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Sample records for mechanisms metabolic hypersusceptibility

  1. Disruption of the GDP-mannose synthesis pathway in Streptomyces coelicolor results in antibiotic hyper-susceptible phenotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howlett, Robert; Anttonen, Katri; Read, Nicholas; Smith, Margaret C M

    2018-04-01

    Actinomycete bacteria use polyprenol phosphate mannose as a lipid linked sugar donor for extra-cytoplasmic glycosyl transferases that transfer mannose to cell envelope polymers, including glycoproteins and glycolipids. We showed recently that strains of Streptomyces coelicolor with mutations in the gene ppm1 encoding polyprenol phosphate mannose synthase were both resistant to phage φC31 and have greatly increased susceptibility to antibiotics that mostly act on cell wall biogenesis. Here we show that mutations in the genes encoding enzymes that act upstream of Ppm1 in the polyprenol phosphate mannose synthesis pathway can also confer phage resistance and antibiotic hyper-susceptibility. GDP-mannose is a substrate for Ppm1 and is synthesised by GDP-mannose pyrophosphorylase (GMP; ManC) which uses GTP and mannose-1-phosphate as substrates. Phosphomannomutase (PMM; ManB) converts mannose-6-phosphate to mannose-1-phosphate. S. coelicolor strains with knocked down GMP activity or with a mutation in sco3028 encoding PMM acquire phenotypes that resemble those of the ppm1 - mutants i.e. φC31 resistant and susceptible to antibiotics. Differences in the phenotypes of the strains were observed, however. While the ppm1 - strains have a small colony phenotype, the sco3028 :: Tn5062 mutants had an extremely small colony phenotype indicative of an even greater growth defect. Moreover we were unable to generate a strain in which GMP activity encoded by sco3039 and sco4238 is completely knocked out, indicating that GMP is also an important enzyme for growth. Possibly GDP-mannose is at a metabolic branch point that supplies alternative nucleotide sugar donors.

  2. Metabolic Mechanisms in Obesity and Type 2 Diabetes: Insights from Bariatric/Metabolic Surgery

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    Adriana Florinela Cătoi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Obesity and the related diabetes epidemics represent a real concern worldwide. Bariatric/metabolic surgery emerged in last years as a valuable therapeutic option for obesity and related diseases, including type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. The complicated network of mechanisms involved in obesity and T2DM have not completely defined yet. There is still a debate on which would be the first metabolic defect leading to metabolic deterioration: insulin resistance or hyperinsulinemia? Insight into the metabolic effects of bariatric/metabolic surgery has revealed that, beyond weight loss and food restriction, other mechanisms can be activated by the rearrangements of the gastrointestinal tract, such as the incretinic/anti-incretinic system, changes in bile acid composition and flow, and modifications of gut microbiota; all of them possibly involved in the remission of T2DM. The complete elucidation of these mechanisms will lead to a better understanding of the pathogenesis of this disease. Our aim was to review some of the metabolic mechanisms involved in the development of T2DM in obese patients as well as in the remission of this condition in patients submitted to bariatric/metabolic surgery.

  3. Meiotic and Mitotic Phenotypes Conferred by the blm1-1 Mutation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and MSH4 Suppression of the Bleomycin Hypersusceptibility

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    Carol Wood Moore

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Oxidative damage can lead to a number of diseases, and can be fatal. The blm1-1 mutation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae confers hypersusceptibility to lethal effects of the oxidative, anticancer and antifungal agent, bleomycin. For the current report, additional defects conferred by the mutation in meiosis and mitosis were investigated. The viability of spores produced during meiosis by homozygous normal BLM1/BLM1, heterozygous BLM1/blm1-1, and homozygous mutant blm1-1/blm1-1 diploid strains was studied and compared. Approximately 88% of the tetrads derived from homozygous blm1-1/blm1-1 mutant diploid cells only produced one or two viable spores. In contrast, just one tetrad among all BLM1/BLM1 and BLM1/blm1-1 tetrads only produced one or two viable spores. Rather, 94% of BLM1/BLM1 tetrads and 100% of BLM1/blm1-1 tetrads produced asci with four or three viable spores. Thus, at least one copy of the BLM1 gene is essential for the production of four viable spores after meiosis. During mitotic growth, mutant blm1-1 strains grew at reduced rates and produced cells with high frequencies of unusual morphologies compared to wild-type strains. These results indicated BLM1 is also essential for normal mitotic growth. We also investigated the suppression by the MSH4 gene, a meiosis-specific MutS homolog, of the bleomycin hypersusceptibility of blm1-1 mutant cells, and the relationship of MSH4 to BLM1. We screened a genomic library, and isolated the MSH4 gene on the basis of its ability to suppress lethal effects of bleomycin in blm1-1 cells. However, genetic mapping studies indicated that BLM1 and MSH4 are not the same gene. The possibility that chromosomal nondisjunction could be the basis for the inability of blm1-1/blm1-1 mutant cells to produce four viable spores after meiosis is discussed.

  4. Quantum Mechanics/Molecular Mechanics Modeling of Drug Metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lonsdale, Richard; Fort, Rachel M; Rydberg, Patrik

    2016-01-01

    )-mexiletine in CYP1A2 with hybrid quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (QM/MM) methods, providing a more detailed and realistic model. Multiple reaction barriers have been calculated at the QM(B3LYP-D)/MM(CHARMM27) level for the direct N-oxidation and H-abstraction/rebound mechanisms. Our calculated barriers......The mechanism of cytochrome P450(CYP)-catalyzed hydroxylation of primary amines is currently unclear and is relevant to drug metabolism; previous small model calculations have suggested two possible mechanisms: direct N-oxidation and H-abstraction/rebound. We have modeled the N-hydroxylation of (R...... indicate that the direct N-oxidation mechanism is preferred and proceeds via the doublet spin state of Compound I. Molecular dynamics simulations indicate that the presence of an ordered water molecule in the active site assists in the binding of mexiletine in the active site...

  5. Gut microbiome and lipid metabolism : from associations to mechanisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Zheng; Koonen, Debby; Hofker, Marten; Fu, Jingyuan

    Purpose of review The gut microbiome has now been convincingly linked to human metabolic health but the underlying causality and mechanisms remain poorly understood. This review focuses on the recent progress in establishing the associations between gut microbiome species and lipid metabolism in

  6. Mechanisms of changes in glucose metabolism and bodyweight after bariatric surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsbad, Sten; Dirksen, Carsten; Holst, Jens Juul

    2014-01-01

    gastrectomy (VSG) and Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) induce changes in appetite through regulation of gut hormones, resulting in decreased hunger and increased satiation. Thus, VSG and RYBG more frequently result in remission of type 2 diabetes than does LAGB. With all three of these procedures, remission...... regulatory pathways that control appetite and glucose metabolism after bariatric surgery. Recent research suggests that changes in bile acid concentrations in the blood and altered intestinal microbiota might contribute to metabolic changes after surgery, but the mechanisms are unclear. In this Series paper......, we explore the possible mechanisms underlying the effects on glucose metabolism and bodyweight of LAGB, VSG, and RYGB surgery. Elucidation of these mechanisms is providing knowledge about bodyweight regulation and the pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes, and could help to identify new drug targets...

  7. Metabolic Mechanism for l-Leucine-Induced Metabolome To Eliminate Streptococcus iniae.

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    Du, Chao-Chao; Yang, Man-Jun; Li, Min-Yi; Yang, Jun; Peng, Bo; Li, Hui; Peng, Xuan-Xian

    2017-05-05

    Crucial metabolites that modulate hosts' metabolome to eliminate bacterial pathogens have been documented, but the metabolic mechanisms are largely unknown. The present study explores the metabolic mechanism for l-leucine-induced metabolome to eliminate Streptococcus iniae in tilapia. GC-MS-based metabolomics was used to investigate the tilapia liver metabolic profile in the presence of exogenous l-leucine. Thirty-seven metabolites of differential abundance were determined, and 11 metabolic pathways were enriched. Pattern recognition analysis identified serine and proline as crucial metabolites, which are the two metabolites identified in survived tilapias during S. iniae infection, suggesting that the two metabolites play crucial roles in l-leucine-induced elimination of the pathogen by the host. Exogenous l-serine reduces the mortality of tilapias infected by S. iniae, providing a robust proof supporting the conclusion. Furthermore, exogenous l-serine elevates expression of genes IL-1β and IL-8 in tilapia spleen, but not TNFα, CXCR4 and Mx, suggesting that the metabolite promotes a phagocytosis role of macrophages, which is consistent with the finding that l-leucine promotes macrophages to kill both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial pathogens. Therefore, the ability of phagocytosis enhanced by exogenous l-leucine is partly attributed to elevation of l-serine. These results demonstrate a metabolic mechanism by which exogenous l-leucine modulates tilapias' metabolome to enhance innate immunity and eliminate pathogens.

  8. [Review: plant polyphenols modulate lipid metabolism and related molecular mechanism].

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    Dai, Yan-li; Zou, Yu-xiao; Liu, Fan; Li, Hong-zhi

    2015-11-01

    Lipid metabolism disorder is an important risk factor to obesity, hyperlipidemia and type 2 diabetes as well as other chronic metabolic disease. It is also a key target in preventing metabolic syndrome, chronic disease prevention. Plant polyphenol plays an important role in maintaining or improving lipid profile in a variety of ways. including regulating cholesterol absorption, inhibiting synthesis and secretion of triglyceride, and lowering plasma low density lipoprotein oxidation, etc. The purpose of this article is to review the lipid regulation effects of plant polyphenols and its related mechanisms.

  9. Dissecting the genetic and metabolic mechanisms of adaptation to the knockout of a major metabolic enzyme in Escherichia coli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Long, Christopher P.; Gonzalez, Jacqueline E.; Feist, Adam M.

    2018-01-01

    Unraveling the mechanisms of microbial adaptive evolution following genetic or environmental challenges is of fundamental interest in biological science and engineering. When the challenge is the loss of a metabolic enzyme, adaptive responses can also shed significant insight into metabolic...

  10. Ketone-Based Metabolic Therapy: Is Increased NAD+ a Primary Mechanism?

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    Marwa Elamin

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The ketogenic diet’s (KD anticonvulsant effects have been well-documented for nearly a century, including in randomized controlled trials. Some patients become seizure-free and some remain so after diet cessation. Many recent studies have explored its expanded therapeutic potential in diverse neurological disorders, yet no mechanism(s of action have been established. The diet’s high fat, low carbohydrate composition reduces glucose utilization and promotes the production of ketone bodies. Ketone bodies are a more efficient energy source than glucose and improve mitochondrial function and biogenesis. Cellular energy production depends on the metabolic coenzyme nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD, a marker for mitochondrial and cellular health. Furthermore, NAD activates downstream signaling pathways (such as the sirtuin enzymes associated with major benefits such as longevity and reduced inflammation; thus, increasing NAD is a coveted therapeutic endpoint. Based on differential NAD+ utilization during glucose- vs. ketone body-based acetyl-CoA generation for entry into the tricarboxylic cycle, we propose that a KD will increase the NAD+/NADH ratio. When rats were fed ad libitum KD, significant increases in hippocampal NAD+/NADH ratio and blood ketone bodies were detected already at 2 days and remained elevated at 3 weeks, indicating an early and persistent metabolic shift. Based on diverse published literature and these initial data we suggest that increased NAD during ketolytic metabolism may be a primary mechanism behind the beneficial effects of this metabolic therapy in a variety of brain disorders and in promoting health and longevity.

  11. Commentary: Potential Neurobiologic Mechanisms through Which Metabolic Disorders Could Relate to Autism.

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    Johnston, Michael V.

    2000-01-01

    To illustrate the possible relationships between metabolic disorders and autism, this commentary reviews findings from studies on the characteristics of individuals with Rett syndrome that indicate the genetic mechanism of transcriptional dysregulation can produce pathologic phenotypes which resemble metabolic disorders that stunt axonodendritic…

  12. Mechanism of microsomal metabolism of benzene to phenol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinson, J.A.; Freeman, J.P.; Potter, D.W.; Mitchum, R.K.; Evans, F.E.

    1985-05-01

    The mechanism of microsomal hydroxylation of benzene to phenol has been studied by examining the microsomal metabolism of the specifically deuterated derivative 1,3,5-(/sub 2/H/sup 3/)benzene. Evidence for the formation of the following four products was obtained: 2,3,5-(/sub 2/H/sup 3/)phenol, 3,5-(/sub 2/H/sup 2/)phenol, 2,4,6-(/sub 2/H/sup 3/)phenol, and 2,4-(/sub 2/H/sup 2/)phenol. The presence of 2,3,5-(2H3)phenol and 2,4-(/sub 2/H/sup 2/)phenol shows that, in the microsomal metabolism of benzene to phenol, a NIH shift had occurred. A deuterium isotope effect (kH/kD) of approximately 4 was detected in both the meta- and para-deuterated phenols. This finding indicates that cyclohexadienone, formed either by isomerization of the epoxide or directly from the enzyme-substrate complex, is a major intermediate in the metabolism of benzene to phenol.

  13. Mechanisms of redox metabolism and cancer cell survival during extracellular matrix detachment.

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    Hawk, Mark A; Schafer, Zachary T

    2018-01-16

    Non-transformed cells that become detached from the extracellular matrix (ECM) undergo dysregulation of redox homeostasis and cell death. In contrast, cancer cells often acquire the ability to mitigate programmed cell death pathways and recalibrate the redox balance to survive after ECM detachment, facilitating metastatic dissemination. Accordingly, recent studies of the mechanisms by which cancer cells overcome ECM detachment-induced metabolic alterations have focused on mechanisms in redox homeostasis. The insights into these mechanisms may inform the development of therapeutics that manipulate redox homeostasis to eliminate ECM-detached cancer cells. Here, we review how ECM-detached cancer cells balance redox metabolism for survival. Published under license by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  14. Berberine Moderates Glucose and Lipid Metabolism through Multipathway Mechanism

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    Qian Zhang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Berberine is known to improve glucose and lipid metabolism disorders, but the mechanism is still under investigation. In this paper, we explored the effects of berberine on the weight, glucose levels, lipid metabolism, and serum insulin of KKAy mice and investigated its possible glucose and lipid-regulating mechanism. We randomly divided KKAy mice into two groups: berberine group (treated with 250 mg/kg/d berberine and control group. Fasting blood glucose (FBG, weight, total cholesterol (TC, triglyceride (TG, high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-c, low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-c, and fasting serum insulin were measured in both groups. The oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT was performed. RT2 PCR array gene expression analysis was performed using skeletal muscle of KKAy mice. Our data demonstrated that berberine significantly decreased FBG, area under the curve (AUC, fasting serum insulin (FINS, homeostasis model assessment insulin resistance (HOMA-IR index, TC, and TG, compared with those of control group. RT2 profiler PCR array analysis showed that berberine upregulated the expression of glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4, mitogen-activated protein kinase 14 (MAPK14, MAPK8(c-jun N-terminal kinase, JNK, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα, uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2, and hepatic nuclear factor 4α(HNF4α, whereas it downregulated the expression of PPARγ, CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein (CEBP, PPARγ coactivator 1α(PGC 1α, and resistin. These results suggest that berberine moderates glucose and lipid metabolism through a multipathway mechanism that includes AMP-activated protein kinase-(AMPK- p38 MAPK-GLUT4, JNK pathway, and PPARα pathway.

  15. Quantum Mechanics/Molecular Mechanics Modeling of Drug Metabolism: Mexiletine N-Hydroxylation by Cytochrome P450 1A2.

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    Lonsdale, Richard; Fort, Rachel M; Rydberg, Patrik; Harvey, Jeremy N; Mulholland, Adrian J

    2016-06-20

    The mechanism of cytochrome P450(CYP)-catalyzed hydroxylation of primary amines is currently unclear and is relevant to drug metabolism; previous small model calculations have suggested two possible mechanisms: direct N-oxidation and H-abstraction/rebound. We have modeled the N-hydroxylation of (R)-mexiletine in CYP1A2 with hybrid quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (QM/MM) methods, providing a more detailed and realistic model. Multiple reaction barriers have been calculated at the QM(B3LYP-D)/MM(CHARMM27) level for the direct N-oxidation and H-abstraction/rebound mechanisms. Our calculated barriers indicate that the direct N-oxidation mechanism is preferred and proceeds via the doublet spin state of Compound I. Molecular dynamics simulations indicate that the presence of an ordered water molecule in the active site assists in the binding of mexiletine in the active site, but this is not a prerequisite for reaction via either mechanism. Several active site residues play a role in the binding of mexiletine in the active site, including Thr124 and Phe226. This work reveals key details of the N-hydroxylation of mexiletine and further demonstrates that mechanistic studies using QM/MM methods are useful for understanding drug metabolism.

  16. Metabolic Syndrome and Cardio-Cerebrovascular Risk Disparities Between Pilots and Aircraft Mechanics.

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    Kim, Myeong-Bo; Kim, Hyun-Jin; Kim, Soo-Hyeon; Lee, Suk-Ho; Lee, Se-Ho; Park, Won-Ju

    2017-09-01

    In the Republic of Korea Air Force, the health of pilots is strictly supervised, but there is comparatively not enough interest in aircraft mechanics' health. Among mechanics, who are heavily involved in military aircraft maintenance, the occurrence of sudden cardio-cerebrovascular diseases (CCVDs) is a possible risk factor during the maintenance process, which should be performed perfectly. We performed health examinations on 2123 male aircraft pilots and 1271 aircraft mechanics over 30 yr of age and determined the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS), an important risk factor for CCVDs. The prevalence of MetS in the aircraft mechanics (21.3%) was significantly higher than in the pilots (12.6%), and the gap in prevalence tended to grow as age increased. Among aircraft mechanics in their 30s and 40s, the prevalence of MetS was lower than in the general population. However, the prevalence of MetS among aircraft mechanics in their 50s (36.0%) was similar to that in the general population (35.7%). Systematic health management is needed for aircraft mechanics for aviation safety and for the maintenance of military strength via the prevention of CCVDs.Kim M-B, Kim H-J, Kim S-H, Lee S-H, Lee S-H, Park W-J. Metabolic syndrome and cardio-cerebrovascular risk disparities between pilots and aircraft mechanics. Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2017; 88(9):866-870.

  17. Metabolic profiling reveals ethylene mediated metabolic changes and a coordinated adaptive mechanism of 'Jonagold' apple to low oxygen stress.

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    Bekele, Elias A; Beshir, Wasiye F; Hertog, Maarten L A T M; Nicolai, Bart M; Geeraerd, Annemie H

    2015-11-01

    Apples are predominantly stored in controlled atmosphere (CA) storage to delay ripening and prolong their storage life. Profiling the dynamics of metabolic changes during ripening and CA storage is vital for understanding the governing molecular mechanism. In this study, the dynamics of the primary metabolism of 'Jonagold' apples during ripening in regular air (RA) storage and initiation of CA storage was profiled. 1-Methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) was exploited to block ethylene receptors and to get insight into ethylene mediated metabolic changes during ripening of the fruit and in response to hypoxic stress. Metabolic changes were quantified in glycolysis, the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, the Yang cycle and synthesis of the main amino acids branching from these metabolic pathways. Partial least square discriminant analysis of the metabolic profiles of 1-MCP treated and control apples revealed a metabolic divergence in ethylene, organic acid, sugar and amino acid metabolism. During RA storage at 18°C, most amino acids were higher in 1-MCP treated apples, whereas 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) was higher in the control apples. The initial response of the fruit to CA initiation was accompanied by an increase of alanine, succinate and glutamate, but a decline in aspartate. Furthermore, alanine and succinate accumulated to higher levels in control apples than 1-MCP treated apples. The observed metabolic changes in these interlinked metabolites may indicate a coordinated adaptive strategy to maximize energy production. © 2015 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  18. Metabolic self-destruction in critically ill patients: origins, mechanisms and therapeutic principles.

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    Hartl, Wolfgang H; Jauch, Karl-Walter

    2014-03-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the evolution and nature of self-destructive metabolic responses observed in critically ill patients, and to analyze therapeutic principles on how best to avoid or diminish these responses. We electronically identified articles through a search of PubMed and Google Scholar. Metabolic reactions associated with surgical injury or infections comprise hyperglycemia, insulin resistance, increased hepatic glucose production, and muscle protein breakdown. From an evolutionary perspective, these responses have been necessary and successful to overcome spontaneously survivable insults (minor surgical trauma). If prolonged and exaggerated, however, these reactions may become self-destructive, causing secondary metabolic damage. There is overwhelming evidence that extreme metabolic responses have not been selected by evolution, but are brought about by modern medicine enabling survival of severe, otherwise lethal insults and giving patients the chance to develop such exaggerated self-destructive metabolic reactions. Poorly adapted metabolic responses to severe insults, however, may have persisted because of unavoidable evolutionary constraints. Self-destructive metabolic responses cannot be prevented by adjuvant therapies such as artificial nutrition, which may only help to ameliorate secondary metabolic damage. Minor surgical trauma is associated with a beneficial adaptive metabolic response. After a severe insult, however, emergence of self-destructive responses will be unavoidable if the patient survives the acute phase. Effective treatment is only possible by an aggressive therapy of underlying pathologies (such as shock, trauma or infection) thereby interrupting secondary metabolic trigger mechanisms at an early stage. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Insulin Signaling, Resistance, and the Metabolic Syndrome: Insights from Mouse Models to Disease Mechanisms

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    Guo, Shaodong

    2014-01-01

    Insulin resistance is a major underlying mechanism for the “metabolic syndrome”, which is also known as insulin resistance syndrome. Metabolic syndrome is increasing at an alarming rate, becoming a major public and clinical problem worldwide. Metabolic syndrome is represented by a group of interrelated disorders, including obesity, hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia, and hypertension. It is also a significant risk factor for cardiovascular disease and increased morbidity and mortality. Animal studies demonstrate that insulin and its signaling cascade normally control cell growth, metabolism and survival through activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and phosphotidylinositide-3-kinase (PI3K), of which activation of PI-3K-associated with insulin receptor substrate-1 and -2 (IRS1, 2) and subsequent Akt→Foxo1 phosphorylation cascade has a central role in control of nutrient homeostasis and organ survival. Inactivation of Akt and activation of Foxo1, through suppression IRS1 and IRS2 in different organs following hyperinsulinemia, metabolic inflammation, and over nutrition may provide the underlying mechanisms for metabolic syndrome in humans. Targeting the IRS→Akt→Foxo1 signaling cascade will likely provide a strategy for therapeutic intervention in the treatment of type 2 diabetes and its complications. This review discusses the basis of insulin signaling, insulin resistance in different mouse models, and how a deficiency of insulin signaling components in different organs contributes to the feature of the metabolic syndrome. Emphasis will be placed on the role of IRS1, IRS2, and associated signaling pathways that couple to Akt and the forkhead/winged helix transcription factor Foxo1. PMID:24281010

  20. Biomechanical walking mechanisms underlying the metabolic reduction caused by an autonomous exoskeleton.

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    Mooney, Luke M; Herr, Hugh M

    2016-01-28

    Ankle exoskeletons can now reduce the metabolic cost of walking in humans without leg disability, but the biomechanical mechanisms that underlie this augmentation are not fully understood. In this study, we analyze the energetics and lower limb mechanics of human study participants walking with and without an active autonomous ankle exoskeleton previously shown to reduce the metabolic cost of walking. We measured the metabolic, kinetic and kinematic effects of wearing a battery powered bilateral ankle exoskeleton. Six participants walked on a level treadmill at 1.4 m/s under three conditions: exoskeleton not worn, exoskeleton worn in a powered-on state, and exoskeleton worn in a powered-off state. Metabolic rates were measured with a portable pulmonary gas exchange unit, body marker positions with a motion capture system, and ground reaction forces with a force-plate instrumented treadmill. Inverse dynamics were then used to estimate ankle, knee and hip torques and mechanical powers. The active ankle exoskeleton provided a mean positive power of 0.105 ± 0.008 W/kg per leg during the push-off region of stance phase. The net metabolic cost of walking with the active exoskeleton (3.28 ± 0.10 W/kg) was an 11 ± 4 % (p = 0.019) reduction compared to the cost of walking without the exoskeleton (3.71 ± 0.14 W/kg). Wearing the ankle exoskeleton significantly reduced the mean positive power of the ankle joint by 0.033 ± 0.006 W/kg (p = 0.007), the knee joint by 0.042 ± 0.015 W/kg (p = 0.020), and the hip joint by 0.034 ± 0.009 W/kg (p = 0.006). This study shows that the ankle exoskeleton does not exclusively reduce positive mechanical power at the ankle joint, but also mitigates positive power at the knee and hip. Furthermore, the active ankle exoskeleton did not simply replace biological ankle function in walking, but rather augmented the total (biological + exoskeletal) ankle moment and power. This study

  1. Studies on the metabolism and possible mechanisms of atherogenesis of lipoprotein (a)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krempler, F.

    1984-01-01

    The mechanisms of atherogenesis are under intensive clinical and experimental investigation. It is commonly accepted that lipoproteins play a major role in atherogenesis. The results of several clinical studies suggest that lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)] represents an independent risk factor for atherosclerosis. In order to obtain information on the physiological and pathological role of LP(a), studies were undertaken to investigate the metabolism, removal sites, and possible atherogenic mechanism of Lp(a). It was found that Lp(a) is not metabolic product of other apoprotein B containing lipoproteins, but appears to be synthesized as a separate lipoprotein. The turnover parameters of Lp(a) resemble those of LDL. Binding studies of Lp(a) with cultured human fibroblasts demonstrated that Lp(a) is bound by the B-E receptor. After binding, Lp(a) is internalized and inhibits cellular cholesterol synthesis. In the presence of dextran sulfate or antibodies to the specific Lp(a) apoprotein or apoprotein B, Lp(a) is avidly taken up by macrophages. A similar mechanism might be responsible for the atherogenic effect of Lp(a). (Author)

  2. Expression of muscle anabolic and metabolic factors in mechanically loaded MLO-Y4 osteocytes

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    Juffer, P.; Jaspers, R.T.; Lips, P.; Bakker, A.D.; Klein-Nulend, J.

    2012-01-01

    Lack of physical activity results in muscle atrophy and bone loss, which can be counteracted by mechanical loading. Similar molecular signaling pathways are involved in the adaptation of muscle and bone mass to mechanical loading. Whether anabolic and metabolic factors regulating muscle mass, i.e.,

  3. Dissecting diabetes/metabolic disease mechanisms using pluripotent stem cells and genome editing tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Kee Keong Teo

    2015-09-01

    Major conclusions: hPSCs and the advancing genome editing tools appear to be a timely and potent combination for probing molecular mechanism(s underlying diseases such as diabetes and metabolic syndromes. The knowledge gained from these hiPSC-based disease modeling studies can potentially be translated into the clinics by guiding clinicians on the appropriate type of medication to use for each condition based on the mechanism of action of the disease.

  4. Cytochrome P450s: mechanisms and biological implications in drug metabolism and its interaction with oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharyya, Sudip; Sinha, Krishnendu; Sil, Parames C

    2014-01-01

    Cytochrome monooxygenases P450 enzymes (CYPs) are terminal oxidases, belonging to the multi-gene family of heme-thiolate enzymes and located in multiple sites of ER, cytosol and mitochondria. CYPs act as catalysts in drugs metabolism. This review highlights the mitochondrial and microsomal CYPs metabolic functions, CYPs mediated ROS generation and its feedback, bioactivation of drugs and related hypersensitivity, metabolic disposition as well as the therapeutic approaches. CYPs mediated drugs bioactivation may trigger oxidative stress and cause pathophysiology. Almost all drugs show some adverse reactions at high doses or accidental overdoses. Drugs lead to hypersensitivity reactions while metabolic predisposition to drug hypersensitivity exaggerates it. Mostly different intermediate bioactive products of CYPs mediated drug metabolism is the principal issue in this respect. On the other hand, CYPs are the main source of ROS. Their generation and feedback are of major concern of this review. Besides drug metabolism, CYPs also contribute significantly to carcinogen metabolism. Ultimately other enzymes in drug metabolism and antioxidant therapy are indispensible. Importance of this field: In a global sense, understanding of exact mechanism can facilitate pharmaceutical industries' challenge of developing drugs without toxicity. Ultimate message: This review would accentuate the recent advances in molecular mechanism of CYPs mediated drug metabolism and complex cross-talks between various restorative novel strategies evolved by CYPs to sustain the redox balance and limit the source of oxidative stress.

  5. Mechanisms of triglyceride metabolism in patients with bile acid diarrhea.

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    Sagar, Nidhi Midhu; McFarlane, Michael; Nwokolo, Chuka; Bardhan, Karna Dev; Arasaradnam, Ramesh Pulendran

    2016-08-14

    Bile acids (BAs) are essential for the absorption of lipids. BA synthesis is inhibited through intestinal farnesoid X receptor (FXR) activity. BA sequestration is known to influence BA metabolism and control serum lipid concentrations. Animal data has demonstrated a regulatory role for the FXR in triglyceride metabolism. FXR inhibits hepatic lipogenesis by inhibiting the expression of sterol regulatory element binding protein 1c via small heterodimer primer activity. Conversely, FXR promotes free fatty acids oxidation by inducing the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α. FXR can reduce the expression of microsomal triglyceride transfer protein, which regulates the assembly of very low-density lipoproteins (VLDL). FXR activation in turn promotes the clearance of circulating triglycerides by inducing apolipoprotein C-II, very low-density lipoproteins receptor (VLDL-R) and the expression of Syndecan-1 together with the repression of apolipoprotein C-III, which increases lipoprotein lipase activity. There is currently minimal clinical data on triglyceride metabolism in patients with bile acid diarrhoea (BAD). Emerging data suggests that a third of patients with BAD have hypertriglyceridemia. Further research is required to establish the risk of hypertriglyceridaemia in patients with BAD and elicit the mechanisms behind this, allowing for targeted treatment.

  6. Antiretroviral drug susceptibility among drug-naive adults with recent HIV infection in Rakai, Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eshleman, Susan H; Laeyendecker, Oliver; Parkin, Neil; Huang, Wei; Chappey, Colombe; Paquet, Agnes C; Serwadda, David; Reynolds, Steven J; Kiwanuka, Noah; Quinn, Thomas C; Gray, Ronald; Wawer, Maria

    2009-04-27

    To analyze antiretroviral drug susceptibility in HIV from recently infected adults in Rakai, Uganda, prior to the availability of antiretroviral drug treatment. Samples obtained at the time of HIV seroconversion (1998-2003) were analyzed using the GeneSeq HIV and PhenoSense HIV assays (Monogram Biosciences, Inc., South San Francisco, California, USA). Test results were obtained for 104 samples (subtypes: 26A, 1C, 66D, 9A/D, 1C/D, 1 intersubtype recombinant). Mutations used for genotypic surveillance of transmitted antiretroviral drug resistance were identified in six samples: three had nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI) surveillance mutations (two had M41L, one had K219R), and three had protease inhibitor surveillance mutations (I47V, F53L, N88D); none had nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) surveillance mutations. Other resistance-associated mutations were identified in some samples. However, none of the samples had a sufficient number of mutations to predict reduced antiretroviral drug susceptibility. Ten (9.6%) of the samples had reduced phenotypic susceptibility to at least one drug (one had partial susceptibility to didanosine, one had nevirapine resistance, and eight had resistance or partial susceptibility to at least one protease inhibitor). Fifty-three (51%) of the samples had hypersusceptibility to at least one drug (seven had zidovudine hypersusceptibility, 28 had NNRTI hypersusceptibility, 34 had protease inhibitor hypersusceptibility). Delavirdine hypersusceptibility was more frequent in subtype A than D. In subtype D, efavirenz hypersusceptibility was associated with substitutions at codon 11 in HIV-reverse transcriptase. Phenotyping detected reduced antiretroviral drug susceptibility and hypersusceptibility in HIV from some antiretroviral-naive Ugandan adults that was not predicted by genotyping. Phenotyping may complement genotyping for analysis of antiretroviral drug susceptibility in populations with nonsubtype B

  7. A Systems Biology Approach Reveals Converging Molecular Mechanisms that Link Different POPs to Common Metabolic Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Patricia; Perlina, Ally; Mumtaz, Moiz; Fowler, Bruce A

    2016-07-01

    A number of epidemiological studies have identified statistical associations between persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and metabolic diseases, but testable hypotheses regarding underlying molecular mechanisms to explain these linkages have not been published. We assessed the underlying mechanisms of POPs that have been associated with metabolic diseases; three well-known POPs [2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzodioxin (TCDD), 2,2´,4,4´,5,5´-hexachlorobiphenyl (PCB 153), and 4,4´-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p´-DDE)] were studied. We used advanced database search tools to delineate testable hypotheses and to guide laboratory-based research studies into underlying mechanisms by which this POP mixture could produce or exacerbate metabolic diseases. For our searches, we used proprietary systems biology software (MetaCore™/MetaDrug™) to conduct advanced search queries for the underlying interactions database, followed by directional network construction to identify common mechanisms for these POPs within two or fewer interaction steps downstream of their primary targets. These common downstream pathways belong to various cytokine and chemokine families with experimentally well-documented causal associations with type 2 diabetes. Our systems biology approach allowed identification of converging pathways leading to activation of common downstream targets. To our knowledge, this is the first study to propose an integrated global set of step-by-step molecular mechanisms for a combination of three common POPs using a systems biology approach, which may link POP exposure to diseases. Experimental evaluation of the proposed pathways may lead to development of predictive biomarkers of the effects of POPs, which could translate into disease prevention and effective clinical treatment strategies. Ruiz P, Perlina A, Mumtaz M, Fowler BA. 2016. A systems biology approach reveals converging molecular mechanisms that link different POPs to common metabolic diseases. Environ

  8. Citric Acid Metabolism in Resistant Hypertension: Underlying Mechanisms and Metabolic Prediction of Treatment Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Lorenzo, Marta; Martinez, Paula J; Baldan-Martin, Montserrat; Ruiz-Hurtado, Gema; Prado, Jose Carlos; Segura, Julian; de la Cuesta, Fernando; Barderas, Maria G; Vivanco, Fernando; Ruilope, Luis Miguel; Alvarez-Llamas, Gloria

    2017-11-01

    Resistant hypertension (RH) affects 9% to 12% of hypertensive adults. Prolonged exposure to suboptimal blood pressure control results in end-organ damage and cardiovascular risk. Spironolactone is the most effective drug for treatment, but not all patients respond and side effects are not negligible. Little is known on the mechanisms responsible for RH. We aimed to identify metabolic alterations in urine. In addition, a potential capacity of metabolites to predict response to spironolactone was investigated. Urine was collected from 29 patients with RH and from a group of 13 subjects with pseudo-RH. For patients, samples were collected before and after spironolactone administration and were classified in responders (n=19) and nonresponders (n=10). Nuclear magnetic resonance was applied to identify altered metabolites and pathways. Metabolites were confirmed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Citric acid cycle was the pathway most significantly altered ( P citric acid cycle and deregulation of reactive oxygen species homeostasis control continue its activation after hypertension was developed. A metabolic panel showing alteration before spironolactone treatment and predicting future response of patients is shown. These molecular indicators will contribute optimizing the rate of control of RH patients with spironolactone. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  9. Studies on the mechanism of quinone action on hormonal regulation of metabolism in the rat liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, E.Y.

    1989-01-01

    The mechanism of quinone actions in liver cell metabolism had been investigated using menadione as a model compound. Previous reports suggested that quinones and free radicals could produce perturbations in cellular calcium homeostasis. Since calcium plays an important role in the regulation of cellular metabolic processes, then regulation of cytosolic calcium concentrations, and thus of cellular metabolism, by calcium-mobilizing hormones such as phenylephrine and vasopressin could possibly be modified by quinones such as menadione. Methods used to approach this hypothesis included the assay for activation of glycogen phosphorylase, an indirect index of calcium mobilization; the determination of calcium mobilization with 45 Ca efflux exchange and with fluorescent calcium indicator fura-2; and the measurement of phosphatidylinositides, an important link in the membrane-associated receptor-mediated signal transduction mechanism

  10. Mechanisms of triglyceride metabolism in patients with bile acid diarrhea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagar, Nidhi Midhu; McFarlane, Michael; Nwokolo, Chuka; Bardhan, Karna Dev; Arasaradnam, Ramesh Pulendran

    2016-01-01

    Bile acids (BAs) are essential for the absorption of lipids. BA synthesis is inhibited through intestinal farnesoid X receptor (FXR) activity. BA sequestration is known to influence BA metabolism and control serum lipid concentrations. Animal data has demonstrated a regulatory role for the FXR in triglyceride metabolism. FXR inhibits hepatic lipogenesis by inhibiting the expression of sterol regulatory element binding protein 1c via small heterodimer primer activity. Conversely, FXR promotes free fatty acids oxidation by inducing the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α. FXR can reduce the expression of microsomal triglyceride transfer protein, which regulates the assembly of very low-density lipoproteins (VLDL). FXR activation in turn promotes the clearance of circulating triglycerides by inducing apolipoprotein C-II, very low-density lipoproteins receptor (VLDL-R) and the expression of Syndecan-1 together with the repression of apolipoprotein C-III, which increases lipoprotein lipase activity. There is currently minimal clinical data on triglyceride metabolism in patients with bile acid diarrhoea (BAD). Emerging data suggests that a third of patients with BAD have hypertriglyceridemia. Further research is required to establish the risk of hypertriglyceridaemia in patients with BAD and elicit the mechanisms behind this, allowing for targeted treatment. PMID:27570415

  11. MECHANISMS IN ENDOCRINOLOGY: Diabetic cardiomyopathy: pathophysiology and potential metabolic interventions state of the art review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levelt, Eylem; Gulsin, Gaurav; Neubauer, Stefan; McCann, Gerry P

    2018-04-01

    Heart failure is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in type 2 diabetes. Type 2 diabetes contributes to the development of heart failure through a variety of mechanisms, including disease-specific myocardial structural, functional and metabolic changes. This review will focus on the contemporary contributions of state of the art non-invasive technologies to our understanding of diabetic cardiomyopathy, including data on cardiac disease phenotype, cardiac energy metabolism and energetic deficiency, ectopic and visceral adiposity, diabetic liver disease, metabolic modulation strategies and cardiovascular outcomes with new classes of glucose-lowering therapies. © 2018 The authors.

  12. Diosgenin, 4-hydroxyisoleucine, and fiber from fenugreek: mechanisms of actions and potential effects on metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Scott; Stephens, Jacqueline M

    2015-03-01

    Metabolic syndrome and its complications continue to rise in prevalence and show no signs of abating in the immediate future. Therefore, the search for effective treatments is a high priority in biomedical research. Products derived from botanicals have a time-honored history of use in the treatment of metabolic diseases including type 2 diabetes. Trigonella foenum-graecum, commonly known as fenugreek, is an annual herbaceous plant that has been a staple of traditional herbal medicine in many cultures. Although fenugreek has been studied in both clinical and basic research settings, questions remain about its efficacy and biologic mechanisms of action. Diosgenin, 4-hydroxyisoleucine, and the fiber component of the plant are the most intensively studied bioactive constituents present in fenugreek. These compounds have been demonstrated to exert beneficial effects on several physiologic markers including glucose tolerance, inflammation, insulin action, liver function, blood lipids, and cardiovascular health. Although insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying the favorable effects of fenugreek have been gained, we still do not have definitive evidence establishing its role as a therapeutic agent in metabolic disease. This review aims to summarize the currently available evidence on the physiologic effects of the 3 best-characterized bioactive compounds of fenugreek, with particular emphasis on biologic mechanisms of action relevant in the context of metabolic syndrome. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  13. Water deprivation induces appetite and alters metabolic strategy in Notomys alexis: unique mechanisms for water production in the desert.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takei, Yoshio; Bartolo, Ray C; Fujihara, Hiroaki; Ueta, Yoichi; Donald, John A

    2012-07-07

    Like many desert animals, the spinifex hopping mouse, Notomys alexis, can maintain water balance without drinking water. The role of the kidney in producing a small volume of highly concentrated urine has been well-documented, but little is known about the physiological mechanisms underpinning the metabolic production of water to offset obligatory water loss. In Notomys, we found that water deprivation (WD) induced a sustained high food intake that exceeded the pre-deprivation level, which was driven by parallel changes in plasma leptin and ghrelin and the expression of orexigenic and anorectic neuropeptide genes in the hypothalamus; these changed in a direction that would stimulate appetite. As the period of WD was prolonged, body fat disappeared but body mass increased gradually, which was attributed to hepatic glycogen storage. Switching metabolic strategy from lipids to carbohydrates would enhance metabolic water production per oxygen molecule, thus providing a mechanism to minimize respiratory water loss. The changes observed in appetite control and metabolic strategy in Notomys were absent or less prominent in laboratory mice. This study reveals novel mechanisms for appetite regulation and energy metabolism that could be essential for desert rodents to survive in xeric environments.

  14. Fetal alcohol exposure disrupts metabolic signaling in hypothalamic proopiomelanocortin neurons via a circadian mechanism in male mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agapito, Maria A; Zhang, Changqing; Murugan, Sengottuvelan; Sarkar, Dipak K

    2014-07-01

    Early-life ethanol feeding (ELAF) alters the metabolic function of proopiomelanocortin (POMC)-producing neurons and the circadian expression of clock regulatory genes in the hypothalamus. We investigated whether the circadian mechanisms control the action of ELAF on metabolic signaling genes in POMC neurons. Gene expression measurements of Pomc and a selected group of metabolic signaling genes, Stat3, Sirt1, Pgc1-α, and Asb4 in laser-captured microdissected POMC neurons in the hypothalamus of POMC-enhanced green fluorescent protein mice showed circadian oscillations under light/dark and constant darkness conditions. Ethanol programmed these neurons such that the adult expression of Pomc, Stat3, Sirt, and Asb4 gene transcripts became arrhythmic. In addition, ELAF dampened the circadian peak of gene expression of Bmal1, Per1, and Per2 in POMC neurons. We crossed Per2 mutant mice with transgenic POMC-enhanced green fluorescent protein mice to determine the role of circadian mechanism in ELAF-altered metabolic signaling in POMC neurons. We found that ELAF failed to alter arrhythmic expression of most circadian genes, with the exception of the Bmal1 gene and metabolic signaling regulating genes in Per2 mutant mice. Comparison of the ELAF effects on the circadian blood glucose in wild-type and Per2 mutant mice revealed that ELAF dampened the circadian peak of glucose, whereas the Per2 mutation shifted the circadian cycle and prevented the ELAF dampening of the glucose peak. These data suggest the possibility that the Per2 gene mutation may regulate the ethanol actions on Pomc and the metabolic signaling genes in POMC neurons in the hypothalamus by blocking circadian mechanisms.

  15. Insight into the metabolic mechanism of scoparone on biomarkers for inhibiting Yanghuang syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Heng; Zhang, Aihua; Yu, Jingbo; Wang, Liang; Liu, Chang; Zhou, Xiaohang; Sun, Hui; Song, Qi; Wang, Xijun

    2016-11-21

    Scoparone (6,7-dimethoxycoumarin) is the representative ingredient of Yinchenhao (Artemisia capillaris Thunb.) which is a famous Chinese medicinal herb and shows favorable efficacy for all kinds of liver disease, specifically for the treatment of Yanghuang syndrome (YHS). The precise molecular mechanism concerning the action of scoparone on YHS is yet to be fully elucidated. The aim of the present study was to determine the mechanism of scoparone and evaluate its efficacy on metabolite levels. The differential expression of metabolites responsible for the pharmacological effects of scoparone was characterized and the protection effect of scoparone against this disease. Using multivariate statistical analysis, 33 biomarkers were identified using precise MS/MS and play an important role in the regulation of key metabolic pathways associated with liver disease. In addition, pathological results also showed consistent changes in the YHS model group and after treatment with scoparone, both the metabolic profile and histopathology resembled that of normal level, which suggesting favorable efficacy over the observed time period. The present work indicated that a metabolomics platform provided a new insight into understanding the mechanisms of action of natural medicines such as scoparone.

  16. Muscle-tendon mechanics explain unexpected effects of exoskeleton assistance on metabolic rate during walking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Rachel W; Dembia, Christopher L; Delp, Scott L; Collins, Steven H

    2017-06-01

    The goal of this study was to gain insight into how ankle exoskeletons affect the behavior of the plantarflexor muscles during walking. Using data from previous experiments, we performed electromyography-driven simulations of musculoskeletal dynamics to explore how changes in exoskeleton assistance affected plantarflexor muscle-tendon mechanics, particularly for the soleus. We used a model of muscle energy consumption to estimate individual muscle metabolic rate. As average exoskeleton torque was increased, while no net exoskeleton work was provided, a reduction in tendon recoil led to an increase in positive mechanical work performed by the soleus muscle fibers. As net exoskeleton work was increased, both soleus muscle fiber force and positive mechanical work decreased. Trends in the sum of the metabolic rates of the simulated muscles correlated well with trends in experimentally observed whole-body metabolic rate ( R 2 =0.9), providing confidence in our model estimates. Our simulation results suggest that different exoskeleton behaviors can alter the functioning of the muscles and tendons acting at the assisted joint. Furthermore, our results support the idea that the series tendon helps reduce positive work done by the muscle fibers by storing and returning energy elastically. We expect the results from this study to promote the use of electromyography-driven simulations to gain insight into the operation of muscle-tendon units and to guide the design and control of assistive devices. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  17. Targeting Cellular Stress Mechanisms and Metabolic Homeostasis by Chinese Herbal Drugs for Neuroprotection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsiao-Chien Ting

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditional Chinese medicine has been practiced for centuries in East Asia. Herbs are used to maintain health and cure disease. Certain Chinese herbs are known to protect and improve the brain, memory, and nervous system. To apply ancient knowledge to modern science, some major natural therapeutic compounds in herbs were extracted and evaluated in recent decades. Emerging studies have shown that herbal compounds have neuroprotective effects or can ameliorate neurodegenerative diseases. To understand the mechanisms of herbal compounds that protect against neurodegenerative diseases, we summarize studies that discovered neuroprotection by herbal compounds and compound-related mechanisms in neurodegenerative disease models. Those compounds discussed herein show neuroprotection through different mechanisms, such as cytokine regulation, autophagy, endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress, glucose metabolism, and synaptic function. The interleukin (IL-1β and tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α signaling pathways are inhibited by some compounds, thus attenuating the inflammatory response and protecting neurons from cell death. As to autophagy regulation, herbal compounds show opposite regulatory effects in different neurodegenerative models. Herbal compounds that inhibit ER stress prevent neuronal death in neurodegenerative diseases. Moreover, there are compounds that protect against neuronal death by affecting glucose metabolism and synaptic function. Since the progression of neurodegenerative diseases is complicated, and compound-related mechanisms for neuroprotection differ, therapeutic strategies may need to involve multiple compounds and consider the type and stage of neurodegenerative diseases.

  18. Endocrine and metabolic mechanisms linking postpartum glucose with early embryonic and foetal development in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucy, M C; Butler, S T; Garverick, H A

    2014-05-01

    Milk and milk solids production per cow is increasing annually in dairy systems. Peak milk production is in early lactation when the uterus and ovary are recovering from the previous pregnancy. The competing processes of milk production and restoration of reproductive function can be at odds, particularly if unique homeorhetic mechanisms that typify early lactation become imbalanced and cows experience metabolic disease. Homeorhesis leads to an increase in the synthesis of glucose that is irreversibly lost to milk lactose. Irreversible loss of glucose during lactation can invoke an endocrine and metabolic state that impinges upon postpartum uterine health, oestrous cyclicity and subsequent establishment of pregnancy. The first 30 days postpartum may be most critical in terms of the impact that metabolites and metabolic hormones have on reproduction. Depressed immune function caused in part by the postpartum metabolic profile leads to a failure in uterine involution and uterine disease. Oestrous cyclicity (interval to first ovulation and subsequent periodicity) is affected by the same hormones and metabolites that control postpartum immune function. Slower growth of the embryo or foetus perhaps explained by the unique metabolic profile during lactation may predispose cows to pregnancy loss. Understanding homeorhetic mechanisms that involve glucose and collectively affect postpartum uterine health, oestrous cyclicity and the establishment of pregnancy should lead to methods to improve postpartum fertility in dairy cows.

  19. Metabolic activation and carcinogenicity of polycyclic hydrocarbons: A new quantum mechanical theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammad, S.N.

    1986-01-01

    This investigation aims to describe a quantum mechanical theory of cancer, which, on the basis of certain electronic indices calculated for the parent compound, would give prediction of its P-450 mediated metabolic activation and would provide better representation of its relative carcinogenic potency when activated to its PUM. The author's theory is based on the assumption that electronic charge distribution of activated species resembles at least qualitatively the charge distribution of the parent compound, and a careful analysis of electronic characteristics of the parent compound would suffice to give reasonable estimation of the carcinogenic activities of the metabolic products. The details of the theoretical method is given and the results for some alternant and non-alternant PAHs are presented

  20. Endophytic actinobacteria: Diversity, secondary metabolism and mechanisms to unsilence biosynthetic gene clusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinesh, Raghavan; Srinivasan, Veeraraghavan; T E, Sheeja; Anandaraj, Muthuswamy; Srambikkal, Hamza

    2017-09-01

    Endophytic actinobacteria, which reside in the inner tissues of host plants, are gaining serious attention due to their capacity to produce a plethora of secondary metabolites (e.g. antibiotics) possessing a wide variety of biological activity with diverse functions. This review encompasses the recent reports on endophytic actinobacterial species diversity, in planta habitats and mechanisms underlying their mode of entry into plants. Besides, their metabolic potential, novel bioactive compounds they produce and mechanisms to unravel their hidden metabolic repertoire by activation of cryptic or silent biosynthetic gene clusters (BGCs) for eliciting novel secondary metabolite production are discussed. The study also reviews the classical conservative techniques (chemical/biological/physical elicitation, co-culturing) as well as modern microbiology tools (e.g. next generation sequencing) that are being gainfully employed to uncover the vast hidden scaffolds for novel secondary metabolites produced by these endophytes, which would subsequently herald a revolution in drug engineering. The potential role of these endophytes in the agro-environment as promising biological candidates for inhibition of phytopathogens and the way forward to thoroughly exploit this unique microbial community by inducing expression of cryptic BGCs for encoding unseen products with novel therapeutic properties are also discussed.

  1. Amino Acid Metabolism and Transport Mechanisms as Potential Antifungal Targets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew W. McCarthy

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Discovering new drugs for treatment of invasive fungal infections is an enduring challenge. There are only three major classes of antifungal agents, and no new class has been introduced into clinical practice in more than a decade. However, recent advances in our understanding of the fungal life cycle, functional genomics, proteomics, and gene mapping have enabled the identification of new drug targets to treat these potentially deadly infections. In this paper, we examine amino acid transport mechanisms and metabolism as potential drug targets to treat invasive fungal infections, including pathogenic yeasts, such as species of Candida and Cryptococcus, as well as molds, such as Aspergillus fumigatus. We also explore the mechanisms by which amino acids may be exploited to identify novel drug targets and review potential hurdles to bringing this approach into clinical practice.

  2. Deciphering the mechanisms involved in Portulaca oleracea (C4) response to drought: metabolic changes including crassulacean acid-like metabolism induction and reversal upon re-watering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Andrea, Rodrigo Matías; Andreo, Carlos Santiago; Lara, María Valeria

    2014-11-01

    Portulaca oleracea is a C(4) plant; however, under drought it can change its carbon fixation metabolism into a crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM)-like one. While the C(3) -CAM shift is well known, the C(4) -CAM transition has only been described in Portulaca. Here, a CAM-like metabolism was induced in P. oleracea by drought and then reversed by re-watering. Physiological and biochemical approaches were undertaken to evaluate the drought and recovery responses. In CAM-like plants, chlorophyll fluorescence parameters were transitory affected and non-radiative energy dissipation mechanisms were induced. Induction of flavonoids, betalains and antioxidant machinery may be involved in photosynthetic machinery protection. Metabolic analysis highlights a clear metabolic shift, when a CAM-like metabolism is induced and then reversed. Increases in nitrogenous compounds like free amino acids and urea, and of pinitol could contribute to withstand drought. Reciprocal variations in arginase and urease in drought-stressed and in re-watered plants suggest urea synthesis is strictly regulated. Recovery of C(4) metabolism was accounted by CO(2) assimilation pattern and malate levels. Increases in glycerol and in polyamines would be of importance of re-watered plants. Collectively, in P. oleracea multiple strategies, from induction of several metabolites to the transitory development of a CAM-like metabolism, participate to enhance its adaptation to drought. © 2014 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  3. Lipidomics: Novel insight into the biochemical mechanism of lipid metabolism and dysregulation-associated disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ying-Yong; Miao, Hua; Cheng, Xian-Long; Wei, Feng

    2015-10-05

    The application of lipidomics, after genomics, proteomics and metabolomics, offered largely opportunities to illuminate the entire spectrum of lipidome based on a quantitative or semi-quantitative level in a biological system. When combined with advances in proteomics and metabolomics high-throughput platforms, lipidomics provided the opportunity for analyzing the unique roles of specific lipids in complex cellular processes. Abnormal lipid metabolism was demonstrated to be greatly implicated in many human lifestyle-related diseases. In this review, we focused on lipidomic applications in brain injury disease, cancer, metabolic disease, cardiovascular disease, respiratory disease and infectious disease to discover disease biomarkers and illustrate biochemical metabolic pathways. We also discussed the analytical techniques, future perspectives and potential problems of lipidomic applications. The application of lipidomics in disease biomarker discovery provides the opportunity for gaining novel insights into biochemical mechanism. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. A Mechanism-Based Model for the Prediction of the Metabolic Sites of Steroids Mediated by Cytochrome P450 3A4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zi-Ru Dai

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Early prediction of xenobiotic metabolism is essential for drug discovery and development. As the most important human drug-metabolizing enzyme, cytochrome P450 3A4 has a large active cavity and metabolizes a broad spectrum of substrates. The poor substrate specificity of CYP3A4 makes it a huge challenge to predict the metabolic site(s on its substrates. This study aimed to develop a mechanism-based prediction model based on two key parameters, including the binding conformation and the reaction activity of ligands, which could reveal the process of real metabolic reaction(s and the site(s of modification. The newly established model was applied to predict the metabolic site(s of steroids; a class of CYP3A4-preferred substrates. 38 steroids and 12 non-steroids were randomly divided into training and test sets. Two major metabolic reactions, including aliphatic hydroxylation and N-dealkylation, were involved in this study. At least one of the top three predicted metabolic sites was validated by the experimental data. The overall accuracy for the training and test were 82.14% and 86.36%, respectively. In summary, a mechanism-based prediction model was established for the first time, which could be used to predict the metabolic site(s of CYP3A4 on steroids with high predictive accuracy.

  5. Effectiveness of acetazolamide for reversal of metabolic alkalosis in weaning COPD patients from mechanical ventilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faisy, Christophe; Mokline, Amel; Sanchez, Olivier; Tadié, Jean-Marc; Fagon, Jean-Yves

    2010-05-01

    To evaluate the effects of a single daily dose of acetazolamide (ACET) on metabolic alkalosis and respiratory parameters in weaning chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients from invasive mechanical ventilation. Case-control study. An 18-bed intensive care unit (ICU) in a university hospital. Twenty-six intubated COPD patients with mixed metabolic alkalosis (serum bicarbonate >26 mmol/l and arterial pH >or=7.38) were compared with a historical control group (n = 26) matched for serum bicarbonate, arterial pH, age, and severity of illness at admission to ICU. ACET administration (500 mg intravenously) was monitored daily according to arterial blood gas analysis from readiness to wean until extubation. ACET was administered 4 (1-11) days throughout the weaning period. Patients with ACET treatment significantly decreased their serum bicarbonate (p = 0.01 versus baseline) and arterial blood pH (p respiratory parameters except PaO(2)/FiO(2) ratio (p = 0.03). ACET patients and their matched controls had similar duration of weaning. Extubation success rate was not significantly different between groups, and causes of reintubation were comparable. ACET used at the dosage of 500 mg per day reduces metabolic alkalosis but has no benefit in terms of improving PaCO(2) or respiratory parameters in weaning COPD patients from mechanical ventilation.

  6. Mechanisms of Body Weight Reduction and Metabolic Syndrome Alleviation by Tea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chung S.; Zhang, Jinsong; Zhang, Le; Huang, Jinbao; Wang, Yijun

    2016-01-01

    Tea, a popular beverage made from leaves of the plant Camellia sinensis, has been shown to reduce body weight, alleviate metabolic syndrome, and prevent diabetes and cardiovascular diseases in animal models and humans. Such beneficial effects have generally been observed in most human studies when the level of tea consumption was 3 to 4 cups (600–900 mg tea catechins) or more per day. Green tea is more effective than black tea. In spite of numerous studies, the fundamental mechanisms for these actions still remain unclear. From a review of the literature, we propose that the two major mechanisms are: 1) decreasing absorption of lipids and proteins by tea constituents in the intestine, thus reducing calorie intake; and 2) activating AMPK by tea polyphenols that are bioavailable in the liver, skeletal muscle, and adipose tissues. The relative importance of these two mechanisms depends on the types of tea and diet consumed by individuals. The activated AMPK would decrease gluconeogenesis and fatty acid synthesis and increase catabolism, leading to body weight reduction and MetS alleviation. Other mechanisms and the health relevance of these beneficial effects of tea consumption remain to be further investigated. PMID:26577614

  7. The concept of metabolic syndrome: contribution of visceral fat accumulation and its molecular mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuzawa, Yuji; Funahashi, Tohru; Nakamura, Tadashi

    2011-01-01

    Although abdominal obesity or visceral obesity is considered to be one of the components of metabolic syndrome and to have an important role in a cluster of cardiovascular risks, there is no consensus about the definition and diagnostic criteria for this syndrome, probably because there is considerable disagreement about the location and definition of abdominal obesity or visceral obesity.In this review article, the important role of visceral fat accumulation in the development of a variety of lifestyle-related diseases is shown, including cardiovascular disease based on our clinical studies using CT scans, and the mechanism of these disorders is discussed, focusing on adipocytokines, especially adiponectin.The importance of diagnosing metabolic syndrome, in which visceral fat accumulation plays an essential role in the development of multiple risk factors, should be emphasized because lifestyle modification for the reduction of visceral fat may be very effective for the reduction of risks of this type, namely metabolic syndrome in the narrow sense.

  8. Maternal resveratrol consumption and its programming effects on metabolic health in offspring mechanisms and potential implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Sheng; Feng, Qianyun; Cheng, Jing; Zheng, Jia

    2018-04-27

    A growing body of evidence has clearly demonstrated that maternal nutrition can strongly determine the susceptibility to the development of metabolic diseases in offspring. With the increasing prevalence of maternal overweight, obesity, and gestational diabetes mellitus, it yields enormous burden for individual and public health. Interventions during pregnancy have been proven to be challenging, with limited efficacy and low compliance. Resveratrol, as a natural polyphenolic compound, has a wide-range of beneficial properties, including potent antiobesogenic, antiatherosclerotic, and antidiabetic effects. However, the role of maternal resveratrol intake on metabolic health in offspring has not been extensively investigated. Therefore, the aim of this study was to review the effects of maternal resveratrol supplementation on metabolic health in offspring and its potential mechanisms. © 2018 The Author(s).

  9. Metabolic acidosis as an underlying mechanism of respiratory distress in children with severe acute asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meert, Kathleen L; Clark, Jeff; Sarnaik, Ashok P

    2007-11-01

    1) To alert the clinician that increasing rate and depth of breathing during treatment of acute asthma may be a manifestation of metabolic acidosis with hyperventilation rather than worsening airway obstruction; and 2) to describe the frequency of metabolic acidosis with hyperventilation in children with severe acute asthma admitted to our pediatric intensive care unit. Retrospective medical record review. University-affiliated children's hospital. All patients admitted to the pediatric intensive care unit with a diagnosis of asthma between January 1, 2005, and December 31, 2005. None. Fifty-three patients with asthma (median age 7.8 yrs, range 0.7-17.9 yrs; 35 [66%] male; 46 [87%] black and 7 [13%] white) were admitted to the pediatric intensive care unit during the study period. Fifteen (28%) patients developed metabolic acidosis with hyperventilation (pH 120 mg/dL [6.7 mmol/L]). Patients who developed metabolic acidosis with hyperventilation received asthma therapy similar to that received by patients who did not develop the disorder. Metabolic acidosis resolved contemporaneously with tapering of beta2-adrenergic agonists and administration of supportive care. All patients survived. Metabolic acidosis with hyperventilation manifesting as respiratory distress can occur in children with severe acute asthma. A pathophysiologic rationale exists for the contribution of beta2-adrenergic agents to the development of this acid-base disorder. Failure to recognize metabolic acidosis as the underlying mechanism of respiratory distress may lead to inappropriate intensification of bronchodilator therapy. Supportive care and tapering of beta2-adrenergic agents are recommended to resolve this condition.

  10. An extrahepatic receptor-associated protein-sensitive mechanism is involved in the metabolism of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlijmen, B.J.M. van; Rohlmann, A.; Page, S.T.; Bensadoun, A.; Bos, I.S.T.; Berkel, T.J.C. van; Havekes, L.M.; Herz, J.

    1999-01-01

    We have used adenovirus-mediated gene transfer in mice to investigate low density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) and LDLR-related protein (LRP)- independent mechanisms that control the metabolism of chylomicron and very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) remnants in vivo. Overexpression of receptor-

  11. [Metabolic acidosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regolisti, Giuseppe; Fani, Filippo; Antoniotti, Riccardo; Castellano, Giuseppe; Cremaschi, Elena; Greco, Paolo; Parenti, Elisabetta; Morabito, Santo; Sabatino, Alice; Fiaccadori, Enrico

    2016-01-01

    Metabolic acidosis is frequently observed in clinical practice, especially among critically ill patients and/or in the course of renal failure. Complex mechanisms are involved, in most cases identifiable by medical history, pathophysiology-based diagnostic reasoning and measure of some key acid-base parameters that are easily available or calculable. On this basis the bedside differential diagnosis of metabolic acidosis should be started from the identification of the two main subtypes of metabolic acidosis: the high anion gap metabolic acidosis and the normal anion gap (or hyperchloremic) metabolic acidosis. Metabolic acidosis, especially in its acute forms with elevated anion gap such as is the case of lactic acidosis, diabetic and acute intoxications, may significantly affect metabolic body homeostasis and patients hemodynamic status, setting the stage for true medical emergencies. The therapeutic approach should be first aimed at early correction of concurrent clinical problems (e.g. fluids and hemodynamic optimization in case of shock, mechanical ventilation in case of concomitant respiratory failure, hemodialysis for acute intoxications etc.), in parallel to the formulation of a diagnosis. In case of severe acidosis, the administration of alkalizing agents should be carefully evaluated, taking into account the risk of side effects, as well as the potential need of renal replacement therapy.

  12. Induction of drug-metabolizing enzymes: mechanisms and consequences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okey, A.B.; Roberts, E.A.; Harper, P.A.; Denison, M.S.

    1986-04-01

    The activity of many enzymes that carry out biotransformation of drugs and environmental chemicals can be substantially increased by prior exposure of humans or animals to a wide variety of foreign chemicals. Increased enzyme activity is due to true enzyme induction mediated by increased synthesis of mRNAs which code for specific drug-metabolizing enzymes. Several species of cytochrome P-450 are inducible as are certain conjugating enzymes such as glutathione S-transferases, glucuronosyl transferases, and epoxide hydrolases. Induction of drug-metabolizing enzymes has been shown in several instances to alter the efficacy of some therapeutic agents. Induction of various species of cytochrome P-450 also is known to increase the rate at which potentially toxic reactive metabolic intermediates are formed from drugs or environmental chemicals. Overall, however, induction of drug-metabolizing enzymes appears to be a beneficial adaptive response for organisms living in a ''chemically-hostile'' world.48 references.

  13. The redox mechanism for vascular barrier dysfunction associated with metabolic disorders: Glutathionylation of Rac1 in endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jingyan; Weisbrod, Robert M; Shao, Di; Watanabe, Yosuke; Yin, Xiaoyan; Bachschmid, Markus M; Seta, Francesca; Janssen-Heininger, Yvonne M W; Matsui, Reiko; Zang, Mengwei; Hamburg, Naomi M; Cohen, Richard A

    2016-10-01

    Oxidative stress is implicated in increased vascular permeability associated with metabolic disorders, but the underlying redox mechanism is poorly defined. S-glutathionylation, a stable adduct of glutathione with protein sulfhydryl, is a reversible oxidative modification of protein and is emerging as an important redox signaling paradigm in cardiovascular physiopathology. The present study determines the role of protein S-glutathionylation in metabolic stress-induced endothelial cell permeability. In endothelial cells isolated from patients with type-2 diabetes mellitus, protein S-glutathionylation level was increased. This change was also observed in aortic endothelium in ApoE deficient (ApoE -/- ) mice fed on Western diet. Metabolic stress-induced protein S-glutathionylation in human aortic endothelial cells (HAEC) was positively correlated with elevated endothelial cell permeability, as reflected by disassembly of cell-cell adherens junctions and cortical actin structures. These impairments were reversed by adenoviral overexpression of a specific de-glutathionylation enzyme, glutaredoxin-1 in cultured HAECs. Consistently, transgenic overexpression of human Glrx-1 in ApoE -/- mice fed the Western diet attenuated endothelial protein S-glutathionylation, actin cytoskeletal disorganization, and vascular permeability in the aorta. Mechanistically, glutathionylation and inactivation of Rac1, a small RhoGPase, were associated with endothelial hyperpermeability caused by metabolic stress. Glutathionylation of Rac1 on cysteine 81 and 157 located adjacent to guanine nucleotide binding site was required for the metabolic stress to inhibit Rac1 activity and promote endothelial hyperpermeability. Glutathionylation and inactivation of Rac1 in endothelial cells represent a novel redox mechanism of vascular barrier dysfunction associated with metabolic disorders. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. [Hypovitaminosis D and metabolic syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miñambres, Inka; de Leiva, Alberto; Pérez, Antonio

    2014-12-23

    Metabolic syndrome and hypovitaminosis D are 2 diseases with high prevalence that share several risk factors, while epidemiological evidence shows they are associated. Although the mechanisms involved in this association are not well established, hypovitaminosis D is associated with insulin resistance, decreased insulin secretion and activation of the renin-angiotensin system, mechanisms involved in the pathophysiology of metabolic syndrome. However, the apparent ineffectiveness of vitamin D supplementation on metabolic syndrome components, as well as the limited information about the effect of improving metabolic syndrome components on vitamin D concentrations, does not clarify the direction and the mechanisms involved in the causal relationship between these 2 pathologies. Overall, because of the high prevalence and the epidemiological association between both diseases, hypovitaminosis D could be considered a component of the metabolic syndrome. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  15. Protein metabolism in marine animals: the underlying mechanism of growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, Keiron P P; Rogers, Alex D

    2007-01-01

    Growth is a fundamental process within all marine organisms. In soft tissues, growth is primarily achieved by the synthesis and retention of proteins as protein growth. The protein pool (all the protein within the organism) is highly dynamic, with proteins constantly entering the pool via protein synthesis or being removed from the pool via protein degradation. Any net change in the size of the protein pool, positive or negative, is termed protein growth. The three inter-related processes of protein synthesis, degradation and growth are together termed protein metabolism. Measurement of protein metabolism is vital in helping us understand how biotic and abiotic factors affect growth and growth efficiency in marine animals. Recently, the developing fields of transcriptomics and proteomics have started to offer us a means of greatly increasing our knowledge of the underlying molecular control of protein metabolism. Transcriptomics may also allow us to detect subtle changes in gene expression associated with protein synthesis and degradation, which cannot be detected using classical methods. A large literature exists on protein metabolism in animals; however, this chapter concentrates on what we know of marine ectotherms; data from non-marine ectotherms and endotherms are only discussed when the data are of particular relevance. We first consider the techniques available to measure protein metabolism, their problems and what validation is required. Protein metabolism in marine organisms is highly sensitive to a wide variety of factors, including temperature, pollution, seasonality, nutrition, developmental stage, genetics, sexual maturation and moulting. We examine how these abiotic and biotic factors affect protein metabolism at the level of whole-animal (adult and larval), tissue and cellular protein metabolism. Available gene expression data, which help us understand the underlying control of protein metabolism, are also discussed. As protein metabolism appears to

  16. Mechanical and Metabolic Responses to Traditional and Cluster Set Configurations in the Bench Press Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Ramos, Amador; González-Hernández, Jorge M; Baños-Pelegrín, Ezequiel; Castaño-Zambudio, Adrián; Capelo-Ramírez, Fernando; Boullosa, Daniel; Haff, Guy G; Jiménez-Reyes, Pedro

    2017-10-20

    García-Ramos, A, González-Hernández, JM, Baños-Pelegrín, E, Castaño-Zambudio, A, Capelo-Ramírez, F, Boullosa, D, Haff, GG, and Jiménez-Reyes, P. Mechanical and metabolic responses to traditional and cluster set configurations in the bench press exercise. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2017-This study aimed to compare mechanical and metabolic responses between traditional (TR) and cluster (CL) set configurations in the bench press exercise. In a counterbalanced randomized order, 10 men were tested with the following protocols (sets × repetitions [inter-repetition rest]): TR1: 3 × 10 (0-second), TR2: 6 × 5 (0-second), CL5: 3 × 10 (5-second), CL10: 3 × 10 (10-second), and CL15: 3 × 10 (15-second). The number of repetitions (30), interset rest (5 minutes), and resistance applied (10 repetition maximum) were the same for all set configurations. Movement velocity and blood lactate concentration were used to assess the mechanical and metabolic responses, respectively. The comparison of the first and last set of the training session revealed a significant decrease in movement velocity for TR1 (Effect size [ES]: -0.92), CL10 (ES: -0.85), and CL15 (ES: -1.08) (but not for TR2 [ES: -0.38] and CL5 [ES: -0.37]); while blood lactate concentration was significantly increased for TR1 (ES: 1.11), TR2 (ES: 0.90), and CL5 (ES: 1.12) (but not for CL10 [ES: 0.03] and CL15 [ES: -0.43]). Based on velocity loss, set configurations were ranked as follows: TR1 (-39.3 ± 7.3%) > CL5 (-20.2 ± 14.7%) > CL10 (-12.9 ± 4.9%), TR2 (-10.3 ± 5.3%), and CL15 (-10.0 ± 2.3%). The set configurations were ranked as follows based on the lactate concentration: TR1 (7.9 ± 1.1 mmol·L) > CL5 (5.8 ± 0.9 mmol·L) > TR2 (4.2 ± 0.7 mmol·L) > CL10 (3.5 ± 0.4 mmol·L) and CL15 (3.4 ± 0.7 mmol·L). These results support the use of TR2, CL10, and CL15 for the maintenance of high mechanical outputs, while CL10 and CL15 produce less metabolic stress than TR2.

  17. Effects and mechanisms of caffeine to improve immunological and metabolic abnormalities in diet-induced obese rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chih-Wei; Tsai, Hung-Cheng; Huang, Chia-Chang; Tsai, Chang-Youh; Su, Yen-Bo; Lin, Ming-Wei; Lee, Kuei-Chuan; Hsieh, Yun-Cheng; Li, Tzu-Hao; Huang, Shiang-Fen; Yang, Ying-Ying; Hou, Ming-Chih; Lin, Han-Chieh; Lee, Fa-Yauh; Lee, Shou-Dong

    2018-05-01

    In obesity, there are no effective therapies for parallel immune and metabolic abnormalities, including systemic/tissue insulin-resistance/inflammation, adiposity and hepatic steatosis. Caffeine has anti-inflammation, antihepatic steatosis, and anti-insulin resistance effects. In this study, we evaluated the effects and molecular mechanisms of 6 wk of caffeine treatment (HFD-caf) on immunological and metabolic abnormalities of high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obese rats. Compared with HFD vehicle (HFD-V) rats, in HFD-caf rats the suppressed circulating immune cell inflammatory [TNFα, MCP-1, IL-6, intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1), and nitrite] profiles were accompanied by decreased liver, white adipose tissue (WAT), and muscle macrophages and their intracellular cytokine levels. Metabolically, the increase in metabolic rates reduced lipid accumulation in various tissues, resulting in reduced adiposity, lower fat mass, decreased body weight, amelioration of hepatic steatosis, and improved systemic/muscle insulin resistance. Further mechanistic approaches revealed an upregulation of tissue lipogenic [(SREBP1c, fatty acid synthase, acetyl-CoA carboxylase)/insulin-sensitizing (GLUT4 and p-IRS1)] markers in HFD-caf rats. Significantly, ex vivo experiments revealed that the cytokine release by the cocultured peripheral blood mononuclear cell (monocyte) and WAT (adipocyte), which are known to stimulate macrophage migration and hepatocyte lipogenesis, were lower in HFD-V groups than HFD-caf groups. Caffeine treatment simultaneously ameliorates immune and metabolic pathogenic signals present in tissue to normalize immunolgical and metabolic abnormalities found in HFD-induced obese rats.

  18. Mechanisms of vitamin K transport and metabolism in Swiss 3T3 mouse fibroblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canfield, L.M.; Townsend, A.F.; Hibbs, D.B.

    1986-01-01

    Transport of vitamin K into isolated fibroblasts was followed using 3 H vitamin K 1 . The initial rate is saturable by 5 min. at 25μM vitamin K with a Km(app) of 10μM and V/sub max/ of 50 pmols/min/10 6 cells. Kinetics of uptake are biphasic with a second slower rate ensuing after 10 minutes. Insensitivity of the initial rate of uptake to FCCP or ouabain indicates an ATP-independent transport mechanism. Specificity of transport is shown by competition of uptake of 3 H vitamin K by unlabelled vitamin and strong (>90%) inhibition of the initial rate by equimolar concentrations of the vitamin K analog, Chloro-K. In addition, following uptake, both vitamins K 1 and K 2 are metabolized to their respective epoxides. Vitamin K 1 epoxide is also transported into fibroblasts and metabolized to the parent quinone in a Warfarin-sensitive reaction. Following alkaline hydrolysis of isolated intracellular protein, the vitamin K-dependent amino acid, gamma carboxyglutamic acid (gla) was detected. It is concluded that vitamin K is specifically transported into fibroblasts and metabolized via the classical pathway described in liver with the concomitant production of vitamin K-dependent proteins

  19. Myocardial Oxidative Metabolism and Protein Synthesis during Mechanical Circulatory Support by Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Priddy, MD, Colleen M.; Kajimoto, Masaki; Ledee, Dolena; Bouchard, Bertrand; Isern, Nancy G.; Olson, Aaron; Des Rosiers, Christine; Portman, Michael A.

    2013-02-01

    Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) provides mechanical circulatory support essential for survival in infants and children with acute cardiac decompensation. However, ECMO also causes metabolic disturbances, which contribute to total body wasting and protein loss. Cardiac stunning can also occur which prevents ECMO weaning, and contributes to high mortality. The heart may specifically undergo metabolic impairments, which influence functional recovery. We tested the hypothesis that ECMO alters oxidative. We focused on the amino acid leucine, and integration with myocardial protein synthesis. We used a translational immature swine model in which we assessed in heart (i) the fractional contribution of leucine (FcLeucine) and pyruvate (FCpyruvate) to mitochondrial acetyl-CoA formation by nuclear magnetic resonance and (ii) global protein fractional synthesis (FSR) by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Immature mixed breed Yorkshire male piglets (n = 22) were divided into four groups based on loading status (8 hours of normal circulation or ECMO) and intracoronary infusion [13C6,15N]-L-leucine (3.7 mM) alone or with [2-13C]-pyruvate (7.4 mM). ECMO decreased pulse pressure and correspondingly lowered myocardial oxygen consumption (~ 40%, n = 5), indicating decreased overall mitochondrial oxidative metabolism. However, FcLeucine was maintained and myocardial protein FSR was marginally increased. Pyruvate addition decreased tissue leucine enrichment, FcLeucine, and Fc for endogenous substrates as well as protein FSR. Conclusion: The heart under ECMO shows reduced oxidative metabolism of substrates, including amino acids, while maintaining (i) metabolic flexibility indicated by ability to respond to pyruvate, and (ii) a normal or increased capacity for global protein synthesis, suggesting an improved protein balance.

  20. Gait Dynamics and Locomotor Metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    26 47. Taylor CR, Heglund NC, Maloiy GMO . Energetics and mechanics of terrestrial locomotion. I. Metabolic energy consumption as a function of...San Diego, CA: Academic Press, 1994. 110 47. Taylor CR, Heglund NC, Maloiy GMO . Energetics and mechanics of terrestrial locomotion. I. Metabolic

  1. Biofilm Formation Mechanisms of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Predicted via Genome-Scale Kinetic Models of Bacterial Metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-15

    RESEARCH ARTICLE Biofilm Formation Mechanisms of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Predicted via Genome-Scale Kinetic Models of Bacterial Metabolism Francisco G...jaques.reifman.civ@mail.mil Abstract A hallmark of Pseudomonas aeruginosa is its ability to establish biofilm -based infections that are difficult to...eradicate. Biofilms are less susceptible to host inflammatory and immune responses and have higher antibiotic tolerance than free-living planktonic

  2. Metabolic Regulation of a Bacterial Cell System with Emphasis on Escherichia coli Metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Kazuyuki

    2013-01-01

    It is quite important to understand the overall metabolic regulation mechanism of bacterial cells such as Escherichia coli from both science (such as biochemistry) and engineering (such as metabolic engineering) points of view. Here, an attempt was made to clarify the overall metabolic regulation mechanism by focusing on the roles of global regulators which detect the culture or growth condition and manipulate a set of metabolic pathways by modulating the related gene expressions. For this, it was considered how the cell responds to a variety of culture environments such as carbon (catabolite regulation), nitrogen, and phosphate limitations, as well as the effects of oxygen level, pH (acid shock), temperature (heat shock), and nutrient starvation. PMID:25937963

  3. Altered drug metabolism during pregnancy: hormonal regulation of drug-metabolizing enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Hyunyoung

    2010-06-01

    Medication use during pregnancy is prevalent, but pharmacokinetic information of most drugs used during pregnancy is lacking in spite of known effects of pregnancy on drug disposition. Accurate pharmacokinetic information is essential for optimal drug therapy in mother and fetus. Thus, understanding how pregnancy influences drug disposition is important for better prediction of pharmacokinetic changes of drugs in pregnant women. Pregnancy is known to affect hepatic drug metabolism, but the underlying mechanisms remain unknown. Physiological changes accompanying pregnancy are probably responsible for the reported alteration in drug metabolism during pregnancy. These include elevated concentrations of various hormones such as estrogen, progesterone, placental growth hormones and prolactin. This review covers how these hormones influence expression of drug-metabolizing enzymes (DMEs), thus potentially responsible for altered drug metabolism during pregnancy. The reader will gain a greater understanding of the altered drug metabolism in pregnant women and the regulatory effects of pregnancy hormones on expression of DMEs. In-depth studies in hormonal regulatory mechanisms as well as confirmatory studies in pregnant women are warranted for systematic understanding and prediction of the changes in hepatic drug metabolism during pregnancy.

  4. Offspring neuroimmune consequences of maternal malnutrition: Potential mechanism for behavioral impairments that underlie metabolic and neurodevelopmental disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, B L; Reyes, T M

    2017-10-01

    Maternal malnutrition significantly increases offspring risk for both metabolic and neurodevelopmental disorders. Animal models of maternal malnutrition have identified behavioral changes in the adult offspring related to executive function and reward processing. Together, these changes in executive and reward-based behaviors likely contribute to the etiology of both metabolic and neurodevelopmental disorders associated with maternal malnutrition. Concomitant with the behavioral effects, maternal malnutrition alters offspring expression of reward-related molecules and inflammatory signals in brain pathways that control executive function and reward. Neuroimmune pathways and microglial interactions in these specific brain circuits, either in early development or later in adulthood, could directly contribute to the maternal malnutrition-induced behavioral phenotypes. Understanding these mechanisms will help advance treatment strategies for metabolic and neurodevelopmental disorders, especially noninvasive dietary supplementation interventions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. What fans the fire: insights into mechanisms of leptin in metabolic syndrome-associated heart diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Maolong; Ren, Jun

    2014-01-01

    Obesity and metabolic syndrome are one of the most devastating risk factors for cardiovascular diseases. The obesity gene product leptin plays a central role in the regulation of food intake and energy expenditure. The physiological and pathophysiological roles of leptin in cardiovascular system have been investigated extensively since its discovery in 1994. In addition to its well-established metabolic effects, more recent evidence have depicted a rather pivotal role of leptin in inflammation, oxidative stress, endoplasmic reticulum stress, apoptosis and tissue remodeling en route to the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes mellitus, hypertension, atherosclerosis, and insulin resistance. Under physiological condition, leptin is known to reduce appetite, promote energy expenditure, increase sympathetic activity, facilitate glucose utilization and improve insulin sensitivity. In addition, leptin may regulate cardiac and vascular function through a nitric oxide-dependent mechanism. However, hyperleptinemia usually occurs with progressively increased body weight and metabolic syndrome development, leading to a state of global or selective leptin resistance. Both central and peripheral leptin resistance may be present under pathophysiological conditions such as inflammation, insulin resistance, hyperlipidemia and a cadre of other cardiovascular diseases including hypertension, atherosclerosis, obesity, ischemic heart disease and heart failure. In this review, we will discuss cardiovascular actions of leptin related to various components of metabolic syndrome. Particular emphasis will be given to insights derived from therapeutic interventions with lifestyle modification, cardiovascular drugs, anti-diabetic and anti-obesity drugs.

  6. Regulatory mechanisms of metabolic flexibility in the dark-eyed junco (Junco hyemalis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stager, Maria; Swanson, David L; Cheviron, Zachary A

    2015-03-01

    Small temperate birds reversibly modify their aerobic performance to maintain thermoregulatory homeostasis under seasonally changing environmental conditions and these physiological adjustments may be attributable to changes in the expression of genes in the underlying regulatory networks. Here, we report the results of an experimental procedure designed to gain insight into the fundamental mechanisms of metabolic flexibility in the dark-eyed junco (Junco hyemalis). We combined genomic transcriptional profiles with measures of metabolic enzyme activities and whole-animal thermogenic performance from juncos exposed to four 6-week acclimation treatments that varied in temperature (cold, 3°C; warm, 24°C) and photoperiod (short day, 8 h light:16 h dark; long day, 16 h light:8 h dark). Cold-acclimated birds increased thermogenic capacity compared with warm-acclimated birds, and this enhanced performance was associated with upregulation of genes involved in muscle hypertrophy, angiogenesis, and lipid transport and oxidation, as well as with catabolic enzyme activities. These physiological changes occurred over ecologically relevant timescales, suggesting that birds make regulatory adjustments to interacting, hierarchical pathways in order to seasonally enhance thermogenic capacity. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  7. [The mechanisms underlying the therapeutic effects of reflexotherapy and drinking mineral waters in the patients presenting with metabolic syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhernov, V A; Frolkov, V K; Zubarkina, M M

    Both acupuncture and drinking mineral water can influence the metabolism of carbohydrates and lipids as well as their hormonal regulation, but the possibility of the application of these therapeutic factors for the correction of insulin resistance has not been studied in the patients presenting with metabolic syndrome. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effects produced by the intake of drinking mineral water and acupuncture on the various parameters characterizing the patients suffering from metabolic syndrome in combination with altered insulin resistance. Ninety patients with this condition included in the study underwent the analysis of their the blood pressure, body mass index, blood glucose and lipid levels, insulin and cortisol secretion. We undertook the analysis of the effects of the single and repeated intakes of Essentuki No 17 mineral water included in the combined treatment of the patients with metabolic syndrome and revealed many common responses of the organism to its therapeutic action. Specifically, the stress-type reactions suggested the initiation of the adaptive processes in the system of hormonal regulation of carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. Simultaneously, the manifestations of insulin resistance became less pronounced indicating that both acupuncture and drinking mineral water suppressed the action of the main pathogenic mechanisms underlying the development of metabolic syndrome. Moreover, it was shown that acupuncture had a stronger hypotensive effect in the combination with the decrease of the overproduction of cortisol whereas the intake of the mineral water had a greater metabolic potential and contributed to the intensification of the basal secretion of glucocorticoids. Both reflexotherapy and drinking mineral water have a well apparent effect on the pathogenetic reactions of the metabolic syndrome and therefore can be used in addition to the standard therapy to activate the non-specific, phylogenetically

  8. Mechanisms of metabolic dysfunction in cancer-associated cachexia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petruzzelli, Michele; Wagner, Erwin F.

    2016-01-01

    Metabolic dysfunction contributes to the clinical deterioration observed in advanced cancer patients and is characterized by weight loss, skeletal muscle wasting, and atrophy of the adipose tissue. This systemic syndrome, termed cancer-associated cachexia (CAC), is a major cause of morbidity and mortality. While once attributed solely to decreased food intake, the present description of cancer cachexia is a disorder of multiorgan energy imbalance. Here we review the molecules and pathways responsible for metabolic dysfunction in CAC and the ideas that led to the current understanding. PMID:26944676

  9. Metabolic imaging in obesity: underlying mechanisms and consequences in the whole body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iozzo, Patricia

    2015-09-01

    Obesity is a phenotype resulting from a series of causative factors with a variable risk of complications. Etiologic diversity requires personalized prevention and treatment. Imaging procedures offer the potential to investigate the interplay between organs and pathways underlying energy intake and consumption in an integrated manner, and may open the perspective to classify and treat obesity according to causative mechanisms. This review illustrates the contribution provided by imaging studies to the understanding of human obesity, starting with the regulation of food intake and intestinal metabolism, followed by the role of adipose tissue in storing, releasing, and utilizing substrates, including the interconversion of white and brown fat, and concluding with the examination of imaging risk indicators related to complications, including type 2 diabetes, liver pathologies, cardiac and kidney diseases, and sleep disorders. The imaging modalities include (1) positron emission tomography to quantify organ-specific perfusion and substrate metabolism; (2) computed tomography to assess tissue density as an indicator of fat content and browning/ whitening; (3) ultrasounds to examine liver steatosis, stiffness, and inflammation; and (4) magnetic resonance techniques to assess blood oxygenation levels in the brain, liver stiffness, and metabolite contents (triglycerides, fatty acids, glucose, phosphocreatine, ATP, and acetylcarnitine) in a variety of organs. © 2015 New York Academy of Sciences.

  10. Metabolic Dysfunction in Parkinson's Disease: Bioenergetics, Redox Homeostasis and Central Carbon Metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anandhan, Annadurai; Jacome, Maria S; Lei, Shulei; Hernandez-Franco, Pablo; Pappa, Aglaia; Panayiotidis, Mihalis I; Powers, Robert; Franco, Rodrigo

    2017-07-01

    The loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc) and the accumulation of protein inclusions (Lewy bodies) are the pathological hallmarks of Parkinson's disease (PD). PD is triggered by genetic alterations, environmental/occupational exposures and aging. However, the exact molecular mechanisms linking these PD risk factors to neuronal dysfunction are still unclear. Alterations in redox homeostasis and bioenergetics (energy failure) are thought to be central components of neurodegeneration that contribute to the impairment of important homeostatic processes in dopaminergic cells such as protein quality control mechanisms, neurotransmitter release/metabolism, axonal transport of vesicles and cell survival. Importantly, both bioenergetics and redox homeostasis are coupled to neuro-glial central carbon metabolism. We and others have recently established a link between the alterations in central carbon metabolism induced by PD risk factors, redox homeostasis and bioenergetics and their contribution to the survival/death of dopaminergic cells. In this review, we focus on the link between metabolic dysfunction, energy failure and redox imbalance in PD, making an emphasis in the contribution of central carbon (glucose) metabolism. The evidence summarized here strongly supports the consideration of PD as a disorder of cell metabolism. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Drug metabolizing enzyme systems and their relationship to toxic mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyd, M.R.; Ravindranath, V.; Burka, L.T.

    1983-01-01

    The metabolism and toxicity of 3-methylfuran (3-MF) are described. The major product of metabolic activation of 3-MF appears to be disemicarbazones. Cursory description of toxic effects of 3-MF on lung and kidneys are provided. 18 refs

  12. Effect of dietary boron on growth performance, calcium and phosphorus metabolism, and bone mechanical properties in growing barrows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, T A; Spears, J W

    2001-12-01

    An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary boron (B) on growth performance, bone mechanical properties, and calcium (Ca) and phosphorus (P) metabolism in pigs. Thirty-six barrows were weaned at approximately 21 d of age and randomly assigned to receive one of three dietary treatments. Treatments consisted of 1) low-B basal diet (control), 2) basal + 5 mg B/kg diet, and 3) basal + 15 mg B/kg diet. Boron was supplemented as sodium borate. Barrows remained on their respective experimental diets throughout the nursery (35 d) and growing (30 d) phases of production. Blood samples were obtained from each barrow at the end of each phase. Following the 30-d growing period, eight barrows per treatment were transferred to stainless steel metabolism crates. Barrows had an adjustment period of 7 d, followed by a 7-d total collection of urine and feces. All barrows were fed at 90% of the previous ad libitum grower intake of the control animals during the adjustment and collection periods. At the end of the 7-d collection period, barrows were killed and femurs and fibulas were harvested for the assessment of bone mechanical properties. During the nursery phase, ADG and ADFI were increased (P 0.05) by dietary B. These data indicate that B supplementation to pigs can increase growth and bone strength without greatly affecting Ca and P metabolism.

  13. Developmental plasticity and epigenetic mechanisms underpinning metabolic and cardiovascular diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, Felicia M; Gluckman, Peter D; Hanson, Mark A

    2011-06-01

    The importance of developmental factors in influencing the risk of later-life disease has a strong evidence base derived from multiple epidemiological, clinical and experimental studies in animals and humans. During early life, an organism is able to adjust its phenotypic development in response to environmental cues. Such developmentally plastic responses evolved as a fitness-maximizing strategy to cope with variable environments. There are now increasing data that these responses are, at least partially, underpinned by epigenetic mechanisms. A mismatch between the early and later-life environments may lead to inappropriate early life-course epigenomic changes that manifest in later life as increased vulnerability to disease. There is also growing evidence for the transgenerational transmission of epigenetic marks. This article reviews the evidence that susceptibility to metabolic and cardiovascular disease in humans is linked to changes in epigenetic marks induced by early-life environmental cues, and discusses the clinical, public health and therapeutic implications that arise.

  14. Metabolic phenotyping of various tea (Camellia sinensis L.) cultivars and understanding of their intrinsic metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Hyang-Gi; Lee, Yeong-Ran; Lee, Min-Seuk; Hwang, Kyeong Hwan; Kim, Eun-Hee; Park, Jun Seong; Hong, Young-Shick

    2017-10-15

    Recently, we selected three tea (Camellia sinensis) cultivars that are rich in taste, epigallocatechin-3-O-gallate (EGCG) and epigallocatechin-3-O-(3-O-methyl)-gallate (EGCG3″Me) and then cultivated them through asexual propagation by cutting in the same region. In the present study, proton nuclear magnetic resonance ( 1 H NMR)-based metabolomics was applied to characterize the metabotype and to understand the metabolic mechanism of these tea cultivars including wild type tea. Of the tea leaf metabolite variations, reverse associations of amino acid metabolism with catechin compound metabolism were found in the rich-taste, and EGCG- and EGCG3″Me-rich tea cultivars. Indeed, the metabolism of individual catechin compounds in the EGCG3″Me-rich cultivar differed from those of other tea cultivars. The current study highlights the distinct metabolism of various tea cultivars newly selected for cultivation and the important role of metabolomics in understanding the metabolic mechanism. Thus, comprehensive metabotyping is a useful method to assess and then develop a new plant cultivar. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Mechanisms by Which Metabolic Reprogramming in GSD1 Liver Generates a Favorable Tumorigenic Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Gjorgjieva PhD Student

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Glycogen storage disease type 1 (GSD1 is an inherited disorder caused by impaired glucose 6-phosphatase activity. This impairment translates into the inhibition of endogenous glucose production and the subsequent accumulation of cellular glucose 6-phosphate. Excess glucose 6-phosphate enhances glycolysis, increases the production of fatty acids, uric acid, and lactate, causes hepatomegaly due to glycogen and lipid accumulation, and finally results in liver tumor development. Although the exact mechanisms of tumorigenesis in patients with GSD1 remain unclear, GSD1 hepatocytes undergo a Warburg-like metabolic switch. The consequent hyperactivation of specific metabolic pathways renders GSD1 hepatocytes susceptible to tumor development, presumably by providing the building blocks and energy required for cell proliferation. In addition to this, enhanced apoptosis in GSD1 may promote mitotic activity and hence result in DNA replication errors, thereby contributing to tumorigenesis. Increased carbohydrate responsive element-binding protein (ChREBP and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR activity and impaired AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK function likely play key roles in these pro-oncogenic processes.

  16. Metabolic Syndrome Is Associated with Atrial Electrical and Mechanical Dysfunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Hale; Özcan, Kazım Serhan; Sayar, Nurten; Kemaloglu, Tugba; Gungor, Baris; Erer, Betul; Yilmaz, Mehmet; Gurkan, Ufuk; Cakmak, Nazmiye; Oz, Dilaver; Calik, Ali Nazmi; Bolca, Osman

    2015-01-01

    Objective In this study, we aimed to investigate the left atrial (LA) electrical and mechanical functions in patients with metabolic syndrome (MetS). Subjects and Methods The study population consisted of 87 patients with MetS and 67 controls. Intra-atrial and interatrial electromechanical delays (EDs) were measured with tissue Doppler imaging. P-wave dispersion (Pd) was calculated from the 12-lead electrocardiograms. LA volumes were measured echocardiographically by the biplane area-length method. Results Intra-atrial and interatrial EDs and Pd were significantly higher in patients with MetS (10.3 ± 6.3, 21.0 ± 11.5 and 41.7 ± 10.8) than in controls (7.4 ± 5.5, 12.3 ± 10.4 and 29.2 ± 7.4; p = 0.003, p < 0.001 and p < 0.001, respectively). The LA preatrial contraction volume and active emptying volumes were higher in this population, but the LA passive emptying fraction was lower. In the multivariate linear regression analysis, the presence of MetS, LA active emptying volume and left ventricular early diastolic (E) wave velocity/late diastolic (A) wave velocity (E/A) ratios were independent correlates of interatrial ED (p = 0.002, p = 0.001 and p = 0.025, respectively). Conclusions This study showed that intra-atrial and interatrial EDs and Pd were prolonged and LA mechanical functions were impaired in patients with MetS. PMID:25592764

  17. MECHANISMS IN ENDOCRINOLOGY: The sexually dimorphic role of androgens in human metabolic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiffer, Lina; Kempegowda, Punith; Arlt, Wiebke; O'Reilly, Michael W

    2017-09-01

    Female androgen excess and male androgen deficiency manifest with an overlapping adverse metabolic phenotype, including abdominal obesity, insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes mellitus, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Here, we review the impact of androgens on metabolic target tissues in an attempt to unravel the complex mechanistic links with metabolic dysfunction; we also evaluate clinical studies examining the associations between metabolic disease and disorders of androgen metabolism in men and women. We conceptualise that an equilibrium between androgen effects on adipose tissue and skeletal muscle underpins the metabolic phenotype observed in female androgen excess and male androgen deficiency. Androgens induce adipose tissue dysfunction, with effects on lipid metabolism, insulin resistance and fat mass expansion, while anabolic effects on skeletal muscle may confer metabolic benefits. We hypothesise that serum androgen concentrations observed in female androgen excess and male hypogonadism are metabolically disadvantageous, promoting adipose and liver lipid accumulation, central fat mass expansion and insulin resistance. © 2017 The authors.

  18. A potential mechanism of energy-metabolism oscillation in an aerobic chemostat culture of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhaojun; Tsurugi, Kunio

    2006-04-01

    The energy-metabolism oscillation in aerobic chemostat cultures of yeast is a periodic change of the respiro-fermentative and respiratory phase. In the respiro-fermentative phase, the NADH level was kept high and respiration was suppressed, and glucose was anabolized into trehalose and glycogen at a rate comparable to that of catabolism. On the transition to the respiratory phase, cAMP levels increased triggering the breakdown of storage carbohydrates and the increased influx of glucose into the glycolytic pathway activated production of glycerol and ethanol consuming NADH. The resulting increase in the NAD(+)/NADH ratio stimulated respiration in combination with a decrease in the level of ATP, which was consumed mainly in the formation of biomass accompanying budding, and the accumulated ethanol and glycerol were gradually degraded by respiration via NAD(+)-dependent oxidation to acetate and the respiratory phase ceased after the recovery of NADH and ATP levels. However, the mRNA levels of both synthetic and degradative enzymes of storage carbohydrates were increased around the early respiro-fermentative phase, when storage carbohydrates are being synthesized, suggesting that the synthetic enzymes were expressed directly as active forms while the degradative enzymes were activated late by cAMP. In summary, the energy-metabolism oscillation is basically regulated by a feedback loop of oxido-reductive reactions of energy metabolism mediated by metabolites like NADH and ATP, and is modulated by metabolism of storage carbohydrates in combination of post-translational and transcriptional regulation of the related enzymes. A potential mechanism of energy-metabolism oscillation is proposed.

  19. Using a genome-scale metabolic network model to elucidate the mechanism of chloroquine action in Plasmodium falciparum

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    Shivendra G. Tewari

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Chloroquine, long the default first-line treatment against malaria, is now abandoned in large parts of the world because of widespread drug-resistance in Plasmodium falciparum. In spite of its importance as a cost-effective and efficient drug, a coherent understanding of the cellular mechanisms affected by chloroquine and how they influence the fitness and survival of the parasite remains elusive. Here, we used a systems biology approach to integrate genome-scale transcriptomics to map out the effects of chloroquine, identify targeted metabolic pathways, and translate these findings into mechanistic insights. Specifically, we first developed a method that integrates transcriptomic and metabolomic data, which we independently validated against a recently published set of such data for Krebs-cycle mutants of P. falciparum. We then used the method to calculate the effect of chloroquine treatment on the metabolic flux profiles of P. falciparum during the intraerythrocytic developmental cycle. The model predicted dose-dependent inhibition of DNA replication, in agreement with earlier experimental results for both drug-sensitive and drug-resistant P. falciparum strains. Our simulations also corroborated experimental findings that suggest differences in chloroquine sensitivity between ring- and schizont-stage P. falciparum. Our analysis also suggests that metabolic fluxes that govern reduced thioredoxin and phosphoenolpyruvate synthesis are significantly decreased and are pivotal to chloroquine-based inhibition of P. falciparum DNA replication. The consequences of impaired phosphoenolpyruvate synthesis and redox metabolism are reduced carbon fixation and increased oxidative stress, respectively, both of which eventually facilitate killing of the parasite. Our analysis suggests that a combination of chloroquine (or an analogue and another drug, which inhibits carbon fixation and/or increases oxidative stress, should increase the clearance of P

  20. Nonstructural leaf carbohydrates dynamics of Pinus edulis during drought-induced tree mortality reveal role for carbon metabolism in mortality mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Henry D.; Germino, Matthew J.; Breshears, David D.; Barron-Gafford, Greg A.; Guardiola-Claramonte, Maite; Zou, Chris B.; Huxman, Travis E.

    2013-01-01

    * Vegetation change is expected with global climate change, potentially altering ecosystem function and climate feedbacks. However, causes of plant mortality, which are central to vegetation change, are understudied, and physiological mechanisms remain unclear, particularly the roles of carbon metabolism and xylem function.

  1. Creatine Supplementation and Skeletal Muscle Metabolism for Building Muscle Mass- Review of the Potential Mechanisms of Action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farshidfar, Farnaz; Pinder, Mark A; Myrie, Semone B

    2017-01-01

    Creatine, a very popular supplement among athletic populations, is of growing interest for clinical applications. Since over 90% of creatine is stored in skeletal muscle, the effect of creatine supplementation on muscle metabolism is a widely studied area. While numerous studies over the past few decades have shown that creatine supplementation has many favorable effects on skeletal muscle physiology and metabolism, including enhancing muscle mass (growth/hypertrophy); the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. This report reviews studies addressing the mechanisms of action of creatine supplementation on skeletal muscle growth/hypertrophy. Early research proposed that the osmotic effect of creatine supplementation serves as a cellular stressor (osmosensing) that acts as an anabolic stimulus for protein synthesis signal pathways. Other reports indicated that creatine directly affects muscle protein synthesis via modulations of components in the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway. Creatine may also directly affect the myogenic process (formation of muscle tissue), by altering secretions of myokines, such as myostatin and insulin-like growth factor-1, and expressions of myogenic regulatory factors, resulting in enhanced satellite cells mitotic activities and differentiation into myofiber. Overall, there is still no clear understanding of the mechanisms of action regarding how creatine affects muscle mass/growth, but current evidence suggests it may exert its effects through multiple approaches, with converging impacts on protein synthesis and myogenesis. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  2. Metabolic Reprogramming During Multidrug Resistance in Leukemias

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    Raphael Silveira Vidal

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Cancer outcome has improved since introduction of target therapy. However, treatment success is still impaired by the same drug resistance mechanism of classical chemotherapy, known as multidrug resistance (MDR phenotype. This phenotype promotes resistance to drugs with different structures and mechanism of action. Recent reports have shown that resistance acquisition is coupled to metabolic reprogramming. High-gene expression, increase of active transport, and conservation of redox status are one of the few examples that increase energy and substrate demands. It is not clear if the role of this metabolic shift in the MDR phenotype is related to its maintenance or to its induction. Apart from the nature of this relation, the metabolism may represent a new target to avoid or to block the mechanism that has been impairing treatment success. In this mini-review, we discuss the relation between metabolism and MDR resistance focusing on the multiple non-metabolic functions that enzymes of the glycolytic pathway are known to display, with emphasis with the diverse activities of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase.

  3. Systematic Understanding of Mechanisms of a Chinese Herbal Formula in Treatment of Metabolic Syndrome by an Integrated Pharmacology Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Meimei; Yang, Fafu; Yang, Xuemei; Lai, Xinmei; Gao, Yuxing

    2016-12-16

    Metabolic syndrome (MS) is becoming a worldwide health problem. Wendan decoction (WDD)-a famous traditional Chinese medicine formula-has been extensively employed to relieve syndromes related to MS in clinical practice in China. However, its pharmacological mechanisms still remain vague. In this study, a comprehensive approach that integrated chemomics, principal component analysis, molecular docking simulation, and network analysis was established to elucidate the multi-component and multi-target mechanism of action of WDD in treatment of MS. The compounds in WDD were found to possess chemical diversity, complexity and drug-likeness compared to MS drugs. Six nuclear receptors were obtained to have strong binding affinity with 217 compounds of five herbs in WDD. The importance roles of targets and herbs were also identified due to network parameters. Five compounds from Radix Glycyrrhizae Preparata can hit all six targets, which can assist in screening new MS drugs. The pathway network analysis demonstrated that the main pharmacological effects of WDD might lie in maintaining lipid and glucose metabolisms and anticancer activities as well as immunomodulatory and hepatoprotective effects. This study provided a comprehensive system approach for understanding the multi-component, multi-target and multi-pathway mechanisms of WDD during the treatment of MS.

  4. Systematic Understanding of Mechanisms of a Chinese Herbal Formula in Treatment of Metabolic Syndrome by an Integrated Pharmacology Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meimei Chen

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic syndrome (MS is becoming a worldwide health problem. Wendan decoction (WDD—a famous traditional Chinese medicine formula—has been extensively employed to relieve syndromes related to MS in clinical practice in China. However, its pharmacological mechanisms still remain vague. In this study, a comprehensive approach that integrated chemomics, principal component analysis, molecular docking simulation, and network analysis was established to elucidate the multi-component and multi-target mechanism of action of WDD in treatment of MS. The compounds in WDD were found to possess chemical diversity, complexity and drug-likeness compared to MS drugs. Six nuclear receptors were obtained to have strong binding affinity with 217 compounds of five herbs in WDD. The importance roles of targets and herbs were also identified due to network parameters. Five compounds from Radix Glycyrrhizae Preparata can hit all six targets, which can assist in screening new MS drugs. The pathway network analysis demonstrated that the main pharmacological effects of WDD might lie in maintaining lipid and glucose metabolisms and anticancer activities as well as immunomodulatory and hepatoprotective effects. This study provided a comprehensive system approach for understanding the multi-component, multi-target and multi-pathway mechanisms of WDD during the treatment of MS.

  5. Mycobacterium tuberculosis Metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Digby F.

    2015-01-01

    Metabolism underpins the physiology and pathogenesis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. However, although experimental mycobacteriology has provided key insights into the metabolic pathways that are essential for survival and pathogenesis, determining the metabolic status of bacilli during different stages of infection and in different cellular compartments remains challenging. Recent advances—in particular, the development of systems biology tools such as metabolomics—have enabled key insights into the biochemical state of M. tuberculosis in experimental models of infection. In addition, their use to elucidate mechanisms of action of new and existing antituberculosis drugs is critical for the development of improved interventions to counter tuberculosis. This review provides a broad summary of mycobacterial metabolism, highlighting the adaptation of M. tuberculosis as specialist human pathogen, and discusses recent insights into the strategies used by the host and infecting bacillus to influence the outcomes of the host–pathogen interaction through modulation of metabolic functions. PMID:25502746

  6. The use of cultured hepatocytes to investigate the metabolism of drugs and mechanisms of drug hepatotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Lechón, M J; Ponsoda, X; Bort, R; Castell, J V

    2001-01-01

    Hepatotoxins can be classified as intrinsic when they exert their effects on all individuals in a dose-dependent manner, and as idiosyncratic when their effects are the consequence of an abnormal metabolism of the drug by susceptible individuals (metabolic idiosyncrasy) or of an immune-mediated injury to hepatocytes (allergic hepatitis). Some xenobiotics are electrophilic, and others are biotransformed by the liver into highly reactive metabolites that are usually more toxic than the parent compound. This activation process is the key to many hepatotoxic phenomena. Mitochondria are a frequent target of hepatotoxic drugs, and the alteration of their function has immediate effects on the energy balance of cells (depletion of ATP). Lipid peroxidation, oxidative stress, alteration of Ca(2+) homeostasis, and covalent binding to cell macromolecules are the molecular mechanisms that are frequently involved in the toxicity of xenobiotics. Against these potential hazards, cells have their own defence mechanisms (for example, glutathione, DNA repair, suicide inactivation). Ultimately, toxicity is the balance between bioactivation and detoxification, which determines whether a reactive metabolite elicits a toxic effect. The ultimate goal of in vitro experiments is to generate the type of scientific information needed to identify compounds that are potentially toxic to man. For this purpose, both the design of the experiments and the interpretation of the results are critical.

  7. Substrate metabolism in the metabolic response to injury

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Romijn, J. A.

    2000-01-01

    In healthy subjects the metabolic response to starvation invokes regulatory mechanisms aimed at conservation of protein mass. This response is characterized by a decrease in energy expenditure and a progressive decrease in urinary N excretion. Many non-endocrine diseases induce anorexia and a

  8. Hepatic diseases related to triglyceride metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilera-Méndez, Asdrubal; Álvarez-Delgado, Carolina; Hernández-Godinez, Daniel; Fernandez-Mejia, Cristina

    2013-10-01

    Triglycerides participate in key metabolic functions such as energy storage, thermal insulation and as deposit for essential and non-essential fatty acids that can be used as precursors for the synthesis of structural and functional phospholipids. The liver is a central organ in the regulation of triglyceride metabolism, and it participates in triglyceride synthesis, export, uptake and oxidation. The metabolic syndrome and associated diseases are among the main concerns of public health worldwide. One of the metabolic syndrome components is impaired triglyceride metabolism. Diseases associated with the metabolic syndrome promote the appearance of hepatic alterations e.g., non-alcoholic steatosis, steatohepatitis, fibrosis, cirrhosis and cancer. In this article, we review the molecular actions involved in impaired triglyceride metabolism and its association with hepatic diseases. We discuss mechanisms that reconcile the chronic inflammation and insulin resistance, and new concepts on the role of intestinal micro-flora permeability and proliferation in fatty liver etiology. We also describe the participation of oxidative stress in the progression of events leading from steatosis to steatohepatitis and fibrosis. Finally, we provide information regarding the mechanisms that link fatty acid accumulation during steatosis with changes in growth factors and cytokines that lead to the development of neoplastic cells. One of the main medical concerns vis-a-vis hepatic diseases is the lack of symptoms at the onset of the illness and, as result, its late diagnosis. The understandings of the molecular mechanisms that underlie hepatic diseases could help design strategies towards establishing markers for their accurate and timely diagnosis.

  9. Neuroinflammatory basis of metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purkayastha, Sudarshana; Cai, Dongsheng

    2013-10-05

    Inflammatory reaction is a fundamental defense mechanism against threat towards normal integrity and physiology. On the other hand, chronic diseases such as obesity, type 2 diabetes, hypertension and atherosclerosis, have been causally linked to chronic, low-grade inflammation in various metabolic tissues. Recent cross-disciplinary research has led to identification of hypothalamic inflammatory changes that are triggered by overnutrition, orchestrated by hypothalamic immune system, and sustained through metabolic syndrome-associated pathophysiology. While continuing research is actively trying to underpin the identity and mechanisms of these inflammatory stimuli and actions involved in metabolic syndrome disorders and related diseases, proinflammatory IκB kinase-β (IKKβ), the downstream nuclear transcription factor NF-κB and some related molecules in the hypothalamus were discovered to be pathogenically significant. This article is to summarize recent progresses in the field of neuroendocrine research addressing the central integrative role of neuroinflammation in metabolic syndrome components ranging from obesity, glucose intolerance to cardiovascular dysfunctions.

  10. Impact of charged amino acid substitution in the transmembrane domain of L-alanine exporter, AlaE, of Escherichia coli on the L-alanine export.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seryoung; Ihara, Kohei; Katsube, Satoshi; Ando, Tasuke; Isogai, Emiko; Yoneyama, Hiroshi

    2017-01-01

    The Escherichia coli alaE gene encodes the L-alanine exporter, AlaE, that catalyzes active export of L-alanine using proton electrochemical potential. The transporter comprises only 149 amino acid residues and four predicted transmembrane domains (TMs), which contain three charged amino acid residues. The AlaE-deficient L-alanine non-metabolizing cells (ΔalaE cells) appeared hypersusceptible to L-alanyl-L-alanine showing a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 2.5 µg/ml for the dipeptide due to a toxic accumulation of L-alanine. To elucidate the mechanism by which AlaE exports L-alanine, we replaced charged amino acid residues in the TMs, glutamic acid-30 (TM-I), arginine-45 (TM-II), and aspartic acid-84 (TM-III) with their respective charge-conserved amino acid or a net neutral cysteine. The ΔalaE cells producing R45K or R45C appeared hypersusceptible to the dipeptide, indicating that arginine-45 is essential for AlaE activity. MIC of the dipeptide in the ΔalaE cells expressing E30D and E30C was 156 µg/ml and >10,000 µg/ml, respectively, thereby suggesting that a negative charge at this position is not essential. The ΔalaE cells expressing D84E or D84C showed an MIC >10,000 and 78 µg/ml, respectively, implying that a negative charge is required at this position. These results were generally consistent with that of the L-alanine accumulation experiments in intact cells. We therefore concluded that charged amino acid residues (R45 and D84) in the AlaE transmembrane domain play a pivotal role in L-alanine export. Replacement of three cysteine residues at C22, C28 (both in TM-I), and C135 (C-terminal region) with alanine showed only a marginal effect on L-alanine export.

  11. The effect of maternal chromium status on lipid metabolism in female elderly mice offspring and involved molecular mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qian; Sun, Xiaofang; Xiao, Xinhua; Zheng, Jia; Li, Ming; Yu, Miao; Ping, Fan; Wang, Zhixin; Qi, Cuijuan; Wang, Tong; Wang, Xiaojing

    2017-04-30

    Maternal malnutrition leads to the incidence of metabolic diseases in offspring. The purpose of this project was to examine whether maternal low chromium could disturb normal lipid metabolism in offspring, altering adipose cell differentiation and leading to the incidence of lipid metabolism diseases, including metabolic syndrome and obesity. Female C57BL mice were given a control diet (CD) or a low chromium diet (LCD) during the gestational and lactation periods. After weaning, offspring was fed with CD or LCD. The female offspring were assessed at 32 weeks of age. Fresh adipose samples from CD-CD group and LCD-CD group were collected. Genome mRNA were analysed using Affymetrix GeneChip Mouse Gene 2.0 ST Whole Transcript-based array. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were analysed based on gene ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analysis database. Maternal low chromium irreversibly increased offspring body weight, fat-pad weight, serum triglyceride (TG) and TNF-α. Eighty five genes increased and 109 genes reduced in the offspring adipose of the maternal low chromium group. According to KEGG pathway and String analyses, the PPAR signalling pathway may be the key controlled pathway related to the effect of maternal low chromium on female offspring. Maternal chromium status have long-term effects of lipid metabolism in female mice offspring. Normalizing offspring diet can not reverse these effects. The potential underlying mechanisms are the disturbance of the PPAR signalling pathway in adipose tissue. © 2017 The Author(s).

  12. Nonstructural leaf carbohydrate dynamics of Pinus edulis during drought-induced tree mortality reveal role for carbon metabolism in mortality mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Henry D; Germino, Matthew J; Breshears, David D; Barron-Gafford, Greg A; Guardiola-Claramonte, Maite; Zou, Chris B; Huxman, Travis E

    2013-03-01

    Vegetation change is expected with global climate change, potentially altering ecosystem function and climate feedbacks. However, causes of plant mortality, which are central to vegetation change, are understudied, and physiological mechanisms remain unclear, particularly the roles of carbon metabolism and xylem function. We report analysis of foliar nonstructural carbohydrates (NSCs) and associated physiology from a previous experiment where earlier drought-induced mortality of Pinus edulis at elevated temperatures was associated with greater cumulative respiration. Here, we predicted faster NSC decline for warmed trees than for ambient-temperature trees. Foliar NSC in droughted trees declined by 30% through mortality and was lower than in watered controls. NSC decline resulted primarily from decreased sugar concentrations. Starch initially declined, and then increased above pre-drought concentrations before mortality. Although temperature did not affect NSC and sugar, starch concentrations ceased declining and increased earlier with higher temperatures. Reduced foliar NSC during lethal drought indicates a carbon metabolism role in mortality mechanism. Although carbohydrates were not completely exhausted at mortality, temperature differences in starch accumulation timing suggest that carbon metabolism changes are associated with time to death. Drought mortality appears to be related to temperature-dependent carbon dynamics concurrent with increasing hydraulic stress in P. edulis and potentially other similar species. © 2013 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2013 New Phytologist Trust.

  13. Mechanisms of metabonomic for a gateway drug: nicotine priming enhances behavioral response to cocaine with modification in energy metabolism and neurotransmitter level.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongyu Li

    Full Text Available Nicotine, one of the most commonly used drugs, has become a major concern because tobacco serves as a gateway drug and is linked to illicit drug abuse, such as cocaine and marijuana. However, previous studies mainly focused on certain genes or neurotransmitters which have already been known to participate in drug addiction, lacking endogenous metabolic profiling in a global view. To further explore the mechanism by which nicotine modifies the response to cocaine, we developed two conditioned place preference (CPP models in mice. In threshold dose model, mice were pretreated with nicotine, followed by cocaine treatment at the dose of 2 mg/kg, a threshold dose of cocaine to induce CPP in mice. In high-dose model, mice were only treated with 20 mg/kg cocaine, which induced a significant CPP. (1H nuclear magnetic resonance based on metabonomics was used to investigate metabolic profiles of the nucleus accumbens (NAc and striatum. We found that nicotine pretreatment dramatically increased CPP induced by 2 mg/kg cocaine, which was similar to 20 mg/kg cocaine-induced CPP. Interestingly, metabolic profiles showed considerable overlap between these two models. These overlapped metabolites mainly included neurotransmitters as well as the molecules participating in energy homeostasis and cellular metabolism. Our results show that the reinforcing effect of nicotine on behavioral response to cocaine may attribute to the modification of some specific metabolites in NAc and striatum, thus creating a favorable metabolic environment for enhancing conditioned rewarding effect of cocaine. Our findings provide an insight into the effect of cigarette smoking on cocaine dependence and the underlying mechanism.

  14. Tumor Metabolism of Malignant Gliomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ru, Peng; Williams, Terence M.; Chakravarti, Arnab; Guo, Deliang, E-mail: deliang.guo@osumc.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Ohio State University Comprehensive Cancer Center & Arthur G James Cancer Hospital, Columbus, OH 43012 (United States)

    2013-11-08

    Constitutively activated oncogenic signaling via genetic mutations such as in the EGFR/PI3K/Akt and Ras/RAF/MEK pathways has been recognized as a major driver for tumorigenesis in most cancers. Recent insights into tumor metabolism have further revealed that oncogenic signaling pathways directly promote metabolic reprogramming to upregulate biosynthesis of lipids, carbohydrates, protein, DNA and RNA, leading to enhanced growth of human tumors. Therefore, targeting cell metabolism has become a novel direction for drug development in oncology. In malignant gliomas, metabolism pathways of glucose, glutamine and lipid are significantly reprogrammed. Moreover, molecular mechanisms causing these metabolic changes are just starting to be unraveled. In this review, we will summarize recent studies revealing critical gene alterations that lead to metabolic changes in malignant gliomas, and also discuss promising therapeutic strategies via targeting the key players in metabolic regulation.

  15. Tumor Metabolism of Malignant Gliomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ru, Peng; Williams, Terence M.; Chakravarti, Arnab; Guo, Deliang

    2013-01-01

    Constitutively activated oncogenic signaling via genetic mutations such as in the EGFR/PI3K/Akt and Ras/RAF/MEK pathways has been recognized as a major driver for tumorigenesis in most cancers. Recent insights into tumor metabolism have further revealed that oncogenic signaling pathways directly promote metabolic reprogramming to upregulate biosynthesis of lipids, carbohydrates, protein, DNA and RNA, leading to enhanced growth of human tumors. Therefore, targeting cell metabolism has become a novel direction for drug development in oncology. In malignant gliomas, metabolism pathways of glucose, glutamine and lipid are significantly reprogrammed. Moreover, molecular mechanisms causing these metabolic changes are just starting to be unraveled. In this review, we will summarize recent studies revealing critical gene alterations that lead to metabolic changes in malignant gliomas, and also discuss promising therapeutic strategies via targeting the key players in metabolic regulation

  16. Early metabolic effects and mechanism of ammonium transport in yeast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pena, A.; Pardo, J.P.; Ramirez, J.

    1987-01-01

    Studies were performed to define the effects and mechanism of NH+4 transport in yeast. The following results were obtained. Glucose was a better facilitator than ethanol-H 2 O 2 for ammonium transport; low concentrations of uncouplers or respiratory inhibitors could inhibit the transport with ethanol as the substrate. With glucose, respiratory inhibitors showed only small inhibitory effects, and only high concentrations of azide or trifluoromethoxy carbonylcyanide phenylhydrazone could inhibit ammonium transport. Ammonium in the free state could be concentrated approximately 200-fold by the cells. Also, the addition of ammonium produced stimulation of both respiration and fermentation; an increased rate of H+ extrusion and an alkalinization of the interior of the cell; a decrease of the membrane potential, as monitored by fluorescent cyanine; an immediate decrease of the levels of ATP and an increase of ADP, which may account for the stimulation of both fermentation and respiration; and an increase of the levels of inorganic phosphate. Ammonium was found to inhibit 86Rb+ transport much less than K+. Also, while K+ produced a competitive type of inhibition, that produced by NH4+ was of the noncompetitive type. From the distribution ratio of ammonium and the pH gradient, an electrochemical potential gradient of around -180 mV was calculated. The results indicate that ammonium is transported in yeast by a mechanism similar to that of monovalent alkaline cations, driven by a membrane potential. The immediate metabolic effects of this cation seem to be due to an increased [H+]ATPase, to which its transport is coupled. However, the carriers seem to be different. The transport system studied in this work was that of low affinity

  17. Fat metabolism during exercise: mechanisms of regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monique da Silva Gevaerd

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Fats are important energetic fuel to exercise. However, the regulation of fat uptake during exercise is unclear. The main objective of this review was to focus on physiological control mechanisms of mobilization, transport and fat uptake during exercise. The articles of fat metabolism were searched in Pubmed and Lilacs indexes. Classical and current papers were preferred. Evidence suggests that transport of fatty acids (FA from extracellular to intracellular spaces could be the main factor to limit fatty acid uptake. Future studies on fat uptake during exercise can focus on this mechanism. In intense exercise, the lower blood fl ow in the adipose tissue and higher fatty acid reesterifi cation rate impairs fat uptake during exercise. Supplementation of the FA has been used, however, the ideal quantities and forms to prevent gastrointestinal discomfort were not yet determined. In the biological point of view, intramuscular reserve of FA could be more effi cient, because is not necessary to FA to cross the cell membrane. RESUMO Os lipídios são considerados importantes fontes energéticas para a realização de exercícios físicos. Entretanto, os mecanismos de regulação do consumo desse substrato durante o exercício não estão totalmente esclarecidos. O objetivo principal da presente revisão foi abordar mecanismos fisiológicos de controle da mobilização, transporte e utilização de gordura durante o exercício. Os trabalhos indexados no banco de dados Pubmed e Lilacs sobre metabolismo de gordura, foram analisados e os clássicos e recentes foram preferencialmente utilizados. A partir dos dados recentes da literatura, especula-se que o transporte de ácidos graxos do meio extracelular para o meio intracelular pode constituir um dos principais mecanismos limitantes no consumo desse substrato. Estudos sobre o consumo de lipídios durante o exercício devem ser focados sobre esse mecanismo. Em exercício intenso, o menor fl uxo de sangue

  18. Epilepsy and astrocyte energy metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boison, Detlev; Steinhäuser, Christian

    2018-06-01

    Epilepsy is a complex neurological syndrome characterized by neuronal hyperexcitability and sudden, synchronized electrical discharges that can manifest as seizures. It is now increasingly recognized that impaired astrocyte function and energy homeostasis play key roles in the pathogenesis of epilepsy. Excessive neuronal discharges can only happen, if adequate energy sources are made available to neurons. Conversely, energy depletion during seizures is an endogenous mechanism of seizure termination. Astrocytes control neuronal energy homeostasis through neurometabolic coupling. In this review, we will discuss how astrocyte dysfunction in epilepsy leads to distortion of key metabolic and biochemical mechanisms. Dysfunctional glutamate metabolism in astrocytes can directly contribute to neuronal hyperexcitability. Closure of astrocyte intercellular gap junction coupling as observed early during epileptogenesis limits activity-dependent trafficking of energy metabolites, but also impairs clearance of the extracellular space from accumulation of K + and glutamate. Dysfunctional astrocytes also increase the metabolism of adenosine, a metabolic product of ATP degradation that broadly inhibits energy-consuming processes as an evolutionary adaptation to conserve energy. Due to the critical role of astroglial energy homeostasis in the control of neuronal excitability, metabolic therapeutic approaches that prevent the utilization of glucose might represent a potent antiepileptic strategy. In particular, high fat low carbohydrate "ketogenic diets" as well as inhibitors of glycolysis and lactate metabolism are of growing interest for the therapy of epilepsy. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. The impact of music on metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamasaki, Alisa; Booker, Abigail; Kapur, Varun; Tilt, Alexandra; Niess, Hanno; Lillemoe, Keith D; Warshaw, Andrew L; Conrad, Claudius

    2012-01-01

    The study of music and medicine is a rapidly growing field that in the past, has been largely focused on the use of music as a complementary therapy. Increasing interest has been centered on understanding the physiologic mechanisms underlying the effects of music and, more recently, the suggested role of music in modulating metabolic responses. Research has established a role for music in the regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary axis, the sympathetic nervous system, and the immune system, which have key functions in the regulation of metabolism and energy balance. More recent findings have shown a role for music in the metabolic recovery from stress, the regulation of gastric and intestinal motility, the moderation of cancer-related gastrointestinal symptoms, and the increase of lipid metabolism and lactic acid clearance during exercise and postexercise recovery. The purpose of this article is to summarize the most current understanding of the mechanisms by which music affects the metabolic responses in the context of potential applications. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. [Adipocytokines and metabolic syndrome--molecular mechanism and clinical implication].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, Morihiro; Shimomura, Iichiro

    2004-06-01

    Recent progress in adipocyte-biology shows that adipocytes are not merely fat-storing cells but that they secrete a variety of hormones, cytekines, growth factors and other bioactive substabces, conceptualized as adipocytokines. These include plasminogen activator inhibitor 1(PAI-1), tumor necrosis factor(TNF-alpha), leptin and adiponectin. Dysregulated productions of these adipocytekines participate in the pathogenesis of obesity-associated metabolic syndrome such as insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, hyperlipidemia, and vascular diseases. Increased productions of PAI-1 and TNF-alpha from accumulated fat contribute to the formation of thrombosis and insulin resistance in obesity, respectively. Lack of leptin causes metabolic syndrome. Adiponectin exerts insulin-sensitizing and anti-atherogenic effects, hence decrease of plasma adiponectin is causative for insulin resistance and atherosclerosis in obesity.

  1. Beneficial mechanisms of aerobic exercise on hepatic lipid metabolism in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Rui; Liong, Emily C; So, Kwok Fai; Fung, Man-Lung; Tipoe, George L

    2015-04-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) refers to any fatty liver disease that is not due to excessive use of alcohol. NAFLD probably results from abnormal hepatic lipid metabolism and insulin resistance. Aerobic exercise is shown to improve NAFLD. This review aimed to evaluate the molecular mechanisms involved in the beneficial effects of aerobic exercise on NAFLD. We searched articles in English on the role of aerobic exercise in NAFLD therapy in PubMed. The mechanisms of chronic aerobic exercise in regulating the outcome of NAFLD include: (i) reducing intrahepatic fat content by down-regulating sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c and up-regulating peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma expression levels; (ii) decreasing hepatic oxidative stress through modulating the reactive oxygen species, and enhancing antioxidant enzymes such as catalase and glutathione peroxidase; (iii) ameliorating hepatic inflammation via the inhibition of pro-inflammatory mediators such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-1 beta; (iv) attenuating mitochondrial dependent apoptosis by reducing cytochrome C released from the mitochondria to the cytosol; and (v) inducing hepato-protective autophagy. Aerobic exercise, via different mechanisms, significantly decreases the fat content of the liver and improves the outcomes of patients with NAFLD.

  2. Mechanisms relevant to the enhanced virulence of a dihydroxynaphthalene-melanin metabolically engineered entomopathogen.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min-Nan Tseng

    Full Text Available The entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae MA05-169 is a transformant strain that has been metabolically engineered to express dihydroxynaphthalene-melanin biosynthesis genes. In contrast to the wild type strain, the transformant displays a greater resistance to environmental stress and a higher virulence toward target insect host. However, the underlying mechanisms for these characteristics remain unclear; hence experiments were initiated to explore the possible mechanism(s through physiological and molecular approaches. Although both transformant and wild type strains could infect and share the same insect host range, the former germinated faster and produced more appressoria than the latter, both in vivo and in vitro. The transformant showed a significantly shorter median lethal time (LT50 when infecting the diamondback moth (Plutella xylostella and the striped flea beetle (Phyllotreta striolata, than the wild type. Additionally, the transformant was more tolerant to reactive oxygen species (ROS, produced 40-fold more orthosporin and notably overexpressed the transcripts of the pathogenicity-relevant hydrolytic enzymes (chitinase, protease, and phospholipase genes in vivo. In contrast, appressorium turgor pressure and destruxin A content were slightly decreased compared to the wild type. The transformant's high anti-stress tolerance, its high virulence against five important insect pests (cowpea aphid Aphis craccivora, diamondback moth Pl. xylostella, striped flea beetle Ph. striolata, and silverleaf whitefly Bemisia argentifolii and its capacity to colonize the root system are key properties for its potential bio-control field application.

  3. microRNAs as a New Mechanism Regulating Adipose Tissue Inflammation in Obesity and as a Novel Therapeutic Strategy in the Metabolic Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Ge, Qian; Brichard, Sonia; Yi, Xu; Li, QiFu

    2014-01-01

    Obesity is associated closely with the metabolic syndrome (MS). It is well known that obesity-induced chronic inflammation plays a fundamental role in the pathogenesis of MS. White adipose tissue (AT) is the primary site for the initiation and exacerbation of obesity-associated inflammation. Exploring the mechanisms of white AT inflammation and resetting the immunological balance in white AT could be crucial for the management of MS. Several prominent molecular mechanisms have been proposed t...

  4. Computational model of cellular metabolic dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Yanjun; Solomon, Thomas; Haus, Jacob M

    2010-01-01

    of the cytosol and mitochondria. The model simulated skeletal muscle metabolic responses to insulin corresponding to human hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp studies. Insulin-mediated rate of glucose disposal was the primary model input. For model validation, simulations were compared with experimental data......: intracellular metabolite concentrations and patterns of glucose disposal. Model variations were simulated to investigate three alternative mechanisms to explain insulin enhancements: Model 1 (M.1), simple mass action; M.2, insulin-mediated activation of key metabolic enzymes (i.e., hexokinase, glycogen synthase......, by application of mechanism M.3, the model predicts metabolite concentration changes and glucose partitioning patterns consistent with experimental data. The reaction rate fluxes quantified by this detailed model of insulin/glucose metabolism provide information that can be used to evaluate the development...

  5. Metabolic syndrome presenting as abdominal pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Y Al-Dossary

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic syndrome represents a sum of risk factors that lead to the occurrence of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events. The early detection of metabolic syndrome is extremely important in adults who are at risk. Although the physiopathological mechanisms of the metabolic syndrome are not yet clear, insulin resistance plays a key role that could explain the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus in untreated metabolic syndrome patients. Here, we present the case of a 26-year-old male who was diagnosed with metabolic syndrome and severe hypertriglyceridemia after presenting with abdominal pain. Although hypertriglyceridemia and hyperglycemia are the most common predictors of metabolic syndrome, clinicians need to be vigilant for unexpected presentations in patients at risk for metabolic syndrome. This case sheds light on the importance of early detection.

  6. Distinct mechanisms underlie adaptation of proximal tubule Na+/H+ exchanger isoform 3 in response to chronic metabolic and respiratory acidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Pedro Henrique Imenez; Girardi, Adriana Castello Costa; Neri, Elida Adalgisa; Rebouças, Nancy Amaral

    2012-04-01

    The Na(+/)H(+) exchanger isoform 3 (NHE3) is essential for HCO(3)(-) reabsorption in renal proximal tubules. The expression and function of NHE3 must adapt to acid-base conditions. The goal of this study was to elucidate the mechanisms responsible for higher proton secretion in proximal tubules during acidosis and to evaluate whether there are differences between metabolic and respiratory acidosis with regard to NHE3 modulation and, if so, to identify the relevant parameters that may trigger these distinct adaptive responses. We achieved metabolic acidosis by lowering HCO(3)(-) concentration in the cell culture medium and respiratory acidosis by increasing CO(2) tension in the incubator chamber. We found that cell-surface NHE3 expression was increased in response to both forms of acidosis. Mild (pH 7.21 ± 0.02) and severe (6.95 ± 0.07) metabolic acidosis increased mRNA levels, at least in part due to up-regulation of transcription, whilst mild (7.11 ± 0.03) and severe (6.86 ± 0.01) respiratory acidosis did not up-regulate NHE3 expression. Analyses of the Nhe3 promoter region suggested that the regulatory elements sensitive to metabolic acidosis are located between -466 and -153 bp, where two consensus binding sites for SP1, a transcription factor up-regulated in metabolic acidosis, were localised. We conclude that metabolic acidosis induces Nhe3 promoter activation, which results in higher mRNA and total protein level. At the plasma membrane surface, NHE3 expression was increased in metabolic and respiratory acidosis alike, suggesting that low pH is responsible for NHE3 displacement to the cell surface.

  7. The neuropeptide allatostatin A regulates metabolism and feeding decisions in Drosophila

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hentze, Julie Lilith; Carlsson, Mikael A.; Kondo, Shu

    2015-01-01

    Coordinating metabolism and feeding is important to avoid obesity and metabolic diseases, yet the underlying mechanisms, balancing nutrient intake and metabolic expenditure, are poorly understood. Several mechanisms controlling these processes are conserved in Drosophila, where homeostasis and en...

  8. Causation and the origin of life. Metabolism or replication first?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pross, Addy

    2004-06-01

    The conceptual gulf that separates the 'metabolism first' and 'replication first' mechanisms for the emergence of life continues to cloud the origin of life debate. In the present paper we analyze this aspect of the origin of life problem and offer arguments in favor of the 'replication first' school. Utilizing Wicken's two-tier approach to causation we argue that a causal connection between replication and metabolism can only be demonstrated if replication would have preceded metabolism. In conjunction with existing empirical evidence and theoretical reasoning, our analysis concludes that there is no substantive evidence for a 'metabolism first' mechanism for life's emergence, while a coherent case can be made for the 'replication first' group of mechanisms. The analysis reaffirms our conviction that life is an extreme expression of kinetic control, and that the emergence of metabolic pathways can be understood by considering life as a manifestation of 'replicative chemistry'.

  9. Scaling of Metabolic Scaling within Physical Limits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas S. Glazier

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Both the slope and elevation of scaling relationships between log metabolic rate and log body size vary taxonomically and in relation to physiological or developmental state, ecological lifestyle and environmental conditions. Here I discuss how the recently proposed metabolic-level boundaries hypothesis (MLBH provides a useful conceptual framework for explaining and predicting much, but not all of this variation. This hypothesis is based on three major assumptions: (1 various processes related to body volume and surface area exert state-dependent effects on the scaling slope for metabolic rate in relation to body mass; (2 the elevation and slope of metabolic scaling relationships are linked; and (3 both intrinsic (anatomical, biochemical and physiological and extrinsic (ecological factors can affect metabolic scaling. According to the MLBH, the diversity of metabolic scaling relationships occurs within physical boundary limits related to body volume and surface area. Within these limits, specific metabolic scaling slopes can be predicted from the metabolic level (or scaling elevation of a species or group of species. In essence, metabolic scaling itself scales with metabolic level, which is in turn contingent on various intrinsic and extrinsic conditions operating in physiological or evolutionary time. The MLBH represents a “meta-mechanism” or collection of multiple, specific mechanisms that have contingent, state-dependent effects. As such, the MLBH is Darwinian in approach (the theory of natural selection is also meta-mechanistic, in contrast to currently influential metabolic scaling theory that is Newtonian in approach (i.e., based on unitary deterministic laws. Furthermore, the MLBH can be viewed as part of a more general theory that includes other mechanisms that may also affect metabolic scaling.

  10. Gender differences in skeletal muscle substrate metabolism - molecular mechanisms and insulin sensitivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundsgaard, Annemarie; Kiens, Bente

    2014-01-01

    higher insulin sensitivity of female skeletal muscle can be related to gender-specific regulation of molecular metabolism will be topic for discussion. Gender differences in muscle fiber type distribution and substrate availability to and in skeletal muscle are highly relevant for substrate metabolism...

  11. Study on the regulatory mechanism of the lipid metabolism pathways during chicken male germ cell differentiation based on RNA-seq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Qisheng; Li, Dong; Zhang, Lei; Elsayed, Ahmed Kamel; Lian, Chao; Shi, Qingqing; Zhang, Zhentao; Zhu, Rui; Wang, Yinjie; Jin, Kai; Zhang, Yani; Li, Bichun

    2015-01-01

    Here, we explore the regulatory mechanism of lipid metabolic signaling pathways and related genes during differentiation of male germ cells in chickens, with the hope that better understanding of these pathways may improve in vitro induction. Fluorescence-activated cell sorting was used to obtain highly purified cultures of embryonic stem cells (ESCs), primitive germ cells (PGCs), and spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs). The total RNA was then extracted from each type of cell. High-throughput analysis methods (RNA-seq) were used to sequence the transcriptome of these cells. Gene Ontology (GO) analysis and the KEGG database were used to identify lipid metabolism pathways and related genes. Retinoic acid (RA), the end-product of the retinol metabolism pathway, induced in vitro differentiation of ESC into male germ cells. Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) was used to detect changes in the expression of the genes involved in the retinol metabolic pathways. From the results of RNA-seq and the database analyses, we concluded that there are 328 genes in 27 lipid metabolic pathways continuously involved in lipid metabolism during the differentiation of ESC into SSC in vivo, including retinol metabolism. Alcohol dehydrogenase 5 (ADH5) and aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 family member A1 (ALDH1A1) are involved in RA synthesis in the cell. ADH5 was specifically expressed in PGC in our experiments and aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 family member A1 (ALDH1A1) persistently increased throughout development. CYP26b1, a member of the cytochrome P450 superfamily, is involved in the degradation of RA. Expression of CYP26b1, in contrast, decreased throughout development. Exogenous RA in the culture medium induced differentiation of ESC to SSC-like cells. The expression patterns of ADH5, ALDH1A1, and CYP26b1 were consistent with RNA-seq results. We conclude that the retinol metabolism pathway plays an important role in the process of chicken male germ cell differentiation.

  12. Systematic variation of prosthetic foot spring affects center-of-mass mechanics and metabolic cost during walking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelik, Karl E; Collins, Steven H; Adamczyk, Peter G; Segal, Ava D; Klute, Glenn K; Morgenroth, David C; Hahn, Michael E; Orendurff, Michael S; Czerniecki, Joseph M; Kuo, Arthur D

    2011-08-01

    Lower-limb amputees expend more energy to walk than non-amputees and have an elevated risk of secondary disabilities. Insufficient push-off by the prosthetic foot may be a contributing factor. We aimed to systematically study the effect of prosthetic foot mechanics on gait, to gain insight into fundamental prosthetic design principles. We varied a single parameter in isolation, the energy-storing spring in a prototype prosthetic foot, the controlled energy storage and return (CESR) foot, and observed the effect on gait. Subjects walked on the CESR foot with three different springs. We performed parallel studies on amputees and on non-amputees wearing prosthetic simulators. In both groups, spring characteristics similarly affected ankle and body center-of-mass (COM) mechanics and metabolic cost. Softer springs led to greater energy storage, energy return, and prosthetic limb COM push-off work. But metabolic energy expenditure was lowest with a spring of intermediate stiffness, suggesting biomechanical disadvantages to the softest spring despite its greater push-off. Disadvantages of the softest spring may include excessive heel displacements and COM collision losses. We also observed some differences in joint kinetics between amputees and non-amputees walking on the prototype foot. During prosthetic push-off, amputees exhibited reduced energy transfer from the prosthesis to the COM along with increased hip work, perhaps due to greater energy dissipation at the knee. Nevertheless, the results indicate that spring compliance can contribute to push-off, but with biomechanical trade-offs that limit the degree to which greater push-off might improve walking economy. © 2011 IEEE

  13. Low-carbohydrate diet induces metabolic depression: a possible mechanism to conserve glycogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winwood-Smith, Hugh S; Franklin, Craig E; White, Craig R

    2017-10-01

    Long-term studies have found that low-carbohydrate diets are more effective for weight loss than calorie-restricted diets in the short term but equally or only marginally more effective in the long term. Low-carbohydrate diets have been linked to reduced glycogen stores and increased feelings of fatigue. We propose that reduced physical activity in response to lowered glycogen explains the diminishing weight loss advantage of low-carbohydrate compared with low-calorie diets over longer time periods. We explored this possibility by feeding adult Drosophila melanogaster a standard or a low-carbohydrate diet for 9 days and measured changes in metabolic rate, glycogen stores, activity, and body mass. We hypothesized that a low-carbohydrate diet would cause a reduction in glycogen stores, which recover over time, a reduction in physical activity, and an increase in resting metabolic rate. The low-carbohydrate diet reduced glycogen stores, which recovered over time. Activity was unaffected by diet, but metabolic rate was reduced, in the low-carbohydrate group. We conclude that metabolic depression could explain the decreased effectiveness of low-carbohydrate diets over time and recommend further investigation of long-term metabolic effects of dietary interventions and a greater focus on physiological plasticity within the study of human nutrition. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  14. Metabolic imaging using SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taki, Junichi; Matsunari, Ichiro

    2007-01-01

    In normal condition, the heart obtains more than two-thirds of its energy from the oxidative metabolism of long chain fatty acids, although a wide variety of substrates such as glucose, lactate, ketone bodies and amino acids are also utilised. In ischaemic myocardium, on the other hand, oxidative metabolism of free fatty acid is suppressed and anaerobic glucose metabolism plays a major role in residual oxidative metabolism. Therefore, metabolic imaging can be an important technique for the assessment of various cardiac diseases and conditions. In SPECT, several iodinated fatty acid traces have been introduced and studied. Of these, 123 I-labelled 15-(p-iodophenyl)3-R, S-methylpentadecanoic acid (BMIPP) has been the most commonly used tracer in clinical studies, especially in some of the European countries and Japan. In this review article, several fatty acid tracers for SPECT are characterised, and the mechanism of uptake and clinical utility of BMIPP are discussed in detail. (orig.)

  15. Metabolic profiles of flooding-tolerant mechanism in early-stage soybean responding to initial stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin; Zhu, Wei; Hashiguchi, Akiko; Nishimura, Minoru; Tian, Jingkui; Komatsu, Setsuko

    2017-08-01

    Metabolomic analysis of flooding-tolerant mutant and abscisic acid-treated soybeans suggests that accumulated fructose might play a role in initial flooding tolerance through regulation of hexokinase and phosphofructokinase. Soybean is sensitive to flooding stress, which markedly reduces plant growth. To explore the mechanism underlying initial-flooding tolerance in soybean, mass spectrometry-based metabolomic analysis was performed using flooding-tolerant mutant and abscisic-acid treated soybeans. Among the commonly-identified metabolites in both flooding-tolerant materials, metabolites involved in carbohydrate and organic acid displayed same profile at initial-flooding stress. Sugar metabolism was highlighted in both flooding-tolerant materials with the decreased and increased accumulation of sucrose and fructose, respectively, compared to flooded soybeans. Gene expression of hexokinase 1 was upregulated in flooded soybean; however, it was downregulated in both flooding-tolerant materials. Metabolites involved in carbohydrate/organic acid and proteins related to glycolysis/tricarboxylic acid cycle were integrated. Increased protein abundance of phosphofructokinase was identified in both flooding-tolerant materials, which was in agreement with its enzyme activity. Furthermore, sugar metabolism was pointed out as the tolerant-responsive process at initial-flooding stress with the integration of metabolomics, proteomics, and transcriptomics. Moreover, application of fructose declined the increased fresh weight of plant induced by flooding stress. These results suggest that fructose might be the critical metabolite through regulation of hexokinase and phosphofructokinase to confer initial-flooding stress in soybean.

  16. microRNAs as a New Mechanism Regulating Adipose Tissue Inflammation in Obesity and as a Novel Therapeutic Strategy in the Metabolic Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Ge

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is associated closely with the metabolic syndrome (MS. It is well known that obesity-induced chronic inflammation plays a fundamental role in the pathogenesis of MS. White adipose tissue (AT is the primary site for the initiation and exacerbation of obesity-associated inflammation. Exploring the mechanisms of white AT inflammation and resetting the immunological balance in white AT could be crucial for the management of MS. Several prominent molecular mechanisms have been proposed to mediate inflammation in white AT, including hypoxia, endoplasmic reticulum stress, lipotoxicity, and metabolic endotoxemia. Recently, a growing body of evidence supports the role of miRNAs as a new important inflammatory mediator by regulating both the adaptive and innate immunity. This review will focus on the implication of miRNAs in white AT inflammation in obesity, and will also highlight the potential of miRNAs as targets for therapeutic intervention in MS as well as the challenges lying in miRNA-targeting therapeutics.

  17. microRNAs as a new mechanism regulating adipose tissue inflammation in obesity and as a novel therapeutic strategy in the metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Qian; Brichard, Sonia; Yi, Xu; Li, QiFu

    2014-01-01

    Obesity is associated closely with the metabolic syndrome (MS). It is well known that obesity-induced chronic inflammation plays a fundamental role in the pathogenesis of MS. White adipose tissue (AT) is the primary site for the initiation and exacerbation of obesity-associated inflammation. Exploring the mechanisms of white AT inflammation and resetting the immunological balance in white AT could be crucial for the management of MS. Several prominent molecular mechanisms have been proposed to mediate inflammation in white AT, including hypoxia, endoplasmic reticulum stress, lipotoxicity, and metabolic endotoxemia. Recently, a growing body of evidence supports the role of miRNAs as a new important inflammatory mediator by regulating both the adaptive and innate immunity. This review will focus on the implication of miRNAs in white AT inflammation in obesity, and will also highlight the potential of miRNAs as targets for therapeutic intervention in MS as well as the challenges lying in miRNA-targeting therapeutics.

  18. Recent advances in cancer metabolism: a technological perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Yun Pyo; Ward, Nathan P; DeNicola, Gina M

    2018-04-16

    Cancer cells are highly dependent on metabolic pathways to sustain both their proliferation and adaption to harsh microenvironments. Thus, understanding the metabolic reprogramming that occurs in tumors can provide critical insights for the development of therapies targeting metabolism. In this review, we will discuss recent advancements in metabolomics and other multidisciplinary techniques that have led to the discovery of novel metabolic pathways and mechanisms in diverse cancer types.

  19. The Role of Ovarian Sex Steroids in Metabolic Homeostasis, Obesity, and Postmenopausal Breast Cancer: Molecular Mechanisms and Therapeutic Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viroj Boonyaratanakornkit

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Obese postmenopausal women have an increased risk of breast cancer and are likely to have a worse prognosis than nonobese postmenopausal women. The cessation of ovarian function after menopause results in withdrawal of ovarian sex steroid hormones, estrogen, and progesterone. Accumulating evidence suggests that the withdrawal of estrogen and progesterone causes homeostasis imbalances, including decreases in insulin sensitivity and leptin secretion and changes in glucose and lipid metabolism, resulting in a total reduction in energy expenditure. Together with a decrease in physical activity and consumption of a high fat diet, these factors significantly contribute to obesity in postmenopausal women. Obesity may contribute to breast cancer development through several mechanisms. Obesity causes localized inflammation, an increase in local estrogen production, and changes in cellular metabolism. In addition, obese women have a higher risk of insulin insensitivity, and an increase in insulin and other growth factor secretion. In this review, we describe our current understanding of the molecular actions of estrogen and progesterone and their contributions to cellular metabolism, obesity, inflammation, and postmenopausal breast cancer. We also discuss how modifications of estrogen and progesterone actions might be used as a therapeutic approach for obesity and postmenopausal breast cancer.

  20. Metabolic adaption of ethanol-tolerant Clostridium thermocellum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinshu Zhu

    Full Text Available Clostridium thermocellum is a major candidate for bioethanol production via consolidated bioprocessing. However, the low ethanol tolerance of the organism dramatically impedes its usage in industry. To explore the mechanism of ethanol tolerance in this microorganism, systematic metabolomics was adopted to analyse the metabolic phenotypes of a C. thermocellum wild-type (WT strain and an ethanol-tolerant strain cultivated without (ET0 or with (ET3 3% (v/v exogenous ethanol. Metabolomics analysis elucidated that the levels of numerous metabolites in different pathways were changed for the metabolic adaption of ethanol-tolerant C. thermocellum. The most interesting phenomenon was that cellodextrin was significantly more accumulated in the ethanol-tolerant strain compared with the WT strain, although cellobiose was completely consumed in both the ethanol-tolerant and wild-type strains. These results suggest that the cellodextrin synthesis was active, which might be a potential mechanism for stress resistance. Moreover, the overflow of many intermediate metabolites, which indicates the metabolic imbalance, in the ET0 cultivation was more significant than in the WT and ET3 cultivations. This indicates that the metabolic balance of the ethanol-tolerant strain was adapted better to the condition of ethanol stress. This study provides additional insight into the mechanism of ethanol tolerance and is valuable for further metabolic engineering aimed at higher bioethanol production.

  1. Extracellular matrix metabolism disorder induced by mechanical strain on human parametrial ligament fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Jie; Li, Bingshu; Liu, Cheng; Guo, Wenjun; Hong, Shasha; Tang, Jianming; Hong, Li

    2017-05-01

    Pelvic organ prolapse (POP) is a global health problem that may seriously impact the quality of life of the sufferer. The present study aimed to investigate the potential mechanisms underlying alterations in extracellular matrix (ECM) metabolism in the pathogenesis of POP, by investigating the expression of ECM components in human parametrial ligament fibroblasts (hPLFs) subject to various mechanical strain loads. Fibroblasts derived from parametrial ligaments were cultured from patients with POP and without malignant tumors, who underwent vaginal hysterectomy surgery. Fibroblasts at generations 3‑6 of exponential phase cells were selected, and a four‑point bending device was used for 0, 1,333 or 5,333 µ mechanical loading of cells at 0.5 Hz for 4 h. mRNA and protein expression levels of collagen type I α 1 chain (COL1A1), collagen type III α 1 chain (COL3A1), elastin, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) ‑2 and ‑9, and transforming growth factor (TGF)‑β1 were detected by reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blotting, respectively. Under increased mechanical strain (5,333 µ), mRNA and protein expression levels of COL1A1, COL3A1 elastin and TGF‑β1 decreased, particularly COL1A1; however, mRNA and protein expression levels of MMP‑2 and ‑9 were significantly increased, compared with the control group (0 µ strain). Following 1,333 µ mechanical strain, mRNA and protein expression levels of COL1A1, COL3A1 elastin and MMP‑2 increased, and MMP‑9 decreased, whereas no significant differences were observed in TGF‑β1 mRNA and protein expression levels. In conclusion, ECM alterations may be involved in pathogenesis of POP, with decreased synthesis and increased degradation of collagen and elastin. Furthermore, the TGF‑β1 signaling pathway may serve an important role in this process and thus may supply a new target and strategy for understanding the etiology and therapy of POP.

  2. Epigenetics and Cellular Metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenyi Xu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Living eukaryotic systems evolve delicate cellular mechanisms for responding to various environmental signals. Among them, epigenetic machinery (DNA methylation, histone modifications, microRNAs, etc. is the hub in transducing external stimuli into transcriptional response. Emerging evidence reveals the concept that epigenetic signatures are essential for the proper maintenance of cellular metabolism. On the other hand, the metabolite, a main environmental input, can also influence the processing of epigenetic memory. Here, we summarize the recent research progress in the epigenetic regulation of cellular metabolism and discuss how the dysfunction of epigenetic machineries influences the development of metabolic disorders such as diabetes and obesity; then, we focus on discussing the notion that manipulating metabolites, the fuel of cell metabolism, can function as a strategy for interfering epigenetic machinery and its related disease progression as well.

  3. Organ-Specific Differential NMR-Based Metabonomic Analysis of Soybean [Glycine max (L. Merr.] Fruit Reveals the Metabolic Shifts and Potential Protection Mechanisms Involved in Field Mold Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-yu Yang

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Prolonged, continuous rainfall is the main climatic characteristic of autumn in Southwest China, and it has been found to cause mildew outbreaks in pre-harvest soybean fields. Low temperature and humidity (LTH stress during soybean maturation in the field promotes pre-harvest mildew, resulting in damage to different organs of soybean fruits to different extents, but relatively little information on the resistance mechanisms in these fruits is available. Therefore, to understand the metabolic responses of soybean fruits to field mold (FM, the metabonomic variations induced by LTH were characterized using proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-NMR, and the primary metabolites from the pod, seed coat and cotyledon of pre-harvest soybean were quantified. Analysis of FM-damaged soybean germplasms with different degrees of resistance to FM showed that extracts were dominated by 66 primary metabolites, including amino acids, organic acids and sugars. Each tissue had a characteristic metabolic profile, indicating that the metabolism of proline in the cotyledon, lysine in the seed coat, and sulfur in the pod play important roles in FM resistance. The primary-secondary metabolism interface and its potential contribution to FM resistance was investigated by targeted analyses of secondary metabolites. Both the seed coat and the pod have distinct but nonexclusive metabolic responses to FM, and these are functionally integrated into FM resistance mechanisms.

  4. Bone Metabolism after Bariatric Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Elaine W.

    2014-01-01

    Bariatric surgery is a popular and effective treatment for severe obesity, but may have negative effects on the skeleton. This review summarizes changes in bone density and bone metabolism from animal and clinical studies of bariatric surgery, with specific attention to Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB), adjustable gastric banding (AGB), and sleeve gastrectomy (SG). Skeletal imaging artifacts from obesity and weight loss are also considered. Despite challenges in bone density imaging, the preponderance of evidence suggests that bariatric surgery procedures have negative skeletal effects that persist beyond the first year of surgery, and that these effects vary by surgical type. The long-term clinical implications and current clinical recommendations are presented. Further study is required to determine mechanisms of bone loss after bariatric surgery. Although early studies focused on calcium/vitamin D metabolism and mechanical unloading of the skeleton, it seems likely that surgically-induced changes in the hormonal and metabolic profile may be responsible for the skeletal phenotypes observed after bariatric surgery. PMID:24677277

  5. Metabolic mechanisms behind the type 2 diabetes susceptible phenotype in low birth weight individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ribel-Madsen, Amalie

    Background and aims: Low birth weight (LBW) individuals have an increased risk of developing insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes compared with normal birth weight (NBW) individuals. Accordingly, young, healthy, LBW men of the study population examined in the present plasma metabolome studies...... show impaired hepatic insulin sensitivity and, in contrast to NBW men, develop impaired peripheral insulin sensitivity in response to a 5-day high-fat overfeeding. However, the metabolic mechanisms behind the type 2 diabetes susceptible phenotype in LBW individuals are not clear. Our primary aim...... available for lipogenesis, including the synthesis of lipotoxic lipids such as ceramides and diacylglycerols that impair insulin signalling. In the second study, we demonstrated that LBW men had higher plasma alanine, proline, methionine, citrulline, and total amino acid levels after the HFHC diet compared...

  6. A dual control mechanism synchronizes riboflavin and sulphur metabolism in Bacillus subtilis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedrolli, Danielle Biscaro; Kühm, Christian; Sévin, Daniel C.; Vockenhuber, Michael P.; Sauer, Uwe; Suess, Beatrix; Mack, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    Flavin mononucleotide (FMN) riboswitches are genetic elements, which in many bacteria control genes responsible for biosynthesis and/or transport of riboflavin (rib genes). Cytoplasmic riboflavin is rapidly and almost completely converted to FMN by flavokinases. When cytoplasmic levels of FMN are sufficient (“high levels”), FMN binding to FMN riboswitches leads to a reduction of rib gene expression. We report here that the protein RibR counteracts the FMN-induced “turn-off” activities of both FMN riboswitches in Bacillus subtilis, allowing rib gene expression even in the presence of high levels of FMN. The reason for this secondary metabolic control by RibR is to couple sulfur metabolism with riboflavin metabolism. PMID:26494285

  7. The molecular and metabolic influence of long term agmatine consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nissim, Itzhak; Horyn, Oksana; Daikhin, Yevgeny; Chen, Pan; Li, Changhong; Wehrli, Suzanne L; Nissim, Ilana; Yudkoff, Marc

    2014-04-04

    Agmatine (AGM), a product of arginine decarboxylation, influences multiple physiologic and metabolic functions. However, the mechanism(s) of action, the impact on whole body gene expression and metabolic pathways, and the potential benefits and risks of long term AGM consumption are still a mystery. Here, we scrutinized the impact of AGM on whole body metabolic profiling and gene expression and assessed a plausible mechanism(s) of AGM action. Studies were performed in rats fed a high fat diet or standard chow. AGM was added to drinking water for 4 or 8 weeks. We used (13)C or (15)N tracers to assess metabolic reactions and fluxes and real time quantitative PCR to determine gene expression. The results demonstrate that AGM elevated the synthesis and tissue level of cAMP. Subsequently, AGM had a widespread impact on gene expression and metabolic profiling including (a) activation of peroxisomal proliferator-activated receptor-α and its coactivator, PGC1α, and (b) increased expression of peroxisomal proliferator-activated receptor-γ and genes regulating thermogenesis, gluconeogenesis, and carnitine biosynthesis and transport. The changes in gene expression were coupled with improved tissue and systemic levels of carnitine and short chain acylcarnitine, increased β-oxidation but diminished incomplete fatty acid oxidation, decreased fat but increased protein mass, and increased hepatic ureagenesis and gluconeogenesis but decreased glycolysis. These metabolic changes were coupled with reduced weight gain and a curtailment of the hormonal and metabolic derangements associated with high fat diet-induced obesity. The findings suggest that AGM elevated the synthesis and levels of cAMP, thereby mimicking the effects of caloric restriction with respect to metabolic reprogramming.

  8. The Molecular and Metabolic Influence of Long Term Agmatine Consumption*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nissim, Itzhak; Horyn, Oksana; Daikhin, Yevgeny; Chen, Pan; Li, Changhong; Wehrli, Suzanne L.; Nissim, Ilana; Yudkoff, Marc

    2014-01-01

    Agmatine (AGM), a product of arginine decarboxylation, influences multiple physiologic and metabolic functions. However, the mechanism(s) of action, the impact on whole body gene expression and metabolic pathways, and the potential benefits and risks of long term AGM consumption are still a mystery. Here, we scrutinized the impact of AGM on whole body metabolic profiling and gene expression and assessed a plausible mechanism(s) of AGM action. Studies were performed in rats fed a high fat diet or standard chow. AGM was added to drinking water for 4 or 8 weeks. We used 13C or 15N tracers to assess metabolic reactions and fluxes and real time quantitative PCR to determine gene expression. The results demonstrate that AGM elevated the synthesis and tissue level of cAMP. Subsequently, AGM had a widespread impact on gene expression and metabolic profiling including (a) activation of peroxisomal proliferator-activated receptor-α and its coactivator, PGC1α, and (b) increased expression of peroxisomal proliferator-activated receptor-γ and genes regulating thermogenesis, gluconeogenesis, and carnitine biosynthesis and transport. The changes in gene expression were coupled with improved tissue and systemic levels of carnitine and short chain acylcarnitine, increased β-oxidation but diminished incomplete fatty acid oxidation, decreased fat but increased protein mass, and increased hepatic ureagenesis and gluconeogenesis but decreased glycolysis. These metabolic changes were coupled with reduced weight gain and a curtailment of the hormonal and metabolic derangements associated with high fat diet-induced obesity. The findings suggest that AGM elevated the synthesis and levels of cAMP, thereby mimicking the effects of caloric restriction with respect to metabolic reprogramming. PMID:24523404

  9. Metabolic Adaptation to Muscle Ischemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera, Marco E.; Coon, Jennifer E.; Kalhan, Satish C.; Radhakrishnan, Krishnan; Saidel, Gerald M.; Stanley, William C.

    2000-01-01

    Although all tissues in the body can adapt to varying physiological/pathological conditions, muscle is the most adaptable. To understand the significance of cellular events and their role in controlling metabolic adaptations in complex physiological systems, it is necessary to link cellular and system levels by means of mechanistic computational models. The main objective of this work is to improve understanding of the regulation of energy metabolism during skeletal/cardiac muscle ischemia by combining in vivo experiments and quantitative models of metabolism. Our main focus is to investigate factors affecting lactate metabolism (e.g., NADH/NAD) and the inter-regulation between carbohydrate and fatty acid metabolism during a reduction in regional blood flow. A mechanistic mathematical model of energy metabolism has been developed to link cellular metabolic processes and their control mechanisms to tissue (skeletal muscle) and organ (heart) physiological responses. We applied this model to simulate the relationship between tissue oxygenation, redox state, and lactate metabolism in skeletal muscle. The model was validated using human data from published occlusion studies. Currently, we are investigating the difference in the responses to sudden vs. gradual onset ischemia in swine by combining in vivo experimental studies with computational models of myocardial energy metabolism during normal and ischemic conditions.

  10. Altered Cellular Metabolism Drives Trained Immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohrabi, Yahya; Godfrey, Rinesh; Findeisen, Hannes M

    2018-04-04

    Exposing innate immune cells to an initial insult induces a long-term proinflammatory response due to metabolic and epigenetic alterations which encompass an emerging new concept called trained immunity. Recent studies provide novel insights into mechanisms centered on metabolic reprogramming which induce innate immune memory in hematopoietic stem cells and monocytes. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Sodium signaling and astrocyte energy metabolism

    KAUST Repository

    Chatton, Jean-Yves; Magistretti, Pierre J.; Barros, L. Felipe

    2016-01-01

    The Na+ gradient across the plasma membrane is constantly exploited by astrocytes as a secondary energy source to regulate the intracellular and extracellular milieu, and discard waste products. One of the most prominent roles of astrocytes in the brain is the Na+-dependent clearance of glutamate released by neurons during synaptic transmission. The intracellular Na+ load collectively generated by these processes converges at the Na,K-ATPase pump, responsible for Na+ extrusion from the cell, which is achieved at the expense of cellular ATP. These processes represent pivotal mechanisms enabling astrocytes to increase the local availability of metabolic substrates in response to neuronal activity. This review presents basic principles linking the intracellular handling of Na+ following activity-related transmembrane fluxes in astrocytes and the energy metabolic pathways involved. We propose a role of Na+ as an energy currency and as a mediator of metabolic signals in the context of neuron-glia interactions. We further discuss the possible impact of the astrocytic syncytium for the distribution and coordination of the metabolic response, and the compartmentation of these processes in cellular microdomains and subcellular organelles. Finally, we illustrate future avenues of investigation into signaling mechanisms aimed at bridging the gap between Na+ and the metabolic machinery. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Sodium signaling and astrocyte energy metabolism

    KAUST Repository

    Chatton, Jean-Yves

    2016-03-31

    The Na+ gradient across the plasma membrane is constantly exploited by astrocytes as a secondary energy source to regulate the intracellular and extracellular milieu, and discard waste products. One of the most prominent roles of astrocytes in the brain is the Na+-dependent clearance of glutamate released by neurons during synaptic transmission. The intracellular Na+ load collectively generated by these processes converges at the Na,K-ATPase pump, responsible for Na+ extrusion from the cell, which is achieved at the expense of cellular ATP. These processes represent pivotal mechanisms enabling astrocytes to increase the local availability of metabolic substrates in response to neuronal activity. This review presents basic principles linking the intracellular handling of Na+ following activity-related transmembrane fluxes in astrocytes and the energy metabolic pathways involved. We propose a role of Na+ as an energy currency and as a mediator of metabolic signals in the context of neuron-glia interactions. We further discuss the possible impact of the astrocytic syncytium for the distribution and coordination of the metabolic response, and the compartmentation of these processes in cellular microdomains and subcellular organelles. Finally, we illustrate future avenues of investigation into signaling mechanisms aimed at bridging the gap between Na+ and the metabolic machinery. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Metabolic therapy for temporal lobe epilepsy in a dish: investigating mechanisms of ketogenic diet using electrophysiological recordings in hippocampal slices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masahito Kawamura

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The hippocampus is prone to epileptic seizures and is a key brain region and experimental platform for investigating mechanisms associated with the abnormal neuronal excitability that characterizes a seizure. Accordingly, the hippocampal slice is a common in vitro model to study treatments that may prevent or reduce seizure activity. The ketogenic diet is a metabolic therapy used to treat epilepsy in adults and children for nearly 100 years; it can reduce or eliminate even severe or refractory seizures. New insights into its underlying mechanisms have been revealed by diverse types of electrophysiological recordings in hippocampal slices. Here we review these reports and their relevant mechanistic findings. We acknowledge that a major difficulty in using hippocampal slices is the inability to reproduce precisely the in vivo condition of ketogenic diet feeding in any in vitro preparation, and progress has been made in this in vivo/in vitro transition. Thus far at least three different approaches are reported to reproduce relevant diet effects in the hippocampal slices: (1 direct application of ketone bodies, (2 mimicking the ketogenic diet condition during a whole-cell patch-clamp technique, and (3 reduced glucose incubation of hippocampal slices from ketogenic diet–fed animals. Significant results have been found with each of these methods and provide options for further study into short- and long-term mechanisms including ATP-sensitive potassium channels, vesicular glutamate transporter, pannexin channels and adenosine receptors underlying ketogenic diet and other forms of metabolic therapy.

  14. Metabolic Therapy for Temporal Lobe Epilepsy in a Dish: Investigating Mechanisms of Ketogenic Diet using Electrophysiological Recordings in Hippocampal Slices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamura, Masahito Jr.; Ruskin, David N.; Masino, Susan A.

    2016-01-01

    The hippocampus is prone to epileptic seizures and is a key brain region and experimental platform for investigating mechanisms associated with the abnormal neuronal excitability that characterizes a seizure. Accordingly, the hippocampal slice is a common in vitro model to study treatments that may prevent or reduce seizure activity. The ketogenic diet is a metabolic therapy used to treat epilepsy in adults and children for nearly 100 years; it can reduce or eliminate even severe or refractory seizures. New insights into its underlying mechanisms have been revealed by diverse types of electrophysiological recordings in hippocampal slices. Here we review these reports and their relevant mechanistic findings. We acknowledge that a major difficulty in using hippocampal slices is the inability to reproduce precisely the in vivo condition of ketogenic diet feeding in any in vitro preparation, and progress has been made in this in vivo/in vitro transition. Thus far at least three different approaches are reported to reproduce relevant diet effects in the hippocampal slices: (1) direct application of ketone bodies; (2) mimicking the ketogenic diet condition during a whole-cell patch-clamp technique; and (3) reduced glucose incubation of hippocampal slices from ketogenic diet–fed animals. Significant results have been found with each of these methods and provide options for further study into short- and long-term mechanisms including Adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-sensitive potassium (KATP) channels, vesicular glutamate transporter (VGLUT), pannexin channels and adenosine receptors underlying ketogenic diet and other forms of metabolic therapy. PMID:27847463

  15. Hypothyroidism in metabolic syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil Kumar Kota

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Metabolic syndrome (MetS and hypothyroidism are well established forerunners of atherogenic cardiovascular disease. Considerable overlap occurs in the pathogenic mechanisms of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease by metabolic syndrome and hypothyroidism. Insulin resistance has been studied as the basic pathogenic mechanism in metabolic syndrome. [1] This cross sectional study intended to assess thyroid function in patients with metabolic syndrome and to investigate the association between hypothyroidism and metabolic syndrome. Materials and Methods: One hundred patients with metabolic syndrome who fulfilled the National Cholesterol Education Program- Adult Treatment Panel (NCEP-ATP III criteria [ 3 out of 5 criteria positive namely blood pressure ≥ 130/85 mm hg or on antihypertensive medications, fasting plasma glucose > 100 mg/dl or on anti-diabetic medications, fasting triglycerides > 150 mg/dl, high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C 102 cms in men and 88 cms in women] were included in the study group. [2] Fifty patients who had no features of metabolic syndrome (0 out of 5 criteria for metabolic syndrome were included in the control group. Patients with liver disorders, renal disorders, congestive cardiac failure, pregnant women, patients on oral contraceptive pills, statins and other medications that alter thyroid functions and lipid levels and those who are under treatment for any thyroid related disorder were excluded from the study. Acutely ill patients were excluded taking into account sick euthyroid syndrome. Patients were subjected to anthropometry, evaluation of vital parameters, lipid and thyroid profile along with other routine laboratory parameters. Students t-test, Chi square test and linear regression, multiple logistic regression models were used for statistical analysis. P value < 0.05 was considered significant. Results: Of the 100 patients in study group, 55 were females (55% and 45 were males (45%. Of the 50

  16. Metabolism features in the active rheumatoid disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cossermelli, W; Carvalho, N; Papaleo Netto, M [Sao Paulo Univ. (Brazil). Centro de Medicina Nuclear

    1974-02-01

    The /sup 131/I-labelled albumin metabolism was studied in fourteen female patients with rheumatoid arthritis. The half-life of distribution was increased while the turnover half-life and turnover rate was within normal limits. These results led to assume that synthesis and catabolism may not change this disease, not being the responsible mechanism of hypoalbuminemia. Hypoalbuminemia would appear as compensatory mechanism in view of other protein alterations, as hypergammaglobulinemia, without changes of stabilizing and metabolic properties of albumin, perhaps due to albumin molecular alterations.

  17. Metabolism features in the active rheumatoid disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cossermelli, W.; Carvalho, N.; Papaleo Netto, M.

    1974-01-01

    It was studied the 131 I-labelled albumin metabolism in fourteen female patients with rheumatoid arthritis. The half-life of distribution was increased while the turnover half-life and turnover rate was within normal limits. These results led to assume that synthesis and catabolism may not change this disease, not being the responsible mechanism of hypoalbuminemia. Hypoalbuminemia would appear as compensatory mechanism in view of other protein alterations, as hypergammaglobulinemia, without changes of stabilizing and metabolic properties of albumin, perhaps due to albumin molecular alterations [pt

  18. Glutaminolysis: A Hallmark of Cancer Metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lifeng; Venneti, Sriram; Nagrath, Deepak

    2017-06-21

    Glutamine is the most abundant circulating amino acid in blood and muscle and is critical for many fundamental cell functions in cancer cells, including synthesis of metabolites that maintain mitochondrial metabolism; generation of antioxidants to remove reactive oxygen species; synthesis of nonessential amino acids (NEAAs), purines, pyrimidines, and fatty acids for cellular replication; and activation of cell signaling. In light of the pleiotropic role of glutamine in cancer cells, a comprehensive understanding of glutamine metabolism is essential for the development of metabolic therapeutic strategies for targeting cancer cells. In this article, we review oncogene-, tumor suppressor-, and tumor microenvironment-mediated regulation of glutamine metabolism in cancer cells. We describe the mechanism of glutamine's regulation of tumor proliferation, metastasis, and global methylation. Furthermore, we highlight the therapeutic potential of glutamine metabolism and emphasize that clinical application of in vivo assessment of glutamine metabolism is critical for identifying new ways to treat patients through glutamine-based metabolic therapy.

  19. Human Cytomegalovirus: Coordinating Cellular Stress, Signaling, and Metabolic Pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenk, Thomas; Alwine, James C

    2014-11-01

    Viruses face a multitude of challenges when they infect a host cell. Cells have evolved innate defenses to protect against pathogens, and an infecting virus may induce a stress response that antagonizes viral replication. Further, the metabolic, oxidative, and cell cycle state may not be conducive to the viral infection. But viruses are fabulous manipulators, inducing host cells to use their own characteristic mechanisms and pathways to provide what the virus needs. This article centers on the manipulation of host cell metabolism by human cytomegalovirus (HCMV). We review the features of the metabolic program instituted by the virus, discuss the mechanisms underlying these dramatic metabolic changes, and consider how the altered program creates a synthetic milieu that favors efficient HCMV replication and spread.

  20. Metabolic responses of Haliotis diversicolor to Vibrio parahaemolyticus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jie; Shi, Yanyan; Cai, Shuhui; Feng, Jianghua

    2017-01-01

    Vibrio parahemolyticus is a devastating bacterial pathogen that often causes outbreak of vibriosis in abalone Haliotis diversicolor. Elucidation of metabolic mechanisms of abalones in responding to V. parahemolyticus infection is essential for controlling the epidemic. In this work, 1 H NMR-based metabolomic techniques along with correlation and network analyses are used to investigate characteristic metabolites, as well as corresponding disturbed pathways in hepatopancreas and gill of H. diversicolor after V. parahemolyticus infection for 48 h. Results indicate that obvious gender- and tissue-specific metabolic responses are induced. Metabolic responses in female abalones are more clearly observed than those in males, which are primarily manifested in the accumulation of branched-chain amino acids and the depletion of organic osmolytes (homarine, betaine and taurine) in the infected gills of female abalones, as well as in the depletion of glutamate, branched-chain and aromatic amino acids in the infected hepatopancreases of female abalones. Moreover, based on major metabolic functions of the characteristic metabolites, we have found that V. parahemolyticus infection not only cause the disturbance in energy metabolism, nucleotide metabolism and osmotic balance, but also induce oxidative stress, immune stress and neurotoxic effect in different tissues with various mechanisms. Our study provides details of metabolic responses of abalones to V. parahemolyticus infection and will shed light on biochemical defence mechanisms of male and female hosts against pathogen infection. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Neuroendorine and Epigentic Mechanisms Subserving Autonomic Imbalance and HPA Dysfunction in the Metabolic Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemche, Erwin; Chaban, Oleg S.; Lemche, Alexandra V.

    2016-01-01

    Impact of environmental stress upon pathophysiology of the metabolic syndrome (MetS) has been substantiated by epidemiological, psychophysiological, and endocrinological studies. This review discusses recent advances in the understanding of causative roles of nutritional factors, sympathomedullo-adrenal (SMA) and hypothalamic-pituitary adrenocortical (HPA) axes, and adipose tissue chronic low-grade inflammation processes in MetS. Disturbances in the neuroendocrine systems for leptin, melanocortin, and neuropeptide Y (NPY)/agouti-related protein systems have been found resulting directly in MetS-like conditions. The review identifies candidate risk genes from factors shown critical for the functioning of each of these neuroendocrine signaling cascades. In its meta-analytic part, recent studies in epigenetic modification (histone methylation, acetylation, phosphorylation, ubiquitination) and posttranscriptional gene regulation by microRNAs are evaluated. Several studies suggest modification mechanisms of early life stress (ELS) and diet-induced obesity (DIO) programming in the hypothalamic regions with populations of POMC-expressing neurons. Epigenetic modifications were found in cortisol (here HSD11B1 expression), melanocortin, leptin, NPY, and adiponectin genes. With respect to adiposity genes, epigenetic modifications were documented for fat mass gene cluster APOA1/C3/A4/A5, and the lipolysis gene LIPE. With regard to inflammatory, immune and subcellular metabolism, PPARG, NKBF1, TNFA, TCF7C2, and those genes expressing cytochrome P450 family enzymes involved in steroidogenesis and in hepatic lipoproteins were documented for epigenetic modifications. PMID:27147943

  2. Immune and Metabolic Regulation Mechanism of Dangguiliuhuang Decoction against Insulin Resistance and Hepatic Steatosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Cao

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Dangguiliuhuang decoction (DGLHD is a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM formula, which mainly consists of angelica, radix rehmanniae, radix rehmanniae praeparata, scutellaria baicalensis, coptis chinensis, astragalus membranaceus, and golden cypress, and used for the treatment of diabetes and some autoimmune diseases. In this study, we explored the potential mechanism of DGLHD against insulin resistance and fatty liver in vivo and in vitro. Our data revealed that DGLHD normalized glucose and insulin level, increased the expression of adiponectin, diminished fat accumulation and lipogenesis, and promoted glucose uptake. Metabolomic analysis also demonstrated that DGLHD decreased isoleucine, adenosine, and cholesterol, increased glutamine levels in liver and visceral adipose tissue (VAT of ob/ob mice. Importantly, DGLHD promoted the shift of pro-inflammatory to anti-inflammatory cytokines, suppressed T lymphocytes proliferation, and enhanced regulatory T cells (Tregs differentiation. DGLHD also inhibited dendritic cells (DCs maturation, attenuated DCs-stimulated T cells proliferation and secretion of IL-12p70 cytokine from DCs, and promoted the interaction of DCs with Tregs. Further studies indicated that the changed PI3K/Akt signaling pathway and elevated PPAR-γ expression were not only observed with the ameliorated glucose and lipid metabolism in adipocytes and hepatocytes, but also exhibited in DCs and T cells by DGLHD. Collectively, our results suggest that DGLHD exerts anti-insulin resistant and antisteatotic effects by improving abnormal immune and metabolic homeostasis. And DGLHD may be a novel approach to the treatment of obesity-related insulin resistance and hepatic steatosis.

  3. Metabolism of vertebrate amino sugars with N-glycolyl groups: mechanisms underlying gastrointestinal incorporation of the non-human sialic acid xeno-autoantigen N-glycolylneuraminic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banda, Kalyan; Gregg, Christopher J; Chow, Renee; Varki, Nissi M; Varki, Ajit

    2012-08-17

    Although N-acetyl groups are common in nature, N-glycolyl groups are rare. Mammals express two major sialic acids, N-acetylneuraminic acid and N-glycolylneuraminic acid (Neu5Gc). Although humans cannot produce Neu5Gc, it is detected in the epithelial lining of hollow organs, endothelial lining of the vasculature, fetal tissues, and carcinomas. This unexpected expression is hypothesized to result via metabolic incorporation of Neu5Gc from mammalian foods. This accumulation has relevance for diseases associated with such nutrients, via interaction with Neu5Gc-specific antibodies. Little is known about how ingested sialic acids in general and Neu5Gc in particular are metabolized in the gastrointestinal tract. We studied the gastrointestinal and systemic fate of Neu5Gc-containing glycoproteins (Neu5Gc-glycoproteins) or free Neu5Gc in the Neu5Gc-free Cmah(-/-) mouse model. Ingested free Neu5Gc showed rapid absorption into the circulation and urinary excretion. In contrast, ingestion of Neu5Gc-glycoproteins led to Neu5Gc incorporation into the small intestinal wall, appearance in circulation at a steady-state level for several hours, and metabolic incorporation into multiple peripheral tissue glycoproteins and glycolipids, thus conclusively proving that Neu5Gc can be metabolically incorporated from food. Feeding Neu5Gc-glycoproteins but not free Neu5Gc mimics the human condition, causing tissue incorporation into human-like sites in Cmah(-/-) fetal and adult tissues, as well as developing tumors. Thus, glycoproteins containing glycosidically linked Neu5Gc are the likely dietary source for human tissue accumulation, and not the free monosaccharide. This human-like model can be used to elucidate specific mechanisms of Neu5Gc delivery from the gut to tissues, as well as general mechanisms of metabolism of ingested sialic acids.

  4. Metabolic changes in cancer: beyond the Warburg effect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Weihua Wu; Shimin Zhao

    2013-01-01

    Altered metabolism is one of the hallmarks of cancer cells.The best-known metabolic abnormality in cancer cells is the Warburg effect,which demonstrates an increased glycolysis even in the presence of oxygen.However,tumor-related metabolic abnormalities are not limited to altered balance between glucose fermentation and oxidative phosphorylation.Key tumor genes such as p53 and c-myc are found to be master regulators of metabolism.Metabolic enzymes such as succinate dehydrogenase,fumarate hydratase,pyruvate kinase,and isocitrate dehydrogenase mutations or expressing level alterations are all linked to tumorigenesis.In this review,we introduce some of the cancer-associated metabolic disorders and current understanding of their molecular tumorigenic mechanisms.

  5. Cell signaling mechanisms and metabolic regulation of germination and dormancy in barley seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenguo Ma

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available During germination of barley (Hordeum vulgare L. seeds, important morphological and physiological changes take place, including development of organs and tissues and activation of metabolic pathways. Germination and dormancy of seeds are regulated by abscisic acid, gibberellins, reactive oxygen species (ROS, reactive nitrogen species (RNS and several other factors. Activities of ascorbate–glutathione cycle enzymes, responsible for scavenging ROS, strongly increase. Catalase and superoxide dismutase activities, also scavenging ROS, decrease at the onset of seed germination and then increase. With the increase in aerobic metabolism after radicle protrusion, the activities of the fermentation enzymes lactate and alcohol dehydrogenase decline rapidly. The RNS-scavenging activity of S-nitrosoglutathione reductase decreases in the course of seed germination, in concert with elevation of nitric oxide production and protein nitrosylation. This activity supports the role of RNS in regulating seed germination. Transcription of various genes at different phases of seed germination exhibits phase-specific changes. During imbibition, genes involved in cell wall metabolism are highly expressed; in the middle phase of seed germination before radicle protrusion, genes involved in amino acid synthesis, protein synthesis, and transport and nucleic acid synthesis are upregulated significantly, and after radicle protrusion, genes involved in photosynthetic metabolism are induced. In summary, signal transduction and metabolic regulation of seed germination involve diverse reactions and complex regulation at different levels of metabolic organization. Keywords: Seed germination, Reactive oxygen species, Reactive nitrogen species, Signal transduction, Gene expression

  6. Production of L-valine from metabolically engineered Corynebacterium glutamicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoyuan; Zhang, Hailing; Quinn, Peter J

    2018-05-01

    L-Valine is one of the three branched-chain amino acids (valine, leucine, and isoleucine) essential for animal health and important in metabolism; therefore, it is widely added in the products of food, medicine, and feed. L-Valine is predominantly produced through microbial fermentation, and the production efficiency largely depends on the quality of microorganisms. In recent years, continuing efforts have been made in revealing the mechanisms and regulation of L-valine biosynthesis in Corynebacterium glutamicum, the most utilitarian bacterium for amino acid production. Metabolic engineering based on the metabolic biosynthesis and regulation of L-valine provides an effective alternative to the traditional breeding for strain development. Industrially competitive L-valine-producing C. glutamicum strains have been constructed by genetically defined metabolic engineering. This article reviews the global metabolic and regulatory networks responsible for L-valine biosynthesis, the molecular mechanisms of regulation, and the strategies employed in C. glutamicum strain engineering.

  7. Intracellular compartmentalization of skeletal muscle glycogen metabolism and insulin signalling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prats Gavalda, Clara; Gomez-Cabello, Alba; Vigelsø Hansen, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    The interest in skeletal muscle metabolism and insulin signalling has increased exponentially in recent years as a consequence of their role in the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Despite this, the exact mechanisms involved in the regulation of skeletal muscle glycogen metabolism...... and insulin signalling transduction remain elusive. We believe that one of the reasons is that the role of intracellular compartmentalization as a regulator of metabolic pathways and signalling transduction has been rather ignored. This paper briefly reviews the literature to discuss the role of intracellular...... compartmentalization in the regulation of skeletal muscle glycogen metabolism and insulin signalling. As a result, a hypothetical regulatory mechanism is proposed by which cells could direct glycogen resynthesis towards different pools of glycogen particles depending on the metabolic needs. Furthermore, we discuss...

  8. Epigenomics, gestational programming and risk of metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, M; Jellyman, J K; Ross, M G

    2015-04-01

    Epigenetic mechanisms are emerging as mediators linking early environmental exposures during pregnancy with programmed changes in gene expression that alter offspring growth and development. There is irrefutable evidence from human and animal studies that nutrient and environmental agent exposures (for example, endocrine disruptors) during pregnancy may affect fetal/newborn development resulting in offspring obesity and obesity-associated metabolic abnormalities (metabolic syndrome). This concept of 'gestational programming' is associated with alterations to the epigenome (nongenomic) rather than changes in the DNA sequence (genomic). Epigenetic alterations induced by suboptimal maternal nutrition/endocrine factors include DNA methylation, histone modifications, chromatin remodeling and/or regulatory feedback by microRNAs, all of which have the ability to modulate gene expression and promote the metabolic syndrome phenotype. Recent studies have shown tissue-specific transcriptome patterns and phenotypes not only in the exposed individual, but also in subsequent progeny. Notably, the transmission of gestational programming effects to subsequent generations occurs in the absence of continued adverse environmental exposures, thus propagating the cycle of obesity and metabolic syndrome. This phenomenon may be attributed to an extrinsic process resulting from the maternal phenotype and the associated nutrient alterations occurring within each pregnancy. In addition, epigenetic inheritance may occur through somatic cells or through the germ line involving both maternal and paternal lineages. Since epigenetic gene modifications may be reversible, understanding how epigenetic mechanisms contribute to transgenerational transmission of obesity and metabolic dysfunction is crucial for the development of novel early detection and prevention strategies for programmed metabolic syndrome. In this review we discuss the evidence in human and animal studies for the role of

  9. Possible stimuli for strength and power adaptation : acute metabolic responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crewther, Blair; Cronin, John; Keogh, Justin

    2006-01-01

    The metabolic response to resistance exercise, in particular lactic acid or lactate, has a marked influence upon the muscular environment, which may enhance the training stimulus (e.g. motor unit activation, hormones or muscle damage) and thereby contribute to strength and power adaptation. Hypertrophy schemes have resulted in greater lactate responses (%) than neuronal and dynamic power schemes, suggesting possible metabolic-mediated changes in muscle growth. Factors such as age, sex, training experience and nutrition may also influence the lactate responses to resistance exercise and thereafter, muscular adaptation. Although the importance of the mechanical and hormonal stimulus to strength and power adaptation is well recognised, the contribution of the metabolic stimulus is largely unknown. Relatively few studies for example, have examined metabolic change across neuronal and dynamic power schemes, and not withstanding the fact that those mechanisms underpinning muscular adaptation, in relation to the metabolic stimulus, remain highly speculative. Inconsistent findings and methodological limitations within research (e.g. programme design, sampling period, number of samples) make interpretation further difficult. We contend that strength and power research needs to investigate those metabolic mechanisms likely to contribute to weight-training adaptation. Further research is also needed to examine the metabolic responses to different loading schemes, as well as interactions across age, sex and training status, so our understanding of how to optimise strength and power development is improved.

  10. The metabolic syndrome, depression, and cardiovascular disease : Interrelated conditions that share pathophysiologic mechanisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gans, Rijk O. B.

    This article introduces the metabolic syndrome as a clinical phenotype with consequences for diagnosis and treatment that go beyond the different clinical specialties involved. A life-course approach is suggested as a means of understanding the complex interrelations between the metabolic syndrome,

  11. Mechanisms of action for the medium-chain triglyceride ketogenic diet in neurological and metabolic disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augustin, Katrin; Khabbush, Aziza; Williams, Sophie; Eaton, Simon; Orford, Michael; Cross, J Helen; Heales, Simon J R; Walker, Matthew C; Williams, Robin S B

    2018-01-01

    High-fat, low-carbohydrate diets, known as ketogenic diets, have been used as a non-pharmacological treatment for refractory epilepsy. A key mechanism of this treatment is thought to be the generation of ketones, which provide brain cells (neurons and astrocytes) with an energy source that is more efficient than glucose, resulting in beneficial downstream metabolic changes, such as increasing adenosine levels, which might have effects on seizure control. However, some studies have challenged the central role of ketones because medium-chain fatty acids, which are part of a commonly used variation of the diet (the medium-chain triglyceride ketogenic diet), have been shown to directly inhibit AMPA receptors (glutamate receptors), and to change cell energetics through mitochondrial biogenesis. Through these mechanisms, medium-chain fatty acids rather than ketones are likely to block seizure onset and raise seizure threshold. The mechanisms underlying the ketogenic diet might also have roles in other disorders, such as preventing neurodegeneration in Alzheimer's disease, the proliferation and spread of cancer, and insulin resistance in type 2 diabetes. Analysing medium-chain fatty acids in future ketogenic diet studies will provide further insights into their importance in modified forms of the diet. Moreover, the results of these studies could facilitate the development of new pharmacological and dietary therapies for epilepsy and other disorders. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Superovulation Induced Changes of Lipid Metabolism in Ovaries and Embryos and Its Probable Mechanism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Ya Wang

    Full Text Available This research was intended to investigate the fetal origins of changed birth weight of the offspring born through assisted reproductive technology (ART. The association between hormone and lipid metabolism or body weight has been generally accepted, and as the basic and specific treatment in ART procedure, gonadotropin stimulation might have potential effects on intrauterine lipid metabolism. In our studies, the mice were superovulated with two doses of gonadotropin. The cholesterol metabolism in ovaries and the triglyceride metabolism in embryos were analyzed. The results showed gonadotropin probably accelerated luteinization and induced a longer time follicle development and ovulation, which resulted in histological and morphological alteration of ovary, and increased the cholesterol content and the expressions of steroidogenesis-related genes. In embryos, gonadotropin increased lipid accumulation and decreased fatty acid synthesis in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, the changes of fatty acid composition were also shown in superovulation groups. Our studies firstly provided the evidence that the superovulation might affect the maternal and fetal lipid metabolism. These variations of lipid metabolism in our results may be associated with birth weight of ART infants.

  13. Shift work and its association with metabolic disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brum, Maria Carlota Borba; Filho, Fábio Fernandes Dantas; Schnorr, Claudia Carolina; Bottega, Gustavo Borchardt; Rodrigues, Ticiana C

    2015-01-01

    Although the health burden of shift work has not been extensively studied, evidence suggests that it may affect the metabolic balance and cause obesity and other metabolic disorders. Sleep deprivation, circadian desynchronization and behavioral changes in diet and physical activity are among the most commonly mentioned factors in studies of the association between night work and metabolic disorders. Individual adaptation to night work depends greatly on personal factors such as family and social life, but occupational interventions may also make a positive contribution to the transition to shift work, such as exposure to bright lights during the night shift, melatonin use, shift regularity and clockwise rotation, and dietary adaptations for the metabolic needs of night workers. The evaluation of the impact of night work on health and of the mechanisms underlying this relationship can serve as a basis for intervention strategies to minimize the health burden of shift work. This review aimed to identify highlights regarding therapeutic implications following the association between night and shift work and metabolic disorders, as well as the mechanisms and pathways responsible for these relationships.

  14. Metabolic and mechanical aspects of foot landing type, forefoot and rearfoot strike, in human running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardigò, L P; Lafortuna, C; Minetti, A E; Mognoni, P; Saibene, F

    1995-09-01

    The study was undertaken to assess the metabolic and the mechanical aspects of two different foot strike patterns in running, i.e. forefoot and rearfoot striking (FFS and RFS), and to understand whether there is some advantage for a runner to use one or the other of the two landing styles. Eight subjects performed two series of runs (FFS and RFS) on a treadmill at an average speed of 2.50, 2.78, 3.06, 3.33, 3.61, 3.89, 4.17 m s-1. Step frequency, oxygen uptake, mechanical work, and its two components, external and internal, were measured. No differences were found for step frequency, mechanical internal work per unit time and oxygen uptake, while external and total mechanical work per unit time were significantly higher, 7-12%, for FFS. The higher external work was the result of an increase of the work performed against both gravitational and inertial forces. As the energy expenditure was the same it has been speculated that a higher storage and release of energy takes place in the elastic structures of the lower leg with FFS. In a different series of experiments on six subjects contact time, time of deceleration and time of acceleration were measured by means of a video camera while running on the treadmill at 2.50, 3.33 and 4.17 m s-1, both FFS and RFS. Time of deceleration is similar for FFS and RFS, but contact time and time of acceleration are shorter, respectively 12 and 25%, for FFS.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  15. Microbial Metabolism in Soil at Subzero Temperatures: Adaptation Mechanisms Revealed by Position-Specific 13C Labeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezekiel K. Bore

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Although biogeochemical models designed to simulate carbon (C and nitrogen (N dynamics in high-latitude ecosystems incorporate extracellular parameters, molecular and biochemical adaptations of microorganisms to freezing remain unclear. This knowledge gap hampers estimations of the C balance and ecosystem feedback in high-latitude regions. To analyze microbial metabolism at subzero temperatures, soils were incubated with isotopomers of position-specifically 13C-labeled glucose at three temperatures: +5 (control, -5, and -20°C. 13C was quantified in CO2, bulk soil, microbial biomass, and dissolved organic carbon (DOC after 1, 3, and 10 days and also after 30 days for samples at -20°C. Compared to +5°C, CO2 decreased 3- and 10-fold at -5 and -20°C, respectively. High 13C recovery in CO2 from the C-1 position indicates dominance of the pentose phosphate pathway at +5°C. In contrast, increased oxidation of the C-4 position at subzero temperatures implies a switch to glycolysis. A threefold higher 13C recovery in microbial biomass at -5 than +5°C points to synthesis of intracellular compounds such as glycerol and ethanol in response to freezing. Less than 0.4% of 13C was recovered in DOC after 1 day, demonstrating complete glucose uptake by microorganisms even at -20°C. Consequently, we attribute the fivefold higher extracellular 13C in soil than in microbial biomass to secreted antifreeze compounds. This suggests that with decreasing temperature, intracellular antifreeze protection is complemented by extracellular mechanisms to avoid cellular damage by crystallizing water. The knowledge of sustained metabolism at subzero temperatures will not only be useful for modeling global C dynamics in ecosystems with periodically or permanently frozen soils, but will also be important in understanding and controlling the adaptive mechanisms of food spoilage organisms.

  16. Epigenetic priming of the metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce, Kimberley D; Cagampang, Felino R

    2011-05-01

    The metabolic syndrome (MetS) represents a cluster of cardiometabolic risk factors, including central obesity, insulin resistance, glucose intolerance, dyslipidemia, hypertension, hyperinsulinemia and microalbuminuria, and more recently, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) and atherosclerosis. Although the concept of the MetS is subject to debate due to lack of a unifying underlying mechanism, the prevalence of a metabolic syndrome phenotype is rapidly increasing worldwide. Moreover, it is increasingly prevalent in children and adolescents of obese mothers. Evidence from both epidemiological and experimental animal studies now demonstrates that MetS onset is increasingly likely following exposure to suboptimal nutrition during critical periods of development, as observed in maternal obesity. Thus, the developmental priming of the MetS provides a common origin for this multifactorial disorder. Consequently, the mechanisms leading to this developmental priming have recently been the subject of intensive investigation. This review discusses recent data regarding the epigenetic modifications resulting from nutrition during early development that mediate persistent changes in the expression of key metabolic genes and contribute toward an adult metabolic syndrome phenotype. In addition, this review considers the role of the endogenous molecular circadian clock system, which has the potential to act at the interface between nutrient sensing and epigenetic processing. A continued and greater understanding of these mechanisms will eventually aid in the identification of individuals at high risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and type 2 diabetes, and help develop therapeutic interventions, in accordance with current global government strategy.

  17. Transcriptomic analysis reveals the metabolic mechanism of L-ascorbic acid in Ziziphus jujuba Mill.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunmei eZhang

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Chinese jujube (Ziziphus jujuba Mill. is the most economically important member of the Rhamnaceae family and contains a high concentration of ascorbic acid (AsA. To explore the metabolic mechanism of AsA accumulation, we investigated the abundance of AsA in the fruit development stages, the leaf and flower of Z. jujuba cv Junzao, and the mature fruit of one type of wild jujube (Z. jujuba var. spinosa Hu, Yanchuan sour jujube. And the expression patterns of genes involved in AsA biosynthesis, degradation and recycling were analyzed. The result showed that AsA biosynthesis during early fruit development (the enlargement stage is the main reason for jujube high accumulation. The L-galactose pathway plays a predominant role in the biosynthesis of AsA during jujube fruit development, and the genes GMP1, GME1, GGP, and GaLDH involved in the determination of AsA concentration during fruit development and in different genotypes; the myo-inositol pathway along with the genes GME2 and GMP2 in the L-galactose pathway play a compensatory role in maintaining AsA accumulation during the ripening stage. These findings enhance our understanding of the molecular mechanism in regulating AsA accumulation for jujube.

  18. Understanding Plant Nitrogen Metabolism through Metabolomics and Computational Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perrin H. Beatty

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available A comprehensive understanding of plant metabolism could provide a direct mechanism for improving nitrogen use efficiency (NUE in crops. One of the major barriers to achieving this outcome is our poor understanding of the complex metabolic networks, physiological factors, and signaling mechanisms that affect NUE in agricultural settings. However, an exciting collection of computational and experimental approaches has begun to elucidate whole-plant nitrogen usage and provides an avenue for connecting nitrogen-related phenotypes to genes. Herein, we describe how metabolomics, computational models of metabolism, and flux balance analysis have been harnessed to advance our understanding of plant nitrogen metabolism. We introduce a model describing the complex flow of nitrogen through crops in a real-world agricultural setting and describe how experimental metabolomics data, such as isotope labeling rates and analyses of nutrient uptake, can be used to refine these models. In summary, the metabolomics/computational approach offers an exciting mechanism for understanding NUE that may ultimately lead to more effective crop management and engineered plants with higher yields.

  19. Metabolic Control of Redox and Redox Control of Metabolism in Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernie, Alisdair R.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Significance: Reduction-oxidation (Redox) status operates as a major integrator of subcellular and extracellular metabolism and is simultaneously itself regulated by metabolic processes. Redox status not only dominates cellular metabolism due to the prominence of NAD(H) and NADP(H) couples in myriad metabolic reactions but also acts as an effective signal that informs the cell of the prevailing environmental conditions. After relay of this information, the cell is able to appropriately respond via a range of mechanisms, including directly affecting cellular functioning and reprogramming nuclear gene expression. Recent Advances: The facile accession of Arabidopsis knockout mutants alongside the adoption of broad-scale post-genomic approaches, which are able to provide transcriptomic-, proteomic-, and metabolomic-level information alongside traditional biochemical and emerging cell biological techniques, has dramatically advanced our understanding of redox status control. This review summarizes redox status control of metabolism and the metabolic control of redox status at both cellular and subcellular levels. Critical Issues: It is becoming apparent that plastid, mitochondria, and peroxisome functions influence a wide range of processes outside of the organelles themselves. While knowledge of the network of metabolic pathways and their intraorganellar redox status regulation has increased in the last years, little is known about the interorganellar redox signals coordinating these networks. A current challenge is, therefore, synthesizing our knowledge and planning experiments that tackle redox status regulation at both inter- and intracellular levels. Future Directions: Emerging tools are enabling ever-increasing spatiotemporal resolution of metabolism and imaging of redox status components. Broader application of these tools will likely greatly enhance our understanding of the interplay of redox status and metabolism as well as elucidating and

  20. The Role of Androgen Excess in Metabolic Dysfunction in Women : Androgen Excess and Female Metabolic Dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escobar-Morreale, Héctor F

    2017-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is characterized by the association of androgen excess with chronic oligoovulation and/or polycystic ovarian morphology, yet metabolic disorders and classic and nonclassic cardiovascular risk factors cluster in these women from very early in life. This chapter focuses on the mechanisms underlying the association of PCOS with metabolic dysfunction, focusing on the role of androgen excess on the development of visceral adiposity and adipose tissue dysfunction.

  1. Neuron-glia metabolic coupling: Role in plasticity and neuroprotection

    KAUST Repository

    Magistretti, Pierre J.

    2017-01-01

    A tight metabolic coupling between astrocytes and neurons is a key feature of brain energy metabolism (Magistretti and Allaman, Neuron, 2015). Over the years we have described two basic mechanisms of neurometabolic coupling. First the glycogenolytic

  2. Characterization of a protein-bound polysaccharide from Herba Epimedii and its metabolic mechanism in chronic fatigue syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Aiping; Shen, Zhimei; Zhu, Wenfei; Sun, Yuliang; Kang, Yijiang; Guo, Fei

    2017-05-05

    Herba Epimedii is one of the famous Traditional Chinese Medicines used to treat the chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS). The polysaccharides are the main active components in H. epimedii. The aim of this study is to discover the therapeutic effect and metabolic mechanism of H. epimedii polysaccharides against CFS. The polysaccharide conjugates named HEP2-a were isolated from the leaves of H. epimedii using a water extraction method, and the general physicochemical properties of HEP2-a were analysed. In addition, a CFS rat model was established, and then, urinary metabonomic studies were performed using gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC-TOF-MS) in combination with multivariate statistical analysis. The physicochemical properties revealed that HEP2-a had an average molecular weight of 13.6×10 4 Da and consisted of mannose (4.41%), rhamnose (5.43%), glucose (31.26%), galactose (27.07%), arabinose (23.43%), and galacturonic acid (8.40%). The amino acids in HEP2-a include glutamate, cysteine, leucine, tyrosine, lysine, and histidine. Molecular morphology studies revealed many highly curled spherical particles with diameters of 5-10µm in solids and 100-200nm for particles in water. Five metabolites in the HEP2-a group were oppositely and significantly changed compared to the CFS model group. Two metabolic pathways were identified as significant metabolic pathways involved with HEP2-a. The therapeutic effects of HEP2-a on CFS were partially due to the restoration of these disturbed pathways. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Muscle as a “Mediator“ of Systemic Metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baskin, Kedryn K.; Winders, Benjamin R.; Olson, Eric N.

    2015-01-01

    Skeletal and cardiac muscles play key roles in the regulation of systemic energy homeostasis and display remarkable plasticity in their metabolic responses to caloric availability and physical activity. In this Perspective we discuss recent studies highlighting transcriptional mechanisms that govern systemic metabolism by striated muscles. We focus on the participation of the Mediator complex in this process, and suggest that tissue-specific regulation of Mediator subunits impacts metabolic homeostasis. PMID:25651178

  4. Widespread Pyrethroid and DDT Resistance in the Major Malaria Vector Anopheles funestus in East Africa Is Driven by Metabolic Resistance Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulamba, Charles; Riveron, Jacob M.; Ibrahim, Sulaiman S.; Irving, Helen; Barnes, Kayla G.; Mukwaya, Louis G.; Birungi, Josephine; Wondji, Charles S.

    2014-01-01

    Background Establishing the extent, geographical distribution and mechanisms of insecticide resistance in malaria vectors is a prerequisite for resistance management. Here, we report a widespread distribution of insecticide resistance in the major malaria vector An. funestus across Uganda and western Kenya under the control of metabolic resistance mechanisms. Methodology/Principal Findings Female An. funestus collected throughout Uganda and western Kenya exhibited a Plasmodium infection rate between 4.2 to 10.4%. Widespread resistance against both type I (permethrin) and II (deltamethrin) pyrethroids and DDT was observed across Uganda and western Kenya. All populations remain highly susceptible to carbamate, organophosphate and dieldrin insecticides. Knockdown resistance plays no role in the pyrethroid and DDT resistance as no kdr mutation associated with resistance was detected despite the presence of a F1021C replacement. Additionally, no signature of selection was observed on the sodium channel gene. Synergist assays and qRT-PCR indicated that metabolic resistance plays a major role notably through elevated expression of cytochrome P450s. DDT resistance mechanisms differ from West Africa as the L119F-GSTe2 mutation only explains a small proportion of the genetic variance to DDT resistance. Conclusion The extensive distribution of pyrethroid and DDT resistance in East African An. funestus populations represents a challenge to the control of this vector. However, the observed carbamate and organophosphate susceptibility offers alternative solutions for resistance management. PMID:25333491

  5. Hungry Neurons: Metabolic Insights on Seizure Dynamics

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    Paolo Bazzigaluppi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Epilepsy afflicts up to 1.6% of the population and the mechanisms underlying the appearance of seizures are still not understood. In past years, many efforts have been spent trying to understand the mechanisms underlying the excessive and synchronous firing of neurons. Traditionally, attention was pointed towards synaptic (dysfunction and extracellular ionic species (dysregulation. Recently, novel clinical and preclinical studies explored the role of brain metabolism (i.e., glucose utilization of seizures pathophysiology revealing (in most cases reduced metabolism in the inter-ictal period and increased metabolism in the seconds preceding and during the appearance of seizures. In the present review, we summarize the clinical and preclinical observations showing metabolic dysregulation during epileptogenesis, seizure initiation, and termination, and in the inter-ictal period. Recent preclinical studies have shown that 2-Deoxyglucose (2-DG, a glycolysis blocker is a novel therapeutic approach to reduce seizures. Furthermore, we present initial evidence for the effectiveness of 2-DG in arresting 4-Aminopyridine induced neocortical seizures in vivo in the mouse.

  6. DNA Damage, Repair, and Cancer Metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turgeon, Marc-Olivier; Perry, Nicholas J. S.; Poulogiannis, George

    2018-01-01

    Although there has been a renewed interest in the field of cancer metabolism in the last decade, the link between metabolism and DNA damage/DNA repair in cancer has yet to be appreciably explored. In this review, we examine the evidence connecting DNA damage and repair mechanisms with cell metabolism through three principal links. (1) Regulation of methyl- and acetyl-group donors through different metabolic pathways can impact DNA folding and remodeling, an essential part of accurate double strand break repair. (2) Glutamine, aspartate, and other nutrients are essential for de novo nucleotide synthesis, which dictates the availability of the nucleotide pool, and thereby influences DNA repair and replication. (3) Reactive oxygen species, which can increase oxidative DNA damage and hence the load of the DNA-repair machinery, are regulated through different metabolic pathways. Interestingly, while metabolism affects DNA repair, DNA damage can also induce metabolic rewiring. Activation of the DNA damage response (DDR) triggers an increase in nucleotide synthesis and anabolic glucose metabolism, while also reducing glutamine anaplerosis. Furthermore, mutations in genes involved in the DDR and DNA repair also lead to metabolic rewiring. Links between cancer metabolism and DNA damage/DNA repair are increasingly apparent, yielding opportunities to investigate the mechanistic basis behind potential metabolic vulnerabilities of a substantial fraction of tumors. PMID:29459886

  7. Metabolic Effects of Cholecystectomy: Gallbladder Ablation Increases Basal Metabolic Rate through G-Protein Coupled Bile Acid Receptor Gpbar1-Dependent Mechanisms in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortés, Víctor; Amigo, Ludwig; Zanlungo, Silvana; Galgani, José; Robledo, Fermín; Arrese, Marco; Bozinovic, Francisco; Nervi, Flavio

    2015-01-01

    Background & Aims Bile acids (BAs) regulate energy expenditure by activating G-protein Coupled Bile Acid Receptor Gpbar1/TGR5 by cAMP-dependent mechanisms. Cholecystectomy (XGB) increases BAs recirculation rates resulting in increased tissue exposure to BAs during the light phase of the diurnal cycle in mice. We aimed to determine: 1) the effects of XGB on basal metabolic rate (BMR) and 2) the roles of TGR5 on XGB-dependent changes in BMR. Methods BMR was determined by indirect calorimetry in wild type and Tgr5 deficient (Tgr5-/-) male mice. Bile flow and BAs secretion rates were measured by surgical diversion of biliary duct. Biliary BAs and cholesterol were quantified by enzymatic methods. BAs serum concentration and specific composition was determined by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry. Gene expression was determined by qPCR analysis. Results XGB increased biliary BAs and cholesterol secretion rates, and elevated serum BAs concentration in wild type and Tgr5-/- mice during the light phase of the diurnal cycle. BMR was ~25% higher in cholecystectomized wild type mice (p <0.02), whereas no changes were detected in cholecystectomized Tgr5-/- mice compared to wild-type animals. Conclusion XGB increases BMR by TGR5-dependent mechanisms in mice. PMID:25738495

  8. BCAA Metabolism and Insulin Sensitivity - Dysregulated by Metabolic Status?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gannon, Nicholas P; Schnuck, Jamie K; Vaughan, Roger A

    2018-03-01

    Branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) appear to influence several synthetic and catabolic cellular signaling cascades leading to altered phenotypes in mammals. BCAAs are most notably known to increase protein synthesis through modulating protein translation, explaining their appeal to resistance and endurance athletes for muscle hypertrophy, expedited recovery, and preservation of lean body mass. In addition to anabolic effects, BCAAs may increase mitochondrial content in skeletal muscle and adipocytes, possibly enhancing oxidative capacity. However, elevated circulating BCAA levels have been correlated with severity of insulin resistance. It is hypothesized that elevated circulating BCAAs observed in insulin resistance may result from dysregulated BCAA degradation. This review summarizes original reports that investigated the ability of BCAAs to alter glucose uptake in consequential cell types and experimental models. The review also discusses the interplay of BCAAs with other metabolic factors, and the role of excess lipid (and possibly energy excess) in the dysregulation of BCAA catabolism. Lastly, this article provides a working hypothesis of the mechanism(s) by which lipids may contribute to altered BCAA catabolism, which often accompanies metabolic disease. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Diet-microbiota interactions as moderators of human metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonnenburg, Justin L; Bäckhed, Gert Fredrik

    2016-01-01

    It is widely accepted that obesity and associated metabolic diseases, including type 2 diabetes, are intimately linked to diet. However, the gut microbiota has also become a focus for research at the intersection of diet and metabolic health. Mechanisms that link the gut microbiota with obesity...

  10. [New theory of holistic integrative physiology and medicine. III: New insight of neurohumoral mechanism and pattern of control and regulation for core axe of respiration, circulation and metabolism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xing-guo

    2015-07-01

    Systemic mechanism of neurohumoral control and regulation for human is limited. We used the new theory of holistic integrative physiology and medicine to approach the mechanism and pattern of neurohumoral control and regulation for life. As the core of human life, there are two core axes of functions. The first one is the common goal of respiration and circulation to transport oxygen and carbon dioxide for cells, and the second one is the goal of gastrointestinal tract and circulation to transport energy material and metabolic product for cells. These two core axes maintain the metabolism. The neurohumoral regulation is holistically integrated and unified for all functions in human body. We simplified explain the mechanism of neurohumoral control and regulation life (respiration and circulation) as the example pattern of sound system. Based upon integrated regulation of life, we described the neurohumoral pattern to control respiration and circulation.

  11. Mitochondrial Dysfunction in Metabolic Syndrome and Asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mabalirajan, Ulaganathan; Ghosh, Balaram

    2013-01-01

    Though severe or refractory asthma merely affects less than 10% of asthma population, it consumes significant health resources and contributes significant morbidity and mortality. Severe asthma does not fell in the routine definition of asthma and requires alternative treatment strategies. It has been observed that asthma severity increases with higher body mass index. The obese-asthmatics, in general, have the features of metabolic syndrome and are progressively causing a significant burden for both developed and developing countries thanks to the westernization of the world. As most of the features of metabolic syndrome seem to be originated from central obesity, the underlying mechanisms for metabolic syndrome could help us to understand the pathobiology of obese-asthma condition. While mitochondrial dysfunction is the common factor for most of the risk factors of metabolic syndrome, such as central obesity, dyslipidemia, hypertension, insulin resistance, and type 2 diabetes, the involvement of mitochondria in obese-asthma pathogenesis seems to be important as mitochondrial dysfunction has recently been shown to be involved in airway epithelial injury and asthma pathogenesis. This review discusses current understanding of the overlapping features between metabolic syndrome and asthma in relation to mitochondrial structural and functional alterations with an aim to uncover mechanisms for obese-asthma. PMID:23840225

  12. DNA methylation in metabolic disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barres, Romain; Zierath, Juleen R

    2011-01-01

    DNA methylation is a major epigenetic modification that controls gene expression in physiologic and pathologic states. Metabolic diseases such as diabetes and obesity are associated with profound alterations in gene expression that are caused by genetic and environmental factors. Recent reports...... have provided evidence that environmental factors at all ages could modify DNA methylation in somatic tissues, which suggests that DNA methylation is a more dynamic process than previously appreciated. Because of the importance of lifestyle factors in metabolic disorders, DNA methylation provides...... a mechanism by which environmental factors, including diet and exercise, can modify genetic predisposition to disease. This article considers the current evidence that defines a role for DNA methylation in metabolic disorders....

  13. Metabolic Surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pareek, Manan; Schauer, Philip R; Kaplan, Lee M

    2018-01-01

    The alarming rise in the worldwide prevalence of obesity is paralleled by an increasing burden of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Metabolic surgery is the most effective means of obtaining substantial and durable weight loss in individuals with obesity. Randomized trials have recently shown...... the superiority of surgery over medical treatment alone in achieving improved glycemic control, as well as a reduction in cardiovascular risk factors. The mechanisms seem to extend beyond the magnitude of weight loss alone and include improvements in incretin profiles, insulin secretion, and insulin sensitivity....... Moreover, observational data suggest that the reduction in cardiovascular risk factors translates to better patient outcomes. This review describes commonly used metabolic surgical procedures and their current indications and summarizes the evidence related to weight loss and glycemic outcomes. It further...

  14. Inflammasomes: sensors of metabolic stresses for vascular inflammation

    OpenAIRE

    Yin, Ying; Pastrana, Jahaira Lopez; Li, Xinyuan; Huang, Xiao; Mallilankaraman, karthik; Choi, Eric T.; Madesh, Muniswamy; Wang, Hong; Yang, Xiao-Feng

    2013-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome is a major health issue in the western world. An elevated pro-inflammatory state is often found in patients with metabolic diseases such as type 2 diabetes and obesity. Atherosclerosis is one such clinical manifestation of pro-inflammatory state associated with the vasculature. The exact mechanism by which metabolic stress induces this pro-inflammatory status and promotes atherogenesis remained elusive until the discovery of the inflammasome protein complex. This complex is...

  15. The metabolism of malate by cultured rat brain astrocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKenna, M.C.; Tildon, J.T.; Couto, R.; Stevenson, J.H.; Caprio, F.J. (Department of Pediatrics, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore (USA))

    1990-12-01

    Since malate is known to play an important role in a variety of functions in the brain including energy metabolism, the transfer of reducing equivalents and possibly metabolic trafficking between different cell types; a series of biochemical determinations were initiated to evaluate the rate of 14CO2 production from L-(U-14C)malate in rat brain astrocytes. The 14CO2 production from labeled malate was almost totally suppressed by the metabolic inhibitors rotenone and antimycin A suggesting that most of malate metabolism was coupled to the electron transport system. A double reciprocal plot of the 14CO2 production from the metabolism of labeled malate revealed biphasic kinetics with two apparent Km and Vmax values suggesting the presence of more than one mechanism of malate metabolism in these cells. Subsequent experiments were carried out using 0.01 mM and 0.5 mM malate to determine whether the addition of effectors would differentially alter the metabolism of high and low concentrations of malate. Effectors studied included compounds which could be endogenous regulators of malate metabolism and metabolic inhibitors which would provide information regarding the mechanisms regulating malate metabolism. Both lactate and aspartate decreased 14CO2 production from malate equally. However, a number of effectors were identified which selectively altered the metabolism of 0.01 mM malate including aminooxyacetate, furosemide, N-acetylaspartate, oxaloacetate, pyruvate and glucose, but had little or no effect on the metabolism of 0.5 mM malate. In addition, alpha-ketoglutarate and succinate decreased 14CO2 production from 0.01 mM malate much more than from 0.5 mM malate. In contrast, a number of effectors altered the metabolism of 0.5 mM malate more than 0.01 mM. These included methionine sulfoximine, glutamate, malonate, alpha-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamate and ouabain.

  16. Metabolic cost and mechanics of walking in women with fibromyalgia syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacPhee, Renée S; McFall, Kristen; Perry, Stephen D; Tiidus, Peter M

    2013-10-18

    Fibromyalgia syndrome (FS) is characterized by the presence of widespread pain, fatigue, muscle weakness and reduced work capacity. Previous research has demonstrated that women with fibromyalgia have altered walking (gait) patterns, which may be a consequence of muscular pain. This altered gait is characterized by greater reliance on hip flexors rather than ankle plantar flexors and resembles gait patterns seen in normal individuals walking at higher speeds, suggesting that gait of individuals with fibromyalgia may be less efficient.This study compared rates of energy expenditure of 6 females with FS relative to 6 normal, age and weight matched controls, at various walking speeds on a motorized treadmill. Metabolic measurements including V02 (ml/kg/min), respirations, heart rate and calculated energy expenditures as well as the Borg Scale of Perceived Exertion scale ratings were determined at baseline and for 10 min while walking at each of 2, 4 and 5 km/hour on 1% grade. Kinematic recordings of limb and body movements while treadmill walking and separate measurements of ground reaction forces while walking over ground were also determined. In addition, all subjects completed the RAND 36-Item Health Survey (1.0). Gait analysis results were similar to previous reports of altered gait patterns in FS females. Despite noticeable differences in gait patterns, no significant differences (p > 0.05) existed between the FS and control subjects on any metabolic measures at any walking speed. Total number of steps taken was also similar between groups. Ratings on the Borg Scale of Perceived Exertion, the RAND and self-reported levels of pain indicated significantly greater (p gait patterns and greater perceptions of effort and pain did not significantly increase the metabolic costs of walking in women with FS and hence, increased sensations of fatigue in FS women may not be related to alteration in metabolic cost of ambulation.

  17. Evidence for transgenerational metabolic programming in Drosophila

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica L. Buescher

    2013-09-01

    Worldwide epidemiologic studies have repeatedly demonstrated an association between prenatal nutritional environment, birth weight and susceptibility to adult diseases including obesity, cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. Despite advances in mammalian model systems, the molecular mechanisms underlying this phenomenon are unclear, but might involve programming mechanisms such as epigenetics. Here we describe a new system for evaluating metabolic programming mechanisms using a simple, genetically tractable Drosophila model. We examined the effect of maternal caloric excess on offspring and found that a high-sugar maternal diet alters body composition of larval offspring for at least two generations, augments an obese-like phenotype under suboptimal (high-calorie feeding conditions in adult offspring, and modifies expression of metabolic genes. Our data indicate that nutritional programming mechanisms could be highly conserved and support the use of Drosophila as a model for evaluating the underlying genetic and epigenetic contributions to this phenomenon.

  18. Neuron-glia metabolic coupling and plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magistretti, Pierre J

    2006-06-01

    The coupling between synaptic activity and glucose utilization (neurometabolic coupling) is a central physiological principle of brain function that has provided the basis for 2-deoxyglucose-based functional imaging with positron emission tomography (PET). Astrocytes play a central role in neurometabolic coupling, and the basic mechanism involves glutamate-stimulated aerobic glycolysis; the sodium-coupled reuptake of glutamate by astrocytes and the ensuing activation of the Na-K-ATPase triggers glucose uptake and processing via glycolysis, resulting in the release of lactate from astrocytes. Lactate can then contribute to the activity-dependent fuelling of the neuronal energy demands associated with synaptic transmission. An operational model, the 'astrocyte-neuron lactate shuttle', is supported experimentally by a large body of evidence, which provides a molecular and cellular basis for interpreting data obtained from functional brain imaging studies. In addition, this neuron-glia metabolic coupling undergoes plastic adaptations in parallel with adaptive mechanisms that characterize synaptic plasticity. Thus, distinct subregions of the hippocampus are metabolically active at different time points during spatial learning tasks, suggesting that a type of metabolic plasticity, involving by definition neuron-glia coupling, occurs during learning. In addition, marked variations in the expression of genes involved in glial glycogen metabolism are observed during the sleep-wake cycle, with in particular a marked induction of expression of the gene encoding for protein targeting to glycogen (PTG) following sleep deprivation. These data suggest that glial metabolic plasticity is likely to be concomitant with synaptic plasticity.

  19. Nutrients in Energy and One-Carbon Metabolism: Learning from Metformin Users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fedra Luciano-Mateo

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic vulnerability is associated with age-related diseases and concomitant co-morbidities, which include obesity, diabetes, atherosclerosis and cancer. Most of the health problems we face today come from excessive intake of nutrients and drugs mimicking dietary effects and dietary restriction are the most successful manipulations targeting age-related pathways. Phenotypic heterogeneity and individual response to metabolic stressors are closely related food intake. Understanding the complexity of the relationship between dietary provision and metabolic consequences in the long term might provide clinical strategies to improve healthspan. New aspects of metformin activity provide a link to many of the overlapping factors, especially the way in which organismal bioenergetics remodel one-carbon metabolism. Metformin not only inhibits mitochondrial complex 1, modulating the metabolic response to nutrient intake, but also alters one-carbon metabolic pathways. Here, we discuss findings on the mechanism(s of action of metformin with the potential for therapeutic interpretations.

  20. Steroidogenic versus Metabolic Programming of Reproductive Neuroendocrine, Ovarian and Metabolic Dysfunctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Rodolfo C; Puttabyatappa, Muraly; Padmanabhan, Vasantha

    2015-01-01

    The susceptibility of the reproductive system to early exposure to steroid hormones has become a major concern in our modern societies. Human fetuses are at risk of abnormal programming via exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals, inadvertent use of contraceptive pills during pregnancy, as well as from excess exposure to steroids due to disease states. Animal models provide an unparalleled resource to understand the developmental origin of diseases. In female sheep, prenatal exposure to testosterone excess results in an array of adult reproductive disorders that recapitulate those seen in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), including disrupted neuroendocrine feedback mechanisms, increased pituitary sensitivity to gonadotropin-releasing hormone, luteinizing hormone excess, functional hyperandrogenism, and multifollicular ovarian morphology culminating in early reproductive failure. Prenatal testosterone treatment also leads to fetal growth retardation, insulin resistance, and hypertension. Mounting evidence suggests that developmental exposure to an improper steroidal/metabolic environment may mediate the programming of adult disorders in prenatal testosterone-treated females, and these defects are maintained or amplified by the postnatal sex steroid and metabolic milieu. This review addresses the steroidal and metabolic contributions to the development and maintenance of the PCOS phenotype in the prenatal testosterone-treated sheep model, including the effects of prenatal and postnatal treatment with an androgen antagonist or insulin sensitizer as potential strategies to prevent/ameliorate these dysfunctions. Insights obtained from these intervention strategies on the mechanisms underlying these defects are likely to have translational relevance to human PCOS. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. Energetics of glucose metabolism: a phenomenological approach to metabolic network modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diederichs, Frank

    2010-08-12

    A new formalism to describe metabolic fluxes as well as membrane transport processes was developed. The new flux equations are comparable to other phenomenological laws. Michaelis-Menten like expressions, as well as flux equations of nonequilibrium thermodynamics, can be regarded as special cases of these new equations. For metabolic network modeling, variable conductances and driving forces are required to enable pathway control and to allow a rapid response to perturbations. When applied to oxidative phosphorylation, results of simulations show that whole oxidative phosphorylation cannot be described as a two-flux-system according to nonequilibrium thermodynamics, although all coupled reactions per se fulfill the equations of this theory. Simulations show that activation of ATP-coupled load reactions plus glucose oxidation is brought about by an increase of only two different conductances: a [Ca(2+)] dependent increase of cytosolic load conductances, and an increase of phosphofructokinase conductance by [AMP], which in turn becomes increased through [ADP] generation by those load reactions. In ventricular myocytes, this feedback mechanism is sufficient to increase cellular power output and O(2) consumption several fold, without any appreciable impairment of energetic parameters. Glucose oxidation proceeds near maximal power output, since transformed input and output conductances are nearly equal, yielding an efficiency of about 0.5. This conductance matching is fulfilled also by glucose oxidation of β-cells. But, as a price for the metabolic mechanism of glucose recognition, β-cells have only a limited capability to increase their power output.

  2. The gut microbiome as novel cardio-metabolic target: the time has come!

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vinjé, Sarah; Stroes, Erik; Nieuwdorp, Max; Hazen, Stan L.

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies reveal a potential contribution of intestinal microbes in the expression of certain human cardio-metabolic diseases. The mechanisms through which intestinal microbiota and/or their metabolic products alter systemic homoeostasis and cardio-metabolic disease risks are just beginning to

  3. Genetic and environmental relationships of metabolic and weight phenotypes to metabolic syndrome and diabetes: the healthy twin study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yun-Mi; Sung, Joohon; Lee, Kayoung

    2015-02-01

    We aimed to examine the relationships, including genetic and environmental correlations, between metabolic and weight phenotypes and factors related to diabetes and metabolic syndrome. Participants of the Healthy Twin Study without diabetes (n=2687; 895 monozygotic and 204 dizygotic twins, and 1588 nontwin family members; mean age, 42.5±13.1 years) were stratified according to body mass index (BMI) (metabolic syndrome categories at baseline. The metabolic traits, namely diabetes and metabolic syndrome, metabolic syndrome components, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) level, and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), were assessed after 2.5±2.1 years. In a multivariate-adjusted model, those who had metabolic syndrome or overweight phenotypes at baseline were more likely to have higher HbA1C and HOMA-IR levels and abnormal metabolic syndrome components at follow-up as compared to the metabolically healthy normal weight subgroup. The incidence of diabetes was 4.4-fold higher in the metabolically unhealthy but normal weight individuals and 3.3-fold higher in the metabolically unhealthy and overweight individuals as compared with the metabolically healthy normal weight individuals. The heritability of the metabolic syndrome/weight phenotypes was 0.40±0.03. Significant genetic and environmental correlations were observed between the metabolic syndrome/weight phenotypes at baseline and the metabolic traits at follow-up, except for incident diabetes, which only had a significant common genetic sharing with the baseline phenotypes. The genetic and environmental relationships between the metabolic and weight phenotypes at baseline and the metabolic traits at follow-up suggest pleiotropic genetic mechanisms and the crucial role of lifestyle and behavioral factors.

  4. Impact of Hypoglycemia on Brain Metabolism During Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehni, Ashish K; Dave, Kunjan R

    2018-04-10

    Diabetes is a metabolic disease afflicting millions of people worldwide. A substantial fraction of world's total healthcare expenditure is spent on treating diabetes. Hypoglycemia is a serious consequence of anti-diabetic drug therapy, because it induces metabolic alterations in the brain. Metabolic alterations are one of the central mechanisms mediating hypoglycemia-related functional changes in the brain. Acute, chronic, and/or recurrent hypoglycemia modulate multiple metabolic pathways, and exposure to hypoglycemia increases consumption of alternate respiratory substrates such as ketone bodies, glycogen, and monocarboxylates in the brain. The aim of this review is to discuss hypoglycemia-induced metabolic alterations in the brain in glucose counterregulation, uptake, utilization and metabolism, cellular respiration, amino acid and lipid metabolism, and the significance of other sources of energy. The present review summarizes information on hypoglycemia-induced metabolic changes in the brain of diabetic and non-diabetic subjects and the manner in which they may affect brain function.

  5. Metabolomics Approach Reveals Integrated Metabolic Network Associated with Serotonin Deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Rui; Shen, Sensen; Tian, Yonglu; Burton, Casey; Xu, Xinyuan; Liu, Yi; Chang, Cuilan; Bai, Yu; Liu, Huwei

    2015-07-01

    Serotonin is an important neurotransmitter that broadly participates in various biological processes. While serotonin deficiency has been associated with multiple pathological conditions such as depression, schizophrenia, Alzheimer’s disease and Parkinson’s disease, the serotonin-dependent mechanisms remain poorly understood. This study therefore aimed to identify novel biomarkers and metabolic pathways perturbed by serotonin deficiency using metabolomics approach in order to gain new metabolic insights into the serotonin deficiency-related molecular mechanisms. Serotonin deficiency was achieved through pharmacological inhibition of tryptophan hydroxylase (Tph) using p-chlorophenylalanine (pCPA) or genetic knockout of the neuronal specific Tph2 isoform. This dual approach improved specificity for the serotonin deficiency-associated biomarkers while minimizing nonspecific effects of pCPA treatment or Tph2 knockout (Tph2-/-). Non-targeted metabolic profiling and a targeted pCPA dose-response study identified 21 biomarkers in the pCPA-treated mice while 17 metabolites in the Tph2-/- mice were found to be significantly altered compared with the control mice. These newly identified biomarkers were associated with amino acid, energy, purine, lipid and gut microflora metabolisms. Oxidative stress was also found to be significantly increased in the serotonin deficient mice. These new biomarkers and the overall metabolic pathways may provide new understanding for the serotonin deficiency-associated mechanisms under multiple pathological states.

  6. Metabolic Model-Based Integration of Microbiome Taxonomic and Metabolomic Profiles Elucidates Mechanistic Links between Ecological and Metabolic Variation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noecker, Cecilia; Eng, Alexander; Srinivasan, Sujatha; Theriot, Casey M.; Young, Vincent B.; Jansson, Janet K.; Fredricks, David N.; Borenstein, Elhanan; Sanchez, Laura M.

    2015-12-22

    ABSTRACT

    Multiple molecular assays now enable high-throughput profiling of the ecology, metabolic capacity, and activity of the human microbiome. However, to date, analyses of such multi-omic data typically focus on statistical associations, often ignoring extensive prior knowledge of the mechanisms linking these various facets of the microbiome. Here, we introduce a comprehensive framework to systematically link variation in metabolomic data with community composition by utilizing taxonomic, genomic, and metabolic information. Specifically, we integrate available and inferred genomic data, metabolic network modeling, and a method for predicting community-wide metabolite turnover to estimate the biosynthetic and degradation potential of a given community. Our framework then compares variation in predicted metabolic potential with variation in measured metabolites’ abundances to evaluate whether community composition can explain observed shifts in the community metabolome, and to identify key taxa and genes contributing to the shifts. Focusing on two independent vaginal microbiome data sets, each pairing 16S community profiling with large-scale metabolomics, we demonstrate that our framework successfully recapitulates observed variation in 37% of metabolites. Well-predicted metabolite variation tends to result from disease-associated metabolism. We further identify several disease-enriched species that contribute significantly to these predictions. Interestingly, our analysis also detects metabolites for which the predicted variation negatively correlates with the measured variation, suggesting environmental control points of community metabolism. Applying this framework to gut microbiome data sets reveals similar trends, including prediction of bile acid metabolite shifts. This framework is an important first step toward a system-level multi-omic integration and an improved mechanistic understanding of the microbiome activity and dynamics in

  7. Chronic heat improves mechanical and metabolic response of trained rat heart on ischemia and reperfusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, E; Hasin, Y; Navon, G; Horowitz, M

    1997-05-01

    Cardiac mechanics and metabolic performance were studied in isolated perfused hearts of rats subjected to a combined chronic stress of heat acclimation and swimming training (EXAC) or swimming training alone (EX). Diastolic (DP) and systolic pressures (SP), coronary flow (CF), and oxygen consumption were measured during normoperfusion (80 mmHg), and the appearance of ischemic contracture (IC), DP, and SP were measured during progressive graded ischemia, total ischemia (TI), and reperfusion insults. ATP, phosphocreatine, and intracellular pH were measured during TI and reperfusion with 31P nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. During normoperfusion, SP and cardiac efficiency (derived from rate-pressure product-oxygen consumption relationships) were the highest in the 2-mo EXAC hearts (P pool and there was a delayed decline in intracellular pH. On reperfusion, these hearts also displayed improved ATP and phosphocreatine recovery, the 2-mo EXAC heart demonstrating significantly faster high-energy phosphate salvage, improved diastolic function, and pulse pressure recovery. The data attest to the beneficial effects of heat acclimation on cardiac mechanics of trained rats during normoperfusion and cardiac protection on ischemia and reperfusion. Possibly, energy sparing, lesser acidosis, and shorter duration of IC on ischemia and improved energy salvage on reperfusion contribute synergistically to this potent beneficial effect.

  8. ER Stress and Lipid Metabolism in Adipocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beth S. Zha

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The role of endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress is a rapidly emerging field of interest in the pathogenesis of metabolic diseases. Recent studies have shown that chronic activation of ER stress is closely linked to dysregulation of lipid metabolism in several metabolically important cells including hepatocytes, macrophages, β-cells, and adipocytes. Adipocytes are one of the major cell types involved in the pathogenesis of the metabolic syndrome. Recent advances in dissecting the cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in the regulation of adipogenesis and lipid metabolism indicate that activation of ER stress plays a central role in regulating adipocyte function. In this paper, we discuss the current understanding of the potential role of ER stress in lipid metabolism in adipocytes. In addition, we touch upon the interaction of ER stress and autophagy as well as inflammation. Inhibition of ER stress has the potential of decreasing the pathology in adipose tissue that is seen with energy overbalance.

  9. Relationship Between Organophosphate Toxicity and Choline Metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-06-06

    Results from studies on the actions of the organophosphates on the central nervus system have suggested that these compounds, through an action on...Grganophosphates alter the disposition and metabolism of choline and choline-containing compounds in the nervous system , the relationshi ý of these changes to...mechanisms regulating the metabolism of choline, as well as the specific interactions of the organophospha:es with biochemical systems , may differ

  10. Ectopic brown adipose tissue in muscle provides a mechanism for differences in risk of metabolic syndrome in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almind, Katrine; Manieri, Monia; Sivitz, William I; Cinti, Saverio; Kahn, C Ronald

    2007-02-13

    C57BL/6 (B6) mice subjected to a high-fat diet develop metabolic syndrome with obesity, hyperglycemia, and insulin resistance, whereas 129S6/SvEvTac (129) mice are relatively protected from this disorder because of differences in higher basal energy expenditure in 129 mice, leading to lower weight gain. At a molecular level, this difference correlates with a marked higher expression of uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) and a higher degree of uncoupling in vitro in mitochondria isolated from muscle of 129 versus B6 mice. Detailed histological examination, however, reveals that this UCP1 is in mitochondria of brown adipocytes interspersed between muscle bundles. Indeed, the number of UCP1-positive brown fat cells in intermuscular fat in 129 mice is >700-fold higher than in B6 mice. These brown fat cells are subject to further up-regulation of UCP1 after stimulation with a beta3-adrenergic receptor agonist. Thus, ectopic deposits of brown adipose tissue in intermuscular depots with regulatable expression of UCP1 provide a genetically based mechanism of protection from weight gain and metabolic syndrome between strains of mice.

  11. Anticholinesterase pesticides: metabolism, neurotoxicity, and epidemiology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Satoh, Tetsuo, Ph. D; Gupta, Ramesh C

    2010-01-01

    .... The early portion of the book deals with metabolism, mechanisms and biomonitoring of anticholinesterase pesticides, while the later part deals with epidemiological studies, regulatory issues, and therapeutic intervention"--Provided by publisher.

  12. Regulation of Metabolic Activity by p53

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Flöter

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic reprogramming in cancer cells is controlled by the activation of multiple oncogenic signalling pathways in order to promote macromolecule biosynthesis during rapid proliferation. Cancer cells also need to adapt their metabolism to survive and multiply under the metabolically compromised conditions provided by the tumour microenvironment. The tumour suppressor p53 interacts with the metabolic network at multiple nodes, mostly to reduce anabolic metabolism and promote preservation of cellular energy under conditions of nutrient restriction. Inactivation of this tumour suppressor by deletion or mutation is a frequent event in human cancer. While loss of p53 function lifts an important barrier to cancer development by deleting cell cycle and apoptosis checkpoints, it also removes a crucial regulatory mechanism and can render cancer cells highly sensitive to metabolic perturbation. In this review, we will summarise the major concepts of metabolic regulation by p53 and explore how this knowledge can be used to selectively target p53 deficient cancer cells in the context of the tumour microenvironment.

  13. Probiotics as Complementary Treatment for Metabolic Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mélanie Le Barz

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Over the past decade, growing evidence has established the gut microbiota as one of the most important determinants of metabolic disorders such as obesity and type 2 diabetes. Indeed, obesogenic diet can drastically alter bacterial populations (i.e., dysbiosis leading to activation of pro-inflammatory mechanisms and metabolic endotoxemia, therefore promoting insulin resistance and cardiometabolic disorders. To counteract these deleterious effects, probiotic strains have been developed with the aim of reshaping the microbiome to improve gut health. In this review, we focus on benefits of widely used probiotics describing their potential mechanisms of action, especially their ability to decrease metabolic endotoxemia by restoring the disrupted intestinal mucosal barrier. We also discuss the perspective of using new bacterial strains such as butyrate-producing bacteria and the mucolytic Akkermansia muciniphila, as well as the use of prebiotics to enhance the functionality of probiotics. Finally, this review introduces the notion of genetically engineered bacterial strains specifically developed to deliver anti-inflammatory molecules to the gut.

  14. High fructose diet-induced metabolic syndrome: Pathophysiological mechanism and treatment by traditional Chinese medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Ying; Kong, Ling-Dong

    2018-04-01

    Fructose is a natural monosaccharide broadly used in modern society. Over the past few decades, epidemiological studies have demonstrated that high fructose intake is an etiological factor of metabolic syndrome (MetS). This review highlights research advances on fructose-induced MetS, especially the underlying pathophysiological mechanism as well as pharmacotherapy by traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), using the PubMed, Web of science, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, China Science and Technology Journal and Wanfang Data. This review focuses on de novo lipogenesis (DNL) and uric acid (UA) production, two unique features of fructolysis different from glucose glycolysis. High level of DNL and UA production can result in insulin resistance, the key pathological event in developing MetS, mostly through oxidative stress and inflammation. Some other pathologies like the disturbance in brain and gut microbiota in the development of fructose-induced MetS in the past years, are also discussed. In management of MetS, TCM is an excellent representative in alternative and complementary medicine with a complete theory system and substantial herbal remedies. TCMs against MetS or MetS components, including Chinese patent medicines, TCM compound formulas, single TCM herbs and active compounds of TCM herbs, are reviewed on their effects and molecular mechanisms. TCMs with hypouricemic activity, which specially target fructose-induced MetS, are highlighted. And new technologies and strategies (such as high-throughput assay and systems biology) in this field are further discussed. In summary, fructose-induced MetS is a multifactorial disorder with the underlying complex mechanisms. Current clinical and pre-clinical evidence supports the potential of TCMs in management of MetS. Additionally, TCMs may show some advantages against complex MetS as their holistic feature through multiple target actions. However, further work is needed to confirm the effectivity and safety of TCMs

  15. Characterization and mechanisms of lipid metabolism in high-fat diet ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Osumah

    Hepatic lipid vacuolization and even fibrosis in gerbils were greatly formed in ... to generate data on metabolic diseases, they have limita- tions as models of lipid ... cholesterol, 7% lard, 10% yolk powder and 0.5% bile salts as previously ..... Tzallas Ch, Kakafika A, Kiortsis D, Goudevenos I, Elisaf M (2000). Liver function ...

  16. Mitochondrial metabolism in hematopoietic stem cells requires functional FOXO3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimmelé, Pauline; Liang, Raymond; Bigarella, Carolina L; Kocabas, Fatih; Xie, Jingjing; Serasinghe, Madhavika N; Chipuk, Jerry; Sadek, Hesham; Zhang, Cheng Cheng; Ghaffari, Saghi

    2015-01-01

    Hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) are primarily dormant but have the potential to become highly active on demand to reconstitute blood. This requires a swift metabolic switch from glycolysis to mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation. Maintenance of low levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), a by-product of mitochondrial metabolism, is also necessary for sustaining HSC dormancy. Little is known about mechanisms that integrate energy metabolism with hematopoietic stem cell homeostasis. Here, we identify the transcription factor FOXO3 as a new regulator of metabolic adaptation of HSC. ROS are elevated in Foxo3−/− HSC that are defective in their activity. We show that Foxo3−/− HSC are impaired in mitochondrial metabolism independent of ROS levels. These defects are associated with altered expression of mitochondrial/metabolic genes in Foxo3−/− hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPC). We further show that defects of Foxo3−/− HSC long-term repopulation activity are independent of ROS or mTOR signaling. Our results point to FOXO3 as a potential node that couples mitochondrial metabolism with HSC homeostasis. These findings have critical implications for mechanisms that promote malignant transformation and aging of blood stem and progenitor cells. PMID:26209246

  17. Ammonia-induced energy disorders interfere with bilirubin metabolism in hepatocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qiongye; Wang, Yanfang; Yu, Zujiang; Li, Duolu; Jia, Bin; Li, Jingjing; Guan, Kelei; Zhou, Yubing; Chen, Yanling; Kan, Quancheng

    2014-08-01

    Hyperammonemia and jaundice are the most common clinical symptoms of hepatic failure. Decreasing the level of ammonia in the blood is often accompanied by a reduction in bilirubin in patients with hepatic failure. Previous studies have shown that hyperammonemia can cause bilirubin metabolism disorders, however it is unclear exactly how hyperammonemia interferes with bilirubin metabolism in hepatocytes. The purpose of the current study was to determine the mechanism or mechanisms by which hyperammonemia interferes with bilirubin metabolism in hepatocytes. Cell viability and apoptosis were analyzed in primary hepatocytes that had been exposed to ammonium chloride. Mitochondrial morphology and permeability were observed and analyzed, intermediates of the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle were determined and changes in the expression of enzymes related to bilirubin metabolism were analyzed after ammonia exposure. Hyperammonemia inhibited cell growth, induced apoptosis, damaged the mitochondria and hindered the TCA cycle in hepatocytes. This led to a reduction in energy synthesis, eventually affecting the expression of enzymes related to bilirubin metabolism, which then caused further problems with bilirubin metabolism. These effects were significant, but could be reversed with the addition of adenosine triphosphate (ATP). This study demonstrates that ammonia can cause problems with bilirubin metabolism by interfering with energy synthesis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Linking neuronal brain activity to the glucose metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Göbel, Britta; Oltmanns, Kerstin M; Chung, Matthias

    2013-08-29

    Energy homeostasis ensures the functionality of the entire organism. The human brain as a missing link in the global regulation of the complex whole body energy metabolism is subject to recent investigation. The goal of this study is to gain insight into the influence of neuronal brain activity on cerebral and peripheral energy metabolism. In particular, the tight link between brain energy supply and metabolic responses of the organism is of interest. We aim to identifying regulatory elements of the human brain in the whole body energy homeostasis. First, we introduce a general mathematical model describing the human whole body energy metabolism. It takes into account the two central roles of the brain in terms of energy metabolism. The brain is considered as energy consumer as well as regulatory instance. Secondly, we validate our mathematical model by experimental data. Cerebral high-energy phosphate content and peripheral glucose metabolism are measured in healthy men upon neuronal activation induced by transcranial direct current stimulation versus sham stimulation. By parameter estimation we identify model parameters that provide insight into underlying neurophysiological processes. Identified parameters reveal effects of neuronal activity on regulatory mechanisms of systemic glucose metabolism. Our examinations support the view that the brain increases its glucose supply upon neuronal activation. The results indicate that the brain supplies itself with energy according to its needs, and preeminence of cerebral energy supply is reflected. This mechanism ensures balanced cerebral energy homeostasis. The hypothesis of the central role of the brain in whole body energy homeostasis as active controller is supported.

  19. Central nervous system regulation of intestinal lipid and lipoprotein metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farr, Sarah; Taher, Jennifer; Adeli, Khosrow

    2016-02-01

    In response to nutrient availability, the small intestine and brain closely communicate to modulate energy homeostasis and metabolism. The gut-brain axis involves complex nutrient sensing mechanisms and an integration of neuronal and hormonal signaling. This review summarizes recent evidence implicating the gut-brain axis in regulating lipoprotein metabolism, with potential implications for the dyslipidemia of insulin resistant states. The intestine and brain possess distinct mechanisms for sensing lipid availability, which triggers subsequent regulation of feeding, glucose homeostasis, and adipose tissue metabolism. More recently, central receptors, neuropeptides, and gut hormones that communicate with the brain have been shown to modulate hepatic and intestinal lipoprotein metabolism via parasympathetic and sympathetic signaling. Gut-derived glucagon-like peptides appear to be particularly important in modulating the intestinal secretion of chylomicron particles via a novel brain-gut axis. Dysregulation of these pathways may contribute to postprandial diabetic dyslipidemia. Emerging evidence implicates the central and enteric nervous systems in controlling many aspects of lipid and lipoprotein metabolism. Bidirectional communication between the gut and brain involving neuronal pathways and gut peptides is critical for regulating feeding and metabolism, and forms a neuroendocrine circuit to modulate dietary fat absorption and intestinal production of atherogenic chylomicron particles.

  20. Gut microbiota may have influence on glucose and lipid metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Kristian Hallundbæk; Nielsen, Morten Frost Munk; Tvede, Michael

    2013-01-01

    and that prebiotics, antibiotics or faecal transplantation can alter glucose and lipid metabolism. This paper summarizes the latest research regarding the association between gut microbiota, diabetes and obesity and some of the mechanisms by which gut bacteria may influence host metabolism....

  1. [Response of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal lipid metabolism to symbiotic signals in mycorrhiza].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Lei; Li, Yuanjing; Tian, Chunjie

    2016-01-04

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi play an important role in energy flow and nutrient cycling, besides their wide distribution in the cosystem. With a long co-evolution, AM fungi and host plant have formed a symbiotic relationship, and fungal lipid metabolism may be the key point to find the symbiotic mechanism in arbusculart mycorrhiza. Here, we reviewed the most recent progress on the interaction between AM fungal lipid metabolism and symbiotic signaling networks, especially the response of AM fungal lipid metabolism to symbiotic signals. Furthermore, we discussed the response of AM fungal lipid storage and release to symbiotic or non-symbiotic status, and the correlation between fungal lipid metabolism and nutrient transfer in mycorrhiza. In addition, we explored the feedback of the lipolysis process to molecular signals during the establishment of symbiosis, and the corresponding material conversion and energy metabolism besides the crosstalk of fungal lipid metabolism and signaling networks. This review will help understand symbiotic mechanism of arbuscular mycorrhiza fungi and further application in ecosystem.

  2. microRNAs and lipid metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aryal, Binod; Singh, Abhishek K.; Rotllan, Noemi; Price, Nathan; Fernández-Hernando, Carlos

    2017-01-01

    Purpose of review Work over the last decade has identified the important role of microRNAs (miRNAS) in regulating lipoprotein metabolism and associated disorders including metabolic syndrome, obesity and atherosclerosis. This review summarizes the most recent findings in the field, highlighting the contribution of miRNAs in controlling low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) metabolism. Recent findings A number of miRNAs have emerged as important regulators of lipid metabolism, including miR-122 and miR-33. Work over the last two years has identified additional functions of miR-33 including the regulation of macrophage activation and mitochondrial metabolism. Moreover, it has recently been shown that miR-33 regulates vascular homeostasis and cardiac adaptation in response to pressure overload. In addition to miR-33 and miR-122, recent GWAS have identified single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in the proximity of miRNAs genes associated with abnormal levels of circulating lipids in humans. Several of these miRNA, such as miR-148a and miR-128-1, target important proteins that regulate cellular cholesterol metabolism, including the low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) and the ATP-binding cassette A1 (ABCA1). Summary microRNAs have emerged as critical regulators of cholesterol metabolism and promising therapeutic targets for treating cardiometabolic disorders including atherosclerosis. Here, we discuss the recent findings in the field highlighting the novel mechanisms by which miR-33 controls lipid metabolism and atherogenesis and the identification of novel miRNAs that regulate LDL metabolism. Finally, we summarize the recent findings that identified miR-33 as an important non-coding RNA that controls cardiovascular homeostasis independent of its role in regulating lipid metabolism. PMID:28333713

  3. Central and Peripheral Mechanisms of Antipsychotic Medication-Induced Metabolic Dysregulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    may also significantly contribute to our fundamental understanding of obesity and lead to novel treatments. Since APD-induced metabolic disturbances...York, NY 10032 Department of Psychology , Yeshiva University, New York, NY 10016 Sponsor: Jonathan A. Javitch Background: Antipsychotic drugs...Zachary Freyberg Departments of Psychiatry, Pharmacology & Medicine, Columbia University, New York, NY 10032 Department of Psychology , Yeshiva

  4. Toxigenic and metabolic causes of ketosis and ketoacidotic syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartwright, Martina M; Hajja, Waddah; Al-Khatib, Sofian; Hazeghazam, Maryam; Sreedhar, Dharmashree; Li, Rebecca Na; Wong-McKinstry, Edna; Carlson, Richard W

    2012-10-01

    Ketoacidotic syndromes are frequently encountered in acute care medicine. This article focuses on ketosis and ketoacidotic syndromes associated with intoxications, alcohol abuse, starvation, and certain dietary supplements as well as inborn errors of metabolism. Although all of these various processes are characterized by the accumulation of ketone bodies and metabolic acidosis, there are differences in the mechanisms, clinical presentations, and principles of therapy for these heterogeneous disorders. Pathophysiologic mechanisms that account for these disorders are presented, as well as guidance regarding identification and management. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Metabolic-flux dependent regulation of microbial physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litsios, Athanasios; Ortega, Álvaro D; Wit, Ernst C; Heinemann, Matthias

    2018-04-01

    According to the most prevalent notion, changes in cellular physiology primarily occur in response to altered environmental conditions. Yet, recent studies have shown that changes in metabolic fluxes can also trigger phenotypic changes even when environmental conditions are unchanged. This suggests that cells have mechanisms in place to assess the magnitude of metabolic fluxes, that is, the rate of metabolic reactions, and use this information to regulate their physiology. In this review, we describe recent evidence for metabolic flux-sensing and flux-dependent regulation. Furthermore, we discuss how such sensing and regulation can be mechanistically achieved and present a set of new candidates for flux-signaling metabolites. Similar to metabolic-flux sensing, we argue that cells can also sense protein translation flux. Finally, we elaborate on the advantages that flux-based regulation can confer to cells. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  6. Diet and cognition: interplay between cell metabolism and neuronal plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez-Pinilla, Fernando; Tyagi, Ethika

    2013-11-01

    To discuss studies in humans and animals revealing the ability of foods to benefit the brain: new information with regards to mechanisms of action and the treatment of neurological and psychiatric disorders. Dietary factors exert their effects on the brain by affecting molecular events related to the management of energy metabolism and synaptic plasticity. Energy metabolism influences neuronal function, neuronal signaling, and synaptic plasticity, ultimately affecting mental health. Epigenetic regulation of neuronal plasticity appears as an important mechanism by which foods can prolong their effects on long-term neuronal plasticity. The prime focus of the discussion is to emphasize the role of cell metabolism as a mediator for the action of foods on the brain. Oxidative stress promotes damage to phospholipids present in the plasma membrane such as the omega-3 fatty acid docosahexenoic acid, disrupting neuronal signaling. Thus, dietary docosahexenoic acid seems crucial for supporting plasma membrane function, interneuronal signaling, and cognition. The dual action of brain-derived neurotrophic factor in neuronal metabolism and synaptic plasticity is crucial for activating signaling cascades under the action of diet and other environmental factors, using mechanisms of epigenetic regulation.

  7. Metabolic responses in Candida tropicalis to complex inhibitors during xylitol bioconversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shizeng; Li, Hao; Fan, Xiaoguang; Zhang, Jingkun; Tang, Pingwah; Yuan, Qipeng

    2015-09-01

    During xylitol fermentation, Candida tropicalis is often inhibited by inhibitors in hemicellulose hydrolysate. The mechanisms involved in the metabolic responses to inhibitor stress and the resistances to inhibitors are still not clear. To understand the inhibition mechanisms and the metabolic responses to inhibitors, a GC/MS-based metabolomics approach was performed on C. tropicalis treated with and without complex inhibitors (CI, including furfural, phenol and acetic acid). Partial least squares discriminant analysis was used to determine the metabolic variability between CI-treated groups and control groups, and 25 metabolites were identified as possible entities responsible for the discrimination caused by inhibitors. We found that xylose uptake rate and xylitol oxidation rate were promoted by CI treatment. Metabolomics analysis showed that the flux from xylulose to pentose phosphate pathway increased, and tricarboxylic acid cycle was disturbed by CI. Moreover, the changes in levels of 1,3-propanediol, trehalose, saturated fatty acids and amino acids showed different mechanisms involved in metabolic responses to inhibitor stress. The increase of 1,3-propanediol was considered to be correlated with regulating redox balance and osmoregulation. The increase of trehalose might play a role in protein stabilization and cellular membranes protection. Saturated fatty acids could cause the decrease of membrane fluidity and make the plasma membrane rigid to maintain the integrity of plasma membrane. The deeper understanding of the inhibition mechanisms and the metabolic responses to inhibitors will provide us with more information on the metabolism regulation during xylitol bioconversion and the construction of industrial strains with inhibitor tolerance for better utilization of bioresource. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Temporal expression-based analysis of metabolism.

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    Sara B Collins

    Full Text Available Metabolic flux is frequently rerouted through cellular metabolism in response to dynamic changes in the intra- and extra-cellular environment. Capturing the mechanisms underlying these metabolic transitions in quantitative and predictive models is a prominent challenge in systems biology. Progress in this regard has been made by integrating high-throughput gene expression data into genome-scale stoichiometric models of metabolism. Here, we extend previous approaches to perform a Temporal Expression-based Analysis of Metabolism (TEAM. We apply TEAM to understanding the complex metabolic dynamics of the respiratorily versatile bacterium Shewanella oneidensis grown under aerobic, lactate-limited conditions. TEAM predicts temporal metabolic flux distributions using time-series gene expression data. Increased predictive power is achieved by supplementing these data with a large reference compendium of gene expression, which allows us to take into account the unique character of the distribution of expression of each individual gene. We further propose a straightforward method for studying the sensitivity of TEAM to changes in its fundamental free threshold parameter θ, and reveal that discrete zones of distinct metabolic behavior arise as this parameter is changed. By comparing the qualitative characteristics of these zones to additional experimental data, we are able to constrain the range of θ to a small, well-defined interval. In parallel, the sensitivity analysis reveals the inherently difficult nature of dynamic metabolic flux modeling: small errors early in the simulation propagate to relatively large changes later in the simulation. We expect that handling such "history-dependent" sensitivities will be a major challenge in the future development of dynamic metabolic-modeling techniques.

  9. PEDF-induced alteration of metabolism leading to insulin resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnagarin, Revathy; Dharmarajan, Arunasalam M; Dass, Crispin R

    2015-02-05

    Pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) is an anti-angiogenic, immunomodulatory, and neurotrophic serine protease inhibitor protein. PEDF is evolving as a novel metabolic regulatory protein that plays a causal role in insulin resistance. Insulin resistance is the central pathogenesis of metabolic disorders such as obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus, polycystic ovarian disease, and metabolic syndrome, and PEDF is associated with them. The current evidence suggests that PEDF administration to animals induces insulin resistance, whereas neutralisation improves insulin sensitivity. Inflammation, lipolytic free fatty acid mobilisation, and mitochondrial dysfunction are the proposed mechanism of PEDF-mediated insulin resistance. This review summarises the probable mechanisms adopted by PEDF to induce insulin resistance, and identifies PEDF as a potential therapeutic target in ameliorating insulin resistance. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Identification of Toxic Pyrrolizidine Alkaloids and Their Common Hepatotoxicity Mechanism

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    Xinmiao Yan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Pyrrolizidine Alkaloids (PAs are currently one of the most important botanical hepatotoxic ingredients. Glutathion (GSH metabolism is the most reported pathway involved in hepatotoxicity mechanism of PAs. We speculate that, for different PAs, there should be a common mechanism underlying their hepatotoxicity in GSH metabolism. Computational methods were adopted to test our hypothesis in consideration of the limitations of current experimental approaches. Firstly, the potential targets of 22 PAs (from three major PA types in GSH metabolism were identified by reverse docking; Secondly, glutathione S-transferase A1 (GSTA1 and glutathione peroxidase 1 (GPX1 targets pattern was found to be a special characteristic of toxic PAs with stepwise multiple linear regressions; Furthermore, the molecular mechanism underlying the interactions within toxic PAs and these two targets was demonstrated with the ligand-protein interaction analysis; Finally, GSTA1 and GPX1 were proved to be significant nodes in GSH metabolism. Overall, toxic PAs could be identified by GSTA1 and GPX1 targets pattern, which suggests their common hepatotoxicity mechanism: the interfering of detoxication in GSH metabolism. In addition, all the strategies developed here could be extended to studies on toxicity mechanism of other toxins.

  11. Identification of Toxic Pyrrolizidine Alkaloids and Their Common Hepatotoxicity Mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Xinmiao; Kang, Hong; Feng, Jun; Yang, Yiyan; Tang, Kailin; Zhu, Ruixin; Yang, Li; Wang, Zhengtao; Cao, Zhiwei

    2016-03-07

    Pyrrolizidine Alkaloids (PAs) are currently one of the most important botanical hepatotoxic ingredients. Glutathion (GSH) metabolism is the most reported pathway involved in hepatotoxicity mechanism of PAs. We speculate that, for different PAs, there should be a common mechanism underlying their hepatotoxicity in GSH metabolism. Computational methods were adopted to test our hypothesis in consideration of the limitations of current experimental approaches. Firstly, the potential targets of 22 PAs (from three major PA types) in GSH metabolism were identified by reverse docking; Secondly, glutathione S-transferase A1 (GSTA1) and glutathione peroxidase 1 (GPX1) targets pattern was found to be a special characteristic of toxic PAs with stepwise multiple linear regressions; Furthermore, the molecular mechanism underlying the interactions within toxic PAs and these two targets was demonstrated with the ligand-protein interaction analysis; Finally, GSTA1 and GPX1 were proved to be significant nodes in GSH metabolism. Overall, toxic PAs could be identified by GSTA1 and GPX1 targets pattern, which suggests their common hepatotoxicity mechanism: the interfering of detoxication in GSH metabolism. In addition, all the strategies developed here could be extended to studies on toxicity mechanism of other toxins.

  12. CYP2E1 Metabolism of Styrene Involves Allostery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, Jessica H.; Boysen, Gunnar

    2012-01-01

    We are the first to report allosterism during styrene oxidation by recombinant CYP2E1 and human liver microsomes. At low styrene concentrations, oxidation is inefficient because of weak binding to CYP2E1 (Ks = 830 μM). A second styrene molecule then binds CYP2E1 with higher affinity (Kss = 110 μM) and significantly improves oxidation to achieve a kcat of 6.3 nmol · min−1 · nmol CYP2E1−1. The transition between these metabolic cycles coincides with reported styrene concentrations in blood from exposed workers; thus, this CYP2E1 mechanism may be relevant in vivo. Scaled modeling of the in vitro-positive allosteric mechanism for styrene metabolism to its in vivo clearance led to significant deviations from the traditional model based on Michaelis-Menten kinetics. Low styrene levels were notably much less toxic than generally assumed. We interrogated the allosteric mechanism using the CYP2E1-specific inhibitor and drug 4-methylpyrazole, which we have shown binds two CYP2E1 sites. From the current studies, styrene was a positive allosteric effector on 4-methylpyrazole binding, based on a 10-fold increase in 4-methylpyrazole binding affinity from Ki 0.51 to Ksi 0.043 μM. The inhibitor was a negative allosteric effector on styrene oxidation, because kcat decreased 6-fold to 0.98 nmol · min−1 · nmol CYP2E1−1. Consequently, mixtures of styrene and other molecules can induce allosteric effects on binding and metabolism by CYP2E1 and thus mitigate the efficiency of their metabolism and corresponding effects on human health. Taken together, our elucidation of mechanisms for these allosteric reactions provides a powerful tool for further investigating the complexities of CYP2E1 metabolism of drugs and pollutants. PMID:22807108

  13. Beneficial effects of metformin on energy metabolism and visceral fat volume through a possible mechanism of fatty acid oxidation in human subjects and rats.

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    Ichiro Tokubuchi

    Full Text Available Metformin is known to have a beneficial effect on body weight and body composition, although the precise mechanism has not been elucidated yet. The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of metformin on energy metabolism and anthropometric factors in both human subjects and rats.In human studies, metformin (1500mg/day was administered to 23 healthy subjects and 18 patients with type 2 diabetes for 2 weeks. Metabolic parameters and energy metabolism were measured during a meal tolerance test in the morning before and after the treatment of metformin. In animal studies, 13 weeks old SD rats were fed 25-26 g of standard chow only during 12-hours dark phase with either treated by metformin (2.5mg/ml in drinking water or not for 2 weeks, and metabolic parameters, anthropometric factors and energy metabolism together with expressions related to fat oxidation and adaptive thermogenesis were measured either in fasting or post-prandial state at 15 weeks old.Post-prandial plasma lactate concentration was significantly increased after the metformin treatment in both healthy subjects and diabetic patients. Although energy expenditure (EE did not change, baseline respiratory quotient (RQ was significantly decreased and post-prandial RQ was significantly increased vice versa following the metformin treatment in both groups. By the administration of metformin to SD rats for 2 weeks, plasma levels of lactate and pyruvate were significantly increased in both fasting and post-prandial states. RQ during a fasting state was significantly decreased in metformin-treated rats compared to controls with no effect on EE. Metformin treatment brought about a significant reduction of visceral fat mass compared to controls accompanied by an up-regulation of fat oxidation-related enzyme in the liver, UCP-1 in the brown adipose tissue and UCP-3 in the skeletal muscle.From the results obtained, beneficial effects of metformin on visceral fat reduction has been

  14. Relationship between myostatin and irisin in type 2 diabetes mellitus: a compensatory mechanism to an unfavourable metabolic state?

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Fontana, Beatriz; Reyes-García, Rebeca; Morales-Santana, Sonia; Ávila-Rubio, Verónica; Muñoz-Garach, Araceli; Rozas-Moreno, Pedro; Muñoz-Torres, Manuel

    2016-04-01

    Myostatin and irisin are two myokines related to energy metabolism, acting on skeletal muscle and recently suggested on adipose tissue in mice. However, the exact role of these myokines in humans has not been fully established. Our aim was to evaluate the relationship between serum levels of myostatin and irisin in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients and non-diabetic controls and to explore its links with metabolic parameters. Case-control study including 73 type 2 diabetes mellitus patients and 55 non-diabetic subjects as control group. Circulating myostatin and irisin levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Type 2 diabetes mellitus patients showed significantly lower myostatin levels (p = 0.001) and higher irisin levels (p = 0.036) than controls. An inverse relationship was observed between myostatin and irisin levels (p = 0.002). Moreover, in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients, after adjusting by confounder factors, myostatin was negatively related to fasting plasma glucose (p = 0.005) and to triglyceride levels (p = 0.028) while irisin showed a positive association with these variables (p = 0.017 and p = 0.006 respectively). A linear regression analysis showed that irisin and fasting plasma glucose levels were independently associated to myostatin levels and that myostatin and triglyceride levels were independently associated to irisin concentrations in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients. Our results suggest that serum levels of myostatin and irisin are related in patients with type 2 diabetes. Triglyceride and glucose levels could modulate myostatin and irisin concentrations as a compensatory mechanism to improve the metabolic state in these patients although further studies are needed to elucidate whether the action of these myokines represents an adaptative response.

  15. Adrenal metabolism of mitotane and related compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Djanegara, T.K.S.

    1989-01-01

    Mitotane (o,p'-DDD; 1-[2-chlorophenyl]-1-[4-chlorophenyl]-2,2-dichloroethane) has been used in the treatment of Cushing's syndrome due to adrenal hyperfunction and it the drug of choice for adrenocortical carcinoma. The object of this investigation is to study the biotransformation of o,p'-DDD and p,p'-DDD in dogs and bovine adrenal cortex to explain its selective toxicity and mechanism of action. The in vitro biotransformation of 14 C-labeled o,p'-DDD and p,p'-DDD by dog and bovine adrenal cortex as studied. Of the cortex subcellular fractions, the cytosol fraction was found to be the most active in metabolizing the substrates, followed by the mitochondrial fraction. This metabolism including that in cytosolic fractions, did not take place with boiled enzyme preparations and required an NADPH generating system. This study has been directed towards establishing the metabolic activation mechanism which may account for the adrenocorticolytic effect of mitotane in contrast to detoxication by the liver. HPLC and TLC metabolic profiles have been generated from incubations of bovine and dog adrenal cortex homogenates and their subfractions for 14 C-labeled p,p'-DDD, o,p'-DDD and its monochloroethylene derivative, o,p'-DDMU

  16. CIRCADIAN REGULATION METABOLIC SIGNALING MECHANISMS OF HUMAN BREAST CANCER GROWTH BY THE NOCTURNAL MELATONIN SIGNAL AND THE CONSEQUENCES OF ITS DISRUPTION BY LIGHT AT NIGHT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blask, David E.; Hill, Steven M.; Dauchy, Robert T.; Xiang, Shulin; Yuan, Lin; Duplessis, Tamika; Mao, Lulu; Dauchy, Erin; Sauer, Leonard A.

    2011-01-01

    This review article discusses recent work on the melatonin-mediated circadian regulation and integration of molecular, dietary and metabolic signaling mechanisms involved in human breast cancer growth and the consequences of circadian disruption by exposure to light-at-night (LAN). The antiproliferative effects of the circadian melatonin signal are mediated through a major mechanism involving the activation of MT1 melatonin receptors expressed in human breast cancer cell lines and xenografts. In estrogen receptor (ERα+) human breast cancer cells, melatonin suppresses both ERα mRNA expression and estrogen-induced transcriptional activity of the ERα via MT1-induced activation of Gαi2 signaling and reduction of cAMP levels. Melatonin also regulates the transactivation of additional members of the steroid hormone/nuclear receptor super-family, enzymes involved in estrogen metabolism, expression/activation of telomerase and the expression of core clock and clock-related genes. The anti-invasive/anti-metastatic actions of melatonin involve the blockade of p38 phosphorylation and the expression of matrix metalloproteinases. Melatonin also inhibits the growth of human breast cancer xenografts via another critical pathway involving MT1-mediated suppression of cAMP leading to blockade of linoleic acid (LA) uptake and its metabolism to the mitogenic signaling molecule 13-hydroxyoctadecadienoic acid (13-HODE). Down-regulation of 13-HODE reduces the activation of growth factor pathways supporting cell proliferation and survival. Experimental evidence in rats and humans indicating that LAN-induced circadian disruption of the nocturnal melatonin signal activates human breast cancer growth, metabolism and signaling provides the strongest mechanistic support, thus far, for population and ecological studies demonstrating elevated breast cancer risk in night shift workers and other individuals increasingly exposed to LAN. PMID:21605163

  17. L-arginine:glycine amidinotransferase deficiency protects from metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choe, Chi-un; Nabuurs, Christine; Stockebrand, Malte C; Neu, Axel; Nunes, Patricia; Morellini, Fabio; Sauter, Kathrin; Schillemeit, Stefan; Hermans-Borgmeyer, Irm; Marescau, Bart; Heerschap, Arend; Isbrandt, Dirk

    2013-01-01

    Phosphorylated creatine (Cr) serves as an energy buffer for ATP replenishment in organs with highly fluctuating energy demand. The central role of Cr in the brain and muscle is emphasized by severe neurometabolic disorders caused by Cr deficiency. Common symptoms of inborn errors of creatine synthesis or distribution include mental retardation and muscular weakness. Human mutations in l-arginine:glycine amidinotransferase (AGAT), the first enzyme of Cr synthesis, lead to severely reduced Cr and guanidinoacetate (GuA) levels. Here, we report the generation and metabolic characterization of AGAT-deficient mice that are devoid of Cr and its precursor GuA. AGAT-deficient mice exhibited decreased fat deposition, attenuated gluconeogenesis, reduced cholesterol levels and enhanced glucose tolerance. Furthermore, Cr deficiency completely protected from the development of metabolic syndrome caused by diet-induced obesity. Biochemical analyses revealed the chronic Cr-dependent activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), which stimulates catabolic pathways in metabolically relevant tissues such as the brain, skeletal muscle, adipose tissue and liver, suggesting a mechanism underlying the metabolic phenotype. In summary, our results show marked metabolic effects of Cr deficiency via the chronic activation of AMPK in a first animal model of AGAT deficiency. In addition to insights into metabolic changes in Cr deficiency syndromes, our genetic model reveals a novel mechanism as a potential treatment option for obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus.

  18. Exercise Intensity Modulation of Hepatic Lipid Metabolism

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    Fábio S. Lira

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Lipid metabolism in the liver is complex and involves the synthesis and secretion of very low density lipoproteins (VLDL, ketone bodies, and high rates of fatty acid oxidation, synthesis, and esterification. Exercise training induces several changes in lipid metabolism in the liver and affects VLDL secretion and fatty acid oxidation. These alterations are even more conspicuous in disease, as in obesity, and cancer cachexia. Our understanding of the mechanisms leading to metabolic adaptations in the liver as induced by exercise training has advanced considerably in the recent years, but much remains to be addressed. More recently, the adoption of high intensity exercise training has been put forward as a means of modulating hepatic metabolism. The purpose of the present paper is to summarise and discuss the merit of such new knowledge.

  19. Neuronal Cell Death Induced by Mechanical Percussion Trauma in Cultured Neurons is not Preceded by Alterations in Glucose, Lactate and Glutamine Metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayakumar, A R; Bak, L K; Rama Rao, K V; Waagepetersen, H S; Schousboe, A; Norenberg, M D

    2016-02-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a devastating neurological disorder that usually presents in acute and chronic forms. Brain edema and associated increased intracranial pressure in the early phase following TBI are major consequences of acute trauma. On the other hand, neuronal injury, leading to neurobehavioral and cognitive impairments, that usually develop months to years after single or repetitive episodes of head trauma, are major consequences of chronic TBI. The molecular mechanisms responsible for TBI-induced injury, however, are unclear. Recent studies have suggested that early mitochondrial dysfunction and subsequent energy failure play a role in the pathogenesis of TBI. We therefore examined whether oxidative metabolism of (13)C-labeled glucose, lactate or glutamine is altered early following in vitro mechanical percussion-induced trauma (5 atm) to neurons (4-24 h), and whether such events contribute to the development of neuronal injury. Cell viability was assayed using the release of the cytoplasmic enzyme lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), together with fluorescence-based cell staining (calcein and ethidium homodimer-1 for live and dead cells, respectively). Trauma had no effect on the LDH release in neurons from 1 to 18 h. However, a significant increase in LDH release was detected at 24 h after trauma. Similar findings were identified when traumatized neurons were stained with fluorescent markers. Additionally (13)C-labeling of glutamate showed a small, but statistically significant decrease at 14 h after trauma. However, trauma had no effect on the cycling ratio of the TCA cycle at any time-period examined. These findings indicate that trauma does not cause a disturbance in oxidative metabolism of any of the substrates used for neurons. Accordingly, such metabolic disturbance does not appear to contribute to the neuronal death in the early stages following trauma.

  20. Sphingolipids and Lipoproteins in Health and Metabolic Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, Jahangir; Walsh, Meghan T; Hammad, Samar M; Hussain, M Mahmood

    2017-07-01

    Sphingolipids are structurally and functionally diverse molecules with significant physiologic functions and are found associated with cellular membranes and plasma lipoproteins. The cellular and plasma concentrations of sphingolipids are altered in several metabolic disorders and may serve as prognostic and diagnostic markers. Here we discuss various sphingolipid transport mechanisms and highlight how changes in cellular and plasma sphingolipid levels contribute to cardiovascular disease, obesity, diabetes, insulin resistance, and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Understanding of the mechanisms involved in intracellular transport, secretion, and extracellular transport may provide novel information that might be amenable to therapeutic targeting for the treatment of various metabolic disorders. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Radiation Changes the Metabolic Profiling of Melanoma Cell Line B16.

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    Lige Wu

    Full Text Available Radiation therapy can be an effective way to kill cancer cells using ionizing radiation, but some tumors are resistant to radiation therapy and the underlying mechanism still remains elusive. It is therefore necessary to establish an appropriate working model to study and monitor radiation-mediated cancer therapy. In response to cellular stress, the metabolome is the integrated profiling of changes in all metabolites in cells, which can be used to investigate radiation tolerance mechanisms and identify targets for cancer radiation sensibilization. In this study, using 1H nuclear magnetic resonance for untargeted metabolic profiling in radiation-tolerant mouse melanoma cell line B16, we comprehensively investigated changes in metabolites and metabolic network in B16 cells in response to radiation. Principal component analysis and partial least squares discriminant analysis indicated the difference in cellular metabolites between the untreated cells and X-ray radiated cells. In radiated cells, the content of alanine, glutamate, glycine and choline was increased, while the content of leucine, lactate, creatine and creatine phosphate was decreased. Enrichment analysis of metabolic pathway showed that the changes in metabolites were related to multiple metabolic pathways including the metabolism of glycine, arginine, taurine, glycolysis, and gluconeogenesis. Taken together, with cellular metabolome study followed by bioinformatic analysis to profile specific metabolic pathways in response to radiation, we deepened our understanding of radiation-resistant mechanisms and radiation sensibilization in cancer, which may further provide a theoretical and practical basis for personalized cancer therapy.

  2. Connexins, diabetes and the metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamelin, Romain; Allagnat, Florent; Haefliger, Jacques-Antoine; Meda, Paolo

    2009-02-01

    Diabetes and the related metabolic syndrome are multi system disorders that result from improper interactions between various cell types. Even though the underlying mechanism remains to be fully understood, it is most likely that both the long and the short distance range cell interactions, which normally ensure the physiologic functioning of the pancreas, and its relationships with the insulin-targeted organs, are altered. This review focuses on the short-range type of interactions that depend on the contact between adjacent cells and, specifically, on the interactions that are dependent on connexins. The widespread distribution of these membrane proteins, their multiple modes of action, and their interactions with conditions/molecules associated to both the pathogenesis and the treatment of the 2 main forms of diabetes and the metabolic syndrome, make connexins an essential part of the chain of events that leads to metabolic diseases. Here, we review the present state of knowledge about the molecular and cell biology of the connexin genes and proteins, their general mechanisms of action, the roles specific connexin species play in the endocrine pancreas and the major insulin-targeted organs, under physiological and patho-physiological conditions.

  3. The progestin etonogestrel enhances the respiratory response to metabolic acidosis in newborn rats. Evidence for a mechanism involving supramedullary structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loiseau, Camille; Osinski, Diane; Joubert, Fanny; Straus, Christian; Similowski, Thomas; Bodineau, Laurence

    2014-05-01

    Central congenital hypoventilation syndrome is a neuro-respiratory disease characterized by the dysfunction of the CO2/H(+) chemosensitive neurons of the retrotrapezoid nucleus/parafacial respiratory group. A recovery of CO2/H(+) chemosensitivity has been observed in some central congenital hypoventilation syndrome patients coincidental with contraceptive treatment by a potent progestin, desogestrel (Straus et al., 2010). The mechanisms of this progestin effect remain unknown, although structures of medulla oblongata, midbrain or diencephalon are known to be targets for progesterone. In the present study, on ex vivo preparations of central nervous system of newborn rats, we show that acute exposure to etonogestrel (active metabolite of desogestrel) enhanced the increased respiratory frequency induced by metabolic acidosis via a mechanism involving supramedullary structures located in pontine, mesencephalic or diencephalic regions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Metabolic actions of FGF21: molecular mechanisms and therapeutic implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuan Ge

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21 is an atypical member of the FGF family that functions as an endocrine factor. In obese animals, elevation of plasma FGF21 levels by either pharmacological or genetic approaches reduces body weight, decreases hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia, alleviates fatty liver and increases insulin sensitivity. FGF21 exerts its pleiotropic metabolic effects through its actions on multiple targets, including adipose tissue, liver, brain and pancreas. The expression of FGF21 is under the control of both peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα. A growing body of evidence suggests that the metabolic benefits of these two nuclear receptors are mediated in part by induction of FGF21. In humans, plasma levels of FGF21 are elevated in obese subjects and patients with type 2 diabetes, but are reduced in patients with autoimmune diabetes. This review summarizes recent advances in understanding the physiological roles of FGF21 and the molecular pathways underlying its actions, and also discusses the future prospective of developing FGF21 or its agonists as therapeutic agents for obesity-related medical complications.

  5. Probing energy metabolism and microviscosity in cancer using FLIM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirmanova, Marina V.; Lukina, Maria M.; Shimolina, Lyubov'E.; Kuimova, Marina K.; Dudenkova, Varvara V.; Shcheslavskiy, Vladislav I.; Zagaynova, Elena V.

    2017-07-01

    Fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM) is a promising non-invasive highly sensitive technique for probing multiple physiological and physicochemical parameters in living cells and tissues. The present study is focused on the investigation of bioenergetics and microscopic viscosity of cultured cancer cells and animal tumors using FLIM during natural growth and chemotherapy. Fluorescence lifetime measurements of the metabolic cofactor NAD(P)H revealed a decrease of the relative amplitude of free NAD(P)H after cisplatin treatment, indicating a change towards a more oxidative metabolic state. Microviscosity mapping performed with the use of fluorescent molecular rotor BODIPY-2 showed a pronounced increase in the plasma membrane viscosity in cancer cells exposed to cisplatin. Although biochemical mechanisms underlying the metabolic and viscosity alterations during chemotherapy have yet to be clarified, our data suggest that the cisplatin-induced changes in cellular metabolism and membrane viscosity play a role in the cytotoxicity of the drug. The results of the study contribute to an understanding of mechanisms of cisplatin action and will be useful for development new approach for assessing response to a therapy.

  6. [Gut microbiota and immune crosstalk in metabolic disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burcelin, Rémy

    2017-01-01

    , and hepatic steatosis, the mechanisms causal to the disease could be related to the translocation of microbiota from the gut to the tissues, which induces inflammation. The mechanisms regulating such a process are based on the crosstalk between the gut microbiota and the host immune system. The hologenome theory of evolution supports this concept and implies that therapeutic strategies aiming to control glycemia should take into account both the gut microbiota and the host immune system. This review discusses the latest evidence regarding the bidirectional impact of the gut microbiota on host immune system crosstalk for the control of metabolic disease, hyperglycemia, and obesity. To avoid redundancies with the literature, we will focus our attention on the intestinal immune system, identifying evidence for the generation of novel therapeutic strategies, which could be based on the control of the translocation of gut bacteria to tissues. Such novel strategies should hamper the role played by gut microbiota dysbiosis on the development of metabolic inflammation. Recent evidence in rodents allows us to conclude that an impaired intestinal immune system characterizes and could be causal in the development of metabolic disease. The fine understanding of the molecular mechanisms should allow for the development of a first line of treatment for metabolic disease and its co-morbidities. © Société de Biologie, 2017.

  7. Linear and nonlinear susceptibilities from diffusion quantum Monte Carlo: application to periodic hydrogen chains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umari, P; Marzari, Nicola

    2009-09-07

    We calculate the linear and nonlinear susceptibilities of periodic longitudinal chains of hydrogen dimers with different bond-length alternations using a diffusion quantum Monte Carlo approach. These quantities are derived from the changes in electronic polarization as a function of applied finite electric field--an approach we recently introduced and made possible by the use of a Berry-phase, many-body electric-enthalpy functional. Calculated susceptibilities and hypersusceptibilities are found to be in excellent agreement with the best estimates available from quantum chemistry--usually extrapolations to the infinite-chain limit of calculations for chains of finite length. It is found that while exchange effects dominate the proper description of the susceptibilities, second hypersusceptibilities are greatly affected by electronic correlations. We also assess how different approximations to the nodal surface of the many-body wave function affect the accuracy of the calculated susceptibilities.

  8. Basic mechanisms of iron metabolism regulation and their clinical significance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. M. Meshсheryakova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is а composition of literature and experimental data of iron metabolism. There were studied the level of DMT-1, ferroportin, hepcidin at different stages of anemia and hemochromatosis. It is clear that the level of DMT-1 regulates by the hepcidin. Increaseing of the hepcidin concentration and decreasing DMT-1 level in patients with hemochromatosis explained good results of treatment.

  9. Basic mechanisms of iron metabolism regulation and their clinical significance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. M. Meshсheryakova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is а composition of literature and experimental data of iron metabolism. There were studied the level of DMT-1, ferroportin, hepcidin at different stages of anemia and hemochromatosis. It is clear that the level of DMT-1 regulates by the hepcidin. Increaseing of the hepcidin concentration and decreasing DMT-1 level in patients with hemochromatosis explained good results of treatment.

  10. Bile Acid Signaling in Liver Metabolism and Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiangang Li

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity, diabetes, and metabolic syndromes are increasingly recognized as health concerns worldwide. Overnutrition and insulin resistance are the major causes of diabetic hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia in humans. Studies in the past decade provide evidence that bile acids are not just biological detergents facilitating gut nutrient absorption, but also important metabolic regulators of glucose and lipid homeostasis. Pharmacological alteration of bile acid metabolism or bile acid signaling pathways such as using bile acid receptor agonists or bile acid binding resins may be a promising therapeutic strategy for the treatment of obesity and diabetes. On the other hand, bile acid signaling is complex, and the molecular mechanisms mediating the bile acid effects are still not completely understood. This paper will summarize recent advances in our understanding of bile acid signaling in regulation of glucose and lipid metabolism, and the potentials of developing novel therapeutic strategies that target bile acid metabolism for the treatment of metabolic disorders.

  11. Effects of epigallocatechin gallate on lipid metabolism and its underlying molecular mechanism in broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, J B; Zhang, Y; Zhou, Y B; Wan, X C; Zhang, J S

    2015-08-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) on fat metabolism and to establish the molecular mechanism of these effects in broilers. Seventy-two 28-day-old male Ross 308 broiler chickens were divided into three groups with different levels of EGCG supplementation for 4 weeks: normal control (NC) group, L-EGCG (a low-level supplement of EGCG, 40 mg/kg body weight daily) and H-EGCG (a high-level supplement of EGCG, 80 mg/kg body weight daily). After 4 weeks of oral administration, EGCG significantly reduced the level of abdominal fat deposition in broilers. The serum triglycerides and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol of chickens in H-EGCG group were also significantly decreased compared with the NC group, and the high-density lipoprotein cholesterol was notably increased at the same time. Moreover, the vital role of the liver and abdominal adipose tissue in lipid metabolism of poultry animals was examined through gene expression and enzyme activities related to fat anabolism and catabolism in these organs. Our data show that EGCG supplementation for 2 weeks significantly downregulated the expression of fatty acid synthesis and fat deposition-related genes, and upregulated the expression of genes involved in fatty acid β-oxidation and lipolysis genes. Simultaneously, the activities of hepatic fatty acid synthesis enzymes (fatty acid synthase and acetyl CoA carboxylase) were significantly decreased, and the activity of carnitine palmitoyl transferase-1 was notably elevated. The results suggest that EGCG could alleviate fat deposition in broilers through inhibiting fat anabolism and stimulating lipid catabolism in broilers. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  12. Predicting the Metabolic Sites by Flavin-Containing Monooxygenase on Drug Molecules Using SVM Classification on Computed Quantum Mechanics and Circular Fingerprints Molecular Descriptors.

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    Chien-Wei Fu

    Full Text Available As an important enzyme in Phase I drug metabolism, the flavin-containing monooxygenase (FMO also metabolizes some xenobiotics with soft nucleophiles. The site of metabolism (SOM on a molecule is the site where the metabolic reaction is exerted by an enzyme. Accurate prediction of SOMs on drug molecules will assist the search for drug leads during the optimization process. Here, some quantum mechanics features such as the condensed Fukui function and attributes from circular fingerprints (called Molprint2D are computed and classified using the support vector machine (SVM for predicting some potential SOMs on a series of drugs that can be metabolized by FMO enzymes. The condensed Fukui function fA- representing the nucleophilicity of central atom A and the attributes from circular fingerprints accounting the influence of neighbors on the central atom. The total number of FMO substrates and non-substrates collected in the study is 85 and they are equally divided into the training and test sets with each carrying roughly the same number of potential SOMs. However, only N-oxidation and S-oxidation features were considered in the prediction since the available C-oxidation data was scarce. In the training process, the LibSVM package of WEKA package and the option of 10-fold cross validation are employed. The prediction performance on the test set evaluated by accuracy, Matthews correlation coefficient and area under ROC curve computed are 0.829, 0.659, and 0.877 respectively. This work reveals that the SVM model built can accurately predict the potential SOMs for drug molecules that are metabolizable by the FMO enzymes.

  13. Carbon metabolic pathways in phototrophic bacteria and their broader evolutionary implications

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    Kuo-Hsiang eTang

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Photosynthesis is the biological process that converts solar energy to biomass, bio-products and biofuel. It is the only major natural solar energy storage mechanism on Earth. To satisfy the increased demand for sustainable energy sources and identify the mechanism of photosynthetic carbon assimilation, which is one of the bottlenecks in photosynthesis, it is essential to understand the process of solar energy storage and associated carbon metabolism in photosynthetic organisms. Researchers have employed physiological studies, microbiological chemistry, enzyme assays, genome sequencing, transcriptomics, and 13C-based metabolomics/fluxomics to investigate central carbon metabolism and enzymes that operate in phototrophs. In this report, we review diverse CO2 assimilation pathways, acetate assimilation, carbohydrate catabolism, the TCA cycle and some key and/or unconventional enzymes in central carbon metabolism of phototrophic microorganisms. We also discuss the reducing equivalent flow during photoautotrophic and photoheterotrophic growth, evolutionary links in the central carbon metabolic network, and correlations between photosynthetic and non-photosynthetic organisms. Considering the metabolic versatility in these fascinating and diverse photosynthetic bacteria, many essential questions in their central carbon metabolism still remain to be addressed.

  14. Energy Metabolism Impairment in Migraine.

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    Cevoli, Sabina; Favoni, Valentina; Cortelli, Pietro

    2018-06-22

    Migraine is a common disabling neurological disorder which is characterised by recurring headache associated with a variety of sensory and autonomic symptoms. The pathophysiology of migraine remains not entirely understood, although many mechanisms involving the central and peripheral nervous system are now becoming clear. In particular, it is widely accepted that migraine is associated with energy metabolic impairment of the brain. The purpose of this review is to present an update overview of the energy metabolism involvement in the migraine pathophysiology. Several biochemical, morphological and magnetic resonance spectroscopy studies have confirmed the presence of energy production deficiency together with an increment of energy consumption in migraine patients. An increment of energy demand over a certain threshold create metabolic and biochemical preconditions for the onset of the migraine attack. The defect of oxidative energy metabolism in migraine is generalized. It remains to be determined if the mitochondrial deficit in migraine is primary or secondary. Riboflavin and Co-Enzyme Q10, both physiologically implicated in mitochondrial respiratory chain functioning, are effective in migraine prophylaxis, supporting the hypothesis that improving brain energy metabolism may reduce the susceptibility to migraine. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  15. Skeletal muscle metabolism in hypokinetic rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tischler, Marc E.

    1993-01-01

    This grant focused on the mechanisms of metabolic changes associated with unweighting atrophy and reduced growth of hind limb muscles of juvenile rats. Metabolic studies included a number of different areas. Amino acid metabolic studies placed particular emphasis on glutamine and branched-chain amino acid metabolism. These studies were an outgrowth of understanding stress effects and the role of glucocorticoids in these animals. Investigations on protein metabolism were largely concerned with selective loss of myofibrillar proteins and the role of muscle proteolysis. These investigations lead to finding important differences from denervation and atrophy and to define the roles of cytosolic versus lysosomal proteolysis in these atrophy models. A major outgrowth of these studies was demonstrating an ability to prevent atrophy of the unweighted muscle for at least 24 hours. A large amount of work concentrated on carbohydrate metabolism and its regulation by insulin and catecholamines. Measurements focused on glucose transport, glycogen metabolism, and glucose oxidation. The grant was used to develop an important new in situ approach for studying protein metabolism, glucose transport, and hormonal effects which involves intramuscular injection of various agents for up to 24 hours. Another important consequence of this project was the development and flight of Physiological-Anatomical Rodent Experiment-1 (PARE-1), which was launched aboard Space Shuttle Discovery in September 1991. Detailed descriptions of these studies can be found in the 30 peer-reviewed publications, 15 non-reviewed publications, 4 reviews and 33 abstracts (total 82 publications) which were or are scheduled to be published as a result of this project. A listing of these publications grouped by area (i.e. amino acid metabolism, protein metabolism, carbohydrate metabolism, and space flight studies) are included.

  16. The compositional and evolutionary logic of metabolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braakman, Rogier; Smith, Eric

    2013-01-01

    Metabolism is built on a foundation of organic chemistry, and employs structures and interactions at many scales. Despite these sources of complexity, metabolism also displays striking and robust regularities in the forms of modularity and hierarchy, which may be described compactly in terms of relatively few principles of composition. These regularities render metabolic architecture comprehensible as a system, and also suggests the order in which layers of that system came into existence. In addition metabolism also serves as a foundational layer in other hierarchies, up to at least the levels of cellular integration including bioenergetics and molecular replication, and trophic ecology. The recapitulation of patterns first seen in metabolism, in these higher levels, motivates us to interpret metabolism as a source of causation or constraint on many forms of organization in the biosphere. Many of the forms of modularity and hierarchy exhibited by metabolism are readily interpreted as stages in the emergence of catalytic control by living systems over organic chemistry, sometimes recapitulating or incorporating geochemical mechanisms. We identify as modules, either subsets of chemicals and reactions, or subsets of functions, that are re-used in many contexts with a conserved internal structure. At the small molecule substrate level, module boundaries are often associated with the most complex reaction mechanisms, catalyzed by highly conserved enzymes. Cofactors form a biosynthetically and functionally distinctive control layer over the small-molecule substrate. The most complex members among the cofactors are often associated with the reactions at module boundaries in the substrate networks, while simpler cofactors participate in widely generalized reactions. The highly tuned chemical structures of cofactors (sometimes exploiting distinctive properties of the elements of the periodic table) thereby act as ‘keys’ that incorporate classes of organic reactions

  17. The Mediator Complex and Lipid Metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yi; Xiaoli; Zhao, Xiaoping; Yang, Fajun

    2013-03-01

    The precise control of gene expression is essential for all biological processes. In addition to DNA-binding transcription factors, numerous transcription cofactors contribute another layer of regulation of gene transcription in eukaryotic cells. One of such transcription cofactors is the highly conserved Mediator complex, which has multiple subunits and is involved in various biological processes through directly interacting with relevant transcription factors. Although the current understanding on the biological functions of Mediator remains incomplete, research in the past decade has revealed an important role of Mediator in regulating lipid metabolism. Such function of Mediator is dependent on specific transcription factors, including peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPARγ) and sterol regulatory element-binding proteins (SREBPs), which represent the master regulators of lipid metabolism. The medical significance of these findings is apparent, as aberrant lipid metabolism is intimately linked to major human diseases, such as type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Here, we briefly review the functions and molecular mechanisms of Mediator in regulation of lipid metabolism.

  18. Lipid Metabolism, Apoptosis and Cancer Therapy

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    Chunfa Huang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Lipid metabolism is regulated by multiple signaling pathways, and generates a variety of bioactive lipid molecules. These bioactive lipid molecules known as signaling molecules, such as fatty acid, eicosanoids, diacylglycerol, phosphatidic acid, lysophophatidic acid, ceramide, sphingosine, sphingosine-1-phosphate, phosphatidylinositol-3 phosphate, and cholesterol, are involved in the activation or regulation of different signaling pathways. Lipid metabolism participates in the regulation of many cellular processes such as cell growth, proliferation, differentiation, survival, apoptosis, inflammation, motility, membrane homeostasis, chemotherapy response, and drug resistance. Bioactive lipid molecules promote apoptosis via the intrinsic pathway by modulating mitochondrial membrane permeability and activating different enzymes including caspases. In this review, we discuss recent data in the fields of lipid metabolism, lipid-mediated apoptosis, and cancer therapy. In conclusion, understanding the underlying molecular mechanism of lipid metabolism and the function of different lipid molecules could provide the basis for cancer cell death rationale, discover novel and potential targets, and develop new anticancer drugs for cancer therapy.

  19. Individuals with Metabolically Healthy Overweight/Obesity Have Higher Fat Utilization than Metabolically Unhealthy Individuals

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    Arturo Pujia

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The mechanisms underlying the change in phenotype from metabolically healthy to metabolically unhealthy obesity are still unclear. The aim of this study is to investigate whether a difference in fasting fat utilization exists between overweight/obese individuals with a favorable cardiovascular risk profile and those with Metabolic Syndrome and Type 2 diabetes. Furthermore, we sought to explore whether there is an association between fasting fat utilization and insulin resistance. In this cross-sectional study, 172 overweight/obese individuals underwent a nutritional assessment. Those with fasting glucose ≥126 mg/dL or antidiabetic treatment were considered to be diabetics. If at least three of the NCEP criteria were present, they had Metabolic Syndrome, while those with less criteria were considered to be healthy overweight/obese. An indirect calorimetry was performed to estimate Respiratory Quotient, an index of nutrient utilization. A lower Respiratory Quotient (i.e., higher fat utilization was found in healthy overweight/obese individuals than in those with Metabolic Syndrome and Type 2 diabetes (0.85 ± 0.05; 0.87 ± 0.06; 0.88 ± 0.05 respectively, p = 0.04. The univariate and multivariable analysis showed a positive association between the Respiratory Quotient and HOMA-IR (slope in statistic (B = 0.004; β = 0.42; p = 0.005; 95% Confidence interval = 0.001–0.006. In this study, we find, for the first time, that the fasting Respiratory Quotient is significantly lower (fat utilization is higher in individuals who are metabolically healthy overweight/obese than in those with metabolically unhealthy obesity. In addition, we demonstrated the association between fat utilization and HOMA-IR, an insulin resistance index.

  20. Interplay of drug metabolizing enzymes with cellular transporters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böhmdorfer, Michaela; Maier-Salamon, Alexandra; Riha, Juliane; Brenner, Stefan; Höferl, Martina; Jäger, Walter

    2014-11-01

    Many endogenous and xenobiotic substances and their metabolites are substrates for drug metabolizing enzymes and cellular transporters. These proteins may not only contribute to bioavailability of molecules but also to uptake into organs and, consequently, to overall elimination. The coordinated action of uptake transporters, metabolizing enzymes, and efflux pumps, therefore, is a precondition for detoxification and elimination of drugs. As the understanding of the underlying mechanisms is important to predict alterations in drug disposal, adverse drug reactions and, finally, drug-drug interactions, this review illustrates the interplay between selected uptake/efflux transporters and phase I/II metabolizing enzymes.

  1. Mitofusin 2 as a driver that controls energy metabolism and insulin signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorzano, Antonio; Hernández-Alvarez, María Isabel; Sebastián, David; Muñoz, Juan Pablo

    2015-04-20

    Mitochondrial dynamics is a complex process that impacts on mitochondrial biology. Recent evidence indicates that proteins participating in mitochondrial dynamics have additional cellular roles. Mitofusin 2 (Mfn2) is a potent modulator of mitochondrial metabolism with an impact on energy metabolism in muscle, liver, and hypothalamic neurons. In addition, Mfn2 is subjected to tight regulation. Hence, factors such as proinflammatory cytokines, lipid availability, or glucocorticoids block its expression, whereas exercise and increased energy expenditure promote its upregulation. Importantly, Mfn2 controls cell metabolism and insulin signaling by limiting reactive oxygen species production and by modulation of endoplasmic reticulum stress. In this connection, it is critical to understand precisely the molecular mechanisms involved in the global actions of Mfn2. Future directions should concentrate into the analysis of those mechanisms, and to fully demonstrate that Mfn2 represents a cellular hub that senses the metabolic and hormonal milieu and drives the control of metabolic homeostasis.

  2. Metabolic Syndrome in Schizophrenia: A Non‑systematic Review

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    Marta Nascimento

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The link between mental illness and metabolic disturbances has been recognized since the beginning of the last century. The debate concerning medical morbidity in schizophrenia intensified during the last twenty years, especially after the introduction of atypical antipsychotics. Aims: To highlight some features of the metabolic syndrome in this population, specifically epidemiological data, underlying mechanisms and antipsychotic therapy. Methods: Non‑systematic review of literature. Results and Conclusions: Despite the different criteria used for the definition of metabolic syndrome, it is clear today that the schizophrenic population has the highest rate of metabolic syndrome. Additionally, the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in this population demonstrates a geographical distribution similar to the general population. Although it hasn’t been recognized for years, schizophrenic patients’ vulnerability to develop metabolic disturbances isn’t entirely related to antipsychotic therapy. Actually, it results from an interaction of multiple factors, including hereditary, genetic, biochemical and environmental ones (which include antipsychotic therapy. Moreover, they are not exclusively explained by weight gain. Metabolic disturbances are one of the main concerns related to general psychopharmacology. The differences between typical and atypical antipsychotics in terms of metabolic syndrome are not completely established. However, clozapine and olanzapine are recognized to have the worst metabolic profile, amongst all atypical antipsychotics.

  3. Metabolic Syndrome in Schizophrenia: A Non‑systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Nascimento

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: The link between mental illness and metabolic disturbances has been recognized since the beginning of the last century. The debate concerning medical morbidity in schizophrenia intensified during the last twenty years, especially after the introduction of atypical antipsychotics. Aims: To highlight some features of the metabolic syndrome in this population, specifically epidemiological data, underlying mechanisms and antipsychotic therapy. Methods: Non‑systematic review of literature. Results and Conclusions: Despite the different criteria used for the definition of metabolic syndrome, it is clear today that the schizophrenic population has the highest rate of metabolic syndrome. Additionally, the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in this population demonstrates a geographical distribution similar to the general population. Although it hasn’t been recognized for years, schizophrenic patients’ vulnerability to develop metabolic disturbances isn’t entirely related to antipsychotic therapy. Actually, it results from an interaction of multiple factors, including hereditary, genetic, biochemical and environmental ones (which include antipsychotic therapy. Moreover, they are not exclusively explained by weight gain. Metabolic disturbances are one of the main concerns related to general psychopharmacology. The differences between typical and atypical antipsychotics in terms of metabolic syndrome are not completely established. However, clozapine and olanzapine are recognized to have the worst metabolic profile, amongst all atypical antipsychotics.

  4. Metabolic consequences of stress during childhood and adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pervanidou, Panagiota; Chrousos, George P

    2012-05-01

    Stress, that is, the state of threatened or perceived as threatened homeostasis, is associated with activation of the stress system, mainly comprised by the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and the arousal/sympathetic nervous systems. The stress system normally functions in a circadian manner and interacts with other systems to regulate a variety of behavioral, endocrine, metabolic, immune, and cardiovascular functions. However, the experience of acute intense physical or emotional stress, as well as of chronic stress, may lead to the development of or may exacerbate several psychologic and somatic conditions, including anxiety disorders, depression, obesity, and the metabolic syndrome. In chronically stressed individuals, both behavioral and neuroendocrine mechanisms promote obesity and metabolic abnormalities: unhealthy lifestyles in conjunction with dysregulation of the stress system and increased secretion of cortisol, catecholamines, and interleukin-6, with concurrently elevated insulin concentrations, lead to development of central obesity, insulin resistance, and the metabolic syndrome. Fetal life, childhood, and adolescence are particularly vulnerable periods of life to the effects of intense acute or chronic stress. Similarly, these life stages are crucial for the later development of behavioral, metabolic, and immune abnormalities. Developing brain structures and functions related to stress regulation, such as the amygdala, the hippocampus, and the mesocorticolimbic system, are more vulnerable to the effects of stress compared with mature structures in adults. Moreover, chronic alterations in cortisol secretion in children may affect the timing of puberty, final stature, and body composition, as well as cause early-onset obesity, metabolic syndrome, and type 2 diabetes mellitus. The understanding of stress mechanisms leading to metabolic abnormalities in early life may lead to more effective prevention and intervention strategies of obesity

  5. The sweet path to metabolic demise: fructose and lipid synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, Mark A.; Samuel, Varman T.

    2016-01-01

    Epidemiological studies link fructose consumption with metabolic disease, an association attributable in part to fructose mediated lipogenesis. The mechanisms governing fructose-induced lipogenesis and disease remain debated. Acutely, fructose increases de novo lipogenesis through the efficient and uninhibited action of Ketohexokinase and Aldolase B, which yields substrates for fatty-acid synthesis. Chronic fructose consumption further enhances the capacity for hepatic fructose metabolism via activation of several key transcription factors (i.e. SREBP1c and ChREBP), which augment expression of lipogenic enzymes, increasing lipogenesis, further compounding hypertriglyceridemia, and hepatic steatosis. Hepatic insulin resistance develops from diacylglycerol-PKCε mediated impairment of insulin signaling and possibly additional mechanisms. Initiatives that decrease fructose consumption and therapies that block fructose mediated lipogenesis are needed to avert future metabolic pandemics. PMID:27387598

  6. Metabolic rate regulates L1 longevity in C. elegans.

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    Inhwan Lee

    Full Text Available Animals have to cope with starvation. The molecular mechanisms by which animals survive long-term starvation, however, are not clearly understood. When they hatch without food, C. elegans arrests development at the first larval stage (L1 and survives more than two weeks. Here we show that the survival span of arrested L1s, which we call L1 longevity, is a starvation response regulated by metabolic rate during starvation. A high rate of metabolism shortens the L1 survival span, whereas a low rate of metabolism lengthens it. The longer worms are starved, the slower they grow once they are fed, suggesting that L1 arrest has metabolic costs. Furthermore, mutants of genes that regulate metabolism show altered L1 longevity. Among them, we found that AMP-dependent protein kinase (AMPK, as a key energy sensor, regulates L1 longevity by regulating this metabolic arrest. Our results suggest that L1 longevity is determined by metabolic rate and that AMPK as a master regulator of metabolism controls this arrest so that the animals survive long-term starvation.

  7. Insecticide Resistance and Metabolic Mechanisms Involved in Larval and Adult Stages of Aedes aegypti Insecticide-Resistant Reference Strains from Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisset, Juan Andrés; Rodríguez, María Magdalena; French, Leydis; Severson, David W; Gutiérrez, Gladys; Hurtado, Daymi; Fuentes, Ilario

    2014-12-01

    Studies were conducted to compare levels of insecticide resistance and to determine the metabolic resistance mechanisms in larval and adult stages of Aedes aegypti from Cuba. Three insecticide-resistant reference strains of Ae. aegypti from Cuba were examined. These strains were derived from a Santiago de Cuba strain isolated in 1997; it was previously subjected to a strong selection for resistance to temephos (SAN-F6), deltamethrin (SAN-F12), and propoxur (SAN-F13) and routinely maintained in the laboratory under selection pressure up to the present time, when the study was carried out. In addition, an insecticide-susceptible strain was used for comparison. The insecticide resistance in larvae and adults was determined using standard World Health Organization methodologies. Insecticide resistance mechanisms were determined by biochemical assays. The esterases (α EST and β EST) and mixed function oxidase (MFO) activities were significantly higher in adults than in the larvae of the three resistant strains studied. The association of resistance level with the biochemical mechanism for each insecticide was established for each stage. The observed differences between larval and adult stages of Ae. aegypti in their levels of insecticide resistance and the biochemical mechanisms involved should be included as part of monitoring and surveillance activities in Ae. aegypti vector control programs.

  8. Cellular energy metabolism in T-lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaber, Timo; Strehl, Cindy; Sawitzki, Birgit; Hoff, Paula; Buttgereit, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Energy homeostasis is a hallmark of cell survival and maintenance of cell function. Here we focus on the impact of cellular energy metabolism on T-lymphocyte differentiation, activation, and function in health and disease. We describe the role of transcriptional and posttranscriptional regulation of lymphocyte metabolism on immune functions of T cells. We also summarize the current knowledge about T-lymphocyte adaptations to inflammation and hypoxia, and the impact on T-cell behavior of pathophysiological hypoxia (as found in tumor tissue, chronically inflamed joints in rheumatoid arthritis and during bone regeneration). A better understanding of the underlying mechanisms that control immune cell metabolism and immune response may provide therapeutic opportunities to alter the immune response under conditions of either immunosuppression or inflammation, potentially targeting infections, vaccine response, tumor surveillance, autoimmunity, and inflammatory disorders.

  9. [Dry immersion effects on the mechanisms of metabolic-reflex regulation of hemodynamics during muscular work].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravyĭ, Ia R; Bersenev, E Iu; Missina, S S; Borovik, A S; Sharova, A P; Vinogradova, O L

    2008-01-01

    Effects of 4-d dry immersion on metabolic-reflex regulation of hemodynamics were evaluated during local static work (30% of maximum voluntary effort) of the talocrural extensors. One group of immersed test-subjects received low-frequency electrostimulation of leg muscles to offset the immersion effect on EMG of working muscles. Metabolic-reflex regulation was evaluated through comparison of cardiovascular responses to physical tests with and w/o post-exercise vascular occlusion. Immersion vaguely increased heart rate and reduced systolic arterial pressure in resting subjects; however, it did not have a distinct effect on arterial pressure and HR during muscular work or metabolic-reflex potentiation of hemodynamic shifts.

  10. The logics of metabolic regulation in bacteria challenges biosensor-based metabolic engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthieu Jules

    2017-12-01

    pyruvate influx. Following up on the open question which is whether this retro-inhibition is a generic mechanism for TCSs, we will discuss the implications in metabolic engineering.

  11. Impact of CD1d deficiency on metabolism.

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    Maya E Kotas

    Full Text Available Invariant natural killer T cells (iNKTs are innate-like T cells that are highly concentrated in the liver and recognize lipids presented on the MHC-like molecule CD1d. Although capable of a myriad of responses, few essential functions have been described for iNKTs. Among the many cell types of the immune system implicated in metabolic control and disease, iNKTs seem ideally poised for such a role, yet little has been done to elucidate such a possible function. We hypothesized that lipid presentation by CD1d could report on metabolic status and engage iNKTs to regulate cellular lipid content through their various effector mechanisms. To test this hypothesis, we examined CD1d deficient mice in a variety of metabolically stressed paradigms including high fat feeding, choline-deficient feeding, fasting, and acute inflammation. CD1d deficiency led to a mild exacerbation of steatosis during high fat or choline-deficient feeding, accompanied by impaired hepatic glucose tolerance. Surprisingly, however, this phenotype was not observed in Jα18⁻/⁻ mice, which are deficient in iNKTs but express CD1d. Thus, CD1d appears to modulate some metabolic functions through an iNKT-independent mechanism.

  12. Intermittent fasting promotes adipose thermogenesis and metabolic homeostasis via VEGF-mediated alternative activation of macrophage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyoung-Han; Kim, Yun Hye; Son, Joe Eun; Lee, Ju Hee; Kim, Sarah; Choe, Min Seon; Moon, Joon Ho; Zhong, Jian; Fu, Kiya; Lenglin, Florine; Yoo, Jeong-Ah; Bilan, Philip J; Klip, Amira; Nagy, Andras; Kim, Jae-Ryong; Park, Jin Gyoon; Hussein, Samer Mi; Doh, Kyung-Oh; Hui, Chi-Chung; Sung, Hoon-Ki

    2017-11-01

    Intermittent fasting (IF), a periodic energy restriction, has been shown to provide health benefits equivalent to prolonged fasting or caloric restriction. However, our understanding of the underlying mechanisms of IF-mediated metabolic benefits is limited. Here we show that isocaloric IF improves metabolic homeostasis against diet-induced obesity and metabolic dysfunction primarily through adipose thermogenesis in mice. IF-induced metabolic benefits require fasting-mediated increases of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression in white adipose tissue (WAT). Furthermore, periodic adipose-VEGF overexpression could recapitulate the metabolic improvement of IF in non-fasted animals. Importantly, fasting and adipose-VEGF induce alternative activation of adipose macrophage, which is critical for thermogenesis. Human adipose gene analysis further revealed a positive correlation of adipose VEGF-M2 macrophage-WAT browning axis. The present study uncovers the molecular mechanism of IF-mediated metabolic benefit and suggests that isocaloric IF can be a preventive and therapeutic approach against obesity and metabolic disorders.

  13. Intermittent fasting promotes adipose thermogenesis and metabolic homeostasis via VEGF-mediated alternative activation of macrophage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyoung-Han; Kim, Yun Hye; Son, Joe Eun; Lee, Ju Hee; Kim, Sarah; Choe, Min Seon; Moon, Joon Ho; Zhong, Jian; Fu, Kiya; Lenglin, Florine; Yoo, Jeong-Ah; Bilan, Philip J; Klip, Amira; Nagy, Andras; Kim, Jae-Ryong; Park, Jin Gyoon; Hussein, Samer MI; Doh, Kyung-Oh; Hui, Chi-chung; Sung, Hoon-Ki

    2017-01-01

    Intermittent fasting (IF), a periodic energy restriction, has been shown to provide health benefits equivalent to prolonged fasting or caloric restriction. However, our understanding of the underlying mechanisms of IF-mediated metabolic benefits is limited. Here we show that isocaloric IF improves metabolic homeostasis against diet-induced obesity and metabolic dysfunction primarily through adipose thermogenesis in mice. IF-induced metabolic benefits require fasting-mediated increases of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression in white adipose tissue (WAT). Furthermore, periodic adipose-VEGF overexpression could recapitulate the metabolic improvement of IF in non-fasted animals. Importantly, fasting and adipose-VEGF induce alternative activation of adipose macrophage, which is critical for thermogenesis. Human adipose gene analysis further revealed a positive correlation of adipose VEGF-M2 macrophage-WAT browning axis. The present study uncovers the molecular mechanism of IF-mediated metabolic benefit and suggests that isocaloric IF can be a preventive and therapeutic approach against obesity and metabolic disorders. PMID:29039412

  14. Metabolic regulation of yeast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiechter, A.

    1982-12-01

    Metabolic regulation which is based on endogeneous and exogeneous process variables which may act constantly or time dependently on the living cell is discussed. The observed phenomena of the regulation are the result of physical, chemical, and biological parameters. These parameters are identified. Ethanol is accumulated as an intermediate product and the synthesis of biomass is reduced. This regulatory effect of glucose is used for the aerobic production of ethanol. Very high production rates are thereby obtained. Understanding of the regulation mechanism of the glucose effect has improved. In addition to catabolite repression, several other mechanisms of enzyme regulation have been described, that are mostly governed by exogeneous factors. Glucose also affects the control of respiration in a third class of yeasts which are unable to make use of ethanol as a substrate for growth. This is due to the lack of any anaplerotic activity. As a consequence, diauxic growth behavior is reduced to a one-stage growth with a drastically reduced cell yield. The pulse chemostat technique, a systematic approach for medium design is developed and medium supplements that are essential for metabolic control are identified.

  15. Intestinal transport and metabolism of bile acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Paul A.; Karpen, Saul J.

    2015-01-01

    In addition to their classical roles as detergents to aid in the process of digestion, bile acids have been identified as important signaling molecules that function through various nuclear and G protein-coupled receptors to regulate a myriad of cellular and molecular functions across both metabolic and nonmetabolic pathways. Signaling via these pathways will vary depending on the tissue and the concentration and chemical structure of the bile acid species. Important determinants of the size and composition of the bile acid pool are their efficient enterohepatic recirculation, their host and microbial metabolism, and the homeostatic feedback mechanisms connecting hepatocytes, enterocytes, and the luminal microbiota. This review focuses on the mammalian intestine, discussing the physiology of bile acid transport, the metabolism of bile acids in the gut, and new developments in our understanding of how intestinal metabolism, particularly by the gut microbiota, affects bile acid signaling. PMID:25210150

  16. Effects of Contingency versus Constraints on the Body-Mass Scaling of Metabolic Rate

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    Douglas S. Glazier

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available I illustrate the effects of both contingency and constraints on the body-mass scaling of metabolic rate by analyzing the significantly different influences of ambient temperature (Ta on metabolic scaling in ectothermic versus endothermic animals. Interspecific comparisons show that increasing Ta results in decreasing metabolic scaling slopes in ectotherms, but increasing slopes in endotherms, a pattern uniquely predicted by the metabolic-level boundaries hypothesis, as amended to include effects of the scaling of thermal conductance in endotherms outside their thermoneutral zone. No other published theoretical model explicitly predicts this striking variation in metabolic scaling, which I explain in terms of contingent effects of Ta and thermoregulatory strategy in the context of physical and geometric constraints related to the scaling of surface area, volume, and heat flow across surfaces. My analysis shows that theoretical models focused on an ideal 3/4-power law, as explained by a single universally applicable mechanism, are clearly inadequate for explaining the diversity and environmental sensitivity of metabolic scaling. An important challenge is to develop a theory of metabolic scaling that recognizes the contingent effects of multiple mechanisms that are modulated by several extrinsic and intrinsic factors within specified constraints.

  17. Comparative proteomic and metabolomic analysis of Streptomyces tsukubaensis reveals the metabolic mechanism of FK506 overproduction by feeding soybean oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun; Liu, Huanhuan; Huang, Di; Jin, Lina; Wang, Cheng; Wen, Jianping

    2017-03-01

    FK506 (tacrolimus) is a 23-membered polyketide macrolide that possesses powerful immunosuppressant activity. In this study, feeding soybean oil into the fermentation culture of Streptomyces tsukubaensis improved FK506 production by 88.8%. To decipher the overproduction mechanism, comparative proteomic and metabolomic analysis was carried out. A total of 72 protein spots with differential expression in the two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) were identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight/time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/TOF-MS), and 66 intracellular metabolites were measured by gas chromatography-mass spectrometer (GC-MS). The analysis of proteome and metabolome indicated that feeding soybean oil as a supplementary carbon source could not only strengthen the FK506 precursor metabolism and energy metabolism but also tune the pathways related to transcriptional regulation, translation, and stress response, suggesting a better intracellular metabolic environment for the synthesis of FK506. Based on these analyses, 20 key metabolites and precursors of FK506 were supplemented into the soybean oil medium. Among them, lysine, citric acid, shikimic acid, and malonic acid performed excellently for promoting the FK506 production and biomass. Especially, the addition of malonic acid achieved the highest FK506 production, which was 1.56-fold of that in soybean oil medium and 3.05-fold of that in initial medium. This report represented the first comprehensive study on the comparative proteomics and metabolomics applied in S. tsukubaensis, and it would be a rational guidance to further strengthen the FK506 production.

  18. The Emerging Role of Branched-Chain Amino Acids in Insulin Resistance and Metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mee-Sup Yoon

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Insulin is required for maintenance of glucose homeostasis. Despite the importance of insulin sensitivity to metabolic health, the mechanisms that induce insulin resistance remain unclear. Branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs belong to the essential amino acids, which are both direct and indirect nutrient signals. Even though BCAAs have been reported to improve metabolic health, an increased BCAA plasma level is associated with a high risk of metabolic disorder and future insulin resistance, or type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. The activation of mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1 by BCAAs has been suggested to cause insulin resistance. In addition, defective BCAA oxidative metabolism might occur in obesity, leading to a further accumulation of BCAAs and toxic intermediates. This review provides the current understanding of the mechanism of BCAA-induced mTORC1 activation, as well as the effect of mTOR activation on metabolic health in terms of insulin sensitivity. Furthermore, the effects of impaired BCAA metabolism will be discussed in detail.

  19. Metabolic and inflammatory profiles of biomarkers in obesity, metabolic syndrome, and diabetes in a Mediterranean population. DARIOS Inflammatory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Bergés, Daniel; Consuegra-Sánchez, Luciano; Peñafiel, Judith; Cabrera de León, Antonio; Vila, Joan; Félix-Redondo, Francisco Javier; Segura-Fragoso, Antonio; Lapetra, José; Guembe, María Jesús; Vega, Tomás; Fitó, Montse; Elosua, Roberto; Díaz, Oscar; Marrugat, Jaume

    2014-08-01

    There is a paucity of data regarding the differences in the biomarker profiles of patients with obesity, metabolic syndrome, and diabetes mellitus as compared to a healthy, normal weight population. We aimed to study the biomarker profile of the metabolic risk continuum defined by the transition from normal weight to obesity, metabolic syndrome, and diabetes mellitus. We performed a pooled analysis of data from 7 cross-sectional Spanish population-based surveys. An extensive panel comprising 20 biomarkers related to carbohydrate metabolism, lipids, inflammation, coagulation, oxidation, hemodynamics, and myocardial damage was analyzed. We employed age- and sex-adjusted multinomial logistic regression models for the identification of those biomarkers associated with the metabolic risk continuum phenotypes: obesity, metabolic syndrome, and diabetes mellitus. A total of 2851 subjects were included for analyses. The mean age was 57.4 (8.8) years, 1269 were men (44.5%), and 464 participants were obese, 443 had metabolic syndrome, 473 had diabetes mellitus, and 1471 had a normal weight (healthy individuals). High-sensitivity C-reactive protein, apolipoprotein B100, leptin, and insulin were positively associated with at least one of the phenotypes of interest. Apolipoprotein A1 and adiponectin were negatively associated. There are differences between the population with normal weight and that having metabolic syndrome or diabetes with respect to certain biomarkers related to the metabolic, inflammatory, and lipid profiles. The results of this study support the relevance of these mechanisms in the metabolic risk continuum. When metabolic syndrome and diabetes mellitus are compared, these differences are less marked. Copyright © 2013 Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  20. Metabolic Network Topology Reveals Transcriptional Regulatory Signatures of Type 2 Diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zelezniak, Aleksej; Pers, Tune Hannes; Pinho Soares, Simao Pedro

    2010-01-01

    mechanisms underlying these transcriptional changes and their impact on the cellular metabolic phenotype is a challenging task due to the complexity of transcriptional regulation and the highly interconnected nature of the metabolic network. In this study we integrate skeletal muscle gene expression datasets...... with human metabolic network reconstructions to identify key metabolic regulatory features of T2DM. These features include reporter metabolites—metabolites with significant collective transcriptional response in the associated enzyme-coding genes, and transcription factors with significant enrichment...... factor regulatory network connecting several parts of metabolism. The identified transcription factors include members of the CREB, NRF1 and PPAR family, among others, and represent regulatory targets for further experimental analysis. Overall, our results provide a holistic picture of key metabolic...

  1. Epigenetics and Cellular Metabolism

    OpenAIRE

    Wenyi Xu; Fengzhong Wang; Zhongsheng Yu; Fengjiao Xin

    2016-01-01

    Living eukaryotic systems evolve delicate cellular mechanisms for responding to various environmental signals. Among them, epigenetic machinery (DNA methylation, histone modifications, microRNAs, etc.) is the hub in transducing external stimuli into transcriptional response. Emerging evidence reveals the concept that epigenetic signatures are essential for the proper maintenance of cellular metabolism. On the other hand, the metabolite, a main environmental input, can also influence the proce...

  2. Introduction to the Thematic Minireview Series: Brain glycogen metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Gerald M; Dienel, Gerald A; Colbran, Roger J

    2018-05-11

    The synthesis of glycogen allows for efficient intracellular storage of glucose molecules in a soluble form that can be rapidly released to enter glycolysis in response to energy demand. Intensive studies of glucose and glycogen metabolism, predominantly in skeletal muscle and liver, have produced innumerable insights into the mechanisms of hormone action, resulting in the award of several Nobel Prizes over the last one hundred years. Glycogen is actually present in all cells and tissues, albeit at much lower levels than found in muscle or liver. However, metabolic and physiological roles of glycogen in other tissues are poorly understood. This series of Minireviews summarizes what is known about the enzymes involved in brain glycogen metabolism and studies that have linked glycogen metabolism to multiple brain functions involving metabolic communication between astrocytes and neurons. Recent studies unexpectedly linking some forms of epilepsy to mutations in two poorly understood proteins involved in glycogen metabolism are also reviewed. © 2018 Carlson et al.

  3. Metabolic basis of ethanol-induced cytotoxicity in recombinant HepG2 cells: Role of nonoxidative metabolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Hai; Cai Ping; Clemens, Dahn L.; Jerrells, Thomas R.; Ansari, G.A. Shakeel; Kaphalia, Bhupendra S.

    2006-01-01

    Chronic alcohol abuse, a major health problem, causes liver and pancreatic diseases and is known to impair hepatic alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH). Hepatic ADH-catalyzed oxidation of ethanol is a major pathway for the ethanol disposition in the body. Hepatic microsomal cytochrome P450 (CYP2E1), induced in chronic alcohol abuse, is also reported to oxidize ethanol. However, impaired hepatic ADH activity in a rat model is known to facilitate a nonoxidative metabolism resulting in formation of nonoxidative metabolites of ethanol such as fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs) via a nonoxidative pathway catalyzed by FAEE synthase. Therefore, the metabolic basis of ethanol-induced cytotoxicity was determined in HepG2 cells and recombinant HepG2 cells transfected with ADH (VA-13), CYP2E1 (E47) or ADH + CYP2E1 (VL-17A). Western blot analysis shows ADH deficiency in HepG2 and E47 cells, compared to ADH-overexpressed VA-13 and VL-17A cells. Attached HepG2 cells and the recombinant cells were incubated with ethanol, and nonoxidative metabolism of ethanol was determined by measuring the formation of FAEEs. Significantly higher levels of FAEEs were synthesized in HepG2 and E47 cells than in VA-13 and VL-17A cells at all concentrations of ethanol (100-800 mg%) incubated for 6 h (optimal time for the synthesis of FAEEs) in cell culture. These results suggest that ADH-catalyzed oxidative metabolism of ethanol is the major mechanism of its disposition, regardless of CYP2E1 overexpression. On the other hand, diminished ADH activity facilitates nonoxidative metabolism of ethanol to FAEEs as found in E47 cells, regardless of CYP2E1 overexpression. Therefore, CYP2E1-mediated oxidation of ethanol could be a minor mechanism of ethanol disposition. Further studies conducted only in HepG2 and VA-13 cells showed lower ethanol disposition and ATP concentration and higher accumulation of neutral lipids and cytotoxicity (apoptosis) in HepG2 cells than in VA-13 cells. The apoptosis observed in HepG2 vs

  4. Molecular Paths Linking Metabolic Diseases, Gut Microbiota Dysbiosis and Enterobacteria Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serino, Matteo

    2018-03-02

    Alterations of both ecology and functions of gut microbiota are conspicuous traits of several inflammatory pathologies, notably metabolic diseases such as obesity and type 2 diabetes. Moreover, the proliferation of enterobacteria, subdominant members of the intestinal microbial ecosystem, has been shown to be favored by Western diet, the strongest inducer of both metabolic diseases and gut microbiota dysbiosis. The inner interdependence between the host and the gut microbiota is based on a plethora of molecular mechanisms by which host and intestinal microbes modify each other. Among these mechanisms are as follows: (i) the well-known metabolic impact of short chain fatty acids, produced by microbial fermentation of complex carbohydrates from plants; (ii) a mutual modulation of miRNAs expression, both on the eukaryotic (host) and prokaryotic (gut microbes) side; (iii) the production by enterobacteria of virulence factors such as the genotoxin colibactin, shown to alter the integrity of host genome and induce a senescence-like phenotype in vitro; (iv) the microbial excretion of outer-membrane vesicles, which, in addition to other functions, may act as a carrier for multiple molecules such as toxins to be delivered to target cells. In this review, I describe the major molecular mechanisms by which gut microbes exert their metabolic impact at a multi-organ level (the gut barrier being in the front line) and support the emerging triad of metabolic diseases, gut microbiota dysbiosis and enterobacteria infections. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. A paracrine mechanism involving renal tubular cells, adipocytes and macrophages promotes kidney stone formation in a simulated metabolic syndrome environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Li; Tozawa, Keiichi; Okada, Atsushi; Yasui, Takahiro; Taguchi, Kazumi; Ito, Yasuhiko; Hirose, Yasuhiko; Fujii, Yasuhiro; Niimi, Kazuhiro; Hamamoto, Shuzo; Ando, Ryosuke; Itoh, Yasunori; Zou, Jiangang; Kohri, Kenjiro

    2014-06-01

    We developed an in vitro system composed of renal tubular cells, adipocytes and macrophages to simulate metabolic syndrome conditions. We investigated the molecular communication mechanism of these cells and their involvement in kidney stone formation. Mouse renal tubular cells (M-1) were cocultured with adipocytes (3T3-L1) and/or macrophages (RAW264.7). Calcium oxalate monohydrate crystals were exposed to M-1 cells after 48-hour coculture and the number of calcium oxalate monohydrate crystals adherent to the cells was quantified. The expression of cocultured medium and M-1 cell inflammatory factors was analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and quantitative polymerase chain reaction, respectively. The inflammatory markers MCP-1, OPN and TNF-α were markedly up-regulated in cocultured M-1 cells. OPN expression increased in M-1 cells cocultured with RAW264.7 cells while MCP-1 and TNF-α were over expressed in M-1 cells cocultured with 3T3-L1 cells. Coculturing M-1 cells simultaneously with 3T3-L1 and RAW264.7 cells resulted in a significant increase in calcium oxalate monohydrate crystal adherence to M-1 cells. Inflammatory cytokine changes were induced by coculturing renal tubular cells with adipocytes and/or macrophages without direct contact, indicating that crosstalk between adipocytes/macrophages and renal tubular cells was mediated by soluble factors. The susceptibility to urolithiasis of patients with metabolic syndrome might be due to aggravated inflammation of renal tubular cells triggered by a paracrine mechanism involving these 3 cell types. Copyright © 2014 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Serum metabolic profiling of human gastric cancer based on gas chromatography/mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Hu; Peng, Jun-Sheng; Yao, Dong-Sheng; Yang, Zu-Li; Liu, Huan-Liang; Zeng, Yi-Ke; Shi, Xian-Ping; Lu, Bi-Yan

    2011-01-01

    Research on molecular mechanisms of carcinogenesis plays an important role in diagnosing and treating gastric cancer. Metabolic profiling may offer the opportunity to understand the molecular mechanism of carcinogenesis and help to non-invasively identify the potential biomarkers for the early diagnosis of human gastric cancer. The aims of this study were to explore the underlying metabolic mechanisms of gastric cancer and to identify biomarkers associated with morbidity. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) was used to analyze the serum metabolites of 30 Chinese gastric cancer patients and 30 healthy controls. Diagnostic models for gastric cancer were constructed using orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA). Acquired metabolomic data were analyzed by the nonparametric Wilcoxon test to find serum metabolic biomarkers for gastric cancer. The OPLS-DA model showed adequate discrimination between cancer and non-cancer cohorts while the model failed to discriminate different pathological stages (I-IV) of gastric cancer patients. A total of 44 endogenous metabolites such as amino acids, organic acids, carbohydrates, fatty acids, and steroids were detected, of which 18 differential metabolites were identified with significant differences. A total of 13 variables were obtained for their greatest contribution in the discriminating OPLS-DA model [variable importance in the projection (VIP) value >1.0], among which 11 metabolites were identified using both VIP values (VIP >1) and the Wilcoxon test. These metabolites potentially revealed perturbations of glycolysis and of amino acid, fatty acid, cholesterol, and nucleotide metabolism of gastric cancer patients. These results suggest that gastric cancer serum metabolic profiling has great potential in detecting this disease and helping to understand its metabolic mechanisms

  7. The ketogenic diet: metabolic influences on brain excitability and epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutas, Andrew; Yellen, Gary

    2012-01-01

    A dietary therapy for pediatric epilepsy known as the ketogenic diet has seen a revival in its clinical use in the past decade. Though the diet’s underlying mechanism remains unknown, modern scientific approaches like genetic disruption of glucose metabolism are allowing for more detailed questions to be addressed. Recent work indicates that several mechanisms may exist for the ketogenic diet including disruption of glutamatergic synaptic transmission, inhibition of glycolysis, and activation of ATP-sensitive potassium channels. Here we describe on-going work in these areas that is providing a better understanding of metabolic influences on brain excitability and epilepsy. PMID:23228828

  8. MECHANISMS IN ENDOCRINOLOGY: Nutrition as a mediator of oxidative stress in metabolic and reproductive disorders in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamanti-Kandarakis, Evanthia; Papalou, Olga; Kandaraki, Eleni A; Kassi, Georgia

    2017-02-01

    Nutrition can generate oxidative stress and trigger a cascade of molecular events that can disrupt oxidative and hormonal balance. Nutrient ingestion promotes a major inflammatory and oxidative response at the cellular level in the postprandial state, altering the metabolic state of tissues. A domino of unfavorable metabolic changes is orchestrated in the main metabolic organs, including adipose tissue, skeletal muscle, liver and pancreas, where subclinical inflammation, endothelial dysfunction, mitochondrial deregulation and impaired insulin response and secretion take place. Simultaneously, in reproductive tissues, nutrition-induced oxidative stress can potentially violate delicate oxidative balance that is mandatory to secure normal reproductive function. Taken all the above into account, nutrition and its accompanying postprandial oxidative stress, in the unique context of female hormonal background, can potentially compromise normal metabolic and reproductive functions in women and may act as an active mediator of various metabolic and reproductive disorders. © 2017 European Society of Endocrinology.

  9. The SWI/SNF chromatin-remodeling factors BAF60a, b, and c in nutrient signaling and metabolic control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruo-Ran Wang

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Metabolic syndrome has become a global epidemic that adversely affects human health. Both genetic and environmental factors contribute to the pathogenesis of metabolic disorders; however, the mechanisms that integrate these cues to regulate metabolic physiology and the development of metabolic disorders remain incompletely defined. Emerging evidence suggests that SWI/SNF chromatin-remodeling complexes are critical for directing metabolic reprogramming and adaptation in response to nutritional and other physiological signals. The ATP-dependent SWI/SNF chromatin-remodeling complexes comprise up to 11 subunits, among which the BAF60 subunit serves as a key link between the core complexes and specific transcriptional factors. The BAF60 subunit has three members, BAF60a, b, and c. The distinct tissue distribution patterns and regulatory mechanisms of BAF60 proteins confer each isoform with specialized functions in different metabolic cell types. In this review, we summarize the emerging roles and mechanisms of BAF60 proteins in the regulation of nutrient sensing and energy metabolism under physiological and disease conditions.

  10. Sleep Control, GPCRs, and Glucose Metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuneki, Hiroshi; Sasaoka, Toshiyasu; Sakurai, Takeshi

    2016-09-01

    Modern lifestyles prolong daily activities into the nighttime, disrupting circadian rhythms, which may cause sleep disturbances. Sleep disturbances have been implicated in the dysregulation of blood glucose levels and reported to increase the risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D) and diabetic complications. Sleep disorders are treated using anti-insomnia drugs that target ionotropic and G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), including γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) agonists, melatonin agonists, and orexin receptor antagonists. A deeper understanding of the effects of these medications on glucose metabolism and their underlying mechanisms of action is crucial for the treatment of diabetic patients with sleep disorders. In this review we focus on the beneficial impact of sleep on glucose metabolism and suggest a possible strategy for therapeutic intervention against sleep-related metabolic disorders. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Targeting Adipose Tissue Lipid Metabolism to Improve Glucose Metabolism in Cardiometabolic Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan W.E. Jocken

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available With Type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease prevalence on the rise, there is a growing need for improved strategies to prevent or treat obesity and insulin resistance, both of which are major risk factors for these chronic diseases. Impairments in adipose tissue lipid metabolism seem to play a critical role in these disorders. In the classical picture of intracellular lipid breakdown, cytosolic lipolysis was proposed as the sole mechanism for triacylglycerol hydrolysis in adipocytes. Recent evidence suggests involvement of several hormones, membrane receptors, and intracellular signalling cascades, which has added complexity to the regulation of cytosolic lipolysis. Interestingly, a specific form of autophagy, called lipophagy, has been implicated as alternative lipolytic pathway. Defective regulation of cytosolic lipolysis and lipophagy might have substantial effects on lipid metabolism, thereby contributing to adipose tissue dysfunction, insulin resistance, and related cardiometabolic (cMet diseases. This review will discuss recent advances in our understanding of classical lipolysis and lipophagy in adipocyte lipid metabolism under normal and pathological conditions. Furthermore, the question of whether modulation of adipocyte lipolysis and lipophagy might be a potential therapeutic target to combat cMet disorders will be addressed.

  12. The metabolic burden of sleep loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, Sebastian M; Hallschmid, Manfred; Schultes, Bernd

    2015-01-01

    In parallel with the increasing prevalence of obesity and type 2 diabetes, sleep loss has become common in modern societies. An increasing number of epidemiological studies show an association between short sleep duration, sleep disturbances, and circadian desynchronisation of sleep with adverse metabolic traits, in particular obesity and type 2 diabetes. Furthermore, experimental studies point to distinct mechanisms by which insufficient sleep adversely affects metabolic health. Changes in the activity of neuroendocrine systems seem to be major mediators of the detrimental metabolic effects of insufficient sleep, through favouring neurobehavioural outcomes such as increased appetite, enhanced sensitivity to food stimuli, and, ultimately, a surplus in energy intake. The effect of curtailed sleep on physical activity and energy expenditure is less clear, but changes are unlikely to outweigh increases in food intake. Although long-term interventional studies proving a cause and effect association are still scarce, sleep loss seems to be an appealing target for the prevention, and probably treatment, of metabolic disease. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Sleep and metabolic function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morselli, Lisa L; Guyon, Aurore; Spiegel, Karine

    2012-01-01

    Evidence for the role of sleep on metabolic and endocrine function has been reported more than four decades ago. In the past 30 years, the prevalence of obesity and diabetes has greatly increased in industrialized countries, and self-imposed sleep curtailment, now very common, is starting to be recognized as a contributing factor, alongside with increased caloric intake and decreased physical activity. Furthermore, obstructive sleep apnea, a chronic condition characterized by recurrent upper airway obstruction leading to intermittent hypoxemia and sleep fragmentation, has also become highly prevalent as a consequence of the epidemic of obesity and has been shown to contribute, in a vicious circle, to the metabolic disturbances observed in obese patients. In this article, we summarize the current data supporting the role of sleep in the regulation of glucose homeostasis and the hormones involved in the regulation of appetite. We also review the results of the epidemiologic and laboratory studies that investigated the impact of sleep duration and quality on the risk of developing diabetes and obesity, as well as the mechanisms underlying this increased risk. Finally, we discuss how obstructive sleep apnea affects glucose metabolism and the beneficial impact of its treatment, the continuous positive airway pressure. In conclusion, the data available in the literature highlight the importance of getting enough good sleep for metabolic health.

  14. Fibroblast Growth Factor Signaling in Metabolic Regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nies, Vera J M; Sancar, Gencer; Liu, Weilin; van Zutphen, Tim; Struik, Dicky; Yu, Ruth T; Atkins, Annette R; Evans, Ronald M; Jonker, Johan W; Downes, Michael Robert

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of obesity is a growing health problem. Obesity is strongly associated with several comorbidities, such as non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, certain cancers, insulin resistance, and type 2 diabetes, which all reduce life expectancy and life quality. Several drugs have been put forward in order to treat these diseases, but many of them have detrimental side effects. The unexpected role of the family of fibroblast growth factors in the regulation of energy metabolism provides new approaches to the treatment of metabolic diseases and offers a valuable tool to gain more insight into metabolic regulation. The known beneficial effects of FGF19 and FGF21 on metabolism, together with recently discovered similar effects of FGF1 suggest that FGFs and their derivatives carry great potential as novel therapeutics to treat metabolic conditions. To facilitate the development of new therapies with improved targeting and minimal side effects, a better understanding of the molecular mechanism of action of FGFs is needed. In this review, we will discuss what is currently known about the physiological roles of FGF signaling in tissues important for metabolic homeostasis. In addition, we will discuss current concepts regarding their pharmacological properties and effector tissues in the context of metabolic disease. Also, the recent progress in the development of FGF variants will be reviewed. Our goal is to provide a comprehensive overview of the current concepts and consensuses regarding FGF signaling in metabolic health and disease and to provide starting points for the development of FGF-based therapies against metabolic conditions.

  15. Fibroblast growth factor signaling in metabolic regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera eNies

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of obesity is a growing health problem. Obesity is strongly associated with several comorbidities, such as non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, certain cancers, insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes, which all reduce life expectancy and life quality. Several drugs have been put forward in order to treat these diseases, but many of them have detrimental side effects. The unexpected role of the family of fibroblast growth factors in the regulation of energy metabolism provides new approaches to the treatment of metabolic diseases, and offers a valuable tool to gain more insight into metabolic regulation. The known beneficial effects of FGF19 and FGF21 on metabolism, together with recently discovered similar effects of FGF1 suggest that FGFs and their derivatives carry great potential as novel therapeutics to treat metabolic conditions. To facilitate the development of new therapies with improved targeting and minimal side effects, a better understanding of the molecular mechanism of action of FGFs is needed.In this review we will discuss what is currently known about the physiological roles of FGF signaling in tissues important for metabolic homeostasis. In addition, we will discuss current concepts regarding their pharmacological properties and effector tissues in the context of metabolic disease. Also the recent progress in the development of FGF variants will be reviewed. Our goal is to provide a comprehensive overview of the current concepts and consensuses regarding FGF signaling in metabolic health and disease, and to provide starting points for the development of FGF-based therapies against metabolic conditions.

  16. How does 'metabolic surgery' work its magic? New evidence for gut microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peck, Bailey C E; Seeley, Randy J

    2018-04-01

    Metabolic surgery is recommended for the treatment of type 2 diabetes for its potent ability to improve glycemic control. However, the mechanisms underlying the beneficial effects of metabolic surgery are still under investigation. We provide an updated review of recent studies into the molecular underpinnings of metabolic surgery, focusing in on what is known about the role of gut microbiota. Over the last 7 years several reports have been published on the topic, however the field is expanding rapidly. Studies have now linked the regulation of glucose and lipid metabolism, neuronal and intestinal adaptations, and hormonal and nutrient signaling pathways to gut microbiota. Given that the composition of gut microbiota is altered by metabolic surgery, investigating the potential mechanism and outcomes of this change are now a priority to the field. As evidence for a role for microbiota builds, we expect future patients may receive microbe-based therapeutics to improve surgical outcomes and perhaps one day preclude the need for surgical therapies all together. In this review and perspective, we evaluate the current state of the field and its future.

  17. MECHANISMS IN ENDOCRINOLOGY

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Allin, Kristine H.; Nielsen, Trine; Pedersen, Oluf.

    2015-01-01

    Perturbations of the composition and function of the gut microbiota have been associated with metabolic disorders including obesity, insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. Studies on mice have demonstrated several underlying mechanisms including host signalling through bacterial lipopolysacchari...

  18. Pediatric Obesity-Related Asthma: The Role of Metabolic Dysregulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayakanthi, Nandini; Greally, John M; Rastogi, Deepa

    2016-05-01

    The burden of obesity-related asthma among children, particularly among ethnic minorities, necessitates an improved understanding of the underlying disease mechanisms. Although obesity is an independent risk factor for asthma, not all obese children develop asthma. Several recent studies have elucidated mechanisms, including the role of diet, sedentary lifestyle, mechanical fat load, and adiposity-mediated inflammation that may underlie the obese asthma pathophysiology. Here, we review these recent studies and emerging scientific evidence that suggest metabolic dysregulation may play a role in pediatric obesity-related asthma. We also review the genetic and epigenetic factors that may underlie susceptibility to metabolic dysregulation and associated pulmonary morbidity among children. Lastly, we identify knowledge gaps that need further exploration to better define pathways that will allow development of primary preventive strategies for obesity-related asthma in children. Copyright © 2016 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  19. Nonlinear Dielectric Spectroscopy as an Indirect Probe of Metabolic Activity in Thylakoid Membrane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John H. Miller

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonlinear dielectric spectroscopy (NDS is a non-invasive probe of cellular metabolic activity with potential application in the development of whole-cell biosensors. However, the mechanism of NDS interaction with metabolic membrane proteins is poorly understood, partly due to the inherent complexity of single cell organisms. Here we use the light-activated electron transport chain of spinach thylakoid membrane as a model system to study how NDS interacts with metabolic activity. We find protein modification, as opposed to membrane pump activity, to be the dominant source of NDS signal change in this system. Potential mechanisms for such protein modifications include reactive oxygen species generation and light-activated phosphorylation.

  20. The Essential Role of Cholesterol Metabolism in the Intracellular Survival of Mycobacterium leprae Is Not Coupled to Central Carbon Metabolism and Energy Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Maria Angela M; Berrêdo-Pinho, Marcia; Rosa, Thabatta L S A; Pujari, Venugopal; Lemes, Robertha M R; Lery, Leticia M S; Silva, Carlos Adriano M; Guimarães, Ana Carolina R; Atella, Georgia C; Wheat, William H; Brennan, Patrick J; Crick, Dean C; Belisle, John T; Pessolani, Maria Cristina V

    2015-12-01

    Mycobacterium leprae induces the formation of lipid droplets, which are recruited to pathogen-containing phagosomes in infected macrophages and Schwann cells. Cholesterol is among the lipids with increased abundance in M. leprae-infected cells, and intracellular survival relies on cholesterol accumulation. The present study investigated the capacity of M. leprae to acquire and metabolize cholesterol. In silico analyses showed that oxidation of cholesterol to cholest-4-en-3-one (cholestenone), the first step of cholesterol degradation catalyzed by the enzyme 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3β-HSD), is apparently the only portion of the cholesterol catabolic pathway seen in Mycobacterium tuberculosis preserved by M. leprae. Incubation of bacteria with radiolabeled cholesterol confirmed the in silico predictions. Radiorespirometry and lipid analyses performed after incubating M. leprae with [4-(14)C]cholesterol or [26-(14)C]cholesterol showed the inability of this pathogen to metabolize the sterol rings or the side chain of cholesterol as a source of energy and carbon. However, the bacteria avidly incorporated cholesterol and, as expected, converted it to cholestenone both in vitro and in vivo. Our data indicate that M. leprae has lost the capacity to degrade and utilize cholesterol as a nutritional source but retains the enzyme responsible for its oxidation to cholestenone. Thus, the essential role of cholesterol metabolism in the intracellular survival of M. leprae is uncoupled from central carbon metabolism and energy production. Further elucidation of cholesterol metabolism in the host cell during M. leprae infection will establish the mechanism by which this lipid supports M. leprae intracellular survival and will open new avenues for novel leprosy therapies. Our study focused on the obligate intracellular pathogen Mycobacterium leprae and its capacity to metabolize cholesterol. The data make an important contribution for those interested in understanding the

  1. Association between Metabolic Syndrome and Job Rank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrdad, Ramin; Pouryaghoub, Gholamreza; Moradi, Mahboubeh

    2018-01-01

    The occupation of the people can influence the development of metabolic syndrome. To determine the association between metabolic syndrome and its determinants with the job rank in workers of a large car factory in Iran. 3989 male workers at a large car manufacturing company were invited to participate in this cross-sectional study. Demographic and anthropometric data of the participants, including age, height, weight, and abdominal circumference were measured. Blood samples were taken to measure lipid profile and blood glucose level. Metabolic syndrome was diagnosed in each participant based on ATPIII 2001 criteria. The workers were categorized based on their job rank into 3 groups of (1) office workers, (2) workers with physical exertion, and (3) workers with chemical exposure. The study characteristics, particularly the frequency of metabolic syndrome and its determinants were compared among the study groups. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome in our study was 7.7% (95% CI 6.9 to 8.5). HDL levels were significantly lower in those who had chemical exposure (p=0.045). Diastolic blood pressure was significantly higher in those who had mechanical exertion (p=0.026). The frequency of metabolic syndrome in the office workers, workers with physical exertion, and workers with chemical exposure was 7.3%, 7.9%, and 7.8%, respectively (p=0.836). Seemingly, there is no association between metabolic syndrome and job rank.

  2. Oral cancer cells may rewire alternative metabolic pathways to survive from siRNA silencing of metabolic enzymes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Min; Chai, Yang D; Brumbaugh, Jeffrey; Liu, Xiaojun; Rabii, Ramin; Feng, Sizhe; Misuno, Kaori; Messadi, Diana; Hu, Shen

    2014-01-01

    Cancer cells may undergo metabolic adaptations that support their growth as well as drug resistance properties. The purpose of this study is to test if oral cancer cells can overcome the metabolic defects introduced by using small interfering RNA (siRNA) to knock down their expression of important metabolic enzymes. UM1 and UM2 oral cancer cells were transfected with siRNA to transketolase (TKT) or siRNA to adenylate kinase (AK2), and Western blotting was used to confirm the knockdown. Cellular uptake of glucose and glutamine and production of lactate were compared between the cancer cells with either TKT or AK2 knockdown and those transfected with control siRNA. Statistical analysis was performed with student T-test. Despite the defect in the pentose phosphate pathway caused by siRNA knockdown of TKT, the survived UM1 or UM2 cells utilized more glucose and glutamine and secreted a significantly higher amount of lactate than the cells transferred with control siRNA. We also demonstrated that siRNA knockdown of AK2 constrained the proliferation of UM1 and UM2 cells but similarly led to an increased uptake of glucose/glutamine and production of lactate by the UM1 or UM2 cells survived from siRNA silencing of AK2. Our results indicate that the metabolic defects introduced by siRNA silencing of metabolic enzymes TKT or AK2 may be compensated by alternative feedback metabolic mechanisms, suggesting that cancer cells may overcome single defective pathways through secondary metabolic network adaptations. The highly robust nature of oral cancer cell metabolism implies that a systematic medical approach targeting multiple metabolic pathways may be needed to accomplish the continued improvement of cancer treatment

  3. Acute fatal metabolic complications in alkaptonuria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davison, A S; Milan, A M; Gallagher, J A; Ranganath, L R

    2016-03-01

    Alkaptonuria (AKU) is a rare inherited metabolic disorder of tyrosine metabolism that results from a defect in an enzyme called homogentisate 1,2-dioxygenase. The result of this is that homogentisic acid (HGA) accumulates in the body. HGA is central to the pathophysiology of this disease and the consequences observed; these include spondyloarthropathy, rupture of ligaments/muscle/tendons, valvular heart disease including aortic stenosis and renal stones. While AKU is considered to be a chronic progressive disorder, it is clear from published case reports that fatal acute metabolic complications can also occur. These include oxidative haemolysis and methaemoglobinaemia. The exact mechanisms underlying the latter are not clear, but it is proposed that disordered metabolism within the red blood cell is responsible for favouring a pro-oxidant environment that leads to the life threatening complications observed. Herein the role of red blood cell in maintaining the redox state of the body is reviewed in the context of AKU. In addition previously reported therapeutic strategies are discussed, specifically with respect to why reported treatments had little therapeutic effect. The potential use of nitisinone for the management of patients suffering from the acute metabolic decompensation in AKU is proposed as an alternative strategy.

  4. Metabolic flexibility is conserved in diabetic myotubes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaster, Michael

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that metabolic inflexibility is an intrinsic defect. Glucose and lipid oxidation were studied in human myotubes established from healthy lean and obese subjects and patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D). In lean myotubes, glucose oxidation...... inflexibility described in obese and diabetic patients is not an intrinsic defect; rather, it is based on an extramuscular mechanism (i.e., the inability to vary extracellular fatty acid concentrations during insulin stimulation). Thus, skeletal muscles are metabolic-flexible per se....

  5. Connecting metabolism and reproduction: roles of central energy sensors and key molecular mediators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roa, Juan; Tena-Sempere, Manuel

    2014-11-01

    It is well established that pubertal activation of the reproductive axis and maintenance of fertility are critically dependent on the magnitude of body energy reserves and the metabolic state of the organism. Hence, conditions of impaired energy homeostasis often result in deregulation of puberty and reproduction, whereas gonadal dysfunction can be associated with the worsening of the metabolic profile and, eventually, changes in body weight. While much progress has taken place in our knowledge about the neuroendocrine mechanisms linking metabolism and reproduction, our understanding of how such dynamic interplay happens is still incomplete. As paradigmatic example, much has been learned in the last two decades on the reproductive roles of key metabolic hormones (such as leptin, insulin and ghrelin), their brain targets and the major transmitters and neuropeptides involved. Yet, the molecular mechanisms whereby metabolic information is translated and engages into the reproductive circuits remain largely unsolved. In this work, we will summarize recent developments in the characterization of the putative central roles of key cellular energy sensors, such as mTOR, in this phenomenon, and will relate these with other molecular mechanisms likely contributing to the brain coupling of energy balance and fertility. In doing so, we aim to provide an updated view of an area that, despite still underdeveloped, may be critically important to fully understand how reproduction and metabolism are tightly connected in health and disease. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Energy metabolism in astrocytes and neurons treated with manganese: relation among cell-specific energy failure, glucose metabolism, and intercellular trafficking using multinuclear NMR-spectroscopic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwingmann, Claudia; Leibfritz, Dieter; Hazell, Alan S

    2003-06-01

    A central question in manganese neurotoxicity concerns mitochondrial dysfunction leading to cerebral energy failure. To obtain insight into the underlying mechanism(s), the authors investigated cell-specific pathways of [1-13C]glucose metabolism by high-resolution multinuclear NMR-spectroscopy. Five-day treatment of neurons with 100-micro mol/L MnCl(2) led to 50% and 70% decreases of ATP/ADP and phosphocreatine-creatine ratios, respectively. An impaired flux of [1-13C]glucose through pyruvate dehydrogenase, which was associated with Krebs cycle inhibition and hence depletion of [4-13C]glutamate, [2-13C]GABA, and [13C]glutathione, hindered the ability of neurons to compensate for mitochondrial dysfunction by oxidative glucose metabolism and further aggravated neuronal energy failure. Stimulated glycolysis and oxidative glucose metabolism protected astrocytes against energy failure and oxidative stress, leading to twofold increased de novo synthesis of [3-13C]lactate and fourfold elevated [4-13C]glutamate and [13C]glutathione levels. Manganese, however, inhibited the synthesis and release of glutamine. Comparative NMR data obtained from cocultures showed disturbed astrocytic function and a failure of astrocytes to provide neurons with substrates for energy and neurotransmitter metabolism, leading to deterioration of neuronal antioxidant capacity (decreased glutathione levels) and energy metabolism. The results suggest that, concomitant to impaired neuronal glucose oxidation, changes in astrocytic metabolism may cause a loss of intercellular homeostatic equilibrium, contributing to neuronal dysfunction in manganese neurotoxicity.

  7. Genetic disorders of thyroid metabolism and brain development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurian, Manju A; Jungbluth, Heinz

    2014-01-01

    Normal thyroid metabolism is essential for human development, including the formation and functioning of the central and peripheral nervous system. Disorders of thyroid metabolism are increasingly recognized within the spectrum of paediatric neurological disorders. Both hypothyroid and hyperthyroid disease states (resulting from genetic and acquired aetiologies) can lead to characteristic neurological syndromes, with cognitive delay, extrapyramidal movement disorders, neuropsychiatric symptoms, and neuromuscular manifestations. In this review, the neurological manifestations of genetic disorders of thyroid metabolism are outlined, with particular focus on Allan-Herndon-Dudley syndrome and benign hereditary chorea. We report in detail the clinical features, major neurological and neuropsychiatric manifestations, molecular genetic findings, disease mechanisms, and therapeutic strategies for these emerging genetic ‘brain-thyroid’ disorders. PMID:24665922

  8. Gastrointestinal Transit Time, Glucose Homeostasis and Metabolic Health: Modulation by Dietary Fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Mattea; Canfora, Emanuel E; Blaak, Ellen E

    2018-02-28

    Gastrointestinal transit time may be an important determinant of glucose homeostasis and metabolic health through effects on nutrient absorption and microbial composition, among other mechanisms. Modulation of gastrointestinal transit may be one of the mechanisms underlying the beneficial health effects of dietary fibers. These effects include improved glucose homeostasis and a reduced risk of developing metabolic diseases such as obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus. In this review, we first discuss the regulation of gastric emptying rate, small intestinal transit and colonic transit as well as their relation to glucose homeostasis and metabolic health. Subsequently, we briefly address the reported health effects of different dietary fibers and discuss to what extent the fiber-induced health benefits may be mediated through modulation of gastrointestinal transit.

  9. Sirtuins as regulators of the yeast metabolic network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus eRalser

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available There is growing evidence that the metabolic network is an integral regulator of cellularphysiology. Dynamic changes in metabolite concentrations, metabolic flux, or networktopology act as reporters of biological or environmental signals, and are required for the cellto trigger an appropriate biological reaction. Changes in the metabolic network are recognizedby specific sensory macromolecules and translated into a transcriptional or translationalresponse. The protein family of sirtuins, discovered more than 30 years ago as regulators ofsilent chromatin, seems to fulfill the role of a metabolic sensor during aging and conditions ofcaloric restriction. NAD+/NADH interconverting metabolic enzymes glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase and alcohol dehydrogenase, as well as enzymes involved inNAD(H, synthesis provide or deprive NAD+ in close proximity to Sir2. This influence sirtuinactivity, and facilitates a dynamic response of the metabolic network to changes inmetabolism with effects on physiology and aging. The molecular network downstream Sir2,however, is complex. In just two orders, Sir2’s metabolism-related interactions span half ofthe yeast proteome, and are connected with virtually every physiological process. Thus,although it is fundamental to analyze single molecular mechanisms, it is at the same timecrucial to consider this genome-scale complexity when correlating single molecular eventswith phenotypes such as aging, cell growth, or stress resistance.

  10. Metabolism as an Integral Cog in the Mammalian Circadian Clockwork

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamble, Karen L.; Young, Martin E.

    2013-01-01

    Circadian rhythms are an integral part of life. These rhythms are apparent in virtually all biological processes studies to date, ranging from the individual cell (e.g., DNA synthesis) to the whole organism (e.g., behaviors such as physical activity). Oscillations in metabolism have been characterized extensively in various organisms, including mammals. These metabolic rhythms often parallel behaviors such as sleep/wake and fasting/feeding cycles that occur on a daily basis. What has become increasingly clear over the past several decades is that many metabolic oscillations are driven by cell autonomous circadian clocks, which orchestrate metabolic processes in a temporally appropriate manner. During the process of identifying the mechanisms by which clocks influence metabolism, molecular-based studies have revealed that metabolism should be considered an integral circadian clock component. The implications of such an interrelationship include the establishment of a vicious cycle during cardiometabolic disease states, wherein metabolism-induced perturbations in the circadian clock exacerbate metabolic dysfunction. The purpose of this review is therefore to highlight recent insights gained regarding links between cell autonomous circadian clocks and metabolism, and the implications of clock dysfunction in the pathogenesis of cardiometabolic diseases. PMID:23594144

  11. Inflammatory cause of metabolic syndrome via brain stress and NF-κB

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Dongsheng; Liu, Tiewen

    2012-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome, a network of medical disorders that greatly increase the risk for developing metabolic and cardiovascular diseases, has reached epidemic levels in many areas of today's world. Despite this alarming medicare situation, scientific understandings on the root mechanisms of metabolic syndrome are still limited, and such insufficient knowledge contributes to the relative lack of effective treatments or preventions for related diseases. Recent interdisciplinary studies from neuroendocrinology and neuroimmunology fields have revealed that overnutrition can trigger intracellular stresses to cause inflammatory changes mediated by molecules that control innate immunity. This type of nutrition-related molecular inflammation in the central nervous system, particularly in the hypothalamus, can form a common pathogenic basis for the induction of various metabolic syndrome components such as obesity, insulin resistance, and hypertension. Proinflammatory NF-κB pathway has been revealed as a key molecular system for pathologic induction of brain inflammation, which translates overnutrition and resulting intracellular stresses into central neuroendocrine and neural dysregulations of energy, glucose, and cardiovascular homeostasis, collectively leading to metabolic syndrome. This article reviews recent research advances in the neural mechanisms of metabolic syndrome and related diseases from the perspective of pathogenic induction by intracellular stresses and NF-κB pathway of the brain. PMID:22328600

  12. Predicting growth of the healthy infant using a genome scale metabolic model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, Avlant; Mardinoglu, Adil; Nielsen, Jens

    2017-01-01

    An estimated 165 million children globally have stunted growth, and extensive growth data are available. Genome scale metabolic models allow the simulation of molecular flux over each metabolic enzyme, and are well adapted to analyze biological systems. We used a human genome scale metabolic model to simulate the mechanisms of growth and integrate data about breast-milk intake and composition with the infant's biomass and energy expenditure of major organs. The model predicted daily metabolic fluxes from birth to age 6 months, and accurately reproduced standard growth curves and changes in body composition. The model corroborates the finding that essential amino and fatty acids do not limit growth, but that energy is the main growth limiting factor. Disruptions to the supply and demand of energy markedly affected the predicted growth, indicating that elevated energy expenditure may be detrimental. The model was used to simulate the metabolic effect of mineral deficiencies, and showed the greatest growth reduction for deficiencies in copper, iron, and magnesium ions which affect energy production through oxidative phosphorylation. The model and simulation method were integrated to a platform and shared with the research community. The growth model constitutes another step towards the complete representation of human metabolism, and may further help improve the understanding of the mechanisms underlying stunting.

  13. A link between sleep loss, glucose metabolism and adipokines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.G. Padilha

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The present review evaluates the role of sleep and its alteration in triggering problems of glucose metabolism and the possible involvement of adipokines in this process. A reduction in the amount of time spent sleeping has become an endemic condition in modern society, and a search of the current literature has found important associations between sleep loss and alterations of nutritional and metabolic contexts. Studies suggest that sleep loss is associated with problems in glucose metabolism and a higher risk for the development of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus. The mechanism involved may be associated with the decreased efficacy of regulation of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis by negative feedback mechanisms in sleep-deprivation conditions. In addition, changes in the circadian pattern of growth hormone (GH secretion might also contribute to the alterations in glucose regulation observed during sleep loss. On the other hand, sleep deprivation stress affects adipokines - increasing tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α and interleukin-6 (IL-6 and decreasing leptin and adiponectin -, thus establishing a possible association between sleep-debt, adipokines and glucose metabolism. Thus, a modified release of adipokines resulting from sleep deprivation could lead to a chronic sub-inflammatory state that could play a central role in the development of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Further studies are necessary to investigate the role of sleep loss in adipokine release and its relationship with glucose metabolism.

  14. Historical perspectives of the metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oda, Eiji

    The metabolic syndrome (MetS) or insulin resistance syndrome is a constellation of obesity-related metabolic derangements predisposing to type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. In 1998, WHO defined the first criteria of MetS. Three years later, the user-friendly National Cholesterol Education Program criteria of MetS were proposed. Different criteria were issued by the International Diabetes Federation in 2005, making abdominal obesity a necessary component. Several international societies, including The International Diabetes Federation, jointly adopted the revised National Cholesterol Education Program criteria as harmonizing criteria of MetS in 2009. WHO warned the next year that MetS has limited practical utility as a management tool. Adipose tissue inflammation has been shown to be a fundamental mechanism of metabolic derangements, associated with ectopic lipid deposit and mitochondrial dysfunction in skeletal muscle and the liver. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Hepatic Steatosis as a Marker of Metabolic Dysfunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabbrini, Elisa; Magkos, Faidon

    2015-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the liver manifestation of the complex metabolic derangements associated with obesity. NAFLD is characterized by excessive deposition of fat in the liver (steatosis) and develops when hepatic fatty acid availability from plasma and de novo synthesis exceeds hepatic fatty acid disposal by oxidation and triglyceride export. Hepatic steatosis is therefore the biochemical result of an imbalance between complex pathways of lipid metabolism, and is associated with an array of adverse changes in glucose, fatty acid, and lipoprotein metabolism across all tissues of the body. Intrahepatic triglyceride (IHTG) content is therefore a very good marker (and in some cases may be the cause) of the presence and the degree of multiple-organ metabolic dysfunction. These metabolic abnormalities are likely responsible for many cardiometabolic risk factors associated with NAFLD, such as insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and dyslipidemia. Understanding the factors involved in the pathogenesis and pathophysiology of NAFLD will lead to a better understanding of the mechanisms responsible for the metabolic complications of obesity, and hopefully to the discovery of novel effective treatments for their reversal. PMID:26102213

  16. Metabolic control of female puberty: potential therapeutic targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellano, Juan M; Tena-Sempere, Manuel

    2016-10-01

    The onset of puberty in females is highly sensitive to the nutritional status and the amount of energy reserves of the organism. This metabolic information is sensed and transmitted to hypothalamic GnRH neurons, considered to be ultimately responsible for triggering puberty through the coordinated action of different peripheral hormones, central neurotransmitters, and molecular mediators. This article will review and discuss (i) the relevant actions of the adipose hormone leptin, as a stimulatory/permissive signal, and the gut hormone ghrelin, as an inhibitory factor, in the metabolic control of female puberty; (ii) the crucial role of the hypothalamic kisspeptin neurons, recently emerged as essential gatekeepers of puberty, in transmitting this metabolic information to GnRH neurons; and (iii) the potential involvement of key cellular energy sensors, such as mTOR, as molecular mediators in this setting. The thorough characterization of the physiological roles of the above elements in the metabolic control of female puberty, along with the discovery of novel factors, pathways, and mechanisms involved, will promote our understanding of the complex networks connecting metabolism and puberty and, ultimately, will aid in the design of target-specific treatments for female pubertal disorders linked to conditions of metabolic stress.

  17. Adipose tissue NAD+-homeostasis, sirtuins and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases -important players in mitochondrial metabolism and metabolic health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jokinen, Riikka; Pirnes-Karhu, Sini; Pietiläinen, Kirsi H; Pirinen, Eija

    2017-08-01

    Obesity, a chronic state of energy overload, is characterized by adipose tissue dysfunction that is considered to be the major driver for obesity associated metabolic complications. The reasons for adipose tissue dysfunction are incompletely understood, but one potential contributing factor is adipose tissue mitochondrial dysfunction. Derangements of adipose tissue mitochondrial biogenesis and pathways associate with obesity and metabolic diseases. Mitochondria are central organelles in energy metabolism through their role in energy derivation through catabolic oxidative reactions. The mitochondrial processes are dependent on the proper NAD + /NADH redox balance and NAD + is essential for reactions catalyzed by the key regulators of mitochondrial metabolism, sirtuins (SIRTs) and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases (PARPs). Notably, obesity is associated with disturbed adipose tissue NAD + homeostasis and the balance of SIRT and PARP activities. In this review we aim to summarize existing literature on the maintenance of intracellular NAD + pools and the function of SIRTs and PARPs in adipose tissue during normal and obese conditions, with the purpose of comprehending their potential role in mitochondrial derangements and obesity associated metabolic complications. Understanding the molecular mechanisms that are the root cause of the adipose tissue mitochondrial derangements is crucial for developing new effective strategies to reverse obesity associated metabolic complications. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. [Lymphocyte metabolism in children with extensive burns].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artem'ev, S A; Nazarov, I P; Kamzalakova, N I; Bulygin, G V

    2009-01-01

    The results of the study lead to the conclusion that the development of burn disease in children is accompanied by significant lymphocytic structural metabolic changes that determine the functional capabilities of cells and the immune system as a whole. There is an evident activation of the glutathione antioxidant system, a drastic activation of enzymes that ensure Krebs cycle reactions, as well as activation of anaerobic processes. The above changes are mainly caused by the activated sympathoadrenal system that is characteristic of stresses. The knowledge about the metabolic mechanisms responsible for the development of cellular reactions to burn shock and burn disease permits specification of the elements of the pathogenesis of these severe conditions and substantiation of the possibility of using metabolic correction in the complex treatment of children with the above pathology.

  19. The search for putative unifying genetic factors for components of the metabolic syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sjögren, M; Lyssenko, V; Jonsson, Anna Elisabet

    2008-01-01

    The metabolic syndrome is a cluster of factors contributing to increased risk of cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes but unifying mechanisms have not been identified. Our aim was to study whether common variations in 17 genes previously associated with type 2 diabetes or components...... of the metabolic syndrome and variants in nine genes with inconsistent association with at least two components of the metabolic syndrome would also predict future development of components of the metabolic syndrome, individually or in combination....

  20. Improved cerebral energetics and ketone body metabolism in db/db mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jens V; Christensen, Sofie K; Nissen, Jakob D

    2017-01-01

    It is becoming evident that type 2 diabetes mellitus is affecting brain energy metabolism. The importance of alternative substrates for the brain in type 2 diabetes mellitus is poorly understood. The aim of this study was to investigate whether ketone bodies are relevant candidates to compensate...... metabolism in type 2 diabetes mellitus. The increased hippocampal ketone body utilization and improved mitochondrial function in db/db mice, may act as adaptive mechanisms in order to maintain cerebral energetics during hampered glucose metabolism....

  1. [Optimal energy supply in different age groups of critically ill children on mechanical ventilation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, X H; Ji, J; Qian, S Y

    2018-01-02

    Objective: To analyze the resting energy expenditure and optimal energy supply in different age groups of critically ill children on mechanical ventilation in pediatric intensive care unit (PICU). Methods: Patients on mechanical ventilation hospitalized in PICU of Beijing Children's Hospital from March 2015 to March 2016 were enrolled prospectively. Resting energy expenditure of patients was calculated by US Med Graphic company critical care management (CCM) energy metabolism test system after mechanical ventilation. Patients were divided into three groups:10 years. The relationship between the measured and predictive resting energy expenditure was analyzed with correlation analysis; while the metabolism status and the optimal energy supply in different age groups were analyzed with chi square test and variance analysis. Results: A total of 102 patients were enrolled, the measured resting energy expenditure all correlated with predictive resting energy expenditure in different age groups (10 years ( r= 0.5, P= 0.0) ) . A total of 40 cases in group, including: 14 cases of low metabolism (35%), 14 cases of normal metabolism (35%), and 12 cases of high metabolism (30%); 45 cases in 3-10 years group, including: 22 cases of low metabolism (49%), 19 cases of normal metabolism (42%), 4 cases of high metabolism (9%); 17 cases in > 10 years group, including: 12 cases of low metabolism (71%), 4 cases of normal metabolism (23%), 1 case of high metabolism (6%). Metabolism status showed significant differences between different age groups ( χ (2)=11.30, P age groups ( F= 46.57, Pgroup, (184±53) kJ/ (kg⋅d) in 3-10 years group, and (120±30) kJ/ (kg⋅d) in > 10 years group. Conclusion: The resting energy metabolism of the critically ill children on mechanical ventilation is negatively related to the age. The actual energy requirement should be calculated according to different ages.

  2. Cationic amino acid uptake constitutes a metabolic regulation mechanism and occurs in the flagellar pocket of Trypanosoma cruzi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana R Miranda

    Full Text Available Trypanosomatids' amino acid permeases are key proteins in parasite metabolism since they participate in the adaptation of parasites to different environments. Here, we report that TcAAP3, a member of a Trypanosoma cruzi multigene family of permeases, is a bona fide arginine transporter. Most higher eukaryotic cells incorporate cationic amino acids through a single transporter. In contrast, T. cruzi can recognize and transport cationic amino acids by mono-specific permeases since a 100-fold molar excess of lysine could not affect the arginine transport in parasites that over-express the arginine permease (TcAAP3 epimastigotes. In order to test if the permease activity regulates downstream processes of the arginine metabolism, the expression of the single T. cruzi enzyme that uses arginine as substrate, arginine kinase, was evaluated in TcAAP3 epimastigotes. In this parasite model, intracellular arginine concentration increases 4-folds and ATP level remains constant until cultures reach the stationary phase of growth, with decreases of about 6-folds in respect to the controls. Interestingly, Western Blot analysis demonstrated that arginine kinase is significantly down-regulated during the stationary phase of growth in TcAAP3 epimastigotes. This decrease could represent a compensatory mechanism for the increase in ATP consumption as a consequence of the displacement of the reaction equilibrium of arginine kinase, when the intracellular arginine concentration augments and the glucose from the medium is exhausted. Using immunofluorescence techniques we also determined that TcAAP3 and the specific lysine transporter TcAAP7 co-localize in a specialized region of the plasma membrane named flagellar pocket, staining a single locus close to the flagellar pocket collar. Taken together these data suggest that arginine transport is closely related to arginine metabolism and cell energy balance. The clinical relevance of studying trypanosomatids' permeases

  3. Metabolic syndrome as a risk factor for neurological disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farooqui, Akhlaq A; Farooqui, Tahira; Panza, Francesco; Frisardi, Vincenza

    2012-03-01

    The metabolic syndrome is a cluster of common pathologies: abdominal obesity linked to an excess of visceral fat, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia and hypertension. At the molecular level, metabolic syndrome is accompanied not only by dysregulation in the expression of adipokines (cytokines and chemokines), but also by alterations in levels of leptin, a peptide hormone released by white adipose tissue. These changes modulate immune response and inflammation that lead to alterations in the hypothalamic 'bodyweight/appetite/satiety set point,' resulting in the initiation and development of metabolic syndrome. Metabolic syndrome is a risk factor for neurological disorders such as stroke, depression and Alzheimer's disease. The molecular mechanism underlying the mirror relationship between metabolic syndrome and neurological disorders is not fully understood. However, it is becoming increasingly evident that all cellular and biochemical alterations observed in metabolic syndrome like impairment of endothelial cell function, abnormality in essential fatty acid metabolism and alterations in lipid mediators along with abnormal insulin/leptin signaling may represent a pathological bridge between metabolic syndrome and neurological disorders such as stroke, Alzheimer's disease and depression. The purpose of this review is not only to describe the involvement of brain in the pathogenesis of metabolic syndrome, but also to link the pathogenesis of metabolic syndrome with neurochemical changes in stroke, Alzheimer's disease and depression to a wider audience of neuroscientists with the hope that this discussion will initiate more studies on the relationship between metabolic syndrome and neurological disorders. © Springer Basel AG 2011

  4. Intermittent fasting promotes adipose thermogenesis and metabolic homeostasis via VEGF-mediated alternative activation of macrophage

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Kyoung-Han; Kim, Yun Hye; Son, Joe Eun; Lee, Ju Hee; Kim, Sarah; Choe, Min Seon; Moon, Joon Ho; Zhong, Jian; Fu, Kiya; Lenglin, Florine; Yoo, Jeong-Ah; Bilan, Philip J; Klip, Amira; Nagy, Andras; Kim, Jae-Ryong

    2017-01-01

    Intermittent fasting (IF), a periodic energy restriction, has been shown to provide health benefits equivalent to prolonged fasting or caloric restriction. However, our understanding of the underlying mechanisms of IF-mediated metabolic benefits is limited. Here we show that isocaloric IF improves metabolic homeostasis against diet-induced obesity and metabolic dysfunction primarily through adipose thermogenesis in mice. IF-induced metabolic benefits require fasting-mediated increases of vasc...

  5. Metaflammation, NLRP3 Inflammasome Obesity and Metabolic Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Meiliana

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Increasing prevalence of obesity gives rise to many problems associated with multiple morbidities, such as diabetes, hypertension, heart disease, sleep apnea and cancer. The mechanism of obesity is very complex, thus its link to various disease is poorly understood. This review highlights important concepts in our understanding of the pathogenesis of obesity and related complications. CONTENT: Many studies have tried to explore the exciting and puzzling links between metabolic homeostasis and inflammatory responses. A form of subclinical, low-grade systemic inflammation is known to be associated with both obesity and chronic disease. This, later called as "metaflammation", refers to metabolically triggered inflammation. The nutrient-sensing pathway and the immune response coordination are facilitated by these molecular sites in order to maintain homeostasis under diverse metabolic and immune conditions. Recent studies have found that the NLRP3 inflammasome during metabolic stress forms a tie linking TXNIP, oxidative stress, and IL-1β production. This provides new opportunities for research and therapy for the disease often described as the next global pandemic: type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. SUMMARY: The crucial role of metaflammation in many complications of obesity shown by the unexpected overlap between inflammatory and metabolic sensors and their downstream tissue responses. Then great interest arose to explore the pathways that integrate nutrient and pathogen sensing, give more understanding in the mechanisms of insulin resistance type 2 diabetes, and other chronic metabolic pathologies. A family of intracellular sensors called NLR family is a critical component of the innate immune system. They can form multiprotein complexes, called inflammasome which is capable of responding to a wide range of stimuli including both microbial and self molecules by activating the cysteine protease caspase-1, leading to processing and

  6. Transporter’s evolution and carbohydrate metabolic clusters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plantinga, Titia H.; Does, Chris van der; Driessen, Arnold J.M.

    2004-01-01

    The yiaQRS genes of Escherichia coli K-12 are involved in carbohydrate metabolism. Clustering of homologous genes was found throughout several unrelated bacteria. Strikingly, all four bacterial transport protein classes were found, conserving transport function but not mechanism. It appears that

  7. Lower urinary tract symptoms and metabolic disorders: ICI-RS 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denys, Marie-Astrid; Anding, Ralf; Tubaro, Andrea; Abrams, Paul; Everaert, Karel

    2016-02-01

    To investigate the link between lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) and metabolic disorders. This report results from presentations and subsequent discussions about LUTS and metabolic disorders at the International Consultation on Incontinence Research Society (ICI-RS) in Bristol, 2014. There are common pathophysiological determinants for the onset of LUTS and the metabolic syndrome (MetS). Both conditions are multifactorial, related to disorders in circadian rhythms and share common risk factors. As in men with erectile dysfunction, these potentially modifiable lifestyle factors may be novel targets to prevent and treat LUTS. The link between LUTS and metabolic disorders is discussed by using sleep, urine production and bladder function as underlying mechanisms that need to be further explored during future research. Recent findings indicate a bidirectional relationship between LUTS and the MetS. Future research has to explore underlying mechanisms to explain this relationship, in order to develop new preventive and therapeutic recommendations, such as weight loss and increasing physical activity. The second stage is to determine the effect of these new treatment approaches on the severity of LUTS and each of the components of the MetS. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Glycogen and its metabolism: some new developments and old themes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roach, Peter J.; Depaoli-Roach, Anna A.; Hurley, Thomas D.; Tagliabracci, Vincent S.

    2016-01-01

    Glycogen is a branched polymer of glucose that acts as a store of energy in times of nutritional sufficiency for utilization in times of need. Its metabolism has been the subject of extensive investigation and much is known about its regulation by hormones such as insulin, glucagon and adrenaline (epinephrine). There has been debate over the relative importance of allosteric compared with covalent control of the key biosynthetic enzyme, glycogen synthase, as well as the relative importance of glucose entry into cells compared with glycogen synthase regulation in determining glycogen accumulation. Significant new developments in eukaryotic glycogen metabolism over the last decade or so include: (i) three-dimensional structures of the biosynthetic enzymes glycogenin and glycogen synthase, with associated implications for mechanism and control; (ii) analyses of several genetically engineered mice with altered glycogen metabolism that shed light on the mechanism of control; (iii) greater appreciation of the spatial aspects of glycogen metabolism, including more focus on the lysosomal degradation of glycogen; and (iv) glycogen phosphorylation and advances in the study of Lafora disease, which is emerging as a glycogen storage disease. PMID:22248338

  9. [Research advance in nitrogen metabolism of plant and its environmental regulation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhenzhu; Zhou, Guangsheng

    2004-03-01

    Nitrogen metabolism is not only one of the basic processes of plant physiology, but also one of the important parts of global chemical cycle. Plant nitrogen assimilation directly takes part in the synthesis and conversion of amino acid through the reduction of nitrate. During this stage, some key enzymes, e.g., nitrate reductase (NR), glutamine synthetase (GS), glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH), glutamine synthase (GOGAT), aspargine synthetase (AS), and asparate aminotransferase (AspAT) participate these processes. The protein is assimilated in plant cell through amino acid, and becomes a part of plant organism through modifying, classifying, transporting and storing processes, etc. The nitrogen metabolism is associated with carbonic metabolism through key enzyme regulations and the conversion of products, which consists of basic life process. Among these amino acids in plant cell, glutamic acid (Glu), glutamine (Gln), aspartic acid (Asp) and asparagines (Asn), etc., play a key role, which regulates their conversion each other and their contents in the plant cell through regulating formation and activity of those key enzymes. Environmental factors also affect the conversion and recycle of the key amino acids through regulating gene expression of the key enzymes and their activities. Nitrate and light intensity positively regulate the gene transcription of NR, but ammonium ions and Glu, Gln do the negative way. Water deficit is a very serious constraint on N2 fixation rate and soybean (Glycine max Merr.) grain yield, in which, ureide accumulation and degradation under water deficit appear to be the key issues of feedback mechanism on nitrogen fixation. Water stress decreases NR activity, but increases proteinase activity, and thus, they regulate plant nitrogen metabolism, although there are some different effects among species and cultivars. Water stress also decreases plant tissue protein content, ratio of protein and amino acid, and reduces the absorption of amino

  10. Enzyme clustering accelerates processing of intermediates through metabolic channeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellana, Michele; Wilson, Maxwell Z.; Xu, Yifan; Joshi, Preeti; Cristea, Ileana M.; Rabinowitz, Joshua D.; Gitai, Zemer; Wingreen, Ned S.

    2015-01-01

    We present a quantitative model to demonstrate that coclustering multiple enzymes into compact agglomerates accelerates the processing of intermediates, yielding the same efficiency benefits as direct channeling, a well-known mechanism in which enzymes are funneled between enzyme active sites through a physical tunnel. The model predicts the separation and size of coclusters that maximize metabolic efficiency, and this prediction is in agreement with previously reported spacings between coclusters in mammalian cells. For direct validation, we study a metabolic branch point in Escherichia coli and experimentally confirm the model prediction that enzyme agglomerates can accelerate the processing of a shared intermediate by one branch, and thus regulate steady-state flux division. Our studies establish a quantitative framework to understand coclustering-mediated metabolic channeling and its application to both efficiency improvement and metabolic regulation. PMID:25262299

  11. In utero undernutrition programs skeletal and cardiac muscle metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brittany eBeauchamp

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In utero undernutrition is associated with increased risk for insulin resistance, obesity, and cardiovascular disease during adult life. A common phenotype associated with low birth weight is reduced skeletal muscle mass. Given the central role of skeletal muscle in whole body metabolism, alterations in its mass as well as its metabolic characteristics may contribute to disease risk. This review highlights the metabolic alterations in cardiac and skeletal muscle associated with in utero undernutrition and low birth weight. These tissues have high metabolic demands and are known to be sites of major metabolic dysfunction in obesity, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. Recent research demonstrates that mitochondrial energetics are decreased in skeletal and cardiac muscles of adult offspring from undernourished mothers. These effects apparently lead to the development of a thrifty phenotype, which may represent overall a compensatory mechanism programmed in utero to handle times of limited nutrient availability. However, in an environment characterized by food abundance, the effects are maladaptive and increase adulthood risks of metabolic disease.

  12. Hypothesis: solid tumours behave as systemic metabolic dictators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yang-Ming; Chang, Wei-Chun; Ma, Wen-Lung

    2016-06-01

    Current knowledge regarding mechanisms of carcinogenesis in human beings centres around the accumulation of genetic instability, amplified cellular signalling, disturbed cellular energy metabolism and microenvironmental regulation governed by complicated cell-cell interactions. In this article, we provide an alternative view of cancer biology. We propose that cancer behaves as a systemic dictator that interacts with tissues throughout the body to control their metabolism and eventually homeostasis. The mechanism of development of this endocrine organ-like tumour (EOLT) tissue might be the driving force for cancer progression. Here, we review the literature that led to the development of this hypothesis. The EOLT phenotype can be defined as a tumour that alters systemic homeostasis. The literature indicates that the EOLT phenotype is present throughout cancer progression. The feedback mechanism that governs the interaction between tumours and various organs is unknown. We believe that investigating the mechanism of EOLT development may advance the current knowledge of regulation within the tumour macroenvironment and consequently lead to new diagnostic methods and therapy. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Foundation for Cellular and Molecular Medicine.

  13. Hungry Neurons: Metabolic Insights on Seizure Dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Paolo Bazzigaluppi; Azin Ebrahim Amini; Iliya Weisspapir; Bojana Stefanovic; Peter L. Carlen

    2017-01-01

    Epilepsy afflicts up to 1.6% of the population and the mechanisms underlying the appearance of seizures are still not understood. In past years, many efforts have been spent trying to understand the mechanisms underlying the excessive and synchronous firing of neurons. Traditionally, attention was pointed towards synaptic (dys)function and extracellular ionic species (dys)regulation. Recently, novel clinical and preclinical studies explored the role of brain metabolism (i.e., glucose utilizat...

  14. Controlled sumoylation of the mevalonate pathway enzyme HMGS-1 regulates metabolism during aging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sapir, Amir; Tsur, Assaf; Koorman, Thijs; Ching, Kaitlin; Mishra, Prashant; Bardenheier, Annabelle; Podolsky, Lisa; Bening-Abu-Shach, Ulrike; Boxem, Mike; Chou, Tsui-Fen; Broday, Limor; Sternberg, Paul W

    2014-01-01

    Many metabolic pathways are critically regulated during development and aging but little is known about the molecular mechanisms underlying this regulation. One key metabolic cascade in eukaryotes is the mevalonate pathway. It catalyzes the synthesis of sterol and nonsterol isoprenoids, such as

  15. Leptin: regulatory role in bone metabolism and in flogosis

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    G.D. Ferraccioli

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Leptin is a peptidic molecule synthesized almost exclusively by adipocytes, that regulates appetite and energy expenditure at the hypothalamic level. In the last few years, further actions have been attributed to this molecule, as modulating the immune response and affecting the bone metabolism. We have reviewed if leptin contributes to the metabolic changes leading to cachexia and to the regulation of flogosis, paying attention to the pathogenetic mechanisms of cronic arthritis. Besides, considering the relationship between body mass index (BMI e bone mineral density (BMD and the protective role of the obesity towards osteoporosis, we have analysed the role of leptin on the bone metabolism

  16. Interdependence of nutrient metabolism and the circadian clock system: Importance for metabolic health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribas-Latre, Aleix; Eckel-Mahan, Kristin

    2016-01-01

    , can destroy synchrony between peripheral clocks and the central pacemaker in the brain as well as between peripheral clocks themselves. In addition, we review several studies looking at clock gene SNPs in humans and the metabolic phenotypes or tendencies associated with particular clock gene mutations. Major conclusions Targeted use of specific nutrients based on chronotype has the potential for immense clinical utility in the future. Macronutrients and micronutrients have the ability to function as zeitgebers for the clock by activating or modulating specific clock proteins or accessory proteins (such as nuclear receptors). Circadian clock control by nutrients can be tissue-specific. With a better understanding of the mechanisms that support nutrient-induced circadian control in specific tissues, human chronotype and SNP information might eventually be used to tailor nutritional regimens for metabolic disease treatment and thus be an important part of personalized medicine's future. PMID:26977390

  17. "Gear mechanism" of bariatric interventions revealed by untargeted metabolomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samczuk, Paulina; Luba, Magdalena; Godzien, Joanna; Mastrangelo, Annalaura; Hady, Hady Razak; Dadan, Jacek; Barbas, Coral; Gorska, Maria; Kretowski, Adam; Ciborowski, Michal

    2018-03-20

    Mechanisms responsible for metabolic gains after bariatric surgery are not entirely clear. The purpose of this study was evaluation of metabolic changes after laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass or laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy in semi-annual follow up. The study participants were selected from obese patients with T2DM who underwent one of the mentioned bariatric procedures. Serum metabolic fingerprinting by use of liquid and gas chromatography with mass spectrometry detection was performed on samples obtained from studied patients before, one, and six months post-surgery. Performed analyses resulted in 49 significant and identified metabolites. Comparison of the two described procedures has allowed to detect metabolites linked with numerous pathways, processes and diseases. Based on the metabolites detected and pathways affected, we propose a "gear mechanism" showing molecular changes evoked by both bariatric procedures. Critical evaluation of clinical data and obtained metabolomics results enables us to conclude that both procedures are very similar in terms of general clinical outcome, but they strongly differ from each other in molecular mechanisms leading to the final effect. For the first time general metabolic effect of bariatric procedures is described. New hypotheses concerning molecular mechanisms induced by bariatric surgeries and new gut microbiota modulations are presented. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. [Genomic research of traditional Chinese medicines in vivo metabolism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Shui-Ming; Bai, Rui; Zhang, Xiao-Yan

    2016-11-01

    Gene is the base of in vivo metabolism and effectiveness for traditional Chinese medicines (TCM), and the gene expression, regulation and modification are used as the research directions to perform the TCM multi-component, multi-link and multi-target in vivo metabolism studies, which will improve the research on TCM metabolic proecess, effect target and molecular mechanism. Humans are superorganisms with 1% genes inherited from parents and 99% genes from various parts of the human body, mainly coming from the microorganisms in intestinal flora. These indicate that genetically inherited human genome and "second genome" could affect the TCM in vivo metabolism from inheritance and "environmental" aspects respectively. In the present paper, typical case study was used to discuss related TCM in vivo metabolic genomics research, mainly including TCM genomics research and gut metagenomics research, as well as the personalized medicine evoked from the individual difference of above genomics (metagenomics). Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  19. Obesity-driven gut microbiota inflammatory pathways to metabolic syndrome

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    Luiz Henrique Agra eCavalcante-Silva

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The intimate interplay between immune system, metabolism and gut microbiota plays an important role in controlling metabolic homeostasis and possible obesity development. Obesity involves impairment of immune response affecting both innate and adaptive immunity. The main factors involved in the relationship of obesity with inflammation have not been completely elucidated. On the other hand, gut microbiota, via innate immune receptors, has emerged as one of the key factors regulating events triggering acute inflammation associated with obesity and metabolic syndrome. Inflammatory disorders lead to several signalling transduction pathways activation, inflammatory cytokine, chemokine production and cell migration, which in turn cause metabolic dysfunction. Inflamed adipose tissue, with increased macrophages infiltration, is associated with impaired preadipocyte development and differentiation to mature adipose cells, leading to ectopic lipid accumulation and insulin resistance. This review focuses on the relationship between obesity and inflammation, which is essential to understand the pathological mechanisms governing metabolic syndrome.

  20. Metabolic strategies of beer spoilage lactic acid bacteria in beer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geissler, Andreas J; Behr, Jürgen; von Kamp, Kristina; Vogel, Rudi F

    2016-01-04

    Beer contains only limited amounts of readily fermentable carbohydrates and amino acids. Beer spoilage lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have to come up with metabolic strategies in order to deal with selective nutrient content, high energy demand of hop tolerance mechanisms and a low pH. The metabolism of 26 LAB strains of 6 species and varying spoilage potentialwas investigated in order to define and compare their metabolic capabilities using multivariate statistics and outline possible metabolic strategies. Metabolic capabilities of beer spoilage LAB regarding carbohydrate and amino acids did not correlate with spoilage potential, but with fermentation type (heterofermentative/homofermentative) and species. A shift to mixed acid fermentation by homofermentative (hof) Pediococcus claussenii and Lactobacillus backii was observed as a specific feature of their growth in beer. For heterofermentative (hef) LAB a mostly versatile carbohydrate metabolism could be demonstrated, supplementing the known relevance of organic acids for their growth in beer. For hef LAB a distinct amino acid metabolism, resulting in biogenic amine production, was observed, presumably contributing to energy supply and pH homeostasis.

  1. The Lymphatic Vasculature: Its Role in Adipose Metabolism and Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escobedo, Noelia; Oliver, Guillermo

    2017-10-03

    Obesity is a key risk factor for metabolic and cardiovascular diseases, and although we understand the mechanisms regulating weight and energy balance, the causes of some forms of obesity remain enigmatic. Despite the well-established connections between lymphatics and lipids, and the fact that intestinal lacteals play key roles in dietary fat absorption, the function of the lymphatic vasculature in adipose metabolism has only recently been recognized. It is well established that angiogenesis is tightly associated with the outgrowth of adipose tissue, as expanding adipose tissue requires increased nutrient supply from blood vessels. Results supporting a crosstalk between lymphatic vessels and adipose tissue, and linking lymphatic function with metabolic diseases, obesity, and adipose tissue, also started to accumulate in the last years. Here we review our current knowledge of the mechanisms by which defective lymphatics contribute to obesity and fat accumulation in mouse models, as well as our understanding of the lymphatic-adipose tissue relationship. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. It must be my metabolism: Metabolic control of mind

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana M Small

    2014-07-01

    participant ingested the same caloric dose during conditioning, changes in plasma glucose depended upon individual differences in glucose absorption/metabolism. Therefore, these findings provide indirect, and yet convincing, support for our hypothesis that glucose metabolism regulates response to calorie-predictive flavors in brain reward circuits. We can therefore conclude that, at least for carbohydrates, responses to calorie predictive food cues reflect the learned association between the cue and its ability to result in a change in blood glucose. This finding has important implications for understanding how the modern food environment promotes weight gain. Carbohydrates now come in forms and doses not experienced during our evolutionary past. Not only are calories increased, but the way in which they are metabolized differs. For example, calories ingested in liquid form are trafficked through the gut faster than solids (e.g. 18. Might this influence metabolic regulation of reward circuits? Certainly it stands to reason that larger loads delivered more quickly to the circulation might increase the metabolic impact and hence more efficiently engage reward circuits to enhance food cue reactivity and promote eating in the absence of hunger. In summary, our result indicates that, as in the rodent model, metabolic response drives the reinforcement potency of carbohydrates and regulates food cue reactivity. We conclude that not only are modern foods more caloric, but in addition their increased metabolic impact drives reward circuits and may therefore promote intake by enhancing food cue reactivity. Our finding further suggests that metabolic regulation of reward circuits may differ in individuals with altered glucose metabolism, such as type II diabetes, offering a potential mechanism by which they become susceptible to weight gain.

  3. Management of metabolic syndrome through probiotic and prebiotic interventions

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    Rashmi H Mallappa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic syndrome is a complex disorder caused by a cluster of interrelated factors that increases the risk of cardiovascular diseases and type 2 diabetes. Obesity is the main precursor for metabolic syndrome that can be targeted in developing various therapies. With this view, several physical, psychological, pharmaceutical and dietary therapies have been proposed for the management of obesity. However, dietary strategies found more appropriate without any adverse health effects. Application of probiotics and prebiotics as biotherapeutics is the new emerging area in developing dietary strategies and many people are interested in learning the facts behind these health claims. Recent studies established the role of probiotics and prebiotics in weight management with possible mechanisms of improved microbial balance, decreased food intake, decreased abdominal adiposity and increased mucosal integrity with decreased inflammatory tone. Hence, the above "Pharmaco-nutritional" approach has been selected and extensively reviewed to gain thorough knowledge on putative mechanisms of probiotic and prebiotic action in order to develop dietary strategies for the management of metabolic syndrome.

  4. Obesogenic diets alter metabolism in mice.

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    Megan R Showalter

    Full Text Available Obesity and accompanying metabolic disease is negatively correlated with lung health yet the exact mechanisms by which obesity affects the lung are not well characterized. Since obesity is associated with lung diseases as chronic bronchitis and asthma, we designed a series of experiments to measure changes in lung metabolism in mice fed obesogenic diets. Mice were fed either control or high fat/sugar diet (45%kcal fat/17%kcal sucrose, or very high fat diet (60%kcal fat/7% sucrose for 150 days. We performed untargeted metabolomics by GC-TOFMS and HILIC-QTOFMS and lipidomics by RPLC-QTOFMS to reveal global changes in lung metabolism resulting from obesity and diet composition. From a total of 447 detected metabolites, we found 91 metabolite and lipid species significantly altered in mouse lung tissues upon dietary treatments. Significantly altered metabolites included complex lipids, free fatty acids, energy metabolites, amino acids and adenosine and NAD pathway members. While some metabolites were altered in both obese groups compared to control, others were different between obesogenic diet groups. Furthermore, a comparison of changes between lung, kidney and liver tissues indicated few metabolic changes were shared across organs, suggesting the lung is an independent metabolic organ. These results indicate obesity and diet composition have direct mechanistic effects on composition of the lung metabolome, which may contribute to disease progression by lung-specific pathways.

  5. Obesogenic diets alter metabolism in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showalter, Megan R; Nonnecke, Eric B; Linderholm, A L; Cajka, Tomas; Sa, Michael R; Lönnerdal, Bo; Kenyon, Nicholas J; Fiehn, Oliver

    2018-01-01

    Obesity and accompanying metabolic disease is negatively correlated with lung health yet the exact mechanisms by which obesity affects the lung are not well characterized. Since obesity is associated with lung diseases as chronic bronchitis and asthma, we designed a series of experiments to measure changes in lung metabolism in mice fed obesogenic diets. Mice were fed either control or high fat/sugar diet (45%kcal fat/17%kcal sucrose), or very high fat diet (60%kcal fat/7% sucrose) for 150 days. We performed untargeted metabolomics by GC-TOFMS and HILIC-QTOFMS and lipidomics by RPLC-QTOFMS to reveal global changes in lung metabolism resulting from obesity and diet composition. From a total of 447 detected metabolites, we found 91 metabolite and lipid species significantly altered in mouse lung tissues upon dietary treatments. Significantly altered metabolites included complex lipids, free fatty acids, energy metabolites, amino acids and adenosine and NAD pathway members. While some metabolites were altered in both obese groups compared to control, others were different between obesogenic diet groups. Furthermore, a comparison of changes between lung, kidney and liver tissues indicated few metabolic changes were shared across organs, suggesting the lung is an independent metabolic organ. These results indicate obesity and diet composition have direct mechanistic effects on composition of the lung metabolome, which may contribute to disease progression by lung-specific pathways.

  6. Microbial Regulation of Glucose Metabolism and Insulin Resistance

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    Silke Crommen

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Type 2 diabetes is a combined disease, resulting from a hyperglycemia and peripheral and hepatic insulin resistance. Recent data suggest that the gut microbiota is involved in diabetes development, altering metabolic processes including glucose and fatty acid metabolism. Thus, type 2 diabetes patients show a microbial dysbiosis, with reduced butyrate-producing bacteria and elevated potential pathogens compared to metabolically healthy individuals. Furthermore, probiotics are a known tool to modulate the microbiota, having a therapeutic potential. Current literature will be discussed to elucidate the complex interaction of gut microbiota, intestinal permeability and inflammation leading to peripheral and hepatic insulin resistance. Therefore, this review aims to generate a deeper understanding of the underlying mechanism of potential microbial strains, which can be used as probiotics.

  7. Plant metabolic modeling: achieving new insight into metabolism and metabolic engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baghalian, Kambiz; Hajirezaei, Mohammad-Reza; Schreiber, Falk

    2014-10-01

    Models are used to represent aspects of the real world for specific purposes, and mathematical models have opened up new approaches in studying the behavior and complexity of biological systems. However, modeling is often time-consuming and requires significant computational resources for data development, data analysis, and simulation. Computational modeling has been successfully applied as an aid for metabolic engineering in microorganisms. But such model-based approaches have only recently been extended to plant metabolic engineering, mainly due to greater pathway complexity in plants and their highly compartmentalized cellular structure. Recent progress in plant systems biology and bioinformatics has begun to disentangle this complexity and facilitate the creation of efficient plant metabolic models. This review highlights several aspects of plant metabolic modeling in the context of understanding, predicting and modifying complex plant metabolism. We discuss opportunities for engineering photosynthetic carbon metabolism, sucrose synthesis, and the tricarboxylic acid cycle in leaves and oil synthesis in seeds and the application of metabolic modeling to the study of plant acclimation to the environment. The aim of the review is to offer a current perspective for plant biologists without requiring specialized knowledge of bioinformatics or systems biology. © 2014 American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved.

  8. Citrate Defines a Regulatory Link Between Energy Metabolism and the Liver Hormone Hepcidin

    OpenAIRE

    Ladeira Courelas da Silva, Ana Rita

    2017-01-01

    Iron plays a critical role as an oxygen carrier in hemoglobin as well as a constituent of iron-sulfur clusters. Increasing evidence suggests that mechanisms maintaining iron homeostasis cross-talk to intermediary metabolism. The liver hormone hepcidin is the key regulator of systemic iron metabolism. Hepcidin transcriptional control is linked to the nutrient-sensing mTOR pathway, proliferative signals, gluconeogenic responses during starvation and hormones that modulate energy metabolism. The...

  9. Metabolic complications associated with HIV protease inhibitor therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolan, David

    2003-01-01

    HIV protease inhibitors were introduced into clinical practice over 7 years ago as an important component of combination antiretroviral drug regimens which in many ways revolutionised the treatment of HIV infection. The significant improvements in prognosis that have resulted from the use of these regimens, combined with the need for lifelong treatment, have increasingly focused attention on the adverse effects of antiretroviral drugs and on the metabolic complications of HIV protease inhibitors in particular. In this review, the cluster of metabolic abnormalities characterised by triglyceride-rich dyslipidaemia and insulin resistance associated with HIV protease inhibitor therapy are considered, along with implications for cardiovascular risk in patients affected by these complications. Toxicity profiles of individual drugs within the HIV protease inhibitor class are examined, as there is an increased recognition of significant intra-class differences both in terms of absolute risk of metabolic complications as well as the particular metabolic phenotype associated with these drugs. Guidelines for clinical assessment and treatment are emphasised, along with pathophysiological mechanisms that may provide a rational basis for the treatment of metabolic complications. Finally, these drug-specific effects are considered within the context of HIV-specific effects on lipid metabolism as well as lifestyle factors that have contributed to a rapidly increasing incidence of similar metabolic syndromes in the general population. These data highlight the importance of individualising patient management in terms of choice of antiretroviral regimen, assessment of metabolic outcomes and use of therapeutic interventions, based on the assessment of baseline (pre-treatment) metabolic status as well as the presence of potentially modifiable cardiovascular risk factors.

  10. Association between serum CA 19-9 and metabolic syndrome: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Rui; Cheng, Di; Lin, Lin; Sun, Jichao; Peng, Kui; Xu, Yu; Xu, Min; Chen, Yuhong; Bi, Yufang; Wang, Weiqing; Lu, Jieli; Ning, Guang

    2017-11-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that serum CA 19-9 is associated with abnormal glucose metabolism. However, data on the association between CA 19-9 and metabolic syndrome is limited. The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between serum CA 19-9 and metabolic syndrome. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 3641 participants aged ≥40 years from the Songnan Community, Baoshan District in Shanghai, China. Logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate the association between serum CA 19-9 and metabolic syndrome. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that compared with participants in the first tertile of serum CA 19-9, those in the second and third tertiles had increased odds ratios (OR) for prevalent metabolic syndrome (multivariate adjusted OR 1.46 [95% confidence interval {CI} 1.11-1.92] and 1.51 [95% CI 1.14-1.98]; P trend  = 0.005). In addition, participants with elevated serum CA 19-9 (≥37 U/mL) had an increased risk of prevalent metabolic syndrome compared with those with serum CA 19-9 metabolic syndrome. In order to confirm this association and identify potential mechanisms, prospective cohort and mechanic studies should be performed. © 2017 Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  11. A patient with foot ulcer and severe metabolic alkalosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, Ruby Samuel; Simoes, Sonia; Reddi, Alluru S

    2012-01-01

    We report a case of triple acid-base disorder with metabolic alkalosis as the primary disorder in a 65-year-old man due to ingestion and application to leg ulcers of baking soda (calcium bicarbonate). The blood pH was 7.65 with hypochloremia, hypokalemia, and prerenal azotemia. He was treated with isotonic saline with K replacement, and the patient improved without any adverse clinical consequences. We discuss the causes, mechanisms, and management of Cl-responsive (depletion) metabolic alkalosis.

  12. Biosynthesis and metabolic fate of phenylalanine in conifers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Belén Pascual

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The amino acid phenylalanine (Phe is a critical metabolic node that plays an essential role in the interconnection between primary and secondary metabolism in plants. Phe is used as a protein building block but it is also as a precursor for numerous plant compounds that are crucial for plant reproduction, growth, development and defense against different types of stresses. The metabolism of Phe plays a central role in the channeling of carbon from photosynthesis to the biosynthesis of phenylpropanoids. The study of this metabolic pathway is particularly relevant in trees, which divert large amounts of carbon into the biosynthesis of Phe-derived compounds, particularly lignin, an important constituent of wood. The trunks of trees are metabolic sinks that consume a considerable percentage of carbon and energy from photosynthesis, and carbon is finally immobilized in wood. This paper reviews recent advances in the biosynthesis and metabolic utilization of Phe in conifer trees. Two alternative routes have been identified: the ancient phenylpyruvate pathway that is present in microorganisms, and the arogenate pathway that possibly evolved later during plant evolution. Additionally, an efficient nitrogen recycling mechanism is required to maintain sustained growth during xylem formation. The relevance of phenylalanine metabolic pathways in wood formation, the biotic interactions and ultraviolet protection is discussed. The genetic manipulation and transcriptional regulation of the pathways are also outlined.

  13. Biosynthesis and Metabolic Fate of Phenylalanine in Conifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascual, María B; El-Azaz, Jorge; de la Torre, Fernando N; Cañas, Rafael A; Avila, Concepción; Cánovas, Francisco M

    2016-01-01

    The amino acid phenylalanine (Phe) is a critical metabolic node that plays an essential role in the interconnection between primary and secondary metabolism in plants. Phe is used as a protein building block but it is also as a precursor for numerous plant compounds that are crucial for plant reproduction, growth, development, and defense against different types of stresses. The metabolism of Phe plays a central role in the channeling of carbon from photosynthesis to the biosynthesis of phenylpropanoids. The study of this metabolic pathway is particularly relevant in trees, which divert large amounts of carbon into the biosynthesis of Phe-derived compounds, particularly lignin, an important constituent of wood. The trunks of trees are metabolic sinks that consume a considerable percentage of carbon and energy from photosynthesis, and carbon is finally immobilized in wood. This paper reviews recent advances in the biosynthesis and metabolic utilization of Phe in conifer trees. Two alternative routes have been identified: the ancient phenylpyruvate pathway that is present in microorganisms, and the arogenate pathway that possibly evolved later during plant evolution. Additionally, an efficient nitrogen recycling mechanism is required to maintain sustained growth during xylem formation. The relevance of phenylalanine metabolic pathways in wood formation, the biotic interactions, and ultraviolet protection is discussed. The genetic manipulation and transcriptional regulation of the pathways are also outlined.

  14. Metabolic fuel and clinical implications for female reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mircea, Carmen N; Lujan, Marla E; Pierson, Roger A

    2007-11-01

    Reproduction is a physiologically costly process that consumes significant amounts of energy. The physiological mechanisms controlling energy balance are closely linked to fertility. This close relationship ensures that pregnancy and lactation occur only in favourable conditions with respect to energy. The primary metabolic cue that modulates reproduction is the availability of oxidizable fuel. An organism's metabolic status is transmitted to the brain through metabolic fuel detectors. There are many of these detectors at both the peripheral (e.g., leptin, insulin, ghrelin) and central (e.g., neuropeptide Y, melanocortin, orexins) levels. When oxidizable fuel is scarce, the detectors function to inhibit the release of gonadotropin-releasing hormone and luteinizing hormone, thereby altering steroidogenesis, reproductive cyclicity, and sexual behaviour. Infertility can also result when resources are abundant but food intake fails to compensate for increased energy demands. Examples of these conditions in women include anorexia nervosa and exercise-induced amenorrhea. Infertility associated with obesity appears to be less related to an effect of oxidizable fuel on the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis. Impaired insulin sensitivity may play a role in the etiology of these conditions, but their specific etiology remains unresolved. Research into the metabolic regulation of reproductive function has implications for elucidating mechanisms of impaired pubertal development, nutritional amenorrhea, and obesity-related infertility. A better understanding of these etiologies has far-reaching implications for the prevention and management of reproductive dysfunction and its associated comorbidities.

  15. Brain Energy and Oxygen Metabolism: Emerging Role in Normal Function and Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle E. Watts

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Dynamic metabolic changes occurring in neurons are critically important in directing brain plasticity and cognitive function. In other tissue types, disruptions to metabolism and the resultant changes in cellular oxidative state, such as increased reactive oxygen species (ROS or induction of hypoxia, are associated with cellular stress. In the brain however, where drastic metabolic shifts occur to support physiological processes, subsequent changes to cellular oxidative state and induction of transcriptional sensors of oxidative stress likely play a significant role in regulating physiological neuronal function. Understanding the role of metabolism and metabolically-regulated genes in neuronal function will be critical in elucidating how cognitive functions are disrupted in pathological conditions where neuronal metabolism is affected. Here, we discuss known mechanisms regulating neuronal metabolism as well as the role of hypoxia and oxidative stress during normal and disrupted neuronal function. We also summarize recent studies implicating a role for metabolism in regulating neuronal plasticity as an emerging neuroscience paradigm.

  16. Metabolic engineering of Bacillus subtilis fueled by systems biology: Recent advances and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yanfeng; Li, Jianghua; Du, Guocheng; Chen, Jian; Liu, Long

    By combining advanced omics technology and computational modeling, systems biologists have identified and inferred thousands of regulatory events and system-wide interactions of the bacterium Bacillus subtilis, which is commonly used both in the laboratory and in industry. This dissection of the multiple layers of regulatory networks and their interactions has provided invaluable information for unraveling regulatory mechanisms and guiding metabolic engineering. In this review, we discuss recent advances in the systems biology and metabolic engineering of B. subtilis and highlight current gaps in our understanding of global metabolism and global pathway engineering in this organism. We also propose future perspectives in the systems biology of B. subtilis and suggest ways that this approach can be used to guide metabolic engineering. Specifically, although hundreds of regulatory events have been identified or inferred via systems biology approaches, systematic investigation of the functionality of these events in vivo has lagged, thereby preventing the elucidation of regulatory mechanisms and further rational pathway engineering. In metabolic engineering, ignoring the engineering of multilayer regulation hinders metabolic flux redistribution. Post-translational engineering, allosteric engineering, and dynamic pathway analyses and control will also contribute to the modulation and control of the metabolism of engineered B. subtilis, ultimately producing the desired cellular traits. We hope this review will aid metabolic engineers in making full use of available systems biology datasets and approaches for the design and perfection of microbial cell factories through global metabolism optimization. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Sequences of Regressions Distinguish Nonmechanical from Mechanical Associations between Metabolic Factors, Body Composition, and Bone in Healthy Postmenopausal Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solis-Trapala, Ivonne; Schoenmakers, Inez; Goldberg, Gail R; Prentice, Ann; Ward, Kate A

    2016-03-09

    There is increasing recognition of complex interrelations between the endocrine functions of bone and fat tissues or organs. The objective was to describe nonmechanical and mechanical links between metabolic factors, body composition, and bone with the use of graphical Markov models. Seventy postmenopausal women with a mean ± SD age of 62.3 ± 3.7 y and body mass index (in kg/m 2 ) of 24.9 ± 3.8 were recruited. Bone outcomes were peripheral quantitative computed tomography measures of the distal and diaphyseal tibia, cross-sectional area (CSA), volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD), and cortical CSA. Biomarkers of osteoblast and adipocyte function were plasma concentrations of leptin, adiponectin, osteocalcin, undercarboxylated osteocalcin (UCOC), and phylloquinone. Body composition measurements were lean and percent fat mass, which were derived with the use of a 4-compartment model. Sequences of Regressions, a subclass of graphical Markov models, were used to describe the direct (nonmechanical) and indirect (mechanical) interrelations between metabolic factors and bone by simultaneously modeling multiple bone outcomes and their relation with biomarker outcomes with lean mass, percent fat mass, and height as intermediate explanatory variables. The graphical Markov models showed both direct and indirect associations linking plasma leptin and adiponectin concentrations with CSA and vBMD. At the distal tibia, lean mass, height, and adiponectin-UCOC interaction were directly explanatory of CSA (R 2 = 0.45); at the diaphysis, lean mass, percent fat mass, leptin, osteocalcin, and age-adiponectin interaction were directly explanatory of CSA (R 2 = 0.49). The regression models exploring direct associations for vBMD were much weaker, with R 2 = 0.15 and 0.18 at the distal and diaphyseal sites, respectively. Lean mass and UCOC were associated, and the global Markov property of the graph indicated that this association was explained by osteocalcin. This study, to our

  18. Dissection of Biological Property of Chinese Acupuncture Point Zusanli Based on Long-Term Treatment via Modulating Multiple Metabolic Pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangli Yan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Acupuncture has a history of over 3000 years and is a traditional Chinese medical therapy that uses hair-thin metal needles to puncture the skin at specific points on the body to promote wellbeing, while its molecular mechanism and ideal biological pathways are still not clear. High-throughput metabolomics is the global assessment of endogenous metabolites within a biologic system and can potentially provide a more accurate snap shot of the actual physiological state. We hypothesize that acupuncture-treated human would produce unique characterization of metabolic phenotypes. In this study, UPLC/ESI-HDMS coupled with pattern recognition methods and system analysis were carried out to investigate the mechanism and metabolite biomarkers for acupuncture treatment at “Zusanli” acupoint (ST-36 as a case study. The top 5 canonical pathways including alpha-linolenic acid metabolism, d-glutamine and d-glutamate metabolism, citrate cycle, alanine, aspartate, and glutamate metabolism, and vitamin B6 metabolism pathways were acutely perturbed, and 53 differential metabolites were identified by chemical profiling and may be useful to clarify the physiological basis and mechanism of ST-36. More importantly, network construction has led to the integration of metabolites associated with the multiple perturbation pathways. Urine metabolic profiling might be a promising method to investigate the molecular mechanism of acupuncture.

  19. Dissection of Biological Property of Chinese Acupuncture Point Zusanli Based on Long-Term Treatment via Modulating Multiple Metabolic Pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Guangli; Zhang, Aihua; Sun, Hui; Cheng, Weiping; Meng, Xiangcai; Liu, Li; Zhang, Yingzhi; Xie, Ning; Wang, Xijun

    2013-01-01

    Acupuncture has a history of over 3000 years and is a traditional Chinese medical therapy that uses hair-thin metal needles to puncture the skin at specific points on the body to promote wellbeing, while its molecular mechanism and ideal biological pathways are still not clear. High-throughput metabolomics is the global assessment of endogenous metabolites within a biologic system and can potentially provide a more accurate snap shot of the actual physiological state. We hypothesize that acupuncture-treated human would produce unique characterization of metabolic phenotypes. In this study, UPLC/ESI-HDMS coupled with pattern recognition methods and system analysis were carried out to investigate the mechanism and metabolite biomarkers for acupuncture treatment at "Zusanli" acupoint (ST-36) as a case study. The top 5 canonical pathways including alpha-linolenic acid metabolism, d-glutamine and d-glutamate metabolism, citrate cycle, alanine, aspartate, and glutamate metabolism, and vitamin B6 metabolism pathways were acutely perturbed, and 53 differential metabolites were identified by chemical profiling and may be useful to clarify the physiological basis and mechanism of ST-36. More importantly, network construction has led to the integration of metabolites associated with the multiple perturbation pathways. Urine metabolic profiling might be a promising method to investigate the molecular mechanism of acupuncture.

  20. Pharmacogenomic and clinical data link non-pharmacokinetic metabolic dysregulation to drug side effect pathogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zielinski, Daniel C.; Filipp, F. V.; Bordbar, A.

    2015-01-01

    Drug side effects cause a significant clinical and economic burden. However, mechanisms of drug action underlying side effect pathogenesis remain largely unknown. Here, we integrate pharmacogenomic and clinical data with a human metabolic network and find that non-pharmacokinetic metabolic pathways...

  1. Obesity, metabolic dysfunction and cardiac fibrosis: pathophysiologic pathways, molecular mechanisms and therapeutic opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalera, Michele; Wang, Junhong; Frangogiannis, Nikolaos G

    2014-01-01

    Cardiac fibrosis is strongly associated with obesity and metabolic dysfunction and may contribute to the increased incidence of heart failure, atrial arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death in obese subjects. Our review discusses the evidence linking obesity and myocardial fibrosis in animal models and human patients, focusing on the fundamental pathophysiologic alterations that may trigger fibrogenic signaling, the cellular effectors of fibrosis and the molecular signals that may regulate the fibrotic response. Obesity is associated with a wide range of pathophysiologic alterations (such as pressure and volume overload, metabolic dysregulation, neurohumoral activation and systemic inflammation); their relative role in mediating cardiac fibrosis is poorly defined. Activation of fibroblasts likely plays a major role in obesity-associated fibrosis; however, inflammatory cells, cardiomyocytes and vascular cells may also contribute to fibrogenic signaling. Several molecular processes have been implicated in regulation of the fibrotic response in obesity. Activation of the Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System, induction of Transforming Growth Factor-β, oxidative stress, advanced glycation end-products (AGEs), endothelin-1, Rho-kinase signaling, leptin-mediated actions and upregulation of matricellular proteins (such as thrombospondin-1) may play a role in the development of fibrosis in models of obesity and metabolic dysfunction. Moreover, experimental evidence suggests that obesity and insulin resistance profoundly affect the fibrotic and remodeling response following cardiac injury. Understanding the pathways implicated in obesity-associated fibrosis may lead to development of novel therapies to prevent heart failure and to attenuate post-infarction cardiac remodeling in obese patients. PMID:24880146

  2. A Synthetic Alternative to Canonical One-Carbon Metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouzon, Madeleine; Perret, Alain; Loreau, Olivier; Delmas, Valérie; Perchat, Nadia; Weissenbach, Jean; Taran, Frédéric; Marlière, Philippe

    2017-08-18

    One-carbon metabolism is an ubiquitous metabolic pathway that encompasses the reactions transferring formyl-, hydroxymethyl- and methyl-groups bound to tetrahydrofolate for the synthesis of purine nucleotides, thymidylate, methionine and dehydropantoate, the precursor of coenzyme A. An alternative cyclic pathway was designed that substitutes 4-hydroxy-2-oxobutanoic acid (HOB), a compound absent from known metabolism, for the amino acids serine and glycine as one-carbon donors. It involves two novel reactions, the transamination of l-homoserine and the transfer of a one-carbon unit from HOB to tetrahydrofolate releasing pyruvate as coproduct. Since canonical reactions regenerate l-homoserine from pyruvate by carboxylation and subsequent reduction, every one-carbon moiety made available for anabolic reactions originates from CO 2 . The HOB-dependent pathway was established in an Escherichia coli auxotroph selected for prototrophy using long-term cultivation protocols. Genetic, metabolic and biochemical evidence support the emergence of a functional HOB-dependent one-carbon pathway achieved with the recruitment of the two enzymes l-homoserine transaminase and HOB-hydroxymethyltransferase and of HOB as an essential metabolic intermediate. Escherichia coli biochemical reprogramming was achieved by minimally altering canonical metabolism and leveraging on natural selection mechanisms, thereby launching the resulting strain on an evolutionary trajectory diverging from all known extant species.

  3. The metabolic impact of methamphetamine on the systemic metabolism of rats and potential markers of methamphetamine abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Tian; Liu, Linsheng; Shi, Jian; Yu, Xiaoyi; Xiao, Wenjing; Sun, Runbing; Zhou, Yahong; Aa, Jiye; Wang, Guangji

    2014-07-01

    Although the stimulating and psychotropic effects of methamphetamine (METH) on the nervous system are well documented, the impact of METH abuse on biological metabolism and the turnover of peripheral transmitters are poorly understood. Metabolomics has the potential to reveal the effect of METH abuse on systemic metabolism and potential markers suggesting the underlying mechanism of toxicity. In this study, male Sprague Dawley rats were intraperitoneally injected with METH at escalating doses of mg kg(-1) for 5 consecutive days and then were withdrawn for 2 days. The metabolites in the serum and urine were profiled and the systemic effects of METH on metabolic pathways were evaluated. Multivariate statistical analysis showed that METH caused distinct deviations, whereas the withdrawal of METH restored the metabolic patterns towards baseline. METH administration elevated energy metabolism, which was manifested by the distinct depletion of branched-chain amino acids, accelerated tricarboxylic-acid cycle and lipid metabolism, reduced serum glycerol-3-phosphate, and elevated serum and urinary 3-hydroxybutyrate and urinary glycerol. In addition to the increased serum levels of the excitatory amino acids glutamate and aspartate (the inhibitory neurotransmitters in the brain), a marked decline in serum alanine and glycine after METH treatment suggested the activation and decreased inhibition of the nervous system and hence elevated nervous activity. Withdrawal of METH for 2 days efficiently restored all but a few metabolites to baseline, including serum creatinine, citrate, 2-ketoglutarate, and urinary lactate. Therefore, these metabolites are potential markers of METH use, and they may be used to facilitate the diagnosis of METH abuse.

  4. Resistance to Antiangiogenic Therapies by Metabolic Symbiosis in Renal Cell Carcinoma PDX Models and Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Jiménez-Valerio

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Antiangiogenic drugs are used clinically for treatment of renal cell carcinoma (RCC as a standard first-line treatment. Nevertheless, these agents primarily serve to stabilize disease, and resistance eventually develops concomitant with progression. Here, we implicate metabolic symbiosis between tumor cells distal and proximal to remaining vessels as a mechanism of resistance to antiangiogenic therapies in patient-derived RCC orthoxenograft (PDX models and in clinical samples. This metabolic patterning is regulated by the mTOR pathway, and its inhibition effectively blocks metabolic symbiosis in PDX models. Clinically, patients treated with antiangiogenics consistently present with histologic signatures of metabolic symbiosis that are exacerbated in resistant tumors. Furthermore, the mTOR pathway is also associated in clinical samples, and its inhibition eliminates symbiotic patterning in patient samples. Overall, these data support a mechanism of resistance to antiangiogenics involving metabolic compartmentalization of tumor cells that can be inhibited by mTOR-targeted drugs.

  5. Studies on the utility and mechanism of the V-79 cell metabolic cooperation assay for tumor promoters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartman, T.G.

    1985-01-01

    Cigarette smoke condensate and its fractions were tested for activity in the V-79 Metabolic Cooperation Assay to determine the usefulness of the assay for analysis of a complex mixture and to compare the results obtained with previously conducted in vivo promoter assays. The whole condensate and several of its fractions were positive in the assay. In general, the Metabolic Cooperation Assay results were comparable to previously published results obtained on mouse skin. The effect of cell density, phorbol 12-myrystate-13-acetate (PMA) exposure time, concentration, pre-exposure and binding activity on the recovery of mutant V-79 Chinese hamster lung fibroblasts in the Metabolic Cooperation Assay was determined. A PMA exposure interval of only 1 minute resulted in maximum recovery of mutant cells. PMA began to inhibit metabolic cooperation at an exposure concentration of 0.1 ng/ml. Pre-exposure of cells to PMA increased the recovery of both post-PMA-treated and non-treated mutant cells in a dose-dependent manner. 3 H-PMA was rapidly bound to or taken up by the V-79 cells under assay conditions. The effect of calcium antagonists and representative compounds from several classes of anti-promoters including anti-inflammatory sterols, protease inhibitors, retinoids and cyclic nucleotides on metabolic determined. Each compound was tested for its effect on metabolic cooperation and also for its ability to reverse or modify the inhibitory properties of PMA on inter-cellular communication. Of all the compounds tested only cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) was able to antagonize the inhibitory effect of PMA

  6. PCSK9 and triglyceride-rich lipoprotein metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Druce, I; Abujrad, H; Ooi, T C

    2015-07-20

    Pro-protein convertase subtilisin-kexin 9 (PCSK9) is known to affect low-density lipoprotein (LDL) metabolism, but there are indications from several lines of research that it may also influence the metabolism of other lipoproteins, especially triglyceride-rich lipoproteins (TRL). This review summarizes the current data on this possible role of PCSK9. A link between PCSK9 and TRL has been suggested through the demonstration of (1) a correlation between plasma PCSK9 and triglyceride (TG) levels in health and disease, (2) a correlation between plasma PCSK9 and markers of carbohydrate metabolism, which is closely related to TG metabolism, (3) an effect of TG-lowering fibrate therapy on plasma PCSK9 levels, (4) an effect of PCSK9 on postprandial lipemia, (5) an effect of PCSK9 on adipose tissue biology, (6) an effect of PCSK9 on apolipoprotein B production from the liver and intestines, (7) an effect of PCSK9 on receptors other than low density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) that are involved in TRL metabolism, and (8) an effect of anti-PCSK9 therapy on serum TG levels. The underlying mechanisms are unclear but starting to emerge. © 2015 the Journal of Biomedical Research. All rights reserved.

  7. Endothelial dysfunction in metabolic and vascular disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polovina, Marija M; Potpara, Tatjana S

    2014-03-01

    Vascular endothelium has important regulatory functions in the cardiovascular system and a pivotal role in the maintenance of vascular health and metabolic homeostasis. It has long been recognized that endothelial dysfunction participates in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis from early, preclinical lesions to advanced, thrombotic complications. In addition, endothelial dysfunction has been recently implicated in the development of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Considering that states of insulin resistance (eg, metabolic syndrome, impaired fasting glucose, impaired glucose tolerance, and T2DM) represent the most prevalent metabolic disorders and risk factors for atherosclerosis, it is of considerable scientific and clinical interest that both metabolic and vascular disorders have endothelial dysfunction as a common background. Importantly, endothelial dysfunction has been associated with adverse outcomes in patients with established cardiovascular disease, and a growing body of evidence indicates that endothelial dysfunction also imparts adverse prognosis in states of insulin resistance. In this review, we discuss the association of insulin resistance and T2DM with endothelial dysfunction and vascular disease, with a focus on the underlying mechanisms and prognostic implications of the endothelial dysfunction in metabolic and vascular disorders. We also address current therapeutic strategies for the improvement of endothelial dysfunction.

  8. 1H NMR Metabolic Profiling of Biofluids from Rats with Gastric Mucosal Lesion and Electroacupuncture Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingjing Xu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Gastric mucosal lesion (GML is a common gastrointestinal disorder with multiple pathogenic mechanisms in clinical practice. In traditional Chinese medicine (TCM, electroacupuncture (EA treatment has been proven as an effective therapy for GML, although the underlying healing mechanism is not yet clear. Here, we used proton nuclear magnetic resonance- (1H NMR- based metabolomic method to investigate the metabolic perturbation induced by GML and the therapeutic effect of EA treatment on stomach meridian (SM acupoints. Clear metabolic differences were observed between GML and control groups, and related metabolic pathways were discussed by means of online metabolic network analysis toolbox. By comparing the endogenous metabolites from GML and GML-SM groups, the disturbed pathways were partly recovered towards healthy state via EA treated on SM acupoints. Further comparison of the metabolic variations induced by EA stimulated on SM and the control gallbladder meridian (GM acupoints showed a quite similar metabolite composition except for increased phenylacetylglycine, 3,4-dihydroxymandelate, and meta-hydroxyphenylacetate and decreased N-methylnicotinamide in urine from rats with EA treated on SM acupoints. The current study showed the potential application of metabolomics in providing further insight into the molecular mechanism of acupuncture.

  9. Possible mechanism for changes in glycogen metabolism in unloaded soleus muscle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriksen, E. J.; Tischler, M. E.

    1985-01-01

    Carbohydrate metabolism has been shown to be affected in a number of ways by different models of hypokinesia. In vivo glycogen levels in the soleus muscle are known to be increased by short-term denervation and harness suspension. In addition, exposure to 7 days of hypogravity also caused a dramatic increase in glycogen concentration in this muscle. The biochemical alterations caused by unloading that may bring about these increases in glycogen storage in the soleus were sought.

  10. Lipotoxicity in macrophages: evidence from diseases associated with the metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prieur, Xavier; Roszer, Tamás; Ricote, Mercedes

    2010-03-01

    Accumulation of lipid metabolites within non-adipose tissues can induce chronic inflammation by promoting macrophage infiltration and activation. Oxidized and glycated lipoproteins, free fatty acids, free cholesterol, triacylglycerols, diacylglycerols and ceramides have long been known to induce cellular dysfunction through their pro-inflammatory and pro-apoptotic properties. Emerging evidence suggests that macrophage activation by lipid metabolites and further modulation by lipid signaling represents a common pathogenic mechanism underlying lipotoxicity in atherosclerosis, obesity-associated insulin resistance and inflammatory diseases related to metabolic syndrome such as liver steatosis and chronic kidney disease. In this review, we discuss the latest discoveries that support the role of lipids in modulating the macrophage phenotype in different metabolic diseases. We describe the common mechanisms by which lipid derivatives, through modulation of macrophage function, promote plaque instability in the arterial wall, impair insulin responsiveness and contribute to inflammatory liver, muscle and kidney disease. We discuss the molecular mechanism of lipid activation of pro-inflammatory pathways (JNK, NFkappaB) and the key roles played by the PPAR and LXR nuclear receptors-lipid sensors that link lipid metabolism and inflammation. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Danazol alters mitochondria metabolism of fibrocystic breast Mcf10A cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irgebay, Zhazira; Yeszhan, Banu; Sen, Bhaswati; Tuleukhanov, Sultan; Brooks, Ari D; Sensenig, Richard; Orynbayeva, Zulfiya

    2017-10-01

    Fibrocystic Breast Disease (FBD) or Fibrocystic change (FC) affects about 60% of women at some time during their life. Although usually benign, it is often associated with pain and tenderness (mastalgia). The synthetic steroid danazol has been shown to be effective in reducing the pain associated with FBD, but the cellular and molecular mechanisms for its action have not been elucidated. We investigated the hypothesis that danazol acts by affecting energy metabolism. Effects of danazol on Mcf10A cells homeostasis, including mechanisms of oxidative phosphorylation, cytosolic calcium signaling and oxidative stress, were assessed by high-resolution respirometry and flow cytometry. In addition to fast physiological responses the associated genomic modulations were evaluated by Affimetrix microarray analysis. The alterations of mitochondria membrane potential and respiratory activity, downregulation of energy metabolism transcripts result in suppression of energy homeostasis and arrest of Mcf10A cells growth. The data obtained in this study impacts the recognition of direct control of mitochondria by cellular mechanisms associated with altered energy metabolism genes governing the breast tissue susceptibility and response to medication by danazol. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Fructose, insulin resistance, and metabolic dyslipidemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adeli Khosrow

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Obesity and type 2 diabetes are occurring at epidemic rates in the United States and many parts of the world. The "obesity epidemic" appears to have emerged largely from changes in our diet and reduced physical activity. An important but not well-appreciated dietary change has been the substantial increase in the amount of dietary fructose consumption from high intake of sucrose and high fructose corn syrup, a common sweetener used in the food industry. A high flux of fructose to the liver, the main organ capable of metabolizing this simple carbohydrate, perturbs glucose metabolism and glucose uptake pathways, and leads to a significantly enhanced rate of de novo lipogenesis and triglyceride (TG synthesis, driven by the high flux of glycerol and acyl portions of TG molecules from fructose catabolism. These metabolic disturbances appear to underlie the induction of insulin resistance commonly observed with high fructose feeding in both humans and animal models. Fructose-induced insulin resistant states are commonly characterized by a profound metabolic dyslipidemia, which appears to result from hepatic and intestinal overproduction of atherogenic lipoprotein particles. Thus, emerging evidence from recent epidemiological and biochemical studies clearly suggests that the high dietary intake of fructose has rapidly become an important causative factor in the development of the metabolic syndrome. There is an urgent need for increased public awareness of the risks associated with high fructose consumption and greater efforts should be made to curb the supplementation of packaged foods with high fructose additives. The present review will discuss the trends in fructose consumption, the metabolic consequences of increased fructose intake, and the molecular mechanisms leading to fructose-induced lipogenesis, insulin resistance and metabolic dyslipidemia.

  13. The Emerging Role of Branched-Chain Amino Acids in Insulin Resistance and Metabolism

    OpenAIRE

    Yoon, Mee-Sup

    2016-01-01

    Insulin is required for maintenance of glucose homeostasis. Despite the importance of insulin sensitivity to metabolic health, the mechanisms that induce insulin resistance remain unclear. Branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) belong to the essential amino acids, which are both direct and indirect nutrient signals. Even though BCAAs have been reported to improve metabolic health, an increased BCAA plasma level is associated with a high risk of metabolic disorder and future insulin resistance, or...

  14. Spectrum of metabolic myopathies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelini, Corrado

    2015-04-01

    Metabolic myopathies are disorders of utilization of carbohydrates or fat in muscles. The acute nature of energy failure is manifested either by a metabolic crisis with weakness, sometimes associated with respiratory failure, or by myoglobinuria. A typical disorder where permanent weakness occurs is glycogenosis type II (GSDII or Pompe disease) both in infantile and late-onset forms, where respiratory insufficiency is manifested by a large number of cases. In GSDII the pathogenetic mechanism is still poorly understood, and has to be attributed more to structural muscle alterations, possibly in correlation to macro-autophagy, rather than to energetic failure. This review is focused on recent advances about GSDII and its treatment, and the most recent notions about the management and treatment of other metabolic myopathies will be briefly reviewed, including glycogenosis type V (McArdle disease), glycogenosis type III (debrancher enzyme deficiency or Cori disease), CPT-II deficiency, and ETF-dehydrogenase deficiency (also known as riboflavin-responsive multiple acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency or RR-MADD). The discovery of the genetic defect in ETF dehydrogenase confirms the etiology of this syndrome. Other metabolic myopathies with massive lipid storage and weakness are carnitine deficiency, neutral lipid storage-myopathy (NLSD-M), besides RR-MADD. Enzyme replacement therapy is presented with critical consideration and for each of the lipid storage disorders, representative cases and their response to therapy is included. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Neuromuscular Diseases: Pathology and Molecular Pathogenesis. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Mechanism of potassium depletion during chronic metabolic acidosis in the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scandling, J.D.; Ornt, D.B.

    1987-01-01

    Pair-fed rats on a normal K diet were given either 1.5% NH 4 Cl or water for 4 days. The acid-fed animals developed metabolic acidosis, negative K balance, and K depletion. Urinary Na excretion and urinary flow were not different between the groups beyond the first day. After the 4 days, isolated kidneys from animals in each of these groups were perfused at normal pH and bicarbonate concentrations. Urinary K excretion was similar between the groups despite the potassium depletion in the acid-fed animals. In contrast, isolated kidneys from animals with comparable K depletion induced by dietary K restriction readily conserved K. Sodium excretion and urinary flow were similar among the three groups of isolated kidneys. Plasma aldosterone concentrations were greater in the acid-fed rats after the 4 days of NH 4 Cl ingestion than in the control animals. Adrenalectomized rats were treated with either normal (4 μg/day) or high (22 μg/day) aldosterone replacement while ingesting NH 4 Cl for 4 days. Only in the presence of high aldosterone replacement did the acid-fed adrenalectomized animals develop K depletion. The authors conclude that chronic metabolic acidosis stimulates aldosterone secretion, and that aldosterone maintains the inappropriately high urinary potassium excretion and K depletion seen in this acid-base disorder

  16. Deranged Cardiac Metabolism and the Pathogenesis of Heart Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Activation of the neuro-hormonal system is a pathophysiological consequence of heart failure. Neuro-hormonal activation promotes metabolic changes, such as insulin resistance, and determines an increased use of non-carbohydrate substrates for energy production. Fasting blood ketone bodies as well as fat oxidation are increased in patients with heart failure, yielding a state of metabolic inefficiency. The net result is additional depletion of myocardial adenosine triphosphate, phosphocreatine and creatine kinase levels with further decreased efficiency of mechanical work. In this context, manipulation of cardiac energy metabolism by modification of substrate use by the failing heart has produced positive clinical results. The results of current research support the concept that shifting the energy substrate preference away from fatty acid metabolism and towards glucose metabolism could be an effective adjunctive treatment in patients with heart failure. The additional use of drugs able to partially inhibit fatty acids oxidation in patients with heart failure may therefore yield a significant protective effect for clinical symptoms and cardiac function improvement, and simultaneously ameliorate left ventricular remodelling. Certainly, to clarify the exact therapeutic role of metabolic therapy in heart failure, a large multicentre, randomised controlled trial should be performed. PMID:28785448

  17. Phase I to II cross-induction of xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes: A feedforward control mechanism for potential hormetic responses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Qiang; Pi Jingbo; Woods, Courtney G.; Andersen, Melvin E.

    2009-01-01

    Hormetic responses to xenobiotic exposure likely occur as a result of overcompensation by the homeostatic control systems operating in biological organisms. However, the mechanisms underlying overcompensation that leads to hormesis are still unclear. A well-known homeostatic circuit in the cell is the gene induction network comprising phase I, II and III metabolizing enzymes, which are responsible for xenobiotic detoxification, and in many cases, bioactivation. By formulating a differential equation-based computational model, we investigated in this study whether hormesis can arise from the operation of this gene/enzyme network. The model consists of two feedback and one feedforward controls. With the phase I negative feedback control, xenobiotic X activates nuclear receptors to induce cytochrome P450 enzyme, which bioactivates X into a reactive metabolite X'. With the phase II negative feedback control, X' activates transcription factor Nrf2 to induce phase II enzymes such as glutathione S-transferase and glutamate cysteine ligase, etc., which participate in a set of reactions that lead to the metabolism of X' into a less toxic conjugate X''. The feedforward control involves phase I to II cross-induction, in which the parent chemical X can also induce phase II enzymes directly through the nuclear receptor and indirectly through transcriptionally upregulating Nrf2. As a result of the active feedforward control, a steady-state hormetic relationship readily arises between the concentrations of the reactive metabolite X' and the extracellular parent chemical X to which the cell is exposed. The shape of dose-response evolves over time from initially monotonically increasing to J-shaped at the final steady state-a temporal sequence consistent with adaptation-mediated hormesis. The magnitude of the hormetic response is enhanced by increases in the feedforward gain, but attenuated by increases in the bioactivation or phase II feedback loop gains. Our study suggests a

  18. Phase I to II cross-induction of xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes: a feedforward control mechanism for potential hormetic responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qiang; Pi, Jingbo; Woods, Courtney G; Andersen, Melvin E

    2009-06-15

    Hormetic responses to xenobiotic exposure likely occur as a result of overcompensation by the homeostatic control systems operating in biological organisms. However, the mechanisms underlying overcompensation that leads to hormesis are still unclear. A well-known homeostatic circuit in the cell is the gene induction network comprising phase I, II and III metabolizing enzymes, which are responsible for xenobiotic detoxification, and in many cases, bioactivation. By formulating a differential equation-based computational model, we investigated in this study whether hormesis can arise from the operation of this gene/enzyme network. The model consists of two feedback and one feedforward controls. With the phase I negative feedback control, xenobiotic X activates nuclear receptors to induce cytochrome P450 enzyme, which bioactivates X into a reactive metabolite X'. With the phase II negative feedback control, X' activates transcription factor Nrf2 to induce phase II enzymes such as glutathione S-transferase and glutamate cysteine ligase, etc., which participate in a set of reactions that lead to the metabolism of X' into a less toxic conjugate X''. The feedforward control involves phase I to II cross-induction, in which the parent chemical X can also induce phase II enzymes directly through the nuclear receptor and indirectly through transcriptionally upregulating Nrf2. As a result of the active feedforward control, a steady-state hormetic relationship readily arises between the concentrations of the reactive metabolite X' and the extracellular parent chemical X to which the cell is exposed. The shape of dose-response evolves over time from initially monotonically increasing to J-shaped at the final steady state-a temporal sequence consistent with adaptation-mediated hormesis. The magnitude of the hormetic response is enhanced by increases in the feedforward gain, but attenuated by increases in the bioactivation or phase II feedback loop gains. Our study suggests a

  19. Free fatty acids and their metabolism affect function and survival of podocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonas eSieber

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Podocyte injury and loss critically contribute to the pathogenesis of proteinuric kidney diseases including diabetic nephropathy. Deregulated lipid metabolism with disturbed free fatty acid (FFA metabolism is a characteristic of metabolically unhealthy obesity and type 2 diabetes and likely contributes to end-stage kidney disease irrespective of the underlying kidney disease. In the current review we summarize recent findings related to FFAs and altered renal FFA metabolism with a special focus on podocytes. We will outline the opposing effects of saturated and monounsaturated FFAs and a particular emphasis will be given to the underlying molecular mechanisms involving insulin resistance and endoplasmic reticulum homeostasis. Finally, recent data suggesting a critical role of renal FFA metabolism to adapt to an altered lipid environment will be discussed.

  20. Organ-specific metabolic responses to drought in Pinus pinaster Ait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Miguel, Marina; Guevara, M Ángeles; Sánchez-Gómez, David; de María, Nuria; Díaz, Luis Manuel; Mancha, Jose A; Fernández de Simón, Brígida; Cadahía, Estrella; Desai, Nalini; Aranda, Ismael; Cervera, María-Teresa

    2016-05-01

    Drought is an important driver of plant survival, growth, and distribution. Water deficit affects different pathways of metabolism, depending on plant organ. While previous studies have mainly focused on the metabolic drought response of a single organ, analysis of metabolic differences between organs is essential to achieve an integrated understanding of the whole plant response. In this work, untargeted metabolic profiling was used to examine the response of roots, stems, adult and juvenile needles from Pinus pinaster Ait. full-sib individuals, subjected to a moderate and long lasting drought period. Cyclitols content showed a significant alteration, in response to drought in all organs examined, but other metabolites increased or decreased differentially depending on the analyzed organ. While a high number of flavonoids were only detected in aerial organs, an induction of the glutathione pathway was mainly detected in roots. This result may reflect different antioxidant mechanisms activated in aerial organs and roots. Metabolic changes were more remarkable in roots than in the other organs, highlighting its prominent role in the response to water stress. Significant changes in flavonoids and ascorbate metabolism were also observed between adult and juvenile needles, consistent with previously proven differential functional responses between the two developmental stages. Genetic polymorphisms in candidate genes coding for a Myb1 transcription factor and a malate dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.1.37) were associated with different concentration of phenylalanine, phenylpropanoids and malate, respectively. The results obtained will support further research on metabolites and genes potentially involved in functional mechanisms related to drought tolerance in trees. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Metabolic vs. hedonic obesity: a conceptual distinction and its clinical implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y.; Mechanick, J. I.; Korner, J.; Peterli, R.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Body weight is determined via both metabolic and hedonic mechanisms. Metabolic regulation of body weight centres around the ‘body weight set point’, which is programmed by energy balance circuitry in the hypothalamus and other specific brain regions. The metabolic body weight set point has a genetic basis, but exposure to an obesogenic environment may elicit allostatic responses and upward drift of the set point, leading to a higher maintained body weight. However, an elevated steady‐state body weight may also be achieved without an alteration of the metabolic set point, via sustained hedonic over‐eating, which is governed by the reward system of the brain and can override homeostatic metabolic signals. While hedonic signals are potent influences in determining food intake, metabolic regulation involves the active control of both food intake and energy expenditure. When overweight is due to elevation of the metabolic set point (‘metabolic obesity’), energy expenditure theoretically falls onto the standard energy–mass regression line. In contrast, when a steady‐state weight is above the metabolic set point due to hedonic over‐eating (‘hedonic obesity’), a persistent compensatory increase in energy expenditure per unit metabolic mass may be demonstrable. Recognition of the two types of obesity may lead to more effective treatment and prevention of obesity. PMID:25588316

  2. Inflammation and metabolic disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navab, Mohamad; Gharavi, Nima; Watson, Andrew D

    2008-07-01

    Poor nutrition, overweight and obesity have increasingly become a public health concern as they affect many metabolic disorders, including heart disease, diabetes, digestive system disorders, and renal failure. Study of the effects of life style including healthy nutrition will help further elucidate the mechanisms involved in the adverse effects of poor nutrition. Unhealthy life style including poor nutrition can result in imbalance in our oxidation/redox systems. Lipids can undergo oxidative modification by lipoxygenases, cyclooxygenases, myeloperoxidase, and other enzymes. Oxidized phospholipids can induce inflammatory molecules in the liver and other organs. This can contribute to inflammation, leading to coronary heart disease, stroke, renal failure, inflammatory bowl disease, metabolic syndrome, bone and joint disorders, and even certain types of cancer. Our antioxidant and antiinflammatory defense mechanisms contribute to a balance between the stimulators and the inhibitors of inflammation. Beyond a point, however, these systems might be overwhelmed and eventually fail. High-density lipoprotein is a potent inhibitor of the formation of toxic oxidized lipids. High-density lipoprotein is also an effective system for stimulating the genes whose products are active in the removal, inactivation, and elimination of toxic lipids. Supporting the high-density lipoprotein function should help maintain the balance in these systems. It is hoped that the present report would elucidate some of the ongoing work toward this goal.

  3. Sleep and metabolism: role of hypothalamic neuronal circuitry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolls, Asya; Schaich Borg, Jana; de Lecea, Luis

    2010-10-01

    Sleep and metabolism are intertwined physiologically and behaviorally, but the neural systems underlying their coordination are still poorly understood. The hypothalamus is likely to play a major role in the regulation sleep, metabolism, and their interaction. And increasing evidence suggests that hypocretin cells in the lateral hypothalamus may provide particularly important contributions. Here we review: 1) direct interactions between biological arousal and metabolic systems in the hypothalamus, and 2) indirect interactions between these two systems mediated by stress or reward, emphasizing the role of hypocretins. An increased understanding of the mechanisms underlying these interactions may provide novel approaches for the treatment of patients with sleep disorders and obesity, as well as suggest new therapeutic strategies for symptoms of aging, stress, or addiction. Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Alterations of hippocampal glucose metabolism by even versus uneven medium chain triglycerides

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Tanya S; Tan, Kah Ni; Hodson, Mark P; Borges, Karin

    2014-01-01

    Medium chain triglycerides (MCTs) are used to treat neurologic disorders with metabolic impairments, including childhood epilepsy and early Alzheimer's disease. However, the metabolic effects of MCTs in the brain are still unclear. Here, we studied the effects of feeding even and uneven MCTs on brain glucose metabolism in the mouse. Adult mice were fed 35% (calories) of trioctanoin or triheptanoin (the triglycerides of octanoate or heptanoate, respectively) or a matching control diet for 3 weeks. Enzymatic assays and targeted metabolomics by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry were used to quantify metabolites in extracts from the hippocampal formations (HFs). Both oils increased the levels of β-hydroxybutyrate, but no other significant metabolic alterations were observed after triheptanoin feeding. The levels of glucose 6-phosphate and fructose 6-phosphate were increased in the HF of mice fed trioctanoin, whereas levels of metabolites further downstream in the glycolytic pathway and the pentose phosphate pathway were reduced. This indicates that trioctanoin reduces glucose utilization because of a decrease in phosphofructokinase activity. Trioctanoin and triheptanoin showed similar anticonvulsant effects in the 6 Hz seizure model, but it remains unknown to what extent the anticonvulsant mechanism(s) are shared. In conclusion, triheptanoin unlike trioctanoin appears to not alter glucose metabolism in the healthy brain. PMID:24169853

  5. Sleep-Dependent Modulation of Metabolic Rate in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahl, Bethany A; Slocumb, Melissa E; Chaitin, Hersh; DiAngelo, Justin R; Keene, Alex C

    2017-08-01

    Dysregulation of sleep is associated with metabolic diseases, and metabolic rate (MR) is acutely regulated by sleep-wake behavior. In humans and rodent models, sleep loss is associated with obesity, reduced metabolic rate, and negative energy balance, yet little is known about the neural mechanisms governing interactions between sleep and metabolism. We have developed a system to simultaneously measure sleep and MR in individual Drosophila, allowing for interrogation of neural systems governing interactions between sleep and metabolic rate. Like mammals, MR in flies is reduced during sleep and increased during sleep deprivation suggesting sleep-dependent regulation of MR is conserved across phyla. The reduction of MR during sleep is not simply a consequence of inactivity because MR is reduced ~30 minutes following the onset of sleep, raising the possibility that CO2 production provides a metric to distinguish different sleep states in the fruit fly. To examine the relationship between sleep and metabolism, we determined basal and sleep-dependent changes in MR is reduced in starved flies, suggesting that starvation inhibits normal sleep-associated effects on metabolic rate. Further, translin mutant flies that fail to suppress sleep during starvation demonstrate a lower basal metabolic rate, but this rate was further reduced in response to starvation, revealing that regulation of starvation-induced changes in MR and sleep duration are genetically distinct. Therefore, this system provides the unique ability to simultaneously measure sleep and oxidative metabolism, providing novel insight into the physiological changes associated with sleep and wakefulness in the fruit fly. © Sleep Research Society 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Sleep Research Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Assessment of chitosan-affected metabolic response by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor bioluminescent imaging-guided transcriptomic analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Hung Kao

    Full Text Available Chitosan has been widely used in food industry as a weight-loss aid and a cholesterol-lowering agent. Previous studies have shown that chitosan affects metabolic responses and contributes to anti-diabetic, hypocholesteremic, and blood glucose-lowering effects; however, the in vivo targeting sites and mechanisms of chitosan remain to be clarified. In this study, we constructed transgenic mice, which carried the luciferase genes driven by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR, a key regulator of fatty acid and glucose metabolism. Bioluminescent imaging of PPAR transgenic mice was applied to report the organs that chitosan acted on, and gene expression profiles of chitosan-targeted organs were further analyzed to elucidate the mechanisms of chitosan. Bioluminescent imaging showed that constitutive PPAR activities were detected in brain and gastrointestinal tract. Administration of chitosan significantly activated the PPAR activities in brain and stomach. Microarray analysis of brain and stomach showed that several pathways involved in lipid and glucose metabolism were regulated by chitosan. Moreover, the expression levels of metabolism-associated genes like apolipoprotein B (apoB and ghrelin genes were down-regulated by chitosan. In conclusion, these findings suggested the feasibility of PPAR bioluminescent imaging-guided transcriptomic analysis on the evaluation of chitosan-affected metabolic responses in vivo. Moreover, we newly identified that downregulated expression of apoB and ghrelin genes were novel mechanisms for chitosan-affected metabolic responses in vivo.

  7. Interactions between epigenetics and metabolism in cancers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yun, Jihye; Johnson, Jared L.; Hanigan, Christin L.; Locasale, Jason W.

    2012-01-01

    Cancer progression is accompanied by widespread transcriptional changes and metabolic alterations. While it is widely accepted that the origin of cancer can be traced to the mutations that accumulate over time, relatively recent evidence favors a similarly fundamental role for alterations in the epigenome during tumorigenesis. Changes in epigenetics that arise from post-translational modifications of histones and DNA are exploited by cancer cells to upregulate and/or downregulate the expression levels of oncogenes and tumor suppressors, respectively. Although the mechanisms behind these modifications, in particular how they lead to gene silencing and activation, are still being understood, most of the enzymatic machinery of epigenetics require metabolites as substrates or cofactors. As a result, their activities can be influenced by the metabolic state of the cell. The purpose of this review is to give an overview of cancer epigenetics and metabolism and provide examples of where they converge.

  8. Integration of Environmental and Developmental (or Metabolic) Control of Seed Mass by Sugar and Ethylene Metabolisms in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Lai-Sheng; Xu, Meng-Ke; Wan, Wen; Wang, Jing-Yi

    2018-04-04

    In higher plants, seed mass is an important to evolutionary fitness. In this context, seedling establishment positively correlates with seed mass under conditions of environmental stress. Thus, seed mass constitutes an important agricultural trait. Here, we show loss-of-function of YODA (YDA), a MAPKK Kinase, and decreased seed mass, which leads to susceptibility to drought. Furthermore, we demonstrate that yda disrupts sugar metabolisms but not the gaseous plant hormone, ethylene. Our data suggest that the transcription factor EIN3 (ETHYLENE-INSENSITIVE3), integral to both sugar and ethylene metabolisms, physically interacts with YDA. Further, ein3-1 mutants exhibited increased seed mass. Genetic analysis indicated that YDA and EIN3 were integral to a sugar-mediated metabolism cascade which regulates seed mass by maternally controlling embryo size. It is well established that ethylene metabolism leads to the suppression of drought tolerance by the EIN3 mediated inhibition of CBF1, a transcription factor required for the expression genes of abiotic stress. Our findings help guide the synthesis of a model predicting how sugar/ethylene metabolisms and environmental stress are integrated at EIN3 to control both the establishment of drought tolerance and the production of seed mass. Collectively, these insights into the molecular mechanism underpinning the regulation of plant seed size may aid prospective breeding or design strategies to increase crop yield.

  9. Leucine and protein metabolism in obese zucker rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) are circulating nutrient signals for protein accretion, however they increase in obesity and appear to prognosticate diabetes onset. To understand the mechanisms whereby obesity affects BCAAs and protein metabolism, we employed metabolomics and measured rates of [1...

  10. Nutritional and Acquired Deficiencies in Inositol Bioavailability. Correlations with Metabolic Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Dinicola

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Communities eating a western-like diet, rich in fat, sugar and significantly deprived of fibers, share a relevant increased risk of both metabolic and cancerous diseases. Even more remarkable is that a low-fiber diet lacks some key components—as phytates and inositols—for which a mechanistic link has been clearly established in the pathogenesis of both cancer and metabolic illness. Reduced bioavailability of inositol in living organisms could arise from reduced food supply or from metabolism deregulation. Inositol deregulation has been found in a number of conditions mechanistically and epidemiologically associated to high-glucose diets or altered glucose metabolism. Indeed, high glucose levels hinder inositol availability by increasing its degradation and by inhibiting both myo-Ins biosynthesis and absorption. These underappreciated mechanisms may likely account for acquired, metabolic deficiency in inositol bioavailability.

  11. Impact of the gut microbiota on inflammation, obesity, and metabolic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulangé, Claire L; Neves, Ana Luisa; Chilloux, Julien; Nicholson, Jeremy K; Dumas, Marc-Emmanuel

    2016-04-20

    The human gut harbors more than 100 trillion microbial cells, which have an essential role in human metabolic regulation via their symbiotic interactions with the host. Altered gut microbial ecosystems have been associated with increased metabolic and immune disorders in animals and humans. Molecular interactions linking the gut microbiota with host energy metabolism, lipid accumulation, and immunity have also been identified. However, the exact mechanisms that link specific variations in the composition of the gut microbiota with the development of obesity and metabolic diseases in humans remain obscure owing to the complex etiology of these pathologies. In this review, we discuss current knowledge about the mechanistic interactions between the gut microbiota, host energy metabolism, and the host immune system in the context of obesity and metabolic disease, with a focus on the importance of the axis that links gut microbes and host metabolic inflammation. Finally, we discuss therapeutic approaches aimed at reshaping the gut microbial ecosystem to regulate obesity and related pathologies, as well as the challenges that remain in this area.

  12. Glucose metabolism regulates T cell activation, differentiation and functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clovis Steve Palmer

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The adaptive immune system is equipped to eliminate both tumors and pathogenic microorganisms. It requires a series of complex and coordinated signals to drive the activation, proliferation and differentiation of appropriate T cell subsets. It is now established that changes in cellular activation are coupled to profound changes in cellular metabolism. In addition, emerging evidence now suggest that specific metabolic alterations associated with distinct T cell subsets may be ancillary to their differentiation and influential in their immune functions. The Warburg effect originally used to describe a phenomenon in which most cancer cells relied on aerobic glycolysis for their growth is a key process that sustain T cell activation and differentiation. Here we review how different aspects of metabolism in T cells influence their functions, focusing on the emerging role of key regulators of glucose metabolism such as HIF-1α. A thorough understanding of the role of metabolism in T cell function could provide insights into mechanisms involved in inflammatory-mediated conditions, with the potential for developing novel therapeutic approaches to treat these diseases.

  13. Hexarelin Signaling to PPARγ in Metabolic Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amélie Rodrigue-Way

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Investigating the metabolic functions of the nuclear receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ has been extremely rewarding over the past years. Uncovering the biologic roles of PPARγ and its mechanism of action has greatly advanced our understanding of the transcriptional control of lipid and glucose metabolism, and compounds such as thiazolidinediones which directly regulate PPARγ have proven to exhibit potent insulin-sensitizer effects in the treatment of diabetes. We review here recent advances on the emerging role of growth hormone releasing peptides in regulating PPARγ through interaction with scavenger receptor CD36 and ghrelin GHS-R1a receptor. With the impact that these peptides exert on the metabolic pathways involved in lipid metabolism and energy homeostasis, it is hoped that the development of novel approaches in the regulation of PPAR functions will bring additional therapeutic possibilities to face problems related to metabolic diseases.

  14. Integrative Analysis of Metabolic Models – from Structure to Dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartmann, Anja, E-mail: hartmann@ipk-gatersleben.de [Leibniz Institute of Plant Genetics and Crop Plant Research (IPK), Gatersleben (Germany); Schreiber, Falk [Monash University, Melbourne, VIC (Australia); Martin-Luther-University Halle-Wittenberg, Halle (Germany)

    2015-01-26

    The characterization of biological systems with respect to their behavior and functionality based on versatile biochemical interactions is a major challenge. To understand these complex mechanisms at systems level modeling approaches are investigated. Different modeling formalisms allow metabolic models to be analyzed depending on the question to be solved, the biochemical knowledge and the availability of experimental data. Here, we describe a method for an integrative analysis of the structure and dynamics represented by qualitative and quantitative metabolic models. Using various formalisms, the metabolic model is analyzed from different perspectives. Determined structural and dynamic properties are visualized in the context of the metabolic model. Interaction techniques allow the exploration and visual analysis thereby leading to a broader understanding of the behavior and functionality of the underlying biological system. The System Biology Metabolic Model Framework (SBM{sup 2} – Framework) implements the developed method and, as an example, is applied for the integrative analysis of the crop plant potato.

  15. Brain metabolism in health, aging, and neurodegeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camandola, Simonetta; Mattson, Mark P

    2017-06-01

    Brain cells normally respond adaptively to bioenergetic challenges resulting from ongoing activity in neuronal circuits, and from environmental energetic stressors such as food deprivation and physical exertion. At the cellular level, such adaptive responses include the "strengthening" of existing synapses, the formation of new synapses, and the production of new neurons from stem cells. At the molecular level, bioenergetic challenges result in the activation of transcription factors that induce the expression of proteins that bolster the resistance of neurons to the kinds of metabolic, oxidative, excitotoxic, and proteotoxic stresses involved in the pathogenesis of brain disorders including stroke, and Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases. Emerging findings suggest that lifestyles that include intermittent bioenergetic challenges, most notably exercise and dietary energy restriction, can increase the likelihood that the brain will function optimally and in the absence of disease throughout life. Here, we provide an overview of cellular and molecular mechanisms that regulate brain energy metabolism, how such mechanisms are altered during aging and in neurodegenerative disorders, and the potential applications to brain health and disease of interventions that engage pathways involved in neuronal adaptations to metabolic stress. Published 2017. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  16. Mitochondrial Metabolism in Aging Heart

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesnefsky, Edward J.; Chen, Qun; Hoppel, Charles L.

    2016-01-01

    Altered mitochondrial metabolism is the underlying basis for the increased sensitivity in the aged heart to stress. The aged heart exhibits impaired metabolic flexibility, with a decreased capacity to oxidize fatty acids and enhanced dependence on glucose metabolism. Aging impairs mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation, with a greater role played by the mitochondria located between the myofibrils, the interfibrillar mitochondria. With aging, there is a decrease in activity of complexes III and IV, which account for the decrease in respiration. Furthermore, aging decreases mitochondrial content among the myofibrils. The end result is that in the interfibrillar area there is an approximate 50% decrease in mitochondrial function, affecting all substrates. The defective mitochondria persist in the aged heart, leading to enhanced oxidant production and oxidative injury and the activation of oxidant signaling for cell death. Aging defects in mitochondria represent new therapeutic targets, whether by manipulation of the mitochondrial proteome, modulation of electron transport, activation of biogenesis or mitophagy, or the regulation of mitochondrial fission and fusion. These mechanisms provide new ways to attenuate cardiac disease in elders by preemptive treatment of age-related defects, in contrast to the treatment of disease-induced dysfunction. PMID:27174952

  17. SU-E-J-102: Separation of Metabolic Supply and Demand: From Power Grid Economics to Cancer Metabolism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Epstein, T; Xu, L; Gillies, R; Gatenby, R [Moffitt Cancer Center and Research Institute, Tampa, FL (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To study a new model of glucose metabolism which is primarily governed by the timescale of the energetic demand and not by the oxygen level, and its implication on cancer metabolism (Warburg effect) Methods: 1) Metabolic profiling of membrane transporters activity in several cell lines, which represent the spectrum from normal breast epithelium to aggressive, metastatic cancer, using Seahorse XF reader.2) Spatial localization of oxidative and non-oxidative metabolic components using immunocytochemical imaging of the glycolytic ATP-producing enzyme, pyruvate kinase and mitochondria. 3) Finite element simulations of coupled partial differential equations using COMSOL and MATLAB. Results: Inhibition or activation of pumps on the cell membrane led to reduction or increase in aerobic glycolysis, respectively, while oxidative phosphorylation remained unchanged. These results were consistent with computational simulations of changes in short-timescale demand for energy by cell membrane processes. A specific model prediction was that the spatial distribution of ATP-producing enzymes in the glycolytic pathway must be primarily localized adjacent to the cell membrane, while mitochondria should be predominantly peri-nuclear. These predictions were confirmed experimentally. Conclusion: The results in this work support a new model for glucose metabolism in which glycolysis and oxidative phosphorylation supply different types of energy demand. Similar to power grid economics, optimal metabolic control requires the two pathways, even in normoxic conditions, to match two different types of energy demands. Cells use aerobic metabolism to meet baseline, steady energy demand and glycolytic metabolism to meet short-timescale energy demands, mainly from membrane transport activities, even in the presence of oxygen. This model provides a mechanism for the origin of the Warburg effect in cancer cells. Here, the Warburg effect emerges during carcinogenesis is a physiological

  18. SU-E-J-102: Separation of Metabolic Supply and Demand: From Power Grid Economics to Cancer Metabolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Epstein, T; Xu, L; Gillies, R; Gatenby, R

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To study a new model of glucose metabolism which is primarily governed by the timescale of the energetic demand and not by the oxygen level, and its implication on cancer metabolism (Warburg effect) Methods: 1) Metabolic profiling of membrane transporters activity in several cell lines, which represent the spectrum from normal breast epithelium to aggressive, metastatic cancer, using Seahorse XF reader.2) Spatial localization of oxidative and non-oxidative metabolic components using immunocytochemical imaging of the glycolytic ATP-producing enzyme, pyruvate kinase and mitochondria. 3) Finite element simulations of coupled partial differential equations using COMSOL and MATLAB. Results: Inhibition or activation of pumps on the cell membrane led to reduction or increase in aerobic glycolysis, respectively, while oxidative phosphorylation remained unchanged. These results were consistent with computational simulations of changes in short-timescale demand for energy by cell membrane processes. A specific model prediction was that the spatial distribution of ATP-producing enzymes in the glycolytic pathway must be primarily localized adjacent to the cell membrane, while mitochondria should be predominantly peri-nuclear. These predictions were confirmed experimentally. Conclusion: The results in this work support a new model for glucose metabolism in which glycolysis and oxidative phosphorylation supply different types of energy demand. Similar to power grid economics, optimal metabolic control requires the two pathways, even in normoxic conditions, to match two different types of energy demands. Cells use aerobic metabolism to meet baseline, steady energy demand and glycolytic metabolism to meet short-timescale energy demands, mainly from membrane transport activities, even in the presence of oxygen. This model provides a mechanism for the origin of the Warburg effect in cancer cells. Here, the Warburg effect emerges during carcinogenesis is a physiological

  19. ATP-Citrate Lyase Controls a Glucose-to-Acetate Metabolic Switch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Zhao

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Mechanisms of metabolic flexibility enable cells to survive under stressful conditions and can thwart therapeutic responses. Acetyl-coenzyme A (CoA plays central roles in energy production, lipid metabolism, and epigenomic modifications. Here, we show that, upon genetic deletion of Acly, the gene coding for ATP-citrate lyase (ACLY, cells remain viable and proliferate, although at an impaired rate. In the absence of ACLY, cells upregulate ACSS2 and utilize exogenous acetate to provide acetyl-CoA for de novo lipogenesis (DNL and histone acetylation. A physiological level of acetate is sufficient for cell viability and abundant acetyl-CoA production, although histone acetylation levels remain low in ACLY-deficient cells unless supplemented with high levels of acetate. ACLY-deficient adipocytes accumulate lipid in vivo, exhibit increased acetyl-CoA and malonyl-CoA production from acetate, and display some differences in fatty acid content and synthesis. Together, these data indicate that engagement of acetate metabolism is a crucial, although partial, mechanism of compensation for ACLY deficiency.

  20. ATP-Citrate Lyase Controls a Glucose-to-Acetate Metabolic Switch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Steven; Torres, AnnMarie; Henry, Ryan A; Trefely, Sophie; Wallace, Martina; Lee, Joyce V; Carrer, Alessandro; Sengupta, Arjun; Campbell, Sydney L; Kuo, Yin-Ming; Frey, Alexander J; Meurs, Noah; Viola, John M; Blair, Ian A; Weljie, Aalim M; Metallo, Christian M; Snyder, Nathaniel W; Andrews, Andrew J; Wellen, Kathryn E

    2016-10-18

    Mechanisms of metabolic flexibility enable cells to survive under stressful conditions and can thwart therapeutic responses. Acetyl-coenzyme A (CoA) plays central roles in energy production, lipid metabolism, and epigenomic modifications. Here, we show that, upon genetic deletion of Acly, the gene coding for ATP-citrate lyase (ACLY), cells remain viable and proliferate, although at an impaired rate. In the absence of ACLY, cells upregulate ACSS2 and utilize exogenous acetate to provide acetyl-CoA for de novo lipogenesis (DNL) and histone acetylation. A physiological level of acetate is sufficient for cell viability and abundant acetyl-CoA production, although histone acetylation levels remain low in ACLY-deficient cells unless supplemented with high levels of acetate. ACLY-deficient adipocytes accumulate lipid in vivo, exhibit increased acetyl-CoA and malonyl-CoA production from acetate, and display some differences in fatty acid content and synthesis. Together, these data indicate that engagement of acetate metabolism is a crucial, although partial, mechanism of compensation for ACLY deficiency. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Behavioral and Metabolic Phenotype Indicate Personality in Zebrafish (Danio rerio)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Mingzhe; Chen, Yan; Huang, Yingying; Lu, Weiqun

    2018-01-01

    Consistency of individual differences of animal behavior and personality in reactions to various environmental stresses among their life stages could reflect basic divergences in coping style which may affect survival, social rank, and reproductive success in the wild. However, the physiological mechanisms determining personality remain poorly understood. In order to study whether behavior, metabolism and physiological stress responses relate to the personality, we employed post-stress recovery assays to separate zebrafish into two behavioral types (proactive and reactive). The results demonstrated consistent difference among personality, behavior and metabolism in which proactive individuals were more aggressive, had higher standard metabolic rates and showed lower shuttled frequencies between dark and light compartments than the reactive ones. The behavioral variations were also linked to divergent acute salinity stress responses: proactive individuals adopted a swift locomotion behavior in response to acute salinity challenge while reactive individuals remain unchanged. Our results provide useful insight into how personality acts on correlated traits and the importance of a holistic approach to understanding the mechanisms driving persistent inter-individual differences. PMID:29899710

  2. Glycogen metabolism in brain and neurons - astrocytes metabolic cooperation can be altered by pre- and neonatal lead (Pb) exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranowska-Bosiacka, Irena; Falkowska, Anna; Gutowska, Izabela; Gąssowska, Magdalena; Kolasa-Wołosiuk, Agnieszka; Tarnowski, Maciej; Chibowska, Karina; Goschorska, Marta; Lubkowska, Anna; Chlubek, Dariusz

    2017-09-01

    Lead (Pb) is an environmental neurotoxin which particularly affects the developing brain but the molecular mechanism of its neurotoxicity still needs clarification. The aim of this paper was to examine whether pre- and neonatal exposure to Pb (concentration of Pb in rat offspring blood below the "threshold level") may affect the brain's energy metabolism in neurons and astrocytes via the amount of available glycogen. We investigated the glycogen concentration in the brain, as well as the expression of the key enzymes involved in glycogen metabolism in brain: glycogen synthase 1 (Gys1), glycogen phosphorylase (PYGM, an isoform active in astrocytes; and PYGB, an isoform active in neurons) and phosphorylase kinase β (PHKB). Moreover, the expression of connexin 43 (Cx43) was evaluated to analyze whether Pb poisoning during the early phase of life may affect the neuron-astrocytes' metabolic cooperation. This work shows for the first time that exposure to Pb in early life can impair brain energy metabolism by reducing the amount of glycogen and decreasing the rate of its metabolism. This reduction in brain glycogen level was accompanied by a decrease in Gys1 expression. We noted a reduction in the immunoreactivity and the gene expression of both PYGB and PYGM isoform, as well as an increase in the expression of PHKB in Pb-treated rats. Moreover, exposure to Pb induced decrease in connexin 43 immunoexpression in all the brain structures analyzed, both in astrocytes as well as in neurons. Our data suggests that exposure to Pb in the pre- and neonatal periods results in a decrease in the level of brain glycogen and a reduction in the rate of its metabolism, thereby reducing glucose availability, which as a further consequence may lead to the impairment of brain energy metabolism and the metabolic cooperation between neurons and astrocytes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. The vagus nerve and the inflammatory reflex—linking immunity and metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlov, Valentin A.; Tracey, Kevin J.

    2014-01-01

    The vagus nerve has an important role in regulation of metabolic homeostasis, and efferent vagus nerve-mediated cholinergic signalling controls immune function and proinflammatory responses via the inflammatory reflex. Dysregulation of metabolism and immune function in obesity are associated with chronic inflammation, a critical step in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Cholinergic mechanisms within the inflammatory reflex have, in the past 2 years, been implicated in attenuating obesity-related inflammation and metabolic complications. This knowledge has led to the exploration of novel therapeutic approaches in the treatment of obesity-related disorders. PMID:23169440

  4. Interactions between sleep, stress, and metabolism: From physiological to pathological conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Hirotsu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Poor sleep quality due to sleep disorders and sleep loss is highly prevalent in the modern society. Underlying mechanisms show that stress is involved in the relationship between sleep and metabolism through hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA axis activation. Sleep deprivation and sleep disorders are associated with maladaptive changes in the HPA axis, leading to neuroendocrine dysregulation. Excess of glucocorticoids increase glucose and insulin and decrease adiponectin levels. Thus, this review provides overall view of the relationship between sleep, stress, and metabolism from basic physiology to pathological conditions, highlighting effective treatments for metabolic disturbances.

  5. The crosstalk between gut microbiota and obesity and related metabolic disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wen-Ting; Nie, Yong-Zhan; Yang, Zhen; Lu, Nong-Hua

    2016-06-01

    Obesity and related metabolic diseases are currently a threat to global public health. The occurrence and development of these conditions result from the combined effects of multiple factors. The human gut is a diverse and vibrant microecosystem, and its composition and function are a focus of research in the fields of life science and medicine. An increasing amount of evidence indicates that interactions between the gut microbiota and their genetic predispositions or dietary changes may be key factors that contribute to obesity and other metabolic diseases. Defining the mechanisms by which the gut microbiota influence obesity and related chronic metabolic diseases will bring about revolutionary changes that will enable practitioners to prevent and control metabolic diseases by targeting the gut microbiota.

  6. Work stress and metabolic and hemostatic risk factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrijkotte, T. G.; van Doornen, L. J.; de Geus, E. J.

    1999-01-01

    A high level of work stress has been associated with cardiovascular disease. However, the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying this association remain unclear. This study examined the effect of work stress on a cluster of metabolic and hemostatic risk factors. Blood was collected three times, on

  7. PET Metabolic Biomarkers for Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Etienne Croteau

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The body's main fuel sources are fats, carbohydrates (glucose, proteins, and ketone bodies. It is well known that an important hallmark of cancer cells is the overconsumption of glucose. Positron emission tomography (PET imaging using the glucose analog 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose ( 18 F-FDG has been a powerful cancer diagnostic tool for many decades. Apart from surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy represent the two main domains for cancer therapy, targeting tumor proliferation, cell division, and DNA replication–-all processes that require a large amount of energy. Currently, in vivo clinical imaging of metabolism is performed almost exclusively using PET radiotracers that assess oxygen consumption and mechanisms of energy substrate consumption. This paper reviews the utility of PET imaging biomarkers for the detection of cancer proliferation, vascularization, metabolism, treatment response, and follow-up after radiation therapy, chemotherapy, and chemotherapy-related side effects.

  8. Regulation of metabolic networks by small molecule metabolites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanehisa Minoru

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The ability to regulate metabolism is a fundamental process in living systems. We present an analysis of one of the mechanisms by which metabolic regulation occurs: enzyme inhibition and activation by small molecules. We look at the network properties of this regulatory system and the relationship between the chemical properties of regulatory molecules. Results We find that many features of the regulatory network, such as the degree and clustering coefficient, closely match those of the underlying metabolic network. While these global features are conserved across several organisms, we do find local differences between regulation in E. coli and H. sapiens which reflect their different lifestyles. Chemical structure appears to play an important role in determining a compounds suitability for use in regulation. Chemical structure also often determines how groups of similar compounds can regulate sets of enzymes. These groups of compounds and the enzymes they regulate form modules that mirror the modules and pathways of the underlying metabolic network. We also show how knowledge of chemical structure and regulation could be used to predict regulatory interactions for drugs. Conclusion The metabolic regulatory network shares many of the global properties of the metabolic network, but often varies at the level of individual compounds. Chemical structure is a key determinant in deciding how a compound is used in regulation and for defining modules within the regulatory system.

  9. Global cerebral blood flow and metabolism during acute hyperketonemia in the awake and anesthetized rat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linde, Rasmus; Hasselbalch, Steen G.; Topp, Simon

    2006-01-01

    and cerebral metabolism could not be explained by alterations in blood pH or arterial CO2 tension. By measuring cerebral intracellular pH by 31P nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, it could further be concluded that the brain pH was unchanged during acute hyperketonemia. These observations indicate......In the human setting, it has been shown that acute increase in the concentration of ketone bodies by infusion of beta-hydroxybutyrate increased the cerebral blood flow (CBF) without affecting the overall cerebral metabolic activity. The mechanism by which this effect of ketone bodies was mediated...... that the mechanism responsible for the increase in CBF is rather a direct effect on the cerebral endothelium than via some metabolic interactions...

  10. Anti-ulcer effect and potential mechanism of licoflavone by regulating inflammation mediators and amino acid metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yi; Wang, Shuai; Bao, Yong-Rui; Li, Tian-Jiao; Yang, Guan-Lin; Chang, Xin; Meng, Xian-Sheng

    2017-03-06

    Glycyrrhiza is the dry root and rhizome of the leguminous plant, Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch., Glycyrrhiza inflata Bat. or Glycyrrhiza glabra L., which was firstly cited in Shennong's Herbal Classic in Han dynasty and was officially listed in the Chinese Pharmacopoeia, has been widely used in China during the past millennia. Licoflavone is the major component of Glycyrrhiza with anti-ulcer activity. The present study is based on clarifying the anti-ulcer effect of licoflavone, aiming at elucidating the possible molecule mechanisms of its action for treating gastric ulcer rats induced by acetic acid. Rats were divided into 7 groups, and drugs were administered from on the day after the onset of gastric ulcer (day 3) until day 11 of the experiment once daily continuously. The plasma were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography combined with time-of-flight mass spectrometry (HPLC/ESI-TOF-MS), significant different metabolites were investigated to explain its therapeutic mechanism. Furthermore, quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis was performed to detect the expression of RNA in stomach tissue for verifying the above results. Licoflavone can effectively cure the gastric ulcer, particularly the middle dose group. According to the statistical analysis of the plasma different metabolites from each groups and the expression of genes in tissues, sixteen significant different metabolites, including histamine, tryptophan, arachidonic acid, phingosine-1-phosphate etc., contributing to the treatment of gastric ulcer were discovered and identified. In RT-PCR analysis, the results of the expression of RNA were corresponded with what we discovered. Our study indicated licoflavone plays the role of treating gastric ulcer by regulating inflammation mediators and amino acid metabolism. We demonstrated that metabolomics technology combined with gene technology is a useful tool to search different metabolites and to dissect the potential

  11. The driving force of the Na+/Ca2+-exchanger during metabolic inhibition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baartscheer, Antonius; Schumacher, Cees A.; Coronel, Ruben; Fiolet, Jan W. T.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Metabolic inhibition causes a decline in mechanical performance and, if prolonged, myocardial contracture and cell death. The decline in mechanical performance is mainly due to altered intracellular calcium handling, which is under control of the Na+/Ca2+-exchanger (NCX) The driving force

  12. Metabolic effects of physiological levels of caffeine in myotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnuck, Jamie K; Gould, Lacey M; Parry, Hailey A; Johnson, Michele A; Gannon, Nicholas P; Sunderland, Kyle L; Vaughan, Roger A

    2018-02-01

    Caffeine has been shown to stimulate multiple major regulators of cell energetics including AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and Ca 2+ /calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII). Additionally, caffeine induces peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha (PGC-1α) and mitochondrial biogenesis. While caffeine enhances oxidative metabolism, experimental concentrations often exceed physiologically attainable concentrations through diet. This work measured the effects of low-level caffeine on cellular metabolism and gene expression in myotubes, as well as the dependence of caffeine's effects on the nuclear receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor beta/delta (PPARβ/δ). C2C12 myotubes were treated with various doses of caffeine for up to 24 h. Gene and protein expression were measured via qRT-PCR and Western blot, respectively. Cellular metabolism was determined via oxygen consumption and extracellular acidification rate. Caffeine significantly induced regulators of mitochondrial biogenesis and oxidative metabolism. Mitochondrial staining was suppressed in PPARβ/δ-inhibited cells which was rescued by concurrent caffeine treatment. Caffeine-treated cells also displayed elevated peak oxidative metabolism which was partially abolished following PPARβ/δ inhibition. Similar to past observations, glucose uptake and GLUT4 content were elevated in caffeine-treated cells, however, glycolytic metabolism was unaltered following caffeine treatment. Physiological levels of caffeine appear to enhance cell metabolism through mechanisms partially dependent on PPARβ/δ.

  13. Metabolic Syndrome and Antipsychotics: The Role of Mitochondrial Fission/Fusion Imbalance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea del Campo

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Second-generation antipsychotics (SGAs are known to increase cardiovascular risk through several physiological mechanisms, including insulin resistance, hepatic steatosis, hyperphagia, and accelerated weight gain. There are limited prophylactic interventions to prevent these side effects of SGAs, in part because the molecular mechanisms underlying SGAs toxicity are not yet completely elucidated. In this perspective article, we introduce an innovative approach to study the metabolic side effects of antipsychotics through the alterations of the mitochondrial dynamics, which leads to an imbalance in mitochondrial fusion/fission ratio and to an inefficient mitochondrial phenotype of muscle cells. We believe that this approach may offer a valuable path to explain SGAs-induced alterations in metabolic homeostasis.

  14. Convergent Metabolic Specialization through Distinct Evolutionary Paths in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Rosa, Ruggero; Johansen, Helle Krogh; Molin, Søren

    2018-04-10

    surprising that conclusions from our investigations of bacterial evolution in the CF model system are different from what has been concluded from laboratory experiments. The analysis presented here of the metabolic and regulatory driving forces leading to successful adaptation to a new environment provides an important insight into the role of metabolism and its regulatory mechanisms for successful adaptation of microorganisms in dynamic and complex environments. Understanding the trajectories of adaptation, as well as the mechanisms behind slow growth and rewiring of regulatory and metabolic networks, is a key element to understand the adaptive robustness and evolvability of bacteria in the process of increasing their in vivo fitness when conquering new territories. Copyright © 2018 La Rosa et al.

  15. Metabolic Foot- and Fingerprinting of Lactobacillus paracasei

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jäpelt, Kristina Bak

    of lactobacilli has suggested bile response mechanisms such as efflux of bile acids/salts, bile salt hydrolysis, modified sugar metabolism, change in a number of transport systems, and cell membrane or cell wall composition modification. A number of these effects are expected to cause alterations...... in the metabolome, and an increased understanding of bile response mechanisms could be obtained by analysis of the response by tools within metabolomics. Therefore, the aim of this PhD thesis was to develop a platform for metabolic foot- and fingerprinting of L. paracasei subsp. paracasei strain (L. casei CRL-431...... picture of changes in the metabolome. It was shown that the L. paracasei cell membrane was significantly damaged by quenching in buffered methanol. In contrast minimal damage of the cell membrane and better recovery of intracellular metabolites were observed with glycerol saline quenching. Furthermore...

  16. Multiple insecticide resistance mechanisms involving metabolic changes and insensitive target sites selected in anopheline vectors of malaria in Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karunaratne SHP Parakrama

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The current status of insecticide resistance and the underlying resistance mechanisms were studied in the major vector of malaria, Anopheles culicifacies, and the secondary vector, Anopheles subpictus in five districts (Anuradhapura, Kurunegala, Moneragala, Puttalam and Trincomalee of Sri Lanka. Eight other anophelines, Anopheles annularis, Anopheles barbirostris, Anopheles jamesii, Anopheles nigerrimus, Anopheles peditaeniatus, Anopheles tessellatus, Anopheles vagus and Anopheles varuna from Anuradhapura district were also tested. Methods Adult females were exposed to the WHO discriminating dosages of DDT, malathion, fenitrothion, propoxur, λ-cyhalothrin, cyfluthrin, cypermethrin, deltamethrin, permethrin and etofenprox. The presence of metabolic resistance by esterase, glutathione S-transferase (GST and monooxygenase-based mechanisms, and the sensitivity of the acetylcholinesterase target site were assessed using synergists, and biochemical, and metabolic techniques. Results All the anopheline species had high DDT resistance. All An. culicifacies and An. subpictus populations were resistant to malathion, except An. culicifacies from Kurunegala, where there was no malathion carboxylesterase activity. Kurunegala and Puttalam populations of An. culicifacies were susceptible to fenitrothion. All the An. culicifacies populations were susceptible to carbamates. Both species were susceptible to the discriminating dosages of cypermethrin and cyfluthrin, but had different levels of resistance to other pyrethroids. Of the 8 other anophelines, only An. nigerrimus and An. peditaeniatus were resistant to all the insecticides tested, probably due to their high exposure to the insecticides used in agriculture. An. vagus showed some resistance to permethrin. Esterases, GSTs and monooxygenases were elevated in both An. culicifacies and An. subpictus. AChE was most sensitive to insecticides in Kurunegala and Trincomalee An. culicifacies

  17. Proteomic Characterization of Armillaria mellea Reveals Oxidative Stress Response Mechanisms and Altered Secondary Metabolism Profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassandra Collins

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Armillaria mellea is a major plant pathogen. Yet, the strategies the organism uses to infect susceptible species, degrade lignocellulose and other plant material and protect itself against plant defences and its own glycodegradative arsenal are largely unknown. Here, we use a combination of gel and MS-based proteomics to profile A. mellea under conditions of oxidative stress and changes in growth matrix. 2-DE and LC-MS/MS were used to investigate the response of A. mellea to H2O2 and menadione/FeCl3 exposure, respectively. Several proteins were detected with altered abundance in response to H2O2, but not menadione/FeCl3 (i.e., valosin-containing protein, indicating distinct responses to these different forms of oxidative stress. One protein, cobalamin-independent methionine synthase, demonstrated a common response in both conditions, which may be a marker for a more general stress response mechanism. Further changes to the A. mellea proteome were investigated using MS-based proteomics, which identified changes to putative secondary metabolism (SM enzymes upon growth in agar compared to liquid cultures. Metabolomic analyses revealed distinct profiles, highlighting the effect of growth matrix on SM production. This establishes robust methods by which to utilize comparative proteomics to characterize this important phytopathogen.

  18. Cyanobacterial metabolic engineering for biofuel and chemical production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Neal J; Rabinovitch-Deere, Christine A; Carroll, Austin L; Nozzi, Nicole E; Case, Anna E; Atsumi, Shota

    2016-12-01

    Rising levels of atmospheric CO 2 are contributing to the global greenhouse effect. Large scale use of atmospheric CO 2 may be a sustainable and renewable means of chemical and liquid fuel production to mitigate global climate change. Photosynthetic organisms are an ideal platform for efficient, natural CO 2 conversion to a broad range of chemicals. Cyanobacteria are especially attractive for these purposes, due to their genetic malleability and relatively fast growth rate. Recent years have yielded a range of work in the metabolic engineering of cyanobacteria and have led to greater knowledge of the host metabolism. Understanding of endogenous and heterologous carbon regulation mechanisms leads to the expansion of productive capacity and chemical variety. This review discusses the recent progress in metabolic engineering of cyanobacteria for biofuel and bulk chemical production since 2014. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Interactions between epigenetics and metabolism in cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jihye eYun

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Cancer progression is accompanied by widespread transcriptional changes and metabolic alterations. Although it is widely accepted that the origin of cancer can be traced to the mutations that accumulate over time, relatively recent evidence favors a similarly fundamental role for alterations in the epigenome during tumorigenesis. Changes in epigenetics that arise from post-translational modifications of histones and DNA, are exploited by cancer cells to upregulate and/or downregulate the expression levels of oncogenes and tumor suppressors, respectively. Although the mechanisms behind these modifications, in particular how they lead to gene silencing and activation, are still being understood, many enzymes that carry out post-translational modifications that alter epigenetics require metabolites as substrates or cofactors. As a result, their activities can be influenced by the metabolic state of the cell. The purpose of this review is to give an overview of cancer epigenetics and metabolism and provide examples of where they converge.

  20. Gender Differences in Adipocyte Metabolism and Liver Cancer Progression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otto Ka-Wing Cheung

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Liver cancer is the third most common cancer type and the second leading cause of deaths in men. Large population studies have demonstrated remarkable gender disparities in the incidence and the cumulative risk of liver cancer. A number of emerging risk factors regarding metabolic alterations associated with obesity, diabetes and dyslipidemia have been ascribed to the progression of non-alcoholic fatty liver diseases (NAFLD and ultimately liver cancer. The deregulation of fat metabolism derived from excessive insulin, glucose and lipid promotes cancer-causing inflammatory signaling and oxidative stress, which eventually triggers the uncontrolled hepatocellular proliferation. This review presents the current standing on the gender differences in body fat compositions and their mechanistic linkage with the development of NAFLD-related liver cancer, with an emphasis on genetic, epigenetic and microRNA control. The potential roles of sex hormones in instructing adipocyte metabolic programs may help unravel the mechanisms underlying gender dimorphism in liver cancer and identify the metabolic targets for disease management.

  1. The metabolically active subpopulation in Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms survives exposure to membrane-targeting antimicrobials via distinct molecular mechanisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chiang, Wen-Chi; Pamp, Sünje Johanna; Nilsson, Martin

    2012-01-01

    encoding lipopolysaccharide modification enzymes, as well as on the mexAB-oprM, mexCD-oprJ, and muxABC-opmB genes encoding antimicrobial efflux pumps, but does not depend on the mexPQ-opmE efflux pump genes. Development of chlorhexidine-tolerant subpopulations was found to depend on the mexCD-oprJ genes......, but does not depend on the pmr, mexAB-oprM, mexPQ-opmE, or muxABC-opmB genes. Tolerance to SDS and EDTA in P. aeruginosa biofilms is linked to metabolically active cells, but does not depend on the pmr, mexAB, mexCD, mexPQ, or muxABC genes. Our data suggest that the active subpopulation in P. aeruginosa......-targeting compounds colistin, EDTA, SDS, and chlorhexidine resulted in the same spatial distribution of live and dead bacteria, we investigated whether tolerance to these compounds originated from the same molecular mechanisms. Development of colistin-tolerant subpopulations was found to depend on the pmr genes...

  2. Haloacetonitriles: metabolism and toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipscomb, John C; El-Demerdash, Ebtehal; Ahmed, Ahmed E

    2009-01-01

    The haloacetonitriles (HANs) exist in drinking water exclusively as byproducts of disinfection. HANs are found in drinking water more often, and in higher concentrations, when surface water is treated by chloramination. Human exposure occurs through consumption of finished drinking water; oral and dermal contact also occurs, and results from showering, swimming and other activities. HANs are reactive and are toxic to gastrointestinal tissues following oral administration. Such toxicity is characterized by GSH depletion, increased lipid peroxidation, and covalent binding of HAN-associated radioactivity to gut tissues. The presence of GSH in cells is an important protective mechanism against HAN toxicity; depletion of cellular GSH results in increased toxicity. Some studies have demonstrated an apparently synergistic effect between ROS and HAN administration, that may help explain effects observed in GI tissues. ROS are produced in gut tissues, and in vitro evidence indicates that ROS may contribute to the degradation and formation of reactive intermediates from HANs. The rationale for ROS involvement may involve HAN-induced depletion of GSH and the role of GSH in scavenging ROS. In addition to effects on GI tissues, studies show that HAN-derived radiolabel is found covalently bound to proteins and DNA in several organs and tissues. The addition of antioxidants to biologic systems protects against HAN-induced DNA damage. The protection offered by antioxidants supports the role of oxidative stress and the potential for a threshold in han-induced toxicity. However, additional data are needed to substantiate evidence for such a threshold. HANs are readily absorbed from the GI tract and are extensively metabolized. Elimination occurs primarily in urine, as unconjugated one-carbon metabolites. Evidence supports the involvement of mixed function oxidases, the cytochrome P450 enzyme family and GST, in HAN metabolism. Metabolism represents either a detoxification or

  3. Photosystem II excitation pressure and photosynthetic carbon metabolism in Chlorella vulgaris

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savitch, L.V.; Maxwell, D.P.; Huner, N.P.A.

    1996-01-01

    Chlorella vulgaris grown at 5 degrees C/150 micromoles m -2 s -1 mimics cells grown under high irradiance (27 degrees C/2200 micromoles m -2 s -1 ). This has been rationalized through the suggestion that both populations of cells were exposed to comparable photosystem II (PSII) excitation pressures measured as the chlorophyll a fluorescence quenching parameter, 1 - qP (D.P. Maxwell, S. Falk, N.P.A. Huner [1995] Plant Physiol 107: 687-694). To assess the possible role(s) of feedback mechanisms on PSII excitation pressure, stromal and cytosolic carbon metabolism were examined. Sucrose phosphate synthase and fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase activities as well as the ratios of fructose-1,6-bisphosphate/fructose-6 phosphate and sucrose/starch indicated that cells grown at 27 degrees C/2200 micromoles m -2 s -1 appeared to exhibit a restriction in starch metabolism. In contrast, cells grown at 5 degrees C/150 micromoles-1 m -2 s -1 appeared to exhibit a restriction in the sucrose metabolism based on decreased cytosolic fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase and sucrose phosphate synthase activities as well as a low sucrose/starch ratio. These metabolic restrictions may feedback on photosynthetic electron transport and, thus, contribute to the observed PSII excitation pressure. We conclude that, although PSII excitation pressure may reflect redox regulation of photosynthetic acclimation to light and temperature in C. vulgaris, it cannot be considered the primary redox signal. Alternative metabolic sensing/signaling mechanisms are discussed

  4. An unusual cause of high anion gap metabolic acidosis: pyroglutamic acidemia. A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Jorge E; Htyte, Nay

    2013-01-01

    Pyroglutamic acidemia is an uncommon metabolic disorder, which is usually diagnosed at early ages. The mechanism of action is thought to be glutathione depletion, and its clinical manifestations consist of hemolytic anemia, mental retardation, ataxia, and chronic metabolic acidosis. However, an acquired form has been described in adult patients, who usually present with confusion, respiratory distress, and high anion gap metabolic acidosis (HAGMA). It is also associated with many conditions, including chronic acetaminophen consumption. A 68-year-old white male, with chronic acetaminophen use presented to our service on multiple occasions with severe HAGMA. The patient was admitted to the intensive care unit and required mechanical ventilation and aggressive supportive measures. After ruling out the most frequent etiologies for his acid-base disorder and considering the long history of Tylenol ingestion, his 5-oxiproline (pyroglutamic acid) levels were sent to diagnose pyroglutamic acidemia. Clinicians need to be aware of this cause for metabolic acidosis since it might be a more common metabolic disturbance in compromised patients than would be expected. Subjects with HAGMA that cannot be explained by common causes should be tested for the presence of 5-oxoproline. Discontinuation of the offending drug is therapeutic.

  5. Metabolic Engineering for Probiotics and their Genome-Wide Expression Profiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Ruby; Singh, Puneet K; Shukla, Pratyoosh

    2018-01-01

    Probiotic supplements in food industry have attracted a lot of attention and shown a remarkable growth in this field. Metabolic engineering (ME) approaches enable understanding their mechanism of action and increases possibility of designing probiotic strains with desired functions. Probiotic microorganisms generally referred as industrially important lactic acid bacteria (LAB) which are involved in fermenting dairy products, food, beverages and produces lactic acid as final product. A number of illustrations of metabolic engineering approaches in industrial probiotic bacteria have been described in this review including transcriptomic studies of Lactobacillus reuteri and improvement in exopolysaccharide (EPS) biosynthesis yield in Lactobacillus casei LC2W. This review summaries various metabolic engineering approaches for exploring metabolic pathways. These approaches enable evaluation of cellular metabolic state and effective editing of microbial genome or introduction of novel enzymes to redirect the carbon fluxes. In addition, various system biology tools such as in silico design commonly used for improving strain performance is also discussed. Finally, we discuss the integration of metabolic engineering and genome profiling which offers a new way to explore metabolic interactions, fluxomics and probiogenomics using probiotic bacteria like Bifidobacterium spp and Lactobacillus spp. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  6. Overexpression of the human DEK oncogene reprograms cellular metabolism and promotes glycolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Miki; Muraleedharan, Ranjithmenon; Lambert, Paul F.; Lane, Andrew N.; Romick-Rosendale, Lindsey E.; Wells, Susanne I.

    2017-01-01

    The DEK oncogene is overexpressed in many human malignancies including at early tumor stages. Our reported in vitro and in vivo models of squamous cell carcinoma have demonstrated that DEK contributes functionally to cellular and tumor survival and to proliferation. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain poorly understood. Based on recent RNA sequencing experiments, DEK expression was necessary for the transcription of several metabolic enzymes involved in anabolic pathways. This identified a possible mechanism whereby DEK may drive cellular metabolism to enable cell proliferation. Functional metabolic Seahorse analysis demonstrated increased baseline and maximum extracellular acidification rates, a readout of glycolysis, in DEK-overexpressing keratinocytes and squamous cell carcinoma cells. DEK overexpression also increased the maximum rate of oxygen consumption and therefore increased the potential for oxidative phosphorylation (OxPhos). To detect small metabolites that participate in glycolysis and the tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA) that supplies substrate for OxPhos, we carried out NMR-based metabolomics studies. We found that high levels of DEK significantly reprogrammed cellular metabolism and altered the abundances of amino acids, TCA cycle intermediates and the glycolytic end products lactate, alanine and NAD+. Taken together, these data support a scenario whereby overexpression of the human DEK oncogene reprograms keratinocyte metabolism to fulfill energy and macromolecule demands required to enable and sustain cancer cell growth. PMID:28558019

  7. Overexpression of the human DEK oncogene reprograms cellular metabolism and promotes glycolysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie C Matrka

    Full Text Available The DEK oncogene is overexpressed in many human malignancies including at early tumor stages. Our reported in vitro and in vivo models of squamous cell carcinoma have demonstrated that DEK contributes functionally to cellular and tumor survival and to proliferation. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain poorly understood. Based on recent RNA sequencing experiments, DEK expression was necessary for the transcription of several metabolic enzymes involved in anabolic pathways. This identified a possible mechanism whereby DEK may drive cellular metabolism to enable cell proliferation. Functional metabolic Seahorse analysis demonstrated increased baseline and maximum extracellular acidification rates, a readout of glycolysis, in DEK-overexpressing keratinocytes and squamous cell carcinoma cells. DEK overexpression also increased the maximum rate of oxygen consumption and therefore increased the potential for oxidative phosphorylation (OxPhos. To detect small metabolites that participate in glycolysis and the tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA that supplies substrate for OxPhos, we carried out NMR-based metabolomics studies. We found that high levels of DEK significantly reprogrammed cellular metabolism and altered the abundances of amino acids, TCA cycle intermediates and the glycolytic end products lactate, alanine and NAD+. Taken together, these data support a scenario whereby overexpression of the human DEK oncogene reprograms keratinocyte metabolism to fulfill energy and macromolecule demands required to enable and sustain cancer cell growth.

  8. Systematic inference of functional phosphorylation events in yeast metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Yu; Wang, Yonghong; Nielsen, Jens

    2017-01-01

    Motivation: Protein phosphorylation is a post-translational modification that affects proteins by changing their structure and conformation in a rapid and reversible way, and it is an important mechanism for metabolic regulation in cells. Phosphoproteomics enables high-throughput identification o...

  9. translin Is Required for Metabolic Regulation of Sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Kazuma; Yurgel, Maria E; Stahl, Bethany A; Masek, Pavel; Mehta, Aradhana; Heidker, Rebecca; Bollinger, Wesley; Gingras, Robert M; Kim, Young-Joon; Ja, William W; Suter, Beat; DiAngelo, Justin R; Keene, Alex C

    2016-04-04

    Dysregulation of sleep or feeding has enormous health consequences. In humans, acute sleep loss is associated with increased appetite and insulin insensitivity, while chronically sleep-deprived individuals are more likely to develop obesity, metabolic syndrome, type II diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. Conversely, metabolic state potently modulates sleep and circadian behavior; yet, the molecular basis for sleep-metabolism interactions remains poorly understood. Here, we describe the identification of translin (trsn), a highly conserved RNA/DNA binding protein, as essential for starvation-induced sleep suppression. Strikingly, trsn does not appear to regulate energy stores, free glucose levels, or feeding behavior suggesting the sleep phenotype of trsn mutant flies is not a consequence of general metabolic dysfunction or blunted response to starvation. While broadly expressed in all neurons, trsn is transcriptionally upregulated in the heads of flies in response to starvation. Spatially restricted rescue or targeted knockdown localizes trsn function to neurons that produce the tachykinin family neuropeptide Leucokinin. Manipulation of neural activity in Leucokinin neurons revealed these neurons to be required for starvation-induced sleep suppression. Taken together, these findings establish trsn as an essential integrator of sleep and metabolic state, with implications for understanding the neural mechanism underlying sleep disruption in response to environmental perturbation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Mechanisms Of Co-Morbidities Associated With The Metabolic Syndrome: Insights From The JCR:La-Cp Corpulent Rat Strain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdoulaye Diane

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Obesity and its metabolic complications have emerged as the epidemic of the new millennia. The use of obese rodent models continues to be a productive component of efforts to understand the concomitant metabolic complications of this disease. In 1978, the JCR:LA-cp rat model was developed with an autosomal recessive corpulent (cp trait resulting from a premature stop codon in the extracellular domain of the leptin receptor. Rats that are heterozygous for the cp trait are lean-prone, while those that are homozygous (cp/cp spontaneously display the pathophysiology of obesity as well as a metabolic syndrome-like phenotype. Over the years, there have been formidable scientific contributions that have originated from this rat model, much of which has been reviewed extensively up to 2008. The premise of these earlier studies focused on characterizing the pathophysiology of metabolic syndrome-like phenotype that was spontaneously apparent in this model. The purpose of this review is to highlight areas of recent advancement made possible by this model including; emerging appreciation of the ‘thrifty gene’ hypothesis in the context of obesity, the concept of how chronic inflammation may drive obesogenesis, the impact of acute forms of inflammation to the brain and periphery during chronic obesity, the role of dysfunctional insulin metabolism on lipid metabolism and vascular damage, the mechanistic basis for altered vascular function as well as novel parallels between the human condition and the female JCR:LA-cp rat as a model for polycystic ovary disease (PCOS.

  11. Effects of intermittent fasting on metabolism in men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azevedo, Fernanda Reis de; Ikeoka, Dimas; Caramelli, Bruno

    2013-01-01

    This review analyzes the available literature on the impact of intermittent fasting (IF), a nutritional intervention, on different aspects of metabolism. The epidemic of metabolic disturbances, such as obesity, metabolic syndrome (MS), and diabetes mellitus type 2 has led to an increase in the prevalence of cardiovascular diseases, and affected patients might significantly benefit from modifications in nutritional habits. Recent experimental studies have elucidated some of the metabolic mechanisms involved with IF. Animal models have shown positive changes in glucose (lower plasma glucose and insulin levels) and in lipid metabolism (reduced visceral fat tissue and increased plasma adiponectin level), and an increased resistance to stress. Despite the limited number of samples studied, positive results have been reported on the impact of IF for human health. IF is reported to improve the lipid profile; to decrease inflammatory responses, reflected by changes in serum adipokine levels; and to change the expression of genes related to inflammatory response and other factors. Studies on obese individuals have shown that patient compliance was greater for IF than other traditional nutritional approaches (calorie restriction), and IF was found to be associated with low oxidative stress. Recent reports suggest that IF exerts a positive impact on the metabolic derangements commonly associated with cardiovascular diseases, and that it may be a viable and accessible intervention for most individuals. Therefore, further clinical studies are essential to test the effectiveness of IF in preventing and controlling metabolic and cardiovascular diseases. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  12. NMR as a probe metabolic disorders in disease and treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yushmanov, Victor E [Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation). Inst. of Chemical Physics

    1994-12-31

    The effects of malignant tumors, chemical and physical factors (toxic agents, ionizing radiation) as well as of their treatment on tissue metabolism were studied by NMR imaging. The importance of NMR is highlighted since it enables to a better understanding of molecular mechanisms of diseases and therapeutic interventions, in addition to the analysis of metabolic disorders in human beings. Combined with the studies of experimental animal pathologies, may constitute a base for new types of NMR-diagnosis in vivo 10 refs.

  13. Chronic treatment with olanzapine increases adiposity by changing fuel substrate and causes desensitization of the acute metabolic side effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Girault, Elodie M.; Guigas, Bruno; Alkemade, Anneke; Foppen, Ewout; Ackermans, Mariëtte T.; la Fleur, Susanne E.; Fliers, Eric; Kalsbeek, Andries

    2014-01-01

    Atypical antipsychotic drugs such as olanzapine induce weight gain and metabolic changes associated with the development of type 2 diabetes. The mechanisms underlying these metabolic side-effects are unknown at the moment. In this study, we investigated the metabolic changes induced by a chronic

  14. Chronic treatment with olanzapine increases adiposity by changing fuel substrate and causes desensitization of the acute metabolic side effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Girault, Elodie M; Guigas, Bruno; Alkemade, Anneke; Foppen, Ewout; Ackermans, Mariëtte T; la Fleur, Susanne E; Fliers, Eric; Kalsbeek, A.

    Atypical antipsychotic drugs such as olanzapine induce weight gain and metabolic changes associated with the development of type 2 diabetes. The mechanisms underlying these metabolic side-effects are unknown at the moment. In this study, we investigated the metabolic changes induced by a chronic

  15. Cancer Metabolism and Tumor Heterogeneity: Imaging Perspectives Using MR Imaging and Spectroscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Gigin; Keshari, Kayvan R.; Park, Jae Mo

    2017-01-01

    Cancer cells reprogram their metabolism to maintain viability via genetic mutations and epigenetic alterations, expressing overall dynamic heterogeneity. The complex relaxation mechanisms of nuclear spins provide unique and convertible tissue contrasts, making magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) pertinent imaging tools in both clinics and research. In this review, we summarized MR methods that visualize tumor characteristics and its metabolic phenotypes ...

  16. Myostatin induces mitochondrial metabolic alteration and typical apoptosis in cancer cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y; Cheng, H; Zhou, Y; Zhu, Y; Bian, R; Chen, Y; Li, C; Ma, Q; Zheng, Q; Zhang, Y; Jin, H; Wang, X; Chen, Q; Zhu, D

    2013-01-01

    Myostatin, a member of the transforming growth factor-β superfamily, regulates the glucose metabolism of muscle cells, while dysregulated myostatin activity is associated with a number of metabolic disorders, including muscle cachexia, obesity and type II diabetes. We observed that myostatin induced significant mitochondrial metabolic alterations and prolonged exposure of myostatin induced mitochondria-dependent apoptosis in cancer cells addicted to glycolysis. To address the underlying mechanism, we found that the protein levels of Hexokinase II (HKII) and voltage-dependent anion channel 1 (VDAC1), two key regulators of glucose metabolisms as well as metabolic stress-induced apoptosis, were negatively correlated. In particular, VDAC1 was dramatically upregulated in cells that are sensitive to myostatin treatment whereas HKII was downregulated and dissociated from mitochondria. Myostatin promoted the translocation of Bax from cytosol to mitochondria, and knockdown of VDAC1 inhibited myostatin-induced Bax translocation and apoptosis. These apoptotic changes can be partially rescued by repletion of ATP, or by ectopic expression of HKII, suggesting that perturbation of mitochondrial metabolism is causally linked with subsequent apoptosis. Our findings reveal novel function of myostatin in regulating mitochondrial metabolism and apoptosis in cancer cells. PMID:23412387

  17. Reconstruction and analysis of a genome-scale metabolic model for Scheffersomyces stipitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balagurunathan Balaji

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fermentation of xylose, the major component in hemicellulose, is essential for economic conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to fuels and chemicals. The yeast Scheffersomyces stipitis (formerly known as Pichia stipitis has the highest known native capacity for xylose fermentation and possesses several genes for lignocellulose bioconversion in its genome. Understanding the metabolism of this yeast at a global scale, by reconstructing the genome scale metabolic model, is essential for manipulating its metabolic capabilities and for successful transfer of its capabilities to other industrial microbes. Results We present a genome-scale metabolic model for Scheffersomyces stipitis, a native xylose utilizing yeast. The model was reconstructed based on genome sequence annotation, detailed experimental investigation and known yeast physiology. Macromolecular composition of Scheffersomyces stipitis biomass was estimated experimentally and its ability to grow on different carbon, nitrogen, sulphur and phosphorus sources was determined by phenotype microarrays. The compartmentalized model, developed based on an iterative procedure, accounted for 814 genes, 1371 reactions, and 971 metabolites. In silico computed growth rates were compared with high-throughput phenotyping data and the model could predict the qualitative outcomes in 74% of substrates investigated. Model simulations were used to identify the biosynthetic requirements for anaerobic growth of Scheffersomyces stipitis on glucose and the results were validated with published literature. The bottlenecks in Scheffersomyces stipitis metabolic network for xylose uptake and nucleotide cofactor recycling were identified by in silico flux variability analysis. The scope of the model in enhancing the mechanistic understanding of microbial metabolism is demonstrated by identifying a mechanism for mitochondrial respiration and oxidative phosphorylation. Conclusion The genome

  18. Suppression of microbial metabolic pathways inhibits the generation of the human body odor component diacetyl by Staphylococcus spp.

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    Takeshi Hara

    Full Text Available Diacetyl (2,3-butanedione is a key contributor to unpleasant odors emanating from the axillae, feet, and head regions. To investigate the mechanism of diacetyl generation on human skin, resident skin bacteria were tested for the ability to produce diacetyl via metabolism of the main organic acids contained in human sweat. L-lactate metabolism by Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis produced the highest amounts of diacetyl, as measured by high-performance liquid chromatography. Glycyrrhiza glabra root extract (GGR and α-tocopheryl-L-ascorbate-2-O-phosphate diester potassium salt (EPC-K1, a phosphate diester of α-tocopherol and ascorbic acid, effectively inhibited diacetyl formation without bactericidal effects. Moreover, a metabolic flux analysis revealed that GGR and EPC-K1 suppressed diacetyl formation by inhibiting extracellular bacterial conversion of L-lactate to pyruvate or by altering intracellular metabolic flow into the citrate cycle, respectively, highlighting fundamentally distinct mechanisms by GGR and EPC-K1 to suppress diacetyl formation. These results provide new insight into diacetyl metabolism by human skin bacteria and identify a regulatory mechanism of diacetyl formation that can facilitate the development of effective deodorant agents.

  19. Suppression of microbial metabolic pathways inhibits the generation of the human body odor component diacetyl by Staphylococcus spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hara, Takeshi; Matsui, Hiroshi; Shimizu, Hironori

    2014-01-01

    Diacetyl (2,3-butanedione) is a key contributor to unpleasant odors emanating from the axillae, feet, and head regions. To investigate the mechanism of diacetyl generation on human skin, resident skin bacteria were tested for the ability to produce diacetyl via metabolism of the main organic acids contained in human sweat. L-lactate metabolism by Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis produced the highest amounts of diacetyl, as measured by high-performance liquid chromatography. Glycyrrhiza glabra root extract (GGR) and α-tocopheryl-L-ascorbate-2-O-phosphate diester potassium salt (EPC-K1), a phosphate diester of α-tocopherol and ascorbic acid, effectively inhibited diacetyl formation without bactericidal effects. Moreover, a metabolic flux analysis revealed that GGR and EPC-K1 suppressed diacetyl formation by inhibiting extracellular bacterial conversion of L-lactate to pyruvate or by altering intracellular metabolic flow into the citrate cycle, respectively, highlighting fundamentally distinct mechanisms by GGR and EPC-K1 to suppress diacetyl formation. These results provide new insight into diacetyl metabolism by human skin bacteria and identify a regulatory mechanism of diacetyl formation that can facilitate the development of effective deodorant agents.

  20. Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopic Imaging of Tumor Metabolic Markers for Cancer Diagnosis, Metabolic Phenotyping, and Characterization of Tumor Microenvironment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiuhong He

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Cancer cells display heterogeneous genetic characteristics, depending on the tumor dynamic microenvironment. Abnormal tumor vasculature and poor tissue oxygenation generate a fraction of hypoxic tumor cells that have selective advantages in metastasis and invasion and often resist chemo- and radiation therapies. The genetic alterations acquired by tumors modify their biochemical pathways, which results in abnormal tumor metabolism. An elevation in glycolysis known as the “Warburg effect” and changes in lipid synthesis and oxidation occur. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS has been used to study tumor metabolism in preclinical animal models and in clinical research on human breast, brain, and prostate cancers. This technique can identify specific genetic and metabolic changes that occur in malignant tumors. Therefore, the metabolic markers, detectable by MRS, not only provide information on biochemical changes but also define different metabolic tumor phenotypes. When combined with the contrast-enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI, which has a high sensitivity for cancer diagnosis, in vivo magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (MRSI improves the diagnostic specificity of malignant human cancers and is becoming an important clinical tool for cancer management and care. This article reviews the MRSI techniques as molecular imaging methods to detect and quantify metabolic changes in various tumor tissue types, especially in extracranial tumor tissues that contain high concentrations of fat. MRI/MRSI methods have been used to characterize tumor microenvironments in terms of blood volume and vessel permeability. Measurements of tissue oxygenation and glycolytic rates by MRS also are described to illustrate the capability of the MR technology in probing molecular information non-invasively in tumor tissues and its important potential for studying molecular mechanisms of human cancers in physiological conditions.

  1. C1 metabolism plays an important role during formaldehyde metabolism and detoxification in petunia under liquid HCHO stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Tang, Lijuan; Sun, Huiqun; Han, Shuang; Wang, Xinjia; Zhou, Shengen; Li, Kunzhi; Chen, Limei

    2014-10-01

    Petunia hybrida is a model ornamental plant grown worldwide. To understand the HCHO-uptake efficiency and metabolic mechanism of petunia, the aseptic petunia plants were treated in HCHO solutions. An analysis of HCHO-uptake showed that petunia plants effectively removed HCHO from 2, 4 and 6 mM HCHO solutions. The (13)C NMR analyses indicated that H(13)CHO was primarily used to synthesize [5-(13)C]methionine (Met) via C1 metabolism in petunia plants treated with 2 mM H(13)CHO. Pretreatment with cyclosporin A (CSA) or l-carnitine (LC), the inhibitors of mitochondrial permeability transition pores, did not affect the synthesis of [5-(13)C]Met in petunia plants under 2 mM H(13)CHO stress, indicating that the Met-generated pathway may function in the cytoplasm. Under 4 or 6 mM liquid H(13)CHO stress, H(13)CHO metabolism in petunia plants produced considerable amount of H(13)COOH and [2-(13)C]glycine (Gly) through C1 metabolism and a small amount of [U-(13)C]Gluc via the Calvin Cycle. Pretreatment with CSA or LC significantly inhibited the production of [2-(13)C]Gly in 6 mM H(13)CHO-treated petunia plants, which suggests that chloroplasts and peroxisomes might be involved in the generation of [2-(13)C]Gly. These results revealed that the C1 metabolism played an important role, whereas the Calvin Cycle had only a small contribution during HCHO metabolism and detoxification in petunia under liquid HCHO stress. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Tissue metabolic profiling of human gastric cancer assessed by 1H NMR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Huijuan; Zhang, Hailong; Deng, Pengchi; Liu, Chunqi; Li, Dandan; Jie, Hui; Zhang, Hu; Zhou, Zongguang; Zhao, Ying-Lan

    2016-01-01

    Gastric cancer is the fourth most common cancer and the second most deadly cancer worldwide. Study on molecular mechanisms of carcinogenesis will play a significant role in diagnosing and treating gastric cancer. Metabolic profiling may offer the opportunity to understand the molecular mechanism of carcinogenesis and help to identify the potential biomarkers for the early diagnosis of gastric cancer. In this study, we reported the metabolic profiling of tissue samples on a large cohort of human gastric cancer subjects (n = 125) and normal controls (n = 54) based on 1 H nuclear magnetic resonance ( 1 H NMR) together with multivariate statistical analyses (PCA, PLS-DA, OPLS-DA and ROC curve). The OPLS-DA model showed adequate discrimination between cancer tissues and normal controls, and meanwhile, the model excellently discriminated the stage-related of tissue samples (stage I, 30; stage II, 46; stage III, 37; stage IV, 12) and normal controls. A total of 48 endogenous distinguishing metabolites (VIP > 1 and p < 0.05) were identified, 13 of which were changed with the progression of gastric cancer. These modified metabolites revealed disturbance of glycolysis, glutaminolysis, TCA, amino acids and choline metabolism, which were correlated with the occurrence and development of human gastric cancer. The receiver operating characteristic diagnostic AUC of OPLS-DA model between cancer tissues and normal controls was 0.945. And the ROC curves among different stages cancer subjects and normal controls were gradually improved, the corresponding AUC values were 0.952, 0.994, 0.998 and 0.999, demonstrating the robust diagnostic power of this metabolic profiling approach. As far as we know, the present study firstly identified the differential metabolites in various stages of gastric cancer tissues. And the AUC values were relatively high. So these results suggest that the metabolic profiling of gastric cancer tissues has great potential in detecting this disease and helping

  3. Exposures to arsenite and methylarsonite produce insulin resistance and impair insulin-dependent glycogen metabolism in hepatocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chongben; Fennel, Emily M J; Douillet, Christelle; Stýblo, Miroslav

    2017-12-01

    Environmental exposure to inorganic arsenic (iAs) has been shown to disturb glucose homeostasis, leading to diabetes. Previous laboratory studies have suggested several mechanisms that may underlie the diabetogenic effects of iAs exposure, including (i) inhibition of insulin signaling (leading to insulin resistance) in glucose metabolizing peripheral tissues, (ii) inhibition of insulin secretion by pancreatic β cells, and (iii) dysregulation of the methylation or expression of genes involved in maintenance of glucose or insulin metabolism and function. Published studies have also shown that acute or chronic iAs exposures may result in depletion of hepatic glycogen stores. However, effects of iAs on pathways and mechanisms that regulate glycogen metabolism in the liver have never been studied. The present study examined glycogen metabolism in primary murine hepatocytes exposed in vitro to arsenite (iAs 3+ ) or its methylated metabolite, methylarsonite (MAs 3+ ). The results show that 4-h exposures to iAs 3+ and MAs 3+ at concentrations as low as 0.5 and 0.2 µM, respectively, decreased glycogen content in insulin-stimulated hepatocytes by inhibiting insulin-dependent activation of glycogen synthase (GS) and by inducing activity of glycogen phosphorylase (GP). Further investigation revealed that both iAs 3+ and MAs 3+ inhibit insulin-dependent phosphorylation of protein kinase B/Akt, one of the mechanisms involved in the regulation of GS and GP by insulin. Thus, inhibition of insulin signaling (i.e., insulin resistance) is likely responsible for the dysregulation of glycogen metabolism in hepatocytes exposed to iAs 3+ and MAs 3+ . This study provides novel information about the mechanisms by which iAs exposure impairs glucose homeostasis, pointing to hepatic metabolism of glycogen as one of the targets.

  4. Mechanisms of Comorbidities Associated With the Metabolic Syndrome: Insights from the JCR:LA-cp Corpulent Rat Strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diane, Abdoulaye; Pierce, W David; Kelly, Sandra E; Sokolik, Sharon; Borthwick, Faye; Jacome-Sosa, Miriam; Mangat, Rabban; Pradillo, Jesus Miguel; Allan, Stuart McRae; Ruth, Megan R; Field, Catherine J; Hutcheson, Rebecca; Rocic, Petra; Russell, James C; Vine, Donna F; Proctor, Spencer D

    2016-01-01

    Obesity and its metabolic complications have emerged as the epidemic of the new millennia. The use of obese rodent models continues to be a productive component of efforts to understand the concomitant metabolic complications of this disease. In 1978, the JCR:LA-cp rat model was developed with an autosomal recessive corpulent ( cp ) trait resulting from a premature stop codon in the extracellular domain of the leptin receptor. Rats that are heterozygous for the cp trait are lean-prone, while those that are homozygous ( cp/cp ) spontaneously display the pathophysiology of obesity as well as a metabolic syndrome (MetS)-like phenotype. Over the years, there have been formidable scientific contributions that have originated from this rat model, much of which has been reviewed extensively up to 2008. The premise of these earlier studies focused on characterizing the pathophysiology of MetS-like phenotype that was spontaneously apparent in this model. The purpose of this review is to highlight areas of recent advancement made possible by this model including; emerging appreciation of the "thrifty gene" hypothesis in the context of obesity, the concept of how chronic inflammation may drive obesogenesis, the impact of acute forms of inflammation to the brain and periphery during chronic obesity, the role of dysfunctional insulin metabolism on lipid metabolism and vascular damage, and the mechanistic basis for altered vascular function as well as novel parallels between the human condition and the female JCR:LA-cp rat as a model for polycystic ovary disease (PCOS).

  5. Biochemistry and occurrence of O-demethylation in plant metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jillian Hagel

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Demethylases play a pivitol role in numerous biological processes from covalent histone modification and DNA repair to specialized metabolism in plants and microorganisms. Enzymes that catalyze O- and N-demethylation include 2-oxoglutarate (2OG/Fe(II-dependent dioxygenases, cytochromes P450, Rieske-domain proteins and flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD-dependent oxidases. Proposed mechanisms for demethylation by 2OG/Fe(II-dependent enzymes involve hydroxylation at the O- or N-linked methyl group followed by formaldehyde elimination. Members of this enzyme family catalyze a wide variety of reactions in diverse plant metabolic pathways. Recently, we showed that 2OG/Fe(II-dependent dioxygenases catalyze the unique O-demethylation steps of morphine biosynthesis in opium poppy, which provides a rational basis for the widespread occurrence of demethylases in benzylisoquinoline alkaloid metabolism.

  6. Study of brain metabolism using positron emission computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heiss, W D

    1983-03-21

    Positron emission tomography permits the three-dimensional regional measurement of metabolism and blood flow in the brain. For the determination of cerebral metabolic rates of glucose by PET /sup 18/fluordeoxyglucose is usually applied: cerebral metabolic rate of glucose was found to be 36 to 47 ..mu..mol/100 g/min in the grey matter and 23 to 29 ..mu..mol/100 g/min in the white matter of normal volunteers. During physiologic activation metabolic rate of glucose is increased in the respective brain areas in relation to the strength and complexity of the stimulation. In patients suffering from ischaemic stroke glucose metabolism is markedly decreased within the infarction. Additonally, glucose metabolism is reduced by 20% in morphologically intact areas of the homolateral cortex, in the basal ganglia, in the cortical area contralateral to the infarction and in the contralateral cerebellum. This remote reduction of glucose utilization is probably caused by functional inactivation of these brain structures; it could be responsible for the diffuse organic syndrome in stroke victims not caused by the focal lesion. In patients suffering from dementia of the multi-infarct type and of the Alzheimer type glucose metabolism is reduced; the lesions in Alzheimer cases are most prominent in partietal and frontal cortical areas. In Chorea Huntington cases glucose metabolism is primarily disturbed in the striate, especially in the caudate nucleus; in these cases the metabolic disturbance can be detected earlier than the atrophy in computed tomograms. Disturbances of glucose and oxygen utilization are not necessary causes, but may also be sequelae od functional impairment. Additional information on pathogentic mechanisms may be obtained by the investigation of the protein synthesis.

  7. Iron in Child Obesity. Relationships with Inflammation and Metabolic Risk Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominique Bouglé

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Iron (Fe sequestration is described in overweight and in its associated metabolic complications, i.e., metabolic syndrome (MetS and non-alcoholic liver fatty disease (NAFLD; however, the interactions between Fe, obesity and inflammation make it difficult to recognize the specific role of each of them in the risk of obesity-induced metabolic diseases. Even the usual surrogate marker of Fe stores, ferritin, is influenced by inflammation; therefore, in obese subjects inflammation parameters must be measured together with those of Fe metabolism. This cross-sectional study in obese youth (502 patients; 57% girls: 11.4 ± 3.0 years old (x ± SD; BMI z score 5.5 ± 2.3, multivariate regression analysis showed associations between Fe storage assessed by serum ferritin with risk factors for MetS and NAFLD, assessed by transaminase levels, which were independent of overweight and the acute phase protein fibrinogen. Further studies incorporating the measurement of complementary parameters of Fe metabolism could improve the comprehension of mechanisms involved.

  8. Bactericidal Antibiotics Induce Toxic Metabolic Perturbations that Lead to Cellular Damage

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    Peter Belenky

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Understanding how antibiotics impact bacterial metabolism may provide insight into their mechanisms of action and could lead to enhanced therapeutic methodologies. Here, we profiled the metabolome of Escherichia coli after treatment with three different classes of bactericidal antibiotics (β-lactams, aminoglycosides, quinolones. These treatments induced a similar set of metabolic changes after 30 min that then diverged into more distinct profiles at later time points. The most striking changes corresponded to elevated concentrations of central carbon metabolites, active breakdown of the nucleotide pool, reduced lipid levels, and evidence of an elevated redox state. We examined potential end-target consequences of these metabolic perturbations and found that antibiotic-treated cells exhibited cytotoxic changes indicative of oxidative stress, including higher levels of protein carbonylation, malondialdehyde adducts, nucleotide oxidation, and double-strand DNA breaks. This work shows that bactericidal antibiotics induce a complex set of metabolic changes that are correlated with the buildup of toxic metabolic by-products.

  9. Arachidonic Acid Metabolism Pathway Is Not Only Dominant in Metabolic Modulation but Associated With Phenotypic Variation After Acute Hypoxia Exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Liu

    2018-03-01

    elevated in subjects in maladaptation to hypoxia.Conclusion: This is the first study to construct the map of AA metabolism pathway in response to hypoxia and reveal the crosstalk between phenotypic variation under hypoxia and the AA metabolism pathway. These findings may improve our understanding of the advanced pathophysiological mechanisms in acute hypoxic diseases and provide new insights into critical roles of the AA metabolism pathway in the development and prevention of these diseases.

  10. Novel Plasmodium falciparum metabolic network reconstruction identifies shifts associated with clinical antimalarial resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, Maureen A; Papin, Jason A; Guler, Jennifer L

    2017-07-19

    Malaria remains a major public health burden and resistance has emerged to every antimalarial on the market, including the frontline drug, artemisinin. Our limited understanding of Plasmodium biology hinders the elucidation of resistance mechanisms. In this regard, systems biology approaches can facilitate the integration of existing experimental knowledge and further understanding of these mechanisms. Here, we developed a novel genome-scale metabolic network reconstruction, iPfal17, of the asexual blood-stage P. falciparum parasite to expand our understanding of metabolic changes that support resistance. We identified 11 metabolic tasks to evaluate iPfal17 performance. Flux balance analysis and simulation of gene knockouts and enzyme inhibition predict candidate drug targets unique to resistant parasites. Moreover, integration of clinical parasite transcriptomes into the iPfal17 reconstruction reveals patterns associated with antimalarial resistance. These results predict that artemisinin sensitive and resistant parasites differentially utilize scavenging and biosynthetic pathways for multiple essential metabolites, including folate and polyamines. Our findings are consistent with experimental literature, while generating novel hypotheses about artemisinin resistance and parasite biology. We detect evidence that resistant parasites maintain greater metabolic flexibility, perhaps representing an incomplete transition to the metabolic state most appropriate for nutrient-rich blood. Using this systems biology approach, we identify metabolic shifts that arise with or in support of the resistant phenotype. This perspective allows us to more productively analyze and interpret clinical expression data for the identification of candidate drug targets for the treatment of resistant parasites.

  11. Survival under stress: molecular mechanisms of metabolic rate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Studies in my laboratory are analysing the molecular mechanisms and regulatory events that underlie transitions to and from hypometabolic states In systems including anoxia-tolerant turtles and molluscs, estivating snails and toads, hibernating small mammals, and freeze tolerant frogs and insects. Our newest research ...

  12. Engineered resistance and hypersusceptibility through functional metabolic studies of 100 genes in soybean to its major pathogen, the soybean cyst nematode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Benjamin F; Beard, Hunter; MacDonald, Margaret H; Kabir, Sara; Youssef, Reham M; Hosseini, Parsa; Brewer, Eric

    2013-05-01

    During pathogen attack, the host plant induces genes to ward off the pathogen while the pathogen often produces effector proteins to increase susceptibility of the host. Gene expression studies of syncytia formed in soybean root by soybean cyst nematode (Heterodera glycines) identified many genes altered in expression in resistant and susceptible roots. However, it is difficult to assess the role and impact of these genes on resistance using gene expression patterns alone. We selected 100 soybean genes from published microarray studies and individually overexpressed them in soybean roots to determine their impact on cyst nematode development. Nine genes reduced the number of mature females by more than 50 % when overexpressed, including genes encoding ascorbate peroxidase, β-1,4-endoglucanase, short chain dehydrogenase, lipase, DREPP membrane protein, calmodulin, and three proteins of unknown function. One gene encoding a serine hydroxymethyltransferase decreased the number of mature cyst nematode females by 45 % and is located at the Rhg4 locus. Four genes increased the number of mature cyst nematode females by more than 200 %, while thirteen others increased the number of mature cyst nematode females by more than 150 %. Our data support a role for auxin and ethylene in susceptibility of soybean to cyst nematodes. These studies highlight the contrasting gene sets induced by host and nematode during infection and provide new insights into the interactions between host and pathogen at the molecular level. Overexpression of some of these genes result in a greater decrease in the number of cysts formed than recognized soybean cyst nematode resistance loci.

  13. A metabolic signature of long life in Caenorhabditis elegans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viney Jonathan M

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many Caenorhabditis elegans mutations increase longevity and much evidence suggests that they do so at least partly via changes in metabolism. However, up until now there has been no systematic investigation of how the metabolic networks of long-lived mutants differ from those of normal worms. Metabolomic technologies, that permit the analysis of many untargeted metabolites in parallel, now make this possible. Here we use one of these, 1H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, to investigate what makes long-lived worms metabolically distinctive. Results We examined three classes of long-lived worms: dauer larvae, adult Insulin/IGF-1 signalling (IIS-defective mutants, and a translation-defective mutant. Surprisingly, these ostensibly different long-lived worms share a common metabolic signature, dominated by shifts in carbohydrate and amino acid metabolism. In addition the dauer larvae, uniquely, had elevated levels of modified amino acids (hydroxyproline and phosphoserine. We interrogated existing gene expression data in order to integrate functional (metabolite-level changes with transcriptional changes at a pathway level. Conclusions The observed metabolic responses could be explained to a large degree by upregulation of gluconeogenesis and the glyoxylate shunt as well as changes in amino acid catabolism. These responses point to new possible mechanisms of longevity assurance in worms. The metabolic changes observed in dauer larvae can be explained by the existence of high levels of autophagy leading to recycling of cellular components. See associated minireview: http://jbiol.com/content/9/1/7

  14. Horizontal and vertical growth of S. cerevisiae metabolic network.

    KAUST Repository

    Grassi, Luigi

    2011-10-14

    BACKGROUND: The growth and development of a biological organism is reflected by its metabolic network, the evolution of which relies on the essential gene duplication mechanism. There are two current views about the evolution of metabolic networks. The retrograde model hypothesizes that a pathway evolves by recruiting novel enzymes in a direction opposite to the metabolic flow. The patchwork model is instead based on the assumption that the evolution is based on the exploitation of broad-specificity enzymes capable of catalysing a variety of metabolic reactions. RESULTS: We analysed a well-studied unicellular eukaryotic organism, S. cerevisiae, and studied the effect of the removal of paralogous gene products on its metabolic network. Our results, obtained using different paralog and network definitions, show that, after an initial period when gene duplication was indeed instrumental in expanding the metabolic space, the latter reached an equilibrium and subsequent gene duplications were used as a source of more specialized enzymes rather than as a source of novel reactions. We also show that the switch between the two evolutionary strategies in S. cerevisiae can be dated to about 350 million years ago. CONCLUSIONS: Our data, obtained through a novel analysis methodology, strongly supports the hypothesis that the patchwork model better explains the more recent evolution of the S. cerevisiae metabolic network. Interestingly, the effects of a patchwork strategy acting before the Euascomycete-Hemiascomycete divergence are still detectable today.

  15. Citrus Flavonoids as Regulators of Lipoprotein Metabolism and Atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulvihill, Erin E; Burke, Amy C; Huff, Murray W

    2016-07-17

    Citrus flavonoids are polyphenolic compounds with significant biological properties. This review summarizes recent advances in understanding the ability of citrus flavonoids to modulate lipid metabolism, other metabolic parameters related to the metabolic syndrome, and atherosclerosis. Citrus flavonoids, including naringenin, hesperitin, nobiletin, and tangeretin, have emerged as potential therapeutics for the treatment of metabolic dysregulation. Epidemiological studies reveal an association between the intake of citrus flavonoid-containing foods and a decreased incidence of cardiovascular disease. Studies in cell culture and animal models, as well as a limited number of clinical studies, reveal the lipid-lowering, insulin-sensitizing, antihypertensive, and anti-inflammatory properties of citrus flavonoids. In animal models, supplementation of rodent diets with citrus flavonoids prevents hepatic steatosis, dyslipidemia, and insulin resistance primarily through inhibition of hepatic fatty acid synthesis and increased fatty acid oxidation. Citrus flavonoids blunt the inflammatory response in metabolically important tissues including liver, adipose, kidney, and the aorta. The mechanisms underlying flavonoid-induced metabolic regulation have not been completely established, although several potential targets have been identified. In mouse models, citrus flavonoids show marked suppression of atherogenesis through improved metabolic parameters as well as through direct impact on the vessel wall. Recent studies support a role for citrus flavonoids in the treatment of dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, hepatic steatosis, obesity, and atherosclerosis. Larger human studies examining dose, bioavailability, efficacy, and safety are required to promote the development of these promising therapeutic agents.

  16. Glutathione metabolism modelling: a mechanism for liver drug-robustness and a new biomarker strategy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geenen, S.; du Preez, F.B.; Snoep, J.L.; Foster, A.J.; Sarda, S.; Kenna, J.G.; Wilson, I.D.; Westerhoff, H.V.

    2013-01-01

    Background Glutathione metabolism can determine an individual's ability to detoxify drugs. To increase understanding of the dynamics of cellular glutathione homeostasis, we have developed an experiment-based mathematical model of the kinetics of the glutathione network. This model was used to

  17. Metabolic vs. hedonic obesity: a conceptual distinction and its clinical implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Y-H; Vasselli, J R; Zhang, Y; Mechanick, J I; Korner, J; Peterli, R

    2015-03-01

    Body weight is determined via both metabolic and hedonic mechanisms. Metabolic regulation of body weight centres around the 'body weight set point', which is programmed by energy balance circuitry in the hypothalamus and other specific brain regions. The metabolic body weight set point has a genetic basis, but exposure to an obesogenic environment may elicit allostatic responses and upward drift of the set point, leading to a higher maintained body weight. However, an elevated steady-state body weight may also be achieved without an alteration of the metabolic set point, via sustained hedonic over-eating, which is governed by the reward system of the brain and can override homeostatic metabolic signals. While hedonic signals are potent influences in determining food intake, metabolic regulation involves the active control of both food intake and energy expenditure. When overweight is due to elevation of the metabolic set point ('metabolic obesity'), energy expenditure theoretically falls onto the standard energy-mass regression line. In contrast, when a steady-state weight is above the metabolic set point due to hedonic over-eating ('hedonic obesity'), a persistent compensatory increase in energy expenditure per unit metabolic mass may be demonstrable. Recognition of the two types of obesity may lead to more effective treatment and prevention of obesity. © 2015 The Authors. Obesity Reviews published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of International Association for the Study of Obesity (IASO).

  18. Uric acid in metabolic syndrome: From an innocent bystander to a central player

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanbay, Mehmet; Jensen, Thomas; Solak, Yalcin; Le, Myphuong; Roncal-Jimenez, Carlos; Rivard, Chris; Lanaspa, Miguel A.; Nakagawa, Takahiko; Johnson, Richard J.

    2016-01-01

    Uric acid, once viewed as an inert metabolic end-product of purine metabolism, has been recently incriminated in a number of chronic disease states, including hypertension, metabolic syndrome, diabetes, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, and chronic kidney disease. Several experimental and clinical studies support a role for uric acid as a contributory causal factor in these conditions. Here we discuss some of the major mechanisms linking uric acid to metabolic and cardiovascular diseases. At this time the key to understanding the importance of uric acid in these diseases will be the conduct of large clinical trials in which the effect of lowering uric acid on hard clinical outcomes is assessed. Elevated uric acid may turn out to be one of the more important remediable risk factors for metabolic and cardiovascular diseases. PMID:26703429

  19. The Importance of the Circadian Clock in Regulating Plant Metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin A Kim

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Carbohydrates are the primary energy source for plant development. Plants synthesize sucrose in source organs and transport them to sink organs during plant growth. This metabolism is sensitive to environmental changes in light quantity, quality, and photoperiod. In the daytime, the synthesis of sucrose and starch accumulates, and starch is degraded at nighttime. The circadian clock genes provide plants with information on the daily environmental changes and directly control many developmental processes, which are related to the path of primary metabolites throughout the life cycle. The circadian clock mechanism and processes of metabolism controlled by the circadian rhythm were studied in the model plant Arabidopsis and in the crops potato and rice. However, the translation of molecular mechanisms obtained from studies of model plants to crop plants is still difficult. Crop plants have specific organs such as edible seed and tuber that increase the size or accumulate valuable metabolites by harvestable metabolic components. Human consumers are interested in the regulation and promotion of these agriculturally significant crops. Circadian clock manipulation may suggest various strategies for the increased productivity of food crops through using environmental signal or overcoming environmental stress.

  20. Metabolic Effect of Dietary Taurine Supplementation on Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis nilotictus) Evaluated by NMR-Based Metabolomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Guiping; Huang, Ying; Dong, Jiyang; Wang, Xuexi; Cheng, Kian-Kai; Feng, Jianghua; Xu, Jingjing; Ye, Jidan

    2018-01-10

    Taurine is indispensable in aquatic diets that are based solely on plant protein, and it promotes growth of many fish species. However, the physiological and metabolome effects of taurine on fish have not been well described. In this study, 1 H NMR-based metabolomics approaches were applied to investigate the metabolite variations in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis nilotictus) muscle in order to visualize the metabolic trajectory and reveal the possible mechanisms of metabolic effects of dietary taurine supplementation on tilapia growth. After extraction using aqueous and organic solvents, 19 taurine-induced metabolic changes were evaluated in our study. The metabolic changes were characterized by differences in carbohydrate, amino acid, lipid, and nucleotide contents. The results indicate that taurine supplementation could significantly regulate the physiological state of fish and promote growth and development. These results provide a basis for understanding the mechanism of dietary taurine supplementation in fish feeding. 1 H NMR spectroscopy, coupled with multivariate pattern recognition technologies, is an efficient and useful tool to map the fish metabolome and identify metabolic responses to different dietary nutrients in aquaculture.

  1. Gut microbiota may have influence on glucose and lipid metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Kristian Hallundbæk; Nielsen, Morten Frost; Tvede, Michael

    2013-01-01

    and that prebiotics, antibiotics or faecal transplantation can alter glucose and lipid metabolism. This paper summarizes the latest research regarding the association between gut microbiota, diabetes and obesity and some of the mechanisms by which gut bacteria may influence host metabolism.......New gene sequencing-based techniques and the large worldwide sequencing capacity have introduced a new era within the field of gut microbiota. Animal and human studies have shown that obesity and type 2 diabetes are associated with changes in the composition of the gut microbiota...

  2. Gut microbiota may have influence on glucose and lipid metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Kristian Hallundbæk; Nielsen, Morten Frost; Tvede, Michael

    2013-01-01

    New gene sequencing-based techniques and the large worldwide sequencing capacity have introduced a new era within the field of gut microbiota. Animal and human studies have shown that obesity and type 2 diabetes are associated with changes in the composition of the gut microbiota...... and that prebiotics, antibiotics or faecal transplantation can alter glucose and lipid metabolism. This paper summarizes the latest research regarding the association between gut microbiota, diabetes and obesity and some of the mechanisms by which gut bacteria may influence host metabolism....

  3. Enhanced 2,4-D Metabolism in Two Resistant Papaver rhoeas Populations from Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel Torra

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Corn poppy (Papaver rhoeas, the most problematic broadleaf weed in winter cereals in Southern Europe, has developed resistance to the widely-used herbicide, 2,4-D. The first reported resistance mechanism in this species to 2,4-D was reduced translocation from treated leaves to the rest of the plant. However, the presence of other non-target site resistance (NTSR mechanisms has not been investigated up to date. Therefore, the main objective of this research was to reveal if enhanced 2,4-D metabolism is also present in two Spanish resistant (R populations to synthetic auxins. With this aim, HPLC experiments at two 2,4-D rates (600 and 2,400 g ai ha−1 were conducted to identify and quantify the metabolites produced and evaluate possible differences in 2,4-D degradation between resistant (R and susceptible (S plants. Secondarily, to determine the role of cytochrome P450 in the resistance response, dose-response experiments were performed using malathion as its inhibitor. Three populations were used: S, only 2,4-D R (R-703 and multiple R to 2,4-D and ALS inhibitors (R-213. HPLC studies indicated the presence of two hydroxy metabolites in these R populations in shoots and roots, which were not detected in S plants, at both rates. Therefore, enhanced metabolism becomes a new NTSR mechanism in these two P. rhoeas populations from Spain. Results from the dose-response experiments also showed that pre-treatment of R plants with the cytochrome P450 (P450 inhibitor malathion reversed the phenotype to 2,4-D from resistant to susceptible in both R populations. Therefore, it could be hypothesized that a malathion inhibited P450 is responsible of the formation of the hydroxy metabolites detected in the metabolism studies. This and previous research indicate that two resistant mechanisms to 2,4-D could be present in populations R-703 and R-213: reduced translocation and enhanced metabolism. Future experiments are required to confirm these hypotheses

  4. Neuronal Calcium Signaling in Metabolic Regulation and Adaptation to Nutrient Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayakumar, Siddharth; Hasan, Gaiti

    2018-01-01

    All organisms can respond physiologically and behaviorally to environmental fluxes in nutrient levels. Different nutrient sensing pathways exist for specific metabolites, and their inputs ultimately define appropriate nutrient uptake and metabolic homeostasis. Nutrient sensing mechanisms at the cellular level require pathways such as insulin and target of rapamycin (TOR) signaling that integrates information from different organ systems like the fat body and the gut. Such integration is essential for coordinating growth with development. Here we review the role of a newly identified set of integrative interneurons and the role of intracellular calcium signaling within these neurons, in regulating nutrient sensing under conditions of nutrient stress. A comparison of the identified Drosophila circuit and cellular mechanisms employed in this circuit, with vertebrate systems, suggests that the identified cell signaling mechanisms may be conserved for neural circuit function related to nutrient sensing by central neurons. The ideas proposed are potentially relevant for understanding the molecular basis of metabolic disorders, because these are frequently linked to nutritional stress.

  5. Mechanism of action of sodium hypochlorite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estrela Carlos

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The choice of an irrigating solution for use in infected root canals requires previous knowledge of the microorganisms responsible for the infectious process as well as the properties of different irrigating solutions. Complex internal anatomy, host defenses and microorganism virulence are important factors in the treatment of teeth with asymptomatic apical periodontitis. Irrigating solutions must have expressive antimicrobial action and tissue dissolution capacity. Sodium hypochlorite is the most used irrigating solution in endodontics, because its mechanism of action causes biosynthetic alterations in cellular metabolism and phospholipid destruction, formation of chloramines that interfere in cellular metabolism, oxidative action with irreversible enzymatic inactivation in bacteria, and lipid and fatty acid degradation. The aim of this work is to discuss the mechanism of action of sodium hypochlorite based on its antimicrobial and physico-chemical properties.

  6. Rictor/mTORC2 Loss in the Myf5 Lineage Reprograms Brown Fat Metabolism and Protects Mice against Obesity and Metabolic Disease

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    Chien-Min Hung

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The in vivo functions of mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 2 (mTORC2 and the signaling mechanisms that control brown adipose tissue (BAT fuel utilization and activity are not well understood. Here, by conditionally deleting Rictor in the Myf5 lineage, we provide in vivo evidence that mTORC2 is dispensable for skeletal muscle development and regeneration but essential for BAT growth. Furthermore, deleting Rictor in Myf5 precursors shifts BAT metabolism to a more oxidative and less lipogenic state and protects mice from obesity and metabolic disease at thermoneutrality. We additionally find that Rictor is required for brown adipocyte differentiation in vitro and that the mechanism specifically requires AKT1 hydrophobic motif phosphorylation but is independent of pan-AKT signaling and is rescued with BMP7. Our findings provide insights into the signaling circuitry that regulates brown adipocytes and could have important implications for developing therapies aimed at increasing energy expenditure as a means to combat human obesity.

  7. Prediction of lithium-ion battery capacity with metabolic grey model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Lin; Lin, Weilong; Li, Junzi; Tian, Binbin; Pan, Haihong

    2016-01-01

    Given the popularity of Lithium-ion batteries in EVs (electric vehicles), predicting the capacity quickly and accurately throughout a battery's full life-time is still a challenging issue for ensuring the reliability of EVs. This paper proposes an approach in predicting the varied capacity with discharge cycles based on metabolic grey theory and consider issues from two perspectives: 1) three metabolic grey models will be presented, including MGM (metabolic grey model), MREGM (metabolic Residual-error grey model), and MMREGM (metabolic Markov-residual-error grey model); 2) the universality of these models will be explored under different conditions (such as various discharge rates and temperatures). Furthermore, the research findings in this paper demonstrate the excellent performance of the prediction depending on the three models; however, the precision of the MREGM model is inferior compared to the others. Therefore, we have obtained the conclusion in which the MGM model and the MMREGM model have excellent performances in predicting the capacity under a variety of load conditions, even using few data points for modeling. Also, the universality of the metabolic grey prediction theory is verified by predicting the capacity of batteries under different discharge rates and different temperatures. - Highlights: • The metabolic mechanism is introduced in a grey system for capacity prediction. • Three metabolic grey models are presented and studied. • The universality of these models under different conditions is assessed. • A few data points are required for predicting the capacity with these models.

  8. Metabolic syndrome induced by anticancer treatment in childhood cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chueh, Hee Won; Yoo, Jae Ho

    2017-06-01

    The number of childhood cancer survivors is increasing as survival rates improve. However, complications after treatment have not received much attention, particularly metabolic syndrome. Metabolic syndrome comprises central obesity, dyslipidemia, hypertension, and insulin resistance, and cancer survivors have higher risks of cardiovascular events compared with the general population. The mechanism by which cancer treatment induces metabolic syndrome is unclear. However, its pathophysiology can be categorized based on the cancer treatment type administered. Brain surgery or radiotherapy may induce metabolic syndrome by damaging the hypothalamic-pituitary axis, which may induce pituitary hormone deficiencies. Local therapy administered to particular endocrine organs directly damages the organs and causes hormone deficiencies, which induce obesity and dyslipidemia leading to metabolic syndrome. Chemotherapeutic agents interfere with cell generation and growth, damage the vascular endothelial cells, and increase the cardiovascular risk. Moreover, chemotherapeutic agents induce oxidative stress, which also induces metabolic syndrome. Physical inactivity caused by cancer treatment or the cancer itself, dietary restrictions, and the frequent use of antibiotics may also be risk factors for metabolic syndrome. Since childhood cancer survivors with metabolic syndrome have higher risks of cardiovascular events at an earlier age, early interventions should be considered. The optimal timing of interventions and drug use has not been established, but lifestyle modifications and exercise interventions that begin during cancer treatment might be beneficial and tailored education and interventions that account for individual patients' circumstances are needed. This review evaluates the recent literature that describes metabolic syndrome in cancer survivors, with a focus on its pathophysiology.

  9. Metabolic cartography: experimental quantification of metabolic fluxes from isotopic labelling studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Grady, John; Schwender, Jörg; Shachar-Hill, Yair; Morgan, John A

    2012-03-01

    For the past decade, flux maps have provided researchers with an in-depth perspective on plant metabolism. As a rapidly developing field, significant headway has been made recently in computation, experimentation, and overall understanding of metabolic flux analysis. These advances are particularly applicable to the study of plant metabolism. New dynamic computational methods such as non-stationary metabolic flux analysis are finding their place in the toolbox of metabolic engineering, allowing more organisms to be studied and decreasing the time necessary for experimentation, thereby opening new avenues by which to explore the vast diversity of plant metabolism. Also, improved methods of metabolite detection and measurement have been developed, enabling increasingly greater resolution of flux measurements and the analysis of a greater number of the multitude of plant metabolic pathways. Methods to deconvolute organelle-specific metabolism are employed with increasing effectiveness, elucidating the compartmental specificity inherent in plant metabolism. Advances in metabolite measurements have also enabled new types of experiments, such as the calculation of metabolic fluxes based on (13)CO(2) dynamic labelling data, and will continue to direct plant metabolic engineering. Newly calculated metabolic flux maps reveal surprising and useful information about plant metabolism, guiding future genetic engineering of crops to higher yields. Due to the significant level of complexity in plants, these methods in combination with other systems biology measurements are necessary to guide plant metabolic engineering in the future.

  10. Systems Biology as an Integrated Platform for Bioinformatics, Systems Synthetic Biology, and Systems Metabolic Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bor-Sen; Wu, Chia-Chou

    2013-01-01

    Systems biology aims at achieving a system-level understanding of living organisms and applying this knowledge to various fields such as synthetic biology, metabolic engineering, and medicine. System-level understanding of living organisms can be derived from insight into: (i) system structure and the mechanism of biological networks such as gene regulation, protein interactions, signaling, and metabolic pathways; (ii) system dynamics of biological networks, which provides an understanding of stability, robustness, and transduction ability through system identification, and through system analysis methods; (iii) system control methods at different levels of biological networks, which provide an understanding of systematic mechanisms to robustly control system states, minimize malfunctions, and provide potential therapeutic targets in disease treatment; (iv) systematic design methods for the modification and construction of biological networks with desired behaviors, which provide system design principles and system simulations for synthetic biology designs and systems metabolic engineering. This review describes current developments in systems biology, systems synthetic biology, and systems metabolic engineering for engineering and biology researchers. We also discuss challenges and future prospects for systems biology and the concept of systems biology as an integrated platform for bioinformatics, systems synthetic biology, and systems metabolic engineering. PMID:24709875

  11. Systems Biology as an Integrated Platform for Bioinformatics, Systems Synthetic Biology, and Systems Metabolic Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bor-Sen Chen

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Systems biology aims at achieving a system-level understanding of living organisms and applying this knowledge to various fields such as synthetic biology, metabolic engineering, and medicine. System-level understanding of living organisms can be derived from insight into: (i system structure and the mechanism of biological networks such as gene regulation, protein interactions, signaling, and metabolic pathways; (ii system dynamics of biological networks, which provides an understanding of stability, robustness, and transduction ability through system identification, and through system analysis methods; (iii system control methods at different levels of biological networks, which provide an understanding of systematic mechanisms to robustly control system states, minimize malfunctions, and provide potential therapeutic targets in disease treatment; (iv systematic design methods for the modification and construction of biological networks with desired behaviors, which provide system design principles and system simulations for synthetic biology designs and systems metabolic engineering. This review describes current developments in systems biology, systems synthetic biology, and systems metabolic engineering for engineering and biology researchers. We also discuss challenges and future prospects for systems biology and the concept of systems biology as an integrated platform for bioinformatics, systems synthetic biology, and systems metabolic engineering.

  12. The Impact of Sleep and Circadian Disturbance on Hormones and Metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae Won Kim

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The levels of several hormones fluctuate according to the light and dark cycle and are also affected by sleep, feeding, and general behavior. The regulation and metabolism of several hormones are influenced by interactions between the effects of sleep and the intrinsic circadian system; growth hormone, melatonin, cortisol, leptin, and ghrelin levels are highly correlated with sleep and circadian rhythmicity. There are also endogenous circadian mechanisms that serve to regulate glucose metabolism and similar rhythms pertaining to lipid metabolism, regulated through the actions of various clock genes. Sleep disturbance, which negatively impacts hormonal rhythms and metabolism, is also associated with obesity, insulin insensitivity, diabetes, hormonal imbalance, and appetite dysregulation. Circadian disruption, typically induced by shift work, may negatively impact health due to impaired glucose and lipid homeostasis, reversed melatonin and cortisol rhythms, and loss of clock gene rhythmicity.

  13. Human longevity is characterised by high thyroid stimulating hormone secretion without altered energy metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, S W; Akintola, A A; Roelfsema, F; van der Spoel, E; Cobbaert, C M; Ballieux, B E; Egri, P; Kvarta-Papp, Z; Gereben, B; Fekete, C; Slagboom, P E; van der Grond, J; Demeneix, B A; Pijl, H; Westendorp, R G J; van Heemst, D

    2015-06-19

    Few studies have included subjects with the propensity to reach old age in good health, with the aim to disentangle mechanisms contributing to staying healthier for longer. The hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis maintains circulating levels of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and thyroid hormone (TH) in an inverse relationship. Greater longevity has been associated with higher TSH and lower TH levels, but mechanisms underlying TSH/TH differences and longevity remain unknown. The HPT axis plays a pivotal role in growth, development and energy metabolism. We report that offspring of nonagenarians with at least one nonagenarian sibling have increased TSH secretion but similar bioactivity of TSH and similar TH levels compared to controls. Healthy offspring and spousal controls had similar resting metabolic rate and core body temperature. We propose that pleiotropic effects of the HPT axis may favour longevity without altering energy metabolism.

  14. The metabolic response of Candida albicans to farnesol under hyphae-inducing conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Ting-Li; Cannon, Richard D; Villas-Bôas, Silas G

    2012-12-01

    Farnesol is a quorum-sensing molecule (QSM) produced, and sensed, by the polymorphic fungus, Candida albicans. This cell-to-cell communication molecule is known to suppress the hyphal formation of C. albicans at high cell density. Despite many studies investigating the signalling mechanisms by which QSMs influence the morphogenesis of C. albicans, the downstream metabolic effect of these signalling pathways in response to farnesol-mediated morphogenesis remains obscure. Here, we have used metabolomics to investigate the metabolic response of C. albicans upon exposure to farnesol under hyphae-inducing conditions. We have found a general up-regulation of central carbon metabolic pathways when hyphal formation was suppressed by farnesol evidenced by a considerably larger number of central carbon metabolic intermediates detected under this condition at an overall lower intracellular level. By combining the metabolic profiles from farnesol-exposed cells with previous metabolomics data for C. albicans undergoing morphogenesis, we have identified several metabolic pathways that are likely to be associated with the morphogenetic process of C. albicans, as well as metabolic pathways such as those involved in lipid metabolism that appeared to be specifically affected by farnesol. Therefore, our results provide important new insights into the metabolic role of farnesol in C. albicans metabolism. © 2012 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Soluble CD93 Is Involved in Metabolic Dysregulation but Does Not Influence Carotid Intima-Media Thickness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strawbridge, Rona J.; Hilding, Agneta; Silveira, Angela; Osterholm, Cecilia; Sennblad, Bengt; McLeod, Olga; Tsikrika, Panagiota; Foroogh, Fariba; Tremoli, Elena; Baldassarre, Damiano; Veglia, Fabrizio; Rauramaa, Rainer; Smit, Andries J.; Giral, Phillipe; Kurl, Sudhir; Mannarino, Elmo; Grossi, Enzo; Syvanen, Ann-Christine; Humphries, Steve E.; de Faire, Ulf; Ostenson, Claes-Goran; Maegdefessel, Lars; Hamsten, Anders; Backlund, Alexandra

    2016-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease are complex disorders involving metabolic and inflammatory mechanisms. Here we investigated whether sCD93, a group XIV c-type lectin of the endosialin family, plays a role in metabolic dysregulation or carotid intima-media thickness (IMT). Although no

  16. Transcriptome Analysis of Three Sheep Intestinal Regions reveals Key Pathways and Hub Regulatory Genes of Large Intestinal Lipid Metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Tianle; Wang, Guizhi; Ji, Zhibin; Liu, Zhaohua; Hou, Lei; Wang, Jin; Wang, Jianmin

    2017-07-13

    The large intestine, also known as the hindgut, is an important part of the animal digestive system. Recent studies on digestive system development in ruminants have focused on the rumen and the small intestine, but the molecular mechanisms underlying sheep large intestine metabolism remain poorly understood. To identify genes related to intestinal metabolism and to reveal molecular regulation mechanisms, we sequenced and compared the transcriptomes of mucosal epithelial tissues among the cecum, proximal colon and duodenum. A total of 4,221 transcripts from 3,254 genes were identified as differentially expressed transcripts. Between the large intestine and duodenum, differentially expressed transcripts were found to be significantly enriched in 6 metabolism-related pathways, among which PPAR signaling was identified as a key pathway. Three genes, CPT1A, LPL and PCK1, were identified as higher expression hub genes in the large intestine. Between the cecum and colon, differentially expressed transcripts were significantly enriched in 5 lipid metabolism related pathways, and CEPT1 and MBOAT1 were identified as hub genes. This study provides important information regarding the molecular mechanisms of intestinal metabolism in sheep and may provide a basis for further study.

  17. Metabolic immune restraints: implications for anticancer vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mocellin, Simone

    2010-01-01

    Metabolic immune restraints belong to a highly complex network of molecular mechanisms underlying the failure of naturally occurring and therapeutically induced immune responses against cancer. In the light of the disappointing results yielded so far with anticancer vaccines in the clinical setting, the dissection of the cascade of molecular events leading to tumor immune escape appears the most promising way to develop more effective immunotherapeutic strategies. Here we review the significant advances recently made in the understanding of the tumor-specific metabolic features that contribute to keep malignant cells from being recognized and destroyed by immune effectors. These mechanistic insights are fostering the development of rationally designed therapeutics aimed to revert the immunosuppressive circuits and thus to enhance the effectiveness of anticancer vaccines.

  18. Metabolic signatures of cultured human adipocytes from metabolically healthy versus unhealthy obese individuals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anja Böhm

    Full Text Available Among obese subjects, metabolically healthy and unhealthy obesity (MHO/MUHO can be differentiated: the latter is characterized by whole-body insulin resistance, hepatic steatosis, and subclinical inflammation. Aim of this study was, to identify adipocyte-specific metabolic signatures and functional biomarkers for MHO versus MUHO.10 insulin-resistant (IR vs. 10 insulin-sensitive (IS non-diabetic morbidly obese (BMI >40 kg/m2 Caucasians were matched for gender, age, BMI, and percentage of body fat. From subcutaneous fat biopsies, primary preadipocytes were isolated and differentiated to adipocytes in vitro. About 280 metabolites were investigated by a targeted metabolomic approach intracellularly, extracellularly, and in plasma.Among others, aspartate was reduced intracellularly to one third (p = 0.0039 in IR adipocytes, pointing to a relative depletion of citric acid cycle metabolites or reduced aspartate uptake in MUHO. Other amino acids, already known to correlate with diabetes and/or obesity, were identified to differ between MUHO's and MHO's adipocytes, namely glutamine, histidine, and spermidine. Most species of phosphatidylcholines (PCs were lower in MUHO's extracellular milieu, though simultaneously elevated intracellularly, e.g., PC aa C32∶3, pointing to increased PC synthesis and/or reduced PC release. Furthermore, altered arachidonic acid (AA metabolism was found: 15(S-HETE (15-hydroxy-eicosatetraenoic acid; 0 vs. 120pM; p = 0.0014, AA (1.5-fold; p = 0.0055 and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, C22∶6; 2-fold; p = 0.0033 were higher in MUHO. This emphasizes a direct contribution of adipocytes to local adipose tissue inflammation. Elevated DHA, as an inhibitor of prostaglandin synthesis, might be a hint for counter-regulatory mechanisms in MUHO.We identified adipocyte-inherent metabolic alterations discriminating between MHO and MUHO.

  19. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease candidate gene prioritization based on metabolic networks and functional information.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinyan Wang

    Full Text Available Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD is a multi-factor disease, in which metabolic disturbances played important roles. In this paper, functional information was integrated into a COPD-related metabolic network to assess similarity between genes. Then a gene prioritization method was applied to the COPD-related metabolic network to prioritize COPD candidate genes. The gene prioritization method was superior to ToppGene and ToppNet in both literature validation and functional enrichment analysis. Top-ranked genes prioritized from the metabolic perspective with functional information could promote the better understanding about the molecular mechanism of this disease. Top 100 genes might be potential markers for diagnostic and effective therapies.

  20. Effect of carbon/nitrogen ratio on carbohydrate metabolism and light energy dissipation mechanisms in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huarancca Reyes, Thais; Scartazza, Andrea; Lu, Yu; Yamaguchi, Junji; Guglielminetti, Lorenzo

    2016-08-01

    Carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) nutrient sources are essential elements for metabolism, and their availability must be tightly coordinated for the optimal growth and development in plants. Plants are able to sense and respond to different C/N conditions via specific partitioning of C and N sources and the regulation of a complex cellular metabolic activity. We studied how the interaction between C and N signaling could affect carbohydrate metabolism, soluble sugar levels, photochemical efficiency of photosystem II (PSII) and the ability to drive the excess energy in Arabidopsis seedlings under moderated and disrupted C/N-nutrient conditions. Invertase and sucrose synthase activities were markedly affected by C/N-nutrient status depending on the phosphorylation status, suggesting that these enzymes may necessarily be modulated by their direct phosphorylation or phosphorylation of proteins that form complex with them in response to C/N stress. In addition, the enzymatic activity of these enzymes was also correlated with the amount of sugars, which not only act as substrate but also as signaling compounds. Analysis of chlorophyll fluorescence in plants under disrupted C/N condition suggested a reduction of electron transport rate at PSII level associated with a higher capacity for non-radiative energy dissipation in comparison with plants under moderated C/N condition. In conclusion, the tight coordination between C and N not only affects the carbohydrates metabolism and their concentration within plant tissues, but also the partitioning of the excitation energy at PSII level between radiative (electron transport) and non-radiative (heat) dissipation pathways. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Metabolomic applications to decipher gut microbial metabolic influence in health and disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francois-Pierre eMartin

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Dietary preferences and nutrients composition have been shown to influence human and gut microbial metabolism, which ultimately has specific effects on health and diseases’ risk. Increasingly, results from molecular biology and microbiology demonstrate the key role of the gut microbiota metabolic interface to the overall mammalian host’s health status. There is therefore raising interest in nutrition research to characterize the molecular foundations of the gut microbial mammalian cross-talk at both physiological and biochemical pathway levels. Tackling these challenges can be achieved through systems biology approaches, such as metabolomics, to underpin the highly complex metabolic exchanges between diverse biological compartments, including organs, systemic biofluids and microbial symbionts. By the development of specific biomarkers for prediction of health and disease, metabolomics is increasingly used in clinical applications as regard to disease aetiology, diagnostic stratification and potentially mechanism of action of therapeutical and nutraceutical solutions. Surprisingly, an increasing number of metabolomics investigations in pre-clinical and clinical studies based on proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry (MS provided compelling evidence that system wide and organ-specific biochemical processes are under the influence of gut microbial metabolism. This review aims at describing recent applications of metabolomics in clinical fields where main objective is to discern the biochemical mechanisms under the influence of the gut microbiota, with insight into gastrointestinal health and diseases diagnostics and improvement of homeostasis metabolic regulation.

  2. Who's your daddy?: paternal inheritance of metabolic disease risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isganaitis, Elvira; Suehiro, Harumi; Cardona, Connie

    2017-02-01

    Although the importance of optimizing mothers' health prior to conception and during pregnancy is now well accepted, recent data also implicate health and nutritional status of fathers as contributors to chronic disease risk in their progeny. This brief review will highlight recent epidemiological and experimental studies linking paternal overnutrition, undernutrition, and other forms of stress, to metabolic disease in the offspring. The past 2 years have brought tremendous insights into the mechanisms by which paternal exposures can contribute to disease susceptibility in the next generation. Recent data, both from humans and experimental models, demonstrate that paternal obesity and undernutrition result in epigenetic reprogramming of male germ cells, notably altered DNA methylation, histone retention, and expression of small noncoding RNAs and transfer RNA fragments. Novel mechanisms have also been identified, such as epididymal transport vesicles, seminal fluid hormones and metabolites, and a unique seminal fluid microbiome. Paternal nutritional and other perturbations are linked to risk of metabolic disease and obesity in offspring. Germ cell-dependent mechanisms have recently been linked to these intergenerational effects. Nongenetic, paternal inheritance of chronic disease has important implications for public health, and may provide novel opportunities for multigenerational disease prevention.

  3. Metabolic Effects of the Very-Low-Carbohydrate Diets: Misunderstood "Villains" of Human Metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manninen Anssi H

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract During very low carbohydrate intake, the regulated and controlled production of ketone bodies causes a harmless physiological state known as dietary ketosis. Ketone bodies flow from the liver to extra-hepatic tissues (e.g., brain for use as a fuel; this spares glucose metabolism via a mechanism similar to the sparing of glucose by oxidation of fatty acids as an alternative fuel. In comparison with glucose, the ketone bodies are actually a very good respiratory fuel. Indeed, there is no clear requirement for dietary carbohydrates for human adults. Interestingly, the effects of ketone body metabolism suggest that mild ketosis may offer therapeutic potential in a variety of different common and rare disease states. Also, the recent landmark study showed that a very-low-carbohydrate diet resulted in a significant reduction in fat mass and a concomitant increase in lean body mass in normal-weight men. Contrary to popular belief, insulin is not needed for glucose uptake and utilization in man. Finally, both muscle fat and carbohydrate burn in an amino acid flame.

  4. Proposed physiologic functions of boron in plants pertinent to animal and human metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blevins, D G; Lukaszewski, K M

    1994-01-01

    Boron has been recognized since 1923 as an essential micronutrient element for higher plants. Over the years, many roles for boron in plants have been proposed, including functions in sugar transport, cell wall synthesis and lignification, cell wall structure, carbohydrate metabolism, RNA metabolism, respiration, indole acetic acid metabolism, phenol metabolism and membrane transport. However, the mechanism of boron involvement in each case remains unclear. Recent work has focused on two major plant-cell components: cell walls and membranes. In both, boron could play a structural role by bridging hydroxyl groups. In membranes, it could also be involved in ion transport and redox reactions by stimulating enzymes like nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide and reduced (NADH) oxidase. There is a very narrow window between the levels of boron required by and toxic to plants. The mechanisms of boron toxicity are also unknown. In nitrogen-fixing leguminous plants, foliarly applied boron causes up to a 1000% increase in the concentration of allantoic acid in leaves. In vitro studies show that boron inhibits the manganese-dependent allantoate amidohydrolase, and foliar application of manganese prior to application of boron eliminates allantoic acid accumulation in leaves. Interaction between borate and divalent cations like manganese may alter metabolic pathways, which could explain why higher concentrations of boron can be toxic to plants. PMID:7889877

  5. Thermodynamic Aspects and Reprogramming Cellular Energy Metabolism during the Fibrosis Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Vallée

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Fibrosis is characterized by fibroblast proliferation and fibroblast differentiation into myofibroblasts, which generate a relaxation-free contraction mechanism associated with excessive collagen synthesis in the extracellular matrix, which promotes irreversible tissue retraction evolving towards fibrosis. From a thermodynamic point of view, the mechanisms leading to fibrosis are irreversible processes that can occur through changing the entropy production rate. The thermodynamic behaviors of metabolic enzymes involved in fibrosis are modified by the dysregulation of both transforming growth factor β (TGF-β signaling and the canonical WNT/β-catenin pathway, leading to aerobic glycolysis, called the Warburg effect. Molecular signaling pathways leading to fibrosis are considered dissipative structures that exchange energy or matter with their environment far from the thermodynamic equilibrium. The myofibroblastic cells arise from exergonic processes by switching the core metabolism from oxidative phosphorylation to glycolysis, which generates energy and reprograms cellular energy metabolism to induce the process of myofibroblast differentiation. Circadian rhythms are far-from-equilibrium thermodynamic processes. They directly participate in regulating the TGF-β and WNT/β-catenin pathways involved in energetic dysregulation and enabling fibrosis. The present review focusses on the thermodynamic implications of the reprogramming of cellular energy metabolism, leading to fibroblast differentiation into myofibroblasts through the positive interplay between TGF-β and WNT/β-catenin pathways underlying in fibrosis.

  6. Premigratory fat metabolism in hummingbirds: A rumsfeldian approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raul K. SUAREZ

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Hummingbird migration is a remarkable feat, given the small body sizes of migratory species, their high metabolic rates during flight and the long distances traveled using fat to fuel the effort. Equally remarkable is the ability of premigratory hummingbirds in the wild to accumulate fat, synthesized from sugar, at rates as high as 10% of body mass per day. This paper summarizes, using Rumsfeldian terminology, “known knowns” concerning the energetics of hummingbird migration and premigratory fattening. Energy metabolism during hover-feeding on floral nectar is fueled directly by dietary sugar through the pathway recently named the “sugar oxidation cascade”. However, flight without feeding for more than a few minutes requires shifting to fat as a fuel. It is proposed that behavior and metabolic fuel choice are coadapted to maximize the rate of fat deposition during premigratory fattening. The hummingbird liver appears to possess extraordinarily high capacities for fatty acid synthesis. The analysis of “known knowns” leads to identification of “known unknowns”, e.g., the fates of dietary glucose and fructose, the regulation of fat metabolism and metabolic interactions between liver and adipose tissue. The history of science behooves recognition of “unknown unknowns” that, when discovered serendipitously, might shed new light on fundamental mechanisms as well as human pathological conditions [Current Zoology 59 (3: 371–380, 2013].

  7. Metabolic Effects of Intermittent Fasting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Ruth E; Sears, Dorothy D

    2017-08-21

    The objective of this review is to provide an overview of intermittent fasting regimens, summarize the evidence on the health benefits of intermittent fasting, and discuss physiological mechanisms by which intermittent fasting might lead to improved health outcomes. A MEDLINE search was performed using PubMed and the terms "intermittent fasting," "fasting," "time-restricted feeding," and "food timing." Modified fasting regimens appear to promote weight loss and may improve metabolic health. Several lines of evidence also support the hypothesis that eating patterns that reduce or eliminate nighttime eating and prolong nightly fasting intervals may result in sustained improvements in human health. Intermittent fasting regimens are hypothesized to influence metabolic regulation via effects on (a) circadian biology, (b) the gut microbiome, and (c) modifiable lifestyle behaviors, such as sleep. If proven to be efficacious, these eating regimens offer promising nonpharmacological approaches to improving health at the population level, with multiple public health benefits.

  8. [FETAL PROGRAMMING OF METABOLIC DISORDERS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varadinova, M R; Metodieva, R; Boyadzhieva, N

    2015-01-01

    Our knowledge of fetal programming has developed notably over the years and recent data suggest that an unbalanced diet prior and during pregnancy can have early-onset and long-lasting consequences on the health of the offspring. Specific negative influences of high dietary glucose and lipid consumption, as well as undernutrition, are associated with development of metabolic syndrome, insulin resistance and diabetes in the offspring. The mechanisms underlying the effects of maternal hyperglycemia on the fetus may involve structural, metabolic and epigenetic changes. The aim of this review is to illustrate how adverse intrauterine environment may influence molecular modifications in the fetus and cause epigenetic alterations in particular. It has been demonstrated that prenatal epigenetic modifications may be linked to the pathogenesis and progression of the adult chronic disorders. Studies on epigenetic alterations will contribute to a better understanding of the long-term effects of in utero exposure and may open new perspectives for disease prevention and treatment.

  9. Regional cerebral glucose metabolism during sevoflurane anaesthesia in healthy subjects studied with positron emission tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schlünzen, L; Juul, N; Hansen, K V

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The precise mechanism by which sevoflurane exerts its effects in the human brain remains unknown. In the present study, we quantified the effects of sevoflurane on regional cerebral glucose metabolism (rGMR) in the human brain measured with positron emission tomography. METHODS: Eight...... areas by 48-71% of the baseline (Pbrain metabolic reduction of GMR in all regions...... of the human brain, with the most marked metabolic suppression in the lingual gyrus, thalamus and occipital lobe....

  10. Identification of microRNAs controlling hepatic mRNA levels for metabolic genes during the metabolic transition from embryonic to posthatch development in the chicken.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, Julie A; Porter, Tom E; Liu, Hsiao-Ching

    2017-09-05

    The transition from embryonic to posthatch development in the chicken represents a massive metabolic switch from primarily lipolytic to primarily lipogenic metabolism. This metabolic switch is essential for the chick to successfully transition from the metabolism of stored egg yolk to the utilization of carbohydrate-based feed. However, regulation of this metabolic switch is not well understood. We hypothesized that microRNAs (miRNAs) play an important role in the metabolic switch that is essential to efficient growth of chickens. We used high-throughput RNA sequencing to characterize expression profiles of mRNA and miRNA in liver during late embryonic and early posthatch development of the chicken. This extensive data set was used to define the contributions of microRNAs to the metabolic switch during development that is critical to growth and nutrient utilization in chickens. We found that expression of over 800 mRNAs and 30 miRNAs was altered in the embryonic liver between embryonic day 18 and posthatch day 3, and many of these differentially expressed mRNAs and miRNAs are associated with metabolic processes. We confirmed the regulation of some of these mRNAs by miRNAs expressed in a reciprocal pattern using luciferase reporter assays. Finally, through the use of yeast one-hybrid screens, we identified several proteins that likely regulate expression of one of these important miRNAs. Integration of the upstream regulatory mechanisms governing miRNA expression along with monitoring the downstream effects of this expression will ultimately allow for the construction of complete miRNA regulatory networks associated with the hepatic metabolic switch in chickens. Our findings support a key role for miRNAs in controlling the metabolic switch that occurs between embryonic and posthatch development in the chicken.

  11. Measuring maximum and standard metabolic rates using intermittent-flow respirometry: a student laboratory investigation of aerobic metabolic scope and environmental hypoxia in aquatic breathers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosewarne, P J; Wilson, J M; Svendsen, J C

    2016-01-01

    Metabolic rate is one of the most widely measured physiological traits in animals and may be influenced by both endogenous (e.g. body mass) and exogenous factors (e.g. oxygen availability and temperature). Standard metabolic rate (SMR) and maximum metabolic rate (MMR) are two fundamental physiological variables providing the floor and ceiling in aerobic energy metabolism. The total amount of energy available between these two variables constitutes the aerobic metabolic scope (AMS). A laboratory exercise aimed at an undergraduate level physiology class, which details the appropriate data acquisition methods and calculations to measure oxygen consumption rates in rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss, is presented here. Specifically, the teaching exercise employs intermittent flow respirometry to measure SMR and MMR, derives AMS from the measurements and demonstrates how AMS is affected by environmental oxygen. Students' results typically reveal a decline in AMS in response to environmental hypoxia. The same techniques can be applied to investigate the influence of other key factors on metabolic rate (e.g. temperature and body mass). Discussion of the results develops students' understanding of the mechanisms underlying these fundamental physiological traits and the influence of exogenous factors. More generally, the teaching exercise outlines essential laboratory concepts in addition to metabolic rate calculations, data acquisition and unit conversions that enhance competency in quantitative analysis and reasoning. Finally, the described procedures are generally applicable to other fish species or aquatic breathers such as crustaceans (e.g. crayfish) and provide an alternative to using higher (or more derived) animals to investigate questions related to metabolic physiology. © 2016 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  12. Mechanisms underlying metabolic and neural defects in zebrafish and human multiple acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (MADD.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanquan Song

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available In humans, mutations in electron transfer flavoprotein (ETF or electron transfer flavoprotein dehydrogenase (ETFDH lead to MADD/glutaric aciduria type II, an autosomal recessively inherited disorder characterized by a broad spectrum of devastating neurological, systemi