about the respiratory effects of nanomaterials and we will then discuss the possible involvement of autophagy in this toxicity. This review should help understand why autophagy impairment could be taken as a promising candidate to fully understand nanomaterials toxicity.

  17. Virtual Agonist-antagonist Mechanisms Produce Biological Muscle-like Functions: An Application for Robot Joint Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xiong, Xiaofeng; Wörgötter, Florentin; Manoonpong, Poramate

    2014-01-01

    Purpose – Biological muscles of animals have a surprising variety of functions, i.e., struts, springs, and brakes. According to this, the purpose of this paper is to apply virtual agonist-antagonist mechanisms to robot joint control allowing for muscle-like functions and variably compliant joint......, variably compliant joint motions can be produced without mechanically bulky and complex mechanisms or complex force/toque sensing at each joint. Moreover, through tuning the damping coefficient of the VAAM, the functions of the VAAM are comparable to biological muscles. Originality/value – The model (i.......e., VAAM) provides a way forward to emulate muscle-like functions that are comparable to those found in physiological experiments of biological muscles. Based on these muscle-like functions, the robotic joints can easily achieve variable compliance that does not require complex physical components...

  18. Understanding and imitating unfamiliar actions: distinct underlying mechanisms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joana C Carmo

    Full Text Available The human "mirror neuron system" has been proposed to be the neural substrate that underlies understanding and, possibly, imitating actions. However, since the brain activity with mirror properties seems insufficient to provide a good description for imitation of actions outside one's own repertoire, the existence of supplementary processes has been proposed. Moreover, it is unclear whether action observation requires the same neural mechanisms as the explicit access to their meaning. The aim of this study was two-fold as we investigated whether action observation requires different processes depending on 1 whether the ultimate goal is to imitate or understand the presented actions and 2 whether the to-be-imitated actions are familiar or unfamiliar to the subject. Participants were presented with both meaningful familiar actions and meaningless unfamiliar actions that they had to either imitate or discriminate later. Event-related Potentials were used as differences in brain activity could have been masked by the use of other techniques with lower temporal resolution. In the imitation task, a sustained left frontal negativity was more pronounced for meaningless actions than for meaningful ones, starting from an early time-window. Conversely, observing unfamiliar versus familiar actions with the intention of discriminating them led to marked differences over right centro-posterior scalp regions, in both middle and latest time-windows. These findings suggest that action imitation and action understanding may be sustained by dissociable mechanisms: while imitation of unfamiliar actions activates left frontal processes, that are likely to be related to learning mechanisms, action understanding involves dedicated operations which probably require right posterior regions, consistent with their involvement in social interactions.

  19. Beneficial characteristics of mechanically functional amyloid fibrils evolutionarily preserved in natural adhesives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mostaert, Anika S; Jarvis, Suzanne P [Centre for Research on Adaptive Nanostructures and Nanodevices, Trinity College Dublin, Dublin 2 (Ireland)

    2007-01-31

    While biological systems are notorious for their complexity, nature sometimes displays mechanisms that are elegant in their simplicity. We have recently identified such a mechanism at work to enhance the mechanical properties of certain natural adhesives. The mechanism is simple because it utilizes a non-specific protein folding and subsequent aggregation process, now thought to be generic for any polypeptide under appropriate conditions. This non-specific folding forms proteinaceous crossed {beta}-sheet amyloid fibrils, which are usually associated with neurodegenerative diseases. Here we show evidence for the beneficial mechanical characteristics of these fibrils discovered in natural adhesives. We suggest that amyloid protein quaternary structures should be considered as a possible generic mechanism for mechanical strength in a range of natural adhesives and other natural materials due to their many beneficial mechanical features and apparent ease of self-assembly.

  20. Beneficial characteristics of mechanically functional amyloid fibrils evolutionarily preserved in natural adhesives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mostaert, Anika S; Jarvis, Suzanne P

    2007-01-01

    While biological systems are notorious for their complexity, nature sometimes displays mechanisms that are elegant in their simplicity. We have recently identified such a mechanism at work to enhance the mechanical properties of certain natural adhesives. The mechanism is simple because it utilizes a non-specific protein folding and subsequent aggregation process, now thought to be generic for any polypeptide under appropriate conditions. This non-specific folding forms proteinaceous crossed β-sheet amyloid fibrils, which are usually associated with neurodegenerative diseases. Here we show evidence for the beneficial mechanical characteristics of these fibrils discovered in natural adhesives. We suggest that amyloid protein quaternary structures should be considered as a possible generic mechanism for mechanical strength in a range of natural adhesives and other natural materials due to their many beneficial mechanical features and apparent ease of self-assembly

  1. Constructive anthropomorphism: a functional evolutionary approach to the study of human-like cognitive mechanisms in animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbilly, Michal; Lotem, Arnon

    2017-10-25

    Anthropomorphism, the attribution of human cognitive processes and emotional states to animals, is commonly viewed as non-scientific and potentially misleading. This is mainly because apparent similarity to humans can usually be explained by alternative, simpler mechanisms in animals, and because there is no explanatory power in analogies to human phenomena when these phenomena are not well understood. Yet, because it is also difficult to preclude real similarity and continuity in the evolution of humans' and animals' cognitive abilities, it may not be productive to completely ignore our understanding of human behaviour when thinking about animals. Here we propose that in applying a functional approach to the evolution of cognitive mechanisms, human cognition may be used to broaden our theoretical thinking and to generate testable hypotheses. Our goal is not to 'elevate' animals, but rather to find the minimal set of mechanistic principles that may explain 'advanced' cognitive abilities in humans, and consider under what conditions these mechanisms were likely to enhance fitness and to evolve in animals. We illustrate this approach, from relatively simple emotional states, to more advanced mechanisms, involved in planning and decision-making, episodic memory, metacognition, theory of mind, and consciousness. © 2017 The Author(s).

  2. Microstructure, mechanical properties, and biological response to functionally graded HA coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabiei, Afsaneh; Blalock, Travis; Thomas, Brent; Cuomo, Jerry; Yang, Y.; Ong, Joo

    2007-01-01

    Hydroxyapatite (HA) [Ca 10 (PO 4 ) 6 (OH) 2 ] is the primary mineral content, representing 43% by weight, of bone. Applying a thin layer of HA, to the surface of a metal implant, can promote osseointegration and increase the mechanical stability of the implant. In this study, a biocompatible coating comprising an HA film with functionally graded crystallinity is being deposited on a heated substrate in an Ion Beam Assisted Deposition (IBAD) system. The microstructure of the film was studied using Transmission Electron Microscopy techniques. Finally, initial cell adhesion and cell differentiation on the coating was evaluated using ATCC CRL 1486 human embryonic palatal mesenchymal cell, an osteoblast precursor cell line. The results have shown superior mechanical properties and biological response to the functionally graded HA film

  3. The mechanism underlying fast germination of tomato cultivar LA2711.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Rongchao; Chu, Zhuannan; Zhang, Haijun; Li, Ying; Wang, Jinfang; Li, Dianbo; Weeda, Sarah; Ren, Shuxin; Ouyang, Bo; Guo, Yang-Dong

    2015-09-01

    Seed germination is important for early plant morphogenesis as well as abiotic stress tolerance, and is mainly controlled by the phytohormones abscisic acid (ABA) and gibberellic acid (GA). Our previous studies identified a salt-tolerant tomato cultivar, LA2711, which is also a fast-germinating genotype, compared to its salt-sensitive counterpart, ZS-5. In an effort to further clarify the mechanism underlying this phenomenon, we compared the dynamic levels of ABA and GA4, the transcript abundance of genes involved in their biosynthesis and catabolism as well as signal transduction between the two cultivars. In addition, we tested seed germination sensitivity to ABA and GAs. Our results revealed that insensitivity of seed germination to exogenous ABA and low ABA content in seeds are the physiological mechanisms conferring faster germination rates of LA2711 seeds. SlCYP707A2, which encodes an ABA catabolic enzyme, may play a decisive role in the fast germination rate of LA2711, as it showed a significantly higher level of expression in LA2711 than ZS-5 at most time points tested during germination. The current results will enable us to gain insight into the mechanism(s) regarding seed germination of tomato and the role of fast germination in stress tolerance. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Mitochondrial ADP/ATP exchange inhibition: a novel off-target mechanism underlying ibipinabant-induced myotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schirris, Tom J J; Ritschel, Tina; Herma Renkema, G; Willems, Peter H G M; Smeitink, Jan A M; Russel, Frans G M

    2015-09-29

    Cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1R) antagonists appear to be promising drugs for the treatment of obesity, however, serious side effects have hampered their clinical application. Rimonabant, the first in class CB1R antagonist, was withdrawn from the market because of psychiatric side effects. This has led to the search for more peripherally restricted CB1R antagonists, one of which is ibipinabant. However, this 3,4-diarylpyrazoline derivative showed muscle toxicity in a pre-clinical dog study with mitochondrial dysfunction. Here, we studied the molecular mechanism by which ibipinabant induces mitochondrial toxicity. We observed a strong cytotoxic potency of ibipinabant in C2C12 myoblasts. Functional characterization of mitochondria revealed increased cellular reactive oxygen species generation and a decreased ATP production capacity, without effects on the catalytic activities of mitochondrial enzyme complexes I-V or the complex specific-driven oxygen consumption. Using in silico off-target prediction modelling, combined with in vitro validation in isolated mitochondria and mitoplasts, we identified adenine nucleotide translocase (ANT)-dependent mitochondrial ADP/ATP exchange as a novel molecular mechanism underlying ibipinabant-induced toxicity. Minor structural modification of ibipinabant could abolish ANT inhibition leading to a decreased cytotoxic potency, as observed with the ibipinabant derivative CB23. Our results will be instrumental in the development of new types of safer CB1R antagonists.

  5. BAYESIAN ESTIMATION OF THE SHAPE PARAMETER OF THE GENERALISED EXPONENTIAL DISTRIBUTION UNDER DIFFERENT LOSS FUNCTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SANKU DEY

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The generalized exponential (GE distribution proposed by Gupta and Kundu (1999 is an important lifetime distribution in survival analysis. In this article, we propose to obtain Bayes estimators and its associated risk based on a class of  non-informative prior under the assumption of three loss functions, namely, quadratic loss function (QLF, squared log-error loss function (SLELF and general entropy loss function (GELF. The motivation is to explore the most appropriate loss function among these three loss functions. The performances of the estimators are, therefore, compared on the basis of their risks obtained under QLF, SLELF and GELF separately. The relative efficiency of the estimators is also obtained. Finally, Monte Carlo simulations are performed to compare the performances of the Bayes estimates under different situations.

  6. Chronic antiepileptic drug use and functional network efficiency : a functional magnetic resonance imaging study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Veenendaal, T.M.; IJff, D.M.; Aldenkamp, A.P.; Lazeron, R.H.C.; Hofman, P.A.M.; de Louw, A.J.A.; Backes, W.H.; Jansen, J.F.A.

    2017-01-01

    AIM: To increase our insight in the neuronal mechanisms underlying cognitive side-effects of antiepileptic drug (AED) treatment. METHODS: The relation between functional magnetic resonance-acquired brain network measures, AED use, and cognitive function was investigated. Three groups of patients

  7. Ecological mechanisms underlying arthropod species diversity in grasslands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joern, Anthony; Laws, Angela N

    2013-01-01

    Arthropods are an important component of grassland systems, contributing significantly to biodiversity and ecosystem structure and function. Climate, fire, and grazing by large herbivores are important drivers in grasslands worldwide. Arthropod responses to these drivers are highly variable and clear patterns are difficult to find, but responses are largely indirect with respect to changes in resources, species interactions, habitat structure, and habitat heterogeneity resulting from interactions among fire, grazing, and climate. Here, we review these ecological mechanisms influencing grassland arthropod diversity. We summarize hypotheses describing species diversity at local and regional scales and then discuss specific factors that may affect arthropod diversity in grassland systems. These factors include direct and indirect effects of grazing, fire, and climate, species interactions, above- and belowground interactions, and landscape-level effects.

  8. Asymmetric migration of human keratinocytes under mechanical stretch and cocultured fibroblasts in a wound repair model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongyuan Lü

    Full Text Available Keratinocyte migration during re-epithelization is crucial in wound healing under biochemical and biomechanical microenvironment. However, little is known about the underlying mechanisms whereby mechanical tension and cocultured fibroblasts or keratinocytes modulate the migration of keratinocytes or fibroblasts. Here we applied a tensile device together with a modified transwell assay to determine the lateral and transmembrane migration dynamics of human HaCaT keratinocytes or HF fibroblasts. A novel pattern of asymmetric migration was observed for keratinocytes when they were cocultured with non-contact fibroblasts, i.e., the accumulative distance of HaCaT cells was significantly higher when moving away from HF cells or migrating from down to up cross the membrane than that when moving close to HF cells or when migrating from up to down, whereas HF migration was symmetric. This asymmetric migration was mainly regulated by EGF derived from fibroblasts, but not transforming growth factor α or β1 production. Mechanical stretch subjected to fibroblasts fostered keratinocyte asymmetric migration by increasing EGF secretion, while no role of mechanical stretch was found for EGF secretion by keratinocytes. These results provided a new insight into understanding the regulating mechanisms of two- or three-dimensional migration of keratinocytes or fibroblasts along or across dermis and epidermis under biomechanical microenvironment.

  9. Inspection Mechanism and Experimental Study of Prestressed Reverse Tension Method under PC Beam Bridge Anchorage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Zhang

    2018-03-01

    the prestress under anchorage is directly related to the structural security and performance of PC beam bridge. The reverse tension method is a kind of inspection which confirms the prestress by exerting reversed tension load on the exposed prestressing tendon of beam bridge anchoring system. The thesis elaborately expounds the inspection mechanism and mechanical effect of reverse tension method, theoretically analyzes the influential elements of inspection like tool anchorage deformation, compression of conjuncture, device glide, friction of anchorage loop mouth and elastic compression of concrete, and then presents the following formula to calculate prestress under anchorage. On the basis of model experiment, the thesis systematically studies some key issues during the reverse tension process of PC beam bridge anchorage system like the formation of stress-elongation curve, influential factors, judgment method of prestress under anchorage, variation trend and compensation scale, verifies the accuracy of mechanism analysis and demonstrates: the prestress under anchorage is less than or equal to 75% of the ultimate strength of prestressing tendon, the error of inspect result is less than 1%, which can meet with the demands of construction. The research result has provided theoretical basis and technical foundation for the promotion and application of reverse tension in bridge construction.

  10. Unraveling the Root Proteome Changes and Its Relationship to Molecular Mechanism Underlying Salt Stress Response in Radish (Raphanus sativus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaochuan Sun

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available To understand the molecular mechanism underlying salt stress response in radish, iTRAQ-based proteomic analysis was conducted to investigate the differences in protein species abundance under different salt treatments. In total, 851, 706, and 685 differential abundance protein species (DAPS were identified between CK vs. Na100, CK vs. Na200, and Na100 vs. Na200, respectively. Functional annotation analysis revealed that salt stress elicited complex proteomic alterations in radish roots involved in carbohydrate and energy metabolism, protein metabolism, signal transduction, transcription regulation, stress and defense and transport. Additionally, the expression levels of nine genes encoding DAPS were further verified using RT-qPCR. The integrative analysis of transcriptomic and proteomic data in conjunction with miRNAs was further performed to strengthen the understanding of radish response to salinity. The genes responsible for signal transduction, ROS scavenging and transport activities as well as several key miRNAs including miR171, miR395, and miR398 played crucial roles in salt stress response in radish. Based on these findings, a schematic genetic regulatory network of salt stress response was proposed. This study provided valuable insights into the molecular mechanism underlying salt stress response in radish roots and would facilitate developing effective strategies toward genetically engineered salt-tolerant radish and other root vegetable crops.

  11. Examining the Functional Specification of Two-Parameter Model under Location and Scale Parameter Condition

    OpenAIRE

    Nakashima, Takahiro

    2006-01-01

    The functional specification of mean-standard deviation approach is examined under location and scale parameter condition. Firstly, the full set of restrictions imposed on the mean-standard deviation function under the location and scale parameter condition are made clear. Secondly, the examination based on the restrictions mentioned in the previous sentence derives the new properties of the mean-standard deviation function on the applicability of additive separability and the curvature of ex...

  12. Behavioral Effects of Upper Respiratory Tract Illnesses: A Consideration of Possible Underlying Cognitive Mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew P. Smith

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Previous research has shown that both experimentally induced upper respiratory tract illnesses (URTIs and naturally occurring URTIs influence mood and performance. The present study investigated possible cognitive mechanisms underlying the URTI-performance changes. Those who developed a cold (N = 47 had significantly faster, but less accurate, performance than those who remained healthy (N = 54. Illness had no effect on manipulations designed to influence encoding, response organisation (stimulus-response compatilibility or response preparation. Similarly, there was no evidence that different components of working memory were impaired. Overall, the present research confirms that URTIs can have an effect on performance efficiency. Further research is required to identify the physiological and behavioral mechanisms underlying these effects.

  13. Exact solution for stresses/displacements in a multilayered hollow cylinder under thermo-mechanical loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeo, W.H.; Purbolaksono, J.; Aliabadi, M.H.; Ramesh, S.; Liew, H.L.

    2017-01-01

    In this study, a new analytical solution by the recursive method for evaluating stresses/displacements in multilayered hollow cylinder under thermo-mechanical loading was developed. The results for temperature distribution, displacements and stresses obtained by using the proposed solution were shown to be in good agreement with the FEM results. The proposed analytical solution was also found to produce more accurate results than those by the analytical solution reported in literature. - Highlights: • A new analytical solution for evaluating stresses in multilayered hollow cylinder under thermo-mechanical loading. • A simple computational procedure using a recursive method. • A promising technique for evaluating the operating axial and hoop stresses in pressurized composite vessels.

  14. Age-related variance in decisions under ambiguity is explained by changes in reasoning, executive functions, and decision-making under risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiebener, Johannes; Brand, Matthias

    2017-06-01

    Previous literature has explained older individuals' disadvantageous decision-making under ambiguity in the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) by reduced emotional warning signals preceding decisions. We argue that age-related reductions in IGT performance may also be explained by reductions in certain cognitive abilities (reasoning, executive functions). In 210 participants (18-86 years), we found that the age-related variance on IGT performance occurred only in the last 60 trials. The effect was mediated by cognitive abilities and their relation with decision-making performance under risk with explicit rules (Game of Dice Task). Thus, reductions in cognitive functions in older age may be associated with both a reduced ability to gain explicit insight into the rules of the ambiguous decision situation and with failure to choose the less risky options consequently after the rules have been understood explicitly. Previous literature may have underestimated the relevance of cognitive functions for age-related decline in decision-making performance under ambiguity.

  15. Density functional theory study of the concerted pyrolysis mechanism for lignin models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas Elder; Ariana Beste

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT: Studies on the pyrolysis mechanisms of lignin model compounds have largely focused on initial homolytic cleavage reactions. It has been noted, however, that concerted mechanisms may also account for observed product formation. In the current work, the latter processes are examined and compared to the former, by the application of density functional theory...

  16. Stochastic mechanics and quantum theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldstein, S.

    1987-01-01

    Stochastic mechanics may be regarded as both generalizing classical mechanics to processes with intrinsic randomness, as well as providing the sort of detailed description of microscopic events declared impossible under the traditional interpretation of quantum mechanics. It avoids the many conceptual difficulties which arise from the assumption that quantum mechanics, i.e., the wave function, provides a complete description of (microscopic) physical reality. Stochastic mechanics presents a unified treatment of the microscopic and macroscopic domains, in which the process of measurement plays no special physical role and which reduces to Newtonian mechanics in the macroscopic limit

  17. Titanium dioxide nanoparticle-induced cytotoxicity and the underlying mechanism in mouse myocardial cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yingjun; Hong, Fashui; Wang, Ling

    2017-11-01

    Exposure to fine particulate matter (PM) is known to cause cardiovascular disease. While extensive research has focused on the risk of atmospheric PM to public health, particularly heart disease, limited studies to date have attempted to clarify the molecular mechanisms underlying myocardial cell damage caused by exposure to titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs). Data from the current investigation showed that TiO2 NPs are deposited in myocardial mitochondria via the blood circulation accompanied by obvious ultrastructural changes and impairment of mitochondrial structure and function in mouse myocardial cells, including reduction in mitochondrial membrane potential and ATP production, aggravation of oxidative stress along with increased levels of reactive oxygen species, malondialdehyde and protein carbonyl, and decreased glutathione content and enzymatic activities, including superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase. Furthermore, TiO2 NPs induced a significant decrease in the activities of complex I, complex II, complex III, complex IV, succinate dehydrogenase, NADH oxidase, Ca2+-ATPase, Na+/K+-ATPase, and Ca2+/Mg2+-ATPase, and upregulation of cytokine expression (including cytochrome c, caspase-3, and p-JNK) in mitochondria-mediated apoptosis while downregulating Bcl-2 expression in mouse myocardial cells. Our results collectively indicate that chronic exposure to TiO2 NPs induces damage in mitochondrial structure and function as well as mitochondria-mediated apoptosis in mouse myocardial cells, which may be closely associated with heart disease in animals and humans.

  18. Stochastic optimization under risk constraint and utility functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seck, B.

    2008-09-01

    In a context of concurrence and emergence of energy markets, the production of electricity is affected by the new sources of risks which are the price variations on the energy markets. These new sources of risks generate a new risk: the market risk. In this research, the author explores the possibility of introducing constraints, expressed by measurements of risk, into the process of optimization of electricity production when financial contracts are signed on the energy market. The author makes the distinction between the engineering approach (taking the risk into account by risk measurements) and the economist approach (taking the risk into account by utility functions). After an overview of these both approaches in a static framework, he gives an economical formulation (a Maccheroni type one) for a static optimization problem under a risk constraint when the risk measurement is written under the form of an expected infimum like the variance, the 'conditional value at risk', and so on. The obtained results are then extended to a dynamic optimization framework under risk constraints. A numerical application of this approach is presented to solve a problem of electricity production management under a constraint of 'conditional value at risk' on a middle term

  19. Mechanisms for the antihyperglycemic effect of sitagliptin in patients with type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muscelli, Elza; Casolaro, Arturo; Gastaldelli, Amalia

    2012-01-01

    Dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP-4) inhibitors improve glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes. The underlying mechanisms (incretin effect, β-cell function, endogenous glucose production) are not well known.......Dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP-4) inhibitors improve glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes. The underlying mechanisms (incretin effect, β-cell function, endogenous glucose production) are not well known....

  20. Pore closure in zeolitic imidazolate frameworks under mechanical pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henke, Sebastian; Wharmby, Michael T; Kieslich, Gregor; Hante, Inke; Schneemann, Andreas; Wu, Yue; Daisenberger, Dominik; Cheetham, Anthony K

    2018-02-14

    We investigate the pressure-dependent mechanical behaviour of the zeolitic imidazolate framework ZIF-4 (M(im) 2 ; M 2+ = Co 2+ or Zn 2+ , im - = imidazolate) with high pressure, synchrotron powder X-ray diffraction and mercury intrusion measurements. A displacive phase transition from a highly compressible open pore ( op ) phase with continuous porosity (space group Pbca , bulk modulus ∼1.4 GPa) to a closed pore ( cp ) phase with inaccessible porosity (space group P 2 1 / c , bulk modulus ∼3.3-4.9 GPa) is triggered by the application of mechanical pressure. Over the course of the transitions, both ZIF-4 materials contract by about 20% in volume. However, the threshold pressure, the reversibility and the immediate repeatability of the phase transition depend on the metal cation. ZIF-4(Zn) undergoes the op-cp phase transition at a hydrostatic mechanical pressure of only 28 MPa, while ZIF-4(Co) requires about 50 MPa to initiate the transition. Interestingly, ZIF-4(Co) fully returns to the op phase after decompression, whereas ZIF-4(Zn) remains in the cp phase after pressure release and requires subsequent heating to switch back to the op phase. These variations in high pressure behaviour can be rationalised on the basis of the different electron configurations of the respective M 2+ ions (3d 10 for Zn 2+ and 3d 7 for Co 2+ ). Our results present the first examples of op-cp phase transitions ( i.e. breathing transitions) of ZIFs driven by mechanical pressure and suggest potential applications of these functional materials as shock absorbers, nanodampers, or in mechanocalorics.

  1. Inflammatory Profile of Awake Function-Controlled Craniotomy and Craniotomy under General Anesthesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimek, Markus; Hol, Jaap W.; Wens, Stephan; Heijmans-Antonissen, Claudia; Niehof, Sjoerd; Vincent, Arnaud J.; Klein, Jan; Zijlstra, Freek J.

    2009-01-01

    Background. Surgical stress triggers an inflammatory response and releases mediators into human plasma such as interleukins (ILs). Awake craniotomy and craniotomy performed under general anesthesia may be associated with different levels of stress. Our aim was to investigate whether those procedures cause different inflammatory responses. Methods. Twenty patients undergoing craniotomy under general anesthesia and 20 patients undergoing awake function-controlled craniotomy were included in this prospective, observational, two-armed study. Circulating levels of IL-6, IL-8, and IL-10 were determined pre-, peri-, and postoperatively in both patient groups. VAS scores for pain, anxiety, and stress were taken at four moments pre- and postoperatively to evaluate physical pain and mental duress. Results. Plasma IL-6 level significantly increased with time similarly in both groups. No significant plasma IL-8 and IL-10 change was observed in both experimental groups. The VAS pain score was significantly lower in the awake group compared to the anesthesia group at 12 hours postoperative. Postoperative anxiety and stress declined similarly in both groups. Conclusion. This study suggests that awake function-controlled craniotomy does not cause a significantly different inflammatory response than craniotomy performed under general anesthesia. It is also likely that function-controlled craniotomy does not cause a greater emotional challenge than tumor resection under general anesthesia. PMID:19536349

  2. Antifatigue Functions and Mechanisms of Edible and Medicinal Mushrooms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Geng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Fatigue is the symptom of tiredness caused by physical and/or psychological stresses. As fatigue is becoming a serious problem in the modern society affecting human health, work efficiency, and quality of life, effective antifatigue remedies other than pharmacological drugs or therapies are highly needed. Mushrooms have been widely used as health foods, because of their various bioactive constituents such as polysaccharides, proteins, vitamins, minerals, and dietary fiber. This paper reviews the major findings from previous studies on the antifatigue effects, the active components of mushrooms, and the possible mechanisms. Many studies have demonstrated the antifatigue effects of edible and medicinal mushrooms. These mushrooms probably mitigate human fatigue through effects on the functional systems, including the muscular, cardiovascular, hormone, and immune system. The bioactive constituents that contribute to the antifatigue effects of mushrooms may include polysaccharides, peptides, nucleosides, phenolic compounds, and triterpenoids. Further research is still needed to identify the active ingredients and to investigate their mechanism of action on the antifatigue effects. Since most previous studies have been carried out in animal models, more human trials should be performed to verify the antifatigue function of edible and medicinal mushrooms.

  3. Molecular mechanism of catalase activity change under sodium dodecyl sulfate-induced oxidative stress in the mouse primary hepatocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Wang, Jiaxi; Xu, Chi; Liu, Rutao; Chen, Yadong

    2016-04-15

    Sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) contributes to adverse effects of organisms probably because of its ability to induce oxidative stress via changing the activity of antioxidant enzyme catalase (CAT). But the underlying molecular mechanisms still remain unclear. This study characterized the harmful effects of SDS-induced oxidative stress on the mouse primary hepatocytes as well as the structure and function of CAT molecule and investigated the underlying molecular mechanism. After 12h SDS (0.1μM to 0.2mM) exposure, no significant change was observed in CAT activity of the hepatocytes. After 0.5 and 0.8mM SDS exposure, the state of oxidative stress stimulated CAT production in the hepatocytes. The inhibition of CAT activity induced by directly interacting with SDS was unable to catch the synthesis of CAT and therefore resulted in the increased activity and elevated ROS level. Further molecular experiments showed that SDS prefers to bind to the interface with no direct effect on the active site and the structure of heme groups of CAT molecule. When the sites in the interface is saturated, SDS interacts with VAL 73, HIS 74, ASN 147 and PHE 152, the key residues of the enzyme activity, and leads to the decrease of CAT activity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. New developments on the neurobiological and pharmaco-genetic mechanisms underlying internet and videogame addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, Aviv; Lejoyeux, Michel

    2015-03-01

    There is emerging evidence that the psychobiological mechanisms underlying behavioral addictions such as internet and videogame addiction resemble those of addiction for substances of abuse. Review of brain imaging, treatment and genetic studies on videogame and internet addiction. Literature search of published articles between 2009 and 2013 in Pubmed using "internet addiction" and "videogame addiction" as the search word. Twenty-nine studies have been selected and evaluated under the criteria of brain imaging, treatment, and genetics. Brain imaging studies of the resting state have shown that long-term internet game playing affected brain regions responsible for reward, impulse control and sensory-motor coordination. Brain activation studies have shown that videogame playing involved changes in reward and loss of control and that gaming pictures have activated regions similarly to those activated by cue-exposure to drugs. Structural studies have shown alterations in the volume of the ventral striatum possible as result of changes in reward. Furthermore, videogame playing was associated with dopamine release similar in magnitude to those of drugs of abuse and that there were faulty inhibitory control and reward mechanisms videogame addicted individuals. Finally, treatment studies using fMRI have shown reduction in craving for videogames and reduced associated brain activity. Videogame playing may be supported by similar neural mechanisms underlying drug abuse. Similar to drug and alcohol abuse, internet addiction results in sub-sensitivity of dopamine reward mechanisms. Given the fact that this research is in its early stage it is premature to conclude that internet addiction is equivalent to substance addictions. © American Academy of Addiction Psychiatry.

  5. Fabrication and mechanical properties of aluminum composite reinforced with functionalized carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alavijeh, Elham Zamani; Kokhaei, Saeed; Dehghani, Kamran

    2018-01-01

    Composite aluminum alloy (5000 series) and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were made using mechanical alloying, cold press and sintering. The quality of interactions between Al powders and CNTs in the metal matrix composite has a significant effect on mechanical properties. Motivated from the properties of functionalized CNTs, the current study use this material rather than the raw type, because of its reactivity. Besides, a poly-vinyl-alcohol pre-mixing is done, the aim of which is to enhance mixing process. The functionalized carbon nanotubes ware made by chemically method through refluxing with nitric acid. By this method functional groups have been created on CNTs surfaces. 1% and 3% functionalized carbon nanotubes were manufactured using the aforementioned method. To provide unbiased comparisons, 1% and 3% with raw CNTs and pure aluminum is produced with same manner. The numerical experiments affirm the superiority of the functionalized carbon nano-tubes in terms of the relative density and hardness of nanocomposites. As a final activity, the Fourier transformation infrared spectroscopy and field emission scanning electron microscopy techniques were used to characterize the carbon nanotubes and the powders.

  6. Insights into the energetics and mechanism underlying the interaction of tetraethylammonium bromide with proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banerjee, Tuhina; Kishore, Nand

    2008-01-01

    Calorimetry has been employed to investigate the quantitative energetic aspects and mechanism underlying protein-tetraethylammonium bromide (TEAB) interactions. Differential scanning calorimetry and UV-Visible spectroscopy have been used to study the thermal unfolding of three proteins of different structure and function (bovine serum albumin, α-lactalbumin, and bovine pancreatic ribonuclease A). The mode of interaction has been studied by using isothermal titration calorimetry, which demonstrates the absence of appreciable specific binding of TEAB to the protein. This suggests the involvement of solvent mediated effects and, possibly weak non-specific binding. The thermal unfolding transitions were found to be calorimetrically reversible for α-lactalbumin and bovine pancreatic ribonuclease A and partially reversible in the case of bovine serum albumin. The results indicate protein destabilization promoted by the TEAB interaction. The preferential interaction parameters of TEAB with α-lactalbumin and ribonuclease A confirm that an increased interaction of the hydrophobic groups of the TEAB with that of the protein upon denaturation is responsible for the reduced thermal stability of the protein. The decrease in the thermal stability of proteins in the presence of TEAB is well supported by a red shift in the intrinsic fluorescence of these proteins leading to conformational change thereby shifting the native ↔ denatured equilibrium towards right. The forces responsible for the thermal denaturation of the proteins of different structure and function in the presence of TEAB are discussed

  7. Ablation characteristics and reaction mechanism of insulation materials under slag deposition condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Yiwen; Li, Jiang; Liu, Yang

    2017-07-01

    Current understanding of the physical and chemical processes involved in the ablation of insulation materials by highly aluminized solid propellants is limited. The study on the heat transfer and ablation principle of ethylene propylene diene monomer (EPDM) materials under slag deposition condition is essential for future design or modification of large solid rocket motors (SRMs) for launch application. In this paper, the alumina liquid flow pattern and the deposition principle in full-scale SRM engines are discussed. The interaction mechanism between the alumina droplets and the wall are analyzed. Then, an experimental method was developed to simulate the insulation material ablation under slag deposition condition. Experimental study was conducted based on a laboratory-scale device. Meanwhile, from the analysis of the cross-sectional morphology and chemical composition of the charring layer after ablation, the reaction mechanism of the charring layer under deposition condition was discussed, and the main reaction equation was derived. The numerical simulation and experimental results show the following. (i) The alumina droplet flow in the deposition section of the laboratory-scale device is similar to that of a full-scale SRM. (ii) The charring layer of the EPDM insulator displays a porous tight/loose structure under high-temperature slag deposition condition. (iii) A seven-step carbothermal reduction in the alumina is derived and established under high-pressure and high-temperature environment in the SRM combustion chamber. (iv) The analysis using thermodynamic software indicates that the reaction of the alumina and charring layer initially forms Al4C3 during the operation. Then, Al element and Al2OC compound are subsequently produced with the reduction in the release of gas CO as well with continuous environmental heating.

  8. From Sound to Significance: Exploring the Mechanisms Underlying Emotional Reactions to Music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juslin, Patrik N; Barradas, Gonçalo; Eerola, Tuomas

    2015-01-01

    A common approach to studying emotional reactions to music is to attempt to obtain direct links between musical surface features such as tempo and a listener's responses. However, such an analysis ultimately fails to explain why emotions are aroused in the listener. In this article we explore an alternative approach, which aims to account for musical emotions in terms of a set of psychological mechanisms that are activated by different types of information in a musical event. This approach was tested in 4 experiments that manipulated 4 mechanisms (brain stem reflex, contagion, episodic memory, musical expectancy) by selecting existing musical pieces that featured information relevant for each mechanism. The excerpts were played to 60 listeners, who were asked to rate their felt emotions on 15 scales. Skin conductance levels and facial expressions were measured, and listeners reported subjective impressions of relevance to specific mechanisms. Results indicated that the target mechanism conditions evoked emotions largely as predicted by a multimechanism framework and that mostly similar effects occurred across the experiments that included different pieces of music. We conclude that a satisfactory account of musical emotions requires consideration of how musical features and responses are mediated by a range of underlying mechanisms.

  9. Exploring the genetics and non-cell autonomous mechanisms underlying ALS/FTLD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hongbo; Kankel, Mark W; Su, Susan C; Han, Steve W S; Ofengeim, Dimitry

    2018-03-01

    Although amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), also known as Lou Gehrig's disease, was first described in 1874, a flurry of genetic discoveries in the last 10 years has markedly increased our understanding of this disease. These findings have not only enhanced our knowledge of mechanisms leading to ALS, but also have revealed that ALS shares many genetic causes with another neurodegenerative disease, frontotemporal lobar dementia (FTLD). In this review, we survey how recent genetic studies have bridged our mechanistic understanding of these two related diseases and how the genetics behind ALS and FTLD point to complex disorders, implicating non-neuronal cell types in disease pathophysiology. The involvement of non-neuronal cell types is consistent with a non-cell autonomous component in these diseases. This is further supported by studies that identified a critical role of immune-associated genes within ALS/FTLD and other neurodegenerative disorders. The molecular functions of these genes support an emerging concept that various non-autonomous functions are involved in neurodegeneration. Further insights into such a mechanism(s) will ultimately lead to a better understanding of potential routes of therapeutic intervention. Facts ALS and FTLD are severe neurodegenerative disorders on the same disease spectrum. Multiple cellular processes including dysregulation of RNA homeostasis, imbalance of proteostasis, contribute to ALS/FTLD pathogenesis. Aberrant function in non-neuronal cell types, including microglia, contributes to ALS/FTLD. Strong neuroimmune and neuroinflammatory components are associated with ALS/FTLD patients. Open Questions Why can patients with similar mutations have different disease manifestations, i.e., why do C9ORF72 mutations lead to motor neuron loss in some patients while others exhibit loss of neurons in the frontotemporal lobe? Do ALS causal mutations result in microglial dysfunction and contribute to ALS/FTLD pathology? How do microglia

  10. Molecular Mechanisms Underlying the Epileptogenesis and Seizure Progression in Tuberous Sclerosis Complex 1 Deficient Mouse Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    dysregulation in epileptogenesis in the developing brain? 2) What are the molecular mechanisms downstream of mTOR hyperactivation that trigger epileptogenesis...underlying epilepsy. Hopefully, a knowledge of these mechanisms will aid in a rational development of therapies. KEYWORDS Tuberous Sclerosis, Epilepsy

  11. Pathway and mechanism of nitrogen transformation during composting: Functional enzymes and genes under different concentrations of PVP-AgNPs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Guangming; Zhang, Lihua; Dong, Haoran; Chen, Yaoning; Zhang, Jiachao; Zhu, Yuan; Yuan, Yujie; Xie, Yankai; Fang, Wei

    2018-04-01

    Polyvinylpyrrolidone coated silver nanoparticles (PVP-AgNPs) were applied at different concentrations to reduce total nitrogen (TN) losses and the mechanisms of nitrogen bio-transformation were investigated in terms of the nitrogen functional enzymes and genes. Results showed that mineral N in pile 3 which was treated with AgNPs at a concentration of 10 mg/kg compost was the highest (6.58 g/kg dry weight (DW) compost) and the TN loss (47.07%) was the lowest at the end of composting. Correlation analysis indicated that TN loss was significantly correlated with amoA abundance. High throughput sequencing showed that the dominant family of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) was Nitrosomonadaceae, and the number of Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs) reduced after the beginning of composting when compared with day 1. In summary, treatment with AgNPs at a concentration of 10 mg/kg compost was considerable to reduce TN losses and reserve more mineral N during composting. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Inflammatory Profile of Awake Function-Controlled Craniotomy and Craniotomy under General Anesthesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Klimek

    2009-01-01

    Results. Plasma IL-6 level significantly increased with time similarly in both groups. No significant plasma IL-8 and IL-10 change was observed in both experimental groups. The VAS pain score was significantly lower in the awake group compared to the anesthesia group at 12 hours postoperative. Postoperative anxiety and stress declined similarly in both groups. Conclusion. This study suggests that awake function-controlled craniotomy does not cause a significantly different inflammatory response than craniotomy performed under general anesthesia. It is also likely that function-controlled craniotomy does not cause a greater emotional challenge than tumor resection under general anesthesia.

  13. A Floquet-Green's function approach to mesoscopic transport under ac bias

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, B H; Cao, J C

    2008-01-01

    The current response of a mesoscopic system under a periodic ac bias is investigated by combining the Floquet theorem and the nonequilibrium Green's function method. The band structure of the lead under ac bias is fully taken into account by using appropriate self-energies in an enlarged Floquet space. Both the retarded and lesser Green's functions are obtained in the Floquet basis to account for the interference and interaction effects. In addition to the external ac bias, the time-varying Coulomb interaction, which is treated at the self-consistent Hartree-Fock level, provides another internal ac field. The numerical results show that the time-varying Coulomb field yields decoherence and reduces the ringing behavior of the current response to a harmonic bias

  14. Mechanical stress analysis for a fuel rod under normal operating conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pino, Eddy S.; Giovedi, Claudia; Serra, Andre da Silva; Abe, Alfredo Y.

    2013-01-01

    Nuclear reactor fuel elements consist mainly in a system of a nuclear fuel encapsulated by a cladding material subject to high fluxes of energetic neutrons, high operating temperatures, pressure systems, thermal gradients, heat fluxes and with chemical compatibility with the reactor coolant. The design of a nuclear reactor requires, among a set of activities, the evaluation of the structural integrity of the fuel rod submitted to different loads acting on the fuel rod and the specific properties (dimensions and mechanical and thermal properties) of the cladding material and coolant, including thermal and pressure gradients produced inside the rod due to the fuel burnup. In this work were evaluated the structural mechanical stresses of a fuel rod using stainless steel as cladding material and UO 2 with a low degree of enrichment as fuel pellet on a PWR (pressurized water reactor) under normal operating conditions. In this sense, tangential, radial and axial stress on internal and external cladding surfaces considering the orientations of 0 deg, 90 deg and 180 deg were considered. The obtained values were compared with the limit values for stress to the studied material. From the obtained results, it was possible to conclude that, under the expected normal reactor operation conditions, the integrity of the fuel rod can be maintained. (author)

  15. Uncovering the underlying physical mechanisms of biological systems via quantification of landscape and flux

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Li; Chu Xiakun; Yan Zhiqiang; Zheng Xiliang; Zhang Kun; Zhang Feng; Yan Han; Wu Wei; Wang Jin

    2016-01-01

    In this review, we explore the physical mechanisms of biological processes such as protein folding and recognition, ligand binding, and systems biology, including cell cycle, stem cell, cancer, evolution, ecology, and neural networks. Our approach is based on the landscape and flux theory for nonequilibrium dynamical systems. This theory provides a unifying principle and foundation for investigating the underlying mechanisms and physical quantification of biological systems. (topical review)

  16. Age differences in the underlying mechanisms of stereotype threat effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popham, Lauren E; Hess, Thomas M

    2015-03-01

    The goals of the present study were to (a) examine whether age differences exist in the mechanisms underlying stereotype threat effects on cognitive performance and (b) examine whether emotion regulation abilities may buffer against threat effects on performance. Older and younger adults were exposed to positive or negative age-relevant stereotypes, allowing us to examine the impact of threat on regulatory focus and working memory. Self-reported emotion regulation measures were completed prior to the session. Older adults' performance under threat suggested a prevention-focused approach to the task, indexed by increased accuracy and reduced speed. The same pattern was observed in younger adults, but the effects were not as strong. Age differences emerged when examining the availability of working memory resources under threat, with young adults showing decrements, whereas older adults did not. Emotion regulation abilities moderated threat effects in young adults but not in older adults. The results provide support for the notion that stereotype threat may lead to underperformance through somewhat different pathways in older and younger adults. Future research should further examine whether the underlying reason for this age difference is rooted in age-related improvements in emotion regulation. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Transformational Leadership and Organizational Citizenship Behavior: A Meta-Analytic Test of Underlying Mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nohe, Christoph; Hertel, Guido

    2017-01-01

    Based on social exchange theory, we examined and contrasted attitudinal mediators (affective organizational commitment, job satisfaction) and relational mediators (trust in leader, leader-member exchange; LMX) of the positive relationship between transformational leadership and organizational citizenship behavior (OCB). Hypotheses were tested using meta-analytic path models with correlations from published meta-analyses (761 samples with 227,419 individuals overall). When testing single-mediator models, results supported our expectations that each of the mediators explained the relationship between transformational leadership and OCB. When testing a multi-mediator model, LMX was the strongest mediator. When testing a model with a latent attitudinal mechanism and a latent relational mechanism, the relational mechanism was the stronger mediator of the relationship between transformational leadership and OCB. Our findings help to better understand the underlying mechanisms of the relationship between transformational leadership and OCB.

  18. Imitation in Newborn Infants: Exploring the Range of Gestures Imitated and the Underlying Mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meltzoff, Andrew N.; Moore, M. Keith

    1989-01-01

    Evaluated psychological mechanisms underlying imitation of facial actions in 40 newborn infants. Results showed imitation of head movement and a tongue-protrusion gesture. Subjects imitated from memory after displays had stopped. (RJC)

  19. Deformation mechanisms in Ti/TiN multilayer under compressive loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Wei; Ayoub, Georges; Salehinia, Iman; Mansoor, Bilal; Zbib, Hussein

    2017-01-01

    The promising mechanical, physical and chemical properties of nano-scale metal/ceramic multilayers (MCMs) are of high interest for extreme environment applications. Understanding the plastic deformation mechanisms and the variables affecting those properties is therefore essential. The interface characteristics and the plastic deformation mechanisms under compressive loading in a Ti/TiN multilayer with a semi-coherent interface are numerically investigated. The interface structure of the Ti/TiN interface and the interface misfit dislocation were characterized using molecular dynamic simulations combined with atomically informed Frank-Bilby method. Three possible atomic stacking interface structures are identified according to the crystallographic analysis of the interface. Upon relaxation, large interface areas are occupied with the energetically stable configuration. Furthermore, the higher energy stacking are transformed into misfit dislocations or dislocation nodes. The molecular dynamic compressive stress strain response of the Ti/TiN multilayers exhibited three distinctive peaks. The first peak was generated by the dislocation dissociation of perfect dislocation into pairs of partials dislocation around extended nodes region at the interface. Upon further compression the second peak, identified as the first yielding, resulted from the activation of pyramidal slip planes in the Ti layer. Finally, a third peak identified as the second yielding, occurred when dislocation nucleated/transmitted in/into the TiN layer.

  20. Biomechanical walking mechanisms underlying the metabolic reduction caused by an autonomous exoskeleton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooney, Luke M; Herr, Hugh M

    2016-01-28

    Ankle exoskeletons can now reduce the metabolic cost of walking in humans without leg disability, but the biomechanical mechanisms that underlie this augmentation are not fully understood. In this study, we analyze the energetics and lower limb mechanics of human study participants walking with and without an active autonomous ankle exoskeleton previously shown to reduce the metabolic cost of walking. We measured the metabolic, kinetic and kinematic effects of wearing a battery powered bilateral ankle exoskeleton. Six participants walked on a level treadmill at 1.4 m/s under three conditions: exoskeleton not worn, exoskeleton worn in a powered-on state, and exoskeleton worn in a powered-off state. Metabolic rates were measured with a portable pulmonary gas exchange unit, body marker positions with a motion capture system, and ground reaction forces with a force-plate instrumented treadmill. Inverse dynamics were then used to estimate ankle, knee and hip torques and mechanical powers. The active ankle exoskeleton provided a mean positive power of 0.105 ± 0.008 W/kg per leg during the push-off region of stance phase. The net metabolic cost of walking with the active exoskeleton (3.28 ± 0.10 W/kg) was an 11 ± 4 % (p = 0.019) reduction compared to the cost of walking without the exoskeleton (3.71 ± 0.14 W/kg). Wearing the ankle exoskeleton significantly reduced the mean positive power of the ankle joint by 0.033 ± 0.006 W/kg (p = 0.007), the knee joint by 0.042 ± 0.015 W/kg (p = 0.020), and the hip joint by 0.034 ± 0.009 W/kg (p = 0.006). This study shows that the ankle exoskeleton does not exclusively reduce positive mechanical power at the ankle joint, but also mitigates positive power at the knee and hip. Furthermore, the active ankle exoskeleton did not simply replace biological ankle function in walking, but rather augmented the total (biological + exoskeletal) ankle moment and power. This study

  1. Appropriate Objective Functions for Quantifying Iris Mechanical Properties Using Inverse Finite Element Modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pant, Anup D; Dorairaj, Syril K; Amini, Rouzbeh

    2018-07-01

    Quantifying the mechanical properties of the iris is important, as it provides insight into the pathophysiology of glaucoma. Recent ex vivo studies have shown that the mechanical properties of the iris are different in glaucomatous eyes as compared to normal ones. Notwithstanding the importance of the ex vivo studies, such measurements are severely limited for diagnosis and preclude development of treatment strategies. With the advent of detailed imaging modalities, it is possible to determine the in vivo mechanical properties using inverse finite element (FE) modeling. An inverse modeling approach requires an appropriate objective function for reliable estimation of parameters. In the case of the iris, numerous measurements such as iris chord length (CL) and iris concavity (CV) are made routinely in clinical practice. In this study, we have evaluated five different objective functions chosen based on the iris biometrics (in the presence and absence of clinical measurement errors) to determine the appropriate criterion for inverse modeling. Our results showed that in the absence of experimental measurement error, a combination of iris CL and CV can be used as the objective function. However, with the addition of measurement errors, the objective functions that employ a large number of local displacement values provide more reliable outcomes.

  2. An agent-based simulation of power generation company behavior in electricity markets under different market-clearing mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aliabadi, Danial Esmaeili; Kaya, Murat; Şahin, Güvenç

    2017-01-01

    Deregulated electricity markets are expected to provide affordable electricity for consumers through promoting competition. Yet, the results do not always fulfill the expectations. The regulator's market-clearing mechanism is a strategic choice that may affect the level of competition in the market. We conceive of the market-clearing mechanism as composed of two components: pricing rules and rationing policies. We investigate the strategic behavior of power generation companies under different market-clearing mechanisms using an agent-based simulation model which integrates a game-theoretical understanding of the auction mechanism in the electricity market and generation companies' learning mechanism. Results of our simulation experiments are presented using various case studies representing different market settings. The market in simulations is observed to converge to a Nash equilibrium of the stage game or to a similar state under most parameter combinations. Compared to pay-as-bid pricing, bid prices are closer to marginal costs on average under uniform pricing while GenCos' total profit is also higher. The random rationing policy of the ISO turns out to be more successful in achieving lower bid prices and lower GenCo profits. In minimizing GenCos' total profit, a combination of pay-as-bid pricing rule and random rationing policy is observed to be the most promising. - Highlights: • An agent-based simulation of generation company behavior in electricity markets is developed. • Learning dynamics of companies is modeled with an extended Q-learning algorithm. • Different market clearing mechanisms of the regulator are compared. • Convergence to Nash equilibria is analyzed under different cases. • The level of competition in the market is studied.

  3. Transcatheter Mitral Valve Devices - Functional Mechanical Designs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kliger, Chad

    2014-03-01

    Mitral regurgitation is a complex disorder involving a multitude of components of the mitral apparatus. With the desire for less invasive treatment approaches, transcatheter mitral valve therapies (TMVT) are directed at these components and available at varying stages of development. Therapeutic advancements and the potential to combine technologies may further improve their efficacy and safety. Transcatheter mitral valve replacement, while preserving the mitral apparatus, may emerge as an alternative or even a more suitable treatment option. In addition, early data on transcatheter mitral valve-in-valve and valve-in-ring implantation are encouraging and this approach may be an alternative to reoperation in the high-risk patient. This review details the expanding functional mechanical designs of current active TMVT.

  4. Different Modes of Monitoring and Correction of Cardiac Function During Operations Under Extracorporeal Circulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. A. Krichevsky

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to comparatively evaluate the efficiency of intensive care measures chosen on the basis of traditional monitoring of central hemodynamics (CH or on that of the data of transesophageal echocardiography (TE echoCG.Materials and methods: 50 patients were examined at coronary bypass surgery under extracorporeal circulation. Under a prospective comparative analysis were two algorithms of treatment policy: maintenance of cardiac index, by using the maximum volemic load, or that of left ventricular systolic function under guidance of transesophageal echocardiography.Results: Significantly (p<0.05 larger doses of dopamine and/or dobutamine were required to maintain adequate left ventricular systolic function. However, this treatment policy showed much better (p<0.05 circulatory parameters in the postperfusion period. At the same time the duration of postoperative inotropic therapy in these patients proved to be significantly (p<0.05 less.Conclusion. The treatment policy based on the maintenance of left ventricular systolic function under guidance of TE echoCG leads to the shortest circulatory stabilization during myocardial revascularization. The application of a volemic load and the expectant use of inotropic drugs result in a longer restoration of operated heart function

  5. Lights Off for Arbuscular Mycorrhiza: On Its Symbiotic Functioning under Light Deprivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konvalinková, Tereza; Jansa, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Plants are often exposed to shade over different time scales and this may substantially affect not only their own growth, but also development and functioning of the energetically dependent organisms. Among those, the root symbionts such as arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi and rhizobia represent particularly important cases—on the one hand, they consume a significant share of plant carbon (C) budget and, on the other, they generate a number of important nutritional feedbacks on their plant hosts, often resulting in a net positive effect on their host growth and/or fitness. Here we discuss our previous results comparing mycorrhizal performance under different intensities and durations of shade (Konvalinková et al., 2015) in a broader context of previously published literature. Additionally, we review publicly available knowledge on the root colonization and mycorrhizal growth responses in AM plants under light deprivation. Experimental evidence shows that sudden and intensive decrease of light availability to a mycorrhizal plant triggers rapid deactivation of phosphorus transfer from the AM fungus to the plant already within a few days, implying active and rapid response of the AM fungus to the energetic status of its plant host. When AM plants are exposed to intensive shading on longer time scales (weeks to months), positive mycorrhizal growth responses (MGR) are often decreasing and may eventually become negative. This is most likely due to the high C cost of the symbiosis relative to the C availability, and failure of plants to fully compensate for the fungal C demand under low light. Root colonization by AM fungi often declines under low light intensities, although the active role of plants in regulating the extent of root colonization has not yet been unequivocally demonstrated. Quantitative information on the rates and dynamics of C transfer from the plant to the fungus is mostly missing, as is the knowledge on the involved molecular mechanisms. Therefore

  6. In Vivo Neuromechanics : Decoding Causal Motor Neuron Behavior with Resulting Musculoskeletal Function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sartori, Massimo; Yavuz, Utku; Farina, Dario

    2017-01-01

    Human motor function emerges from the interaction between the neuromuscular and the musculoskeletal systems. Despite the knowledge of the mechanisms underlying neural and mechanical functions, there is no relevant understanding of the neuro-mechanical interplay in the neuro-musculo-skeletal system.

  7. Aroma Effects on Physiologic and Cognitive Function Following Acute Stress: A Mechanism Investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamine, Irina; Oken, Barry S

    2016-09-01

    Aromas may improve physiologic and cognitive function after stress, but associated mechanisms remain unknown. This study evaluated the effects of lavender aroma, which is commonly used for stress reduction, on physiologic and cognitive functions. The contribution of pharmacologic, hedonic, and expectancy-related mechanisms of the aromatherapy effects was evaluated. Ninety-two healthy adults (mean age, 58.0 years; 79.3% women) were randomly assigned to three aroma groups (lavender, perceptible placebo [coconut], and nonperceptible placebo [water] and to two prime subgroups (primed, with a suggestion of inhaling a powerful stress-reducing aroma, or no prime). Participants' performance on a battery of cognitive tests, physiologic responses, and subjective stress were evaluated at baseline and after exposure to a stress battery during which aromatherapy was present. Participants also rated the intensity and pleasantness of their assigned aroma. Pharmacologic effects of lavender but not placebo aromas significantly benefited post-stress performance on the working memory task (F(2, 86) = 5.41; p = 0.006). Increased expectancy due to positive prime, regardless of aroma type, facilitated post-stress performance on the processing speed task (F(1, 87) = 8.31; p = 0.005). Aroma hedonics (pleasantness and intensity) played a role in the beneficial lavender effect on working memory and physiologic function. The observable aroma effects were produced by a combination of mechanisms involving aroma-specific pharmacologic properties, aroma hedonic properties, and participant expectations. In the future, each of these mechanisms could be manipulated to produce optimal functioning.

  8. The levels of psychological functioning of personality and the mechanisms of defense

    OpenAIRE

    Benítez Camacho, Erika; Chávez-León, Enrique; Ontiveros Uribe, Martha Patricia; Yunes Jiménez, Arlette; Náfate López, Omar

    2010-01-01

    Otto Kernberg states three types of personality organizations, also named psychological functional levels. They reflect the patient's predominant psychological characteristics: identity integration grade, defense mechanisms, and reality test. In mental disorders, the predominant defensive influences significantly in the severity and evolution of the suffering. Objectives The objective of the actual study was to determine the usage of defense mechanisms by patients with some mental disorder, g...

  9. Failure mechanisms of aluminium foams under compressive loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sáenz, E.

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is the investigation of the major failure mechanisms of aluminium foams, which were obtained by powder metallurgy route, under compressive loads. The study was focused on two commonly aluminium alloys AlMg1Si or A 6061 and AlSi12. Due to the fact that the failure mechanisms strongly depend on the density and the macrostructural properties of the material, the mechanical properties always have to be correlated to the structural properties. Therefore, macrostructural investigations were used as a basis to establish the correlation between structural and mechanical properties. This was done with a commercially available image analysis system. The average cell size, the cell size distribution and the cell density (number of cells/area were obtained. In order to evaluate the influence of foaming direction on the cell morphology, some cross sections parallel to the foaming direction were prepared. For the characterization of the mechanical compression properties the compressive or upper yield strength (UYS, the densification strain (eD, the energy absorption (Ea and the efficiency (Eff were obtained. Furthermore, the failure behavior of the samples was in-situ observed with a digital video camera and continuously recorded during the test.

    El objetivo de este estudio es investigar los principales mecanismos de fallo de espumas de aluminio sometidas a cargas de compresión. Las espumas metálicas fueron obtenidas mediante el proceso pulvimetalúrgico, utilizándose como materia prima dos aleaciones comerciales AlMg1Si o A 6061 y AlSi12. Debido a que los mecanismos de fallo en este tipo de materiales depende fuertemente de la densidad y las características macroestructurales del material, en este estudio se busca correlacionar las propiedades mecánicas con estas características. La macroestructura se caracterizó mediante análisis de imagen. El tamaño de celda promedio, la distribución de tamaño y la densidad de

  10. A Primer on Elliptic Functions with Applications in Classical Mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brizard, Alain J.

    2009-01-01

    The Jacobi and Weierstrass elliptic functions used to be part of the standard mathematical arsenal of physics students. They appear as solutions of many important problems in classical mechanics: the motion of a planar pendulum (Jacobi), the motion of a force-free asymmetric top (Jacobi), the motion of a spherical pendulum (Weierstrass) and the…

  11. Effect of functionalization of graphene nanoplatelets on the mechanical response of graphene/epoxy composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmadi-Moghadam, B.; Sharafimasooleh, M.; Shadlou, S.; Taheri, F.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A new functionalization strategy for GNPs, using trimethoxysilane is introduced. • Bond quality between GNP and silane agent is verified by the Raman spect. and TGA. • The functionaliz’n effects on mechanical properties of GNP/epoxy were investigated. • The functionaliz’n effects on the fracture mechanisms of GNP/epoxy investigated. • GNP dispersion quality is also evaluated using SEM micrographs and XRD. - Abstract: This study introduces a new strategy for functionalizing graphene nanoplatelets (GNPs) by bonding a silane agent to its structure. In order to evaluate the efficacy of the proposed method, epoxy resin specimens reinforced with silane modified GNPs (G-Si) are prepared at different weight contents of nanoparticles along with three other types of GNPs (unmodified GNP, graphene oxide GNP [GO], and amino functionalized GNP [G-NH 2 ]). The nanocomposites’ mechanical properties, such as the elastic modulus, ultimate strength, modulus of toughness and fracture toughness are evaluated and compared for different types of functionalization. Raman spectroscopy, thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) are employed to characterize the chemical and structural changes of the functionalized GNPs. The results show that nanocomposites containing G-Si and G-NH 2 provide the best results for most of the mentioned properties. The functionalization of GNPs gives the most promising results for fracture toughness of epoxy, showing an 82% increase, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) micrographs and XRD analysis reveal that an improved dispersion status is obtained by GNP functionalization

  12. Exploring the Underlying Mechanisms of the Xenopus laevis Embryonic Cell Cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kun; Wang, Jin

    2018-05-31

    The cell cycle is an indispensable process in proliferation and development. Despite significant efforts, global quantification and physical understanding are still challenging. In this study, we explored the mechanisms of the Xenopus laevis embryonic cell cycle by quantifying the underlying landscape and flux. We uncovered the Mexican hat landscape of the Xenopus laevis embryonic cell cycle with several local basins and barriers on the oscillation path. The local basins characterize the different phases of the Xenopus laevis embryonic cell cycle, and the local barriers represent the checkpoints. The checkpoint mechanism of the cell cycle is revealed by the landscape basins and barriers. While landscape shape determines the stabilities of the states on the oscillation path, the curl flux force determines the stability of the cell cycle flow. Replication is fundamental for biology of living cells. We quantify the input energy (through the entropy production) as the thermodynamic requirement for initiation and sustainability of single cell life (cell cycle). Furthermore, we also quantify curl flux originated from the input energy as the dynamical requirement for the emergence of a new stable phase (cell cycle). This can provide a new quantitative insight for the origin of single cell life. In fact, the curl flux originated from the energy input or nutrition supply determines the speed and guarantees the progression of the cell cycle. The speed of the cell cycle is a hallmark of cancer. We characterized the quality of the cell cycle by the coherence time and found it is supported by the flux and energy cost. We are also able to quantify the degree of time irreversibility by the cross correlation function forward and backward in time from the stochastic traces in the simulation or experiments, providing a way for the quantification of the time irreversibility and the flux. Through global sensitivity analysis upon landscape and flux, we can identify the key elements for

  13. SynDIG4/Prrt1 Is Required for Excitatory Synapse Development and Plasticity Underlying Cognitive Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Matt

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Altering AMPA receptor (AMPAR content at synapses is a key mechanism underlying the regulation of synaptic strength during learning and memory. Previous work demonstrated that SynDIG1 (synapse differentiation-induced gene 1 encodes a transmembrane AMPAR-associated protein that regulates excitatory synapse strength and number. Here we show that the related protein SynDIG4 (also known as Prrt1 modifies AMPAR gating properties in a subunit-dependent manner. Young SynDIG4 knockout (KO mice have weaker excitatory synapses, as evaluated by immunocytochemistry and electrophysiology. Adult SynDIG4 KO mice show complete loss of tetanus-induced long-term potentiation (LTP, while mEPSC amplitude is reduced by only 25%. Furthermore, SynDIG4 KO mice exhibit deficits in two independent cognitive assays. Given that SynDIG4 colocalizes with the AMPAR subunit GluA1 at non-synaptic sites, we propose that SynDIG4 maintains a pool of extrasynaptic AMPARs necessary for synapse development and function underlying higher-order cognitive plasticity.

  14. On the mechanism of irradiation effect on the function of Helix pomatia neuron Na+, K+-pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ajrapetyan, S.N.; Egorova, E.G.; Sagiyan, A.A.; Dadalyan, S.S.; Dvoretskij, A.I.; Sulejmonyan, M.A.

    1987-01-01

    Mechanism of irradiation effect on passive permeability, Na + /Ca 2+ exchange, Na + , K + -pump function intensity, the number of membrane functionally active pump units (Na + , K + -ATP-ase molecules) was determined using Helix pomatia and nervous ganglions isolated from them and irradiated by 5.16 Kl/kg dose. The data obtained show that ionizing radiation leads to obvious destructions in the mechanisms of neuron Na + , K + -pump functioning

  15. Mechanical and biological properties of the micro-/nano-grain functionally graded hydroxyapatite bioceramics for bone tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Changchun; Deng, Congying; Chen, Xuening; Zhao, Xiufen; Chen, Ying; Fan, Yujiang; Zhang, Xingdong

    2015-08-01

    Functionally graded materials (FGM) open the promising approach for bone tissue repair. In this study, a novel functionally graded hydroxyapatite (HA) bioceramic with micrograin and nanograin structure was fabricated. Its mechanical properties were tailored by composition of micrograin and nanograin. The dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) indicated that the graded HA ceramics had similar mechanical property compared to natural bones. Their cytocompatibility was evaluated via fluorescent microscopy and MTT colorimetric assay. The viability and proliferation of rabbit bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) on ceramics indicated that this functionally graded HA ceramic had better cytocompatibility than conventional HA ceramic. This study demonstrated that functionally graded HA ceramics create suitable structures to satisfy both the mechanical and biological requirements of bone tissues. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Effects of delaying transplanting on agronomic traits and grain yield of rice under mechanical transplantation pattern.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qihua Liu

    Full Text Available A delay in the mechanical transplantation (MT of rice seedlings frequently occurs in Huanghuai wheat-rice rotation cropping districts of China, due to the late harvest of wheat, the poor weather conditions and the insufficiency of transplanters, missing the optimum transplanting time and causing seedlings to age. To identify how delaying transplanting rice affects the agronomic characteristics including the growth duration, photosynthetic productivity and dry matter remobilization efficiency and the grain yield under mechanical transplanting pattern, an experiment with a split-plot design was conducted over two consecutive years. The main plot includes two types of cultivation: mechanical transplanting and artificial transplanting (AT. The subplot comprises four japonica rice cultivars. The results indicate that the rice jointing, booting, heading and maturity stages were postponed under MT when using AT as a control. The tiller occurrence number, dry matter weight per tiller, accumulative dry matter for the population, leaf area index, crop growth rate, photosynthetic potential, and dry matter remobilization efficiency of the leaf under MT significantly decreased compared to those under AT. In contrast, the reduction rate of the leaf area during the heading-maturity stage was markedly enhanced under MT. The numbers of effective panicles and filled grains per panicle and the grain yield significantly decreased under MT. A significant correlation was observed between the dry matter production, remobilization and distribution characteristics and the grain yield. We infer that, as with rice from old seedlings, the decrease in the tiller occurrence, the photosynthetic productivity and the assimilate remobilization efficiency may be important agronomic traits that are responsible for the reduced grain yield under MT.

  17. Research on energy conversion mechanism of a screw centrifugal pump under the water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quan, H; Li, R N; Han, W; Cheng, X R; Shen, Z J; Su, Q M

    2013-01-01

    In order to research screw centrifugal pump impeller power capability and energy conversion mechanism, we used Navier-Stokes equation and standard k-ε equation turbulence model on the basis of the Euler equations to carry out screw centrifugal pump internal flow numerical simulation. This was explored by simulating specific design conditions; the medium is water, variation of speed and pressure of flow filed under the action of the impeller, and the screw centrifugal impeller shroud line and wheel line segment take monitoring sites. The monitoring points are between dynamic head and static head change to analyze the energy conversion capability along the impeller corners of screw centrifugal pump. The results show that the energy of fluid of the screw centrifugal pump is provided by spiral segment, the spiral segment in front of the impeller has played a multi-level role, it has significant reference value to research the energy conversion mechanism of screw centrifugal pump under solid-liquid two phase

  18. CISM course on mechanical behaviour of soils under environmentally induced cyclic loads

    CERN Document Server

    Wood, David; Mechanical Behaviour of Soils Under Environmentally Induced Cyclic Loads

    2012-01-01

    The book gives a comprehensive description of the mechanical response of soils (granular and cohesive materials) under cyclic loading. It provides the geotechnical engineer with the theoretical and analytical tools necessary for the evaluation of settlements developng with time under cyclic, einvironmentally idncued loads (such as wave motion, wind actions, water table level variation) and their consequences for the serviceability and durability of structures such as the shallow or deep foundations used in offshore engineering, caisson beakwaters, ballast and airport pavements and also to interpret monitoring data, obtained from both natural and artificial slopes and earth embankments, for the purposes of risk assessment and mitigation.

  19. Biological mechanisms underlying the role of physical fitness in health and resilience

    OpenAIRE

    Silverman, Marni N.; Deuster, Patricia A.

    2014-01-01

    Physical fitness, achieved through regular exercise and/or spontaneous physical activity, confers resilience by inducing positive psychological and physiological benefits, blunting stress reactivity, protecting against potentially adverse behavioural and metabolic consequences of stressful events and preventing many chronic diseases. In this review, we discuss the biological mechanisms underlying the beneficial effects of physical fitness on mental and physical health. Physical fitness appear...

  20. Mapping of the Underlying Neural Mechanisms of Maintenance and Manipulation in Visuo-Spatial Working Memory Using An n-back Mental Rotation Task: A Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamp, Gemma; Alexander, Bonnie; Laycock, Robin; Crewther, David P; Crewther, Sheila G

    2016-01-01

    Mapping of the underlying neural mechanisms of visuo-spatial working memory (WM) has been shown to consistently elicit activity in right hemisphere dominant fronto-parietal networks. However to date, the bulk of neuroimaging literature has focused largely on the maintenance aspect of visuo-spatial WM, with a scarcity of research into the aspects of WM involving manipulation of information. Thus, this study aimed to compare maintenance-only with maintenance and manipulation of visuo-spatial stimuli (3D cube shapes) utilizing a 1-back task while functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scans were acquired. Sixteen healthy participants (9 women, M = 23.94 years, SD = 2.49) were required to perform the 1-back task with or without mentally rotating the shapes 90° on a vertical axis. When no rotation was required (maintenance-only condition), a right hemispheric lateralization was revealed across fronto-parietal areas. However, when the task involved maintaining and manipulating the same stimuli through 90° rotation, activation was primarily seen in the bilateral parietal lobe and left fusiform gyrus. The findings confirm that the well-established right lateralized fronto-parietal networks are likely to underlie simple maintenance of visuo-spatial stimuli. The results also suggest that the added demand of manipulation of information maintained online appears to require further neural recruitment of functionally related areas. In particular mental rotation of visuospatial stimuli required bilateral parietal areas, and the left fusiform gyrus potentially to maintain a categorical or object representation. It can be concluded that WM is a complex neural process involving the interaction of an increasingly large network.

  1. Mechanical characteristics of fully mechanized top-coal caving face and surrounding rock stress shell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie Guang-xiang [Anhui University of Science and Technology, Huainan (China)

    2005-06-15

    The distribution of surrounding rock stress in fully mechanized top-coal caving (FMTC) face was fully researched by large-scale and non-linear three-dimensional numerical simulation and equivalent laboratory. The results show that, there is the structure that is made of macroscopical stress shell composed of high stress binds in overlying strata of FMTC face. Stress shell, which bears and pass load of overlying strata, is primary supporting body. The stress in skewback of stress shell forms abutment pressure of surrounding rock in vicinity of working face. Bond-beam structure lies in reducing zone under stress shell. It only bear partial burden of strata under stress shell. The uppermost mechanical characteristic of FMTC face is lying in the low stress area under stress shell. It is the essential cause of strata behaviors of FMTC face relaxation. On the basis of analyzing stress shell, the mechanical essence that top coal performs a function of bedding is demonstrated. 4 refs., 7 figs.

  2. Possible Mechanisms Underlying the Therapeutic Effects of Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chervyakov, Alexander V.; Chernyavsky, Andrey Yu.; Sinitsyn, Dmitry O.; Piradov, Michael A.

    2015-01-01

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is an effective method used to diagnose and treat many neurological disorders. Although repetitive TMS (rTMS) has been used to treat a variety of serious pathological conditions including stroke, depression, Parkinson’s disease, epilepsy, pain, and migraines, the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying the effects of long-term TMS remain unclear. In the present review, the effects of rTMS on neurotransmitters and synaptic plasticity are described, including the classic interpretations of TMS effects on synaptic plasticity via long-term potentiation and long-term depression. We also discuss the effects of rTMS on the genetic apparatus of neurons, glial cells, and the prevention of neuronal death. The neurotrophic effects of rTMS on dendritic growth and sprouting and neurotrophic factors are described, including change in brain-derived neurotrophic factor concentration under the influence of rTMS. Also, non-classical effects of TMS related to biophysical effects of magnetic fields are described, including the quantum effects, the magnetic spin effects, genetic magnetoreception, the macromolecular effects of TMS, and the electromagnetic theory of consciousness. Finally, we discuss possible interpretations of TMS effects according to dynamical systems theory. Evidence suggests that a rTMS-induced magnetic field should be considered a separate physical factor that can be impactful at the subatomic level and that rTMS is capable of significantly altering the reactivity of molecules (radicals). It is thought that these factors underlie the therapeutic benefits of therapy with TMS. Future research on these mechanisms will be instrumental to the development of more powerful and reliable TMS treatment protocols. PMID:26136672

  3. Method of hyperspherical functions in a few-body quantum mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dzhibuti, R.I.; Krupennikova, N.B.

    1984-01-01

    A new method for solving a few-body problem in quantum mechanics based on the expansion of the wave function of many-particle system in terms of basis hyperspherical functions is outlined in the monograph. This method gives the possibility to obtain important results in nuclear physics. A materials of general character is presented which can be useful when considering a few-body problem in atomic and molecular physics as well as in elementary particle physics. The paper deals with the theory of hyperspherical functions and the method of expansion in terms of hyperspherical functions basis can be formally considered as a certain generalization of the partial expansion method in the two-body problem. The Raynal-Revai theory is stated for the three-body problem and coe-- fficients of unitary transformations for four-particle hyperspherical function coefficients are introduced. Five-particle hyperspherical functions are introduced and an attempt of generalization of the theory for the systems With any number of particles has been made. The rules of plotting symmetrized hyperspherical functions for three and four identical particles are given. Also described is the method of expansion in terms of hyperspherical functions basis in the coordinate and impulse representations for discrete and continuous spectrum, respectively

  4. Desorption of hydrocarbon chains by association with ionic and nonionic surfactants under flow as a mechanism for enhanced oil recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrón-Mejía, Ketzasmin A; López-Rendón, Roberto; Goicochea, Armando Gama

    2017-08-29

    The need to extract oil from wells where it is embedded on the surfaces of rocks has led to the development of new and improved enhanced oil recovery techniques. One of those is the injection of surfactants with water vapor, which promotes desorption of oil that can then be extracted using pumps, as the surfactants encapsulate the oil in foams. However, the mechanisms that lead to the optimal desorption of oil and the best type of surfactants to carry out desorption are not well known yet, which warrants the need to carry out basic research on this topic. In this work, we report non equilibrium dissipative particle dynamics simulations of model surfactants and oil molecules adsorbed on surfaces, with the purpose of studying the efficiency of the surfactants to desorb hydrocarbon chains, that are found adsorbed over flat surfaces. The model surfactants studied correspond to nonionic and cationic surfactants, and the hydrocarbon desorption is studied as a function of surfactant concentration under increasing Poiseuille flow. We obtain various hydrocarbon desorption isotherms for every model of surfactant proposed, under flow. Nonionic surfactants are found to be the most effective to desorb oil and the mechanisms that lead to this phenomenon are presented and discussed.

  5. Renal Effects and Underlying Molecular Mechanisms of Long-Term Salt Content Diets in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Rebeca Caldeira Machado; Vassallo, Paula Frizera; Crajoinas, Renato de Oliveira; Oliveira, Marilene Luzia; Martins, Flávia Letícia; Nogueira, Breno Valentim; Motta-Santos, Daisy; Araújo, Isabella Binotti; Forechi, Ludimila; Girardi, Adriana Castello Costa; Santos, Robson Augusto Souza; Mill, José Geraldo

    2015-01-01

    Several evidences have shown that salt excess is an important determinant of cardiovascular and renal derangement in hypertension. The present study aimed to investigate the renal effects of chronic high or low salt intake in the context of hypertension and to elucidate the molecular mechanisms underlying such effects. To this end, newly weaned male SHR were fed with diets only differing in NaCl content: normal salt (NS: 0.3%), low salt (LS: 0.03%), and high salt diet (HS: 3%) until 7 months of age. Analysis of renal function, morphology, and evaluation of the expression of the main molecular components involved in the renal handling of albumin, including podocyte slit-diaphragm proteins and proximal tubule endocytic receptors were performed. The relationship between diets and the balance of the renal angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) and ACE2 enzymes was also examined. HS produced glomerular hypertrophy and decreased ACE2 and nephrin expressions, loss of morphological integrity of the podocyte processes, and increased proteinuria, characterized by loss of albumin and high molecular weight proteins. Conversely, severe hypertension was attenuated and renal dysfunction was prevented by LS since proteinuria was much lower than in the NS SHRs. This was associated with a decrease in kidney ACE/ACE2 protein and activity ratio and increased cubilin renal expression. Taken together, these results suggest that LS attenuates hypertension progression in SHRs and preserves renal function. The mechanisms partially explaining these findings include modulation of the intrarenal ACE/ACE2 balance and the increased cubilin expression. Importantly, HS worsens hypertensive kidney injury and decreases the expression nephrin, a key component of the slit diaphragm. PMID:26495970

  6. Renal Effects and Underlying Molecular Mechanisms of Long-Term Salt Content Diets in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebeca Caldeira Machado Berger

    Full Text Available Several evidences have shown that salt excess is an important determinant of cardiovascular and renal derangement in hypertension. The present study aimed to investigate the renal effects of chronic high or low salt intake in the context of hypertension and to elucidate the molecular mechanisms underlying such effects. To this end, newly weaned male SHR were fed with diets only differing in NaCl content: normal salt (NS: 0.3%, low salt (LS: 0.03%, and high salt diet (HS: 3% until 7 months of age. Analysis of renal function, morphology, and evaluation of the expression of the main molecular components involved in the renal handling of albumin, including podocyte slit-diaphragm proteins and proximal tubule endocytic receptors were performed. The relationship between diets and the balance of the renal angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE and ACE2 enzymes was also examined. HS produced glomerular hypertrophy and decreased ACE2 and nephrin expressions, loss of morphological integrity of the podocyte processes, and increased proteinuria, characterized by loss of albumin and high molecular weight proteins. Conversely, severe hypertension was attenuated and renal dysfunction was prevented by LS since proteinuria was much lower than in the NS SHRs. This was associated with a decrease in kidney ACE/ACE2 protein and activity ratio and increased cubilin renal expression. Taken together, these results suggest that LS attenuates hypertension progression in SHRs and preserves renal function. The mechanisms partially explaining these findings include modulation of the intrarenal ACE/ACE2 balance and the increased cubilin expression. Importantly, HS worsens hypertensive kidney injury and decreases the expression nephrin, a key component of the slit diaphragm.

  7. Mechanical measurement of hydrogen bonded host-guest systems under non-equilibrium, near-physiological conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naranjo, Teresa; Cerrón, Fernando; Nieto-Ortega, Belén; Latorre, Alfonso; Somoza, Álvaro; Ibarra, Borja; Pérez, Emilio M

    2017-09-01

    Decades after the birth of supramolecular chemistry, there are many techniques to measure noncovalent interactions, such as hydrogen bonding, under equilibrium conditions. As ensembles of molecules rapidly lose coherence, we cannot extrapolate bulk data to single-molecule events under non-equilibrium conditions, more relevant to the dynamics of biological systems. We present a new method that exploits the high force resolution of optical tweezers to measure at the single molecule level the mechanical strength of a hydrogen bonded host-guest pair out of equilibrium and under near-physiological conditions. We utilize a DNA reporter to unambiguously isolate single binding events. The Hamilton receptor-cyanuric acid host-guest system is used as a test bed. The force required to dissociate the host-guest system is ∼17 pN and increases with the pulling rate as expected for a system under non-equilibrium conditions. Blocking one of the hydrogen bonding sites results in a significant decrease of the force-to-break by 1-2 pN, pointing out the ability of the method to resolve subtle changes in the mechanical strength of the binding due to the individual H-bonding components. We believe the method will prove to be a versatile tool to address important questions in supramolecular chemistry.

  8. Early-life adversity programs emotional functions and the neuroendocrine stress system: the contribution of nutrition, metabolic hormones and epigenetic mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yam, Kit-Yi; Naninck, Eva F G; Schmidt, Mathias V; Lucassen, Paul J; Korosi, Aniko

    2015-01-01

    Clinical and pre-clinical studies have shown that early-life adversities, such as abuse or neglect, can increase the vulnerability to develop psychopathologies and cognitive decline later in life. Remarkably, the lasting consequences of stress during this sensitive period on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and emotional function closely resemble the long-term effects of early malnutrition and suggest a possible common pathway mediating these effects. During early-life, brain development is affected by both exogenous factors, like nutrition and maternal care as well as by endogenous modulators including stress hormones. These elements, while mostly considered for their independent actions, clearly do not act alone but rather in a synergistic manner. In order to better understand how the programming by early-life stress takes place, it is important to gain further insight into the exact interplay of these key elements, the possible common pathways as well as the underlying molecular mechanisms that mediate their effects. We here review evidence that exposure to both early-life stress and early-life under-/malnutrition similarly lead to life-long alterations on the neuroendocrine stress system and modify emotional functions. We further discuss how the different key elements of the early-life environment interact and affect one another and next suggest a possible role for the early-life adversity induced alterations in metabolic hormones and nutrient availability in shaping later stress responses and emotional function throughout life, possibly via epigenetic mechanisms. Such knowledge will help to develop intervention strategies, which gives the advantage of viewing the synergistic action of a more complete set of changes induced by early-life adversity.

  9. Individual species affect plant traits structure in their surroundings: evidence of functional mechanisms of assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chacón-Labella, Julia; de la Cruz, Marcelino; Pescador, David S; Escudero, Adrián

    2016-04-01

    Evaluating community assembly through the use of functional traits is a promising tool for testing predictions arising from Niche and Coexistence theories. Although interactions among neighboring species and their inter-specific differences are known drivers of coexistence with a strong spatial signal, assessing the role of individual species on the functional structure of the community at different spatial scales remains a challenge. Here, we ask whether individual species exert a measurable effect on the spatial organization of different functional traits in local assemblages. We first propose and compute two functions that describe different aspects of functional trait organization around individual species at multiple scales: individual weighted mean area relationship and individual functional diversity area relationship. Secondly, we develop a conceptual model on the relationship and simultaneous variation of these two metrics, providing five alternative scenarios in response to the ability of some target species to modify its neighbor environment and the possible assembly mechanisms involved. Our results show that some species influence the spatial structure of specific functional traits, but their effects were always restricted to the finest spatial scales. In the basis of our conceptual model, the observed patterns point to two main mechanisms driving the functional structure of the community at the fine scale, "biotic" filtering meditated by individual species and resource partitioning driven by indirect facilitation rather than by competitive mechanisms.

  10. Neuro-cognitive mechanisms underlying the emotional modulation of word reading

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    A novel neural model for emotional modulation of word reading is proposed. This model has four principal hypotheses: the dominant activation region hypothesis, the emotional modulation hypothesis, the attentional level hypothesis, and the interaction hypothesis. Four lines of research were reviewed to provide evidence for these hypotheses: (1) neuro-cognitive studies on the mechanisms of word reading (i.e., neural networks for reading); (2) studies on the influence of words' emotional valence on word reading; (3) studies of the effect of attention on word reading; and (4) studies on emotional modulation of word reading under different attentional levels.

  11. Mechanisms and cellular functions of intramembrane proteases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urban, Siniša

    2013-12-01

    The turn of the millennium coincided with the branding of a fundamentally different class of enzyme - proteases that reside immersed inside the membrane. This new field was the convergence of completely separate lines of research focused on cholesterol homeostasis, Alzheimer's disease, and developmental genetics. None intended their ultimate path, but soon became a richly-integrated fabric for an entirely new field: regulated intramembrane proteolysis. Our aim in this Special Issue is to focus on the ancient and nearly ubiquitous enzymes that catalyze this unexpected yet important reaction. The pace of progress has been dramatic, resulting in a rapidly-expanding universe of known cellular functions, and a paradigm shift in the biochemical understanding of these once heretical enzymes. More recently, the first therapeutic successes have been attained by targeting an intramembrane protease. We consider these advances and identify oncoming opportunities in four parts: growing spectra of cellular roles, insights into biochemical mechanisms, therapeutic strategies, and newly-emerging topics. Recent studies also expose challenges for the future, including non-linear relationships between substrate identification and physiological functions, and the need for potent and specific, not broad-class, inhibitors. © 2013.

  12. Principles of functioning of the transmission mechanism of the monetary system in international business

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poliakova Iana O.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Modern international economic relations are characterised with reduction of rates of economic growth of the majority of developed economic systems, gradual oligopolisation of international markets, domination of private investors interests in political relations, growth of intensity and frequency of local, regional and international economic crises, which negatively influences the tendencies of formation of main directions of transmission and use of capital. Consideration of theoretical grounds of functioning of the monetary mechanism and content analysis of the international statistical information for a long period of time allow marking out certain principles of restoration of integrity of the transmission mechanism of the monetary system as basic ones. Introduction of the proposed principles into the mechanism of functioning of the international monetary system would allow increase of the rates of growth of production of the developed economic systems, strengthening of stability of functioning of the developing economies and decrease of interdependence of different participants of international economic relations, which would directly influence improvement of macro-economic indicators.

  13. Investigation of deterioration mechanism of electrical ceramic insulating materials under high temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizutani, Yoshinobu; Ito, Tetsuo; Okamoto, Tatsuki; Kumazawa, Ryoji; Aizawa, Rie; Moriyama, Hideshige

    2000-01-01

    It is thought that ceramic insulator can be applied to electric power equipments that are under high temperature not to be able use organic materials. Our research has suggested components of mica-alumina combined insulation. As the results of and carried out temperature accelerating test, combined insulation life is expected long term over 40 years at over 500-Celsius degrees. However to construct high reliable insulating system, it is clarified deterioration mechanism on combined insulation and evaluates life of that. Therefore we carried out metal behavior test and voltage aging test using mica-sheet and alumina-cloth that are components of combined insulation under high temperature in nitrogen gas atmosphere. It is cleared two metal behavior mechanisms: One is that the opening of insulator are filled up with copper that is oxidized, the other is the metal diffuses in alumina-cloth through surface. And distance of metal behavior is able to be estimated at modulate temperature and in modulate time. It is also cleared that alumina-cloth is deteriorated by metal behavior into alumina-cloth. These results indicate that combined insulation is deteriorated from electrode side by metal behavior and is finally broken down through alumina-cloth. (author)

  14. Mechanical behavior of glass/epoxy composite laminate with varying amount of MWCNTs under different loadings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, K. K.; Rawat, Prashant

    2018-05-01

    This paper investigates the mechanical response of three phased (glass/MWCNTs/epoxy) composite laminate under three different loadings. Flexural strength, short beam strength and low-velocity impact (LVI) testing are performed to find an optimum doping percentage value for maximum enhancement in mechanical properties. In this work, MWCNTs were used as secondary reinforcement for three-phased composite plate. MWCNT doping was done in a range of 0–4 wt% of the thermosetting matrix system. Symmetrical design eight layered glass/epoxy laminate with zero bending extension coupling laminate was fabricated using a hybrid method i.e. hand lay-up technique followed by vacuum bagging method. Ranging analysis of MWCNT mixing highlighted the enhancement in flexural, short beam strength and improvement in damage tolerance under LVI loading. While at higher doping wt%, agglomeration of MWCNTs are observed. Results of mechanical testing proposed an optimized doping value for maximum strength and damage resistance of the laminate.

  15. Mechanical characteristics under monotonic and cyclic simple shear of spark plasma sintered ultrafine-grained nickel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dirras, G.; Bouvier, S.; Gubicza, J.; Hasni, B.; Szilagyi, T.

    2009-01-01

    The present work focuses on understanding the mechanical behavior of bulk ultrafine-grained nickel specimens processed by spark plasma sintering of high purity nickel nanopowder and subsequently deformed under large amplitude monotonic simple shear tests and strain-controlled cyclic simple shear tests at room temperature. During cyclic tests, the samples were deformed up to an accumulated von Mises strain of about ε VM = 0.75 (the flow stress was in the 650-700 MPa range), which is extremely high in comparison with the low tensile/compression ductility of this class of materials at quasi-static conditions. The underlying physical mechanisms were investigated by electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction profile analysis. Lattice dislocation-based plasticity leading to cell formation and dislocation interactions with twin boundaries contributed to the work-hardening of these materials. The large amount of plastic strain that has been reached during the shear tests highlights intrinsic mechanical characteristics of the ultrafine-grained nickel studied here.

  16. Mechanical characteristics under monotonic and cyclic simple shear of spark plasma sintered ultrafine-grained nickel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dirras, G., E-mail: dirras@univ-paris13.fr [LPMTM - CNRS, Institut Galilee, Universite Paris 13, 99 Avenue J.B. Clement, 93430 Villetaneuse (France); Bouvier, S. [LPMTM - CNRS, Institut Galilee, Universite Paris 13, 99 Avenue J.B. Clement, 93430 Villetaneuse (France); Gubicza, J. [Department of Materials Physics, Eoetvoes Lorand University, P.O.B. 32, Budapest H-1518 (Hungary); Hasni, B. [LPMTM - CNRS, Institut Galilee, Universite Paris 13, 99 Avenue J.B. Clement, 93430 Villetaneuse (France); Szilagyi, T. [Department of Materials Physics, Eoetvoes Lorand University, P.O.B. 32, Budapest H-1518 (Hungary)

    2009-11-25

    The present work focuses on understanding the mechanical behavior of bulk ultrafine-grained nickel specimens processed by spark plasma sintering of high purity nickel nanopowder and subsequently deformed under large amplitude monotonic simple shear tests and strain-controlled cyclic simple shear tests at room temperature. During cyclic tests, the samples were deformed up to an accumulated von Mises strain of about {epsilon}{sub VM} = 0.75 (the flow stress was in the 650-700 MPa range), which is extremely high in comparison with the low tensile/compression ductility of this class of materials at quasi-static conditions. The underlying physical mechanisms were investigated by electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction profile analysis. Lattice dislocation-based plasticity leading to cell formation and dislocation interactions with twin boundaries contributed to the work-hardening of these materials. The large amount of plastic strain that has been reached during the shear tests highlights intrinsic mechanical characteristics of the ultrafine-grained nickel studied here.

  17. The Function of the Novel Mechanical Activated Ion Channel Piezo1 in the Human Osteosarcoma Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang, Long; Zhao, Yi-ding; Chen, Wei-xiang

    2017-01-01

    Background The Piezo1 protein ion channel is a novel mechanical activated ion channel which is related to mechanical signal transduction. However, the function of the mechanically activated ion channel Piezo1 had not been explored. In this study, we explored the function of the Piezo1 ion channel in human osteosarcoma (OS) cells related to apoptosis, invasion, and the cell proliferation. Material/Methods Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and western-blotting were used t...

  18. Alteration of synaptic activity-regulating genes underlying functional improvement by long-term exposure to an enriched environment in the adult brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Min-Young; Yu, Ji Hea; Kim, Ji Yeon; Seo, Jung Hwa; Park, Eun Sook; Kim, Chul Hoon; Kim, Hyongbum; Cho, Sung-Rae

    2013-01-01

    Housing animals in an enriched environment (EE) enhances behavioral function. However, the mechanism underlying this EE-mediated functional improvement and the resultant changes in gene expression have yet to be elucidated. We attempted to investigate the underlying mechanisms associated with long-term exposure to an EE by evaluating gene expression patterns. We housed 6-week-old CD-1 (ICR) mice in standard cages or an EE comprising a running wheel, novel objects, and social interaction for 2 months. Motor and cognitive performances were evaluated using the rotarod test and passive avoidance test, and gene expression profile was investigated in the cerebral hemispheres using microarray and gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA). In behavioral assessment, an EE significantly enhanced rotarod performance and short-term working memory. Microarray analysis revealed that genes associated with neuronal activity were significantly altered by an EE. GSEA showed that genes involved in synaptic transmission and postsynaptic signal transduction were globally upregulated, whereas those associated with reuptake by presynaptic neurotransmitter transporters were downregulated. In particular, both microarray and GSEA demonstrated that EE exposure increased opioid signaling, acetylcholine release cycle, and postsynaptic neurotransmitter receptors but decreased Na+ / Cl- -dependent neurotransmitter transporters, including dopamine transporter Slc6a3 in the brain. Western blotting confirmed that SLC6A3, DARPP32 (PPP1R1B), and P2RY12 were largely altered in a region-specific manner. An EE enhanced motor and cognitive function through the alteration of synaptic activity-regulating genes, improving the efficient use of neurotransmitters and synaptic plasticity by the upregulation of genes associated with postsynaptic receptor activity and downregulation of presynaptic reuptake by neurotransmitter transporters.

  19. Intercomparison of chemical mechanisms for air quality policy formulation and assessment under North American conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derwent, Richard

    2017-07-01

    The intercomparison of seven chemical mechanisms for their suitability for air quality policy formulation and assessment is described. Box modeling techniques were employed using 44 sets of background environmental conditions covering North America to constrain the chemical development of the longer lived species. The selected mechanisms were modified to enable an unbiased assessment of the adequacy of the parameterizations of photochemical ozone production from volatile organic compound (VOC) oxidation in the presence of NO x . Photochemical ozone production rates responded differently to 30% NO x and VOC reductions with the different mechanisms, despite the striking similarities between the base-case ozone production rates. The 30% reductions in NO x and VOCs also produced changes in OH. The responses in OH to 30% reductions in NO x and VOCs appeared to be more sensitive to mechanism choice, compared with the responses in the photochemical ozone production rates. Although 30% NO x reductions generally led to decreases in OH, 30% reductions in VOCs led to increases in OH, irrespective of mechanism choice and background environmental conditions. The different mechanisms therefore gave different OH responses to NO x and VOC reductions and so would give different responses in terms of changes in the fate and behavior of air toxics, acidification and eutrophication, and fine particle formation compared with others, in response to ozone control strategies. Policymakers need to understand that there are likely to be inherent differences in the responses to ozone control strategies between different mechanisms, depending on background environmental conditions and the extents of NO x and VOC reductions under consideration. The purpose of this paper is to compare predicted ozone responses to NO x and VOC reductions with seven chemical mechanisms under North American conditions. The good agreement found between the tested mechanisms should provide some support for their

  20. Linkage mechanisms in the vertebrate skull: Structure and function of three-dimensional, parallel transmission systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Aaron M; Westneat, Mark W

    2016-12-01

    Many musculoskeletal systems, including the skulls of birds, fishes, and some lizards consist of interconnected chains of mobile skeletal elements, analogous to linkage mechanisms used in engineering. Biomechanical studies have applied linkage models to a diversity of musculoskeletal systems, with previous applications primarily focusing on two-dimensional linkage geometries, bilaterally symmetrical pairs of planar linkages, or single four-bar linkages. Here, we present new, three-dimensional (3D), parallel linkage models of the skulls of birds and fishes and use these models (available as free kinematic simulation software), to investigate structure-function relationships in these systems. This new computational framework provides an accessible and integrated workflow for exploring the evolution of structure and function in complex musculoskeletal systems. Linkage simulations show that kinematic transmission, although a suitable functional metric for linkages with single rotating input and output links, can give misleading results when applied to linkages with substantial translational components or multiple output links. To take into account both linear and rotational displacement we define force mechanical advantage for a linkage (analogous to lever mechanical advantage) and apply this metric to measure transmission efficiency in the bird cranial mechanism. For linkages with multiple, expanding output points we propose a new functional metric, expansion advantage, to measure expansion amplification and apply this metric to the buccal expansion mechanism in fishes. Using the bird cranial linkage model, we quantify the inaccuracies that result from simplifying a 3D geometry into two dimensions. We also show that by combining single-chain linkages into parallel linkages, more links can be simulated while decreasing or maintaining the same number of input parameters. This generalized framework for linkage simulation and analysis can accommodate linkages of differing

  1. Experimental Investigation on Shock Mechanical Properties of Red Sandstone under Preloaded 3D Static Stresses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niu Yong

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Triaxial impact mechanical performance experiment was performed to study the mechanical properties of red sandstone subjected to three-dimensional (3D coupled static and dynamic loads, i.e., three confining pressures (0, 5, and 10 MPa and three axial pressures (11, 27, and 43 MPa. A modified 3D split Hopkinson pressure bar testing system was used. The change trend in the deformation of red sandstone and the strength and failure modes under axial pressures and confining pressures were analyzed. Results show that, when the confining pressure is constant, the compressive strength, secant modulus, and energy absorbed per unit volume of red sandstone initially increases and subsequently decreases, whereas the average strain rate exhibits an opposite trend. When the axial pressure is constant, both the compressive strength and secant modulus of red sandstone are enhanced, but the average strain rate is decreased with increasing confining pressure. The energy absorbed per unit volume is initially increased and subsequently decreased as the confining pressure increases. Red sandstone exhibits a cone-shaped compression–shear failure mode under the 3D coupled static and dynamic loads. The conclusions serve as theoretical basis on the mechanical properties of deep medium-strength rock under a high ground stress and external load disturbance condition

  2. Interactivity effects in social media marketing on brand engagement: an investigation of underlying mechanisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Antheunis, M.L.; van Noort, G.; Eisend, M.; Langner, T.

    2011-01-01

    Although, SNS advertising spending increases, research on SNS campaigning is still underexposed. First, this study aims to investigate the effect of SNS campaign interactivity on the receivers brand engagement, taking four underlying mechanisms into account (brand identification, campaign

  3. Hardening and softening mechanisms of pearlitic steel wire under torsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Tian-Zhang; Zhang, Shi-Hong; Zhang, Guang-Liang; Song, Hong-Wu; Cheng, Ming

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Mechanical behavior of pearlitic steel wire is studied using torsion. • Work hardening results from refinement lamellar pearlitic structure. • Softening results from recovery, shear bands and lamellar fragmentations. • A microstructure based analytical flow stress model is established. - Abstract: The mechanical behaviors and microstructure evolution of pearlitic steel wires under monotonic shear deformation have been investigated by a torsion test and a number of electron microscopy techniques including scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), with an aim to reveal the softening and hardening mechanisms of a randomly oriented pearlitic structure during a monotonic stain path. Significantly different from the remarkable strain hardening in cold wire drawing, the strain hardening rate during torsion drops to zero quickly after a short hardening stage. The microstructure observations indicate that the inter-lamellar spacing (ILS) decreases and the dislocations accumulate with strain, which leads to hardening of the material. Meanwhile, when the strain is larger than 0.154, the enhancement of dynamic recovery, shear bands (SBs) and cementite fragmentations results in the softening and balances the strain hardening. A microstructure based analytical flow stress model with considering the influence of ILS on the mean free path of dislocations and the softening caused by SBs and cementite fragmentations, has been established and the predicted flow shear curve meets well with the measured curve in the torsion test

  4. Improved mechanical and functional properties of elastomer/graphite nanocomposites prepared by latex compounding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang Jian [Key Laboratory for Nano-materials, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Ministry of Education of China, Beijing 100029 (China); Key Laboratory on Preparation and Processing of Novel Polymer Materials, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China); Tian Ming [Key Laboratory for Nano-materials, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Ministry of Education of China, Beijing 100029 (China); Jia Qingxiu [Key Laboratory on Preparation and Processing of Novel Polymer Materials, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China); Shi Junhong [Key Laboratory for Nano-materials, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Ministry of Education of China, Beijing 100029 (China); Zhang Liqun [Key Laboratory for Nano-materials, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Ministry of Education of China, Beijing 100029 (China); Key Laboratory on Preparation and Processing of Novel Polymer Materials, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China)], E-mail: zhanglq@mail.buct.edu.cn; Lim Szuhui; Yu Zhongzhen [Centre for Advanced Materials Technology (CAMT), School of Aerospace, Mechanical and Mechatronic Engineering (J07), University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Mai Yiuwing [Centre for Advanced Materials Technology (CAMT), School of Aerospace, Mechanical and Mechatronic Engineering (J07), University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia)], E-mail: y.mai@usyd.edu.au

    2007-10-15

    The facile latex approach has been adopted to finely incorporate graphite nanosheets into elastomeric polymer matrix to obtain high-performance elastomeric nanocomposites with improved mechanical properties and functional properties. Scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction experiments show that the nanostructures of the final nanocomposites exhibit a high degree of exfoliation and intercalation of graphite in the nitrile-butadiene rubber (NBR) matrix. Mechanical and dynamic-mechanical tests demonstrate that the NBR/graphite nanocomposites possess greatly increased elastic modulus and tensile strength, and desirably strong interfaces. The unexpected self-crosslinking of elastomer/graphite nanocomposites was discovered and then verified by oscillating disc rheometry and equilibrium swelling experiments. After critically examining various polymer types by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, electron spin resonance and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, a radical initiation mechanism was proposed to explain the self-crosslinking reaction. These NBR/graphite nanocomposites possess significantly improved wear resistance and gas barrier properties, and superior electrical/thermal conductivity. Such versatile functional properties make NBR nanocomposites a promising new class of advanced materials.

  5. Improved mechanical and functional properties of elastomer/graphite nanocomposites prepared by latex compounding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Jian; Tian Ming; Jia Qingxiu; Shi Junhong; Zhang Liqun; Lim Szuhui; Yu Zhongzhen; Mai Yiuwing

    2007-01-01

    The facile latex approach has been adopted to finely incorporate graphite nanosheets into elastomeric polymer matrix to obtain high-performance elastomeric nanocomposites with improved mechanical properties and functional properties. Scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction experiments show that the nanostructures of the final nanocomposites exhibit a high degree of exfoliation and intercalation of graphite in the nitrile-butadiene rubber (NBR) matrix. Mechanical and dynamic-mechanical tests demonstrate that the NBR/graphite nanocomposites possess greatly increased elastic modulus and tensile strength, and desirably strong interfaces. The unexpected self-crosslinking of elastomer/graphite nanocomposites was discovered and then verified by oscillating disc rheometry and equilibrium swelling experiments. After critically examining various polymer types by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, electron spin resonance and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, a radical initiation mechanism was proposed to explain the self-crosslinking reaction. These NBR/graphite nanocomposites possess significantly improved wear resistance and gas barrier properties, and superior electrical/thermal conductivity. Such versatile functional properties make NBR nanocomposites a promising new class of advanced materials

  6. Ultrastructural changes of cell walls under intense mechanical treatment of selective plant raw material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bychkov, Aleksey L.; Ryabchikova, E.I.; Korolev, K.G.; Lomovsky, O.I.

    2012-01-01

    Structural changes of cell walls under intense mechanical treatment of corn straw and oil-palm fibers were studied by electron and light microscopy. Differences in the character of destruction of plant biomass were revealed, and the dependence of destruction mechanisms on the structure of cell walls and lignin content was demonstrated. We suggest that the high reactivity of the particles of corn straw (about 18% of lignin) after intense mechanical treatment is related to disordering of cell walls and an increase of the surface area, while in the case of oil palm (10% of lignin) the major contribution into an increase in the reactivity is made by an increase of surface area. -- Highlights: ► Structure of cell walls determines the processes of plant materials' destruction. ► Ultrastructure of highly lignified materials strongly disordering by mechanical action. ► Ultrastructure of low-lignified materials is not disordering by mechanical action.

  7. Molecular mechanisms underlying formation of long-term reward memories and extinction memories in the honeybee (Apis mellifera)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    The honeybee (Apis mellifera) has long served as an invertebrate model organism for reward learning and memory research. Its capacity for learning and memory formation is rooted in the ecological need to efficiently collect nectar and pollen during summer to ensure survival of the hive during winter. Foraging bees learn to associate a flower's characteristic features with a reward in a way that resembles olfactory appetitive classical conditioning, a learning paradigm that is used to study mechanisms underlying learning and memory formation in the honeybee. Due to a plethora of studies on appetitive classical conditioning and phenomena related to it, the honeybee is one of the best characterized invertebrate model organisms from a learning psychological point of view. Moreover, classical conditioning and associated behavioral phenomena are surprisingly similar in honeybees and vertebrates, suggesting a convergence of underlying neuronal processes, including the molecular mechanisms that contribute to them. Here I review current thinking on the molecular mechanisms underlying long-term memory (LTM) formation in honeybees following classical conditioning and extinction, demonstrating that an in-depth analysis of the molecular mechanisms of classical conditioning in honeybees might add to our understanding of associative learning in honeybees and vertebrates. PMID:25225299

  8. The underlying mechanism of action for various medicinal properties of Piper betle (betel).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haslan, H; Suhaimi, F H; Thent, Zar Chi; Das, S

    2015-01-01

    Piper betle (betel) plant belongs to the Piperaceae family. Piper. betle is widely known for its potent medicinal properties. Various active compounds are present in Piper. betle such as allylpyrocatechol, hydroxychavicol, piperbetol, ethylpiperbetol, piperol A, piperol B, chavibetol, and alkaloids which account for these beneficial medicinal properties. In the present narrative review, we looked into the various active compounds present in the Piper betle and attempted to understand their underlying mechanism of action. Proper understanding of the molecular biology involving the mechanism of action may help in better drug formulation and provide better therapeutic actions in the field of alternative and complementary medicine.

  9. Sorption mechanisms of metals to graphene oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Showalter, Allison R; Bunker, Bruce A; Duster, Thomas A; Szymanowski, Jennifer E S; Na, Chongzheng; Fein, Jeremy B

    2016-01-01

    Environmental toxic metal contamination remediation and prevention is an ongoing issue. Graphene oxide is highly sorptive for many heavy metals over a wide pH range under different ionic strength conditions. We present x-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) spectroscopy results investigating the binding environment of Pb(II), Cd(II) and U(VI) ions onto multi-layered graphene oxide (MLGO). Analysis indicates that the dominant sorption mechanism of Pb to MLGO changes as a function of pH, with increasing inner sphere contribution as pH increases. In contrast, the sorption mechanism of Cd to MLGO remains constant under the studied pH range. This adsorption mechanism is an electrostatic attraction between the hydrated Cd +2 ion and the MLGO surface. The U(VI), present as the uranyl ion, changes only subtly as a function of pH and is bound to the surface via an inner sphere bond. Knowledge of the binding mechanism for each metal is necessary to help in optimizing environmental remediation or prevention in filtration systems. (paper)

  10. Mechanical Modeling of a WIPP Drum Under Pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Jeffrey A. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2014-11-25

    Mechanical modeling was undertaken to support the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) technical assessment team (TAT) investigating the February 14th 2014 event where there was a radiological release at the WIPP. The initial goal of the modeling was to examine if a mechanical model could inform the team about the event. The intention was to have a model that could test scenarios with respect to the rate of pressurization. It was expected that the deformation and failure (inability of the drum to contain any pressure) would vary according to the pressurization rate. As the work progressed there was also interest in using the mechanical analysis of the drum to investigate what would happen if a drum pressurized when it was located under a standard waste package. Specifically, would the deformation be detectable from camera views within the room. A finite element model of a WIPP 55-gallon drum was developed that used all hex elements. Analyses were conducted using the explicit transient dynamics module of Sierra/SM to explore potential pressurization scenarios of the drum. Theses analysis show similar deformation patterns to documented pressurization tests of drums in the literature. The calculated failure pressures from previous tests documented in the literature vary from as little as 16 psi to 320 psi. In addition, previous testing documented in the literature shows drums bulging but not failing at pressures ranging from 69 to 138 psi. The analyses performed for this study found the drums failing at pressures ranging from 35 psi to 75 psi. When the drums are pressurized quickly (in 0.01 seconds) there is significant deformation to the lid. At lower pressurization rates the deformation of the lid is considerably less, yet the lids will still open from the pressure. The analyses demonstrate the influence of pressurization rate on deformation and opening pressure of the drums. Analyses conducted with a substantial mass on top of the closed drum demonstrate that the

  11. Biochemical mechanisms determine the functional compatibility of heterologous genes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Porse, Andreas; Schou, Thea S.; Munck, Christian

    2018-01-01

    -gene libraries have suggested that sequence composition is a strong barrier for the successful integration of heterologous genes. Here we sample 200 diverse genes, representing >80% of sequenced antibiotic resistance genes, to interrogate the factors governing genetic compatibility in new hosts. In contrast...... factors governing the functionality and fitness of antibiotic resistance genes. These findings emphasize the importance of biochemical mechanism for heterologous gene compatibility, and suggest physiological constraints as a pivotal feature orienting the evolution of antibiotic resistance....

  12. Aging impairs the recovery in mechanical muscle function following 4 days of disuse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvid, L G; Suetta, C; Nielsen, J H

    2014-01-01

    As aged individuals are frequently exposed to short-term disuse caused by disease or musculoskeletal injury, it is important to understand how short-term disuse and subsequent retraining affect lower limb mechanical muscle function. The purpose of the present study was, therefore, to investigate...... the effect of 4 days of lower limb disuse followed by 7 days of active recovery on mechanical muscle function of the knee extensors in young (24.3±0.9 years, n=11) and old (67.2±1.0 years, n=11) recreationally active healthy males. Slow and moderate dynamic muscle strength were assessed using isokinetic...... to disuse, marked age-related differences (p

  13. SEARCHING FOR ELECTRICAL PROPERTIES, PHENOMENA AND MECHANISMS IN THE CONSTRUCTION AND FUNCTION OF CHROMOSOMES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Kanev

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Our studies reveal previously unidentified electrical properties of chromosomes: (1 chromosomes are amazingly similar in construction and function to electrical transformers; (2 chromosomes possess in their construction and function, components similar to those of electric generators, conductors, condensers, switches, and other components of electrical circuits; (3 chromosomes demonstrate in nano-scale level electromagnetic interactions, resonance, fusion and other phenomena similar to those described by equations in classical physics. These electrical properties and phenomena provide a possible explanation for unclear and poorly understood mechanisms in clinical genetics including: (a electrically based mechanisms responsible for breaks, translocations, fusions, and other chromosomal abnormalities associated with cancer, intellectual disability, infertility, pregnancy loss, Down syndrome, and other genetic disorders; (b electrically based mechanisms involved in crossing over, non-disjunction and other events during meiosis and mitosis; (c mechanisms demonstrating heterochromatin to be electrically active and genetically important.

  14. Peripheral afferent mechanisms underlying acupuncture inhibition of cocaine behavioral effects in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seol Ah Kim

    Full Text Available Administration of cocaine increases locomotor activity by enhancing dopamine transmission. To explore the peripheral mechanisms underlying acupuncture treatment for drug addiction, we developed a novel mechanical acupuncture instrument (MAI for objective mechanical stimulation. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether acupuncture inhibition of cocaine-induced locomotor activity is mediated through specific peripheral nerves, the afferents from superficial or deep tissues, or specific groups of nerve fibers. Mechanical stimulation of acupuncture point HT7 with MAI suppressed cocaine-induced locomotor activity in a stimulus time-dependent manner, which was blocked by severing the ulnar nerve or by local anesthesia. Suppression of cocaine-induced locomotor activity was elicited after HT7 stimulation at frequencies of either 50 (for Meissner corpuscles or 200 (for Pacinian corpuscles Hz and was not affected by block of C/Aδ-fibers in the ulnar nerve with resiniferatoxin, nor generated by direct stimulation of C/Aδ-fiber afferents with capsaicin. These findings suggest that HT7 inhibition of cocaine-induced locomotor activity is mediated by A-fiber activation of ulnar nerve that originates in superficial and deep tissue.

  15. Intercellular Communication between Keratinocytes and Fibroblasts Induces Local Osteoclast Differentiation: a Mechanism Underlying Cholesteatoma-Induced Bone Destruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwamoto, Yoriko; Nishikawa, Keizo; Imai, Ryusuke; Furuya, Masayuki; Uenaka, Maki; Ohta, Yumi; Morihana, Tetsuo; Itoi-Ochi, Saori; Penninger, Josef M; Katayama, Ichiro; Inohara, Hidenori; Ishii, Masaru

    2016-06-01

    Bone homeostasis is maintained by a balance in activity between bone-resorbing osteoclasts and bone-forming osteoblasts. Shifting the balance toward bone resorption causes osteolytic bone diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis and periodontitis. Osteoclast differentiation is regulated by receptor activator of nuclear factor κB ligand (RANKL), which, under some pathological conditions, is produced by T and B lymphocytes and synoviocytes. However, the mechanism underlying bone destruction in other diseases is little understood. Bone destruction caused by cholesteatoma, an epidermal cyst in the middle ear resulting from hyperproliferation of keratinizing squamous epithelium, can lead to lethal complications. In this study, we succeeded in generating a model for cholesteatoma, epidermal cyst-like tissue, which has the potential for inducing osteoclastogenesis in mice. Furthermore, an in vitro coculture system composed of keratinocytes, fibroblasts, and osteoclast precursors was used to demonstrate that keratinocytes stimulate osteoclast differentiation through the induction of RANKL in fibroblasts. Thus, this study demonstrates that intercellular communication between keratinocytes and fibroblasts is involved in the differentiation and function of osteoclasts, which may provide the molecular basis of a new therapeutic strategy for cholesteatoma-induced bone destruction. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  16. Mechanical characterisation of porcine rectus sheath under uniaxial and biaxial tension.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Lyons, Mathew

    2014-06-03

    Incisional hernia development is a significant complication after laparoscopic abdominal surgery. Intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) is known to initiate the extrusion of intestines through the abdominal wall, but there is limited data on the mechanics of IAP generation and the structural properties of rectus sheath. This paper presents an explanation of the mechanics of IAP development, a study of the uniaxial and biaxial tensile properties of porcine rectus sheath, and a simple computational investigation of the tissue. Analysis using Laplace׳s law showed a circumferential stress in the abdominal wall of approx. 1.1MPa due to an IAP of 11kPa, commonly seen during coughing. Uniaxial and biaxial tensile tests were conducted on samples of porcine rectus sheath to characterise the stress-stretch responses of the tissue. Under uniaxial tension, fibre direction samples failed on average at a stress of 4.5MPa at a stretch of 1.07 while cross-fibre samples failed at a stress of 1.6MPa under a stretch of 1.29. Under equi-biaxial tension, failure occurred at 1.6MPa with the fibre direction stretching to only 1.02 while the cross-fibre direction stretched to 1.13. Uniaxial and biaxial stress-stretch plots are presented allowing detailed modelling of the tissue either in silico or in a surrogate material. An FeBio computational model of the tissue is presented using a combination of an Ogden and an exponential power law model to represent the matrix and fibres respectively. The structural properties of porcine rectus sheath have been characterised and add to the small set of human data in the literature with which it may be possible to develop methods to reduce the incidence of incisional hernia development.

  17. Symbiotic Dinoflagellate Functional Diversity Mediates Coral Survival under Ecological Crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suggett, David J; Warner, Mark E; Leggat, William

    2017-10-01

    Coral reefs have entered an era of 'ecological crisis' as climate change drives catastrophic reef loss worldwide. Coral growth and stress susceptibility are regulated by their endosymbiotic dinoflagellates (genus Symbiodinium). The phylogenetic diversity of Symbiodinium frequently corresponds to patterns of coral health and survival, but knowledge of functional diversity is ultimately necessary to reconcile broader ecological success over space and time. We explore here functional traits underpinning the complex biology of Symbiodinium that spans free-living algae to coral endosymbionts. In doing so we propose a mechanistic framework integrating the primary traits of resource acquisition and utilisation as a means to explain Symbiodinium functional diversity and to resolve the role of Symbiodinium in driving the stability of coral reefs under an uncertain future. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Fracture Mechanisms of Zirconium Diboride Ultra-High Temperature Ceramics under Pulse Loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skripnyak, Vladimir V.; Bragov, Anatolii M.; Skripnyak, Vladimir A.; Lomunov, Andrei K.; Skripnyak, Evgeniya G.; Vaganova, Irina K.

    2015-06-01

    Mechanisms of failure in ultra-high temperature ceramics (UHTC) based on zirconium diboride under pulse loading were studied experimentally by the method of SHPB and theoretically using the multiscale simulation method. The obtained experimental and numerical data are evidence of the quasi-brittle fracture character of nanostructured zirconium diboride ceramics under compression and tension at high strain rates and the room temperatures. Damage of nanostructured porous zirconium diboride -based UHTC can be formed under stress pulse amplitude below the Hugoniot elastic limit. Fracture of nanostructured ultra-high temperature ceramics under pulse and shock-wave loadings is provided by fast processes of intercrystalline brittle fracture and relatively slow processes of quasi-brittle failure via growth and coalescence of microcracks. A decrease of the shear strength can be caused by nano-voids clusters in vicinity of triple junctions between ceramic matrix grains and ultrafine-grained ceramics. This research was supported by grants from ``The Tomsk State University Academic D.I. Mendeleev Fund Program'' and also N. I. Lobachevski State University of Nizhny Novgorod (Grant of post graduate mobility).

  19. Parametric study of control mechanism of cortical bone remodeling under mechanical stimulus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yanan; Qin, Qing-Hua

    2010-03-01

    The control mechanism of mechanical bone remodeling at cellular level was investigated by means of an extensive parametric study on a theoretical model described in this paper. From a perspective of control mechanism, it was found that there are several control mechanisms working simultaneously in bone remodeling which is a complex process. Typically, an extensive parametric study was carried out for investigating model parameter space related to cell differentiation and apoptosis which can describe the fundamental cell lineage behaviors. After analyzing all the combinations of 728 permutations in six model parameters, we have identified a small number of parameter combinations that can lead to physiologically realistic responses which are similar to theoretically idealized physiological responses. The results presented in the work enhanced our understanding on mechanical bone remodeling and the identified control mechanisms can help researchers to develop combined pharmacological-mechanical therapies to treat bone loss diseases such as osteoporosis.

  20. Topological defect clustering and plastic deformation mechanisms in functionalized graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Ricardo; Araujo, Joice; Chacham, Helio

    2011-03-01

    We present ab initio results suggesting that strain plays a central role in the clustering of topological defects in strained and functionalized graphene models. We apply strain onto the topological-defect graphene networks from our previous work, and obtain topological-defect clustering patterns which are in excellent agreement with recent observations in samples of reduced graphene oxide. In our models, the graphene layer, containing an initial concentration of isolated topological defects, is covered by hydrogen or hydroxyl groups. Our results also suggest a rich variety of plastic deformation mechanism in functionalized graphene systems. We acknowledge support from the Brazilian agencies: CNPq, Fapemig, and INCT-Materiais de Carbono.

  1. Elucidating the molecular mechanisms underlying cellular response to biophysical cues using synthetic biology approaches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Denning, Denise; Roos, Wouter H

    2016-01-01

    The use of synthetic surfaces and materials to influence and study cell behavior has vastly progressed our understanding of the underlying molecular mechanisms involved in cellular response to physicochemical and biophysical cues. Reconstituting cytoskeletal proteins and interfacing them with a

  2. Molecular Mechanisms Underlying β-Adrenergic Receptor-Mediated Cross-Talk between Sympathetic Neurons and Immune Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dianne Lorton

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Cross-talk between the sympathetic nervous system (SNS and immune system is vital for health and well-being. Infection, tissue injury and inflammation raise firing rates of sympathetic nerves, increasing their release of norepinephrine (NE in lymphoid organs and tissues. NE stimulation of β2-adrenergic receptors (ARs in immune cells activates the cAMP-protein kinase A (PKA intracellular signaling pathway, a pathway that interfaces with other signaling pathways that regulate proliferation, differentiation, maturation and effector functions in immune cells. Immune–SNS cross-talk is required to maintain homeostasis under normal conditions, to develop an immune response of appropriate magnitude after injury or immune challenge, and subsequently restore homeostasis. Typically, β2-AR-induced cAMP is immunosuppressive. However, many studies report actions of β2-AR stimulation in immune cells that are inconsistent with typical cAMP–PKA signal transduction. Research during the last decade in non-immune organs, has unveiled novel alternative signaling mechanisms induced by β2-AR activation, such as a signaling switch from cAMP–PKA to mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK pathways. If alternative signaling occurs in immune cells, it may explain inconsistent findings of sympathetic regulation of immune function. Here, we review β2-AR signaling, assess the available evidence for alternative signaling in immune cells, and provide insight into the circumstances necessary for “signal switching” in immune cells.

  3. Underlying mechanisms and the evolving influence of diet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lesli Hingstrup

    2012-01-01

    Obesity is determined by both genetic and environmental factors. Since 2007, 52 genes have been associated with obesity and obesity-related measurements in genome-wide association studies (GWAS), among these the fat and obesity-associated gene (FTO). Despite the success in identifying genes predi...... and the microbiome that can be modified by diet, and by genotype, adding to the complexity of determining the contributors to obesity....... has been shown to attenuate the effect of FTO on obesity. Several studies have examined gene-diet interactions in relation to obesity, but only a few suggestive interactions have been identified. This is most probably due to small effect sizes of the interactions and thereby a demand for large samples...... to increased risk of developing obesity. Recently, the intestinal microbiome, the collected genome of the bacteria, also has been associated with obesity and with specific dietary profiles. The underlying mechanisms determining the susceptibility to obesity do not only include the genome but also the epigenome...

  4. Blue functions: probability and current density propagators in non-relativistic quantum mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Withers, L P Jr

    2011-01-01

    Like a Green function to propagate a particle's wavefunction in time, a Blue function is introduced to propagate the particle's probability and current density. Accordingly, the complete Blue function has four components. They are constructed from path integrals involving a quantity like the action that we call the motion. The Blue function acts on the displaced probability density as the kernel of an integral operator. As a result, we find that the Wigner density occurs as an expression for physical propagation. We also show that, in quantum mechanics, the displaced current density is conserved bilocally (in two places at one time), as expressed by a generalized continuity equation. (paper)

  5. Structural mechanism of laforin function in glycogen dephosphorylation and lafora disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raththagala, Madushi; Brewer, M Kathryn; Parker, Matthew W; Sherwood, Amanda R; Wong, Brian K; Hsu, Simon; Bridges, Travis M; Paasch, Bradley C; Hellman, Lance M; Husodo, Satrio; Meekins, David A; Taylor, Adam O; Turner, Benjamin D; Auger, Kyle D; Dukhande, Vikas V; Chakravarthy, Srinivas; Sanz, Pascual; Woods, Virgil L; Li, Sheng; Vander Kooi, Craig W; Gentry, Matthew S

    2015-01-22

    Glycogen is the major mammalian glucose storage cache and is critical for energy homeostasis. Glycogen synthesis in neurons must be tightly controlled due to neuronal sensitivity to perturbations in glycogen metabolism. Lafora disease (LD) is a fatal, congenital, neurodegenerative epilepsy. Mutations in the gene encoding the glycogen phosphatase laforin result in hyperphosphorylated glycogen that forms water-insoluble inclusions called Lafora bodies (LBs). LBs induce neuronal apoptosis and are the causative agent of LD. The mechanism of glycogen dephosphorylation by laforin and dysfunction in LD is unknown. We report the crystal structure of laforin bound to phosphoglucan product, revealing its unique integrated tertiary and quaternary structure. Structure-guided mutagenesis combined with biophysical and biochemical analyses reveal the basis for normal function of laforin in glycogen metabolism. Analyses of LD patient mutations define the mechanism by which subsets of mutations disrupt laforin function. These data provide fundamental insights connecting glycogen metabolism to neurodegenerative disease. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Optimal Contract Design for Cooperative Relay Incentive Mechanism under Moral Hazard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nan Zhao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cooperative relay can effectively improve spectrum efficiency by exploiting the spatial diversity in the wireless networks. However, wireless nodes may acquire different network information with various users’ location and mobility, channels’ conditions, and other factors, which results in asymmetric information between the source and the relay nodes (RNs. In this paper, the relay incentive mechanism between relay nodes and the source is investigated under the asymmetric information. By modelling multiuser cooperative relay as a labour market, a contract model with moral hazard for relay incentive is proposed. To effectively incentivize the potential RNs to participate in cooperative relay, the optimization problems are formulated to maximize the source’s utility while meeting the feasible conditions under both symmetric and asymmetric information scenarios. Numerical simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed contract design scheme for cooperative relay.

  7. Potential Mechanisms and Functions of Intermittent Neural Synchronization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sungwoo Ahn

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Neural synchronization is believed to play an important role in different brain functions. Synchrony in cortical and subcortical circuits is frequently variable in time and not perfect. Few long intervals of desynchronized dynamics may be functionally different from many short desynchronized intervals although the average synchrony may be the same. Recent analysis of imperfect synchrony in different neural systems reported one common feature: neural oscillations may go out of synchrony frequently, but primarily for a short time interval. This study explores potential mechanisms and functional advantages of this short desynchronizations dynamics using computational neuroscience techniques. We show that short desynchronizations are exhibited in coupled neurons if their delayed rectifier potassium current has relatively large values of the voltage-dependent activation time-constant. The delayed activation of potassium current is associated with generation of quickly-rising action potential. This “spikiness” is a very general property of neurons. This may explain why very different neural systems exhibit short desynchronization dynamics. We also show how the distribution of desynchronization durations may be independent of the synchronization strength. Finally, we show that short desynchronization dynamics requires weaker synaptic input to reach a pre-set synchrony level. Thus, this dynamics allows for efficient regulation of synchrony and may promote efficient formation of synchronous neural assemblies.

  8. An investigation of the mechanical behavior of initially curved microplates under electrostatic actuation

    KAUST Repository

    Saghir, Shahid

    2018-03-28

    In this article, we investigate the mechanical behavior of initially curved microplates under electrostatic actuation. Microplates are essential components of many Micro-Electro-Mechanical System devices; however, they commonly undergo an initial curvature imperfection, due to the microfabrication process. Initial curvature imperfection significantly affects the mechanical behavior of microplates. In this work, we derive a dynamic analogue of the von Kármán governing equation for such plates. These equations are then used to develop a reduced order model based on the Galerkin procedure to simulate the static and dynamic behavior of the microplate. Two profiles of initial curvature commonly encountered in microfabricated structures are considered, where one assumes a variation in shape along one dimension of the plate only (cylindrical bending shape) while the other assumes a variation in shape along both dimensions of the plate. Their effects on both the static and dynamic responses of the microplates are examined and compared. We validate the reduced order model by comparing the calculated static behavior and the fundamental natural frequency with those computed by a finite element model over a range of the initial plate rise. The static behavior of the microplate is investigated when varying the DC voltage. Then, the dynamic behavior of the microplate is examined under the application of a harmonic AC voltage superimposed to a DC voltage.

  9. Functional mapping imprinted quantitative trait loci underlying developmental characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Gengxin

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genomic imprinting, a phenomenon referring to nonequivalent expression of alleles depending on their parental origins, has been widely observed in nature. It has been shown recently that the epigenetic modification of an imprinted gene can be detected through a genetic mapping approach. Such an approach is developed based on traditional quantitative trait loci (QTL mapping focusing on single trait analysis. Recent studies have shown that most imprinted genes in mammals play an important role in controlling embryonic growth and post-natal development. For a developmental character such as growth, current approach is less efficient in dissecting the dynamic genetic effect of imprinted genes during individual ontology. Results Functional mapping has been emerging as a powerful framework for mapping quantitative trait loci underlying complex traits showing developmental characteristics. To understand the genetic architecture of dynamic imprinted traits, we propose a mapping strategy by integrating the functional mapping approach with genomic imprinting. We demonstrate the approach through mapping imprinted QTL controlling growth trajectories in an inbred F2 population. The statistical behavior of the approach is shown through simulation studies, in which the parameters can be estimated with reasonable precision under different simulation scenarios. The utility of the approach is illustrated through real data analysis in an F2 family derived from LG/J and SM/J mouse stains. Three maternally imprinted QTLs are identified as regulating the growth trajectory of mouse body weight. Conclusion The functional iQTL mapping approach developed here provides a quantitative and testable framework for assessing the interplay between imprinted genes and a developmental process, and will have important implications for elucidating the genetic architecture of imprinted traits.

  10. POSSIBLE MECHANISMS UNDERLYING THE THERAPEUTIC EFFECTS OF TRANSCRANIAL MAGNETIC STIMULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander eChervyakov

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS is an effective method used to diagnose and treat many neurological disorders. Although repetitive TMS (rTMS has been used to treat a variety of serious pathological conditions including stroke, depression, Parkinson's disease, epilepsy, pain, and migraines, the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying the effects of long-term TMS remain unclear. In the present review, the effects of rTMS on neurotransmitters and synaptic plasticity are described, including the classic interpretations of TMS effects on synaptic plasticity via long-term potentiation (LTP and long-term depression (LTD. We also discuss the effects of rTMS on the genetic apparatus of neurons, glial cells and the prevention of neuronal death. The neurotrophic effects of rTMS on dendritic growth and sprouting and neurotrophic factors are described, including change in brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF concentration under the influence of rTMS. Also, non-classical effects of TMS related to biophysical effects of magnetic fields are described, including the quantum effects, the magnetic spin effects, genetic magnetoreception, the macromolecular effects of TMS, and the electromagnetic theory of consciousness. Finally, we discuss possible interpretations of TMS effects according to dynamical systems theory. Evidence suggests that a rTMS-induced magnetic field should be considered a separate physical factor that can be impactful at the subatomic level and that rTMS is capable of significantly altering the reactivity of molecules (radicals. It is thought that these factors underlie the therapeutic benefits of therapy with TMS. Future research on these mechanisms will be instrumental to the development of more powerful and reliable TMS treatment protocols.

  11. Evaluating Public Plantation and Community Planted Forests under the CDM and REDD+ Mechanism for Carbon Stock in Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ram Asheshwar MANDAL

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Public plantations (PPs and Community planted forests (CPFs are inimitable types of participatory forest management practices in Nepal, but their eligibility issues under the framework of clean development mechanism (CDM and reducing emission from the deforestation and forest degradation mechanism (REDD+ are not evaluated. So, to explore the management system of PP and CPF, we compared forest carbon stocks in plantations and evaluated these plantations under these mechanisms as objectives of this research. The relevant documents were revised and altogether 55 samples were collected from Shreepur, Banauta and Bisbity PPs and Sita, Ramnagar and Jogikuti CPFs, in Mahottary district, Nepal. The equation of Chave et al was used to calculate the biomass, which was further converted into carbon. Meanwhile, management practices were evaluated under the framework of CDM and REDD+. The PPs are public land managed, especially by disadvantaged communities, while CPFs are the patches of national forest managed by users. The variation in carbon stock was found to be highest (148.89 ton ha-1 in Sita CPF and lowest (30.34 ton ha-1 in Bisbitty PP. In fact, it is difficult to certify plantations under CDM, due to its complexity, but they can easily be candidate to the REDD+ mechanism, if they are bundled with large forest blocks.

  12. Dodecylamine functionalization of carbon nanotubes to improve dispersion, thermal and mechanical properties of polyethylene based nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, F. V.; Franceschi, W.; Menezes, B. R. C.; Brito, F. S.; Lozano, K.; Coutinho, A. R.; Cividanes, L. S.; Thim, G. P.

    2017-07-01

    This study presents the effect of dodecylamine (DDA) functionalization of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) on the thermo-physical and mechanical properties of high-density polyethylene (HDPE) based composites. Here, we showed that the functionalization with DDA improved the dispersion of the CNTs as well as the interfacial adhesion with the HDPE matrix via non-covalent interactions. The better dispersion and interaction of CNT in the HDPE matrix as a function of the surface chemistry was correlated with the improved thermo-physical and mechanical properties.

  13. Correlation between videogame mechanics and executive functions through EEG analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondéjar, Tania; Hervás, Ramón; Johnson, Esperanza; Gutierrez, Carlos; Latorre, José Miguel

    2016-10-01

    This paper addresses a different point of view of videogames, specifically serious games for health. This paper contributes to that area with a multidisciplinary perspective focus on neurosciences and computation. The experiment population has been pre-adolescents between the ages of 8 and 12 without any cognitive issues. The experiment consisted in users playing videogames as well as performing traditional psychological assessments; during these tasks the frontal brain activity was evaluated. The main goal was to analyse how the frontal lobe of the brain (executive function) works in terms of prominent cognitive skills during five types of game mechanics widely used in commercial videogames. The analysis was made by collecting brain signals during the two phases of the experiment, where the signals were analysed with an electroencephalogram neuroheadset. The validated hypotheses were whether videogames can develop executive functioning and if it was possible to identify which kind of cognitive skills are developed during each kind of typical videogame mechanic. The results contribute to the design of serious games for health purposes on a conceptual level, particularly in support of the diagnosis and treatment of cognitive-related pathologies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. The Transmission mechanisms of the position and Functions of Prophets in Abrahamic Religions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Vasfi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Prophethood, possesses a profound significance in the Abrahamic religions. Prophets act as mediums, through whom the message of God is received and delivered to people, and thus fulfill two kinds of epistemological and Responsible functions: one related to the prophetic “gnosis” of the divine message and the other to the missionary “responsibility” of enacting it. But do the position and functions of the prophets come to an end with his death? For the Abrahamic religions, the answer is ‘No’. In these religions, we are faced with a phenomenon that can be called the “Transmission of the position and functions of prophets”. This article attempts to explain this phenomenon in the context of the holy texts of these three religions and in the terms of the three mechanisms of Blessedness, Heredity and Successorship. Although, the separation between this mechanisms in analysis, necessarily, they are not separate in instances. The first mechanism of such Transmission, by which the prophet transmits on his position and functions to his Children's, is Blessedness. Blessedness is a special covenant between God and Abraham, and is reported twice in the Old covenant. By this mechanism, God blesses to Abraham and promises to bless his Children's, to make them as many as the dust of the earth, and to make them victorious in the face of their enemies. Thus, the mechanism of blessedness becomes institutionalized in Abraham’s family and household, and passes on from one generation to the next. In the New covenant, Jesus and Virgin Mary are called “the Blessed Ones”, Jesus is described as the Source of Blessedness for everyone, and all the true Christian believers are considered as the heirs to Abraham’s Blessedness. In the noble Quran, not only the covenant of God’s Blessedness with Abraham and Isaac is mentioned, but also Jesus is referred to as “the Blessed One” (“Mubarak”. However, it can be said that mechanism of Blessedness

  15. The Transmission mechanisms of the position and Functions of Prophets in Abrahamic Religions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Roohollah Shafiee

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Prophethood, possesses a profound significance in the Abrahamic religions. Prophets act as mediums, through whom the message of God is received and delivered to people, and thus fulfill two kinds of epistemological and Responsible functions: one related to the prophetic “gnosis” of the divine message and the other to the missionary “responsibility” of enacting it. But do the position and functions of the prophets come to an end with his death? For the Abrahamic religions, the answer is ‘No’. In these religions, we are faced with a phenomenon that can be called the “Transmission of the position and functions of prophets”. This article attempts to explain this phenomenon in the context of the holy texts of these three religions and in the terms of the three mechanisms of Blessedness, Heredity and Successorship. Although, the separation between this mechanisms in analysis, necessarily, they are not separate in instances. The first mechanism of such Transmission, by which the prophet transmits on his position and functions to his Children's, is Blessedness. Blessedness is a special covenant between God and Abraham, and is reported twice in the Old covenant. By this mechanism, God blesses to Abraham and promises to bless his Children's, to make them as many as the dust of the earth, and to make them victorious in the face of their enemies. Thus, the mechanism of blessedness becomes institutionalized in Abraham’s family and household, and passes on from one generation to the next. In the New covenant, Jesus and Virgin Mary are called “the Blessed Ones”, Jesus is described as the Source of Blessedness for everyone, and all the true Christian believers are considered as the heirs to Abraham’s Blessedness. In the noble Quran, not only the covenant of God’s Blessedness with Abraham and Isaac is mentioned, but also Jesus is referred to as “the Blessed One” (“Mubarak”. However, it can be said that mechanism of Blessedness

  16. The Transmission mechanisms of the position and Functions of Prophets in Abrahamic Religions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Vasfi

    Full Text Available Prophethood, possesses a profound significance in the Abrahamic religions. Prophets act as mediums, through whom the message of God is received and delivered to people, and thus fulfill two kinds of epistemological and Responsible functions: one related to the prophetic “gnosis” of the divine message and the other to the missionary “responsibility” of enacting it. But do the position and functions of the prophets come to an end with his death? For the Abrahamic religions, the answer is ‘No’. In these religions, we are faced with a phenomenon that can be called the “Transmission of the position and functions of prophets”. This article attempts to explain this phenomenon in the context of the holy texts of these three religions and in the terms of the three mechanisms of Blessedness, Heredity and Successorship. Although, the separation between this mechanisms in analysis, necessarily, they are not separate in instances. The first mechanism of such Transmission, by which the prophet transmits on his position and functions to his Children's, is Blessedness. Blessedness is a special covenant between God and Abraham, and is reported twice in the Old covenant. By this mechanism, God blesses to Abraham and promises to bless his Children's, to make them as many as the dust of the earth, and to make them victorious in the face of their enemies. Thus, the mechanism of blessedness becomes institutionalized in Abraham’s family and household, and passes on from one generation to the next. In the New covenant, Jesus and Virgin Mary are called “the Blessed Ones”, Jesus is described as the Source of Blessedness for everyone, and all the true Christian believers are considered as the heirs to Abraham’s Blessedness. In the noble Quran, not only the covenant of God’s Blessedness with Abraham and Isaac is mentioned, but also Jesus is referred to as “the Blessed One” (“Mubarak”. However, it can be said that mechanism of Blessedness

  17. A fracture mechanics study of tungsten failure under high heat flux loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Muyuan

    2015-01-01

    The performance of fusion devices is highly dependent on plasma-facing components. Tungsten is the most promising candidate material for armors in plasma-facing components in ITER and DEMO. However, the brittleness of tungsten below the ductile-to-brittle transition temperature is very critical to the reliability of plasma-facing components. In this work, thermo-mechanical and fracture behaviors of tungsten are predicted numerically under fusion relevant thermal loadings.

  18. Effect of fuel assembly mechanical design changes on dynamic response of reactor pressure vessel system under extreme loadings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhandari, D.R.; Hankinson, M.F.

    1993-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a study to assess the effect of fuel assembly mechanical design changes on the dynamic response of a pressurized water reactor vessel and reactor internals under Loss-Of-Coolant Accident (LOCA) conditions. The results of this study show that the dynamic response of the reactor vessel internals and the core under extreme loadings, such as LOCA, is very sensitive to fuel assembly mechanical design changes. (author)

  19. Study of the changes in the magnetic properties of stainless steels under mechanical treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iankov, R.; Rusanov, V., E-mail: rusanov@phys.uni-sofia.bg [Magna Powertrain Ltd., Industrial Zone Rakowski (Bulgaria); Paneva, D.; Mitov, I. [Institute of Catalysis, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences (Bulgaria); Trautwein, A. X. [Institut für Physik, Universität zu Lübeck (Germany)

    2016-12-15

    Six types of stainless steels (SS) were studied for changes in its structure and magnetic properties under mechanical treatment. Depending on intensity and duration of the process of plastic deformation and the SS type the paramagnetic austenite structure transforms partially to completely into ferrite structure with ferromagnetic behaviour. Some of the SS tested were found slightly modified yet in the process of its manufacturing. Only one SS type with high Ni content preserved its structure and paramagnetic properties even after very intense mechanical treatment.

  20. Different intra- and interspecific facilitation mechanisms between two Mediterranean trees under a climate change scenario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gimeno, Teresa E; Escudero, Adrián; Valladares, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    In harsh environments facilitation alleviates biotic and abiotic constraints on tree recruitment. Under ongoing drier climate change, we expect facilitation to increase as a driver of coexistence. However, this might not hold under extreme abiotic stress and when the outcome depends on the interaction with other drivers such as altered herbivore pressure due to land use change. We performed a field water-manipulation experiment to quantify the importance of facilitation in two coexisting Mediterranean trees (dominant Juniperus thurifera and coexisting Quercus ilex subsp. ballota) under a climate change scenario. Shifts in canopy dominance favouring Q. ilex could be based on the extension of heterospecific facilitation to the detriment of conspecific alleviation. We found that saplings of both species transplanted under the canopy of nurse trees had greater survival probability, growth and photochemical efficiency. Intra- and interspecific facilitation mechanisms differed: alleviation of abiotic stress benefited both species during summer and J. thurifera during winter, whereas browsing protection was relevant only for Q. ilex. Facilitation was greater under the dry treatment only for Q. ilex, which partially agreed with the predictions of the stress gradient hypothesis. We conclude that present rainfall availability limits neither J. thurifera nor Q. ilex establishment. Nevertheless, under current global change scenarios, imposing increasing abiotic stress together with altered herbivore browsing, nurse trees could differentially facilitate the establishment of Q. ilex due to species-specific traits, i.e. palatability; drought, heat and cold tolerance, underlying species differences in the facilitation mechanisms and eventually triggering a change from pure juniper woodlands to mixed formations.

  1. Probabilistic approach to mechanisms

    CERN Document Server

    Sandler, BZ

    1984-01-01

    This book discusses the application of probabilistics to the investigation of mechanical systems. The book shows, for example, how random function theory can be applied directly to the investigation of random processes in the deflection of cam profiles, pitch or gear teeth, pressure in pipes, etc. The author also deals with some other technical applications of probabilistic theory, including, amongst others, those relating to pneumatic and hydraulic mechanisms and roller bearings. Many of the aspects are illustrated by examples of applications of the techniques under discussion.

  2. The biological mechanisms and behavioral functions of opsin-based light detection by the skin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer L Kelley

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Light detection not only forms the basis of vision (via visual retinal photoreceptors, but can also occur in other parts of the body, including many non-rod/non-cone ocular cells, the pineal complex, the deep brain, and the skin. Indeed, many of the photopigments (an opsin linked to a light-sensitive 11-cis retinal chromophore that mediate color vision in the eyes of vertebrates are also present in the skin of animals such as reptiles, amphibians, crustaceans and fishes (with related photoreceptive molecules present in cephalopods, providing a localized mechanism for light detection across the surface of the body. This form of non-visual photosensitivity may be particularly important for animals that can change their coloration by altering the dispersion of pigments within the chromatophores (pigment containing cells of the skin. Thus, skin coloration may be directly color matched or tuned to both the luminance and spectral properties of the local background environment, thereby facilitating behavioral functions such as camouflage, thermoregulation, and social signaling. This review examines the diversity and sensitivity of opsin-based photopigments present in the skin and considers their putative functional roles in mediating animal behavior. Furthermore, it discusses the potential underlying biochemical and molecular pathways that link shifts in environmental light to both photopigment expression and chromatophore photoresponses. Although photoreception that occurs independently of image formation remains poorly understood, this review highlights the important role of non-visual light detection in facilitating the multiple functions of animal coloration.

  3. Investigating Degradation Mechanisms in 130 nm and 90 nm Commercial CMOS Technologies Under Extreme Radiation Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratti, Lodovico; Gaioni, Luigi; Manghisoni, Massimo; Traversi, Gianluca; Pantano, Devis

    2008-08-01

    The purpose of this paper is to study the mechanisms underlying performance degradation in 130 nm and 90 nm commercial CMOS technologies exposed to high doses of ionizing radiation. The investigation has been mainly focused on their noise properties in view of applications to the design of low-noise, low-power analog circuits to be operated in harsh environment. Experimental data support the hypothesis that charge trapping in shallow trench isolation (STI), besides degrading the static characteristics of interdigitated NMOS transistors, also affects their noise performances in a substantial fashion. The model discussed in this paper, presented in a previous work focused on CMOS devices irradiated with a 10 Mrad(SiO2) gamma -ray dose, has been applied here also to transistors exposed to much higher (up to 100 Mrad(SiO2 )) doses of X-rays. Such a model is able to account for the extent of the observed noise degradation as a function of the device polarity, dimensions and operating point.

  4. Determination of work function of graphene under a metal electrode and its role in contact resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Seung Min; Park, Jong Kyung; Sul, One Jae; Cho, Byung Jin

    2012-08-08

    Although the work function of graphene under a given metal electrode is critical information for the realization of high-performance graphene-based electronic devices, relatively little relevant research has been carried out to date. In this work, the work function values of graphene under various metals are accurately measured for the first time through a detailed analysis of the capacitance-voltage (C-V) characteristics of a metal-graphene-oxide-semiconductor (MGOS) capacitor structure. In contrast to the high work function of exposed graphene of 4.89-5.16 eV, the work function of graphene under a metal electrode varies depending on the metal species. With a Cr/Au or Ni contact, the work function of graphene is pinned to that of the contacted metal, whereas with a Pd or Au contact the work function assumes a value of ∼4.62 eV regardless of the work function of the contact metal. A study of the gate voltage dependence on the contact resistance shows that the latter case provides lower contact resistance.

  5. Molecular Mechanisms Underlying the Link between Nuclear Receptor Function and Cholesterol Gallstone Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Carmen Vázquez

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cholesterol gallstone disease is highly prevalent in western countries, particularly in women and some specific ethnic groups. The formation of water-insoluble cholesterol crystals is due to a misbalance between the three major lipids present in the bile: cholesterol, bile salts, and phospholipids. Many proteins implicated in biliary lipid secretion in the liver are regulated by several transcription factors, including nuclear receptors LXR and FXR. Human and murine genetic, physiological, pathophysiological, and pharmacological evidence is consistent with the relevance of these nuclear receptors in gallstone formation. In addition, there is emerging data that also suggests a role for estrogen receptor ESR1 in abnormal cholesterol metabolism leading to gallstone disease. A better comprehension of the role of nuclear receptor function in gallstone formation may help to design new and more effective therapeutic strategies for this highly prevalent disease condition.

  6. Application of Galerkin meshfree methods to nonlinear thermo-mechanical simulation of solids under extremely high pulsed loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibáñez, Daniel Iglesias; García Orden, Juan C.; Brañas, B.; Carmona, J.M.; Molla, J.

    2013-01-01

    simulation of complex nonlinear mechanical problems involving large strains and displacements (e.g. flexible multibody dynamics). When compared to Finite Element Method (FEM), they present higher robustness under large strains and a better precision for the same computer calculation time when dealing with rough discretizations. All these results have been previously shown in [3]. The experience gained with those applications and the reproductivity characteristics of the shape functions suggest that the number of degrees of freedom needed for a precise analysis of shallow volumetric heat loads can be drastically reduced from that of the usual FEM approach. We describe the development and implementation of a coupled nonlinear thermo-mechanical formulation which takes into account the particularities of the meshfree discretization. Numerical experiments of beam facing elements are presented and compared with FEM results

  7. The underlying toxicological mechanism of chemical mixtures: A case study on mixture toxicity of cyanogenic toxicants and aldehydes to Photobacterium phosphoreum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian, Dayong; Lin, Zhifen; Zhou, Xianghong; Yin, Daqiang

    2013-01-01

    Intracellular chemical reaction of chemical mixtures is one of the main reasons that cause synergistic or antagonistic effects. However, it still remains unclear what the influencing factors on the intracellular chemical reaction are, and how they influence on the toxicological mechanism of chemical mixtures. To reveal this underlying toxicological mechanism of chemical mixtures, a case study on mixture toxicity of cyanogenic toxicants and aldehydes to Photobacterium phosphoreum was employed, and both their joint effects and mixture toxicity were observed. Then series of two-step linear regressions were performed to describe the relationships between joint effects, the expected additive toxicities and descriptors of individual chemicals (including concentrations, binding affinity to receptors, octanol/water partition coefficients). Based on the quantitative relationships, the underlying joint toxicological mechanisms were revealed. The result shows that, for mixtures with their joint effects resulting from intracellular chemical reaction, their underlying toxicological mechanism depends on not only their interaction with target proteins, but also their transmembrane actions and their concentrations. In addition, two generic points of toxicological mechanism were proposed including the influencing factors on intracellular chemical reaction and the difference of the toxicological mechanism between single reactive chemicals and their mixtures. This study provided an insight into the understanding of the underlying toxicological mechanism for chemical mixtures with intracellular chemical reaction. - Highlights: • Joint effects of nitriles and aldehydes at non-equitoxic ratios were determined. • A novel descriptor, ligand–receptor interaction energy (E binding ), was employed. • Quantitative relationships for mixtures were developed based on a novel descriptor. • The underlying toxic mechanism was revealed based on quantitative relationships. • Two generic

  8. The underlying toxicological mechanism of chemical mixtures: A case study on mixture toxicity of cyanogenic toxicants and aldehydes to Photobacterium phosphoreum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tian, Dayong [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, Anyang Institute of Technology, Anyang 455000 (China); Lin, Zhifen, E-mail: lzhifen@tongji.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Zhou, Xianghong [Department of Public Management, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Yin, Daqiang [Key Laboratory of Yangtze River Water Environment, Ministry of Education, College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China)

    2013-10-15

    Intracellular chemical reaction of chemical mixtures is one of the main reasons that cause synergistic or antagonistic effects. However, it still remains unclear what the influencing factors on the intracellular chemical reaction are, and how they influence on the toxicological mechanism of chemical mixtures. To reveal this underlying toxicological mechanism of chemical mixtures, a case study on mixture toxicity of cyanogenic toxicants and aldehydes to Photobacterium phosphoreum was employed, and both their joint effects and mixture toxicity were observed. Then series of two-step linear regressions were performed to describe the relationships between joint effects, the expected additive toxicities and descriptors of individual chemicals (including concentrations, binding affinity to receptors, octanol/water partition coefficients). Based on the quantitative relationships, the underlying joint toxicological mechanisms were revealed. The result shows that, for mixtures with their joint effects resulting from intracellular chemical reaction, their underlying toxicological mechanism depends on not only their interaction with target proteins, but also their transmembrane actions and their concentrations. In addition, two generic points of toxicological mechanism were proposed including the influencing factors on intracellular chemical reaction and the difference of the toxicological mechanism between single reactive chemicals and their mixtures. This study provided an insight into the understanding of the underlying toxicological mechanism for chemical mixtures with intracellular chemical reaction. - Highlights: • Joint effects of nitriles and aldehydes at non-equitoxic ratios were determined. • A novel descriptor, ligand–receptor interaction energy (E{sub binding}), was employed. • Quantitative relationships for mixtures were developed based on a novel descriptor. • The underlying toxic mechanism was revealed based on quantitative relationships. • Two

  9. Experimental study of the anisotropic properties of argillite under moisture and mechanical loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, D.S.; Chanchole, S.; Wang, L.L.; Bornert, M.; Gatmiri, B.

    2012-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. Due to various factors, such as sedimentation, layered morphology of clay mineral, in-situ stress, etc., the behavior of argillite rocks is often anisotropic. In order to study the anisotropy of the Callovo-Oxfordian (COx) argillite considered as a possible host rock for high-level radioactive nuclear waste repository in France, a series of tests including uniaxial compression and dehydration and hydration at different constant applied stress levels, are carried out using a specific setup combining mechanical and moisture loading devices. During these hydro-mechanical tests, this specific setup can also continuously capture images of the sample surfaces to be subsequently analyzed using Digital Image Correlation techniques (DIC) in order to determine full-field strains. In this study, three sampling directions are used with the angle θ between the bedding plane and the cylindrical sample axis equal to 45 deg., 60 deg. and 90 deg.. To investigate the mechanical anisotropy, uniaxial compressive tests with mechanical loading and unloading cycles are performed on several different samples at the same moisture level. The results show that the mechanical parameters (apparent modulus, failure stress) depend on loading orientation relative to the stratification plane. For a given water content, the failure stress reaches maximum values for θ =90 deg. and minimum values for θ =45 deg.. To study the hydric anisotropy, dehydration and hydration tests under stress-free conditions are performed on two cylindrical samples (θ=90 deg. and θ=60 deg.). Three cycles of hydration and dehydration are carried out by varying the relative humidity between 40% and 95%. The sample weight, the deformation measured by strain gages and the relative humidity are continuously recorded during the test by means of another specific setup described in [Pham et al., 2007]. Fig.1a illustrates the evolution of the strains of the sample EST28030-No

  10. A numerical study of crack interactions under thermo-mechanical load using EFGM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pant, Mohit; Singh, I. V.; Mishra, B. K.

    2011-01-01

    In this work, element free Galerkin method (EFGM) has been used to obtain the solution of various edge crack problems under thermo-mechanical loads as it provides a versatile technique to model stationary as well as moving crack problems without re-meshing. Standard diffraction criterion has been modified with multiple crack weight technique to characterize the presence of various cracks in the domain of influence of a particular node. The effect of crack inclination has been studied for single as well as two edge cracks, whereas the cracks interaction has been studied for two edge cracks lying on same as well as opposite edges under plane stress conditions. The values of mode-I and mode-II stress intensity factors have been evaluated by the interaction integral approach

  11. Modeling the Mechanical Response of In Vivo Human Skin Under a Rich Set of Deformations

    KAUST Repository

    Flynn, Cormac

    2011-03-11

    Determining the mechanical properties of an individual\\'s skin is important in the fields of pathology, biomedical device design, and plastic surgery. To address this need, we present a finite element model that simulates the skin of the anterior forearm and posterior upper arm under a rich set of three-dimensional deformations. We investigated the suitability of the Ogden and Tong and Fung strain energy functions along with a quasi-linear viscoelastic law. Using non-linear optimization techniques, we found material parameters and in vivo pre-stresses for different volunteers. The model simulated the experiments with errors-of-fit ranging from 13.7 to 21.5%. Pre-stresses ranging from 28 to 92 kPa were estimated. We show that using only in-plane experimental data in the parameter optimization results in a poor prediction of the out-of-plane response. The identifiability of the model parameters, which are evaluated using different determinability criteria, improves by increasing the number of deformation orientations in the experiments. © 2011 Biomedical Engineering Society.

  12. Common resting brain dynamics indicate a possible mechanism underlying zolpidem response in severe brain injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Shawniqua T; Conte, Mary M; Goldfine, Andrew M; Noirhomme, Quentin; Gosseries, Olivia; Thonnard, Marie; Beattie, Bradley; Hersh, Jennifer; Katz, Douglas I; Victor, Jonathan D; Laureys, Steven; Schiff, Nicholas D

    2013-01-01

    Zolpidem produces paradoxical recovery of speech, cognitive and motor functions in select subjects with severe brain injury but underlying mechanisms remain unknown. In three diverse patients with known zolpidem responses we identify a distinctive pattern of EEG dynamics that suggests a mechanistic model. In the absence of zolpidem, all subjects show a strong low frequency oscillatory peak ∼6–10 Hz in the EEG power spectrum most prominent over frontocentral regions and with high coherence (∼0.7–0.8) within and between hemispheres. Zolpidem administration sharply reduces EEG power and coherence at these low frequencies. The ∼6–10 Hz activity is proposed to arise from intrinsic membrane properties of pyramidal neurons that are passively entrained across the cortex by locally-generated spontaneous activity. Activation by zolpidem is proposed to arise from a combination of initial direct drug effects on cortical, striatal, and thalamic populations and further activation of underactive brain regions induced by restoration of cognitively-mediated behaviors. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.01157.001 PMID:24252875

  13. Functional analysis and quantum mechanics: an introduction for physicists

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ranade, Kedar S.

    2015-01-01

    We give an introduction to certain topics from functional analysis which are relevant for physics in general and in particular for quantum mechanics. Starting from some examples, we discuss the theory of Hilbert spaces, spectral theory of unbounded operators, distributions and their applications and present some facts from operator algebras. We do not give proofs, but present examples and analogies from physics which should be useful to get a feeling for the topics considered. (copyright 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  14. Functional analysis and quantum mechanics: an introduction for physicists

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ranade, Kedar S. [Ulm Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Quantenphysik and Center for Integrated Quantum Science and Technology (IQST)

    2015-09-15

    We give an introduction to certain topics from functional analysis which are relevant for physics in general and in particular for quantum mechanics. Starting from some examples, we discuss the theory of Hilbert spaces, spectral theory of unbounded operators, distributions and their applications and present some facts from operator algebras. We do not give proofs, but present examples and analogies from physics which should be useful to get a feeling for the topics considered. (copyright 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  15. Mechanical and thermal stresses in a functionally graded rotating disk with variable thickness due to radially symmetry loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bayat, Mehdi; Saleem, M.; Sahari, B.B.; Hamouda, A.M.S.; Mahdi, E.

    2009-01-01

    Rotating disks have many applications in the aerospace industry such as gas turbines and gears. These disks normally work under thermo mechanical loads. Minimizing the weight of such components can help reduce the overall payload in aerospace industry. For this purpose, a rotating functionally graded (FG) disk with variable thickness under a steady temperature field is considered in this paper. Thermo elastic solutions and the weight of the disk are related to the material grading index and the geometry of the disk. It is found that a disk with parabolic or hyperbolic convergent thickness profile has smaller stresses and displacements compared to a uniform thickness disk. Maximum radial stress due to centrifugal load in the solid disk with parabolic thickness profile may not be at the center unlike uniform thickness disk. Functionally graded disk with variable thickness has smaller stresses due to thermal load compared to those with uniform thickness. It is seen that for a given value of grading index, the FG disk having concave thickness profile is the lightest in weight whereas the FG disk with uniform thickness profile is the heaviest. Also for any given thickness profile, the weight of the FG disk lies in between the weights of the all-metal and the all-ceramic disks.

  16. On some properties of bone functional adaptation phenomenon useful in mechanical design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, Michał

    2010-01-01

    The paper discusses some unique properties of trabecular bone functional adaptation phenomenon, useful in mechanical design. On the basis of the biological process observations and the principle of constant strain energy density on the surface of the structure, the generic structural optimisation system has been developed. Such approach allows fulfilling mechanical theorem for the stiffest design, comprising the optimisations of size, shape and topology, using the concepts known from biomechanical studies. Also the biomimetic solution of multiple load problems is presented.

  17. Dental prostheses mimic the natural enamel behavior under functional loading: A review article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed A. Madfa

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Alumina- and zirconia-based ceramic dental restorations are designed to repair functionality as well as esthetics of the failed teeth. However, these materials exhibited several performance deficiencies such as fracture, poor esthetic properties of ceramic cores (particularly zirconia cores, and difficulty in accomplishing a strong ceramic–resin-based cement bond. Therefore, improving the mechanical properties of these ceramic materials is of great interest in a wide range of disciplines. Consequently, spatial gradients in surface composition and structure can improve the mechanical integrity of ceramic dental restorations. Thus, this article reviews the current status of the functionally graded dental prostheses inspired by the dentino-enamel junction (DEJ structures and the linear gradation in Young's modulus of the DEJ, as a new material design approach, to improve the performance compared to traditional dental prostheses. This is a remarkable example of nature's ability to engineer functionally graded dental prostheses. The current article opens a new avenue for recent researches aimed at the further development of new ceramic dental restorations for improving their clinical durability.

  18. Temperature-dependent dynamic mechanical properties of magnetorheological elastomers under magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ju, Benxiang, E-mail: jubenxiang@qq.com [National Instrument Functional Materials Engineering Technology Research Center, Chongqing 400707 (China); Tang, Rui; Zhang, Dengyou; Yang, Bailian [National Instrument Functional Materials Engineering Technology Research Center, Chongqing 400707 (China); Yu, Miao; Liao, Changrong [College of Optoelectronic Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China)

    2015-01-15

    Both anisotropic and isotropic magnetorheological elastomer (MRE) samples were fabricated by using as-prepared polyurethane (PU) matrix and carbonyl iron particles. Temperature-dependent dynamic mechanical properties of MRE were investigated and analyzed. Due to the unique structural features of as-prepared matrix, temperature has a greater impact on the properties of as-prepared MRE, especially isotropic MRE. With increasing of temperature and magnetic field, MR effect of isotropic MRE can reach up to as high as 4176.5% at temperature of 80 °C, and the mechanism of the temperature-dependent in presence of magnetic field was discussed. These results indicated that MRE is a kind of temperature-dependent material, and can be cycled between MRE and MR plastomer (MRP) by varying temperature. - Highlights: • Both anisotropic and isotropic MRE were fabricated by using as-prepared matrix. • Temperature-dependent properties of MRE under magnetic field were investigated. • As-prepared MRE can transform MRE to MRP by adjusting temperature.

  19. MRF Family Genes Are Involved in Translation Control, Especially under Energy-Deficient Conditions, and Their Expression and Functions Are Modulated by the TOR Signaling Pathway[OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Du-Hwa; Park, Seung Jun; Ahn, Chang Sook

    2017-01-01

    Dynamic control of protein translation in response to the environment is essential for the survival of plant cells. Target of rapamycin (TOR) coordinates protein synthesis with cellular energy/nutrient availability through transcriptional modulation and phosphorylation of the translation machinery. However, mechanisms of TOR-mediated translation control are poorly understood in plants. Here, we report that Arabidopsis thaliana MRF (MA3 DOMAIN-CONTAINING TRANSLATION REGULATORY FACTOR) family genes encode translation regulatory factors under TOR control, and their functions are particularly important in energy-deficient conditions. Four MRF family genes (MRF1-MRF4) are transcriptionally induced by dark and starvation (DS). Silencing of multiple MRFs increases susceptibility to DS and treatment with a TOR inhibitor, while MRF1 overexpression decreases susceptibility. MRF proteins interact with eIF4A and cofractionate with ribosomes. MRF silencing decreases translation activity, while MRF1 overexpression increases it, accompanied by altered ribosome patterns, particularly in DS. Furthermore, MRF deficiency in DS causes altered distribution of mRNAs in sucrose gradient fractions and accelerates rRNA degradation. MRF1 is phosphorylated in vivo and phosphorylated by S6 kinases in vitro. MRF expression and MRF1 ribosome association and phosphorylation are modulated by cellular energy status and TOR activity. We discuss possible mechanisms of the function of MRF family proteins under normal and energy-deficient conditions and their functional link with the TOR pathway. PMID:29084871

  20. Mechanical properties and fracture behaviour of defective phosphorene nanotubes under uniaxial tension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ping; Pei, Qing-Xiang; Huang, Wei; Zhang, Yong-Wei

    2017-12-01

    The easy formation of vacancy defects and the asymmetry in the two sublayers of phosphorene nanotubes (PNTs) may result in brand new mechanical properties and failure behaviour. Herein, we investigate the mechanical properties and fracture behaviour of defective PNTs under uniaxial tension using molecular dynamics simulations. Our simulation results show that atomic vacancies cause local stress concentration and thus significantly reduce the fracture strength and fracture strain of PNTs. More specifically, a 1% defect concentration is able to reduce the fracture strength and fracture strain by as much as 50% and 66%, respectively. Interestingly, the reduction in the mechanical properties is found to depend on the defect location: a defect located in the outer sublayer has a stronger effect than one located in the inner layer, especially for PNTs with a small diameter. Temperature is also found to strongly influence the mechanical properties of both defect-free and defective PNTs. When the temperature is increased from 0 K to 400 K, the fracture strength and fracture strain of defective PNTs with a defect concentration of 1% are reduced further by 71% and 61%, respectively. These findings are of great importance for the structural design of PNTs as building blocks in nanodevices.