WorldWideScience

Sample records for mechanisms underlying egg

  1. Formation of lysinoalanine in egg white under alkali treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yan; Luo, Xuying; Li, Jianke; Xu, Mingsheng; Tu, Yonggang

    2016-03-01

    To investigate the formation mechanism of lysinoalanine (LAL) in eggs during the alkali treatment process, NaOH was used for the direct alkali treatment of egg white, ovalbumin, and amino acids; in addition, the amount of LAL formed during the alkali treatment process was measured. The results showed that the alkali treatment resulted in the formation of LAL in the egg white. The LAL content increased with increasing pH and temperature, with the LAL content first increasing and then leveling off with increasing time. The amount of LAL formed in the ovalbumin under the alkali treatment condition accounted for approximately 50.51% to 58.68% of the amount of LAL formed in the egg white. Thus, the LAL formed in the ovalbumin was the main source for the LAL in the egg white during the alkali treatment process. Under the alkali treatment condition, free L-serine, L-cysteine, and L-cystine reacted with L-lysine to form LAL; therefore, they are the precursor amino acids of LAL formed in eggs during the alkali treatment process. © 2016 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  2. THE CORN-EGG PRICE TRANSMISSION MECHANISM

    OpenAIRE

    Babula, Ronald A.; Bessler, David A.

    1990-01-01

    A vector autoregression (VAR) model of corn, farm egg, and retail egg prices is estimated and shocked with a corn price increase. Impulse responses in egg prices, t-statistics for the impulse responses, and decompositions of forecast error variance are presented. Analyses of results provide insights on the corn/egg price transmission mechanism and on how corn price shocks pulsate through the egg-related economy.

  3. Survival, physical and physiological changes of Taenia hydatigena eggs under different conditions of water stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez Thevenet, Paula; Alvarez, Hector Manuel; Basualdo, Juan Angel

    2017-06-01

    Taenia hydatigena eggs were investigated for morphological and physiological changes under water stress conditions. Fresh eggs were exposed at 31%, 47% and 89% of relative humidity (RH), and survival, size and ultrastructural changes were accounted up to 365 days of exposition. The article shows how each RH environment affects the vitality of the eggs. Results of this study suggest that T. hydatigena eggs have mechanisms to withstand water stress, indicating that the eggs clustering improves protection against desiccation, and that endogenous metabolism using triacylglycerols play an important role in the maintenance of embryo vitality under low, medium and high relative humidity conditions. This contributes to understanding the water stress resistance mechanism in eggs belonging to Taeniidae family. The findings shown herein have provided a basis to better comprehend basic biology and epidemiology of the cysticercosis caused by T. hydatigena. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. The avian egg exhibits general allometric invariances in mechanical design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juang, Jia-Yang; Chen, Pin-Yi; Yang, Da-Chang; Wu, Shang-Ping; Yen, An; Hsieh, Hsin-I

    2017-10-27

    The avian egg exhibits extraordinary diversity in size, shape and color, and has a key role in avian adaptive radiations. Despite extensive work, our understanding of the underlying principles that guide the "design" of the egg as a load-bearing structure remains incomplete, especially over broad taxonomic scales. Here we define a dimensionless number C, a function of egg weight, stiffness and dimensions, to quantify how stiff an egg is with respect to its weight after removing geometry-induced rigidity. We analyze eggs of 463 bird species in 36 orders across five orders of magnitude in body mass, and find that C number is nearly invariant for most species, including tiny hummingbirds and giant elephant birds. This invariance or "design guideline" dictates that evolutionary changes in shell thickness and Young's modulus, both contributing to shell stiffness, are constrained by changes in egg weight. Our analysis illuminates unique reproductive strategies of brood parasites, kiwis, and megapodes, and quantifies the loss of safety margin for contact incubation due to artificial selection and environmental toxins. Our approach provides a mechanistic framework for a better understanding of the mechanical design of the avian egg, and may provide clues to the evolutionary origin of contact incubation of amniote eggs.

  5. Behaviour of Japanese Quail Eggs Under Mechanical Compression

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Buchar, J.; Nedomová, Š.; Trnka, Jan; Strnková, J.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 18, č. 5 (2015), s. 1110-1118 ISSN 1094-2912 Institutional support: RVO:61388998 Keywords : quail egg * compression * rupture force Subject RIV: GM - Food Processing Impact factor: 1.586, year: 2015 http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/10942912.2013.862634#.VNI0aC7z_PM

  6. Genetic architecture underlying convergent evolution of egg-laying behavior in a seed-feeding beetle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Charles W; Wagner, James D; Cline, Sara; Thomas, Frances Ann; Messina, Frank J

    2009-05-01

    Independent populations subjected to similar environments often exhibit convergent evolution. An unresolved question is the frequency with which such convergence reflects parallel genetic mechanisms. We examined the convergent evolution of egg-laying behavior in the seed-feeding beetle Callosobruchus maculatus. Females avoid ovipositing on seeds bearing conspecific eggs, but the degree of host discrimination varies among geographic populations. In a previous experiment, replicate lines switched from a small host to a large one evolved reduced discrimination after 40 generations. We used line crosses to determine the genetic architecture underlying this rapid response. The most parsimonious genetic models included dominance and/or epistasis for all crosses. The genetic architecture underlying reduced discrimination in two lines was not significantly different from the architecture underlying differences between geographic populations, but the architecture underlying the divergence of a third line differed from all others. We conclude that convergence of this complex trait may in some cases involve parallel genetic mechanisms.

  7. QUALITY ASSESSMENT OF EGGS PACKED UNDER MODIFIED ATMOSPHERE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Giampietro-Ganeco

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Eggs are perishable foods and lose quality quickly if not stored properly. From the moment of posture to the marketing of egg, quality loss occurs through gas exchange and water through the pores of the shell with the external environment and thus, studies involving modified atmosphere packaging are extremely important. The aim of the present study is to assess the internal quality of eggs packed under modified atmosphere and stored at room temperature. Six hundred and twelve fresh commercial eggs from 38-week old Hisex White laying hens were used. The present study was conducted in a completely randomized experimental design in a 4 x 4 + 1 factorial arrangement [vacuum, vacuum with oxygen gas (O2 absorbent, vacuum with oxygen gas (O2 and carbon dioxide (CO2 absorbents, vacuum with oxygen gas (O2 absorbent and carbon dioxide (CO2 gas generator; storage times (7, 14, 21 and 28 days, control group (fresh eggs], with three repetitions (12 eggs each. The following factors were assessed: weight maintenance during storage; Haugh unit; color and yolk index. The modified atmosphere packaging maintained the weight of the eggs during a period of 28 days. Vacuum packaging with O2 absorbent and CO2 gas generator was more efficient in maintenance of egg quality, based on the values ​​of Haugh unit and yolk index. The luminosity of the yolk was preserved during the 28 storage days in all of the packaging types used. The vacuum packaging with O2 gas absorbent and CO2 gas generator provide an increase in internal egg quality.

  8. Relationships between egg-recognition and egg-ejection in a grasp-ejector species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Soler

    Full Text Available Brood parasitism frequently leads to a total loss of host fitness, which selects for the evolution of defensive traits in host species. Experimental studies have demonstrated that recognition and rejection of the parasite egg is the most common and efficient defence used by host species. Egg-recognition experiments have advanced our knowledge of the evolutionary and coevolutionary implications of egg recognition and rejection. However, our understanding of the proximate mechanisms underlying both processes remains poor. Egg rejection is a complex behavioural process consisting of three stages: egg recognition, the decision whether or not to reject the putative parasitic egg and the act of ejection itself. We have used the blackbird (Turdus merula as a model species to explore the relationship between egg recognition and the act of egg ejection. We have manipulated the two main characteristics of parasitic eggs affecting egg ejection in this grasp-ejector species: the degree of colour mimicry (mimetic and non-mimetic, which mainly affects the egg-recognition stage of the egg-rejection process and egg size (small, medium and large, which affects the decision to eject, while maintaining a control group of non-parasitized nests. The behaviour of the female when confronted with an experimental egg was filmed using a video camera. Our results show that egg touching is an indication of egg recognition and demonstrate that blackbirds recognized (i.e., touched non-mimetic experimental eggs significantly more than mimetic eggs. However, twenty per cent of the experimental eggs were touched but not subsequently ejected, which confirms that egg recognition does not necessarily mean egg ejection and that accepting parasitic eggs, at least sometimes, is the consequence of acceptance decisions. Regarding proximate mechanisms, our results show that the delay in egg ejection is not only due to recognition problems as usually suggested, given that experimental

  9. EGG PRODUCTION AND HATCHABILITY OF LOCAL DUCKS UNDER SEMI INTENSIVE VS EXTENSIVE MANAGEMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Widiyaningrum

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to compare the egg production and hatchability of local ducks under different management systems, namely semi-intensive and extensive. The research conducted was an experimental one-way classification with two treatments. Each treatment used 15 male and 120 females (mating ratio 1:8, and ducks aged 13-14 months. Eggs production was recorded during three weeks period. About 300 eggs were selected from each treatment to be hatched. Fertility was observed at 4th days of hatching process using egg candler. Data of eggs production, eggs weight, fertility, and hatchability were analyzed using unpaired two sample Student’s t-test. The results showed that average of egg weight, fertility and hatchability were not different under two management system, but egg production in the semi-intensive maintenance was significantly higher (P<0.05 than those in the extensive system. Egg production in the semi-intensive was 12.3% higher than those in the extensive. In conclusion, the semi-intensive system that is applied in this study the number of eggs production but did not affect the average of egg weight, fertility and hatchability.

  10. Caffeine alleviates the deterioration of Ca2+ release mechanisms and fragmentation of in vitro aged mouse eggs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Nan; Wakai, Takuya; Fissore, Rafael. A.

    2011-01-01

    The developmental competence of mammalian eggs is compromised by postovulatory aging. We and others found that in these eggs the intracellular calcium ([Ca2+]i) responses required for egg activation and initiation of development are altered. Nevertheless, the mechanism(s) underlying this defective Ca2+ release is not well known. Here, we investigated if the function of IP3R1, the major Ca2+ release channel at fertilization, was undermined in in vitro aged mouse eggs. We found that in aged eggs IP3R1 displayed reduced function, as many of the changes acquired during maturation that enhance IP3R1 Ca2+ conductivity such as phosphorylation, receptor reorganization and increased Ca2+ store content ([Ca2+]ER) were lost with increasing postovulatory time. IP3R1 fragmentation, possibly associated with the activation of caspase-3, was also observed in these eggs. Many of these changes were prevented when the postovulatory aging of eggs was carried out in the presence of caffeine, which minimized the decline in IP3R1 function and maintained [Ca2+]ER content. Caffeine also maintained mitochondrial membrane potential as measured by JC-1 fluorescence. We therefore conclude that [Ca2+]i responses in aged eggs are undermined by reduced IP3R1 sensitivity, decreased [Ca2+]ER and compromised mitochondrial function, and that addition of caffeine ameliorates most of these aging-associated changes. Understanding the molecular basis of the protective effects of caffeine will be useful in elucidating, and possibly reversing, the signaling pathway(s) compromised by in vitro culture of eggs. PMID:22095868

  11. Finite Element Analysis of Mechanical Characteristics of Dropped Eggs Based on Fluid-Solid Coupling Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song Haiyan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available It is important to study the properties and mechanics of egg drop impacts in order to reduce egg loss during processing and logistics and to provide a basis for the protective packaging of egg products. In this paper, we present the results of our study of the effects of the structural parameters on the mechanical properties of an egg using a finite element model of the egg. Based on Fluid-Solid coupling theory, a finite element model of an egg was constructed using ADINA, a finite element calculation and analysis software package. To simplify the model, the internal fluid of the egg was considered to be a homogeneous substance. The egg drop impact was simulated by the coupling solution, and the feasibility of the model was verified by comparison with the experimental results of a drop test. In summary, the modeling scheme was shown to be feasible and the simulation results provide a theoretical basis for the optimum design of egg packaging and egg processing equipment.

  12. Female Zebra Finches Smell Their Eggs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Golüke

    Full Text Available Parental investment in unrelated offspring seems maladaptive from an evolutionary perspective, due to the costs of energy and resources that cannot be invested in related offspring at the same time. Therefore selection should favour mechanisms to discriminate between own and foreign offspring. In birds, much emphasis has been placed on understanding the visual mechanisms underlying egg recognition. However, olfactory egg recognition has almost been completely ignored. Here, we investigated whether female zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata are able to discriminate between their own and a conspecific egg based on olfactory cues alone. Zebra finches are colonial-breeding songbirds. Eggs are monomorphic, i.e. without any spotting pattern, and intraspecific brood parasitism frequently occurs. In a binary choice experiment, female zebra finches were given the choice between the scent of their own and a conspecific egg. After the onset of incubation, females chose randomly and showed no sign of discrimination. However, shortly before hatching, females preferred significantly the odour of their own egg. The finding that females are capable to smell their own egg may inspire more research on the potential of olfaction involved in egg recognition, especially in cases where visual cues might be limited.

  13. 9 CFR 590.930 - Imported egg products; retention in customs custody; delivery under bond; movement prior to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Imported egg products; retention in..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Imports § 590.930 Imported egg products; retention in customs custody; delivery under bond...

  14. Helminth Egg Removal Capacity of UASB Reactors under Subtropical Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa-Elena Yaya-Beas

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This research was conducted to study the anaerobic sludge filtration capacity regarding helminth egg removal in upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB reactors. Two 25 L lab-scale UASB reactors were operated at an ambient temperature which varied between 17.1 and 28.6 °C. Ascaris suum egg was selected as the model egg considering its similarity in terms of size and morphology to Ascaris lumbricoides, a human pathogen. Ascaris suum eggs were obtained from female parasites of infected pigs. The anaerobic sludge filtration capacity was performed applying upflow velocities between 0.09 and 0.68 m·h−1. Three sludge bed heights in the range of 0.30–0.40 m, 0.50–0.60 m and 0.60–0.70 m were applied. These sludge bed heights corresponded to 19%–25%, 31%–38% and 38%–44% of the total reactor height, respectively. Under the mentioned conditions, the average helminth egg removal efficiency was reciprocally correlated to the imposed upflow velocity. The studied lab-scale reactors reported an average helminth egg removal between 34%–100%, 30%–91% and 34%–56%, when the sludge bed in the UASB reactor was 19%–25%, 31%–38% and 38%–44% of the total reactor height, respectively. The decreased filtration capacity at increasing sludge bed heights might be likely related to biogas production and channeling formation. The average helminth egg removal efficiency in the control experiments performed without any sludge bed, by plain sedimentation, varied between 44% and 66%.

  15. Studies on the survival of Ascaris suum eggs under laboratory and simulated field conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaasenbeek, C.P.H.; Borgsteede, F.H.M.

    1998-01-01

    A series of four experiments was carried out to study the survival of Ascaris suum eggs: in a pig slurry unit on a farm, in the laboratory under anaerobic conditions and different relative humidities (rH), and under simulated field conditions. Survival of eggs in the pig slurry unit was 20% after

  16. 7 CFR 57.930 - Imported eggs; retention in customs custody; delivery under bond; movement prior to inspection...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Imported eggs; retention in customs custody; delivery... AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT (CONTINUED) INSPECTION OF EGGS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Regulations Governing the Inspection of Eggs...

  17. Conservation of the egg envelope digestion mechanism of hatching enzyme in euteleostean fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawaguchi, Mari; Yasumasu, Shigeki; Shimizu, Akio; Sano, Kaori; Iuchi, Ichiro; Nishida, Mutsumi

    2010-12-01

    We purified two hatching enzymes, namely high choriolytic enzyme (HCE; EC 3.4.24.67) and low choriolytic enzyme (LCE; EC 3.4.24.66), from the hatching liquid of Fundulus heteroclitus, which were named Fundulus HCE (FHCE) and Fundulus LCE (FLCE). FHCE swelled the inner layer of egg envelope, and FLCE completely digested the FHCE-swollen envelope. In addition, we cloned three Fundulus cDNAs orthologous to cDNAs for the medaka precursors of egg envelope subunit proteins (i.e. choriogenins H, H minor and L) from the female liver. Cleavage sites of FHCE and FLCE on egg envelope subunit proteins were determined by comparing the N-terminal amino acid sequences of digests with the sequences deduced from the cDNAs for egg envelope subunit proteins. FHCE and FLCE cleaved different sites of the subunit proteins. FHCE efficiently cleaved the Pro-X-Y repeat regions into tripeptides to dodecapeptides to swell the envelope, whereas FLCE cleaved the inside of the zona pellucida domain, the core structure of egg envelope subunit protein, to completely digest the FHCE-swollen envelope. A comparison showed that the positions of hatching enzyme cleavage sites on egg envelope subunit proteins were strictly conserved between Fundulus and medaka. Finally, we extended such a comparison to three other euteleosts (i.e. three-spined stickleback, spotted halibut and rainbow trout) and found that the egg envelope digestion mechanism was well conserved among them. During evolution, the egg envelope digestion by HCE and LCE orthologs was established in the lineage of euteleosts, and the mechanism is suggested to be conserved. © 2010 The Authors Journal compilation © 2010 FEBS.

  18. Xenopus egg extract: A powerful tool to study genome maintenance mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoogenboom, Wouter S; Klein Douwel, Daisy; Knipscheer, Puck

    2017-08-15

    DNA repair pathways are crucial to maintain the integrity of our genome and prevent genetic diseases such as cancer. There are many different types of DNA damage and specific DNA repair mechanisms have evolved to deal with these lesions. In addition to these repair pathways there is an extensive signaling network that regulates processes important for repair, such as cell cycle control and transcription. Despite extensive research, DNA damage repair and signaling are not fully understood. In vitro systems such as the Xenopus egg extract system, have played, and still play, an important role in deciphering the molecular details of these processes. Xenopus laevis egg extracts contain all factors required to efficiently perform DNA repair outside a cell, using mechanisms conserved in humans. These extracts have been used to study several genome maintenance pathways, including mismatch repair, non-homologous end joining, ICL repair, DNA damage checkpoint activation, and replication fork stability. Here we describe how the Xenopus egg extract system, in combination with specifically designed DNA templates, contributed to our detailed understanding of these pathways. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. Effect of dietary organic selenium and zinc on the internal egg quality of quail eggs for different periods and under different temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IB Fernandez

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the internal quality of eggs of Japanese quails fed diets supplemented with chelated selenium and zinc. The experiment was carried out for 120 days, and 144 birds were divided in random blocks into four treatments (control; 0.3 ppm Se; 60 ppm Zn and 0.3 ppm Se + 60 ppm Zn. Ten, 14, 18, and 22 weeks after the beginning of lay, eggs were collected and stored under two different temperatures (environmental temperature or refrigeration and for 10, 20, and 30 days. Eggs were analyzed for: Haugh units (HU, albumen height (AH, yolk index (YI, and albumen index (AI. Parameters were only statistically influenced by the interaction between dietary treatment and storage time. It was concluded that the addition of organic Se and Zn influenced internal egg quality when eggs were stored up to 20 days, independently of storage temperature, suggesting that the combined supplementation of organic Se and Zn improve internal egg quality and extend egg shelf life.

  20. Avian Egg and Egg Coat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okumura, Hiroki

    2017-01-01

    An ovulated egg of vertebrates is surrounded by unique extracellular matrix, the egg coat or zona pellucida, playing important roles in fertilization and early development. The vertebrate egg coat is composed of two to six zona pellucida (ZP) glycoproteins that are characterized by the evolutionarily conserved ZP-domain module and classified into six subfamilies based on phylogenetic analyses. Interestingly, investigations of biochemical and functional features of the ZP glycoproteins show that the roles of each ZP-glycoprotein family member in the egg-coat formation and the egg-sperm interactions seemingly vary across vertebrates. This might be one reason why comprehensive understandings of the molecular basis of either architecture or physiological functions of egg coat still remain elusive despite more than 3 decades of intensive investigations. In this chapter, an overview of avian egg focusing on the oogenesis are provided in the first section, and unique features of avian egg coat, i.e., perivitelline layer, including the morphology, biogenesis pathway, and physiological functions are discussed mainly on chicken and quail in terms of the characteristics of ZP glycoproteins in the following sections. In addition, these features of avian egg coat are compared to mammalian zona pellucida, from the viewpoint that the structural and functional varieties of ZP glycoproteins might be associated with the evolutionary adaptation to their reproductive strategies. By comparing the egg coat of birds and mammals whose reproductive strategies are largely different, new insights into the molecular mechanisms of vertebrate egg-sperm interactions might be provided.

  1. Genome-wide characterization of genetic variants and putative regions under selection in meat and egg-type chicken lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boschiero, Clarissa; Moreira, Gabriel Costa Monteiro; Gheyas, Almas Ara; Godoy, Thaís Fernanda; Gasparin, Gustavo; Mariani, Pilar Drummond Sampaio Corrêa; Paduan, Marcela; Cesar, Aline Silva Mello; Ledur, Mônica Corrêa; Coutinho, Luiz Lehmann

    2018-01-25

    Meat and egg-type chickens have been selected for several generations for different traits. Artificial and natural selection for different phenotypes can change frequency of genetic variants, leaving particular genomic footprints throghtout the genome. Thus, the aims of this study were to sequence 28 chickens from two Brazilian lines (meat and white egg-type) and use this information to characterize genome-wide genetic variations, identify putative regions under selection using Fst method, and find putative pathways under selection. A total of 13.93 million SNPs and 1.36 million INDELs were identified, with more variants detected from the broiler (meat-type) line. Although most were located in non-coding regions, we identified 7255 intolerant non-synonymous SNPs, 512 stopgain/loss SNPs, 1381 frameshift and 1094 non-frameshift INDELs that may alter protein functions. Genes harboring intolerant non-synonymous SNPs affected metabolic pathways related mainly to reproduction and endocrine systems in the white-egg layer line, and lipid metabolism and metabolic diseases in the broiler line. Fst analysis in sliding windows, using SNPs and INDELs separately, identified over 300 putative regions of selection overlapping with more than 250 genes. For the first time in chicken, INDEL variants were considered for selection signature analysis, showing high level of correlation in results between SNP and INDEL data. The putative regions of selection signatures revealed interesting candidate genes and pathways related to important phenotypic traits in chicken, such as lipid metabolism, growth, reproduction, and cardiac development. In this study, Fst method was applied to identify high confidence putative regions under selection, providing novel insights into selection footprints that can help elucidate the functional mechanisms underlying different phenotypic traits relevant to meat and egg-type chicken lines. In addition, we generated a large catalog of line-specific and common

  2. Development of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) eggs and alevins under varied temperature regimes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, R H; Spinney, H C.E.; Sreedharan, A

    1977-01-01

    Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) eggs and alevins were raised under conditions where the temperature was systematically varied either at fertilization, at the eyed egg stage, or at hatching. Mortality was more than 20% in eggs started immediately after fertilization at constant incubation temperatures <4/sup 0/C as compared with 5% or less at temperatures >4/sup 0/C. Alevins that eyed at 8/sup 0/C and higher were progressively smaller the higher the temperature. The optimum temperature from fertilization to eye pigmentation was near 6/sup 0/C. Eyed eggs reared at lower temperatures until hatching were larger than those hatched at higher temperatures. This size differential was maintained until the yolk was completely absorbed at all posthatching temperatures investigated. Sudden decreases in temperature at the eyed egg and hatching stages induced severe edema of the alevin yolk sac, resulting in slower growth and increased mortality.

  3. Cracking the egg: An insight into egg hypersensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhanapala, Pathum; De Silva, Chamika; Doran, Tim; Suphioglu, Cenk

    2015-08-01

    Hypersensitivity to the chicken egg is a widespread disorder mainly affecting 1-2% of children worldwide. It is the second most common food allergy in children, next to cow's milk allergy. Egg allergy is mainly caused by hypersensitivity to four allergens found in the egg white; ovomucoid, ovalbumin, ovotransferrin and lysozyme. However, some research suggests the involvement of allergens exclusively found in the egg yolk such as chicken serum albumin and YGP42, which may play a crucial role in the overall reaction. In egg allergic individuals, these allergens cause conditions such as itching, atopic dermatitis, bronchial asthma, vomiting, rhinitis, conjunctivitis, laryngeal oedema and chronic urticaria, and anaphylaxis. Currently there is no permanent cure for egg allergy. Upon positive diagnosis for egg allergy, strict dietary avoidance of eggs and products containing traces of eggs is the most effective way of avoiding future hypersensitivity reactions. However, it is difficult to fully avoid eggs since they are found in a range of processed food products. An understanding of the mechanisms of allergic reactions, egg allergens and their prevalence, egg allergy diagnosis and current treatment strategies are important for future studies. This review addresses these topics and discusses both egg white and egg yolk allergy as a whole. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Embryo malposition as a potential mechanism for mercury-induced hatching failure in bird eggs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herring, G.; Ackerman, Joshua T.; Eagles-Smith, Collin A.

    2010-01-01

    We examined the prevalence of embryo malpositions and deformities in relation to total mercury (THg) and selenium (Se) concentrations in American avocet (Recurvirostra americana), black-necked stilt (Himantopus mexicanus), and Forster's tern (Sterna forsteri) eggs in San Francisco Bay (CA, USA) during 2005 to 2007. Overall, 11% of embryos were malpositioned in eggs ???18 d of age (n=282) and 2% of embryos were deformed in eggs ???13 d of age (n=470). Considering only those eggs that failed to hatch (n=62), malpositions occurred in 24% of eggs ???18 d of age and deformities occurred in 7% of eggs ???13 d of age. The probability of an embryo being malpositioned increased with egg THg concentrations in Forster's terns, but not in avocets or stilts. The probability of embryo deformity was not related to egg THg concentrations in any species. Using a reduced dataset with both Se and THg concentrations measured in eggs (n=87), we found no interaction between Se and THg on the probability of an embryo being malpositioned or deformed. Results of the present study indicate that embryo malpositions were prevalent in waterbird eggs that failed to hatch and the likelihood of an embryo being malpositioned increased with egg THg concentrations in Forster's terns. We hypothesize that malpositioning of avian embryos may be one reason for mercury-related hatching failure that occurs late in incubation, but further research is needed to elucidate this potential mechanism. ?? 2010 SETAC.

  5. Effects of lighting pattern and photoperiod on egg production and egg quality of a native chicken under free-range condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, A L; Zhang, Y; Zhang, J; Wang, H H; Chu, Q; Liu, H G

    2018-04-14

    the requirement of the native chicken during the laying period; (4) no change in photoperiod from the rearing to the production phase (12 to 12 L) will have long-lasting effects on egg production or egg quality under the present condition.

  6. Pulse radiolysis study of egg white

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Micic, O.I.; Josimovic, L.; Markovic, V.

    1978-01-01

    Radiolytic processes in egg white in intervals of 0.1μs to several seconds have been studied by the pulse radiolysis technique. The formation and decay of short-lived intermediates and their absorption spectra were observed under varied experimental conditions. The results show that intermediates are produced predominantly in reactions of radicals formed in water radiolysis with egg white proteins. The intermediates decay mainly in the first-order intermolecular processes, though the mechanism of transformations is very complex. (author)

  7. Effects of Divergent Selection Body Weight and the Quail Laying Eggs on some Physical and Mechanical Properties of Japanese Quail Eggs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    mousareza baghani

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Breeding quail and quail egg industrial production because of the high nutritional value of these products has been developing these years. Considering the high demand and economical production, further development in the future is predicted. In order to design and effective utilization of the equipment for transportation, separation, packaging and storage, the physical and mechanical properties of quail eggs are needed. It is of great importance to study the factors which are influencing these properties. Strength of the shell is an important factor in determination of quail egg quality. Quail egg shell strength depends on several variables including specific gravity, egg weight and volume, shell thickness, weight and percentage of shell, hardness, breaking force, breaking energy, egg surface, farming conditions, type and species of birds, nutrition and geometric characteristics of eggs. Materials and Methods In this paper, initially in three phases, at 15 weeks, 19 weeks and 23 weeks, shell strength changes and physical properties of quail eggs on 90 quails during their first period of laying eggs were studied. Measured properties were included dimensions, weight, volume, specific gravity, shell thickness, weight and percentage of shell, breaking force, breaking energy, egg surface and some other properties. In the second part the effects of divergent selection for the bird’s body weight at four weeks of age on the quail eggs of fifth generation were studied. Measured properties were included dimensions, weight, volume, breaking force, breaking energy and some factors for direct and indirect measurement of strength of quail eggs. For direct measurement of the strength of eggshell of quail, two methods were employed: The first method was quasi-static compression test between two parallel plates of the universal testing machine and the second method was measuring specific gravity. In the first method, eggs were compressed between

  8. Experimental and field investigation of non-biting flies as potential mechanical vectors of Echinococcus granulosus eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemmati, Sahel; Afshar, Abbas Aghaei; Mohammadi, Mohammad Ali; Afgar, Ali; Nasibi, Saeid; Harandi, Majid Fasihi

    2018-06-01

    Synanthropic fly species can be potential mechanical vectors of many infectious agents. The potential of the flies to carry Echinococcus granulosus eggs is not fully documented. The purpose of the present study was to determine the possible role of non-biting flies to carry taeniid eggs. A total of 210 flies were collected from seven selected sites in areas of Kerman city, southeastern Iran from November 2016 to May 2017. Adult flies were live-caught using sweeping nets. Flies were placed individually in small glass bottles and transported to the laboratory. All the flies were killed by deep freezing and then identified to the species level using both morphological and molecular methods. The flies were homogenized in test tubes and genomic DNA was extracted and amplified by PCR. PCR protocols were used both to identify the live-caught flies to the species level, and for the detection of E. granulosus. The laboratory reared second generation flies were experimentally exposed to dog feces manually spiked by Echinococcus eggs. Two runs of experiments with 1-3 h of exposure were designed. For each experiment 20 flies were selected from the stock colony and were starved for three days. After each experiment, the flies were frozen for further molecular studies. The dominant fly species were Musca domestica and Lucilia sericata. No eggs were found on the body surface and/or guts of live-caught flies. After the first hour of exposure, 60%, of the flies of both species were found to harbor Echinococcus eggs. However, in the case of L. sericata 50% of the flies harbored Echinococcus eggs after 3 h of exposure. Results of the present study indicate the probable role of synanthropic flies in harboring Echinococcus eggs and mechanical transmission of cystic echinococcosis. When the helminth eggs are susceptible to desiccation grooming flies can remove many of eggs from exterior surfaces of them. Despite this result the role of synanthropic flies in the transmission of

  9. Evaluation of egg quality traits of endangered Nicobari fowl and its crosses under intensive and backyard system of Andaman and Nicobar Islands, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. C. Choudhuri

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: In the present study, egg quality traits of endangered Nicobari fowl and its crosses (Nicorock and Nishibari were evaluated under intensive (deep litter as well as backyard system, in the regions of Andaman and Nicobar Islands, India. Materials and Methods: Fresh eggs (15 of all the three genetic groups of birds were collected randomly from institute farm (intensive system and from farmers’ field. The eggs were collected from adult birds (50 weeks of age 3 times with 5 in number in each time. All the genetic groups of birds were subjected to same husbandry practices. The eggs were subjected to external and internal quality parameters study. Results: The effect of genetic groups on egg weight was significant (p<0.05 for all the groups. Nicorock had significantly higher egg weight (g (56.79±0.77 in comparison to Nicobari (53.20±0.34 and Nishibari (48.98±0.22 under intensive system of management. Under backyard condition, the egg weight (g of Nicorock (48.60±1.04 was significantly higher than Nicobari but not with Nishibari. In general, the egg weight was found less under backyard system than intensive system that might be due to scavenging nature of birds. Egg length, egg width and shape index differed significantly (p<0.05 among the genetic groups. Yolk index of Nicorock was significantly (p<0.05 higher than Nishibari under intensive as well as backyard condition. The shell thickness varied significantly (p<0.05 among different genetic groups. Haugh unit of Nicorock was significantly (p<0.05 lower in comparison to Nicobari and Nishibari under intensive system, but did not vary significantly among genetic groups under backyard condition. Conclusions: The study revealed that there was a significant effect of genetic groups on different egg quality traits; both in intensive system and backyard condition.

  10. Experimental Shifts in Intraclutch Egg Color Variation Do Not Affect Egg Rejection in a Host of a Non-Egg-Mimetic Avian Brood Parasite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croston, Rebecca; Hauber, Mark E.

    2015-01-01

    Avian brood parasites lay their eggs in the nests of other birds, and impose the costs associated with rearing parasitic young onto these hosts. Many hosts of brood parasites defend against parasitism by removing foreign eggs from the nest. In systems where parasitic eggs mimic host eggs in coloration and patterning, extensive intraclutch variation in egg appearances may impair the host’s ability to recognize and reject parasitic eggs, but experimental investigation of this effect has produced conflicting results. The cognitive mechanism by which hosts recognize parasitic eggs may vary across brood parasite hosts, and this may explain variation in experimental outcome across studies investigating egg rejection in hosts of egg-mimicking brood parasites. In contrast, for hosts of non-egg-mimetic parasites, intraclutch egg color variation is not predicted to co-vary with foreign egg rejection, irrespective of cognitive mechanism. Here we tested for effects of intraclutch egg color variation in a host of nonmimetic brood parasite by manipulating egg color in American robins (Turdus migratorius), hosts of brown-headed cowbirds (Molothrus ater). We recorded robins’ behavioral responses to simulated cowbird parasitism in nests where color variation was artificially enhanced or reduced. We also quantified egg color variation within and between unmanipulated robin clutches as perceived by robins themselves using spectrophotometric measures and avian visual modeling. In unmanipulated nests, egg color varied more between than within robin clutches. As predicted, however, manipulation of color variation did not affect rejection rates. Overall, our results best support the scenario wherein egg rejection is the outcome of selective pressure by a nonmimetic brood parasite, because robins are efficient rejecters of foreign eggs, irrespective of the color variation within their own clutch. PMID:25831051

  11. Experimental shifts in intraclutch egg color variation do not affect egg rejection in a host of a non-egg-mimetic avian brood parasite.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Croston

    Full Text Available Avian brood parasites lay their eggs in the nests of other birds, and impose the costs associated with rearing parasitic young onto these hosts. Many hosts of brood parasites defend against parasitism by removing foreign eggs from the nest. In systems where parasitic eggs mimic host eggs in coloration and patterning, extensive intraclutch variation in egg appearances may impair the host's ability to recognize and reject parasitic eggs, but experimental investigation of this effect has produced conflicting results. The cognitive mechanism by which hosts recognize parasitic eggs may vary across brood parasite hosts, and this may explain variation in experimental outcome across studies investigating egg rejection in hosts of egg-mimicking brood parasites. In contrast, for hosts of non-egg-mimetic parasites, intraclutch egg color variation is not predicted to co-vary with foreign egg rejection, irrespective of cognitive mechanism. Here we tested for effects of intraclutch egg color variation in a host of nonmimetic brood parasite by manipulating egg color in American robins (Turdus migratorius, hosts of brown-headed cowbirds (Molothrus ater. We recorded robins' behavioral responses to simulated cowbird parasitism in nests where color variation was artificially enhanced or reduced. We also quantified egg color variation within and between unmanipulated robin clutches as perceived by robins themselves using spectrophotometric measures and avian visual modeling. In unmanipulated nests, egg color varied more between than within robin clutches. As predicted, however, manipulation of color variation did not affect rejection rates. Overall, our results best support the scenario wherein egg rejection is the outcome of selective pressure by a nonmimetic brood parasite, because robins are efficient rejecters of foreign eggs, irrespective of the color variation within their own clutch.

  12. The egg string attachment mechanism in salmon lice Lepeophtheirus salmonis (Copepoda: Caligidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schram, Thomas A.

    2000-01-01

    The anatomy of the genital complex and the hook apparatus that keeps the trailing egg strings in position, are illustrated and described. Based on light and scanning electron microscopy, it is shown how the sacs are mechanically secured by the penetration of a pair of hooks through the proximal ends

  13. Invasive Egg Predators and Food Availability Interactively Affect Maternal Investment in Egg Chemical Defense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah C. Paul

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Invasive species commonly predate the offspring of native species and eggs are the life stage most vulnerable to this predation. In many species with no maternal care, females can alter the phenotype of eggs to protect them, for instance through chemical defense. In ladybirds egg alkaloids deter predators, including invasive predatory species of ladybirds, but conversely may attract cannibals who benefit from the consumption of eggs with higher alkaloid levels. Invasive predators tend to be more abundant where resources are also abundant, but in high resource environments the maternal fitness benefits of sibling cannibalism are low. Consequently this presents a conflict for female ladybirds between the different factors that influence egg alkaloid level, as protecting her eggs from predators might come with the cost of inadvertently encouraging within-clutch cannibalism under circumstances where it is not beneficial. We investigated how the ladybird Adalia bipunctata addresses this trade-off experimentally, by measuring the quantity of alkaloids in eggs laid by ladybirds in environments that differed in levels of resource availability and perceived predation risk from an invasive predator Harmonia axyridis. Females did lay eggs with higher egg alkaloid levels under poor resource conditions, but only when predator cues were absent. The resulting negative correlation between egg number and egg alkaloid level under poor resource conditions indicates a trade-off between these two attributes of maternal investment, mediated by female response to offspring predation risk. This implies that selection pressures on mothers to adaptively adjust the risk of siblicide may outweigh the need to protect offspring from interspecific predation. Our results demonstrate that maternal effects are an important aspect of species' responses to invasive predators, and highlight the value of studying maternal effects in the context of the multifaceted environments in

  14. Telenomus remus Nixon egg parasitization of three species of Spodoptera under different temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomari, A F; Bueno, A F; Bueno, R C O F; Menezes, A O

    2013-08-01

    Telenomus remus Nixon is a promising biocontrol agent as an egg parasitoid of Spodoptera spp., but the lack of information on the host-parasitoid interactions in this system precludes its applied use in agriculture. Therefore, we studied the parasitism capacity of T. remus on eggs of Spodoptera cosmioides (Walker), Spodoptera eridania (Cramer), and Spodoptera frugiperda (Smith) in a range of temperatures (19, 22, 25, 28, 31, and 34 ± 1°C) under controlled conditions (70 ± 10% RH and 12 h photophase). Egg masses of Spodoptera spp. were offered to a single-mated T. remus female on a daily basis. More than 80% lifetime parasitism on eggs of S. cosmioides, S. frugiperda, and S. eridania was reached from 1 to 5, 1 to 7, and 1 to 9 days, respectively, at temperatures from 19 to 34°C. More than 80% parasitization was obtained at extreme temperatures for all hosts studied. Lifetime parasitization of S. frugiperda, S. cosmioides, and S. eridania was affected by temperature, with the lowest values for S. frugiperda (34°C) and S. cosmioides (19 and 34°C). Parasitization of S. eridania eggs was reduced around 18% at 28 and 31°C, but dropped more severely at 34°C. Parasitoid longevity was reduced as temperature increased. Thus, our data indicated that T. remus might be suitable as a biocontrol agent against S. eridania, S. cosmioides, and S. frugiperda in geographical areas that fit the temperature range studied here, even though T. remus parasitism was reduced at 34°C.

  15. Mechanosensitive neurons on the internal reproductive tract contribute to egg-laying-induced acetic acid attraction in Drosophila

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gou, Bin; Liu, Ying; Guntur, Ananya R.; Stern, Ulrich; Yang, Chung-Hui

    2014-01-01

    Selecting a suitable site to deposit their eggs is an important reproductive need of Drosophila females. While their choosiness towards egg-laying sites is well documented, the specific neural mechanism that activates females’ search for attractive egg-laying sites is not known. Here we show that distention/contraction of females’ internal reproductive tract triggered by egg-delivery through the tract plays a critical role in activating such search. We found that females start to exhibit acetic acid attraction prior to depositing each egg but no attraction when they are not laying eggs. Artificially distending the reproductive tract triggers acetic acid attraction in non-egg-laying females whereas silencing the mechanosensitive neurons we identified that can sense the contractile status of the tract eliminates such attraction. Our work uncovers the circuit basis of an important reproductive need of Drosophila females and provides a simple model to dissect the neural mechanism that underlies a reproductive need-induced behavioral modification. PMID:25373900

  16. Eggs viability of Aedes aegypti Linnaeus (Diptera, Culicidae under different environmental and storage conditions in Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. C. Soares-Pinheiro

    Full Text Available Abstract The viability of Aedes aegypti eggs was assessed in the Amazon region. The eggs were maintained under different conditions: indoors (insectarium and outdoors (natural environment, as well as in different storage types (plastic cup, paper envelope, plastic bag for different days. Egg viability was measured as the mean of hatchings observed from egg-bearing sheets of filter paper immersed in water, using three sheets randomly selected from each storage type and at both sites. There were significant differences in the viability of Ae. aegypti eggs with respect to the location (F=30.40; DF=1; P<0.0001, storage type (F=17.66; DF=2; P<0.0001, and time of storage (F=49.56; DF=9; P<0.0001. The interaction between storage site versus storage type was also significant (F=15.96; DF=2; P<0.0001. A higher hatching mean was observed for the eggs kept in the insectarium than for those outdoors (32.38 versus 7.46. Hatching rates of egg batches stored for 12 to 61 days ranged between 84 and 90%. A reduction was observed between 89 and 118 days, with values of 63 and 48%, respectively. With respect to type of storage, mean egg hatching was higher for the eggs in plastic cups (44.46. It was concluded that the viability of the eggs of Ae. aegypti in the Amazon region remains high up to 4 months, after which it declines drastically, although in this study hatching occurred for up to 8 months in very low percentages.

  17. Effect of gluten, egg and soy proteins on the rheological and thermo-mechanical properties of wholegrain rice flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pătraşcu, Livia; Banu, Iuliana; Vasilean, Ina; Aprodu, Iuliana

    2017-03-01

    The effect of protein addition on the rheological, thermo-mechanical and baking properties of wholegrain rice flour was investigated. Gluten, powdered eggs and soy protein concentrate were first analyzed in terms of rheological properties, alone and in admixture with rice flour. The temperature ramp tests showed clear differences in the rheological behavior of the batters supplemented with different proteins. The highest thermal stability was observed in case of soy protein samples. Frequency sweep tests indicated significant improvements of the rheological properties of rice flour supplemented with 15% gluten or soy proteins. The thermo-mechanical tests showed that, due to the high fat contents and low level of free water, the dough samples containing powdered eggs exhibited the highest stability. Addition of gluten resulted in a significant decrease of the dough development time, whereas samples with powdered eggs and soy proteins were more difficult to hydrate. The incorporation of proteins into the rice flour-based dough formulations significantly affected starch behavior by decreasing the peak consistency values. Concerning the quality of the rice flour-based breads, soy protein addition resulted in lighter crumb color and increased texture attributes, samples with gluten had better resilience and adhesiveness, whereas breads with egg protein were less brittle.

  18. Assessing the impact of egg sweating on Salmonella Enteritidis penetration into shell eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gradl, Janet A; Curtis, Patricia A; Jones, Deana R; Anderson, Kenneth E

    2017-07-01

    Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) prevalence in eggs is a major concern to the egg industry. Some research has shown that egg sweating can increase Salmonella penetration into egg contents when refrigerated eggs are moved to a warmer temperature. This occurs when eggs are tempered before wash, to minimize thermal cracks. The effect of egg sweating on SE penetration into shell eggs over a 6 week storage period at 4°C was assessed. A 2 × 2 factorial of SE inoculation and egg sweating was utilized. Treatments included (SES) nalidixic acid (NA)-resistant SE inoculated and sweated, (SENS) NA-resistant SE inoculated and not sweated, (NSES) buffered peptone water (BPW) inoculated and sweated, and (NSENS) BPW inoculated and not sweated. Eggs were inoculated with 108 SE. Eggs formed condensation for approximately 17 min in a 32°C incubator. Shell rinse, shell emulsion, and egg contents were sampled then enumerated and assessed for prevalence of SE over a 6 wk storage period at 4°C. After wk 1, the SENS shell rinse had higher SE counts (0.32 log10 CFU/mL) than the other 3 treatments, where no SE was enumerated. A significant week by treatment interaction was found for the shell rinse SE detection (P egg shell rinse, shell emulsion, or egg contents. The SENS shell rinses had significantly higher SE prevalence than the SES rinses in weeks 1 (100% vs. 34.3%), 2 (57.6% vs. 22.2%), and 3 (38.2% vs. 11.1%) (P Egg sweating did not increase SE penetration into the shell emulsion across treatment or week (P egg sweating occurring under common US egg handling practices is not harmful to egg safety. © 2017 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  19. 7 CFR 57.800 - Identification of restricted eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Identification of restricted eggs. 57.800 Section 57... AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT (CONTINUED) INSPECTION OF EGGS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Regulations Governing the Inspection of Eggs...

  20. The structure and ultrastructure of the egg capsules of stoneflies of the genus Isoperla (Insecta, Plecoptera, Perlodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalik, Anna; Miliša, Marko; Michalik, Katarzyna; Rościszewska, Elżbieta

    2017-11-01

    The egg capsules of five systellognathan stoneflies species representing the genus Isoperla (Plecoptera, Perlodidae) have been investigated using light and electron microscopes (SEM and TEM). We consider the structural modifications of egg coverings (egg capsules, eggshells) like: a shape of a capsule, presence of structures fixing an egg to the substratum under water, intrachorionic aeropylar system facilitating gas exchange as a factor adapting an egg/embryo to the environment. The structures protecting eggs against desiccation during a female flight before oviposition into water as well as against the dangers of external mechanical injury caused by turbulences in rapid water currents of mountain streams are described and discussed. The ground plan of the egg capsule in arctoperlarian stoneflies is also discussed. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Parasitism capacity of Trichogramma pretiosum Riley (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) reared under different temperatures on Bonagota salubricola (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) eggs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pastori, Patrik L.; Monteiro, Lino B.; Botton, Marcos; Pratissoli, Dirceu

    2007-01-01

    The parasitism capacity of Trichogramma pretiosum Riley strain bonagota on Bonagota salubricola (Meyrick) eggs was studied under the temperatures of 18, 20, 22, 25, 28, 30 and 32 deg C. The number of days with parasitism, accumulated parasitism, total number of eggs parasitized per female and parasitoid longevity was evaluated. In the first 24h, parasitism ranged from 1.6 (32 deg C) to 8.8 (22 deg C) eggs of B. salubricola. Accumulated egg parasitism of B. salubricola reached 80% in 1st to 4th day at 20 deg C to 32 deg C, respectively, and in the 7th day at 18 deg C. Temperatures from 18 deg C to 22 deg C were the best suited for the total eggs parasitized for female, resulting in 35.4 and 24.6 eggs/male respectively. T. pretiosum female longevity ranged from 7.8 to 2.5 days, at 18 deg C and 32 deg C, respectively. The results showed that T. pretiosum strain bonagota is better adapted to temperatures from 18 deg C to 22 deg C. (author)

  2. Fertility and hatchability of Japanese quail eggs under semi arid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Some factors affecting the fertility and hatchability of Japanese quail eggs were studied at the Poultry Unit of the University of Maiduguri Livestock Teaching and Research Farm. A total of 1850 eggs were used for the study and data collected were subjected to Analysis of Variance. The mean values of fertility, hatchability of ...

  3. Maternal steroids and contaminants in common tern eggs: A mechanism of endocrine disruption?

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, J.B.; Nisbet, I.C.T.; Schwabl, H.

    2001-01-01

    We looked for evidence for the hypothesis that exposure of female birds to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) results in alteration of blood steroid hormone concentrations and alters subsequent hormone transfer of steroids to eggs. Eggs of three-egg clutches were collected from a PCB-exposed common tern (Sterna hirundo) colony (Ram Island, Buzzards Bay, MA, USA) and from a relatively clean colony (Bodkin Island, Chesapeake Bay, MD, USA), and were analyzed for concentrations of organochlorine contaminants and steroid hormones (17β-estradiol, 5α-dihydrotestosterone, testosterone and androstenedione). There was no relationship between total PCBs and steroid concentrations considering all eggs together, considering eggs of different laying order or considering differences between sequentially laid eggs in a clutch. Similarly, concentrations of di- and tri-chlorinated biphenyls and steroids in eggs were not related. The concentrations of PCBs, mercury and selenium were below estimated thresholds for toxicity to embryos. Maternal steroids, except estradiol, were present in yolk of all eggs, with increasing concentrations in the second and third eggs laid. Our data provided no evidence for a maternal toxicological event that might alter the amount of maternal steroid hormone transferred to eggs.

  4. Impact of egg disinfection of hatching eggs on the eggshell microbiome and bacterial load

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, R.; Kudirkiene, E.; Thofner, I.

    2017-01-01

    Disinfection of hatching eggs is essential to ensure high quality production of broilers. Different protocols are followed in different hatcheries; however, only limited scientific evidence on how the disinfection procedures impact the microbiome is available. The aim of the present study...... was to characterize the microbiome and aerobic bacterial load of hatching eggs before disinfection and during the subsequent disinfection steps. The study included a group of visibly clean and a group of visibly dirty eggs. For dirty eggs, an initial wash in chlorine was performed, hereafter all eggs were submitted...... to two times fumigation and finally spray disinfection. The eggshell microbiome was characterized by sequencing of the total amount of 16S rRNA extracted from each sample, consisting of shell surface swabs of five eggs from the same group. In addition, the number of colony forming units (cfu) under...

  5. Laying traits and underlying transcripts, expressed in the hypothalamus and pituitary gland, that were associated with egg production variability in chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chih-Feng; Shiue, Yow-Ling; Yen, Cheng-Ju; Tang, Pin-Chi; Chang, Hui-Chiu; Lee, Yen-Pai

    2007-12-01

    The objective was to characterize the potential laying traits and underlying transcripts expressed in the hypothalamus and pituitary gland that were associated with egg production variability in five genetic stocks of chickens: two commercial lines, Red- (n=12) and Black-feather (n=14) Taiwan country chickens (TCCs); two selected lines of TCCs, B (high body weight/comb size; n=17) and L2 (high-egg production; n=14); and a commercial single comb White Leghorn (WL; n=17). Six laying traits, age at first egg, clutch length, pause length, oviposition lag within clutch, follicle rapid growth period, and rate of yolk accumulation were measured. The significance of differential values among five chicken stocks and correlation coefficients between laying traits and number of eggs to 50 weeks of age or laying rate after first egg, and the expression level of 33 transcripts were determined. Longer clutch length and shorter oviposition lag within clutch contributed to a higher number of eggs to 50 weeks of age or laying rate after first egg in L2 (Pdifferent, indicating the accumulation of different alleles after long-term, independent selection. Across all five strains, numbers of eggs to 50 weeks of age were positive correlated with average clutch length (P<0.05) as well as the rate of yolk accumulation (P<0.05). Expressions of PLAG1, STMN2, PGDS, PARK7, ANP32A, PCDHA@, SCG2, BDH and SAR1A transcripts contributed to number of eggs to 50 weeks of age (P<0.05) or laying rate after first egg (P<0.05). Analysis of correlation coefficients indicated that PLAG1 additionally played roles in decreasing average pause length. Two transcripts, PRL and GARNL1, specifically contributed to number of eggs to 50 weeks of age or laying rate after first egg by reducing oviposition lag within clutch (P<0.05) and/or increasing average clutch length (P<0.05), respectively. Expression level of NCAM1, contributed to laying rate after first egg by association with a shorter oviposition lag within

  6. Physical properties evaluation of roselle extract-egg white mixture under various drying temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triyastuti, M. S.; Kumoro, A. C.; Djaeni, M.

    2017-03-01

    Roselle contains anthocyanin that is potential for food colorant. Occasionally, roselle extract is provided in dry powder prepared under high temperature. In this case, the anthocyanin color degrades due to the intervention of heat. The foammat drying with egg white is a potential method to speed up the drying process as well as minimize color degradation. This research aims to study the physical properties of roselle extract under foam mat drying. As indicators, the powder size and color intensity were observed. The result showed that at high temperatures, roselle powder under foam mat drying has the fine size with porous structure. However, at the higher the drying temperature the color retention decreased.

  7. Irradiation of shell egg on the physicochemical and functional properties of liquid egg white.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, B; Nam, K C; Jo, C; Ahn, D U

    2012-10-01

    This study was aimed at determining the effect of irradiation of shell eggs on the physiochemical and functional properties of liquid egg white during storage. Color and textural parameters of irradiated liquid egg white after cooking were also determined. Shell eggs were irradiated at 0, 2.5, 5, or 10 kGy using a linear accelerator. Egg white was separated from yolk and stored in at 4°C up to 14 d. Viscosity, pH, turbidity, foaming properties, color, and volatile profile of liquid egg white, and color and texture properties of cooked egg white were determined at 0, 7, and 14 d of storage. Irradiation increased the turbidity but decreased viscosity of liquid egg white. Foaming capacity and foam stability were not affected by irradiation at lower dose (2.5 kGy), but were deteriorated at higher doses (≥5.0 kGy) of irradiation. Sulfur-containing volatiles were generated by irradiation and their amounts increased as the irradiation dose increased. However, the sulfur volatiles disappeared during storage under aerobic conditions. Lightness (L* value) and yellowness (b* value) decreased, but greenness (-a* value) increased in cooked egg white in irradiation dose-dependent manners. All textural parameters (hardness, adhesiveness, cohesiveness, chewiness, and resilience) of cooked egg white increased as the irradiation dose increased, but those changes were marginal. Our results indicated that irradiation of shell egg at lower doses (up to 2.5 kGy) had little negative impact on the physiochemical and functional properties of liquid egg white, but can improve the efficiency of egg processing due to its viscosity-lowering effect. Therefore, irradiation of shell eggs at the lower doses has high potential to be used by the egg processing industry to improve the safety of liquid egg without compromising its quality.

  8. Non-transferable signals on ant queen eggs

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Ettorre, Patrizia; Tofilski, Adam; Heinze, Jürgen; Ratnieks, Francis L. W.

    2006-03-01

    How biological systems resolve internal conflicts is a major evolutionary question. Social insect workers cooperate but also pursue individual interests, such as laying male eggs. The rewards of this individual selfishness can be reduced by policing, such as by killing worker-laid eggs. However, selfish individuals may evade policing. What factors prevent individuals from being able to evade policing? In the ant Pachycondyla inversa, workers kill (police) worker-laid eggs. Because the colony keeps eggs in piles and worker-laid and queen-laid eggs are chemically distinct, worker-laid eggs might become more acceptable once placed in the egg pile by odour transfer from touching queen-laid eggs. Here, we show that such “cue scrambling” does not occur. Worker-laid eggs that were sandwiched between three queen-laid eggs for 45 min were not more acceptable in a policing bioassay than control worker-laid eggs. Chemical analyses also showed that the surface hydrocarbon profile of these eggs was unchanged. Policing, therefore, is stable against this potential cheating mechanism probably because queen-laid eggs are made chemically distinct using chemicals, that are not easily transferred by physical contact.

  9. 7 CFR 1250.306 - Commercial eggs or eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Commercial eggs or eggs. 1250.306 Section 1250.306... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Egg Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1250.306 Commercial eggs or eggs. Commercial eggs or eggs means...

  10. Factors affecting egg ratios in planktonic rotifers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sarma, S.S.S.; Gulati, R.D.; Nandini, S.

    2005-01-01

    Edmondson’s egg ratio (number of amictic eggs per female) is an important life history variable, which has been in wide use to understand and predict patterns of population growth in planktonic rotifers under field conditions. It is also useful as an indicator of the health of rotifers under culture

  11. Injury-induced rapid activation of MAPK signaling in dechorionated eggs and larvae of the silkworm Bombyx mori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Shi-Hong; Chen, Chien-Hung

    2017-04-01

    Previous study showed that diapause in Bombyx mori eggs can be terminated by dechorionation and that activation in the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) in dechorionated cultured eggs is involved in diapause termination. In the present study, the possible mechanism underlying activation of ERK upon dechorionation was further investigated. Results showed that mechanical injury of diapause eggs without medium incubation also resulted in rapid increase in the phospho-ERK levels and that injury increased the phospho-ERK levels at different stages of both diapause eggs and eggs in which diapause initiation was prevented by HCl. Effects of anaerobiosis on dechorionation-stimulated phospho-ERK levels showed that the mechanical injury itself but not the dramatic increase in oxygen uptake upon injury is involved in a rapid activation of ERK. Chemical anaerobiosis on dechorionation-stimulated phospho-ERK levels and the in vivo effect of anaerobiosis showed that the supply of oxygen also plays a role in ERK signaling. In addition, injury induced the phosphorylation of c-jun N-terminal kinases (JNKs) and p38 kinase, components of two parallel MAPK pathways. A kinase assay showed a dramatic increase in JNK kinase activity in egg lysates upon injury. When newly hatched first instar larvae were injured, an increase in the phospho-ERK levels similar to that in dechorionated eggs was observed. From the results, we hypothesize that the injury-induced rapid activation of MAPK signaling, which serves as a natural signal for embryonic development, is related to diapause termination in dechorionated eggs. © 2015 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  12. 7 CFR 57.700 - Prohibition on disposition of restricted eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Prohibition on disposition of restricted eggs. 57.700... AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT (CONTINUED) INSPECTION OF EGGS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Regulations Governing the Inspection of Eggs...

  13. 7 CFR 57.801 - Nest run or washed ungraded eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Nest run or washed ungraded eggs. 57.801 Section 57... AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT (CONTINUED) INSPECTION OF EGGS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Regulations Governing the Inspection of Eggs...

  14. It's what's inside that counts: egg contaminant concentrations are influenced by estimates of egg density, egg volume, and fresh egg mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzog, Mark P; Ackerman, Joshua T; Eagles-Smith, Collin A; Hartman, C Alex

    2016-05-01

    In egg contaminant studies, it is necessary to calculate egg contaminant concentrations on a fresh wet weight basis and this requires accurate estimates of egg density and egg volume. We show that the inclusion or exclusion of the eggshell can influence egg contaminant concentrations, and we provide estimates of egg density (both with and without the eggshell) and egg-shape coefficients (used to estimate egg volume from egg morphometrics) for American avocet (Recurvirostra americana), black-necked stilt (Himantopus mexicanus), and Forster's tern (Sterna forsteri). Egg densities (g/cm(3)) estimated for whole eggs (1.056 ± 0.003) were higher than egg densities estimated for egg contents (1.024 ± 0.001), and were 1.059 ± 0.001 and 1.025 ± 0.001 for avocets, 1.056 ± 0.001 and 1.023 ± 0.001 for stilts, and 1.053 ± 0.002 and 1.025 ± 0.002 for terns. The egg-shape coefficients for egg volume (K v ) and egg mass (K w ) also differed depending on whether the eggshell was included (K v  = 0.491 ± 0.001; K w  = 0.518 ± 0.001) or excluded (K v  = 0.493 ± 0.001; K w  = 0.505 ± 0.001), and varied among species. Although egg contaminant concentrations are rarely meant to include the eggshell, we show that the typical inclusion of the eggshell in egg density and egg volume estimates results in egg contaminant concentrations being underestimated by 6-13 %. Our results demonstrate that the inclusion of the eggshell significantly influences estimates of egg density, egg volume, and fresh egg mass, which leads to egg contaminant concentrations that are biased low. We suggest that egg contaminant concentrations be calculated on a fresh wet weight basis using only internal egg-content densities, volumes, and masses appropriate for the species. For the three waterbirds in our study, these corrected coefficients are 1.024 ± 0.001 for egg density, 0.493 ± 0.001 for K v , and 0.505 ± 0.001 for K w .

  15. Somatic insulin signaling regulates a germline starvation response in Drosophila egg chambers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burn, K. Mahala; Shimada, Yuko; Ayers, Kathleen; Lu, Feiyue; Hudson, Andrew M.; Cooley, Lynn

    2014-01-01

    Egg chambers from starved Drosophila females contain large aggregates of processing (P) bodies and cortically enriched microtubules. As this response to starvation is rapidly reversed upon re-feeding females or culturing egg chambers with exogenous bovine insulin, we examined the role of endogenous insulin signaling in mediating the starvation response. We found that systemic Drosophila insulin-like peptides (dILPs) activate the insulin pathway in follicle cells, which then regulate both microtubule and P body organization in the underlying germline cells. This organization is modulated by the motor proteins Dynein and Kinesin. Dynein activity is required for microtubule and P body organization during starvation, while Kinesin activity is required during nutrient-rich conditions. Blocking the ability of egg chambers to form P body aggregates in response to starvation correlated with reduced progeny survival. These data suggest a potential mechanism to maximize fecundity even during periods of poor nutrient availability, by mounting a protective response in immature egg chambers. PMID:25481758

  16. Irradiation of liquid egg, frozen egg, powdered egg, egg yolk and white of egg: reducing the population of Salmonella enteritidis and sensory aspects and physico-chemical

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Froehlich, Angela

    2004-01-01

    Eggs and their products have been incriminated in foodborne disease outbreaks due to Salmonella enteritidis contamination. Irradiation is a food preservation technology that could be applied to minimize the problem. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of irradiation in liquid and frozen egg as well as in powdered egg, egg yolk and egg white spiked with Salmonella enteritidis. Spiked samples of liquid egg, egg white and egg yolk were exposed to 0,5; 1,0; 1,5; 2,0; 2,5; 3,0 kGy and spiked samples of frozen and powdered egg were exposed to 0,5; 1,0; 1,5; 2,0; 2,5; 3,0; 3,5 e 4,0 kGy. Raw odour, cooked odour and taste of non inoculated and irradiated samples and non irradiated samples of egg and egg products were analysed by a trained penal. Viscosity and lipid oxidation (malonaldehyde concentration) were also determined. Doses of 2,0; 3,0; 3,5; 3,0 e 3,5 kGy reduced in 5 log the population of S. Enteritidis in liquid and frozen egg, powdered egg yolk, egg white and egg, respectively, with moderate alterations in relation to non irradiated samples detected by the trained penal. Viscosity and lipid oxidation in the powdered products, however, showed more intense alterations. Therefore, irradiation can be considered a feasible process for liquid and frozen egg while when applied to powdered products it should be considered the type of food product to which they will be added due to alterations in viscosity. (author)

  17. Radioprotective efficacy of serotonin and its analogues in the experiments with sea urchin eggs (Strongylocentrotus nudus)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parkhomenko, I.M.; Graevskaya, E.Eh.; Tarasenko, A.G.; Kudryashov, Yu.B.

    1975-01-01

    Serotonin and mexamine, added to cells before or after irradiation, were found to increase the survival rate of S. nudus eggs. Their analogues (6-oxytryptamine, 5-sulphamidotryptamine-2-carboxylic acid), which do not have a protective effect on mammals, increased the survival rate of irradiated eggs when used before and after irradiation. Histamine also had a protective action. The possible mechanism underlying the action of the amines used is discussed. (V.A.P.)

  18. Cortical mechanics and myosin-II abnormalities associated with post-ovulatory aging: implications for functional defects in aged eggs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackenzie, Amelia C.L.; Kyle, Diane D.; McGinnis, Lauren A.; Lee, Hyo J.; Aldana, Nathalia; Robinson, Douglas N.; Evans, Janice P.

    2016-01-01

    STUDY HYPOTHESIS Cellular aging of the egg following ovulation, also known as post-ovulatory aging, is associated with aberrant cortical mechanics and actomyosin cytoskeleton functions. STUDY FINDING Post-ovulatory aging is associated with dysfunction of non-muscle myosin-II, and pharmacologically induced myosin-II dysfunction produces some of the same deficiencies observed in aged eggs. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY Reproductive success is reduced with delayed fertilization and when copulation or insemination occurs at increased times after ovulation. Post-ovulatory aged eggs have several abnormalities in the plasma membrane and cortex, including reduced egg membrane receptivity to sperm, aberrant sperm-induced cortical remodeling and formation of fertilization cones at the site of sperm entry, and reduced ability to establish a membrane block to prevent polyspermic fertilization. STUDY DESIGN, SAMPLES/MATERIALS, METHODS Ovulated mouse eggs were collected at 21–22 h post-human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG) (aged eggs) or at 13–14 h post-hCG (young eggs), or young eggs were treated with the myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) inhibitor ML-7, to test the hypothesis that disruption of myosin-II function could mimic some of the effects of post-ovulatory aging. Eggs were subjected to various analyses. Cytoskeletal proteins in eggs and parthenogenesis were assessed using fluorescence microscopy, with further analysis of cytoskeletal proteins in immunoblotting experiments. Cortical tension was measured through micropipette aspiration assays. Egg membrane receptivity to sperm was assessed in in vitro fertilization (IVF) assays. Membrane topography was examined by low-vacuum scanning electron microscopy (SEM). MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE Aged eggs have decreased levels and abnormal localizations of phosphorylated myosin-II regulatory light chain (pMRLC; P = 0.0062). Cortical tension, which is mediated in part by myosin-II, is reduced in aged mouse eggs when compared with

  19. Reproductive broodstock performance and egg quality of wild-caught and first-generation domesticated Seriola rivoliana reared under same culture conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos F Quiñones-Arreola

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Almaco jack, Seriola rivoliana as well as some related species is of great interest in marine fish aquaculture. However, there are few studies about their reproduction in captivity. In this research work, reproductive performance and egg quality in two groups of adult Seriola rivoliana, caught in the wild and domesticated-F1 analyzed and compared, reared under optimal maturation conditions in a commercial private Laboratory. A total of 28 wild adult (>5 kg were caught at La Paz Bay, Baja California Sur, Mexico, and 30 adult domesticated-F1 broodstock (>5 kg, were obtained from an original stock of 1,000 juveniles (3.5 g body weight produced at Kona Blue (Hawaii, USA sea farm. Fishes were transported to the Rancheros del Mar commercial private hatchery, where they were grown to adult size. Both groups were evaluated during eight months (May to December 2012 and compared in terms of reproduction performance (total number of spawning events, monthly spawning frequency, total number of eggs, total number of eggs per mL, and fertilization rate, egg biochemical composition (total proteins, total lipids, total carbohydrates, and triacylglycerides and egg diameter. Results indicated that wild caught broostock showed a better reproductive performance in terms of fertilization rate, total number of spawning, monthly spawning frequency and total number of eggs produced. However, biochemical composition and egg diameter did not show statistical differences (P < 0.05 between two groups. The reproductive performance of broodstock and quality of eggs analyzed in this study are important traits to improve the aquaculture management of this species.

  20. Factors Affecting Microbial Contamination of Market Eggs: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svobodová J.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the review was to analyze the ways of microbial contamination, the protective mechanism of egg, and factors that affect the quantity of contamination and microbial penetration. Eggs can be contaminated during their formation in the infected reproductive organs of hens or after laying, when eggs are exposed to contaminated environment. The eggs are equipped against microbial contamination by several protective mechanisms comprising the presence of cuticle, eggshell, eggshell membranes, occurrence of some antibacterial proteins, and high pH value of albumen. There are several factors that affect the quantity of microbial contamination and penetration such as species of bacteria, the amount of microorganisms, storage conditions, quality of eggshell or number of pores.

  1. Effect of cadmium doses on chickens. 3. Long term influence of cadmium on feed consumption weight gain, egg performance and egg shell quality of laying hens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suelz, M; Hardebeck, H; Krampitz, G

    1974-01-01

    In long-lasting experiments the application of Cd resulted in a decreased state of health (nephritis) of hens. Feed consumption, weight gain and egg production were reduced. Egg shell quality was not changed under practical Cd-concentrations. Studies of the ultrastructure of egg shells of animals fed with Cd did not yield any hints of damages. The protein-profiles of egg shells revealed an additional component under Cd-application. 17 references, 2 figures, 2 tables.

  2. Effect of egg washing on the cuticle quality of brown and white table eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leleu, S; Messens, W; De Reu, K; De Preter, S; Herman, L; Heyndrickx, M; De Baerdemaeker, J; Michiels, C W; Bain, M

    2011-10-01

    Egg washing is currently not permitted within the European Union, with few exceptions. This is mainly because there are concerns that cuticle damage could occur during or after the washing process, as a result of a suboptimal operation. In this study, the cuticle coverage levels of 400 washed or unwashed eggs, derived from either a brown or a white egg-laying flock at the end of lay, were compared. The eggs from older hens inherently have poorer cuticle coverage and as a result arguably constitute a greater risk to consumer safety if they are then washed. Thus, the effects of the washing procedure used in this study on cuticle quality were tested under the worst-case scenario. A standard Swedish egg washing process was used. The cuticle coverage of the eggs was assessed by a colorimeter by quantifying the color difference before and after staining with Tartrazine and Green S. The cuticle of an additional 30 eggs from each of the four groups was then visually assessed by scanning electron microscopy. The staining characteristics of the cuticle varied greatly within each group of eggs and showed that the washing process did not lead to cuticle damage. Scanning electron microscopy confirmed that there was no irreversible damage to the cuticle of the washed eggs and that it was not possible to correctly assign the treatment (washed or not) based on a visual assessment. In conclusion, no evidence could be found to suggest that the washing procedure used in this investigation irreversibly changed the quality of the cuticle.

  3. Blue petrels recognize the odor of their egg.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leclaire, Sarah; Bourret, Vincent; Bonadonna, Francesco

    2017-09-01

    Most studies on avian olfactory communication have focused on mate choice, and the importance of olfaction in subsequent nesting stages has been poorly explored. In particular, the role of olfactory cues in egg recognition has received little attention, despite eggs potentially being spread with parental odorous secretions known to elicit individual discrimination. Here, we used behavioral choice tests to determine whether female blue petrels ( Halobaena caerulea ) can discriminate the odor of their own egg from the odor of a conspecific egg. Females preferentially approached the odor of their own egg, suggesting that blue petrels can recognize their own egg using odor cues. This finding raises the question of the adaptive value of this mechanism, and may inspire further research on odor-based egg discrimination in species suffering brood parasitism. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  4. A quantitative assessment method for Ascaris eggs on hands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeandron, Aurelie; Ensink, Jeroen H. J.; Thamsborg, Stig Milan

    2014-01-01

    The importance of hands in the transmission of soil transmitted helminths, especially Ascaris and Trichuris infections, is under-researched. This is partly because of the absence of a reliable method to quantify the number of eggs on hands. Therefore, the aim of this study was to develop a method...... to assess the number of Ascaris eggs on hands and determine the egg recovery rate of the method. Under laboratory conditions, hands were seeded with a known number of Ascaris eggs, air dried and washed in a plastic bag retaining the washing water, in order to determine recovery rates of eggs for four...... different detergents (cationic [benzethonium chloride 0.1% and cetylpyridinium chloride CPC 0.1%], anionic [7X 1% - quadrafos, glycol ether, and dioctyl sulfoccinate sodium salt] and non-ionic [Tween80 0.1% -polyethylene glycol sorbitan monooleate]) and two egg detection methods (McMaster technique...

  5. 7 CFR 57.950 - Labeling of containers of eggs for importation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Labeling of containers of eggs for importation. 57.950... AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT (CONTINUED) INSPECTION OF EGGS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Regulations Governing the Inspection of Eggs...

  6. Invertebrate predation on egg masses of the European cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis: An experimental approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Catarina P. P.; Fernández-Álvarez, Fernando Á.; Villanueva, Roger

    2018-01-01

    The eggs of the European cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis, develop attached to the seafloor in shallow water habitats and possess a relatively thick black capsule that protects them from the surrounding environment. Since embryological development may take several months, eggs are vulnerable to a variety of threats present in shallow waters, including predation. This study investigates predation of S. officinalis eggs by benthic invertebrates. Twenty-eight invertebrate species from 6 different phyla and with diverse feeding habits were tested as potential predators under laboratory conditions. We also investigated how the feeding traits of these species are related to the mechanical ability to break the egg capsule and prey upon cuttlefish embryos. Species that fed on cuttlefish eggs were the sea snail Bolinus brandaris, the crab Cancer pagurus, the hermit crab Dardanus arrosor, the lobster Homarus gammarus, the invasive blue crab Callinectes sapidus, the shrimp Squilla mantis, the sea urchins Echinus melo, Cidaris sp. and Paracentrotus lividus and the starfish Astropecten aranciacus. It is of note that C. sapidus is a potential predatory crab, which raises the concern that this invasive species may constitute a novel threat for cuttlefish eggs as more populations become established in NE Atlantic waters. Of the biological traits examined, prey capture tools in the tested species best explained the experimental feeding results, suggesting that predation of S. officinalis eggs was determined generally by a mechanical factor and highlighting the importance of the protective egg capsule against predators. However, chemosensory factors are likely to be implicated as well. Thus, this work contributes to the understanding of the ecology of early life stages of cuttlefish and the factors that can affect offspring survival and subsequently impact the recruitment of this species.

  7. MicroRNA-276 promotes egg-hatching synchrony by up-regulating brm in locusts

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jing; Chen, Qianquan; Wei, Yuanyuan; Jiang, Feng; Yang, Meiling; Hao, Shuguang; Guo, Xiaojiao; Chen, Dahua; Kang, Le

    2016-01-01

    Developmental synchrony, the basis of uniform swarming, migration, and sexual maturation, is an important strategy for social animals to adapt to variable environments. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying developmental synchrony are largely unexplored. The migratory locust exhibits polyphenism between gregarious and solitarious individuals, with the former displaying more synchronous sexual maturation and migration than the latter. Here, we found that the egg-hatching time of gregarious locusts was more uniform compared with solitarious locusts and that microRNA-276 (miR-276) was expressed significantly higher in both ovaries and eggs of gregarious locusts than in solitarious locusts. Interestingly, inhibiting miR-276 in gregarious females and overexpressing it in solitarious females, respectively, caused more heterochronic and synchronous hatching of progeny eggs. Moreover, miR-276 directly targeted a transcription coactivator gene, brahma (brm), resulting in its up-regulation. Knockdown of brm not only resulted in asynchronous egg hatching in gregarious locusts but also impaired the miR-276–induced synchronous egg hatching in solitarious locusts. Mechanistically, miR-276 mediated brm activation in a manner that depended on the secondary structure of brm, namely, a stem-loop around the binding site of miR-276. Collectively, our results unravel a mechanism by which miR-276 enhances brm expression to promote developmental synchrony and provide insight into regulation of developmental homeostasis and population sustaining that are closely related to biological synchrony. PMID:26729868

  8. A Method for Accelerating the Maturation of Toxocara cati Eggs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Sarkari

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: The effect of temperature and humidity on the maturation of Toxocara cati eggs in an in vitro system was investigated. Methods: Suspensions of Toxocara cati eggs, with 5% formalin/saline or 2.5% formalin/ringer were prepared and maintained at 37 °C under 40% humidity or at 25 °C under 98% humidity for 3 weeks for egg development. Results: The suspension sample mixed by 2.5% formalin/ringer and maintained at 25 ºC and 98% humidity could fully embryonated the eggs of Toxocara cati in 3 weeks. Conclusion: The main advantage of this method is the increase of recovery and also reducing of the eggs maturation time.

  9. TOXOCARA EGGS IN CHILDREN KINDERGARTENS IN TRI-CITY AREA AND EVALUATION OF INTERDEPENDENCE QUANTIFICATION OF INVASION WITH FREQUENCY OF ANTIBODIES INCIDENCE AMONG POPULATION UNDER STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Kotłowski

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to determine the prevalence of Toxocara canis/cati eggs in outdoor environment in selected places (sand-boxes, children playing areas etc and to make comparisons with serological data and questionnaires concerning children population living in areas around the places under study. Among 312 soil tested samples 3,5% contained Toxocara spp eggs – only during spring and early summer period. However number of Toxocara spp. eggs in outdoor environment in the area under study was lower in comparison with other places in Poland. A total number of 296 children was assessed – in 18 cases specific antibodies against Toxocara were detected (6,1%. Asymptomatic and covert toxocariosis were predominant.

  10. Calcium and Egg Activation in Drosophila

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartain, Caroline V.; Wolfner, Mariana F.

    2012-01-01

    Summary In many animals, a rise in intracellular calcium levels is the trigger for egg activation, the process by which an arrested mature oocyte transitions to prepare for embryogenesis. In nearly all animals studied to date, this calcium rise, and thus egg activation, is triggered by the fertilizing sperm. However in the insects that have been examined, fertilization is not necessary to activate their oocytes. Rather, these insects’ eggs activate as they transit through the female’s reproductive tract, regardless of male contribution. Recent studies in Drosophila have shown that egg activation nevertheless requires calcium and that the downstream events and molecules of egg activation are also conserved, despite the difference in initial trigger. Genetic studies have uncovered essential roles for the calcium-dependent enzyme calcineurin and its regulator calcipressin, and have hinted at roles for calmodulin, in Drosophila egg activation. Physiological and in vitro studies have led to a model in which mechanical forces that impact the Drosophila oocyte as it moves through the reproductive tract triggers the influx of calcium from the external environment, thereby initiating egg activation. Future research will aim to test this model, as well as to determine the spatiotemporal dynamics of cytoplasmic calcium flux and mode of signal propagation in this unique system. PMID:23218670

  11. Modeling winter moth Operophtera brumata egg phenology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salis, Lucia; Lof, Marjolein; Asch, van Margriet; Visser, Marcel E.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the relationship between an insect's developmental rate and temperature is crucial to forecast insect phenology under climate change. In the winter moth Operophtera brumata timing of egg-hatching has severe fitness consequences on growth and reproduction as egg-hatching has to match

  12. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN PROLACTIN HORMONE LEVEL, MOLTING AND DUCK EGG PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Susanti

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to obtain information on the mechanism of molting and the prolactin hormone levels affecting egg production. The study utilized AP (crossbred of Alabio ♂ with Peking ♀ and PA (crossbred of Peking ♂ and Alabio ♀ ducks with a total of 180 birds. The observed variables were the duration of cessation of egg production before and after molting, the prolactin hormone level in the period of molting, the egg production period before and after molting. The data was analyzed using ANOVA, regression and correlation. The results showed that AP crossbred had fewer molting (23.33% compared to PA (50.00%. The mechanism of molting is always preceded by cessation of egg production, molting and relaying. The prolactin hormone concentrations of AP and PA in the period before and after molting were significantly higher than in the period of molting. At the egg production period before molting, the prolactin hormone concentration of AP ducks was higher than the PA ducks. So that the egg production of AP before molting (0-16 weeks was higher than the PA. The egg production of AP was higher than PA, 256.66±6.00 vs 232.22±6.64 eggs for 48 weeks. So it can be concluded that the prolactin hormone affects the molting and egg production.

  13. Proteomics analysis of egg white proteins from different egg varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiapei; Liang, Yue; Omana, Dileep A; Kav, Nat N V; Wu, Jianping

    2012-01-11

    The market of specialty eggs, such as omega-3-enriched eggs, organic eggs, and free-range eggs, is continuously growing. The nutritional composition of egg yolk can be manipulated by feed diet; however, it is not known if there is any difference in the composition of egg white proteins among different egg varieties. The purpose of the study was to compare the egg white proteins among six different egg varieties using proteomics analysis. Egg white proteins were analyzed using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE), and 89 protein spots were subjected to LC-MS/MS. A total of 23 proteins, belonging to Gallus gallus , were identified from 72 detected protein spots. A quiescence-specific protein precursor in egg white was identified for the first time in this study. Significant differences in the abundant levels of 19 proteins (from 65 protein spots) were observed among six egg varieties. Four proteins, ovalbumin-related protein Y, cystatin, avidin, and albumin precursor, were not different among these six egg varieties. These findings suggest that the abundance, but not the composition, of egg white proteins varied among the egg varieties.

  14. Genetic characterization of egg weight, egg production and age at first egg in quails

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marubayashi Hidalgo, A.; Martins, E.N.; Santos, A.L.; Quadros, T.C.O.; Ton, A.P.S.; Teixeira, R.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this research was to estimate genetic parameters for the traits egg weight, egg production in 189 days and age at first egg in three laying quails and one meat line of quails. Data was analyzed by Bayesian procedures using Gibbs sampling. The heritability estimates for egg weight,

  15. Yolk concentrations of hormones and glucose and egg weight and egg dimensions in unincubated chicken eggs, in relation to egg sex and hen body weight

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aslam, M. Aamir; Hulst, Marcel; Hoving-Bolink, Rita A. H.; Smits, Mari A.; de Vries, Bonnie; Weites, Ilse; Groothuis, Ton G. G.; Woelders, Henri

    2013-01-01

    Birds can manipulate offspring sex ratio under natural and experimental conditions and maternal hormones have been shown to be involved in this process. Studies also provided evidence for the presence of sex specific concentrations of yolk hormones in avian eggs. These findings led to the suggestion

  16. Immunologic changes in children with egg allergy ingesting extensively heated egg.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemon-Mulé, Heather; Sampson, Hugh A; Sicherer, Scott H; Shreffler, Wayne G; Noone, Sally; Nowak-Wegrzyn, Anna

    2008-11-01

    Prior studies have suggested that heated egg might be tolerated by some children with egg allergy. We sought to confirm tolerance of heated egg in a subset of children with egg allergy, to evaluate clinical and immunologic predictors of heated egg tolerance, to characterize immunologic changes associated with continued ingestion of heated egg, and to determine whether a diet incorporating heated egg is well tolerated. Subjects with documented IgE-mediated egg allergy underwent physician-supervised oral food challenges to extensively heated egg (in the form of a muffin and a waffle), with tolerant subjects also undergoing regular egg challenges (in a form of scrambled egg or French toast). Heated egg-tolerant subjects incorporated heated egg into their diets. Skin prick test wheal diameters and egg white, ovalbumin, and ovomucoid IgE levels, as well as ovalbumin and ovomucoid IgG4 levels, were measured at baseline for all subjects and at 3, 6, and 12 months for those tolerant of heated egg. Sixty-four of 117 subjects tolerated heated egg, 23 tolerated regular egg, and 27 reacted to heated egg. Heated egg-reactive subjects had larger skin test wheals and greater egg white-specific, ovalbumin-specific, and ovomucoid-specific IgE levels compared with heated egg- and egg-tolerant subjects. Continued ingestion of heated egg was associated with decreased skin test wheal diameters and ovalbumin-specific IgE levels and increased ovalbumin-specific and ovomucoid-specific IgG4 levels. The majority of subjects with egg allergy were tolerant of heated egg. Continued ingestion of heated egg was well tolerated and associated with immunologic changes that paralleled the changes observed with the development of clinical tolerance to regular egg.

  17. Studies on the effectiveness of oral pellet vaccine in improving egg production and egg quality in desi chicken.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reetha, T Lurthu; Rajeswar, J Johnson; Harikrishnan, T J; Sukumar, K; Srinivasan, P; Kirubakaran, J John

    2016-08-01

    To study the effect of Newcastle disease (ND) oral pellet vaccine in egg production and egg quality in desi chicken. The study was conducted at Veterinary University Training and Research Centre, Tiruchirapalli, Tamil Nadu. A total of 48-day-old desi chicks obtained from a private hatchery in Namakkal, Tamil Nadu, were maintained under cage system of rearing up to 52 weeks of age as per standard management practices. All the 48 chicks were divided into six groups having eight chicks in each group were subjected to different treatment regimes. All the birds were challenged at 52 weeks of age with 0.5 ml dose of 10(4.0) egg infectious dose 50 virulent ND field virus. 10 eggs from each group were randomly collected during the last 3 days of 8 weeks interval period from 28 to 52 weeks of age and were used to measure the egg quality parameters. The production performance of each group was assessed at 4 weeks interval period from 25 to 52 weeks of age. In all the six treatment groups with respect to egg production, no significant difference (p≥0.05) was noticed from 25 to 52 weeks of age. Similarly, in egg weight, egg shape index and specific gravity, no significant difference (p≥0.05) was noticed from 28 to 52 weeks of age. From this study, it is concluded that the administration of ND oral pellet vaccine to desi chicken does not affect the egg production performance, egg weight, egg shape index, and specific gravity of egg.

  18. 9 CFR 590.905 - Importation of restricted eggs or eggs containing more restricted eggs than permitted in the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Importation of restricted eggs or eggs containing more restricted eggs than permitted in the official standards for U.S. Consumer Grade B. 590.905... EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Imports...

  19. Producing and marketing a specialty egg.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michella, S M; Slaugh, B T

    2000-07-01

    Eggland's Best, Inc. markets premium quality shell eggs under the Eggland's Best (EB) brand name. The company, started in 1988, is comprised of a franchise network of established egg producers and covers most of the United States. Eggland's Best provides its franchisees with marketing and technical support. The franchisees produce, process, and distribute EB eggs according to the strict program established and monitored by EB. Production follows the all-natural vegetarian feed program in accordance with the company's US patent entitled "Eggs Compatible with a Cholesterol Reducing Diet and Method of Producing the Same." The EB program excludes animal fat and other animal byproducts. Eggland's Best eggs have seven times the generic level of vitamin E, nearly three times more omega-3 fatty acids and iodine, and 25% less saturated fat than regular generic eggs. Eggland's Best has one of the finest shell egg quality assurance programs anywhere. Eggland's Best franchisees submit weekly egg samples that are analyzed for shell quality, interior quality, vitamin E, iodine, cholesterol and fatty acids. Samples of feed and the EB-patented feed supplement are also analyzed. Approximately 28,000 total laboratory tests are conducted annually. Nationwide product and display retail evaluations are contracted through an outside audit company (40 to 50 cities evaluated four times per year). All EB eggs are USDA graded according to EB's strict quality standards. Producers must follow a food safety quality assurance program (United Egg Producers Association 5-Star or equivalent state or company program). Each egg is stamped "EB" as assurance of meeting EB's highest standards of flavor, quality, and nutrition. Eggland's Best has enjoyed record sales growth for the past 3 yr.

  20. Interspecific interaction between Telenomus remus (Hymenoptera: Platygastridae) and Trichogramma pretiosum (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) on Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carneiro, Tatiana R; Fernandes, Odair A

    2012-12-01

    This work aims to evaluate the interspecific interaction between Trichogramma pretiosum and Telenomus remus, two biological control agents of fall armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda) eggs. Eggs of Spodoptera frugiperda previously parasitized by Telenomus remus were offered to Trichogramma pretiosum, and those parasitized by Trichogramma pretiosum were offered to Telenomus remus. The previously parasitized eggs were tested at different embryonic development stages for each parasitoid. In addition, to evaluate the competition between species, Spodoptera frugiperda eggs were offered to the parasitoids simultaneously. The behavior of the insects was recorded under a stereomicroscope. When Spodoptera frugiperda eggs were previously exposed to either parasitoid, there was no emergence of the other parasitoid. When the Telenomus remus and Trichogramma pretiosum females were placed together with Spodoptera frugiperda eggs, Telenomus remus had a greater parasitism rate. Except searching time, all Trichogramma pretiosum behaviors took a longer time than Telenomus remus behaviors. Thus, despite belonging to different families, each of these parasitoids is able to recognize host eggs previously parasitized by the other. So, this suggests that the recognition mechanism involved is not exclusively specific.

  1. Radiometric measuring method for egg shells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forberg, S; Svaerdstroem, K

    1973-02-01

    A description is given of a fast nondestructive radiometric method for registration of the thickness of egg shells of the tawny owl, hen, osprey, and Canada goose. Certain errors are discussed. Measurement of the thickness of egg shells (mineral content per cm/sup 2/) with an accuracy better than 1% is possible in less than one minute under field conditions. (auth)

  2. Egg Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Egg Allergy KidsHealth / For Teens / Egg Allergy What's in ... but it's worth it. What Happens With an Egg Allergy? Eggs aren't bad. But when you' ...

  3. 7 CFR 56.37 - Lot marking of officially identified shell eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Lot marking of officially identified shell eggs. 56.37... AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT (CONTINUED) VOLUNTARY GRADING OF SHELL EGGS Grading of Shell Eggs Identifying and Marking Products § 56.37...

  4. Calanus finmarchicus egg production at its northern border

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Eva Friis; Bohr, Magnus; Kjellerup, Sanne

    2016-01-01

    How the distribution of Calanus finmarchicus and its potential northward expansion will be affected by climate changes depends on the mechanisms and processes constraining their reproduction, recruitment and survival. Here we present measurements of C. finmarchicus egg production rates during...... the spring bloom in 2008, 2010 and 2011 in Disko Bay, West Greenland and validate four independently derived metabolic models to predict egg production rates. The spring bloom in 2008 was short and intense and supported lower cumulated specific egg production of C. finmarchicus than the longer blooms...... with lower peak biomass in 2011 and 2012. The models predicted different timing of initialization and development of egg production rates based on phytoplankton biomass and temperature and model performance varied from ‘poor’ to ‘very good’. Phytoplankton biomass controlled the changes in egg production...

  5. 7 CFR 57.840 - Identification of inedible, unwholesome, or adulterated egg products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... adulterated egg products. 57.840 Section 57.840 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture... AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT (CONTINUED) INSPECTION OF EGGS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Regulations Governing...

  6. Animal egg as evolutionary innovation: a solution to the "embryonic hourglass" puzzle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Stuart A

    2011-11-15

    The evolutionary origin of the egg stage of animal development presents several difficulties for conventional developmental and evolutionary narratives. If the egg's internal organization represents a template for key features of the developed organism, why can taxa within a given phylum exhibit very different egg types, pass through a common intermediate morphology (the so-called "phylotypic stage"), only to diverge again, thus exemplifying the embryonic "hourglass"? Moreover, if different egg types typically represent adaptations to different environmental conditions, why do birds and mammals, for example, have such vastly different eggs with respect to size, shape, and postfertilization dynamics, whereas all these features are more similar for ascidians and mammals? Here, I consider the possibility that different body plans had their origin in self-organizing physical processes in ancient clusters of cells, and suggest that eggs represented a set of independent evolutionary innovations subsequently inserted into the developmental trajectories of such aggregates. I first describe how "dynamical patterning modules" (DPMs) associations between components of the metazoan developmental-genetic toolkit and certain physical processes and effects may have organized primitive animal body plans independently of an egg stage. Next, I describe how adaptive specialization of cells released from such aggregates could have become "proto-eggs," which regenerated the parental cell clusters by cleavage, conserving the characteristic DPMs available to a lineage. Then, I show how known processes of cytoplasmic reorganization following fertilization are often based on spontaneous, self-organizing physical effects ("egg-patterning processes": EPPs). I suggest that rather than acting as developmental blueprints or prepatterns, the EPPs refine the phylotypic body plans determined by the DPMs by setting the boundary and initial conditions under which these multicellular patterning

  7. Studies on the effectiveness of oral pellet vaccine in improving egg production and egg quality in desi chicken

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Lurthu Reetha

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To study the effect of Newcastle disease (ND oral pellet vaccine in egg production and egg quality in desi chicken. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted at Veterinary University Training and Research Centre, Tiruchirapalli, Tamil Nadu. A total of 48-day-old desi chicks obtained from a private hatchery in Namakkal, Tamil Nadu, were maintained under cage system of rearing up to 52 weeks of age as per standard management practices. All the 48 chicks were divided into six groups having eight chicks in each group were subjected to different treatment regimes. All the birds were challenged at 52 weeks of age with 0.5 ml dose of 104.0 egg infectious dose 50 virulent ND field virus. 10 eggs from each group were randomly collected during the last 3 days of 8 weeks interval period from 28 to 52 weeks of age and were used to measure the egg quality parameters. The production performance of each group was assessed at 4 weeks interval period from 25 to 52 weeks of age. Results: In all the six treatment groups with respect to egg production, no significant difference (p≥0.05 was noticed from 25 to 52 weeks of age. Similarly, in egg weight, egg shape index and specific gravity, no significant difference (p≥0.05 was noticed from 28 to 52 weeks of age. Conclusion: From this study, it is concluded that the administration of ND oral pellet vaccine to desi chicken does not affect the egg production performance, egg weight, egg shape index, and specific gravity of egg.

  8. [Preservation of live eggs of Schistosoma japonicum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Wei-ming; Xie, Shu-ying; Wang, Qin; Jiang, Wei-sheng; Hu, Ren-mei; Ge, Jun; Zeng, Xiao-jun

    2015-10-01

    To observe the preservation time and activity of miracidium hatching from schistosome eggs preserved in different solutions, so as to obtain the optimal preservation conditions and then provide quality control products for field application. The rectum stool of rabbits infected with Schistosoma japonicum was collected and the coarse fecal residue was removed with a series of sample sieves of 80, 100, 160 and 200 meshes respectively, and then the schistosome eggs were concentrated with the sample sieve of 260 meshes. The concentrated eggs were preserved in 0.9% sodium chloride solution, 1.2% sodium chloride solution, phosphate buffered saline solution (PBS, PH 7.2), 1.0% sucrose solution, and Mili-Q water, respectively, and then were conserved in a 4 °C refrigerator and 15 °C constant temperature incubator, respectively. The preserved eggs were hatched in different time (7-day interval) , the vitality and quantity of the miracidia were observed, and the hatching rates were calculated. Under the condition of 4 °C, the hatching rates of eggs dropped to 0 in 1.0% sucrose solution and 1.2% sodium chloride solution at the 49th and 126th day, respectively, and the hatching rates of eggs in the 0.9% sodium chloride solution and PBS solution dropped to 10% at the 112th day, and the activity of miracidium was weakened since 140th. In the Mili-Q water, the hatching rate dropped less than 10% at the 196th day and the activity of miracidia was weakened since the 280th day. Under the condition of 15 °C, the hatching rate of eggs in different solutions gradually dropped to 0 from the 49th day to 105th day. The eggs preserved in Mili-Q water at the temperature of 4 °C can be used as the positive reference for hatching tests within 196 days.

  9. Aluminum ''egg-box'' panel as an energy absorber for pedestrian protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nowpada, Sravanthi; Chirwa, Efford C.; Myler, Peter; Matsika, Emmanuel [Bolton Automotive and Aerospace Research Group (BAARG), School of Built Environment and Engineering, University of Bolton (United Kingdom)

    2010-07-15

    This paper evaluates the quasi-static performance of lightweight aluminum ''egg-box'' panels which have an improved architecture specifically designed to increase the energy absorption capability. In its entirety, the egg-box panel structure investigated herein is made up of arrays of positive and negative frusta. To understand the collapse mechanism and the factors influencing the energy absorption thereof, compressive tests were conducted under similar test conditions on two single frusta, one constrained in situ and the other separated from the egg-box panel exposing the free-free edges. Their load-displacement histories show characteristics that are similar, with a rise in load to a point where they plateau at a steady state load for the entire collapse time. But the energy absorbed by the in situ constrained frustum is 80% greater than that separated from the egg-box panel with free-free edges. (Abstract Copyright [2010], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  10. 7 CFR 57.905 - Importation of restricted eggs or eggs containing more restricted eggs than permitted in the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Importation of restricted eggs or eggs containing more restricted eggs than permitted in the official standards for U.S. Consumer Grade B. 57.905 Section 57.905... AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT (CONTINUED) INSPECTION OF EGGS (EGG...

  11. Er konsum av melk og egg assosiert med risiko for kreft? Foreløpige resultater fra en prospektiv undersøkelse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grethe Albrektsen

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available  SAMMENDRAGSammenhenger mellom kreftinsidens og konsum av egg og melk er studert i en prospektiv undersøkelse avca. 50 000 personer i alderen 30-69 år. Kostholdsdataene ble samlet inn i forbindelse med andre runde avhjerte- og karundersøkelsene som ble gjennomført av Statens helseundersøkelser i Finnmark, Sogn ogFjordane og Oppland i perioden 1977-83. Gjennomsnittlig oppfølgingstid var 11,8 år. Omlag 2000 personerfikk en kreftdiagnose i løpet av oppfølgingsperioden. Insidensrate-ratioer er beregnet i en log-lineærPoissonregresjon basert på personår under risiko. Vi fant ingen sammenheng mellom total kreftinsidens ogkonsum av melk (glass pr. dag eller egg (antall pr. uke, men for spesifikke krefttyper observerte vi enkelteassosiasjoner. Det arbeides nå med mer detaljerte analyser og med internasjonal publisering av resultatene.Albrektsen G, Heuch I, Jacobsen BK, Kvåle G. Is milk and egg consumption associated with cancerrisk? Preliminary results from a prospective study. Nor J Epidemiol 1997; 7 (2: 205-208.ENGLISH SUMMARYAssociations between cancer incidence and consumption of milk and eggs were examined in a prospectivestudy of about 50,000 persons aged 30-69 years. The mean follow-up period was 11.8 years. About 2000persons were diagnosed with cancer during follow-up. Incidence rate ratios were calculated in a log-linearPoisson regression model of person-years at risk. No relations were found between overall cancer incidenceand consumption of milk (glasses per day or eggs (number per week, but some associations were observedfor specific sites. The analysis of the data is in progress and the results presented are preliminary.

  12. Dealing with multicollinearity in predicting egg components from egg weight and egg dimension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarek M. Shafey

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Measurements of 174 eggs from meat-type breeder flock (Ross at 36 weeks of age were used to study the problem of multicollinearity (MC instability in the estimation of egg components of yolk weight (YKWT, albumen weight (ALBWT and eggshell weight (SHWT. Egg weight (EGWT, egg shape index (ESI=egg width (EGWD*100/egg length (EGL and their interaction (EGWTESI were used in the context of un-centred vs centred data and principal components regression (PCR models. The pairwise phenotypic correlations, variance inflation factor (VIF, eigenvalues, condition index (CI, and variance proportions were examined. Egg weight had positive correlations with EGWD and EGL (r=0.56 and 0.50, respectively; P<0.0001 and EGL had a negative correlation with ESI (r=-0.79; P<0.0001. The highest correlation was observed between EGWT and ALBWT (r=0.94; P<0.0001, while the lowest was between EGWD and SHWT (r=0.33; P<0.0001. Multicollinearity problems were found in EGWT, ESI and their interaction as shown by VIF (>10, eigenvalues (near zero, CI (>30 and high corresponding proportions of variance of EGWT, ESI and EGWTESI with respect to EGWTESI. Results from this study suggest that mean centring and PCR were appropriate to overcome the MC instability in the estimation of egg components from EGWT and ESI. These methods improved the meaning of intercept values and produced much lower standard error values for regression coefficients than those from un-centred data.

  13. The Insect Growth Regulator Pyriproxyfen Terminates Egg Diapause in the Asian Tiger Mosquito, Aedes albopictus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devi S Suman

    Full Text Available The Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus, is a highly invasive mosquito species that transmits chikungunya and dengue. This species overwinters as diapausing eggs in temperate climates. Early diapause termination may be a beneficial strategy for winter mosquito control; however, a mechanism to terminate the diapause process using chemicals is not known. We tested the hypothesis that a hormonal imbalance caused by the administration of juvenile hormone analog would terminate egg diapause in A. albopictus. We tested the insect growth regulator pyriproxyfen on all developmental stages to identify a susceptible stage for diapause termination. We found that pyriproxyfen treatment of mosquito eggs terminated embryonic diapause. The highest rates of diapause termination were recorded in newly deposited (78.9% and fully embryonated (74.7% eggs at 0.1 and 1 ppm, respectively. Hatching was completed earlier in newly deposited eggs (25-30 days compared to fully embryonated eggs (71-80 days. The combined mortality from premature diapause termination and ovicidal activity was 98.2% in newly deposited and >98.9% in fully embryonated eggs at 1 ppm. The control diapause eggs did not hatch under diapausing conditions. Pyriproxyfen exposure to larvae, pupae and adults did not prevent the females from ovipositing diapausing eggs. There was no effect of pyriproxyfen on diapausing egg embryonic developmental time. We also observed mortality in diapausing eggs laid by females exposed to pyriproxyfen immediately after blood feeding. There was no mortality in eggs laid by females that survived larval and pupal exposures. In conclusion, diapausing eggs were the more susceptible to pyriproxyfen diapause termination compared to other life stages. This is the first report of diapause termination in A. albopictus with a juvenile hormone analog. We believe our findings will be useful in developing a new control strategy against overwintering mosquito populations.

  14. Rate of egg maturation in marine turtles exhibits 'universal temperature dependence'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Sam B; Blount, Jonathan D; Godley, Brendan J; Witt, Matthew J; Broderick, Annette C

    2011-09-01

    1. The metabolic theory of ecology (MTE) predicts that, after correcting for body mass variation among organisms, the rates of most biological processes will vary as a universal function of temperature. However, empirical support for 'universal temperature dependence' (UTD) is currently equivocal and based on studies of a limited number of traits. 2. In many ectothermic animals, the rate at which females produce mature eggs is temperature dependent and may be an important factor in determining the costs of reproduction. 3. We tested whether the rate of egg maturation in marine turtles varies with environmental temperature as predicted by MTE, using the time separating successive clutches of individual females to estimate the rate at which eggs are formed. We also assessed the phenotypic contribution to this rate, by using radio telemetry to make repeated measurements of interclutch intervals for individual green turtles (Chelonia mydas). 4. Rates of egg maturation increased with seasonally increasing water temperatures in radio-tracked green turtles, but were not repeatable for individual females, and did not vary according to maternal body size or reproductive investment (number and size of eggs produced). 5. Using a collated data set from several different populations and species of marine turtles, we then show that a single relationship with water temperature explains most of the variation in egg maturation rates, with a slope that is statistically indistinguishable from the UTD predicted by MTE. However, several alternative statistical models also described the relationship between temperature and egg maturation rates equally parsimoniously. 6. Our results offer novel support for the MTE's predicted UTD of biological rates, although the underlying mechanisms require further study. The strong temperature dependence of egg maturation combined with the apparently weak phenotypic contribution to this rate has interesting behavioural implications in ectothermic

  15. Phenotypic correlations between egg weight and some egg quality ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eggs were examined for both internal and external egg quality traits.Data obtained were subjected to one-way analysis of variance using the general linear procedure of SAS (2012). Differences in means were ranked using the Duncan's multiple Range test. Phenotypic correlations between egg weight and other egg quality ...

  16. INVESTIGATIONS ON THE NATURAL EGG LAYING HABITS OF DOMESTIC GEESE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Pandur

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study was based on the examination of the natural egg laying habits of domestic geese. The authors studied Grey Landes geese during the summer laying period. On the day of arrival of the birds a TyniTalk II artificial egg was placed in each nest. These eggs contain a microchip which detects and records data on the temperature of the surroundings. The results obtained demonstrate that after laying a certain number of eggs females laying under natural conditions sit on the nest not only when laying new eggs, but also to warm the eggs in it. The time devoted to warming increases with the laying period.

  17. Egg temperature and embryonic metabolism of A- and B-eggs of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Macaroni and rockhopper penguins lay two eggs but rear only one chick to independence. The eggs are markedly dimorphic in size and, although the smaller A-egg is laid several days before the B-egg, in nests where both eggs are incubated, the B-egg always hatches first. Incubation temperatures and embryonic oxygen ...

  18. Effect of Egg Orientation on Malposition in Hatching Eggs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İsmail Durmuş

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This research was conducted to determine the effects of orientation in the hatching eggs on hatching results and position disorders, so the eggs were placed in incubator for 3 groups as orientation of normal, horizontal and small end up. In this study, 1680 hatching eggs were divided into 3 groups with 7 replicates of 80 eggs in each. Hatchability of fertile eggs, malformation ratio, malposition ratio, weight loss ratio, chick quality, embryo death ratios in the early, middle and late stage of embriogenesis and mortality ratio were investigated in this research. There were significant differences among the groups in terms of egg weight loss ratio, embryo death in the late stage of embriogenesis, malposition ratio, hatching rate , whereas no significant differences among the groups in respect to malformation ratio, chick quality, embryo death in early and late embriogenesis. It was determined that the late embrionic mortality increased because of the position errors in case of hatching eggs orientation and the head of the embryo in small end up of eggs.

  19. Inactivation of viable Ascaris eggs by reagents during enumeration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, K L; Darby, J L

    2001-12-01

    Various reagents commonly used to enumerate viable helminth eggs from wastewater and sludge were evaluated for their potential to inactivate Ascaris eggs under typical laboratory conditions. Two methods were used to enumerate indigenous Ascaris eggs from sludge samples. All steps in the methods were the same except that in method I a phase extraction step with acid-alcohol (35% ethanol in 0.1 N H(2)SO(4)) and diethyl ether was used whereas in method II the extraction step was avoided by pouring the sample through a 38-microm-mesh stainless steel sieve that retained the eggs. The concentration of eggs and their viability were lower in the samples processed by method I than in the samples processed by method II by an average of 48 and 70%, respectively. A second set of experiments was performed using pure solutions of Ascaris suum eggs to elucidate the effect of the individual reagents and relevant combination of reagents on the eggs. The percentages of viable eggs in samples treated with acid-alcohol alone and in combination with diethyl ether or ethyl acetate were 52, 27, and 4%, respectively, whereas in the rest of the samples the viability was about 80%. Neither the acid nor the diethyl ether alone caused any decrease in egg viability. Thus, the observed inactivation was attributed primarily to the 35% ethanol content of the acid-alcohol solution. Inactivation of the eggs was prevented by limiting the direct exposure to the extraction reagents to 30 min and diluting the residual concentration of acid-alcohol in the sample by a factor of 100 before incubation. Also, the viability of the eggs was maintained if the acid-alcohol solution was replaced with an acetoacetic buffer. None of the reagents used for the flotation step of the sample cleaning procedure (ZnSO(4), MgSO(4), and NaCl) or during incubation (0.1 N H(2)SO(4) and 0.5% formalin) inactivated the Ascaris eggs under the conditions studied.

  20. Egg laying sequence influences egg mercury concentrations and egg size in three bird species: Implications for contaminant monitoring programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerman, Joshua T.; Eagles-Smith, Collin A.; Herzog, Mark P.; Yee, Julie L.; Hartman, C. Alex

    2016-01-01

    Bird eggs are commonly used in contaminant monitoring programs and toxicological risk assessments, but intra-clutch variation and sampling methodology could influence interpretability. We examined the influence of egg laying sequence on egg mercury concentrations and burdens in American avocets, black-necked stilts, and Forster's terns. The average decline in mercury concentrations between the first and last egg laid was 33% for stilts, 22% for terns, and 11% for avocets, and most of this decline occurred between the first and second eggs laid (24% for stilts, 18% for terns, and 9% for avocets). Trends in egg size with egg laying order were inconsistent among species and overall differences in egg volume, mass, length, and width were mercury concentrations generally declined by 16% between the first and second eggs laid. Despite the strong effect of egg laying sequence, most of the variance in egg mercury concentrations still occurred among clutches (75%-91%) rather than within clutches (9%-25%). Using simulations, we determined that to accurately estimate a population's mean egg mercury concentration using only a single random egg from a subset of nests, it would require sampling >60 nests to represent a large population (10% accuracy) or ≥14 nests to represent a small colony that contained <100 nests (20% accuracy).

  1. The role of egg-nest contrast in the rejection of brood parasitic eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aidala, Zachary; Croston, Rebecca; Schwartz, Jessica; Tong, Lainga; Hauber, Mark E

    2015-04-15

    Hosts of avian brood parasites can avoid the reproductive costs of raising genetically unrelated offspring by rejecting parasitic eggs. The perceptual cues and controls mediating parasitic egg discrimination and ejection are well studied: hosts are thought to use differences in egg color, brightness, maculation, size and shape to discriminate between their own and foreign eggs. Most theories of brood parasitism implicitly assume that the primary criteria to which hosts attend when discriminating eggs are differences between the eggs themselves. However, this assumption is confounded by the degree to which chromatic and achromatic characteristics of the nest lining co-vary with egg coloration, so that egg-nest contrast per se might be the recognition cue driving parasitic egg detection. Here, we systematically tested whether and how egg-nest contrast itself contributes to foreign egg discrimination. In an artificial parasitism experiment, we independently manipulated egg color and nest lining color of the egg-ejector American robin (Turdus migratorius), a host of the obligate brood parasitic brown-headed cowbird (Molothrus ater). We hypothesized that the degree of contrast between foreign eggs and the nest background would affect host egg rejection behavior. We predicted that experimentally decreasing egg-nest chromatic and achromatic contrast (i.e. rendering parasitic eggs more cryptic against the nest lining) would decrease rejection rates, while increasing egg-nest contrast would increase rejection rates. In contrast to our predictions, egg-nest contrast was not a significant predictor of egg ejection patterns. Instead, egg color significantly predicted responses to parasitism. We conclude that egg-egg differences are the primary drivers of egg rejection in this system. Future studies should test for the effects of egg-nest contrast per se in predicting parasitic egg recognition in other host-parasite systems, including those hosts building enclosed nests and

  2. Ostrich eggs geometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šárka Nedomová

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Precise quantification of the profile of egg can provide a powerful tool for the analysis of egg shape for various biological problems. A new approach to the geometry of a Ostrich’s egg profile is presented here using an analysing the egg’s digital photo by edge detection techniques. The obtained points on the eggshell counter are fitted by the Fourier series. The obtained equations describing an egg profile have been used to calculate radii of curvature. The radii of the curvature at the important point of the egg profile (sharp end, blunt end and maximum thickness are independent on the egg shape index. The exact values of the egg surface and the egg volume have been obtained. These quantities are also independent on the egg shape index. These quantities can be successively estimated on the basis of simplified equations which are expressed in terms of the egg length, L¸ and its width, B. The surface area of the eggshells also exhibits good correlation with the egg long circumference length. Some limitations of the most used procedures have been also shown.

  3. Becoming a morther by non-anonymous egg donation: secrecy and the relationship between egg recipient, egg donor and egg donation child

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berkel, D.A.M. van; Candido, A.; Pijffers, W.H.

    The object of the study was to investigate secrecy in non-anonymous egg donation, to explore some characteristics of this kind of egg donation arrangement and the relationship of the recipient with her non-genetic child. Forty-four egg recipients and 62 IVF patients with a child conceived through

  4. 9 CFR 590.410 - Shell eggs and egg products required to be labeled.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Shell eggs and egg products required..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Identifying and Marking Product § 590.410 Shell eggs and egg products required to be labeled...

  5. 7 CFR 57.45 - Prohibition on eggs not intended for use as human food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Prohibition on eggs not intended for use as human food...) REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT (CONTINUED) INSPECTION OF EGGS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Regulations Governing the Inspection of Eggs...

  6. Medical and social egg freezing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lallemant, Camille; Vassard, Ditte; Andersen, Anders Nyboe

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Until recently, limited options for preserving fertility in order to delay childbearing were available. Although egg freezing and successful thawing is now possible, it remains unclear to what extent women are aware of the availability of this technique, their attitudes towards its...... use, or the circumstances under which this technique may be considered. MATERIAL AND METHODS: An online cross-sectional survey was designed to investigate knowledge and attitudes of women in Denmark and the UK on egg freezing and their potential intentions regarding the procedure. RESULTS: Data...... was collected from September 2012 to September 2013 and the responses of 973 women were analyzed. In total, 83% of women reported having heard of egg freezing, and nearly all considered it acceptable for medical indications, whilst 89% considered it acceptable for social reasons. Overall, 19% expressed active...

  7. Regulation of egg quality and lipids metabolism by Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yong; Li, Lan; Zhang, Peng-Fei; Liu, Xin-Qi; Zhang, Wei-Dong; Ding, Zhao-Peng; Wang, Shi-Wen; Shen, Wei; Min, Ling-Jiang; Hao, Zhi-Hui

    2016-04-01

    This investigation was designed to explore the effects of Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles (ZnO NP) on egg quality and the mechanism of decreasing of yolk lipids. Different concentration of ZnO NP and ZnSO4 were used to treat hens for 24 weeks. The body weight and egg laying frequency were recorded and analyzed. Albumen height, Haugh unit, and yolk color score were analyzed by an Egg Multi Tester. Breaking strength was determined by an Egg Force Reader. Egg shell thickness was measured using an Egg Shell Thickness Gouge. Shell color was detected by a spectrophotometer. Egg shape index was measured by Egg Form Coefficient Measuring Instrument. Albumen and yolk protein was determined by the Kjeldahl method. Amino acids were determined by an amino acids analyzer. Trace elements Zn, Fe, Cu, and P (mg/kg wet mass) were determined in digested solutions using Inductively Coupled Plasma-Optical Emission Spectrometry. TC and TG were measured using commercial analytical kits. Yolk triglyceride, total cholesterol, pancreatic lipase, and phospholipids were determined by appropriate kits. β-carotene was determined by spectrophotometry. Lipid metabolism was also investigated with liver, plasma, and ovary samples. ZnO NP did not change the body weight of hens during the treatment period. ZnO NP slowed down egg laying frequency at the beginning of egg laying period but not at later time. ZnO NP did not affect egg protein or water contents, slightly decreased egg physical parameters (12 to 30%) and trace elements (20 to 35%) after 24 weeks treatment. However, yolk lipids content were significantly decreased by ZnO NP (20 to 35%). The mechanism of Zinc oxide nanoparticles decreasing yolk lipids was that they decreased the synthesis of lipids and increased lipid digestion. These data suggested ZnO NP affected egg quality and specifically regulated lipids metabolism in hens through altering the function of hen's ovary and liver. © 2016 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  8. Commercially laid eggs vs. discarded hatching eggs: contamination by Salmonella spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kottwitz, Luciana B M; Leão, Joice Aparecida; Back, Alberto; Rodrigues, Dalia dos P; Magnani, Marciane; de Oliveira, Tereza C R M

    2013-01-01

    Salmonella enterica is frequently associated with outbreaks of human salmonellosis, and products of avian origin, such as eggs and chicken meat, are the main vehicles of its transmission. The present study describes the occurrence of different serovars of Salmonella enterica and phagotypes of S. enterica serovar Enteritidis in eggs destined for human consumption. Four thousand eggs obtained from commercial egg laying farms and one thousand discarded hatching eggs from broiler farms, which were acquired at farmers' markets and informal shops, were analyzed. Salmonella spp. was isolated from 52.0% of the discarded hatching eggs, in which the predominant serovar was Enteritidis (84.6%), and the predominant Salmonella Enteritidis phagotype (PT) was PT7 (26.9%). Salmonella spp. was not isolated from eggs obtained from commercial egg laying farms. The antimicrobial resistance profile showed that 23.1% (n = 6) of the SE strains were resistant to nalidixic acid. The results suggest that the consumption of discarded hatching eggs represents an important source of Salmonella transmission to humans.

  9. Mother and offspring fitness in an insect with maternal care: phenotypic trade-offs between egg number, egg mass and egg care

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Oviparous females have three main options to increase their reproductive success: investing into egg number, egg mass and/or egg care. Although allocating resources to either of these three components is known to shape offspring number and size, potential trade-offs among them may have key impacts on maternal and offspring fitness. Here, we tested the occurrence of phenotypic trade-offs between egg number, egg mass and maternal expenditure on egg care in the European earwig, Forficula auricularia, an insect with pre- and post-hatching forms of maternal care. In particular, we used a series of laboratory observations and experiments to investigate whether these three components non-additively influenced offspring weight and number at hatching, and whether they were associated with potential costs to females in terms of future reproduction. Results We found negative associations between egg number and mass as well as between egg number and maternal expenditure on egg care. However, these trade-offs could only be detected after statistically correcting for female weight at egg laying. Hatchling number was not determined by single or additive effects among the three life-history traits, but instead by pairwise interactions among them. In particular, offspring number was positively associated with the number of eggs only in clutches receiving high maternal care or consisting of heavy eggs, and negatively associated with mean egg mass in clutches receiving low care. In contrast, offspring weight was positively associated with egg mass only. Finally, maternal expenditure on egg care reduced their future reproduction, but this effect was only detected when mothers were experimentally isolated from their offspring at egg hatching. Conclusions Overall, our study reveals simultaneous trade-offs between the number, mass and care of eggs. It also demonstrates that these factors interact in their impact on offspring production, and that maternal expenditure on egg

  10. Experimental and Numerical Analysis of Egg-Shaped Sewer Pipes Flow Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Regueiro-Picallo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD model was developed to analyze the open-channel flow in a new set of egg-shaped pipes for small combined sewer systems. The egg-shaped cross-section was selected after studying several geometries under different flow conditions. Once the egg-shaped cross-section was defined, a real-scale physical model was built and a series of partial-full flow experiments were performed in order to validate the numerical simulations. Furthermore, the numerical velocity distributions were compared with an experimental formulation for analytic geometries, with comparison results indicating a satisfactory concordance. After the hydraulic performance of the egg-shaped pipe was analyzed, the numerical model was used to compare the average velocity and shear stress against an equivalent area circular pipe under low flow conditions. The proposed egg shape showed a better flow performance up to a filling ratio of h/H = 0.25.

  11. NAA Comparison of Nutriens in Egg Yolk and Egg White

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruangdit, S.; Maijan, P.; Channuie, J.; Picha, R.

    2014-01-01

    Food we eat has significant effects on our wellbeing. Eggs are among food products widely consumed and contain many essential nutrients. Yet eggs often are involved in dietary controversy regarding benefit versus risk. The fear of serum cholesterol has driven a large number of people away from consuming egg yolks. In this study, we assessed the nutritional importance of eggs using instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) technique at Thai Research Reactor, operating at 1.2 MW. We investigated whether consumers miss any health benefits by choosing to eat only egg whites or yolks rather than whole natural eggs. Essential minerals such as sodium, potassium, manganese, magnesium, copper, selenium, iron and zinc are studied using three NAA loading methods: short-term individual pneumatic transfer system loading using inner-core tubes, medium-term CA3 loading and long-term Lazy Susan (LS) loading for 10 s, 7 h and 3 d, respectively. Two Standard Reference Materials (SRMs) were used to find the nutrient concentrations and validate the method. From the study, we found significant differences in nutritional contents between egg yolks and egg whites. Along with literature review conducted as part of this study, we evaluated the consumption choice when it comes to eggs.

  12. Dinosaur origin of egg color: oviraptors laid blue-green eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiemann, Jasmina; Yang, Tzu-Ruei; Sander, Philipp N; Schneider, Marion; Engeser, Marianne; Kath-Schorr, Stephanie; Müller, Christa E; Sander, P Martin

    2017-01-01

    Protoporphyrin (PP) and biliverdin (BV) give rise to the enormous diversity in avian egg coloration. Egg color serves several ecological purposes, including post-mating signaling and camouflage. Egg camouflage represents a major character of open-nesting birds which accomplish protection of their unhatched offspring against visually oriented predators by cryptic egg coloration. Cryptic coloration evolved to match the predominant shades of color found in the nesting environment. Such a selection pressure for the evolution of colored or cryptic eggs should be present in all open nesting birds and relatives. Many birds are open-nesting, but protect their eggs by continuous brooding, and thus exhibit no or minimal eggshell pigmentation. Their closest extant relatives, crocodiles, protect their eggs by burial and have unpigmented eggs. This phylogenetic pattern led to the assumption that colored eggs evolved within crown birds. The mosaic evolution of supposedly avian traits in non-avian theropod dinosaurs, however, such as the supposed evolution of partially open nesting behavior in oviraptorids, argues against this long-established theory. Using a double-checking liquid chromatography ESI-Q-TOF mass spectrometry routine, we traced the origin of colored eggs to their non-avian dinosaur ancestors by providing the first record of the avian eggshell pigments protoporphyrin and biliverdin in the eggshells of Late Cretaceous oviraptorid dinosaurs. The eggshell parataxon Macroolithus yaotunensis can be assigned to the oviraptor Heyuannia huangi based on exceptionally preserved, late developmental stage embryo remains. The analyzed eggshells are from three Late Cretaceous fluvial deposits ranging from eastern to southernmost China. Reevaluation of these taphonomic settings, and a consideration of patterns in the porosity of completely preserved eggs support an at least partially open nesting behavior for oviraptorosaurs. Such a nest arrangement corresponds with our

  13. Dinosaur origin of egg color: oviraptors laid blue-green eggs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasmina Wiemann

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Protoporphyrin (PP and biliverdin (BV give rise to the enormous diversity in avian egg coloration. Egg color serves several ecological purposes, including post-mating signaling and camouflage. Egg camouflage represents a major character of open-nesting birds which accomplish protection of their unhatched offspring against visually oriented predators by cryptic egg coloration. Cryptic coloration evolved to match the predominant shades of color found in the nesting environment. Such a selection pressure for the evolution of colored or cryptic eggs should be present in all open nesting birds and relatives. Many birds are open-nesting, but protect their eggs by continuous brooding, and thus exhibit no or minimal eggshell pigmentation. Their closest extant relatives, crocodiles, protect their eggs by burial and have unpigmented eggs. This phylogenetic pattern led to the assumption that colored eggs evolved within crown birds. The mosaic evolution of supposedly avian traits in non-avian theropod dinosaurs, however, such as the supposed evolution of partially open nesting behavior in oviraptorids, argues against this long-established theory. Using a double-checking liquid chromatography ESI-Q-TOF mass spectrometry routine, we traced the origin of colored eggs to their non-avian dinosaur ancestors by providing the first record of the avian eggshell pigments protoporphyrin and biliverdin in the eggshells of Late Cretaceous oviraptorid dinosaurs. The eggshell parataxon Macroolithus yaotunensis can be assigned to the oviraptor Heyuannia huangi based on exceptionally preserved, late developmental stage embryo remains. The analyzed eggshells are from three Late Cretaceous fluvial deposits ranging from eastern to southernmost China. Reevaluation of these taphonomic settings, and a consideration of patterns in the porosity of completely preserved eggs support an at least partially open nesting behavior for oviraptorosaurs. Such a nest arrangement corresponds

  14. Egg freezing and egg banking: empowerment and alienation in assisted reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, John A

    2014-06-01

    With the development of rapid freezing of human oocytes, many programs have reported IVF success rates comparable to those achieved with fresh eggs and thawed frozen embryos. Egg freezing is now gaining professional and regulatory acceptance as a safe and effective technique for women who wish to avoid discarding excess embryos, who face fertility-threatening medical treatments, or who want to preserve their eggs for use when they are better situated to have a family. This article focuses on the uses of and justification for egg freezing, the path to professional acceptance, the variability in success rates, and the controversy over freezing eggs for social rather than medical reasons. It also addresses the emergence of egg banking as a separate sector in the infertility industry, the regulatory issues that it poses, and its effect on egg donation. Key here is the legal control of stored eggs by banking women and their options when they wish to dispose of those eggs. The analysis is framed around empowerment and alienation. Egg freezing is generally empowering for women, but the donation or sale of unused eggs to infertile women, egg bankers, and researchers also raises issues of alienation.

  15. 7 CFR 57.900 - Requirements for importation of restricted eggs into the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Requirements for importation of restricted eggs into... AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT (CONTINUED) INSPECTION OF EGGS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Regulations Governing...

  16. Egg-laying sequence influences egg mercury concentrations and egg size in three bird species: Implications for contaminant monitoring programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerman, Joshua T; Eagles-Smith, Collin A; Herzog, Mark P; Yee, Julie L; Hartman, C Alex

    2016-06-01

    Bird eggs are commonly used in contaminant monitoring programs and toxicological risk assessments, but intraclutch variation and sampling methodology could influence interpretability. The authors examined the influence of egg-laying sequence on egg mercury concentrations and burdens in American avocets, black-necked stilts, and Forster's terns. The average decline in mercury concentrations between the first and last eggs laid was 33% for stilts, 22% for terns, and 11% for avocets, and most of this decline occurred between the first and second eggs laid (24% for stilts, 18% for terns, and 9% for avocets). Trends in egg size with egg-laying order were inconsistent among species, and overall differences in egg volume, mass, length, and width were eggs laid. Despite the strong effect of egg-laying sequence, most of the variance in egg mercury concentrations still occurred among clutches (75-91%) rather than within clutches (9%-25%). Using simulations, the authors determined that accurate estimation of a population's mean egg mercury concentration using only a single random egg from a subset of nests would require sampling >60 nests to represent a large population (10% accuracy) or ≥14 nests to represent a small colony that contained <100 nests (20% accuracy). Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;35:1458-1469. Published 2015 Wiley Periodicals Inc. on behalf of SETAC. This article is a US Government work and, as such, is in the public domain in the United States of America. Published 2015 Wiley Periodicals Inc. on behalf of SETAC. This article is a US Government work and, as such, is in the public domain in the United States of America.

  17. An elm EST database for identifying leaf beetle egg-induced defense genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Büchel Kerstin

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plants can defend themselves against herbivorous insects prior to the onset of larval feeding by responding to the eggs laid on their leaves. In the European field elm (Ulmus minor, egg laying by the elm leaf beetle ( Xanthogaleruca luteola activates the emission of volatiles that attract specialised egg parasitoids, which in turn kill the eggs. Little is known about the transcriptional changes that insect eggs trigger in plants and how such indirect defense mechanisms are orchestrated in the context of other biological processes. Results Here we present the first large scale study of egg-induced changes in the transcriptional profile of a tree. Five cDNA libraries were generated from leaves of (i untreated control elms, and elms treated with (ii egg laying and feeding by elm leaf beetles, (iii feeding, (iv artificial transfer of egg clutches, and (v methyl jasmonate. A total of 361,196 ESTs expressed sequence tags (ESTs were identified which clustered into 52,823 unique transcripts (Unitrans and were stored in a database with a public web interface. Among the analyzed Unitrans, 73% could be annotated by homology to known genes in the UniProt (Plant database, particularly to those from Vitis, Ricinus, Populus and Arabidopsis. Comparative in silico analysis among the different treatments revealed differences in Gene Ontology term abundances. Defense- and stress-related gene transcripts were present in high abundance in leaves after herbivore egg laying, but transcripts involved in photosynthesis showed decreased abundance. Many pathogen-related genes and genes involved in phytohormone signaling were expressed, indicative of jasmonic acid biosynthesis and activation of jasmonic acid responsive genes. Cross-comparisons between different libraries based on expression profiles allowed the identification of genes with a potential relevance in egg-induced defenses, as well as other biological processes, including signal transduction

  18. An elm EST database for identifying leaf beetle egg-induced defense genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Büchel, Kerstin; McDowell, Eric; Nelson, Will; Descour, Anne; Gershenzon, Jonathan; Hilker, Monika; Soderlund, Carol; Gang, David R; Fenning, Trevor; Meiners, Torsten

    2012-06-15

    Plants can defend themselves against herbivorous insects prior to the onset of larval feeding by responding to the eggs laid on their leaves. In the European field elm (Ulmus minor), egg laying by the elm leaf beetle ( Xanthogaleruca luteola) activates the emission of volatiles that attract specialised egg parasitoids, which in turn kill the eggs. Little is known about the transcriptional changes that insect eggs trigger in plants and how such indirect defense mechanisms are orchestrated in the context of other biological processes. Here we present the first large scale study of egg-induced changes in the transcriptional profile of a tree. Five cDNA libraries were generated from leaves of (i) untreated control elms, and elms treated with (ii) egg laying and feeding by elm leaf beetles, (iii) feeding, (iv) artificial transfer of egg clutches, and (v) methyl jasmonate. A total of 361,196 ESTs expressed sequence tags (ESTs) were identified which clustered into 52,823 unique transcripts (Unitrans) and were stored in a database with a public web interface. Among the analyzed Unitrans, 73% could be annotated by homology to known genes in the UniProt (Plant) database, particularly to those from Vitis, Ricinus, Populus and Arabidopsis. Comparative in silico analysis among the different treatments revealed differences in Gene Ontology term abundances. Defense- and stress-related gene transcripts were present in high abundance in leaves after herbivore egg laying, but transcripts involved in photosynthesis showed decreased abundance. Many pathogen-related genes and genes involved in phytohormone signaling were expressed, indicative of jasmonic acid biosynthesis and activation of jasmonic acid responsive genes. Cross-comparisons between different libraries based on expression profiles allowed the identification of genes with a potential relevance in egg-induced defenses, as well as other biological processes, including signal transduction, transport and primary metabolism

  19. Egg fertility and hatchability in Avians broiler-breeder hens under ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Impact of temperature and humidity in different month of lay was evaluated on fertility and hatchability in broiler breeder hens reared in Sapele, Nigeria. Six million, six hundred and nineteen thousand, seven hundred and forty six eggs from flocks of Avians broiler-breeder hens reared between 2005 and 2006 in a farm ...

  20. Gene expression during Drosophila melanogaster egg development before and after reproductive diapause

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baker Dean A

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the importance of egg development to the female life cycle in Drosophila, global patterns of gene expression have not been examined in detail, primarily due to the difficulty in isolating synchronised developmental stages in sufficient quantities for gene expression profiling. Entry into vitellogenesis is a key stage of oogenesis and by forcing females into reproductive diapause we are able to arrest oogenesis at the pre-vitellogenic stages. Releasing females from diapause allows collection of relatively synchronous developing egg populations and an investigation of some of the transcriptional dynamics apparent before and after reproductive diapause. Results Focusing on gender-biased transcription, we identified mechanisms of egg development suppressed during reproductive dormancy as well as other molecular changes unique to the diapausing female. A microarray based analysis generated a set of 3565 transcripts with at least 2-fold greater expression in females as compared to control males, 1392 such changes were biased during reproductive dormancy. In addition, we also detect 1922 up-regulated transcriptional changes after entry into vitellogenesis, which were classified into discrete blocks of co-expression. We discuss some of the regulatory aspects apparent after re-initiation of egg development, exploring the underlying functions, maternal contribution and evolutionary conservation of co-expression patterns involved in egg production. Conclusion Although much of the work we present is descriptive, fundamental aspects of egg development and gender-biased transcription can be derived from our time-series experiment. We believe that our dataset will facilitate further exploration of the developmental and evolutionary characteristics of oogenesis as well as the nature of reproductive arrest in Drosophila.

  1. effects of hatching egg weight and length of storage period

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    metinpetek

    There were no significant effects of egg storage period on body weight and feed ... chicks from all groups were reared under the same growing conditions in battery ... on hatching time, apparent fertility, hatchability of fertile and total eggs data ...

  2. Market Structure and Price Transmission of Eggs Commodity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Aziz Ahmad

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Purposes of this research are to determine some characteristics of distribution channel, market structure, and price maker transmission in purebred chicken egg commodity in Banyumas District, Central Java Province. Primary data applied on this research is from all channel distribution levels; from producers to final consumers. Meanwhile secondary data is collected from government official sources, such as BPS-Statistic of Banyumas Disrict, Banyumas Department of Industry, Trading and Cooperation, and previous researches which has been made by researcher team. Sample determining is directed by proportional random sampling methods. Some measurements are applied to this research, including to; Herfindahl Index (HI, Concentration Ratio (CF, and Minimum Efficiency Scale (MES to investigate market structure; and Asymmetric Price Transmission (APT to determine price transmission mechanism model. This research finds that (1 the distribution channel of egg commodity is spitted to different channel, the first channel: egg producer – retail traders – final consumers, and second channel: egg producers – whole seller – retail traders – final consumers; (2 market structure which is created to this farming specific commodity is perfect market; (3 price transmission mechanism analysis statistically shows that there is almost no existence of dominant power in price formation.

  3. Hypoxia increases the risk of egg predation in a nest-guarding fish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsson, Karin; Kvarnemo, Charlotta; Andrén, Maria Norevik

    2016-01-01

    For fish with parental care, a nest should meet both the oxygenation needs of the eggs and help protect them against predators. While a small nest opening facilitates the latter, it impedes the former and vice versa. We investigated how the presence of potential egg predators in the form of shore...... in high oxygen reduced fanning, males in low oxygen did not. Filial cannibalism was unaffected by treatment. Sand gobies thus prioritize egg ventilation over the protection afforded by small nest openings under hypoxia and adopt defensive behaviour to avert predator attention, even though this does...... crabs Carcinus maenas affects nest building, egg fanning, defensive displays and filial cannibalism of egg-guarding male sand gobies Pomatoschistus minutus under two levels of dissolved oxygen. In the high oxygen treatment, males retained their nest opening size in the presence of crabs, while males...

  4. Dinosaur origin of egg color: oviraptors laid blue-green eggs

    OpenAIRE

    Wiemann, Jasmina; Yang, Tzu-Ruei; Sander, Philipp N.; Schneider, Marion; Engeser, Marianne; Kath-Schorr, Stephanie; M?ller, Christa E.; Sander, P. Martin

    2017-01-01

    Protoporphyrin (PP) and biliverdin (BV) give rise to the enormous diversity in avian egg coloration. Egg color serves several ecological purposes, including post-mating signaling and camouflage. Egg camouflage represents a major character of open-nesting birds which accomplish protection of their unhatched offspring against visually oriented predators by cryptic egg coloration. Cryptic coloration evolved to match the predominant shades of color found in the nesting environment. Such a selecti...

  5. Adaptation of the Egg of the Desert Beetle, Microdera punctipennis (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae), to Arid Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan; Shi, Meng; Hou, Xiaojuan; Meng, Shanshan; Zhang, Fuchun; Ma, Ji

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Microdera punctipennis Kaszab (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) is an endemic species in Guerbantonggut desert in China. To explore the ways that M. punctipennis egg adapts to dry desert environment, morphological characteristics of the egg was investigated along with the egg of the nondesert beetle Tenebrio molitor (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae). Water loss rate and survival rate of these eggs under different dry treatments (relative humidity0, 10, and 20%) were measured to evaluate the desiccation resistance of the eggs at different developmental stages (day 0, 2, and 5 eggs). Our results showed that the 50-egg weight in T. molitor was heavier than M. punctipennis , while the 50-first-instar larva weight in T. molitor was almost the same as in M. punctipennis . The water loss rate of M. punctipennis egg under dry conditions was significantly lower than T. molitor , and the egg survival rate was significantly higher than T. molitor . The estimated developmental threshold temperature of M. punctipennis egg was 18.30°C, and the critical thermal maximum of M. punctipennis egg is above 39°C. These features partly account for the adaptability of M. punctipennis to desert environment in egg stage. PMID:25525108

  6. Diet shifts during egg laying: Implications for measuring contaminants in bird eggs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morrissey, Christy A. [Catchment Research Group, School of Biosciences, Cardiff University, Cardiff CF10 3AX (United Kingdom); Elliott, John E. [Pacific Wildlife Research Centre, Environment Canada, 5421 Robertson Road, Delta, British Columbia V4K 3N2 (Canada); Ormerod, Stephen J., E-mail: ormerod@cf.ac.u [Catchment Research Group, School of Biosciences, Cardiff University, Cardiff CF10 3AX (United Kingdom)

    2010-02-15

    We combined stable isotope tracers of blood plasma, blood cells and egg contents with faecal analysis during pre-breeding and egg laying phases in two dipper species Cinclus cinclus and Cinclus mexicanus to determine the occurrence of dietary shifts during egg production and to assess consequences for egg contaminant loads. In both species, changes in delta{sup 13}C (C. cinclus) or delta{sup 15}N (C. mexicanus) in female plasma relative to red blood cells indicated a dietary shift during laying that was not observed in males. Eurasian dippers increased prey consumption as breeding approached, shifting from primarily trichopteran insect larvae to ephemeropterans and plecopterans. In American dippers, egg-laying females switched to feeding at a higher trophic level by consuming more fish. Eggs derived from higher trophic level diets contained more mercury (American dipper), polychlorinated biphenyls and some organochlorines, especially DDT metabolites. The results demonstrate how dietary changes during egg laying accompany the demands for egg production with consequences for contaminant deposition in avian eggs. - Changes in laying diet influences contaminant deposition in bird eggs.

  7. Diet shifts during egg laying: Implications for measuring contaminants in bird eggs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrissey, Christy A.; Elliott, John E.; Ormerod, Stephen J.

    2010-01-01

    We combined stable isotope tracers of blood plasma, blood cells and egg contents with faecal analysis during pre-breeding and egg laying phases in two dipper species Cinclus cinclus and Cinclus mexicanus to determine the occurrence of dietary shifts during egg production and to assess consequences for egg contaminant loads. In both species, changes in δ 13 C (C. cinclus) or δ 15 N (C. mexicanus) in female plasma relative to red blood cells indicated a dietary shift during laying that was not observed in males. Eurasian dippers increased prey consumption as breeding approached, shifting from primarily trichopteran insect larvae to ephemeropterans and plecopterans. In American dippers, egg-laying females switched to feeding at a higher trophic level by consuming more fish. Eggs derived from higher trophic level diets contained more mercury (American dipper), polychlorinated biphenyls and some organochlorines, especially DDT metabolites. The results demonstrate how dietary changes during egg laying accompany the demands for egg production with consequences for contaminant deposition in avian eggs. - Changes in laying diet influences contaminant deposition in bird eggs.

  8. Fertilization of sea urchin eggs and sperm motility are negatively impacted under low hypergravitational forces significant to space flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tash, J. S.; Kim, S.; Schuber, M.; Seibt, D.; Kinsey, W. H.

    2001-01-01

    Sperm and other flagellates swim faster in microgravity (microG) than in 1 G, raising the question of whether fertilization is altered under conditions of space travel. Such alterations have implications for reproduction of plant and animal food and for long-term space habitation by man. We previously demonstrated that microG accelerates protein phosphorylation during initiation of sperm motility but delays the sperm response to the egg chemotactic factor, speract. Thus sperm are sensitive to changes in gravitational force. New experiments using the NiZeMi centrifugal microscope examined whether low hypergravity (hyperG) causes effects opposite to microG on sperm motility, signal transduction, and fertilization. Sperm % motility and straight-line velocity were significantly inhibited by as little as 1.3 G. The phosphorylation states of FP130, an axonemal phosphoprotein, and FP160, a cAMP-dependent salt-extractable flagellar protein, both coupled to motility activation, showed a more rapid decline in hyperG. Most critically, hyperG caused an approximately 50% reduction in both the rate of sperm-egg binding and fertilization. The similar extent of inhibition of both fertilization parameters in hyperG suggests that the primary effect is on sperm rather than eggs. These results not only support our earlier microG data demonstrating that sperm are sensitive to small changes in gravitational forces but more importantly now show that this sensitivity affects the ability of sperm to fertilize eggs. Thus, more detailed studies on the impact of space flight on development should include studies of sperm function and fertilization.

  9. Balancing Eggs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Allan

    2014-01-01

    Theory predicts that an egg-shaped body should rest in stable equilibrium when on its side, balance vertically in metastable equilibrium on its broad end and be completely unstable on its narrow end. A homogeneous solid egg made from wood, clay or plastic behaves in this way, but a real egg will not stand on either end. It is shown that this…

  10. Evaluation of acetone vapors toxicity on Plodia interpunctella (Hubner) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourmirza, Ali Asghr; Nasab, Fershteh Sadeghi; Zadeh, Abas Hossein

    2007-08-01

    The efficacy of acetone vapors against carefully aged eggs of Plodia interpunctella (Hubner) at 17+/-1 and 27+/-1 degrees C at different dosage levels of acetone over various exposure times was determined. Acetone was found to be toxic to Indian meal moth eggs. Considerable variation in the susceptibility of different age groups of eggs was apparent in the fiducial limits of the LD50 values. An inverse relationship between LD50 values and exposure times was observed in age groups of tested eggs. At 27+/-1 degrees C and 24 h exposure period, eggs aged 1-2 day-old were more tolerant to acetone than other age groups, followed by 0-1 day-old, 2-3 day-old and 3-4 day-old eggs. A similar pattern of susceptibility of eggs was observed at 72 h exposure. In all bioassays, eggs exposed to higher dosages of acetone developed at smaller rate. This was significant for the eggs, which were exposed to the highest dosage for 24 h. Increasing the temperature from 17+/-1 to 27+/-1 degrees C greatly increased the efficacy of acetone. At 27+/-1 degrees C eggs of P. interpunctella were killed by less than one-third of the dosage required for control at 17+/-1 degrees C. Acetone achieved 50% mortality with a dosage of 82.76 mg L(-1) in 1-2 day-old eggs at 27+/-1 degrees C. At this temperature hatching was retarded and greatly diminished when eggs aged 1-2 day-old were exposed to 80 mg L(-1) of acetone for the 24 h exposure period. There was no evidence of a hatch delay longer than the time spent under vapors for eggs exposed at 17+/-1 or 27+/-1 degrees C, indicating that some development must have occurred under fumigation.

  11. Parental perceptions in egg allergy: does egg challenge make a difference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, Andrew Stewart; Allen, Clare Wendy; Campbell, Dianne Elisabeth

    2009-11-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the effect of an oral egg challenge in egg sensitized children on parental perceptions relating to their child's allergy. A questionnaire was completed by parents for 167 children attending a tertiary paediatric clinic with egg sensitization. The questionnaires included 10 questions concerning parental perceptions of their child's egg allergy. Parental perceptions of those children who had not had an egg challenge (n = 83) were compared with those whose children had a positive (n = 27) and those with a negative (n = 57) egg challenge. A significant difference (p = parents in the CN group expected little or no future inconvenience for the child. The responses of parents whose child had undergone an egg challenge differed significantly (p = expectation of little or no future discomfort for the child and whether others treated the child differently. The performance of an egg challenge was associated with reduced adverse parental concerns. For 6/10 parameters, expectations concerning egg allergy in children who had been challenged were significantly better than those who had never been challenged irrespective of the challenge outcome. The greater certainty provided by the performance of a food challenge may be a positive outcome in both CP and CN children.

  12. 21 CFR 115.50 - Refrigeration of shell eggs held for retail distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... and confirmed by written memorandum as soon as possible. (iv) Labeling or marking of shell eggs under... locality in writing that such assistance is no longer needed. When providing assistance under paragraph (e... violation of this section, may serve upon the person in whose possession such eggs are found a written order...

  13. Effect of Enterococcus faecium M74 strain on egg yolk fat and cholesterol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mária Angelovičová

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The aim was to evaluate the functional efficiency of a probiotic strain Enterococcus faecium M74 in the feed on egg yolk weight, egg yolk fat and cholesterol contents of Shaver Starcross 288 hens.  Feed in the experimental group was enriched with a probiotic additive containing of 5*109 viable Enterococcus faecium per g. Egg samples a total 30 pcs per group were collected during the first egg-laying period at week 28 and 38 of hens´ age. Non-significantly lower of egg yolk weight was observed in the experimental group at all sampling times compared with their respective controls. Non-significantly lower of egg yolk weight was observed in the experimental group at all sampling times compared with their respective controls. Significantly lower concentrations of egg yolk cholesterol were found in the experimental group at week 28, and week 38 in compare with controls. In conclusion, the addition of probiotic strains Enterococcus faecium M74 to the feed of Shaver Starcross 288 hens reduced cholesterol in egg yolk at all sampling times. Even though the hypocholesterolemic mechanism of probiotics has not yet been fully understood, it is an established fact that cholesterol and bile salt metabolism are closely linked. However, the hypocholesterolemic mechanism of probiotics based on the bile salt hydrolase activity hypothesis has not yet been sufficiently elucidated.

  14. 21 CFR 160.100 - Eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Eggs. 160.100 Section 160.100 Food and Drugs FOOD... CONSUMPTION EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Eggs and Egg Products § 160.100 Eggs... identity for the food commonly known as eggs. ...

  15. Ant Queen Egg-Marking Signals: Matching Deceptive Laboratory Simplicity with Natural Complexity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Zweden, Jelle Stijn; Heinze, Jürgen; Boomsma, Jacobus Jan

    2009-01-01

    Background Experiments under controlled laboratory conditions can produce decisive evidence for testing biological hypotheses, provided they are representative of the more complex natural conditions. However, whether this requirement is fulfilled is seldom tested explicitly. Here we provide a lab....../field comparison to investigate the identity of an egg-marking signal of ant queens. Our study was based on ant workers resolving conflict over male production by destroying each other's eggs, but leaving queen eggs unharmed. For this, the workers need a proximate cue to discriminate between the two egg types...... that this compound by itself is not the natural queen egg-marking pheromone. We subsequently investigated the overall differences of entire chemical profiles of eggs, and found that queen-laid eggs in field colonies are more distinct from worker-laid eggs than in lab colonies, have more variation in profiles...

  16. Egg yolk plasma can replace egg yolk in stallion freezing extenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillet, E; Duchamp, G; Batellier, F; Beaumal, V; Anton, M; Desherces, S; Schmitt, E; Magistrini, M

    2011-01-01

    Hen egg yolk is normally used as a cryoprotective agent in semen freezing extenders, but its use has sanitary and practical disadvantages. Moreover the protection afforded by egg yolk has not yet been completely elucidated. The objective of this study was to compare the egg yolk plasma fraction to whole egg yolk in stallion freezing extender. Plasma contains mainly Low Density Lipoproteins (LDL), which are widely presumed to be the cryoprotective agent in egg yolk. Plasma can be produced on an industrial scale, sterilised by gamma-irradiation and incorporated in a ready-to-use extender (our ultimate objective). Plasma samples were subjected to different doses of gamma-irradiation (3, 5, 10 kGy) without dramatic chemical changes that may affect their cryoprotective properties. Stallion semen was frozen with whole egg yolk as a control and with sterilised egg yolk plasma. A fertility trial was conducted on a total of 70 mares' cycles. Fertility per cycle was 60% after insemination of semen frozen in our control extender containing egg yolk (EY), compared to 69% for the extender containing sterilised egg yolk plasma (EYP) (P > 0.05). Post-thaw motility and membrane integrity of spermatozoa were also analysed. Motility parameters were not significantly different between extenders except for the variable VAP (for EY versus EYP, VAP: 63 μm.s(-1) versus 59 μm.s(-1), a, b: P 0.05). Membrane integrity was better preserved in EY than in EYP but the difference between extenders was small (P < 0.05). Our results demonstrated that sterilised egg yolk plasma has the potential to replace egg yolk in stallion freezing extender. This experiment led to the development of a ready-to-use extender called INRA-Freeze(®) (IMV-Technologies, France). Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. ZP Domain Proteins in the Abalone Egg Coat Include a Paralog of VERL under Positive Selection That Binds Lysin and 18-kDa Sperm Proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aagaard, Jan E.; Vacquier, Victor D.; MacCoss, Michael J.; Swanson, Willie J.

    2010-01-01

    Identifying fertilization molecules is key to our understanding of reproductive biology, yet only a few examples of interacting sperm and egg proteins are known. One of the best characterized comes from the invertebrate archeogastropod abalone (Haliotis spp.), where sperm lysin mediates passage through the protective egg vitelline envelope (VE) by binding to the VE protein vitelline envelope receptor for lysin (VERL). Rapid adaptive divergence of abalone lysin and VERL are an example of positive selection on interacting fertilization proteins contributing to reproductive isolation. Previously, we characterized a subset of the abalone VE proteins that share a structural feature, the zona pellucida (ZP) domain, which is common to VERL and the egg envelopes of vertebrates. Here, we use additional expressed sequence tag sequencing and shotgun proteomics to characterize this family of proteins in the abalone egg VE. We expand 3-fold the number of known ZP domain proteins present within the VE (now 30 in total) and identify a paralog of VERL (vitelline envelope zona pellucida domain protein [VEZP] 14) that contains a putative lysin-binding motif. We find that, like VERL, the divergence of VEZP14 among abalone species is driven by positive selection on the lysin-binding motif alone and that these paralogous egg VE proteins bind a similar set of sperm proteins including a rapidly evolving 18-kDa paralog of lysin, which may mediate sperm–egg fusion. This work identifies an egg coat paralog of VERL under positive selection and the candidate sperm proteins with which it may interact during abalone fertilization. PMID:19767347

  18. Have eggs. Will travel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kroløkke, Charlotte

    2015-01-01

    Feminist scholars have critically questioned the practices and ethics of reproductive mobility. While the reproductive mobility of fertility patients has been foregrounded, little is known of egg donor mobility including the experiences of travelling internationally to donate eggs. Based on written...... stories and photographic material provided by forty-two egg donors, this article uses feminist cluster analysis and the concept of eggpreneurship to illustrate how global egg donors negotiate reproductive agency and choice when they travel internationally to donate their eggs. In their stories, global egg...

  19. Association of Egg Mass and Egg Sex: Gene Expression Analysis from Maternal RNA in the Germinal Disc Region of Layer Hens (Gallus gallus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslam, Muhammad Aamir; Schokker, Dirkjan; Groothuis, Ton G G; de Wit, Agnes A C; Smits, Mari A; Woelders, Henri

    2015-06-01

    Female birds have been shown to manipulate offspring sex ratio. However, mechanisms of sex ratio bias are not well understood. Reduced feed availability and change in body condition can affect the mass of eggs in birds that could lead to a skew in sex ratio. We employed feed restriction in laying chickens (Gallus gallus) to induce a decrease in body condition and egg mass using 45 chicken hens in treatment and control groups. Feed restriction led to an overall decline of egg mass. In the second period of treatment (Days 9-18) with more severe feed restriction and a steeper decline of egg mass, the sex ratio per hen (proportion of male eggs) had a significant negative association with mean egg mass per hen. Based on this association, two groups of hens were selected from feed restriction group, that is, hens producing male bias with low egg mass and hens producing female bias with high egg mass with overall sex ratios of 0.71 and 0.44 respectively. Genomewide transcriptome analysis on the germinal disks of F1 preovulatory follicles collected at the time of occurrence of meiosis-I was performed. We did not find significantly differentially expressed genes in these two groups of hens. However, gene set enrichment analysis showed that a number of cellular processes related to cell cycle progression, mitotic/meiotic apparatus, and chromosomal movement were enriched in female-biased hens or high mean egg mass as compared with male-biased hens or low mean egg mass. The differentially expressed gene sets may be involved in meiotic drive regulating sex ratio in the chicken. © 2015 by the Society for the Study of Reproduction, Inc.

  20. Fast egg collection method greatly improves randomness of egg sampling in Drosophila melanogaster

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schou, Mads Fristrup

    2013-01-01

    When obtaining samples for population genetic studies, it is essential that the sampling is random. For Drosophila, one of the crucial steps in sampling experimental flies is the collection of eggs. Here an egg collection method is presented, which randomizes the eggs in a water column...... and diminishes environmental variance. This method was compared with a traditional egg collection method where eggs are collected directly from the medium. Within each method the observed and expected standard deviations of egg-to-adult viability were compared, whereby the difference in the randomness...... and to obtain a representative collection of genotypes, the method presented here is strongly recommended when collecting eggs from Drosophila....

  1. 21 CFR 160.115 - Liquid eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Liquid eggs. 160.115 Section 160.115 Food and... CONSUMPTION EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Eggs and Egg Products § 160.115 Liquid eggs. (a) Liquid eggs, mixed eggs, liquid whole eggs, mixed whole eggs are eggs of the domestic...

  2. Propagation of planktonic copepods: production and mortality of eggs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiørboe, Thomas; Møhlenberg, Flemming; Tiselius, Peter

    1988-01-01

    Data on fecundity and egg mortality of neritic copepods were collected in various seasons, areas and under various hydrographical conditions. On a seasonal basis variations in fecundity (F) were related to temperature rather than to the abundance of phytoplankton (P). However, a strong correlation...... between F and P was evident when water column stability varied horisontally or temporally (i.e. at a tidal front or subsequent to a storm). Estimated specific egg-mortalities were variable and occasionally very severe, up to 9.1 d−1, implying that down to 10−4% of the eggs survive to hatching...

  3. Calcium-responsive contractility during fertilization in sea urchin eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stack, Christianna; Lucero, Amy J; Shuster, Charles B

    2006-04-01

    Fertilization triggers a reorganization of oocyte cytoskeleton, and in sea urchins, there is a dramatic increase in cortical F-actin. However, the role that myosin II plays during fertilization remains largely unexplored. Myosin II is localized to the cortical cytoskeleton both before and after fertilization and to examine myosin II contractility in living cells, Lytechinus pictus eggs were observed by time-lapse microscopy. Upon sperm binding, a cell surface deflection traversed the egg that was followed by and dependent on the calcium wave. The calcium-dependence of surface contractility could be reproduced in unfertilized eggs, where mobilization of intracellular calcium in unfertilized eggs under compression resulted in a marked contractile response. Lastly, inhibition of myosin II delayed absorption of the fertilization cone, suggesting that myosin II not only responds to the same signals that activate eggs but also participates in the remodeling of the cortical actomyosin cytoskeleton during the first zygotic cell cycle. (c) 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  4. Response of laying hens to feeding low-protein amino acid-supplemented diets under high ambient temperature: performance, egg quality, leukocyte profile, blood lipids, and excreta pH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torki, Mehran; Mohebbifar, Ahmad; Ghasemi, Hossein Ali; Zardast, Afshin

    2015-05-01

    An experiment was conducted to determine whether, by using a low-protein amino acid-supplemented diet, the health status, stress response, and excreta quality could be improved without affecting the productive performance of heat-stressed laying hens. The requirements for egg production, egg mass, and feed conversion ratio were also estimated using second-order equations and broken-line regression. A total of 150 Lohmann Selected Leghorn (LSL-Lite) hens were divided randomly into five groups of 30 with five replicates of six hens. The hens were raised for an 8-week period (52 to 60 weeks) in wire cages situated in high ambient temperature in an open-sided housing system. The five experimental diets (ME; 2,720 kcal/kg) varied according to five crude protein (CP) levels: normal-CP diet (control, 16.5 % CP) and low-CP diets containing 15.0, 13.5, 12.0, or 10.5 % CP. All experimental diets were supplemented with crystalline amino acids at the levels sufficient to meet their requirements. The results showed that under high temperature conditions, all productive performance and egg quality parameters in the birds fed with 15.0, 13.5, and 12.0 % CP diets were similar to those of birds fed with control diet (16.5 % CP), whereas feeding 10.5 % CP diet significantly decreased egg production and egg mass. Estimations of requirements were of 13.93 and 12.77 % CP for egg production, 14.62 and 13.22 % CP for egg mass, and 12.93 and 12.26 % CP for feed conversion ratio using quadratic and broken-line models, respectively. Egg yolk color index, blood triglyceride level, and excreta acidity were also significantly higher in birds fed with 12.0 and 10.5 % CP diets compared with those of control birds. The heterophil to lymphocyte ratio, as a stress indicator, was significantly decreased by 15.0, 13.5, and 12 % CP diets. On the basis of our findings, reducing dietary CP from 16.5 to 12.0 % and supplementing the diets with the essential amino acids showed merit for improving the

  5. Egg origin determination efforts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horvath, A.; Futo, I.; Vodila, G.; Palcsu, L.

    2012-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. As a co-operation with the Poultry Product Board, egg and drinking water samples were received in order to investigate whether the country of origin of the egg can be determined based on its stable isotope composition with the aim of market protection of the Hungarian eggs against the mislabelled foreign ones. The scientific background is that drinking water of egg laying hens is assumed to reflect the composition of regional precipitation, and it is also an input data in the process of egg formation. In the first sampling, altogether 23 sets of egg and drinking water samples were received from different production sites covering the whole area of Hungary. The egg white samples were vacuum distilled and frozen out by liquid nitrogen at -196 deg C. The process was monitored by two vacuum gauges. Water frozen out together with the drinking water samples was measured were measured by a Thermo Finnigan Delta PLUS XP isotope ratio mass spectrometer using a GasBench II peripheral unit equipped with a GC-autosampler. As a second issue, additionally, elemental composition of egg shells were also performed for series of Hungarian, Czech and Polish egg samples by energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence. The drinking waters fit well to the Global Meteoric Water Line indicating their precipitation origin. It was experienced that the water in egg white gets enriched compared to the drinking water (Δ 18 O = -4.9 ± 1.0 per thousand and Δ D = -21.8 ± 6.4 per thousand), however, this shift is independent of the type of the hens, since the mean shifts in the eggs of Tetra and Hy-line hens are similar within error bar. For more depleted drinking water, the shift of the egg white was higher than for more enriched ones. This can be due to the contribution of the nutriment isotopic composition. The water isotope composition of the Hungarian eggs investigated was δ 18 O = -4.8 - -7.3 per thousand and δD = -46.0 - -70.7 per thousand, therefore egg

  6. Radionuclides in Canada goose eggs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rickard, W.H.; Sweany, H.A.

    1975-01-01

    Low levels of radionuclides were measured in Canada goose eggs taken from deserted nests from Columbia River islands on the Energy Research and Development Administration's Hanford Reservation. Potassium-40, a naturally occurring radionuclide, was the most abundant radionuclide measured in egg contents and egg shell. Strontium-90 was incorporated into egg shells and cesium-137 into inner egg contents. Manganese-54, cobalt-60, and zinc-65 were more abundant in inner egg contents than in egg shell. Cerium-144 was detected in egg shell but not in inner shell

  7. Using 3D printed eggs to examine the egg-rejection behaviour of wild birds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Branislav Igic

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The coevolutionary relationships between brood parasites and their hosts are often studied by examining the egg rejection behaviour of host species using artificial eggs. However, the traditional methods for producing artificial eggs out of plasticine, plastic, wood, or plaster-of-Paris are laborious, imprecise, and prone to human error. As an alternative, 3D printing may reduce human error, enable more precise manipulation of egg size and shape, and provide a more accurate and replicable protocol for generating artificial stimuli than traditional methods. However, the usefulness of 3D printing technology for egg rejection research remains to be tested. Here, we applied 3D printing technology to the extensively studied egg rejection behaviour of American robins, Turdus migratorius. Eggs of the robin’s brood parasites, brown-headed cowbirds, Molothrus ater, vary greatly in size and shape, but it is unknown whether host egg rejection decisions differ across this gradient of natural variation. We printed artificial eggs that encompass the natural range of shapes and sizes of cowbird eggs, painted them to resemble either robin or cowbird egg colour, and used them to artificially parasitize nests of breeding wild robins. In line with previous studies, we show that robins accept mimetically coloured and reject non-mimetically coloured artificial eggs. Although we found no evidence that subtle differences in parasitic egg size or shape affect robins’ rejection decisions, 3D printing will provide an opportunity for more extensive experimentation on the potential biological or evolutionary significance of size and shape variation of foreign eggs in rejection decisions. We provide a detailed protocol for generating 3D printed eggs using either personal 3D printers or commercial printing services, and highlight additional potential future applications for this technology in the study of egg rejection.

  8. Using 3D printed eggs to examine the egg-rejection behaviour of wild birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunez, Valerie; Voss, Henning U.; Croston, Rebecca; Aidala, Zachary; López, Analía V.; Van Tatenhove, Aimee; Holford, Mandë E.; Shawkey, Matthew D.; Hauber, Mark E.

    2015-01-01

    The coevolutionary relationships between brood parasites and their hosts are often studied by examining the egg rejection behaviour of host species using artificial eggs. However, the traditional methods for producing artificial eggs out of plasticine, plastic, wood, or plaster-of-Paris are laborious, imprecise, and prone to human error. As an alternative, 3D printing may reduce human error, enable more precise manipulation of egg size and shape, and provide a more accurate and replicable protocol for generating artificial stimuli than traditional methods. However, the usefulness of 3D printing technology for egg rejection research remains to be tested. Here, we applied 3D printing technology to the extensively studied egg rejection behaviour of American robins, Turdus migratorius. Eggs of the robin’s brood parasites, brown-headed cowbirds, Molothrus ater, vary greatly in size and shape, but it is unknown whether host egg rejection decisions differ across this gradient of natural variation. We printed artificial eggs that encompass the natural range of shapes and sizes of cowbird eggs, painted them to resemble either robin or cowbird egg colour, and used them to artificially parasitize nests of breeding wild robins. In line with previous studies, we show that robins accept mimetically coloured and reject non-mimetically coloured artificial eggs. Although we found no evidence that subtle differences in parasitic egg size or shape affect robins’ rejection decisions, 3D printing will provide an opportunity for more extensive experimentation on the potential biological or evolutionary significance of size and shape variation of foreign eggs in rejection decisions. We provide a detailed protocol for generating 3D printed eggs using either personal 3D printers or commercial printing services, and highlight additional potential future applications for this technology in the study of egg rejection. PMID:26038720

  9. Damage mechanisms in PBT-GF30 under thermo-mechanical cyclic loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaaf, A.; De Monte, M.; Hoffmann, C.; Vormwald, M.; Quaresimin, M.

    2014-01-01

    The scope of this paper is the investigation of damage mechanisms at microscopic scale on a short glass fiber reinforced polybutylene terephthalate (PBT-GF30) under thermo-mechanical cyclic loading. In addition the principal mechanisms are verified through micro mechanical FE models. In order to investigate the fatigue behavior of the material both isothermal strain controlled fatigue (ISCF) tests at three different temperatures and thermo-mechanical fatigue (TMF) tests were conducted on plain and notched specimens, manufactured by injection molding. The goal of the work is to determine the damage mechanisms occurring under TMF conditions and to compare them with the mechanisms occurring under ISCF. For this reason fracture surfaces of TMF and ISCF samples loaded at different temperature levels were analyzed using scanning electron microscopy. Furthermore, specimens that failed under TMF were examined on microsections revealing insight into both crack initiation and crack propagation. The findings of this investigation give valuable information about the main damage mechanisms of PBT-GF30 under TMF loading and serve as basis for the development of a TMF life estimation methodology

  10. Values and public acceptability dimensions of sustainable egg production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, P B; Appleby, M; Busch, L; Kalof, L; Miele, M; Norwood, B F; Pajor, E

    2011-09-01

    The attributes of egg production that elicit values-based responses include the price and availability of eggs, environmental impacts, food safety or health concerns, and animal welfare. Different social groups have distinct interests regarding the sustainability of egg production that reflect these diverse values. Current scientifically based knowledge about how values and attitudes in these groups can be characterized is uneven and must be derived from studies conducted at varying times and using incomplete study methods. In general, some producer and consumer interests are translated through markets and are mediated by market mechanisms, whereas others are poorly reflected by economic behavior. An array of survey and focus group research has been performed to elicit consumer and activist beliefs about performance goals they would expect from an egg production system. These studies provide evidence that consumers' market behavior may be at odds with their ethical and political beliefs about performance goals.

  11. The Principles of Buoyancy in Marine Fish Eggs and Their Vertical Distributions across the World Oceans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundby, Svein; Kristiansen, Trond

    2015-01-01

    Buoyancy acting on plankton, i.e. the difference in specific gravity between plankton and the ambient water, is a function of salinity and temperature. From specific gravity measurements of marine fish eggs salinity appears to be the only determinant of the buoyancy indicating that the thermal expansions of the fish egg and the ambient seawater are equal. We analyze the mechanisms behind thermal expansion in fish eggs in order to determine to what extent it can be justified to neglect the effects of temperature on buoyancy. Our results confirm the earlier assumptions that salinity is the basic determinant on buoyancy in marine fish eggs that, in turn, influence the vertical distributions and, consequently, the dispersal of fish eggs from the spawning areas. Fish populations have adapted accordingly by producing egg specific gravities that tune the egg buoyancy to create specific vertical distributions for each local population. A wide variety of buoyancy adaptations are found among fish populations. The ambient physical conditions at the spawning sites form a basic constraint for adaptation. In coastal regions where salinity increases with depth, and where the major fraction of the fish stocks spawns, pelagic and mesopelagic egg distributions dominate. However, in the larger part of worlds' oceans salinity decreases with depth resulting in different egg distributions. Here, the principles of vertical distributions of fish eggs in the world oceans are presented in an overarching framework presenting the basic differences between regions, mainly coastal, where salinity increases with depth and the major part of the world oceans where salinity decreases with depth. We show that under these latter conditions, steady-state vertical distribution of mesopelagic fish eggs cannot exist as it does in most coastal regions. In fact, a critical spawning depth must exist where spawning below this depth threshold results in eggs sinking out of the water column and become lost for

  12. The Principles of Buoyancy in Marine Fish Eggs and Their Vertical Distributions across the World Oceans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundby, Svein; Kristiansen, Trond

    2015-01-01

    Buoyancy acting on plankton, i.e. the difference in specific gravity between plankton and the ambient water, is a function of salinity and temperature. From specific gravity measurements of marine fish eggs salinity appears to be the only determinant of the buoyancy indicating that the thermal expansions of the fish egg and the ambient seawater are equal. We analyze the mechanisms behind thermal expansion in fish eggs in order to determine to what extent it can be justified to neglect the effects of temperature on buoyancy. Our results confirm the earlier assumptions that salinity is the basic determinant on buoyancy in marine fish eggs that, in turn, influence the vertical distributions and, consequently, the dispersal of fish eggs from the spawning areas. Fish populations have adapted accordingly by producing egg specific gravities that tune the egg buoyancy to create specific vertical distributions for each local population. A wide variety of buoyancy adaptations are found among fish populations. The ambient physical conditions at the spawning sites form a basic constraint for adaptation. In coastal regions where salinity increases with depth, and where the major fraction of the fish stocks spawns, pelagic and mesopelagic egg distributions dominate. However, in the larger part of worlds’ oceans salinity decreases with depth resulting in different egg distributions. Here, the principles of vertical distributions of fish eggs in the world oceans are presented in an overarching framework presenting the basic differences between regions, mainly coastal, where salinity increases with depth and the major part of the world oceans where salinity decreases with depth. We show that under these latter conditions, steady-state vertical distribution of mesopelagic fish eggs cannot exist as it does in most coastal regions. In fact, a critical spawning depth must exist where spawning below this depth threshold results in eggs sinking out of the water column and become lost

  13. Egg introduction: differential allergic responses

    OpenAIRE

    Dosanjh, Amrita

    2017-01-01

    Amrita Dosanjh Medical Center, Rady Childrens Hospital, San Diego, CA, USA Abstract: The use of egg protein preparations in clinical trials to reduce the incidence of egg allergy among infants includes a number of preparations of egg. These include whole egg, egg white protein, and egg yolk preparations. The study of the differential immune responses to these allergenic proteins in comparison is suggested as a future research area of investigation. Keywords: food allergy, egg allergy, clinica...

  14. Ovicidal activity of acrolein vapors to Indian meal moth eggs of various ages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourmirza, Ali Asghr

    2007-09-01

    The effect of acrolein vapors against carefully aged eggs of Indian meal moth at 27 +/- 1 and 17 +/- 1 degrees C at different dosage levels of acrolein over various exposure times was determined. Considerable variation in the susceptibility of different age groups of eggs was apparent in the fiducial limits of the LD50 values. At both temperatures and 24 h exposure period, eggs aged 1-2 day-old were more tolerant to acrolein than other age groups. In all bioassays, eggs exposed to higher dosages of acrolein developed at smaller rate. This was significant for the eggs, which were exposed to the highest dosage for 24 h. Increasing the temperature from 17 +/- 1 to 27 +/- 1 degrees C greatly increased the efficacy of acrolein. Overall, at 27 +/- 1 degrees C eggs of P. interpunctella were killed by less than one-fourth of the dosage required for control at 17 +/- 1 degrees C. Acrolein achieved 50% mortality with a dosage of 3.80 mg L(-1) in 1-2 day-old eggs at 27 +/- 1 degrees C. At this temperature hatching was retarded and greatly reduced when eggs aged 1-2 day-old were exposed to 32 mg L(-1) of acrolein for the 24 h exposure period. There was no evidence of a hatch delay longer than the time spent under vapors for eggs exposed at 17 +/- 1 or 27 +/- 1 degrees C, indicating that some development must have occurred under fumigation.

  15. Maternal effects of egg size on emu Dromaius novaehollandiae egg composition and hatchling phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzialowski, Edward M; Sotherland, Paul R

    2004-02-01

    Parental investment in eggs and, consequently, in offspring can profoundly influence the phenotype, survival and ultimately evolutionary fitness of an organism. Avian eggs are excellent model systems to examine maternal allocation of energy translated through egg size variation. We used the natural range in emu Dromaius novaehollandiae egg size, from 400 g to >700 g, to examine the influence of maternal investment in eggs on the morphology and physiology of hatchlings. Female emus provisioned larger eggs with a greater absolute amount of energy, nutrients and water in the yolk and albumen. Variation in maternal investment was reflected in differences in hatchling size, which increased isometrically with egg size. Egg size also influenced the physiology of developing emu embryos, such that late-term embryonic metabolic rate was positively correlated with egg size and embryos developing in larger eggs consumed more yolk during development. Large eggs produced hatchlings that were both heavier (yolk-free wet and dry mass) and structurally larger (tibiotarsus and culmen lengths) than hatchlings emerging from smaller eggs. As with many other precocial birds, larger hatchlings also contained more water, which was reflected in a greater blood volume. However, blood osmolality, hemoglobin content and hematocrit did not vary with hatchling mass. Emu maternal investment in offspring, measured by egg size and composition, is significantly correlated with the morphology and physiology of hatchlings and, in turn, may influence the success of these organisms during the first days of the juvenile stage.

  16. 21 CFR 160.180 - Egg yolks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Egg yolks. 160.180 Section 160.180 Food and Drugs... CONSUMPTION EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Eggs and Egg Products § 160.180 Egg yolks. (a) Egg yolks, liquid egg yolks, yolks, liquid yolks are yolks of eggs of the domestic hen so...

  17. Count your eggs before they invade: identifying and quantifying egg clutches of two invasive apple snail species (Pomacea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin H Kyle

    Full Text Available Winning the war against invasive species requires early detection of invasions. Compared to terrestrial invaders, aquatic species often thrive undetected under water and do not garner notice until too late for early action. However, fortunately for managers, apple snails (Family Ampullariidae, Genus Pomacea provide their own conspicuous sign of invasion in the form of vibrantly colored egg clutches. Managers can potentially use egg clutches laid in the riparian zone as a means of early detection and species identification. To facilitate such efforts, we quantified differences in characteristics (length, width, depth, mass, egg number of field-laid clutches for the two most common invasive species of apple snail, P. canaliculata and P. maculata, in native and non-native populations. Pomacea canaliculata native and non-native populations differed noticeably only in width. Native P. maculata clutches possessed significantly greater width, mass and eggs numbers compared with native P. canaliculata. Non-native P. maculata clutches significantly exceeded all other populations in all measured characteristics. Consequently, these traits may successfully distinguish between species. Fecundity data also allowed us to develop models that accurately estimated the number of eggs per clutch for each species based on clutch dimensions. We tested one, two and three dimensional models of clutches, including rendering a clutch as either a complete ellipsoid or an ellipsoid intersected by a cylinder to represent the oviposition site. Model comparisons found the product of length and depth, with a different function for each population, best predicted egg number for both species. Comparisons of egg number to clutch volume and mass implied non-native P. canaliculata may be food limited, while non-native P. maculata appeared to produce such enormous clutches by having access to greater nutrients than the native population. With these new tools, researchers and

  18. Single and combined effects of zinc and cinnamon essential oil in diet on productive performance, egg quality traits, and blood parameters of laying hens reared under cold stress condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torki, Mehran; Akbari, Mohsen; Kaviani, Keyomars

    2015-09-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of adding zinc (Zn), cinnamon essential oil (Ci), or their combination in diet on productive performance, egg quality, and blood parameters of laying hens reared under cold stress condition (8.8 ± 3 °C). Feed intake (FI), feed conversion ratio (FCR), egg weight (EW), egg production (EP), and egg mass (EM) were evaluated during the 56-day trial period using 120 Lohmann LSL-Lite laying hens. Significant interactions between Ci and Zn on FCR, EW, EP, or EM were observed ( P hens fed the diets including Ci and Zn (as single or combined form) compared to those fed the basal diet. There were significant interactions between Ci and Zn on the serum level of glucose and triglycerides as well as plasma concentration of zinc ( P hens fed the diets including Ci and Zn (together) compared to those fed the basal diet. From the results of the present experiment, it can be concluded that diet supplementation by the combined form of Ci and Zn could have beneficial effects on performance and blood parameters of hens reared under cold stress condition.

  19. Estimating the Number of Eggs in Blow Fly (Diptera: Calliphoridae) Egg Masses Using Photographic Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosati, J Y; Pacheco, V A; Vankosky, M A; Vanlaerhoven, S L

    2015-07-01

    Little work has been done to quantify the number of eggs oviposited by blow flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae) in studies examining colonization behavior. Egg counting methods currently available are time-consuming and destructive. This study used ImageJ software and analysis of covariance to relate the volume of egg masses to the number of eggs laid by three different blow fly species: Lucilia sericata (Meigen), Phormia regina (Meigen), and Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart). Egg mass volume, species, and the interaction of species and egg mass volume all affected the number of blow fly eggs deposited in egg masses. Both species identity and egg mass volume are important when predicting egg number, as such a single regression equation cannot be used to estimate egg number for these three species. Therefore, simple linear regression equations were determined for each species. The volume of individual eggs was incorporated into the model, yet differences between species were observed, suggesting that the orientation of the eggs oviposited by multiple conspecific females within egg masses influences egg estimates. Based on our results, we expect that imaging software can be used for other blow fly species, as well as other insect species; however, equations specific to each species must be developed. This study describes an important tool for quantifying egg deposition in a nondestructive manner, which is important in studying the colonization behavior and life history of insects of ecological and forensic importance. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Discordancy or template-based recognition? Dissecting the cognitive basis of the rejection of foreign eggs in hosts of avian brood parasites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moskat, Csaba; Ban, Miklos; Szekely, Tamas; Komdeur, Jan; Lucassen, Rim W. G.; van Boheemen, Lotte A.; Hauber, Mark E.

    2010-01-01

    Many avian hosts have evolved antiparasite defence mechanisms, including egg rejection, to reduce the costs of brood parasitism. The two main alternative cognitive mechanisms of egg discrimination are thought to be based on the perceived discordancy of eggs in a clutch or the use of recognition

  1. Developing a method for quantification of Ascaris eggs on hands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeandron, Aurelie; Ensink, Jeroen J. H.; Thamsborg, Stig Milan

    In transmission of soil transmitted helminths, especially with Ascaris and Trichuris infections, the importance of hands is unclear and very limited literature exists. This is partly because of the absence of a reliable method to quantify the number of helminth eggs on hands. The aim of this study...... was to develop a method to assess the number of Ascaris eggs on hands and determine the egg recovery rate of the method. Under laboratory conditions, hands were contaminated with app. 1000 Ascaris eggs, air dried and washed in a plastic bag retaining the washing water, in order to determine recovery rates...... of eggs for two different detergents (cationic [benzethonium chloride 0.1%], anionic [7X 1% - quadrafos, glycol ether, and dioctyl sulfoccinate sodium salt]) and de-ionized water used as control. The highest recovery rate (95.6%) was achieved with a hand rinse performed with 7X 1%. Washing hands...

  2. Enumeration of Salmonellae in Table Eggs, Pasteurized Egg Products, and Egg-Containing Dishes by Using Quantitative Real-Time PCR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakočiūnė, Džiuginta; Pasquali, Frédérique; da Silva, Cristiana Soares

    2014-01-01

    PCR) was employed for enumeration of salmonellae in different matrices: table eggs, pasteurized egg products, and egg-containing dishes. Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis and S. enterica serovar Tennessee were used to artificially contaminate these matrices. The results showed a linear regression between...... the numbers of salmonellae and the quantification cycle (Cq) values for all matrices used, with the exception of pasteurized egg white. Standard curves were constructed by using both stationary-phase cells and heat-stressed cells, with similar results. Finally, this method was used to evaluate the fate...

  3. Transcriptional Profiling of Egg Allergy and Relationship to Disease Phenotype.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman Kosoy

    Full Text Available Egg allergy is one of the most common food allergies of childhood. There is a lack of information on the immunologic basis of egg allergy beyond the role of IgE.To use transcriptional profiling as a novel approach to uncover immunologic processes associated with different phenotypes of egg allergy.Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs were obtained from egg-allergic children who were defined as reactive (BER or tolerant (BET to baked egg, and from food allergic controls (AC who were egg non-allergic. PBMCs were stimulated with egg white protein. Gene transcription was measured by microarray after 24 h, and cytokine secretion by multiplex assay after 5 days.The transcriptional response of PBMCs to egg protein differed between BER and BET versus AC subjects. Compared to the AC group, the BER group displayed increased expression of genes associated with allergic inflammation as well as corresponding increased secretion of IL-5, IL-9 and TNF-α. A similar pattern was observed for the BET group. Further similarities in gene expression patterns between BER and BET groups, as well as some important differences, were revealed using a novel Immune Annotation resource developed for this project. This approach identified several novel processes not previously associated with egg allergy, including positive associations with TLR4-stimulated myeloid cells and activated NK cells, and negative associations with an induced Treg signature. Further pathway analysis of differentially expressed genes comparing BER to BET subjects showed significant enrichment of IFN-α and IFN-γ response genes, as well as genes associated with virally-infected DCs.Transcriptional profiling identified several novel pathways and processes that differed when comparing the response to egg allergen in BET, BER, and AC groups. We conclude that this approach is a useful hypothesis-generating mechanism to identify novel immune processes associated with allergy and tolerance to forms

  4. Effect of egg freshness on texture and baking characteristics of batter systems formulated using egg, flour and sugar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Liting; Niu, Fuge; Su, Yujie; Yang, Yanjun

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the effects of egg freshness on baking properties and final qualities in batter systems. Batters were made with eggs of different freshness, and the properties of batter systems were studied through rheological analysis, rapid viscosity analysis (RVA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), batter density and expansion rate during the baking and cooling processes. Moreover, the qualities of final baked systems were investigated, including specific volume and texture profile analysis (TPA). The flow behavior of batters showed that the consistency index (K) decreased as the Haugh unit (HU) value decreased, while the flow behavior index (n) increased. Both the storage modulus (G') and loss modulus (G″) determined by mechanical spectra at 20 °C decreased with decreasing HU. RVA and DSC determinations revealed that lower-HU samples had a lower viscosity in the baking process and a shorter time for starch gelatinization and egg protein denaturation. Observation of the batter density revealed an increasing change, which was reflected by a decrease in the specific volume of final models. TPA showed significant differences in hardness and chewiness, but no significant differences in springiness and cohesiveness were found. The egg freshness affected the properties of batter systems. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  5. Sea urchin egg fertilization and development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, R. S.

    1971-01-01

    The effects of subgravity (much less than unit gravity) on fertilization, cell division, differentiation, and growth of a relatively simple biological system (eggs of the sea urchin Arbacia punctulata) were considered. The experiment was flown on Gemini 3 and recovered as scheduled. However, the experiment objectives were not achieved, primarily for mechanical reasons.

  6. Campylobacter jejuni in commercial eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, Belchiolina Beatriz; Beletti, Marcelo Emílio; de Melo, Roberta Torres; Mendonça, Eliane Pereira; Coelho, Letícia Ríspoli; Nalevaiko, Priscila Christen; Rossi, Daise Aparecida

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated the ability of Campylobacter jejuni to penetrate through the pores of the shells of commercial eggs and colonize the interior of these eggs, which may become a risk factor for human infection. Furthermore, this study assessed the survival and viability of the bacteria in commercial eggs. The eggs were placed in contact with wood shavings infected with C. jejuni to check the passage of the bacteria. In parallel, the bacteria were inoculated directly into the air chamber to assess the viability in the egg yolk. To determine whether the albumen and egg fertility interferes with the entry and survival of bacteria, we used varying concentrations of albumen and SPF and commercial eggs. C. jejuni was recovered in SPF eggs (fertile) after three hours in contact with contaminated wood shavings but not in infertile commercial eggs. The colonies isolated in the SPF eggs were identified by multiplex PCR and the similarity between strains verified by RAPD-PCR. The bacteria grew in different concentrations of albumen in commercial and SPF eggs. We did not find C. jejuni in commercial eggs inoculated directly into the air chamber, but the bacteria were viable during all periods tested in the wood shavings. This study shows that consumption of commercial eggs infected with C. jejuni does not represent a potential risk to human health.

  7. Metabolic Regulation of CaMKII Protein and Caspases in Xenopus laevis Egg Extracts*

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCoy, Francis; Darbandi, Rashid; Chen, Si-Ing; Eckard, Laura; Dodd, Keela; Jones, Kelly; Baucum, Anthony J.; Gibbons, Jennifer A.; Lin, Sue-Hwa; Colbran, Roger J.; Nutt, Leta K.

    2013-01-01

    The metabolism of the Xenopus laevis egg provides a cell survival signal. We found previously that increased carbon flux from glucose-6-phosphate (G6P) through the pentose phosphate pathway in egg extracts maintains NADPH levels and calcium/calmodulin regulated protein kinase II (CaMKII) activity to phosphorylate caspase 2 and suppress cell death pathways. Here we show that the addition of G6P to oocyte extracts inhibits the dephosphorylation/inactivation of CaMKII bound to caspase 2 by protein phosphatase 1. Thus, G6P sustains the phosphorylation of caspase 2 by CaMKII at Ser-135, preventing the induction of caspase 2-mediated apoptotic pathways. These findings expand our understanding of oocyte biology and clarify mechanisms underlying the metabolic regulation of CaMKII and apoptosis. Furthermore, these findings suggest novel approaches to disrupt the suppressive effects of the abnormal metabolism on cell death pathways. PMID:23400775

  8. Egg number-egg size: an important trade-off in parasite life history strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavaleiro, Francisca I; Santos, Maria J

    2014-03-01

    Parasites produce from just a few to many eggs of variable size, but our understanding of the factors driving variation in these two life history traits at the intraspecific level is still very fragmentary. This study evaluates the importance of performing multilevel analyses on egg number and egg size, while characterising parasite life history strategies. A total of 120 ovigerous females of Octopicola superba (Copepoda: Octopicolidae) (one sample (n=30) per season) were characterised with respect to different body dimensions (total length; genital somite length) and measures of reproductive effort (fecundity; mean egg diameter; total reproductive effort; mean egg sac length). While endoparasites are suggested to follow both an r- and K-strategy simultaneously, the evidence found in this and other studies suggests that environmental conditions force ectoparasites into one of the two alternatives. The positive and negative skewness of the distributions of fecundity and mean egg diameter, respectively, suggest that O. superba is mainly a K-strategist (i.e. produces a relatively small number of large, well provisioned eggs). Significant sample differences were recorded concomitantly for all body dimensions and measures of reproductive effort, while a general linear model detected a significant influence of season*parasite total length in both egg number and size. This evidence suggests adaptive phenotypic plasticity in body dimensions and size-mediated changes in egg production. Seasonal changes in partitioning of resources between egg number and size resulted in significant differences in egg sac length but not in total reproductive effort. Evidence for a trade-off between egg number and size was found while controlling for a potential confounding effect of parasite total length. However, this trade-off became apparent only at high fecundity levels, suggesting a state of physiological exhaustion. Copyright © 2014 Australian Society for Parasitology Inc. Published

  9. Analysis of signal transduction in cell-free extracts and rafts of Xenopus eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokmakov, Alexander A; Iwasaki, Tetsushi; Sato, Ken-Ichi; Fukami, Yasuo

    2010-05-01

    Intracellular signaling during egg activation/fertilization has been extensively studied using intact eggs, which can be manipulated by microinjection of different mRNAs, proteins, or chemical drugs. Furthermore, egg extracts, which retain high CSF activity (CSF-arrested extracts), were developed for studying fertilization/activation signal transduction, which have significant advantages as a model system. The addition of calcium to CSF-arrested extracts initiates a plethora of signaling events that take place during egg activation. Hence, the signaling downstream of calcium mobilization has been successfully studied in the egg extracts. Moreover, despite disruption of membrane-associated signaling compartments and ordered compartmentalization during extract preparation, CSF-arrested extracts can be successfully used to study early signaling events, which occur upstream of calcium release during egg activation/fertilization. In combination with the CSF-arrested extracts, activated egg rafts can reproduce some events of egg activation, including PLCgamma activation, IP3 production, transient calcium release, MAPK inactivation, and meiotic exit. This becomes possible due to complementation of the sperm-induced egg activation signaling machinery present in the rafts with the components of signal transduction system localized in the extracts. Herein, we describe protocols for studying molecular mechanisms of egg fertilization/activation using cell-free extracts and membrane rafts prepared from metaphase-arrested Xenopus eggs.

  10. Intraspecific variation in egg size and egg composition in birds: effects on offspring fitness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, T D

    1994-02-01

    1. There is little unequivocal evidence to date in support of a positive relationship between egg size and offspring fitness in birds. Although 40 studies (of 34 species) have considered the effect of variation in egg size on chick growth and/or survival up to fledgling only 12 studies have controlled for other characters potentially correlated both with egg size and offspring fitness. Of these only two have reported a significant residual effect of egg size on chick growth (in the roseate tern and European blackbird) and three a residual effect on chick survival (all in seabirds: common tern, lesser black-backed gull and kittiwake). 2. More consistent evidence exists, though from fewer studies, for a positive relationship between egg size and offspring fitness early in the chick-rearing period; chick growth and chick survival being dependent on egg size in 8 of 10 studies and 4 of 5 studies respectively. It is suggested that the most important effect of variation in egg size might be in determining the probability of offspring survival in the first few days after hatching. 3. Egg size explains on average 66% of the variation in chick mass at hatching (n = 35 studies) but only 30% of the variation in chick body size (n = 18). When effects of hatching body size are controlled for chick mass remains significantly correlated with egg size, though the reverse is not true. This supports the hypothesis that large eggs give rise to heavier chicks at hatching, i.e., chicks with more nutrient (yolk) reserves, rather than structurally larger chicks. 4. Egg composition increased isometrically with increasing egg size in about half the studies so far reported (n equals approximately 20). However, in seabirds, and some passerines, larger eggs contain disproportionately more albumen, whilst in some waterfowl percentage yolk content increases with increasing egg size. Changes in albumen content largely reflect variation in the water content of eggs, but changes in yolk content

  11. Quality characteristic of spray-drying egg white powders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Shuang; Zhao, Songning; Zhang, Yan; Yu, Yiding; Liu, Jingbo; Xu, Menglei

    2013-10-01

    Spray drying is a useful method for developing egg process and utilization. The objective of this study was to evaluate effects on spray drying condition of egg white. The optimized conditions were spraying flow 22 mL/min, feeding temperature 39.8 °C and inlet-air temperature 178.2 °C. Results of sulfydryl (SH) groups measurement indicated conformation structure have changed resulting in protein molecule occur S-S crosslinking phenomenon when heating. It led to free SH content decreased during spray drying process. There was almost no change of differential scanning calorimetry between fresh egg white and spray-drying egg white powder (EWP). For a given protein, the apparent SH reactivity is in turn influenced by the physico-chemical characteristics of the reactant. The phenomenon illustrated the thermal denaturation of these proteins was unrelated to their free SH contents. Color measurement was used to study browning level. EWP in optimized conditions revealed insignificant brown stain. Swelling capacity and scanning electron micrograph both proved well quality characteristic of spray-drying EWP. Results suggested spray drying under the optimized conditions present suitable and alternative method for egg processing industrial implementation. Egg food industrialization needs new drying method to extend shelf-life. The purpose of the study was to provide optimal process of healthy and nutritional instant spray-drying EWP and study quality characteristic of spray-drying EWP.

  12. 9 CFR 590.45 - Prohibition on eggs and egg products not intended for use as human food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Prohibition on eggs and egg products... INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Eggs and Egg Products Not Intended for Human Food § 590.45 Prohibition on...

  13. Variation in the hatching response of Ochlerotatus albifasciatus egg batches (Diptera: Culicidae in temperate Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl Ernesto Campos

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Egg hatching of winter-collected Ochlerotatus albifasciatus was studied for six months. Batches of eggs were divided into two groups, one of them was stored in the laboratory at 23°C and 12:12 photoperiod, and the other in the field under dead leaves. Every month, from July to December, eggs from the two groups were flooded under both laboratory and field conditions. Unhatched eggs were returned to the original condition and flooded two more times separated by ten-day intervals. Results show that egg diapause is expressed in different intensities, not only on eggs exposed to different conditions but also in those exposed to the same condition, even when they were laid by the same female. Successive inundations yielded incomplete hatches of eggs, and favored the hatching response in the next flooding. Low environmental temperatures before and during the flooding depressed hatching response. This shows that eggs need a warm period before flooding as well as warm temperatures during flooding, to hatch. As drought period was longer hatching response increased, but this was also accompanied by warmer environmental conditions. The experiment performed in laboratory did not show that increment. Field studies showed that a layer of dead leaves protected eggs from extreme temperatures.

  14. Industrially processed oilseed rape in the production of table eggs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mária Angelovičová

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of feed mixtures with varying proportions of rape cakes to the weight of table eggs, its components, thickness and strength of egg shell. The eggs were from the final laying hybrid ISA Brown reared in the enriched cage system under experimental conditions. An age of laying hens was from 48 to 54 weeks. Egg weight and its components were measured on scales type KERN 440-35N, with an accuracy of 0.01 g and a maximum weight of 400 g. Egg white weight was calculated. The thickness and strength of the egg shell were measured from the dried samples at 55 °C. From each egg shell were cut 3 pcs of samples in the equatorial plane, one sample from the blunt end and one sample from the sharp end. Egg shell thickness was measured by test instrument SOME, type 60/0.01mm with a range of 0 - 10 mm. Egg shell strength was measured according to test instrument Instron with the small body, having a diameter 4.48 mm to exert pressure on the egg shell. The obtained data were assessed in the program system SAS, version 8.2. Based on the results observed in egg weight of our experiment we can conclude that in the group with share 5% of rape cakes was non-statistically significant (p >0.05 decreased egg weight compared to the control group. Egg weight was reduced in the group with share 10% of rape cakes, which confirmed a statistically significant difference compared to egg weight of control group (p ˂0.05. The differences among experimental groups with share 5% and 10% of rape cakes in feed mixture and as well as to control group were not statistically significant (p >0.05 in weight of egg yolk, egg white, egg shell and egg shell strength. Egg shell thickness was no statistically significant (p >0.05 increased in experimental group with share 5% of rape cakes and decreased in experimental group with share 10% of rape cakes versus control group. Increase of egg shell thickness in experimental group with

  15. Effect of location of eggs in the incubator on hatchability of eggs from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... the hatchability of all eggs set and of fertile eggs was the highest in eggs placed in the front of the machine. Furthermore, early and middle stage deaths during incubation were lower in the front of the incubator compared to the back. The differences between eggs placed in the upper, middle and lower parts of the machine ...

  16. Life-history consequences of investment in free-spawned eggs and their accessory coats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podolsky, Robert D

    2004-05-01

    The optimal trade-off between offspring size and number can depend on details of the mode of reproduction or development. In marine organisms, broadcast spawning is widespread, and external coats are a common feature of spawned eggs. Egg jelly coats are thought to influence several aspects of fertilization and early development, including the size of the target for sperm, fertilization efficiency, egg suspension time, polyspermy, embryo survival, and fecundity. These costs and benefits of investment in jelly result in trade-offs that can influence optimal reproductive allocation and the evolution of egg size. I develop an optimization model that sequentially incorporates assumptions about the function of egg coats in fertilization. The model predicts large variation in coat size and limited variation in ovum size under a broad range of conditions. Heterogeneity among spawning events further limits the range of ovum sizes predicted to evolve under sperm limitation. In contrast, variation in larval mortality predicts a broad range of optimal ovum sizes that more closely reflects natural variation among broadcast-spawning invertebrates. By decoupling physical and energetic size, egg coats can enhance fertilization, maintain high fecundity, and buffer the evolution of ovum size from variation in spawning conditions.

  17. Discrimination of gastrointestinal nematode eggs from crude fecal egg preparations by inhibitor-resistant conventional and real-time PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demeler, Janina; Ramünke, Sabrina; Wolken, Sonja; Ianiello, Davide; Rinaldi, Laura; Gahutu, Jean Bosco; Cringoli, Giuseppe; von Samson-Himmelstjerna, Georg; Krücken, Jürgen

    2013-01-01

    Diagnosis of gastrointestinal nematodes relies predominantly on coproscopic methods such as flotation, Kato-Katz, McMaster or FLOTAC. Although FLOTAC allows accurate quantification, many nematode eggs can only be differentiated to genus or family level. Several molecular diagnostic tools discriminating closely related species suffer from high costs for DNA isolation from feces and limited sensitivity since most kits use only small amounts of feces (PCR from crude egg preparations was designed for full compatibility with FLOTAC to accurately quantify eggs per gram feces (epg) and determine species composition. Eggs were recovered from the flotation solution and concentrated by sieving. Lysis was achieved by repeated boiling and freezing cycles - only Trichuris eggs required additional mechanic disruption. Egg lysates were directly used as template for PCR with Phusion DNA polymerase which is particularly resistant to PCR inhibitors. Qualitative results were obtained with feces of goats, cattle, horses, swine, cats, dogs and mice. The finally established protocol was also compatible with quantitative real-time PCR in the presence of EvaGreen and no PCR inhibition was detectable when extracts were diluted at least fourfold. Sensitivity was comparable to DNA isolation protocols and spiked samples with five epg were reliably detected. For Toxocara cati a detection limit below one epg was demonstrated. It was possible to distinguish T. cati and Toxocara canis using high resolution melt (HRM) analysis, a rapid tool for species identification. In human samples, restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) and HRM analysis were used to discriminate Necator americanus and Ancylostoma duodenale. The method is able to significantly improve molecular diagnosis of gastrointestinal nematodes by increasing speed and sensitivity while decreasing overall costs. For identification of species or resistance alleles, analysis of PCR products with many different post PCR methods can

  18. Discrimination of gastrointestinal nematode eggs from crude fecal egg preparations by inhibitor-resistant conventional and real-time PCR.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janina Demeler

    Full Text Available Diagnosis of gastrointestinal nematodes relies predominantly on coproscopic methods such as flotation, Kato-Katz, McMaster or FLOTAC. Although FLOTAC allows accurate quantification, many nematode eggs can only be differentiated to genus or family level. Several molecular diagnostic tools discriminating closely related species suffer from high costs for DNA isolation from feces and limited sensitivity since most kits use only small amounts of feces (<1 g. A direct PCR from crude egg preparations was designed for full compatibility with FLOTAC to accurately quantify eggs per gram feces (epg and determine species composition. Eggs were recovered from the flotation solution and concentrated by sieving. Lysis was achieved by repeated boiling and freezing cycles - only Trichuris eggs required additional mechanic disruption. Egg lysates were directly used as template for PCR with Phusion DNA polymerase which is particularly resistant to PCR inhibitors. Qualitative results were obtained with feces of goats, cattle, horses, swine, cats, dogs and mice. The finally established protocol was also compatible with quantitative real-time PCR in the presence of EvaGreen and no PCR inhibition was detectable when extracts were diluted at least fourfold. Sensitivity was comparable to DNA isolation protocols and spiked samples with five epg were reliably detected. For Toxocara cati a detection limit below one epg was demonstrated. It was possible to distinguish T. cati and Toxocara canis using high resolution melt (HRM analysis, a rapid tool for species identification. In human samples, restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP and HRM analysis were used to discriminate Necator americanus and Ancylostoma duodenale. The method is able to significantly improve molecular diagnosis of gastrointestinal nematodes by increasing speed and sensitivity while decreasing overall costs. For identification of species or resistance alleles, analysis of PCR products with many

  19. THE EVOLUTIONARY GENETICS OF AN ADAPTIVE MATERNAL EFFECT: EGG SIZE PLASTICITY IN A SEED BEETLE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Charles W; Czesak, Mary Ellen; Mousseau, Timothy A; Roff, Derek A

    1999-04-01

    In many organisms, a female's environment provides a reliable indicator of the environmental conditions that her progeny will encounter. In such cases, maternal effects may evolve as mechanisms for transgenerational phenotypic plasticity whereby, in response to a predictive environmental cue, a mother can change the type of eggs that she makes or can program a developmental switch in her offspring, which produces offspring prepared for the environmental conditions predicted by the cue. One potentially common mechanism by which females manipulate the phenotype of their progeny is egg size plasticity, in which females vary egg size in response to environmental cues. We describe an experiment in which we quantify genetic variation in egg size and egg size plasticity in a seed beetle, Stator limbatus, and measure the genetic constraints on the evolution of egg size plasticity, quantified as the genetic correlation between the size of eggs laid across host plants. We found that genetic variation is present within populations for the size of eggs laid on seeds of two host plants (Acacia greggii and Cercidium floridum; h 2 ranged between 0.217 and 0.908), and that the heritability of egg size differed between populations and hosts (higher on A. greggii than on C. floridum). We also found that the evolution of egg size plasticity (the maternal effect) is in part constrained by a high genetic correlation across host plants (r G > 0.6). However, the cross-environment genetic correlation is less than 1.0, which indicates that the size of eggs laid on these two hosts can diverge in response to natural selection and that egg size plasticity is thus capable of evolving in response to natural selection. © 1999 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  20. 9 CFR 590.920 - Importer to make application for inspection of imported eggs and egg products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... inspection of imported eggs and egg products. 590.920 Section 590.920 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Imports § 590.920 Importer to make application for inspection of...

  1. 9 CFR 590.510 - Classifications of shell eggs used in the processing of egg products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Classifications of shell eggs used in the processing of egg products. 590.510 Section 590.510 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS...

  2. Trichuris trichiura egg (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is the classical appearance of the Trichuria (whipworm) egg. The eggs are highly infectious. After a person eats contaminated food, the worms hatch from the eggs and live in the intestine, causing vomiting and ...

  3. Geographical variation in egg mass and egg content in a passerine bird.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suvi Ruuskanen

    Full Text Available Reproductive, phenotypic and life-history traits in many animal and plant taxa show geographic variation, indicating spatial variation in selection regimes. Maternal deposition to avian eggs, such as hormones, antibodies and antioxidants, critically affect development of the offspring, with long-lasting effects on the phenotype and fitness. Little is however known about large-scale geographical patterns of variation in maternal deposition to eggs. We studied geographical variation in egg components of a passerine bird, the pied flycatcher (Ficedula hypoleuca, by collecting samples from 16 populations and measuring egg and yolk mass, albumen lysozyme activity, yolk immunoglobulins, yolk androgens and yolk total carotenoids. We found significant variation among populations in most egg components, but ca. 90% of the variation was among individuals within populations. Population however explained 40% of the variation in carotenoid levels. In contrast to our hypothesis, we found geographical trends only in carotenoids, but not in any of the other egg components. Our results thus suggest high within-population variation and leave little scope for local adaptation and genetic differentiation in deposition of different egg components. The role of these maternally-derived resources in evolutionary change should be further investigated.

  4. Effects of dietary humic substances on egg production and egg shell ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of dietary humic substances on egg production and egg shell quality of hens after peak laying period. ... Ninety Isa Brown layers from 51 to 61 weeks of age were allocated to three treatment groups, namely H0, H1 and H2. ... Egg production (% hen-day) in the H2 group was higher (P < 0.05) than control group.

  5. The extraembryonic serosa protects the insect egg against desiccation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Chris G. C.; Rezende, Gustavo L.; Lamers, Gerda E. M.; van der Zee, Maurijn

    2013-01-01

    Insects have been extraordinarily successful in occupying terrestrial habitats, in contrast to their mostly aquatic sister group, the crustaceans. This success is typically attributed to adult traits such as flight, whereas little attention has been paid to adaptation of the egg. An evolutionary novelty of insect eggs is the serosa, an extraembryonic membrane that enfolds the embryo and secretes a cuticle. To experimentally test the protective function of the serosa, we exploit an exceptional possibility to eliminate this membrane by zerknüllt1 RNAi in the beetle Tribolium castaneum. We analyse hatching rates of eggs under a range of humidities and find dramatically decreasing hatching rates with decreasing humidities for serosa-less eggs, but not for control eggs. Furthermore, we show serosal expression of Tc-chitin-synthase1 and demonstrate that its knock-down leads to absence of the serosal cuticle and a reduction in hatching rates at low humidities. These developmental genetic techniques in combination with ecological testing provide experimental evidence for a crucial role of the serosa in desiccation resistance. We propose that the origin of this extraembryonic membrane facilitated the spectacular radiation of insects on land, as did the origin of the amniote egg in the terrestrial invasion of vertebrates. PMID:23782888

  6. Eggs: good or bad?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Bruce A

    2016-08-01

    Eggs have one of the lowest energy to nutrient density ratios of any food, and contain a quality of protein that is superior to beef steak and similar to dairy. From a nutritional perspective, this must qualify eggs as 'good'. The greater burden of proof has been to establish that eggs are not 'bad', by increasing awareness of the difference between dietary and blood cholesterol, and accumulating sufficient evidence to exonerate eggs from their associations with CVD and diabetes. After 60 years of research, a general consensus has now been reached that dietary cholesterol, chiefly from eggs, exerts a relatively small effect on serum LDL-cholesterol and CVD risk, in comparison with other diet and lifestyle factors. While dietary guidelines have been revised worldwide to reflect this view, associations between egg intake and the incidence of diabetes, and increased CVD risk in diabetes, prevail. These associations may be explained, in part, by residual confounding produced by other dietary components. The strength of evidence that links egg intake to increased CVD risk in diabetes is also complicated by variation in the response of serum LDL-cholesterol to eggs and dietary cholesterol in types 1 and 2 diabetes. On balance, the answer to the question as to whether eggs are 'bad', is probably 'no', but we do need to gain a better understanding of the effects of dietary cholesterol and its association with CVD risk in diabetes.

  7. Odd-Boiled Eggs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaminsky, Kenneth; Scheman, Naomi

    2010-01-01

    At a Shabbat lunch in Madrid not long ago, the conversation turned to the question of boiling eggs. One of the guests mentioned that a Dutch rabbi he knew had heard that in order to make it more likely that boiled eggs be kosher, you should add an egg to the pot if the number you began with was even. According to the laws of Kashruth, Jews may not…

  8. Diseases of amphibian eggs and embryos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, D.E.; Converse, K.A.; Majumdar, S.K.; Huffman, J.E.; Brenner, F.J.; Panah, A.I.

    2005-01-01

    Amphibians generally are prolific egg producers. In tropical and semi-tropical regions, deposition of eggs may occur year-round or may coincide with rainy seasons, while in temperate regions, deposition of eggs usually occurs immediately after emergence from hibernation. Numbers of eggs produced by each species may vary from a few dozen to thousands. Accordingly, some eggs may be infertile and wastage of embryos is to be expected. Fertility, viability and decomposition of eggs and embryos must be considered before it is assumed that diseases are present. An important consideration in the evaluation of egg masses is the fact that some will contain infertile and non-viable eggs. These infertile and nonviable eggs will undergo decomposition and they may appear similar to eggs that are infected by a pathogen. Evaluation of egg masses and embryos for the presence of disease may require repeated observations in a given breeding season as well as continued monitoring of egg masses during their growth and development and over successive breeding seasons. Amphibian eggs rarely are subjected to a comprehensive health (diagnostic) examination; hence, there is scant literature on the diseases of this life stage. Indeed, the eggs of some North American amphibians have yet to be described. Much basic physiology and normal biomedical baseline data on amphibian eggs is lacking. For example, it is known that the aquatic eggs of some species of shrimp quickly are coated by a protective and commensal bacterium that effectively impedes invasion of the eggs by other environmental organisms and potential pathogens. In the absence of this bacterium, shrimp eggs are rapidly killed by other bacteria and fungi (Green, 2001). The possibility that amphibian eggs also have important symbiotic or commensal bacteria needs to be investigated. Furthermore, the quantity and types of chemicals in the normal gelatinous capsules of amphibian eggs have scarcely been examined. Abnormalities of the

  9. 21 CFR 160.145 - Dried egg whites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Dried egg whites. 160.145 Section 160.145 Food and... CONSUMPTION EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Eggs and Egg Products § 160.145 Dried egg whites. (a) The food dried egg whites, egg white solids, dried egg albumen, egg albumen solids is...

  10. Conspecific mimics and low host plant availability reduce egg laying by Heliconius erato phyllis (Fabricius (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elna Mugrabi-Oliveira

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Oviposition response of Heliconius erato phyllis (Fabricius, 1775 (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae to variation in host plant availability, Passiflora suberosa Linnaeus (Passifloraceae, and to presence of conspecific eggs and larvae was determined through choice experiments performed under insectary conditions. Freeze dried, painted eggs and larvae were used as mimics for testing presence of conspecific effects. Females laid more eggs on intact P. suberosa shoots without conspecifics than on those with H. erato phyllis egg and first instar mimics in both simultaneous and sequential choice trials. Oviposition response to variation in host plant availability was determined through no-choice trials, under host plant densities varying from 0.3 to 8.3 plants per female. Number of eggs laid per plant decreased exponentially with an increase in plant availability. On the contrary, daily oviposition rates (eggs /female/day increased with an increase in plant number, and levelled off when the number of plants available for oviposition was greater than potential fecundity of females. Thus, it is inferred from the results that females assess egg and larval load and prefer to lay eggs on shoots free from conspecifics. It is also inferred that they are able to recognize plant abundance and are unwilling to lay more than one egg per shoot even when host availability is scarce, as judged by reduction in daily oviposition rates under low host plant number. The consequences of laying isolated eggs on P. suberosa shoots are discussed from the viewpoint of intraspecific competition in the larval stage of H. erato phyllis.

  11. "Ant-egg" cataract revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemmensen, Kåre; Enghild, Jan J; Ivarsen, Anders

    2017-01-01

    -ray scans and electron microscopy. The purpose of this study was to further characterize "ant-egg" cataract using modern technology and display the history of the "ant-eggs" after cataract extraction. METHODS: "Ant-eggs" were examined using Heidelberg SPECTRALIS Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT...

  12. Factors affecting thermal resistance of Salmonella enterica serovar enteritidis ODA 99-30581-13 in shell egg contents and use of heat-ozone combinations for egg pasteurization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Jennifer J; Yousef, Ahmed E

    2013-02-01

    Infection of laying hens with Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis leads to deposition of the pathogen into the albumen or yolk of forming eggs. Heat treatment can inactivate internalized Salmonella Enteritidis in shell eggs, but factors such as the nature and location of contamination may influence the efficacy of thermal treatments. In the current research, natural contamination was mimicked by introducing small inocula of Salmonella Enteritidis into different locations of shell eggs and incubating inoculated eggs. These pathogen-containing eggs were heated at 57°C for 40 min, and temperature within eggs was monitored at the locations of inocula. Comparison of inactivation at equivalent internal temperatures revealed similar levels of lethality regardless of inoculum location. Refrigeration between incubation and heat treatment did not increase thermal resistance of cells in albumen but decreased cell inactivation in yolk. Sequential application of heat and gaseous ozone allows for the development of a process capable of decontaminating shell eggs with minimal thermal treatment and impact on egg quality. Inoculated eggs were subjected to (i) an immersion heating process similar to that used in commercial pasteurization or (ii) immersion heating, at reduced duration, followed by vacuum (50.8 kPa) and treatment with ozone gas (maximum 160 g/m(3)) under pressure (∼187.5 kPa). All treatments tested produced greater than 5-log inactivation, which is required for "pasteurization" processes. Differences were observed in the visual quality of eggs depending on treatment parameters. Application of ozone subsequent to heating allows for a significant reduction in heating time without decreasing process lethality.

  13. The evolutionary puzzle of egg size, oxygenation and parental care in aquatic environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braga Goncalves, Ines; Ahnesjö, Ingrid; Kvarnemo, Charlotta

    2015-08-22

    Offspring fitness generally improves with increasing egg size. Yet, eggs of most aquatic organisms are small. A common but largely untested assumption is that larger embryos require more oxygen than they can acquire through diffusion via the egg surface, constraining egg size evolution. However, we found no detrimental effects of large egg size on embryo growth and survival under hypoxic conditions. We tested this in the broad-nosed pipefish, Syngnathus typhle, whose males provide extensive care (nourishment, osmoregulation and oxygenation) to their young in a brood pouch on their bodies. We took advantage of this species' pronounced variation in egg size, correlating positively with female size, and tested the effect of hypoxia (40% dissolved oxygen) versus fully oxygenated (100%) water on embryo size and survival of large versus small eggs after 18 days of paternal brooding. Egg size did not affect embryo survival, regardless of O2 treatment. While hypoxia affected embryo size negatively, both large and small eggs showed similar reductions in growth. Males in hypoxia ventilated more and males with large eggs swam more, but neither treatment affected their position in the water column. Overall, our results call into question the most common explanation for constrained egg size evolution in aquatic environments. © 2015 The Author(s).

  14. EGG: Empirical Galaxy Generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiber, C.; Elbaz, D.; Pannella, M.; Merlin, E.; Castellano, M.; Fontana, A.; Bourne, N.; Boutsia, K.; Cullen, F.; Dunlop, J.; Ferguson, H. C.; Michałowski, M. J.; Okumura, K.; Santini, P.; Shu, X. W.; Wang, T.; White, C.

    2018-04-01

    The Empirical Galaxy Generator (EGG) generates fake galaxy catalogs and images with realistic positions, morphologies and fluxes from the far-ultraviolet to the far-infrared. The catalogs are generated by egg-gencat and stored in binary FITS tables (column oriented). Another program, egg-2skymaker, is used to convert the generated catalog into ASCII tables suitable for ingestion by SkyMaker (ascl:1010.066) to produce realistic high resolution images (e.g., Hubble-like), while egg-gennoise and egg-genmap can be used to generate the low resolution images (e.g., Herschel-like). These tools can be used to test source extraction codes, or to evaluate the reliability of any map-based science (stacking, dropout identification, etc.).

  15. Effects of adding aqueous extract of Tribulus terrestris to diet on productive performance, egg quality characteristics, and blood biochemical parameters of laying hens reared under low ambient temperature (6.8 ± 3 °C)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbari, Mohsen; Torki, Mehran

    2016-06-01

    A study was conducted using 144 laying hens to evaluate the effects of adding aqueous extract of Tribulus terrestris to diets on productive performance, egg quality traits, and some blood parameters of laying hens reared under cold stress condition (6.8 ± 3 °C). The birds were randomly assigned to each of four dietary treatments (C, T1, T2, and T3) with six replicate cages of six birds. Diet inclusion of aqueous extract of T. terrestris at the rate of 10, 20, and 30 ml/Lit offered to groups T1, T2, and T3, respectively, while group C served as the control diet with no addition. Feed intake (FI), feed conversion ratio (FCR), egg weight (EW), egg production (EP), and egg mass (EM) were evaluated during the 42-day trial period. The EP and EM increased, whereas FCR decreased ( P terrestris has beneficial effects on productive performance of laying hens reared under cold stress condition.

  16. Eggs on Ice. Imaginaries on Eggs and Cryopreservation in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herrmann, Janne Rothmar; Kroløkke, Charlotte

    2018-01-01

    While Denmark is widely known as a global exporter of cryopreserved sperm, Danish women’s eggs follow very different trajectories. This paper combines legal and rhetorical analyses with the concept of sociotechnical imaginaries (Jasanoff, 2015). In establishing the genealogy of the sociotechnical...... imaginaries that shaped the Danish regulation on the cryopreservation of eggs, we analyze the relevant Acts, Bills, preparatory work and readings in Parliament along with the concurrent public and ethical debates that in time relaxed the legal limit for the cryopreservation of eggs to the current 5 years...... and today continue to ignite discussions on elective egg freezing. We rely on welfare state perspectives to discuss why reproduction, in the Danish context, is seen as a legitimate and appropriate sphere to regulate and we turn to feminist theorizing to discuss their gendered implications captured...

  17. Intraclutch eggshell colour variation in birds: are females able to identify their eggs individually?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslav Poláček

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background One possibility suggested regarding female post-mating strategies is differential allocation into offspring investment. Female birds produce not only the largest, but also most colourful eggs of all oviparous taxa. Larger eggs provide space for bigger embryos, or more nutrition for their development, but the question why eggs are more colourful and why there is variation in eggshell colouration remains. In this context, the focus of interest has been to explain inter-clutch variation but in many bird species, eggshell colouration also varies within a clutch. Surprisingly, less attention has been paid to this phenomenon. Therefore, we propose the “female egg recognition” hypothesis, suggesting that mothers use colour characteristics to interpret egg attributes and allocate further investment into each egg accordingly. To evaluate the feasibility of the hypothesis, we tested several underlying predictions and examined their suitability using a dataset from our tree sparrow (Passer montanus study. We predict (i substantial within-clutch variation in eggshell colouration which, (ii should be related to laying sequence, (iii reflect egg quality and, (iv should stimulate a female response. Methods Eggshell coloration data were obtained via digital photography under standardized conditions, taken after clutch completion. Lightness (L*, representing the achromatic properties of an egg has been chosen as the most important predictor in dark cavities and was related to egg quality and position in the nest. Results In our tree sparrows, first and mainly last eggs were less pigmented, providing information about laying order. Egg volume, which predicts chick quality, positively correlates with eggshell coloration. Finally, we could show that female tree sparrows placed darker, but not bigger, eggs into more central incubation positions. Discussion All basic prerequisites for the “female egg recognition” hypothesis are fulfilled. In this

  18. Survival of anopheline eggs and their susceptibility to infection with Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana under laboratory conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luz, C.; Mnyone, L.L.; Russell, T.L.

    2011-01-01

    The viability of Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto and Anopheles arabiensis (Diptera: Culicidae) eggs over time and the ovicidal activity of Beauveria bassiana (Ascomycota: Cordycipitaceae) and Metarhizium anisopliae (Ascomycota: Clavicipitaceae) were investigated. Eggs were incubated in soil or leaf

  19. Effect of egg washing and correlation between cuticle and egg penetration by various Salmonella strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gole, Vaibhav C; Roberts, Juliet R; Sexton, Margaret; May, Damian; Kiermeier, Andreas; Chousalkar, Kapil K

    2014-07-16

    In Australia, Europe and the United States, eggs and egg products are frequently associated with Salmonella food poisoning outbreaks. Many of the egg-associated Salmonella outbreaks have been due to the products such as mayonnaise, ice-cream and cold desserts which are eaten without cooking following the addition of raw egg. The ability of four Salmonella isolates (one each of S. Singapore, S. Adelaide, S. Worthington and S. Livingstone) to penetrate washed and unwashed eggs using whole egg and agar egg penetration methods was investigated in the current study. The results of the agar penetration experiment indicated that all the isolates used in the present study have the capacity to penetrate the eggshell. Eggshell penetration by the S. Worthington isolate was higher but not significant (p=0.06) in washed eggs compared to unwashed eggs. However, for all other isolates (S. Singapore, S. Adelaide and S. Livingstone), there was no significant difference in penetration of washed and unwashed eggs. Statistical analysis indicated that cuticle score was a significant linear predictor of Salmonella eggshell penetration. Whole egg penetration results showed that all of the Salmonella isolates used in the present study were capable of surviving on the eggshell surface after 21days of incubation (at 20°C) following a high dose of inoculation (10(5)CFU/mL). The combined data of all isolates demonstrated that, the survival rate of Salmonella on eggshells (inoculated with 10(5)CFU/mL) was significantly higher (p=0.002) at 20°C as compared to 37°C. S. Singapore, S. Worthington, and S. Livingstone were not detected in egg internal contents whereas S. Adelaide was detected in one egg's internal contents. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Single and combined effects of peppermint and thyme essential oils on productive performance, egg quality traits, and blood parameters of laying hens reared under cold stress condition (6.8 ± 3 °C)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbari, Mohsen; Torki, Mehran; Kaviani, Keyomars

    2016-03-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of adding peppermint essential oil (PEO), thyme essential oil (TEO), or their combination to diet on productive performance, egg quality traits, and blood parameters of laying hens reared under cold stress condition (6.8 ± 3 °C). Feed intake (FI), feed conversion ratio (FCR), egg weight (EW), egg production (EP), and egg mass (EM) were evaluated during the 56-day trial period using 120 Lohmann LSL-lite laying hens. Significant interactions between PEO and TEO on FCR, EP, and EM were observed ( P hens fed the diets supplemented by the combined form of PEO and TEO compared to those fed the basal diet. Also, increased EW and FI were observed in the laying hens fed the diet added by PEO compared to the birds fed the basal diet. There were significant interactions between PEO and TEO on the serum level of cholesterol, shell thickness, and Hough unit of egg ( P hens fed the diet supplemented by the combined form of PEO and TEO compared to those fed the basal diet. From the results of the present experiment, it can be concluded that diet supplementation by combined form of PEO and TEO could have beneficial effects on performance parameters of hens reared under cold stress condition.

  1. Cytoskeleton and gravity at work in the establishment of dorso-ventral polarity in the egg of Xenopus laevis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ubbels, Geertje A.; Brom, Tim G.

    The establishment of polarities during early embryogenesis is essential for normal development. Amphibian eggs are appropriate models for studies on embryonic pattern formation. The animal-vegetal axis of the axially symmetrical amphibian egg originates during oogenesis and foreshadows the main body axis of the embryo. The dorso-ventral polarity is epigenetically established before first cleavage. Recent experiments strongly suggest that in the monospermic eggs of the anuran Xenopus laevis both the cytoskeleton and gravity act in the determination of the dorso-ventral polarity. In order to test the role of gravity in this process, eggs will be fertilized under microgravity conditions during the SL-D1 flight in 1985. In a fully automatic experiment container eggs will be kept under well-defined conditions and artificially fertilized as soon as microgravity is reached; eggs and embryos at different stages will then be fixed for later examination. Back on earth the material will be analysed and we will know whether fertilization under microgravity conditions is possible. If so, the relation of the dorso-ventral axis to the former sperm entry point will be determined on the whole embryos; in addition eggs and embryos will be analysed cytologically.

  2. Scrambled eggs: Proteomic portraits and novel biomarkers of egg quality in zebrafish (Danio rerio.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozlem Yilmaz

    Full Text Available Egg quality is a complex biological trait and a major determinant of reproductive fitness in all animals. This study delivered the first proteomic portraits of egg quality in zebrafish, a leading biomedical model for early development. Egg batches of good and poor quality, evidenced by embryo survival for 24 h, were sampled immediately after spawning and used to create pooled or replicated sample sets whose protein extracts were subjected to different levels of fractionation before liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry. Obtained spectra were searched against a zebrafish proteome database and detected proteins were annotated, categorized and quantified based on normalized spectral counts. Manually curated and automated enrichment analyses revealed poor quality eggs to be deficient of proteins involved in protein synthesis and energy and lipid metabolism, and of some vitellogenin products and lectins, and to have a surfeit of proteins involved in endo-lysosomal activities, autophagy, and apoptosis, and of some oncogene products, lectins and egg envelope proteins. Results of pathway and network analyses suggest that this aberrant proteomic profile results from failure of oocytes giving rise to poor quality eggs to properly transit through final maturation, and implicated Wnt signaling in the etiology of this defect. Quantitative comparisons of abundant proteins in good versus poor quality eggs revealed 17 candidate egg quality markers. Thus, the zebrafish egg proteome is clearly linked to embryo developmental potential, a phenomenon that begs further investigation to elucidate the root causes of poor egg quality, presently a serious and intractable problem in livestock and human reproductive medicine.

  3. Scrambled eggs: Proteomic portraits and novel biomarkers of egg quality in zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Ozlem; Patinote, Amélie; Nguyen, Thao Vi; Com, Emmanuelle; Lavigne, Regis; Pineau, Charles; Sullivan, Craig V; Bobe, Julien

    2017-01-01

    Egg quality is a complex biological trait and a major determinant of reproductive fitness in all animals. This study delivered the first proteomic portraits of egg quality in zebrafish, a leading biomedical model for early development. Egg batches of good and poor quality, evidenced by embryo survival for 24 h, were sampled immediately after spawning and used to create pooled or replicated sample sets whose protein extracts were subjected to different levels of fractionation before liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry. Obtained spectra were searched against a zebrafish proteome database and detected proteins were annotated, categorized and quantified based on normalized spectral counts. Manually curated and automated enrichment analyses revealed poor quality eggs to be deficient of proteins involved in protein synthesis and energy and lipid metabolism, and of some vitellogenin products and lectins, and to have a surfeit of proteins involved in endo-lysosomal activities, autophagy, and apoptosis, and of some oncogene products, lectins and egg envelope proteins. Results of pathway and network analyses suggest that this aberrant proteomic profile results from failure of oocytes giving rise to poor quality eggs to properly transit through final maturation, and implicated Wnt signaling in the etiology of this defect. Quantitative comparisons of abundant proteins in good versus poor quality eggs revealed 17 candidate egg quality markers. Thus, the zebrafish egg proteome is clearly linked to embryo developmental potential, a phenomenon that begs further investigation to elucidate the root causes of poor egg quality, presently a serious and intractable problem in livestock and human reproductive medicine.

  4. Effects of Hen Age and Egg Weight Class on the Hatchability of Free Range Indigenous Chicken Eggs

    OpenAIRE

    Abudabos, AM; Aljumaah, RS; Algawaan, AS; Al-Sornokh, H; Al-Atiyat, RM

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT In total, 806 eggs of free-range Hassawi indigenous chickens were collected from local farm in Saudi Arabia. Eggs were weekly collected for 11 weeks. Initial egg weight (IEW) was recorded, and eggs were graded into four classes (A: 35-40 g, B: 40-45 g, C: 45-50 g, and D: 50-55 g). Eggs were stored for seven days at 75-80% relative humidity and 14-16 C, after which egg weight losses (WL0) were calculated. During incubation, eggs were weighed on days 7 (W7) and 14 (W14), and egg weight...

  5. Food crystallization and eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egg products can be utilized to control crystallization in a diverse realm of food products. Albumen and egg yolk can aid in the control of sugar crystal formation in candies. Egg yolk can enhance the textural properties and aid in the control of large ice crystal formation in frozen desserts. In...

  6. The radurization of frozen whole eggs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niewiarowicz, A.; Fiszer, W.; Zabielski, J.; Starega, M.

    1980-01-01

    The liquid whole eggs packed into polyethylene bags had been frozen at - 12 0 C and then exposed to gamma rays (the doses of 0.25 and 0.50 Mrad). After the irradiation the samples were stored during 76 days at - 12 0 C and then for 5 days at 1 0 C. Microbial sterility was obtained after the exposure and during the storage under freezing conditions. The content of free fatty acids was lower in the irradiated samples in comparison to the control. The significant increase of TBA value was noted in the irradiated whole eggs since the 17th day of storage. There were not found any changes in baking and organoleptic properties except small sensoric differences detected in a triangular panel test. (author)

  7. Factors affecting the toxicity of methylmercury injected into eggs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinz, G.H.; Hoffman, D.J.; Kondrad, S.L.; Erwin, C.A.

    2006-01-01

    . In addition, some species of bird eggs require incubation on their sides with the eggs being rolled 180? for them to develop normally. Therefore, we adopted a procedure of incubating the eggs of all species on their sides and rolling them 180? every hour. Little has been published about the conditions of temperature, humidity, and the movements to which eggs of wild birds need to be subjected for them to hatch optimally under artificial incubation. Not unexpectedly, hatching success in an artificial incubator is generally less than what natural incubation by the parents can achieve. However, the survival of control embryos of most wild bird species was good (generally > 80%) up to within 1 or 2 days of hatching when we incubated the eggs at 37.5?C (or 37.6?C for gallinaceous species) at a relative humidity that resulted in an approximate 15% to 16% loss in egg weight by the end of incubation and by incubating the eggs on their sides and rolling them 180?/h. To improve statistical comparisons, we used survival through 90% of incubation as our measurement to compare survival of controls with survival of eggs injected with graded concentrations of mercury.

  8. Irradiation of liquid egg, frozen egg, powdered egg, egg yolk and white of egg: reducing the population of Salmonella enteritidis and sensory aspects and physico-chemical;Irradiacao de ovo liquido, congelado e ovo, gema e clara em po: reducao da populacao de Salmonella enteritidis e aspectos sensoriais e fisico-quimicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Froehlich, Angela

    2004-07-01

    Eggs and their products have been incriminated in foodborne disease outbreaks due to Salmonella enteritidis contamination. Irradiation is a food preservation technology that could be applied to minimize the problem. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of irradiation in liquid and frozen egg as well as in powdered egg, egg yolk and egg white spiked with Salmonella enteritidis. Spiked samples of liquid egg, egg white and egg yolk were exposed to 0,5; 1,0; 1,5; 2,0; 2,5; 3,0 kGy and spiked samples of frozen and powdered egg were exposed to 0,5; 1,0; 1,5; 2,0; 2,5; 3,0; 3,5 e 4,0 kGy. Raw odour, cooked odour and taste of non inoculated and irradiated samples and non irradiated samples of egg and egg products were analysed by a trained penal. Viscosity and lipid oxidation (malonaldehyde concentration) were also determined. Doses of 2,0; 3,0; 3,5; 3,0 e 3,5 kGy reduced in 5 log the population of S. Enteritidis in liquid and frozen egg, powdered egg yolk, egg white and egg, respectively, with moderate alterations in relation to non irradiated samples detected by the trained penal. Viscosity and lipid oxidation in the powdered products, however, showed more intense alterations. Therefore, irradiation can be considered a feasible process for liquid and frozen egg while when applied to powdered products it should be considered the type of food product to which they will be added due to alterations in viscosity. (author)

  9. 21 CFR 160.150 - Frozen egg whites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Frozen egg whites. 160.150 Section 160.150 Food... HUMAN CONSUMPTION EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Eggs and Egg Products § 160.150 Frozen egg whites. (a) Frozen egg whites, frozen egg albumen is the food prepared by freezing...

  10. [Denaturation of egg antigens by cooking].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Hiroko; Akaboshi, Chie; Sekido, Haruko; Tanaka, Kouki; Tanaka, Kazuko; Shimojo, Naoki

    2012-01-01

    Changes in egg protein contents by cooking were measured with an ELISA kit using Tris-HCl buffer in model foods including cake, meatballs, pasta and pudding made with whole egg, egg-white and egg-yolk. The egg protein contents were lowest in the deep-fried model foods of cakes and meatballs. Ovalbumin (OVA) was undetectable (meatballs, suggesting that processing temperature and uniform heat-treatment affect the detection of egg protein. Furthermore, egg protein contents were below 6 µg/g in the pouched meatballs and pasta made with egg-yolk, and OVA and OVM were not detected by Western blotting analysis with human IgE from patients' serum. On the other hand, processed egg proteins were detected with an ELISA kit using a surfactant and reductant in the extract buffer.

  11. Effects of Hen Age and Egg Weight Class on the Hatchability of Free Range Indigenous Chicken Eggs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AM Abudabos

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT In total, 806 eggs of free-range Hassawi indigenous chickens were collected from local farm in Saudi Arabia. Eggs were weekly collected for 11 weeks. Initial egg weight (IEW was recorded, and eggs were graded into four classes (A: 35-40 g, B: 40-45 g, C: 45-50 g, and D: 50-55 g. Eggs were stored for seven days at 75-80% relative humidity and 14-16 C, after which egg weight losses (WL0 were calculated. During incubation, eggs were weighed on days 7 (W7 and 14 (W14, and egg weight losses on days 7 (WL7 and 14 (WL14, and total loss (WL0-14 were calculated. Hatchling weight (CW was measured. The proportion of CW relative to egg weight loss (WL on days0, 7 and 14 days of incubation (CW:WL0; CW:WL7 and CW:WL14, respectively, and break out analyses, fertility (F,total hatchability (HC and hatchability of fertile eggs (HF were also calculated. IEW decreased (p<0.05 with hen age. Stored egg weight (SEW were decreased as hen age increased (p<0.05. WL7, WL14 and WL0-14 showed significant differences (p<0.001 and increased up to first six-week of egg collection time. Hen age affected CW:WL before incubation, and on days 7 and 14 of incubation. Fertility (F was affected (p<0.05 in unpredicted way of increasing and decreasing by hen age. Egg weight class affected SEW, W7and W14 (p<0.001. Class D eggs were the highest weight. Class C eggs had highest HC. In summary, hatching eggs of Hassawi hens were affected by hen age and egg weight in randomly increase and decrease .

  12. 21 CFR 160.185 - Dried egg yolks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Dried egg yolks. 160.185 Section 160.185 Food and... CONSUMPTION EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Eggs and Egg Products § 160.185 Dried egg yolks. (a) Dried egg yolks, dried yolks is the food prepared by drying egg yolks that conform to...

  13. 21 CFR 160.190 - Frozen egg yolks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Frozen egg yolks. 160.190 Section 160.190 Food and... CONSUMPTION EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Eggs and Egg Products § 160.190 Frozen egg yolks. (a) Frozen egg yolks, frozen yolks is the food prepared by freezing egg yolks that...

  14. 9 CFR 93.902 - Ports designated for the importation of live fish, fertilized eggs, and gametes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... of live fish, fertilized eggs, and gametes. 93.902 Section 93.902 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL... importation of live fish, fertilized eggs, and gametes. (a) The following ports are designated as ports of entry for live fish, fertilized eggs, and gametes of SVC-susceptible species imported under this subpart...

  15. The table eggs and their quality in small-scale breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mária Angelovičová

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose this study was to investigate quality of the table eggs, their damage and soiling in various age of the laying hens (47-62 weeks during the second phase of the laying cycle. The object of the research was table eggs, egg white, egg shell, damage and soiling of the egg shell. The eggs were of the final laying hybrid ISA Brown reared in the non-cage system with deep litter and free range at small-scale breeding. In the breeding system with free range at small-scale conditions were secured requirements for laying hens in accordance with welfare principles. The eggs were collected each day at 4:00 pm. Weights of egg and egg shell samples of were measured on scales type KERN 440-35N. A white weight was calculated. Damage and soiling of eggs were investigated under the desk lamp lighting up to 100 W bulb. Statistical evaluation of the results was carried out in the program system SAS. From the existing conclusions of the various scientific and professional published works, it is known that both quality and safety are interrelated. In many works are the risk factors referred together as the quality standards. We found an important fact in assessing the trend of values of the egg shell weight, depending on the age of laying hens. Based on this fact, it can be assumed that the values of egg shell weight were not directly related to egg weight and egg white weight. It follows that the egg shell weight must be assessed comprehensively, and account must be taken of other factors. For the characteristics of the deformed egg shape has been one pc, representing 3.33% of the samples taken for analysis of eggs at 53 weeks of age of the total sampled eggs. In the following 56 weeks of age hens laying eggs there was not a deformed shape. The next subsequent sampling 59 weeks of age laying hens were recorded two pcs of eggs with deformed shape, i.e. 6.67%. At the last sampling of eggs at age 62 weeks, the number of eggs with deformed shape increased to

  16. Plant responses to insect egg deposition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hilker, M.; Fatouros, N.E.

    2015-01-01

    Plants can respond to insect egg deposition and thus resist attack by herbivorous insects from the beginning of the attack, egg deposition. We review ecological effects of plant responses to insect eggs and differentiate between egg-induced plant defenses that directly harm the eggs and indirect

  17. Leptin receptor signaling inhibits ovarian follicle development and egg laying in chicken hens

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Nutrition intake during growth strongly influences ovarian follicle development and egg laying in chicken hens, yet the underlying endocrine regulatory mechanism is still poorly understood. The relevant research progress is hindered by difficulties in detection of leptin gene and its expression in the chicken. However, a functional leptin receptor (LEPR) is present in the chicken which has been implicated to play a regulatory role in ovarian follicle development and egg laying. The present study targeted LEPR by immunizing against its extracellular domain (ECD), and examined the resultant ovarian follicle development and egg-laying rate in chicken hens. Methods Hens that have been immunized four times with chicken LEPR ECD were assessed for their egg laying rate and feed intake, numbers of ovarian follicles, gene expression profiles, serum lipid parameters, as well as STAT3 signaling pathway. Results Administrations of cLEPR ECD antigen resulted in marked reductions in laying rate that over time eventually recovered to the levels exhibited by the Control hens. Together with the decrease in egg laying rate, cLEPR-immunized hens also exhibited significant reductions in feed intake, plasma concentrations of glucose, triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein, and low-density lipoprotein. Parallelled by reductions in feed intake, mRNA gene expression levels of AgRP, orexin, and NPY were down regulated, but of POMC, MC4R and lepR up-regulated in Immunized hen hypothalamus. cLEPR-immunization also promoted expressions of apoptotic genes such as caspase3 in theca and fas in granulosa layer, but severely depressed IGF-I expression in both theca and granulosa layers. Conclusions Immunization against cLEPR ECD in egg-laying hens generated antibodies that mimic leptin bioactivity by enhancing leptin receptor transduction. This up-regulated apoptotic gene expression in ovarian follicles, negatively regulated the expression of genes that promote follicular development

  18. Effect of Olive Leaf ( Powder on Laying Hens Performance, Egg Quality and Egg Yolk Cholesterol Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Cayan

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was conducted to measure the effects of olive leaf powder on performance, egg yield, egg quality and yolk cholesterol level of laying hens. A total of 120 Lohmann Brown laying hens of 22 weeks old were used in this experiment. The birds were fed on standard layer diets containing 0, 1%, 2%, or 3% olive leaf powder for 8 weeks. Egg weight and yield were recorded daily; feed intake weekly; egg quality and cholesterol content at the end of the trial. Olive leaf powder had no effect on feed intake, egg weight, egg yield and feed conversion ratio (p>0.05 while olive leaf powder increased final body weight of hens (p0.05. To conclude, olive leaf powder can be used for reducing egg yolk cholesterol content and egg yolk coloring agent in layer diets.

  19. Monitoring storage time and quality attribute of egg based on electronic nose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yongwei; Jun Wang; Bo Zhou; Qiujun Lu

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the potential of an electronic nose (E-nose) technique for monitoring egg storage time and quality attributes. An electronic nose was used to distinguish eggs under cool and room-temperature storage by means of principal component analysis (PCA), linear discriminant analysis (LDA), BP neural network (BPNN) and the combination of a genetic algorithm and BP neural network (GANN). Results showed that the E-nose could distinguish eggs of different storage time under cool and room-temperature storage by LDA, PCA, BPNN and GANN; better prediction values were obtained by GANN than by BPNN. Relationships were established between the E-nose signal and egg quality indices (Haugh unit and yolk factor) by quadratic polynomial step regression (QPSR). The prediction models for Haugh unit and yolk factor indicated a good prediction performance. The Haugh unit model had a standard error of prediction of 3.74 and correlation coefficient 0.91; the yolk factor model had a 0.02 SEP and 0.93 correlation coefficient between predicted and measured values respectively.

  20. Effects of egg consumption on carotenoid absorption from co-consumed, raw vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jung Eun; Gordon, Susannah L; Ferruzzi, Mario G; Campbell, Wayne W

    2015-07-01

    Dietary lipids are one of the most effective stimulators of carotenoid absorption, but very limited data exist on the impact of endogenous food sources of lipids to enhance carotenoid absorption. The co-consumption of whole egg with carotenoid-rich foods may increase overall carotenoid absorption via lipid-rich egg yolk. We designed this study to assess the effects of egg consumption on carotenoid absorption from a carotenoid-rich, raw mixed-vegetable salad. Healthy young men (n = 16) consumed the same salad (all served with 3 g canola oil) with no egg (control), 75 g scrambled whole eggs (1.5 eggs) [low egg (LE)], and 150 g scrambled whole eggs (3 eggs) [high egg (HE)] (a randomized crossover design). Control, LE, and HE meals contained 23 mg, 23.4 mg (0.4 mg from eggs), and 23.8 mg (0.8 mg from eggs) total carotenoids and 3 g, 10.5 g (7.5 g from eggs), and 18 g (15 g from eggs) total lipids, respectively. Blood was collected hourly for 10 h, and the triacylglycerol-rich lipoprotein (TRL) fraction was isolated. Total and individual carotenoid contents, including lutein, zeaxanthin , α-carotene, β-carotene, and lycopene in TRL were analyzed, and composite areas under the curve (AUCs) were calculated. The total mean (±SE) carotenoid AUC0-10h in TRL was higher for the HE meal than for LE and control meals [125.7 ± 19.4(a) compared with 44.8 ± 9.2(b) compared with 14.9 ± 5.2(b) nmol/L · 10 h, respectively (values without a common superscript letter differ); P eggs, including α-carotene, β-carotene, and lycopene, increased 3-8-fold (P cooked whole eggs is an effective way to enhance carotenoid absorption from other carotenoid-rich foods such as a raw mixed-vegetable salad. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01951313. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  1. Eggs on Ice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herrmann, Janne Rothmar; Kroløkke, Charlotte

    2018-01-01

    While Denmark is widely known as a global exporter of cryopreserved sperm, Danish women’s eggs face a very different fate. This paper combines legal and rhetorical analyses with the concept of sociotechnical imaginaries. In establishing the genealogy of the sociotechnical imaginaries that shaped...... Danish regulation of the cryopreservation of eggs, we analyse the relevant Acts, Bills, preparatory work, and readings in Parliament, along with the concurrent public and ethical debates that over time relaxed the legal limit for the cryopreservation of eggs to the current five years and today continue...... to ignite discussions on elective egg freezing. We rely on welfare-state perspectives to discuss why reproduction, in the Danish context, is seen as a legitimate and appropriate sphere to regulate, and we turn to feminist theorizing to discuss the gendered implications captured in the sociotechnical...

  2. 21 CFR 160.110 - Frozen eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Frozen eggs. (a) Frozen eggs, frozen whole eggs, frozen mixed eggs is the food prepared by freezing... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Frozen eggs. 160.110 Section 160.110 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN...

  3. Laboratory technique for obtaining fathead minnow eggs for use in toxicity experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Till, J.E.

    1977-01-01

    A laboratory technique for collecting freshly fertilized eggs of the fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) has been developed for use in toxicity testing of radioactive materials or other environmental pollutants. The fathead minnow egg was selected as a test organism because the period of embryogenesis is relatively short, the number of eggs per spawning is sufficiently large to provide a test group and a control group, and the size of the parent fish is compatible with laboratory facilities. Under a controlled laboratory environment, eggs are available all year. Nesting sites were constructed by cutting plastic pipe in half and covering the inside of the pipe with 1-mm-thick translucent polyethylene. The polyethylene with the eggs attached was removed from the shelter and cut into two pieces, each piece containing approximately the same number of eggs. One piece of polyethylene was floated in the test solution, and the other in spring water as a control. Hatching occurs in 168 h at 24 0 C. Toxicity of the test solution may be scored on the percentage of eggs hatching, the number of abnormal larvae produced, and larval survival

  4. Are both early egg introduction and eczema treatment necessary for primary prevention of egg allergy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Kenji; Mori, Rintaro; Miyazaki, Celine; Ohya, Yukihiro; Saito, Hirohisa

    2018-06-01

    The Learning Early About Peanut Allergy (LEAP) study proved that early introduction of peanut significantly prevented the development of peanut allergy. However, in regard to similar attempts to prevent egg allergy through early egg introduction, the Prevention of Egg Allergy in High-risk Infants with Eczema (PETIT) study is the only randomized intervention trial to show a statistically significant effect. Meta-analysis of those studies indicated that neither the total amount nor pretreatment of egg showed any effect on egg allergy at the age of 12 months. However, raw egg powder resulted in a significantly higher prevalence of allergic reactions at initial introduction, whereas use of boiled egg was much safer. The prevalence of atopic dermatitis/eczema at introduction of egg correlated significantly with the subsequent prevalence of allergic reactions at initial introduction. In addition, the prevalence of egg allergy in the late introduction group correlated significantly with the prevalence of atopic dermatitis at introduction, even when the atopic dermatitis was proactively treated with a topical corticosteroid ointment. It is definitely true that the number of trials and number of participants in each trial are insufficient for drawing firm conclusions, especially regarding the optimal dose, raw versus boiled, when to start, and for whom to intervene. Therefore we propose various studies that should be performed to generate stronger data and conclusions. However, on the basis of the most recent results, we postulate that simultaneous intervention by both early boiled egg introduction and eczema treatment is probably indispensable for primary prevention of egg allergy. Copyright © 2018 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Context-Dependent Plastic Response during Egg-Laying in a Widespread Newt Species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoltán Tóth

    Full Text Available Previous research on predator-induced phenotypic plasticity mostly focused on responses in morphology, developmental time and/or behaviour during early life stages, but the potential significance of anticipatory parental responses has been investigated less often. In this study I examined behavioural and maternal responses of gravid female smooth newts, Lissotriton vulgaris, in the presence of chemical cues originating from invertebrate predators, Acilius sulcatus water beetles and Aeshna cyanea dragonfly larvae. More specifically, I tested the extent of oviposition preference, plasticity in egg-wrapping behaviour and plasticity in egg size when females had the possibility to lay eggs at oviposition sites with and without predator cues during overnight trials. I found that individuals did not avoid laying eggs in the environment with predator cues; however, individuals that deposited eggs into both environments adjusted the size of the laid eggs to the perceived environment. Females deposited larger eggs earlier in the season but egg size decreased with time in the absence of predator cues, whereas individuals laid eggs of average size throughout the investigated reproductive period when such cues were present. Also, egg size was found to be positively related to hatching success. Individuals did not adjust their wrapping behaviour to the presence of predator cues, but females differed in the extent of egg-wrapping between ponds. Females' body mass and tail depth were also different between ponds, whereas their body size was positively associated with egg size. According to these results, female smooth newts have the potential to exhibit activational plasticity and invest differently into eggs depending on temporal and environmental factors. Such an anticipatory response may contribute to the success of this caudate species under a wide range of predator regimes at its natural breeding habitats.

  6. How to improve the standardization and the diagnostic performance of the fecal egg count reduction test?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levecke, Bruno; Kaplan, Ray M.; Thamsborg, Stig M.

    2018-01-01

    Although various studies have provided novel insights into how to best design, analyze and interpret a fecal egg count reduction test (FECRT), it is still not straightforward to provide guidance that allows improving both the standardization and the analytical performance of the FECRT across...... a variety of both animal and nematode species. For example, it has been suggested to recommend a minimum number of eggs to be counted under the microscope (not eggs per gram of feces), but we lack the evidence to recommend any number of eggs that would allow a reliable assessment of drug efficacy. Other...... the UI methodology that yields the most reliable assessment of drug efficacy (coverage of TDE) and detection of reduced drug efficacy, and (iii) to determine the required sample size and number of eggs counted under the microscope that optimizes the detection of reduced efficacy. Our results confirm...

  7. Egg shape mimicry in parasitic cuckoos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attard, M R G; Medina, I; Langmore, N E; Sherratt, E

    2017-11-01

    Parasitic cuckoos lay their eggs in nests of host species. Rejection of cuckoo eggs by hosts has led to the evolution of egg mimicry by cuckoos, whereby their eggs mimic the colour and pattern of their host eggs to avoid egg recognition and rejection. There is also evidence of mimicry in egg size in some cuckoo-host systems, but currently it is unknown whether cuckoos can also mimic the egg shape of their hosts. In this study, we test whether there is evidence of mimicry in egg form (shape and size) in three species of Australian cuckoos: the fan-tailed cuckoo Cacomantis flabelliformis, which exploits dome nesting hosts, the brush cuckoo Cacomantis variolosus, which exploits both dome and cup nesting hosts, and the pallid cuckoo Cuculus pallidus, which exploits cup nesting hosts. We found evidence of size mimicry and, for the first time, evidence of egg shape mimicry in two Australian cuckoo species (pallid cuckoo and brush cuckoo). Moreover, cuckoo-host egg similarity was higher for hosts with open nests than for hosts with closed nests. This finding fits well with theory, as it has been suggested that hosts with closed nests have more difficulty recognizing parasitic eggs than open nests, have lower rejection rates and thus exert lower selection for mimicry in cuckoos. This is the first evidence of mimicry in egg shape in a cuckoo-host system, suggesting that mimicry at different levels (size, shape, colour pattern) is evolving in concert. We also confirm the existence of egg size mimicry in cuckoo-host systems. © 2017 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2017 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  8. Simulation of hypothetical Asian carp egg and larvae development and transport in the Lockport, Brandon Road, Dresden Island, and Marseilles Pools of the Illinois Waterway by use of the Fluvial Egg Drift Simulator (FluEgg) model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Elizabeth A.; Garcia, Tatiana; Jackson, P. Ryan; Duncker, James J.

    2016-04-05

    As part of the Great Lakes and Mississippi River Interbasin Study, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) is conducting an assessment of the vulnerability of the Chicago Area Waterway System and Des Plaines River to Asian carp (specifically, Hypophthalmichthys nobilis (bighead carp) and Hypophthalmichthys molitrix (silver carp)) spawning and recruitment. As part of this assessment, the USACE requested the help of the U.S. Geological Survey in predicting the fate and transport of Asian carp eggs hypothetically spawned at the electric dispersal barrier on the Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal and downstream of the Brandon Road Lock and Dam on the Des Plaines River under dry weather flow and high water temperature conditions. The Fluvial Egg Drift Simulator (FluEgg) model predicted that approximately 80 percent of silver carp eggs spawned near the electric dispersal barrier would hatch within the Lockport and Brandon Road pools (as close as 3.6 miles downstream of the barrier) and approximately 82 percent of the silver carp eggs spawned near the Brandon Road Dam would hatch in the Des Plaines River (as close as 1.6 miles downstream from the gates of Brandon Road Lock). Extension of the FluEgg model to include the fate and transport of larvae until gas bladder inflation—the point at which the larvae begin to leave the drift—suggests that eggs spawned at the electric dispersal barrier would reach the gas bladder inflation stage primarily within the Dresden Island Pool, and those spawned at the Brandon Road Dam would reach this stage primarily within the Marseilles and Starved Rock Pools.

  9. Evidence of the most stretchable egg sac silk stalk, of the European spider of the year Meta menardi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepore, Emiliano; Marchioro, Andrea; Isaia, Marco; Buehler, Markus J; Pugno, Nicola M

    2012-01-01

    Spider silks display generally strong mechanical properties, even if differences between species and within the same species can be observed. While many different types of silks have been tested, the mechanical properties of stalks of silk taken from the egg sac of the cave spider Meta menardi have not yet been analyzed. Meta menardi has recently been chosen as the "European spider of the year 2012", from the European Society of Arachnology. Here we report a study where silk stalks were collected directly from several caves in the north-west of Italy. Field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM) images showed that stalks are made up of a large number of threads, each of them with diameter of 6.03 ± 0.58 µm. The stalks were strained at the constant rate of 2 mm/min, using a tensile testing machine. The observed maximum stress, strain and toughness modulus, defined as the area under the stress-strain curve, are 0.64 GPa, 751% and 130.7 MJ/m(3), respectively. To the best of our knowledge, such an observed huge elongation has never been reported for egg sac silk stalks and suggests a huge unrolling microscopic mechanism of the macroscopic stalk that, as a continuation of the protective egg sac, is expected to be composed by fibres very densely and randomly packed. The Weibull statistics was used to analyze the results from mechanical testing, and an average value of Weibull modulus (m) is deduced to be in the range of 1.5-1.8 with a Weibull scale parameter (σ(0)) in the range of 0.33-0.41 GPa, showing a high coefficient of correlation (R(2) = 0.97).

  10. Egg production and egg quality in free-range laying hens housed at different outdoor stocking densities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, D L M; Lee, C; Hinch, G N; Roberts, J R

    2017-09-01

    Free-range laying hen systems are increasing in number within Australia. Variation in outdoor stocking densities has led to development of a national information standard on free-range egg labeling, including setting a maximum density of 10,000 hens per hectare. However, there are few data on the impacts of differing outdoor densities on production and egg quality. ISA Brown hens in small (150 hens) flocks were housed in identical indoor pens, each with access (from 21 weeks) to different sized ranges simulating one of three outdoor stocking densities (2 replicates each: 2,000 hens/hectare (ha), 10,000 hens/ha, 20,000 hens/ha). Hen-day production was tracked from 21 through 35 weeks with eggs visually graded daily for external deformities. All eggs laid on one day were weighed each week. Eggs were collected from each pen at 25, 30, and 36 weeks and analyzed for egg quality. There were no effects of outdoor stocking density on average hen-day percentage production (P = 0.67), egg weight (P = 0.09), percentages of deformed eggs (P = 0.30), shell reflectivity (P = 0.74), shell breaking strength (P = 0.07), shell deformation (P = 0.83), or shell thickness (P = 0.24). Eggs from hens in the highest density had the highest percentage shell weight (P = 0.004) and eggs from the lowest density had the highest yolk color score (P egg quality is warranted. © 2017 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  11. Influence of ovarian muscle contraction and oocyte growth on egg chamber elongation in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Darcy; Horne-Badovinac, Sally

    2016-04-15

    Organs are formed from multiple cell types that make distinct contributions to their shape. The Drosophila egg chamber provides a tractable model to dissect such contributions during morphogenesis. Egg chambers consist of 16 germ cells (GCs) surrounded by a somatic epithelium. Initially spherical, these structures elongate as they mature. This morphogenesis is thought to occur through a 'molecular corset' mechanism, whereby structural elements within the epithelium become circumferentially organized perpendicular to the elongation axis and resist the expansive growth of the GCs to promote elongation. Whether this epithelial organization provides the hypothesized constraining force has been difficult to discern, however, and a role for GC growth has not been demonstrated. Here, we provide evidence for this mechanism by altering the contractile activity of the tubular muscle sheath that surrounds developing egg chambers. Muscle hypo-contraction indirectly reduces GC growth and shortens the egg, which demonstrates the necessity of GC growth for elongation. Conversely, muscle hyper-contraction enhances the elongation program. Although this is an abnormal function for this muscle, this observation suggests that a corset-like force from the egg chamber's exterior could promote its lengthening. These findings highlight how physical contributions from several cell types are integrated to shape an organ. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  12. BREAK-EVEN ANALYSIS (BEA IN EGG PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jadranka Deže

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available A conducted research analyzes two systems of egg production, the conventional, commercial egg production and the egg production with a higher nutritive value - PUFA n-3 enriched eggs. Financial result of eggs production with PUFA n-3 is significantly higher than that of the conventional production - profitability of the conventional production was 19.29% and the one with PUFA n-3 enriched eggs 36.10%. It is, therefore, important to evaluate the efficiency of the use of capital based on the profitability of capital that is in the conventional egg production 23.9%, and in the production of PUFA n-3 enriched eggs 56.1%. According to the results of investigation, it is necessary to produce 258 eggs in the conventional egg production, whereas in the production of enrichments eggs with PUFA n-3 breakeven point (BEP is lower and amounts 204 eggs per laying hen per year. A higher cover rate with a difference of 10% (42.99±53.07 confirms that the production of enrichments eggs with PUFA n-3 is economically more efficient.

  13. Congener-specific egg contribution of polychlorinated biphenyls to nestlings in two passerine species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maul, Jonathan D., E-mail: jonathan.maul@tiehh.ttu.ed [Department of Environmental Toxicology, Institute of Environmental and Human Health (TIEHH), Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX 79409 (United States); Schuler, Lance J. [Fisheries and Illinois Aquaculture Center and Department of Zoology, Southern Illinois University, Carbondale, IL 62901 (United States); Halbrook, Richard S. [Cooperative Wildlife Research Laboratory and Department of Zoology, Southern Illinois University, Carbondale, IL 62901 (United States); Lydy, Michael J. [Fisheries and Illinois Aquaculture Center and Department of Zoology, Southern Illinois University, Carbondale, IL 62901 (United States)

    2010-08-15

    Quantifying polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) residues in nestlings of avian species is a common method for assessing trophic transfer and risk at PCB-contaminated sites. The proportion of nestling PCB mass due to maternal transfer is often accounted for by subtracting total PCB mass in eggs from nestlings. However, variation in physicochemical properties and metabolism among congeners may lead to differences between egg contribution based on total PCBs and dioxin-like congeners. We examined congener-specific variation in contribution of PCBs from eggs to nestlings in tree swallows and European starlings. Egg contribution of total PCB mass was 14.3 and 16.2%, respectively, whereas contribution based on dioxin-like congeners was 14.8 and 13.6%, respectively. These data suggest that using total PCB mass in eggs to adjust estimates of PCB accumulation in nestlings may not reflect patterns for dioxin-like congeners, potentially over or under-estimating the risk of toxicity of PCBs. - Congener-specific contribution of PCBs from egg to nestlings was examined.

  14. Experimental porcine cysticercosis using infected beetles with Taenia solium eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez-Puerta, Luis A; Garcia, Hector H; Gonzalez, Armando E

    2018-07-01

    Beetles are intermediate hosts for human and animal parasites, and several beetle species have been shown to carry Taenia eggs. An experimental porcine cysticercosis infection model was developed using beetles (Ammophorus rubripes) infected with Taenia solium eggs and then using these beetles for oral pig challenge. A total of 18 three months-old Landrace pigs were divided in four groups. Pigs from groups 1, 2, and 3 (n = 6 pigs per group) were challenged with one, three, and six beetles infected with T. solium eggs, containing approximately 52, 156 or 312 eggs respectively. Pigs were necropsied 12 weeks after infection to assess the presence of T. solium metacestode. Porcine cysticercosis by T. solium was produced in 17 out of 18 pigs (94.4%) challenged with infected beetles, all infected pigs had viable cysts. Only one pig from group 1 was negative to the presence of cysts. The median number of metacestodes per pig in groups 1, 2, and 3 were 2 (range 0-71), 26 (range 5-33) and 40 cysts (range 4-111), respectively. Experimental porcine cysticercosis infection is consistently obtained using beetles as mechanical vectors for T. solium eggs. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Combined Effects of Egg Age and Gamma Radiation Dosage on egg hatch of Scolytus Amygdali/guer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tadros, A.W.; Abdallah, F.F.; Abdelsalam, K.A.; Hashem, A.G.

    1992-01-01

    Eggs of Scolytus Amygdali were irradiated with 5 to 300 gray of gamma radiation at a dose rate of 7.87 rad/second. One-to five-day-old eggs were used. Results showed that one-and-tow-day-old eggs were the most sensitive as 100% mortality were obtained at 40 and 50 gray, respectively. Three-day-old-eggs required 100 gray to prevent hatch ability; while 300 gray were needed to prevent the 4-and 5-day-old eggs from hatching. There was 7.2-fold increase in resistance as eggs matured from 1 to 5 days measured by dosages required to produce LD 50. 2 fig

  16. Natural course of sensitization to hen's egg in children not previously exposed to egg ingestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Boissieu, D; Dupont, C

    2006-04-01

    Clinical adverse reactions to egg may occur in infants or children who have never eaten egg. They may be sensitized or even react at first egg ingestion. Few studies are available concerning the reality of egg white allergy in such sensitized children, the natural evolution of this condition and the appropriate decisions to make. To analyze the actuality and natural course of egg allergy in children sensitized without previous of hen's egg ingestion. We set up a clinical decision tree based on clinical history and specific egg white IgE to manage patients who had never ingested egg but were sensitized as demonstrated by a positive SPT and report a cohort of 30 such children The mean level of egg white specific IgE at first analysis, i.e. before 12 months, was high, 28.3 KU(A) /L, with a large range, from 0.6 to >100 KU(A) /L, below 6 KU(A) /L in only 8 patients. In 6 children ("no challenge" group), IgE values remained >8 KU(A) /L by the end of the survey and the oral challenge with egg was always denied. Their mean + SD IgE level was at 51.7 + 38 KU(A) /L at 1 year and 19.7 + 13 KU(A) /L at a mean age of 34 + 5 months. All had an associated anaphylactic reaction with milk and 5 were still allergic to milk by the end of the survey. In the remaining 24 infants, egg was given for the first time at a mean age of 30 + 9 months, by error in 4 cases, all exhibiting an immediate reaction, and in a hospital setting in 20, among whom 14 reacted. Among those 18, with a specific IgE level at 9.1 + 10 KU(A) /L at 28 + 9 months, 4 became tolerant between 3 and 4 years, with specific IgE levels below 1.3 KU(A) /L and a 5th one with specific IgE >100 KU(A) /L at 6 months tolerated scrambled eggs at age 7 year, with specific IgE at 2.6 KU(A) /L. In the 6 others, labeled "non allergic", egg white specific IgE levels were significantly lower, whatever the age, than in the "no challenge" group. The age at challenge was 35 + 8 months, with a mean specific IgE level at 1.0 + 0.9 KU

  17. Experimental shifts in egg-nest contrasts do not alter egg rejection responses in an avian host-brood parasite system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauber, Mark E; Aidala, Zachary; Igic, Branislav; Shawkey, Matthew D; Moskát, Csaba

    2015-09-01

    Obligate brood parasitic birds exploit their hosts to provide care for unrelated young in the nest. Potential hosts can reduce the cost of parasitism by rejecting foreign eggs from the nest. Observational, comparative, and experimental studies have concluded that most hosts use the coloration and patterning of eggshells to discriminate between own and foreign eggs in the nest. However, an alternative hypothesis is that birds use the colour contrasts between eggshells and the nest lining to identify parasitic eggs (egg-nest contrast hypothesis). In support of this hypothesis, we found that the avian perceivable chromatic contrasts between dyed eggs and unmanipulated nest linings significantly and negatively covaried with the rejection rates of different dyed eggs of the great reed warbler Acrocephalus arundinaceus, a frequently parasitized host of the common cuckoo Cuculus canorus. To experimentally test whether egg-nest contrasts influence rejection, we reciprocally dyed both eggs and the nest lining of this host species with one of two colours: orange and green. Contrary to the egg-nest contrast hypothesis, host rejection patterns in response to dyed eggs were not altered by dyeing nests, relative to unmanipulated control eggs and nests. In turn, experimental egg colour was the only significant predictor of egg rejection rate. Our results demonstrate that egg-nest contrast is a collateral, not a causal factor in egg rejection, and confirm the conclusions of previous studies that hosts can rely on the parasitic egg's appearance itself to recognize the foreign egg in the nest.

  18. As the Egg Turns: Monitoring Egg Attendance Behavior in Wild Birds Using Novel Data Logging Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaffer, Scott A.; Clatterbuck, Corey A.; Kelsey, Emma C.; Naiman, Alex D.; Young, Lindsay C.; VanderWerf, Eric A.; Warzybok, Pete; Bradley, Russell; Jahncke, Jaime; Bower, Geoff C.

    2014-01-01

    Egg turning is unique to birds and critical for embryonic development in most avian species. Technology that can measure changes in egg orientation and temperature at fine temporal scales (1 Hz) was neither readily available nor small enough to fit into artificial eggs until recently. Here we show the utility of novel miniature data loggers equipped with 3-axis (i.e., triaxial) accelerometers, magnetometers, and a temperature thermistor to study egg turning behavior in free-ranging birds. Artificial eggs containing egg loggers were deployed in the nests of three seabird species for 1–7 days of continuous monitoring. These species (1) turned their eggs more frequently (up to 6.5 turns h−1) than previously reported for other species, but angular changes were often small (1–10° most common), (2) displayed similar mean turning rates (ca. 2 turns h−1) despite major differences in reproductive ecology, and (3) demonstrated distinct diurnal cycling in egg temperatures that varied between 1.4 and 2.4°C. These novel egg loggers revealed high-resolution, three-dimensional egg turning behavior heretofore never measured in wild birds. This new form of biotechnology has broad applicability for addressing fundamental questions in avian breeding ecology, life history, and development, and can be used as a tool to monitor birds that are sensitive to disturbance while breeding. PMID:24887441

  19. Egg hatching response to a range of ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation doses for four predatory mites and the herbivorous spider mite Tetranychus urticae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koveos, Dimitrios S; Suzuki, Takeshi; Terzidou, Anastasia; Kokkari, Anastasia; Floros, George; Damos, Petros; Kouloussis, Nikos A

    2017-01-01

    Egg hatchability of four predatory mites-Phytoseiulus persimilis Athias-Henriot, Iphiseius [Amblyseius] degenerans Berlese, Amblyseius swirskii Athias-Henriot, and Euseius finlandicus Oudemans (Acari: Phytoseiidae)-and the spider mite Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae) was determined under various UV-B doses either in constant darkness (DD) or with simultaneous irradiation using white light. Under UV-B irradiation and DD or simultaneous irradiation with white light, the predator's eggs hatched in significantly lower percentages than in the control non-exposed eggs, which indicates deleterious effects of UV-B on embryonic development. In addition, higher hatchability percentages were observed under UV-B irradiation and DD in eggs of the predatory mites than in eggs of T. urticae. This might be caused by a higher involvement of an antioxidant system, shield effects by pigments or a mere shorter duration of embryonic development in predatory mites than in T. urticae, thus avoiding accumulative effects of UV-B. Although no eggs of T. urticae hatched under UV-B irradiation and DD, variable hatchability percentages were observed under simultaneous irradiation with white light, which suggests the involvement of a photoreactivation system that reduces UV-B damages. Under the same doses with simultaneous irradiation with white light, eggs of T. urticae displayed higher photoreactivation and were more tolerant to UV-B than eggs of the predatory mites. Among predators variation regarding the tolerance to UV-B effects was observed, with eggs of P. persimilis and I. degenerans being more tolerant to UV-B radiation than eggs of A. swirskii and E. finlandicus.

  20. Stable isotopes as a tool to differentiate eggs laid by caged, barn, free range, and organic hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Karyne M

    2009-05-27

    Stable carbon and nitrogen isotope values of whole yolk, delipidized yolk, albumen, and egg membrane were analyzed from 18 different brands of chicken eggs laid under caged, barn, free range, and organic farming regimes. In general, free range and organic egg components showed enrichment of (15)N values up to 4‰ relative to caged and barn laid eggs, suggesting a higher animal protein (trophic) contribution to the chicken's diet than pure plant-based foods and/or that the feed was organically manufactured. One sample of free range and two samples of organic eggs had δ(15)N values within the range of caged or barn laid eggs, suggesting either that these eggs were mislabeled (the hens were raised under "battery" or "barn" conditions, and not permitted to forage outside) or that there was insufficient animal protein gained by foraging to shift the δ(15)N values of their primary food source. δ(13)C values of potential food sources are discussed with respect to dietary intake and contribution to the isotopic signature of the eggs to determine mixing of C(3) and C(4) diets, although they did not elucidate laying regimen. The study finds that stable nitrogen isotope analysis of egg components is potentially a useful technique to unravel dietary differences between caged or barn hens and free range hens (both conventional and organic) and could be further developed as an authentication tool in the egg industry.

  1. Effect of Dietary Crude Protein and Methionine on Egg Production and Egg Quality of Laying Hens During Phase II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Mohammadi Emarat

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of dietary crude protein and methionine levels on quality and quantity of egg production. Fifteen diets formulated with 3 levels of protein (13, 14 and 15% and 5 levels of methionine (0.25, 0.28, 0.31, 0.34 and 0.37% and fed to 420 birds in a 3×5 factorial arrangement. Each diet was randomly fed to 4 replicates of 7 birds each and fed for 3 periods of 4 weeks (50-62wks of age each. Egg number and mortality was recorded daily, whereas feed consumption determined at the end of each period. The increased in dietary protein significantly increased egg production from 54 to 59.4 %. Egg weight, egg mass and feed intake increased by 1.7 g, 3.4 g, and 2.8 g, respectively during the whole experimental period. As the dietary protein increased, feed conversion, egg component (as a percent of whale egg and egg albumin percent were improved. However, the egg breaking, specific gravity and eggshell were significantly decreased with increased dietary protein. The egg yolk percent was not influenced by dietary protein levels. The increased in dietary methionine from 0.25% to 0.37% caused the overall egg production, egg weight, egg mass, feed intake and egg component to improve by about 8.2%, 4g, 6.6g, 8.7g, and 6.0g, respectively. Feed conversion, specific gravity, egg breakage, egg shell, and egg yolk and albumin percent were not influenced by dietary methionine levels.

  2. Impact of moisture on survival of Aedes aegypti eggs and ovicidal activity of Metarhizium anisopliae under laboratory conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Luz

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The effect of relative humidity (43%, 75%, 86% and > 98% on Aedes aegypti eggs treated with Metarhizium anisopliae or water only was tested for up to a six months exposure at 25ºC. Survival of larvae inside eggs was clearly affected by the lowest humidity (43% tested, and eclosion diminished at all humidities after increasing periods of exposure. M. anisopliae showed to have a strong ovicidal activity only at humidity close to saturation. No difference of activity was found between conidia and hyphal bodies tested. This fungus affected larvae inside eggs and has potential as a control agent of this important vector in breeding sites with high moisture.

  3. Do necrophagous blowflies (Diptera: Calliphoridae) lay their eggs in wounds?: Experimental data and implications for forensic entomology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charabidze, Damien; Depeme, Aurore; Devigne, Cedric; Hedouin, Valery

    2015-08-01

    This study was designed to examine the common belief that necrophagous blowflies lay their eggs in wounds. The egg-laying behaviour of Lucilia sericata was observed under controlled conditions on wet, artificially wounded or short-haired areas of rat cadavers. Flies laid significantly more eggs on the wet area and the area with short hair than on the dry area or area with long hair. No eggs were observed inside the wounds in any of the replicates. The effect of egg immersion (body fluids often exudes in wounds) on the survival rate of larvae was also investigated. In low water condition, an average of 72.7±7.9% of the larvae survived and they reached a mean length of 7.5±0.6mm. In contrast, submerging eggs under a high volume of water strongly affected their survival rate (25±3.7%) and development. Similar results were observed using unfrozen pig blood instead of water. These data question the information found in the literature regarding the preferential egg-laying behaviour of Calliphorids flies in wounds. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Immunization against Capillaria hepatica: The effects of primary infections, X-irradiated stages, non-embryonated eggs and soluble egg extracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zahner, H.; Schmidt, H.; Laemmler, G.; Geyer, E.

    1980-01-01

    The worm reproductivity was significantly suppressed in a sublethal challenge infection given 11 days after a primary infection of Mastomys natalensis with 50, 150, 400, and 800 eggs per animal. The administration of 600 X-irradiated (2.2 Krd) embryonated eggs 36 days before challenge as well as an intraperitoneal injection of non-embryonated eggs 12, 10, 8, 6, 4, and 2 days before challenge also reduced significantly the egg production of a weak (50 eggs/animal) infection. No effect was observed on a moderate challenge (300 eggs/animal). The effect was not markedly enhanced by the repeated administration of X-irradiated eggs or by the combination of X-irradiated infective eggs and non-embryonated eggs. Immunization of mice with soluble egg extracts resulted in significant reduction of egg production determined 60 days after challenge. Two hundred and thirty eggs of C. hepatica/g bodyweight proved to be a lethal infection dose for M. natalensis. The animals died between 20 and 35 days after infection. After single infections with 50, 150, 400, or 800 eggs per animal the mortality of Mastomys challenged 36 or 52 days later was reduced to 0-30%. Using X-irradiated embryonated eggs for immunization only repeated administration led to protection in 70 to 80%, of the animals. About 40% of the animals could be protected by the intraperitoneal injection of non-embryonated eggs. If death occurred it was delayed. The combination of X-irradiated stages and eggs did not enhance the protection.

  5. Nutritional Quality of Eggs of Amberlink and Hyline Layers Fed on Different Levels of Provitamin A-Biofortified Maize

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GW Zeina

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The study was conducted to determine the interaction of types of maize (Provitamin A-biofortified maize (PABM versus white maize and strain of laying birds (Amberlink and Hyline on nutritional quality of eggs. Twenty-one of each of Amberlink and Hyline laying hens were fed on three diets for 30 days. Birds were distributed in a 3 × 2 factorial arrangement constituting three diets (0, 50 or 100 % of PABM and two strains (Amberlink & Hyline. There was a diet × strain interaction on egg shell weight, average daily feed intake, egg production, egg weight and egg shell thickness. Eggs produced by layers under 100 % PABM had lighter eggshell weight and lower eggshell percentage. In contrast, eggs produced by layers under 50 % PABM diet had signi-ficantly higher eggshell percentage, heavier egg shell weight and thicker eggshell. As the level of PABM increased, the yellow and red hue (Hunter a* and b* values significantly increased while the lightness values (Hunter L* values decreased. As the level of PABM in the ration increased, the vitamin A content of the egg yolk also significantly increased. Assimilation of vitamin A from feed to egg yolk in Amberlink and Hyline hens was similar. Hence, egg enrichment with vitamin A can be achieved by using PABM in layers ration. The use of high level of PABM had a negative effect on the eggshell quality traits.

  6. QUALITY ASSESSMENT OF EGGS BROWN EGG LAYER HENS CREATION IN TWO SYSTEMS (CAGE AND NEST BED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Paula

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The research objective was to evaluate the effects on the eggs quality in two farming systems (bed + nest and cages for the laying hens brown-egg pullets were used 132 eggs, with six replicates for each treatment and 11 eggs each repetition, picked randomly from sheds both with 2000 DeKalb strain of laying hens housed in two sheds Brown, to create a nest bed + tubular feeders, the other one in cage system, all birds at approximately thirty weeks of age, which evaluated the following variables: weight of whole egg, egg weight without shell, albumen weight, yolk weight, yolk and albumen percentages, weight and thickness, color gem, the albumen pH and yolk, egg and classification according to RIISPOA. All collected data were analyzed by the statistical program SISVAR (2000 by Tukey test at 5% of probability. There were significant differences in the treatments studied in relation to the weight of whole egg, shelled egg weight, albumen%, skin thickness and coloration of the yolk, these results more significant to the breeding system in cages. However it can be concluded that in both systems when properly designed and managed can achieve good results and production performance of birds.

  7. Relationship between specific IgE to egg components and natural history of egg allergy in Danish children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gradman, Josefine; Mortz, Charlotte G; Eller, Esben

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The majority of egg-allergic children develop tolerance over time. However, it may take numerous of consecutive egg challenges to get there as no good indices to predict tolerance exist. OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether serial measurements of specific IgE to egg white, ovomucoid......, ovalbumin, conalbumin, lysozyme, and egg yolk could improve the specificity of the diagnostic workup and aid in the decision when to rechallenge egg-allergic children. METHODS: The outcome of oral food challenges with hen's egg and corresponding specific IgE levels were evaluated in children referred...... to The Allergy Center within an 8-year period. The egg-allergic children were rechallenged and had specific IgE levels measured once a year. RESULTS: During a median follow-up of 26 months, 287 challenges and corresponding 287 serum analyses were performed in 130 children. Of the 130 children, 99 were egg...

  8. Effects of adding aqueous extract of Tribulus terrestris to diet on productive performance, egg quality characteristics, and blood biochemical parameters of laying hens reared under low ambient temperature (6.8 ± 3 °C).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbari, Mohsen; Torki, Mehran

    2016-06-01

    A study was conducted using 144 laying hens to evaluate the effects of adding aqueous extract of Tribulus terrestris to diets on productive performance, egg quality traits, and some blood parameters of laying hens reared under cold stress condition (6.8 ± 3 °C). The birds were randomly assigned to each of four dietary treatments (C, T1, T2, and T3) with six replicate cages of six birds. Diet inclusion of aqueous extract of T. terrestris at the rate of 10, 20, and 30 ml/Lit offered to groups T1, T2, and T3, respectively, while group C served as the control diet with no addition. Feed intake (FI), feed conversion ratio (FCR), egg weight (EW), egg production (EP), and egg mass (EM) were evaluated during the 42-day trial period. The EP and EM increased, whereas FCR decreased (P terrestris has beneficial effects on productive performance of laying hens reared under cold stress condition.

  9. Effects of dietary yeast autolysate (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) on performance, egg traits, egg cholesterol content, egg yolk fatty acid composition and humoral immune response of laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yalçin, Sakine; Yalçin, Suzan; Cakin, Kemal; Eltan, Onder; Dağaşan, Levent

    2010-08-15

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of dietary yeast autolysate on performance, egg traits, egg cholesterol content, egg yolk fatty acid composition, lipid oxidation of egg yolk, some blood parameters and humoral immune response of laying hens during a 16 week period. A total of 225 Hyline Brown laying hens, 22 weeks of age, were allocated equally to one control group and four treatment groups. Yeast autolysate (Saccharomyces cerevisiae, InteWall) was used at levels of 1, 2, 3 and 4 g kg(-1) in the diets of the first, second, third and fourth treatment groups respectively. Dietary treatments did not significantly affect body weight, feed intake and egg traits. Yeast autolysate supplementation increased egg production (P Yeast autolysate at levels of 2, 3 and 4 g kg(-1) decreased egg yolk cholesterol level as mg g(-1) yolk (P yeast autolysate supplementation. Dietary yeast autolysate at levels of 2, 3 and 4 g kg(-1) had beneficial effects on performance, egg cholesterol content and humoral immune response. It is concluded that 2 g kg(-1) yeast autolysate will be enough to have beneficial effects in laying hens. Copyright (c) 2010 Society of Chemical Industry.

  10. Spray drying egg using either maltodextrin or nopal mucilage as stabilizer agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina-Torres, L; Calderas, F; Nuñez Ramírez, D M; Herrera-Valencia, E E; Bernad Bernad, M J; Manero, O

    2017-12-01

    In this work, a comparative study between spray drying (SD) of fresh egg by either maltodextrin (MD) or nopal-mucilage (MN) as stabilizing vectors was made. The powders obtained were characterized for drying performance, moisture content, chemical proximate analysis, thermal analysis (TGA), chemical composition (FTIR), microscopy (SEM) and rheology (viscoelasticity and steady state simple shear viscosity). Infrared analysis showed that MN has the effect of a thickening agent rather than an encapsulating one. Results indicated that SD egg with MN produced a high thermal and mechanical stable product and rendered the highest drying performance, producing a more uniform and defined sphere-shaped morphology in comparison to egg SD either alone and with MD.

  11. Effects of egg consumption on carotenoid absorption from co-consumed, raw vegetables12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jung Eun; Gordon, Susannah L; Ferruzzi, Mario G; Campbell, Wayne W

    2015-01-01

    Background: Dietary lipids are one of the most effective stimulators of carotenoid absorption, but very limited data exist on the impact of endogenous food sources of lipids to enhance carotenoid absorption. The co-consumption of whole egg with carotenoid-rich foods may increase overall carotenoid absorption via lipid-rich egg yolk. Objective: We designed this study to assess the effects of egg consumption on carotenoid absorption from a carotenoid-rich, raw mixed-vegetable salad. Design: Healthy young men (n = 16) consumed the same salad (all served with 3 g canola oil) with no egg (control), 75 g scrambled whole eggs (1.5 eggs) [low egg (LE)], and 150 g scrambled whole eggs (3 eggs) [high egg (HE)] (a randomized crossover design). Control, LE, and HE meals contained 23 mg, 23.4 mg (0.4 mg from eggs), and 23.8 mg (0.8 mg from eggs) total carotenoids and 3 g, 10.5 g (7.5 g from eggs), and 18 g (15 g from eggs) total lipids, respectively. Blood was collected hourly for 10 h, and the triacylglycerol-rich lipoprotein (TRL) fraction was isolated. Total and individual carotenoid contents, including lutein, zeaxanthin , α-carotene, β-carotene, and lycopene in TRL were analyzed, and composite areas under the curve (AUCs) were calculated. Results: The total mean (±SE) carotenoid AUC0–10h in TRL was higher for the HE meal than for LE and control meals [125.7 ± 19.4a compared with 44.8 ± 9.2b compared with 14.9 ± 5.2b nmol/L · 10 h, respectively (values without a common superscript letter differ); P eggs, including α-carotene, β-carotene, and lycopene, increased 3–8-fold (P eggs is an effective way to enhance carotenoid absorption from other carotenoid-rich foods such as a raw mixed-vegetable salad. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01951313. PMID:26016861

  12. Infections may select for filial cannibalism by impacting egg survival in interactions with water salinity and egg density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehtonen, Topi K; Kvarnemo, Charlotta

    2015-07-01

    In aquatic environments, externally developing eggs are in constant contact with the surrounding water, highlighting the significance of water parameters and pathogens for egg survival. In this study we tested the impact of water salinity, egg density and infection potential of the environment on egg viability in the sand goby (Pomatoschistus minutus), a small fish that exhibits paternal egg care and has a marine origin, but which in the Baltic Sea lives in brackish water. To manipulate the infection potential of the environment, we added either a Saprolegnia infection vector into UV-filtered water or a fungicide into natural Baltic Sea water. Saprolegnia are widely spread water moulds that are a key cause of egg mortality in aquatic organisms in fresh- and brackish water. We found that increased water salinity indeed decreased the egg infection rate and had a positive effect on egg viability, while high egg density tended to have the opposite effect. However, the different factors influenced egg viability interactively, with a higher egg density having negative effects at low, but not in high, salinity. Thus, the challenges facing marine organisms adapting to lower salinity levels can be amplified by Saprolegnia infections that reduce egg survival in interaction with other environmental factors. Our results support the hypothesis that suppressing egg infections is an important aspect of parental care that can select for filial cannibalism, a common but poorly understood behaviour, especially in fish with parental care.

  13. Verification of Egg Farming Systems from the Netherlands and New Zealand Using Stable Isotopes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rogers, Karyne M.; Ruth, Van Saskia; Alewijn, Martin; Philips, Andy; Rogers, Pam

    2015-01-01

    Stable isotopes were used to develop authentication criteria of eggs laid under cage, barn, free range, and organic farming regimens from The Netherlands and New Zealand. A training set of commercial poultry feeds and egg albumen from 49 poultry farms across The Netherlands was used to determine

  14. Non-transferable signals on ant queen eggs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    D'Ettorre, Patrizia; Tofilski, Adam; Heinze, Jürgen

    2006-01-01

    How biological systems resolve internal conflicts is a major evolutionary question. Social insect workers cooperate but also pursue individual interests, such as laying male eggs. The rewards of this individual selfishness can be reduced by policing, such as by killing worker-laid eggs. However......, selfish individuals may evade policing. What factors prevent individuals from being able to evade policing? In the ant Pachycondyla inversa, workers kill (police) worker-laid eggs. Because the colony keeps eggs in piles and worker-laid and queen-laid eggs are chemically distinct, worker-laid eggs might...... become more acceptable once placed in the egg pile by odour transfer from touching queen-laid eggs. Here, we show that such "cue scrambling" does not occur. Worker-laid eggs that were sandwiched between three queen-laid eggs for 45 min were not more acceptable in a policing bioassay than control worker...

  15. Egg attachment of the asparagus beetle Crioceris asparagi to the crystalline waxy surface of Asparagus officinalis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voigt, Dagmar; Gorb, Stanislav

    2010-01-01

    Plant surfaces covered with crystalline epicuticular waxes are known to be anti-adhesive, hardly wettable and preventing insect attachment. But there are insects that are capable of gluing their eggs to these surfaces by means of proteinaceous secretions. In this study, we analysed the bonding region between the eggs of Crioceris asparagi and the plant surface of Asparagus officinalis using light and cryo-scanning electron microscopy. The wettability of the plant surface by egg secretion was compared with that by Aqua Millipore water, aqueous sugar solution and chicken egg white. Furthermore, the force required to remove C. asparagi eggs from the plant surface was measured, in order to evaluate the egg's bonding strength. Mean pull-off force was 14.7 mN, which is about 8650 times higher than the egg weight. Egg glue was observed spreading over the wax crystal arrays on the plant cladophyll and wetting them. Similar wetting behaviour on the A. officinalis surface was observed for chicken egg white. Our results support the hypothesis that the mechanism of insect egg adhesion on micro- and nanostructured hydrophobic plant surfaces is related to the proteinaceous nature of adhesive secretions of insect eggs. The secretion wets superhydrophobic surfaces and after solidifying builds up a composite, consisting of the solidified glue and wax crystals, at the interface between the egg and plant cuticle. PMID:19923132

  16. Prevalence of Pathogens Associated with Eggs and the Environment of Conventional Cage and Free Range Egg Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alternative egg production methods are becoming more popular with US consumers. As the drive to expand the retail shell egg market to accommodate consumer shifts proceeds, a need arises for additional information to ensure processing methodologies result in safe eggs from all egg sources. A study ...

  17. Nest sanitation as the evolutionary background for egg ejection behaviour and the role of motivation for object removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poláček, Miroslav; Griggio, Matteo; Bartíková, Michaela; Hoi, Herbert

    2013-01-01

    Higher interclutch colour variation can evolve under the pressure of brood parasitism to increase the detection of parasitic eggs. Nest sanitation could be a prerequisite for the evolution of anti-parasite defence in terms of egg ejection. In this respect, we used nest sanitation behaviour as a tool to identify: i) motivation and its underlying function and, ii) which features provoke ejection behaviour. Therefore, we experimentally tested whether size, colour or shape may influence ejection behaviour using artificial flat objects. We found a high interclutch variation in egg colouration and egg size in our tree sparrow (Passer montanus) population. Using colour and size we were in fact able to predict clutch affiliation for each egg. Our experiments further revealed the existence of direct anti-parasite behaviours and birds are able to recognise conspecific eggs, since only experimentally-deposited eggs have been removed. Moreover, experiments with different objects revealed that the motivation of tree sparrows to remove experimental objects from their nests was highest during egg laying for objects of varying size, most likely because of parasitism risk at this breeding stage. In contrary, motivation to remove white objects and objects with edges was higher during incubation stage as behavioural patterns connected to hatching started to emerge. The fact that rejection rate of our flat objects was higher than real egg ejection, suggests that egg ejection in tree sparrows and probably more general in small passerines, to be limited by elevated costs to eject eggs with their beaks. The presence of anti-parasite behaviour supports our suggestion that brood parasitism causes variation in egg features, as we have found that tree sparrows can recognise and reject conspecific eggs in their clutch. In conclusion, in tree sparrows it seems that nest sanitation plays a key role in the evolution of the removal of parasitic eggs.

  18. Nest sanitation as the evolutionary background for egg ejection behaviour and the role of motivation for object removal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslav Poláček

    Full Text Available Higher interclutch colour variation can evolve under the pressure of brood parasitism to increase the detection of parasitic eggs. Nest sanitation could be a prerequisite for the evolution of anti-parasite defence in terms of egg ejection. In this respect, we used nest sanitation behaviour as a tool to identify: i motivation and its underlying function and, ii which features provoke ejection behaviour. Therefore, we experimentally tested whether size, colour or shape may influence ejection behaviour using artificial flat objects. We found a high interclutch variation in egg colouration and egg size in our tree sparrow (Passer montanus population. Using colour and size we were in fact able to predict clutch affiliation for each egg. Our experiments further revealed the existence of direct anti-parasite behaviours and birds are able to recognise conspecific eggs, since only experimentally-deposited eggs have been removed. Moreover, experiments with different objects revealed that the motivation of tree sparrows to remove experimental objects from their nests was highest during egg laying for objects of varying size, most likely because of parasitism risk at this breeding stage. In contrary, motivation to remove white objects and objects with edges was higher during incubation stage as behavioural patterns connected to hatching started to emerge. The fact that rejection rate of our flat objects was higher than real egg ejection, suggests that egg ejection in tree sparrows and probably more general in small passerines, to be limited by elevated costs to eject eggs with their beaks. The presence of anti-parasite behaviour supports our suggestion that brood parasitism causes variation in egg features, as we have found that tree sparrows can recognise and reject conspecific eggs in their clutch. In conclusion, in tree sparrows it seems that nest sanitation plays a key role in the evolution of the removal of parasitic eggs.

  19. Egg Bungee Jump!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, Mike; Brand, Lance

    2004-01-01

    In this article, the authors present an egg bungee jumping activity. This activity introduces students to ways that engineers might apply calculations of failure to meet a challenge. Students are required to use common, everyday materials such as rubber bands, string, plastic bags, and eggs. They will apply technological problem solving, material…

  20. Biometrical relationships in developing eggs and neonates of Octopus vulgaris in relation to parental diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Márquez, Lorenzo; Quintana, Daniel; Lorenzo, Antonio; Almansa, Eduardo

    2013-09-01

    Captive Octopus vulgaris adults were fed three mono-diets based on pilchard, crab and squid and allowed to grow until reproduction under controlled temperature. Spawns from each dietary treatment were isolated, and the embryonic development, egg length, width and wet weight, in addition to neonate dry weight, dorsal mantle length and ventral mantle length were monitored. Pilchard-diet spawns developed faster in terms of thermal time. Initial egg wet weight was higher for squid and crab diets. Irrespective of the parental diet, eggs passed through a swelling process so that egg width and wet weight increased in a nonlinear way, whereas egg length was left nearly unaffected. Egg length and initial wet weight showed a high correlation with neonate dry weight. Egg length, even at advanced incubation, can be used as a good proxy for neonate dry weight, this fact having potential implications for the ecological and aquaculture research on O. vulgaris.

  1. Early-life gut microbiome and egg allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazlollahi, M; Chun, Y; Grishin, A; Wood, R A; Burks, A W; Dawson, P; Jones, S M; Leung, D Y M; Sampson, H A; Sicherer, S H; Bunyavanich, S

    2018-07-01

    Gut microbiota may play a role in egg allergy. We sought to examine the association between early-life gut microbiota and egg allergy. We studied 141 children with egg allergy and controls from the multicenter Consortium of Food Allergy Research study. At enrollment (age 3 to 16 months), fecal samples were collected, and clinical evaluation, egg-specific IgE measurement, and egg skin prick test were performed. Gut microbiome was profiled by 16S rRNA sequencing. Analyses for the primary outcome of egg allergy at enrollment, and the secondary outcomes of egg sensitization at enrollment and resolution of egg allergy by age 8 years, were performed using Quantitative Insights into Microbial Ecology, Phylogenetic Investigation of Communities by Reconstruction of Unobserved States, and Statistical Analysis of Metagenomic Profiles. Compared to controls, increased alpha diversity and distinct taxa (PERMANOVA P = 5.0 × 10 -4 ) characterized the early-life gut microbiome of children with egg allergy. Genera from the Lachnospiraceae, Streptococcaceae, and Leuconostocaceae families were differentially abundant in children with egg allergy. Predicted metagenome functional analyses showed differential purine metabolism by the gut microbiota of egg-allergic subjects (Kruskal-Wallis P adj  = 0.021). Greater gut microbiome diversity and genera from Lachnospiraceae and Ruminococcaceae were associated with egg sensitization (PERMANOVA P = 5.0 × 10 -4 ). Among those with egg allergy, there was no association between early-life gut microbiota and egg allergy resolution by age 8 years. The distinct early-life gut microbiota in egg-allergic and egg-sensitized children identified by our study may point to targets for preventive or therapeutic intervention. © 2018 EAACI and John Wiley and Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley and Sons Ltd.

  2. 9 CFR 590.800 - Identification of restricted eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Identification of restricted eggs. 590... AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Identification of Restricted Eggs Or Egg Products Not Intended for Human Consumption § 590.800 Identification of...

  3. Cryptic cuckoo eggs hide from competing cuckoos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gloag, Ros; Keller, Laurie-Anne; Langmore, Naomi E.

    2014-01-01

    Interspecific arms races between cuckoos and their hosts have produced remarkable examples of mimicry, with parasite eggs evolving to match host egg appearance and so evade removal by hosts. Certain bronze-cuckoo species, however, lay eggs that are cryptic rather than mimetic. These eggs are coated in a low luminance pigment that camouflages them within the dark interiors of hosts' nests. We investigated whether cuckoo egg crypsis is likely to have arisen from the same coevolutionary processes known to favour egg mimicry. We added high and low luminance-painted eggs to the nests of large-billed gerygones (Gerygone magnirostris), a host of the little bronze-cuckoo (Chalcites minutillus). Gerygones rarely rejected either egg type, and did not reject natural cuckoo eggs. Cuckoos, by contrast, regularly removed an egg from clutches before laying their own and were five times more likely to remove a high luminance model than its low luminance counterpart. Given that we found one-third of all parasitized nests were exploited by multiple cuckoos, our results suggest that competition between cuckoos has been the key selective agent for egg crypsis. In such intraspecific arms races, crypsis may be favoured over mimicry because it can reduce the risk of egg removal to levels below chance. PMID:25122227

  4. Running out of time: exploring women's motivations for social egg freezing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Kylie; Culley, Lorraine; Hudson, Nicky; Mitchell, Helene

    2018-04-12

    Few qualitative studies have explored women's use of social egg freezing. Derived from an interview study of 31 participants, this article explores the motivations of women using this technology. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 31 users of social egg freezing resident in UK (n = 23), USA (n = 7) and Norway (n = 1). Interviews were face to face (n = 16), through Skype and Facetime (n = 9) or by telephone (n = 6). Data were analyzed using interpretive thematic analysis. Women's use of egg freezing was shaped by fears of running out of time to form a conventional family, difficulties in finding a partner and concerns about "panic partnering", together with a desire to avoid future regrets and blame. For some women, use of egg freezing was influenced by recent fertility or health diagnoses as well as critical life events. A fifth of the participants also disclosed an underlying fertility or health issue as affecting their decision. The study provides new insights in to the complex motivations women have for banking eggs. It identifies how women's use of egg freezing was an attempt to "preserve fertility" in the absence of the particular set of "life conditions" they regarded as crucial for pursuing parenthood. It also demonstrates that few women were motivated by a desire to enhance their career and that the boundaries between egg freezing for medical and for social reasons may be more porous than first anticipated.

  5. 7 CFR 57.35 - Eggs in commerce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Eggs in commerce. 57.35 Section 57.35 Agriculture... AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT (CONTINUED) INSPECTION OF EGGS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Regulations Governing the Inspection of Eggs Relation to Other Authorities § 57.35...

  6. Evidence of the most stretchable egg sac silk stalk, of the European spider of the year Meta menardi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emiliano Lepore

    Full Text Available Spider silks display generally strong mechanical properties, even if differences between species and within the same species can be observed. While many different types of silks have been tested, the mechanical properties of stalks of silk taken from the egg sac of the cave spider Meta menardi have not yet been analyzed. Meta menardi has recently been chosen as the "European spider of the year 2012", from the European Society of Arachnology. Here we report a study where silk stalks were collected directly from several caves in the north-west of Italy. Field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM images showed that stalks are made up of a large number of threads, each of them with diameter of 6.03 ± 0.58 µm. The stalks were strained at the constant rate of 2 mm/min, using a tensile testing machine. The observed maximum stress, strain and toughness modulus, defined as the area under the stress-strain curve, are 0.64 GPa, 751% and 130.7 MJ/m(3, respectively. To the best of our knowledge, such an observed huge elongation has never been reported for egg sac silk stalks and suggests a huge unrolling microscopic mechanism of the macroscopic stalk that, as a continuation of the protective egg sac, is expected to be composed by fibres very densely and randomly packed. The Weibull statistics was used to analyze the results from mechanical testing, and an average value of Weibull modulus (m is deduced to be in the range of 1.5-1.8 with a Weibull scale parameter (σ(0 in the range of 0.33-0.41 GPa, showing a high coefficient of correlation (R(2 = 0.97.

  7. FEMALE PREFERENCE FOR NESTS WITH EGGS IS BASED ON THE PRESENCE OF THE EGGS THEMSELVES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    KRAAK, SBM; GROOTHUIS, TGG; Kraak, Sarah B.M.; Groothuis, Ton G.G.

    1994-01-01

    In many fish species of which males care for eggs in a nest, including Aidablennius sphynx, females prefer to mate with males that already guard eggs. In this paper we present two aquarium experiments with this Mediterranean blenny to determine whether the females actually use the presence of eggs

  8. CalCOFI Egg Counts

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Fish egg counts and standardized counts for eggs captured in CalCOFI icthyoplankton nets (primarily vertical [Calvet or Pairovet], oblique [bongo or ring nets], and...

  9. Egg and Egg-Derived Foods: Effects on Human Health and Use as Functional Foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Jose M.; Anton, Xaquin; Redondo-Valbuena, Celia; Roca-Saavedra, Paula; Rodriguez, Jose A.; Lamas, Alexandre; Franco, Carlos M.; Cepeda, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    Eggs are sources of protein, fats and micronutrients that play an important role in basic nutrition. However, eggs are traditionally associated with adverse factors in human health, mainly due to their cholesterol content. Nowadays, however, it is known that the response of cholesterol in human serum levels to dietary cholesterol consumption depends on several factors, such as ethnicity, genetic makeup, hormonal factors and the nutritional status of the consumer. Additionally, in recent decades, there has been an increasing demand for functional foods, which is expected to continue to increase in the future, owing to their capacity to decrease the risks of some diseases and socio-demographic factors such as the increase in life expectancy. This work offers a brief overview of the advantages and disadvantages of egg consumption and the potential market of functional eggs, and it explores the possibilities of the development of functional eggs by technological methods. PMID:25608941

  10. Keeping eggs warm: thermal and developmental advantages for parasitic cuckoos of laying unusually thick-shelled eggs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Canchao; Huang, Qiuli; Wang, Longwu; Du, Wei-Guo; Liang, Wei; Møller, Anders Pape

    2018-02-01

    Obligate brood parasites have evolved unusually thick-shelled eggs, which are hypothesized to possess a variety of functions such as resistance to puncture ejection by their hosts. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that obligate brood parasites lay unusually thick-shelled eggs to retain more heat for the developing embryo and thus contribute to early hatching of parasite eggs. By doing so, we used an infrared thermal imaging system as a non-invasive method to quantify the temperature of eggshells of common cuckoos ( Cuculus canorus) and their Oriental reed warbler ( Acrocephalus orientalis) hosts in an experiment that artificially altered the duration of incubation. Our results showed that cuckoo eggshells had higher temperature than host eggs during incubation, but also less fluctuations in temperature during incubation disturbance. Therefore, there was a thermal and hence a developmental advantage for brood parasitic cuckoos of laying thick-shelled eggs, providing another possible explanation for the unusually thick-shelled eggs of obligate brood parasites and earlier hatching of cuckoo eggs compared to those of the host.

  11. Keeping eggs warm: thermal and developmental advantages for parasitic cuckoos of laying unusually thick-shelled eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Canchao; Huang, Qiuli; Wang, Longwu; Du, Wei-Guo; Liang, Wei; Møller, Anders Pape

    2018-01-02

    Obligate brood parasites have evolved unusually thick-shelled eggs, which are hypothesized to possess a variety of functions such as resistance to puncture ejection by their hosts. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that obligate brood parasites lay unusually thick-shelled eggs to retain more heat for the developing embryo and thus contribute to early hatching of parasite eggs. By doing so, we used an infrared thermal imaging system as a non-invasive method to quantify the temperature of eggshells of common cuckoos (Cuculus canorus) and their Oriental reed warbler (Acrocephalus orientalis) hosts in an experiment that artificially altered the duration of incubation. Our results showed that cuckoo eggshells had higher temperature than host eggs during incubation, but also less fluctuations in temperature during incubation disturbance. Therefore, there was a thermal and hence a developmental advantage for brood parasitic cuckoos of laying thick-shelled eggs, providing another possible explanation for the unusually thick-shelled eggs of obligate brood parasites and earlier hatching of cuckoo eggs compared to those of the host.

  12. Quality of spelt pasta enriched with eggs and identification of eggs using 13C MAS NMR spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipović Jelena S.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the characteristics of spelt pasta enriched with eggs. Eggs were added to spelt farina in the quantity of 0, 124 or 248 g/kg (equivalent to 0, 3 or 6 eggs, respectively. Post-hoc Tukey’s HSD test at 95% confidence limit showed significant differences between various samples. Relatively low coefficients of variation have been obtained for each applied assay (1.25-12.42%, which confirmed the high accuracy measurements and statistically significant results. Standard score analysis is applied for accessing the contribution of eggs content to spelt pasta quality. Maximum scores regarding quality (0.89 and chemical characteristics (0.70, have been obtained for 6 eggs spelt pasta formulation. It is also shown that the presence of eggs in pasta can be clearly confirmed by 13C MAS NMR spectroscopy. Simultaneous increase in area of peak positioned at 29.5 and 176 ppm is directly associated with the increase in the content of added eggs in the corresponding samples. Pertinent data point at positive contribution of eggs to the spelt pasta and also that NMR spectrum can be used in the egg quantity control. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TRI 46005 i br. TR 31029

  13. Effect of Dietary Marine Microalgae ( Powder on Egg Production, Blood Lipid Profiles, Egg Quality, and Fatty Acid Composition of Egg Yolk in Layers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. H. Park

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Two hundred and sixteen Institut de Sélection Animale (ISA brown layers (40 wks of age were studied for 6 wks to examine the effect of microalgae powder (MAP on egg production, egg quality, blood lipid profile, and fatty acid concentration of egg yolk. Dietary treatments were as follows: i CON (basal diet, ii 0.5% MAP (CON+0.5% Schizochytrium powder, and iii 1.0% MAP (CON+1.0% Schizochytrium powder. From 44 to 46 wks, egg production was higher in 1.0% MAP treatment than in control treatment (linear, p = 0.034; however, there was no difference on the egg production from 40 to 43 wks (p>0.05. Serum triglyceride and total cholesterol were significantly reduced in the groups fed with MAP, compared to those in groups fed with control diets (Quadratic, p = 0.034 and p = 0.039, respectively. Inclusion of 0.5% MAP in the diet of layers improved egg yolk color, compared with hens fed with basal diet at 46 wks (quadratic, p = 0.044. Eggshell thickness was linearly increased in MAP-fed treatments at 46th wk (p<0.05. Concentration of yolk docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; C22:6n-3 was increased in treatment groups fed with MAP (linear, p<0.05. The n-6 fatty acids, n-6/n-3 fatty acid, and unsaturated fatty acid/saturated fatty acid were decreased in treatment groups fed with MAP (linear, p<0.05. These results suggest that MAP improved the egg production and egg quality, and may affect serum lipid metabolites in the layers. In addition, MAP increases yolk DHA levels, and deceases n-6/n-3 fatty acid ratio.

  14. Validation of Folate-Enriched Eggs as a Functional Food for Improving Folate Intake in Consumers

    OpenAIRE

    Altic, Leslie; McNulty, Helene; Hoey, Leane; McAnena, Liadhan; Pentieva, Kristina

    2016-01-01

    Functional foods enriched with folate may be beneficial as a means of optimizing folate status in consumers. We recently developed novel eggs enriched with folate through folic acid supplementation of the hen’s feed, but their potential to influence consumer folate status is unknown because the natural folate forms incorporated into the eggs may not necessarily be retained during storage and cooking. This study aimed to determine the stability of natural folates in folate-enriched eggs under ...

  15. Production and purification of IgY antibodies from chicken egg yolk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wala Ahmad Amro

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The isolation of polyclonal antibodies from the serum of immunized mammals has significantly contributed to scientific research and diagnosis. The fact that recent technologies allow the production of antibodies in the yolk of eggs laid by hens, has led to the development of an alternative method for antibody generation that is less stressful to animals. As hens are kept under almost all their natural conditions, antibodies are isolated from the collected eggs; this technology is expected to become an interesting alternative to the conventionally serum-based techniques that eventually require to sacrifice the animal.Here we present a modified protocol for the isolation of IgY antibodies from immunized chickens and provide comparison between two chicken breeds in relative to IgY yield per egg. Our results show the possibility of generating large quantities of highly pure IgY from chicken eggs and also show large differences in the yield of IgY production between the two studied breeds. The results of this work indicate that IgY technology can be used for the production of primary antibodies for immunological work and disease diagnosis. Keywords: IgY, Chicken egg yolk, Gel filtration chromatography, Salmonella typhimurium

  16. Metabolic effects of quail eggs in diabetes-induced rats: comparison with chicken eggs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Lontchi-Yimagou

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Quail eggs as a food item have recently been introduced into the diet of some Cameroonians. These eggs are being sold in local markets, but with many unfounded health claims. One claim is that quail eggs can reduce blood glucose levels in diabetics. It was therefore necessary to evaluate the effect of consuming quail eggs on blood glucose levels, lipid profiles, and oxidative stress parameters in diabetes-induced rats. Methods: Twenty Wistar rats weighing, on average, 250 g were divided into four groups of five rats each. Group 1 consisted of rats with normal blood glucose, and the other three groups (2, 3, and 4 consisted of diabetes-induced rats achieved by intravenous injection of streptozotocin. During 16 days, rats in groups 1 and 2 received distilled water; and rats in groups 3 and 4 received quail and chicken eggs, respectively, with gastroesophageal probe at a dose of 1 mL/200 g body weight. Fasting blood glucose levels were determined in all the groups on the 1st, 7th, 14th, and 17th days after induction of diabetes. On the 17th day, the fasting rats were sacrificed, and blood and liver samples were collected for biochemical analyses. Results: In 17 days, the consumption of quail and chicken eggs had no effect on blood glucose levels of diabetic rats. Total cholesterol levels were higher in groups 3 (75.59 mg/dL and 4 (59.41 mg/dL compared to group 2 (55.67 mg/dl, although these differences were not significant (all p>0.05. Triglyceride levels were significantly higher (p <0.05 in groups 3 (106.52 mg/dL and 4 (109.65 mg/dL compared to group 2 (65.82 mg/dL. Quail eggs had no effect on oxidative stress parameters (malondialdehyde, hydroperoxides, and catalase. Conclusions: The consumption of quail eggs by diabetic rats at the tested dose had no effect on blood glucose level and oxidative stress parameters and may have a negative effect on lipid profile.

  17. Xenopus egg cytoplasm with intact actin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, Christine M; Nguyen, Phuong A; Ishihara, Keisuke; Groen, Aaron C; Mitchison, Timothy J

    2014-01-01

    We report optimized methods for preparing Xenopus egg extracts without cytochalasin D, that we term "actin-intact egg extract." These are undiluted egg cytoplasm that contains abundant organelles, and glycogen which supplies energy, and represents the least perturbed cell-free cytoplasm preparation we know of. We used this system to probe cell cycle regulation of actin and myosin-II dynamics (Field et al., 2011), and to reconstitute the large, interphase asters that organize early Xenopus embryos (Mitchison et al., 2012; Wühr, Tan, Parker, Detrich, & Mitchison, 2010). Actin-intact Xenopus egg extracts are useful for analysis of actin dynamics, and interaction of actin with other cytoplasmic systems, in a cell-free system that closely mimics egg physiology, and more generally for probing the biochemistry and biophysics of the egg, zygote, and early embryo. Detailed protocols are provided along with assays used to check cell cycle state and tips for handling and storing undiluted egg extracts. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Testing the Law of One Price under Nonlinearity for Egg Market of Selected Provinces of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ghahremanzadeh

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Regarding to the ever-increasing consumption of egg and consequently enhancement of its production during recent years, consideration to this output's market integration has special importance. Considering the fact that information on market integration may provide specific evidence as to the competitiveness of market, the effectiveness of arbitrage and the efficiency of pricing could be, likewise, useful to guide subsequent interventions aimed at improving the performance of market. In this context, in present study, validity of Law of One Price (LOP will be tested in the egg market and among selected provinces. Materials and Methods: Nonlinearity naturally extracted from local market due to existence of transportation and other transaction costs, so common cointegration test results are not suitable for market integration. In this study, at first, for being sure that series follow nonlinear behavior, Luukkonen et al. (1988 and BDS nonlinearity tests were used. Then for testing Law of One price in the egg market, nonlinear unit root test proposed by Emmanouilides and Fousekis (2012, which is an auxiliary regression for ESTAR model, was used. The data are daily retail prices of egg with the sample period ranging from April 2006 to march 2014 for north-west provinces of Iran including West Azerbaijan, East Azerbaijan, Ardebil, Tehran and Zanjan, which were obtained from State Live Stock Affairs Logistics Incorporated Company. Results and Discussion: Based on the DF-GLS unit root test, the null hypothesis of unit root for egg price differentials was rejected. So, all series of price differentials are stationary. In the next step nonlinearity of price differentials of egg between two provinces was examined. In BDS test, at the beginning, an ARMA model was estimated then the test was carried out to the residual of estimated model with embedding dimension (m 2-8 and the dimensional distance (ε chosen equals to 0.5 and 2 times of

  19. Effects of dietary humic substances on egg production and egg shell ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-03-20

    Mar 20, 2009 ... in cages in three tier batteries. Egg production (% hen-day) in the H2 group was higher (P < 0.05) than control group. Egg mass of H2 hens was ..... heavy metal ion toxicity to experimental animals is dependant on the technique of application and the applied dose. However, neither increased mortality nor.

  20. 9 CFR 590.35 - Eggs and egg products outside official plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Eggs and egg products outside official plants. 590.35 Section 590.35 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT... official plant and are in violation of this part or any of said Federal Acts or any State or local law...

  1. Process of egg formation in the female body cavity and fertilization in male eggs of Phytoseiulus persimilis (Acari: Phytoseiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyoshima, S; Nakamura, M; Nagahama, Y; Amano, H

    2000-01-01

    The process of egg formation in the body cavity of a phytoseiid mite, Phytoseiulus persimilis, was observed to examine fertilization of male eggs. After insemination, one of the ova at the periphery of the ovary began to expand, taking up yolk. Two pronuclei appeared in the expanded egg, located dorsally in the ovary, and yolk granules were formed gradually. After the egg became filled with yolk granules the two pronuclei fused. The egg moved via the narrow entrance at the ventral region into the oviduct, where the eggshell was formed. When the eggshell was complete, and while embryogenesis proceeded, the egg was deposited. In the meantime some ova began to expand sequentially and two joining pronuclei appeared in expanding eggs. The joining pronuclei in the first egg proved male diploidy. This is additional evidence of pseudo-arrhenotoky in this phytoseiid mite species, since the first eggs developed into males.

  2. Allergens from fish and egg

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, L.K.; Hansen, Tine Kjær; Norgaard, A.

    2001-01-01

    Allergens from fish and egg belong to some of the most frequent causes of food allergic reactions reported in the literature. Egg allergens have been described in both white and yolk, and the egg white proteins ovomucoid, ovalbumin, ovotransferrin and lysozyme have been adopted in the allergen...... nomenclature as Gal d1-d4. The most reported allergen from egg yolk seems to be alpha-livitin. In fish, the dominating allergen is the homologues of Gad c1 from cod, formerly described as protein M. A close cross-reactivity exists within different species of fish between this calcium-binding protein family...

  3. Sperm-egg penetration assay assessment of the contraceptive effects of glycerol and egg yolk in rooster sperm diluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abouelezz, F M K; Castaño, C; Toledano-Díaz, A; Esteso, M C; López-Sebastián, A; Campo, J L; Santiago-Moreno, J

    2015-06-01

    Glycerol (GLY) and egg yolk (EY) are good cryoprotectants of avian and mammalian sperm, but in birds, they strongly inhibit the eventual fertilization of ova. Using the sperm penetration (SP-holes) assay and fertility trials, the present study investigates (1) the possible mechanism by which this contraceptive effect occurs in chickens and (2) the maximum concentrations of GLY and EY tolerated by fresh rooster sperm. Seventy Black-Barred Andaluza hens (five per treatment) were inseminated four times (twice per week) with 0.1 mL of fresh semen from roosters of the same breed diluted 1:1 (v:v) with Lake and Ravie medium containing different concentrations of GLY or EY. No adverse effects on acrosome integrity, sperm motility, or viability were seen with any concentration of GLY or EY. The number of SP-holes on perivitelline layer samples taken from above the germinal disc became progressively lower at GLY concentrations of 1.5% or greater (P > 0.05). No holes caused by sperms were seen in unfertilized eggs. The corresponding fertility results showed similar reductions when the GLY concentration was 1.5% or greater. No changes in the number of SP-holes were seen with increasing EY concentrations (0%-7.5%), nor were any differences in fertility observed, except for a reduction when 15% EY was used. The results therefore reveal that GLY affects the transit of sperms through the oviduct in their attempt to reach the infundibulum area, limiting their access to the ovum perivitelline layer. Egg yolk had no such effect, nor did it influence acrosome reaction capacity; its mechanism of contraceptive action therefore remains unknown. The maximum GLY and EY concentrations tolerated by the rooster sperm were 0.75% and 7.5%, respectively. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Egg size, egg composition and reproductive success in the Oystercatcher Haematopus ostralegus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jager, TD; Hulscher, JB; Kersten, M.

    2000-01-01

    We investigated the relationship between egg size and composition and their subsequent effects on hatching and fledging success in Eurasian Oystercatchers Haematopus ostralegus on the island of Schiermonnikoog (53 degrees 30'N, 06 degrees 10'E) in the Dutch Wadden Sea between 1986 and 1990. Egg size

  5. Oocyte cryopreservation for donor egg banking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobo, Ana; Remohí, José; Chang, Ching-Chien; Nagy, Zsolt Peter

    2011-09-01

    Oocyte donation is an efficient alternative to using own oocytes in IVF treatment for different indications. Unfortunately, 'traditional' (fresh) egg donations are challenged with inefficiency, difficulties of synchronization, very long waiting periods and lack of quarantine measures. Given the recent improvements in the efficiency of oocyte cryopreservation, it is reasonable to examine if egg donation through oocyte cryopreservation has merits. The objective of the current manuscript is to review existing literature on this topic and to report on the most recent outcomes from two established donor cryobank centres. Reports on egg donation using slow freezing are scarce and though results are encouraging, outcomes are not yet comparable to a fresh egg donation treatment. Vitrification on the other hand appears to provide high survival rates (90%) of donor oocytes and comparable fertilization, embryo development, implantation and pregnancy rates to traditional (fresh) egg donation. Besides the excellent outcomes, the ease of use for both donors and recipients, higher efficiency, lower cost and avoiding the problem of synchronization are all features associated with the benefit of a donor egg cryobank and makes it likely that this approach becomes the future standard of care. Oocyte donation is one of the last resorts in IVF treatment for couples challenged with infertility problems. However, traditional (fresh) egg donation, as it is performed today, is not very efficient, as typically all eggs from one donor are given to only one recipient, it is arduous as it requires an excellent synchronization between the donor and recipient and there are months or years of waiting time. Because of the development of an efficient oocyte cryopreservation technique, it is now possible to cryo-store donor (as well as non-donor) eggs, maintaining their viability and allowing their use whenever there is demand. Therefore, creating a donor oocyte cryobank would carry many advantages

  6. Tips to Reduce Your Risk of Salmonella from Eggs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... eggs. Eat or refrigerate eggs and foods containing eggs promptly after cooking. Do not keep eggs or foods made with ... water can pull bacteria into the egg. Refrigerate eggs after collection. Cook eggs thoroughly. Raw and undercooked eggs contain Salmonella ...

  7. Verification of Egg Farming Systems from The Netherlands and New Zealand Using Stable Isotopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Karyne M; van Ruth, Saskia; Alewijn, Martin; Philips, Andy; Rogers, Pam

    2015-09-30

    Stable isotopes were used to develop authentication criteria of eggs laid under cage, barn, free range, and organic farming regimens from The Netherlands and New Zealand. A training set of commercial poultry feeds and egg albumen from 49 poultry farms across The Netherlands was used to determine the isotopic variability of organic and conventional feeds and to assess trophic effects of these corresponding feeds and barn, free range, and organic farming regimens on corresponding egg albumen. A further 52 brands of New Zealand eggs were sampled from supermarket shelves in 2008 (18), 2010 (30), and 2014 (4) to characterize and monitor changes in caged, barn, free range, and organic egg farming regimens. Stable carbon (δ(13)C) and nitrogen (δ(15)N) isotopes of 49 commercial poultry feeds and their corresponding egg albumens reveals that Dutch poultry are fed exclusively on a plant-based feed and that it is possible to discriminate between conventional and organic egg farming regimens in The Netherlands. Similarly, it is possible to discriminate between New Zealand organic and conventional egg farming regimens, although in the initial screening in 2008, results showed that some organic eggs had isotope values similar to those of conventional eggs, suggesting hens were not exclusively receiving an organic diet. Dutch and New Zealand egg regimens were shown to have a low isotopic correlation between both countries, because of different poultry feed compositions. In New Zealand, both conventional and organic egg whites have higher δ(15)N values than corresponding Dutch egg whites, due to the use of fishmeal or meat and bone meal (MBM), which is banned in European countries. This study suggests that stable isotopes (specifically nitrogen) show particular promise as a screening and authentication tool for organically farmed eggs. Criteria to assess truthfulness in labeling of organic eggs were developed, and we propose that Dutch organic egg whites should have a minimum

  8. Reptile Embryos Lack the Opportunity to Thermoregulate by Moving within the Egg.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telemeco, Rory S; Gangloff, Eric J; Cordero, Gerardo A; Mitchell, Timothy S; Bodensteiner, Brooke L; Holden, Kaitlyn G; Mitchell, Sarah M; Polich, Rebecca L; Janzen, Fredric J

    2016-07-01

    Historically, egg-bound reptile embryos were thought to passively thermoconform to the nest environment. However, recent observations of thermal taxis by embryos of multiple reptile species have led to the widely discussed hypothesis that embryos behaviorally thermoregulate. Because temperature affects development, such thermoregulation could allow embryos to control their fate far more than historically assumed. We assessed the opportunity for embryos to behaviorally thermoregulate in nature by examining thermal gradients within natural nests and eggs of the common snapping turtle (Chelydra serpentina; which displays embryonic thermal taxis) and by simulating thermal gradients within nests across a range of nest depths, egg sizes, and soil types. We observed little spatial thermal variation within nests, and thermal gradients were poorly transferred to eggs. Furthermore, thermal gradients sufficiently large and constant for behavioral thermoregulation were not predicted to occur in our simulations. Gradients of biologically relevant magnitude have limited global occurrence and reverse direction twice daily when they do exist, which is substantially faster than embryos can shift position within the egg. Our results imply that reptile embryos will rarely, if ever, have the opportunity to behaviorally thermoregulate by moving within the egg. We suggest that embryonic thermal taxis instead represents a play behavior, which may be adaptive or selectively neutral, and results from the mechanisms for behavioral thermoregulation in free-living stages coming online prior to hatching.

  9. Study on mixis potential of rotifer resting eggs ( Brachionus plicatilis) with different collection times and different preservation periods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Li; Zheng, Yan; Xiang, Jian-Hai

    2001-09-01

    The present study investigated the possible changes in the mixis potential of rotifer resting eggs produced by a single stock of Brachionus plicatilis and collected and preserved annually from 1985 1998. Several clones derived from each batch of resting eggs were cultured under the same conditions for 21 days. The percentage of clones appearing resting eggs and the average yield of resting eggs produced from each clone were recorded and statistically analyzed to find the differences between the mixis potential of those resting egg batches. Results showed that different batches of resting eggs had different mictic levels among their descendent clones; but no regular relationship was found between the mixis potential of resting eggs and their collection times/preservation periods. Several internal and external factors that might affect the mixis potential of resting eggs were discussed.

  10. Integrating toxicity risk in bird eggs and chicks: using chick down feathers to estimate mercury concentrations in eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerman, Joshua T; Eagles-Smith, Collin A

    2009-03-15

    The concentration of mercury (Hg) in eggs that causes reduced hatching success is regarded as a critical end point for Hg toxicity in birds. However, incorporating effects of in ovo mercury exposure on chick health and survival could improve risk assessment. We developed equations to predict Hg in eggs using Hg in chick down feathers, and vice versa, by assessing the relationship between Hg in feathers (0.5-32.4 microg g(-1) fw) and eggs (0.04-2.79 microg g(-1) fww) for three waterbird species in San Francisco Bay, CA. Feather Hg sampled from embryos of pipping eggs was highly correlated with fresh whole-egg Hg (n=94, r2 = 0.96). Additionally, using an egg microsampling technique, albumen Hg was correlated with feather Hg sampled from chicks in the same nest (n=28, r2 = 0.79). Down feather Hg in recaptured chicks (feather Hg at hatching (feathers of chicks < or =10 days of age to nonlethally predict Hg in eggs and thus provide the ability to develop exposure thresholds for eggs that incorporate in ovo Hg's effects on both egg hatchability and subsequent chick mortality.

  11. Application of the FluEgg model to predict transport of Asian carp eggs in the Saint Joseph River (Great Lakes tributary)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Tatiana; Murphy, Elizabeth A.; Jackson, P. Ryan; Garcia, Marcelo H.

    2015-01-01

    The Fluvial Egg Drift Simulator (FluEgg) is a three-dimensional Lagrangian model that simulates the movement and development of Asian carp eggs until hatching based on the physical characteristics of the flow field and the physical and biological characteristics of the eggs. This tool provides information concerning egg development and spawning habitat suitability including: egg plume location, egg vertical and travel time distribution, and egg-hatching risk. A case study of the simulation of Asian carp eggs in the Lower Saint Joseph River, a tributary of Lake Michigan, is presented. The river hydrodynamic input for FluEgg was generated in two ways — using hydroacoustic data and using HEC-RAS model data. The HEC-RAS model hydrodynamic input data were used to simulate 52 scenarios covering a broad range of flows and water temperatures with the eggs at risk of hatching ranging from 0 to 93% depending on river conditions. FluEgg simulations depict the highest percentage of eggs at risk of hatching occurs at the lowest discharge and at peak water temperatures. Analysis of these scenarios illustrates how the interactive relation among river length, hydrodynamics, and water temperature influence egg transport and hatching risk. An improved version of FluEgg, which more realistically simulates dispersion and egg development, is presented. Also presented is a graphical user interface that facilitates the use of FluEgg and provides a set of post-processing analysis tools to support management decision-making regarding the prevention and control of Asian carp reproduction in rivers with or without Asian carp populations.

  12. Survival and infectivity of chicken ascarid eggs in soil after exposure to an egg-degrading microfungus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mejer, Helena; Thamsborg, Stig M.; Meyling, Nicolai V.

    The microfungus Pochonia chlamydosporia has been shown to kill high numbers of chicken ascarid (Ascaridia galli and Heterakis spp.) eggs in vitro but it is not known if surviving eggs may be infective. Unembryonated ascarid eggs (predominantly A. galli) were therefore isolated from faeces and added...... to sterilised (S) or non-sterilised (N) soil in Petri dishes that were either treated with P. chlamydosporia (F) or left untreated (C) during incubation at 22°C for 35 days. Egg recovery was estimated before (day 0) and after (day 35) treatment. Thereafter, each of four groups of parasite-free egg-laying hens...... was exposed to the soil from one of the four treatments in the feed over 12 days. The hens were necropsied day 42 post first exposure. The number of surviving eggs was most substantially reduced in SF soil and SF hens had statistically lower worm burdens (both parasites) compared to SC, NC and NF hens...

  13. Single and combined effects of peppermint and thyme essential oils on productive performance, egg quality traits, and blood parameters of laying hens reared under cold stress condition (6.8 ± 3 °C).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbari, Mohsen; Torki, Mehran; Kaviani, Keyomars

    2016-03-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of adding peppermint essential oil (PEO), thyme essential oil (TEO), or their combination to diet on productive performance, egg quality traits, and blood parameters of laying hens reared under cold stress condition (6.8 ± 3 °C). Feed intake (FI), feed conversion ratio (FCR), egg weight (EW), egg production (EP), and egg mass (EM) were evaluated during the 56-day trial period using 120 Lohmann LSL-lite laying hens. Significant interactions between PEO and TEO on FCR, EP, and EM were observed (P hens fed the diets supplemented by the combined form of PEO and TEO compared to those fed the basal diet. Also, increased EW and FI were observed in the laying hens fed the diet added by PEO compared to the birds fed the basal diet. There were significant interactions between PEO and TEO on the serum level of cholesterol, shell thickness, and Hough unit of egg (P hens fed the diet supplemented by the combined form of PEO and TEO compared to those fed the basal diet. From the results of the present experiment, it can be concluded that diet supplementation by combined form of PEO and TEO could have beneficial effects on performance parameters of hens reared under cold stress condition.

  14. Surface Damage Mechanism of Monocrystalline Si Under Mechanical Loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Qingliang; Zhang, Quanli; To, Suet; Guo, Bing

    2017-03-01

    Single-point diamond scratching and nanoindentation on monocrystalline silicon wafer were performed to investigate the surface damage mechanism of Si under the contact loading. The results showed that three typical stages of material removal appeared during dynamic scratching, and a chemical reaction of Si with the diamond indenter and oxygen occurred under the high temperature. In addition, the Raman spectra of the various points in the scratching groove indicated that the Si-I to β-Sn structure (Si-II) and the following β-Sn structure (Si-II) to amorphous Si transformation appeared under the rapid loading/unloading condition of the diamond grit, and the volume change induced by the phase transformation resulted in a critical depth (ductile-brittle transition) of cut (˜60 nm ± 15 nm) much lower than the theoretical calculated results (˜387 nm). Moreover, it also led to abnormal load-displacement curves in the nanoindentation tests, resulting in the appearance of elbow and pop-out effects (˜270 nm at 20 s, 50 mN), which were highly dependent on the loading/unloading conditions. In summary, phase transformation of Si promoted surface deformation and fracture under both static and dynamic mechanical loading.

  15. Egg weight and gamma-rays effects. Pt. 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shebaita, M.K.; Kamar, G.A.R.; Salem, M.A.I.; Ezzat, I.E.

    1979-01-01

    A total of 180 roosters at 36 weeks old were used to find out the effects of egg weight and gamma-rays on blood, carcass and meat analysis. The data revealed that radiation induced anemia and increased meat production. The different parameters under study were discussed in details. (orig.) [de

  16. Effects of gamma radiation on the Mediterranean flour moth eggs and acceptability of irradiated eggs by trichogramma cacoeciae females

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mansour, M.

    2008-12-01

    The sensitivity of the Mediterranean flour moth, Ephestia kuehniella, eggs in different stages of development to gamma irradiation was studied and the acceptability of irradiated eggs by Trichogramma cacoeciae females was examined. In addition, the developmental rate of immature stages (larvae and pupae), resulting from irradiated eggs, to the adult stage was examined and the acceptance of irradiated eggs to T. cacoeciae females was evaluated. Results showed that the radio-sensitivity of E. kuehniella eggs decreased with increasing age. Irradiation also negatively affected survival to the adult stage and the rate of development of immature stages (larvae and pupae) to adults. In addition, the rate of development of immature stages resulting from irradiated eggs was negatively affected. Furthermore, irradiation positively affected the degree of acceptance of eggs to parasitization; irradiated eggs were more acceptable to T. cacoeciae than cold treated ones. (Author)

  17. Association of egg mass and egg sex : Gene expression analysis from maternal RNA in the germinal disc region of layer hens (Gallus gallus)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aslam, Muhammad Aamir; Schokker, Dirkjan; Groothuis, Ton G. G.; de Wit, Agnes A. C.; Smits, Mari A.; Woelders, Henri

    2015-01-01

    Female birds have been shown to manipulate offspring sex ratio. However, mechanisms of sex ratio bias are not well understood. Reduced feed availability and change in body condition can affect the mass of eggs in birds that could lead to a skew in sex ratio. We employed feed restriction in laying

  18. Association of egg mass and egg sex: gene expression analysis from maternal RNA in the germinal disc region of layer hens (Gallus gallus)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aslam, M.A.; Schokker, D.; Groothuis, A.A.G.; Wit, de A.A.C.; Smits, M.A.; Woelders, H.

    2015-01-01

    Female birds have been shown to manipulate offspring sex ratio. However, mechanisms of sex ratio bias are not well understood. Reduced feed availability and change in body condition can affect the mass of eggs in birds that could lead to a skew in sex ratio. We employed feed restriction in laying

  19. Are all eggs equal?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nangsuay, A.

    2016-01-01

    Hatching eggs, supplied to hatcheries are originating from different origins varying in breed, strain, and breeder age. These hatching eggs can be different in size, composition and eggshell properties, which might influence nutrient and O2 availability and consequently could affect embryonic

  20. Host selection by a phytophagous insect: the interplay between feeding, egg maturation, egg load, and oviposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Understanding movement patterns of phytophagous insects among plants is a primary goal of insect ecology. Adult females may visit plants for the purpose of depositing eggs, feeding, or both. For some species, egg maturation may be dependent on adult feeding. As a result, rates of egg maturation m...

  1. Mechanical properties of cork under contact stresses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parralejo, A. D.; Guiberteau, F.; Fortes, M. A.; Rosa, M. E.

    2001-01-01

    In this work our interest is focussed on the mechanical behaviour of natural cork under contact stresses. Many of the applications of this curious material are related with its mechanical response under such a stress field, however this topic has not been still sufficiently considered in the scientific literature. For this purpose, we proposed the use of Hertzian indentation tests. By using this mythology we have investigated the cork structure influence on the corresponding mechanical properties. Our results reveal a clear mechanical anisotropy effect. Moreover, the elastic modulus corresponding to specific directions have been estimated. Several are the main advantages of this specific test mythology versus traditional uniaxial compression tests, specially simplicity and local character. (Author) 9 refs

  2. Scrambled eggs: Proteomic portraits and novel biomarkers of egg quality in zebrafish (Danio rerio)

    OpenAIRE

    Yilmaz, Ozlem; Patinote, Amélie; Nguyen, Thao Vi; Com, Emmanuelle; Lavigne, Regis; Pineau, Charles; Sullivan, Craig V.; Bobe, Julien

    2017-01-01

    Egg quality is a complex biological trait and a major determinant of reproductive fitness in all animals. This study delivered the first proteomic portraits of egg quality in zebrafish, a leading biomedical model for early development. Egg batches of good and poor quality, evidenced by embryo survival for 24 h, were sampled immediately after spawning and used to create pooled or replicated sample sets whose protein extracts were subjected to different levels of fractionation before liquid chr...

  3. Egg size matching by an intraspecific brood parasite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemons, Patrick R.; Sedinger, James S.

    2011-01-01

    Avian brood parasitism provides an ideal system with which to understand animal recognition and its affect on fitness. This phenomenon of laying eggs in the nests of other individuals has classically been framed from the perspective of interspecific brood parasitism and host recognition of parasitic eggs. Few examples exist of strategies adopted by intraspecific brood parasites to maximize success of parasitic eggs. Intraspecific brood parasitism within precocial birds can be a risky strategy in that hatch synchrony is essential to reproductive success. Given that egg size is positively correlated with incubation time, parasitic birds would benefit by recognizing and selecting hosts with a similar egg size. Intraspecific brood parasitism is an alternative reproductive strategy in black brant (Branta bernicla nigricans), a colonial nesting goose with precocial young. Based on a randomization test, parasitic eggs in this study differed less in size from eggs in their host's nests than did random eggs placed in random nests. Parasitic eggs were remarkably similar in size to hosts’ eggs, differing by nests differed by nearly 8%. The precision with which parasitic brant match the egg size of hosts in our study supports our hypothesis that brant match egg size of hosts, thereby maximizing hatching success of their parasitic eggs.

  4. In vitro fertilization and artificial activation of eggs of the direct-developing anuran Eleutherodactylus coqui

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toro Esteban

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Although much is known about the reproductive biology of pond-breeding frogs, there is comparatively little information about terrestrial-breeding anurans, a highly successful and diverse group. This study investigates the activation and in vitro fertilization of eggs of the Puerto Rican coqui frog obtained by hormonally induced ovulation. We report that spontaneous activation occurs in 34% of eggs, probably in response to mechanical stress during oviposition. Artificial activation, as evidenced by the slow block to polyspermy and the onset of zygote division, was elicited both by mechanical stimulation and calcium ionophore exposure in 64% and 83% of the cases, respectively. Finally, one in vitro fertilization protocol showed a 27% success rate, despite the fact that about one third of all unfertilized eggs obtained by hormone injection auto-activate. We expect these findings to aid in the conservation effort of Eleutherodactylus frogs, the largest vertebrate genus.

  5. EggLib: processing, analysis and simulation tools for population genetics and genomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Mita Stéphane

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With the considerable growth of available nucleotide sequence data over the last decade, integrated and flexible analytical tools have become a necessity. In particular, in the field of population genetics, there is a strong need for automated and reliable procedures to conduct repeatable and rapid polymorphism analyses, coalescent simulations, data manipulation and estimation of demographic parameters under a variety of scenarios. Results In this context, we present EggLib (Evolutionary Genetics and Genomics Library, a flexible and powerful C++/Python software package providing efficient and easy to use computational tools for sequence data management and extensive population genetic analyses on nucleotide sequence data. EggLib is a multifaceted project involving several integrated modules: an underlying computationally efficient C++ library (which can be used independently in pure C++ applications; two C++ programs; a Python package providing, among other features, a high level Python interface to the C++ library; and the egglib script which provides direct access to pre-programmed Python applications. Conclusions EggLib has been designed aiming to be both efficient and easy to use. A wide array of methods are implemented, including file format conversion, sequence alignment edition, coalescent simulations, neutrality tests and estimation of demographic parameters by Approximate Bayesian Computation (ABC. Classes implementing different demographic scenarios for ABC analyses can easily be developed by the user and included to the package. EggLib source code is distributed freely under the GNU General Public License (GPL from its website http://egglib.sourceforge.net/ where a full documentation and a manual can also be found and downloaded.

  6. EggLib: processing, analysis and simulation tools for population genetics and genomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Mita, Stéphane; Siol, Mathieu

    2012-04-11

    With the considerable growth of available nucleotide sequence data over the last decade, integrated and flexible analytical tools have become a necessity. In particular, in the field of population genetics, there is a strong need for automated and reliable procedures to conduct repeatable and rapid polymorphism analyses, coalescent simulations, data manipulation and estimation of demographic parameters under a variety of scenarios. In this context, we present EggLib (Evolutionary Genetics and Genomics Library), a flexible and powerful C++/Python software package providing efficient and easy to use computational tools for sequence data management and extensive population genetic analyses on nucleotide sequence data. EggLib is a multifaceted project involving several integrated modules: an underlying computationally efficient C++ library (which can be used independently in pure C++ applications); two C++ programs; a Python package providing, among other features, a high level Python interface to the C++ library; and the egglib script which provides direct access to pre-programmed Python applications. EggLib has been designed aiming to be both efficient and easy to use. A wide array of methods are implemented, including file format conversion, sequence alignment edition, coalescent simulations, neutrality tests and estimation of demographic parameters by Approximate Bayesian Computation (ABC). Classes implementing different demographic scenarios for ABC analyses can easily be developed by the user and included to the package. EggLib source code is distributed freely under the GNU General Public License (GPL) from its website http://egglib.sourceforge.net/ where a full documentation and a manual can also be found and downloaded.

  7. Organic and free-range egg production

    OpenAIRE

    Hammershøj, M.

    2011-01-01

    This chapter includes information on the development of the free range and the organic egg production and their market shares in different countries. Consumer behaviour is investigated particularly in relation to the price and availability of non-cage eggs. Regulations on the production of free range and organic eggs and their present and future impact are examined. Nutrient supply, animal welfare, productivity, safety and environmental impact of the types of egg production are covered with a...

  8. Intraguild predation between small pelagic fish in the Bay of Biscay: impact on anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus L.) egg mortality

    KAUST Repository

    Bachiller, Eneko

    2015-05-12

    Small pelagic fish can play an important role in various ecosystems linking lower and upper trophic levels. Among the factor behind the observed inter-annual variations in small pelagic fish abundance, intra- and inter-specific trophic interactions could have a strong impact on the recruitment variability (e.g. anchovy). Egg cannibalism observed in anchovies has been postulated to be a mechanism that determines the upper limit of the population density and self-regulates the population abundance of the species. On the other hand, predation by other guild species is commonly considered as a regulation mechanism between competing species. This study provides empirical evidence of anchovy cannibalism and predation of the main small pelagic fish species on anchovy eggs and estimates the effect of intraguild predation on the anchovy egg mortality rate. Results show that, depending on the year (2008–2009), up to 33 % of the total anchovy egg mortality was the result of sardine predation and up to 4 % was the result of egg cannibalism together with predation by Atlantic and Atlantic Chub mackerel and sprat. Results also indicate that in the Bay of Biscay, fluctuations in the survival index of the early life stages of anchovy are likely to be attributable at least in part to egg cannibalism and especially to a high sardine predation on anchovy eggs. © 2015 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg

  9. Bioresonance method influencing the egg quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avakova, A.; Kovalev, Yu.

    2009-01-01

    At 2 poultry yards with capacity of 30 thousand laying hens an experiment was undertaken to study the bioresonance effect on 18-week-old poultry (experimental poultry yard, EPY) to obtain eggs of high biological value by activating the assimilation by poultry of a microelement complex from food. At the EPY hens received a vitamin-mineral complex Lifepac senior (produced in France) treated with electromagnetic radiation. At the control poultry yard (CPY) this method was not used. The first egg collection was conducted from hens at the age of 28 weeks, the second one – at the age of 3-4 weeks and the third one – at the age of 52 weeks. The keeping and feeding conditions at the two poultry yards were the same. The contents of water, protein, fat in the eggs of CPY and EPY were practically the same, but the level of microelements in the EPY eggs was higher than in CPY eggs. It was observed so as to maintain high level of microelements in eggs it is required to a bioresonance effect throughout the egg laying period. So, the level of manganese in eggs of EPY and CPY at week 52 was 0.024 and 0.003 mg%, iron – 3.74 and 1.48 mg%, zinc – 1.23 and 0.87 mf%, copper – 0.078 and 0.069 mg%, respectively. The transition of microelements from food into eggs also was % to the control: iron – 2.55, manganese – 10.0, zinc – 1.44, copper – 1.35, potassium – 1.33, calcium – 1.05, phosphorus – 1.15, sodium – 1.16. Thus, the bioresonance method for keeping laying hens makes it possible to obtain food eggs of the desired chemical composition

  10. Differential nuclear remodeling of mammalian somatic cells by Xenopus laevis oocyte and egg cytoplasm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alberio, Ramiro; Johnson, Andrew D.; Stick, Reimer; Campbell, Keith H.S.

    2005-01-01

    The mechanisms governing nuclear reprogramming have not been fully elucidated yet; however, recent studies show a universally conserved ability of both oocyte and egg components to reprogram gene expression in somatic cells. The activation of genes associated with pluripotency by oocyte/egg components may require the remodeling of nuclear structures, such that they can acquire the features of early embryos and pluripotent cells. Here, we report on the remodeling of the nuclear lamina of mammalian cells by Xenopus oocyte and egg extracts. Lamin A/C is removed from somatic cells incubated in oocyte and egg extracts in an active process that requires permeable nuclear pores. Removal of lamin A/C is specific, since B-type lamins are not changed, and it is not dependent on the incorporation Xenopus egg specific lamin III. Moreover, transcriptional activity is differentially regulated in somatic cells incubated in the extracts. Pol I and II transcriptions are maintained in cells in oocyte extracts; however, both activities are abolished in egg extracts. Our study shows that components of oocyte and egg extracts can modify the nuclear lamina of somatic cells and that this nuclear remodeling induces a structural change in the nucleus which may have implications for transcriptional activity. These experiments suggest that modifications in the nuclear lamina structure by the removal of somatic proteins and the incorporation of oocyte/egg components may contribute to the reprogramming of somatic cell nuclei and may define a characteristic configuration of pluripotent cells

  11. Antioxidant and ACE Inhibitory Bioactive Peptides Purified from Egg Yolk Proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marwa Yousr

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Protein by-products from the extraction of lecithin from egg yolk can be converted into value-added products, such as bioactive hydrolysates and peptides that have potential health enhancing antioxidant, and antihypertensive properties. In this study, the antioxidant and angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE inhibitory activities of peptides isolated and purified from egg yolk protein were investigated. Defatted egg yolk was hydrolyzed using pepsin and pancreatin and sequentially fractionated by ultrafiltration, followed by gel filtration to produce egg yolk gel filtration fractions (EYGF. Of these, two fractions, EYGF-23 and EYGF-33, effectively inhibited the peroxides and thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS in an oxidizing linoleic acid model system. The antioxidant mechanism involved superoxide anion and hydroxyl radicals scavenging and ferrous chelation. The presence of hydrophobic amino acids such as tyrosine (Y and tryptophan (W, in sequences identified by LC-MS as WYGPD (EYGF-23 and KLSDW (EYGF-33, contributed to the antioxidant activity and were not significantly different from the synthetic BHA antioxidant. A third fraction (EYGF-56 was also purified from egg yolk protein by gel filtration and exhibited high ACE inhibitory activity (69% and IC50 value (3.35 mg/mL. The SDNRNQGY peptide (10 mg/mL had ACE inhibitory activity, which was not significantly different from that of the positive control captopril (0.5 mg/mL. In addition, YPSPV in (EYGF-33 (10 mg/mL had higher ACE inhibitory activity compared with captopril. These findings indicated a substantial potential for producing valuable peptides with antioxidant and ACE inhibitory activity from egg yolk.

  12. Antioxidant and ACE Inhibitory Bioactive Peptides Purified from Egg Yolk Proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousr, Marwa; Howell, Nazlin

    2015-12-07

    Protein by-products from the extraction of lecithin from egg yolk can be converted into value-added products, such as bioactive hydrolysates and peptides that have potential health enhancing antioxidant, and antihypertensive properties. In this study, the antioxidant and angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activities of peptides isolated and purified from egg yolk protein were investigated. Defatted egg yolk was hydrolyzed using pepsin and pancreatin and sequentially fractionated by ultrafiltration, followed by gel filtration to produce egg yolk gel filtration fractions (EYGF). Of these, two fractions, EYGF-23 and EYGF-33, effectively inhibited the peroxides and thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) in an oxidizing linoleic acid model system. The antioxidant mechanism involved superoxide anion and hydroxyl radicals scavenging and ferrous chelation. The presence of hydrophobic amino acids such as tyrosine (Y) and tryptophan (W), in sequences identified by LC-MS as WYGPD (EYGF-23) and KLSDW (EYGF-33), contributed to the antioxidant activity and were not significantly different from the synthetic BHA antioxidant. A third fraction (EYGF-56) was also purified from egg yolk protein by gel filtration and exhibited high ACE inhibitory activity (69%) and IC50 value (3.35 mg/mL). The SDNRNQGY peptide (10 mg/mL) had ACE inhibitory activity, which was not significantly different from that of the positive control captopril (0.5 mg/mL). In addition, YPSPV in (EYGF-33) (10 mg/mL) had higher ACE inhibitory activity compared with captopril. These findings indicated a substantial potential for producing valuable peptides with antioxidant and ACE inhibitory activity from egg yolk.

  13. Allergy to egg proteins in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Antonio Góngora-Meléndez

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Food allergy prevalence has increased during the last years, affecting 15-20% of children, in this case, egg allergy affects from 0.5-2.5%. Most of the egg allergic reactions are type I or IgE mediated antibodies against egg proteins. Five major proteins have been identified: ovomucoid (Gal d1, ovoalbumin (Gal d2, ovotransferrin (Gal d3, lysozyme (Gal d4 and albumin (Gal d5. Ovomucoid protein, which is found in the egg white, is heat resistant and enzyme resistant. This protein is the most allergenic and the most common in egg composition. Clinical Revista México 235 Góngora-Meléndez MA y col. Alergia a las proteínas del huevo en edad pediátrica Revista México diagnosis requires a detailed questionnaire. Skin prick test or Ige specific diagnosis are made as first choice. Skin prick tests are quick and useful to determine the presence of IgE specific antibodies to egg. Specific IgE for egg can be measured using standarized IgE studies in vitro, making a quantitative measure. Traditionally with the clinical history a diagnosis can be made. Standarized oral double blinded-placebo controlled challenge continues to be the gold standard for food allergy diagnosis. The identification and elimination of egg proteins from the diet is the primary treatment and the only one validated to this food, but there are more studies needed to stablish protocols for each specific egg allergen before the oral inmunotherapy becomes a routine practice.

  14. Safety of live attenuated influenza vaccine in atopic children with egg allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Paul J; Southern, Jo; Andrews, Nick J; Miller, Elizabeth; Erlewyn-Lajeunesse, Michel

    2015-08-01

    Live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) is an intranasal vaccine recently incorporated into the United Kingdom immunization schedule. However, it contains egg protein and, in the absence of safety data, is contraindicated in patients with egg allergy. Furthermore, North American guidelines recommend against its use in asthmatic children. We sought to assess the safety of LAIV in children with egg allergy. We performed a prospective, multicenter, open-label, phase IV intervention study involving 11 secondary/tertiary centers in the United Kingdom. Children with egg allergy (defined as a convincing clinical reaction to egg within the past 12 months and/or >95% likelihood of clinical egg allergy as per published criteria) were recruited. LAIV was administered under medical supervision, with observation for 1 hour and telephone follow-up 72 hours later. Four hundred thirty-three doses were administered to 282 children with egg allergy (median, 4.9 years; range, 2-17 years); 115 (41%) had experienced prior anaphylaxis to egg. A physician's diagnosis of asthma/recurrent wheezing was noted in 67%, and 51% were receiving regular preventer therapy. There were no systemic allergic reactions (upper 95% CI for population, 1.3%). Eight children experienced mild self-limiting symptoms, which might have been due an IgE-mediated allergic reaction. Twenty-six (9.4%; 95% CI for population, 6.2% to 13.4%) children experienced lower respiratory tract symptoms within 72 hours, including 13 with parent-reported wheeze. None of these episodes required medical intervention beyond routine treatment. In contrast to current recommendations, LAIV appears to be safe for use in children with egg allergy. Furthermore, the vaccine appears to be well tolerated in children with a diagnosis of asthma or recurrent wheeze. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Payment for egg donation and surrogacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinbock, Bonnie

    2004-09-01

    This article examines the ethics of egg donation. It begins by looking at objections to noncommercial gamete donation, and then takes up criticism of commercial egg donation. After discussing arguments based on concern for offspring, inequality, commodification, exploitation of donors, and threats to the family, I conclude that some payment to donors is ethically acceptable. Donors should not be paid for their eggs, but rather they should be compensated for the burdens of egg retrieval. Making the distinction between compensation for burdens and payment for a product has the advantages of limiting payment, not distinguishing between donors on the basis of their traits, and ensuring that donors are paid regardless of the number or quality of eggs retrieved.

  16. Different temperature and cooling patterns at the blunt and sharp egg poles reflect the arrangement of eggs in an avian clutch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šálek, Miroslav E; Zárybnická, Markéta

    2015-01-01

    Incubation is an energetically demanding process during which birds apply heat to their eggs to ensure embryonic development. Parent behaviours such as egg turning and exchanging the outer and central eggs in the nest cup affect the amount of heat lost to the environment from individual eggs. Little is known, however, about whether and how egg surface temperature and cooling rates vary among the different areas of an egg and how the arrangement of eggs within the clutch influences heat loss. We performed laboratory (using Japanese quail eggs) and field (with northern lapwing eggs) experiments using infrared imaging to assess the temperature and cooling patterns of heated eggs and clutches. We found that (i) the sharp poles of individual quail eggs warmed to a higher egg surface temperature than did the blunt poles, resulting in faster cooling at the sharp poles compared to the blunt poles; (ii) both quail and lapwing clutches with the sharp poles oriented towards the clutch centre (arranged clutches) maintained higher temperatures over the central part of the clutch than occurred in those clutches where most of the sharp egg poles were oriented towards the exterior (scattered clutches); and (iii) the arranged clutches of both quail and lapwing showed slower cooling rates at both the inner and outer clutch positions than did the respective parts of scattered clutches. Our results demonstrate that egg surface temperature and cooling rates differ between the sharp and blunt poles of the egg and that the orientation of individual eggs within the nest cup can significantly affect cooling of the clutch as a whole. We suggest that birds can arrange their eggs within the nest cup to optimise thermoregulation of the clutch.

  17. 9 CFR 94.6 - Carcasses, parts or products of carcasses, and eggs (other than hatching eggs) of poultry, game...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... carcasses, and eggs (other than hatching eggs) of poultry, game birds, or other birds; importations from..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS... § 94.6 Carcasses, parts or products of carcasses, and eggs (other than hatching eggs) of poultry, game...

  18. Antioxidant activity in cooked and simulated digested eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remanan, M K; Wu, J

    2014-07-25

    The avian egg is an excellent source of nutrients consisting of components with beneficial properties but there is limited knowledge on the effect of cooking methods and gastrointestinal digestion on the antioxidant activity of eggs. The present study was focused on the effect of cooking and simulated gastrointestinal digestion on antioxidant activity of eggs using ORAC, ABTS and DPPH assays. The results suggest that fresh egg yolk has higher antioxidant activity than fresh egg white and whole eggs. Cooking reduced whereas simulated gastrointestinal digestion increased the antioxidant activity of eggs. Boiled egg white hydrolysate showed the highest antioxidant activity; a total of 63 peptides were identified, indicative of the formation of novel antioxidant peptides upon simulated gastrointestinal digestion. This study suggests the potential role of eggs as a dietary source of antioxidants.

  19. Vitamin B12 absorption from eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doscherholmen, A; McMahon, J; Ripley, D

    1975-09-01

    The assimilation of 57Co B12 from in vivo labeled eggs was much inferior to that of a comparable amount of crystalline 57Co B12. Furthermore, the absorption varied with the form in which the eggs were served. Judged by the urinary excretion test and the plasma absorption of radioactivity the average absorption from boiled and fried eggs was more than twice that from scrambled whole eggs, but less than half that absorbed from crystalline 57Co B12.

  20. Salmonella and Eggs: From Production to Plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiley, Harriet; Ross, Kirstin

    2015-01-01

    Salmonella contamination of eggs and egg shells has been identified as a public health concern worldwide. A recent shift in consumer preferences has impacted on the egg industry, with a push for cage-free egg production methods. There has also been an increased desire from consumers for raw and unprocessed foods, potentially increasing the risk of salmonellosis. In response to these changes, this review explores the current literature regarding Salmonella contamination of eggs during the production processing through to food handling protocols. The contamination of eggs with Salmonella during the production process is a complex issue, influenced by many variables including flock size, flock age, stress, feed, vaccination, and cleaning routines. Currently there is no consensus regarding the impact of caged, barn and free range egg production has on Salmonella contamination of eggs. The literature regarding the management and control strategies post-collection, during storage, transport and food handling is also reviewed. Pasteurisation and irradiation were identified as the only certain methods for controlling Salmonella and are essential for the protection of high risk groups, whereas control of temperature and pH were identified as potential control methods to minimise the risk for foods containing raw eggs; however, further research is required to provide more detailed control protocols and education programs to reduce the risk of salmonellosis from egg consumption. PMID:25730295

  1. Salmonella and Eggs: From Production to Plate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harriet Whiley

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella contamination of eggs and egg shells has been identified as a public health concern worldwide. A recent shift in consumer preferences has impacted on the egg industry, with a push for cage-free egg production methods. There has also been an increased desire from consumers for raw and unprocessed foods, potentially increasing the risk of salmonellosis. In response to these changes, this review explores the current literature regarding Salmonella contamination of eggs during the production processing through to food handling protocols. The contamination of eggs with Salmonella during the production process is a complex issue, influenced by many variables including flock size, flock age, stress, feed, vaccination, and cleaning routines. Currently there is no consensus regarding the impact of caged, barn and free range egg production has on Salmonella contamination of eggs. The literature regarding the management and control strategies post-collection, during storage, transport and food handling is also reviewed. Pasteurisation and irradiation were identified as the only certain methods for controlling Salmonella and are essential for the protection of high risk groups, whereas control of temperature and pH were identified as potential control methods to minimise the risk for foods containing raw eggs; however, further research is required to provide more detailed control protocols and education programs to reduce the risk of salmonellosis from egg consumption.

  2. Salmonella and eggs: from production to plate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiley, Harriet; Ross, Kirstin

    2015-02-26

    Salmonella contamination of eggs and egg shells has been identified as a public health concern worldwide. A recent shift in consumer preferences has impacted on the egg industry, with a push for cage-free egg production methods. There has also been an increased desire from consumers for raw and unprocessed foods, potentially increasing the risk of salmonellosis. In response to these changes, this review explores the current literature regarding Salmonella contamination of eggs during the production processing through to food handling protocols. The contamination of eggs with Salmonella during the production process is a complex issue, influenced by many variables including flock size, flock age, stress, feed, vaccination, and cleaning routines. Currently there is no consensus regarding the impact of caged, barn and free range egg production has on Salmonella contamination of eggs. The literature regarding the management and control strategies post-collection, during storage, transport and food handling is also reviewed. Pasteurisation and irradiation were identified as the only certain methods for controlling Salmonella and are essential for the protection of high risk groups, whereas control of temperature and pH were identified as potential control methods to minimise the risk for foods containing raw eggs; however, further research is required to provide more detailed control protocols and education programs to reduce the risk of salmonellosis from egg consumption.

  3. Biodiversity and springtime patterns of egg production and development for parasites of the Chisana Caribou herd, Yukon Territory, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryanne Hoar

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the biodiversity and springtime patterns of parasite egg/oocyst and larval production from feces and parasite development in the environment for the Chisana caribou herd in the southwest Yukon Territory, Canada from 29 March to 14 June 2006. Fecal samples from 50 adult cows that were housed in a temporary enclosure within the herd’s natural range at Boundary Lake, Yukon Territory were collected and analyzed during 5 sampling periods. A minimum of 6 parasite genera were recovered: eggs of Trichostrongylidae species (most likely Ostertagia gruehneri and Teladorsagia boreoarcticus, Marshallagia sp., Anoplocephalidae cestodes, and Skrjabinema sp.; oocysts of Eimeria spp.; and dorsal-spined first-stage protostrongylid larvae, including Parelaphostrongylus andersoni. Prevalence of Trichostrongylidae spp. eggs in fresh fecals was at or near 100% throughout the sampling period, however, the median intensity increased significantly from 8 to 34 eggs per gram (epg at the peak of calving and then decreased to 12 epg 2 weeks post-calving (P = 2.83e-07. Three plots of feces collected from these animals were established outside of the enclosure on 4 May 2006 and monitored every 10 days to investigate patterns of parasite development under natural conditions. The total number of Trichostrongylidae spp. (eggs + larvae in fecal plots did not change over time, but as the number of larvae increased, egg counts decreased. The presence of other parasite species in the fecal plots remained constant over time. This study is the first to document the parasite diversity for the Chisana caribou herd and to exam¬ine the development and survival of eggs and larvae in feces throughout the spring and early summer. Abstract in Norwegian / Sammendrag: Parasitters artssammensetning og forløp av eggproduksjon og parasittutvikling om våren hos Chisanavillreinen i Yukon, Canada I en periode fra 29. mars til 14. juni 2006 tok vi prøver fra reinmøkk og under

  4. Antiproliferative Activity of Egg Yolk Peptides in Human Colon Cancer Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousr, Marwa N; Aloqbi, Akram A; Omar, Ulfat M; Howell, Nazlin K

    2017-01-01

    Egg yolk peptides were successfully prepared from egg yolk protein by-products after lecithin extraction. Defatted egg yolk protein was hydrolyzed with pepsin and pancreatin and purified by gel filtration to produce egg yolk gel filtration fraction (EYGF-33) with antiproliferative activity. The highlight of this study was that the peptide EYGF-33 (1.0 mg/ml) significantly inhibits cell viability of colon cancer cells (Caco-2) with no inhibitory effects on the viability of human colon epithelial normal cells (HCEC) after 48 h. Reduced cell viability can be explained by cell cycle arrest in the S-phase in which DNA replication normally takes place. EYGF-33 significantly enhanced the production of superoxide anions in the mitochondria of Caco-2 cells; this could activate a mitochondrial apoptotic pathway leading to typical Poly Adenosine diphosphate-ribose polymerase (PARP) cleavage as observed in the Western blot result. The induction of apoptotic cell death by EYGF-33 was supported by the externalization of phosphatidylserine (PS). However, further elucidation of the mechanism of EYGF-33-mediated apoptosis would provide further support for its use as a potential therapeutic and chemopreventive agent.

  5. Animal welfare and eggs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Laura Mørch

    and private good attributes of different types of eggs. We find that the estimated correlations are consistent with the levels of animal welfare, and that consumers perceiving a stronger connection between animal welfare and the organic label have higher willingness to pay for organic eggs, even when we...

  6. In vitro hatching of Trichuris suis eggs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vejzagic, Nermina; Thamsborg, Stig Milan; Kringel, Helene

    2015-01-01

    Eggs of the pig whipworm, Trichuris suis ova (TSO), are currently tested in human clinical trials for their potential immunomodulatory capacity. The biological potency of TSO (egg viability and infectivity) is traditionally assessed in Göttingen minipigs as the establishment of intestinal larvae...... after inoculation with a known number of eggs. To minimize testing in animal models, development of an in vitro egg hatching assay is proposed as a reliable, cost-effective, and a faster alternative to test the egg viability. The present study aimed to investigate the influence of different chemical......, physical, and biological factors on egg hatching. Thus, in a series of experiments and in different combinations, the eggs were stimulated with glass beads, artificial gastric juice, bile salt and trypsin solution, fermentation gut medium, or stimulated with mucosal scrapings from the ileum and the large...

  7. Estimating local, organic, and other price premiums of shell eggs in Hawaii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loke, Matthew K; Xu, Xun; Leung, PingSun

    2016-05-01

    Hedonic modeling and retail scanner data were utilized to investigate the influence of local, organic, nutrition benefits, and other attributes of shell eggs on retail price premium in Hawaii. Within a revealed preference framework, the analysis of local and organic attributes, simultaneously, under a single unified setting is important, as such work is highly deficient in the published literature. This paper finds high to moderate price premiums in four key attributes of shell eggs - organic (64%), local (40%), nutrition benefits claimed (33%), and brown shell (18.4%). Large and extra-large sized eggs also experience price premiums over medium sized eggs. With each larger packing size, the estimated coefficients were negative, indicating a price discount, relative to the baseline packing size. However, there is no evidence to support the overwhelming influence of "local" over "organic", as hypothesized in other research work. Overall, the findings in this paper suggest industry producers and retailers should highlight and market effusively the primary attributes of their shell eggs, including "local", to remain competitive in the marketplace. Effective communication channels are crucial to delivering the product information, capturing the attention of consumers, and securing retail sales. © 2016 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  8. Modeling winter moth Operophtera brumata egg phenology: nonlinear effects of temperature and developmental stage on developmental rate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salis, Lucia; Lof, Marjolein; Van Asch, M.; Visser, Marcel E.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the relationship between an insect's developmental rate and temperature is crucial to forecast insect phenology under climate change. In the winter moth Operophtera brumata timing of egg-hatching has severe fitness consequences on growth and reproduction as egg-hatching has to match

  9. Influence of packaging atmosphere on the formation of cholesterol oxides in [gamma]-irradiated egg powder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lebovics, V.K.; Gaal, O. (National Inst. of Food Hygiene and Nutrition, Budapest (Hungary)); Farkas, J.; Somogyi, L. (University of Horticulture and Food Industry, Budapest (Hungary))

    1993-09-01

    In the present work the influence of aerobic and anoxic conditions have been comparatively investigated to study the chemical changes of cholesterol in [gamma]-irradiated egg powder. The irradiation treatment was carried out with powdered egg packed under air and also under vacuum in polyethylene (PE) bags and in laminated, oxygen impermeable three-layer (polyester-aluminium-polyethylene) foil to dosage levels 2 and 4 kGy at room temperature. The cholesterol oxidation is demonstrated by thin-layer chromatograms. In the egg powder wrapped in Pe bags the predominant cholesterol derivatives -7-hydroxycholesterol isomers ([alpha] and [beta]) - accumulated in significant amounts (increasing with dose) while vacuum-packaging in laminated foil considerably suppressed the quantity of these products and prevented the formation of cholesterol 5[alpha], 6[alpha]-epoxide as well as 7-ketocholesterol. Little or no change was observed in non-irradiated (control) vacuum-packed egg powder stored at approximately 22[sup o]C for up to 5 months. Peroxide values showed changes parallel to the formation of COPs. (author).

  10. 9 CFR 590.925 - Inspection of imported egg products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Inspection of imported egg products... AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Imports § 590.925 Inspection of imported egg products. (a) Except as provided in § 590.960, egg products offered...

  11. Multiplication in egg yolk and survival in egg albumen of genetically and phenotypically characterized Salmonella Enteritidis strains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prompt refrigeration of eggs to prevent the multiplication of Salmonella Enteritidis to high levels during storage is an important practice for reducing the risk of egg-transmitted human illness. The efficacy of egg refrigeration for achieving this goal depends on the location of contamination, the ...

  12. Patterns of globalized reproduction: Egg cells regulation in Israel and Austria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shalev, Carmel; Werner-Felmayer, Gabriele

    2012-04-18

    Since the successful introduction of in vitro fertilization in 1978, medically assisted reproduction (MAR) has proliferated in multiple clinical innovations. Consequently, egg cells have become an object of demand for both infertility treatment and stem cell research, and this raises complex legal, ethical, social and economic issues.In this paper we compare how the procurement and use of human egg cells is regulated in two countries: Israel and Austria. Israel is known for its scientific leadership, generous public funding, high utilization and liberal regulation of assisted reproductive technology (ART). Austria lies at the other extreme of the regulatory spectrum in terms of restrictions on reproductive interventions.In both countries, however, there is a constant increase in the use of the technology, and recent legal developments make egg cells more accessible. Also, in both countries the scarcity of egg cells in concert with the rising demand for donations has led to the emergence of cross-border markets and global 'reproductive tourism' practices. In Israel, in particular, a scandal known as the 'eggs affair' was followed by regulation that allowed egg cell donations from outside the country under certain conditions.Cross-border markets are developed by medical entrepreneurs, driven by global economic gaps, made possible by trans-national regulatory lacunae and find expression as consumer demand. The transnational practice of egg cell donations indicates the emergence of a global public health issue, but there is a general lack of medical and epidemiological data on its efficacy and safety. We conclude that there is need for harmonisation of domestic laws and formulation of new instruments for international governance.

  13. Patterns of globalized reproduction: Egg cells regulation in Israel and Austria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shalev Carmel

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Since the successful introduction of in vitro fertilization in 1978, medically assisted reproduction (MAR has proliferated in multiple clinical innovations. Consequently, egg cells have become an object of demand for both infertility treatment and stem cell research, and this raises complex legal, ethical, social and economic issues. In this paper we compare how the procurement and use of human egg cells is regulated in two countries: Israel and Austria. Israel is known for its scientific leadership, generous public funding, high utilization and liberal regulation of assisted reproductive technology (ART. Austria lies at the other extreme of the regulatory spectrum in terms of restrictions on reproductive interventions. In both countries, however, there is a constant increase in the use of the technology, and recent legal developments make egg cells more accessible. Also, in both countries the scarcity of egg cells in concert with the rising demand for donations has led to the emergence of cross-border markets and global 'reproductive tourism' practices. In Israel, in particular, a scandal known as the 'eggs affair' was followed by regulation that allowed egg cell donations from outside the country under certain conditions. Cross-border markets are developed by medical entrepreneurs, driven by global economic gaps, made possible by trans-national regulatory lacunae and find expression as consumer demand. The transnational practice of egg cell donations indicates the emergence of a global public health issue, but there is a general lack of medical and epidemiological data on its efficacy and safety. We conclude that there is need for harmonisation of domestic laws and formulation of new instruments for international governance.

  14. 7 CFR 57.925 - Inspection of imported eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Inspection of imported eggs. 57.925 Section 57.925... AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT (CONTINUED) INSPECTION OF EGGS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Regulations Governing the Inspection of Eggs Imports § 57.925 Inspection of...

  15. The egg model - a geological ensemble for reservoir simulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, J.D.; Fonseca, R.M.; Kahrobaei, S.; Siraj, M.M.; Essen, van G.M.; Hof, Van den P.M.J.

    2014-01-01

    The ‘Egg Model’ is a synthetic reservoir model consisting of an ensemble of 101 relatively small three-dimensional realizations of a channelized oil reservoir produced under water flooding conditions with eight water injectors and four oil producers. It has been used in numerous publications to

  16. Effects of nitrogen on egg-laying inhibition and ovicidal response in planthopper-resistant rice varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horgan, Finbarr G; Srinivasan, Thanga Suja; Naik, Bhaskar S; Ramal, Angelee Fame; Bernal, Carmencita C; Almazan, Maria Liberty P

    2016-11-01

    A series of experiments was set up to examine the effects of nitrogen on rice ( Oryza sativa L.) resistance against Nilaparvata lugens (Stål) and Sogatella furcifera (Horváth). Egg laying by N. lugens was reduced on the indica variety IR60. Nymph biomass ( N. lugens and S. furcifera ) was also lower on IR60: this was associated with low honeydew production and a high proportion of xylem-derived honeydew in N. lugens but not in S. furcifera . Nitrogen increased egg-laying by S. furcifera and increased N. lugens nymph biomass on all varieties tested. Oviposition and egg mortality in both planthopper species were examined on plants at 15, 30 and 45 days after sowing (DAS). Sogatella furcifera laid more eggs on plants at 15 DAS, but laid few eggs during darkness; N. lugens continued to lay eggs on older rice plants (30 DAS) and during darkness. Egg mortality was high on cv. Asiminori, highest at 45 DAS, and higher for S. furcifera than for N. lugens . Mortality of S. furcifera eggs was associated with lesions around the egg clusters. These were more common around clusters laid during the day and suggested induction by Asiminori of an ovicidal response. Egg mortality declined under higher soil nitrogen levels. Results are discussed in the light of improving rice resistance against planthoppers and reducing rates of planthopper adaptation to resistance genes.

  17. Sexual polyploidization in plants--cytological mechanisms and molecular regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Storme, Nico; Geelen, Danny

    2013-05-01

    In the plant kingdom, events of whole genome duplication or polyploidization are generally believed to occur via alterations of the sexual reproduction process. Thereby, diploid pollen and eggs are formed that contain the somatic number of chromosomes rather than the gametophytic number. By participating in fertilization, these so-called 2n gametes generate polyploid offspring and therefore constitute the basis for the establishment of polyploidy in plants. In addition, diplogamete formation, through meiotic restitution, is an essential component of apomixis and also serves as an important mechanism for the restoration of F1 hybrid fertility. Characterization of the cytological mechanisms and molecular factors underlying 2n gamete formation is therefore not only relevant for basic plant biology and evolution, but may also provide valuable cues for agricultural and biotechnological applications (e.g. reverse breeding, clonal seeds). Recent data have provided novel insights into the process of 2n pollen and egg formation and have revealed multiple means to the same end. Here, we summarize the cytological mechanisms and molecular regulatory networks underlying 2n gamete formation, and outline important mitotic and meiotic processes involved in the ectopic induction of sexual polyploidization. © 2013 Ghent University. New Phytologist © 2013 New Phytologist Trust.

  18. Heat resistance of Salmonella in various egg products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garibaldi, J A; Straka, R P; Ijichi, K

    1969-04-01

    The heat-resistance characteristics of Salmonella typhimurium Tm-1, a reference strain in the stationary phase of growth, were determined at several temperatures in the major types of products produced by the egg industry. The time required to kill 90% of the population (D value) at a given temperature in specific egg products was as follows: at 60 C (140 F), D = 0.27 min for whole egg; D = 0.60 min for whole egg plus 10% sucrose; D = 1.0 min for fortified whole egg; D = 0.20 min for egg white (pH 7.3), stabilized with aluminum; D = 0.40 min for egg yolk; D = 4.0 min for egg yolk plus 10% sucrose; D = 5.1 min for egg yolk plus 10% NaCl; D = 1.0 min for scrambled egg mix; at 55 C (131 F), D = 0.55 min for egg white (pH 9.2); D = 1.2 min for egg white (pH 9.2) plus 10% sucrose. The average Z value (number of degrees, either centigrade or fahrenheit, for a thermal destruction time curve to traverse one logarithmic cycle) was 4.6 C (8.3 F) with a range from 4.2 to 5.3 C. Supplementation with 10% sucrose appeared to have a severalfold greater effect on the heat stabilization of egg white proteins than on S. typhimurium Tm-1. This information should be of value in the formulation of heat treatments to insure that all egg products be free of viable salmonellae.

  19. Prevalence of high-risk egg-preparation practices in restaurants that prepare breakfast egg entrées: an EHS-Net study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Robin; Beatty, Mark E; Bogard, April K; Esko, Michael-Peter; Angulo, Frederick J; Selman, Carol

    2004-07-01

    Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis (SE) is a common cause of foodborne illness in the United States. Foods prepared with raw shell eggs have often been associated with SE outbreaks. The federal government published the Egg Safety Action Plan in December 1999 that called for reduction of egg-preparation practices that may contribute to the survival and proliferation of SE. In seven states, an interview and brief site evaluation of 153 restaurants that prepare eggs during all hours of operation was conducted by the Environmental Health Specialists Network to determine the prevalence of such practices. Fifty-four percent (83 of 153) of restaurants pooled raw shell eggs not intended for immediate service. These pooled eggs were held a median of 4 h for scrambled eggs, 5.5 h for omelets, and 6 h for pancakes and French toast. Nearly 26% (39 of 152) of restaurants reported storing eggs at room temperature, and 5% (7 of 152) stored eggs on ice or in cold-water baths before cooking. Generally, eggs were cooked to 72 to 83 degrees C, which is above the recommended final cook temperature of 63 to 68 degrees C. Employees reported sanitizing utensils used to prepare eggs less than once every 4 h in 42% (57 of 136) of restaurants. Several areas were identified in which further emphasis might reduce egg-associated SE infections in accordance with Healthy People 2010 goals.

  20. Comparison of Bioactive Compound Content in Egg Yolk Oil Extracted from Eggs Obtained from Different Laying Hen Housing Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Aleksandrs Kovalcuks

    2015-01-01

    Egg yolk oil is a natural source of bioactive compounds such as unsaturated fatty acids, oil soluble vitamins, pigments and others. Bioactive compound content in egg yolk oil depends from its content in eggs, from which oil was extracted. Many studies show that bioactive compound content in egg is correlated to the content of these compounds in hen feed, but there is also an opinion that hen housing systems also have influence on egg chemical content. The aim of this stud...

  1. Inactivation of gram-negative bacteria in milk and banana juice by hen egg white and lambda lysozyme under high hydrostatic pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakimbugwe, Dorothy; Masschalck, Barbara; Anim, Grace; Michiels, Chris W

    2006-10-15

    The effect of hen egg white lysozyme (HEWL) and bacteriophage lambda lysozyme (LaL) in combination with high pressure (HP) treatment on the inactivation of four gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli O157:H7, Shigella flexneri, Yersinia enterocolitica and Salmonella typhimurium), was studied in skim milk (pH 6.8; a(w) 0.997) and in banana juice (pH 3.8; a(w) 0.971). In the absence of lysozymes, S. flexneri was more sensitive to HP in milk than in banana juice, while the opposite was observed for the other three bacteria. In combination with HP treatment, LaL was more effective than HEWL on all bacteria in both milk and banana juice. Depending on the bacteria, inactivation levels in banana juice were increased from 0.4-2.7 log units by HP treatment alone to 3.6-6.5 log units in the presence of 224 U/ml LaL. Bacterial inactivation in milk was also enhanced by LaL but only by 0.5-2.1 log units. Under the experimental conditions used, LaL was more effective in banana juice than in milk, while the effectiveness of HEWL under the same conditions was not significantly affected by the food matrix. This effect could be ascribed to the low pH of the banana juice since LaL was also more effective on E. coli in buffer at pH 3.8 than at pH 6.8. Since neither LaL nor HEWL are enzymatically active at pH 3.8, we analysed bacterial lysis after HP treatment in the presence of these enzymes, and found that inactivation proceeds through a non-lytic mechanism at pH 3.8 and a lytic mechanism at pH 6.8. Based on these results, LaL may offer interesting perspectives for use as an extra hurdle in high pressure food preservation.

  2. Development of a Fluvial Egg Drift Simulator to evaluate the transport and dispersion of Asian carp eggs in rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Tatiana; Jackson, P. Ryan; Murphy, Elizabeth A.; Valocchi, Albert J.; Garcia, Marcelo H.

    2013-01-01

    Asian carp are migrating towards the Great Lakes and are threatening to invade this ecosystem, hence there is an immediate need to control their population. The transport of Asian carp eggs in potential spawning rivers is an important factor in its life history and recruitment success. An understanding of the transport, development, and fate of Asian carp eggs has the potential to create prevention, management, and control strategies before the eggs hatch and develop the ability to swim. However, there is not a clear understanding of the hydrodynamic conditions at which the eggs are transported and kept in suspension. This knowledge is imperative because of the current assumption that suspension is required for the eggs to survive. Herein, FluEgg (Fluvial Egg Drift Simulator), a three-dimensional Lagrangian model capable of evaluating the influence of flow velocity, shear dispersion and turbulent diffusion on the transport and dispersal patterns of Asian carp eggs is presented. The model's variables include not only biological behavior (growth rate, density changes) but also the physical characteristics of the flow field, such as mean velocities and eddy diffusivities. The performance of the FluEgg model was evaluated using observed data from published flume experiments conducted in China with water-hardened Asian carp eggs as subjects. FluEgg simulations show a good agreement with the experimental data. The model was also run with observed data from the Sandusky River in Ohio to provide a real-world demonstration case. This research will support the identification of critical hydrodynamic conditions (e.g., flow velocity, depth, and shear velocity) to maintain eggs in suspension, assist in the evaluation of suitable spawning rivers for Asian carp populations and facilitate the development of prevention, control and management strategies for Asian carp species in rivers and water bodies.

  3. Using Black Light to Find Jack-Pine Budworm Egg Masses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel T. Jennings

    1968-01-01

    Jack pine foliage infested with jack-pine budworm egg masses was examined under two kinds of light -- black light and a combination of natural and fluorescent light. Black light significantly increased the accuracy of count but not the efficiency of examination.

  4. 9 CFR 590.900 - Requirements for importation of egg products or restricted eggs into the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Requirements for importation of egg products or restricted eggs into the United States. 590.900 Section 590.900 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF...

  5. Egg cell-secreted EC1 triggers sperm cell activation during double fertilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprunck, Stefanie; Rademacher, Svenja; Vogler, Frank; Gheyselinck, Jacqueline; Grossniklaus, Ueli; Dresselhaus, Thomas

    2012-11-23

    Double fertilization is the defining characteristic of flowering plants. However, the molecular mechanisms regulating the fusion of one sperm with the egg and the second sperm with the central cell are largely unknown. We show that gamete interactions in Arabidopsis depend on small cysteine-rich EC1 (EGG CELL 1) proteins accumulating in storage vesicles of the egg cell. Upon sperm arrival, EC1-containing vesicles are exocytosed. The sperm endomembrane system responds to exogenously applied EC1 peptides by redistributing the potential gamete fusogen HAP2/GCS1 (HAPLESS 2/GENERATIVE CELL SPECIFIC 1) to the cell surface. Furthermore, fertilization studies with ec1 quintuple mutants show that successful male-female gamete interactions are necessary to prevent multiple-sperm cell delivery. Our findings provide evidence that mutual gamete activation, regulated exocytosis, and sperm plasma membrane modifications govern flowering plant gamete interactions.

  6. Effect of gamma irradiation on the hatchability and embryonic development of quail eggs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oroszlany, P.; Sinkovicsne Hlubik, I.

    1979-01-01

    The effect of different doses of gamma irradiation on the embryonic development of quail and hen's eggs was examined. The goals of the examinations were to determine the LD 50 and LD 100 values, to establish the effect of single and multiple irradiation on embryonic development and to get some information on the embryonation of eggs produced by quails and their progeny grown from irradiated eggs. It was shown that 200 rad dose has significant stimulation effect of the hatching results of quail eggs. The LD 50 and LD 100 values were about 800 to 850 rad and 1600 rad, respectively. Repeated irradiation on the progeny-generations proved to be unambiguously deleterious on embryonation. High doses changed the rhythm of embryonal mortality, showing a peak under the irradiation and in the first three days of incubation, and significantly enhanced the number of teratological types. (author)

  7. The preliminary studies on parasitization of Trichogramma chilonis on Helicoverpa armigera eggs and eggs from irradiated Helicoverpa armigera moths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Endong; Lu Daguang; Liu Xiaohui; Li Yongjun; Zhang Shuyong; Liu Qiongru; Wang Huasong

    2002-01-01

    The parasitization rates of Trichogramma chilonis on 250 Gy irradiated and unirradiated fresh eggs of cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera, were not significantly different. The parasitization rate on irradiated chill-stored eggs of H. armigera was lower than that on irradiated fresh eggs. The parasitization rates on eggs from 250 Gy irradiated H. armigera moths depended on their embryonated rates

  8. Vitellogenin knockdown strongly affects cotton boll weevil egg viability but not the number of eggs laid by females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, Roberta R; de Souza Júnior, José Dijair Antonino; Firmino, Alexandre A P; de Macedo, Leonardo L P; Fonseca, Fernando C A; Terra, Walter R; Engler, Gilbert; de Almeida Engler, Janice; da Silva, Maria Cristina M; Grossi-de-Sa, Maria Fatima

    2016-09-01

    Vitellogenin (Vg), a yolk protein precursor, is the primary egg nutrient source involved in insect reproduction and embryo development. The Cotton Boll weevil (CBW) Anthonomus grandis Boheman, the most important cotton pest in Americas, accumulates large amounts of Vg during reproduction. However, the precise role of this protein during embryo development in this insect remains unknown. Herein, we investigated the effects of vitellogenin (AgraVg) knockdown on the egg-laying and egg viability in A. grandis females, and also characterized morphologically the unviable eggs. AgraVg transcripts were found during all developmental stages of A. grandis, with highest abundance in females. Silencing of AgraVg culminated in a significant reduction in transcript amount, around 90%. Despite this transcriptional reduction, egg-laying was not affected in dsRNA-treated females but almost 100% of the eggs lost their viability. Eggs from dsRNA-treated females showed aberrant embryos phenotype suggesting interference at different stages of embryonic development. Unlike for other insects, the AgraVg knockdown did not affect the egg-laying ability of A. grandis, but hampered A. grandis reproduction by perturbing embryo development. We concluded that the Vg protein is essential for A. grandis reproduction and a good candidate to bio-engineer the resistance against this devastating cotton pest.

  9. Efficacy of Several Pesticide Products on Brown Widow Spider (Araneae: Theridiidae) Egg Sacs and Their Penetration Through the Egg Sac Silk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vetter, Richard S; Tarango, Jacob; Campbell, Kathleen A; Tham, Christine; Hayashi, Cheryl Y; Choe, Dong-Hwan

    2016-02-01

    Information on pesticide effects on spiders is less common than for insects; similar information for spider egg sacs is scarcer in the open literature. Spider egg sacs are typically covered with a protective silk layer. When pesticides are directly applied to egg sacs, the silk might prevent active ingredients from reaching the eggs, blocking their insecticidal effect. We investigated the impact of six water-based pesticide sprays and four oil-based aerosol products against egg sacs of brown widow spiders, Latrodectus geometricus C. L. Koch. All water-based spray products except one failed to provide significant mortality to egg sacs, resulting in successful spiderling emergence from treated egg sacs at a similar rate to untreated egg sacs. In contrast to water-based sprays, oil-based aerosols provided almost complete control, with 94-100% prevention of spiderling emergence. Penetration studies using colored pesticide products indicated that oil-based aerosols were significantly more effective in penetrating egg sac silk than were the water-based sprays, delivering the active ingredients on most (>99%) of the eggs inside the sac. The ability of pesticides to penetrate spider egg sac silk and deliver lethal doses of active ingredients to the eggs is discussed in relation to the chemical nature of egg sac silk proteins. Our study suggests that pest management procedures primarily relying on perimeter application of water-based sprays might not provide satisfactory control of brown widow spider eggs. Determination of the most effective active ingredients and carrier characteristics warrant further research to provide more effective control options for spider egg sacs. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. The level of embryonation influences detection of Ostertagia ostertagi eggs by semi-quantitative PCR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drag, Markus; Höglund, Johan; Nejsum, Peter

    2016-01-01

    The Internal Transcribed Spacer 2 (ITS2) is a candidate diagnostic marker of the pathogenic cattle nematode Ostertagia ostertagi. The aims of this study were: (i) to document and quantify how the development of O. ostertagi eggs affects ITS2 copies under different storage conditions, and (ii......) to suggest optimal storage conditions for faecal samples in a diagnostic pipeline that involves detection and semi-quantification by real-time semi-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Eggs of Ostertagia ostertagi were obtained from fresh faeces and stored at 4 °C or 25 °C under aerobic...

  11. Multivariable Regression Analysis in Schistosoma mansoni-Infected Individuals in the Sudan Reveals Unique Immunoepidemiological Profiles in Uninfected, egg+ and Non-egg+ Infected Individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elfaki, Tayseer Elamin Mohamed; Arndts, Kathrin; Wiszniewsky, Anna; Ritter, Manuel; Goreish, Ibtisam A; Atti El Mekki, Misk El Yemen A; Arriens, Sandra; Pfarr, Kenneth; Fimmers, Rolf; Doenhoff, Mike; Hoerauf, Achim; Layland, Laura E

    2016-05-01

    In the Sudan, Schistosoma mansoni infections are a major cause of morbidity in school-aged children and infection rates are associated with available clean water sources. During infection, immune responses pass through a Th1 followed by Th2 and Treg phases and patterns can relate to different stages of infection or immunity. This retrospective study evaluated immunoepidemiological aspects in 234 individuals (range 4-85 years old) from Kassala and Khartoum states in 2011. Systemic immune profiles (cytokines and immunoglobulins) and epidemiological parameters were surveyed in n = 110 persons presenting patent S. mansoni infections (egg+), n = 63 individuals positive for S. mansoni via PCR in sera but egg negative (SmPCR+) and n = 61 people who were infection-free (Sm uninf). Immunoepidemiological findings were further investigated using two binary multivariable regression analysis. Nearly all egg+ individuals had no access to latrines and over 90% obtained water via the canal stemming from the Atbara River. With regards to age, infection and an egg+ status was linked to young and adolescent groups. In terms of immunology, S. mansoni infection per se was strongly associated with increased SEA-specific IgG4 but not IgE levels. IL-6, IL-13 and IL-10 were significantly elevated in patently-infected individuals and positively correlated with egg load. In contrast, IL-2 and IL-1β were significantly lower in SmPCR+ individuals when compared to Sm uninf and egg+ groups which was further confirmed during multivariate regression analysis. Schistosomiasis remains an important public health problem in the Sudan with a high number of patent individuals. In addition, SmPCR diagnostics revealed another cohort of infected individuals with a unique immunological profile and provides an avenue for future studies on non-patent infection states. Future studies should investigate the downstream signalling pathways/mechanisms of IL-2 and IL-1β as potential diagnostic markers in order to

  12. Multivariable Regression Analysis in Schistosoma mansoni-Infected Individuals in the Sudan Reveals Unique Immunoepidemiological Profiles in Uninfected, egg+ and Non-egg+ Infected Individuals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tayseer Elamin Mohamed Elfaki

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In the Sudan, Schistosoma mansoni infections are a major cause of morbidity in school-aged children and infection rates are associated with available clean water sources. During infection, immune responses pass through a Th1 followed by Th2 and Treg phases and patterns can relate to different stages of infection or immunity.This retrospective study evaluated immunoepidemiological aspects in 234 individuals (range 4-85 years old from Kassala and Khartoum states in 2011. Systemic immune profiles (cytokines and immunoglobulins and epidemiological parameters were surveyed in n = 110 persons presenting patent S. mansoni infections (egg+, n = 63 individuals positive for S. mansoni via PCR in sera but egg negative (SmPCR+ and n = 61 people who were infection-free (Sm uninf. Immunoepidemiological findings were further investigated using two binary multivariable regression analysis.Nearly all egg+ individuals had no access to latrines and over 90% obtained water via the canal stemming from the Atbara River. With regards to age, infection and an egg+ status was linked to young and adolescent groups. In terms of immunology, S. mansoni infection per se was strongly associated with increased SEA-specific IgG4 but not IgE levels. IL-6, IL-13 and IL-10 were significantly elevated in patently-infected individuals and positively correlated with egg load. In contrast, IL-2 and IL-1β were significantly lower in SmPCR+ individuals when compared to Sm uninf and egg+ groups which was further confirmed during multivariate regression analysis.Schistosomiasis remains an important public health problem in the Sudan with a high number of patent individuals. In addition, SmPCR diagnostics revealed another cohort of infected individuals with a unique immunological profile and provides an avenue for future studies on non-patent infection states. Future studies should investigate the downstream signalling pathways/mechanisms of IL-2 and IL-1β as potential diagnostic markers

  13. Application of neutron activation analysis for the determination of essential elements in egg samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomes, Bruna G.; Maihara, Vera A.; Avegliano, Roseane P.

    2013-01-01

    The eggs are among the twenty foods consumed by the population of the five major regions of Brazil. Among the types of eggs, there are differences in nutritional value, which can vary according to the food of the bird. This study evaluating the elements Cl, K, Mg, Mn and Na considered essential micronutrients in food, because they are fundamental in several metabolic processes necessary for the maintenance and training of the human body. We analyzed three types of eggs: egg whites, of the quail, and the colonial in cooked and raw form, using the Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis method (INAA). The egg samples were lyophilized and pulverized before analysis. To validate the methodology, reference materials NIST RM 8415 Whole Egg Powder and NIST SRM 1567 Wheat Flour were analyzed. The samples, reference materials and standards of the elements were irradiated for 20 seconds under a thermal neutron flux of 6,6x10 12 cm -2 s -1 in the nuclear research reactor IEA-R1 of IPEN-CNEN / SP. The results were consistent with the values of the Brazilian Table of Food Composition (TACO)

  14. Does egg competition occur in marine broadcast-spawners?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, D J; Evans, J P

    2005-09-01

    When the availability of sperm limits female reproductive success, competition for sperm, may be an important broker of sexual selection. This is because sperm limitation can increase the variance in female reproductive success, resulting in strong selection on females to compete for limited fertilization opportunities. Sperm limitation is probably common in broadcast-spawning marine invertebrates, making these excellent candidates for investigating scramble competition between broods of eggs and its consequences for female reproductive success. Here, we report our findings from a series of experiments that investigate egg competition in the sessile, broadcast-spawning polychaete Galeolaria caespitosa. We initially tested whether the order in which eggs encounter sperm affects their fertilization success at two ecologically relevant current regimes. We used a split-clutch-split--ejaculate technique to compare the fertilization success of eggs from individual females that had either first access (competition-free treatment) or second access (egg competition treatment) to a batch of sperm. We found that fertilization success depended on the order in which eggs accessed sperm; eggs that were assigned to the competition-free treatment exhibited significantly higher fertilization rates than those assigned to the egg competition treatment at both current speeds. In subsequent experiments we found that prior exposure of sperm to eggs significantly reduced both the quantity and quality of sperm available to fertilize a second clutch of eggs, resulting in reductions in fertilization success at high and low sperm concentrations. These findings suggest that female traits that increase the likelihood of sperm-egg interactions (e.g. egg size) will respond to selection imposed by egg competition.

  15. Evaluating the negative effect of benthic egg predators on bloater recruitment in northern Lake Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunnell, David B.; Mychek-Londer, Justin G.; Diana, James S.; Stott, Wendylee; Madenjian, Charles P.

    2012-01-01

    As the only extant deepwater cisco in Lake Michigan, bloater is currently at record low levels of abundance.  Several mechanisms to regulate their recruitment have been proposed, including skewed sex ratios, predation on their larvae by adult alewife, and climatic factors during early life history stages, but none has unequivocal support.  In this research, we evaluated an alternative mechanism of egg predation that was supported by an inverse relationship between bloater recruitment and biomass of slimy sculpin, which are known to be effective egg predators.  To that end, we used a combination of field sampling, laboratory experiments, and modeling to estimate the proportion of bloater eggs consumed by sculpins each year between 1973 and 2008.  Monthly field sampling between January through May 2009-2010 (when bloater eggs were incubating) offshore of Frankfort (Michigan), Sturgeon Bay (Wisconsin), Two Rivers (Wisconsin), and Muskegon (Michigan) provided benthivore diets for subsequent laboratory processing.  Identification and enumeration of stomach contents and subsequent genetic analyses of eggs revealed that the mean proportion of bloater eggs in slimy sculpin diets (N = 1016) equaled 0.04.  Bloater eggs also were consumed by deepwater sculpins (N = 699) at a slightly lower mean proportion (0.02), and only one round goby diet among 552 enumerated revealed a bloater egg.  Based on the diet results, we developed daily ration models to estimate consumption for both deepwater and slimy sculpins.  We conducted feeding experiments to estimate gastric evacuation (GEVAC) for water temperatures ranging 2-5 °C, similar to those observed during egg incubation.  GEVAC rates equaled 0.0115/ h for slimy sculpin and 0.0147/h for deepwater sculpin, and did not vary between 2.7 and 5.1 °C for either species or between prey types (Mysis relicta and fish eggs) for slimy sculpin.  Index of fullness [(g prey/g fish weight)100%] was estimated from sculpins sampled in

  16. Giant panda׳s tooth enamel: Structure, mechanical behavior and toughening mechanisms under indentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Z Y; Liu, Z Q; Ritchie, R O; Jiao, D; Li, D S; Wu, H L; Deng, L H; Zhang, Z F

    2016-12-01

    The giant panda׳s teeth possess remarkable load-bearing capacity and damage resistance for masticating bamboos. In this study, the hierarchical structure and mechanical behavior of the giant panda׳s tooth enamel were investigated under indentation. The effects of loading orientation and location on mechanical properties of the enamel were clarified and the evolution of damage in the enamel under increasing load evaluated. The nature of the damage, both at and beneath the indentation surfaces, and the underlying toughening mechanisms were explored. Indentation cracks invariably were seen to propagate along the internal interfaces, specifically the sheaths between enamel rods, and multiple extrinsic toughening mechanisms, e.g., crack deflection/twisting and uncracked-ligament bridging, were active to shield the tips of cracks from the applied stress. The giant panda׳s tooth enamel is analogous to human enamel in its mechanical properties, yet it has superior hardness and Young׳s modulus but inferior toughness as compared to the bamboo that pandas primarily feed on, highlighting the critical roles of the integration of underlying tissues in the entire tooth and the highly hydrated state of bamboo foods. Our objective is that this study can aid the understanding of the structure-mechanical property relations in the tooth enamel of mammals and further provide some insight on the food habits of the giant pandas. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Nymphal and adult performance of Euschistus heros (Fabr.) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), as a potential alternative host for egg parasitoids multiplication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peres, Wilsimar A.A.; Correa-Ferreira, Beatriz S.

    2001-01-01

    This research aimed to evaluate the potential of Euschistus heros (Fabr.) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) as host for multiplication of egg parasitoids, by determining the nymphal and adult performance of E. heros from laboratory and the field, comparing with Nezara viridula (L.) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), under mass conditions. One hundred eggs of E. heros and N. viridula were placed among the leaves of soybean plants contained in cages (50x50x70 cm) and observation were made until adult emergence. The nymphs fed on soybean pods, dry soybean and peanuts seeds. The number of nymphs that reached adulthood and the development time were calculated. The survivorship and reproduction performance of laboratory and field populations of E. heros and N. viridula were evaluated during 13 weeks in February-May 1999. The number of eggs produced by 100 pairs of stink bugs per cage containing the same diet was recorded. Nymphal development time of E. heros and N. viridula was 33.0 and 34.0 days and 65.0% and 71.3% of nymphs reached adulthood, respectively. Adults of E. heros reared under laboratory conditions produced 2.5 times more eggs (5547.0 eggs/cage) than those collected in the field (2262.7 eggs/cage). The adult field population of E. heros had reduced reproduction and longevity due to parasitism by Hexacladia smithii Ash. (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae). The N. viridula adults collected in the field produced 1.7 times more eggs (6304.9 eggs/cage) than those reared in the laboratory (3609.2 eggs/cage). E. heros laboratory reared is a promising host for egg parasitoids multiplication when compared with N. viridula collected in the field. (author)

  18. Nymphal and adult performance of Euschistus heros (Fabr.) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), as a potential alternative host for egg parasitoids multiplication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peres, Wilsimar A.A. [Universidade Federal do Parana, Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Zoologia; Correa-Ferreira, Beatriz S. [EMBRAPA, Londrina, PR (Brazil). Centro Nacional de Pesquisa de Soja

    2001-12-15

    This research aimed to evaluate the potential of Euschistus heros (Fabr.) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) as host for multiplication of egg parasitoids, by determining the nymphal and adult performance of E. heros from laboratory and the field, comparing with Nezara viridula (L.) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), under mass conditions. One hundred eggs of E. heros and N. viridula were placed among the leaves of soybean plants contained in cages (50x50x70 cm) and observation were made until adult emergence. The nymphs fed on soybean pods, dry soybean and peanuts seeds. The number of nymphs that reached adulthood and the development time were calculated. The survivorship and reproduction performance of laboratory and field populations of E. heros and N. viridula were evaluated during 13 weeks in February-May 1999. The number of eggs produced by 100 pairs of stink bugs per cage containing the same diet was recorded. Nymphal development time of E. heros and N. viridula was 33.0 and 34.0 days and 65.0% and 71.3% of nymphs reached adulthood, respectively. Adults of E. heros reared under laboratory conditions produced 2.5 times more eggs (5547.0 eggs/cage) than those collected in the field (2262.7 eggs/cage). The adult field population of E. heros had reduced reproduction and longevity due to parasitism by Hexacladia smithii Ash. (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae). The N. viridula adults collected in the field produced 1.7 times more eggs (6304.9 eggs/cage) than those reared in the laboratory (3609.2 eggs/cage). E. heros laboratory reared is a promising host for egg parasitoids multiplication when compared with N. viridula collected in the field. (author)

  19. "Egg Races" and Other Practical Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auty, Geoff

    2013-01-01

    This article presents ideas behind science and technology challenges and shares experiences of "egg races." Different challenges were set, but there was always the need to transport an egg across some obstacle course without breaking it. It was so popular in the 1980s that the term "egg race" came to mean any kind of simple…

  20. An insect with selective control of egg coloration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abram, Paul K; Guerra-Grenier, Eric; Després-Einspenner, Marie-Lyne; Ito, Shosuke; Wakamatsu, Kazumasa; Boivin, Guy; Brodeur, Jacques

    2015-08-03

    The color and patterning of animal eggs has important consequences for offspring survival. There are examples of between-species and polymorphic differences in egg coloration in birds and amphibians [1-3], as well as cases of birds and insects whose nutritional status or age can cause within-individual variation in egg pigmentation [4-6]. However, no studies to date have demonstrated that individual animals can selectively control the color of their eggs. Here, we show that individual females of the predatory stink bug Podisus maculiventris can control the pigmentation of their eggs during oviposition, as a response to environmental conditions. The color of egg masses produced by individual females can range from pale yellow to dark black/brown. Females tend to lay darker eggs, which are more resistant to UV radiation, on the upper surface of leaves where UV exposure is highest in nature. Conversely, they lay lighter eggs on the undersides of leaves. However, egg color is not determined by the intensity of UV radiation falling on the surface where they are laid. Rather, female stink bugs appear to use a visual assessment of oviposition substrate reflectance to determine egg color. Unexpectedly, biochemical analyses revealed that the egg pigment is not melanin, the most ubiquitous light-absorbing pigment in animals. Our study offers the first example of an animal able to selectively control the color of its eggs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. High-pressure protein crystallography of hen egg-white lysozyme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamada, Hiroyuki; Nagae, Takayuki [Nagoya University, Chikusa, Nagoya, Aichi 464-8603 (Japan); Watanabe, Nobuhisa, E-mail: nobuhisa@nagoya-u.jp [Nagoya University, Chikusa, Nagoya, Aichi 464-8603 (Japan); Nagoya University, Chikusa, Nagoya, Aichi 464-8603 (Japan)

    2015-04-01

    The crystal structure of hen egg-white lysozyme (HEWL) was analyzed under pressures of up to 950 MPa. The high pressure modified the conformation of the molecule and induced a novel phase transition in the tetragonal crystal of HEWL. Crystal structures of hen egg-white lysozyme (HEWL) determined under pressures ranging from ambient pressure to 950 MPa are presented. From 0.1 to 710 MPa, the molecular and internal cavity volumes are monotonically compressed. However, from 710 to 890 MPa the internal cavity volume remains almost constant. Moreover, as the pressure increases to 950 MPa, the tetragonal crystal of HEWL undergoes a phase transition from P4{sub 3}2{sub 1}2 to P4{sub 3}. Under high pressure, the crystal structure of the enzyme undergoes several local and global changes accompanied by changes in hydration structure. For example, water molecules penetrate into an internal cavity neighbouring the active site and induce an alternate conformation of one of the catalytic residues, Glu35. These phenomena have not been detected by conventional X-ray crystal structure analysis and might play an important role in the catalytic activity of HEWL.

  2. Maternal transfer of mercury to songbird eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerman, Joshua T; Hartman, C Alex; Herzog, Mark P

    2017-11-01

    We evaluated the maternal transfer of mercury to eggs in songbirds, determined whether this relationship differed between songbird species, and developed equations for predicting mercury concentrations in eggs from maternal blood. We sampled blood and feathers from 44 house wren (Troglodytes aedon) and 34 tree swallow (Tachycineta bicolor) mothers and collected their full clutches (n = 476 eggs) within 3 days of clutch completion. Additionally, we sampled blood and feathers from 53 tree swallow mothers and randomly collected one egg from their clutches (n = 53 eggs) during mid to late incubation (6-10 days incubated) to evaluate whether the relationship varied with the timing of sampling the mother's blood. Mercury concentrations in eggs were positively correlated with mercury concentrations in maternal blood sampled at (1) the time of clutch completion for both house wrens (R 2  = 0.97) and tree swallows (R 2  = 0.97) and (2) during mid to late incubation for tree swallows (R 2  = 0.71). The relationship between mercury concentrations in eggs and maternal blood did not differ with the stage of incubation when maternal blood was sampled. Importantly, the proportion of mercury transferred from mothers to their eggs decreased substantially with increasing blood mercury concentrations in tree swallows, but increased slightly with increasing blood mercury concentrations in house wrens. Additionally, the proportion of mercury transferred to eggs at the same maternal blood mercury concentration differed between species. Specifically, tree swallow mothers transferred 17%-107% more mercury to their eggs than house wren mothers over the observed mercury concentrations in maternal blood (0.15-1.92 μg/g ww). In contrast, mercury concentrations in eggs were not correlated with those in maternal feathers and, likewise, mercury concentrations in maternal blood were not correlated with those in feathers (all R 2  mercury concentrations from maternal blood to eggs

  3. Fish egg size: a characteristic determined by parental care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosana RM Mazzoni

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The existence of a trade-off between relative batch fecundity and egg size has been widely documented (e.g. Brown & Shine 2009. Studies on the evolution of parental care and its relationship with fish egg size were stimulated by the work of Shine (1978, who proposed several possible hypotheses, including one that predicted that the onset of parental care preceded the increase in egg size. This hypothesis has since been challenged by Nussbaum & Schultz (1989 and more recently by Summers et al. (2006, who proposed an alternative hypothesis in which the evolution of large eggs was said to precede the evolution of parental care and not the reverse. Here, we examined 313 species of bony fish, including 152 species with parental care (PC and 161 species without parental care (NPC, and found evidence that fully supports the hypothesis of Shine (1978. Additionally, we explain how strengthening this hypothesis could impact the development of phylogenies. We also make suggestions for future studies on gene regulatory mechanisms that could explain the evolution of parental care and egg size in bony fish within a more modern context of developmental ecology. Our analysis uses data describing the mean size of ripe eggs and the occurrence of parental care in 313 species of bony fish belonging to 53 families in 11 orders. Data for 22 of the 313 species were collected by us from the Tocantins River. Data for the remaining species were obtained from the literature: 6 species from the Paraná River (Suzuki et al. 2000, 149 species from large African lakes and some pelagic marine species (Duponchelle et al. 2008, 74 marine species (Pauly & Pullin 1988, and 65 species from the Tocantins River (Neuberger 2010. Of these 313 total species, 161 (51.4% are PC species and 152 (48.6% are NPC species. We analyzed a minimum of eight mature females from each of the 16 species we collected, and for each female, we measured 10 mature oocytes and derived the mean diameter of

  4. Sand intake by laying hens and its effect on egg production parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Meulen, J; Kwakernaak, C; Kan, C A

    2008-08-01

    Soil intake may be the most prominent source of environmental contaminants for free range and organic hens, but there are no quantitative data concerning soil intake by domestic hens. Consumption of soil of 14-32 g a day can be estimated from literature, but such a dilution of nutrient intake seems incompatible with high productivity. In this study laying hens were fed pelleted diets with 0%, 10%, 20%, 25% and 30% of sand addition to determine its effect on productivity. Feed intake, feed and nutrient (feed minus sand) conversion ratio, egg production, egg weight and body weight gain were measured over a 4-week period. Acid insoluble ash concentration in the faeces was measured to determine the accuracy of estimating the soil ingestion by the soil-ingestion equation for wildlife as a way to determine soil ingestion of free range and organic hens under practical circumstances. The hens were able to compensate the dilution of the diet with 20%, 25% and 30% of sand by increasing their feed intake. Feed intake increased significantly and feed to egg conversion ratio decreased significantly with increasing sand levels in the diet. The nutrient to egg conversion ratio of the diet without sand tended to be worse than for the diets with sand, presumably due to the total absence of coarse material in the diet. There were no differences in egg production and egg weight between hens fed the different diets but body weight gain was significantly lower for the hens fed the diets with 20%, 25% and 30% of sand. Estimation of sand ingestion was done by the soil-ingestion equation for wildlife. Provided that the actual dry matter digestibility coefficient of the nutrient part of the diet is taken into account, estimating the soil ingestion according to the soil-ingestion equation for wildlife seems an appropriate way to determine soil ingestion for free range and organic hens under practical circumstances.

  5. A laboratory investigation of the suspension, transport, and settling of silver carp eggs using synthetic surrogates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Tatiana; Zuniga Zamalloa, Carlo; Jackson, P. Ryan; Murphy, Elizabeth A.; Garcia, Marcelo H.

    2015-01-01

    Asian carp eggs are semi-buoyant and must remain suspended in the water to survive, supported by the turbulence of the flow, until they hatch and develop the ability to swim. Analysis of the transport and dispersal patterns of Asian carp eggs will facilitate the development and implementation of control strategies to target the early life stages. Experimenting with Asian carp eggs is complicated due to practical issues of obtaining eggs in close proximity to experimental facilities and extensive handling of eggs tends to damage them. Herein, we describe laboratory experiments using styrene beads (4.85 mm diameter) as synthetic surrogate eggs to mimic the physical properties of water-hardened silver carp eggs. The first set of experiments was completed in a rectangular vertical column filled with salt water. The salinity of the water was adjusted in an iterative fashion to obtain a close approximation of the fall velocity of the styrene beads to the mean fall velocity of silver carp water-hardened eggs. The terminal fall velocity of synthetic eggs was measured using an image processing method. The second set of experiments was performed in a temperature-controlled recirculatory flume with a sediment bed. The flume was filled with salt water, and synthetic eggs were allowed to drift under different flow conditions. Drifting behavior, suspension conditions, and settling characteristics of synthetic eggs were observed. At high velocities, eggs were suspended and distributed through the water column. Eggs that touched the sediment bed were re-entrained by the flow. Eggs saltated when they touched the bed, especially at moderate velocities and with a relatively flat bed. At lower velocities, some settling of the eggs was observed. With lower velocities and a flat bed, eggs were trapped near the walls of the flume. When bedforms were present, eggs were trapped in the lee of the bedforms in addition to being trapped near the flume walls. Results of this research study

  6. A Laboratory Investigation of the Suspension, Transport, and Settling of Silver Carp Eggs Using Synthetic Surrogates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Tatiana; Zuniga Zamalloa, Carlo; Jackson, P. Ryan; Murphy, Elizabeth A.; Garcia, Marcelo H.

    2015-01-01

    Asian carp eggs are semi-buoyant and must remain suspended in the water to survive, supported by the turbulence of the flow, until they hatch and develop the ability to swim. Analysis of the transport and dispersal patterns of Asian carp eggs will facilitate the development and implementation of control strategies to target the early life stages. Experimenting with Asian carp eggs is complicated due to practical issues of obtaining eggs in close proximity to experimental facilities and extensive handling of eggs tends to damage them. Herein, we describe laboratory experiments using styrene beads (4.85 mm diameter) as synthetic surrogate eggs to mimic the physical properties of water-hardened silver carp eggs. The first set of experiments was completed in a rectangular vertical column filled with salt water. The salinity of the water was adjusted in an iterative fashion to obtain a close approximation of the fall velocity of the styrene beads to the mean fall velocity of silver carp water-hardened eggs. The terminal fall velocity of synthetic eggs was measured using an image processing method. The second set of experiments was performed in a temperature-controlled recirculatory flume with a sediment bed. The flume was filled with salt water, and synthetic eggs were allowed to drift under different flow conditions. Drifting behavior, suspension conditions, and settling characteristics of synthetic eggs were observed. At high velocities, eggs were suspended and distributed through the water column. Eggs that touched the sediment bed were re-entrained by the flow. Eggs saltated when they touched the bed, especially at moderate velocities and with a relatively flat bed. At lower velocities, some settling of the eggs was observed. With lower velocities and a flat bed, eggs were trapped near the walls of the flume. When bedforms were present, eggs were trapped in the lee of the bedforms in addition to being trapped near the flume walls. Results of this research study

  7. A Laboratory Investigation of the Suspension, Transport, and Settling of Silver Carp Eggs Using Synthetic Surrogates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Tatiana; Zuniga Zamalloa, Carlo; Jackson, P Ryan; Murphy, Elizabeth A; Garcia, Marcelo H

    2015-01-01

    Asian carp eggs are semi-buoyant and must remain suspended in the water to survive, supported by the turbulence of the flow, until they hatch and develop the ability to swim. Analysis of the transport and dispersal patterns of Asian carp eggs will facilitate the development and implementation of control strategies to target the early life stages. Experimenting with Asian carp eggs is complicated due to practical issues of obtaining eggs in close proximity to experimental facilities and extensive handling of eggs tends to damage them. Herein, we describe laboratory experiments using styrene beads (4.85 mm diameter) as synthetic surrogate eggs to mimic the physical properties of water-hardened silver carp eggs. The first set of experiments was completed in a rectangular vertical column filled with salt water. The salinity of the water was adjusted in an iterative fashion to obtain a close approximation of the fall velocity of the styrene beads to the mean fall velocity of silver carp water-hardened eggs. The terminal fall velocity of synthetic eggs was measured using an image processing method. The second set of experiments was performed in a temperature-controlled recirculatory flume with a sediment bed. The flume was filled with salt water, and synthetic eggs were allowed to drift under different flow conditions. Drifting behavior, suspension conditions, and settling characteristics of synthetic eggs were observed. At high velocities, eggs were suspended and distributed through the water column. Eggs that touched the sediment bed were re-entrained by the flow. Eggs saltated when they touched the bed, especially at moderate velocities and with a relatively flat bed. At lower velocities, some settling of the eggs was observed. With lower velocities and a flat bed, eggs were trapped near the walls of the flume. When bedforms were present, eggs were trapped in the lee of the bedforms in addition to being trapped near the flume walls. Results of this research study

  8. Investigating the embryo/larval toxic and genotoxic effects of {gamma} irradiation on zebrafish eggs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simon, O., E-mail: olivier.simon@irsn.fr [Laboratoire de Radioecologie et d' Ecotoxicologie, Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, Cadarache, Bat 186, BP3, 13115 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance Cedex (France); Massarin, S. [Laboratoire de Modelisation Environnementale, Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, Cadarache, Bat 159, BP3, 13115 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance Cedex (France); Coppin, F. [Laboratoire de Radioecologie et d' Ecotoxicologie, Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, Cadarache, Bat 186, BP3, 13115 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance Cedex (France); Hinton, T.G. [Service d' Etude du Comportement des Radionucleides dans les Ecosystemes, Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, Cadarache, Bat 159, BP3, 13115 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance Cedex (France); Gilbin, R. [Laboratoire de Radioecologie et d' Ecotoxicologie, Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, Cadarache, Bat 186, BP3, 13115 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance Cedex (France)

    2011-11-15

    Eggs/larval of freshwater fish (Danio rerio) were exposed to low dose rates of external gamma radiation (from 1 to 1000 mGy d{sup -1}) over a 20-day period, with the objective of testing the appropriateness of the 10 mGy d{sup -1} guideline suggested by the IAEA. The present study examines different endpoints, mortality and hatching time and success of embryos as well as the genotoxicity of {gamma}-irradiations (after 48 h). The 20-day embryo-larval bioassay showed an enhanced larval resistance to starvation after chronic exposure to {gamma} irradiation (from low 1 mGy d{sup -1} to high dose rate 1000 mGy d{sup -1}) and an acceleration in hatching time. Gamma irradiation led to increased genotoxic damage Ito zebrafish egg (40-50% DNA in tail in Comet assay) from the lowest dose rate (1 mGy d{sup -1}). Possible mechanisms of {gamma} radiotoxicity and implications for radioprotection are discussed. - Highlights: > Relevant information on the {gamma} radiation impact on early life stage biota is scarce. > The eggs of zebrafish Danio rerio were selected as biological model. > We test the appropriateness of the 10 mGy d{sup -1} guideline (IAEA). > We observed effects measured at individual levels (starvation, hatching time). > Chronic gamma irradiation led to increased genotoxic damage to zebrafish egg. > {gamma} radiotoxicity mechanisms and implications for radioprotection are discussed.

  9. Parasitism capacity of Trichogramma pretiosum Riley (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) reared under different temperatures on Bonagota salubricola (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) eggs; Capacidade de parasitismo de Trichogramma pretiosum Riley (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) em ovos de Bonagota salubricola (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) sob diferentes temperaturas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pastori, Patrik L. [Universidade Federal do Parana (UFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Setor de Ciencias Biologicas. Dept. de Zoologia]. E-mail: plpastori@yahoo.com.br; Monteiro, Lino B. [Universidade Federal do Parana (UFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Setor de Ciencias Agrarias. Dept. de Fitotecnia e Fitossanitarismo]. E-mail: lbmonteiro@terra.com.br; Botton, Marcos [EMBRAPA, Bento Goncalves, RS (Brazil). Centro Nacional de Pesquisa Uva e Vinho]. E-mail: marcos@cnpuv.embrapa.br; Pratissoli, Dirceu [Universidade Federal do Espirito Santo (UFES), Alegre, ES (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Agrarias. Dept. de Producao Vegetal). E-mail: pratissoli@cca.ufes.br

    2007-11-15

    The parasitism capacity of Trichogramma pretiosum Riley strain bonagota on Bonagota salubricola (Meyrick) eggs was studied under the temperatures of 18, 20, 22, 25, 28, 30 and 32 deg C. The number of days with parasitism, accumulated parasitism, total number of eggs parasitized per female and parasitoid longevity was evaluated. In the first 24h, parasitism ranged from 1.6 (32 deg C) to 8.8 (22 deg C) eggs of B. salubricola. Accumulated egg parasitism of B. salubricola reached 80% in 1st to 4th day at 20 deg C to 32 deg C, respectively, and in the 7th day at 18 deg C. Temperatures from 18 deg C to 22 deg C were the best suited for the total eggs parasitized for female, resulting in 35.4 and 24.6 eggs/male respectively. T. pretiosum female longevity ranged from 7.8 to 2.5 days, at 18 deg C and 32 deg C, respectively. The results showed that T. pretiosum strain bonagota is better adapted to temperatures from 18 deg C to 22 deg C. (author)

  10. Ocean acidification hampers sperm-egg collisions, gamete fusion, and generation of Ca2+ oscillations of a broadcast spawning bivalve, Tegillarca granosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Wei; Han, Yu; Guo, Cheng; Zhao, Xinguo; Liu, Saixi; Su, Wenhao; Wang, Yichen; Zha, Shanjie; Chai, Xueliang; Liu, Guangxu

    2017-09-01

    Although the effect of ocean acidification on fertilization success of marine organisms is increasingly well documented, the underlying mechanisms are not completely understood. The fertilization success of broadcast spawning invertebrates depends on successful sperm-egg collisions, gamete fusion, and standard generation of Ca 2+ oscillations. Therefore, the realistic effects of future ocean pCO 2 levels on these specific aspects of fertilization of Tegillarca granosa were investigated in the present study through sperm velocity trials, fertilization kinetics model analysis, and intracellular Ca 2+ assays, respectively. Results obtained indicated that ocean acidification significantly reduced the fertilization success of T. granosa, which could be accountable by (i) decreased sperm velocity hence reducing the probability for sperm-egg collisions; (ii) lowered probability of gamete fusion for each gamete collision event; and (iii) disrupted intracellular Ca 2+ oscillations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Eggs and hatchlings variations in desert locusts: phase related characteristics and starvation tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koutaro Ould Maeno

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Locusts are grasshopper species that express phase polyphenism: modifying their behavior, morphology, coloration, life history and physiology in response to crowding. Desert locusts, Schistocerca gregaria, epigenetically modify progeny quality and quantity in response to crowding. Gregarious (crowded females produce larger but fewer progeny than do solitarious (isolated ones. The variability of progeny quality within single egg pod and the reasons why gregarious progeny have a better survival than solitarious ones remains unclear. This study investigated 1 the effects of rearing density on the variation in egg size within single egg pods 2 the starvation tolerance of hatchlings from mothers with different phases and 3 the physiological differences in hatchling energy reserve. Isolated females produced smaller but more eggs than did crowded ones. The variation in egg size within egg pods was greater in the latter than in the former. A negative relationship between egg size and number of eggs per egg pod was observed for both groups. Under starvation conditions, gregarious hatchlings survived significantly longer than solitarious ones. Among the solitarious hatchlings, the survival time was longer as hatchling body size increased. However, small individuals survived as long as large ones among the gregarious hatchlings. The percentage of water content per fresh body weight was almost equal between the two phases, before and after starvation. In contrast, the percentage of lipid content per dry body weight was significantly higher in gregarious hatchlings than in solitarious ones before starvation, but became almost equal after starvation. These results demonstrated that female locusts not only trade-off to modify their progeny size and number, but also vary progenies’ energy reserves. We hypothesized that gregarious females enhance their fitness by producing progeny differently adapted to high environmental variability and particularly to

  12. Effect of ultrasonic treatment on reduction of Esherichia coli ATCC 25922 and egg quality parameters in experimentally contaminated hens' shell eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sert, Durmus; Aygun, Ali; Torlak, Emrah; Mercan, Emin

    2013-09-01

    In this study, hen eggs which were experimentally contaminated with Esherichia coli ATCC 25922 were used. Contaminated eggs were washed statically (S5 to S30; 0 kHz) and by ultrasonic waves (U5 to U30; 35 kHz) for given applications of time (5, 15 and 30 min), then the eggs were stored at 22°C for 14 days. Depending on the time of ultrasonic application, a significant increase in egg shell strength (P eggs which were washed by ultrasonic waves. Yolk width values of ultrasonic washed eggs diminished. E. coli was completely removed by 30 min of ultrasonic application. During storage E. coli growth was not detected on the eggs which were washed by ultrasonic waves except the eggs in U5 group (2.04 log CFU eggshell⁻¹) on the first day of storage. Depending on the time of ultrasonic application a significant increase in egg quality parameters (shell strength, albumen height, Haugh units, and yolk height) were observed. The application of ultrasound led to a significant reduction in E. coli numbers on egg shells. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  13. Pattern mimicry of host eggs by the common cuckoo, as seen through a bird's eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoddard, Mary Caswell; Stevens, Martin

    2010-05-07

    Cuckoo-host interactions provide classical examples of coevolution. Cuckoos place hosts under selection to detect and reject foreign eggs, while host defences result in the evolution of host-egg mimicry in cuckoos. Despite a long history of research, egg pattern mimicry has never been objectively quantified, and so its coevolution with host defences has not been properly assessed. Here, we use digital image analysis and modelling of avian vision to quantify the level of pattern mimicry in eight host species of the common cuckoo Cuculus canorus and their respective cuckoo host-races. We measure a range of pattern attributes, including marking size, diversity in size, contrast, coverage and dispersion. This new technique reveals hitherto unnoticed sophistication in egg pattern mimicry. We show that various features of host egg pattern are mimicked by the eggs of their respective cuckoo host-races, and that cuckoos have evolved better pattern mimicry for host species that exhibit stronger egg rejection. Pattern differs relatively more between eggs of different host species than between their respective cuckoo host-races. We suggest that cuckoos may have more 'average' markings in order to be able to use subsidiary hosts. Our study sheds new light on cuckoo-host coevolution and illustrates a new technique for quantifying animal markings with respect to the relevant animal visual system.

  14. Changes of the antigenic and allergenic properties of a hen's egg albumin in a cake with gamma-irradiated egg white

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J.-W.; Seo, J.-H.; Kim, J.-H.; Lee, S.-Y.; Kim, K.-S.; Byun, M.-W.

    2005-01-01

    Changes of the antigenicity and allergenicity of a hen's egg albumin (ovalbumin, OVA) in white layer cakes containing egg white gamma-irradiated with 10 or 20 kGy were monitored by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), individually formatted with mouse anti-OVA IgG (mouse IgG) and with egg allergic patients' IgE. Mouse IgG recognized OVA in the cakes with irradiated egg white better than that in the control with a non-irradiated one. Whereas, the detected concentrations of intact OVA in the control significantly decreased in the treatments, when determined by IgE-based ELISA. The results appeared to indicate that the antigenicity of the OVA increased, but that the allergenicity was decreased by irradiation and processing. Egg white irradiated for reducing the egg allergy could be used for producing a safer cake from the egg allergy

  15. Soil contamination with Toxocara spp. eggs in the public parks of Isfahan City, Central Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Ghomashlooyan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the contamination rate of the public parks of Isfahan city with Toxocara spp. eggs. Methods: A total of 140 soil samples were collected from 28 public parks of Isfahan City, Central Iran, during the summer of 2014. Soil samples were investigated for the presence of Toxocara eggs by flotation method using sucrose solution. The prepared wet mount slides were examined under light microscope using 10 × and 40 × objectives. Results: Toxocara spp. eggs were found in 21 (75% out of 28 studied public parks. Also Toxocara spp. eggs were observed in 40 (28.6% out of 140 collected soil samples. Conclusions: Contamination rate with Toxocara spp. eggs in Isfahan is fairly high. Isfahan is a city that has lots of parks and gardens. The stray dogs and cats that roam around the parks contaminate the soil. Therefore preventive measures, especially for children, should be implemented.

  16. Identification of distinctive interdomain interactions among ZP-N, ZP-C and other domains of zona pellucida glycoproteins underlying association of chicken egg-coat matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okumura, Hiroki; Sato, Takahiro; Sakuma, Rio; Fukushima, Hideaki; Matsuda, Tsukasa; Ujita, Minoru

    2015-01-01

    The vertebrate egg coat, including mammalian zona pellucida, is an oocyte-specific extracellular matrix comprising two to six zona pellucida (ZP) glycoproteins. The egg coat plays important roles in fertilization, especially in species-specific interactions with sperm to induce the sperm acrosome reaction and to form the block to polyspermy. It is suggested that the physiological functions of the egg coat are mediated and/or regulated coordinately by peptide and carbohydrate moieties of the ZP glycoproteins that are spatially arranged in the egg coat, whereas a comprehensive understanding of the architecture of vertebrate egg-coat matrix remains elusive. Here, we deduced the orientations and/or distributions of chicken ZP glycoproteins, ZP1, ZP3 and ZPD, in the egg-coat matrix by confocal immunofluorescent microscopy, and in the ZP1-ZP3 complexes generated in vitro by co-immunoprecipitation assays. We further confirmed interdomain interactions of the ZP glycoproteins by far-Western blot analyses of the egg-coat proteins and pull-down assays of ZP1 in the serum, using recombinant domains of ZP glycoproteins as probes. Our results suggest that the ZP1 and ZP3 bind through their ZP-C domains to form the ZP1-ZP3 complexes and fibrils, which are assembled into bundles through interactions between the repeat domains of ZP1 to form the ZP1-ZP3 matrix, and that the ZPD molecules self-associate and bind to the ZP1-ZP3 matrix through its ZP-N and ZP-C domains to form the egg-coat matrix. Based on these results, we propose a tentative model for the architecture of the chicken egg-coat matrix that might be applicable to other vertebrate ones.

  17. Early development of Ensatina eschscholtzii: an amphibian with a large, yolky egg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Collazo Andres

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Comparative analyses between amphibians, concentrating on the cellular mechanisms of morphogenesis, reveal a large variability in the early developmental processes that were thought to be conserved during evolution. Increased egg size is one factor that could have a strong effect on early developmental processes such as cleavage pattern and gastrulation. Salamanders of the family Plethodontidae are particularly appropriate for such comparative studies because the species have eggs of varying size, including very large yolky eggs. Results In this paper, we describe for the first time the early development (from fertilization through neurulation of the plethodontid salamander Ensatina eschscholtzii. This species has one of the largest eggs known for an amphibian, with a mean ± SD diameter of 6 ± 0.43 mm (range 5.3-6.9; n = 17 eggs. Cleavage is meroblastic until approximately the 16-cell stage (fourth or fifth cleavage. At the beginning of gastrulation, the blastocoel roof is one cell thick, and the dorsal lip of the blastopore forms below the equator of the embryo. The ventral lip of the blastopore forms closer to the vegetal pole, and relatively little involution occurs during gastrulation. Cell migration is visible through the transparent blastocoel roof of the gastrula. At the end of gastrulation, a small archenteron spreading dorsally from the blastopore represents the relatively small and superficial area of the egg where early embryonic axis formation occurs. The resulting pattern is similar to the embryonic disk described for one species of anuran. Conclusions Comparisons with the early development of other species of amphibians suggest that an evolutionary increase in egg size can result in predictable changes in the patterns and rate of early development, but mainly within an evolutionary lineage.

  18. The influence of volatile semiochemicals from stink bug eggs and oviposition-damaged plants on the foraging behaviour of the egg parasitoid Telenomus podisi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michereff, M F F; Borges, M; Aquino, M F S; Laumann, R A; Mendes Gomes, A C M; Blassioli-Moraes, M C

    2016-10-01

    During host selection, physical and chemical stimuli provide important cues that modify search behaviours of natural enemies. We evaluated the influence of volatiles released by eggs and egg extracts of the stink bug Euschistus heros and by soybean plants treated with the eggs and egg extracts on Telenomus podisi foraging behaviour. Responses to volatiles were evaluated in Y-tube olfactometers after exposure to (1) one egg cluster for 24 h; (2) plants with eggs laid by the stink bug, tested at 24, 48, and 72 h after treatment; (3) plants with eggs laid artificially, tested at 24, 48, and 72 h after treatment; and (4) plants treated with acetone or hexane extracts of eggs. Telenomus podisi was attracted to volatiles emitted by one egg cluster and to acetone extracts of one egg cluster, but not to air or acetone controls. There were no responses to odours of plants treated with eggs or egg extracts. Analysis of acetone extracts of egg clusters by gas chromatography revealed the major components were saturated and unsaturated fatty acids, including hexadecanoic acid, linoleic acid, and (Z)-9-octadecenoic acid. Our results suggest that one egg cluster and the acetone extract of one egg cluster contain volatile compounds that can modify T. podisi foraging behaviour, and that the amounts of these compounds, probably together with some minor compounds, are important for host recognition by T. podisi. Also, the oviposition damage or egg extracts on the plant did not elicit indirect defences that attracted Telenomus podisi.

  19. The Fifty Year Rehabilitation of the Egg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald J. McNamara

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The 1968 American Heart Association announced a dietary recommendation that all individuals consume less than 300 mg of dietary cholesterol per day and no more than three whole eggs per week. This recommendation has not only significantly impacted the dietary patterns of the population, but also resulted in the public limiting a highly nutritious and affordable source of high quality nutrients, including choline which was limited in the diets of most individuals. The egg industry addressed the egg issue with research documenting the minimal effect of egg intake on plasma lipoprotein levels, as well as research verifying the importance of egg nutrients in a variety of issues related to health promotion. In 2015 dietary cholesterol and egg restrictions have been dropped by most health promotion agencies worldwide and recommended to be dropped from the 2015 Dietary Guidelines for Americans.

  20. Identification of the key weather factors affecting overwintering success of Apolygus lucorum eggs in dead host tree branches.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongsheng Pan

    Full Text Available Understanding the effects of weather on insect population dynamics is crucial to simulate and forecast pest outbreaks, which is becoming increasingly important with the effects of climate change. The mirid bug Apolygus lucorum is an important pest on cotton, fruit trees and other crops in China, and primarily lays its eggs on dead parts of tree branches in the fall for subsequent overwintering. As such, the eggs that hatch the following spring are most strongly affected by ambient weather factors, rather than by host plant biology. In this study, we investigated the effects of three major weather factors: temperature, relative humidity and rainfall, on the hatching rate of A. lucorum eggs overwintering on dead branches of Chinese date tree (Ziziphus jujuba. Under laboratory conditions, rainfall (simulated via soaking was necessary for the hatching of overwintering A. lucorum eggs. In the absence of rainfall (unsoaked branches, very few nymphs successfully emerged under any of the tested combinations of temperature and relative humidity. In contrast, following simulated rainfall, the hatching rate of the overwintering eggs increased dramatically. Hatching rate and developmental rate were positively correlated with relative humidity and temperature, respectively. Under field conditions, the abundance of nymphs derived from overwintering eggs was positively correlated with rainfall amount during the spring seasons of 2009-2013, while the same was not true for temperature and relative humidity. Overall, our findings indicate that rainfall is the most important factor affecting the hatching rate of overwintering A. lucorum eggs on dead plant parts and nymph population levels during the spring season. It provides the basic information for precisely forecasting the emergence of A. lucorum and subsequently timely managing its population in spring, which will make it possible to regional control of this insect pest widely occurring in multiple crops in

  1. Identification of the key weather factors affecting overwintering success of Apolygus lucorum eggs in dead host tree branches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Hongsheng; Liu, Bing; Lu, Yanhui; Desneux, Nicolas

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the effects of weather on insect population dynamics is crucial to simulate and forecast pest outbreaks, which is becoming increasingly important with the effects of climate change. The mirid bug Apolygus lucorum is an important pest on cotton, fruit trees and other crops in China, and primarily lays its eggs on dead parts of tree branches in the fall for subsequent overwintering. As such, the eggs that hatch the following spring are most strongly affected by ambient weather factors, rather than by host plant biology. In this study, we investigated the effects of three major weather factors: temperature, relative humidity and rainfall, on the hatching rate of A. lucorum eggs overwintering on dead branches of Chinese date tree (Ziziphus jujuba). Under laboratory conditions, rainfall (simulated via soaking) was necessary for the hatching of overwintering A. lucorum eggs. In the absence of rainfall (unsoaked branches), very few nymphs successfully emerged under any of the tested combinations of temperature and relative humidity. In contrast, following simulated rainfall, the hatching rate of the overwintering eggs increased dramatically. Hatching rate and developmental rate were positively correlated with relative humidity and temperature, respectively. Under field conditions, the abundance of nymphs derived from overwintering eggs was positively correlated with rainfall amount during the spring seasons of 2009-2013, while the same was not true for temperature and relative humidity. Overall, our findings indicate that rainfall is the most important factor affecting the hatching rate of overwintering A. lucorum eggs on dead plant parts and nymph population levels during the spring season. It provides the basic information for precisely forecasting the emergence of A. lucorum and subsequently timely managing its population in spring, which will make it possible to regional control of this insect pest widely occurring in multiple crops in summer.

  2. Energy density of marine pelagic fish eggs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riis-Vestergaard, J.

    2002-01-01

    Analysis of the literature on pelagic fish eggs enabled generalizations to be made of their energy densities, because the property of being buoyant in sea water appears to constrain the proximate composition of the eggs and thus to minimize interspecific variation. An energy density of 1.34 J mul......(-1) of total egg volume is derived for most species spawning eggs without visible oil globules. The energy density of eggs with oil globules is predicted by (σ) over cap = 1.34 + 40.61 x (J mul(-1)) where x is the fractional volume of the oil globule. (C) 2002 The Fisheries Society of the British...

  3. The influence of a light and dark cycle on the egg laying activity of Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus, 1762 (Diptera: Culicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luana Cristina Farnesi

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND The epidemiological importance of the mosquito Aedes aegypti as a vector of multiple human pathogens has generated a growing number of studies on the physiology and behaviour of its blood-feeding females. The activity of oviposition is one of the critical elements contributing to the expansion of Ae. aegypti's populations. Although there is a vast literature about oviposition behaviour, significant specific knowledge about egg viability and female fertility under light and dark conditions is still lacking. OBJECTIVES We studied, in controlled laboratory conditions, the effect that light and dark cycles have on the efficiency of oviposition by Ae. aegypti females. METHODS Physiological assays were performed using synchronised eggs obtained from forced egg laying. The number and viability of eggs was analysed under three different light/dark regimes: LD12:12 (12 h of light and 12 h of dark, DD (constant darkness and LL (constant light. FINDINGS and CONCLUSIONS Our results show that females prefer to lay their eggs in dark conditions, but maximising the number and viability of eggs requires the occurrence of a light/dark cycle. Ongoing research on this theme has the potential of contributing to the proposition of new strategies for control based on the failure of egg laying and hatching.

  4. Spinning Eggs and Ballerinas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Rod

    2013-01-01

    Measurements are presented on the rise of a spinning egg. It was found that the spin, the angular momentum and the kinetic energy all decrease as the egg rises, unlike the case of a ballerina who can increase her spin and kinetic energy by reducing her moment of inertia. The observed effects can be explained, in part, in terms of rolling friction…

  5. Peeling mechanism of tomato under infrared heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Critical behaviors of peeling tomatoes using infrared heat are thermally induced peel loosening and subsequent cracking. However, the mechanism of peel loosening and cracking due to infrared heating remains unclear. This study aimed at investigating the mechanism of peeling tomatoes under infrared h...

  6. Why does a spinning egg rise?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Rod

    2018-03-01

    Experimental and theoretical results are presented concerning the rise of a spinning egg. It was found that an egg rises quickly while it is sliding and then more slowly when it starts rolling. The angular momentum of the egg projected in the XZ plane changed in the same direction as the friction torque, as expected, by rotating away from the vertical Z axis. The latter result does not explain the rise. However, an even larger effect arises from the Y component of the angular momentum vector. As the egg rises, the egg rotates about the Y axis, an effect that is closely analogous to rotation of the egg about the Z axis. Both effects can be described in terms of precession about the respective axes. Steady precession about the Z axis arises from the normal reaction force in the Z direction, while precession about the Y axis arises from the friction force in the Y direction. Precession about the Z axis ceases if the normal reaction force decreases to zero, and precession about the Y axis ceases if the friction force decreases to zero.

  7. Egg dumping by predatory insects

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Corbani, A. C.; Ferrer, A.; Dixon, Anthony F. G.; Hemptinne, J. L.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 36, č. 3 (2011), s. 290-293 ISSN 0307-6962 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : Egg dumping * ladybird beetles * oocyte resorption * trophic egg Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 1.330, year: 2011

  8. The beginning of a seed: regulatory mechanisms of double fertilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleckmann, Andrea; Alter, Svenja; Dresselhaus, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    THE LAUNCH OF SEED DEVELOPMENT IN FLOWERING PLANTS (ANGIOSPERMS) IS INITIATED BY THE PROCESS OF DOUBLE FERTILIZATION: two male gametes (sperm cells) fuse with two female gametes (egg and central cell) to form the precursor cells of the two major seed components, the embryo and endosperm, respectively. The immobile sperm cells are delivered by the pollen tube toward the ovule harboring the female gametophyte by species-specific pollen tube guidance and attraction mechanisms. After pollen tube burst inside the female gametophyte, the two sperm cells fuse with the egg and central cell initiating seed development. The fertilized central cell forms the endosperm while the fertilized egg cell, the zygote, will form the actual embryo and suspensor. The latter structure connects the embryo with the sporophytic maternal tissues of the developing seed. The underlying mechanisms of double fertilization are tightly regulated to ensure delivery of functional sperm cells and the formation of both, a functional zygote and endosperm. In this review we will discuss the current state of knowledge about the processes of directed pollen tube growth and its communication with the synergid cells resulting in pollen tube burst, the interaction of the four gametes leading to cell fusion and finally discuss mechanisms how flowering plants prevent multiple sperm cell entry (polyspermy) to maximize their reproductive success.

  9. Influence of grinding size of the main cereal of the diet on egg production and eggs quality of brown egg laying hens from 33 to 65 weeks of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, J; Saldaña, B; Cámara, L; Berrocoso, J D; Mateos, G G

    2018-04-17

    The influence of grinding size of the main cereal of the diet on production and egg quality traits was studied in brown hens from 33 to 65 wk of age. The experiment was completely randomized with 6 treatments arranged as a 3 × 2 factorial with 3 main cereals (barley, corn, and wheat) and 2 grinding size of the cereal (6 and 10 mm screen). Each treatment was replicated 11 times (10 hens/replicate). Diets were isonutritive and contained 2,740 kcal/kg AMEn and 16.8% CP. Egg production, ADFI, egg weight, and feed conversion ratio (FCR) were determined by period (4 wk) and for the entire experiment. Egg quality traits (percentage of undergrades, Haugh units, thickness, strength, color of the shell, and proportion of albumen, yolk, and shell) were measured also by period. No interactions between main cereal and grinding size of the main cereal of the diet were observed for any of the traits studied. Feed intake, egg production, and BW gain were not affected by diet or grinding size. Eggs were heavier (P < 0.01) in hens fed barley than in hens fed corn or wheat, probably because of the higher fat content of the barley diets. Also, FCR tended to improve in hens fed barley compared with hens fed corn or wheat (P = 0.07). Diet did not affect any of the egg quality traits studied. In summary, barley and wheat conveniently supplemented with enzymes, can be used in substitution of corn at levels of up to 55% in diets for laying hens, without any adverse effect on egg production or egg quality traits. Moreover, the substitution of corn by a combination of barley and supplemental fat increased egg size. Consequently, the inclusion of one or other cereal in the diet will depend primarily on their relative cost. Within the range studied, screen size (6 vs. 10 mm) of the cereal had limited effects on hen production.

  10. DIAGNOSIS OF EGG MARKETING CONDITION IN SINOP - MT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ribeiro

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The eggs, when manipulated in inadequate sanitary conditions, are considered as ways for development and multiplication of spoilage and pathogenic microorganisms. Thus, the objective was to evaluate the microbiological quality of eggs marketed out at Sinop – MT, through the identification of Salmonella spp., count of aerobic mesophile bacteria and enterobacteria. We collected 12 eggs from each establishment, three supermarkets and three fairs. Were not identified Salmonella spp. in egg shells and internal content. Escherichia coli was isolated from the internal contents of eggs come from an street fair. In aerobic mesophilic counts were obtained from eggs supermarkets counts CFU/g/egg shell of 5,8 x 105, 1,21 x 105 e 4,7 x 103. In relation to the fairs, the counts were 7,2 x 104, 5,66 x 104 e 8,7 x 103. The absence of Salmonella spp. the evaluated eggs classifies them as fit for consumption for compliance with current legislation. However, the presence of E. coli and the values of aerobic mesophilic counts and Enterobacteriaceae highlight the need to establish measures to reduce bacterial contamination of shell eggs sold out at Sinop, MT.

  11. Nest Sanitation as the Evolutionary Background for Egg Ejection Behaviour and the Role of Motivation for Object Removal

    OpenAIRE

    Pol??ek, Miroslav; Griggio, Matteo; Bart?kov?, Michaela; Hoi, Herbert

    2013-01-01

    Higher interclutch colour variation can evolve under the pressure of brood parasitism to increase the detection of parasitic eggs. Nest sanitation could be a prerequisite for the evolution of anti-parasite defence in terms of egg ejection. In this respect, we used nest sanitation behaviour as a tool to identify: i) motivation and its underlying function and, ii) which features provoke ejection behaviour. Therefore, we experimentally tested whether size, colour or shape may influence ejection ...

  12. Dioxins, furans, and polychlorinated biphenyls in hen eggs – a new source of hazard for consumers?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piskorska-Pliszczyńska Jadwiga

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of testing eggs for the content of dioxins and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs, determination of the sources that caused the presence of high concentrations of these compounds which exceeded the acceptable contamination levels, and assessment of consumer health risk caused by the consumption of eggs with excessive contents of investigated compounds. In about 9% of free range eggs and 17% of organic eggs, the content of PCDD/Fs was two- or threefold higher than the acceptable limits, and in some samples the concentration of investigated compounds exceeded the maximum concentration levels. Based on the profile of the compounds, it was confirmed in several cases that their main source was the soil or unsecured refuse. The consumers of eggs and meat produced under these conditions constitute the risk groups, and their dioxin and PCB intake may exceed toxicological reference values.

  13. Prevalence of coliforms, Salmonella, Listeria, and Campylobacter associated with eggs and the environment of conventional cage and free range egg production

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is a desired by US consumers for eggs produced by hens in alternative production systems. As the retail shell egg market offers these products to accommodate consumer demands, additional information is needed to ensure processing methodologies result in safe eggs from all egg sources. A stud...

  14. rab3 mediates cortical granule exocytosis in the sea urchin egg.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conner, S; Wessel, G M

    1998-11-15

    Egg activation at fertilization in the sea urchin results in the exocytosis of approximately 15,000 cortical granules that are docked at the plasma membrane. Previously, we reported that several integral membrane proteins modeled in the SNARE hypothesis, synaptotagmin, VAMP, and syntaxin, in addition to a small GTPase of the ras superfamily, rab3, were present on cortical granules (Conner, S., Leaf, D., and Wessel, G., Mol. Reprod. Dev. 48, 1-13, 1997). Here we report that rab3 is associated with cortical granules throughout oogenesis, during cortical granule translocation, and while docked at the egg plasma membrane. Following cortical granule exocytosis, however, rab3 reassociates with a different population of vesicles, at least some of which are of endocytic origin. Because of its selective association with cortical granules in eggs and oocytes, we hypothesize that rab3 functions in cortical granule exocytosis. To test this hypothesis, we used a strategy of interfering with rab3 function by peptide competition with its effector domain, a conserved region within specific rab types. We first identified the effector domain sequence in Lytechinus variegatus eggs and find the sequence 94% identical to the effector domain of rab3 in Stronglocentrotus purpuratus. Then, with synthetic peptides to different regions of the rab3 protein, we find that cortical granule exocytosis is inhibited in eggs injected with effector domain peptides, but not with peptides from the hypervariable region or with a scrambled effector peptide. Additionally, effector-peptide-injected eggs injected with IP3 are blocked in their ability to exocytose cortical granules, suggesting that the inhibition is directly on the membrane fusion event and not the result of interference with the signal transduction mechanism leading to calcium release. We interpret these results to mean that rab3 functions in the regulation of cortical granule exocytosis following vesicle docking. Copyright 1998 Academic

  15. Allergens from fish and egg

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Lars K.; Hansen, T K; Nørgaard, A

    2001-01-01

    , denominated the parvalbumins. This cross-reactivity has been indicated to be of clinical relevance for several species, since patients with a positive double-blind, placebo-controlled food challenge to cod will also react with other fish species, such as herring, plaice and mackerel. In spite......Allergens from fish and egg belong to some of the most frequent causes of food allergic reactions reported in the literature. Egg allergens have been described in both white and yolk, and the egg white proteins ovomucoid, ovalbumin, ovotransferrin and lysozyme have been adopted in the allergen...... nomenclature as Gal d1-d4. The most reported allergen from egg yolk seems to be alpha-livitin. In fish, the dominating allergen is the homologues of Gad c1 from cod, formerly described as protein M. A close cross-reactivity exists within different species of fish between this calcium-binding protein family...

  16. Earthworm symbiont Verminephrobacter eiseniae mediates natural transformation within the host egg capsules using type IV pili

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SEANA Kelyn DAVIDSON

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The dense microbial communities commonly associated with plants and animals should offer many opportunities for horizontal gene transfer (HGT through described mechanisms of DNA exchange including natural transformation. However, studies of the significance of natural transformation have focused primarily on pathogens. The study presented here demonstrates highly efficient DNA exchange by natural transformation in a common symbiont of earthworms. The obligate bacterial symbiont Verminephrobacter eiseniae is a member of a microbial consortium of the earthworm Eisenia fetida that is transmitted into the egg capsules to colonize the embryonic worms. In the study presented here, by testing for transformants under different conditions in culture, we demonstrate that V. eiseniae can incorporate free DNA from the environment, that competency is regulated by environmental factors, and that it is sequence specific. Mutations in the type IV pili of V. eiseniae resulted in loss of DNA uptake, implicating the type IV pilus (TFP apparatus in DNA uptake. Furthermore, injection of DNA carrying antibiotic-resistance genes into egg capsules resulted in transformants within the capsule, demonstrating the relevance of DNA uptake within the earthworm system. The ability to take up species-specific DNA from the environment may explain the maintenance of the relatively large, intact genome of this long-associated obligate symbiont, and provides a mechanism for acquisition of foreign genes within the earthworm system.

  17. Artificial incubation of muscovy duck eggs : Why some eggs hatch and others do not

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harun, MAS; Veeneklaas, RJ; Visser, GH; Van Kampen, M

    This study was designed to gain insight into the influence of spraying and cooling, during artificial incubation, on the embryo metabolic rate and hatching ability of Muscovy duck eggs. Three times a week 93 incubated eggs were sprayed and cooled for 0.5 h at room temperature. Daily embryo metabolic

  18. Parasitismo de Trichogramma pretiosum em ovos da traça-das-crucíferas sob diferentes temperaturas Parasitism of Trichogramma pretiosum on diamondback moth eggs under different temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirceu Pratissoli

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se a capacidade de parasitismo de Trichogramma pretiosum Riley (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae, em ovos de Plutella xylostella (L.(Leptoptera: Plutellidae nas temperaturas de 18; 20; 22; 25; 28; 30 e 32ºC, avaliando-se número de ovos parasitados diariamente, porcentagem acumulada de parasitismo, número total de ovos parasitados por fêmea e longevidade de fêmeas. O ritmo de parasitismo durante as primeiras 24 horas, oscilou de 1,6 a 16 ovos parasitados por fêmea de T. pretiosum nas temperaturas entre 18 e 32ºC. O parasitismo acumulado de ovos de P. xylostella, nas temperaturas de 18; 20; 22; 25; 28; 30 e 32ºC, atingiu 80%, aos 2; 16; 11; 3; 5; 4 e 7 dias, por T. pretiosum. As maiores taxas de parasitismo ocorreram nas faixas térmicas de 25; 28 e 30ºC. A longevidade média de fêmeas de T. pretiosum nas faixas térmicas compreendidas entre 18 e 32ºC, variaram de 2,3 a 13,3 dias.The parasitism capacity of Trichogramma pretiosum Riley (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae on eggs of Plutella xylostella (L. (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae was studied, under temperatures of 18; 20; 22; 25; 28; 30 and 32°C aiming to evaluate the number of days with parasitism, cumulated parasitism, total number of eggs parasitized per female and their longevity. Parasitism during the first 24 hours ranged from 1.6 to 16 eggs of P. xylostella per T. pretiosum female in the range of 18 to 32°C. Cumulated egg parasitism of P. xylostella by T. pretiosum reached 80% after 2; 16; 11; 3; 5; 4 and 7 days at 18; 20; 22; 25; 28; 30 and 32°C. Higher parasitism rates were recorded at 25; 28 and 30°C while longevity of T. pretiosum females varied from 2.3 to 13.3 days under temperatures of 18 to 32°C.

  19. Iodine in eggs in an iodopenic region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogdanov, Bogdan; Gonev, Mihail; Tadzher, Isak S.

    1996-01-01

    Macedonia is a region with a recognized precarious iodine balance, due to iodine deficiency in almost all water sources. Five percent iodine intake through eggs in the daily diet of adults is significant in this balance. The content of 40-220 micro g I - /kg eggs is lower than the British one (average 340-370 micro g I - /kg). The amount per egg is 3-6 micro g I' far less than 711 micro g I - in special iodine-enriched eggs designed for treatment of thyroid and metabolic disorders by feeding chickens with kelp additives. The iodine content of our manufacturers, provides substantial part of former Yugoslavia with eggs, is entirely dependent on imported fishmeal in chicken feed. (Author)

  20. Effects of balanced dietary protein levels on egg production and egg quality parameters of individual commercial layers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, M Y; Song, E; Billard, L; Aggrey, S E; Pesti, G M; Sodsee, P

    2013-10-01

    The effects of a series of balanced dietary protein levels on egg production and egg quality parameters of laying hens from 18 through 74 wk of age were investigated. One hundred forty-four pullets (Bovans) were randomly assigned to individual cages with separate feeders including 3 different protein level series of isocaloric diets. Diets were separated into 4 phases of 18-22, 23-32, 33-44, and 45-74 wk of age. The high protein (H) series contained 21.62, 19.05, 16.32, and 16.05% CP, respectively. Medium protein (M) and low protein (L) series were 2 and 4% lower in balanced dietary protein. The results clearly demonstrated that the balanced dietary protein level was a limiting factor for BW, ADFI, egg weight, hen day egg production (HDEP), and feed per kilogram of eggs. Feeding with the L series resulted in lower ADFI and HDEP (90.33% peak production) and more feed per kilogram of eggs compared with the H or M series (HDEP; 93.23 and 95.68% peak production, monthly basis). Egg weight responded in a linear manner to balanced dietary protein level (58.78, 55.94, and 52.73 g for H, M, and L, respectively). Feed intake of all hens, but especially those in the L series, increased considerably after wk 54 when the temperature of the house decreased due to winter conditions. Thus, hens fed the L series seemed particularly dependent on house temperature to maintain BW, ADFI, and HDEP. For egg quality parameters, percent yolk, Haugh units, and egg specific gravity were similar regardless of diets. Haugh units were found to be greatly affected by the variation of housing temperature (P = 0.025). Maximum performance cannot always be expected to lead to maximum profits. Contrary to the idea of a daily amino acid requirement for maximum performance, these results may be used to determine profit-maximizing levels of balanced dietary protein based on the cost of protein and returns from different possible protein levels that may be fed.

  1. Deciphering the Cognitive and Neural Mechanisms Underlying ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Deciphering the Cognitive and Neural Mechanisms Underlying Auditory Learning. This project seeks to understand the brain mechanisms necessary for people to learn to perceive sounds. Neural circuits and learning. The research team will test people with and without musical training to evaluate their capacity to learn ...

  2. The Market of Eggs, Consumption, and Consumer Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Mustafa Pllana; Iliriana Miftari; Njazi Bytyqi; Vetim Hyseni

    2015-01-01

    Eggs are a traditional food with a high consumption per head even in economically developed countries with high living standard. Due to “cholesterol phobia†efforts were made to decrease the cholesterol content in the egg, but without success. Thus began research to improve the nuntrional quality of eggs, reposition them in safety and healthy food products. Today in markets there are organic eggs, vegetarian, nutrient enhaced eggs (omega-3, vitamin enhanced), for what is in order to expect...

  3. Oral food desensitization in children with IgE-mediated hen's egg allergy: a new protocol with raw hen's egg.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meglio, Paolo; Giampietro, Paolo G; Carello, Rossella; Gabriele, Ida; Avitabile, Simona; Galli, Elena

    2013-02-01

    Hen's egg allergy affects young children and can cause severe allergic reactions. Avoidance results in dietary limitations and can affect the quality of life, especially in cases where potentially life-threatening reactions exist. Our objective was to desensitize children with moderate-severe IgE-mediated hen's egg allergy over a 6-month period, by introducing increasing and very gradual daily doses of raw hen's egg in order to enable the children to assume 25ml of this food, or to induce tolerance to the highest possible dose. The protocol foresaw the egg reintroduction in the home setting. In this randomized, controlled open study, 20 hen's egg allergic children (10 in the active group) were admitted. A convincing history or a positive double-blind placebo-controlled food challenge confirmed the diagnosis. Oral desensitization was performed with increasing doses starting from 0.27 mg of hen's egg proteins (1 drop of raw hen's egg diluted 1:100). We adopted an original, mathematically calculated protocol in order to ensure a constant, daily increment of doses. 8/10 children (80%) in the active group achieved the daily intake of 25ml over a 6-month period. One child (10%) could tolerate up to 2ml/day while another child (10%) failed the desensitization. Six months after enrolment only 2 children in the control group (20%) could tolerate hen's egg. We successfully desensitized 8/10 children with IgE-mediated hen's egg allergy in a 6-month period. The partial outcome in the child who could tolerate 2ml/day reduced the risk of severe reactions after unnoticed introduction of egg. A regular protocol that ensures a daily constant increase of doses helps to reduce possible adverse events, thus improving safety and effectiveness. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  4. A Laboratory Investigation of the Suspension, Transport, and Settling of Silver Carp Eggs Using Synthetic Surrogates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Garcia

    Full Text Available Asian carp eggs are semi-buoyant and must remain suspended in the water to survive, supported by the turbulence of the flow, until they hatch and develop the ability to swim. Analysis of the transport and dispersal patterns of Asian carp eggs will facilitate the development and implementation of control strategies to target the early life stages. Experimenting with Asian carp eggs is complicated due to practical issues of obtaining eggs in close proximity to experimental facilities and extensive handling of eggs tends to damage them. Herein, we describe laboratory experiments using styrene beads (4.85 mm diameter as synthetic surrogate eggs to mimic the physical properties of water-hardened silver carp eggs. The first set of experiments was completed in a rectangular vertical column filled with salt water. The salinity of the water was adjusted in an iterative fashion to obtain a close approximation of the fall velocity of the styrene beads to the mean fall velocity of silver carp water-hardened eggs. The terminal fall velocity of synthetic eggs was measured using an image processing method. The second set of experiments was performed in a temperature-controlled recirculatory flume with a sediment bed. The flume was filled with salt water, and synthetic eggs were allowed to drift under different flow conditions. Drifting behavior, suspension conditions, and settling characteristics of synthetic eggs were observed. At high velocities, eggs were suspended and distributed through the water column. Eggs that touched the sediment bed were re-entrained by the flow. Eggs saltated when they touched the bed, especially at moderate velocities and with a relatively flat bed. At lower velocities, some settling of the eggs was observed. With lower velocities and a flat bed, eggs were trapped near the walls of the flume. When bedforms were present, eggs were trapped in the lee of the bedforms in addition to being trapped near the flume walls. Results of this

  5. Hen Egg as an Antioxidant Food Commodity: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nimalaratne, Chamila; Wu, Jianping

    2015-09-24

    Intake of antioxidants through diet is known to be important in reducing oxidative damage in cells and improving human health. Although eggs are known for their exceptional, nutritional quality, they are not generally considered as antioxidant foods. This review aims to establish the importance of eggs as an antioxidant food by summarizing the current knowledge on egg-derived antioxidants. Eggs have various natural occurring compounds including the proteins ovalbumin, ovotransferrin and lysozyme in egg white, as well as phosvitin, carotenoids and free aromatic amino acids in egg yolk. Some lipophilic antioxidants such as vitamin E, carotenoids, selenium, iodine and others can be transferred from feed into egg yolk to produce antioxidant-enriched eggs. The bioactivity of egg antioxidants can be affected by food processing, storage and gastrointestinal digestion. Generally thermal processing methods can promote loss of antioxidant properties in eggs due to oxidation and degradation, whereas gastrointestinal digestion enhances the antioxidant properties, due to the formation of new antioxidants (free amino acids and peptides). In summary, in addition to its well-known nutritional contribution to our diet, this review emphasizes the role of eggs as an important antioxidant food.

  6. Gas Bubble Dynamics under Mechanical Vibrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohagheghian, Shahrouz; Elbing, Brian

    2017-11-01

    The scientific community has a limited understanding of the bubble dynamics under mechanical oscillations due to over simplification of Navier-Stockes equation by neglecting the shear stress tensor and not accounting for body forces when calculating the acoustic radiation force. The current work experimental investigates bubble dynamics under mechanical vibration and resulting acoustic field by measuring the bubble size and velocity using high-speed imaging. The experimental setup consists of a custom-designed shaker table, cast acrylic bubble column, compressed air injection manifold and an optical imaging system. The mechanical vibrations resulted in accelerations between 0.25 to 10 times gravitational acceleration corresponding to frequency and amplitude range of 8 - 22Hz and 1 - 10mm respectively. Throughout testing the void fraction was limited to <5%. The bubble size is larger than resonance size and smaller than acoustic wavelength. The amplitude of acoustic pressure wave was estimated using the definition of Bjerknes force in combination with Rayleigh-Plesset equation. Physical behavior of the system was capture and classified. Bubble size, velocity as well as size and spatial distribution will be presented.

  7. Glycosylated chicken ZP2 accumulates in the egg coat of immature oocytes and remains localized to the germinal disc region of mature eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishio, Shunsuke; Kohno, Yoshinori; Iwata, Yuki; Arai, Mayumi; Okumura, Hiroki; Oshima, Kenzi; Nadano, Daita; Matsuda, Tsukasa

    2014-11-01

    Vertebrate eggs are surrounded by an egg coat, which is a specific extracellular egg matrix consisting of several glycoproteins with a conserved zona pellucida (ZP) domain. Two mammalian egg coat subunits, ZP2 and ZP3, have been suggested to act as sperm receptors. In bird eggs, however, ZP2 has never been identified in the egg coat of mature oocytes and ovulated eggs. Here we report that chicken ZP2 is expressed in immature small follicles and remains as an egg-coat component locally in the germinal disc region of mature eggs. RT-PCR analysis indicated marked expression of the ZP2 and ZP4 genes in the granulosa cells of immature white follicles, whereas the ZP3 and ZPD genes showed marked expression in the cells of maturing yellow follicles. ZP2 was identified in the egg coat isolated from immature follicles as a heavily N-glycosylated glycoprotein of ∼200 kDa, which was enzymatically converted to a 70-kDa deglycosylated form. Immunoblotting and immunohistological analyses showed that ZP2 was localized around the germinal disc region of mature follicles. ZP2 was accumulated in the egg coat of immature white follicles at the earlier stages of oocyte development and became a minor component in the egg coat of maturing yellow follicles, except for the germinal disc region. Localization of ZP2 in the germinal disc region of mature eggs, where sperm bind to the egg coat at high density, suggests some role for ZP2 in the preferential binding and penetration of sperm in the germinal disc region of bird eggs. © 2014 by the Society for the Study of Reproduction, Inc.

  8. Egg to Fry - Chinook Egg-to-Fry Survival

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Few estimates of Chinook egg-to-fry survival exist despite the fact that this is thought to be one of the life stages limiting production of many listed Chinook...

  9. Sublethal Exposure to Diatomaceous Earth Increases Net Fecundity of Flour Beetles (Tribolium confusum) by Inhibiting Egg Cannibalism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shostak, Allen W.

    2014-01-01

    Population regulation results from an interplay of numerous intrinsic and external factors, and for many insects cannibalism is such a factor. This study confirms a previously-reported observation that sublethal exposure to the fossilized remains of diatoms (i.e. diatomaceous earth) increases net fecundity (eggs produced minus eggs destroyed/day) of flour beetles, Tribolium confusum. The aim was to experimentally test two non-mutually-exclusive ecological mechanisms potentially responsible for the increased net fecundity: higher egg production and lower egg cannibalism. Adult T. confusum were maintained at low or high density in medium containing sublethal (0–4%) diatomaceous earth. Net fecundity increased up to 2.1× control values during diatomaceous earth exposure, and returned to control levels following removal from diatomaceous earth. Cannibalism assays on adults showed that diatomaceous earth reduced the number of eggs produced to 0.7× control values at low density and to 0.8× controls at high density, and also reduced egg cannibalism rates of adults to as little as 0.4× control values, but at high density only. Diatomaceous earth also reduced cannibalism by larvae on eggs to 0.3× control values. So, while the presence of diatomaceous earth reduced egg production, net fecundity increased as a result of strong suppression of the normal egg cannibalism by adults and larvae that occurs at high beetle density. Undisturbed cultures containing sublethal diatomaceous earth concentrations reached higher population densities than diatomaceous earth-free controls. Cohort studies on survival from egg to adult indicated that this population increase was due largely to decreased egg cannibalism by adult females. This is the first report of inhibition of egg cannibalism by diatomaceous earth on larval or adult insects. The ability of diatomaceous earth to alter cannibalism behavior without causing mortality makes it an ideal investigative tool for cannibalism

  10. Efficacy of antimicrobial pullulan-based coating to improve internal quality and shelf-life of chicken eggs during storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morsy, Mohamed K; Sharoba, Ashraf M; Khalaf, Hassan H; El-Tanahy, Hassan H; Cutter, Catherine N

    2015-05-01

    There has been a growing interest in the use of natural materials as a delivery mechanism for antimicrobials and coatings in foods. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effectiveness of pullulan coatings to improve internal quality and shelf-life of fresh eggs during 10 wk of storage at 25 and 4 °C. Three treatments of eggs were evaluated as follows; non-coated (control; C), coated with pullulan (P), and coated with pullulan containing nisin (N). The effects of the pullulan coatings on microbiological qualities, physical properties, and freshness parameters were investigated and compared with non-coated eggs. For non-coated eggs, as storage time increased, yolk index, albumen index, and Haugh unit value decreased and weight loss increased. However, pullulan coatings (P or N) minimized weight loss (eggs (with a final B grade) 3 wk longer than non-coated eggs at 25 °C. At 4 °C, both P- and N-coated eggs went from AA to A grade after 9 wk and maintained the grade for 10 wk (4 wk longer than that of non-coated eggs). This study is the first to demonstrate that pullulan coatings can preserve the internal quality, prolong the shelf-life, and minimize weight loss of fresh eggs. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  11. The Role of Wheat and Egg Constituents in the Formation of a Covalent and Non-covalent Protein Network in Fresh and Cooked Egg Noodles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambrecht, Marlies A; Rombouts, Ine; Nivelle, Mieke A; Delcour, Jan A

    2017-01-01

    Noodles of constant protein content and flour-to-egg protein ratio were made with whole egg, egg white, or egg yolk. The optimal cooking time, water absorption, and cooking loss of salted whole egg noodles was respectively lower and higher than of egg white and egg yolk noodles. However, cooked whole egg noodles showed the best Kieffer-rig extensibility. Differences in noodle properties were linked to protein network formation. Disulfide bonds in whole egg noodles developed faster and to a larger extent during cooking than in egg yolk noodles but slower and to a lower extent than in egg white noodles. The balance between the rate of protein cross-linking and starch swelling determines cooked noodle properties. Ionic and hydrophobic protein interactions increase the optimum cooking time and total work in Kieffer-rig extensibility testing of fresh noodles. Hydrogen bonds and covalent cross-links are probably the main determinants of the extensibility of cooked noodles. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  12. Eggspectation : organic egg verification tool

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruth, van S.M.; Hoogenboom, L.A.P.

    2011-01-01

    In 2009 RIKILT conducted a study on about 2,000 eggs to evaluate three different analytical verification methods: carotenoid profiling, fatty acid profiling and isotope ratio mass spectrometry. The eggs were collected from about 50 Dutch farms. The selection was based on the farms’ location and

  13. Morphological characteristics and egg production of forced-moult ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The forced-moult groups T2 and T3 stopped egg production by 6 days of moult induction and resumed egg production by day 25. T2 and T3 attained a peak egg production of 71% by the second month following resumption of lay. On the other hand, in the T1 egg production progressively decreased with age.

  14. Termite-egg mimicry by a sclerotium-forming fungus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuura, Kenji

    2006-05-22

    Mimicry has evolved in a wide range of organisms and encompasses diverse tactics for defence, foraging, pollination and social parasitism. Here, I report an extraordinary case of egg mimicry by a fungus, whereby the fungus gains competitor-free habitat in termite nests. Brown fungal balls, called 'termite balls', are frequently found in egg piles of Reticulitermes termites. Phylogenetic analysis illustrated that termite-ball fungi isolated from different hosts (Reticulitermes speratus, Reticulitermes flavipes and Reticulitermes virginicus) were all very similar, with no significant molecular differences among host species or geographical locations. I found no significant effect of termite balls on egg survivorship. The termite-ball fungus rarely kills termite eggs in natural colonies. Even a termite species (Reticulitermes okinawanus) with no natural association with the fungus tended termite balls along with its eggs when it was experimentally provided with termite balls. Dummy-egg bioassays using glass beads showed that both morphological and chemical camouflage were necessary to induce tending by termites. Termites almost exclusively tended termite balls with diameters that exactly matched their egg size. Moreover, scanning electron microscopic observations revealed sophisticated mimicry of the smooth surface texture of eggs. These results provide clear evidence that this interaction is beneficial only for the fungus, i.e. termite balls parasitically mimic termite eggs.

  15. Co-60 irradation facility for hens eggs, radiation field parameters and energy absorption in the egg

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giese, W.; Mueller-Buder, A.

    1981-01-01

    For irradiation experiments with 33 530 hens eggs to test the effect of γ-rays on the hatchability of chicken a 60 Co irradiation facility was constructed, which is described in this article. Physical parameters of the radiation field as the dose rate caused by a 60 Co point source in a distance r, the flux of γ-quantae and energy towards an egg and the role of 60 Co betarays are quantitatively described. The intensity decrease, the dose build-up factor and energy absorption due to the interaction of γ-rays with atoms of the eggs content were calculated. Thus this contribution should give an impression of the physical processes involved in the γ-irradiation of eggs and on the magnitude of energy absorbed therein. (orig.) [de

  16. Egg quality parameters and blood biochemical profile of six strains ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Six different poultry strains (Indigenous chicken, Broiler, Turkey, Geese, Duck and Guinea fowl) were studied under extensive system of management to investigate the effect of rearing system on their egg quality and the blood biochemical profile, respectively. Birds used for the study were obtained from four different ...

  17. Fine Sediment Effects on Brook Trout Eggs in Laboratory Streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    David G. Argent; Patricia A. Flebbe

    1999-01-01

    This study was designed to determine effects of different fine sediments (0.43-0.85 mm in diameter) on survival of brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) eggs during early developmental stages under laboratory conditions. Intragravel permeability and dissolved oxygen declined with increasing fine sediment amounts. Survival at each developmental stage...

  18. Freeze-drying behaviour of pasteurized whole egg

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melike Sakin; Merve Samli; Gizem Kor, A.; Figen Kaymak-Ertekin

    2009-01-01

    Because it provides full nutritional and certain desirable functional attributes, egg products are widely used as ingredients in many food products. Dried egg is especially valuable for being stable, easily mixable and having a long shelf life. It is necessary to know the effects of drying conditions onto the moisture removal behaviour and the functional properties of the powder product, to serve the egg powder as an alternative. An experimental study was conducted to achieve an understanding of the freeze-drying behaviour of pasteurized whole egg having 24% dry solids. In order to determine the moisture removal behaviour; the percent moisture loss (w/w), the average moisture content and the drying rates were obtained, the drying curves were developed and total drying times were determined, also the movement of the dry-wet boundary between the frozen layer and the dry porous layer formed by sublimation of ice crystals were investigated during a complete process. The physical properties of pasteurized whole egg such as; colour, water activity (a w ), the morphological structure (through SEM analysis) and functional properties (foam stability and dissolubility) were determined. The net colour change (ΔE) was about 22, independent of layer thickness. The water activity decreased to 0.22 at the end of drying. The SEM images of freeze-dried and slightly milled egg powder samples at magnification levels of 500 and 1000 showed the porous structure caused by sublimation of ice crystals generated within the egg structure during air blast freezing. The dissolubility and foaming capacity of powder egg were observed to be lower compared to those of pasteurized liquid egg. (author)

  19. DNA is a co-factor for its own replication in Xenopus egg extracts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lebofsky, Ronald; van Oijen, Antoine M.; Walter, Johannes C.

    Soluble Xenopus egg extracts efficiently replicate added plasmids using a physiological mechanism, and thus represent a powerful system to understand vertebrate DNA replication. Surprisingly, DNA replication in this system is highly sensitive to plasmid concentration, being undetectable below

  20. Property Assessment of Sponge Cake Added with Egg Replacer

    OpenAIRE

    Yaqiang He; Linlin Wang; Qian Lu

    2015-01-01

    Chicken egg which is always used in sponge cake production is likely to deteriorate during storage or transportation. This weakness prevents the wide use of chicken egg in sponge cake making. In order to solve this problem, egg replacer has been developed. In this study, effect of egg replacer on the property of sponge cake was analyzed. The result indicated egg replacer could improve the yield rate and specific volume of sponge cake. However, high content of egg replacer would negatively imp...

  1. The evolution of egg colour and patterning in birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilner, R M

    2006-08-01

    Avian eggs differ so much in their colour and patterning from species to species that any attempt to account for this diversity might initially seem doomed to failure. Here I present a critical review of the literature which, when combined with the results of some comparative analyses, suggests that just a few selective agents can explain much of the variation in egg appearance. Ancestrally, bird eggs were probably white and immaculate. Ancient diversification in nest location, and hence in the clutch's vulnerability to attack by predators, can explain basic differences between bird families in egg appearance. The ancestral white egg has been retained by species whose nests are safe from attack by predators, while those that have moved to a more vulnerable nest site are now more likely to lay brown eggs, covered in speckles, just as Wallace hypothesized more than a century ago. Even blue eggs might be cryptic in a subset of nests built in vegetation. It is possible that some species have subsequently turned these ancient adaptations to new functions, for example to signal female quality, to protect eggs from damaging solar radiation, or to add structural strength to shells when calcium is in short supply. The threat of predation, together with the use of varying nest sites, appears to have increased the diversity of egg colouring seen among species within families, and among clutches within species. Brood parasites and their hosts have probably secondarily influenced the diversity of egg appearance. Each drives the evolution of the other's egg colour and patterning, as hosts attempt to avoid exploitation by rejecting odd-looking eggs from their nests, and parasites attempt to outwit their hosts by laying eggs that will escape detection. This co-evolutionary arms race has increased variation in egg appearance both within and between species, in parasites and in hosts, sometimes resulting in the evolution of egg colour polymorphisms. It has also reduced variation in

  2. 9 CFR 590.24 - Egg products plants requiring continuous inspection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Egg products plants requiring..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Scope of Inspection § 590.24 Egg products plants requiring continuous inspection. No plant in...

  3. Detection and survival of Campylobacter in chicken eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, O; Kobalka, P; Zhang, Q

    2003-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni, a food-borne human pathogen, is widespread in poultry; however, the sources of infection and modes of transmission of this organism on chicken farms are not well understood. The objective of this study was to determine if vertical transmission of C. jejuni occurs via eggs. Using a temperature differential method, it was shown that Campylobacter had limited ability to penetrate the eggshell. When C. jejuni was directly inoculated into the egg yolk and the eggs were stored at 18 degrees C, the organism was able to survive for up to 14 days. However, viability of C. jejuni was dramatically shortened when injected into the albumen or the air sac. When freshly laid eggs from Campylobacter-inoculated specific pathogen-free (SPF) layers were tested, C. jejuni-contamination was detected in three of 65 pooled whole eggs (5-10 eggs in each pool) via culture and PCR. However, the organism was not detected from any of the 800 eggs (80 pools), collected from the same SPF flock, but kept at 18 degrees C for 7 days before testing. Likewise, Campylobacter was not recovered from any of 500 fresh eggs obtained from commercial broiler-breeder flocks that were actively shedding Campylobacter in faeces. Also, none of the 1000 eggs from broiler breeders obtained from a commercial hatchery were positive for Campylobacter. These results suggest that vertical transmission of C. jejuni through the egg is probably a rare event and does not play a major role in the introduction of Campylobacter to chicken flocks. Control of Campylobacter transmission to chicken flocks should focus on sources of infection that are not related to eggs.

  4. Rapid pasteurization of shell eggs using RF

    Science.gov (United States)

    A novel method for rapidly pasteurizing eggs in the shell could enhance the safety of the United States’ food supply. Current federal regulations do not require eggs sold in stores to be pasteurized, yet these eggs are often consumed raw or undercooked and cause untold cases of salmonella illness ea...

  5. Effect of distance from the roadway on heavy metal content and egg quality of village laying hen's egg along roadsides of tokat-turhal, turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sekeroglu, A.; Sari, H.; Sarica, M.; Duman, M.

    2013-01-01

    In this study, the heavy metal contents and egg quality characteristics of chicken eggs was studied. The eggs have been collected at distances of 0-100 (Distance A), 100-200 (Distance B) and 200-300 m (Distance C) away from the edge of Tokat-Turhal road.The distance from roadway had no significant effect on egg Cu and Mn contents (P>0.05), although a significant effect on egg Cd and Pb content (P 0.05). Eggs obtained from distance A and B had significantly higher weight than obtained from distance C (P<0.05). Egg obtained from distance B had significantly lower egg shell colour scales than those of the other distances (P<0.01). And, egg yolk colour was showed a significant variation among the distances away from the roadway, and the highest yolk colour value was detected in distance B (P<0.05). Depending on obtained results, it can be concluded that the egg heavy metal concentrations exceeded background levels for hen eggs. Therefore, consumers should be aware of the possible health risks related by the use of these eggs which has obtained from side of road.

  6. [Composition of chicken and quail eggs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Closa, S J; Marchesich, C; Cabrera, M; Morales, J C

    1999-06-01

    Qualified food composition data on lipids composition are needed to evaluate intakes as a risk factor in the development of heart disease. Proximal composition, cholesterol and fatty acid content of chicken and quail eggs, usually consumed or traded, were analysed. Proximal composition were determined using AOAC (1984) specific techniques; lipids were extracted by a Folch's modified technique and cholesterol and fatty acids were determined by gas chromatography. Results corroborate the stability of eggs composition. Cholesterol content of quail eggs is similar to chicken eggs, but it is almost the half content of data registered in Handbook 8. Differences may be attributed to the analytical methodology used to obtain them. This study provides data obtained with up-date analytical techniques and accessory information useful for food composition tables.

  7. Salmonella contamination of hatching and table eggs: a comparison.

    OpenAIRE

    Poppe, C; Duncan, C L; Mazzocco, A

    1998-01-01

    This study determined and compared Salmonella contamination rates of pools of surplus, early and culled hatching eggs from layer and broiler breeder flocks, and of pools of early and regular table eggs from layer flocks. Each pool contained 6 eggs. Five methods were used for the isolation of Salmonella. Nine of 126 pools of culled layer hatching eggs, 2 of 126 pools of surplus layer hatching eggs, and one of 126 pools of early layer hatching eggs were contaminated with Salmonella. All 126 poo...

  8. Egg Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with eggs. Prevention is the name of the game with food allergies, so it's important for kids ... protein from other foods. Some good ones are meat, poultry, fish, and legumes (beans and peanuts). If ...

  9. Genomic interrogation of mechanism(s) underlying cellular responses to toxicants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amin, Rupesh P.; Hamadeh, Hisham K.; Bushel, Pierre R.; Bennett, Lee; Afshari, Cynthia A.; Paules, Richard S.

    2002-01-01

    Assessment of the impact of xenobiotic exposure on human health and disease progression is complex. Knowledge of mode(s) of action, including mechanism(s) contributing to toxicity and disease progression, is valuable for evaluating compounds. Toxicogenomics, the subdiscipline which merges genomics with toxicology, holds the promise to contributing significantly toward the goal of elucidating mechanism(s) by studying genome-wide effects of xenobiotics. Global gene expression profiling, revolutionized by microarray technology and a crucial aspect of a toxicogenomic study, allows measuring transcriptional modulation of thousands of genes following exposure to a xenobiotic. We use our results from previous studies on compounds representing two different classes of xenobiotics (barbiturate and peroxisome proliferator) to discuss the application of computational approaches for analyzing microarray data to elucidate mechanism(s) underlying cellular responses to toxicants. In particular, our laboratory demonstrated that chemical-specific patterns of gene expression can be revealed using cDNA microarrays. Transcript profiling provides discrimination between classes of toxicants, as well as, genome-wide insight into mechanism(s) of toxicity and disease progression. Ultimately, the expectation is that novel approaches for predicting xenobiotic toxicity in humans will emerge from such information

  10. Egg quality and blood parameters of “Bianca di Saluzzo” and Isa Brown hens kept under free range conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Doglione

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Egg quality traits and some blood parameters of Bianca di Saluzzo hen (BSh were compared to Isa Brown hen (IBh. Birds were reared in free range conditions. Weightofthewholeegg Weight of the whole egg was higher (P≤0.01 for IBh, due to its higher amount of albumen (P≤0.01 whereas BSh egg showed the highest weight and relative percentage of yolk (PP≤0.01. IBh and BSh egg chemical composition was similar.Totalredcellsdidnotshowstatisticaldifferencesbetweengroups,whiletotalleucocytes Total red cells did not show statistical differences between groups, while total leucocytes were lower (P≤0.05 forBShhens. Heterophyl/Lymphocyte(H/L ratioof BShwaslower (P for BSh hens. Heterophyl/Lymphocyte(H/L ratioof BShwaslower (P . Heterophyl/Lymphocyte(H/L ratioof BShwaslower (P Heterophyl/Lymphocyte (H/L ratio of BSh was lower (P (PP≤0.01 than IBh(0.33 IBh (0.33 (0.33 vs. 0.82.IBh 0.82. IBh IBh α-1 acid glycoprotein (AGPmeanconcentrationswereaffectedbytime: (AGP mean concentrations were affected by time: the values registered after 15 d (T1 and 2 months (T2 of observation were similar (345±132 and 279±58 μg/mlrespectively,whileAGPvalueregisteredafter4months(T3weresignificantlyhigher μg/ml respectively,whileAGPvalueregisteredafter4months(T3weresignificantlyhigher , while AGP value registered after 4 months (T3 were significantly higher (700±487 μg/ml;BShdidnotdisplayanyAGPstatisticalvariationovertime.IBhalbuminmeancon- μg/ml; BShdidnotdisplayanyAGPstatisticalvariationovertime.IBhalbuminmeancon- BSh did not display any AGP statistical variation over time. IBh albumin mean con- centration (1.62 g/dL was statistically lower than BSh values (1.89 g/dL; in both groups no effect of time of sampling was recorded. Acutephaseprotein(APPvaluesofBShsuggestedamoreadaptive Acute phase protein (APPvaluesofBShsuggestedamoreadaptive (APP values of BSh suggested a more adaptive attitude to free range conditions and appeared more constant over time. The present

  11. Egg quality in layers housed in different production systems and submitted to two environmental conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JAD Barbosa Filho

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The production system using cages is a highly polemical issue in Europe, because of the space restriction imposed to laying hens. It is considered that the cage system might compromise important comfort movements, welfare and egg quality. This study evaluated egg quality and welfare of two strains of hens housed in a conventional system (battery laying cages or litter system with nest and perches, and submitted to heat stress or comfort conditions. Two groups of 20 birds (10 Hy-line W36 and 10 Hy-line Brown were submitted to two environmental conditions (26°C and 60% RH or 35°C and 70% RH and two housing systems (cages or litter in the early production phase. Egg quality was analyzed based on egg weight, eggshell thickness, specific gravity, and Haugh units. Yolk and shell contamination by Salmonella sp was also assessed. A significant (p<0.05 reduction in quality parameters was observed in eggs produced by laying hens under heat stress, mainly in the birds housed in cages.

  12. Comparison of the effects of dietary supplementation of flavonoids on laying hen performance, egg quality and egg nutrient profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iskender, H; Yenice, G; Dokumacioglu, E; Kaynar, O; Hayirli, A; Kaya, A

    2017-10-01

    1. The aim of this experiment was to compare the effects of dietary supplementation of hesperidin, naringin and quercetin on laying hen performance, egg quality and egg yolk lipid and protein profiles. 2. A total of 96 Lohmann White laying hens weighing an average of 1500 g at 28 weeks of age were randomly assigned to a basal diet and the basal diet supplemented (0.5 g/kg) with either hesperidin, naringin or quercetin. Each treatment was replicated in 6 cages in an 8-week experimental period. Data were analysed using one-way analysis of variance. 3. None of the dietary flavonoids affected laying performance and eggshell quality. Hesperidin and quercetin supplementations decreased albumen and yolk indexes. 4. As compared to the control group, egg yolk cholesterol content decreased and egg yolk protein content increased in response to dietary hesperidin and quercetin supplementation. The mean egg yolk cholesterol (mg/g) and protein (g/100 g) contents were 10.08/14.28, 16.12/14.08, 14.75/15.04 and 15.15/14.85 for the control group and groups supplemented with naringin, hesperidin and quercetin, respectively. 5. Egg yolk lipid and protein profiles were variable. 6. In conclusion, dietary supplementation of hesperidin or quercetin could be used in the diets during the early laying period to reduce egg yolk cholesterol and increase egg yolk protein, which may be attractive to consumers.

  13. The contribution of simple random sampling to observed variations in faecal egg counts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torgerson, Paul R; Paul, Michaela; Lewis, Fraser I

    2012-09-10

    It has been over 100 years since the classical paper published by Gosset in 1907, under the pseudonym "Student", demonstrated that yeast cells suspended in a fluid and measured by a haemocytometer conformed to a Poisson process. Similarly parasite eggs in a faecal suspension also conform to a Poisson process. Despite this there are common misconceptions how to analyse or interpret observations from the McMaster or similar quantitative parasitic diagnostic techniques, widely used for evaluating parasite eggs in faeces. The McMaster technique can easily be shown from a theoretical perspective to give variable results that inevitably arise from the random distribution of parasite eggs in a well mixed faecal sample. The Poisson processes that lead to this variability are described and illustrative examples of the potentially large confidence intervals that can arise from observed faecal eggs counts that are calculated from the observations on a McMaster slide. Attempts to modify the McMaster technique, or indeed other quantitative techniques, to ensure uniform egg counts are doomed to failure and belie ignorance of Poisson processes. A simple method to immediately identify excess variation/poor sampling from replicate counts is provided. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Effects of Ascorbic Acid Injection in Incubated Eggs Submitted to Heat Stress on Incubation Parameters and Chick Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Sgavioli

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Dose-dependent positive effects on hatchability and hatchling weight have been attributed to ascorbic acid (AA when eggs were submitted or not to intermittent heat stress during incubation. Fertile breeder (Cobb(r eggs were used to determine if the pre-incubation injection of AA in ovo affects the incubation and hatchling quality of egg incubated under thermoneutral or intermittent heat stress conditions. Eggs were not injected or injected with 0, 2,4, or 6% AA/100µL water and incubated at continuous thermoneutral (37.5ºC or hot (39.0ºC temperature. Eggshell temperature (EST increased in the second half of the incubation period in all experimental groups. The EST of non-injected eggs and of those injected with water was higher when incubated at 39°C than at 37.5°C, but EST was not different among eggs injected with AA. Egg mass loss and eggshell conductance were higher in the eggs incubated at 39°C than at 37.5°C.Hatchability was lower in the eggs injected with AA. Liver and yolk sac weights were higher, whereas heart and liver weights were lower in hatchlings from eggs incubated at 39°C; however, hatchling weight was not affected by incubation temperature. The results showed that AA doses affected egg conductive heat loss and hatchability, and that they did not minimize the effects of high incubation temperature on liver and heart development.

  15. Heat transfer models for predicting Salmonella enteritidis in shell eggs through supply chain distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almonacid, S; Simpson, R; Teixeira, A

    2007-11-01

    Egg and egg preparations are important vehicles for Salmonella enteritidis infections. The influence of time-temperature becomes important when the presence of this organism is found in commercial shell eggs. A computer-aided mathematical model was validated to estimate surface and interior temperature of shell eggs under variable ambient and refrigerated storage temperature. A risk assessment of S. enteritidis based on the use of this model, coupled with S. enteritidis kinetics, has already been reported in a companion paper published earlier in JFS. The model considered the actual geometry and composition of shell eggs and was solved by numerical techniques (finite differences and finite elements). Parameters of interest such as local (h) and global (U) heat transfer coefficient, thermal conductivity, and apparent volumetric specific heat were estimated by an inverse procedure from experimental temperature measurement. In order to assess the error in predicting microbial population growth, theoretical and experimental temperatures were applied to a S. enteritidis growth model taken from the literature. Errors between values of microbial population growth calculated from model predicted compared with experimentally measured temperatures were satisfactorily low: 1.1% and 0.8% for the finite difference and finite element model, respectively.

  16. Aggregation of egg white proteins with pulsed electric fields and thermal processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Li; Zhao, Wei; Yang, Ruijin; Yan, Wenxu; Sun, Qianyan

    2016-08-01

    Pulsed electric field (PEF) processing is progressing towards application for liquid egg to ensure microbial safety. However, it usually causes protein aggregation, and the mechanism is still unclear. In this study, egg white protein was applied to investigate the changes in protein structure and mechanism of aggregates formation and a comparison was made with thermal treatment. Soluble protein content decreased with the increase of turbidity after both treatments. Fluorescence intensity and free sulfhydryl content were increased after being treated at 70 °C for 4 min. Less-remarkable changes of hydrophobicity were observed after PEF treatments (30 kV cm(-1) , 800 µs). Soluble and insoluble aggregates were observed by thermal treatment, and disulfide bonds were the main binding forces. The main components of insoluble aggregates formed by thermal treatment were ovotransferrin (30.58%), lysozyme (18.47%) and ovalbumin (14.20%). While only insoluble aggregates were detected during PEF processes, which consists of ovotransferrin (11.86%), lysozyme (21.11%) and ovalbumin (31.07%). Electrostatic interaction played a very important role in the aggregates formation. PEF had a minor impact on the structure of egg white protein. PEF had insignificant influence on heat-sensitive protein, indicating that PEF has potential in processing food with high biological activity and heat sensitive properties. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  17. The Effect of NaOH Concentration on pH, Egg White Protein Content and Yolk Colour Pidan Egg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herly Evanuarini

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to determine the best treatment NaOH addition on pidan eggs. The materials used for this research was pidan made from duck egg, NaOH, salt, black tea and water. The method was used experiment laboratory and Completely Randomized Design (CRD using 4 treatments and 4 replications. The treatments were T0 (control, T1 (1.4%, T2 (2.8% and T3 (4.2%. The data were analyzed by Analysis of Variance (ANOVA if there was significantly continued by Duncan’s Multiple Range Test (DMRT. The result showed that NaOH concentration on pidan eggs gave significant effect (P<0.05 on albumen protein content, gave highly significant (P<0.01 on pH value and yolk colour. The conclusion of this research was 4.2% NaOH addition on pidan egg was the best treatment with gave result yolk and albumen pH: 10.69; 10.25, albumen protein content 26.89%, egg yolk colour L* (lightness, a* (redness, b* (yellowness:  26.89; 11.33, and 26.77. The suggestion of this research was ussed different immersion time on pidan egg production.

  18. Quality traits of eggs from autosexing Easter eggers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Lukanov

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. The main egg quality traits were investigated in two autosexing F1 Easter egger crosses. Partridge Araucana roosters were used as carriers of the eggshell biliverdin pigmentation gene. Maternal forms used for obtaining the two experimental crosses were high-producing layer hens carrying the sex-linked S and B genes. Experimental groups comprised F1 crosses of partridge Araucana roosters with white mutational Rhode Island hens or hens with barred colour mutation. The aim of the study was to investigated the quality traits of blue-green eggs produced by autosexing hens. The egg quality was evaluated at 38 weeks of age. Studied traits comprised egg weight (g, shape index, albumen index (AI, Haugh units (HU, yolk index (YI, yolk colour (Roche scale, 2 2 percentages of albumen, yolk and eggshell (%, eggshell surface (cm , eggshell density (mg/cm , average eggshell thickness (µm and eggshell colour. The group W was outlined with the highest egg weight – 61.03±0.47 g, and group A – with the lowest (50.91±0.32 g. The albumen and yolk quality was the best in group A, where albumen index was 0.075±0.002, Haugh units – 76.53±0.8 and yolk index – 0.491±0.009. The analysis of eggshell colour showed that eggs of group A were with the highest lightness (L* value (73.60±0.77, whereas eggs of groups W and AW had egg lightness of 60.45±0.53 and 61.11±0.55 (p<0.001 respectively. The shell colour index (SCI demonstrated a certain overlap of values in eggs with protoporphyrin and biliverdin taints. After introduction of a correction coefficient and recalculation of SCI*, the values of green eggs assumed a negative sign and could be distinguished from brown eggs.

  19. Bacteria stimulate hatching of yellow fever mosquito eggs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loganathan Ponnusamy

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Aedes aegypti Linnaeus is a peridomestic mosquito that lays desiccation-resistant eggs in water-filled human-made containers. Previous investigations connected egg hatching with declining dissolved oxygen (DO that is associated with bacterial growth. However, past studies failed to uncouple DO from other potential stimulatory factors and they contained little quantitative information about the microbial community; consequently, a direct role for bacteria or compounds associated with bacteria in stimulating egg hatching cannot be dismissed. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Environmental factors stimulating hatch of Ae. aegypti eggs were investigated using non-sterile and sterile white oak leaf (WOL infusions and a bacterial culture composed of a mix of 14 species originally isolated from bamboo leaf infusion. In WOL infusion with active microbes, 92.4% of eggs hatched in 2-h at an average DO concentration of 2.4 ppm. A 24-h old bacterial culture with a DO concentration of 0.73 ppm also stimulated 95.2% of eggs hatch within 1-h. In contrast, only 4.0% of eggs hatched in sterile infusion, whose DO averaged 7.4 ppm. Effects of bacteria were uncoupled from DO by exposing eggs to bacterial cells suspended in NaCl solution. Over a 4-h exposure period, 93.8% of eggs hatched while DO concentration changed minimally from 7.62 to 7.50 ppm. Removal of bacteria by ultra-filtration and cell-free filtrate resulted in only 52.0% of eggs hatching after 4-h at an average DO concentration of 5.5 ppm. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Collectively, the results provide compelling evidence that bacteria or water-soluble compounds secreted by bacteria, not just low DO concentration, stimulate hatching of Ae. aegypti eggs. However, the specific cues involved remain to be identified. These research findings contribute new insight into an important aspect of the oviposition biology of Ae. aegypti, a virus vector of global importance, providing the basis for a new

  20. Food-cooking processes modulate allergenic properties of hen's egg white proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaoyu; Feng, Bai-Sui; Kong, Xiaoli; Xu, Hong; Li, Xiumin; Yang, Ping-Chang; Liu, Zhigang

    2013-01-01

    Reducing the allergenicity of food allergens can suppress the clinical symptoms of food allergy. The objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of processing on the allergenic properties of hen's egg white proteins. Eggs were processed by traditional Chinese cooking, including steaming, water boiling, frying, spicing and tea boiling. The contents of processed egg protein were assessed by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis; the allergenicity was evaluated by Western blotting, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and enzyme allergosorbent test inhibition. Circular dichroism spectrum analysis of four major egg allergens from various egg products was performed as well. A mouse model of food allergy was developed to test the allergenicity of processed egg protein in vivo. Protein degradation was significant following tea boiling and spiced-tea boiling. The total allergenic potential of water-boiled egg and fried egg was relatively higher than that of steamed egg, spiced egg and tea-boiled egg. Challenge with proteins from raw egg, water-boiled egg and fried egg induced skewed T-helper 2 pattern responses (Th2 responses) in the intestine of mice sensitized to egg proteins; however, when the mice sensitized to egg proteins were challenged with proteins from steamed egg, spiced egg and tea-boiled egg, respectively, only weak Th2 responses were induced in their intestine. Processing by steaming, spicing, or tea boiling can weaken the allergenicity of egg proteins. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. Egg CD9 protein tides correlated with sperm oscillations tune the gamete fusion ability in mammal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravaux, Benjamin; Favier, Sophie; Perez, Eric; Gourier, Christine

    2018-01-23

    Mammalian fertilization involves membrane events -adhesion, fusion, sperm engulfment, membrane block to polyspermy- whose causes remain largely unknown. Recently, specific oscillations of the sperm in contact with the egg were shown to be necessary for fusion. Using a microfluidic chip to impose the venue for the encounter of two gametes allowed real-time observation of the membrane remodelling occurring at the sperm/egg interface. The spatiotemporal mapping of egg CD9 revealed that this protein concentrates at the egg/sperm interface as a result of sperm oscillations, until a CD9-rich platform is nucleated on which fusion immediately takes place. Within 2 to 5 minutes after fusion, most of the CD9 leaves the egg for the external aqueous medium. Then an egg membrane wave engulfs the sperm head in approximately 25 minutes. These results show that sperm oscillations initiate the CD9 recruitment that causes gamete fusion after which CD9 and associated proteins leave the membrane in a process likely to contribute to block polyspermy. They highlight that the gamete fusion story in mammals is an unexpected interplay between mechanical constraints and proteins. © The Author(s) (2018). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Journal of Molecular Cell Biology, IBCB, SIBS, CAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Pre- and post-hatch trophic egg production in the subsocial burrower bug, Canthophorus niveimarginatus (Heteroptera: Cydnidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filippi, Lisa; Baba, Narumi; Inadomi, Koichi; Yanagi, Takao; Hironaka, Mantaro; Nomakuchi, Shintaro

    2009-02-01

    delivered to young should have important correlations with the ecological and life history constraints under which a species has evolved. Thus, we also discuss the possible ecological and life history factors that favor the evolution of post-hatch trophic eggs.

  3. Ensuring microbiological safety of commercial eggs by gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammad, A.A; Swailam, H.M.; Abd El-Rahim, E.A.; Shallan, M.A; Aly, W.F.

    2009-01-01

    Egg shell sanitizing practices are necessary to improve microbiological safety of fresh eggs. In this work, fifteen fresh eggs samples of each (balady, white and brown eggs) were collected from different local supermarkets to evaluate their microbiological quality. The results indicated that balady eggs were higher in microbial population in comparison with the two other varieties. Salmonella spp. was detected in 9 (60%) samples of balady eggs. The effect of gamma irradiation at dose of 0,2,3 and 4 kGy on microbiological quality of balady eggs during storage at 4± 1 deg c for 35 days as well as on total cholesterol , ph, and total carotenoids contents were also investigated. The results showed that irradiation at 3 kGy reduced total aerobic bacterial counts. Whereas completely eliminated coliform bacteria, E.coli and salmonella spp. Total cholesterol and total carotenoids were decreased in yolk egg. irradiation dose of 3 kGy were efficient and sufficient for ensuring safety, maintain quality and extend shelf-life of balady eggs

  4. CalCOFI Egg Counts Positive Tows

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Fish egg counts and standardized counts for eggs captured in CalCOFI icthyoplankton nets (primarily vertical [Calvet or Pairovet], oblique [bongo or ring nets], and...

  5. Effects of egg shell quality and washing on Salmonella Infantis penetration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samiullah; Chousalkar, K K; Roberts, J R; Sexton, M; May, D; Kiermeier, A

    2013-07-15

    The vast majority of eggs in Australia are washed prior to packing to remove dirt and fecal material and to reduce the microbial contamination of the egg shell. The egg contents can be an ideal growth medium for microorganisms which can result in human illness if eggs are stored improperly and eaten raw or undercooked, and it is estimated that egg-related salmonellosis is costing Australia $44 million per year. Egg shell characteristics such as shell thickness, amount of cuticle present, and thickness of individual egg shell layers can affect the ease with which bacteria can penetrate the egg shell and washing could partially or completely remove the cuticle layer. The current study was conducted to investigate the effects of egg washing on cuticle cover and effects of egg shell quality and cuticle cover on Salmonella Infantis penetration of the egg shell. A higher incidence of unfavorable ultrastructural variables of the mammillary layer such as late fusion, type B bodies, type A bodies, poor cap quality, alignment, depression, erosion and cubics were recorded in Salmonella penetrated areas of egg shells. The influence of egg washing on the ability of Salmonella Infantis on the egg shell surface to enter the egg internal contents was also investigated using culture-based agar egg penetration and real-time qPCR based experiments. The results from the current study indicate that washing affected cuticle cover. There were no significant differences in Salmonella Infantis penetration of washed or unwashed eggs. Egg shell translucency may have effects on Salmonella Infantis penetration of the egg shell. The qPCR assay was more sensitive for detection of Salmonella Infantis from egg shell wash and internal contents than traditional microbiological methods. The agar egg and whole egg inoculation experiments indicated that Salmonella Infantis penetrated the egg shells. Egg washing not only can be highly effective at removing Salmonella Infantis from the egg shell surface

  6. Effects of dietary combination of chromium and biotin on egg production, serum metabolites, and egg yolk mineral and cholesterol concentrations in heat-distressed laying quails.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, K; Onderci, M; Sahin, N; Gursu, M F; Vijaya, J; Kucuk, O

    2004-11-01

    Chromium picolinate is used in the poultry diet because of its antistress effects in addition to the fact that the requirement for it is increased during stress. This study was conducted to determine if the negative effects of high ambient temperature (34 degrees C) on egg production, egg quality, antioxidant status, and cholesterol and mineral content of egg yolk could be alleviated by combination of chromium picolinate and biotin (0.6/2.0; Diachrome, as formulated by Nutrition 21 Inc.), in laying Japanese quails (Coturnix coturnix japanica). Quails (n= 240; 50 d old) were divided into 8 groups, 30 birds per group. The quails were fed either a basal diet or the basal diet supplemented with 2, 4, or 8 mg of Diachrome/kg diet. Birds were kept at 22 degrees C and 53% relative humidity (RH). At 14 wk of age, the thermoneutral (TN) group remained in the same temperature as at the beginning of experiment, whereas the heat stress (HS) group was kept in an environment-controlled room (34 degrees C and 41% RH) for 3 wk. Heat exposure decreased performance when the basal diet was fed (p = 0.001). Diachrome supplementation at 4 and 8 mg/kg diet, increased feed intake (p = 0.05), egg production (p = 0.05), feed efficiency (p = 0.01), egg weight (p = 0.05), and Haugh unit (p = 0.01) in quails reared under heat stress conditions. Heat exposure increased concentrations of serum malondialdehyde (MDA) (p = 0.001), glucose, and cholesterol (p = 0.01), which were elevated by supplemental Diachrome (p < or = 0.05). Egg yolk Cr, Zn, and Fe (p = 0.01) concentrations increased linearly, whereas MDA and cholesterol concentrations decreased (p = 0.05) as dietary Diachrome supplementation increased in HS groups. Similar effects of supplementation on serum levels of glucose and cholesterol (p = 0.05) and egg yolk concentrations of cholesterol (p = 0.05) and Cr (p = 0.01) were observed in TN groups. No significant differences in other values were observed in the TN groups. Results of the

  7. Closer clutch inspection—quicker egg ejection: timing of host responses toward parasitic eggs

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Požgayová, Milica; Procházka, Petr; Polačiková, Lenka; Honza, Marcel

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 22, č. 1 (2011), s. 46-51 ISSN 1045-2249 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA600930605; GA AV ČR IAA600930903; GA ČR(CZ) GD524/05/H536; GA MŠk LC06073 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : Acrocephalus arundinaceus * brood parasitism * egg discrimination * egg ejection time * great reed warbler * nest inspection Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 3.083, year: 2011

  8. High salinity tolerance in eggs and fry of a brackish Esox lucius population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, A.T.; Hansen, B.W.; Vismann, B.

    2010-01-01

    Knowledge on the biology and physiology of pike, Esox lucius L., populations inhabiting saline environments is scarce. An experimental setup was used to examine egg development and fry behaviour and growth under varying salinity levels in a brackish-water pike population from the western Baltic Sea....... Eggs and fry developed at 8.5 psu, which is higher than hitherto reported for other populations. Fry exhibited stress behaviour and reduced growth when subjected to salinities above 13 psu. This indicates that early life stages of E. lucius tolerate ambient salinity conditions equivalent to the natural...

  9. The influence of calcium and phosphorus levels on egg production, egg quality, tibia weight and 32P retention of layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwardly, Y.S.; Hendratno, C.; Yuyu Wahyu

    1979-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to study the influence of three levels of calcium and three levels of dietary phosphorus on egg production, egg quality, tibia weight and 32 P retention of layers. Calcium levels of 3.0; 3.5 and 4.0 percent were used and phosphorus contest of the diet fed were either 0.6; 0.9 or 1.2 percent.Egg production was highest with rations containing 3.5% calcium and 0.9% phosphorus. A significant increase in egg production was found at 0.9% levels of phosphorus compared to levels of 0.6 and 1.2%. Egg quality was increased significantly (p 32 P retention was low at the highest calcium level. (author)

  10. Fertilization Mechanisms in Flowering Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dresselhaus, Thomas; Sprunck, Stefanie; Wessel, Gary M

    2016-02-08

    Compared with the animal kingdom, fertilization is particularly complex in flowering plants (angiosperms). Sperm cells of angiosperms have lost their motility and require transportation as a passive cargo by the pollen tube cell to the egg apparatus (egg cell and accessory synergid cells). Sperm cell release from the pollen tube occurs after intensive communication between the pollen tube cell and the receptive synergid, culminating in the lysis of both interaction partners. Following release of the two sperm cells, they interact and fuse with two dimorphic female gametes (the egg and the central cell) forming the major seed components embryo and endosperm, respectively. This process is known as double fertilization. Here, we review the current understanding of the processes of sperm cell reception, gamete interaction, their pre-fertilization activation and fusion, as well as the mechanisms plants use to prevent the fusion of egg cells with multiple sperm cells. The role of Ca(2+) is highlighted in these various processes and comparisons are drawn between fertilization mechanisms in flowering plants and other eukaryotes, including mammals. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Validation of Folate-Enriched Eggs as a Functional Food for Improving Folate Intake in Consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altic, Leslie; McNulty, Helene; Hoey, Leane; McAnena, Liadhan; Pentieva, Kristina

    2016-11-30

    Functional foods enriched with folate may be beneficial as a means of optimizing folate status in consumers. We recently developed novel eggs enriched with folate through folic acid supplementation of the hen's feed, but their potential to influence consumer folate status is unknown because the natural folate forms incorporated into the eggs may not necessarily be retained during storage and cooking. This study aimed to determine the stability of natural folates in folate-enriched eggs under typical conditions of storage and cooking. Total folate was determined by microbiological assay following tri-enzyme treatment in folate-enriched eggs and un-enriched (barn and free-range) on the day they were laid, after storage (up to 27 days) and after using four typical cooking methods (boiling, poaching, frying, scrambling) for different durations. On the day of laying, the folate content of enriched eggs was found to be significantly higher than that of un-enriched barn or free-range eggs (mean ± SD; 123.2 ± 12.4 vs. 41.2 ± 2.8 vs. 65.6 ± 18.5 µg/100 g; p functional foods with enriched folate content. Further studies will confirm their effectiveness in optimizing the biomarker folate status of consumers.

  12. LCA of Egg Phospholipids

    OpenAIRE

    Berggren, Anders

    2013-01-01

    Egg phospholipids are a group of fats or lipids in the egg yolk, commonly used as emulsifiers in the chemical industry to facilitate the dissolving of substances. The pharmaceutical company Fresenius-Kabi manufactures this product and seeks a better understanding of the product’s major environmental impacts in order to comply with the ISO 14001 requirements, communicate its environmental performance and choose raw materials that result in lower environmental impacts. The aim of this study is ...

  13. Correlative and dynamic imaging of the hatching biology of Schistosoma japonicum from eggs prepared by high pressure freezing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malcolm K Jones

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Schistosome eggs must traverse tissues of the intestine or bladder to escape the human host and further the life cycle. Escape from host tissues is facilitated by secretion of immuno-reactive molecules by eggs and the formation of an intense strong granulomatous response by the host which acts to exclude the egg into gut or bladder lumens. Schistosome eggs hatch on contact with freshwater, but the mechanisms of activation and hatching are poorly understood. In view of the lack of knowledge of the behaviour of egg hatching in schistosomes, we undertook a detailed dynamic and correlative study of the hatching biology of Schistosoma japonicum. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Hatching eggs of S. japonicum were studied using correlative light and electron microscopy (EM. The hatching behaviour was recorded by video microscopy. EM preparative methods incorporating high pressure freezing and cryo-substitution were used to investigate ultrastructural features of the miracidium and extra-embryonic envelopes in pre-activated and activated eggs, and immediately after eggshell rupture. Lectin cytochemistry was performed on egg tissues to investigate subcellular location of specific carbohydrate groups. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The hatching of S. japonicum eggs is a striking phenomenon, whereby the larva is liberated explosively while still encapsulated within its sub-shell envelopes. The major alterations that occur in the egg during activation are scission of the outer envelope-eggshell boundary, autolysis of the cellular inner envelope, and likely hydration of abundant complex and simple polysaccharides in the lacunal space between the miracidial larva and surrounding envelopes. These observations on hatching provide insight into the dynamic activity of the eggs and the biology of schistosomes within the host.

  14. Autocatalytic microtubule nucleation determines the size and mass of Xenopus laevis egg extract spindles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decker, Franziska; Oriola, David; Dalton, Benjamin; Brugués, Jan

    2018-01-11

    Regulation of size and growth is a fundamental problem in biology. A prominent example is the formation of the mitotic spindle, where protein concentration gradients around chromosomes are thought to regulate spindle growth by controlling microtubule nucleation. Previous evidence suggests that microtubules nucleate throughout the spindle structure. However, the mechanisms underlying microtubule nucleation and its spatial regulation are still unclear. Here, we developed an assay based on laser ablation to directly probe microtubule nucleation events in Xenopus laevis egg extracts. Combining this method with theory and quantitative microscopy, we show that the size of a spindle is controlled by autocatalytic growth of microtubules, driven by microtubule-stimulated microtubule nucleation. The autocatalytic activity of this nucleation system is spatially regulated by the limiting amounts of active microtubule nucleators, which decrease with distance from the chromosomes. This mechanism provides an upper limit to spindle size even when resources are not limiting. © 2018, Decker et al.

  15. Consumption of Biomphalaria glabrata egg masses and juveniles by the ampullariid snails Pila ovata, Lanistes carinatus and Marisa cornuarietis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofkin, B V; Stryker, G A; Koech, D K; Loker, E S

    1991-04-01

    Lanistes carinatus and Pila ovata from Kenya and Marisa cornuarietis from the Dominican Republic were examined for their ability to consume egg masses and juveniles of Biomphalaria glabrata (M line strain) under laboratory conditions. Adults of all three ampullariid species consumed all egg masses presented to them over a five day period of observation. Juvenile P. ovata consumed significantly more egg masses than juveniles of M. cornuarietis or L. carinatus. Both adult and juvenile ampullariids generally ate more egg masses when maintained under a temperature regime (25-32 degrees C) approximating conditions in coastal Kenya than at 13-25 degrees C which approximates the temperature regime near Nairobi, Kenya. Egg masses attached to floating 'refugia' were not attacked, apparently reflecting the difficulty experienced by ampullariids in reaching free-floating objects. Adults of each ampullariid species ate approximately 25% of all lariids in reaching free-floating objects. Adults of each ampullariid species ate approximately 25% of all 1.5 +/- 0.5 mm B. glabrata juvenile snails presented to them. P. ovata adults consumed significantly more 3.0 +/- 0.5 mm juveniles than adults of the other two species. B. glabrata egg masses and juveniles were consumed even though lettuce was continually present in experimental aquaria. Implications of these results for biological control studies in East Africa are discussed.

  16. Enteral Formula Containing Egg Yolk Lecithin Improves Diarrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akashi, Tetsuro; Muto, Ayano; Takahashi, Yayoi; Nishiyama, Hiroshi

    2017-09-01

    Diarrhea often occurs during enteral nutrition. Recently, several reports showed that diarrhea improves by adding egg yolk lecithin, an emulsifier, in an enteral formula. Therefore, we evaluated if this combination could improve diarrhea outcomes. We retrospectively investigated the inhibitory effects on watery stools by replacing a polymeric fomula with that containing egg yolk lecithin. Then, we investigated the emulsion stability in vitro. Next, we examined the lipid absorption using different emulsifiers among bile duct-ligated rats and assessed whether egg yolk lecithin, medium-chain triglyceride, and dietary fiber can improve diarrhea outcomes in a rat model of short bowel syndrome. Stool consistency or frequency improved on the day after using the aforementioned combination in 13/14 patients. Average particle size of the egg yolk lecithin emulsifier did not change by adding artificial gastric juice, whereas that of soy lecithin and synthetic emulsifiers increased. Serum triglyceride concentrations were significantly higher in the egg yolk lecithin group compared with the soybean lecithin and synthetic emulsifier groups in bile duct-ligated rats. In rats with short bowels, the fecal consistency was a significant looser the dietary fiber (+) group than the egg yolk lecithin (+) groups from day 6 of test meal feedings. The fecal consistency was also a significant looser the egg yolk lecithin (-) group than the egg yolk lecithin (+) groups from day 4 of test meal feeding. The fecal consistency was no significant difference between the medium-chain triglycerides (-) and egg yolk lecithin (+) groups. Enteral formula emulsified with egg yolk lecithin promotes lipid absorption by preventing the destruction of emulsified substances by gastric acid. This enteral formula improved diarrhea and should reduce the burden on patients and healthcare workers.

  17. The Effect of Calcium Source in Laying Hen Diet on Egg and Tibia Bone Characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elsayed, M.A.; Basuony, H.A.; Hatab, M.H.

    2014-01-01

    One hundred and twenty, 37-week-old Lohmann strain layers were used in the current study to evaluate the effect of using ground, sterilized chicken eggshell (ES) as calcium (Ca) source in their diets on the productive performance, egg and eggshell quality, serum Ca and inorganic P concentrations and bone mineralization. Feed and water ad libitum were provided and hens were kept under 16:8 hrs light:dark cycle. Birds were randomly divided into 3 groups (GP), 1, was a control group fed a layer diet containing finely ground limestone as the Ca source. 2 was fed a layer diet that contained a combination of 50% limestone and 50% ground eggshell (50% ES) as the Ca source, whereas group 3 received a layer diet containing 100% ground eggshell (100% ES) as the Ca source in the diet. After 2 wk of acclimation, the birds were fed the experimental diets for 6 wk, initial and final body weights (BW) and feed intake was recorded. Eggs production was expressed as a percentage of hen-day egg production, egg weight and the internal egg quality were measured. Serum Ca, P concentrations, Ca:P ratio and aldosterone level were determined. Finally, tibia weight, length and its contents of Ca, P concentrations were measured. Results of this study indicated that, there was no significant effect of dietary treatment on BW and feed consumption. Replacing limestone in the current study diet with ground, sterilized eggshell had no any significant effect on egg production, egg weight, eggshell quality and tibia characteristics among between groups. Finally, there were no significant effect for treatment on blood hematocrit, total serum Ca, P concentrations, Ca:P ratio and aldosterone level. It is concluded that hatchery waste, as chicken egg shells, can be used as the Ca source in layer diets without an adverse effect on BW, feed consumption, egg weight, egg production, egg and eggshell quality, serum Ca concentration and bone characteristics

  18. Naturally Occurring Egg Drop Syndrome Infection in Turkeys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Biđin

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A decrease in the egg quality, production, fertility and hatchability without serious clinical signs of illness was recorded in turkey fl ocks in Croatia at the beginning of 2002. It was assumed that the egg drop syndrome virus might be one of the etiological agents responsible for the abnormalities in the egg production. The systematic serological monitoring, using a haemagglutination inhibition test, showed that the antibodies to the egg drop syndrome virus existed in 94.4 and 55.1% of the sera analysed in 2002 and 2003, respectively. The haemagglutination inhibition titres ranged from 16 to 128. The sera samples were randomly collected from 11 - to 46-week-old hens from the affected fl ocks. The serological evidence of the egg drop syndrome virus infection was confirmed by detection of the presence of the virus genome in the turkey sera by the polymerase chain reaction. Vaccination of the 18- and 25-week-old turkey hens against the egg drop syndrome virus started in March 2003. After this period, the presence of antibodies to the egg drop syndrome virus (the haemagglutination inhibition titres between 16 and 256 was found in 96.7% of the analysed sera, while the egg production reached normal or higher values for the Nicholas hybrid line of turkeys.

  19. Housing system and laying hen strain impacts on egg microbiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, D R; Anderson, K E

    2013-08-01

    Alternative hen housing is becoming more commonplace in the egg market. However, a complete understanding of the implications for alternative housing systems on egg safety has not been achieved. The current study examines the impact of housing Hy-Line Brown, Hy-Line Silver Brown, and Barred Plymouth Rock hens in conventional cage, cage-free, and free range egg production systems on shell microbiology. Eggs were collected at 4 sampling periods. Egg shell emulsion pools were formed and enumerated for total aerobic organisms, Enterobacteriaceae, and yeast and mold counts. Hy-Line Brown and Hy-Line Silver Brown hens produced eggs with significantly (P Eggs from conventional cages had significantly different (P eggs with significantly different (P eggs having the lowest level of contamination for the hen strains. There were no differences within each strain among housing systems for yeast and mold contamination. The study shows that hen strain has an effect on egg microbial levels for various housing systems, and egg safety should be considered when making hen strain selections for each housing system.

  20. Effect of Dietary Sodium Nitrate Consumption on Egg Production, Egg Quality Characteristics and Some Blood Indices in Native Hens of West Azarbaijan Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Safary

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of sodium nitrate consumption on egg quality and quantity, and some blood parameters of native breeder hens of West Azerbaijan province. One hundred native hens were used from wk 25 to 32 of age. These birds were divided into two groups. One group was fed the control diet (CD but the other fed the same diet supplemented with 4.2 g/kg sodium nitrate (ND. After 2 wks of adaptation, eggs were collected daily and egg mass and egg production were measured weekly for five weeks. To assess the egg quality parameters, two eggs from each replicate pen were collected for three consecutive days each week. At the end of experimental period (wk 32 of age, blood samples of 5 birds per replicate were collected from the wing vein into anticoagulant tubes. Dietary sodium nitrate didn’t affect the egg production, shell stiffness, shell thickness and Haugh unit (p>0.05 but it decreased the both egg production and egg mass during the last three weeks (wks 30, 31 and 32 (p0.05. No effect of time or treatment×time were observed for shell stiffness (p>0.05. Over time, shell thickness was decreased while Haugh unit increased (p0.05. Sodium nitrite decreased both the TAC and TC at wk 32 of age (p<0.001. It was concluded that the lower body antioxidant capacity of nitrate fed birds resulted in the lower performance (egg weight, egg production and egg mass.

  1. Computed tomographic evaluation of dinosar egg shell integrity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, J.C.; Greenberg, W.; Ayers, S.

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether computed tomography (CT) could be used to identify hatching holes in partially embedded dinosaur eggs. One Faveololithus and two Dendroolithus eggs were examined using a fourth generation CT scanner. The eggs were partially embedded in a fossilized sediment matrix, with the exposed portion of the shell appearing intact. In CT images of all three eggs, the shells appeared hyperdense relative to the matrix. Hatching holes were visible as large gaps in the embedded portion of the shell, with inwardly displaced shell fragments. It was concluded that CT is an effective technique for nondestructively assessing dinosaur egg shell integrity

  2. Nesting environment may drive variation in eggshell structure and egg characteristics in the Testudinata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deeming, D Charles

    2018-05-14

    Testudines exhibit considerable variation in the degree of eggshell calcification, which affects eggshell conductance, water physiology of the embryos, and calcium metabolism of embryos. However, the underlying reason for different shell types has not been explored. Phylogenetically controlled analyses examined relationships between egg size, shell mass, and clutch size in ∼200 turtle species from a range of body sizes and assigned by family as laying either rigid- or pliable-shelled eggs. Shell type affected egg breadth relative to pelvic dimensions, egg mass, and relative shell mass but did not affect size, mass, or total shell mass of the clutch. These results suggest that calcium availability may be a function of body size and the type of shell may reflect in part the interplay between clutch size and egg size. It was further concluded that the eggshell probably evolved as a means of physical protection. Differences in shell calcification may not primarily reflect reproductive parameters but rather correlate with the acidity of a species' nesting environment. Low pH environments may have thicker calcareous layer to counteract the erosion caused by the soil and maintain the integrity of the physical barrier. Limited calcium availability may constrain clutch size. More neutral nesting substrates expose eggshells to less erosion so calcification per egg can be reduced and this allows larger clutch sizes. This pattern is also reflected in thick, calcified crocodilian eggs. Further research is needed to test whether eggshell calcification in the testudines correlates with nest pH in order to verify this relationship. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Rapidly evolving zona pellucida domain proteins are a major component of the vitelline envelope of abalone eggs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aagaard, Jan E.; Yi, Xianhua; MacCoss, Michael J.; Swanson, Willie J.

    2006-01-01

    Proteins harboring a zona pellucida (ZP) domain are prominent components of vertebrate egg coats. Although less well characterized, the egg coat of the non-vertebrate marine gastropod abalone (Haliotis spp.) is also known to contain a ZP domain protein, raising the possibility of a common molecular basis of metazoan egg coat structures. Egg coat proteins from vertebrate as well as non-vertebrate taxa have been shown to evolve under positive selection. Studied most extensively in the abalone system, coevolution between adaptively diverging egg coat and sperm proteins may contribute to the rapid development of reproductive isolation. Thus, identifying the pattern of evolution among egg coat proteins is important in understanding the role these genes may play in the speciation process. The purpose of the present study is to characterize the constituent proteins of the egg coat [vitelline envelope (VE)] of abalone eggs and to provide preliminary evidence regarding how selection has acted on VE proteins during abalone evolution. A proteomic approach is used to match tandem mass spectra of peptides from purified VE proteins with abalone ovary EST sequences, identifying 9 of 10 ZP domain proteins as components of the VE. Maximum likelihood models of codon evolution suggest positive selection has acted among a subset of amino acids for 6 of these genes. This work provides further evidence of the prominence of ZP proteins as constituents of the egg coat, as well as the prominent role of positive selection in diversification of these reproductive proteins. PMID:17085584

  4. Clutch morphology and the timing of exposure impact the susceptibility of aquatic insect eggs to esfenvalerate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmquist, Katherine R; Jenkins, Jeffrey J; Jepson, Paul C

    2008-08-01

    We investigated Baetis spp. (mayfly), Hesperoperla pacifica (stonefly), and Brachycentrus americanus (caddisfly) susceptibility at the egg stage to esfenvalerate, a synthetic pyrethroid insecticide. Eggs were obtained from the field or from field-collected gravid females at sites near Corvallis (OR, USA) and the Metolius River at Camp Sherman (OR, USA) for static exposures under controlled conditions for temperature and light. Eggs were exposed to esfenvalerate for 48 h at concentrations ranging from 0.025 to 4.0 microg/L. No effect on mortality or posthatch growth was detected in H. pacifica eggs exposed to esfenvalerate concentrations up to 1.0 microg/L. Exposure to 0.07 microg/L of esfenvalerate, however, caused a significant increase in Baetis spp. egg mortality, and exposure of near-eclosion eggs to lower concentrations (0.025 and 0.05 microg/L) resulted in behavioral effects and reduced survivorship in newly hatched Baetis nymphs. Early stage B. americanus eggs were 10-fold more sensitive to esfenvalerate when removed from the gelatinous clutch before exposure, an indication that the gelatin affords protection from toxicant exposure. Exposures of near-hatch B. americanus clutches to esfenvalerate concentrations ranging between 0.035 and 0.2 microg/L, however, resulted in significant clutch death within clutches resulting from behavioral aberrations of first-instar larvae. The results of the present study suggest that aquatic insect egg clutch morphology can be a strong influence on susceptibility of embryos to esfenvalerate exposure.

  5. Female maturation, egg characteristics and fatty acids profile in the seahorse Hippocampus guttulatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Planas, M; Quintas, P; Chamorro, A; Silva, C

    2010-10-01

    Knowledge of the biology and ecology of seahorses (Hippocampus spp.) is scarce, but has been increasing in recent years due to their conservation status. Captivity breeding programmes can be a valuable source of information on the reproductive biology of seahorses. A captive broodstock of Hippocampus guttulatus Cuvier 1829 was established in 2006 and kept under natural-like photoperiod and temperature. Female maturation was studied during the whole reproductive season in 2007. Most egg clutches were released from May (17°C; 15L:9D) to October (18°C; 13L:11D), with peak releases occurring in June-August (20°C; 16L:8D-14L:10D). Throughout the study, four egg morphotypes were found; two regression equations were proposed for estimating egg/yolk volume based on measurements of egg and yolk biometrics. Female weight was positively correlated with yolk volume/egg volume ratio (Y(v)/E(v)) (r(s)=0.523, n=21, P<0.05) but not with E(v) or Y(v). Egg dry weight (567±141μg) was correlated with Y(v) (r(s)=0.384, n=31, P<0.05). Mean clutch size and clutch biomass were 242±142 eggs and 137±87mg dry weight, respectively. Clutch size was positively correlated to female weight (r(s)=0.479, n=25, P<0.05). Inter-clutch intervals (days) were affected by temperature (°C) as described by the following equation: Interval=357.55e(-0.1283 Temp). Estimated inter-clutch intervals at 16, 18 and 20°C were 45.9, 35.5 and 27.5 days, respectively. Egg total lipids accounted for 31.9±3.1% dry weight. Absolute lipid content in eggs was correlated with egg dry weight (r(s)=0.907, n=41, P<0.001) and Y(v) (r(s)=0.384, n=41, P<0.5). In decreasing order of relative percentage, the most important fatty acids, were 18:1n9, 16:0, 18:2n6, 20:5n3, 18:0 and 22:6n-3. The level of n-3 HUFA was 18.5±0.7% (38.4±3.3mg/g dry weight). The profile of fatty acids in eggs resembled that displayed by the broodstock diet (enriched adult Artemia). Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Detection of Listeria spp. in liquid egg products and in the egg breaking plants environment and tracking of Listeria monocytogenes by PFGE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivoal, Katell; Fablet, Aurore; Courtillon, Céline; Bougeard, Stéphanie; Chemaly, Marianne; Protais, Jocelyne

    2013-08-16

    Human listeriosis, caused by Listeria monocytogenes, is a severe bacterial infection that can lead to meningitis, cerebromeningitis, bacteremia or septicemia, with acute lethality and potentially leading to death. A study has shown that 29.5% of the caged laying hens in France are contaminated by L. monocytogenes (Chemaly et al., 2008). However, very little information regarding egg and egg product contamination is currently available. The objective of this study is to determine the sanitary status of egg products and egg breaking plants in France regarding Listeria spp. and L. monocytogenes contaminations. The sampling scheme performed in five egg breaking plants in Western France during one year have revealed that 8.5% of raw egg products were contaminated by L. monocytogenes. No pasteurized egg products have been shown to be contaminated by L. monocytogenes. However, a high level of contamination by Listeria spp., and particularly by L. innocua, has been shown with 26.2% and 1.8% of raw and pasteurized egg products contaminated, respectively. This work has also revealed the presence of Listeria spp. and L. monocytogenes in the environment of egg breaking plants with 65.1% and 8.0% of contaminated samples, respectively. The typing of 253 isolates of L. monocytogenes by PFGE using ApaI and AscI enzymes has revealed a high diversity with 46 different pulsotypes and has shown that the raw material is a source of contamination of egg breaking plants. One L. monocytogenes cluster was dominant in the 5 egg-breaking plants during the four seasons studied. The issue of which strains are better adapted to egg products must be considered and studied in depth by comparing them to pulsotypes from strains of other chains. However, the traceability of L. monocytogenes in plants during the various seasons has also made it possible to highlight the presence of strains that are specific to egg breaking plants. The study of cleaning and disinfection methods in these plants as well

  7. Changes of the antigenic and allergenic properties of a hen's egg albumin in a cake with gamma-irradiated egg white

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, J.-W.; Seo, J.-H.; Kim, J.-H.; Lee, S.-Y.; Kim, K.-S.; Byun, M.-W. E-mail: mwbyun@nanum.kaeri.re.kr

    2005-04-01

    Changes of the antigenicity and allergenicity of a hen's egg albumin (ovalbumin, OVA) in white layer cakes containing egg white gamma-irradiated with 10 or 20 kGy were monitored by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), individually formatted with mouse anti-OVA IgG (mouse IgG) and with egg allergic patients' IgE. Mouse IgG recognized OVA in the cakes with irradiated egg white better than that in the control with a non-irradiated one. Whereas, the detected concentrations of intact OVA in the control significantly decreased in the treatments, when determined by IgE-based ELISA. The results appeared to indicate that the antigenicity of the OVA increased, but that the allergenicity was decreased by irradiation and processing. Egg white irradiated for reducing the egg allergy could be used for producing a safer cake from the egg allergy.

  8. Fermented feed for laying hens: effect on egg production, egg quality, plumage condition and composition and activity of the intestinal microflora

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engberg, Ricarda M; Hammershøj, M; Johansen, N F

    2009-01-01

    1. An experiment with a total of 480 hens (Babcock) was carried out from 16 to 38 weeks of age to evaluate the suitability of wet fermented feed (feed water ratio, 1:1·2-1:1·4) for layers, taking aspects of nutrition and gastrointestinal health into consideration. The production performance, egg...... mash. Presumably because of an extended adaptation time to the feed, the onset of lay occurred later when hens were fed on fermented feed, resulting in non-significantly reduced total egg production (75 vs. 82%). 5. There was no significant difference between groups with respect to the total egg mass...... with the dry mash (g feed DM/g egg mass, 2·28 vs. 2·53). 6. The use of fermented feed increased egg weight in the period from 34 to 37 weeks (61·4 vs. 60·0) and increased shell weight (g/100 g egg weight, 10·2 vs. 9·9) and shell stiffness (N/mm, 161 vs. 150) of eggs collected at 37 weeks. 7. The feeding...

  9. Isolation of Individual Egg Cells and Zygotes in Alstroemeria Followed by Manual Selection with a Microcapillary-connected Micropump

    Science.gov (United States)

    HOSHINO, YOICHIRO; MURATA, NAHO; SHINODA, KOICHI

    2006-01-01

    • Aims To develop a procedure for isolating living egg cells and zygotes from Alstroemeria ovules. • Scope An attempt was made to isolate egg cells and zygotes from the ovules of Alstroemeria aurea. The ovules were histologically observed using a clearing procedure which revealed the localization and sizes of the embryo sacs and egg apparatus within the ovules. For the isolation of egg cells, ovules were cut into sections with a surgical blade and treated with an enzyme solution. Subsequently, these ovule sections were dissected using a glass needle under an inverted microscope. Egg cells successfully isolated by this procedure were collected using microcapillaries connected to a micropump. For zygote isolation, ovules were excised from ovaries 24 h after self-pollination. By treating excised ovules with an enzyme solution and subsequently dissecting them using a glass needle, zygotes were successfully isolated from the ovules and collected with a microcapillary. The isolated zygotes were associated with pollen tubes and one of the synergids. Egg cells and zygotes were viable for up to 2 h following isolation, as determined by fluorescein diacetate staining. • Conclusions The procedures for isolating egg cells and zygotes in Alstroemeria were established, and each egg cell and zygote was captured with a microcapillary. PMID:16621859

  10. Microbial quality and prevalence of Salmonella and Listeria in eggs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manijeh Mahdavi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: This study was undertaken to determine the microbial quality and the prevalence of Salmonella and Listeria in table eggs in Isfahan, Iran. Materials and Methods: A total of 525 samples were randomly collected from various shops in Isfahan, Iran. Microbial quality of eggs evaluated by coliform count and total bacterial viable counts. Also, detection of Listeria and Salmonella in egg contents and on eggs shells was performed. Results: The mean of total viable bacteria and coliform counts in the egg contents were 3.95 × 10 4 CFU/g and 4.94 × 10 3 CFU/g, respectively. Salmonella and Listeria were not found on the shell or content of eggs. Enterobacteriaceae families were found in 357 of 525 (68.28% and 276 of 525 (52.44% of egg shell and egg content samples, respectively. Moreover, Pseudomonas aeruginosa was isolated from 175 (33.41% and 144 (25.37% of egg shell and egg content, respectively. The isolated Enterobacteriaceae were included: Enterobacter aerogenes, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Buttiauxella agrestis, Cedecea lapagei, Cedecea davisae and Erwinia herbicola. Conclusion: The findings of the present study indicate although Salmonella and Listeria were not found in egg samples; however, there is an urgent need to improve the hygienic level of consumed eggs.

  11. Effect of γ-Aminobutyric Acid-producing Strain on Laying Performance, Egg Quality and Serum Enzyme Activity in Hy-Line Brown Hens under Heat Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Z. Zhu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Heat-stress remains a costly issue for animal production, especially for poultry as they lack sweat glands, and alleviating heat-stress is necessary for ensuring animal production in hot environment. A high γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA-producer Lactobacillus strain was used to investigate the effect of dietary GABA-producer on laying performance and egg quality in heat-stressed Hy-line brown hens. Hy-Line brown hens (n = 1,164 at 280 days of age were randomly divided into 4 groups based on the amount of freeze-dried GABA-producer added to the basal diet as follows: i 0 mg/kg, ii 25 mg/kg, iii 50 mg/kg, and iv 100 mg/kg. All hens were subjected to heat-stress treatment through maintaining the temperature and the relative humidity at 28.83±3.85°C and 37% to 53.9%, respectively. During the experiment, laying rate, egg weight and feed intake of hens were recorded daily. At the 30th and 60th day after the start of the experiment, biochemical parameters, enzyme activity and immune activity in serum were measured. Egg production, average egg weight, average daily feed intake, feed conversion ratio and percentage of speckled egg, soft shell egg and misshaped egg were significantly improved (p<0.05 by the increasing supplementation of the dietary GABA-producer. Shape index, eggshell thickness, strength and weight were increased linearly with increasing GABA-producer supplementation. The level of calcium, phosphorus, glucose, total protein and albumin in serum of the hens fed GABA-producing strain supplemented diet was significantly higher (p<0.05 than that of the hens fed the basal diet, whereas cholesterol level was decreased. Compared with the basal diet, GABA-producer strain supplementation increased serum level of glutathione peroxidase (p = 0.009 and superoxide dismutase. In conclusion, GABA-producer played an important role in alleviating heat-stress, the isolated GABA-producer strain might be a potential natural and safe probiotic to use to

  12. Predictive value of IgE/IgG4 antibody ratio in children with egg allergy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okamoto Shindou

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to investigate the role of specific IgG4 antibodies to hen’s egg white and determine their utility as a marker for the outcome of oral challenge test in children sensitized to hen’s egg Methods The hen’s egg oral food challenge test was performed in 105 sensitized children without atopic dermatitis, and the titers of egg white-specific immunoglobulin G4 (IgG4 and immunoglobulin E (IgE antibodies were measured. To set the cut-off values of IgG4, IgE, and the IgE/IgG4 ratio for predicting positive results in oral challenges, receiver operating characteristic curves were plotted and the area under the curves (AUC were calculated. Results Sixty-four of 105 oral challenges with whole eggs were assessed as positive. The AUC for IgE, IgG4, and IgE/IgG4 for the prediction of positive results were 0.609, 0.724, and 0.847, respectively. Thus, the IgE/IgG4 ratio generated significantly higher specificity, sensitivity, positive predictive value (%, and negative predictive value (% than the individual IgE and IgG4. The negative predictive value of the IgE/IgG4 ratio was 90% at a value of 1. Conclusions We have demonstrated that the egg white-specific serum IgE/IgG4 ratio is important for predicting reactivity to egg during food challenges.

  13. Inactivation of Salmonella in Shell Eggs by Hot Water Immersion and Its Effect on Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geveke, David J; Gurtler, Joshua B; Jones, Deana R; Bigley, Andrew B W

    2016-03-01

    Thermal inactivation kinetics of heat resistant strains of Salmonella Enteritidis in shell eggs processed by hot water immersion were determined and the effects of the processing on egg quality were evaluated. Shell eggs were inoculated with a composite of heat resistant Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) strains PT8 C405, 2 (FSIS #OB030832), and 6 (FSIS #OB040159). Eggs were immersed in a circulating hot water bath for various times and temperatures. Come-up time of the coldest location within the egg was 21 min. SE was reduced by 4.5 log at both hot water immersion treatments of 56.7 C for 60 min and 55.6 °C for 100 min. Decimal reduction times (D-values) at 54.4, 55.6, and 56.7 °C were 51.8, 14.6, and 9.33 min, respectively. The z-value was 3.07 °C. Following treatments that resulted in a 4.5 log reduction (56.7 °C/60 min and 55.6 °C/100 min), the surviving population of SE remained static during 4 wk of refrigerated storage. After processing under conditions resulting in 4.5 log reductions, the Haugh unit and albumen height significantly increased (P eggs by 4.5 log, but also significantly affected several egg quality characteristics. Published 2016. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  14. Life-history and ecological correlates of geographic variation in egg and clutch mass among passerine species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, T.E.; Bassar, R.D.; Bassar, S.K.; Fontaine, J.J.; Lloyd, P.; Mathewson, Heather A.; Niklison, Alina M.; Chalfoun, A.

    2006-01-01

    Broad geographic patterns in egg and clutch mass are poorly described, and potential causes of variation remain largely unexamined. We describe interspecific variation in avian egg and clutch mass within and among diverse geographic regions and explore hypotheses related to allometry, clutch size, nest predation, adult mortality, and parental care as correlates and possible explanations of variation. We studied 74 species of Passeriformes at four latitudes on three continents: the north temperate United States, tropical Venezuela, subtropical Argentina, and south temperate South Africa. Egg and clutch mass increased with adult body mass in all locations, but differed among locations for the same body mass, demonstrating that egg and clutch mass have evolved to some extent independent of body mass among regions. A major portion of egg mass variation was explained by an inverse relationship with clutch size within and among regions, as predicted by life-history theory. However, clutch size did not explain all geographic differences in egg mass; eggs were smallest in South Africa despite small clutch sizes. These small eggs might be explained by high nest predation rates in South Africa; life-history theory predicts reduced reproductive effort under high risk of offspring mortality. This prediction was supported for clutch mass, which was inversely related to nest predation but not for egg mass. Nevertheless, clutch mass variation was not fully explained by nest predation, possibly reflecting interacting effects of adult mortality. Tests of the possible effects of nest predation on egg mass were compromised by limited power and by counterposing direct and indirect effects. Finally, components of parental investment, defined as effort per offspring, might be expected to positively coevolve. Indeed, egg mass, but not clutch mass, was greater in species that shared incubation by males and females compared with species in which only females incubate eggs. However, egg and

  15. Identification of double-yolked duck egg using computer vision.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Long Ma

    Full Text Available The double-yolked (DY egg is quite popular in some Asian countries because it is considered as a sign of good luck, however, the double yolk is one of the reasons why these eggs fail to hatch. The usage of automatic methods for identifying DY eggs can increase the efficiency in the poultry industry by decreasing egg loss during incubation or improving sale proceeds. In this study, two methods for DY duck egg identification were developed by using computer vision technology. Transmittance images of DY and single-yolked (SY duck eggs were acquired by a CCD camera to identify them according to their shape features. The Fisher's linear discriminant (FLD model equipped with a set of normalized Fourier descriptors (NFDs extracted from the acquired images and the convolutional neural network (CNN model using primary preprocessed images were built to recognize duck egg yolk types. The classification accuracies of the FLD model for SY and DY eggs were 100% and 93.2% respectively, while the classification accuracies of the CNN model for SY and DY eggs were 98% and 98.8% respectively. The CNN-based algorithm took about 0.12 s to recognize one sample image, which was slightly faster than the FLD-based (about 0.20 s. Finally, this work compared two classification methods and provided the better method for DY egg identification.

  16. Efeito da transformação do ninho manual modelo holandês em mecânico na postura de ovos de cama em matrizes de frangos de corte Effect of the transformation of a hand-operated Dutch nest into a mechanical nest on the laying of floor eggs in broiler breeders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Pilotto

    2010-10-01

    accepted by the parental broiler lines, to a new model aiming the mechanical egg collection. Adaptation consisted on replacing wood shaving by stuffed wood sheet and the placement of a conveyor belt for egg collection. This adaptation was evaluated in two experiments in the same shed with breeders from 25 to 35 weeks of age. In both experiments, there were 69 available modules, each one with 24 nests (manual nest for collection of eggs from 7,690 hens and one adapted module with 24 nests (mechanical nest for mechanical collection of eggs from 110 hens. In experiment 1, weekly percentages of produced eggs and floor eggs were compared and in experiment 2, besides those variables, percentages of cracked eggs and dirty eggs in the nest were observed. Also in experiment 2, aiming to reduce floor eggs observed in experiment 1, wood shavings were added on the stuffed wood sheet, from lodging to the 26th week. It was used a 2 õ 11 factorial design, in which the main plot was constituted by the mechanical and manual nests and the sub-plots were composed of the eleven weeks of evaluation. The weekly percentage of produced weeks was similar for the two nest types, in both 1 and 2 experiments. Percentage of floor eggs (experiments 1 and 2, dirty eggs and cracked eggs (experiment 2 obtained with mechanical nest were worse than with manual nest. In experiment 2, placement of wood shavings in the mechanical nest did not contribute for reduction on floor egg percentage. Transformation of manual nest to mechanical nests increased the number of floor, dirty and cracked eggs, showing a worse acceptance of this type of nest by the hens.

  17. Egg size as a life history character of marine invertebrates: Is it all it's cracked up to be?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Amy L; McAlister, Justin S

    2009-06-01

    Egg size is one of the most important aspects of the life history of free-spawning marine organisms, and it is correlated with larval developmental mode and many other life-history characters. Egg size is simple to measure and data are available for a wide range of taxa, but we have a limited understanding of how large and small eggs differ in composition; size is not always the best measure of the characters under selection. Large eggs are generally considered to reflect increased maternal investment, but egg size alone can be a poor predictor of energetic content within and among taxa. We review techniques that have been used to measure the energetic content and biochemical makeup of invertebrate eggs and point out the strengths and difficulties associated with each. We also suggest a number of comparative and descriptive approaches to biochemical constituent analysis that would strengthen our understanding of how natural selection shapes oogenic strategies. Finally, we highlight recent empirical research on the intrinsic factors that drive intraspecific variation in egg size. We also highlight the relative paucity of these data in the literature and provide some suggestions for future research directions.

  18. Different routes lead to apoptosis in unfertilized sea urchin eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philippe, Laetitia; Tosca, Lucie; Zhang, Wen Ling; Piquemal, Marion; Ciapa, Brigitte

    2014-03-01

    Results obtained in various species, from mammals to invertebrates, show that arrest in the cell cycle of mature oocytes is due to a high ERK activity. Apoptosis is stimulated in these oocytes if fertilization does not occur. Our previous data suggest that apoptosis of unfertilized sea urchin eggs is the consequence of an aberrant short attempt of development that occurs if ERK is inactivated. They contradict those obtained in starfish, another echinoderm, where inactivation of ERK delays apoptosis of aging mature oocytes that are nevertheless arrested at G1 of the cell cycle as in the sea urchin. This suggests that the cell death pathway that can be activated in unfertilized eggs is not the same in sea urchin and in starfish. In the present study, we find that protein synthesis is necessary for the survival of unfertilized sea urchin eggs, contrary to starfish. We also compare the effects induced by Emetine, an inhibitor of protein synthesis, with those triggered by Staurosporine, a non specific inhibitor of protein kinase that is widely used to induce apoptosis in many types of cells. Our results indicate that the unfertilized sea urchin egg contain different mechanisms capable of leading to apoptosis and that rely or not on changes in ERK activity, acidity of intracellular organelles or intracellular Ca and pH. We discuss the validity of some methods to investigate cell death such as measurements of caspase activation with the fluorescent caspase indicator FITC-VAD-fmk or acidification of intracellular organelles, methods that may lead to erroneous conclusions at least in the sea urchin model.

  19. Effects of Some Pesticides on Development of Ascaris suum Eggs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yong-Man; Kim, Jin-Won; Na, Won-Seok; Youn, Young-Nam; Choi, In-Wook

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of pesticides to parasite eggs, Ascaris suum eggs were incubated with 5 different pesticides (1:1,500-1:2,000 dilutions of 2% emamectin benzoate, 5% spinetoram, 5% indoxacarb, 1% deltamethrin, and 5% flufenoxuron; all v/v) at 20℃ for 6 weeks, and microscopically evaluated the egg survival and development on a weekly basis. The survival rate of A. suum eggs incubated in normal saline (control eggs) was 90±3% at 6 weeks. However, the survival rates of eggs treated with pesticides were 75-85% at this time, thus significantly lower than the control value. Larval development in control eggs commenced at 3 weeks, and 73±3% of eggs had internal larvae at 6 weeks. Larvae were evident in pesticide-treated eggs at 3-4 weeks, and the proportions of eggs carrying larvae at 6 weeks (36±3%-54±3%) were significantly lower than that of the control group. Thus, pesticides tested at levels similar to those used in agricultural practices exhibited low-level ovicidal activity and delayed embryogenesis of A. suum eggs, although some differences were evident among the tested pesticides. PMID:24623893

  20. A tough egg to crack: recreational boats as vectors for invasive goby eggs and transdisciplinary management approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, Philipp E; Adrian-Kalchhauser, Irene; Flämig, Sylvie; N'Guyen, Anouk; Defila, Rico; Di Giulio, Antonietta; Burkhardt-Holm, Patricia

    2016-02-01

    Non-native invasive species are a major threat to biodiversity, especially in freshwater ecosystems. Freshwater ecosystems are naturally rather isolated from one another. Nonetheless, invasive species often spread rapidly across water sheds. This spread is to a large extent realized by human activities that provide vectors. For example, recreational boats can carry invasive species propagules as "aquatic hitch-hikers" within and across water sheds. We used invasive gobies in Switzerland as a case study to test the plausibility that recreational boats can serve as vectors for invasive fish and that fish eggs can serve as propagules. We found that the peak season of boat movements across Switzerland and the goby spawning season overlap temporally. It is thus plausible that goby eggs attached to boats, anchors, or gear may be transported across watersheds. In experimental trials, we found that goby eggs show resistance to physical removal (90 mN attachment strength of individual eggs) and stay attached if exposed to rapid water flow (2.8 m·s(-1)for 1 h). When exposing the eggs to air, we found that hatching success remained high (>95%) even after eggs had been out of water for up to 24 h. It is thus plausible that eggs survive pick up, within-water and overland transport by boats. We complemented the experimental plausibility tests with a survey on how decision makers from inside and outside academia rate the feasibility of managing recreational boats as vectors. We found consensus that an installation of a preventive boat vector management is considered an effective and urgent measure. This study advances our understanding of the potential of recreational boats to serve as vectors for invasive vertebrate species and demonstrates that preventive management of recreational boats is considered feasible by relevant decision makers inside and outside academia.