Sample records for mechanisms including direct

1. Statistical mechanics of directed models of polymers in the square lattice

CERN Document Server

Rensburg, J V

2003-01-01

Directed square lattice models of polymers and vesicles have received considerable attention in the recent mathematical and physical sciences literature. These are idealized geometric directed lattice models introduced to study phase behaviour in polymers, and include Dyck paths, partially directed paths, directed trees and directed vesicles models. Directed models are closely related to models studied in the combinatorics literature (and are often exactly solvable). They are also simplified versions of a number of statistical mechanics models, including the self-avoiding walk, lattice animals and lattice vesicles. The exchange of approaches and ideas between statistical mechanics and combinatorics have considerably advanced the description and understanding of directed lattice models, and this will be explored in this review. The combinatorial nature of directed lattice path models makes a study using generating function approaches most natural. In contrast, the statistical mechanics approach would introduce...

2. Statistical mechanics of directed models of polymers in the square lattice

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Rensburg, E J Janse van

2003-01-01

Directed square lattice models of polymers and vesicles have received considerable attention in the recent mathematical and physical sciences literature. These are idealized geometric directed lattice models introduced to study phase behaviour in polymers, and include Dyck paths, partially directed paths, directed trees and directed vesicles models. Directed models are closely related to models studied in the combinatorics literature (and are often exactly solvable). They are also simplified versions of a number of statistical mechanics models, including the self-avoiding walk, lattice animals and lattice vesicles. The exchange of approaches and ideas between statistical mechanics and combinatorics have considerably advanced the description and understanding of directed lattice models, and this will be explored in this review. The combinatorial nature of directed lattice path models makes a study using generating function approaches most natural. In contrast, the statistical mechanics approach would introduce partition functions and free energies, and then investigate these using the general framework of critical phenomena. Generating function and statistical mechanics approaches are closely related. For example, questions regarding the limiting free energy may be approached by considering the radius of convergence of a generating function, and the scaling properties of thermodynamic quantities are related to the asymptotic properties of the generating function. In this review the methods for obtaining generating functions and determining free energies in directed lattice path models of linear polymers is presented. These methods include decomposition methods leading to functional recursions, as well as the Temperley method (that is implemented by creating a combinatorial object, one slice at a time). A constant term formulation of the generating function will also be reviewed. The thermodynamic features and critical behaviour in models of directed paths may be

3. New Directions in Mathematical Fluid Mechanics

CERN Document Server

Fursikov, Andrei V

2010-01-01

The scientific interests of Professor A.V. Kazhikhov were fundamentally devoted to Mathematical Fluid Mechanics, where he achieved outstanding results that had, and still have, a significant influence on this field. This volume, dedicated to the memory of A.V. Kazhikhov, presents the latest contributions from renowned world specialists in a number of new important directions of Mathematical Physics, mostly of Mathematical Fluid Mechanics, and, more generally, in the field of nonlinear partial differential equations. These results are mostly related to boundary value problems and to control problems for the Navier-Stokes equations, and for equations of heat convection. Other important topics include non-equilibrium processes, Poisson-Boltzmann equations, dynamics of elastic body, and related problems of function theory and nonlinear analysis.

4. Toxicogenomics-based identification of mechanisms for direct immunotoxicity.

Science.gov (United States)

Shao, Jia; Katika, Madhumohan R; Schmeits, Peter C J; Hendriksen, Peter J M; van Loveren, Henk; Peijnenburg, Ad A C M; Volger, Oscar L

2013-10-01

Compounds with direct immunotoxic properties, including metals, mycotoxins, agricultural pesticides, and industrial chemicals, form potential human health risks due to exposure through food, drinking water, and the environment. Insights into the mechanisms of action are currently lacking for the majority of these direct immunotoxicants. Therefore, the present work aimed to gain insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying direct immunotoxicity. To this end, we assessed in vitro the effects of 31 test compounds on the transcriptome of the human Jurkat T-cell line. These compounds included direct immunotoxicants, immunosuppressive drugs with different mode of actions, and nonimmunotoxic control chemicals. Pathway analysis of the microarray data allowed us to identify canonical pathways and Gene Ontology processes that were transcriptionally regulated in common by immunotoxicants (1) with structural similarities, such as tributyltin chloride and tributyltin oxide that activated the retinoic acid/X receptor signaling pathway and (2) without structural similarities, such as As2O3, dibutyltin chloride, diazinon, MeHg, ochratoxin A (OTA), S9-treated OTA, S9-treated cyclophosphamide, and S9-treated benzo[a]pyrene, which activated unfolded protein response, and FTY720, lindane, and propanil, which activated the cholesterol biosynthesis pathway. In addition, processes uniquely affected by individual immunotoxicants were identified, such as the induction of Notch receptor signaling and the downregulation of acute-phase response genes by OTA. These findings were validated by quantitative real-time PCR analysis of genes involved in these processes. Our study indicated that diverse modes of action are involved in direct immunotoxicity and that a set of pathways or genes, rather than one single gene, can be used to screen compounds for direct immunotoxicity.

5. Direct neutron capture and related mechanisms

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Lynn, J.E.; Raman, S.

1990-01-01

We consider the evidence for the role of direct and related mechanisms in neutron capture at low and medium energies. Firstly, we compare the experimental data on the thermal neutron cross sections for El transitions in light nuclei with careful estimates of direct capture. Over the full range of light nuclei with small cross sections direct capture is found to be the predominant mechanism, in some cases being remarkable accurate, but in a few showing evidence for collective effects. When resonance effects become substantial there is evidence for an important contribution from the closely related valence mechanism, but full agreement with the data in such cases appears to require the introduction of a more generalised valence model. The possibility of direct and valence mechanisms playing a role in M1 capture is studied, and it is concluded that in light nuclei at relatively low gamma ray energies, it does indeed play some role. In heavier nuclei it appears that the evidence, especially from the correlations between E1 and M1 transitions to the same final states, favours the hypothesis that the main transition strength is governed by the M1 giant resonance. 31 refs., 2 tabs

6. Incretin secretion: direct mechanisms

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Balk-Møller, Emilie; Holst, Jens Juul; Kuhre, Rune Ehrenreich

2014-01-01

The incretin hormones glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) and glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) are secreted from gastro-intestinal K- and L-cells, respectively, and play an important role in post-prandial blood glucose regulation. They do this by direct stimulation of the pancreatic β...... enzyme responsible for incretin degradation (dipeptidyl peptidase-4) is inhibited (drugs are already on the market) while the secretion of endogenous GLP-1 secretion is stimulated at the same time may prove particularly rewarding. In this section we review current knowledge on the mechanisms for direct...

7. Mechanisms and direction of allocation bias in randomised clinical trials

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Paludan-Müller, Asger; Teindl Laursen, David Ruben; Hróbjartsson, A.

2016-01-01

clinical trials. Methods: Two systematic reviews and a theoretical analysis. We conducted one systematic review of empirical studies of motives/methods for deciphering patient allocation sequences; and another review of methods publications commenting on allocation bias. We theoretically analysed...... the mechanisms of allocation bias and hypothesised which main factors predicts its direction. Results: Three empirical studies addressed motives/methods for deciphering allocation sequences. Main motives included ensuring best care for patients and ensuring best outcome for the trial. Main methods included...... various manipulations with randomisation envelopes. Out of 57 methods publications 11 (19 %) mentioned explicitly that allocation bias can go in either direction. We hypothesised that the direction of allocation bias is mainly decided by the interaction between the patient allocators’ motives...

8. A bistable mechanism for directional sensing

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Beta, C; Amselem, G; Bodenschatz, E

2008-01-01

We present a generic mechanism for directional sensing in eukaryotic cells that is based on bistable dynamics. As the key feature of this modeling approach, the velocity of trigger waves in the bistable sensing system changes its sign across cells that are exposed to an external chemoattractant gradient. This is achieved by combining a two-component activator/inhibitor system with a bistable switch that induces an identical symmetry breaking for arbitrary gradient input signals. A simple kinetic example is designed to illustrate the dynamics of a bistable directional sensing mechanism in numerical simulations

9. Classical mechanics including an introduction to the theory of elasticity

CERN Document Server

Hentschke, Reinhard

2017-01-01

This textbook teaches classical mechanics as one of the foundations of physics. It describes the mechanical stability and motion in physical systems ranging from the molecular to the galactic scale. Aside from the standard topics of mechanics in the physics curriculum, this book includes an introduction to the theory of elasticity and its use in selected modern engineering applications, e.g. dynamic mechanical analysis of viscoelastic materials. The text also covers many aspects of numerical mechanics, ranging from the solution of ordinary differential equations, including molecular dynamics simulation of many particle systems, to the finite element method. Attendant Mathematica programs or parts thereof are provided in conjunction with selected examples. Numerous links allow the reader to connect to related subjects and research topics. Among others this includes statistical mechanics (separate chapter), quantum mechanics, space flight, galactic dynamics, friction, and vibration spectroscopy. An introductory...

10. Direct laser sintering of metal powders: Mechanism, kinetics and microstructural features

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Simchi, A.

2006-01-01

In the present work, the densification and microstructural evolution during direct laser sintering of metal powders were studied. Various ferrous powders including Fe, Fe-C, Fe-Cu, Fe-C-Cu-P, 316L stainless steel, and M2 high-speed steel were used. The empirical sintering rate data was related to the energy input of the laser beam according to the first order kinetics equation to establish a simple sintering model. The equation calculates the densification of metal powders during direct laser sintering process as a function of operating parameters including laser power, scan rate, layer thickness and scan line spacing. It was found that when melting/solidification approach is the mechanism of sintering, the densification of metals powders (D) can be expressed as an exponential function of laser specific energy input (ψ) as ln(1 - D) = -Kψ. The coefficient K is designated as 'densification coefficient'; a material dependent parameter that varies with chemical composition, powder particle size, and oxygen content of the powder material. The mechanism of particle bonding and microstructural features of the laser sintered powders are addressed

11. The mechanism of directional coronary atherectomy

NARCIS (Netherlands)

V.A.W.M. Umans (Victor); E. Haine; J. Renkin; P.J. de Feyter (Pim); W. Wijns (William); P.W.J.C. Serruys (Patrick)

1993-01-01

textabstractAn attempt was made to assess the mechanism of directional coronary atherectomy using different methods of analysis. Quantitative coronary angiography was used as the gold standard to assess the immediate results of atherectomy, and a comparative quantitative analysis of atherectomy and

12. Cascade Controller Including Back-stepping for Hydraulic-Mechanical Systems

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Choux, Martin; Hovland, Geir; Blanke, Mogens

2012-01-01

Development of a cascade controller structure including adaptive backstepping for a nonlinear hydraulic-mechanical system is considered in this paper where a dynamic friction (LuGre) model is included to obtain the necessary accuracy. The paper compares the performance of two variants of an adapt......Development of a cascade controller structure including adaptive backstepping for a nonlinear hydraulic-mechanical system is considered in this paper where a dynamic friction (LuGre) model is included to obtain the necessary accuracy. The paper compares the performance of two variants...... of an adaptive backstepping tracking controller with earlier results. The new control architecture is analysed and enhanced tracking performance is demonstrated when including the extended friction model. The complexity of the backstepping procedure is significantly reduced due to the cascade structure. Hence...

13. RNA-directed DNA methylation: Mechanisms and functions

KAUST Repository

Mahfouz, Magdy M.

2010-01-01

Epigenetic RNA based gene silencing mechanisms play a major role in genome stability and control of gene expression. Transcriptional gene silencing via RNA-directed DNA methylation (RdDM) guides the epigenetic regulation of the genome in response

14. Direct Democracy

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Beramendi, Virginia; Ellis, Andrew; Kaufman, Bruno

While many books on direct democracy have a regional or national approach, or simply focus on one of the many mechanisms associated with direct democracy, this Handbook delves into a global comparison of direct democracy mechanisms, including referendums, citizens' initiatives, agenda initiatives...... learned. In addition, the uniquely comprehensive world survey outlines direct democracy provisions in 214 countries and territories and indicates which, if any, of these provisions are used by each country or territory at both the national and sub-national levels. Furthermore, the world survey includes...

15. Mechanisms and Effects of Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation

Science.gov (United States)

Giordano, James; Bikson, Marom; Kappenman, Emily S.; Clark, Vincent P.; Coslett, H. Branch; Hamblin, Michael R.; Hamilton, Roy; Jankord, Ryan; Kozumbo, Walter J.; McKinley, R. Andrew; Nitsche, Michael A.; Reilly, J. Patrick; Richardson, Jessica; Wurzman, Rachel

2017-01-01

The US Air Force Office of Scientific Research convened a meeting of researchers in the fields of neuroscience, psychology, engineering, and medicine to discuss most pressing issues facing ongoing research in the field of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) and related techniques. In this study, we present opinions prepared by participants of the meeting, focusing on the most promising areas of research, immediate and future goals for the field, and the potential for hormesis theory to inform tDCS research. Scientific, medical, and ethical considerations support the ongoing testing of tDCS in healthy and clinical populations, provided best protocols are used to maximize safety. Notwithstanding the need for ongoing research, promising applications include enhancing vigilance/attention in healthy volunteers, which can accelerate training and support learning. Commonly, tDCS is used as an adjunct to training/rehabilitation tasks with the goal of leftward shift in the learning/treatment effect curves. Although trials are encouraging, elucidating the basic mechanisms of tDCS will accelerate validation and adoption. To this end, biomarkers (eg, clinical neuroimaging and findings from animal models) can support hypotheses linking neurobiological mechanisms and behavioral effects. Dosage can be optimized using computational models of current flow and understanding dose–response. Both biomarkers and dosimetry should guide individualized interventions with the goal of reducing variability. Insights from other applied energy domains, including ionizing radiation, transcranial magnetic stimulation, and low-level laser (light) therapy, can be prudently leveraged. PMID:28210202

16. Direct methods of solution for problems in mechanics from invariance principles

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Rajan, M.

1986-01-01

Direct solutions to problems in mechanics are developed from variational statements derived from the principle of invariance of the action integral under a one-parameter family of infinitesimal transformations. Exact, direct solution procedures for linear systems are developed by a careful choice of the arbitrary functions used to generate the infinitesimal transformations. It is demonstrated that the well-known methods for the solution of differential equations can be directly adapted to the required variational statements. Examples in particle and continuum mechanics are presented

17. Mechanical impedance of the human body in vertical direction.

Science.gov (United States)

Holmlund, P; Lundström, R; Lindberg, L

2000-08-01

The mechanical impedance of the human body in sitting posture and vertical direction was measured during different experimental conditions, such as vibration level (0.5-1.4 m/s2), frequency (2-100 Hz), body weight (57-92 kg), relaxed and erect upper body posture. The outcome shows that impedance increases with frequency up to a peak at about 5 Hz after which it decreases in a complex manner which includes two additional peaks. The frequency at which the first and second impedance peak occurs decreases with higher vibration level. Erect, compared with relaxed body posture resulted in higher impedance magnitudes and with peaks located at somewhat higher frequencies. Heavy persons show higher impedance magnitudes and peaks at lower frequencies.

18. Implementation of a Goal-Directed Mechanical Ventilation Order Set Driven by Respiratory Therapists Improves Compliance With Best Practices for Mechanical Ventilation.

Science.gov (United States)

Radosevich, Misty A; Wanta, Brendan T; Meyer, Todd J; Weber, Verlin W; Brown, Daniel R; Smischney, Nathan J; Diedrich, Daniel A

2017-01-01

Data regarding best practices for ventilator management strategies that improve outcomes in acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) are readily available. However, little is known regarding processes to ensure compliance with these strategies. We developed a goal-directed mechanical ventilation order set that included physician-specified lung-protective ventilation and oxygenation goals to be implemented by respiratory therapists (RTs). We sought as a primary outcome to determine whether an RT-driven order set with predefined oxygenation and ventilation goals could be implemented and associated with improved adherence with best practice. We evaluated 1302 patients undergoing invasive mechanical ventilation (1693 separate episodes of invasive mechanical ventilation) prior to and after institution of a standardized, goal-directed mechanical ventilation order set using a controlled before-and-after study design. Patient-specific goals for oxygenation partial pressure of oxygen in arterial blood (Pao 2 ), ARDS Network [Net] positive end-expiratory pressure [PEEP]/fraction of inspired oxygen [Fio 2 ] table use) and ventilation (pH, partial pressure of carbon dioxide) were selected by prescribers and implemented by RTs. Compliance with the new mechanical ventilation order set was high: 88.2% compliance versus 3.8% before implementation of the order set ( P mechanical ventilation, intensive care unit (ICU) length of stay, and in-hospital or ICU mortality. A standardized best practice mechanical ventilation order set can be implemented by a multidisciplinary team and is associated with improved compliance to written orders and adherence to the ARDSNet PEEP/Fio 2 table.

19. Mechanisms of Hepatitis C Viral Resistance to Direct Acting Antivirals.

Science.gov (United States)

Ahmed, Asma; Felmlee, Daniel J

2015-12-18

There has been a remarkable transformation in the treatment of chronic hepatitis C in recent years with the development of direct acting antiviral agents targeting virus encoded proteins important for viral replication including NS3/4A, NS5A and NS5B. These agents have shown high sustained viral response (SVR) rates of more than 90% in phase 2 and phase 3 clinical trials; however, this is slightly lower in real-life cohorts. Hepatitis C virus resistant variants are seen in most patients who do not achieve SVR due to selection and outgrowth of resistant hepatitis C virus variants within a given host. These resistance associated mutations depend on the class of direct-acting antiviral drugs used and also vary between hepatitis C virus genotypes and subtypes. The understanding of these mutations has a clear clinical implication in terms of choice and combination of drugs used. In this review, we describe mechanism of action of currently available drugs and summarize clinically relevant resistance data.

20. Development of a two-dimensional simulation code (koad) including atomic processes for beam direct energy conversion

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Yamamoto, Y.; Yoshikawa, K.; Hattori, Y.

1987-01-01

A two-dimensional simulation code for the beam direct energy conversion called KVAD (Kyoto University Advanced DART) including various loss mechanisms has been developed, and shown excellent agreement with the authors' experiments using the He + beams. The beam direct energy converter (BDC) is the device to recover the kinetic energy of unneutralized ions in the neutral beam injection (NBI) system directly into electricity. The BDC is very important and essential not only to the improvements of NBI system efficiency, but also to the relaxation of high heat flux problems on the beam dump with increase of injection energies. So far no simulation code could have successfully predicted BDC experimental results. The KUAD code applies, an optimized algorithm for vector processing, the finite element method (FEM) for potential calculation, and a semi-automatic method for spatial segmentations. Since particle trajectories in the KVAD code are analytically solved, very high speed tracings of the particle could be achieved by introducing an adjacent element matrix to identify the neighboring triangle elements and electrodes. Ion space charges are also analytically calculated by the Cloud in Cell (CIC) method, as well as electron space charges. Power losses due to atomic processes can be also evaluated in the KUAD code

1. Mechanisms of Hepatitis C Viral Resistance to Direct Acting Antivirals

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Asma Ahmed

2015-12-01

Full Text Available There has been a remarkable transformation in the treatment of chronic hepatitis C in recent years with the development of direct acting antiviral agents targeting virus encoded proteins important for viral replication including NS3/4A, NS5A and NS5B. These agents have shown high sustained viral response (SVR rates of more than 90% in phase 2 and phase 3 clinical trials; however, this is slightly lower in real-life cohorts. Hepatitis C virus resistant variants are seen in most patients who do not achieve SVR due to selection and outgrowth of resistant hepatitis C virus variants within a given host. These resistance associated mutations depend on the class of direct-acting antiviral drugs used and also vary between hepatitis C virus genotypes and subtypes. The understanding of these mutations has a clear clinical implication in terms of choice and combination of drugs used. In this review, we describe mechanism of action of currently available drugs and summarize clinically relevant resistance data.

2. Microstructure and mechanical properties of direct metal laser sintered TI-6AL-4V

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Becker, Thorsten Hermann

2015-05-01

Full Text Available Direct metal laser sintering (DMLS is a selective laser melting (SLM manufacturing process that can produce near net shape parts from metallic powders. A range of materials are suitable for SLM; they include various metals such as titanium, steel, aluminium, and cobalt-chrome alloys. This paper forms part of a research drive that aims to evaluate the material performance of the SLM-manufactured metals. It presents DMLS-produced Ti-6Al-4V, a titanium alloy often used in biomedical and aerospace applications. This paper also studies the effect of several heat treatments on the microstructure and mechanical properties of Ti-6Al-4V processed by SLM. It reports the achievable mechanical properties of the alloy, including quasi-static, crack growth behaviour, density and porosity distribution, and post-processing using various heat-treatment conditions.

3. Brain mechanisms associated with internally directed attention and self-generated thought.

Science.gov (United States)

Benedek, Mathias; Jauk, Emanuel; Beaty, Roger E; Fink, Andreas; Koschutnig, Karl; Neubauer, Aljoscha C

2016-03-10

Internal cognition like imagination and prospection require sustained internally directed attention and involve self-generated thought. This fMRI study aimed to disentangle the brain mechanisms associated with attention-specific and task-specific processes during internally directed cognition. The direction of attention was manipulated by either keeping a relevant stimulus visible throughout the task, or by masking it, so that the task had to be performed "in the mind's eye". The level of self-directed thought was additionally varied between a convergent and a divergent thinking task. Internally directed attention was associated with increased activation in the right anterior inferior parietal lobe (aIPL), bilateral lingual gyrus and the cuneus, as well as with extended deactivations of superior parietal and occipital regions representing parts of the dorsal attention network. The right aIPL further showed increased connectivity with occipital regions suggesting an active top-down mechanism for shielding ongoing internal processes from potentially distracting sensory stimulation in terms of perceptual decoupling. Activation of the default network was not related to internally directed attention per se, but rather to a higher level of self-generated thought. The findings hence shed further light on the roles of inferior and superior parietal cortex for internally directed cognition.

4. A Direct Mechanism of Ultrafast Intramolecular Singlet Fission in Pentacene Dimers

Science.gov (United States)

2016-08-24

Queisser limit of solar power conversion efficiency. In conventional materials, the mechanism of SF is an intermolecular process (xSF), which is mediated by...property for materials used in third-generation solar cells and photodetectors, among other optoelectronic devices.1−3 Unfortunately, techno- logical...mixing. Previous work investigating the mechanism of xSF unfavorably compared the direct coupling mechanism against superexchange mediated by high

5. Revised Mechanism and Improved Efficiency of the QuikChange Site-Directed Mutagenesis Method.

Science.gov (United States)

Xia, Yongzhen; Xun, Luying

2017-01-01

Site-directed mutagenesis has been widely used for the substitution, addition or deletion of nucleotide residues in a defined DNA sequence. QuikChange™ site-directed mutagenesis and its related protocols have been widely used for this purpose because of convenience and efficiency. We have recently demonstrated that the mechanism of the QuikChange™ site-directed mutagenesis process is different from that being proposed. The new mechanism promotes the use of partially overlapping primers and commercial PCR enzymes for efficient PCR and mutagenesis.

6. Nonlinear mechanics of thin-walled structures asymptotics, direct approach and numerical analysis

CERN Document Server

Vetyukov, Yury

2014-01-01

This book presents a hybrid approach to the mechanics of thin bodies. Classical theories of rods, plates and shells with constrained shear are based on asymptotic splitting of the equations and boundary conditions of three-dimensional elasticity. The asymptotic solutions become accurate as the thickness decreases, and the three-dimensional fields of stresses and displacements can be determined. The analysis includes practically important effects of electromechanical coupling and material inhomogeneity. The extension to the geometrically nonlinear range uses the direct approach based on the principle of virtual work. Vibrations and buckling of pre-stressed structures are studied with the help of linearized incremental formulations, and direct tensor calculus rounds out the list of analytical techniques used throughout the book. A novel theory of thin-walled rods of open profile is subsequently developed from the models of rods and shells, and traditionally applied equations are proven to be asymptotically exa...

7. Predictive modeling capabilities from incident powder and laser to mechanical properties for laser directed energy deposition

Science.gov (United States)

Shin, Yung C.; Bailey, Neil; Katinas, Christopher; Tan, Wenda

2018-01-01

This paper presents an overview of vertically integrated comprehensive predictive modeling capabilities for directed energy deposition processes, which have been developed at Purdue University. The overall predictive models consist of vertically integrated several modules, including powder flow model, molten pool model, microstructure prediction model and residual stress model, which can be used for predicting mechanical properties of additively manufactured parts by directed energy deposition processes with blown powder as well as other additive manufacturing processes. Critical governing equations of each model and how various modules are connected are illustrated. Various illustrative results along with corresponding experimental validation results are presented to illustrate the capabilities and fidelity of the models. The good correlations with experimental results prove the integrated models can be used to design the metal additive manufacturing processes and predict the resultant microstructure and mechanical properties.

8. Predictive modeling capabilities from incident powder and laser to mechanical properties for laser directed energy deposition

Science.gov (United States)

Shin, Yung C.; Bailey, Neil; Katinas, Christopher; Tan, Wenda

2018-05-01

This paper presents an overview of vertically integrated comprehensive predictive modeling capabilities for directed energy deposition processes, which have been developed at Purdue University. The overall predictive models consist of vertically integrated several modules, including powder flow model, molten pool model, microstructure prediction model and residual stress model, which can be used for predicting mechanical properties of additively manufactured parts by directed energy deposition processes with blown powder as well as other additive manufacturing processes. Critical governing equations of each model and how various modules are connected are illustrated. Various illustrative results along with corresponding experimental validation results are presented to illustrate the capabilities and fidelity of the models. The good correlations with experimental results prove the integrated models can be used to design the metal additive manufacturing processes and predict the resultant microstructure and mechanical properties.

9. Cooperation mechanisms of the EU renewable energy directive and flexible mechanisms of the Kyoto Protocol: comparison and lessons learnt. Working paper

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Frieden, Dorian; Tuerk, Andreas; Steiner, Daniel

2013-07-15

This working paper discusses similarities and differences between the cooperation mechanisms of the EU renewable energy directive (RES directive) and the flexible mechanisms of the Kyoto Protocol. The cooperation mechanisms allow the (virtual) trade of renewable energy and were introduced with the RES directive to provide Member States (MS) with greater flexibility to achieve their national targets for renewable energy sources (RES). A similar kind of flexibility is known from the flexible mechanisms of the Kyoto Protocol which aim at the cost efficient achievement of emission reduction targets. Lessons learned from the Kyoto mechanisms may allow conclusions to be drawn on the design and implementation of the renewable energy cooperation mechanisms. This paper first gives an overview of the cooperation mechanisms regarding their potential, advantages and disadvantages, barriers and preconditions. This is followed by a brief explanation of and a systematic comparison with the flexible mechanisms of the Kyoto Protocol – Joint Implementation (JI); Clean Development Mechanism (CDM); and International Emissions Trading (IET). A gamut of factors influenced the success of the Kyoto mechanisms in general and in specific national contexts. Therefore, it is not possible to directly transfer past experiences with the Kyoto mechanisms to the capability of specific nations to make use of the renewable energy cooperation mechanisms. A comparison of specific features, such as the mechanism type (transfer, project-based, support scheme), price building and specific barriers can, however, help anticipate the possible dynamics and challenges of the cooperation mechanisms. Experiences with the Kyoto mechanisms show that predictions based on supply-demand analysis were valid only to a limited extent and that specific factors such as institutional capacity constraints or legal uncertainties delayed or prevented the use of the mechanisms in some cases. Similarly, for the cooperation

10. Direct fragmentation of quarkonia including Fermi motion using light-cone wave function

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Nobary, M.A. Gomshi [Razi University, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Kermanshah (Iran); A.E.O.I., Center for Theoretical Physics and Mathematics, Tehran (Iran); Javadi, B. [Razi University, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Kermanshah (Iran)

2005-07-01

We investigate the effect of Fermi motion on the direct fragmentation of the J/{psi} and {upsilon} states employing a light-cone wave function. Consistent with such a wave function we set up the kinematics of a heavy quark fragmenting into quarkonia such that the Fermi motion of the constituents splits into a longitudinal as well as a transverse direction and thus calculate the fragmentation functions for these states. In the framework of our investigation, we estimate that the fragmentation probabilities of J/{psi} and {upsilon} may increase at least up to 14 percent when including this degree of freedom. (orig.)

11. Prickle isoforms control the direction of tissue polarity by microtubule independent and dependent mechanisms

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Katherine A. Sharp

2016-03-01

Full Text Available Planar cell polarity signaling directs the polarization of cells within the plane of many epithelia. While these tissues exhibit asymmetric localization of a set of core module proteins, in Drosophila, more than one mechanism links the direction of core module polarization to the tissue axes. One signaling system establishes a polarity bias in the parallel, apical microtubules upon which vesicles containing core proteins traffic. Swapping expression of the differentially expressed Prickle isoforms, Prickle and Spiny-legs, reverses the direction of core module polarization. Studies in the proximal wing and the anterior abdomen indicated that this results from their differential control of microtubule polarity. Prickle and Spiny-legs also control the direction of polarization in the distal wing (D-wing and the posterior abdomen (P-abd. We report here that this occurs without affecting microtubule polarity in these tissues. The direction of polarity in the D-wing is therefore likely determined by a novel mechanism independent of microtubule polarity. In the P-abd, Prickle and Spiny-legs interpret at least two directional cues through a microtubule-polarity-independent mechanism.

12. Effect of fiber directionality on the static and dynamic mechanical properties of 3D SiCf/SiC composites

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Hou, Zhenhua; Luo, Ruiying; Yang, Wei; Xu, Huaizhe; Han, Tao

2016-01-01

The static and dynamic mechanical properties of three-dimensional (3D) 4-directional and 3D 5-directional braided SiC f /SiC composites fabricated by polymer infiltration and pyrolysis (PIP) were investigated using static and dynamic bending tests, as well as microstructural characterization. X-ray diffraction revealed that polycarbosilane was converted into a matrix of crystalline β-SiC after PIP cycling. Test results indicated that the density, flexural strength, elastic modulus, fracture toughness, and storage modulus of 3D 5-directional SiC f /SiC composites were superior to those of 3D 4-directional braided SiC f /SiC composites; the former also showed a smaller internal friction than the latter. Results from Weibull statistical analysis indicated that the scale parameter σ 0 (736.9 MPa) and Weibull modulus m (21.7) of the 3D 5-directional specimen were higher than those of 3D 4-directional braided SiC f /SiC composites (629.6 MPa, 14.7). Both 3D braided composites demonstrated good toughness and avoided catastrophic brittle fractures under loading because of the effective crack energy dissipating mechanisms of crack deflection, interface debonding, and fiber pull-out. The internal friction and storage modulus of the 3D braided composites were sensitive to temperature. The cross angle of fiber placement in the preform and the direction of the applied force, as well as the pre-crack propagation remarkably influenced the static mechanical properties and failure behavior of the 3D braided SiC f /SiC composites. The dynamic mechanical properties of the 3D braided composites, including internal friction and storage modulus, were also considerably affected by fiber directionality in their preforms.

13. Inclusions and mechanical behavior in the short transverse direction

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Aubert, H.; Bouleau, M.; Laniesse, J.; Lelong, C.; Pigoury, M.

1977-01-01

The variables liable to characterize the distribution of inclusions in plates, and the relationships between the mechanical properties and the fatigue behavior in, on the one hand, the short transverse direction, and, on the other hand, the inclusions are studied. A decoherence is shown between inclusions and matrix as the cause of the failure by lamellar tearing [fr

14. Microstructure and mechanical behavior of direct metal laser sintered Inconel alloy 718

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Smith, Derek H. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of New Hampshire, Durham, NH 03824 (United States); Bicknell, Jonathan; Jorgensen, Luke [Turbocam Energy Solutions, Turbocam International, Dover, NH 03820 (United States); Patterson, Brian M.; Cordes, Nikolaus L. [Materials Science Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Tsukrov, Igor [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of New Hampshire, Durham, NH 03824 (United States); Knezevic, Marko, E-mail: marko.knezevic@unh.edu [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of New Hampshire, Durham, NH 03824 (United States)

2016-03-15

In this paper, we investigate microstructure and quasi-static mechanical behavior of the direct metal laser sintered Inconel 718 superalloy as a function of build direction (BD). The printed material was further processed by annealing and double-aging, hot isostatic pressing (HIP), and machining. We characterize porosity fraction and distribution using micro X-ray computed tomography (μXCT), grain structure and crystallographic texture using electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD), and mechanical response in quasi-static tension and compression using standard mechanical testing at room temperature. Analysis of the μXCT imaging shows that majority of porosity develops in the outer layer of the printed material. However, porosity inside the material is also present. The EBSD measurements reveal formation of columnar grains, which favor < 001 > fiber texture components along the BD. These measurements also show evidence of coarse-grained microstructure present in the samples treated by HIP. Finally, analysis of grain boundaries reveal that HIP results in a large number of annealing twins compared to that in samples that underwent annealing and double-aging. The yield strength varies with the testing direction by approximately 7%, which is governed by a combination of grain morphology and crystallographic texture. In particular, we determine tension–compression asymmetry in the yield stress as well as anisotropy of the material flow during compression. We find that HIP lowers yield stress but improves ductility relative to the annealed and aged material. These results are discussed and critically compared with the data reported for wrought material in the same condition. - Highlights: • Microstructure and mechanical properties of DMLS Inconel 718 are studied in function of build direction. • Inhomogeneity of microstructure in the material in several conditions is quantified by μXCT and EBSD. • Anisotropy and asymmetry in the mechanical response are

15. Microstructure and mechanical behavior of direct metal laser sintered Inconel alloy 718

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Smith, Derek H.; Bicknell, Jonathan; Jorgensen, Luke; Patterson, Brian M.; Cordes, Nikolaus L.; Tsukrov, Igor; Knezevic, Marko

2016-01-01

In this paper, we investigate microstructure and quasi-static mechanical behavior of the direct metal laser sintered Inconel 718 superalloy as a function of build direction (BD). The printed material was further processed by annealing and double-aging, hot isostatic pressing (HIP), and machining. We characterize porosity fraction and distribution using micro X-ray computed tomography (μXCT), grain structure and crystallographic texture using electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD), and mechanical response in quasi-static tension and compression using standard mechanical testing at room temperature. Analysis of the μXCT imaging shows that majority of porosity develops in the outer layer of the printed material. However, porosity inside the material is also present. The EBSD measurements reveal formation of columnar grains, which favor fiber texture components along the BD. These measurements also show evidence of coarse-grained microstructure present in the samples treated by HIP. Finally, analysis of grain boundaries reveal that HIP results in a large number of annealing twins compared to that in samples that underwent annealing and double-aging. The yield strength varies with the testing direction by approximately 7%, which is governed by a combination of grain morphology and crystallographic texture. In particular, we determine tension–compression asymmetry in the yield stress as well as anisotropy of the material flow during compression. We find that HIP lowers yield stress but improves ductility relative to the annealed and aged material. These results are discussed and critically compared with the data reported for wrought material in the same condition. - Highlights: • Microstructure and mechanical properties of DMLS Inconel 718 are studied in function of build direction. • Inhomogeneity of microstructure in the material in several conditions is quantified by μXCT and EBSD. • Anisotropy and asymmetry in the mechanical response are determined by

16. Effect of excitation direction on cochlear macro-mechanics during bone conduction stimulation

Science.gov (United States)

Kamieniecki, Konrad; Tudruj, Sylwester; Piechna, Janusz; Borkowski, Paweł

2018-05-01

In many instances of hearing loss, audiological improvement can be made via direct excitation of a temporal bone (i.e., bone conduction). In order to design better and more efficient devices, the macro-mechanics of the bone conduction hearing pathway must be better understood. Based on previous empirical work, numerical models are useful. In this work, we present results of a time-domain Fluid Structure Interaction model that describes stimulation of the bone conduction pathway. The cochlea was modelled as uncoiled and consisted of an oval window, a round window, a basilar membrane and a helicotrema. In order to monitor pressure waves in the perilymph, the fluid was considered compressible. The excitation, in form of sinusoidal velocity, was applied to the cochlea bony walls. The system was excited in three perpendicular directions: along the basilar membrane, perpendicularly to the membrane and transversely to the membrane. The numerical simulation examined which stimulation direction maximally excited the basilar membrane, the pressure distributions for each excitation direction, and the associated mechanics.

17. Directed networks' different link formation mechanisms causing degree distribution distinction

Science.gov (United States)

Behfar, Stefan Kambiz; Turkina, Ekaterina; Cohendet, Patrick; Burger-Helmchen, Thierry

2016-11-01

Within undirected networks, scientists have shown much interest in presenting power-law features. For instance, Barabási and Albert (1999) claimed that a common property of many large networks is that vertex connectivity follows scale-free power-law distribution, and in another study Barabási et al. (2002) showed power law evolution in the social network of scientific collaboration. At the same time, Jiang et al. (2011) discussed deviation from power-law distribution; others indicated that size effect (Bagrow et al., 2008), information filtering mechanism (Mossa et al., 2002), and birth and death process (Shi et al., 2005) could account for this deviation. Within directed networks, many authors have considered that outlinks follow a similar mechanism of creation as inlinks' (Faloutsos et al., 1999; Krapivsky et al., 2001; Tanimoto, 2009) with link creation rate being the linear function of node degree, resulting in a power-law shape for both indegree and outdegree distribution. Some other authors have made an assumption that directed networks, such as scientific collaboration or citation, behave as undirected, resulting in a power-law degree distribution accordingly (Barabási et al., 2002). At the same time, we claim (1) Outlinks feature different degree distributions than inlinks; where different link formation mechanisms cause the distribution distinctions, (2) in/outdegree distribution distinction holds for different levels of system decomposition; therefore this distribution distinction is a property of directed networks. First, we emphasize in/outlink formation mechanisms as causal factors for distinction between indegree and outdegree distributions (where this distinction has already been noticed in Barker et al. (2010) and Baxter et al. (2006)) within a sample network of OSS projects as well as Java software corpus as a network. Second, we analyze whether this distribution distinction holds for different levels of system decomposition: open

18. Effort Flow Analysis: A Methodology for Directed Product Evolution Using Rigid Body and Compliant Mechanisms

National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

Greer, James

2002-01-01

This dissertation presents a systematic design methodology for directed product evolution that uses both rigid body and compliant mechanisms to facilitate component combination in the domain of mechanical products...

19. Design options for cooperation mechanisms under the new European renewable energy directive

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Klessmann, Corinna; Lamers, Patrick; Ragwitz, Mario; Resch, Gustav

2010-01-01

In June 2009, a new EU directive on the promotion of renewable energy sources (RES) entered into effect. The directive 2009/28/EC, provides for three cooperation mechanisms that will allow member states to achieve their national RES target in cooperation with other member states: statistical transfer, joint projects, and joint support schemes. This article analyses the pros and cons of the three mechanisms and explores design options for their implementation through strategic and economic questions: How to counterbalance the major drawbacks of each mechanism? How to reflect a balance of costs and benefits between the involved member states? The analysis identifies a number of design options that respond to these questions, e.g. long term contracts to ensure sufficient flexibility for statistical transfers, a coordinated, standardised joint project approach to increase transparency in the European market, and a stepwise harmonisation of joint support schemes that is based on a cost-effective accounting approach. One conclusion is that the three cooperation mechanisms are closely interlinked. One can consider their relation to be a gradual transition from member state cooperation under fully closed national support systems in case of statistical transfers, to cooperation under fully open national support systems in a joint support scheme.

20. Pore direction in relation to anisotropy of mechanical strength in a cubic starch compact

NARCIS (Netherlands)

Wu, Yu San; van Vliet, Lucas J; Frijlink, Henderik W; Stokroos, Ietse; van der Voort Maarschalk, Kees

The purpose of this research was to evaluate the relation between preferential direction of pores and mechanical strength of cubic starch compacts. The preferential pore direction was quantified in SEM images of cross sections of starch compacts using a previously described algorithm for

1. Economic Evaluation of a Patient-Directed Music Intervention for ICU Patients Receiving Mechanical Ventilatory Support.

Science.gov (United States)

Chlan, Linda L; Heiderscheit, Annette; Skaar, Debra J; Neidecker, Marjorie V

2018-05-04

Music intervention has been shown to reduce anxiety and sedative exposure among mechanically ventilated patients. Whether music intervention reduces ICU costs is not known. The aim of this study was to examine ICU costs for patients receiving a patient-directed music intervention compared with patients who received usual ICU care. A cost-effectiveness analysis from the hospital perspective was conducted to determine if patient-directed music intervention was cost-effective in improving patient-reported anxiety. Cost savings were also evaluated. One-way and probabilistic sensitivity analyses determined the influence of input variation on the cost-effectiveness. Midwestern ICUs. Adult ICU patients from a parent clinical trial receiving mechanical ventilatory support. Patients receiving the experimental patient-directed music intervention received a MP3 player, noise-canceling headphones, and music tailored to individual preferences by a music therapist. The base case cost-effectiveness analysis estimated patient-directed music intervention reduced anxiety by 19 points on the Visual Analogue Scale-Anxiety with a reduction in cost of \$2,322/patient compared with usual ICU care, resulting in patient-directed music dominance. The probabilistic cost-effectiveness analysis found that average patient-directed music intervention costs were \$2,155 less than usual ICU care and projected that cost saving is achieved in 70% of 1,000 iterations. Based on break-even analyses, cost saving is achieved if the per-patient cost of patient-directed music intervention remains below \$2,651, a value eight times the base case of \$329. Patient-directed music intervention is cost-effective for reducing anxiety in mechanically ventilated ICU patients.

2. Comparative study of mechanical properties of direct core build-up materials

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Girish Kumar

2015-01-01

Full Text Available Background and Objectives: The strength greatly influences the selection of core material because core must withstand forces due to mastication and para-function for many years. This study was conducted to evaluate certain mechanical properties of commonly used materials for direct core build-up, including visible light cured composite, polyacid modified composite, resin modified glass ionomer, high copper amalgam, and silver cermet cement. Materials and Methods: All the materials were manipulated according to the manufacturer′s recommendations and standard test specimens were prepared. A universal testing machine at different cross-head speed was used to determine all the four mechanical properties. Mean compressive strength, diametral tensile strength, flexural strength, and elastic modulus with standard deviations were calculated. Multiple comparisons of the materials were also done. Results: Considerable differences in compressive strength, diametral tensile strength, and flexural strength were observed. Visible light cured composite showed relatively high compressive strength, diametral tensile strength, and flexural strength compared with the other tested materials. Amalgam showed the highest value for elastic modulus. Silver cermet showed less value for all the properties except for elastic modulus. Conclusions: Strength is one of the most important criteria for selection of a core material. Stronger materials better resist deformation and fracture provide more equitable stress distribution, greater stability, and greater probability of clinical success.

3. ASSESSMENT OF POTENTIAL TSUNAMI GENERATION IN CHINA'S BOHAI SEA FROM DIRECT GEOTECTONIC AND COLLATERAL SOURCE MECHANISMS

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

G. Pararas Carayannis

2009-01-01

Full Text Available The Bohai Sea borders northeastern China's most populous and highest economic valuecoastal areas where several megacities are located. Critical infrastructure facilities exist or areunder construction, including a nuclear power plant and super port facilities. Large reserves of oilhave been discovered and a number of offshore oil platforms have been built. The extent ofdevelopment along coastal areas requires a better assessment of potential tsunami risks. Althoughtsunamis do not pose as much of a threat as earthquakes in this region, locally destructive tsunamishave been generated in the past and future events could have significant impacts on coastalpopulations and China's economy, particularly because most of the development has taken place inlow-lying regions, including river deltas. The present study examines the geotectonics of the Bohaibasin region, the impact of past historical events, and the potential for local tsunami generationfrom a variety of direct and collateral source mechanisms triggered by intra plate earthquakes.More specifically, the present study examines: amajor active faults bounding the Bohai Basin; bthe resulting crustal deformation patterns of tectonic structures that have resulted in catastrophicearthquakes in recent years; c the basin-wide extension - with local inversion - extending into theBohai Sea that generated tsunamigenic earthquakes in 1888 and 1969; and d deformational futureseismic events with the potential to generate local tsunamis directly or by collateral mechanisms offolding, en-echelon bookshelf failures, or from destabilization/dissociation of structuralaccumulations of gas hydrate deposits within the basin's thick sedimentary stratigraphic layers.

4. Skating mechanics of change-of-direction manoeuvres in ice hockey players.

Science.gov (United States)

Fortier, Antoine; Turcotte, René A; Pearsall, David J

2014-11-01

Ice hockey requires rapid transitions between skating trajectories to effectively navigate about the ice surface. Player performance relates in large part to effective change-of-direction manoeuvres, but little is known about how those skills are performed mechanically and the effect of equipment design on them. The purpose of this study was to observe the kinetics involved in those manoeuvres as well as to compare whether kinetic differences may result between two skate models of varying ankle mobility. Eight subjects with competitive ice hockey playing experience performed rapid lateral (90°) left and right change-of-direction manoeuvres. Kinetic data were collected using force strain gauge transducers on the blade holders of the skates. Significantly greater forces were applied by the outside skate (50-70% body weight, %BW) in comparison to the inside skate (12-24%BW, p Skate model and turn direction had no main effect, though significant mixed interactions between leg side (inside/outside) with skate model or turn direction (p skating change-of-direction tasks.

5. Direct-phase-variable model of a synchronous reluctance motor including all slot and winding harmonics

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Obe, Emeka S.; Binder, A.

2011-01-01

A detailed model in direct-phase variables of a synchronous reluctance motor operating at mains voltage and frequency is presented. The model includes the stator and rotor slot openings, the actual winding layout and the reluctance rotor geometry. Hence, all mmf and permeance harmonics are taken into account. It is seen that non-negligible harmonics introduced by slots are present in the inductances computed by the winding function procedure. These harmonics are usually ignored in d-q models. The machine performance is simulated in the stator reference frame to depict the difference between this new direct-phase model including all harmonics and the conventional rotor reference frame d-q model. Saturation is included by using a polynomial fitting the variation of d-axis inductance with stator current obtained by finite-element software FEMAG DC (registered) . The detailed phase-variable model can yield torque pulsations comparable to those obtained from finite elements while the d-q model cannot.

6. Mechanics of Student-Directed Multi-University Internet Video-Conferencing Course

Science.gov (United States)

Durant, A. J.; Mann, C. P.; Rose, W. I.; Stix, J.

2007-12-01

Connecting graduate students with experts in a given discipline is vital to their success but has often been challenging because of logistics, costs, and scheduling. Advances in Internet video-conferencing now allow multiple parties to meet simultaneously in a virtual classroom environment. Here we describe the mechanics of a recent student-directed graduate-level course that enabled students to directly engage in scientific discussion with experts. Conducted under the auspices of the Earth Hazards (EHaz) Consortium, the spring 2007 Volcano Instability course connected nine previously disparate groups over North America in a combined learning and cultural experience. Each week course participants (including the guest speaker, students and university professors) reviewed current journal articles and a speaker presentation, and used Marratech Internet video- conferencing software to meet online and discuss the material with an expert on the subject. Internet video-conferencing provides an inexpensive and innovative approach to teaching across international boundaries. The EHaz 2007 Volcano Instability course connected 14 experts with 64 students and professors. Many universities can participate through this approach, allowing an advanced graduate class that normally contains 4 - 8 students on one campus to become a class of 50 or more dispersed over many campuses. As evidenced by overwhelmingly positive course evaluations, the approach was stimulating and conducive to learning, and has great potential for application over many other disciplines. This dynamic interaction between students and experts will ultimately raise the standard of instruction and motivate students to self-guide their learning experience to levels of greater understanding.

7. Nucleation mechanism for the direct graphite-to-diamond phase transition

Science.gov (United States)

Khaliullin, Rustam Z.; Eshet, Hagai; Kühne, Thomas D.; Behler, Jörg; Parrinello, Michele

2011-09-01

Graphite and diamond have comparable free energies, yet forming diamond from graphite in the absence of a catalyst requires pressures that are significantly higher than those at equilibrium coexistence. At lower temperatures, the formation of the metastable hexagonal polymorph of diamond is favoured instead of the more stable cubic diamond. These phenomena cannot be explained by the concerted mechanism suggested in previous theoretical studies. Using an ab initio quality neural-network potential, we carried out a large-scale study of the graphite-to-diamond transition assuming that it occurs through nucleation. The nucleation mechanism accounts for the observed phenomenology and reveals its microscopic origins. We demonstrate that the large lattice distortions that accompany the formation of diamond nuclei inhibit the phase transition at low pressure, and direct it towards the hexagonal diamond phase at higher pressure. The proposed nucleation mechanism should improve our understanding of structural transformations in a wide range of carbon-based materials.

8. Modeling of the Direct Current Generator Including the Magnetic Saturation and Temperature Effects

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

2013-11-01

Full Text Available In this paper the inclusion of temperature effect on the field resistance on the direct current generator model DC1A, which is valid to stability studies is proposed. First, the linear generator model is presented, after the effect of magnetic saturation and the change in the resistance value due to temperature produced by the field current are included. The comparison of experimental results and model simulations to validate the model is used. A direct current generator model which is a better representation of the generator is obtained. Visual comparison between simulations and experimental results shows the success of the proposed model, because it presents the lowest error of the compared models. The accuracy of the proposed model is observed via Modified Normalized Sum of Squared Errors index equal to 3.8979%.

9. Direct design of an energy landscape with bistable DNA origami mechanisms.

Science.gov (United States)

Zhou, Lifeng; Marras, Alexander E; Su, Hai-Jun; Castro, Carlos E

2015-03-11

Structural DNA nanotechnology provides a feasible technique for the design and fabrication of complex geometries even exhibiting controllable dynamic behavior. Recently we have demonstrated the possibility of implementing macroscopic engineering design approaches to construct DNA origami mechanisms (DOM) with programmable motion and tunable flexibility. Here, we implement the design of compliant DNA origami mechanisms to extend from prescribing motion to prescribing an energy landscape. Compliant mechanisms facilitate motion via deformation of components with tunable stiffness resulting in well-defined mechanical energy stored in the structure. We design, fabricate, and characterize a DNA origami nanostructure with an energy landscape defined by two stable states (local energy minima) separated by a designed energy barrier. This nanostructure is a four-bar bistable mechanism with two undeformed states. Traversing between those states requires deformation, and hence mechanical energy storage, in a compliant arm of the linkage. The energy barrier for switching between two states was obtained from the conformational distribution based on a Boltzmann probability function and closely follows a predictive mechanical model. Furthermore, we demonstrated the ability to actuate the mechanism into one stable state via additional DNA inputs and then release the actuation via DNA strand displacement. This controllable multistate system establishes a foundation for direct design of energy landscapes that regulate conformational dynamics similar to biomolecular complexes.

10. Mechanical stimulation induces mTOR signaling via an ERK-independent mechanism: implications for a direct activation of mTOR by phosphatidic acid.

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Jae Sung You

Full Text Available Signaling by mTOR is a well-recognized component of the pathway through which mechanical signals regulate protein synthesis and muscle mass. However, the mechanisms involved in the mechanical regulation of mTOR signaling have not been defined. Nevertheless, recent studies suggest that a mechanically-induced increase in phosphatidic acid (PA may be involved. There is also evidence which suggests that mechanical stimuli, and PA, utilize ERK to induce mTOR signaling. Hence, we reasoned that a mechanically-induced increase in PA might promote mTOR signaling via an ERK-dependent mechanism. To test this, we subjected mouse skeletal muscles to mechanical stimulation in the presence or absence of a MEK/ERK inhibitor, and then measured several commonly used markers of mTOR signaling. Transgenic mice expressing a rapamycin-resistant mutant of mTOR were also used to confirm the validity of these markers. The results demonstrated that mechanically-induced increases in p70(s6k T389 and 4E-BP1 S64 phosphorylation, and unexpectedly, a loss in total 4E-BP1, were fully mTOR-dependent signaling events. Furthermore, we determined that mechanical stimulation induced these mTOR-dependent events, and protein synthesis, through an ERK-independent mechanism. Similar to mechanical stimulation, exogenous PA also induced mTOR-dependent signaling via an ERK-independent mechanism. Moreover, PA was able to directly activate mTOR signaling in vitro. Combined, these results demonstrate that mechanical stimulation induces mTOR signaling, and protein synthesis, via an ERK-independent mechanism that potentially involves a direct interaction of PA with mTOR. Furthermore, it appears that a decrease in total 4E-BP1 may be part of the mTOR-dependent mechanism through which mechanical stimuli activate protein synthesis.

11. Computational comparison of quantum-mechanical models for multistep direct reactions

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Koning, A.J.; Akkermans, J.M.

1993-01-01

We have carried out a computational comparison of all existing quantum-mechanical models for multistep direct (MSD) reactions. The various MSD models, including the so-called Feshbach-Kerman-Koonin, Tamura-Udagawa-Lenske and Nishioka-Yoshida-Weidenmueller models, have been implemented in a single computer system. All model calculations thus use the same set of parameters and the same numerical techniques; only one adjustable parameter is employed. The computational results have been compared with experimental energy spectra and angular distributions for several nuclear reactions, namely, 90 Zr(p,p') at 80 MeV, 209 Bi(p,p') at 62 MeV, and 93 Nb(n,n') at 25.7 MeV. In addition, the results have been compared with the Kalbach systematics and with semiclassical exciton model calculations. All quantum MSD models provide a good fit to the experimental data. In addition, they reproduce the systematics very well and are clearly better than semiclassical model calculations. We furthermore show that the calculated predictions do not differ very strongly between the various quantum MSD models, leading to the conclusion that the simplest MSD model (the Feshbach-Kerman-Koonin model) is adequate for the analysis of experimental data

12. Epicardial fat and atrial fibrillation: current evidence, potential mechanisms, clinical implications, and future directions.

Science.gov (United States)

Wong, Christopher X; Ganesan, Anand N; Selvanayagam, Joseph B

2017-05-01

13. A review of micro-contact physics, materials, and failure mechanisms in direct-contact RF MEMS switches

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Basu, A; Adams, G G; McGruer, N E

2016-01-01

Direct contact, ohmic MEMS switches for RF applications have several advantages over other conventional switching devices. Advantages include lower insertion loss, higher isolation, and better switching figure-of-merit (cut-off frequency). The most important aspect of a direct-contact RF MEMS switch is the metal microcontact which can dictate the lifetime and reliability of the switch. Therefore, an understanding of contact reliability is essential for developing robust MEMS switches. This paper discusses and reviews the most important work done over the past couple of decades toward understanding ohmic micro-contacts. We initially discuss the contact mechanics and multi-physics models for studying Hertzian and multi-asperity contacts. We follow this with a discussion on models and experiments for studying adhesion. We then discuss experimental setups and the development of contact test stations by various groups for accelerated testing of microcontacts, as well as for analysis of contact reliability issues. Subsequently, we analyze a number of material transfer mechanisms in microcontacts under hot and cold switching conditions. We finally review the material properties that can help determine the selection of contact materials. A trade-off between contact resistance and high reliability is almost always necessary during selection of contact material; this paper discusses how the choice of materials can help address such trade-offs. (paper)

14. Comparison of conventional reconstruction plate versus direct metal laser sintering plate: an in vitro mechanical characteristics study.

Science.gov (United States)

Xie, Pusheng; Ouyang, Hanbin; Deng, Yuping; Yang, Yang; Xu, Jing; Huang, Wenhua

2017-09-02

Additive manufacturing (AM) technology has helped to achieve several advances in the medical field, particularly as far as fabrication of implants is concerned. But the application of direct metal laser sintering (DMLS) bone plate is quite limited due to the indeterminate mechanical property. The purposes of this study were to characterize the biomechanical properties of the polished DMLS reconstruction plate and to compare these with the properties of commonly applied implants and to find whether the mechanical performance of DMLS plate meets the requirements for clinical application. In this study, we fabricated two groups of plates by DMLS and computer numerical control (CNC) techniques. After that, we polished all samples and investigated their roughness, components, hardness, static bending, and torsional performance. Moreover, cyclic bending tests and fractographic analysis were conducted. Statistical comparisons of the group by means of monotonic test data were made, and a qualitative comparison was performed to assess failures in fatigue. We found no differences in surface roughness or components after polishing, but the DMLS plate hardness is 7.42% (p direct application of these AM instruments in the operating room requires further validation including animal and clinical experiment.

15. MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF THIN GDP SHELLS USED AS CRYOGENIC DIRECT DRIVE TARGETS AT OMEGA

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

NIKROO, A.; CZECHOWICZ, D.; CHEN, K.C.; DICKEN, M.; MORRIS, C.; ANDREWS, R.; GREENWOOD, A.L; CASTILLO, E.

2003-09-01

OAK-B135 Thin glow discharge polymer (GDP) shells are currently used as the targets for cryogenic direct drive laser fusion experiments. These shells need to be filled with nearly 1000 atm of D 2 and cooled to cryogenic temperatures without failing due to buckling and bursting pressures they experience in this process. Therefore, the mechanical and permeation properties of these shells are of utmost importance in successful and rapid filling with D 2 . In this paper, they present an overview of buckle and burst pressures of several different types of GDP shells. These include those made using traditional GDP deposition parameters (standard GDP) using a high deposition pressure and using modified parameters (strong GDP) of low deposition pressure that leads to more robust shells

16. Effect of pore architecture and stacking direction on mechanical properties of solid freeform fabrication-based scaffold for bone tissue engineering.

Science.gov (United States)

Lee, Jung-Seob; Cha, Hwang Do; Shim, Jin-Hyung; Jung, Jin Woo; Kim, Jong Young; Cho, Dong-Woo

2012-07-01

Fabrication of a three-dimensional (3D) scaffold with increased mechanical strength may be an essential requirement for more advanced bone tissue engineering scaffolds. Various material- and chemical-based approaches have been explored to enhance the mechanical properties of engineered bone tissue scaffolds. In this study, the effects of pore architecture and stacking direction on the mechanical and cell proliferation properties of a scaffold were investigated. The 3D scaffold was prepared using solid freeform fabrication technology with a multihead deposition system. Various types of scaffolds with different pore architectures (lattice, stagger, and triangle types) and stacking directions (horizontal and vertical directions) were fabricated with a blend of polycaprolactone and poly lactic-co-glycolic acid. In compression tests, the triangle-type scaffold was the strongest among the experimental groups. Stacking direction affected the mechanical properties of scaffolds. An in vitro cell counting kit-8 assay showed no significant differences in optical density depending on the different pore architectures and stacking directions. In conclusion, mechanical properties of scaffolds can be enhanced by controlling pore architecture and stacking direction. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

17. EBSD characterization of the growth mechanism of SiC synthesized via direct microwave heating

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Wang, Jigang, E-mail: wangjigang@seu.edu.cn [Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Advanced Metallic Materials, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing 211189 (China); Xizang Key Laboratory of Optical Information Processing and Visualization Technology, School of Information Engineering, Xizang Minzu University, Xianyang 712082 (China); Huang, Shan; Liu, Song; Qing, Zhou [Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Advanced Metallic Materials, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing 211189 (China)

2016-04-15

Well-crystallized 3C-silicon carbide (SiC) grains/nanowires have been synthesized rapidly and conveniently via direct microwave heating, simply using silicon dioxide powders and artificial graphite as raw materials. The comprehensive characterizations have been employed to investigate the micro-structure of the obtained 3C-SiC products. Results indicated that, different from the classic screw dislocation growth mechanism, the 3C-SiC grains/nanowires synthesized via high-energy vacuum microwave irradiation were achieved through the two-dimension nucleation and laminar growth mechanism. Especially, the electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD) was employed to characterize the crystal planes of the as-grown SiC products. The calculated Euler angles suggested that the fastest-growing crystal planes (211) were overlapped gradually. Through the formation of the (421) transformation plane, (211) finally evolved to (220) which existed as the side face of SiC grains. The most stable crystal planes (111) became the regular hexagonal planes in the end, which could be explained by the Bravais rule. The characterization results of EBSD provided important experimental information for the evolution of crystal planes. - Graphical abstract: The formation of 3C-SiC prepared via direct microwave heating follows the mechanism of two-dimension nucleation and laminar growth. - Highlights: • 3C−SiC grains/nanowires were obtained via direct microwave heating. • 3C−SiC followed the mechanism of two-dimension nucleation and laminar growth. • In-situ EBSD analysis provided the experimental evidences of the growth.

18. RNA-directed DNA methylation: Mechanisms and functions

KAUST Repository

Mahfouz, Magdy M.

2010-07-01

Epigenetic RNA based gene silencing mechanisms play a major role in genome stability and control of gene expression. Transcriptional gene silencing via RNA-directed DNA methylation (RdDM) guides the epigenetic regulation of the genome in response to disease states, growth, developmental and stress signals. RdDM machinery is composed of proteins that produce and modify 24-nt- long siRNAs, recruit the RdDM complex to genomic targets, methylate DNA and remodel chromatin. The final DNA methylation pattern is determined by either DNA methyltransferase alone or by the combined action of DNA methyltransferases and demethylases. The dynamic interaction between RdDM and demethylases may render the plant epigenome plastic to growth, developmental, and environmental cues. The epigenome plasticity may allow the plant genome to assume many epigenomes and to have the right epigenome at the right time in response to intracellular or extracellular stimuli. This review discusses recent advances in RdDM research and considers future perspectives.

19. A Lever Coupling Mechanism in Dual-Mass Micro-Gyroscopes for Improving the Shock Resistance along the Driving Direction

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Yang Gao

2017-04-01

Full Text Available This paper presents the design and application of a lever coupling mechanism to improve the shock resistance of a dual-mass silicon micro-gyroscope with drive mode coupled along the driving direction without sacrificing the mechanical sensitivity. Firstly, the mechanical sensitivity and the shock response of the micro-gyroscope are theoretically analyzed. In the mechanical design, a novel lever coupling mechanism is proposed to change the modal order and to improve the frequency separation. The micro-gyroscope with the lever coupling mechanism optimizes the drive mode order, increasing the in-phase mode frequency to be much larger than the anti-phase one. Shock analysis results show that the micro-gyroscope structure with the designed lever coupling mechanism can notably reduce the magnitudes of the shock response and cut down the stress produced in the shock process compared with the traditional elastic coupled one. Simulations reveal that the shock resistance along the drive direction is greatly increased. Consequently, the lever coupling mechanism can change the gyroscope’s modal order and improve the frequency separation by structurally offering a higher stiffness difference ratio. The shock resistance along the driving direction is tremendously enhanced without loss of the mechanical sensitivity.

20. A Reformed CDM - including new mechanisms for sustainable development

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Holm Olsen, K; Fenhann, J

2009-07-01

The annual CD4CDM Perspectives Series features a topic of pivotal importance to the global carbon market. The series seeks to communicate the diverse insights and visions of leading actors in the carbon market to better inform the decisions of professionals and policymakers in developing countries. The second theme of the series focuses on how the CDM can be reformed in a post-2012 climate regime, including new mechanism for sustainable development. Seventeen contributors from the private sector, Designated National Authorities, the Executive Board, research, and development agencies present their perspective on meeting challenges such as the unequal regional distribution of CDM projects, concerns about environmental integrity and technology transfer, complex governance procedures, and questions about the CDM's contribution to sustainable development. The new ideas and solutions to these challenges proposed by the authors in this edition of Perspectives have been solicited to help professionals and policy makers make the best decisions in the lead-up to COP 15 in Copenhagen and beyond. (au)

1. A Reformed CDM - including new mechanisms for sustainable development

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Holm Olsen, K.; Fenhann, J.

2009-07-01

The annual CD4CDM Perspectives Series features a topic of pivotal importance to the global carbon market. The series seeks to communicate the diverse insights and visions of leading actors in the carbon market to better inform the decisions of professionals and policymakers in developing countries. The second theme of the series focuses on how the CDM can be reformed in a post-2012 climate regime, including new mechanism for sustainable development. Seventeen contributors from the private sector, Designated National Authorities, the Executive Board, research, and development agencies present their perspective on meeting challenges such as the unequal regional distribution of CDM projects, concerns about environmental integrity and technology transfer, complex governance procedures, and questions about the CDM's contribution to sustainable development. The new ideas and solutions to these challenges proposed by the authors in this edition of Perspectives have been solicited to help professionals and policy makers make the best decisions in the lead-up to COP 15 in Copenhagen and beyond. (au)

2. Mechanism and bias considerations for design of a bi-directional pneumatic artificial muscle actuator

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Vocke III, Robert D; Wereley, Norman M; Kothera, Curt S

2014-01-01

Pneumatic artificial muscles (PAMs), or McKibben actuators, have received considerable attention for robotic manipulators and in aerospace applications due to their similarity to natural muscles. Like natural muscles, PAMs are a purely contractile actuator, so that, in order to produce bi-directional or rotational motion, they must be arranged in an agonist/antagonist pair, which inherently limits the deflection of the system due to the high parasitic stiffness of the antagonistic PAM. This study presents two methods for increasing the performance of an antagonistic PAM system by decreasing the passive parasitic torque, rather than increasing the active torque. The first involves selection of the kinematic mechanism geometry, and the second involves the introduction of bias into the system, both in terms of PAM contraction and passive (antagonistic) PAM pressure. It was found with the proper selection of design parameters, including mechanism geometry, PAM geometry, and bias conditions, that an ideal actuator configuration can be chosen that maximizes deflection for a given arbitrary loading. When comparing a baseline design to an improved design for a simplified case, a nearly 50% increase in maximum deflection was predicted simply by optimizing mechanism geometry and bias contraction. These results were experimentally verified with quasi-static testing that showed a 300% increase in actuator deflection over the baseline design. (paper)

3. Evaluation of glass transition temperature and dynamic mechanical properties of autopolymerized hard direct denture reline resins.

Science.gov (United States)

Takase, Kazuma; Watanabe, Ikuya; Kurogi, Tadafumi; Murata, Hiroshi

2015-01-01

This study assessed methods for evaluation of glass transition temperature (Tg) of autopolymerized hard direct denture reline resins using dynamic mechanical analysis and differential scanning calorimetry in addition to the dynamic mechanical properties. The Tg values of 3 different reline resins were determined using a dynamic viscoelastometer and differential scanning calorimeter, and rheological parameters were also determined. Although all materials exhibited higher storage modulus and loss modulus values, and a lower loss tangent at 37˚C with a higher frequency, the frequency dependence was not large. Tg values obtained by dynamic mechanical analysis were higher than those by differential scanning calorimetry and higher frequency led to higher Tg, while more stable Tg values were also obtained by that method. These results suggest that dynamic mechanical analysis is more advantageous for characterization of autopolymerized hard direct denture reline resins than differential scanning calorimetry.

4. Mechanical behaviour of cracked welded structures including mismatch effect

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Hornet, P.

2002-01-01

The most important parameters for predicting more precisely the fracture behaviour of welded structures have been identified. In particular, the plasticity development at the crack tip in the ligament appeared as a major parameter to evaluate the yield load of such a complex structure. In this way defect assessments procedures have been developed or modified to take into account the mismatch effect that is to say the mechanical properties of the different material constituting the weld joint. This paper is a synthesis of the work done in the past at Electricite de France on this topic in regards with other work done in France or around the World. The most important parameters which control the plasticity development at the crack tip and so mainly influence the fracture behaviour of welded structures are underlined: the mismatch ratio (weld to base metal yield strength ratio), the mismatch ratio (weld to base metal yield strength ratio), the ligament size and the weld width. Moreover, commonly used fracture toughness testing procedures developed in case of homogeneous specimens cannot be used in a straight forward manner and so has to be modified to take into account the mismatch effect. Number or defect assessment procedures taking into account the mismatch effect by considering the yield load of the welded structure are shortly described. Then, the 'Equivalent Material Method' developed at EDF which allows a good prediction of the applied J-Integral at the crack tip is more detailed. This procedure includes not only both weld and base metal yield strength, the structure geometry, the crack size and the weld dimension using the yield load of the real structures but also includes the effect of both weld and base metal strain hardening exponents. Some validations of this method are proposed. Finally, the ability of finite element modelling to predict the behaviour of such welded structures is demonstrated by modelling real experiments: crack located in the middle of

5. Direct Visualization of Mechanical Beats by Means of an Oscillating Smartphone

Science.gov (United States)

Giménez, Marcos H.; Salinas, Isabel; Monsoriu, Juan A.; Castro-Palacio, Juan C.

2017-10-01

The resonance phenomenon is widely known in physics courses. Qualitatively speaking, resonance takes place in a driven oscillating system whenever the frequency approaches the natural frequency, resulting in maximal oscillatory amplitude. Very closely related to resonance is the phenomenon of mechanical beating, which occurs when the driving and natural frequencies of the system are slightly different. The frequency of the beat is just the difference of the natural and driving frequencies. Beats are very familiar in acoustic systems. There are several works in this journal on visualizing the beats in acoustic systems. For instance, the microphone and the speaker of two mobile devices were used in previous work to analyze the acoustic beats produced by two signals of close frequencies. The formation of beats can also be visualized in mechanical systems, such as a mass-spring system or a double-driven string. Here, the mechanical beats in a smartphone-spring system are directly visualized in a simple way. The frequency of the beats is measured by means of the acceleration sensor of a smartphone, which hangs from a spring attached to a mechanical driver. This laboratory experiment is suitable for both high school and first-year university physics courses.

6. Design of Electrostatic Directional Dry Adhesives for Robotic Attachment Mechanisms

Data.gov (United States)

National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Attachment mechanisms that are effective over a wide range of material types and surface conditions can be used for a variety of applications including manipulator...

7. Direct comparison of coronary bare metal vs. drug-eluting stents: same platform, different mechanics?

Science.gov (United States)

Schmidt, Wolfram; Lanzer, Peter; Behrens, Peter; Brandt-Wunderlich, Christoph; Öner, Alper; Ince, Hüseyin; Schmitz, Klaus-Peter; Grabow, Niels

2018-01-08

Drug-eluting stents (DES) compared to bare metal stents (BMS) have shown superior clinical performance, but are considered less suitable in complex cases. Most studies do not distinguish between DES and BMS with respect to their mechanical performance. The objective was to obtain mechanical parameters for direct comparison of BMS and DES. In vitro bench tests evaluated crimped stent profiles, crossability in stenosis models, elastic recoil, bending stiffness (crimped and expanded), and scaffolding properties. The study included five pairs of BMS and DES each with the same stent platforms (all n = 5; PRO-Kinetic Energy, Orsiro: BIOTRONIK AG, Bülach, Switzerland; MULTI-LINK 8, XIENCE Xpedition: Abbott Vascular, Temecula, CA; REBEL Monorail, Promus PREMIER, Boston Scientific, Marlborough, MA; Integrity, Resolute Integrity, Medtronic, Minneapolis, MN; Kaname, Ultimaster: Terumo Corporation, Tokyo, Japan). Statistical analysis used pooled variance t tests for pairwise comparison of BMS with DES. Crimped profiles in BMS groups ranged from 0.97 ± 0.01 mm (PRO-Kinetic Energy) to 1.13 ± 0.01 mm (Kaname) and in DES groups from 1.02 ± 0.01 mm (Orsiro) to 1.13 ± 0.01 mm (Ultimaster). Crossability was best for low profile stent systems. Elastic recoil ranged from 4.07 ± 0.22% (Orsiro) to 5.87 ± 0.54% (REBEL Monorail) including both BMS and DES. The bending stiffness of crimped and expanded stents showed no systematic differences between BMS and DES neither did the scaffolding. Based on in vitro measurements BMS appear superior to DES in some aspects of mechanical performance, yet the differences are small and not class uniform. The data provide assistance in selecting the optimal system for treatment and assessment of new generations of bioresorbable scaffolds. not applicable.

8. Direct-current cathodic vacuum arc system with magnetic-field mechanism for plasma stabilization.

Science.gov (United States)

Zhang, H-S; Komvopoulos, K

2008-07-01

Filtered cathodic vacuum arc (FCVA) deposition is characterized by plasma beam directionality, plasma energy adjustment via substrate biasing, macroparticle filtering, and independent substrate temperature control. Between the two modes of FCVA deposition, namely, direct current (dc) and pulsed arc, the dc mode yields higher deposition rates than the pulsed mode. However, maintaining the dc arc discharge is challenging because of its inherent plasma instabilities. A system generating a special configuration of magnetic field that stabilizes the dc arc discharge during film deposition is presented. This magnetic field is also part of the out-of-plane magnetic filter used to focus the plasma beam and prevent macroparticle film contamination. The efficiency of the plasma-stabilizing magnetic-field mechanism is demonstrated by the deposition of amorphous carbon (a-C) films exhibiting significantly high hardness and tetrahedral carbon hybridization (sp3) contents higher than 70%. Such high-quality films cannot be produced by dc arc deposition without the plasma-stabilizing mechanism presented in this study.

9. Direct-current cathodic vacuum arc system with magnetic-field mechanism for plasma stabilization

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Zhang, H.-S.; Komvopoulos, K.

2008-01-01

Filtered cathodic vacuum arc (FCVA) deposition is characterized by plasma beam directionality, plasma energy adjustment via substrate biasing, macroparticle filtering, and independent substrate temperature control. Between the two modes of FCVA deposition, namely, direct current (dc) and pulsed arc, the dc mode yields higher deposition rates than the pulsed mode. However, maintaining the dc arc discharge is challenging because of its inherent plasma instabilities. A system generating a special configuration of magnetic field that stabilizes the dc arc discharge during film deposition is presented. This magnetic field is also part of the out-of-plane magnetic filter used to focus the plasma beam and prevent macroparticle film contamination. The efficiency of the plasma-stabilizing magnetic-field mechanism is demonstrated by the deposition of amorphous carbon (a-C) films exhibiting significantly high hardness and tetrahedral carbon hybridization (sp 3 ) contents higher than 70%. Such high-quality films cannot be produced by dc arc deposition without the plasma-stabilizing mechanism presented in this study

10. Novel model of direct and indirect cost-benefit analysis of mechanical embolectomy over IV tPA for large vessel occlusions: a real-world dollar analysis based on improvements in mRS.

Science.gov (United States)

Mangla, Sundeep; O'Connell, Keara; Kumari, Divya; Shahrzad, Maryam

2016-01-20

Ischemic strokes result in significant healthcare expenditures (direct costs) and loss of quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) (indirect costs). Interventional therapy has demonstrated improved functional outcomes in patients with large vessel occlusions (LVOs), which are likely to reduce the economic burden of strokes. To develop a novel real-world dollar model to assess the direct and indirect cost-benefit of mechanical embolectomy compared with medical treatment with intravenous tissue plasminogen activator (IV tPA) based on shifts in modified Rankin scores (mRS). A cost model was developed including multiple parameters to account for both direct and indirect stroke costs. These were adjusted based upon functional outcome (mRS). The model compared IV tPA with mechanical embolectomy to assess the costs and benefits of both therapies. Direct stroke-related costs included hospitalization, inpatient and outpatient rehabilitation, home care, skilled nursing facilities, and long-term care facility costs. Indirect costs included years of life expectancy lost and lost QALYs. Values for the model cost parameters were derived from numerous resources and functional outcomes were derived from the MR CLEAN study as a reflective sample of LVOs. Direct and indirect costs and benefits for the two treatments were assessed using Microsoft Excel 2013. This cost-benefit model found a cost-benefit of mechanical embolectomy over IV tPA of \$163 624.27 per patient and the cost benefit for 50 000 patients on an annual basis is \$8 181 213 653.77. If applied widely within the USA, mechanical embolectomy will significantly reduce the direct and indirect financial burden of stroke (\$8 billion/50 000 patients). Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

11. Thermo-mechanical characterization of epoxy nanocomposites with different carbon nanotube distributions obtained by solvent aided and direct mixing.

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

M. Zarrelli

2012-07-01

Full Text Available Two different routes, namely solvent aided dispersion and direct mixing, were employed to disperse Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes (MWNTs into a mono-component epoxy system used as matrix for advanced composites. In the first route, MWCNTs were diluted in three different solvents (acetone, sodium dodecyl sulfate and ethanol and then mixed with the matrix by tip sonication. In the second case, carbonaceous nanoparticles were added directly into the hosting system and dispersion was carried out by using three different techniques (mechanical stirring, magnetic agitation and tip sonication. The effects of the solvents and agitation energy were investigated by optical microscopy at micron level, in order assess the more efficient dispersion procedure for the considered epoxy system. It was demonstrated that parameters associated with direct mixing rather than solvent solubility govern MWCNT dispersion. Optical analysis of the nanocomposite morphology evidenced a very low density of MWCNTs micron sized aggregates in the case of direct mixed tip sonicated samples if compared to those obtained by solution aided dispersion. In addition, nanocomposites obtained by sonication showed the lowest density of MWCNTs micron sized aggregates, also when compared with mechanically and magnetically stirred system. Dynamic Mechanical Analysis (DMA and Thermo-Mechanical Analysis (TMA results confirm the final result that among the considered direct mixing techniques, the direct tip sonication represents the most efficient route for MWCNT dispersion. Moreover, the mixing temperature of the hosting matrix system represents a fundamental feature in enhancing the MWCNT de-bundling and dispersion. Small X-ray Scattering analysis revealed that a nanosized structure of nanotubes is formed in the case of the tip sonicated samples that is heuristically correlated with both the maximum enhancement of mechanical modulus and the maximum reduction of thermal expansion coefficients.

12. Fluid mechanics of directional solidification at reduced gravity

Science.gov (United States)

Chen, C. F.

1992-01-01

The primary objective of the proposed research is to provide additional groundbased support for the flight experiment 'Casting and Solidification Technology' (CAST). This experiment is to be performed in the International Microgravity Laboratory-1 (IML-1) scheduled to be flown on a space shuttle mission scheduled for 1992. In particular, we will provide data on the convective motion and freckle formation during directional solidification of NH4Cl from its aqueous solution at simulated parameter ranges equivalent to reducing the gravity from the sea-level value down to 0.1 g or lower. The secondary objectives of the proposed research are to examine the stability phenomena associated with the onset of freckles and the mechanisms for their subsequent growth and decline (to eventual demise of some) by state-of-the-art imaging techniques and to formulate mathematical models for the prediction of the observed phenomena.

13. Cognitive Mechanisms Underlying Directional and Non-directional Spatial-Numerical Associations across the Lifespan

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Manuel Ninaus

2017-08-01

Full Text Available There is accumulating evidence suggesting an association of numbers with physical space. However, the origin of such spatial-numerical associations (SNAs is still debated. In the present study we investigated the development of two SNAs in a cross-sectional study involving children, young and middle-aged adults as well as the elderly: (1 the SNARC (spatial-numerical association of response codes effect, reflecting a directional SNA; and (2 the numerical bisection bias in a line bisection task with numerical flankers. Results revealed a consistent SNARC effect in all age groups that continuously increased with age. In contrast, a numerical bisection bias was only observed for children and elderly participants, implying an U-shaped distribution of this bias across age groups. Additionally, individual SNARC effects and numerical bisection biases did not correlate significantly. We argue that the SNARC effect seems to be influenced by longer-lasting experiences of cultural constraints such as reading and writing direction and may thus reflect embodied representations. Contrarily, the numerical bisection bias may originate from insufficient inhibition of the semantic influence of irrelevant numerical flankers, which should be more pronounced in children and elderly people due to development and decline of cognitive control, respectively. As there is an ongoing debate on the origins of SNAs in general and the SNARC effect in particular, the present results are discussed in light of these differing accounts in an integrative approach. However, taken together, the present pattern of results suggests that different cognitive mechanisms underlie the SNARC effect and the numerical bisection bias.

14. Modelling the role of intrinsic electric fields in microtubules as an additional control mechanism of bi-directional intracellular transport.

Science.gov (United States)

Sataric, M V; Budinski-Petkovic, L; Loncarevic, I; Tuszynski, J A

2008-01-01

Active transport is essential for cellular function, while impaired transport has been linked to diseases such as neuronal degeneration. Much long distance transport in cells uses opposite polarity molecular motors of the kinesin and dynein families to move cargos along microtubules. It is clear that many types of cargo are moved by both sets of motors, and frequently in a reverse direction. The general question of how the direction of transport is regulated is still open. The mechanism of the cell's differential control of diverse cargos within the same cytoplasmic background is still unclear as is the answer to the question how endosomes and mitochondria move to different locations within the same cell. To answer these questions we postulate the existence of a local signaling mechanism used by the cell to specifically control different cargos. In particular, we propose an additional physical mechanism that works through the use of constant and alternating intrinsic (endogenous) electric fields as a means of controlling the speed and direction of microtubule-based transport. A specific model is proposed and analyzed in this paper. The model involves the rotational degrees of freedom of the C-termini of tubulin, their interactions and the coupling between elastic and dielectric degrees of freedom. Viscosity of the solution is also included and the resultant equation of motion is found as a nonlinear elliptic equation with dissipation. A particular analytical solution of this equation is obtained in the form of a kink whose properties are analyzed. It is concluded that this solution can be modulated by the presence of electric fields and hence may correspond to the observed behavior of motor protein transport along microtubules.

15. Direct synthesis of BiCuChO-type oxychalcogenides by mechanical alloying

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Pele, Vincent; Barreteau, Celine [Institut de Chimie Moléculaire et des Matériaux d’Orsay, Univ. Paris-Sud, UMR 8182, Orsay F-91405 (France); CNRS, Orsay F-91405 (France); Berardan, David, E-mail: david.berardan@u-psud.fr [Institut de Chimie Moléculaire et des Matériaux d’Orsay, Univ. Paris-Sud, UMR 8182, Orsay F-91405 (France); CNRS, Orsay F-91405 (France); Zhao, Lidong; Dragoe, Nita [Institut de Chimie Moléculaire et des Matériaux d’Orsay, Univ. Paris-Sud, UMR 8182, Orsay F-91405 (France); CNRS, Orsay F-91405 (France)

2013-07-15

We report on the direct synthesis of BiCuChO based materials by mechanical alloying (Ch=Se, Te). We show that contrary to the synthesis paths used in the previous reports dealing with this family of materials, which use costly annealings in closed silica tubes under controlled atmosphere, this new synthesis route enables the synthesis of pure phase materials at room temperature under air, with reasonable milling time. This synthesis procedure is easily scalable for large scale applications. - Highlights: • Phase pure BiCuSeO doped and undoped prepared by mechanical alloying. • Synthesis performed under air at room temperature. • Electrical properties similar to that of samples synthesized by a classical path.

16. Microstructure and mechanical property of dual-directional-extruded Mg alloy AZ31

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Lu Liwei; Liu Tianmo; Jiang Shan; Pan Fushen; Liu Qing; Wang Zhongchang

2010-01-01

We report microstructure evolution and mechanical property of Mg alloy AZ31 processed by a new deformation technique, dual-directional extrusion (DDE). Using optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and electron back scatter diffraction technique, we attribute the significant refinement of original coarse grains in the DDE-processed alloy to the occurrence of dynamic recrystallization. Moreover, we find that low temperature is crucial for yielding fine grain, which consequently results in high micro-hardness and yield stress, large fracture strain, and enhanced elongation. The improved mechanical properties are comparable or even superior to those of the alloy subjected to other deformation techniques, rendering the DDE a promising way for further tailoring properties of Mg-based alloys.

17. Patient-directed music therapy reduces anxiety and sedation exposure in mechanically-ventilated patients: a research critique.

Science.gov (United States)

Gullick, Janice G; Kwan, Xiu Xian

2015-05-01

This research appraisal, guided by the CASP Randomised Controlled Trial Checklist, critiques a randomised, controlled trial of patient-directed music therapy compared to either noise-cancelling headphones or usual care. This study recruited 373 alert, mechanically-ventilated patients across five intensive care units in the United States. The Music Assessment Tool, administered by a music therapist, facilitated music selection by participants in the intervention group. Anxiety was measured using the VAS-A scale. Sedation exposure was measured by both sedation frequency and by sedation intensity using a daily sedation intensity score. Context for the data was supported by an environmental scan form recording unit activity and by written comments from nurses about the patient's responses to the protocol. Patient-directed music therapy allowed a significant reduction in sedation frequency compared to noise-cancelling headphones and usual care participants. Patient-directed music therapy led to significantly lower anxiety and sedation intensity compared to usual care, but not compared to noise-cancelling headphones. This is a robust study with clear aims and a detailed description of research methods and follow-up. While no participants were lost to follow-up, not all were included in the analysis: 37% did not have the minimum of two anxiety assessments for comparison and 23% were not included in sedation analysis. While some participants utilised the intervention or active control for many hours-per-day, half the music therapy participants listened for 12min or less per day and half of the noise-cancelling headphone participants did not appear to use them. While the results suggest that patient-directed music therapy and noise-cancelling headphones may be useful and cost-effective interventions that lead to an overall improvement in anxiety and sedation exposure, these may appeal to a subset of ICU patients. The self-directed use of music therapy and noise

18. The Synthesis of Nanostructured WC-Based Hardmetals Using Mechanical Alloying and Their Direct Consolidation

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

N. Al-Aqeeli

2014-01-01

Full Text Available Tungsten carbide- (WC- based hardmetals or cemented carbides represent an important class of materials used in a wide range of industrial applications which primarily include cutting/drilling tools and wear resistant components. The introduction and processing of nanostructured WC-based cemented carbides and their subsequent consolidation to produce dense components have been the subject of several investigations. One of the attractive means of producing this class of materials is by mechanical alloying technique. However, one of the challenging issues in obtaining the right end-product is the possible loss of the nanocrystallite sizes due to the undesirable grain growth during powder sintering step. Many research groups have engaged in multiple projects aiming at exploring the right path of consolidating the nanostructured WC-based powders without substantially loosing the attained nanostructure. The present paper highlights some key issues related to powder synthesis and sintering of WC-based nanostructured materials using mechanical alloying. The path of directly consolidating the powders using nonconventional consolidation techniques will be addressed and some light will be shed on the advantageous use of such techniques. Cobalt-bonded hardmetals will be principally covered in this work along with an additional exposure of the use of other binders in the WC-based hardmetals.

19. Mechanical analysis of non-uniform bi-directional functionally graded intelligent micro-beams using modified couple stress theory

Science.gov (United States)

Bakhshi Khaniki, Hossein; Rajasekaran, Sundaramoorthy

2018-05-01

This study develops a comprehensive investigation on mechanical behavior of non-uniform bi-directional functionally graded beam sensors in the framework of modified couple stress theory. Material variation is modelled through both length and thickness directions using power-law, sigmoid and exponential functions. Moreover, beam is assumed with linear, exponential and parabolic cross-section variation through the length using power-law and sigmoid varying functions. Using these assumptions, a general model for microbeams is presented and formulated by employing Hamilton’s principle. Governing equations are solved using a mixed finite element method with Lagrangian interpolation technique, Gaussian quadrature method and Wilson’s Lagrangian multiplier method. It is shown that by using bi-directional functionally graded materials in nonuniform microbeams, mechanical behavior of such structures could be affected noticeably and scale parameter has a significant effect in changing the rigidity of nonuniform bi-directional functionally graded beams.

20. Comparison of Rice Direct Seeding Methods (Mechanical and Manual with Transplanting Method

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

A Eyvani

2014-04-01

Full Text Available The main method of rice planting in Iran is transplanting. Due to poor mechanization of rice production, this method is laborious and costly. The other method is direct seeding in wet lands which is performed in the one third of rice cultivation area of the world. The most important problem in this method is high labor requirement of weed control. In order to compare the different rice planting methods (direct drilling, transplanting, and seed broadcasting a manually operated rice direct seeder (drum seeder was designed and fabricated. The research was conducted using a randomized complete block design with three treatments and three replications. Required draft force, field efficiency, effective field capacity, yield, and yield components were measured and the treatments were compared economically. Results showed that there were significant differences among the treatments from the view point of rice yield at the confidence level of 95% i.e. the transplanting method had the maximum yield. A higher rice yield was obtained from the direct seeder compared to the manual broadcasting method but, the difference between these two methods for crop yield was not significant even at the confidence level of the 95%. The coefficient of variation of seed distribution with direct seeding was more than 20%. The labor and time requirements per hectare reduced to 7 and 20 times, respectively when comparing the newly designed direct seeder with the transplanting method. The direct seeding method had the highest benefit to cost ratio in spite of its lower yield. Therefore, this method could be recommended in the rice growing regions.

1. Optimum ratio of main mechanized operations for direct-flow fertilizers introduction

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

V. P. Uvarov

2016-01-01

Full Text Available Use of transport and technological means is carried out according to the direct-flow scheme and includes stage-by-stage performance as the main standard-setting operations (fertilizers transportation, movement and their distribution across a field, and auxiliary (return from a field and loading of fertilizers. The method of comparison of main types of operations at fertilizers application is given. An estimation criterion is a ratio of cargo movements on a road and across a field, proportionality coefficient between movement of freight and a fertilizers distribution area across the field. These indicators depend on transportation distances and doses of fertilizers application, and also on technology factor that is freight moving frequency across the field. The last characteristic is taken as the optimized parameter. An extremum of this indicator was searched due to a classical method. Optimum values of estimated indicators with the accounting of a variation of a ratio of load capacity and operating width of technical means are received. Concrete combinations of transportation distances and doses of fertilizers application are specified. The authors defined conditions of effective use of tractor and perspective automobile transport and technological means. They recommended to use the automeans allowing to change operating width. Realization of the stated methodological approach will make it possible to select an optimum ratio of the mechanized operations at direct-flow fertilizers application, to exclude additional cargo movements across the field, to cut fuel consumption, to increase productivity. Productivity of transport and technological means increases by 2.0; 1.3 and 1.15 times respectively to length of furrow 3; 9 and 27 km at fertilizers application by a dose of 0.06 kg per sq.m.

2. Pipe elbow stiffness coefficients including shear and bend flexibility factors for use in direct stiffness codes

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Perry, R.F.

1977-01-01

Historically, developments of computer codes used for piping analysis were based upon the flexibility method of structural analysis. Because of the specialized techniques employed in this method, the codes handled systems composed of only piping elements. Over the past ten years, the direct stiffness method has gained great popularity because of its systematic solution procedure regardless of the type of structural elements composing the system. A great advantage is realized with a direct stiffness code that combines piping elements along with other structural elements such as beams, plates, and shells, in a single model. One common problem, however, has been the lack of an accurate pipe elbow element that would adequately represent the effects of transverse shear and bend flexibility factors. The purpose of the present paper is to present a systematic derivation of the required 12x12 stiffness matrix and load vectors for a three dimensional pipe elbow element which includes the effects of transverse shear and pipe bend flexibility according to the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section III. The results are presented analytically and as FORTRAN subroutines to be directly incorporated into existing direct stiffness codes. (Auth.)

3. Kinematics of Planetary Roller Screw Mechanism considering Helical Directions of Screw and Roller Threads

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Shangjun Ma

2015-01-01

4. Direct visualization of glutamate transporter elevator mechanism by high-speed AFM.

Science.gov (United States)

Ruan, Yi; Miyagi, Atsushi; Wang, Xiaoyu; Chami, Mohamed; Boudker, Olga; Scheuring, Simon

2017-02-14

Glutamate transporters are essential for recovery of the neurotransmitter glutamate from the synaptic cleft. Crystal structures in the outward- and inward-facing conformations of a glutamate transporter homolog from archaebacterium Pyrococcus horikoshii , sodium/aspartate symporter Glt Ph , suggested the molecular basis of the transporter cycle. However, dynamic studies of the transport mechanism have been sparse and indirect. Here we present high-speed atomic force microscopy (HS-AFM) observations of membrane-reconstituted Glt Ph at work. HS-AFM movies provide unprecedented real-space and real-time visualization of the transport dynamics. Our results show transport mediated by large amplitude 1.85-nm "elevator" movements of the transport domains consistent with previous crystallographic and spectroscopic studies. Elevator dynamics occur in the absence and presence of sodium ions and aspartate, but stall in sodium alone, providing a direct visualization of the ion and substrate symport mechanism. We show unambiguously that individual protomers within the trimeric transporter function fully independently.

5. Synchrotron radiography of direct-shear in semi-solid alloys

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Gourlay, C M; Nagira, T; Nakatsuka, N; Yasuda, H; Dahle, A K; Uesugi, K

2012-01-01

Understanding phenomena occurring at the scale of the crystals during the deformation of semi-solid alloys is important for the development of physically-based rheological models. A range of deformation mechanisms have been proposed including agglomeration and disagglomeration, viscoplastic deformation of the solid skeleton, and granular phenomena such as jamming and dilatancy. This paper overviews in-situ experiments that directly image crystal-scale deformation mechanisms in equiaxed Al alloys at solid fractions shortly after the crystals have impinged to form a loose crystal network. Direct evidence is presented for granular deformation mechanisms including shear-induced dilation in both equiaxed-dendritic and globular microstructures. Modelling approaches suitable for capturing this behaviour are then discussed.

6. Consciousness and quantum mechanics life in parallel worlds

CERN Document Server

Mensky, Michael B

2010-01-01

The phenomenon of consciousness includes mysterious aspects providing a basis for many spiritual doctrines (including religions) and psychological practices. These directions of human knowledge are usually considered to contradict the laws of science. However, quantum mechanics - in a sense, the mysterious direction of science - allows us to include the phenomena of consciousness and life as well as the relevant phenomena in the sphere of science. Wolfgang Pauli, one of the pioneers of quantum mechanics, together with great psychologist Carl Gustav Jung, guessed about the relation between quan

7. An alternative method for the measurement of the mechanical impulse of a vertically directed blast

CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

Turner, GR

2008-01-01

Full Text Available An alternative method for the measurement of the total mechanical impulse of a vertically directed blast due to an explosive charge is presented. The method differs from apparatus that employ a vertically displaced mass (similar in principle...

8. Double optomechanical transparency with direct mechanical interaction

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Li Ling-Chao; Shi Rao; Xu Jun; Hu Xiang-Ming

2015-01-01

We present a mechanism for double transparency in an optomechanical system. This mechanism is based on the coupling of a moving cavity mirror to a second mechanical oscillator. Due to the purely mechanical coupling and the radiation pressure, three pathways are established for excitations of the probe photons into the cavity photons. Destructive interference occurs at two different frequencies, leading to double transparency to the probe field. It is the coupling strength between the mechanical oscillators that determines the locations of the transparency windows. Moreover, the normal splitting appears for the generated Stokes field and the four-wave mixing process is inhibited on resonance. (paper)

9. Simulation of Weld Mechanical Behavior to Include Welding-Induced Residual Stress and Distortion: Coupling of SYSWELD and Abaqus Codes

Science.gov (United States)

2015-11-01

Memorandum Simulation of Weld Mechanical Behavior to Include Welding-Induced Residual Stress and Distortion: Coupling of SYSWELD and Abaqus Codes...Weld Mechanical Behavior to Include Welding-Induced Residual Stress and Distortion: Coupling of SYSWELD and Abaqus Codes by Charles R. Fisher...Welding- Induced Residual Stress and Distortion: Coupling of SYSWELD and Abaqus Codes 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER N/A 5b. GRANT NUMBER N/A 5c

10. Non-mechanical optical path switching and its application to dual beam spectroscopy including gas filter correlation radiometry

Science.gov (United States)

Sachse, Glen W. (Inventor); Wang, Liang-Guo (Inventor)

1992-01-01

A non-mechanical optical switch is developed for alternately switching a monochromatic or quasi-monochromatic light beam along two optical paths. A polarizer polarizes light into a single, e.g., vertical component which is then rapidly modulated into vertical and horizontal components by a polarization modulator. A polarization beam splitter then reflects one of these components along one path and transmits the other along the second path. In the specific application of gas filter correlation radiometry, one path is directed through a vacuum cell and one path is directed through a gas correlation cell containing a desired gas. Reflecting mirrors cause these two paths to intersect at a second polarization beam splitter which reflects one component and transmits the other to recombine them into a polarization modulated beam which can be detected by an appropriate single sensor.

11. Mechanical characteristics of a tool steel layer deposited by using direct energy deposition

Science.gov (United States)

Baek, Gyeong Yun; Shin, Gwang Yong; Lee, Eun Mi; Shim, Do Sik; Lee, Ki Yong; Yoon, Hi-Seak; Kim, Myoung Ho

2017-07-01

This study focuses on the mechanical characteristics of layered tool steel deposited using direct energy deposition (DED) technology. In the DED technique, a laser beam bonds injected metal powder and a thin layer of substrate via melting. In this study, AISI D2 substrate was hardfaced with AISI H13 and M2 metal powders for mechanical testing. The mechanical and metallurgical characteristics of each specimen were investigated via microstructure observation and hardness, wear, and impact tests. The obtained characteristics were compared with those of heat-treated tool steel. The microstructures of the H13- and M2-deposited specimens show fine cellular-dendrite solidification structures due to melting and subsequent rapid cooling. Moreover, the cellular grains of the deposited M2 layer were smaller than those of the H13 structure. The hardness and wear resistance were most improved in the M2-deposited specimen, yet the H13-deposited specimen had higher fracture toughness than the M2-deposited specimen and heat-treated D2.

12. A dendrite-autonomous mechanism for direction selectivity in retinal starburst amacrine cells.

Science.gov (United States)

Hausselt, Susanne E; Euler, Thomas; Detwiler, Peter B; Denk, Winfried

2007-07-01

Detection of image motion direction begins in the retina, with starburst amacrine cells (SACs) playing a major role. SACs generate larger dendritic Ca(2+) signals when motion is from their somata towards their dendritic tips than for motion in the opposite direction. To study the mechanisms underlying the computation of direction selectivity (DS) in SAC dendrites, electrical responses to expanding and contracting circular wave visual stimuli were measured via somatic whole-cell recordings and quantified using Fourier analysis. Fundamental and, especially, harmonic frequency components were larger for expanding stimuli. This DS persists in the presence of GABA and glycine receptor antagonists, suggesting that inhibitory network interactions are not essential. The presence of harmonics indicates nonlinearity, which, as the relationship between harmonic amplitudes and holding potential indicates, is likely due to the activation of voltage-gated channels. [Ca(2+)] changes in SAC dendrites evoked by voltage steps and monitored by two-photon microscopy suggest that the distal dendrite is tonically depolarized relative to the soma, due in part to resting currents mediated by tonic glutamatergic synaptic input, and that high-voltage-activated Ca(2+) channels are active at rest. Supported by compartmental modeling, we conclude that dendritic DS in SACs can be computed by the dendrites themselves, relying on voltage-gated channels and a dendritic voltage gradient, which provides the spatial asymmetry necessary for direction discrimination.

13. A dendrite-autonomous mechanism for direction selectivity in retinal starburst amacrine cells.

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Susanne E Hausselt

2007-07-01

Full Text Available Detection of image motion direction begins in the retina, with starburst amacrine cells (SACs playing a major role. SACs generate larger dendritic Ca(2+ signals when motion is from their somata towards their dendritic tips than for motion in the opposite direction. To study the mechanisms underlying the computation of direction selectivity (DS in SAC dendrites, electrical responses to expanding and contracting circular wave visual stimuli were measured via somatic whole-cell recordings and quantified using Fourier analysis. Fundamental and, especially, harmonic frequency components were larger for expanding stimuli. This DS persists in the presence of GABA and glycine receptor antagonists, suggesting that inhibitory network interactions are not essential. The presence of harmonics indicates nonlinearity, which, as the relationship between harmonic amplitudes and holding potential indicates, is likely due to the activation of voltage-gated channels. [Ca(2+] changes in SAC dendrites evoked by voltage steps and monitored by two-photon microscopy suggest that the distal dendrite is tonically depolarized relative to the soma, due in part to resting currents mediated by tonic glutamatergic synaptic input, and that high-voltage-activated Ca(2+ channels are active at rest. Supported by compartmental modeling, we conclude that dendritic DS in SACs can be computed by the dendrites themselves, relying on voltage-gated channels and a dendritic voltage gradient, which provides the spatial asymmetry necessary for direction discrimination.

14. A STUDY OF CHINESE YUAN (RMB APPRECIATION ACCOMPANYING WITH OTHERS FACTORS INCLUDING FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENT (FDI AND THEIR EFFECT ON CHINA ECONOMY

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Ping-fu (Brian LAI

2014-07-01

Full Text Available The Chinese Yuan (RMB has been on the trend of appreciation over the last decade, and such a trend will likely be continuing for some years over the next decade. According to some scholars in their published literatures, the appreciation of RMB, the influx of Foreign Direct Investment (FDI has been ongoing accompanying the sustained growing economy in mainland China over the past decade. It is believed that the China economy has an implication from some significant factors including appreciation of RMB, interest rate of RMB, inflation and continuous increase of FDI for the next several years. The present study aims to provide an emphasis on investigation into effect on China economy as a result of appreciation of RMB and FDI together with some other factors, and to provide an outlook on the economy in China for the coming decades. First, a review was carried on relevant background information and development history of RMB and FDI. There are many reasons and factors behind leading to the sustained growth in the economy in China in the last decade and such effects were in coverage in the literature review. An overview of the development of RMB exchange mechanism, and other variables including (1 RMB exchange rate, (2 China interest rate, (3 Foreign Direct Investment (FDI, (4 Trade Balance of China, (5 Annual Inflation rate in China, (6 Energy Consumption in China, (7 Foreign Exchange Reserve in China, (8 China wages, (9 China External Debt and (10 China Consumer Price Index, which may have effect on the growth of the economy in China is covered in the literature review conducted in Chapter 2.

15. Relationship between sleep duration and childhood obesity: Systematic review including the potential underlying mechanisms.

Science.gov (United States)

Felső, R; Lohner, S; Hollódy, K; Erhardt, É; Molnár, D

2017-09-01

The prevalence of obesity is continually increasing worldwide. Determining risk factors for obesity may facilitate effective preventive programs. The present review focuses on sleep duration as a potential risk factor for childhood obesity. The aim is to summarize the evidence on the association of sleep duration and obesity and to discuss the underlying potential physiological and/or pathophysiological mechanisms. The Ovid MEDLINE, Scopus and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) databases were searched for papers using text words with appropriate truncation and relevant indexing terms. All studies objectively measuring sleep duration and investigating the association between sleep duration and obesity or factors (lifestyle and hormonal) possibly associated with obesity were included, without making restrictions based on study design or language. Data from eligible studies were extracted in tabular form and summarized narratively. After removing duplicates, 3540 articles were obtained. Finally, 33 studies (including 3 randomized controlled trials and 30 observational studies) were included in the review. Sleep duration seems to influence weight gain in children, however, the underlying explanatory mechanisms are still uncertain. In our review only the link between short sleep duration and the development of insulin resistance, sedentarism and unhealthy dietary patterns could be verified, while the role of other mediators, such as physical activity, screen time, change in ghrelin and leptin levels, remained uncertain. There are numerous evidence gaps. To answer the remaining questions, there is a need for studies meeting high methodological standards and including a large number of children. Copyright © 2017 The Italian Society of Diabetology, the Italian Society for the Study of Atherosclerosis, the Italian Society of Human Nutrition, and the Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, Federico II University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All

16. Fluid-structure interaction including volumetric coupling with homogenised subdomains for modeling respiratory mechanics.

Science.gov (United States)

Yoshihara, Lena; Roth, Christian J; Wall, Wolfgang A

2017-04-01

In this article, a novel approach is presented for combining standard fluid-structure interaction with additional volumetric constraints to model fluid flow into and from homogenised solid domains. The proposed algorithm is particularly interesting for investigations in the field of respiratory mechanics as it enables the mutual coupling of airflow in the conducting part and local tissue deformation in the respiratory part of the lung by means of a volume constraint. In combination with a classical monolithic fluid-structure interaction approach, a comprehensive model of the human lung can be established that will be useful to gain new insights into respiratory mechanics in health and disease. To illustrate the validity and versatility of the novel approach, three numerical examples including a patient-specific lung model are presented. The proposed algorithm proves its capability of computing clinically relevant airflow distribution and tissue strain data at a level of detail that is not yet achievable, neither with current imaging techniques nor with existing computational models. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

17. Comorbidity between Type 2 Diabetes and Depression in the Adult Population: Directions of the Association and Its Possible Pathophysiological Mechanisms

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Line Iden Berge

2015-01-01

Full Text Available Type 2 diabetes and depression are regarded as comorbid conditions, and three possible directions of the association between the diseases can underlie this observation of comorbidity. First, common etiology can increase a person’s risk of both diseases; second, persons with type 2 diabetes have increased prevalence or risk of future development of depression; or third, persons with depression have increased prevalence or risk of development of type 2 diabetes. This review gives an overview over possible pathophysiological mechanisms for each of the directions of the association between type 2 diabetes and depression and further discusses epigenetics as an additional, direction independent approach. We argue that unspecific pathophysiological mechanisms involved in the stress response might, at least to some extent, explain each of the directions of the association between type 2 diabetes and depression, while changes in brain structure and function among persons with diabetes and possible increased risk of development of type 2 diabetes after use of antidepressant agents could represent more disease specific mechanisms underlying the comorbidity.

18. Effectiveness of hands-on tutoring and guided self-directed learning versus self-directed learning alone to educate critical care fellows on mechanical ventilation - a pilot project.

Science.gov (United States)

Ramar, Kannan; De Moraes, Alice Gallo; Selim, Bernardo; Holets, Steven; Oeckler, Richard

2016-01-01

Physicians require extensive training to achieve proficiency in mechanical ventilator (MV) management of the critically ill patients. Guided self-directed learning (GSDL) is usually the method used to learn. However, it is unclear if this is the most proficient approach to teaching mechanical ventilation to critical care fellows. We, therefore, investigated whether critical care fellows achieve higher scores on standardized testing and report higher satisfaction after participating in a hands-on tutorial combined with GSDL compared to self-directed learning alone. First-year Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine (PCCM) fellows ( n =6) and Critical Care Internal Medicine (CCIM) ( n =8) fellows participated. Satisfaction was assessed using the Likert scale. MV knowledge assessment was performed by administering a standardized 25-question multiple choice pre- and posttest. For 2 weeks the CCIM fellows were exposed to GSDL, while the PCCM fellows received hands-on tutoring combined with GSDL. Ninety-three percentage (6 PCCM and 7 CCIM fellows, total of 13 fellows) completed all evaluations and were included in the final analysis. CCIM and PCCM fellows scored similarly in the pretest (64% vs. 52%, p =0.13). Following interventions, the posttest scores increased in both groups. However, no significant difference was observed based on the interventions (74% vs. 77%, p =0.39). The absolute improvement with the hands-on-tutoring and GSDL group was higher than GSDL alone (25% vs. 10%, p =0.07). Improved satisfaction scores were noted with hands-on tutoring. Hands-on tutoring combined with GSDL and GSDL alone were both associated with an improvement in posttest scores. Absolute improvement in test and satisfaction scores both trended higher in the hands-on tutorial group combined with GSDL group.

19. Morphogenetic mechanisms of coelom formation in the direct-developing sea urchin Heliocidaris erythrogramma.

Science.gov (United States)

Smith, Margaret S; Collins, Steve; Raff, Rudolf A

2009-01-01

Indirect development via a feeding pluteus larva represents the ancestral mode of sea urchin development. However, some sea urchin species exhibit a derived form of development, called direct development, in which features of the feeding larva are replaced by accelerated development of the adult. A major difference between these two developmental modes is the timing of the formation of the left coelom and initiation of adult development. These processes occur much earlier in developmental and absolute time in direct developers and may be underlain by changes in morphogenetic processes. In this study, we explore whether differences in the cellular mechanisms responsible for the development of the left coelom and adult structures are associated with the change in the timing of their formation in the direct-developing sea urchin Heliocidaris erythrogramma. We present evidence that left coelom formation in H. erythrogramma, which differs in major aspects of coelom formation in indirect developers, is not a result of cell division. Further, we demonstrate that subsequent development of adult structures requires cell division.

20. Why direct effects of predation complicate the social brain hypothesis: And how incorporation of explicit proximate behavioral mechanisms might help.

Science.gov (United States)

van der Bijl, Wouter; Kolm, Niclas

2016-06-01

A growing number of studies have found that large brains may help animals survive by avoiding predation. These studies provide an alternative explanation for existing correlative evidence for one of the dominant hypotheses regarding the evolution of brain size in animals, the social brain hypothesis (SBH). The SBH proposes that social complexity is a major evolutionary driver of large brains. However, if predation both directly selects for large brains and higher levels of sociality, correlations between sociality and brain size may be spurious. We argue that tests of the SBH should take direct effects of predation into account, either by explicitly including them in comparative analyses or by pin-pointing the brain-behavior-fitness pathway through which the SBH operates. Existing data and theory on social behavior can then be used to identify precise candidate mechanisms and formulate new testable predictions. © 2016 WILEY Periodicals, Inc.

1. A direct comparison of the defense mechanisms of nondepressed people and depressed psychiatric inpatients.

Science.gov (United States)

Margo, G M; Greenberg, R P; Fisher, S; Dewan, M

1993-01-01

This report presents a direct comparison of defensive styles (as measured by the Defense Mechanisms Inventory [DMI]) in a sample of depressed psychiatric inpatients and samples of nondepressed male and female normative groups. Consistent with the "depressive realism" literature, nondepressed men and women were more likely than their depressed counterparts to bias their perceptions in an overly cheerful, optimistic direction. Counternormative sex differences were also found. Depressed men were more likely to use internalizing defenses and depressed women were more likely to use externalizing defenses than their respective nondepressed comparison groups. Overall, as has been speculated, there was a relationship within depressed subjects between depression severity and the amount of negatively biased self-perception.

2. The ionization mechanisms in direct and dopant-assisted atmospheric pressure photoionization and atmospheric pressure laser ionization.

Science.gov (United States)

Kauppila, Tiina J; Kersten, Hendrik; Benter, Thorsten

2014-11-01

A novel, gas-tight API interface for gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was used to study the ionization mechanism in direct and dopant-assisted atmospheric pressure photoionization (APPI) and atmospheric pressure laser ionization (APLI). Eight analytes (ethylbenzene, bromobenzene, naphthalene, anthracene, benzaldehyde, pyridine, quinolone, and acridine) with varying ionization energies (IEs) and proton affinities (PAs), and four common APPI dopants (toluene, acetone, anisole, and chlorobenzene) were chosen. All the studied compounds were ionized by direct APPI, forming mainly molecular ions. Addition of dopants suppressed the signal of the analytes with IEs above the IE of the dopant. For compounds with suitable IEs or Pas, the dopants increased the ionization efficiency as the analytes could be ionized through dopant-mediated gas-phase reactions, such as charge exchange, proton transfer, and other rather unexpected reactions, such as formation of [M + 77](+) in the presence of chlorobenzene. Experiments with deuterated toluene as the dopant verified that in case of proton transfer, the proton originated from the dopant instead of proton-bound solvent clusters, as in conventional open or non-tight APPI sources. In direct APLI using a 266 nm laser, a narrower range of compounds was ionized than in direct APPI, because of exceedingly high IEs or unfavorable two-photon absorption cross-sections. Introduction of dopants in the APLI system changed the ionization mechanism to similar dopant-mediated gas-phase reactions with the dopant as in APPI, which produced mainly ions of the same form as in APPI, and ionized a wider range of analytes than direct APLI.

3. Determinations of directions of the mean stress field in Sichuan-Yunnan region from a number of focal mechanism solutions

Science.gov (United States)

Zhong, Ji-Mao; Cheng, Wan-Zheng

2006-07-01

Based on the spatial orientation and slip direction of the fault plane solutions, we present the expression of corresponding mechanical axis tensor in geographic coordinate system, and then put forward a method for calculating average mechanical axis tensor and its eigenvalues, which involves solving the corresponding eigenequation. The method for deducing mean stress field from T, B, and P axes parameters of a number of focal mechanism solutions has been verified by inverting data of mean stress fields in Fuyun region and in Tangshan region with fitting method of slip direction, and both results are consistent. To study regional average stress field, we need to choose a population of focal mechanism solutions of earthquakes in the massifs where there are significant tectonic structures. According to the focal mechanism solutions of 256 moderate-strong earthquakes occurred in 13 seismic zones of Sichuan-Yunnan region, the quantitative analysis results of stress tensor in each seismic zone have been given. The algorithm of such method is simple and convenient, which makes the method for analyzing tectonic stress field with large amount of focal mechanism solution data become quantified.

4. Crystal Growth and Fluid Mechanics Problems in Directional Solidification

Science.gov (United States)

Tanveer, Saleh A.; Baker, Gregory R.; Foster, Michael R.

2001-01-01

Our work in directional solidification has been in the following areas: (1) Dynamics of dendrites including rigorous mathematical analysis of the resulting equations; (2) Examination of the near-structurally unstable features of the mathematically related Hele-Shaw dynamics; (3) Numerical studies of steady temperature distribution in a vertical Bridgman device; (4) Numerical study of transient effects in a vertical Bridgman device; (5) Asymptotic treatment of quasi-steady operation of a vertical Bridgman furnace for large Rayleigh numbers and small Biot number in 3D; and (6) Understanding of Mullins-Sererka transition in a Bridgman device with fluid dynamics is accounted for.

5. Effect of direct quenching on the microstructure and mechanical properties of the lean-chemistry HSLA-100 steel plates

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Dhua, S.K.; Sen, S.K.

2011-01-01

Highlights: → Direct-quenched and tempered (DQT) steels gives better mechanical properties. → Fine Cu and Nb (C, N) precipitates enhance matrix strengthening and tempering resistance. → Boron promotes hardenability, but low temperature Charpy impact toughness gets affected. → Mechanical properties equivalent to HSLA-100 steel is achieved by directly quenched leaner chemistry alloys. - Abstract: The influence of direct quenching on structure-property behavior of lean chemistry HSLA-100 steels was studied. Two laboratory heats, one containing Cu and Nb (C:0.052, Mn:0.99, Cu:1.08, Nb:0.043, Cr:0.57, Ni:1.76, Mo:0.55 pct) and the other containing Cu, Nb and B (C:0.04, Mn:1.02, Cu:1.06, Nb:0.036, Cr:0.87, Ni:1.32, Mo:0.41, B:0.002 percent) were hot-rolled into 25 and 12.5 mm thick plates by varying finish-rolling temperatures. The plates were heat-treated by conventional reheat quenching and tempering (RQT), as well as by direct quenching and tempering (DQT) techniques. In general, direct-quench and tempered plates of Nb-Cu heat exhibited good strength (yield strength ∼ 900 MPa) and low-temperature impact toughness (average: 74 J at -85 deg. C); the Charpy V-notch impact energies were marginally lower than conventional HSLA-100 steel. In Nb-Cu-B heat, impact toughness at low-temperature was inferior owing to boron segregation at grain boundaries. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning auger microprobe (SAM) analysis confirmed existence of borocarbides at grain boundaries in this steel. In general, for both the steels, the mechanical properties of the direct-quench and tempered plates were found to be superior to reheat quench and tempered plates. A detailed transmission electron microscopy study revealed presence of fine Cu and Nb (C, N) precipitates in these steels. It was also observed that smaller martensite inter-lath spacing, finer grains and precipitates in direct-quench and tempered plates compared to the reheat quench and tempered plates

6. Closed-form solutions for linear regulator design of mechanical systems including optimal weighting matrix selection

Science.gov (United States)

Hanks, Brantley R.; Skelton, Robert E.

1991-01-01

Vibration in modern structural and mechanical systems can be reduced in amplitude by increasing stiffness, redistributing stiffness and mass, and/or adding damping if design techniques are available to do so. Linear Quadratic Regulator (LQR) theory in modern multivariable control design, attacks the general dissipative elastic system design problem in a global formulation. The optimal design, however, allows electronic connections and phase relations which are not physically practical or possible in passive structural-mechanical devices. The restriction of LQR solutions (to the Algebraic Riccati Equation) to design spaces which can be implemented as passive structural members and/or dampers is addressed. A general closed-form solution to the optimal free-decay control problem is presented which is tailored for structural-mechanical system. The solution includes, as subsets, special cases such as the Rayleigh Dissipation Function and total energy. Weighting matrix selection is a constrained choice among several parameters to obtain desired physical relationships. The closed-form solution is also applicable to active control design for systems where perfect, collocated actuator-sensor pairs exist.

7. Intraplate Crustal Deformation Within the Northern Sinai Microplate: Evidence from Paleomagnetic Directions and Mechanical Modeling

Science.gov (United States)

Dembo, N.; Granot, R.; Hamiel, Y.

2017-12-01

The intraplate crustal deformation found in the northern part of the Sinai Microplate, located near the northern Dead Sea Fault plate boundary, is examined. Previous studies have suggested that distributed deformation in Lebanon is accommodated by regional uniform counterclockwise rigid block rotations. However, remanent magnetization directions observed near the Lebanese restraining bend are not entirely homogeneous suggesting that an unexplained and complex internal deformation pattern exists. In order to explain the variations in the amount of vertical-axis rotations we construct a mechanical model of the major active faults in the region that simulates the rotational deformation induced by motion along these faults. The rotational pattern calculated by the mechanical modeling predicts heterogeneous distribution of rotations around the faults. The combined rotation field that considers both the fault induced rotations and the already suggested regional block rotations stands in general agreement with the observed magnetization directions. Overall, the modeling results provide a more detailed and complete picture of the deformation pattern in this region and show that rotations induced by motion along the Dead Sea Fault act in parallel to rigid block rotations. Finally, the new modeling results unravel important insights as to the fashion in which crustal deformation is distributed within the northern part of the Sinai Microplate and propose an improved deformational mechanism that might be appropriate for other plate margins as well.

8. Design and application of permanent magnet flux sources for mechanical testing of magnetoactive elastomers at variable field directions.

Science.gov (United States)

Hiptmair, F; Major, Z; Haßlacher, R; Hild, S

2015-08-01

Magnetoactive elastomers (MAEs) are a class of smart materials whose mechanical properties can be rapidly and reversibly changed by an external magnetic field. Due to this tunability, they are useable for actuators or in active vibration control applications. An extensive magnetomechanical characterization is necessary for MAE material development and requires experiments under cyclic loading in uniform but variable magnetic fields. MAE testing apparatus typically rely on fields of adjustable strength, but fixed (transverse) direction, often provided by electromagnets. In this work, two permanent magnet flux sources were developed as an add-on for a modular test stand, to allow for mechanical testing in uniform fields of variable direction. MAE specimens, based on a silicone matrix with isotropic and anisotropic carbonyl iron particle distributions, were subjected to dynamic mechanical analysis under different field and loading configurations. The magneto-induced increase of stiffness and energy dissipation was determined by the change of the hysteresis loop area and dynamic modulus values. A distinct influence of the composite microstructure and the loading state was observed. Due to the very soft and flexible matrix used for preparing the MAE samples, the material stiffness and damping behavior could be varied over a wide range via the applied field direction and intensity.

9. Research on corrosion mechanism of suspension insulator steel foot of direct current system and measures for corrosion inhibition

Science.gov (United States)

Chen, He; Yang, Yueguang; Su, Guolei; Wang, Xiaoqing; Zhang, Hourong; Sun, Xiaoyu; Fan, Youping

2017-09-01

There are increasingly serious electrocorrosion phenomena on insulator hardware caused by direct current transmission due to the wide-range popularization of extra high voltage direct current transmission engineering in our country. Steel foot corrosion is the main corrosion for insulators on positive polarity side of transmission lines. On one hand, the corrosion leads to the tapering off of steel foot diameter, having a direct influence on mechanical property of insulators; on the other hand, in condition of corrosion on steel foot wrapped in porcelain ware, the volume of the corrosion product is at least 50% more than that of the original steel foot, leading to bursting of porcelain ware, threatening safe operation of transmission lines. Therefore, it is necessary to conduct research on the phenomenon and propose feasible measures for corrosion inhibition. Starting with the corrosion mechanism, this article proposes two measures for corrosion inhibition, and verifies the inhibition effect in laboratory conditions, providing reference for application in engineering.

10. Micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS)-based micro-scale direct methanol fuel cell development

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Yao, S.-C.; Tang Xudong; Hsieh, C.-C.; Alyousef, Yousef; Vladimer, Michael; Fedder, Gary K.; Amon, Cristina H.

2006-01-01

This paper describes a high-power density, silicon-based micro-scale direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC), under development at Carnegie Mellon. Major issues in the DMFC design include the water management and energy-efficient micro fluidic sub-systems. The air flow and the methanol circulation are both at a natural draft, while a passive liquid-gas separator removes CO 2 from the methanol chamber. An effective approach for maximizing the DMFC energy density, pumping the excess water back to the anode, is illustrated. The proposed DMFC contains several unique features: a silicon wafer with arrays of etched holes selectively coated with a non-wetting agent for collecting water at the cathode; a silicon membrane micro pump for pumping the collected water back to the anode; and a passive liquid-gas separator for CO 2 removal. All of these silicon-based components are fabricated using micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS)-based processes on the same silicon wafer, so that interconnections are eliminated, and integration efforts as well as post-fabrication costs are both minimized. The resulting fuel cell has an overall size of one cubic inch, produces a net output of 10 mW, and has an energy density three to five times higher than that of current lithium-ion batteries

11. Direct testing of the biasing effect of manipulations of endolymphatic pressure on cochlear mechanical function

Science.gov (United States)

LePage, Eric; Avan, Paul

2015-12-01

The history of cochlear mechanical investigations has been carried out in two largely separate sets of endeavours; those interested in auditory processing in animal models and those interested in the origin of adverse vestibular symptoms in humans. In respect of the first, mechanical vibratory data is considered pathological and not representative of pristine behaviour if it departs from the reigning model of sharp tuning and high hearing sensitivity. Conversely, when the description of the pathological behaviour is the focus, fluid movements responsible for hearing loss and vestibular symptoms dominate. Yet both extensive sets of data possess a common factor now being reconsidered for its potential to shed light on the mechanisms in general. The common factor is a mechanical bias — the departure of cochlear epithelial membranes from their usual resting position. In both cases the bias modulates hearing sensitivity and distorts tuning characteristics. Indeed several early sets of guinea pig mechanical data were dismissed as "pathological" when in hindsight, the primary effect influencing the data was not loss of outer hair cell function per se, but a mechanical bias unknowingly introduced in process of making the measurement. Such biases in the displacement of the basilar membrane from its position are common, and may be caused by low-frequency sounds (topically including infrasound) or by variations in fluid volume in the chambers particularly applying the case of endolymphatic hydrops. Most biases are quantified in terms of visualisation of fluid volume change, electric potential changes and otoacoustic emissions. Notably many previous studies have also searched for raised pressures with negative results. Yet these repeated findings are contrary to the widespread notion that, at least when homeostasis is lost, it is a rise in endolymphatic pressure which is responsible for membrane rupture and Meniere's attacks. This current investigation in Mongolian gerbils

12. Finite element analysis of the effect of force directions on tooth movement in extraction space closure with miniscrew sliding mechanics.

Science.gov (United States)

Kojima, Yukio; Kawamura, Jun; Fukui, Hisao

2012-10-01

13. Directions for computational mechanics in automotive crashworthiness

Science.gov (United States)

Bennett, James A.; Khalil, T. B.

1993-01-01

The automotive industry has used computational methods for crashworthiness since the early 1970's. These methods have ranged from simple lumped parameter models to full finite element models. The emergence of the full finite element models in the mid 1980's has significantly altered the research direction. However, there remains a need for both simple, rapid modeling methods and complex detailed methods. Some directions for continuing research are discussed.

14. Transjugular Intrahepatic Portosystemic Shunt, Mechanical Aspiration Thrombectomy, and Direct Thrombolysis in the Treatment of Acute Portal and Superior Mesenteric Vein Thrombosis

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Ferro, Carlo; Rossi, Umberto G.; Bovio, Giulio; Dahamane, M'Hamed; Centanaro, Monica

2007-01-01

A patient was admitted because of severe abdominal pain, anorexia, and intestinal bleeding. Contrast-enhanced multidetector computed tomography demonstrated acute portal and superior mesenteric vein thrombosis (PSMVT). The patient was treated percutaneously with transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS), mechanical aspiration thrombectomy, and direct thrombolysis, and 1 week after the procedure, complete patency of the portal and superior mesenteric veins was demonstrated. TIPS, mechanical aspiration thrombectomy, and direct thrombolysis together are promising endovascular techniques for the treatment of symptomatic acute PSMVT

15. Microstructure of directionally solidified Ti-Fe eutectic alloy with low interstitial and high mechanical strength

Science.gov (United States)

Contieri, R. J.; Lopes, E. S. N.; Taquire de La Cruz, M.; Costa, A. M.; Afonso, C. R. M.; Caram, R.

2011-10-01

The performance of Ti alloys can be considerably enhanced by combining Ti and other elements, causing an eutectic transformation and thereby producing composites in situ from the liquid phase. This paper reports on the processing and characterization of a directionally solidified Ti-Fe eutectic alloy. Directional solidification at different growth rates was carried out in a setup that employs a water-cooled copper crucible combined with a voltaic electric arc moving through the sample. The results obtained show that a regular fiber-like eutectic structure was produced and the interphase spacing was found to be a function of the growth rate. Mechanical properties were measured using compression, microindentation and nanoindentation tests to determine the Vickers hardness, compressive strength and elastic modulus. Directionally solidified eutectic samples presented high values of compressive strength in the range of 1844-3000 MPa and ductility between 21.6 and 25.2%.

16. A detailed kinetic mechanism including methanol and nitrogen pollutants relevant to the gas-phase combustion and pyrolysis of biomass-derived fuels

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Coda Zabetta, Edgardo; Hupa, Mikko [Aabo Akademi Process Chemistry Centre, Piispankatu 8, FI-20500 Turku (Finland)

2008-01-15

A detailed chemical kinetic mechanism for the simulation of the gas-phase combustion and pyrolysis of biomass-derived fuels was compiled by assembling selected reaction subsets from existing mechanisms (parents). The mechanism, here referred to as ''AaA,'' includes reaction subsets for the oxidation of hydrogen (H{sub 2}), carbon monoxide (CO), light hydrocarbons (C{sub 1} and C{sub 2}), and methanol (CH{sub 3}OH). The mechanism also takes into account reaction subsets of nitrogen pollutants, including the reactions relevant to staged combustion, reburning, and selective noncatalytic reduction (SNCR). The AaA mechanism was validated against suitable experimental data from the literature. Overall, the AaA mechanism gave more accurate predictions than three other mechanisms of reference, although the reference mechanisms performed better occasionally. The predictions from AaA were also found to be consistent with the predictions of its parent mechanisms within most of their range of validity, thus transferring the validity of the parents to the inheriting mechanism (AaA). In parametric studies the AaA mechanism predicted that the effect of methanol on combustion and pollutants is often similar to that of light hydrocarbons, but it also showed that there are important exceptions, thus suggesting that methanol should be taken into account when simulating biomass combustion. To our knowledge, the AaA mechanism is currently the only mechanism that accounts for the chemistry of methanol and nitrogen relevant to the gas-phase combustion and pyrolysis of biomass-derived fuels. (author)

17. Syntrophic growth with direct interspecies electron transfer as the primary mechanism for energy exchange

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Shrestha, Pravin Malla; Rotaru, Amelia-Elena; Aklujkar, Muktak

2013-01-01

Direct interspecies electron transfer (DIET) through biological electrical connections is an alternative to interspecies H2 transfer as a mechanism for electron exchange in syntrophic cultures. However, it has not previously been determined whether electrons received via DIET yield energy...... dehydrogenase, the pilus-associated c-type cytochrome OmcS and pili consistent with electron transfer via DIET. These results suggest that electrons transferred via DIET can serve as the sole energy source to support anaerobic respiration....

18. Effectiveness of hands-on tutoring and guided self-directed learning versus self-directed learning alone to educate critical care fellows on mechanical ventilation – a pilot project

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Kannan Ramar

2016-09-01

Full Text Available Background: Physicians require extensive training to achieve proficiency in mechanical ventilator (MV management of the critically ill patients. Guided self-directed learning (GSDL is usually the method used to learn. However, it is unclear if this is the most proficient approach to teaching mechanical ventilation to critical care fellows. We, therefore, investigated whether critical care fellows achieve higher scores on standardized testing and report higher satisfaction after participating in a hands-on tutorial combined with GSDL compared to self-directed learning alone. Methods: First-year Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine (PCCM fellows (n=6 and Critical Care Internal Medicine (CCIM (n=8 fellows participated. Satisfaction was assessed using the Likert scale. MV knowledge assessment was performed by administering a standardized 25-question multiple choice pre- and posttest. For 2 weeks the CCIM fellows were exposed to GSDL, while the PCCM fellows received hands-on tutoring combined with GSDL. Results: Ninety-three percentage (6 PCCM and 7 CCIM fellows, total of 13 fellows completed all evaluations and were included in the final analysis. CCIM and PCCM fellows scored similarly in the pretest (64% vs. 52%, p=0.13. Following interventions, the posttest scores increased in both groups. However, no significant difference was observed based on the interventions (74% vs. 77%, p=0.39. The absolute improvement with the hands-on-tutoring and GSDL group was higher than GSDL alone (25% vs. 10%, p=0.07. Improved satisfaction scores were noted with hands-on tutoring. Conclusions: Hands-on tutoring combined with GSDL and GSDL alone were both associated with an improvement in posttest scores. Absolute improvement in test and satisfaction scores both trended higher in the hands-on tutorial group combined with GSDL group.

19. Protecting me from my Directive: Ensuring Appropriate Safeguards for Advance Directives in Dementia.

Science.gov (United States)

Auckland, Cressida

2018-02-01

With one in six people over 80 now suffering from dementia, advance directives provide an important means of empowerment. Upholding directives in the context of dementia, however, raises extra challenges, given the potential for the directive to conflict with an assessment of what is in the person's current best interests. Given the profound harm that tying a person with dementia to their previous wishes can do, it is essential that we have sufficient safeguards in place to ensure that we only uphold such directives where we can be sure they are truly autonomous and are intended to apply to the situation at hand-safeguards which are at present, severely lacking. This article will consider various mechanisms by which safeguards can be built into the legal regime to ensure that the original decision is autonomous, including making it mandatory for the person to undergo a consultation with a healthcare professional, which would involve a contemporaneous capacity assessment. Clinicians must also be confident that the directive applies to the situation at hand. Introducing formalities, including a standardised (though not mandatory) proforma, may help to enhance specificity about when the directive is triggered, and to what treatments it relates, to enable clinicians to better assess the directive's applicability. A national registry for advance directives might also be beneficial. It will be argued that health care professionals will have to play a much greater role in the drafting and registering of advance directives, if we are to feel comfortable in upholding them.

20. The 1989 progress report: Polytechnic school laboratories' Direction

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

1989-01-01

The 1989 progress report of the laboratories' Direction of the Polytechnic School (France) is presented. The research activities carried out in each laboratory are summarized. Scientific and technical cooperation, financial and employement aspects are included. The main fields of research are: biochemistry, chemistry, reaction mechanisms, organic synthesis, mechanics of solids, meteorology, irradiated solids, optics, physics, biophysics, lasers, mathematics, econometrics, epistemology, management and computer science [fr

1. Neural mechanisms underlying transcranial direct current stimulation in aphasia: A feasibility study.

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Lena eUlm

2015-10-01

Full Text Available Little is known about the neural mechanisms by which transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS impacts on language processing in post-stroke aphasia. This was addressed in a proof-of-principle study that explored the effects of tDCS application in aphasia during simultaneous functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI. We employed a single subject, cross-over, sham-tDCS controlled design and the stimulation was administered to an individualized perilesional stimulation site that was identified by a baseline fMRI scan and a picture naming task. Peak activity during the baseline scan was located in the spared left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG and this area was stimulated during a subsequent cross-over phase. tDCS was successfully administered to the target region and anodal- vs. sham-tDCS resulted in selectively increased activity at the stimulation site. Our results thus demonstrate that it is feasible to precisely target an individualized stimulation site in aphasia patients during simultaneous fMRI which allows assessing the neural mechanisms underlying tDCS application. The functional imaging results of this case report highlight one possible mechanism that may have contributed to beneficial behavioural stimulation effects in previous clinical tDCS trials in aphasia. In the future, this approach will allow identifying distinct patterns of stimulation effects on neural processing in larger cohorts of patients. This may ultimately yield information about the variability of tDCS-effects on brain functions in aphasia.

2. Direct mechanical data acquisition of dental impressions for the manufacturing of CAD/CAM restorations.

Science.gov (United States)

Quaas, Sebastian; Rudolph, Heike; Luthardt, Ralph G

2007-12-01

The basic prerequisite for the production of dental restorations by means of CAD/CAM technologies is the data acquisition (digitization). Currently, two methods are available, i.e. the extraoral digitization of master casts and the direct intraoral data acquisition. However, it seems to be beneficial to immediately digitize impressions directly at the dental office in order to combine the high precision of mechanical digitizing methods and to shorten the production process. The aim of this study was to investigate the measurement uncertainty (+/-2sigma) and the three-dimensional accuracy of the immediate tactile in-office digitization of dental impressions and of the mechanical digitizing of ceramic master dies using a high-precision touch-probe digitizer. The experimental set-up consisted of ceramic master dies representing tooth 13 and 36 as well as their identical virtual models (CAD models). Fifteen one-step putty-wash impressions were taken from each tooth. The impressions as well as the ceramic master dies were digitized applying a standardized procedure. The datasets were aligned to the corresponding CAD models; then, a computer-aided three-dimensional analysis was performed. The digitizing of the dental impressions showed a measurement uncertainty of 5.8, mean positive deviations between 27 and 28microm, and mean negative deviations between -21 and -31microm. The digitizing of the ceramic master dies showed a measurement uncertainty of 2.8, mean positive deviations between 7.7 and 9.1microm, and mean negative deviations between -8.5 and -8.8microm. Mechanical digitizers show a very low measurement uncertainty and a high precision. The immediate tactile in-office digitization of impressions cannot be recommended as adequate data acquisition method for CAD/CAM restorations. It is recommendable to digitize clinical sites extraorally, i.e. after taking an impression and fabricating a model cast thereof.

3. Directed polymers versus directed percolation

Science.gov (United States)

Halpin-Healy, Timothy

1998-10-01

Universality plays a central role within the rubric of modern statistical mechanics, wherein an insightful continuum formulation rises above irrelevant microscopic details, capturing essential scaling behaviors. Nevertheless, occasions do arise where the lattice or another discrete aspect can constitute a formidable legacy. Directed polymers in random media, along with its close sibling, directed percolation, provide an intriguing case in point. Indeed, the deep blood relation between these two models may have sabotaged past efforts to fully characterize the Kardar-Parisi-Zhang universality class, to which the directed polymer belongs.

4. Elucidating Direct Photolysis Mechanisms of Different Dissociation Species of Norfloxacin in Water and Mg2+ Effects by Quantum Chemical Calculations.

Science.gov (United States)

Wang, Se; Wang, Zhuang

2017-11-11

The study of pollution due to combined antibiotics and metals is urgently needed. Photochemical processes are an important transformation pathway for antibiotics in the environment. The mechanisms underlying the effects of metal-ion complexation on the aquatic photochemical transformation of antibiotics in different dissociation forms are crucial problems in science, and beg solutions. Herein, we investigated the mechanisms of direct photolysis of norfloxacin (NOR) in different dissociation forms in water and metal ion Mg 2+ effects using quantum chemical calculations. Results show that different dissociation forms of NOR had different maximum electronic absorbance wavelengths (NOR 2+ direct photolysis pathways were de-ethylation (N7-C8 bond cleavage) and decarboxylation (C2-C5 bond cleavage). Furthermore, the presence of Mg 2+ changed the order of the wavelength at maximum electronic absorbance (NOR⁺-Mg 2+ direct photolysis of NOR⁰, NOR⁺, and NOR 2+ . The calculated TS results indicated that the presence of Mg 2+ increased E a for most direct photolysis pathways of NOR, while it decreased E a for some direct photolysis pathways such as the loss of the piperazine ring and the damage of the piperazine ring of NOR⁰ and the defluorination of NOR⁺.

5. Direct right ventricular puncture for hemodynamic evaluation of a mechanical tricuspid valve prosthesis: a new indication for an old procedure.

Science.gov (United States)

Gibson, M A; Carell, E S

1997-11-01

The advent of transvenous right heart catheterization has relegated direct transthoracic right ventricular puncture largely to the role of "interesting historical footnote." However, in the case of a right ventricle that is "protected" by a mechanical tricuspid valve prosthesis, direct right ventricular puncture represents a reasonable alternative for obtaining accurate hemodynamic information.

6. Expanding the Enzyme Universe: Accessing Non-Natural Reactions by Mechanism-Guided Directed Evolution

Science.gov (United States)

Renata, Hans; Wang, Z. Jane

2015-01-01

High selectivities and exquisite control over reaction outcomes entice chemists to use biocatalysts in organic synthesis. However, many useful reactions are not accessible because they are not in nature’s known repertoire. We will use this review to outline an evolutionary approach to engineering enzymes to catalyze reactions not found in nature. We begin with examples of how nature has discovered new catalytic functions and how such evolutionary progressions have been recapitulated in the laboratory starting from extant enzymes. We then examine non-native enzyme activities that have been discovered and exploited for chemical synthesis, emphasizing reactions that do not have natural counterparts. The new functions have mechanistic parallels to the native reaction mechanisms that often manifest as catalytic promiscuity and the ability to convert from one function to the other with minimal mutation. We present examples of how non-natural activities have been improved by directed evolution, mimicking the process used by nature to create new catalysts. Examples of new enzyme functions include epoxide opening reactions with non-natural nucleophiles catalyzed by a laboratory-evolved halohydrin dehalogenase, cyclopropanation and other carbene transfer reactions catalyzed by cytochrome P450 variants, and non-natural modes of cyclization by a modified terpene synthase. Lastly, we describe discoveries of non-native catalytic functions that may provide future opportunities for expanding the enzyme universe. PMID:25649694

7. Quantum Mechanics/Molecular Mechanics Modeling of Drug Metabolism

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Lonsdale, Richard; Fort, Rachel M; Rydberg, Patrik

2016-01-01

)-mexiletine in CYP1A2 with hybrid quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (QM/MM) methods, providing a more detailed and realistic model. Multiple reaction barriers have been calculated at the QM(B3LYP-D)/MM(CHARMM27) level for the direct N-oxidation and H-abstraction/rebound mechanisms. Our calculated barriers......The mechanism of cytochrome P450(CYP)-catalyzed hydroxylation of primary amines is currently unclear and is relevant to drug metabolism; previous small model calculations have suggested two possible mechanisms: direct N-oxidation and H-abstraction/rebound. We have modeled the N-hydroxylation of (R...... indicate that the direct N-oxidation mechanism is preferred and proceeds via the doublet spin state of Compound I. Molecular dynamics simulations indicate that the presence of an ordered water molecule in the active site assists in the binding of mexiletine in the active site...

8. Direct writing and electro-mechanical characterization of Ag micro-patterns on polymer substrates for flexible electronics

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Torres Arango, Maria A.; Cokeley, Anna M.; Beard, Jared J.; Sierros, Konstantinos A.

2015-01-01

There is currently a great interest in developing flexible electrodes. Such components are used in most electronic devices from displays to solar cells to flexible sensors. To date most of them are fabricated using expensive vacuum techniques, and are based on transparent conducting oxides. These oxides are not entirely compatible with flexible substrates under the application of mechanical stresses, due to their brittle nature. Therefore, there is a need to explore novel low-cost, large-area fabrication methods to deposit alternative conducting materials with enhanced electro-mechanical performance. This work focuses on Ag patterns fabricated at low temperatures (below 150 °C) on flexible polyethylene naphthalate utilizing a robotic printing approach. Such lithography-free method minimizes material waste by printing exact amounts of inks on digitally predefined locations. Additionally, it allows a broad feature size range, from a few μm to a few mm, and a variety of ink viscosities for better pattern control. We investigate the synthesis and direct writing of Ag particle-based inks, patterned-on-flex as lines and grids in the μm scale. We report on a high-yield ink synthesis method (~ 61.6%) with controlled particle size. It is found that the electrical resistivity (1.75 ∗ 10"−"4 Ω cm) of the patterns is in the same range with similar particle-based conductive components. The correlation between annealing temperature, microstructural evolution, and electrical performance is established. Also, the optical transmittance of the patterns can be controlled to meet specific application requirements by regulating the substrate surface area covered. Finally, the mechanical behavior under both monotonic and cyclic conditions shows a superior performance compared to brittle counterparts and underlines the potential of such metallic micro-patterns to be utilized in a wide range of flexible electronic applications. It is believed that direct writing of Ag patterns on

9. Direct writing and electro-mechanical characterization of Ag micro-patterns on polymer substrates for flexible electronics

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Torres Arango, Maria A.; Cokeley, Anna M.; Beard, Jared J.; Sierros, Konstantinos A., E-mail: kostas.sierros@mail.wvu.edu

2015-12-01

There is currently a great interest in developing flexible electrodes. Such components are used in most electronic devices from displays to solar cells to flexible sensors. To date most of them are fabricated using expensive vacuum techniques, and are based on transparent conducting oxides. These oxides are not entirely compatible with flexible substrates under the application of mechanical stresses, due to their brittle nature. Therefore, there is a need to explore novel low-cost, large-area fabrication methods to deposit alternative conducting materials with enhanced electro-mechanical performance. This work focuses on Ag patterns fabricated at low temperatures (below 150 °C) on flexible polyethylene naphthalate utilizing a robotic printing approach. Such lithography-free method minimizes material waste by printing exact amounts of inks on digitally predefined locations. Additionally, it allows a broad feature size range, from a few μm to a few mm, and a variety of ink viscosities for better pattern control. We investigate the synthesis and direct writing of Ag particle-based inks, patterned-on-flex as lines and grids in the μm scale. We report on a high-yield ink synthesis method (~ 61.6%) with controlled particle size. It is found that the electrical resistivity (1.75 ∗ 10{sup −4} Ω cm) of the patterns is in the same range with similar particle-based conductive components. The correlation between annealing temperature, microstructural evolution, and electrical performance is established. Also, the optical transmittance of the patterns can be controlled to meet specific application requirements by regulating the substrate surface area covered. Finally, the mechanical behavior under both monotonic and cyclic conditions shows a superior performance compared to brittle counterparts and underlines the potential of such metallic micro-patterns to be utilized in a wide range of flexible electronic applications. It is believed that direct writing of Ag patterns

10. Isotopic and molecular fractionation in combustion; three routes to molecular marker validation, including direct molecular 'dating' (GC/AMS)

Science.gov (United States)

Currie, L. A.; Klouda, G. A.; Benner, B. A.; Garrity, K.; Eglinton, T. I.

The identification of unique isotopic, elemental, and molecular markers for sources of combustion aerosol has growing practical importance because of the potential effects of fine particle aerosol on health, visibility and global climate. It is urgent, therefore, that substantial efforts be directed toward the validation of assumptions involving the use of such tracers for source apportionment. We describe here three independent routes toward carbonaceous aerosol molecular marker identification and validation: (1) tracer regression and multivariate statistical techniques applied to field measurements of mixed source, carbonaceous aerosols; (2) a new development in aerosol 14C metrology: direct, pure compound accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) by off-line GC/AMS ('molecular dating'); and (3) direct observation of isotopic and molecular source emissions during controlled laboratory combustion of specific fuels. Findings from the combined studies include: independent support for benzo( ghi)perylene as a motor vehicle tracer from the first (statistical) and second (direct 'dating') studies; a new indication, from the third (controlled combustion) study, of a relation between 13C isotopic fractionation and PAH molecular fractionation, also linked with fuel and stage of combustion; and quantitative data showing the influence of both fuel type and combustion conditions on the yields of such species as elemental carbon and PAH, reinforcing the importance of exercising caution when applying presumed conservative elemental or organic tracers to fossil or biomass burning field data as in the first study.

11. Pore structure and mechanical properties of directionally solidified porous aluminum alloys

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Komissarchuk Olga

2014-01-01

Full Text Available Porous aluminum alloys produced by the metal-gas eutectic method or GASAR process need to be performed under a certain pressure of hydrogen, and to carry over melt to a tailor-made apparatus that ensures directional solidification. Hydrogen is driven out of the melt, and then the quasi-cylindrical pores normal to the solidification front are usually formed. In the research, the effects of processing parameters (saturation pressure, solidification pressure, temperature, and holding time on the pore structure and porosity of porous aluminum alloys were analyzed. The mechanical properties of Al-Mg alloys were studied by the compressive tests, and the advantages of the porous structure were indicated. By using the GASAR method, pure aluminum, Al-3wt.%Mg, Al-6wt.%Mg and Al-35wt.%Mg alloys with oriented pores have been successfully produced under processing conditions of varying gas pressure, and the relationship between the final pore structure and the solidification pressure, as well as the influences of Mg quantity on the pore size, porosity and mechanical properties of Al-Mg alloy were investigated. The results show that a higher pressure of solidification tends to yield smaller pores in aluminum and its alloys. In the case of Al-Mg alloys, it was proved that with the increasing of Mg amount, the mechanical properties of the alloys sharply deteriorate. However, since Al-3%Mg and Al-6wt.%Mg alloys are ductile metals, their porous samples have greater compressive strength than that of the dense samples due to the existence of pores. It gives the opportunity to use them in industry at the same conditions as dense alloys with savings in weight and material consumption.

12. Directed Self-Assembly of Star-Block Copolymers by Topographic Nanopatterns through Nucleation and Growth Mechanism.

Science.gov (United States)

Krishnan, Mohan Raj; Lu, Kai-Yuan; Chiu, Wen-Yu; Chen, I-Chen; Lin, Jheng-Wei; Lo, Ting-Ya; Georgopanos, Prokopios; Avgeropoulos, Apostolos; Lee, Ming-Chang; Ho, Rong-Ming

2018-04-01

Exploring the ordering mechanism and dynamics of self-assembled block copolymer (BCP) thin films under confined conditions are highly essential in the application of BCP lithography. In this study, it is aimed to examine the self-assembling mechanism and kinetics of silicon-containing 3-arm star-block copolymer composed of polystyrene (PS) and poly(dimethylsiloxane) blocks as nanostructured thin films with perpendicular cylinders and controlled lateral ordering by directed self-assembly using topographically patterned substrates. The ordering process of the star-block copolymer within fabricated topographic patterns with PS-functionalized sidewall can be carried out through the type of secondary (i.e., heterogeneous) nucleation for microphase separation initiated from the edge and/or corner of the topographic patterns, and directed to grow as well-ordered hexagonally packed perpendicular cylinders. The growth rate for the confined microphase separation is highly dependent upon the dimension and also the geometric texture of the preformed pattern. Fast self-assembly for ordering of BCP thin film can be achieved by lowering the confinement dimension and also increasing the concern number of the preformed pattern, providing a new strategy for the design of BCP lithography from the integration of top-down and bottom-up approaches. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

13. Direct electromechanical driving systems: diversity, constraints and solutions; Les entrainements electromecaniques directs: diversite, contraintes et solutions

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Multon, B. [Ecole Normale Superieure, 94 - Cachan (France); Bonal, J. [Promethee Groupe Schneider Electric S.A., 92 - Boulogne-Billancourt (France)

1999-11-01

Direct electromechanical drives are the simplest possible transmission systems requiring no additional mechanical components such as gearboxes or rotary to linear converters. This simplicity leads a number of advantages including greater reliability, less maintenance, improved dynamic characteristics and reduced weight and volume. However, the performance specification of direct drives is usually high, with a correspondingly high cost, and often this cannot be justified in complete systems where the other components limit the overall performance. This factor alone has been sufficient to restrict the market penetration of direct drives. The majority of applications are in linear actuators, and in motors operating at very high or very low speeds. New developments are constantly being introduced, especially in relation to structures.

14. Quantum Mechanics/Molecular Mechanics Modeling of Drug Metabolism: Mexiletine N-Hydroxylation by Cytochrome P450 1A2.

Science.gov (United States)

Lonsdale, Richard; Fort, Rachel M; Rydberg, Patrik; Harvey, Jeremy N; Mulholland, Adrian J

2016-06-20

The mechanism of cytochrome P450(CYP)-catalyzed hydroxylation of primary amines is currently unclear and is relevant to drug metabolism; previous small model calculations have suggested two possible mechanisms: direct N-oxidation and H-abstraction/rebound. We have modeled the N-hydroxylation of (R)-mexiletine in CYP1A2 with hybrid quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (QM/MM) methods, providing a more detailed and realistic model. Multiple reaction barriers have been calculated at the QM(B3LYP-D)/MM(CHARMM27) level for the direct N-oxidation and H-abstraction/rebound mechanisms. Our calculated barriers indicate that the direct N-oxidation mechanism is preferred and proceeds via the doublet spin state of Compound I. Molecular dynamics simulations indicate that the presence of an ordered water molecule in the active site assists in the binding of mexiletine in the active site, but this is not a prerequisite for reaction via either mechanism. Several active site residues play a role in the binding of mexiletine in the active site, including Thr124 and Phe226. This work reveals key details of the N-hydroxylation of mexiletine and further demonstrates that mechanistic studies using QM/MM methods are useful for understanding drug metabolism.

15. Statistical mechanical characteristics of slip-ring induction motors when direct current braking

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Kedzior, W; Muchorowski, J; Pienkowski, K

1980-09-01

This paper evaluates methods of braking high capacity belt conveyors used in brown coal surface mines in Poland. Complications associated with belt conveyor braking, particularly when a conveyor moves down a slope, are analyzed. A method of calculating mechanical characteristics of wound-rotor induction motors during direct current braking taking into account saturation of magnetic circuit is presented. Characteristics of the SZUr motor with 630 kW power, used in brown coal mining, are also given. Analyses show that motor operation can be efficiently braked in two ways: 1. by changing additional resistance in rotor circuit (e.g. using thyristor controller); 2. by changing intensity of electric current supplied to stator winding (e.g. using a rectifier). (3 refs.) (In Polish)

16. New directions in computational mechanics

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Hughes, T.J.R.

1989-01-01

A few areas of computation mechanics are identified in which considerable progress has occurred and continued extension and refinement are anticipated. In particular, some recent results are presented of calculations performed with general purpose large-scale nonlinear finite element programs. Recent progress in the development of finite element methods for fluids is described. Examples of adaptive refinement and ''SUPG'' type methods are presented. The ideas emanating from finite elements in fluids are now having some impact on solids and structures. Examples of new element technology for kinematically constrained media and space-time formulations in elastodynamics are presented. (orig.)

17. Rehearsal of To-Be-Remembered Items Is Unnecessary to Perform Directed Forgetting within Working Memory: Support for an Active Control Mechanism

Science.gov (United States)

Festini, Sara B.; Reuter-Lorenz, Patricia A.

2017-01-01

Directed forgetting tasks instruct people to forget targeted memoranda. In the context of working memory, people attempt to forget representations that are currently held in mind. Here, we evaluated candidate mechanisms of directed forgetting within working memory, by (a) testing the influence of articulatory suppression, a rehearsal-reducing and…

18. Degradation Mechanism in a Direct Carbon Fuel Cell Operated with Demineralised Brown Coal

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

2014-01-01

Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Degradation mechanism studied for demineralised coal in a direct carbon fuel cell. • Diffusion limited processes dominate the electrode polarisation losses in pure N 2 . • Major fuel cell performance loss occurred due to loss of carbon/anode contacts. • The anode retained its phase structure with minor other phases formed in operation. - Abstract: The performance of a demineralised and devolatilised coal from the Morwell mine in the Latrobe Valley, Victoria, has been investigated in a direct carbon fuel cell (DCFC) operated at 850 °C. The focus of the investigation has been on understanding degradation issues as a function of time involving a sequence of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and voltage-current characteristic. Diffusion limited processes dominate the electrode polarisation losses in pure N 2 atmosphere, however, these decrease substantially in the presence of CO 2 as the anode chamber purge gas, due to in situ generation of fuel species by the reaction of CO 2 with carbon. Post-mortem analysis of anode by SEM and XRD revealed only a minor degradation due to its reduction, particle agglomeration as well as the formation of small quantity of new phases. However, major fuel cell performance degradation (increase of ohmic resistive and electrode polarisation losses) occurred due to loss of carbon/anode contacts and a reduction in the electron-conducting pathways as the fuel was consumed. The investigations revealed that the demineralised coal char can be used as a viable fuel for DCFC, however, further developments on anode materials and fuel feed mechanism would be required to achieve long-term sustained performance

19. Action mechanisms of transcranial direct current stimulation in Alzheimer's disease and memory loss.

Science.gov (United States)

Hansen, Niels

2012-01-01

The pharmacological treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is often limited and accompanied by drug side effects. Thus alternative therapeutic strategies such as non-invasive brain stimulation are needed. Few studies have demonstrated that transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), a method of neuromodulation with consecutive robust excitability changes within the stimulated cortex area, is beneficial in AD. There is also evidence that tDCS enhances memory function in cognitive rehabilitation in depressive patients, Parkinson's disease, and stroke. tDCS improves working and visual recognition memory in humans and object-recognition learning in the elderly. AD's neurobiological mechanisms comprise changes in neuronal activity and the cerebral blood flow (CBF) caused by altered microvasculature, synaptic dysregulation from ß-amyloid peptide accumulation, altered neuromodulation via degenerated modulatory amine transmitter systems, altered brain oscillations, and changes in network connectivity. tDCS alters (i) neuronal activity and (ii) human CBF, (iii) has synaptic and non-synaptic after-effects (iv), can modify neurotransmitters polarity-dependently, (v) and alter oscillatory brain activity and (vi) functional connectivity patterns in the brain. It thus is reasonable to use tDCS as a therapeutic instrument in AD as it improves cognitive function in manner based on a disease mechanism. Moreover, it could prove valuable in other types of dementia. Future large-scale clinical and mechanism-oriented studies may enable us to identify its therapeutic validity in other types of demential disorders.

20. Direct binding of ledipasvir to HCV NS5A: mechanism of resistance to an HCV antiviral agent.

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Hyock Joo Kwon

Full Text Available Ledipasvir, a direct acting antiviral agent (DAA targeting the Hepatitis C Virus NS5A protein, exhibits picomolar activity in replicon cells. While its mechanism of action is unclear, mutations that confer resistance to ledipasvir in HCV replicon cells are located in NS5A, suggesting that NS5A is the direct target of ledipasvir. To date co-precipitation and cross-linking experiments in replicon or NS5A transfected cells have not conclusively shown a direct, specific interaction between NS5A and ledipasvir. Using recombinant, full length NS5A, we show that ledipasvir binds directly, with high affinity and specificity, to NS5A. Ledipasvir binding to recombinant NS5A is saturable with a dissociation constant in the low nanomolar range. A mutant form of NS5A (Y93H that confers resistance to ledipasvir shows diminished binding to ledipasvir. The current study shows that ledipasvir inhibits NS5A through direct binding and that resistance to ledipasvir is the result of a reduction in binding affinity to NS5A mutants.

1. Analysis of the flexible support mechanisms in the Directive on the promotion of the use of energy from renewable sources. Final report 8th January 2010

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Ruokonen, J.; Sinnemaa, M.A.; Magnusson, R.; Gautesen, K.; Seppaenen, S.; Opsal, O.

2010-07-01

The Nordic countries have a long history in co-operation and a common electricity market. The long-term objective of Nordic countries is to promote an efficient, competitive, secure and sustainable energy supply. The EU countries have set a binding target to increase the share of renewable energy to 20% by 2020. The European Parliament approved a legislative resolution on December 17th 2008 on the proposal for a Directive on the promotion of the use of energy from renewable source ('The Directive'). This Directive become part of the European Community legislation in 2009. The Directive sets national targets for renewable energy, but it also provides various flexibility mechanisms that enable co-operation between countries in reaching the national targets. It is however still not clear how these flexible mechanisms should be used, nor the consequences on the electricity market and renewable energy sources. The objective of this project is to evaluate the usefulness and consequences of utilising the Flexible Mechanisms described in the Articles 6-11 ('Flex-Mex') of the Directive in Nordic Countries. Moreover, the objective is to provide basis for conclusions and political recommendations on whether and how to cooperate and move forward in this area. In addition to basic principles of the flexible mechanisms, the project concentrates on analysing the arrangements needed between the Nordic Countries to utilise the flexible mechanisms and analysis of benefits and problems of using Mechanisms. The report is divided five sections. Chapter 2 introduced the RES directive and Flexible Mechanisms. In chapter 3, lesson learnt from other markets are used as starting point in drawing possible frameworks for Nordic countries. Chapter 4 summarizes presents outcome of various co-operation scenarios and their benefits. In Chapter 5 some selected topics are discussed from RES Flex-Mex point of view. Chapter 6 provides conclusions and recommendations. (Author)

2. FUZZY LOGIC BASED ADAPTATION MECHANISM FOR ADAPTIVE LUENBERGER OBSERVER SENSORLESS DIRECT TORQUE CONTROL OF INDUCTION MOTOR

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

A. BENNASSAR

2016-01-01

Full Text Available Many industrial applications require high performance speed sensorless operation and demand new control methods in order to obtain fast dynamic response and insensitive to external disturbances. The current research aims to present the performance of the sensorless direct torque control (DTC of an induction motor (IM using adaptive Luenberger observer (ALO with fuzzy logic controller (FLC for adaptation mechanism. The rotor speed is regulated by proportional integral (PI anti-windup controller. The proposed strategy is directed to reduce the ripple on the torque and the flux. Numerical simulation results show the good performance and effectiveness of the proposed sensorless control for different references of the speed even both low and high speeds.

3. Probabilistic approach to mechanisms

CERN Document Server

Sandler, BZ

1984-01-01

This book discusses the application of probabilistics to the investigation of mechanical systems. The book shows, for example, how random function theory can be applied directly to the investigation of random processes in the deflection of cam profiles, pitch or gear teeth, pressure in pipes, etc. The author also deals with some other technical applications of probabilistic theory, including, amongst others, those relating to pneumatic and hydraulic mechanisms and roller bearings. Many of the aspects are illustrated by examples of applications of the techniques under discussion.

4. Metal Additive Manufacturing: A Review of Mechanical Properties

Science.gov (United States)

Lewandowski, John J.; Seifi, Mohsen

2016-07-01

This article reviews published data on the mechanical properties of additively manufactured metallic materials. The additive manufacturing techniques utilized to generate samples covered in this review include powder bed fusion (e.g., EBM, SLM, DMLS) and directed energy deposition (e.g., LENS, EBF3). Although only a limited number of metallic alloy systems are currently available for additive manufacturing (e.g., Ti-6Al-4V, TiAl, stainless steel, Inconel 625/718, and Al-Si-10Mg), the bulk of the published mechanical properties information has been generated on Ti-6Al-4V. However, summary tables for published mechanical properties and/or key figures are included for each of the alloys listed above, grouped by the additive technique used to generate the data. Published values for mechanical properties obtained from hardness, tension/compression, fracture toughness, fatigue crack growth, and high cycle fatigue are included for as-built, heat-treated, and/or HIP conditions, when available. The effects of test orientation/build direction on properties, when available, are also provided, along with discussion of the potential source(s) (e.g., texture, microstructure changes, defects) of anisotropy in properties. Recommendations for additional work are also provided.

5. Screw calciner mechanical direct denitration process for plutonium nitrate to oxide conversion

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Souply, K.R.; Sperry, W.E.

1977-01-01

This report describes a screw calciner direct-denitration process for converting plutonium nitrate to plutonium oxide. The information should be used when making comparisons of alternative plutonium nitrate-to-oxide conversion processes or as a basis for further detailed studies. The report contains process flow sheets with a material balance; a process description; and a discussion of the process including history, advantages and disadvantages, and additional research required

6. Mechanisms governing the direct removal of wastes from the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant repository caused by exploratory drilling

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Berglund, J.W.

1992-12-01

Two processes are identified that can influence the quantity of wastes brought to the ground surface when a waste disposal room of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant is inadvertently penetrated by an exploratory borehole. The first mechanism is due to the erosion of the borehole wall adjacent to the waste caused by the flowing drilling fluid (mud); a quantitative computational model based upon the flow characteristics of the drilling fluid (laminar or turbulent) and other drilling parameters is developed and example results shown. The second mechanism concerns the motion of the waste and borehole spall caused by the flow of waste-generated gas to the borehole. Some of the available literature concerning this process is discussed, and a number of elastic and elastic-plastic finite-difference and finite-element calculations are described that confirm the potential importance of this process in directly removing wastes from the repository to the ground surface. Based upon the amount of analysis performed to date, it is concluded that it is not unreasonable to expect that volumes of waste several times greater than that resulting from direct cutting of a gauge borehole could eventually reach the ground surface. No definitive quantitative model for waste removal as a result of the second mechanism is presented; it is concluded that decomposed waste constitutive data must be developed and additional experiments performed to assess further the full significance of this latter mechanism

7. Design and optimization of mechanically down-doped terahertz fiber directional couplers

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Bao, Hualong; Nielsen, Kristian; Rasmussen, Henrik K.

2014-01-01

We present a thorough practical design optimization of broadband low loss, terahertz (THz) photonic crystal fiber directional couplers in which the two cores are mechanically down-doped with a triangular array of air holes. A figure of merit taking both the 3-dB bandwidth and loss of the coupler...... into account, is used for optimization of the structure parameters, given by the diameter and pitch of the cladding (d and Λ) and of the core (dc and Λc) air-hole structure. The coupler with Λ = 498.7 μm, dc= 324.2 μm, Λc = 74.8 μm, and dc = 32.5 μm is found to have the best performance at a center frequency...... of 1THz, with a bandwidth of 0.25 THz and a total device loss of 9.2 dB. The robustness of the optimum coupler to structural changes is investigated. © 2014 Optical Society of America....

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Varanda, E.A.; Tavares, D.C. [UNESP, Araraquara, SP (Brazil). Escola de Ciencias Farmaceuticas. Dept. de Ciencias Biologicas

1998-07-01

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Varanda, E.A.; Tavares, D.C.

1998-01-01

10. Directed Self-Assembly of Nanodispersions

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Furst, Eric M [University of Delaware

2013-11-15

Directed self-assembly promises to be the technologically and economically optimal approach to industrial-scale nanotechnology, and will enable the realization of inexpensive, reproducible and active nanostructured materials with tailored photonic, transport and mechanical properties. These new nanomaterials will play a critical role in meeting the 21st century grand challenges of the US, including energy diversity and sustainability, national security and economic competitiveness. The goal of this work was to develop and fundamentally validate methods of directed selfassembly of nanomaterials and nanodispersion processing. The specific aims were: 1. Nanocolloid self-assembly and interactions in AC electric fields. In an effort to reduce the particle sizes used in AC electric field self-assembly to lengthscales, we propose detailed characterizations of field-driven structures and studies of the fundamental underlying particle interactions. We will utilize microscopy and light scattering to assess order-disorder transitions and self-assembled structures under a variety of field and physicochemical conditions. Optical trapping will be used to measure particle interactions. These experiments will be synergetic with calculations of the particle polarizability, enabling us to both validate interactions and predict the order-disorder transition for nanocolloids. 2. Assembly of anisotropic nanocolloids. Particle shape has profound effects on structure and flow behavior of dispersions, and greatly complicates their processing and self-assembly. The methods developed to study the self-assembled structures and underlying particle interactions for dispersions of isotropic nanocolloids will be extended to systems composed of anisotropic particles. This report reviews several key advances that have been made during this project, including, (1) advances in the measurement of particle polarization mechanisms underlying field-directed self-assembly, and (2) progress in the

11. Book review: ALMOG, J. Referential Mechanics: Direct Reference and the Foundations of Semantics (Oxford University Press, 2014

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Filipe Martone

Full Text Available Abstract: In this review I discuss Joseph Almog's book "Referential Mechanics". The book discusses direct reference as conceived by three of its founding fathers, Kripke, Kaplan and Donnellan, and introduces Almog's ambitious project of providing a referential semantics to all subject-phrases. I offer a brief overview of its four chapters and point out some of their virtues and shortcomings.

12. Fatigue behavior and failure mechanisms of direct laser deposited Ti–6Al–4V

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Sterling, Amanda J.; Torries, Brian [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Mississippi State University, Box 9552, Mississippi State, MS 39762 (United States); Shamsaei, Nima, E-mail: shamsaei@me.msstate.edu [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Mississippi State University, Box 9552, Mississippi State, MS 39762 (United States); Center for Advanced Vehicular Systems (CAVS), Mississippi State University, Box 5405, , Mississippi State, MS 39762 (United States); Thompson, Scott M. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Mississippi State University, Box 9552, Mississippi State, MS 39762 (United States); Center for Advanced Vehicular Systems (CAVS), Mississippi State University, Box 5405, , Mississippi State, MS 39762 (United States); Seely, Denver W. [Center for Advanced Vehicular Systems (CAVS), Mississippi State University, Box 5405, , Mississippi State, MS 39762 (United States)

2016-02-08

In order for additive-manufactured parts to become more widely utilized and trusted in application, it is important to have their mechanical properties well-characterized and certified. The fatigue behavior and failure mechanisms of Ti–6Al–4V specimens fabricated using Laser Engineered Net Shaping (LENS), a Direct Laser Deposition (DLD) additive manufacturing (AM) process, are investigated in this study. A series of fully-reversed strain-controlled fatigue tests is conducted on Ti–6Al–4V specimens manufactured via LENS in their as-built and heat-treated conditions. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) is used to examine the fracture surfaces of fatigue specimens to qualify the failure mechanism, crack initiation sites, and defects such as porosity. Due to the relatively high localized heating and cooling rates experienced during DLD, fabricated parts are observed to possess anisotropic microstructures, and thus, different mechanical properties than those of their traditionally-manufactured wrought counterparts. The fatigue lives of the investigated LENS specimens were found to be shorter than those of wrought specimens, and porosity was found to be the primary contributor to these shorter fatigue lives, with the exception of the heat-treated LENS samples. The presence of pores promotes more unpredictable fatigue behavior, as evidenced by data scatter. Pore shape, size, location, and number were found to impact the fatigue behavior of the as-built and annealed DLD parts. As porosity seems to be the main contributor to the fatigue behavior of DLD parts, it is important to optimize the manufacturing process and design parameters to minimize and control pore generation during the build.

13. Supersymmetric mechanics. Vol. 2. The attractor mechanism and space time singularities

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Bellucci, S.; Marrani, A.; Ferrara, S.

2006-01-01

This is the second volume in a series of books on the general theme of Supersymmetric Mechanics; the series is based on lectures and discussions held in 2005 and 2006 at the INFN-Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati. The first volume appears as Lect. Notes Physics, Vol. 698 ''Supersymmetric Mechanics, Vol.1: Supersymmetry, Noncommutativity and Matrix Models'' (2006) ISBN: 3-540-33313-4. The present extensive lecture supplies a pedagogical introduction, at the non-expert level, to the attractor mechanism in space-time singularities. In such a framework, supersymmetry seems to be related to dynamical systems with fixed points, describing the equilibrium state and the stability features of the thermodynamics of black holes. After a qualitative overview, explicit examples realizing the attractor mechanism are treated at some length; they include relevant cases of asymptotically flat, maximal and non-maximal, extended supergravities in 4 and 5 dimensions. A number of recent advances along various directions of research on the attractor mechanism are also given. (orig.)

14. Directed line liquids

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Kamien, R.D.

1992-01-01

This thesis is devoted to the study of ensembles of dense directed lines. These lines are principally to be thought of as polymers, though they also have the morphology of flux lines in high temperature superconductors, strings of colloidal spheres in electrorheological fluids and the world lines of quantum mechanical bosons. The authors discuss how directed polymer melts, string-like formations in electrorheological and ferro-fluids, flux lines in high temperature superconductors and the world lines of quantum mechanical bosons all share similar descriptions. They study a continuous transition in all of these systems, and then study the critical mixing properties of binary mixtures of directed polymers through the renormalization group. They predict the exponents for a directed polymer blend consolute point and a novel two-phase superfluid liquid-gas critical point

15. Analytical mechanics

CERN Document Server

Helrich, Carl S

2017-01-01

This advanced undergraduate textbook begins with the Lagrangian formulation of Analytical Mechanics and then passes directly to the Hamiltonian formulation and the canonical equations, with constraints incorporated through Lagrange multipliers. Hamilton's Principle and the canonical equations remain the basis of the remainder of the text. Topics considered for applications include small oscillations, motion in electric and magnetic fields, and rigid body dynamics. The Hamilton-Jacobi approach is developed with special attention to the canonical transformation in order to provide a smooth and logical transition into the study of complex and chaotic systems. Finally the text has a careful treatment of relativistic mechanics and the requirement of Lorentz invariance. The text is enriched with an outline of the history of mechanics, which particularly outlines the importance of the work of Euler, Lagrange, Hamilton and Jacobi. Numerous exercises with solutions support the exceptionally clear and concise treatment...

16. Theoretical modeling of mechanical homeostasis of a mammalian cell under gravity-directed vector.

Science.gov (United States)

Zhou, Lüwen; Zhang, Chen; Zhang, Fan; Lü, Shouqin; Sun, Shujin; Lü, Dongyuan; Long, Mian

2018-02-01

Translocation of dense nucleus along gravity vector initiates mechanical remodeling of a eukaryotic cell. In our previous experiments, we quantified the impact of gravity vector on cell remodeling by placing an MC3T3-E1 cell onto upward (U)-, downward (D)-, or edge-on (E)- orientated substrate. Our experimental data demonstrate that orientation dependence of nucleus longitudinal translocation is positively correlated with cytoskeletal (CSK) remodeling of their expressions and structures and also is associated with rearrangement of focal adhesion complex (FAC). However, the underlying mechanism how CSK network and FACs are reorganized in a mammalian cell remains unclear. In this paper, we developed a theoretical biomechanical model to integrate the mechanosensing of nucleus translocation with CSK remodeling and FAC reorganization induced by a gravity vector. The cell was simplified as a nucleated tensegrity structure in the model. The cell and CSK filaments were considered to be symmetrical. All elements of CSK filaments and cytomembrane that support the nucleus were simplified as springs. FACs were simplified as an adhesion cluster of parallel bonds with shared force. Our model proposed that gravity vector-directed translocation of the cell nucleus is mechanically balanced by CSK remodeling and FAC reorganization induced by a gravitational force. Under gravity, dense nucleus tends to translocate and exert additional compressive or stretching force on the cytoskeleton. Finally, changes of the tension force acting on talin by microfilament alter the size of FACs. Results from our model are in qualitative agreement with those from experiments.

17. Goal-directed mechanisms that constrain retrieval predict subsequent memory for new "foil" information.

Science.gov (United States)

Vogelsang, David A; Bonnici, Heidi M; Bergström, Zara M; Ranganath, Charan; Simons, Jon S

2016-08-01

To remember a previous event, it is often helpful to use goal-directed control processes to constrain what comes to mind during retrieval. Behavioral studies have demonstrated that incidental learning of new "foil" words in a recognition test is superior if the participant is trying to remember studied items that were semantically encoded compared to items that were non-semantically encoded. Here, we applied subsequent memory analysis to fMRI data to understand the neural mechanisms underlying the "foil effect". Participants encoded information during deep semantic and shallow non-semantic tasks and were tested in a subsequent blocked memory task to examine how orienting retrieval towards different types of information influences the incidental encoding of new words presented as foils during the memory test phase. To assess memory for foils, participants performed a further surprise old/new recognition test involving foil words that were encountered during the previous memory test blocks as well as completely new words. Subsequent memory effects, distinguishing successful versus unsuccessful incidental encoding of foils, were observed in regions that included the left inferior frontal gyrus and posterior parietal cortex. The left inferior frontal gyrus exhibited disproportionately larger subsequent memory effects for semantic than non-semantic foils, and significant overlap in activity during semantic, but not non-semantic, initial encoding and foil encoding. The results suggest that orienting retrieval towards different types of foils involves re-implementing the neurocognitive processes that were involved during initial encoding. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

18. Systems Biology Reveals Cigarette Smoke-Induced Concentration-Dependent Direct and Indirect Mechanisms That Promote Monocyte-Endothelial Cell Adhesion.

Science.gov (United States)

Poussin, Carine; Laurent, Alexandra; Peitsch, Manuel C; Hoeng, Julia; De Leon, Hector

2015-10-01

19. Mechanism of action of direct-acting antiviral agents in treatment of chronic hepatitis C

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

WEN Xiaoyu

2016-09-01

Full Text Available With the development and launch of direct-acting antiviral agents (DAAs in the world in recent years, therapeutic regimens for chronic hepatitis C are constantly evolving. DAAs will also be launched in China in the near future. DAAs mainly target at the non-structural proteins of HCV and can inhibit HCV RNA replication. This article introduces the targets, mechanism of action, and resistance characteristics of different DAAs, as well as their current research and development in China and the results of phase Ⅲ clinical studies, in order to provide a reference for combined therapeutic strategies with DAAs in the treatment for chronic hepatitis C.

20. COMPLIANCE ANALYSIS, OPTIMISATION AND COMPARISON OF A NEW 3PUS-PU MECHANISM

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

B. Wei

2013-06-01

Full Text Available This paper investigates the compliance of a new 3PUS-PU hybrid mechanism with three degrees of freedom, including translation along the Z axis and rotations about the X and Y axes. Firstly, the kinematic analysis of the mechanism is analysed and the compliance model of the mechanism derived. Secondly, the effects the geometric parameters and position and orientation parameters on the compliance of the mechanism in each direction are investigated, and the genetic algorithm is used to optimise the global compliance by simultaneously adjusting design variables. Finally, the compliance of two similar kinds of 3PUS-PU mechanism in each direction is reviewed.

1. Understanding the mechanism of direct electrochemistry of mitochondria-modified electrodes from yeast, potato and bovine sources at carbon paper electrodes

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Giroud, Fabien; Nicolo, Tera A.; Koepke, Sara J.; Minteer, Shelley D.

2013-01-01

Although mitochondria have been used for bio-electrochemistry for over 5 years, little is known about their direct electrochemistry mechanism. This paper focuses on developing a better understanding of the electron transfer mechanism of mitochondria from three different organisms at carbon electrodes. Yeast, potato and bovine mitochondria have been successfully isolated and immobilized onto Toray paper electrodes via vapor deposited silica. Organelle-modified electrodes were first characterized using cyclic voltammetry. Similar electrochemical signals were obtained for all organisms. Direct electron transfer was observed when a metabolite of the Krebs cycle was present in the buffer solution. Control experiments based on the immobilization of two electron carriers contained in mitochondria, cytochrome c and a quinone (coenzyme Q 10 ), tend to show the electron transfer mechanism to the carbon material comes from the quinone pool of the organelles. As quinones are known to be pH-dependent, we further investigated the response of the electrochemical signal of the three isolated mitochondria and the two electron carriers separately. The half wave potentials obtained from the organelles appeared to be pH-dependent and their variations are comparable to coenzyme Q 10 rather than cytochrome c. Finally, extraction of both the cytochrome c and the quinone pool from intact mitochondria was performed to validate our hypothesis that direct electrochemistry of mitochondria happens via the quinone pool. Electrochemistry of immobilized quinone-depleted mitochondria validated the hypothesis that the mitochondria are communicating with the electrodes through the quinone pool

2. Closed-form solutions for linear regulator-design of mechanical systems including optimal weighting matrix selection

Science.gov (United States)

Hanks, Brantley R.; Skelton, Robert E.

1991-01-01

This paper addresses the restriction of Linear Quadratic Regulator (LQR) solutions to the algebraic Riccati Equation to design spaces which can be implemented as passive structural members and/or dampers. A general closed-form solution to the optimal free-decay control problem is presented which is tailored for structural-mechanical systems. The solution includes, as subsets, special cases such as the Rayleigh Dissipation Function and total energy. Weighting matrix selection is a constrained choice among several parameters to obtain desired physical relationships. The closed-form solution is also applicable to active control design for systems where perfect, collocated actuator-sensor pairs exist. Some examples of simple spring mass systems are shown to illustrate key points.

3. Direct observation of TALE protein dynamics reveals a two-state search mechanism.

Science.gov (United States)

Cuculis, Luke; Abil, Zhanar; Zhao, Huimin; Schroeder, Charles M

2015-06-01

Transcription activator-like effector (TALE) proteins are a class of programmable DNA-binding proteins for which the fundamental mechanisms governing the search process are not fully understood. Here we use single-molecule techniques to directly observe TALE search dynamics along DNA templates. We find that TALE proteins are capable of rapid diffusion along DNA using a combination of sliding and hopping behaviour, which suggests that the TALE search process is governed in part by facilitated diffusion. We also observe that TALE proteins exhibit two distinct modes of action during the search process-a search state and a recognition state-facilitated by different subdomains in monomeric TALE proteins. Using TALE truncation mutants, we further demonstrate that the N-terminal region of TALEs is required for the initial non-specific binding and subsequent rapid search along DNA, whereas the central repeat domain is required for transitioning into the site-specific recognition state.

4. STRATEGIC DIRECTIONS FOR REFORMING FISCAL POLICY OF UKRAINE

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Тymoshenko A.

2018-01-01

Full Text Available The article is about the current direction of the transformation of the Ukrainian fiscal policy. The analysis of tax revenues to the State Budget and expenditures from it was carried out. Negative trends in the implementation of fiscal policy have been identified. A mechanism for implementing the fiscal policy is proposed. The main strategic directions of reforming fiscal policy have been identified. It is substantiated that in order to achieve an effective fiscal policy at the macro level it is necessary to create conditions for optimal filling of the state budget and contain inflationary processes. At the meso level it is necessary to ensure the fulfillment of tasks that promote economic growth in the regions and at the micro level ̶ to identify and implement measures to enhance the development of business structures through improvement of the investment climate. It is argued that for this purpose it is important to develop and implement an effective fiscal policy of Ukraine strategy that should include the following smart directions in the field of fiscal policy: improving the combination of fiscal and budgetary spheres in regulation, planning, management with the goal of achieving the maximum results of increasing the welfare of the population; determination of effective communication chains between business centers and the state fiscal service in the course of tax administration, the formation of an objective tax control system. It is pointed that the implementation of the fiscal mechanism combines the fiscal and budgetary mechanisms and includes the mobilization of financial resources from tax payments, as well as their distribution and effective use. It is noted that the instruments of the fiscal mechanism are means for influencing the formation of the optimal amount of financial resources for their further use, in turn, each instrument within the fiscal mechanism has its own functional load. So, expanding the functional boundaries of

5. Prediction of mechanical properties for hexagonal boron nitride nanosheets using molecular mechanics model

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Natsuki, Toshiaki [Shinshu University, Faculty of Textile Science and Technology, Ueda (Japan); Shinshu University, Institute of Carbon Science and Technology, Nagano (Japan); Natsuki, Jun [Shinshu University, Institute of Carbon Science and Technology, Nagano (Japan)

2017-04-15

Mechanical behaviors of nanomaterials are not easy to be evaluated in the laboratory because of their extremely small size and difficulty controlling. Thus, a suitable model for the estimation of the mechanical properties for nanomaterials becomes very important. In this study, the elastic properties of boron nitride (BN) nanosheets, including the elastic modulus, the shear modulus, and the Poisson's ratio, are predicted using a molecular mechanics model. The molecular mechanics force filed is established to directly incorporate the Morse potential function into the constitutive model of nanostructures. According to the molecular mechanics model, the chirality effect of hexagonal BN nanosheets on the elastic modulus is investigated through a closed-form solution. The simulated result shows that BN nanosheets exhibit an isotropic elastic property. The present analysis yields a set of very simple formulas and is able to be served as a good approximation on the mechanical properties for the BN nanosheets. (orig.)

6. Prediction of mechanical properties for hexagonal boron nitride nanosheets using molecular mechanics model

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Natsuki, Toshiaki; Natsuki, Jun

2017-01-01

Mechanical behaviors of nanomaterials are not easy to be evaluated in the laboratory because of their extremely small size and difficulty controlling. Thus, a suitable model for the estimation of the mechanical properties for nanomaterials becomes very important. In this study, the elastic properties of boron nitride (BN) nanosheets, including the elastic modulus, the shear modulus, and the Poisson's ratio, are predicted using a molecular mechanics model. The molecular mechanics force filed is established to directly incorporate the Morse potential function into the constitutive model of nanostructures. According to the molecular mechanics model, the chirality effect of hexagonal BN nanosheets on the elastic modulus is investigated through a closed-form solution. The simulated result shows that BN nanosheets exhibit an isotropic elastic property. The present analysis yields a set of very simple formulas and is able to be served as a good approximation on the mechanical properties for the BN nanosheets. (orig.)

7. A review of Green's function methods in computational fluid mechanics: Background, recent developments and future directions

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Dorning, J.

1981-01-01

The research and development over the past eight years on local Green's function methods for the high-accuracy, high-efficiency numerical solution of nuclear engineering problems is reviewed. The basic concepts and key ideas are presented by starting with an expository review of the original fully two-dimensional local Green's function methods developed for neutron diffusion and heat conduction, and continuing through the progressively more complicated and more efficient nodal Green's function methods for neutron diffusion, heat conduction and neutron transport to establish the background for the recent development of Green's function methods in computational fluid mechanics. Some of the impressive numerical results obtained via these classes of methods for nuclear engineering problems are briefly summarized. Finally, speculations are proffered on future directions in which the development of these types of methods in fluid mechanics and other areas might lead. (orig.) [de

8. Modelling of Mechanical Behavior at High Strain Rate of Ti-6al-4v Manufactured By Means of Direct Metal Laser Sintering Technique

Science.gov (United States)

Iannitti, Gianluca; Bonora, Nicola; Gentile, Domenico; Ruggiero, Andrew; Testa, Gabriel; Gubbioni, Simone

2017-06-01

In this work, the mechanical behavior of Ti-6Al-4V obtained by additive manufacturing technique was investigated, also considering the build direction. Dog-bone shaped specimens and Taylor cylinders were machined from rods manufactured by means of the EOSSINT M2 80 machine, based on Direct Metal Laser Sintering technique. Tensile tests were performed at strain rate ranging from 5E-4 s-1 to 1000 s-1 using an Instron electromechanical machine for quasistatic tests and a Direct-Tension Split Hopkinson Bar for dynamic tests. The mechanical strength of the material was described by a Johnson-Cook model modified to account for stress saturation occurring at high strain. Taylor cylinder tests and their corresponding numerical simulations were carried out in order to validate the constitutive model under a complex deformation path, high strain rates, and high temperatures.

9. Carbon Footprint of Inbound Tourism to Iceland: A Consumption-Based Life-Cycle Assessment including Direct and Indirect Emissions

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Hannah Sharp

2016-11-01

Full Text Available The greenhouse gas (GHG emissions caused by tourism have been studied from several perspectives, but few studies exist that include all direct and indirect emissions, particularly those from aviation. In this study, an input/output-based hybrid life-cycle assessment (LCA method is developed to assess the consumption-based carbon footprint of the average tourist including direct and indirect emissions. The total inbound tourism-related GHG emissions are also calculated within a certain region. As a demonstration of the method, the full carbon footprint of an average tourist is assessed as well as the total GHG emissions induced by tourism to Iceland over the period of 2010–2015, with the presented approach applicable in other contexts as well. Iceland provides an interesting case due to three features: (1 the tourism sector in Iceland is the fastest-growing industry in the country with an annual growth rate of over 20% over the past five years; (2 almost all tourists arrive by air; and (3 the country has an almost emissions-free energy industry and an import-dominated economy, which emphasise the role of the indirect emissions. According to the assessment, the carbon footprint for the average tourist is 1.35 tons of CO2-eq, but ranges from 1.1 to 3.2 tons of CO2-eq depending on the distance travelled by air. Furthermore, this footprint is increasing due to the rise in average flight distances travelled to reach the country. The total GHG emissions caused by tourism in Iceland have tripled from approximately 600,000 tons of CO2-eq in 2010 to 1,800,000 tons in 2015. Aviation accounts for 50%–82% of this impact (depending on the flight distance underlining the importance of air travel, especially as tourism-related aviation is forecasted to grow significantly in the near future. From a method perspective, the carbon footprinting application presented in the study would seem to provide an efficient way to study both the direct and indirect

10. Mechanism of enhanced performance on a hybrid direct carbon fuel cell using sawdust biofuels

Science.gov (United States)

Li, Shuangbin; Jiang, Cairong; Liu, Juan; Tao, Haoliang; Meng, Xie; Connor, Paul; Hui, Jianing; Wang, Shaorong; Ma, Jianjun; Irvine, John T. S.

2018-04-01

Biomass is expected to play a significant role in power generation in the near future. With the uprising of carbon fuel cells, hybrid direct carbon fuel cells (HDCFCs) show its intrinsic and incomparable advantages in the generation of clean energy with higher efficiency. In this study, two types of biomass treated by physical sieve and pyrolysis from raw sawdust are investigated on an anode-supported HDCFC. The structure and thermal analysis indicate that raw sawdust has well-formed cellulose I phase with very low ash. Electrochemical performance behaviors for sieved and pyrolyzed sawdust combined with various weight ratios of carbonate are compared in N2 and CO2 purge gas. The results show that the power output of sieved sawdust with 789 mWcm-2 is superior to that of pyrolyzed sawdust in CO2 flowing, as well as in N2 flowing. The anode reaction mechanism for the discrepancy of two fuels is explained and the emphasis is also placed on the modified oxygen-reduction cycle mechanism of catalytic effects of Li2CO3 and K2CO3 salts in promoting cell performance.

11. Microstructures and mechanical properties of 3D 4-directional, C{sub f}/ZrC–SiC composites using ZrC precursor and polycarbosilane

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Li, Qinggang, E-mail: liqinggang66@gmail.com [School of Material Science and Engineering, University of Jinan, Jinan 250022 (China); Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Preparation and Measurement of Building Materials, Jinan 250022 (China); Dong, Shaoming [Structural Ceramics and Composites Engineering Research Center, Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050 (China); Wang, Zhi; Shi, Guopu; Ma, Yan [School of Material Science and Engineering, University of Jinan, Jinan 250022 (China); Zhou, Haijun; Wang, Zhen; He, Ping [Structural Ceramics and Composites Engineering Research Center, Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050 (China)

2013-11-01

Highlights: • Three-dimensional 4-directional C{sub f}/ZrC–SiC composites fabricated by polymer infiltration and pyrolysis. • The microstructure and mechanical properties of the composites were studied. • High-temperature oxidation resistance and anti-ablation properties were evaluated. • Results show the composites have good mechanical and excellent ablative properties. -- Abstract: Three-dimensional 4-directional C{sub f}/ZrC–SiC composites were successfully fabricated by polymer infiltration and pyrolysis combined with ZrC precursor impregnation. The microstructure and mechanical properties of the composites were studied. The composite with PyC/SiC interphase had a bulk density of 2.14 g/cm{sup 3}, an open porosity of 10%, and a bending stress of 474 MPa, and exhibited a non-brittle failure behavior due to propagation and deflection of cracks, and fracture and pullout of fibers. Their high-temperature oxidation resistance and anti-ablation properties were evaluated using a muffle furnace and plasma wind tunnel test. Results show that the composites have good mechanical and excellent ablative properties.

12. Metallurgical and Mechanical Evaluation of 4340 Steel Produced by Direct Metal Laser Sintering

Science.gov (United States)

Jelis, Elias; Clemente, Matthew; Kerwien, Stacey; Ravindra, Nuggehalli M.; Hespos, Michael R.

2015-03-01

Direct metal laser sintering (DMLS) was used to produce high-strength low-alloy 4340 steel specimens. Mechanical and metallurgical analyses were performed on the specimens to determine the samples with the highest strengths and the least porosity. The optimal process parameters were thus defined based on the corresponding experimental conditions. Additionally, the effects of fabricating specimens with both virgin and recycled powders were studied. Scanning electron microscopy and electron-dispersive spectroscopy were performed on both types of powders to determine the starting morphology and composition. The initial tensile results are promising, suggesting that DMLS can produce specimens equal in strength to wrought materials. However, there is evidence of cracking on several of the heat-treated tensile specimens that is unexplained. Several theories point to disturbances in the build chamber environment that went undetected while the specimens were being fabricated.

13. MECHANICAL AND THERMO–MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF BI-DIRECTIONAL AND SHORT CARBON FIBER REINFORCED EPOXY COMPOSITES

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

G. AGARWAL

2014-10-01

Full Text Available This paper based on bidirectional and short carbon fiber reinforced epoxy composites reports the effect of fiber loading on physical, mechanical and thermo-mechanical properties respectively. The five different fiber loading, i.e., 10wt. %, 20wt. %, 30wt. %, 40wt. % and 50wt. % were taken for evaluating the above said properties. The physical and mechanical properties, i.e., hardness, tensile strength, flexural strength, inter-laminar shear strength and impact strength are determined to represent the behaviour of composite structures with that of fiber loading. Thermo-mechanical properties of the material are measured with the help of Dynamic Mechanical Analyser to measure the damping capacity of the material that is used to reduce the vibrations. The effect of storage modulus, loss modulus and tan delta with temperature are determined. Finally, Cole–Cole analysis is performed on both bidirectional and short carbon fiber reinforced epoxy composites to distinguish the material properties of either homogeneous or heterogeneous materials. The results show that with the increase in fiber loading the mechanical properties of bidirectional carbon fiber reinforced epoxy composites increases as compared to short carbon fiber reinforced epoxy composites except in case of hardness, short carbon fiber reinforced composites shows better results. Similarly, as far as Loss modulus, storage modulus is concerned bidirectional carbon fiber shows better damping behaviour than short carbon fiber reinforced composites.

14. Effect of solidification parameters on mechanical properties of directionally solidified Al-Rich Al-Cu alloys

Science.gov (United States)

2013-05-01

Al(100-x)-Cux alloys (x=3 wt%, 6 wt%, 15 wt%, 24 wt% and 33 wt%) were prepared using metals of 99.99% high purity in vacuum atmosphere. These alloys were directionally solidified under steady-state conditions by using a Bridgman-type directional solidification furnace. Solidification parameters (G, V and ), microstructure parameters (λ1, λ2 and λE) and mechanical properties (HV, σ) of the Al-Cu alloys were measured. Microstructure parameters were expressed as functions of solidification parameters by using a linear regression analysis. The dependency of HV, σ on the cooling rate, microstructure parameters and composition were determined. According to experimental results, the microhardness and ultimate tensile strength of the solidified samples was increased by increasing the cooling rate and Cu content, but decreased with increasing microstructure parameters. The microscopic fracture surfaces of the different samples were observed using scanning electron microscopy. Fractographic analysis of the tensile fracture surfaces showed that the type of fracture significantly changed from ductile to brittle depending on the composition.

15. Mechanical and Physical Performance of Concrete Including Waste Electrical Cable Rubber

Science.gov (United States)

Taner Yildirim, Salih; Pelin Duygun, Nur

2017-10-01

Solid wastes are important environmental problem all over the World. Consumption of the plastic solid waste covers big portion within the total solid waste. Although a numerous plastic material is subjected to the recycling process, it is not easy to be destroyed by nature. One of the recommended way to prevent is to utilize as an aggregate in cement-based material. There are many researches on use of recycling rubber in concrete. However, studies on recycling of waste electrical cable rubber (WECR) in concrete is insufficient although there are many research on waste tyre rubbers in concrete. In this study, fine aggregate was replaced with WECR which were 5%, 10%, and 15 % of the total aggregate volume in the concrete and researched workability, unit weight, water absorption, compressive strength, flexural strength, ultrasonic pulse velocity, modulus of elasticity, and abrasion resistance of concrete. As a result of experimental studies, increase of WECR amount in concrete increases workability due to lack of adherence between cement paste and WECR, and hydrophobic structure of WECR while it influences negatively mechanical properties of concrete. It is possible to use WECR in concrete taking into account the reduction in mechanical properties.

16. Thermal and Mechanical Non-Equilibrium Effects on Turbulent Flows: Fundamental Studies of Energy Exchanges Through Direct Numerical Simulations, Molecular Simulations and Experiments

Science.gov (United States)

2016-02-26

photochemical TNE generation, and chemistry of non- equilibrium phenomena. We have investigated a new concept to generate turbulence using photo-initiated...AFRL-AFOSR-VA-TR-2016-0104 Thermal and mechanical non- equilibrium effects on turbulent flows:fundamental studies of energy exchanges through direct...Performance 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 15-09-2012 to 14-11-2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Thermal and mechanical non- equilibrium effects on turbulent

17. Energy implications of mechanical and mechanical-biological treatment compared to direct waste-to-energy.

Science.gov (United States)

Cimpan, Ciprian; Wenzel, Henrik

2013-07-01

Primary energy savings potential is used to compare five residual municipal solid waste treatment systems, including configurations with mechanical (MT) and mechanical-biological (MBT) pre-treatment, which produce waste-derived fuels (RDF and SRF), biogas and/or recover additional materials for recycling, alongside a system based on conventional mass burn waste-to-energy and ash treatment. To examine the magnitude of potential savings we consider two energy efficiency levels (state-of-the-art and best available technology), the inclusion/exclusion of heat recovery (CHP vs. PP) and three different background end-use energy production systems (coal condensing electricity and natural gas heat, Nordic electricity mix and natural gas heat, and coal CHP energy quality allocation). The systems achieved net primary energy savings in a range between 34 and 140 MJprimary/100 MJinput waste, in the different scenario settings. The energy footprint of transportation needs, pre-treatment and reprocessing of recyclable materials was 3-9.5%, 1-18% and 1-8% respectively, relative to total energy savings. Mass combustion WtE achieved the highest savings in scenarios with CHP production, nonetheless, MBT-based systems had similarly high performance if SRF streams were co-combusted with coal. When RDF and SRF was only used in dedicated WtE plants, MBT-based systems totalled lower savings due to inherent system losses and additional energy costs. In scenarios without heat recovery, the biodrying MBS-based system achieved the highest savings, on the condition of SRF co-combustion. As a sensitivity scenario, alternative utilisation of SRF in cement kilns was modelled. It supported similar or higher net savings for all pre-treatment systems compared to mass combustion WtE, except when WtE CHP was possible in the first two background energy scenarios. Recovery of plastics for recycling before energy recovery increased net energy savings in most scenario variations, over those of full

18. Mechanical Design of an Omni-Directional Sensor Mount

National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

Rosheim, Mark

2002-01-01

This effort has been directed to development and demonstration of a gimbal mount capable of 180 degree singularity- free pitch and yaw motion about a two-axis center, avoiding the common problem of gimbal lock...

19. Optimization of mechanical properties of Al-metal matrix composite produced by direct fusion of beverage cans

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Carrasco, C.; Inzunza, G.; Camurri, C.; Rodríguez, C.; Radovic, L.; Soldera, F.; Suarez, S.

2014-01-01

The collection of used beverage cans is limited in countries where they are not fabricated; their low value does not justify the extra charge of exporting them for further processing. To address this increasingly serious problem, here we optimize the properties of an aluminum metal matrix composite (Al-MMC) obtained through direct fusion of beverage cans by using the slag generated in the melting process as reinforcement. This method consists of a modified rheocasting process followed by thixoforming. Our main operational variable is the shear rate applied to a semi-solid bath, subsequent to which a suitable heat treatment (T8) is proposed to improve the mechanical properties. The microstructure, the phases obtained and their effect on composite mechanical properties are analyzed. The composite material produced has, under the best conditions, a yield stress of 175 MPa and a tensile strength of 273 MPa. These results demonstrate that the proposed process does indeed transform the used beverage cans into promising composite materials, e.g., for structural applications

20. Optimization of mechanical properties of Al-metal matrix composite produced by direct fusion of beverage cans

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Carrasco, C., E-mail: ccarrascoc@udec.cl [Department of Materials Engineering, University of Concepción, Edmundo Larenas 270, Concepción (Chile); Inzunza, G.; Camurri, C.; Rodríguez, C. [Department of Materials Engineering, University of Concepción, Edmundo Larenas 270, Concepción (Chile); Radovic, L. [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Concepción, Edmundo Larenas 129, Concepción (Chile); Department of Energy and Geo-Environmental Engineering, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Soldera, F.; Suarez, S. [Department of Materials Science, Saarland University, Campus D3.3, 66123 Saarbrücken (Germany)

2014-11-03

The collection of used beverage cans is limited in countries where they are not fabricated; their low value does not justify the extra charge of exporting them for further processing. To address this increasingly serious problem, here we optimize the properties of an aluminum metal matrix composite (Al-MMC) obtained through direct fusion of beverage cans by using the slag generated in the melting process as reinforcement. This method consists of a modified rheocasting process followed by thixoforming. Our main operational variable is the shear rate applied to a semi-solid bath, subsequent to which a suitable heat treatment (T8) is proposed to improve the mechanical properties. The microstructure, the phases obtained and their effect on composite mechanical properties are analyzed. The composite material produced has, under the best conditions, a yield stress of 175 MPa and a tensile strength of 273 MPa. These results demonstrate that the proposed process does indeed transform the used beverage cans into promising composite materials, e.g., for structural applications.

1. Pre-equilibrium nuclear reactions: An introduction to classical and quantum-mechanical models

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Koning, A.J.; Akkermans, J.M.

1999-01-01

In studies of light-ion induced nuclear reactions one distinguishes three different mechanisms: direct, compound and pre-equilibrium nuclear reactions. These reaction processes can be subdivided according to time scales or, equivalently, the number of intranuclear collisions taking place before emission. Furthermore, each mechanism preferably excites certain parts of the nuclear level spectrum and is characterized by different types of angular distributions. This presentation includes description of the classical, exciton model, semi-classical models, with some selected results, and quantum mechanical models. A survey of classical versus quantum-mechanical pre-equilibrium reaction theory is presented including practical applications

2. Bohmian mechanics without pilot waves

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Poirier, Bill

2010-01-01

In David Bohm's causal/trajectory interpretation of quantum mechanics, a physical system is regarded as consisting of both a particle and a wavefunction, where the latter 'pilots' the trajectory evolution of the former. In this paper, we show that it is possible to discard the pilot wave concept altogether, thus developing a complete mathematical formulation of time-dependent quantum mechanics directly in terms of real-valued trajectories alone. Moreover, by introducing a kinematic definition of the quantum potential, a generalized action extremization principle can be derived. The latter places very severe a priori restrictions on the set of allowable theoretical structures for a dynamical theory, though this set is shown to include both classical mechanics and quantum mechanics as members. Beneficial numerical ramifications of the above, 'trajectories only' approach are also discussed, in the context of simple benchmark applications.

3. Mechanical Material Engineering

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Kim, Mun Il

1993-01-01

This book introduced mechanical material with introduction, basic problems about metal ingredient of machine of metal and alloy, property of metal material mechanical metal material such as categorization of metal material and high tensile structure steel, mechanic design and steel material with three important points on using of steel materials, selection and directions machine structural steel, selection and directions of steel for tool, selection and instruction of special steel like stainless steel and spring steel, nonferrous metal materials and plastic.

4. Hot Press as a Sustainable Direct Recycling Technique of Aluminium: Mechanical Properties and Surface Integrity.

Science.gov (United States)

Yusuf, Nur Kamilah; Lajis, Mohd Amri; Ahmad, Azlan

2017-08-03

Meltless recycling technique has been utilized to overcome the lack of primary resources, focusing on reducing the usage of energy and materials. Hot press was proposed as a novel direct recycling technique which results in astoundingly low energy usage in contrast with conventional recycling. The aim of this study is to prove the technical feasibility of this approach by characterizing the recycled samples. For this purpose, AA6061 aluminium chips were recycled by utilizing hot press process under various operating temperature (T s = 430, 480, and 530 °C) and holding times (t s = 60, 90, and 120 min). The maximum mechanical properties of recycled chip are Ultimate tensile strength (UTS) = 266.78 MPa, Elongation to failure (ETF) = 16.129%, while, for surface integrity of the chips, the calculated microhardness is 81.744 HV, exhibited at T s = 530 °C and t s = 120 min. It is comparable to theoretical AA6061 T4-temper where maximum UTS and microhardness is increased up to 9.27% and 20.48%, respectively. As the desired mechanical properties of forgings can only be obtained by means of a final heat treatment, T5-temper, aging after forging process was employed. Heat treated recycled billet AA6061 (T5-temper) are considered comparable with as-received AA6061 T6, where the value of microhardness (98.649 HV) at 175 °C and 120 min of aging condition was revealed to be greater than 3.18%. Although it is quite early to put a base mainly on the observations in experimental settings, the potential for significant improvement offered by the direct recycling methods for production aluminium scrap can be clearly demonstrated. This overtures perspectives for industrial development of solid state recycling processes as environmentally benign alternatives of current melting based practices.

5. Review on mechanism of directly fabricating wafer-scale graphene on dielectric substrates by chemical vapor deposition

Science.gov (United States)

Ning, Jing; Wang, Dong; Chai, Yang; Feng, Xin; Mu, Meishan; Guo, Lixin; Zhang, Jincheng; Hao, Yue

2017-07-01

To date, chemical vapor deposition on transition metal catalysts is a potential way to achieve low cost, high quality and uniform wafer-scale graphene. However, the removal and transfer process of the annoying catalytic metals underneath can bring large amounts of uncertain factors causing the performance deterioration of graphene, such as the pollution of surface polymeric residues, unmentioned doping and structural damages. Thus, to develop a technique of directly fabricating graphene on dielectric substrates is quite meaningful. In this review, we will present specific methods of catalyst- or transfer-free techniques for graphene growth and discuss the diversity of growth mechanisms.

6. Directional Cell Migration in Response to Repeated Substratum Stretching

Science.gov (United States)

2017-10-01

Crawling migration plays an essential role in a variety of biological phenomena, including development, wound healing, and immune system function. Migration properties such as anterior-posterior polarity, directionality, and velocity are regulated not only by the reception of a chemoattractant but also by sensing mechanical inputs from the external environment. In this review, we describe the mechanical response of migrating cells, particularly under repeated stretching of the elastic substratum, highlighting the fact that there appear to be two independent mechanosensing systems that generate the polarity needed for migration. Cells that have no stress fibers, such as Dictyostelium cells and neutrophil-like differentiated HL-60 cells, migrate perpendicular to the stretching direction via myosin II localization. Cells that do possess stress fibers, however, such as fish keratocytes, migrate parallel to the stretching via a stress-fiber-dependent process.

7. 3-D simulation of soot formation in a direct-injection diesel engine based on a comprehensive chemical mechanism and method of moments

Science.gov (United States)

Zhong, Bei-Jing; Dang, Shuai; Song, Ya-Na; Gong, Jing-Song

2012-02-01

Here, we propose both a comprehensive chemical mechanism and a reduced mechanism for a three-dimensional combustion simulation, describing the formation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), in a direct-injection diesel engine. A soot model based on the reduced mechanism and a method of moments is also presented. The turbulent diffusion flame and PAH formation in the diesel engine were modelled using the reduced mechanism based on the detailed mechanism using a fixed wall temperature as a boundary condition. The spatial distribution of PAH concentrations and the characteristic parameters for soot formation in the engine cylinder were obtained by coupling a detailed chemical kinetic model with the three-dimensional computational fluid dynamic (CFD) model. Comparison of the simulated results with limited experimental data shows that the chemical mechanisms and soot model are realistic and correctly describe the basic physics of diesel combustion but require further development to improve their accuracy.

8. Action mechanisms of transcranial direct current stimulation in Alzheimer´s disease and memory loss

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Niels eHansen

2012-05-01

Full Text Available The pharmacological treatment of Alzheimer´s disease (AD is often limited and accompanied by drug side effects. Thus alternative therapeutic strategies such as non-invasive brain stimulation are needed. Few studies have demonstrated that transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS, a method of neuromodulation with consecutive robust excitability changes within the stimulated cortex area, is beneficial in AD. There is also evidence that tDCS enhances memory function in cognitive rehabilitation in depressive patients, Parkinson´s disease and stroke. TDCS improves working and visual recognition memory in humans and object-recognition learning in the elderly. Neurobiological mechanisms of AD comprise changes in neuronal activity and the cerebral blood flow caused by altered microvasculature, synaptic dysregulation from ß-amyloid peptide accumulation, altered neuromodulation by degeneration of modulatory amine transmitter systems, altered brain oscillations, and changes in network connectivity. tDCS alters (i neuronal activity and (ii human cerebral blood flow, (iii has synaptic and non-synaptic after-effects (iv, can modify neurotransmitters polarity-dependently, (v and alter oscillatory brain activity and (vi functional connectivity patterns in the brain. It thus is reasonable to use tDCS as a therapeutic instrument in AD as it improves cognitive function in manner based on a disease mechanism. Moreover, it might prove valuable in other types of dementia. Future large-scale clinical and mechanism-oriented studies may enable to identify its therapeutic validity in other types of demential disorders.

9. Oncogenic Receptor Tyrosine Kinases Directly Phosphorylate Focal Adhesion Kinase (FAK) as a Resistance Mechanism to FAK-Kinase Inhibitors.

Science.gov (United States)

Marlowe, Timothy A; Lenzo, Felicia L; Figel, Sheila A; Grapes, Abigail T; Cance, William G

2016-12-01

Focal adhesion kinase (FAK) is a major drug target in cancer and current inhibitors targeted to the ATP-binding pocket of the kinase domain have entered clinical trials. However, preliminary results have shown limited single-agent efficacy in patients. Despite these unfavorable data, the molecular mechanisms that drive intrinsic and acquired resistance to FAK-kinase inhibitors are largely unknown. We have demonstrated that receptor tyrosine kinases (RTK) can directly bypass FAK-kinase inhibition in cancer cells through phosphorylation of FAK's critical tyrosine 397 (Y397). We also showed that HER2 forms a direct protein-protein interaction with the FAK-FERM-F1 lobe, promoting direct phosphorylation of Y397. In addition, FAK-kinase inhibition induced two forms of compensatory RTK reprogramming: (i) the rapid phosphorylation and activation of RTK signaling pathways in RTK High cells and (ii) the long-term acquisition of RTKs novel to the parental cell line in RTK Low cells. Finally, HER2 +: cancer cells displayed resistance to FAK-kinase inhibition in 3D growth assays using a HER2 isogenic system and HER2 + cancer cell lines. Our data indicate a novel drug resistance mechanism to FAK-kinase inhibitors whereby HER2 and other RTKs can rescue and maintain FAK activation (pY397) even in the presence of FAK-kinase inhibition. These data may have important ramifications for existing clinical trials of FAK inhibitors and suggest that individual tumor stratification by RTK expression would be important to predict patient response to FAK-kinase inhibitors. Mol Cancer Ther; 15(12); 3028-39. ©2016 AACR. ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.

10. Physical mechanisms of SiNx layer structuring with ultrafast lasers by direct and confined laser ablation

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Rapp, S.; Heinrich, G.; Wollgarten, M.; Huber, H. P.; Schmidt, M.

2015-01-01

In the production process of silicon microelectronic devices and high efficiency silicon solar cells, local contact openings in thin dielectric layers are required. Instead of photolithography, these openings can be selectively structured with ultra-short laser pulses by confined laser ablation in a fast and efficient lift off production step. Thereby, the ultrafast laser pulse is transmitted by the dielectric layer and absorbed at the substrate surface leading to a selective layer removal in the nanosecond time domain. Thermal damage in the substrate due to absorption is an unwanted side effect. The aim of this work is to obtain a deeper understanding of the physical laser-material interaction with the goal of finding a damage-free ablation mechanism. For this, thin silicon nitride (SiN x ) layers on planar silicon (Si) wafers are processed with infrared fs-laser pulses. Two ablation types can be distinguished: The known confined ablation at fluences below 300 mJ/cm 2 and a combined partial confined and partial direct ablation at higher fluences. The partial direct ablation process is caused by nonlinear absorption in the SiN x layer in the center of the applied Gaussian shaped laser pulses. Pump-probe investigations of the central area show ultra-fast reflectivity changes typical for direct laser ablation. Transmission electron microscopy results demonstrate that the Si surface under the remaining SiN x island is not damaged by the laser ablation process. At optimized process parameters, the method of direct laser ablation could be a good candidate for damage-free selective structuring of dielectric layers on absorbing substrates

11. Investigation of the direct runoff generation mechanism for the analysis of the SCS-CN method applicability to a partial area experimental watershed

OpenAIRE

Soulis, K. X.; Valiantzas, J. D.; Dercas, N.; Londra, P. A.

2009-01-01

The Soil Conservation Service Curve Number (SCS-CN) method is widely used for predicting direct runoff volume for a given rainfall event. The applicability of the SCS-CN method and the direct runoff generation mechanism were thoroughly analysed in a Mediterranean experimental watershed in Greece. The region is characterized by a Mediterranean semi-arid climate. A detailed land cover and soil survey using remote sensing and GIS techniques, showed that the watershed is dominated by coarse soils...

12. Microstructures and mechanical properties of directionally solidified Ni-25%Si full lamellar in situ composites

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Zhang, Binggang; Li, Xiaopeng; Wang, Ting; Liu, Zheng

2016-01-01

Directional solidification experiments have been performed on Ni-25 at% Si alloy using electron beam floating zone method. A fully regular eutectic microstructures consisting of Ni, γ-Ni 31 Si 12 and β 1 -Ni 3 Si have been obtained. The influences of the directional solidification rate on the microstructures and properties of the full lamellar structures have been studied. The results show that the relationship between the mean interphase spacing (λ) and withdrawal rate (v) meets λ=29.9v −0.65 . The hardness increases with the increasing of growth rate (v) and decreasing of the interlamellar spacing (λ) which meets the relationship of H V =445.2v 0.14 and H V =910λ −0.21 . The maximum compressive strength, 2576 MPa, for DS samples is obtained by 10 mm/h. The average fracture toughness value found for 5 mm/h, 7 mm/h, 10 mm/h is 28.3 MPa m 1/2 , 29.1 MPa m 1/2 and 35.9 MPa m 1/2 , respectively. The crack bridging and crack deflection/interface debonding are the main toughening mechanism of Ni-25 at% Si with full lamellar structures.

13. Mechanically stable, hierarchically porous Cu3(btc)2 (HKUST-1) monoliths via direct conversion of copper(II) hydroxide-based monoliths.

Science.gov (United States)

Moitra, Nirmalya; Fukumoto, Shotaro; Reboul, Julien; Sumida, Kenji; Zhu, Yang; Nakanishi, Kazuki; Furukawa, Shuhei; Kitagawa, Susumu; Kanamori, Kazuyoshi

2015-02-28

The synthesis of highly crystalline macro-meso-microporous monolithic Cu3(btc)2 (HKUST-1; btc(3-) = benzene-1,3,5-tricarboxylate) is demonstrated by direct conversion of Cu(OH)2-based monoliths while preserving the characteristic macroporous structure. The high mechanical strength of the monoliths is promising for possible applications to continuous flow reactors.

14. [Effects of copper on biodegradation mechanism of trichloroethylene by mixed microorganisms].

Science.gov (United States)

Gao, Yanhui; Zhao, Tiantao; Xing, Zhilin; He, Zhi; Zhang, Lijie; Peng, Xuya

2016-05-25

15. Assessment of structural, thermal, and mechanical properties of portlandite through molecular dynamics simulations

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Hajilar, Shahin, E-mail: shajilar@iastate.edu [Department of Civil, Construction and Environmental Engineering, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011-1066 (United States); Shafei, Behrouz, E-mail: shafei@iastate.edu [Department of Civil, Construction and Environmental Engineering, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011-1066 (United States)

2016-12-15

The structural, thermal, and mechanical properties of portlandite, the primary solid phase of ordinary hydrated cement paste, are investigated using the molecular dynamics method. To understand the effects of temperature on the structural properties of portlandite, the coefficients of thermal expansion of portlandite are determined in the current study and validated with what reported from the experimental tests. The atomic structure of portlandite equilibrated at various temperatures is then subjected to uniaxial tensile strains in the three orthogonal directions and the stress-strain curves are developed. Based on the obtained results, the effect of the direction of straining on the mechanical properties of portlandite is investigated in detail. Structural damage analysis is performed to reveal the failure mechanisms in different directions. The energies of the fractured surfaces are calculated in different directions and compared to those of the ideal surfaces available in the literature. The key mechanical properties, including tensile strength, Young's modulus, and fracture strain, are extracted from the stress-strain curves. The sensitivity of the obtained mechanical properties to temperature and strain rate is then explored in a systematic way. This leads to valuable information on how the structural and mechanical properties of portlandite are affected under various exposure conditions and loading rates. - Graphical abstract: Fracture mechanism of portlandite under uniaxial strain in the z-direction. - Highlights: • The structural, thermal, and mechanical properties of portlandite are investigated. • The coefficients of thermal expansion are determined. • The stress-strain relationships are studied in three orthogonal directions. • The effects of temperature and strain rate on mechanical properties are examined. • The plastic energy required for fracture in the crystalline structure is reported.

16. 3-dimensional magnetotelluric inversion including topography using deformed hexahedral edge finite elements and direct solvers parallelized on symmetric multiprocessor computers - Part II: direct data-space inverse solution

Science.gov (United States)

Kordy, M.; Wannamaker, P.; Maris, V.; Cherkaev, E.; Hill, G.

2016-01-01

Following the creation described in Part I of a deformable edge finite-element simulator for 3-D magnetotelluric (MT) responses using direct solvers, in Part II we develop an algorithm named HexMT for 3-D regularized inversion of MT data including topography. Direct solvers parallelized on large-RAM, symmetric multiprocessor (SMP) workstations are used also for the Gauss-Newton model update. By exploiting the data-space approach, the computational cost of the model update becomes much less in both time and computer memory than the cost of the forward simulation. In order to regularize using the second norm of the gradient, we factor the matrix related to the regularization term and apply its inverse to the Jacobian, which is done using the MKL PARDISO library. For dense matrix multiplication and factorization related to the model update, we use the PLASMA library which shows very good scalability across processor cores. A synthetic test inversion using a simple hill model shows that including topography can be important; in this case depression of the electric field by the hill can cause false conductors at depth or mask the presence of resistive structure. With a simple model of two buried bricks, a uniform spatial weighting for the norm of model smoothing recovered more accurate locations for the tomographic images compared to weightings which were a function of parameter Jacobians. We implement joint inversion for static distortion matrices tested using the Dublin secret model 2, for which we are able to reduce nRMS to ˜1.1 while avoiding oscillatory convergence. Finally we test the code on field data by inverting full impedance and tipper MT responses collected around Mount St Helens in the Cascade volcanic chain. Among several prominent structures, the north-south trending, eruption-controlling shear zone is clearly imaged in the inversion.

17. Interconnection of thermal parameters, microstructure and mechanical properties in directionally solidified Sn–Sb lead-free solder alloys

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Dias, Marcelino; Costa, Thiago [Department of Manufacturing and Materials Engineering, University of Campinas — UNICAMP, 13083-860 Campinas, SP (Brazil); Rocha, Otávio [Federal Institute of Education, Science and Technology of Pará — IFPA, 66093-020 Belém, PA (Brazil); Spinelli, José E. [Department of Materials Engineering, Federal University of São Carlos — UFSCar, 13565-905 São Carlos, SP (Brazil); Cheung, Noé, E-mail: cheung@fem.unicamp.br [Department of Manufacturing and Materials Engineering, University of Campinas — UNICAMP, 13083-860 Campinas, SP (Brazil); Garcia, Amauri [Department of Manufacturing and Materials Engineering, University of Campinas — UNICAMP, 13083-860 Campinas, SP (Brazil)

2015-08-15

Considerable effort is being made to develop lead-free solders for assembling in environmental-conscious electronics, due to the inherent toxicity of Pb. The search for substitute alloys of Pb–Sn solders has increased in order to comply with different soldering purposes. The solder must not only meet the expected levels of electrical performance but may also have appropriate mechanical strength, with the absence of cracks in the solder joints. The Sn–Sb alloy system has a range of compositions that can be potentially included in the class of high temperature solders. This study aims to establish interrelations of solidification thermal parameters, microstructure and mechanical properties of Sn–Sb alloys (2 wt.%Sb and 5.5 wt.%Sb) samples, which were directionally solidified under cooling rates similar to those of reflow procedures in industrial practice. A complete high-cooling rate cellular growth is shown to be associated with the Sn–2.0 wt.%Sb alloy and a reverse dendrite-to-cell transition is observed for the Sn–5.5 wt.%Sb alloy. Strength and ductility of the Sn–2.0 wt.%Sb alloy are shown not to be affected by the cellular spacing. On the other hand, a considerable variation in these properties is associated with the cellular region of the Sn–5.5 wt.%Sb alloy casting. - Graphical abstract: Display Omitted - Highlights: • The microstructure of the Sn–2 wt.%Sb alloy is characterized by high-cooling rates cells. • Reverse dendrite > cell transition occurs for Sn–5.5 wt.%Sb alloy: cells prevail for cooling rates > 1.2 K/s. • Sn–5.5 wt.%Sb alloy: the dendritic region occurs for cooling rates < 0.9 K/s. • Sn–5.5 wt.%Sb alloy: tensile properties are improved with decreasing cellular spacing.

18. Bail in Mechanisms in the Bank Recovery and Resolution Directive

NARCIS (Netherlands)

Joosen, B.P.M.

2014-01-01

With the adoption of the Bank Recovery and Resolution Directive, Europe has completed one of the three important pillars of the Banking Union. This directive introduces the resolution tool of ‘bail in’ that aims at putting the burden of bank rescue operations with the private sector. Bail outs

19. Empirical validation of directed functional connectivity.

Science.gov (United States)

Mill, Ravi D; Bagic, Anto; Bostan, Andreea; Schneider, Walter; Cole, Michael W

2017-02-01

Mapping directions of influence in the human brain connectome represents the next phase in understanding its functional architecture. However, a host of methodological uncertainties have impeded the application of directed connectivity methods, which have primarily been validated via "ground truth" connectivity patterns embedded in simulated functional MRI (fMRI) and magneto-/electro-encephalography (MEG/EEG) datasets. Such simulations rely on many generative assumptions, and we hence utilized a different strategy involving empirical data in which a ground truth directed connectivity pattern could be anticipated with confidence. Specifically, we exploited the established "sensory reactivation" effect in episodic memory, in which retrieval of sensory information reactivates regions involved in perceiving that sensory modality. Subjects performed a paired associate task in separate fMRI and MEG sessions, in which a ground truth reversal in directed connectivity between auditory and visual sensory regions was instantiated across task conditions. This directed connectivity reversal was successfully recovered across different algorithms, including Granger causality and Bayes network (IMAGES) approaches, and across fMRI ("raw" and deconvolved) and source-modeled MEG. These results extend simulation studies of directed connectivity, and offer practical guidelines for the use of such methods in clarifying causal mechanisms of neural processing. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

20. Applying the model of Goal-Directed Behavior, including descriptive norms, to physical activity intentions: A contribution to improving the Theory of Planned Behavior

Science.gov (United States)

The theory of planned behavior (TPB) has received its fair share of criticism lately, including calls for it to retire. We contributed to improving the theory by testing extensions such as the model of goal-directed behavior (MGDB, which adds desire and anticipated positive and negative emotions) ap...

1. Calculation on spectrum of direct DNA damage induced by low-energy electrons including dissociative electron attachment.

Science.gov (United States)

Liu, Wei; Tan, Zhenyu; Zhang, Liming; Champion, Christophe

2017-03-01

In this work, direct DNA damage induced by low-energy electrons (sub-keV) is simulated using a Monte Carlo method. The characteristics of the present simulation are to consider the new mechanism of DNA damage due to dissociative electron attachment (DEA) and to allow determining damage to specific bases (i.e., adenine, thymine, guanine, or cytosine). The electron track structure in liquid water is generated, based on the dielectric response model for describing electron inelastic scattering and on a free-parameter theoretical model and the NIST database for calculating electron elastic scattering. Ionization cross sections of DNA bases are used to generate base radicals, and available DEA cross sections of DNA components are applied for determining DNA-strand breaks and base damage induced by sub-ionization electrons. The electron elastic scattering from DNA components is simulated using cross sections from different theoretical calculations. The resulting yields of various strand breaks and base damage in cellular environment are given. Especially, the contributions of sub-ionization electrons to various strand breaks and base damage are quantitatively presented, and the correlation between complex clustered DNA damage and the corresponding damaged bases is explored. This work shows that the contribution of sub-ionization electrons to strand breaks is substantial, up to about 40-70%, and this contribution is mainly focused on single-strand break. In addition, the base damage induced by sub-ionization electrons contributes to about 20-40% of the total base damage, and there is an evident correlation between single-strand break and damaged base pair A-T.

2. A perspective on direct conversion

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Lewis, W. B.

1963-10-15

As flowing energy, electricity is sought for its versatility. Its generation from some other flow or release of energy without mechanical power, or even sometimes heat, as intermediary is called direct conversion. The objective is high electrical output for minimum total cost and not always high conversion efficiency. The wide range of techniques embracing cryogenics and hot plasma derives from the special requirements of source, environment and application. Sources include solar and other radiation, nuclear fission and fusion, chemical energy and heat. Environments and applications range from space vehicles to submarines and from giant power networks to isolated buoys and pocket devices. (author)

3. A perspective on direct conversion

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Lewis, W.B.

1963-10-01

As flowing energy, electricity is sought for its versatility. Its generation from some other flow or release of energy without mechanical power, or even sometimes heat, as intermediary is called direct conversion. The objective is high electrical output for minimum total cost and not always high conversion efficiency. The wide range of techniques embracing cryogenics and hot plasma derives from the special requirements of source, environment and application. Sources include solar and other radiation, nuclear fission and fusion, chemical energy and heat. Environments and applications range from space vehicles to submarines and from giant power networks to isolated buoys and pocket devices. (author)

4. 5th IFToMM Symposium on the History of Machines and Mechanisms

CERN Document Server

Ceccarelli, Marco

2016-01-01

This volume includes contributions presented at the Fifth IFToMM Symposium on the History of Machines and Mechanisms, held at Universidad Autonoma de Queretaro, Santiago de Queretaro, QRO, Mexico, in June 2016. It contains work on theories and facts concerning mechanisms and machines from antiquity to current times as viewed in the present day. Topics include modern reviews of past works; people, history, and their works; direct memories of the recent past; historic development theories; the history of the design of machines and mechanisms; developments of mechanical design and automation; the historic development of teaching; the history of schools of engineering and the education of engineers. .

5. Bohmian mechanics without pilot waves

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Poirier, Bill, E-mail: Bill.Poirier@ttu.edu [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, and Department of Physics, Texas Tech University, Box 41061, Lubbock, TX 79409-1061 (United States)

2010-05-12

In David Bohm's causal/trajectory interpretation of quantum mechanics, a physical system is regarded as consisting of both a particle and a wavefunction, where the latter 'pilots' the trajectory evolution of the former. In this paper, we show that it is possible to discard the pilot wave concept altogether, thus developing a complete mathematical formulation of time-dependent quantum mechanics directly in terms of real-valued trajectories alone. Moreover, by introducing a kinematic definition of the quantum potential, a generalized action extremization principle can be derived. The latter places very severe a priori restrictions on the set of allowable theoretical structures for a dynamical theory, though this set is shown to include both classical mechanics and quantum mechanics as members. Beneficial numerical ramifications of the above, 'trajectories only' approach are also discussed, in the context of simple benchmark applications.

6. Biased Brownian motion mechanism for processivity and directionality of single-headed myosin-VI.

Science.gov (United States)

Iwaki, Mitsuhiro; Iwane, Atsuko Hikikoshi; Ikebe, Mitsuo; Yanagida, Toshio

2008-01-01

7. Directive and Non-Directive Movement in Child Therapy.

Science.gov (United States)

Krason, Katarzyna; Szafraniec, Grazyna

1999-01-01

Presents a new authorship method of child therapy based on visualization through motion. Maintains that this method stimulates motor development and musical receptiveness, and promotes personality development. Suggests that improvised movement to music facilitates the projection mechanism and that directed movement starts the channeling phase.…

8. Multiphase turbulence mechanisms identification from consistent analysis of direct numerical simulation data

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Ben Magolan

2017-09-01

Full Text Available Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS serves as an irreplaceable tool to probe the complexities of multiphase flow and identify turbulent mechanisms that elude conventional experimental measurement techniques. The insights unlocked via its careful analysis can be used to guide the formulation and development of turbulence models used in multiphase computational fluid dynamics simulations of nuclear reactor applications. Here, we perform statistical analyses of DNS bubbly flow data generated by Bolotnov (Reτ = 400 and Lu–Tryggvason (Reτ = 150, examining single-point statistics of mean and turbulent liquid properties, turbulent kinetic energy budgets, and two-point correlations in space and time. Deformability of the bubble interface is shown to have a dramatic impact on the liquid turbulent stresses and energy budgets. A reduction in temporal and spatial correlations for the streamwise turbulent stress (uu is also observed at wall-normal distances of y+ = 15, y/δ = 0.5, and y/δ = 1.0. These observations motivate the need for adaptation of length and time scales for bubble-induced turbulence models and serve as guidelines for future analyses of DNS bubbly flow data.

9. Structural and mechanical properties of diamond-like carbon films deposited by direct current magnetron sputtering

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Broitman, E.; Hellgren, N.; Czigany, Zs.; Twesten, R.D.; Luning, J.; Petrov, I.; Hultman, L.; Holloway, B.C.

2003-01-01

The microstructure, morphology, and mechanical properties of diamond-like carbon (DLC) films deposited by direct current magnetron sputtering were investigated for microelectromechanical systems applications. Film properties were found to vary markedly with the ion energy (E ion ) and ion-to-carbon flux ratio (J ion /J C ). Cross-sectional high-resolution transmission electron microscopy revealed an amorphous microstructure. However, the presence of nanometer-sized domains at E ion ∼85 eV was detected. Film stresses, σ, which were compressive in all cases, ranged from 0.5 to 3.5 GPa and depended on the flux ratio as well as ion energy. The hardness (H), Young's moduli (ε), and elastic recovery (R) increased with E ion to maximum values of H=27 GPa, ε=250 GPa, and R=68% at E ion =85 eV and J ion /J C =4.4. However, near edge x-ray absorption fine structure and electron energy-loss spectrum analysis showed that the sp 2 /sp 3 content of the films does not change with E ion or J ion /J C . The measured change in mechanical properties without a corresponding change in sp 2 /sp 3 ratio is not consistent with any previously published models. We suggest that, in the ranges 5 eV ≤E ion ≤85 eV and 1.1 ≤J ion /J C ≤6.8, the presence of defective graphite formed by subplanted C and Ar atoms has the dominant influence on the mechanical properties of DLC films

10. Primer: Fracture mechanics in the nuclear power industry

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Wessel, E.T.; Server, W.L.; Kennedy, E.L.

1990-01-01

This Primer is intended to familiarize utility engineers with the fracture mechanics technology and to provide the basis for a working knowledge of the subject. It is directed towards all the engineering disciplines that are involved either directly or indirectly with the structural reliability of electrical power generation equipment and systems. These engineering disciplines include such areas as: design and stress analysis, metallurgy and materials, nondestructive inspection and quality control, structural analysis and reliability engineering, chemical engineering and water chemistry control, and architectural engineering. This Primer does not provide a comprehensive, in-depth treatment of all the detailed aspects involved in fracture mechanics. It does, however, provide sufficient information and a common vocabulary that should enable engineers to: read and converse intelligently about the subject, understand and utilize ASME Codes and Regulatory Guides involving fracture mechanics, absorb technical information presented and discussed at various technical meetings, and begin to apply this technology towards actual engineering problems encountered in the course of their work. Example problems are provided to further enhance an understanding of fracture mechanics. Also, Appendix A describes fracture mechanics computer codes available through EPRI to analyze rotors, reactor pressure vessels and piping

11. Comprehensive Validation of Skeletal Mechanism for Turbulent Premixed Methane–Air Flame Simulations

KAUST Repository

Luca, Stefano

2017-08-01

A new skeletal mechanism, consisting of 16 species and 72 reactions, has been developed for lean methane–air premixed combustion from the GRI-Mech 3.0. The skeletal mechanism is validated for elevated unburnt temperatures (800 K) and pressures up to 4 atm, thereby addressing realistic gas turbine conditions. The skeletal mechanism is obtained by applying the directed relation graph method and performing sensitivity analysis on the detailed mechanism. The mechanism has been validated for flame speed and flame structure in a wide range of conditions and configurations. A good agreement between the skeletal mechanism and GRI-3.0 was obtained. The configurations considered include one-dimension laminar premixed flames, laminar non-premixed counterflow burners, and two- and three-dimensional unsteady configurations with variations of temperature, pressure, and composition. The skeletal mechanism allows for the inclusion of accurate finite rate chemistry in large-scale direct numerical simulations of lean turbulent premixed flames. In a large-scale direct numerical simulation, the use of the skeletal mechanism reduces the memory requirements by more than a factor of 3 and accelerates the simulation by a factor of 7 compared with the detailed mechanism. The skeletal mechanism is suitable for unsteady three-dimensional simulations of methane turbulent premixed, non-premixed, and globally lean partially premixed flames and is available as supplementary material.

12. Moving target tracking through distributed clustering in directional sensor networks.

Science.gov (United States)

Enayet, Asma; Razzaque, Md Abdur; Hassan, Mohammad Mehedi; Almogren, Ahmad; Alamri, Atif

2014-12-18

The problem of moving target tracking in directional sensor networks (DSNs) introduces new research challenges, including optimal selection of sensing and communication sectors of the directional sensor nodes, determination of the precise location of the target and an energy-efficient data collection mechanism. Existing solutions allow individual sensor nodes to detect the target's location through collaboration among neighboring nodes, where most of the sensors are activated and communicate with the sink. Therefore, they incur much overhead, loss of energy and reduced target tracking accuracy. In this paper, we have proposed a clustering algorithm, where distributed cluster heads coordinate their member nodes in optimizing the active sensing and communication directions of the nodes, precisely determining the target location by aggregating reported sensing data from multiple nodes and transferring the resultant location information to the sink. Thus, the proposed target tracking mechanism minimizes the sensing redundancy and maximizes the number of sleeping nodes in the network. We have also investigated the dynamic approach of activating sleeping nodes on-demand so that the moving target tracking accuracy can be enhanced while maximizing the network lifetime. We have carried out our extensive simulations in ns-3, and the results show that the proposed mechanism achieves higher performance compared to the state-of-the-art works.

13. Moving Target Tracking through Distributed Clustering in Directional Sensor Networks

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Asma Enayet

2014-12-01

Full Text Available The problem of moving target tracking in directional sensor networks (DSNs introduces new research challenges, including optimal selection of sensing and communication sectors of the directional sensor nodes, determination of the precise location of the target and an energy-efficient data collection mechanism. Existing solutions allow individual sensor nodes to detect the target’s location through collaboration among neighboring nodes, where most of the sensors are activated and communicate with the sink. Therefore, they incur much overhead, loss of energy and reduced target tracking accuracy. In this paper, we have proposed a clustering algorithm, where distributed cluster heads coordinate their member nodes in optimizing the active sensing and communication directions of the nodes, precisely determining the target location by aggregating reported sensing data from multiple nodes and transferring the resultant location information to the sink. Thus, the proposed target tracking mechanism minimizes the sensing redundancy and maximizes the number of sleeping nodes in the network. We have also investigated the dynamic approach of activating sleeping nodes on-demand so that the moving target tracking accuracy can be enhanced while maximizing the network lifetime. We have carried out our extensive simulations in ns-3, and the results show that the proposed mechanism achieves higher performance compared to the state-of-the-art works.

14. Direct Pore Binding as a Mechanism for Isoflurane Inhibition of the Pentameric Ligand-gated Ion Channel ELIC.

Science.gov (United States)

Chen, Qiang; Kinde, Monica N; Arjunan, Palaniappa; Wells, Marta M; Cohen, Aina E; Xu, Yan; Tang, Pei

2015-09-08

Pentameric ligand-gated ion channels (pLGICs) are targets of general anesthetics, but molecular mechanisms underlying anesthetic action remain debatable. We found that ELIC, a pLGIC from Erwinia chrysanthemi, can be functionally inhibited by isoflurane and other anesthetics. Structures of ELIC co-crystallized with isoflurane in the absence or presence of an agonist revealed double isoflurane occupancies inside the pore near T237(6') and A244(13'). A pore-radius contraction near the extracellular entrance was observed upon isoflurane binding. Electrophysiology measurements with a single-point mutation at position 6' or 13' support the notion that binding at these sites renders isoflurane inhibition. Molecular dynamics simulations suggested that isoflurane binding was more stable in the resting than in a desensitized pore conformation. This study presents compelling evidence for a direct pore-binding mechanism of isoflurane inhibition, which has a general implication for inhibitory action of general anesthetics on pLGICs.

15. Electrostatic direct energy converter performance and cost scaling laws

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Hoffman, M.A.

1977-08-01

This study is concerned with electrostatic type direct energy converters for direct recovery of a large fraction of the plasma ion energy from fusion reactors. Simplified equations are presented for each of the important loss mechanisms in both single-stage direct converters and multistage ''Venetian Blind'' type direct converters. These equations can be used to estimate the efficiency and electric power output of the direct converter subsystem. Scaling relations for the cost of each major component in the direct converter subsystem are also given; these include the vacuum tank, direct converter modules, the DC power conditioning equipment, cryogenic vacuum pumping system and the thermal bottoming plant. The performance and cost scaling laws have been developed primarily for use in overall fusion power plant systems codes. However, to illustrate their utility, cost-effectiveness studies of two specific reference direct converter designs are presented in terms of the specific capital costs (i.e., the capital cost per unit electric power produced) for the Direct Converter Subsystem alone. Some examples of design improvements which can significantly reduce the specific capital costs of the Direct Converter Subsystem are also given

16. Thermomechanical Modelling of Direct-Drive Friction Welding Applying a Thermal Pseudo Mechanical Model for the Generation of Heat

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Sonne, Mads Rostgaard; Hattel, Jesper Henri

2018-01-01

In the present work a 2D a xisymmetric thermomechanical model of the direct-drive friction welding process is developed, taking the temperature dependent shear yield stress into account in the description of the heat generation, utilizing a recent thermal pseudo mechanical model originally...... developed for the friction stir welding (FSW) process. The model is implemented in ABAQUS/Explicit via a subroutine. The application in this case is joining of austenitic stainless steel rods with an outer diameter of 112 mm, used for manufacturing of exhaust gas valves for large two stroke marine engines....... The material properties in terms of the temperature dependent flowstress curves used both in the thermal and the mechanical constitutive description are extracted from compression tests performed between 20 °C and 1200 °C on a Gleeble 1500 thermomechanical simulator. Comparison between measured and simulated...

17. Frontal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) abolishes list-method directed forgetting.

Science.gov (United States)

Silas, Jonathan; Brandt, Karen R

2016-03-11

It is a point of controversy as to whether directed forgetting effects are a result of active inhibition or a change of context initiated by the instruction to forget. In this study we test the causal role of active inhibition in directed forgetting. By applying cathodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) over the right prefrontal cortex we suppressed cortical activity commonly associated with inhibitory control. Participants who underwent real brain stimulation before completing the directed forgetting paradigm showed no directed forgetting effects. Conversely, those who underwent sham brain stimulation demonstrated classical directed forgetting effects. We argue that these findings suggest that inhibition is the primary mechanism that results in directed forgetting costs and benefits. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

18. Edge orientations of mechanically exfoliated anisotropic two-dimensional materials

Science.gov (United States)

Yang, Juntan; Wang, Yi; Li, Yinfeng; Gao, Huajian; Chai, Yang; Yao, Haimin

2018-03-01

Mechanical exfoliation is an approach widely applied to prepare high-quality two-dimensional (2D) materials for investigating their intrinsic physical properties. During mechanical exfoliation, in-plane cleavage results in new edges whose orientations play an important role in determining the properties of the as-exfoliated 2D materials especially those with high anisotropy. Here, we systematically investigate the factors affecting the edge orientation of 2D materials obtained by mechanical exfoliation. Our theoretical study manifests that the fractured direction during mechanical exfoliation is determined synergistically by the tearing direction and material anisotropy of fracture energy. For a specific 2D material, our theory enables us to predict the possible edge orientations of the exfoliated flakes as well as their occurring probabilities. The theoretical prediction is experimentally verified by examining the inter-edge angles of the exfoliated flakes of four typical 2D materials including graphene, MoS2, PtS2, and black phosphorus. This work not only sheds light on the mechanics of exfoliation of the 2D materials but also provides a new approach to deriving information of edge orientations of mechanically exfoliated 2D materials by data mining of their macroscopic geometric features.

19. Solving the cardiac hypertrophy riddle: The angiotensin II-mechanical stress connection.

Science.gov (United States)

2013-11-08

A series of studies conducted 20 years ago, documenting the cardiac hypertrophy phenotype and its underlying signaling mechanism induced by angiotensin II (Ang II) and mechanical stress, showed a remarkable similarity between the effect of the Gαq agonist and that of mechanical forces on cardiac hypertrophy. Subsequent studies confirmed the involvement of autocrine/paracrine mechanisms, including stretch-induced release of Ang II in load-induced cardiac hypertrophy. Recent studies showed that the Ang II type 1 (AT1) receptor is also directly activated by mechanical forces, suggesting that AT1 receptors play an important role in mediating load-induced cardiac hypertrophy through both ligand- and mechanical stress-dependent mechanisms.

20. A Direct Kinematics Problem Solution for the Three-degree-of-freedom Parallel Structure Manipulator Based on Crank Mechanism

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

V. N. Paschenko

2015-01-01

Full Text Available The paper describes a mechanism representing a kind of mechanisms of parallel kinematics with three degrees of freedom based on the crank mechanism. This mechanism consists of two platforms, namely: the lower fixed and the upper movable. The upper platform is connected to the lower one by six movable elements, three of which are rods attached to the bases by means of spherical joints, and another three have a crank structure.The paper shows an approach to the solution of a direct task of kinematics based on mathematical modeling. The inverse problem of kinematics is formulated as follows: at specified angles of rotation drive (the values of generalized coordinates to determine the position of the top mobile platform.To solve this problem has been used a mathematical model describing the proposed system. On the basis of the constructed model were made the necessary calculations that allowed us using the values of crank angles connected with the engines to determine the position of the platform in space. To solve the problem we used the method of virtual points to reduce the number of equations and unknowns, which determine the position of the upper platform in space, at a crucial system from eighteen to nine, thus simplifying the solution.To check the solution correctness was carried out numerical experiment. Each generalized coordinate took on values in the range from -30 ° to 30 °; for them a direct positional problem was solved, and its result was inserted, as initial data, in the previous solved and proven inverse problem on the position of the platform under study.The paper presents comparative results of measurements with the calculated values of the generalized coordinates and draws the appropriate conclusions, that this model is in good compliance with the results observed in practice. One of the distinctive features of the proposed approach is that rotation angles of engines are used as the generalized coordinates. This allowed us

1. Mechanical experiments on the superplastic material ALNOVI-1, including leak information

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Snippe, Q.H.C.; Meinders, T.

2011-01-01

Research highlights: → Mechanical testing of superplastic materials, in particular ALNOVI-1. → Uniaxial tests to show the one-dimensional stress-strain behaviour and the high amount of strain rate sensitivity. → Void volume fractions have been observed. → Free bulge experiments to show the dependence on the backpressure during the forming stage. → Measuring leak tightness of superplastically formed sheets. → Experiments are used in order to develop a constitutive model in a later stage. - Abstract: In subatomic particle physics, unstable particles can be detected with a so-called vertex detector, placed inside a particle accelerator. A detecting unit close to the accelerator bunch of charged particles must be separated from the accelerator vacuum. A thin sheet with a complex 3D shape prevents the detector vacuum from polluting the accelerator vacuum. Therefore, this sheet has to be completely leak tight. However, this can conflict with restrictions concerning maximum sheet thickness of the product. To produce such a complex thin sheet, superplastic forming can be very attractive in cases where a small number of products is needed. In order to predict gas permeability of these formed sheets, many mechanical experiments are necessary, where the gas leak has to be measured. To obtain insight in the mechanical behaviour of the used material, ALNOVI-1, tensile experiments were performed to describe the uniaxial stress-strain behaviour. From these experiments, a high strain rate sensitivity was measured. The flow stress of this material under superplastic conditions was low and the material behaved in an isotropic manner upon large plastic strains. The results of these experiments were used to predict the forming pressure as a function of time in a free bulge experiment, such that a predefined target strain rate will not be exceeded in the material. An extra parameter within these bulging experiments is the application of a hydrostatic pressure during the

2. Accurate SHAPE-directed RNA secondary structure modeling, including pseudoknots.

Science.gov (United States)

Hajdin, Christine E; Bellaousov, Stanislav; Huggins, Wayne; Leonard, Christopher W; Mathews, David H; Weeks, Kevin M

2013-04-02

A pseudoknot forms in an RNA when nucleotides in a loop pair with a region outside the helices that close the loop. Pseudoknots occur relatively rarely in RNA but are highly overrepresented in functionally critical motifs in large catalytic RNAs, in riboswitches, and in regulatory elements of viruses. Pseudoknots are usually excluded from RNA structure prediction algorithms. When included, these pairings are difficult to model accurately, especially in large RNAs, because allowing this structure dramatically increases the number of possible incorrect folds and because it is difficult to search the fold space for an optimal structure. We have developed a concise secondary structure modeling approach that combines SHAPE (selective 2'-hydroxyl acylation analyzed by primer extension) experimental chemical probing information and a simple, but robust, energy model for the entropic cost of single pseudoknot formation. Structures are predicted with iterative refinement, using a dynamic programming algorithm. This melded experimental and thermodynamic energy function predicted the secondary structures and the pseudoknots for a set of 21 challenging RNAs of known structure ranging in size from 34 to 530 nt. On average, 93% of known base pairs were predicted, and all pseudoknots in well-folded RNAs were identified.

3. Direct hydride shift mechanism and stereoselectivity of P450nor confirmed by QM/MM calculations.

Science.gov (United States)

Krámos, Balázs; Menyhárd, Dóra K; Oláh, Julianna

2012-01-19

Nitric oxide reductase (P450(nor)) found in Fusarium oxysporum catalyzes the reduction of nitric oxide to N(2)O in a multistep process. The reducing agent, NADH, is bound in the distal pocket of the enzyme, and direct hydride transfer occurs from NADH to the nitric oxide bound heme enzyme, forming intermediate I. Here we studied the possibility of hydride transfer from NADH to both the nitrogen and oxygen of the heme-bound nitric oxide, using quantum chemical and combined quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (QM/MM) calculations, on two different protein models, representing both possible stereochemistries, a syn- and an anti-NADH arrangement. All calculations clearly favor hydride transfer to the nitrogen of nitric oxide, and the QM-only barrier and kinetic isotope effects are good agreement with the experimental values of intermediate I formation. We obtained higher barriers in the QM/MM calculations for both pathways, but hydride transfer to the nitrogen of nitric oxide is still clearly favored. The barriers obtained for the syn, Pro-R conformation of NADH are lower and show significantly less variation than the barriers obtained in the case of anti conformation. The effect of basis set and wide range of functionals on the obtained results are also discussed.

4. Photoactuators for Direct Optical-to-Mechanical Energy Conversion: From Nanocomponent Assembly to Macroscopic Deformation.

Science.gov (United States)

Hu, Ying; Li, Zhe; Lan, Tian; Chen, Wei

2016-12-01

Photoactuators with integrated optical-to-mechanical energy conversion capacity have attracted growing research interest in the last few decades due to their unique features of remote control and their wide applications ranging from bionic robots, biomedical devices, and switches to motors. For the photoactuator design, the energy conversion route and structure assembly are two important parts, which directly affect the performance of the photoactuators. In particular, the architectural designs at the molecular, nano-, micro-, and macro- level, are found to play a significant role in accumulating molecular-scale strain/stress to macroscale strain/stress. Here, recent progress on photoactuators based on photochemical and photothermal effects is summarized, followed by a discussion of the important assembly strategies for the amplification of the photoresponsive components at nanoscale to macroscopic scale motions. The application advancement of current photoactuators is also presented. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

5. Computational mechanics - Advances and trends; Proceedings of the Session - Future directions of Computational Mechanics of the ASME Winter Annual Meeting, Anaheim, CA, Dec. 7-12, 1986

Science.gov (United States)

Noor, Ahmed K. (Editor)

1986-01-01

The papers contained in this volume provide an overview of the advances made in a number of aspects of computational mechanics, identify some of the anticipated industry needs in this area, discuss the opportunities provided by new hardware and parallel algorithms, and outline some of the current government programs in computational mechanics. Papers are included on advances and trends in parallel algorithms, supercomputers for engineering analysis, material modeling in nonlinear finite-element analysis, the Navier-Stokes computer, and future finite-element software systems.

6. Potential theory for directed networks.

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Qian-Ming Zhang

Full Text Available Uncovering factors underlying the network formation is a long-standing challenge for data mining and network analysis. In particular, the microscopic organizing principles of directed networks are less understood than those of undirected networks. This article proposes a hypothesis named potential theory, which assumes that every directed link corresponds to a decrease of a unit potential and subgraphs with definable potential values for all nodes are preferred. Combining the potential theory with the clustering and homophily mechanisms, it is deduced that the Bi-fan structure consisting of 4 nodes and 4 directed links is the most favored local structure in directed networks. Our hypothesis receives strongly positive supports from extensive experiments on 15 directed networks drawn from disparate fields, as indicated by the most accurate and robust performance of Bi-fan predictor within the link prediction framework. In summary, our main contribution is twofold: (i We propose a new mechanism for the local organization of directed networks; (ii We design the corresponding link prediction algorithm, which can not only testify our hypothesis, but also find out direct applications in missing link prediction and friendship recommendation.

7. Potential Theory for Directed Networks

Science.gov (United States)

Zhang, Qian-Ming; Lü, Linyuan; Wang, Wen-Qiang; Zhou, Tao

2013-01-01

Uncovering factors underlying the network formation is a long-standing challenge for data mining and network analysis. In particular, the microscopic organizing principles of directed networks are less understood than those of undirected networks. This article proposes a hypothesis named potential theory, which assumes that every directed link corresponds to a decrease of a unit potential and subgraphs with definable potential values for all nodes are preferred. Combining the potential theory with the clustering and homophily mechanisms, it is deduced that the Bi-fan structure consisting of 4 nodes and 4 directed links is the most favored local structure in directed networks. Our hypothesis receives strongly positive supports from extensive experiments on 15 directed networks drawn from disparate fields, as indicated by the most accurate and robust performance of Bi-fan predictor within the link prediction framework. In summary, our main contribution is twofold: (i) We propose a new mechanism for the local organization of directed networks; (ii) We design the corresponding link prediction algorithm, which can not only testify our hypothesis, but also find out direct applications in missing link prediction and friendship recommendation. PMID:23408979

8. Stress and strain provide positional and directional cues in development.

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Behruz Bozorg

2014-01-01

Full Text Available The morphogenesis of organs necessarily involves mechanical interactions and changes in mechanical properties of a tissue. A long standing question is how such changes are directed on a cellular scale while being coordinated at a tissular scale. Growing evidence suggests that mechanical cues are participating in the control of growth and morphogenesis during development. We introduce a mechanical model that represents the deposition of cellulose fibers in primary plant walls. In the model both the degree of material anisotropy and the anisotropy direction are regulated by stress anisotropy. We show that the finite element shell model and the simpler triangular biquadratic springs approach provide equally adequate descriptions of cell mechanics in tissue pressure simulations of the epidermis. In a growing organ, where circumferentially organized fibers act as a main controller of longitudinal growth, we show that the fiber direction can be correlated with both the maximal stress direction and the direction orthogonal to the maximal strain direction. However, when dynamic updates of the fiber direction are introduced, the mechanical stress provides a robust directional cue for the circumferential organization of the fibers, whereas the orthogonal to maximal strain model leads to an unstable situation where the fibers reorient longitudinally. Our investigation of the more complex shape and growth patterns in the shoot apical meristem where new organs are initiated shows that a stress based feedback on fiber directions is capable of reproducing the main features of in vivo cellulose fiber directions, deformations and material properties in different regions of the shoot. In particular, we show that this purely mechanical model can create radially distinct regions such that cells expand slowly and isotropically in the central zone while cells at the periphery expand more quickly and in the radial direction, which is a well established growth pattern

9. Stress and strain provide positional and directional cues in development.

Science.gov (United States)

Bozorg, Behruz; Krupinski, Pawel; Jönsson, Henrik

2014-01-01

The morphogenesis of organs necessarily involves mechanical interactions and changes in mechanical properties of a tissue. A long standing question is how such changes are directed on a cellular scale while being coordinated at a tissular scale. Growing evidence suggests that mechanical cues are participating in the control of growth and morphogenesis during development. We introduce a mechanical model that represents the deposition of cellulose fibers in primary plant walls. In the model both the degree of material anisotropy and the anisotropy direction are regulated by stress anisotropy. We show that the finite element shell model and the simpler triangular biquadratic springs approach provide equally adequate descriptions of cell mechanics in tissue pressure simulations of the epidermis. In a growing organ, where circumferentially organized fibers act as a main controller of longitudinal growth, we show that the fiber direction can be correlated with both the maximal stress direction and the direction orthogonal to the maximal strain direction. However, when dynamic updates of the fiber direction are introduced, the mechanical stress provides a robust directional cue for the circumferential organization of the fibers, whereas the orthogonal to maximal strain model leads to an unstable situation where the fibers reorient longitudinally. Our investigation of the more complex shape and growth patterns in the shoot apical meristem where new organs are initiated shows that a stress based feedback on fiber directions is capable of reproducing the main features of in vivo cellulose fiber directions, deformations and material properties in different regions of the shoot. In particular, we show that this purely mechanical model can create radially distinct regions such that cells expand slowly and isotropically in the central zone while cells at the periphery expand more quickly and in the radial direction, which is a well established growth pattern in the meristem.

10. WHAMM Directs the Arp2/3 Complex to the ER for Autophagosome Biogenesis through an Actin Comet Tail Mechanism.

Science.gov (United States)

Kast, David J; Zajac, Allison L; Holzbaur, Erika L F; Ostap, E Michael; Dominguez, Roberto

2015-06-29

Nucleation-promoting factors (NPFs) control the spatio-temporal activity of Arp2/3 complex in cells]. Thus, WASP and the WAVE complex direct the formation of branched actin networks at the leading edge during cell motility and endo/exocytosis, whereas the WASH complex is involved in endosomal transport. Less understood are WHAMM and JMY, two NPFs with similar domain architecture. JMY is found in the nucleus and the cytosol and is involved in transcriptional regulation, cell motility, and trans-Golgi transport. WHAMM was reported to bind microtubules and to be involved in ER to cis-Golgi transport. Here, we show that WHAMM directs the activity of Arp2/3 complex for autophagosome biogenesis through an actin-comet tail motility mechanism. Macroautophagy--the process by which cytosolic material is engulfed into autophagosomes for degradation and/or recycling--was recently shown to involve actin, but the mechanism is unknown. We found that WHAMM forms puncta that colocalize and comigrate with the autophagy markers LC3, DFCP1, and p62 through a WHAMM-dependent actin-comet tail mechanism. Under starvation, WHAMM and actin are observed at the interface between neighboring autophagosomes, whose number and size increase with WHAMM expression. Interfering with actin polymerization, inhibiting Arp2/3 complex, knocking down WHAMM, or blocking its interaction with Arp2/3 complex through mutagenesis all inhibit comet tail formation and reduce the size and number of autophagosomes. Finally, JMY shows similar localization to WHAMM and could be involved in similar processes. These results reveal a link between Arp2/3-complex-dependent actin assembly and autophagy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

11. Mechanical integrity of canisters

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Nilsson, Fred

1992-12-01

This document constitutes the final report from 'SKBs reference group for mechanical integrity of canisters for spent nuclear fuel'. A complete list of all reports initiated by the reference group can be found in the summary report in this document. The main task of the reference group has been to advice SKB regarding the choice (ranking of alternatives) of canister type for different types of storage. The choice should be based on requirements of impermeability for a given time period and identification of possible limiting mechanisms. The main conclusions from the work were: From mechanical point of view, low phosphorous oxygen free copper (Cu-OFP) is a preferred canisters material. It exhibits satisfactory ductility both during tensile and creep testing. The residual stresses in the canisters are of such a magnitude that the estimated time to creep rupture with the data obtained for the Cu-OFP material is essentially infinite. Based on the present knowledge of stress corrosion cracking of copper there appears to be a small risk for such to occur in the projected environment. This risk need some further study. Rock shear movements of the size of 10 cm should pose no direct threat to the integrity of the canisters. Considering mechanical integrity, the composite copper/steel canister is an advantageous alternative. The recommendations for further research included continued studies of the creep properties of copper and of stress corrosion cracking. However, the studies should focus more directly on the design and fabrication aspect of the canister

12. Microstructural and Mechanical Characterization of a Custom-Built Implant Manufactured in Titanium Alloy by Direct Metal Laser Sintering

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Maria Aparecida Larosa

2014-08-01

Full Text Available Custom-built implants manufacture has always presented difficulties which result in high cost and complex fabrication, mainly due to patients’ anatomical differences. The solution has been to produce prostheses with different sizes and use the one that best suits each patient. Additive manufacturing technology, incorporated into the medical field in the late 80's, has made it possible to obtain solid biomodels facilitating surgical procedures and reducing risks. Furthermore, this technology has been used to produce implants especially designed for a particular patient, with sizes, shapes, and mechanical properties optimized, for different areas of medicine such as craniomaxillofacial surgery. In this work, the microstructural and mechanical properties of Ti6Al4V samples produced by direct metal laser sintering (DMLS are studied. The microstructural and mechanical characterizations have been made by optical and scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and microhardness and tensile tests. Samples produced by DMLS have a microstructure constituted by hexagonal α′ martensite with acicular morphology. An average microhardness of 370 HV was obtained and the tensile tests showed ultimate strength of 1172 MPa, yield strength of 957 MPa, and elongation at rupture of 11%.

13. Bacterial foraging-optimized PID control of a two-wheeled machine with a two-directional handling mechanism.

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Goher, K M; Fadlallah, S O

2017-01-01

This paper presents the performance of utilizing a bacterial foraging optimization algorithm on a PID control scheme for controlling a five DOF two-wheeled robotic machine with two-directional handling mechanism. The system under investigation provides solutions for industrial robotic applications that require a limited-space working environment. The system nonlinear mathematical model, derived using Lagrangian modeling approach, is simulated in MATLAB/Simulink ® environment. Bacterial foraging-optimized PID control with decoupled nature is designed and implemented. Various working scenarios with multiple initial conditions are used to test the robustness and the system performance. Simulation results revealed the effectiveness of the bacterial foraging-optimized PID control method in improving the system performance compared to the PID control scheme.

14. The direct piezoelectric effect in the globular protein lysozyme

Science.gov (United States)

Stapleton, A.; Noor, M. R.; Sweeney, J.; Casey, V.; Kholkin, A. L.; Silien, C.; Gandhi, A. A.; Soulimane, T.; Tofail, S. A. M.

2017-10-01

Here, we present experimental evidence of the direct piezoelectric effect in the globular protein, lysozyme. Piezoelectric materials are employed in many actuating and sensing applications because they can convert mechanical energy into electrical energy and vice versa. Although originally studied in inorganic materials, several biological materials including amino acids and bone, also exhibit piezoelectricity. The exact mechanisms supporting biological piezoelectricity are not known, nor is it known whether biological piezoelectricity conforms strictly to the criteria of classical piezoelectricity. The observation of piezoelectricity in protein crystals presented here links biological piezoelectricity with the classical theory of piezoelectricity. We quantify the direct piezoelectric effect in monoclinic and tetragonal aggregate films of lysozyme using conventional techniques based on the Berlincourt Method. The largest piezoelectric effect measured in a crystalline aggregate film of lysozyme was approximately 6.5 pC N-1. These findings raise fundamental questions as to the possible physiological significance of piezoelectricity in lysozyme and the potential for technical applications.

15. The competition of charge remote and charge directed fragmentation mechanisms in quaternary ammonium salt derivatized peptides--an isotopic exchange study.

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Cydzik, Marzena; Rudowska, Magdalena; Stefanowicz, Piotr; Szewczuk, Zbigniew

2011-12-01

Derivatization of peptides as quaternary ammonium salts (QAS) is a promising method for sensitive detection by electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (Cydzik et al. J. Pept. Sci. 2011, 17, 445-453). The peptides derivatized by QAS at their N-termini undergo fragmentation according to the two competing mechanisms - charge remote (ChR) and charge directed (ChD). The absence of mobile proton in the quaternary salt ion results in ChR dissociation of a peptide bond. However, Hofmann elimination of quaternary salt creates an ion with one mobile proton leading to the ChD fragmentation. The experiments on the quaternary ammonium salts with deuterated N-alkyl groups or amide NH bonds revealed that QAS derivatized peptides dissociate according to the mixed ChR-ChD mechanism. The isotopic labeling allows differentiation of fragments formed according to ChR and ChD mechanisms. © The Author(s) 2011. This article is published with open access at Springerlink.com

16. A new force field including charge directionality for TMAO in aqueous solution

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Usui, Kota; Nagata, Yuki, E-mail: sulpizi@uni-mainz.de, E-mail: nagata@mpip-mainz.mpg.de; Hunger, Johannes; Bonn, Mischa [Max Planck Institute for Polymer Research, Ackermannweg 10, 55128 Mainz (Germany); Sulpizi, Marialore, E-mail: sulpizi@uni-mainz.de, E-mail: nagata@mpip-mainz.mpg.de [Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz, Staudingerweg 7, 55099 Mainz (Germany)

2016-08-14

We propose a new force field for trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO), which is designed to reproduce the long-lived and highly directional hydrogen bond between the TMAO oxygen (O{sub TMAO}) atom and surrounding water molecules. Based on the data obtained by ab initio molecular dynamics simulations, we introduce three dummy sites around O{sub TMAO} to mimic the O{sub TMAO} lone pairs and we migrate the negative charge on the O{sub TMAO} to the dummy sites. The force field model developed here improves both structural and dynamical properties of aqueous TMAO solutions. Moreover, it reproduces the experimentally observed dependence of viscosity upon increasing TMAO concentration quantitatively. The simple procedure of the force field construction makes it easy to implement in molecular dynamics simulation packages and makes it compatible with the existing biomolecular force fields. This paves the path for further investigation of protein-TMAO interaction in aqueous solutions.

17. A new force field including charge directionality for TMAO in aqueous solution

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Usui, Kota; Nagata, Yuki; Hunger, Johannes; Bonn, Mischa; Sulpizi, Marialore

2016-01-01

We propose a new force field for trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO), which is designed to reproduce the long-lived and highly directional hydrogen bond between the TMAO oxygen (O TMAO ) atom and surrounding water molecules. Based on the data obtained by ab initio molecular dynamics simulations, we introduce three dummy sites around O TMAO to mimic the O TMAO lone pairs and we migrate the negative charge on the O TMAO to the dummy sites. The force field model developed here improves both structural and dynamical properties of aqueous TMAO solutions. Moreover, it reproduces the experimentally observed dependence of viscosity upon increasing TMAO concentration quantitatively. The simple procedure of the force field construction makes it easy to implement in molecular dynamics simulation packages and makes it compatible with the existing biomolecular force fields. This paves the path for further investigation of protein-TMAO interaction in aqueous solutions.

18. Modulation of Brain Activity with Noninvasive Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS): Clinical Applications and Safety Concerns

Science.gov (United States)

Zhao, Haichao; Qiao, Lei; Fan, Dongqiong; Zhang, Shuyue; Turel, Ofir; Li, Yonghui; Li, Jun; Xue, Gui; Chen, Antao; He, Qinghua

2017-01-01

Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a widely-used tool to induce neuroplasticity and modulate cortical function by applying weak direct current over the scalp. In this review, we first introduce the underlying mechanism of action, the brief history from discovery to clinical scientific research, electrode positioning and montages, and parameter setup of tDCS. Then, we review tDCS application in clinical samples including people with drug addiction, major depression disorder, Alzheimer's disease, as well as in children. This review covers the typical characteristics and the underlying neural mechanisms of tDCS treatment in such studies. This is followed by a discussion of safety, especially when the current intensity is increased or the stimulation duration is prolonged. Given such concerns, we provide detailed suggestions regarding safety procedures for tDCS operation. Lastly, future research directions are discussed. They include foci on the development of multi-tech combination with tDCS such as with TMS and fMRI; long-term behavioral and morphological changes; possible applications in other research domains, and more animal research to deepen the understanding of the biological and physiological mechanisms of tDCS stimulation. PMID:28539894

19. Neural Correlates of Direct and Indirect Suppression of Autobiographical Memories.

Science.gov (United States)

Noreen, Saima; O'Connor, Akira R; MacLeod, Malcolm D

2016-01-01

Research indicates that there are two possible mechanisms by which particular target memories can be intentionally forgotten. Direct suppression, which involves the suppression of the unwanted memory directly, and is dependent on a fronto-hippocampal modulatory process, and, memory substitution, which includes directing one's attention to an alternative memory in order to prevent the unwanted memory from coming to mind, and involves engaging the caudal prefrontal cortex (cPFC) and the mid-ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC) regions. Research to date, however, has investigated the neural basis of memory suppression of relatively simple information. The aim of the current study was to use fMRI to identify the neural mechanisms associated with the suppression of autobiographical memories. In the present study, 22 participants generated memories in response to a series of cue words. In a second session, participants learnt these cue-memory pairings, and were subsequently presented with a cue word and asked either to recall (think) or to suppress (no-think) the associated memory, or to think of an alternative memory in order to suppress the original memory (memory-substitution). Our findings demonstrated successful forgetting effects in the no-think and memory substitution conditions. Although we found no activation in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, there was reduced hippocampal activation during direct suppression. In the memory substitution condition, however, we failed to find increased activation in the cPFC and VLPFC regions. Our findings suggest that the suppression of autobiographical memories may rely on different neural mechanisms to those established for other types of material in memory.

20. Neural Correlates of Direct and Indirect Suppression of Autobiographical Memories

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Saima eNoreen

2016-03-01

Full Text Available Research indicates that there are two possible mechanisms by which particular target memories can be intentionally forgotten. Direct suppression, which involves the suppression of the unwanted memory directly, and is dependent on a fronto-hippocampal modulatory process, and, memory substitution, which includes directing one's attention to an alternative memory in order to prevent the unwanted memory from coming to mind, and involves engaging the caudal prefrontal cortex (cPFC and the mid-ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC regions. Research to date, however, has investigated the neural basis of memory suppression of relatively simple information. The aim of the current study was to use fMRI to identify the neural mechanisms associated with the suppression of autobiographical memories. In the present study, 22 participants generated memories in response to a series of cue words. In a second session, participants learnt these cue-memory pairings, and were subsequently presented with a cue word and asked either to recall (think or to suppress (no-think the associated memory, or to think of an alternative memory in order to suppress the original memory (memory-substitution. Our findings demonstrated successful forgetting effects in the no-think and memory substitution conditions. Although we found no activation in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex there was reduced hippocampal activation during direct suppression. In the memory substitution condition, however, we failed to find increased activation in the cPFC and VLPFC regions. Our findings suggest that the suppression of autobiographical memories may rely on different neural mechanisms to those established for other types of material in memory.

1. Pitfall in quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical molecular dynamics simulation of small solutes in solution.

Science.gov (United States)

Hu, Hao; Liu, Haiyan

2013-05-30

Developments in computing hardware and algorithms have made direct molecular dynamics simulation with the combined quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical methods affordable for small solute molecules in solution, in which much improved accuracy can be obtained via the quantum mechanical treatment of the solute molecule and even sometimes water molecules in the first solvation shell. However, unlike the conventional molecular mechanical simulations of large molecules, e.g., proteins, in solutions, special care must be taken in the technical details of the simulation, including the thermostat of the solute/solvent system, so that the conformational space of the solute molecules can be properly sampled. We show here that the common setup for classical molecular mechanical molecular dynamics simulations, such as the Berendsen or single Nose-Hoover thermostat, and/or rigid water models could lead to pathological sampling of the solutes' conformation. In the extreme example of a methanol molecule in aqueous solution, improper and sluggish setups could generate two peaks in the distribution of the O-H bond length. We discuss the factors responsible for this somewhat unexpected result and evoke a simple and ancient technical fix-up to resolve this problem.

2. Quantum-Limited Directional Amplifiers with Optomechanics

Science.gov (United States)

Malz, Daniel; Tóth, László D.; Bernier, Nathan R.; Feofanov, Alexey K.; Kippenberg, Tobias J.; Nunnenkamp, Andreas

2018-01-01

Directional amplifiers are an important resource in quantum-information processing, as they protect sensitive quantum systems from excess noise. Here, we propose an implementation of phase-preserving and phase-sensitive directional amplifiers for microwave signals in an electromechanical setup comprising two microwave cavities and two mechanical resonators. We show that both can reach their respective quantum limits on added noise. In the reverse direction, they emit thermal noise stemming from the mechanical resonators; we discuss how this noise can be suppressed, a crucial aspect for technological applications. The isolation bandwidth in both is of the order of the mechanical linewidth divided by the amplitude gain. We derive the bandwidth and gain-bandwidth product for both and find that the phase-sensitive amplifier has an unlimited gain-bandwidth product. Our study represents an important step toward flexible, on-chip integrated nonreciprocal amplifiers of microwave signals.

3. The Reaction Mechanism of Claisen Rearrangement Obtained by Transition State Spectroscopy and Single Direct-Dynamics Trajectory

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Takayoshi Kobayashi

2013-02-01

Full Text Available Chemical bond breaking and formation during chemical reactions can be observed using “transition state spectroscopy”. Comparing the measurement result of the transition state spectroscopy with the simulation result of single direct-dynamics trajectory, we have elucidated the reaction dynamics of Claisen rearrangement of allyl vinyl ether. Observed the reaction of the neat sample liquid, we have estimated the time constants of transformation from straight-chain structure to aromatic-like six-membered ring structure forming the C1-C6 bond. The result clarifies that the reaction proceeds via three steps taking longer time than expected from the gas phase calculation. This finding provides new hypothesis and discussions, helping the development of the field of reaction mechanism analysis.

4. Degradation mechanism of alachlor during direct ozonation and O(3)/H(2)O(2) advanced oxidation process.

Science.gov (United States)

Qiang, Zhimin; Liu, Chao; Dong, Bingzhi; Zhang, Yalei

2010-01-01

The degradation of alachlor by direct ozonation and advanced oxidation process O(3)/H(2)O(2) was investigated in this study with focus on identification of degradation byproducts. The second-order reaction rate constant between ozone and alachlor was determined to be 2.5+/-0.1M(-1)s(-1) at pH 7.0 and 20 degrees C. Twelve and eight high-molecular-weight byproducts (with the benzene ring intact) from alachlor degradation were identified during direct ozonation and O(3)/H(2)O(2), respectively. The common degradation byproducts included N-(2,6-diethylphenyl)-methyleneamine, 8-ethyl-3,4-dihydro-quinoline, 8-ethyl-quinoline, 1-chloroacetyl-2-hydro-3-ketone-7-acetyl-indole, 2-chloro-2',6'-diacetyl-N-(methoxymethyl)acetanilide, 2-chloro-2'-acetyl-6'-ethyl-N-(methoxymethyl)-acetanilide, and two hydroxylated alachlor isomers. In direct ozonation, four more byproducts were also identified including 1-chloroacetyl-2,3-dihydro-7-ethyl-indole, 2-chloro-2',6'-ethyl-acetanilide, 2-chloro-2',6'-acetyl-acetanilide and 2-chloro-2'-ethyl-6'-acetyl-N-(methoxymethyl)-acetanilide. Degradation of alachlor by O(3) and O(3)/H(2)O(2) also led to the formation of low-molecular-weight byproducts including formic, acetic, propionic, monochloroacetic and oxalic acids as well as chloride ion (only detected in O(3)/H(2)O(2)). Nitrite and nitrate formation was negligible. Alachlor degradation occurred via oxidation of the arylethyl group, N-dealkylation, cyclization and cleavage of benzene ring. After O(3) or O(3)/H(2)O(2) treatment, the toxicity of alachlor solution examined by the Daphnia magna bioassay was slightly reduced. 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

5. Study of anisotropic mechanical properties for aeronautical PMMA

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Wei Shang

Full Text Available For the properties of polymer are relative to its structure, the main purpose of the present work is to investigate the mechanical properties of the aeronautical PMMA which has been treated by the directional tensile technology. Isodyne images reveal the stress state in directional PMMA. And then, an anisotropic mechanical model is established. Furthermore, all mechanical parameters are measured by the digital image correlation method. Finally, based on the anisotropic mechanical model and mechanical parameters, the FEM numerical simulation and experimental methods are applied to analyze the fracture mechanical properties along different directions.

6. Anodal Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation Promotes Frontal Compensatory Mechanisms in Healthy Elderly Subjects.

Science.gov (United States)

Cespón, Jesús; Rodella, Claudia; Rossini, Paolo M; Miniussi, Carlo; Pellicciari, Maria C

2017-01-01

Recent studies have demonstrated that transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is potentially useful to improve working memory. In the present study, young and elderly subjects performed a working memory task ( n -back task) during an electroencephalogram recording before and after receiving anodal, cathodal, and sham tDCS over the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). We investigated modulations of behavioral performance and electrophysiological correlates of working memory processes (frontal and parietal P300 event-related potentials). A strong tendency to modulated working memory performance was observed after the application of tDCS. In detail, young, but not elderly, subjects benefited from additional practice in the absence of real tDCS, as indicated by their more accurate responses after sham tDCS. The cathodal tDCS had no effect in any group of participants. Importantly, anodal tDCS improved accuracy in elderly. Moreover, increased accuracy after anodal tDCS was correlated with a larger frontal P300 amplitude. These findings suggest that, in elderly subjects, improved working memory after anodal tDCS applied over the left DLPFC may be related to the promotion of frontal compensatory mechanisms, which are related to attentional processes.

7. Anodal Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation Promotes Frontal Compensatory Mechanisms in Healthy Elderly Subjects

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Jesús Cespón

2017-12-01

Full Text Available Recent studies have demonstrated that transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS is potentially useful to improve working memory. In the present study, young and elderly subjects performed a working memory task (n-back task during an electroencephalogram recording before and after receiving anodal, cathodal, and sham tDCS over the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC. We investigated modulations of behavioral performance and electrophysiological correlates of working memory processes (frontal and parietal P300 event-related potentials. A strong tendency to modulated working memory performance was observed after the application of tDCS. In detail, young, but not elderly, subjects benefited from additional practice in the absence of real tDCS, as indicated by their more accurate responses after sham tDCS. The cathodal tDCS had no effect in any group of participants. Importantly, anodal tDCS improved accuracy in elderly. Moreover, increased accuracy after anodal tDCS was correlated with a larger frontal P300 amplitude. These findings suggest that, in elderly subjects, improved working memory after anodal tDCS applied over the left DLPFC may be related to the promotion of frontal compensatory mechanisms, which are related to attentional processes.

8. Occupational methaemoglobinaemia. Mechanisms of production, features, diagnosis and management including the use of methylene blue.

Science.gov (United States)

2003-01-01

Methaemoglobin is formed by oxidation of ferrous (FeII) haem to the ferric (FeIII) state and the mechanisms by which this occurs are complex. Most cases are due to one of three processes. Firstly, direct oxidation of ferrohaemoglobin, which involves the transfer of electrons from ferrous haem to the oxidising compound. This mechanism proceeds most readily in the absence of oxygen. Secondly, indirect oxidation, a process of co-oxidation which requires haemoglobin-bound oxygen and is involved, for example, in nitrite-induced methaemoglobinaemia. Thirdly, biotransformation of a chemical to an active intermediate that initiates methaemoglobin formation by a variety of mechanisms. This is the means by which most aromatic compounds, such as amino- and nitro-derivatives of benzene, produce methaemoglobin. Methaemoglobinaemia is an uncommon occupational occurrence. Aromatic compounds are responsible for most cases, their lipophilic nature and volatility facilitating absorption during dermal and inhalational exposure, the principal routes implicated in the workplace. Methaemoglobinaemia presents clinically with symptoms and signs of tissue hypoxia. Concentrations around 80% are life-threatening. Features of toxicity may develop over hours or even days when exposure, whether by inhalation or repeated skin contact, is to relatively low concentrations of inducing chemical(s). Not all features observed in patients with methaemoglobinaemia are due to methaemoglobin formation. For example, the intravascular haemolysis caused by oxidising chemicals such as chlorates poses more risk to life than the methaemoglobinaemia that such chemicals induce. If an occupational history is taken, the diagnosis of methaemoglobinaemia should be relatively straightforward. In addition, two clinical observations may help: firstly, the victim is often less unwell than one would expect from the severity of 'cyanosis' and, secondly, the 'cyanosis' is unresponsive to oxygen therapy. Pulse oximetry is

9. Mechanical instability destabilises the ankle joint directly in the ankle-sprain mechanism.

Science.gov (United States)

Gehring, Dominic; Faschian, Katrin; Lauber, Benedikt; Lohrer, Heinz; Nauck, Tanja; Gollhofer, Albert

2014-03-01

Despite massive research efforts, it remains unclear how mechanical ankle instability (MAI) and functional ankle instability (FAI) affect joint control in the situation of ankle sprain. Thus, the purpose of this study was to evaluate whether individuals with MAI have deficits in stabilising their ankle joint in a close-to-injury situation compared with those with FAI and healthy controls. Ankle-joint control was assessed by means of three-dimensional motion analysis and electromyography in participants with FAI and MAI (n=19), in participants with pure FAI (n=9) and in healthy controls (n=18). Close-to-injury situations were simulated during standing, walking and jumping by means of a custom-made tilt platform. Individuals with FAI and MAI displayed significantly greater maximum ankle inversion angles (+5°) and inversion velocities (+50°/s) in the walking and jumping conditions compared to those with pure FAI and controls. Furthermore, individuals in the FAI and MAI group showed a significantly decreased pre-activation of the peroneus longus muscle during jumping compared to those with FAI. No differences between groups were found for plantar flexion and internal rotation, or for muscle activities following tilting of the platform. The present study demonstrates that MAI is characterised by impairments of ankle-joint control in close-to-injury situations. This could make these individuals more prone to recurrent ankle sprains, and suggests the need for additional mechanical support such as braces or even surgery. In addition, the study highlights the fact that dynamic experimental test conditions in the acting participant are needed to further unravel the mystery of chronic ankle instability.

10. Mechanical Conversion for High-Throughput TEM Sample Preparation

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Kendrick, Anthony B; Moore, Thomas M; Zaykova-Feldman, Lyudmila

2006-01-01

This paper presents a novel method of direct mechanical conversion from lift-out sample to TEM sample holder. The lift-out sample is prepared in the FIB using the in-situ liftout Total Release TM method. The mechanical conversion is conducted using a mechanical press and one of a variety of TEM coupons, including coupons for both top-side and back-side thinning. The press joins a probe tip point with attached TEM sample to the sample coupon and separates the complete assembly as a 3mm diameter TEM grid, compatible with commercially available TEM sample holder rods. This mechanical conversion process lends itself well to the high through-put requirements of in-line process control and to materials characterization labs where instrument utilization and sample security are critically important

11. Embryo mechanics: balancing force production with elastic resistance during morphogenesis.

Science.gov (United States)

Davidson, Lance A

2011-01-01

Morphogenesis requires the spatial and temporal control of embryo mechanics, including force production and mechanical resistance to those forces, to coordinate tissue deformation and large-scale movements. Thus, biomechanical processes play a key role in directly shaping the embryo. Additional roles for embryo mechanics during development may include the patterning of positional information and to provide feedback to ensure the success of morphogenetic movements in shaping the larval body and organs. To understand the multiple roles of mechanics during development requires familiarity with engineering principles of the mechanics of structures, the viscoelastic properties of biomaterials, and the integration of force and stress within embryonic structures as morphogenesis progresses. In this chapter, we review the basic engineering principles of biomechanics as they relate to morphogenesis, introduce methods for quantifying embryo mechanics and the limitations of these methods, and outline a formalism for investigating the role of embryo mechanics in birth defects. We encourage the nascent field of embryo mechanics to adopt standard engineering terms and test methods so that studies of diverse organisms can be compared and universal biomechanical principles can be revealed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Bygrave, S.; Bosi, M.

2004-01-01

13. MPP1 directly interacts with flotillins in erythrocyte membrane - Possible mechanism of raft domain formation.

Science.gov (United States)

Biernatowska, Agnieszka; Augoff, Katarzyna; Podkalicka, Joanna; Tabaczar, Sabina; Gajdzik-Nowak, Weronika; Czogalla, Aleksander; Sikorski, Aleksander F

2017-11-01

Flotillins are prominent, oligomeric protein components of erythrocyte (RBC) membrane raft domains and are considered to play an important structural role in lateral organization of the plasma membrane. In our previous work on erythroid membranes and giant plasma membrane vesicles (GPMVs) derived from them we have shown that formation of functional domains (resting state rafts) depends on the presence of membrane palmitoylated protein 1 (MPP1/p55), pointing to its new physiological role. Exploration of the molecular mechanism of MPP1 function in organizing membrane domains described here, through searching for its molecular partners in RBC membrane by using different methods, led to the identification of the raft-marker proteins, flotillin 1 and flotillin 2, as hitherto unreported direct MPP1 binding-partners in the RBC membrane. These proteins are found in high molecular-weight complexes in native RBC membrane and, significantly, their presence was shown to be separate from the well-known protein 4.1-dependent interactions of MPP1 with membrane proteins. Furthermore, FLIM analysis revealed that loss of the endogenous MPP1-flotillins interactions resulted in significant changes in RBC membrane-fluidity, emphasizing the physiological importance of such interactions in vivo. Therefore, our data establish a new perspective on the role of MPP1 in erythroid cells and suggests that direct MPP1-flotillins interactions could be the major driving-force behind the formation of raft domains in RBC. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

14. [Effect of transpulmonary pressure-directed mechanical ventilation on respiration in severe acute pancreatitis patient with intraabdominal hypertension].

Science.gov (United States)

Wu, Xiaoyan; Zheng, Ruiqiang; Lin, Hua; Zhuang, Zhiqing; Zhang, Min; Yan, Peixia

2015-10-20

To assess the effect of mehanical ventilation (MV) guided by transpulmonary pressure (Ptp) on respiratory mechanics and gas exchange in severe acute pancreatitis patient with intraabdominal hypertension. Twelve severe acute pancreatitis patient with intraabdominal hypertension and acute respiratory distress syndrome(ARDS) underwent mechanical ventilation were involved from Jan to Dec 2013. PEEP levels were set to achieve a Ptp of 0 to 10 cm of water at end expiration. We also limited tidal volume to keep Ptp at less than 25 cm of water at end inspiration. Respiratory mechanics and gas-exchange were measured. Plat pressure (Pplat) increased and the compliance of chest wall (Ccw) decreased when intraabdominal pressure (IAP) increased. Pplat correlated with IAP positively (r2=0.741 9, P0.05). Compared with baseline, after guiding MV with Ptp, the Level of PEEP (14.6±4.2) cmH2O vs (8.3±2.0) cmH2O, and Ptp-e (1.5±0.5) cmH2O vs (-2.3±1.4) cmH2O increased (P0.05). Ptp-e correlated with PEEP (r2=0.549, P0.05). Compared with baseline, lung compliance (CL) (48.1±10.3) cmH2O vs (25.7±6.4) cmH2O and oxygenation index (PaO2/FiO2) (235±48) mmHg vs (160±35) mmHg improved obviously (P0.05). Transpulmonary pressure-directed mechanical ventilation in ARDS secondary to severe acute pancreatitis patient with intraabdominal hypertension could not only recruit the collapsed alveoli, improve lung compliance, increase oxygenation index and decrease dead space ventilation but also monitor lung stress to avoid alveoli overinflation, which might be lung protective.

15. Cell Adhesion Minimization by a Novel Mesh Culture Method Mechanically Directs Trophoblast Differentiation and Self-Assembly Organization of Human Pluripotent Stem Cells.

Science.gov (United States)

Okeyo, Kennedy Omondi; Kurosawa, Osamu; Yamazaki, Satoshi; Oana, Hidehiro; Kotera, Hidetoshi; Nakauchi, Hiromitsu; Washizu, Masao

2015-10-01

Mechanical methods for inducing differentiation and directing lineage specification will be instrumental in the application of pluripotent stem cells. Here, we demonstrate that minimization of cell-substrate adhesion can initiate and direct the differentiation of human pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) into cyst-forming trophoblast lineage cells (TLCs) without stimulation with cytokines or small molecules. To precisely control cell-substrate adhesion area, we developed a novel culture method where cells are cultured on microstructured mesh sheets suspended in a culture medium such that cells on mesh are completely out of contact with the culture dish. We used microfabricated mesh sheets that consisted of open meshes (100∼200 μm in pitch) with narrow mesh strands (3-5 μm in width) to provide support for initial cell attachment and growth. We demonstrate that minimization of cell adhesion area achieved by this culture method can trigger a sequence of morphogenetic transformations that begin with individual hiPSCs attached on the mesh strands proliferating to form cell sheets by self-assembly organization and ultimately differentiating after 10-15 days of mesh culture to generate spherical cysts that secreted human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) hormone and expressed caudal-related homeobox 2 factor (CDX2), a specific marker of trophoblast lineage. Thus, this study demonstrates a simple and direct mechanical approach to induce trophoblast differentiation and generate cysts for application in the study of early human embryogenesis and drug development and screening.

16. Bi-directional exchange of membrane components occurs during co-culture of mesenchymal stem cells and nucleus pulposus cells.

Science.gov (United States)

Strassburg, Sandra; Hodson, Nigel W; Hill, Patrick I; Richardson, Stephen M; Hoyland, Judith A

2012-01-01

Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC)-based therapies have been proposed as novel treatments for intervertebral disc (IVD) degeneration. We have previously demonstrated that when MSCs are co-cultured with nucleus pulposus (NP) cells with direct cell-cell contact, they differentiate along the NP lineage and simultaneously stimulate the degenerate NP cell population to regain a normal (non-degenerate) phenotype, an effect which requires cell-cell communication. However, the mechanisms by which NP cells and MSCs interact in this system are currently unclear. Thus, in this study we investigated a range of potential mechanisms for exchange of cellular components or information that may direct these changes, including cell fusion, gap-junctional communication and exchange of membrane components by direct transfer or via microvesicle formation. Flow cytometry of fluorescently labeled MSCs and NP cells revealed evidence of some cell fusion and formation of gapjunctions, although at the three timepoints studied these phenomena were detectable only in a small proportion of cells. While these mechanisms may play a role in cell-cell communication, the data suggests they are not the predominant mechanism of interaction. However, flow cytometry of fluorescently dual-labeled cells showed that extensive bi-directional transfer of membrane components is operational during direct co-culture of MSCs and NP cells. Furthermore, there was also evidence for secretion and internalization of membrane-bound microvesicles by both cell types. Thus, this study highlights bi-directional intercellular transfer of membrane components as a possible mechanism of cellular communication between MSC and NP cells.

17. The Commission's proposal for a Directive on Double Taxation Dispute Resolution Mechanisms:Overcoming the final hurdle of juridical double taxation within the European Union?

OpenAIRE

Cerioni, Luca

2017-01-01

This article examines the Commission’s proposal for a Directive on Double Taxation Dispute Resolution Mechanisms, by highlighting interpretative issues that its wording may arise and by discussing the conditions under which it could manage to lead to the elimination of (juridical) double taxation within the EU.

18. Comparisons of microstructures and texture and mechanical properties of magnesium alloy fabricated by compound extrusion and direct extrusion

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Hu, H.-J., E-mail: hhj@cqut.edu.cn [Chongqing University of Technology, Chongqing 400050 (China); PLA Chongqing Logistics Engineering College, 401311 (China); Ying, Y.-L. [Chongqing University of Technology, Chongqing 400050 (China); Ou, Z.-W. [PLA Chongqing Logistics Engineering College, 401311 (China); Wang, X.-Q. [The University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL 35487 (United States)

2017-05-17

In this study, microstructure evolution, textures and mechanical properties of AZ61 magnesium alloy were investigated by optical microscopy (OM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and tensile tests. The samples were processed by a new compound extrusion (CE) which combines direct extrusion (DE) and two steps of equal channel anger extrusion (ECAE). The results show that CE process can refine the microstructure more effectively than the DE process. The CE-fabricated samples have a weaker texture (0002), and a more fine and homogeneous microstructures, which attributes to the additional two steps of ECAE in CE process. In CE process, twin dynamic recrystallization and rotational dynamic recrystallization occurred, which enhances the refinement of the grains and weakening of the texture. In addition, the samples fabricated by CE process display a higher tensile properties (yield strength, tensile strength and elongation) with an excellent balance of strength and tensile ductility. Based on this study, severe plastic deformation (SPD) techniques combining conventional DE and two steps ECAE into a single process are feasibility to improve the mechanical properties of AZ61 Mg alloy.

19. A mechanical property and stress corrosion evaluation of VIM-ESR-VAR work strengthened and direct double aged Inconel 718 bar material

Science.gov (United States)

Montano, J. W.

1986-01-01

Presented are the mechanical properties and the stress corrosion resistance of triple melted vacuum induction melted (VIM), electro-slag remelted (ESR), and vacuum arc remelted (VAR), solution treated, work strengthened and direct double aged Inconel 718 alloy bars 4.00 in. (10.16) and 5.75 in. (14.60 cm) diameter. Tensile, charpy v-notched impact, and compact tension specimens were tested at ambient temperature in both the longitudinal and transverse directions. Longitudinal tensile and yield strengths in excess of 220 ksi (1516.85 MPa) and 200 ksi (1378.00 MPa) respectively, were realized at ambient temperature. Additional charpy impact and compact tension tests were performed at -100 F (-73 C). Longitudinal charpy impact strength equalled or exceeded 12.0 ft-lbs (16.3 Joules) at ambient and at -100 F(-73 C) while longitudinal compact (LC) tension fracture toughness strength remained above 79 ksi (86.80 MPa) at ambient and at -100 F(-73 C) temperatures. No failures occurred in the longitudinal or transverse tensile specimens stressed to 75 and 100 percent of their respective yield strengths and exposed to a salt fog environment for 180 days. Tensile tests performed after the stress corrosion test indicated no mechanical property degradation.

20. 15 CFR 2006.1 - Information to be included in petition.

Science.gov (United States)

2010-01-01

... property right, or foreign direct investment matter for which the rights of the United States under the... nature of any foreign direct investment proposed by the United States person, including estimates of... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Information to be included in petition...

1. Ultrasound elastography: the new frontier in direct measurement of muscle stiffness.

Science.gov (United States)

Brandenburg, Joline E; Eby, Sarah F; Song, Pengfei; Zhao, Heng; Brault, Jeffrey S; Chen, Shigao; An, Kai-Nan

2014-11-01

The use of brightness-mode ultrasound and Doppler ultrasound in physical medicine and rehabilitation has increased dramatically. The continuing evolution of ultrasound technology has also produced ultrasound elastography, a cutting-edge technology that can directly measure the mechanical properties of tissue, including muscle stiffness. Its real-time and direct measurements of muscle stiffness can aid the diagnosis and rehabilitation of acute musculoskeletal injuries and chronic myofascial pain. It can also help monitor outcomes of interventions affecting muscle in neuromuscular and musculoskeletal diseases, and it can better inform the functional prognosis. This technology has implications for even broader use of ultrasound in physical medicine and rehabilitation practice, but more knowledge about its uses and limitations is essential to its appropriate clinical implementation. In this review, we describe different ultrasound elastography techniques for studying muscle stiffness, including strain elastography, acoustic radiation force impulse imaging, and shear-wave elastography. We discuss the basic principles of these techniques, including the strengths and limitations of their measurement capabilities. We review the current muscle research, discuss physiatric clinical applications of these techniques, and note directions for future research. Copyright © 2014 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Science.gov (United States)

Davidson, Lance A

2017-05-19

Embryos are shaped by the precise application of force against the resistant structures of multicellular tissues. Forces may be generated, guided and resisted by cells, extracellular matrix, interstitial fluids, and how they are organized and bound within the tissue's architecture. In this review, we summarize our current thoughts on the multiple roles of mechanics in direct shaping, mechanical signalling and robustness of development. Genetic programmes of development interact with environmental cues to direct the composition of the early embryo and endow cells with active force production. Biophysical advances now provide experimental tools to measure mechanical resistance and collective forces during morphogenesis and are allowing integration of this field with studies of signalling and patterning during development. We focus this review on concepts that highlight this integration, and how the unique contributions of mechanical cues and gradients might be tested side by side with conventional signalling systems. We conclude with speculation on the integration of large-scale programmes of development, and how mechanical responses may ensure robust development and serve as constraints on programmes of tissue self-assembly.This article is part of the themed issue 'Systems morphodynamics: understanding the development of tissue hardware'. © 2017 The Author(s).

3. A study of the direct effects of ionising and far ultraviolet radiation on nucleic acids

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Shaw, A.A.

1987-03-01

This thesis reports the results of a study of the direct effects of gamma and far UV radiation on nucleic acid model systems. For the gamma study, frozen aqueous solutions of 2'-deoxyribonucleosides were chosen as the model systems which best mimic possible radiation chemical events via the direct effects occuring in DNA in vivo. In Chapter I, we report and discuss the results of the study of the direct effects of gamma radiation on thymidine including the isolation and identification of the chemical modifications induced, and describe experiments designed to probe the mechanisms involved in their formation. In Chapters II and III, we extend the study to other 2'-deoxyribo-nucleosides, 2'-deoxycytidine and 2'-deoxyadenosine. Chapter IV presents the results of the study of the direct effects of far UV light on thymidine, a project designed to complement the gamma study and hopefully to bring additional insight into the mechanisms of formation of those products common to both radiation energies. In particular, the mechanisms of the formation of the spore photoproduct, a lesion known to be formed in DNA in vivo, have been elucidated. The study of the direct effects of gamma radiation on thymidine and 2'-deoxycytidine revealed the formation of several new products. Chapter V reports an analysis of the configurational and conformational properties of these molecules. (author)

4. SMAD7 directly converts human embryonic stem cells to telencephalic fate by a default mechanism

Science.gov (United States)

Ozair, Mohammad Zeeshan; Noggle, Scott; Warmflash, Aryeh; Krzyspiak, Joanna Ela; Brivanlou, Ali H.

2013-01-01

Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) provide a valuable window into the dissection of the molecular circuitry underlying the early formation of the human forebrain. However, dissection of signaling events in forebrain development using current protocols is complicated by non-neural contamination and fluctuation of extrinsic influences. Here we show that SMAD7, a cell-intrinsic inhibitor of TGFβ signaling, is sufficient to directly convert pluripotent hESCs to an anterior neural fate. Time-course gene expression revealed down-regulation of MAPK components, and combining MEK1/2 inhibition with SMAD7-mediated TGFβ inhibition promoted telencephalic conversion. FGF-MEK and TGFβ-SMAD signaling maintain hESCs by promoting pluripotency genes and repressing neural genes. Our findings suggest that in the absence of these cues, pluripotent cells simply revert to a program of neural conversion. Hence the “primed” state of hESCs requires inhibition of the “default” state of neural fate acquisition. This has parallels in amphibians, suggesting an evolutionarily conserved mechanism. PMID:23034881

5. Brown spider dermonecrotic toxin directly induces nephrotoxicity

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Chaim, Olga Meiri; Sade, Youssef Bacila; Bertoni da Silveira, Rafael; Toma, Leny; Kalapothakis, Evanguedes; Chavez-Olortegui, Carlos; Mangili, Oldemir Carlos; Gremski, Waldemiro; Dietrich, Carl Peter von; Nader, Helena B.; Sanches Veiga, Silvio

2006-01-01

Brown spider (Loxosceles genus) venom can induce dermonecrotic lesions at the bite site and systemic manifestations including fever, vomiting, convulsions, disseminated intravascular coagulation, hemolytic anemia and acute renal failure. The venom is composed of a mixture of proteins with several molecules biochemically and biologically well characterized. The mechanism by which the venom induces renal damage is unknown. By using mice exposed to Loxosceles intermedia recombinant dermonecrotic toxin (LiRecDT), we showed direct induction of renal injuries. Microscopic analysis of renal biopsies from dermonecrotic toxin-treated mice showed histological alterations including glomerular edema and tubular necrosis. Hyalinization of tubules with deposition of proteinaceous material in the tubule lumen, tubule epithelial cell vacuoles, tubular edema and epithelial cell lysis was also observed. Leukocytic infiltration was neither observed in the glomerulus nor the tubules. Renal vessels showed no sign of inflammatory response. Additionally, biochemical analyses showed such toxin-induced changes in renal function as urine alkalinization, hematuria and azotemia with elevation of blood urea nitrogen levels. Immunofluorescence with dermonecrotic toxin antibodies and confocal microscopy analysis showed deposition and direct binding of this toxin to renal intrinsic structures. By immunoblotting with a hyperimmune dermonecrotic toxin antiserum on renal lysates from toxin-treated mice, we detected a positive signal at the region of 33-35 kDa, which strengthens the idea that renal failure is directly induced by dermonecrotic toxin. Immunofluorescence reaction with dermonecrotic toxin antibodies revealed deposition and binding of this toxin directly in MDCK epithelial cells in culture. Similarly, dermonecrotic toxin treatment caused morphological alterations of MDCK cells including cytoplasmic vacuoles, blebs, evoked impaired spreading and detached cells from each other and from

6. Progress in microscopic direct reaction modeling of nucleon induced reactions

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Dupuis, M.; Bauge, E.; Hilaire, S.; Lechaftois, F.; Peru, S.; Pillet, N.; Robin, C. [CEA, DAM, DIF, Arpajon (France)

2015-12-15

A microscopic nuclear reaction model is applied to neutron elastic and direct inelastic scatterings, and pre-equilibrium reaction. The JLM folding model is used with nuclear structure information calculated within the quasi-particle random phase approximation implemented with the Gogny D1S interaction. The folding model for direct inelastic scattering is extended to include rearrangement corrections stemming from both isoscalar and isovector density variations occurring during a transition. The quality of the predicted (n,n), (n,n{sup '}), (n,xn) and (n,n{sup '}γ) cross sections, as well as the generality of the present microscopic approach, shows that it is a powerful tool that can help improving nuclear reactions data quality. Short- and long-term perspectives are drawn to extend the present approach to more systems, to include missing reactions mechanisms, and to consistently treat both structure and reaction problems. (orig.)

7. Dynamic Aftershock Triggering Correlated with Cyclic Loading in the Slip Direction

Science.gov (United States)

Hardebeck, J.

2014-12-01

Dynamic stress changes have been shown to contribute to aftershock triggering, but the physical triggering mechanisms are not fully understood. Some proposed mechanisms are based on dynamic stress loading of the target fault in a direction that encourages earthquake slip (e.g. dynamic Coulomb stress triggering), while other mechanisms are based on fault weakening due to shaking. If dynamic stress loading in the fault slip direction plays a role in aftershock triggering, we would expect to see a relationship between the dynamic stress orientations and the aftershock focal mechanisms. Alternatively, if dynamic stress change triggering functions only through a fault weakening mechanism that is independent of the slip direction of the target fault, no such relationship is expected. I study aftershock sequences of 4 M≥6.7 mainshocks in southern California, and find a small but significant relationship between modeled dynamic stress direction and aftershock focal mechanisms. The mainshock dynamic stress changes have two observed impacts: changing the focal mechanisms in a given location to favor those aligned with the dynamic stress change, and changing the spatial distribution of seismicity to favor locations where the dynamic stress change aligns with the background stress. The aftershock focal mechanisms are significantly more aligned with the dynamic stress changes than the preshock mechanisms for only the first 0.5-1 year following most mainshocks, although for at least 10 years following Hector Mine. Dynamic stress effects on focal mechanisms are best observed at long periods (30-60 sec). Dynamic stress effects are only observed when using metrics based on repeated stress cycling in the same direction, for example considering the dominant stress orientation over the full time series, and not for the peak dynamic stress. These results imply that dynamic aftershock triggering operates at least in part through cyclic loading in the direction of fault slip, although

8. Mechanisms and pharmacogenetic signals underlying thiazide diuretics blood pressure response.

Science.gov (United States)

Shahin, Mohamed H; Johnson, Julie A

2016-04-01

Thiazide (TZD) diuretics are among the most commonly prescribed antihypertensives globally; however their chronic blood pressure (BP) lowering mechanism remains unclear. Herein we discuss the current evidence regarding specific mechanisms regulating the antihypertensive effects of TZDs, suggesting that TZDs act via multiple complex and interacting mechanisms, including natriuresis with short term use and direct vasodilatory effects chronically. Additionally, we review pharmacogenomics signals that have been associated with TZDs BP-response in several cohorts (i.e. NEDD4L, PRKCA, EDNRA-GNAS, and YEATS4) and discuss how these genes might be related to TZD BP-response mechanism. Understanding the association between these genes and TZD BP mechanism might facilitate the development of new drugs and therapeutic approaches based on a deeper understanding of the determinants of BP-response. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

9. Direct radiological magnification in experimental medicine

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Poulsen Nautrup, C.; Berens von Rautenfeld, D.

1991-01-01

Some aspects of direct radiological magnification in experimental medicine are shown by teratological investigations of the fetal rat skeleton and by indirect lymphadenography in rabbits. A combination of microfocal radiography and high-resolution non-screen films or digital image processing allows the evaluation of structures with a minimum size of 5 μm. Pseudo-3D images correlate directly with scanning electron micrographs of equivalent casts. Therefore radiography with direct magnification can make difficult preparations and time-consuming staining processes unnecessary. Besides saving time, the main advantage of this method is the amount of new information it yields. For the first time, for example, the filling mechanism becomes visible even in minute vessels, such as the intranodal sinuses, which measure about 10 μm. Hitherto, we have only been able to infer this mechanism from histological specimens. A further benefit of direct radiological magnification over the conventional microscopical method is the smaller number of experimental animals needed. (orig.) [de

10. Study of nozzle deposit formation mechanism for direct injection gasoline engines; Chokufun gasoline engine yo nozzle no deposit seisei kaiseki

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Kinoshita, M; Saito, A [Toyota Central Research and Development Labs., Inc., Aichi (Japan); Matsushita, S [Toyota Motor Corp., Aichi (Japan); Shibata, H [Nippon Soken, Inc., Tokyo (Japan); Niwa, Y [Denso Corp., Aichi (Japan)

1997-10-01

Nozzles in fuel injectors for direct injection gasoline engines are exposed to high temperature combustion gases and soot. In such a rigorous environment, it is a fear that fuel flow rate changes in injectors by deposit formation on nozzles. Fundamental factors of nozzle deposit formation were investigated through injector bench tests and engine dynamometer tests. Deposit formation processes were observed by SEM through engine dynamometer tests. The investigation results reveal nozzle deposit formation mechanism and how to suppress the deposit. 4 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs.

11. Fracture mechanics evaluation of heavy welded structures

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Sprung, I.; Ericksson, C.W.; Zilberstein, V.A.

1982-01-01

This paper describes some applications of nondestructive examination (NDE) and engineering fracture mechanics to evaluation of flaws in heavy welded structures. The paper discusses not only widely recognized linear elastic fracture mechanics (LEFM) analysis, but also methods of the elastic-plastic fracture mechanics (EPFM), such as COD, J-integral, and Failure Assessment Diagram. Examples are given to highlight the importance of interaction between specialists providing input and the specialists performing the analysis. The paper points out that the critical parameters for as-welded structures when calculated by these methods are conservative since they are based on two pessimistic assumptions: that the magnitude of residual stress is always at the yield strength level, and that the residual stress always acts in the same direction as the applied (mechanical) stress. The suggestion is made that it would be prudent to use the COD or the FAD design curves for a conservative design. The appendix examines a J-design curve modified to include residual stresses

12. Mechanical response tissue analyzer for estimating bone strength

Science.gov (United States)

Arnaud, Sara B.; Steele, Charles; Mauriello, Anthony

1991-01-01

One of the major concerns for extended space flight is weakness of the long bones of the legs, composed primarily of cortical bone, that functions to provide mechanical support. The strength of cortical bone is due to its complex structure, described simplistically as cylinders of parallel osteons composed of layers of mineralized collagen. The reduced mechanical stresses during space flight or immobilization of bone on Earth reduces the mineral content, and changes the components of its matrix and structure so that its strength is reduced. Currently, the established clinical measures of bone strength are indirect. The measures are based on determinations of mineral density by means of radiography, photon absorptiometry, and quantitative computer tomography. While the mineral content of bone is essential to its strength, there is growing awareness of the limitations of the measurement as the sole predictor of fracture risk in metabolic bone diseases, especially limitations of the measurement as the sole predictor of fracture risk in metabolic bone diseases, especially osteoporosis. Other experimental methods in clinical trials that more directly evaluate the physical properties of bone, and do not require exposure to radiation, include ultrasound, acoustic emission, and low-frequency mechanical vibration. The last method can be considered a direct measure of the functional capacity of a long bone since it quantifies the mechanical response to a stimulus delivered directly to the bone. A low frequency vibration induces a response (impedance) curve with a minimum at the resonant frequency, that a few investigators use for the evaluation of the bone. An alternative approach, the method under consideration, is to use the response curve as the basis for determination of the bone bending stiffness EI (E is the intrinsic material property and I is the cross-sectional moment of inertia) and mass, fundamental mechanical properties of bone.

13. 3rd School on Attractor Mechanism

CERN Document Server

SAM 2007; The Attractor Mechanism: Proceedings of the INFN-Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati School 2007

2010-01-01

This book is based upon lectures presented in June 2007 at the INFN-Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati School on Attractor Mechanism, directed by Stefano Bellucci. The symposium included such prestigious lecturers as S. Ferrara, M. Gunaydin, P. Levay, and T. Mohaupt. All lectures were given at a pedagogical, introductory level, which is reflected in the specific "flavor" of this volume. The book also benefits from extensive discussions about, and related reworking of, the various contributions. In addition, this volume contains contributions originating from short presentations of rece

14. Supplementary income. Direct selling in Germany

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Roesner, Sven

2014-01-01

This document treats, first, of the evolution of the German support mechanisms to renewable energy sources. Then, it presents the legal framework of direct electricity selling (goal, evolution, facilities in concern and eligibility criteria). Next, the operation of direct selling since August 2014 in Germany is presented (producers eligibility, over- and under-production, reference values, income, tariffs). Finally, the perspectives and conditions of direct selling success are summarized in the conclusion

15. Direct landfill disposal versus Mechanical Biological Treatment (MBT

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Kulhawik Katarzyna

2016-09-01

Full Text Available After the implementation of a new waste management system, in which recycling is the most dominating process, landfill disposal still appears to be the most popular method of waste management in Poland, in which waste undergoes gradual decomposition and the influence of climate conditions, for example, air and atmospheric fallout, leads to the production of leachate and biogas emissions, which contribute to continual threats to the natural environment and humans. The above-mentioned threats can be limited by applying suitable techniques of waste treatment before its disposal. A technology that is oriented to these aims is a mechanical biological treatment (MBT before disposal.

16. The nesprin-cytoskeleton interface probed directly on single nuclei is a mechanically rich system.

Science.gov (United States)

Balikov, Daniel A; Brady, Sonia K; Ko, Ung Hyun; Shin, Jennifer H; de Pereda, Jose M; Sonnenberg, Arnoud; Sung, Hak-Joon; Lang, Matthew J

2017-09-03

The cytoskeleton provides structure and plays an important role in cellular function such as migration, resisting compression forces, and transport. The cytoskeleton also reacts to physical cues such as fluid shear stress or extracellular matrix remodeling by reorganizing filament associations, most commonly focal adhesions and cell-cell cadherin junctions. These mechanical stimuli can result in genome-level changes, and the physical connection of the cytoskeleton to the nucleus provides an optimal conduit for signal transduction by interfacing with nuclear envelope proteins, called nesprins, within the LINC (linker of the nucleus to the cytoskeleton) complex. Using single-molecule on single nuclei assays, we report that the interactions between the nucleus and the cytoskeleton, thought to be nesprin-cytoskeleton interactions, are highly sensitive to force magnitude and direction depending on whether cells are historically interfaced with the matrix or with cell aggregates. Application of ∼10-30 pN forces to these nesprin linkages yielded structural transitions, with a base transition size of 5-6 nm, which are speculated to be associated with partial unfoldings of the spectrin domains of the nesprins and/or structural changes of histones within the nucleus.

17. Direct and indirect stabilisation mechanisms in multiple electron capture

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Roncin, P. [Paris-11 Univ., 91 - Orsay (France). Lab. de Collisions Atomiques et Moleculaires; Barat, M. [Paris-11 Univ., 91 - Orsay (France). Lab. de Collisions Atomiques et Moleculaires; Gaboriaud, M.N. [Paris-11 Univ., 91 -Orsay (France). Lab. de Collisions Atomiques et Moleculaires; Szilagyi, Z.S. [Paris-11 Univ., 91 - Orsay (France). Lab. de Collisions Atomiques et Moleculaires; Kazansky, A.K. [Paris-11 Univ., 91 - Orsay (France). Lab. de Collisions Atomiques et Moleculaires

1995-05-01

During the last years both experimental and theoretical works have focused on the problem of the stabilisation of two excited electrons on the projectile. In this contribution we would like to give experimental examples of the two suggested mechanisms and their extension to multiple electron capture. Our data are discussed together with those obtained with other experimental techniques and with theoretical predictions. (orig./WL).

18. Research directions in plant protection chemistry

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Andras Szekacs

2017-09-01

Full Text Available This Opinion paper briefly summarizes the views of the authors on the directions of research in the area of plant protection chemistry. We believe these directions need to focus on (1 the discovery of new pesticide active ingredients, and (2 the protection of human health and the environment. Research revenues are discussed thematically in topics of target site identification, pesticide discovery, environmental aspects, as well as keeping track with the international trends. The most fundamental approach, target site identification, covers both computer-aided molecular design and research on biochemical mechanisms. The discovery of various classes of pesticides is reviewed including classes that hold promise to date, as well as up-to-date methods of innovation, e.g. utilization of plant metabolomics in identification of novel target sites of biological activity. Environmental and ecological aspects represent a component of increasing importance in pesticide development by emphasizing the need to improve methods of environmental analysis and assess ecotoxicological side-effects, but also set new directions for future research. Last, but not least, pesticide chemistry and biochemistry constitute an integral part in the assessment of related fields of plant protection, e.g. agricultural biotechnology, therefore, issues of pesticide chemistry related to the development and cultivation of genetically modified crops are also discussed.

19. Discovery and progress of direct cardiac reprogramming.

Science.gov (United States)

Kojima, Hidenori; Ieda, Masaki

2017-06-01

Cardiac disease remains a major cause of death worldwide. Direct cardiac reprogramming has emerged as a promising approach for cardiac regenerative therapy. After the discovery of MyoD, a master regulator for skeletal muscle, other single cardiac reprogramming factors (master regulators) have been sought. Discovery of cardiac reprogramming factors was inspired by the finding that multiple, but not single, transcription factors were needed to generate induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) from fibroblasts. We first reported a combination of cardiac-specific transcription factors, Gata4, Mef2c, and Tbx5 (GMT), that could convert mouse fibroblasts into cardiomyocyte-like cells, which were designated as induced cardiomyocyte-like cells (iCMs). Following our first report of cardiac reprogramming, many researchers, including ourselves, demonstrated an improvement in cardiac reprogramming efficiency, in vivo direct cardiac reprogramming for heart regeneration, and cardiac reprogramming in human cells. However, cardiac reprogramming in human cells and adult fibroblasts remains inefficient, and further efforts are needed. We believe that future research elucidating epigenetic barriers and molecular mechanisms of direct cardiac reprogramming will improve the reprogramming efficiency, and that this new technology has great potential for clinical applications.

20. Hybrid direct carbon fuel cells and their reaction mechanisms - a review

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Deleebeeck, Lisa; Kammer Hansen, Kent

2014-01-01

with carbon capture and storage (CCS) due to the high purity of CO2 emitted in the exhaust gas. Direct carbon (or coal) fuel cells (DCFCs) are directly fed with solid carbon to the anode chamber. The fuel cell converts the carbon at the anode and the oxygen at the cathode into electricity, heat and reaction......As coal is expected to continue to dominate power generation demands worldwide, it is advisable to pursue the development of more efficient coal power generation technologies. Fuel cells show a much higher fuel utilization efficiency, emit fewer pollutants (NOx, SOx), and are more easily combined...

1. Mechanisms of elastic wave generation in solids by ion impact

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Deemer, B.; Murphy, J.; Claytor, T.

1990-01-01

This study is directed at understanding the mechanisms of acoustic signal generation by modulated beams of energetic ions as a function of ion energy. Interaction of ions with solids initiates a range of processes including sputtering, ion implantation, ionization, both internal and external, as well as thermal deposition in the solid. Accumulated internal stress also occurs by generation of dislocations resulting from, inelastic nuclear scattering of the incident ion beam. With respect to elastic wave generation, two potential mechanisms are thermoelastic induced stress and momentum transfer. The latter process includes contributions of momentum transfer from the incident beam and from ions ejected via sputtering. Other aspects of the generation process include the potential for shock wave generation since the mean particle velocity for a wide range of ion energies exceeds the velocity of sound in solids. This study seeks to distinguish the contribution of these mechanisms by studying the signature, angular distribution and energy dependence of the elastic wave response in the time domain and to use this information to understand technologically important processes such as implantation and sputtering

2. Restructuring of the corporate sector of national economy: content and mechanism of realization

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

S. I. Gusakov

2016-08-01

It has been suggested to distinguish three directions of the restructuring: inner corporate restructuring; restructuring of relations; economics conditions restructuring. Inner corporate restructuring includes property forms changes, entity structure changes, capital structure changes, form of incorporation changes, management bodies changes, management changes, staff politics changes, reorganization, liquidation, privatization, corporatization. Restructuring of relations includes sales market changes, conversion of enterprises, diversification, contractor’s changes, property assignation, lease, concession, franchising, debt’s restructuring, changes of credit politics, technical supplement, using alternative power sources, standardization etc. Economics conditions restructuring includes regulation and legislation changes, tax regulation changes, currency market changes, changes in credit policies, changers in stock market. Accordingly, every restructuring direction includes many mechanisms of its possible fulfillment. The author has distinguished twenty six mechanisms all the restructuring and they are presented in the table form.The corporate management models’ use in correlation to corporate restructuring models has been described in the article. The author has come to the conclusion that pragmatic model of the corporate restructuring is more preferable in comparison with world recognized valuable model because of the peculiarities of the post-social economy in Ukraine.

3. Archaeal promoter architecture and mechanism of gene activation

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Peng, Nan; Ao, Xiang; Liang, Yun Xiang

2011-01-01

element named ara box directing arabinose-inducible expression and the basal promoter element TATA, serving as the binding site for the TATA-binding protein. Strikingly, these promoters possess a modular structure that allows an essentially inactive basal promoter to be strongly activated. The invoked...... mechanisms include TFB (transcription factor B) recruitment by the ara-box-binding factor to activate gene expression and modulation of TFB recruitment efficiency to yield differential gene expression....

4. In situ observations of the atomistic mechanisms of Ni catalyzed low temperature graphene growth.

Science.gov (United States)

Patera, Laerte L; Africh, Cristina; Weatherup, Robert S; Blume, Raoul; Bhardwaj, Sunil; Castellarin-Cudia, Carla; Knop-Gericke, Axel; Schloegl, Robert; Comelli, Giovanni; Hofmann, Stephan; Cepek, Cinzia

2013-09-24

The key atomistic mechanisms of graphene formation on Ni for technologically relevant hydrocarbon exposures below 600 °C are directly revealed via complementary in situ scanning tunneling microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. For clean Ni(111) below 500 °C, two different surface carbide (Ni2C) conversion mechanisms are dominant which both yield epitaxial graphene, whereas above 500 °C, graphene predominantly grows directly on Ni(111) via replacement mechanisms leading to embedded epitaxial and/or rotated graphene domains. Upon cooling, additional carbon structures form exclusively underneath rotated graphene domains. The dominant graphene growth mechanism also critically depends on the near-surface carbon concentration and hence is intimately linked to the full history of the catalyst and all possible sources of contamination. The detailed XPS fingerprinting of these processes allows a direct link to high pressure XPS measurements of a wide range of growth conditions, including polycrystalline Ni catalysts and recipes commonly used in industrial reactors for graphene and carbon nanotube CVD. This enables an unambiguous and consistent interpretation of prior literature and an assessment of how the quality/structure of as-grown carbon nanostructures relates to the growth modes.

5. Mechanisms of direct inhibition of the respiratory sulfate-reduction pathway by (per)chlorate and nitrate.

Science.gov (United States)

Carlson, Hans K; Kuehl, Jennifer V; Hazra, Amrita B; Justice, Nicholas B; Stoeva, Magdalena K; Sczesnak, Andrew; Mullan, Mark R; Iavarone, Anthony T; Engelbrektson, Anna; Price, Morgan N; Deutschbauer, Adam M; Arkin, Adam P; Coates, John D

2015-06-01

We investigated perchlorate (ClO(4)(-)) and chlorate (ClO(3)(-)) (collectively (per)chlorate) in comparison with nitrate as potential inhibitors of sulfide (H(2)S) production by mesophilic sulfate-reducing microorganisms (SRMs). We demonstrate the specificity and potency of (per)chlorate as direct SRM inhibitors in both pure cultures and undefined sulfidogenic communities. We demonstrate that (per)chlorate and nitrate are antagonistic inhibitors and resistance is cross-inducible implying that these compounds share at least one common mechanism of resistance. Using tagged-transposon pools we identified genes responsible for sensitivity and resistance in Desulfovibrio alaskensis G20. We found that mutants in Dde_2702 (Rex), a repressor of the central sulfate-reduction pathway were resistant to both (per)chlorate and nitrate. In general, Rex derepresses its regulon in response to increasing intracellular NADH:NAD(+) ratios. In cells in which respiratory sulfate reduction is inhibited, NADH:NAD(+) ratios should increase leading to derepression of the sulfate-reduction pathway. In support of this, in (per)chlorate or nitrate-stressed wild-type G20 we observed higher NADH:NAD(+) ratios, increased transcripts and increased peptide counts for genes in the core Rex regulon. We conclude that one mode of (per)chlorate and nitrate toxicity is as direct inhibitors of the central sulfate-reduction pathway. Our results demonstrate that (per)chlorate are more potent inhibitors than nitrate in both pure cultures and communities, implying that they represent an attractive alternative for controlling sulfidogenesis in industrial ecosystems. Of these, perchlorate offers better application logistics because of its inhibitory potency, solubility, relative chemical stability, low affinity for mineral cations and high mobility in environmental systems.

6. Kinetics and Mechanisms of Thiol–Disulfide Exchange Covering Direct Substitution and Thiol Oxidation-Mediated Pathways

Science.gov (United States)

2013-01-01

Abstract Significance: Disulfides are important building blocks in the secondary and tertiary structures of proteins, serving as inter- and intra-subunit cross links. Disulfides are also the major products of thiol oxidation, a process that has primary roles in defense mechanisms against oxidative stress and in redox regulation of cell signaling. Although disulfides are relatively stable, their reduction, isomerisation, and interconversion as well as their production reactions are catalyzed by delicate enzyme machineries, providing a dynamic system in biology. Redox homeostasis, a thermodynamic parameter that determines which reactions can occur in cellular compartments, is also balanced by the thiol–disulfide pool. However, it is the kinetic properties of the reactions that best represent cell dynamics, because the partitioning of the possible reactions depends on kinetic parameters. Critical Issues: This review is focused on the kinetics and mechanisms of thiol–disulfide substitution and redox reactions. It summarizes the challenges and advances that are associated with kinetic investigations in small molecular and enzymatic systems from a rigorous chemical perspective using biological examples. The most important parameters that influence reaction rates are discussed in detail. Recent Advances and Future Directions: Kinetic studies of proteins are more challenging than small molecules, and quite often investigators are forced to sacrifice the rigor of the experimental approach to obtain the important kinetic and mechanistic information. However, recent technological advances allow a more comprehensive analysis of enzymatic systems via using the systematic kinetics apparatus that was developed for small molecule reactions, which is expected to provide further insight into the cell's machinery. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 18, 1623–1641. PMID:23075118

7. International Conference on Mechanical Engineering and Technology

CERN Document Server

Mechanical Engineering and Technology

2012-01-01

The volume includes a set of selected papers extended and revised from the 2011 International Conference on Mechanical Engineering and Technology, held on London, UK, November 24-25, 2011.   Mechanical engineering technology is the application of physical principles and current technological developments to the creation of useful machinery and operation design. Technologies such as solid models may be used as the basis for finite element analysis (FEA) and / or computational fluid dynamics (CFD) of the design. Through the application of computer-aided manufacturing (CAM), the models may also be used directly by software to create "instructions" for the manufacture of objects represented by the models, through computer numerically controlled (CNC) machining or other automated processes, without the need for intermediate drawings.   This volume covers the subject areas of mechanical engineering and technology, and also covers interdisciplinary subject areas of computers, communications, control and automation...

8. Direct strip casting of steel - historical perspective and future direction

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Manohar, P.A.; Hunter, A.; Ferry, M.

2000-01-01

The commercialisation of direct strip casting (DSC) of steel represents the realisation of a dream cherished by engineers for over one hundred and fifty years. The story of the global competition for DSC of steel, that has ingredients of romanticism of chasing of a dream, adventure and intrigue, is being played out across continents over dozens of decades with an interplay of setbacks and successes. At this stage, DSC is set to make a profound impact on the steelmaking landscape. This paper reviews the important milestones in this compelling story, presents the current status and then gazes into the crystal ball in an attempt to predict which turn the story may take in the near future. The constraints and critical challenges for the successful commercialisation of DSC are highlighted. Recent results are discussed relating the production process to quality control and properties of unalloyed, low carbon strip-cast steels. future metallurgical challenges include a better understanding of solidification mechanism during high-speed casting and secondary processing variables affecting the final microstructure of austenitic grains

9. Introduction to the Mechanics of Deformable Solids Bars and Beams

CERN Document Server

H Allen, David

2013-01-01

Introduction to the Mechanics of Deformable Solids: Bars and Beams introduces the theory of beams and bars, including axial, torsion, and bending loading and analysis of bars that are subjected to combined loadings, including resulting complex stress states using Mohr’s circle. The book  provides failure analysis based on maximum stress criteria and introduces design using models developed in the text. Throughout the book, the author emphasizes fundamentals, including consistent mathematical notation. The author also presents the fundamentals of the mechanics of solids in such a way that the beginning student is able to progress directly to a follow-up course that utilizes two- and three-dimensional finite element codes imbedded within modern software packages for structural design purposes. As such, excessive details included in the previous generation of textbooks on the subject are obviated due to their obsolescence with the availability of today’s finite element software packages. This book also:...

10. Fabrication and photocatalytic activity enhanced mechanism of direct Z-scheme g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}/Ag{sub 2}WO{sub 4} photocatalyst

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Zhu, Bicheng [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Technology for Materials Synthesis and Processing, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan 430070 (China); Department of Science and Environmental Studies The Hong Kong Institute of Education, Tai Po, N.T., Hong Kong (China); Xia, Pengfei; Li, Yao [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Technology for Materials Synthesis and Processing, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan 430070 (China); Ho, Wingkei, E-mail: keithho@ied.edu.hk [Department of Science and Environmental Studies The Hong Kong Institute of Education, Tai Po, N.T., Hong Kong (China); Yu, Jiaguo, E-mail: jiaguoyu@yahoo.com [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Technology for Materials Synthesis and Processing, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan 430070 (China); Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah 21589 (Saudi Arabia)

2017-01-01

Highlights: • g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} acted as a support for the in situ growth of β-Ag{sub 2}WO{sub 4}. • g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} nanosheets inhibited the phase transformation of β-Ag{sub 2}WO{sub 4} to α-Ag{sub 2}WO{sub 4}. • g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}/Ag{sub 2}WO{sub 4} exhibited a superior photocatalytic activity. • A direct Z-scheme photocatalytic mechanism could explain activity enhancement. - Abstract: Herein, a direct Z-scheme graphitic carbon nitride (g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4})/silver tungstate (Ag{sub 2}WO{sub 4}) photocatalyst was prepared by a facile in situ precipitation method using g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} as a support and silver nitrate as a precursor. X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and elemental mapping demonstrated that β-Ag{sub 2}WO{sub 4} nanoparticles were evenly distributed on the surface of g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} nanosheets, which acted as a support for the nucleation and growth of β-Ag{sub 2}WO{sub 4} and inhibited the phase transformation of metastable β-Ag{sub 2}WO{sub 4} to stable α-Ag{sub 2}WO{sub 4}. Photocatalytic experiments indicated that the g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}/Ag{sub 2}WO{sub 4} nanocomposite photocatalyst displayed a better photocatalytic activity than pure g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} and Ag{sub 2}WO{sub 4} toward the degradation of methyl orange. The enhanced photocatalytic performance of g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}/Ag{sub 2}WO{sub 4} could be well explained by a direct Z-scheme photocatalytic mechanism. This mechanism was related to the efficient space separation of photogenerated electron–hole pairs and the great oxidation and reduction capabilities of the g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}/Ag{sub 2}WO{sub 4} system. This work provided new insights into the design and fabrication of g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}-based direct Z-scheme photocatalysts.

11. Reactive molecular dynamics simulations of the mechanical properties of various phosphorene allotropes

Science.gov (United States)

Le, Minh-Quy

2018-05-01

Although various phosphorene allotropes have been theoretically predicted to be stable at 0 K, the mechanical properties and fracture mechanism at room temperature remain unclear for many of them. We investigate through reactive molecular dynamics simulations at room temperature the mechanical properties of phosphorene allotropes including: five sheets with hexagonal structures (β-, γ-, δ-, θ-, and α-phosphorene), one sheet with 4-8 membered rings (4-8-P), and two sheets with 5-7 membered rings. High, moderate and slight anisotropies in their mechanical properties are observed, depending on their crystal structures. Their Young’s moduli and tensile strength are approximately in the range from 7.3% through 25%, and from 8.6% through 22% of those of graphene, respectively. At the early stage of fracture, eye-shaped cracks are formed by local bond breaking and perpendicular to the tensile direction in hexagonal and 4-8-P sheets. Complete fractures take place with straight cracks in these hexagonal sheets under tension along the zigzag direction and under tension along the square edge direction in the 4-8-P sheet. Crack meandering and branching are observed during the tension of α-, β-, and γ-phosphorene along the armchair direction; and along the square diagonal direction in the 4-8-P sheet. Under uniaxial tension of two phosphorene sheets with 5-7 atom rings, 12 and 10 membered rings are formed by merging two neighbor heptagons, and a heptagon and its neighbor pentagon, respectively. These 12 and 10 membered rings coalesce subsequently, causing the failure of these two sheets. The results are of great importance in the design of these novel phosphorene allotropes.

12. Different Molecular Mechanisms Mediate Direct or Glia-Dependent Prion Protein Fragment 90-231 Neurotoxic Effects in Cerebellar Granule Neurons.

Science.gov (United States)

Thellung, Stefano; Gatta, Elena; Pellistri, Francesca; Villa, Valentina; Corsaro, Alessandro; Nizzari, Mario; Robello, Mauro; Florio, Tullio

2017-10-01

Glia over-stimulation associates with amyloid deposition contributing to the progression of central nervous system neurodegenerative disorders. Here we analyze the molecular mechanisms mediating microglia-dependent neurotoxicity induced by prion protein (PrP)90-231, an amyloidogenic polypeptide corresponding to the protease-resistant portion of the pathological prion protein scrapie (PrP Sc ). PrP90-231 neurotoxicity is enhanced by the presence of microglia within neuronal culture, and associated to a rapid neuronal [Ca ++ ] i increase. Indeed, while in "pure" cerebellar granule neuron cultures, PrP90-231 causes a delayed intracellular Ca ++ entry mediated by the activation of NMDA receptors; when neuron and glia are co-cultured, a transient increase of [Ca ++ ] i occurs within seconds after treatment in both granule neurons and glial cells, then followed by a delayed and sustained [Ca ++ ] i raise, associated with the induction of the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase and phagocytic NADPH oxidase. [Ca ++ ] i fast increase in neurons is dependent on the activation of multiple pathways since it is not only inhibited by the blockade of voltage-gated channel activity and NMDA receptors but also prevented by the inhibition of nitric oxide and PGE 2 release from glial cells. Thus, Ca ++ homeostasis alteration, directly induced by PrP90-231 in cerebellar granule cells, requires the activation of NMDA receptors, but is greatly enhanced by soluble molecules released by activated glia. In glia-enriched cerebellar granule cultures, the activation of inducible nitric oxide (iNOS) and NADPH oxidase represents the main mechanism of toxicity since their pharmacological inhibition prevented PrP90-231 neurotoxicity, whereas NMDA blockade by D(-)-2-amino-5-phosphonopentanoic acid is ineffective; conversely, in pure cerebellar granule cultures, NMDA blockade but not iNOS inhibition strongly reduced PrP90-231 neurotoxicity. These data indicate that amyloidogenic peptides

13. Music preferences of mechanically ventilated patients participating in a randomized controlled trial

Science.gov (United States)

Heiderscheit, Annie; Breckenridge, Stephanie J.; Chlan, Linda L.; Savik, Kay

2014-01-01

Mechanical ventilation (MV) is a life-saving measure and supportive modality utilized to treat patients experiencing respiratory failure. Patients experience pain, discomfort, and anxiety as a result of being mechanically ventilated. Music listening is a non-pharmacological intervention used to manage these psychophysiological symptoms associated with mechanical ventilation. The purpose of this secondary analysis was to examine music preferences of 107 MV patients enrolled in a randomized clinical trial that implemented a patient-directed music listening protocol to help manage the psychophysiological symptom of anxiety. Music data presented includes the music genres and instrumentation patients identified as their preferred music. Genres preferred include: classical, jazz, rock, country, and oldies. Instrumentation preferred include: piano, voice, guitar, music with nature sounds, and orchestral music. Analysis of three patients’ preferred music received throughout the course of the study is illustrated to demonstrate the complexity of assessing MV patients and the need for an ongoing assessment process. PMID:25574992

14. Music preferences of mechanically ventilated patients participating in a randomized controlled trial.

Science.gov (United States)

Heiderscheit, Annie; Breckenridge, Stephanie J; Chlan, Linda L; Savik, Kay

2014-01-01

Mechanical ventilation (MV) is a life-saving measure and supportive modality utilized to treat patients experiencing respiratory failure. Patients experience pain, discomfort, and anxiety as a result of being mechanically ventilated. Music listening is a non-pharmacological intervention used to manage these psychophysiological symptoms associated with mechanical ventilation. The purpose of this secondary analysis was to examine music preferences of 107 MV patients enrolled in a randomized clinical trial that implemented a patient-directed music listening protocol to help manage the psychophysiological symptom of anxiety. Music data presented includes the music genres and instrumentation patients identified as their preferred music. Genres preferred include: classical, jazz, rock, country, and oldies. Instrumentation preferred include: piano, voice, guitar, music with nature sounds, and orchestral music. Analysis of three patients' preferred music received throughout the course of the study is illustrated to demonstrate the complexity of assessing MV patients and the need for an ongoing assessment process.

15. Rapid, directed transport of DC-SIGN clusters in the plasma membrane.

Science.gov (United States)

Liu, Ping; Weinreb, Violetta; Ridilla, Marc; Betts, Laurie; Patel, Pratik; de Silva, Aravinda M; Thompson, Nancy L; Jacobson, Ken

2017-11-01

C-type lectins, including dendritic cell-specific intercellular adhesion molecule-3-grabbing nonintegrin (DC-SIGN), are all-purpose pathogen receptors that exist in nanoclusters in plasma membranes of dendritic cells. A small fraction of these clusters, obvious from the videos, can undergo rapid, directed transport in the plane of the plasma membrane at average speeds of more than 1 μm/s in both dendritic cells and MX DC-SIGN murine fibroblasts ectopically expressing DC-SIGN. Surprisingly, instantaneous speeds can be considerably greater. In MX DC-SIGN cells, many cluster trajectories are colinear with microtubules that reside close to the ventral membrane, and the microtubule-depolymerizing drug, nocodazole, markedly reduced the areal density of directed movement trajectories, suggesting a microtubule motor-driven transport mechanism; by contrast, latrunculin A, which affects the actin network, did not depress this movement. Rapid, retrograde movement of DC-SIGN may be an efficient mechanism for bringing bound pathogen on the leading edge and projections of dendritic cells to the perinuclear region for internalization and processing. Dengue virus bound to DC-SIGN on dendritic projections was rapidly transported toward the cell center. The existence of this movement within the plasma membrane points to an unexpected lateral transport mechanism in mammalian cells and challenges our current concepts of cortex-membrane interactions.

16. Versatile cable handling mechanisms for remote operator control

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Collie, A.A.; White, T.S.; Christopher, M.D.; Hewer, N.D. [Portech Ltd., Portsmouth (United Kingdom)

1996-12-31

This paper describes a system of cable management for keeping the umbilical cables of remote operating vehicles and manipulators tidy and contained without direct intervention by operators. Two distinct types of winding mechanism have been designed. One mechanism is a fixed reel type where the cable is wound onto the reel by a rotating bail arm. The other mechanism consists of a pair of curved belts held against each other between which cable is passed. The complete system includes tension measuring and slack loop take-up devices. The whole system is controlled by a servo system in conjunction with a PC based visual graphic environment which allows a variety of mechanisms to be built up into a system able to handle up to four umbilical cables simultaneously. The control system provides additional tension sensors and cable odometers connected to the control system so that the operator has immediate perception of all the cable parameters, and by defining rules, can set up a variety of alarm situations. (Author).

17. Versatile cable handling mechanisms for remote operator control

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Collie, A.A.; White, T.S.; Christopher, M.D.; Hewer, N.D.

1996-01-01

This paper describes a system of cable management for keeping the umbilical cables of remote operating vehicles and manipulators tidy and contained without direct intervention by operators. Two distinct types of winding mechanism have been designed. One mechanism is a fixed reel type where the cable is wound onto the reel by a rotating bail arm. The other mechanism consists of a pair of curved belts held against each other between which cable is passed. The complete system includes tension measuring and slack loop take-up devices. The whole system is controlled by a servo system in conjunction with a PC based visual graphic environment which allows a variety of mechanisms to be built up into a system able to handle up to four umbilical cables simultaneously. The control system provides additional tension sensors and cable odometers connected to the control system so that the operator has immediate perception of all the cable parameters, and by defining rules, can set up a variety of alarm situations. (Author)

18. Versatile cable handling mechanisms for remote operator control

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Collie, A.A.; White, T.S.; Christopher, M.D.; Hewer, N.D.

1996-01-01

This paper describes a system of cable management for keeping the umbilical cables of remote operating vehicles and manipulators tidy and contained without direct intervention by operators. Two distinct types of winding mechanism have been designed. One mechanism is a fixed reel type where the cable is wound onto the reel by a rotating bail arm. The other mechanism consists of a pair of curved belts held against each other, between which cable is passed. The complete system includes tension measuring and slack loop take-up devices. The whole system is controlled by a servo system in conjunction with a PC based visual graphic environment which allows a variety of mechanisms to be built up into a system able to handle up to four umbilical cables simultaneously. The control system provides additional tension sensors and cable odometers connected to the control system so that the operator has immediate perception of all the cable parameters, and by defining rules, can set up a variety of alarm situations. (UK)

19. The direction of water transport on Mars: A possible pumping mechanism

Science.gov (United States)

James, P. B.

1987-01-01

It is suggested that an atmospheric pumping mechanism might be at work in which water is preferentially transported into the north by a mass outflow wind (due to sublimation from polar cap) that is stronger during southern spring than it is during northern spring. The mechanism is provided by the asymmetric seasonal temperature distribution produced by the eccentric martial orbit and by the associated seasonal asymmetry in the carbon dioxide cycle. The alternating condensation and sublimation of CO2 at the poles produces condensation winds which, in turn, contribute to the meridional transport of water vapor.

20. Photobiomodulation Mitigates Diabetes-Induced Retinopathy by Direct and Indirect Mechanisms: Evidence from Intervention Studies in Pigmented Mice.

Science.gov (United States)

Saliba, Alexandra; Du, Yunpeng; Liu, Haitao; Patel, Shyam; Roberts, Robin; Berkowitz, Bruce A; Kern, Timothy S

2015-01-01

Daily application of far-red light from the onset of diabetes mitigated diabetes-induced abnormalities in retinas of albino rats. Here, we test the hypothesis that photobiomodulation (PBM) is effective in diabetic, pigmented mice, even when delayed until weeks after onset of diabetes. Direct and indirect effects of PBM on the retina also were studied. Diabetes was induced in C57Bl/6J mice using streptozotocin. Some diabetics were exposed to PBM therapy (4 min/day; 670 nm) daily. In one study, mice were diabetic for 4 weeks before initiation of PBM for an additional 10 weeks. Retinal oxidative stress, inflammation, and retinal function were measured. In some mice, heads were covered with a lead shield during PBM to prevent direct illumination of the eye, or animals were treated with an inhibitor of heme oxygenase-1. In a second study, PBM was initiated immediately after onset of diabetes, and administered daily for 2 months. These mice were examined using manganese-enhanced MRI to assess effects of PBM on transretinal calcium channel function in vivo. PBM intervention improved diabetes-induced changes in superoxide generation, leukostasis, expression of ICAM-1, and visual performance. PBM acted in part remotely from the retina because the beneficial effects were achieved even with the head shielded from the light therapy, and because leukocyte-mediated cytotoxicity of retinal endothelial cells was less in diabetics treated with PBM. SnPP+PBM significantly reduced iNOS expression compared to PBM alone, but significantly exacerbated leukostasis. In study 2, PBM largely mitigated diabetes-induced retinal calcium channel dysfunction in all retinal layers. PBM induces retinal protection against abnormalities induced by diabetes in pigmented animals, and even as an intervention. Beneficial effects on the retina likely are mediated by both direct and indirect mechanisms. PBM is a novel non-pharmacologic treatment strategy to inhibit early changes of diabetic retinopathy.

1. Fracture mechanics

CERN Document Server

Perez, Nestor

2017-01-01

The second edition of this textbook includes a refined presentation of concepts in each chapter, additional examples; new problems and sections, such as conformal mapping and mechanical behavior of wood; while retaining all the features of the original book. The material included in this book is based upon the development of analytical and numerical procedures pertinent to particular fields of linear elastic fracture mechanics (LEFM) and plastic fracture mechanics (PFM), including mixed-mode-loading interaction. The mathematical approach undertaken herein is coupled with a brief review of several fracture theories available in cited references, along with many color images and figures. Dynamic fracture mechanics is included through the field of fatigue and Charpy impact testing. Explains computational and engineering approaches for solving crack-related problems using straightforward mathematics that facilitate comprehension of the physical meaning of crack growth processes; Expands computational understandin...

2. Direct catalytic asymmetric aldol-Tishchenko reaction.

Science.gov (United States)

Gnanadesikan, Vijay; Horiuchi, Yoshihiro; Ohshima, Takashi; Shibasaki, Masakatsu

2004-06-30

A direct catalytic asymmetric aldol reaction of propionate equivalent was achieved via the aldol-Tishchenko reaction. Coupling an irreversible Tishchenko reaction to a reversible aldol reaction overcame the retro-aldol reaction problem and thereby afforded the products in high enantio and diastereoselectivity using 10 mol % of the asymmetric catalyst. A variety of ketones and aldehydes, including propyl and butyl ketones, were coupled efficiently, yielding the corresponding aldol-Tishchenko products in up to 96% yield and 95% ee. Diastereoselectivity was generally below the detection limit of 1H NMR (>98:2). Preliminary studies performed to clarify the mechanism revealed that the aldol products were racemic with no diastereoselectivity. On the other hand, the Tishchenko products were obtained in a highly enantiocontrolled manner.

CERN Document Server

Wu, Theodore Y; Wu, Theodore Y

2000-01-01

This highly acclaimed series provides survey articles on the present state and future direction of research in important branches of applied solid and fluid mechanics. Mechanics is defined as a branch of physics that focuses on motion and on the reaction of physical systems to internal and external forces.

4. A macro-directive mechanism that facilitates automatic updating and processing of the contents of Electronic Healthcare Records: an extension to the CEN architecture.

Science.gov (United States)

Deftereos, S; Lambrinoudakis, C; Gritzalis, S; Georgonikou, D; Andriopoulos, P; Aessopos, A

2003-03-01

Facilitating data entry, eliminating redundant effort and providing decision support are some of the factors upon which the successful uptake of Electronic Healthcare Record (EHCR) technology is dependent. The European Standardization Committee (CEN), on the other hand, has proposed a standard EHCR architecture, which allows patient record contents to be highly diverse, customized to individual user needs; this makes their processing a challenging task and poses a demand for specially designed mechanisms. We describe the requirements for a macro-directive mechanism, pertaining to CEN-compatible EHCR software that can automate updating and processing of patient records, thus enhancing the functionality of the software. We have implemented the above-mentioned mechanism in an EHCR application that has been customized for use in the care process of patients suffering from beta-Thalassemia. The application is being used during the last two years in the Thalassemia units of four Greek hospitals, as part of their every day practice. We report on the experience we have acquired so far.

5. Why quantum mechanics?

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Landsberg, P.T.

1988-01-01

It is suggested that an oversight occurred in classical mechanics when time-derivatives of observables were treated on the same footing as the undifferentiated observables. Removal of this oversight points in the direction of quantum mechanics. Additional light is thrown on uncertainty relations and on quantum mechanics, as a possible form of a subtle statistical mechanics, by the formulation of a classical uncertainty relation for a very simple model. The existence of universal motion, i.e., of zero-point energy, is lastly made plausible in terms of a gravitational constant which is time-dependent. By these three considerations an attempt is made to link classical and quantum mechanics together more firmly, thus giving a better understanding of the latter

6. Formulation and Evaluation of Ascorbic acid Tablets by Direct ...

African Journals Online (AJOL)

Formulation and Evaluation of Ascorbic acid Tablets by Direct Compression using Microcrystalline Starch as a Direct Compression Excipient. ... Abstract. PURPOSE: To evaluate the tableting properties of microcrystalline starch (MCS) used as a direct ... RESULTS: Mechanical properties of tablets formulated with MCS were

7. Review article: gut-directed hypnotherapy in the management of irritable bowel syndrome and inflammatory bowel disease.

Science.gov (United States)

Peters, S L; Muir, J G; Gibson, P R

2015-06-01

Gut-directed hypnotherapy is being increasingly applied to patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and to a lesser extent, inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). To review the technique, mechanisms of action and evidence for efficacy, and to identify gaps in the understanding of gut-directed hypnotherapy as a treatment for IBS and IBD. A review of published literature and a systematic review of clinical trials in its application to patients with IBS and IBD were performed. Gut-directed hypnotherapy is a clearly described technique. Its potential mechanisms of action on the brain-gut axis are multiple with evidence spanning psychological effects through to physiological gastrointestinal modifications. Six of seven randomised IBS studies reported a significant reduction (all P hypnotherapy ranged between 24% and 73%. Efficacy was maintained long-term in four of five studies. A therapeutic effect was also observed in the maintenance of clinical remission in patients with ulcerative colitis. Uncontrolled trials supported the efficacy and durability of gut-directed hypnotherapy in IBS. Gaps in understanding included to whom and when it should be applied, the paucity of adequately trained hypnotherapists, and the difficulties in designing well controlled-trials. Gut-directed hypnotherapy has durable efficacy in patients with IBS and possibly ulcerative colitis. Whether it sits in the therapeutic arsenal as a primary and/or adjunctive therapy cannot be ascertained on the current evidence base. Further research into efficacy, mechanisms of action and predictors of response is required. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

8. Mechanisms for focusing mitotic spindle poles by minus end-directed motor proteins.

Science.gov (United States)

Goshima, Gohta; Nédélec, François; Vale, Ronald D

2005-10-24

During the formation of the metaphase spindle in animal somatic cells, kinetochore microtubule bundles (K fibers) are often disconnected from centrosomes, because they are released from centrosomes or directly generated from chromosomes. To create the tightly focused, diamond-shaped appearance of the bipolar spindle, K fibers need to be interconnected with centrosomal microtubules (C-MTs) by minus end-directed motor proteins. Here, we have characterized the roles of two minus end-directed motors, dynein and Ncd, in such processes in Drosophila S2 cells using RNA interference and high resolution microscopy. Even though these two motors have overlapping functions, we show that Ncd is primarily responsible for focusing K fibers, whereas dynein has a dominant function in transporting K fibers to the centrosomes. We also report a novel localization of Ncd to the growing tips of C-MTs, which we show is mediated by the plus end-tracking protein, EB1. Computer modeling of the K fiber focusing process suggests that the plus end localization of Ncd could facilitate the capture and transport of K fibers along C-MTs. From these results and simulations, we propose a model on how two minus end-directed motors cooperate to ensure spindle pole coalescence during mitosis.

9. The direction of time

CERN Document Server

Reichenbach, Hans

1999-01-01

Ever a source of philosophical conjecture and debate, the concept of time represents the beating heart of physics. This final work by the distinguished physicist Hans Reichenbach represents the culmination and integration of a lifetime's philosophical contributions and inquiries into the analysis of time. The result is an outstanding overview of such qualitative, or topological, attributes of time as order and direction.Beginning with a discussion of the emotive significance of time, Reichenbach turns to an examination of the time order of mechanics, the time direction of thermodynamics and m

10. Ideas for the rapid development of the structural models in mechanical engineering

Science.gov (United States)

Oanta, E.; Raicu, A.; Panait, C.

2017-08-01

Conceiving computer based instruments is a long run concern of the authors. Some of the original solutions are: optimal processing of the large matrices, interfaces between the programming languages, approximation theory using spline functions, numerical programming increased accuracy based on the extended arbitrary precision libraries. For the rapid development of the models we identified the following directions: atomization, ‘librarization’, parameterization, automatization and integration. Each of these directions has some particular aspects if we approach mechanical design problems or software development. Atomization means a thorough top-down decomposition analysis which offers an insight regarding the basic features of the phenomenon. Creation of libraries of reusable mechanical parts and libraries of programs (data types, functions) save time, cost and effort when a new model must be conceived. Parameterization leads to flexible definition of the mechanical parts, the values of the parameters being changed either using a dimensioning program or in accord to other parts belonging to the same assembly. The resulting templates may be also included in libraries. Original software applications are useful for the model’s input data generation, to input the data into CAD/FEA commercial applications and for the data integration of the various types of studies included in the same project.

11. Mechanical behavior of silicon carbide nanoparticles under uniaxial compression

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

He, Qiuxiang; Fei, Jing; Tang, Chao; Zhong, Jianxin; Meng, Lijun, E-mail: ljmeng@xtu.edu.cn [Xiangtan University, Hunan Key Laboratory for Micro-Nano Energy Materials and Devices, Faculty of School of Physics and Optoelectronics (China)

2016-03-15

The mechanical behavior of SiC nanoparticles under uniaxial compression was investigated using an atomic-level compression simulation technique. The results revealed that the mechanical deformation of SiC nanocrystals is highly dependent on compression orientation, particle size, and temperature. A structural transformation from the original zinc-blende to a rock-salt phase is identified for SiC nanoparticles compressed along the [001] direction at low temperature. However, the rock-salt phase is not observed for SiC nanoparticles compressed along the [110] and [111] directions irrespective of size and temperature. The high-pressure-generated rock-salt phase strongly affects the mechanical behavior of the nanoparticles, including their hardness and deformation process. The hardness of [001]-compressed nanoparticles decreases monotonically as their size increases, different from that of [110] and [111]-compressed nanoparticles, which reaches a maximal value at a critical size and then decreases. Additionally, a temperature-dependent mechanical response was observed for all simulated SiC nanoparticles regardless of compression orientation and size. Interestingly, the hardness of SiC nanocrystals with a diameter of 8 nm compressed in [001]-orientation undergoes a steep decrease at 0.1–200 K and then a gradual decline from 250 to 1500 K. This trend can be attributed to different deformation mechanisms related to phase transformation and dislocations. Our results will be useful for practical applications of SiC nanoparticles under high pressure.

12. Program plan for environmental qualification of mechanical and dynamic (including seismic) qualification of mechanical and electrical equipment program (EDQP)

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Weidenhamer, G.H.

1986-06-01

The equipment qualification program described in this plan is intended to provide the technical basis for resolving uncertainties in existing equipment qualification standards. In addition, research results are contributing to the resolution of safety issues GI-23, GI-87, USI-A44, titled, ''Reactor Coolant Pump Seal Failure,'' ''Failure of HPCI Steam Line Without Isolation,'' and ''Station Blackout,'' respectively. Also, research effort is being directed at providing information on the behavior of containment isolation valves under severe accident environments. Although the results of the latter research will not contribute to resolving uncertainties in qualification standards, it has proven cost effective to obtain this information under this program

13. Mechanical response of collagen molecule under hydrostatic compression

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Saini, Karanvir; Kumar, Navin

2015-01-01

Proteins like collagen are the basic building blocks of various body tissues (soft and hard). Collagen molecules find their presence in the skeletal system of the body where they bear mechanical loads from different directions, either individually or along with hydroxy-apatite crystals. Therefore, it is very important to understand the mechanical behavior of the collagen molecule which is subjected to multi-axial state of loading. The estimation of strains of collagen molecule along different directions resulting from the changes in hydrostatic pressure magnitude, can provide us new insights into its mechanical behavior. In the present work, full atomistic simulations have been used to study global (volumetric) as well as local (along different directions) mechanical properties of the hydrated collagen molecule which is subjected to different hydrostatic pressure magnitudes. To estimate the local mechanical properties, the strains of collagen molecule along its longitudinal and transverse directions have been acquired at different hydrostatic pressure magnitudes. In spite of non-homogeneous distribution of atoms within the collagen molecule, the calculated values of local mechanical properties have been found to carry the same order of magnitude along the longitudinal and transverse directions. It has been demonstrated that the values of global mechanical properties like compressibility, bulk modulus, etc. as well as local mechanical properties like linear compressibility, linear elastic modulus, etc. are functions of magnitudes of applied hydrostatic pressures. The mechanical characteristics of collagen molecule based on the atomistic model have also been compared with that of the continuum model in the present work. The comparison showed up orthotropic material behavior for the collagen molecule. The information on collagen molecule provided in the present study can be very helpful in designing the future bio-materials.

14. Mechanical response of collagen molecule under hydrostatic compression.

Science.gov (United States)

Saini, Karanvir; Kumar, Navin

2015-04-01

Proteins like collagen are the basic building blocks of various body tissues (soft and hard). Collagen molecules find their presence in the skeletal system of the body where they bear mechanical loads from different directions, either individually or along with hydroxy-apatite crystals. Therefore, it is very important to understand the mechanical behavior of the collagen molecule which is subjected to multi-axial state of loading. The estimation of strains of collagen molecule along different directions resulting from the changes in hydrostatic pressure magnitude, can provide us new insights into its mechanical behavior. In the present work, full atomistic simulations have been used to study global (volumetric) as well as local (along different directions) mechanical properties of the hydrated collagen molecule which is subjected to different hydrostatic pressure magnitudes. To estimate the local mechanical properties, the strains of collagen molecule along its longitudinal and transverse directions have been acquired at different hydrostatic pressure magnitudes. In spite of non-homogeneous distribution of atoms within the collagen molecule, the calculated values of local mechanical properties have been found to carry the same order of magnitude along the longitudinal and transverse directions. It has been demonstrated that the values of global mechanical properties like compressibility, bulk modulus, etc. as well as local mechanical properties like linear compressibility, linear elastic modulus, etc. are functions of magnitudes of applied hydrostatic pressures. The mechanical characteristics of collagen molecule based on the atomistic model have also been compared with that of the continuum model in the present work. The comparison showed up orthotropic material behavior for the collagen molecule. The information on collagen molecule provided in the present study can be very helpful in designing the future bio-materials. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights

15. Mechanical response of collagen molecule under hydrostatic compression

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Saini, Karanvir, E-mail: karans@iitrpr.ac.in; Kumar, Navin

2015-04-01

Proteins like collagen are the basic building blocks of various body tissues (soft and hard). Collagen molecules find their presence in the skeletal system of the body where they bear mechanical loads from different directions, either individually or along with hydroxy-apatite crystals. Therefore, it is very important to understand the mechanical behavior of the collagen molecule which is subjected to multi-axial state of loading. The estimation of strains of collagen molecule along different directions resulting from the changes in hydrostatic pressure magnitude, can provide us new insights into its mechanical behavior. In the present work, full atomistic simulations have been used to study global (volumetric) as well as local (along different directions) mechanical properties of the hydrated collagen molecule which is subjected to different hydrostatic pressure magnitudes. To estimate the local mechanical properties, the strains of collagen molecule along its longitudinal and transverse directions have been acquired at different hydrostatic pressure magnitudes. In spite of non-homogeneous distribution of atoms within the collagen molecule, the calculated values of local mechanical properties have been found to carry the same order of magnitude along the longitudinal and transverse directions. It has been demonstrated that the values of global mechanical properties like compressibility, bulk modulus, etc. as well as local mechanical properties like linear compressibility, linear elastic modulus, etc. are functions of magnitudes of applied hydrostatic pressures. The mechanical characteristics of collagen molecule based on the atomistic model have also been compared with that of the continuum model in the present work. The comparison showed up orthotropic material behavior for the collagen molecule. The information on collagen molecule provided in the present study can be very helpful in designing the future bio-materials.

16. Quantum mechanics

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Anon.

1990-01-01

The book is on quantum mechanics. The emphasis is on the basic concepts and the methodology. The chapters include: Breakdown of classical concepts; Quantum mechanical concepts; Basic postulates of quantum mechanics; solution of problems in quantum mechanics; Simple harmonic oscillator; and Angular Momentum

17. Molecular Mechanisms of Antipsychotic Drug-Induced Diabetes

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Jiezhong Chen

2017-11-01

Full Text Available Antipsychotic drugs (APDs are widely prescribed to control various mental disorders. As mental disorders are chronic diseases, these drugs are often used over a life-time. However, APDs can cause serious glucometabolic side-effects including type 2 diabetes and hyperglycaemic emergency, leading to medication non-compliance. At present, there is no effective approach to overcome these side-effects. Understanding the mechanisms for APD-induced diabetes should be helpful in prevention and treatment of these side-effects of APDs and thus improve the clinical outcomes of APDs. In this review, the potential mechanisms for APD-induced diabetes are summarized so that novel approaches can be considered to relieve APD-induced diabetes. APD-induced diabetes could be mediated by multiple mechanisms: (1 APDs can inhibit the insulin signaling pathway in the target cells such as muscle cells, hepatocytes and adipocytes to cause insulin resistance; (2 APD-induced obesity can result in high levels of free fatty acids (FFA and inflammation, which can also cause insulin resistance. (3 APDs can cause direct damage to β-cells, leading to dysfunction and apoptosis of β-cells. A recent theory considers that both β-cell damage and insulin resistance are necessary factors for the development of diabetes. In high-fat diet-induced diabetes, the compensatory ability of β-cells is gradually damaged, while APDs cause direct β-cell damage, accounting for the severe form of APD-induced diabetes. Based on these mechanisms, effective prevention of APD-induced diabetes may need an integrated approach to combat various effects of APDs on multiple pathways.

18. Direct Heat

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Lienau, P J

1990-01-01

Potential resources and applications of earth heat in the form of geothermal energy are large. United States direct uses amount to 2,100 MWt thermal and worldwide 8,850 MWt above a reference temperature of 35 degrees Celsius. Space and district heating are the major direct uses of geothermal energy. Equipment employed in direct use projects is of standard manufacture and includes downhole and circulation pumps, transmission and distribution pipelines, heat exchangers and convectors, heat pumps and chillers. Direct uses of earth heat discussed are space and district heating, greenhouse heating and fish farming, process and industrial applications. The economic feasibility of direct use projects is governed by site specific factors such as location of user and resource, resource quality, system load factor and load density, as well as financing. Examples are presented of district heating in Klamath Falls, and Elko. Further developments of direct uses of geothermal energy will depend on matching user needs to the resource, and improving load factors and load density.

19. Micro and Nano-Scale Technologies for Cell Mechanics

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Mustafa Unal

2014-10-01

Full Text Available Cell mechanics is a multidisciplinary field that bridges cell biology, fundamental mechanics, and micro and nanotechnology, which synergize to help us better understand the intricacies and the complex nature of cells in their native environment. With recent advances in nanotechnology, microfabrication methods and micro-electro-mechanical-systems (MEMS, we are now well situated to tap into the complex micro world of cells. The field that brings biology and MEMS together is known as Biological MEMS (BioMEMS. BioMEMS take advantage of systematic design and fabrication methods to create platforms that allow us to study cells like never before. These new technologies have been rapidly advancing the study of cell mechanics. This review article provides a succinct overview of cell mechanics and comprehensively surveys micro and nano-scale technologies that have been specifically developed for and are relevant to the mechanics of cells. Here we focus on micro and nano-scale technologies, and their applications in biology and medicine, including imaging, single cell analysis, cancer cell mechanics, organ-on-a-chip systems, pathogen detection, implantable devices, neuroscience and neurophysiology. We also provide a perspective on the future directions and challenges of technologies that relate to the mechanics of cells.

20. Reactivity descriptors for direct methanol fuel cell anode catalysts

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Ferrin, Peter; Nilekar, Anand Udaykumar; Greeley, Jeff

2008-01-01

oxidation to CO2 are investigated: an indirect mechanism that goes through a CO intermediate and a direct mechanism where methanol is oxidized to CO2 without the formation of a CO intermediate. For the direct mechanism, we find that, because of CO poisoning, only a small current will result on all non......We have investigated the anode reaction in direct methanol fuel cells using a database of adsorption free energies for 16 intermediates on 12 close-packed transition metal surfaces calculated with periodic, self-consistent, density functional theory (DFT-GGA). This database, combined with a simple...... electrokinetic model of the methanol electrooxidation reaction, yields mechanistic insights that are consistent with previous experimental and theoretical studies on Pt, and extends these insights to a broad spectrum of other transition metals. In addition, by using linear scaling relations between...

1. Effects of Changing Hot Rolling Direction on Microstructure, Texture and Mechanical Properties of Cu-2.7Be Sheets

Science.gov (United States)

Zhu, Daibo; Liu, Chuming; Yu, Haijun; Han, Tan

2018-03-01

A hot rolling scheme (cross-rolling and unidirectional rolling) was adopted to process Cu-2.7Be sheets used as multiplier dynodes in photomultiplier. The effects of changing rolling direction on microstructure, texture and mechanical properties were studied by a combination of XRD, EBSD and TEM. It was found that higher copper-type texture and lower brass texture intensity were obtained in the ultimately cross-rolling (CR) sheet compared with the unidirectional rolling (UR) sheet.The EBSD results indicated that the grain orientation from mainly for UR sample turns to random for CR sample. Great enhancements in YS and UTS after unidirectional rolling were attributed to the massive and polygonal γ precipitates. The CR sample exhibited lower anisotropy, because of the increase of S and γ precipitates with spherical and tiny shape.

2. Mathematical foundation of quantum mechanics

CERN Document Server

Parthasarathy, K R

2005-01-01

This is a brief introduction to the mathematical foundations of quantum mechanics based on lectures given by the author to Ph.D.students at the Delhi Centre of the Indian Statistical Institute in order to initiate active research in the emerging field of quantum probability. The material in the first chapter is included in the author's book "An Introduction to Quantum Stochastic Calculus" published by Birkhauser Verlag in 1992 and the permission of the publishers to reprint it here is acknowledged. Apart from quantum probability, an understanding of the role of group representations in the development of quantum mechanics is always a fascinating theme for mathematicians. The first chapter deals with the definitions of states, observables and automorphisms of a quantum system through Gleason's theorem, Hahn-Hellinger theorem and Wigner's theorem. Mackey's imprimitivity theorem and the theorem of inducing representations of groups in stages are proved directly for projective unitary antiunitary representations ...

3. Radiation-curing of acrylate composites including carbon fibres: A customized surface modification for improving mechanical performances

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Martin, Arnaud; Pietras-Ozga, Dorota; Ponsaud, Philippe; Kowandy, Christelle; Barczak, Mariusz; Defoort, Brigitte; Coqueret, Xavier

2014-01-01

The lower transverse mechanical properties of radiation-cured acrylate-based composites reinforced with carbon-fibre with respect to the thermosettable analogues was investigated from the viewpoint of chemical interactions at the interface between the matrix and the carbon material. XPS analysis of representative commercial carbon fibres revealed the presence of a significant amount of chemical functions potentially exerting an adverse effect on the initiation and propagation of the free radical polymerization initiated under high energy radiation. The EB-induced polymerization of n-butyl acrylate as a simple model monomer was conducted in the presence of various aromatic additives exhibiting a strong inhibiting effect, whereas thiols efficiently sensitize the initiation mechanism and undergo transfer reactions. A method based on the surface modification of sized fibres by thiomalic acid is proposed for overcoming the localized inhibition phenomenon and for improving the mechanical properties of the resulting acrylate-based composites. - Highlights: • Surface functions of C-fibres are analyzed for their effect on radical reaction. • Irradiation of nBu-acrylate in presence of aromatic additives reveals inhibition. • Thiol groups sensitize the radiation-initiated polymerization of nBu-acrylate. • Modification of C-fibres with thiomalic acid enhances composite properties

4. Superior mechanical flexibility of phosphorene and few-layer black phosphorus

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Wei, Qun [School of Physics and Optoelectronic Engineering, Xidian University, Xi' an 710071 (China); School of Letters and Sciences, Arizona State University, Mesa, Arizona 85212 (United States); Peng, Xihong, E-mail: Xihong.peng@asu.edu [School of Letters and Sciences, Arizona State University, Mesa, Arizona 85212 (United States)

2014-06-23

Recently, fabricated two dimensional (2D) phosphorene crystal structures have demonstrated great potential in applications of electronics. Mechanical strain was demonstrated to be able to significantly modify the electronic properties of phosphorene and few-layer black phosphorus. In this work, we employed first principles density functional theory calculations to explore the mechanical properties of phosphorene, including ideal tensile strength and critical strain. It was found that a monolayer phosphorene can sustain tensile strain up to 27% and 30% in the zigzag and armchair directions, respectively. This enormous strain limit of phosphorene results from its unique puckered crystal structure. We found that the tensile strain applied in the armchair direction stretches the pucker of phosphorene, rather than significantly extending the P-P bond lengths. The compromised dihedral angles dramatically reduce the required strain energy. Compared to other 2D materials, such as graphene, phosphorene demonstrates superior flexibility with an order of magnitude smaller Young's modulus. This is especially useful in practical large-magnitude-strain engineering. Furthermore, the anisotropic nature of phosphorene was also explored. We derived a general model to calculate the Young's modulus along different directions for a 2D system.

5. Superior mechanical flexibility of phosphorene and few-layer black phosphorus

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Wei, Qun; Peng, Xihong

2014-01-01

Recently, fabricated two dimensional (2D) phosphorene crystal structures have demonstrated great potential in applications of electronics. Mechanical strain was demonstrated to be able to significantly modify the electronic properties of phosphorene and few-layer black phosphorus. In this work, we employed first principles density functional theory calculations to explore the mechanical properties of phosphorene, including ideal tensile strength and critical strain. It was found that a monolayer phosphorene can sustain tensile strain up to 27% and 30% in the zigzag and armchair directions, respectively. This enormous strain limit of phosphorene results from its unique puckered crystal structure. We found that the tensile strain applied in the armchair direction stretches the pucker of phosphorene, rather than significantly extending the P-P bond lengths. The compromised dihedral angles dramatically reduce the required strain energy. Compared to other 2D materials, such as graphene, phosphorene demonstrates superior flexibility with an order of magnitude smaller Young's modulus. This is especially useful in practical large-magnitude-strain engineering. Furthermore, the anisotropic nature of phosphorene was also explored. We derived a general model to calculate the Young's modulus along different directions for a 2D system.

6. Mechanical science

CERN Document Server

Bolton, W C

2013-01-01

This book gives comprehensive coverage of mechanical science for HNC/HND students taking mechanical engineering courses, including all topics likely to be covered in both years of such courses, as well as for first year undergraduate courses in mechanical engineering. It features 500 problems with answers and 200 worked examples. The third edition includes a new section on power transmission and an appendix on mathematics to help students with the basic notation of calculus and solution of differential equations.

7. New perspectives on mechanisms of sound generation in songbirds

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Goller, Franz; Larsen, Ole Næsbye

2002-01-01

-tone mechanism similar to human phonation with the labia forming a pneumatic valve. The classical avian model proposed that vibrations of the thin medial tympaniform membranes are the primary sound generating mechanism. As a direct test of these two hypotheses we ablated the medial tympaniform membranes in two......The physical mechanisms of sound generation in the vocal organ, the syrinx, of songbirds have been investigated mostly with indirect methods. Recent direct endoscopic observation identified vibrations of the labia as the principal sound source. This model suggests sound generation in a pulse...... atmosphere) as well as direct (labial vibration during tonal sound) measurements of syringeal vibrations support a vibration-based soundgenerating mechanism even for tonal sounds....

8. The management of metastatic radioiodine-refractory differentiated thyroid cancer requires an integrated approach including both directed and systemic therapies.

Science.gov (United States)

Cooray, Shamil D; Topliss, Duncan J

2017-01-01

9. Basic description of tailings from Aitik focusing on mechanical behavior

OpenAIRE

Bhanbhro, Riaz; Knutsson, Roger; Rodriguez, Juan; Edeskär, Tommy; Knutsson, Sven

2013-01-01

Tailings are artificial granular materials that behave different as compared to natural soil of equal grain sizes. Tailings particle sizes, shapes, gradation and mechanical behavior may influence the performance of tailings dams. Hence it is essential to understand the tailings materials in depth. This article describes present studies being carried out on Aitik tailings. Basic tailings characteristics including specific gravity, phase relationships, particle sizes, particle shapes and direct...

10. Dark matter "transporting" mechanism explaining positron excesses

Science.gov (United States)

Kim, Doojin; Park, Jong-Chul; Shin, Seodong

2018-04-01

We propose a novel mechanism to explain the positron excesses, which are observed by satellite-based telescopes including PAMELA and AMS-02, in dark matter (DM) scenarios. The novelty behind the proposal is that it makes direct use of DM around the Galactic Center where DM populates most densely, allowing us to avoid tensions from cosmological and astrophysical measurements. The key ingredients of this mechanism include DM annihilation into unstable states with a very long laboratory-frame life time and their "retarded" decay near the Earth to electron-positron pair(s) possibly with other (in)visible particles. We argue that this sort of explanation is not in conflict with relevant constraints from big bang nucleosynthesis and cosmic microwave background. Regarding the resultant positron spectrum, we provide a generalized source term in the associated diffusion equation, which can be readily applicable to any type of two-"stage" DM scenarios wherein production of Standard Model particles occurs at completely different places from those of DM annihilation. We then conduct a data analysis with the recent AMS-02 data to validate our proposal.

11. Bio-mechanical Analysis of Human Joints and Extension of the Study to Robot

OpenAIRE

S. Parasuraman; Ler Shiaw Pei

2008-01-01

In this paper, the bio-mechanical analysis of human joints is carried out and the study is extended to the robot manipulator. This study will first focus on the kinematics of human arm which include the movement of each joint in shoulder, wrist, elbow and finger complexes. Those analyses are then extended to the design of a human robot manipulator. A simulator is built for Direct Kinematics and Inverse Kinematics of human arm. In the simulation of Direct Kinematics, the human joint angles can...

12. Current Solid Mechanics Research

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Tvergaard, Viggo

2016-01-01

About thirty years ago James Lighthill wrote an essay on “What is Mechanics?” With that he also included some examples of the applications of mechanics. While his emphasis was on fluid mechanics, his own research area, he also included examples from research activities in solid mechanics....

CERN Document Server

Dolev, S; Kolenda, N

2005-01-01

For more than a century, quantum mechanics has served as a very powerful theory that has expanded physics and technology far beyond their classical limits, yet it has also produced some of the most difficult paradoxes known to the human mind. This book represents the combined efforts of sixteen of today's most eminent theoretical physicists to lay out future directions for quantum physics. The authors include Yakir Aharonov, Anton Zeilinger; the Nobel laureates Anthony Leggett and Geradus 't Hooft; Basil Hiley, Lee Smolin and Henry Stapp. Following a foreword by Roger Penrose, the individual chapters address questions such as quantum non-locality, the measurement problem, quantum insights into relativity, cosmology and thermodynamics, and the possible bearing of quantum phenomena on biology and consciousness.

14. Ball Screw Actuator Including an Axial Soft Stop

Science.gov (United States)

Wingett, Paul T. (Inventor); Forrest, Steven Talbert (Inventor); Abel, Steve (Inventor); Woessner, George (Inventor); Hanlon, Casey (Inventor)

2016-01-01

An actuator includes an actuator housing, a ball screw, and an axial soft stop assembly. The ball screw extends through the actuator housing and has a first end and a second end. The ball screw is coupled to receive a drive force and is configured, upon receipt of the drive force, to selectively move in a retract direction and an extend direction. The axial soft stop assembly is disposed within the actuator housing. The axial soft stop assembly is configured to be selectively engaged by the ball screw and, upon being engaged thereby, to translate, with compliance, a predetermined distance in the extend direction, and to prevent further movement of the ball screw upon translating the predetermined distance.

15. Boosters and barriers for direct cardiac reprogramming.

Science.gov (United States)

Talkhabi, Mahmood; Zonooz, Elmira Rezaei; Baharvand, Hossein

2017-06-01

Heart disease is currently the most significant cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, which accounts for approximately 33% of all deaths. Recently, a promising and alchemy-like strategy has been developed called direct cardiac reprogramming, which directly converts somatic cells such as fibroblasts to cardiac lineage cells such as cardiomyocytes (CMs), termed induced CMs or iCMs. The first in vitro cardiac reprogramming study, mediated by cardiac transcription factors (TFs)-Gata4, Tbx5 and Mef2C-, was not enough efficient to produce an adequate number of fully reprogrammed, functional iCMs. As a result, numerous combinations of cardiac TFs exist for direct cardiac reprogramming of mouse and human fibroblasts. However, the efficiency of direct cardiac reprogramming remains low. Recently, a number of cellular and molecular mechanisms have been identified to increase the efficiency of direct cardiac reprogramming and the quality of iCMs. For example, microgrooved substrate, cardiogenic growth factors [VEGF, FGF, BMP4 and Activin A], and an appropriate stoichiometry of TFs boost the direct cardiac reprogramming. On the other hand, serum, TGFβ signaling, activators of epithelial to mesenchymal transition, and some epigenetic factors (Bmi1 and Ezh2) are barriers for direct cardiac reprogramming. Manipulating these mechanisms by the application of boosters and removing barriers can increase the efficiency of direct cardiac reprogramming and possibly make iCMs reliable for cell-based therapy or other potential applications. In this review, we summarize the latest trends in cardiac TF- or miRNA-based direct cardiac reprogramming and comprehensively discuses all molecular and cellular boosters and barriers affecting direct cardiac reprogramming. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

16. Direct observation of toughening mechanisms in carbon nanotube ceramic matrix composites

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Xia, Z.; Riester, L.; Curtin, W.A.; Li, H.; Sheldon, B.W.; Liang, J.; Chang, B.; Xu, J.M.

2004-01-01

The excellent mechanical properties of carbon nanotubes (CNTS) are driving research into the creation of new strong, tough nanocomposite systems. Here, the first evidence of toughening mechanisms operating in carbon-nanotube-reinforced ceramic composites is presented. A highly ordered array of parallel multiwall CNTs in an alumina matrix was fabricated. Nanoindentation introduced controlled cracks and the damage was examined by scanning electron microscopy. These nanocomposites exhibit the three hallmarks of toughening found in micron-scale fiber composites: crack deflection at the CNT/matrix interface; crack bridging by CNTs; and CNT pullout on the fracture surfaces. Interface debonding and sliding can thus occur in materials with microstructures approaching the atomic scale. Furthermore, for certain geometries a new mechanism of nanotube collapse in 'shear bands' occurs, rather than crack formation, suggesting that these materials can have multiaxial damage tolerance. The quantitative indentation data and computational models are used to determine the multiwall CNT axial Young's modulus as 200-570 GPa, depending on the nanotube geometry and quality. Three-dimensional FEM analysis indicates that matrix residual stresses on the order of 300 MPa are sustained in these materials without spontaneous cracking, suggesting that residual stress can be used to engineer enhanced performance. These nanoscale ceramic composites thus have potential for toughening and damage tolerance at submicron scales, and so are excellent candidates for wear-resistant coatings

17. Analytical mechanics

CERN Document Server

Lemos, Nivaldo A

2018-01-01

Analytical mechanics is the foundation of many areas of theoretical physics including quantum theory and statistical mechanics, and has wide-ranging applications in engineering and celestial mechanics. This introduction to the basic principles and methods of analytical mechanics covers Lagrangian and Hamiltonian dynamics, rigid bodies, small oscillations, canonical transformations and Hamilton–Jacobi theory. This fully up-to-date textbook includes detailed mathematical appendices and addresses a number of advanced topics, some of them of a geometric or topological character. These include Bertrand's theorem, proof that action is least, spontaneous symmetry breakdown, constrained Hamiltonian systems, non-integrability criteria, KAM theory, classical field theory, Lyapunov functions, geometric phases and Poisson manifolds. Providing worked examples, end-of-chapter problems, and discussion of ongoing research in the field, it is suitable for advanced undergraduate students and graduate students studying analyt...

18. Response to bio-terrorism directed against animals.

Science.gov (United States)

Williams, J L; Sheesley, D

2000-01-01

The Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) has a long history of rapid direction, control, and eradication of devastating diseases. Our immediate response mechanisms to diseases such as avian influenza, Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis, and Newcastle disease, have long been recognized by the global emergency response community as models of control and eradication. APHIS and the U.S. livestock industries, in partnership with the Animal Agriculture Coalition, re-evaluated the Nation's animal health emergency preparedness and response systems. The group identified areas that negatively impact, biologically and/or economically, the Nation's animal and food production industries. To counter the increased risks including bioterrorism, APHIS plans to establish a world-class "Center of Excellence for Animal Health Emergency Management." APHIS, Intelligence agencies, other Federal departments, State governments, and industries are working together to provide accurate information on the foreign and domestic threats posed to the U.S. agricultural sector by biological weapons. Additionally, the same agencies and organizations are evaluating, updating, and improving the coordination and training mechanisms necessary to respond in the even of a widespread pest or disease outbreak.

19. Dendritic spikes amplify the synaptic signal to enhance detection of motion in a simulation of the direction-selective ganglion cell.

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Michael J Schachter

2010-08-01

Full Text Available The On-Off direction-selective ganglion cell (DSGC in mammalian retinas responds most strongly to a stimulus moving in a specific direction. The DSGC initiates spikes in its dendritic tree, which are thought to propagate to the soma with high probability. Both dendritic and somatic spikes in the DSGC display strong directional tuning, whereas somatic PSPs (postsynaptic potentials are only weakly directional, indicating that spike generation includes marked enhancement of the directional signal. We used a realistic computational model based on anatomical and physiological measurements to determine the source of the enhancement. Our results indicate that the DSGC dendritic tree is partitioned into separate electrotonic regions, each summing its local excitatory and inhibitory synaptic inputs to initiate spikes. Within each local region the local spike threshold nonlinearly amplifies the preferred response over the null response on the basis of PSP amplitude. Using inhibitory conductances previously measured in DSGCs, the simulation results showed that inhibition is only sufficient to prevent spike initiation and cannot affect spike propagation. Therefore, inhibition will only act locally within the dendritic arbor. We identified the role of three mechanisms that generate directional selectivity (DS in the local dendritic regions. First, a mechanism for DS intrinsic to the dendritic structure of the DSGC enhances DS on the null side of the cell's dendritic tree and weakens it on the preferred side. Second, spatially offset postsynaptic inhibition generates robust DS in the isolated dendritic tips but weak DS near the soma. Third, presynaptic DS is apparently necessary because it is more robust across the dendritic tree. The pre- and postsynaptic mechanisms together can overcome the local intrinsic DS. These local dendritic mechanisms can perform independent nonlinear computations to make a decision, and there could be analogous mechanisms within

20. Dendritic spikes amplify the synaptic signal to enhance detection of motion in a simulation of the direction-selective ganglion cell.

Science.gov (United States)

Schachter, Michael J; Oesch, Nicholas; Smith, Robert G; Taylor, W Rowland

2010-08-19

The On-Off direction-selective ganglion cell (DSGC) in mammalian retinas responds most strongly to a stimulus moving in a specific direction. The DSGC initiates spikes in its dendritic tree, which are thought to propagate to the soma with high probability. Both dendritic and somatic spikes in the DSGC display strong directional tuning, whereas somatic PSPs (postsynaptic potentials) are only weakly directional, indicating that spike generation includes marked enhancement of the directional signal. We used a realistic computational model based on anatomical and physiological measurements to determine the source of the enhancement. Our results indicate that the DSGC dendritic tree is partitioned into separate electrotonic regions, each summing its local excitatory and inhibitory synaptic inputs to initiate spikes. Within each local region the local spike threshold nonlinearly amplifies the preferred response over the null response on the basis of PSP amplitude. Using inhibitory conductances previously measured in DSGCs, the simulation results showed that inhibition is only sufficient to prevent spike initiation and cannot affect spike propagation. Therefore, inhibition will only act locally within the dendritic arbor. We identified the role of three mechanisms that generate directional selectivity (DS) in the local dendritic regions. First, a mechanism for DS intrinsic to the dendritic structure of the DSGC enhances DS on the null side of the cell's dendritic tree and weakens it on the preferred side. Second, spatially offset postsynaptic inhibition generates robust DS in the isolated dendritic tips but weak DS near the soma. Third, presynaptic DS is apparently necessary because it is more robust across the dendritic tree. The pre- and postsynaptic mechanisms together can overcome the local intrinsic DS. These local dendritic mechanisms can perform independent nonlinear computations to make a decision, and there could be analogous mechanisms within cortical circuitry.

1. Nano-Electromechanical Systems: Displacement Detection and the Mechanical Single Electron Shuttle

Science.gov (United States)

Blick, R. H.; Beil, F. W.; Höhberger, E.; Erbe, A.; Weiss, C.

For an introduction to nano-electromechanical systems we present measurements on nanomechanical resonators operating in the radio frequency range. We discuss in detail two different schemes of displacement detection for mechanical resonators, namely conventional reflection measurements of a probing signal and direct detection by capacitive coupling via a gate electrode. For capacitive detection we employ an on-chip preamplifier, which enables direct measurements of the resonator's disp lacement. We observe that the mechanical quality factor of the resonator depends on the detection technique applied, which is verified in model calculations and report on the detection of sub-harmonics. In the second part we extend our investigations to include transport of single electrons through an electron island on the tip of a nanomachined mechanical pendulum. The pendulum is operated by applying a modulating electromagnetic field in the range of 1 - 200 MHz, leading to mechanical oscillations between two laterally integrated source and drain contacts. Forming tunneling barriers the metallic tip shuttles single electrons from source to drain. The resulting tunneling current shows distinct features corresponding to the discrete mechanical eigenfrequencies of the pendulum. We report on measurements covering the temperature range from 300 K down to 4.2 K. The transport properties of the device are compared in detail to model calculations based on a Master-equation approach.

2. Energy implications of mechanical and mechanical–biological treatment compared to direct waste-to-energy

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Cimpan, Ciprian; Wenzel, Henrik

2013-01-01

Highlights: • Compared systems achieve primary energy savings between 34 and 140 MJ primary /100 MJ input waste. • Savings magnitude is foremost determined by chosen primary energy and materials production. • Energy consumption and process losses can be upset by increased technology efficiency. • Material recovery accounts for significant shares of primary energy savings. • Direct waste-to-energy is highly efficient if cogeneration (CHP) is possible. - Abstract: Primary energy savings potential is used to compare five residual municipal solid waste treatment systems, including configurations with mechanical (MT) and mechanical–biological (MBT) pre-treatment, which produce waste-derived fuels (RDF and SRF), biogas and/or recover additional materials for recycling, alongside a system based on conventional mass burn waste-to-energy and ash treatment. To examine the magnitude of potential savings we consider two energy efficiency levels (state-of-the-art and best available technology), the inclusion/exclusion of heat recovery (CHP vs. PP) and three different background end-use energy production systems (coal condensing electricity and natural gas heat, Nordic electricity mix and natural gas heat, and coal CHP energy quality allocation). The systems achieved net primary energy savings in a range between 34 and 140 MJ primary /100 MJ input waste , in the different scenario settings. The energy footprint of transportation needs, pre-treatment and reprocessing of recyclable materials was 3–9.5%, 1–18% and 1–8% respectively, relative to total energy savings. Mass combustion WtE achieved the highest savings in scenarios with CHP production, nonetheless, MBT-based systems had similarly high performance if SRF streams were co-combusted with coal. When RDF and SRF was only used in dedicated WtE plants, MBT-based systems totalled lower savings due to inherent system losses and additional energy costs. In scenarios without heat recovery, the biodrying MBS

3. Energy implications of mechanical and mechanical–biological treatment compared to direct waste-to-energy

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Cimpan, Ciprian, E-mail: cic@kbm.sdu.dk; Wenzel, Henrik

2013-07-15

Highlights: • Compared systems achieve primary energy savings between 34 and 140 MJ{sub primary}/100 MJ{sub input} {sub waste.} • Savings magnitude is foremost determined by chosen primary energy and materials production. • Energy consumption and process losses can be upset by increased technology efficiency. • Material recovery accounts for significant shares of primary energy savings. • Direct waste-to-energy is highly efficient if cogeneration (CHP) is possible. - Abstract: Primary energy savings potential is used to compare five residual municipal solid waste treatment systems, including configurations with mechanical (MT) and mechanical–biological (MBT) pre-treatment, which produce waste-derived fuels (RDF and SRF), biogas and/or recover additional materials for recycling, alongside a system based on conventional mass burn waste-to-energy and ash treatment. To examine the magnitude of potential savings we consider two energy efficiency levels (state-of-the-art and best available technology), the inclusion/exclusion of heat recovery (CHP vs. PP) and three different background end-use energy production systems (coal condensing electricity and natural gas heat, Nordic electricity mix and natural gas heat, and coal CHP energy quality allocation). The systems achieved net primary energy savings in a range between 34 and 140 MJ{sub primary}/100 MJ{sub input} {sub waste}, in the different scenario settings. The energy footprint of transportation needs, pre-treatment and reprocessing of recyclable materials was 3–9.5%, 1–18% and 1–8% respectively, relative to total energy savings. Mass combustion WtE achieved the highest savings in scenarios with CHP production, nonetheless, MBT-based systems had similarly high performance if SRF streams were co-combusted with coal. When RDF and SRF was only used in dedicated WtE plants, MBT-based systems totalled lower savings due to inherent system losses and additional energy costs. In scenarios without heat

4. Probing neural mechanisms underlying auditory stream segregation in humans by transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS).

Science.gov (United States)

Deike, Susann; Deliano, Matthias; Brechmann, André

2016-10-01

One hypothesis concerning the neural underpinnings of auditory streaming states that frequency tuning of tonotopically organized neurons in primary auditory fields in combination with physiological forward suppression is necessary for the separation of representations of high-frequency A and low-frequency B tones. The extent of spatial overlap between the tonotopic activations of A and B tones is thought to underlie the perceptual organization of streaming sequences into one coherent or two separate streams. The present study attempts to interfere with these mechanisms by transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) and to probe behavioral outcomes reflecting the perception of ABAB streaming sequences. We hypothesized that tDCS by modulating cortical excitability causes a change in the separateness of the representations of A and B tones, which leads to a change in the proportions of one-stream and two-stream percepts. To test this, 22 subjects were presented with ambiguous ABAB sequences of three different frequency separations (∆F) and had to decide on their current percept after receiving sham, anodal, or cathodal tDCS over the left auditory cortex. We could confirm our hypothesis at the most ambiguous ∆F condition of 6 semitones. For anodal compared with sham and cathodal stimulation, we found a significant decrease in the proportion of two-stream perception and an increase in the proportion of one-stream perception. The results demonstrate the feasibility of using tDCS to probe mechanisms underlying auditory streaming through the use of various behavioral measures. Moreover, this approach allows one to probe the functions of auditory regions and their interactions with other processing stages. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

5. Molecular mechanisms of glucocorticoid receptor signaling

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Marta Labeur

2010-10-01

Full Text Available This review highlights the most recent findings on the molecular mechanisms of the glucocorticoid receptor (GR. Most effects of glucocorticoids are mediated by the intracellular GR which is present in almost every tissue and controls transcriptional activation via direct and indirect mechanisms. Nevertheless the glucocorticoid responses are tissue -and gene- specific. GR associates selectively with corticosteroid ligands produced in the adrenal gland in response to changes of humoral homeostasis. Ligand interaction with GR promotes either GR binding to genomic glucocorticoid response elements, in turn modulating gene transcription, or interaction of GR monomers with other transcription factors activated by other signalling pathways leading to transrepression. The GR regulates a broad spectrum of physiological functions, including cell differentiation, metabolism and inflammatory responses. Thus, disruption or dysregulation of GR function will result in severe impairments in the maintenance of homeostasis and the control of adaptation to stress.

6. Quantum and classical mechanics in the phase space representation

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Shirokov, Yu.M.

1979-01-01

The theory of the hamiltonian mechanical systems has been formulated in terms of only such physical and mathematical concepts which are meaningful in both mechanics. For instance the observables in both mechanics are represented as c-number functions of coordinates and momenta. The operations of the usual multiplication of observables as well as Poisson bracket (also treated as a sort of multiplication) are singled out as separate objects which can possess their own structure including h-dependence. This leads to the conclusion that the only primary distinction between classical and quantum mechanics is reduced to the distinction in the form of the algebraic identity for the multiplication operations. All other distinctions are proved to be of the secondary origin. The formalism developed in the paper is especially useful for quantizations and for the transitions (including partial ones) to the classical limits. The transitions in both directions are transparent and accessible for analysis for any quantity at any step of calculations. The unified quantum-classical scattering theory is constructed. The integral quantum Lippman-Schwinder type equation is derived where the free solution term is replaced by the solution of the corresponding classical problem. The iteration of this equation gives the quantum corrections to the classical solution

7. Large-Scale Direct-Writing of Aligned Nanofibers for Flexible Electronics.

Science.gov (United States)

Ye, Dong; Ding, Yajiang; Duan, Yongqing; Su, Jiangtao; Yin, Zhouping; Huang, Yong An

2018-05-01

Nanofibers/nanowires usually exhibit exceptionally low flexural rigidities and remarkable tolerance against mechanical bending, showing superior advantages in flexible electronics applications. Electrospinning is regarded as a powerful process for this 1D nanostructure; however, it can only be able to produce chaotic fibers that are incompatible with the well-patterned microstructures in flexible electronics. Electro-hydrodynamic (EHD) direct-writing technology enables large-scale deposition of highly aligned nanofibers in an additive, noncontact, real-time adjustment, and individual control manner on rigid or flexible, planar or curved substrates, making it rather attractive in the fabrication of flexible electronics. In this Review, the ground-breaking research progress in the field of EHD direct-writing technology is summarized, including a brief chronology of EHD direct-writing techniques, basic principles and alignment strategies, and applications in flexible electronics. Finally, future prospects are suggested to advance flexible electronics based on orderly arranged EHD direct-written fibers. This technology overcomes the limitations of the resolution of fabrication and viscosity of ink of conventional inkjet printing, and represents major advances in manufacturing of flexible electronics. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

8. Resistance Mechanisms in Hepatitis C Virus: implications for Direct-Acting Antiviral Use.

Science.gov (United States)

Bagaglio, Sabrina; Uberti-Foppa, Caterina; Morsica, Giulia

2017-07-01

Multiple direct-acting antiviral (DAA)-based regimens are currently approved that provide one or more interferon-free treatment options for hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotypes (G) 1-6. The choice of a DAA regimen, duration of therapy, and use of ribavirin depends on multiple viral and host factors, including HCV genotype, the detection of resistance-associated amino acid (aa) substitutions (RASs), prior treatment experience, and presence of cirrhosis. In regard to viral factors that may guide the treatment choice, the most important is the infecting genotype because a number of DAAs are genotype-designed. The potency and the genetic barrier may also impact the choice of treatment. One important and debated possible virologic factor that may negatively influence the response to DAAs is the presence of baseline RASs. Baseline resistance testing is currently not routinely considered or recommended for initiating HCV treatment, due to the overall high response rates (sustained virological response >90%) obtained. Exceptions are patients infected by HCV G1a when initiating treatment with simeprevir and elbasvir/grazoprevir or in those with cirrhosis prior to daclatasvir/sofosbuvir treatment because of natural polymorphisms demonstrated in sites of resistance. On the basis of these observations, first-line strategies should be optimized to overcome treatment failure due to HCV resistance.

9. Direct binding of microRNA-21 pre-element with Regorafenib: An alternative mechanism for anti-colorectal cancer chemotherapy?

Science.gov (United States)

Chen, Xiaobing; Xie, Bojian; Cao, Liang; Zhu, Feng; Chen, Beibei; Lv, Huifang; Fan, Xingxing; Han, Lili; Bie, Liangyu; Cao, Xinguang; Shen, Xiaokun; Cao, Feilin

2017-05-01

The Regorafenib is a broad-spectrum kinase inhibitor that has been approved to treat colorectal cancer (CRC). However, evidences have shown that the agent is also implicated in drug interaction with microRNA-21 (miR-21), an oncogenic miRNA which plays a key role in resisting programmed cell death in CRC cells. Here, we supposed that, instead of kinase inhibition, Regorafenib can directly bind to and then stabilize miR-21 pre-element, thus preventing RNase Dicer-meditated cleavage of the pre-element to mature miR-21. In order to verify the notion, an in silico-in vitro integrated investigation of the direct intermolecular interaction between Regorafenib and miR-21 pre-element was performed by using active pocket identification, RNA-ligand docking, molecular dynamics (MD) simulation, binding energetic analysis, and fluorescence-based assay. It was revealed that the Regorafenib can bind at the major groove-like stem region of miR-21 pre-element through three geometrically satisfactory hydrogen bonds (H-bonds) as well as a number of hydrophobic forces and π-π stacking, conferring strong specificity and high stability to the RNA-ligand complex system (K d =0.73μM). Separate inversion mutation of two base pairs (G6C, C12G) and (A13U, U4A) that are involved in the H-bonding can considerably impair the affinity of Regorafenib to miR-21 pre-element, with K d increase to 27 and 96μM, respectively. All these supported that Regorafenib can directly bind to miR-21 pre-element at molecular level and the binding mode can be properly modeled by using the proposed integrated strategy. This study would provide a potential, alternative mechanism for anti-colorectal cancer chemotherapy with Regorafenib. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

10. Paxillin localisation in osteocytes-Is it determined by the direction of loading?

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Vatsa, A.; Semeins, C.M.; Smit, T.H.; Klein-Nulend, J.

2008-01-01

External mechanical loading of cells aligns cytoskeletal stress fibres in the direction of principle strains and localises paxillin to the mechanosensing region. If the osteocyte cell body can indeed directly sense matrix strains, then cytoskeletal alignment and distribution of paxillin in osteocytes in situ will bear alignment to the different mechanical loading patterns in fibulae and calvariae. We used confocal microscopy to visualise the immunofluorescence-labelled actin cytoskeleton in viable osteocytes and paxillin distribution in fixated osteocytes in situ. In fibular osteocyte cell bodies, actin cytoskeleton and nuclei were elongated and aligned parallel to the principal (longitudinal) mechanical loading direction. Paxillin was localised to the 'poles' of elongated osteocyte cell bodies. In calvarial osteocyte cell bodies, actin cytoskeleton and nuclei were relatively more round. Paxillin was distributed evenly in the osteocyte cell bodies. Thus in osteocyte cell bodies in situ, the external mechanical loading pattern likely determines the orientation of the actin cytoskeleton, and focal adhesions mediate direct mechanosensation of matrix strains.

11. Mechanical Design and Dynamcis of an Autonomous Climbing Robot for Elliptic Half-shell Cleaning

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Houxiang Zhang

2007-12-01

Full Text Available This paper presents an auto-climbing robot for cleaning the elliptic half-shell of National Grand Theatre in China. The robot consists of a climbing mechanism, a moving mechanism, two cleaning brushes and supporting mechanisms. The mechanism and unique aspects are presented in detail. A distributed control system based on CAN bus is designed to meet the requirements of controlling the robot. After that the emphasis for discussion is on the motion realization which includes climbing and cleaning movements. The robot independently climbs and descends in the vertical direction and cleans in the horizontal direction. It takes the circling tracks as supports for climbing up and down between strips and moving horizontally along one strip around the ellipsoid. For system design and control purposes, the dynamic models of the climbing and cleaning processes are given applying of the Lagrange equation. Furthermore the force distribution of the front and rear supporting mechanisms is computed in a way that ensures the safety of the climbing process. In the end, the successful on-site tests confirm the principles described above and the robot's ability.

12. Mechanical Design and Dynamcis of an Autonomous Climbing Robot for Elliptic Half-shell Cleaning

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Houxiang Zhang

2008-11-01

Full Text Available This paper presents an auto-climbing robot for cleaning the elliptic half-shell of National Grand Theatre in China. The robot consists of a climbing mechanism, a moving mechanism, two cleaning brushes and supporting mechanisms. The mechanism and unique aspects are presented in detail. A distributed control system based on CAN bus is designed to meet the requirements of controlling the robot. After that the emphasis for discussion is on the motion realization which includes climbing and cleaning movements. The robot independently climbs and descends in the vertical direction and cleans in the horizontal direction. It takes the circling tracks as supports for climbing up and down between strips and moving horizontally along one strip around the ellipsoid. For system design and control purposes, the dynamic models of the climbing and cleaning processes are given applying of the Lagrange equation. Furthermore the force distribution of the front and rear supporting mechanisms is computed in a way that ensures the safety of the climbing process. In the end, the successful on-site tests confirm the principles described above and the robot's ability.

13. Photobiomodulation Mitigates Diabetes-Induced Retinopathy by Direct and Indirect Mechanisms: Evidence from Intervention Studies in Pigmented Mice.

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Alexandra Saliba

Full Text Available Daily application of far-red light from the onset of diabetes mitigated diabetes-induced abnormalities in retinas of albino rats. Here, we test the hypothesis that photobiomodulation (PBM is effective in diabetic, pigmented mice, even when delayed until weeks after onset of diabetes. Direct and indirect effects of PBM on the retina also were studied.Diabetes was induced in C57Bl/6J mice using streptozotocin. Some diabetics were exposed to PBM therapy (4 min/day; 670 nm daily. In one study, mice were diabetic for 4 weeks before initiation of PBM for an additional 10 weeks. Retinal oxidative stress, inflammation, and retinal function were measured. In some mice, heads were covered with a lead shield during PBM to prevent direct illumination of the eye, or animals were treated with an inhibitor of heme oxygenase-1. In a second study, PBM was initiated immediately after onset of diabetes, and administered daily for 2 months. These mice were examined using manganese-enhanced MRI to assess effects of PBM on transretinal calcium channel function in vivo.PBM intervention improved diabetes-induced changes in superoxide generation, leukostasis, expression of ICAM-1, and visual performance. PBM acted in part remotely from the retina because the beneficial effects were achieved even with the head shielded from the light therapy, and because leukocyte-mediated cytotoxicity of retinal endothelial cells was less in diabetics treated with PBM. SnPP+PBM significantly reduced iNOS expression compared to PBM alone, but significantly exacerbated leukostasis. In study 2, PBM largely mitigated diabetes-induced retinal calcium channel dysfunction in all retinal layers.PBM induces retinal protection against abnormalities induced by diabetes in pigmented animals, and even as an intervention. Beneficial effects on the retina likely are mediated by both direct and indirect mechanisms. PBM is a novel non-pharmacologic treatment strategy to inhibit early changes of diabetic

14. Direct Keap1-Nrf2 disruption as a potential therapeutic target for Alzheimer's disease.

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Fiona Kerr

2017-03-01

Full Text Available Nrf2, a transcriptional activator of cell protection genes, is an attractive therapeutic target for the prevention of neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's disease (AD. Current Nrf2 activators, however, may exert toxicity and pathway over-activation can induce detrimental effects. An understanding of the mechanisms mediating Nrf2 inhibition in neurodegenerative conditions may therefore direct the design of drugs targeted for the prevention of these diseases with minimal side-effects. Our study provides the first in vivo evidence that specific inhibition of Keap1, a negative regulator of Nrf2, can prevent neuronal toxicity in response to the AD-initiating Aβ42 peptide, in correlation with Nrf2 activation. Comparatively, lithium, an inhibitor of the Nrf2 suppressor GSK-3, prevented Aβ42 toxicity by mechanisms independent of Nrf2. A new direct inhibitor of the Keap1-Nrf2 binding domain also prevented synaptotoxicity mediated by naturally-derived Aβ oligomers in mouse cortical neurons. Overall, our findings highlight Keap1 specifically as an efficient target for the re-activation of Nrf2 in AD, and support the further investigation of direct Keap1 inhibitors for the prevention of neurodegeneration in vivo.

15. Mechanical Behavior of Bio-inspired Model Suture Joints

Science.gov (United States)

Li, Yaning; Lin, Erica; Ortiz, Christine; Boyce, Mary

2012-02-01

Suture joints of varying degrees of geometric complexity are prevalent throughout nature as a means of joining structural elements while providing locally tailored mechanical performance. Here, micromechanical models of general trapezoidal waveforms of varying hierarchy are formulated to reveal the role of geometric complexity in governing stiffness, strength, toughness and corresponding deformation and failure mechanisms. Physical constructs of model composite suture systems are fabricated via multi-material 3D printing (Object Connex500). Tensile tests are conducted on samples covering a range in geometry, thus providing quantitative measures of stiffness, strength, and failure. The experiments include direct visualization of the deformation and failure mechanisms and their progression, as well as their dependence on suture geometry, showing the interplay between shear and tension/compression of the interfacial layers and tension of the skeletal teeth and the transition in failure modes with geometry. The results provide quantitative guidelines for the design and tailoring of suture geometry to achieve the desired mechanical properties and also facilitate understanding of suture growth and fusion, and evolutionary phenotype.

16. Understanding molecular structure from molecular mechanics.

Science.gov (United States)

Allinger, Norman L

2011-04-01

Molecular mechanics gives us a well known model of molecular structure. It is less widely recognized that valence bond theory gives us structures which offer a direct interpretation of molecular mechanics formulations and parameters. The electronic effects well-known in physical organic chemistry can be directly interpreted in terms of valence bond structures, and hence quantitatively calculated and understood. The basic theory is outlined in this paper, and examples of the effects, and their interpretation in illustrative examples is presented.

17. Autism spectrum disorder causes, mechanisms, and treatments: focus on neuronal synapses.

Science.gov (United States)

Won, Hyejung; Mah, Won; Kim, Eunjoon

2013-01-01

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a group of developmental disabilities characterized by impairments in social interaction and communication and restricted and repetitive interests/behaviors. Advances in human genomics have identified a large number of genetic variations associated with ASD. These associations are being rapidly verified by a growing number of studies using a variety of approaches, including mouse genetics. These studies have also identified key mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of ASD, many of which involve synaptic dysfunctions, and have investigated novel, mechanism-based therapeutic strategies. This review will try to integrate these three key aspects of ASD research: human genetics, animal models, and potential treatments. Continued efforts in this direction should ultimately reveal core mechanisms that account for a larger fraction of ASD cases and identify neural mechanisms associated with specific ASD symptoms, providing important clues to efficient ASD treatment.

18. The Neuro-Mechanical Processes That Underlie Goal-Directed Medio-Lateral APA during Gait Initiation.

Science.gov (United States)

Honeine, Jean-Louis; Schieppati, Marco; Crisafulli, Oscar; Do, Manh-Cuong

2016-01-01

Gait initiation (GI) involves passing from bipedal to unipedal stance. It requires a rapid movement of the center of foot pressure (CoP) towards the future swing foot and of the center of mass (CoM) in the direction of the stance foot prior to the incoming step. This anticipatory postural adjustment (APA) allows disengaging the swing leg from the ground and establishing favorable conditions for stepping. This study aimed to describe the neuro-mechanical process that underlies the goal-directed medio-lateral (ML) APA. We hypothesized that controlled knee flexion of the stance leg contributes to the initial ML displacement of the CoP and to the calibration of the first step. Fourteen subjects initiated gait starting from three different initial stance widths of 15 cm (Small), 30 cm (Medium), and 45 cm (Large). Optoelectronic, force platform and electromyogram (EMG) measurements were performed. During APA, soleus activity diminished bilaterally, while tibialis anterior (TA) activity increased, more so in the stance leg than in the swing leg, and to a larger extent with increasing initial stance width. Knee flexion of the stance leg was observed during APA and correlated with the ML CoP displacement towards the swing leg. ML CoP and CoM displacements during APA increased with increasing stance width. The activity of stance-leg TA was correlated with the degree of knee flexion. Swing-leg tensor fasciae latae (TFL) was also active during APA. Across subjects, when stance-leg tibialis activity was low, TFL activity was large and vice versa. The modulation of the ML CoP position during APA allowed the gravity-driven torque to place the CoM just lateral to the stance foot during step execution. Accordingly, the gravity-driven torque, the ML CoM velocity during step execution, and the step width at foot contact (FC) were lower in the Small and greater in the Large condition. Consequently, the position of the stepping foot at FC remained close to the sagittal plane in all

19. Direct catastrophic injury in sports.

Science.gov (United States)

Boden, Barry P

2005-11-01

Catastrophic sports injuries are rare but tragic events. Direct (traumatic) catastrophic injury results from participating in the skills of a sport, such as a collision in football. Football is associated with the greatest number of direct catastrophic injuries for all major team sports in the United States. Pole vaulting, gymnastics, ice hockey, and football have the highest incidence of direct catastrophic injuries for sports in which males participate. In most sports, the rate of catastrophic injury is higher at the collegiate than at the high school level. Cheerleading is associated with the highest number of direct catastrophic injuries for all sports in which females participate. Indirect (nontraumatic) injury is caused by systemic failure as a result of exertion while participating in a sport. Cardiovascular conditions, heat illness, exertional hyponatremia, and dehydration can cause indirect catastrophic injury. Understanding the common mechanisms of injury and prevention strategies for direct catastrophic injuries is critical in caring for athletes.

20. Geometry anisotropy and mechanical property isotropy in titanium foam fabricated by replica impregnation method

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Manonukul, Anchalee; Srikudvien, Pathompoom; Tange, Makiko; Puncreobutr, Chedtha

2016-01-01

Polyurethane (PU) foams have both geometry and mechanical property anisotropy. Metal foams, which are manufacturing by investment casting or melt deposition method and using PU foam as a template, also have mechanical property anisotropy. This work studied the mechanical properties in two directions of titanium foam with four different cell sizes fabricated using the replica impregnation method. The two directions are (1) the loading direction parallel to the foaming direction where the cells are elongated (EL direction) and (2) the loading direction perpendicular to the foaming direction where the cell are equiaxed (EQ direction). The results show that the compression responses for both EL and EQ directions are isotropy. Micrographs and X-ray micro-computed tomography show that the degree of geometry anisotropy is not strong enough to results in mechanical property anisotropy.

1. Geometry anisotropy and mechanical property isotropy in titanium foam fabricated by replica impregnation method

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Manonukul, Anchalee, E-mail: anchalm@mtec.or.th [National Metal and Materials Technology Center (MTEC), National Science and Technology Development Agency (NSTDA), 114 Thailand Science Park, Paholyothin Rd., Klong 1, Klong Luang, Pathumthani 12120 (Thailand); Srikudvien, Pathompoom [National Metal and Materials Technology Center (MTEC), National Science and Technology Development Agency (NSTDA), 114 Thailand Science Park, Paholyothin Rd., Klong 1, Klong Luang, Pathumthani 12120 (Thailand); Tange, Makiko [Taisei Kogyo Thailand Co., Ltd., Room INC2d-409, Innovation Cluster 2 Building, Tower D, 141 Thailand Science Park, Paholyothin Rd., Klong 1, Klong Luang, Pathumthani 12120 (Thailand); Puncreobutr, Chedtha [Department of Metallurgical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Chulalongkorn University, Pathumwan, Bangkok 10330 (Thailand)

2016-02-08

Polyurethane (PU) foams have both geometry and mechanical property anisotropy. Metal foams, which are manufacturing by investment casting or melt deposition method and using PU foam as a template, also have mechanical property anisotropy. This work studied the mechanical properties in two directions of titanium foam with four different cell sizes fabricated using the replica impregnation method. The two directions are (1) the loading direction parallel to the foaming direction where the cells are elongated (EL direction) and (2) the loading direction perpendicular to the foaming direction where the cell are equiaxed (EQ direction). The results show that the compression responses for both EL and EQ directions are isotropy. Micrographs and X-ray micro-computed tomography show that the degree of geometry anisotropy is not strong enough to results in mechanical property anisotropy.

2. Environmental toxin acrolein alters levels of endogenous lipids, including TRP agonists: A potential mechanism for headache driven by TRPA1 activation

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Emma Leishman

2017-01-01

Full Text Available Exposure to airborne toxins can trigger headaches, but the mechanisms are not well understood. Some environmental toxins, such as acrolein, activate transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1, a receptor involved in pain sensation that is highly expressed in the trigeminovascular system. It has been shown in rat models that repeated exposure to acrolein induces trigeminovascular sensitization to both TRPA1 and TRP vanilloid 1 (TRPV1 agonists, a phenomenon linked to headache. In this study, we test the hypothesis that the sensitization of trigeminovascular responses in rats after acrolein exposure via inhalation is associated with changes in levels of endogenous lipids, including TRPV1 agonists, in the trigeminal ganglia, trigeminal nucleus, and cerebellum. Lipidomics analysis of 80 lipids was performed on each tissue after acute acrolein, chronic acrolein, or room air control. Both acute and chronic acrolein exposure drove widespread alterations in lipid levels. After chronic acrolein exposure, levels of all 6 N-acyl ethanolamines in the screening library, including the endogenous cannabinoid and TRPV1 agonist, N-arachidonoyl ethanolamine, were elevated in trigeminal tissue and in the cerebellum. This increase in TRPV1 ligands by acrolein exposure may indicate further downstream signaling, in that we also show here that a combination of these TRPV1 endogenous agonists increases the potency of the individual ligands in TRPV1-HEK cells. In addition to these TRPV1 agonists, 3 TRPV3 antagonists, 4 TRPV4 agonists, and 25 orphan lipids were up and down regulated after acrolein exposure. These data support the hypothesis that lipid signaling may represent a mechanism by which repeated exposure to the TRPA1 agonist and environmental toxin, acrolein, drives trigeminovascular sensitization. Keywords: Lipidomics, Endogenous cannabinoid, TRPA1, TRPV1, Lipoamine, Acrolein, Migraine

3. Molecular mechanisms of cognitive dysfunction following traumatic brain injury

Science.gov (United States)

Walker, Kendall R.; Tesco, Giuseppina

2013-01-01

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) results in significant disability due to cognitive deficits particularly in attention, learning and memory, and higher-order executive functions. The role of TBI in chronic neurodegeneration and the development of neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease (PD), Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) and most recently chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) is of particular importance. However, despite significant effort very few therapeutic options exist to prevent or reverse cognitive impairment following TBI. In this review, we present experimental evidence of the known secondary injury mechanisms which contribute to neuronal cell loss, axonal injury, and synaptic dysfunction and hence cognitive impairment both acutely and chronically following TBI. In particular we focus on the mechanisms linking TBI to the development of two forms of dementia: AD and CTE. We provide evidence of potential molecular mechanisms involved in modulating Aβ and Tau following TBI and provide evidence of the role of these mechanisms in AD pathology. Additionally we propose a mechanism by which Aβ generated as a direct result of TBI is capable of exacerbating secondary injury mechanisms thereby establishing a neurotoxic cascade that leads to chronic neurodegeneration. PMID:23847533

4. Molecular mechanisms of cognitive dysfunction following traumatic brain injury.

Science.gov (United States)

Walker, Kendall R; Tesco, Giuseppina

2013-01-01

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) results in significant disability due to cognitive deficits particularly in attention, learning and memory, and higher-order executive functions. The role of TBI in chronic neurodegeneration and the development of neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease (PD), Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) and most recently chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) is of particular importance. However, despite significant effort very few therapeutic options exist to prevent or reverse cognitive impairment following TBI. In this review, we present experimental evidence of the known secondary injury mechanisms which contribute to neuronal cell loss, axonal injury, and synaptic dysfunction and hence cognitive impairment both acutely and chronically following TBI. In particular we focus on the mechanisms linking TBI to the development of two forms of dementia: AD and CTE. We provide evidence of potential molecular mechanisms involved in modulating Aβ and Tau following TBI and provide evidence of the role of these mechanisms in AD pathology. Additionally we propose a mechanism by which Aβ generated as a direct result of TBI is capable of exacerbating secondary injury mechanisms thereby establishing a neurotoxic cascade that leads to chronic neurodegeneration.

5. Quantum mechanics

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Rae, A.I.M.

1981-01-01

This book, based on a thirty lecture course given to students at the beginning of their second year, covers the quantum mechanics required by physics undergraduates. Early chapters deal with wave mechanics, including a discussion of the energy states of the hydrogen atom. These are followed by a more formal development of the theory, leading to a discussion of some advanced applications and an introduction to the conceptual problems associated with quantum measurement theory. Emphasis is placed on the fundamentals of quantum mechanics. Problems are included at the end of each chapter. (U.K.)

6. Towards an understanding of self-directed language as a mechanism of behavior change: A novel strategy for eliciting client language under laboratory conditions

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

2018-06-01

Full Text Available Introduction: Change talk (CT and sustain talk (ST are thought to reflect underlying motivation and be important mechanisms of behavior change (MOBCs. However, greater specificity and experimental rigor is needed to establish CT and ST as MOBCs. Testing the effects of self-directed language under laboratory conditions is one promising avenue. The current study presents a replication and extension of research examining the feasibility for using simulation tasks to elicit self-directed language. Methods: First-year college students (N=92 responded to the Collegiate Simulated Intoxication Digital Elicitation, a validated task for assessing decision-making in college drinking. Verbal responses elicited via free-response and structured interview formats were coded based on established definitions of CT and ST, with minor modifications to reflect the non-treatment context. Associations between self-directed language and alcohol use at baseline and eight months were examined. Additionally, this study examined whether a contextually-based measure of decision-making, behavioral willingness, mediated relationships between self-directed language and alcohol outcome. Results: Healthy talk and unhealthy talk independently were associated with baseline alcohol use across both elicitation formats. Only healthy talk during the free-response elicitation was associated with alcohol use at follow up; both healthy talk and unhealthy talk during the interview elicitation were associated with 8-month alcohol use. Behavioral willingness significantly mediated the relationship between percent healthy talk and alcohol outcome. Conclusions: Findings support the utility of studying self-directed language under laboratory conditions and suggest that such methods may provide a fruitful strategy to further understand the role of self-directed language as a MOBC. Keywords: Change talk, College students, Alcohol, Simulation task

7. Tokamak engineering mechanics

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Song, Yuntao; Wu, Weiyue; Du, Shijun

2014-01-01

Provides a systematic introduction to tokamaks in engineering mechanics. Includes design guides based on full mechanical analysis, which makes it possible to accurately predict load capacity and temperature increases. Presents comprehensive information on important design factors involving materials. Covers the latest advances in and up-to-date references on tokamak devices. Numerous examples reinforce the understanding of concepts and provide procedures for design. Tokamak Engineering Mechanics offers concise and thorough coverage of engineering mechanics theory and application for tokamaks, and the material is reinforced by numerous examples. Chapter topics include general principles, static mechanics, dynamic mechanics, thermal fluid mechanics and multiphysics structural mechanics of tokamak structure analysis. The theoretical principle of the design and the methods of the analysis for various components and load conditions are presented, while the latest engineering technologies are also introduced. The book will provide readers involved in the study of mechanical/fusion engineering with a general understanding of tokamak engineering mechanics.

8. Verification of the directivity index and other measures of directivity in predicting directional benefit

Science.gov (United States)

Dittberner, Andrew; Bentler, Ruth

2005-09-01

The relationship between various directivity measures and subject performance with directional microphone hearing aids was determined. Test devices included first- and second-order directional microphones. Recordings of sentences and noise (Hearing in Noise Test, HINT) were made through each test device in simple, complex, and anisotropic background noise conditions. Twenty-six subjects, with normal hearing, were administered the HINT test recordings, and directional benefit was computed. These measures were correlated to theoretical, free-field, and KEMAR DI values, as well as front-to-back ratios, in situ SNRs, and a newly proposed Db-SNR, wherein a predictive value of the SNR improvement is calculated as a function of the noise source incidence. The different predictive scores showed high correlation to the measured directional benefit scores in the complex (diffuse-like) background noise condition (r=0.89-0.97, pThe Db-SNR approach and the in situ SNR measures provided excellent prediction of subject performance in all background noise conditions (0.85-0.97, pthe predictive measures could account for the effects of reverberation on the speech signal (r=0.35-0.40, p<0.05).

9. Effects of almond consumption on the reduction of LDL-cholesterol: a discussion of potential mechanisms and future research directions.

Science.gov (United States)

Berryman, Claire E; Preston, Amy Griel; Karmally, Wahida; Deckelbaum, Richard J; Kris-Etherton, Penny M

2011-04-01

Diet plays a seminal role in the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular disease. Consumption of tree nuts has been shown to reduce low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), a primary target for coronary disease prevention, by 3-19%. Almonds have been found to have a consistent LDL-C-lowering effect in healthy individuals, and in individuals with high cholesterol and diabetes, in both controlled and free-living settings. Almonds are low in saturated fatty acids, rich in unsaturated fatty acids, and contain fiber, phytosterols, and plant protein. Other cardioprotective nutrients unique to almonds include α-tocopherol, arginine, magnesium, copper, manganese, calcium, and potassium. Mechanisms responsible for the LDL-C reduction observed with almond consumption are likely associated with the nutrients almonds provide. Biologically active by nature, these nutrients target primary mechanistic routes of LDL-C reduction, including decreased (re)absorption of cholesterol and bile acid, increased bile acid and cholesterol excretion, and increased LDL-C receptor activity. The nutrients present in almonds may regulate enzymes involved in de novo cholesterol synthesis and bile acid production. Research is needed to understand all mechanisms by which almonds reduce cardiovascular disease risk. © 2011 International Life Sciences Institute.

10. Review of the direct thermochemical conversion of lignocellulosic biomass for liquid fuels

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Jianchun JIANG,Junming XU,Zhanqian SONG

2015-03-01

Full Text Available Increased demand for liquid transportation fuels, environmental concerns and depletion of petroleum resources requires the development of efficient conversion technologies for production of second-generation biofuels from non-food resources. Thermochemical approaches hold great potential for conversion of lignocellulosic biomass into liquid fuels. Direct thermochemical processes convert biomass into liquid fuels in one step using heat and catalysts and have many advantages over indirect and biological processes, such as greater feedstock flexibility, integrated conversion of whole biomass, and lower operation costs. Several direct thermochemical processes are employed in the production of liquid biofuels depending on the nature of the feedstock properties: such as fast pyrolysis/liquefaction of lignocellulosic biomass for bio-oil, including upgrading methods, such as catalytic cracking and hydrogenation. Owing to the substantial amount of liquid fuels consumed by vehicular transport, converting biomass into drop-in liquid fuels may reduce the dependence of the fuel market on petroleum-based fuel products. In this review, we also summarize recent progress in technologies for large-scale equipment for direct thermochemical conversion. We focus on the technical aspects critical to commercialization of the technologies for production of liquid fuels from biomass, including feedstock type, cracking catalysts, catalytic cracking mechanisms, catalytic reactors, and biofuel properties. We also discuss future prospects for direct thermochemical conversion in biorefineries for the production of high grade biofuels.

11. Molecular mechanisms of DNA repair inhibition by caffeine

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Selby, C.P.; Sancar, A. (Univ. of North Carolina School of Medicine, Chapel Hill (USA))

1990-05-01

Caffeine potentiates the mutagenic and lethal effects of genotoxic agents. It is thought that this is due, at least in some organisms, to inhibition of DNA repair. However, direct evidence for inhibition of repair enzymes has been lacking. Using purified Escherichia coli DNA photolyase and (A)BC excinuclease, we show that the drug inhibits photoreactivation and nucleotide excision repair by two different mechanisms. Caffeine inhibits photoreactivation by interfering with the specific binding of photolyase to damaged DNA, and it inhibits nucleotide excision repair by promoting nonspecific binding of the damage-recognition subunit, UvrA, of (A)BC excinuclease. A number of other intercalators, including acriflavin and ethidium bromide, appear to inhibit the excinuclease by a similar mechanism--that is, by trapping the UvrA subunit in nonproductive complexes on undamaged DNA.

12. The pick-up mechanism in composite particle emission processes

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Zhang Jingshang; Yan Shiwei; Wang Cuilan

1992-01-01

The pick-up mechanism has been included in the exciton model for the light composite particle emissions. Based on the cluster phase space integration method the formation probabilities of α,d,t, 3 He are obtained. The calculation results of (n,t) cross sections indicate that this theoretical method can reproduce the experimental data nicely. For triton emissions in pre-equilibrium reaction processes, the semi-direct reactions are the dominant terms which are just omitted in the previous model calculation

13. EGFR-targeted anti-cancer drugs in radiotherapy: Preclinical evaluation of mechanisms

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Baumann, Michael; Krause, Mechthild; Dikomey, Ekkehard; Dittmann, Klaus; Doerr, Wolfgang; Kasten-Pisula, Ulla; Rodemann, H. Peter

2007-01-01

Preclinical and clinical results indicate that the EGFR can mediate radioresistance in different solid human tumours. Combination of radiotherapy and EGFR inhibitors can improve local tumour control compared to irradiation alone and has been introduced into clinical radiotherapy practice. So far several mechanisms have been identified in preclinical studies to contribute to improved local tumour control after radiation combined with EGFR inhibitors. These include direct kill of cancer stem cells by EGFR inhibitors, cellular radiosensitization through modified signal transduction, inhibition of repair of DNA damage, reduced repopulation and improved reoxygenation during fractionated radiotherapy. Effects and mechanisms may differ for different classes of EGFR inhibitors, for different tumours and for normal tissues. The mechanisms underlying this heterogeneity are currently poorly understood, and predictive assays are not available yet. Importantly, mechanisms and predictors for the combined effects of radiation with EGFR inhibitors appear to be considerably different to those for application of EGFR inhibitors alone or in combination with chemotherapy. Therefore to further evaluate the efficacy and mechanisms of EGFR-inhibition in combined treatments, radiotherapy-specific preclinical research strategies, which include in vivo experiments using local tumour control as an endpoint, as well as animal studies on normal tissue toxicity are needed

14. Direct observation of solid-phase adsorbate concentration profile in powdered activated carbon particle to elucidate mechanism of high adsorption capacity on super-powdered activated carbon.

Science.gov (United States)

Ando, Naoya; Matsui, Yoshihiko; Matsushita, Taku; Ohno, Koichi

2011-01-01

15. What is the scope for the Dutch government to use the flexible mechanisms of the Renewables Directive cost-effectively? A preliminary assessment

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Jansen, J.C.; Uslu, A.; Lako, P.

2010-03-01

This report provides a preliminary assessment of the scope for cost-effective use by the Dutch government of each of four flexible mechanisms available to EU Member States to achieve their respective mandatory renewables target in year 2020. The flexible mechanisms, defined in the Renewables Directive 2009/28/CE, are: Statistical transfers between Member States; Joint projects between Member States; Joint projects between Member States and third countries; Joint support schemes. In theory, statistical transfers and joint support schemes are the flexible mechanisms with the most potential for cost-effective use. The Dutch government is advised to explore each of these options. In this report, it is argued that in practice well-designed joint support schemes are likely to turn out having most potential. To that effect, the report presents a concrete suggestion on the most promising short-term application. To successfully harness a substantial part of the joint support schemes potential warrants protracted efforts in the design phase: the devil is in the detail. Moreover, the joint projects between Member States mechanism may well turn out to provide some interesting opportunities. For collaboration between the Netherlands and a selection of (four) other Member States some technologies to focus upon are identified. Reasons are given why the flexible instrument joint projects between Member States and third countries is poised to have quite limited potential to cost-effectively contribute to the Dutch renewables target in year 2020.

16. Direct Microbicidal Activity of Cytotoxic T-Lymphocytes

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Paul Oykhman

2010-01-01

Full Text Available Cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (CTL are famous for their ability to kill tumor, allogeneic and virus-infected cells. However, an emerging literature has now demonstrated that CTL also possess the ability to directly recognize and kill bacteria, parasites, and fungi. Here, we review past and recent findings demonstrating the direct microbicidal activity of both CD4+ and CD8+ CTL against various microbial pathogens. Further, this review will outline what is known regarding the mechanisms of direct killing and their underlying signalling pathways.

17. Derived virtual devices: a secure distributed file system mechanism

Science.gov (United States)

VanMeter, Rodney; Hotz, Steve; Finn, Gregory

1996-01-01

This paper presents the design of derived virtual devices (DVDs). DVDs are the mechanism used by the Netstation Project to provide secure shared access to network-attached peripherals distributed in an untrusted network environment. DVDs improve Input/Output efficiency by allowing user processes to perform I/O operations directly from devices without intermediate transfer through the controlling operating system kernel. The security enforced at the device through the DVD mechanism includes resource boundary checking, user authentication, and restricted operations, e.g., read-only access. To illustrate the application of DVDs, we present the interactions between a network-attached disk and a file system designed to exploit the DVD abstraction. We further discuss third-party transfer as a mechanism intended to provide for efficient data transfer in a typical NAP environment. We show how DVDs facilitate third-party transfer, and provide the security required in a more open network environment.

18. A Modeling Approach for Plastic-Metal Laser Direct Joining

Science.gov (United States)

Lutey, Adrian H. A.; Fortunato, Alessandro; Ascari, Alessandro; Romoli, Luca

2017-09-01

Laser processing has been identified as a feasible approach to direct joining of metal and plastic components without the need for adhesives or mechanical fasteners. The present work sees development of a modeling approach for conduction and transmission laser direct joining of these materials based on multi-layer optical propagation theory and numerical heat flow simulation. The scope of this methodology is to predict process outcomes based on the calculated joint interface and upper surface temperatures. Three representative cases are considered for model verification, including conduction joining of PBT and aluminum alloy, transmission joining of optically transparent PET and stainless steel, and transmission joining of semi-transparent PA 66 and stainless steel. Conduction direct laser joining experiments are performed on black PBT and 6082 anticorodal aluminum alloy, achieving shear loads of over 2000 N with specimens of 2 mm thickness and 25 mm width. Comparison with simulation results shows that consistently high strength is achieved where the peak interface temperature is above the plastic degradation temperature. Comparison of transmission joining simulations and published experimental results confirms these findings and highlights the influence of plastic layer optical absorption on process feasibility.

19. Phase imaging of mechanical properties of live cells (Conference Presentation)

Science.gov (United States)

2017-02-01

The mechanisms by which cells respond to mechanical stimuli are essential for cell function yet not well understood. Many rheological tools have been developed to characterize cellular viscoelastic properties but these typically require direct mechanical contact, limiting their throughput. We have developed a new approach for characterizing the organization of subcellular structures using a label free, noncontact, single-shot phase imaging method that correlates to measured cellular mechanical stiffness. The new analysis approach measures refractive index variance and relates it to disorder strength. These measurements are compared to cellular stiffness, measured using the same imaging tool to visualize nanoscale responses to flow shear stimulus. The utility of the technique is shown by comparing shear stiffness and phase disorder strength across five cellular populations with varying mechanical properties. An inverse relationship between disorder strength and shear stiffness is shown, suggesting that cell mechanical properties can be assessed in a format amenable to high throughput studies using this novel, non-contact technique. Further studies will be presented which include examination of mechanical stiffness in early carcinogenic events and investigation of the role of specific cellular structural proteins in mechanotransduction.

20. Ludwig Boltzmann, mechanics and vitalism

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Broda, E.

1990-01-01

During most of his life Boltzmann considered classical mechanics, based on the ideas of material points and central forces, as the fundament of physics. On this basis he became one of the founders of Statistical Mechanics, through which thermodynamics was interpreted on an atomistic basis. In this work, Boltzmann was opposed by his colleague, Ernst Mach. Boltzmann also devoted much work to attempts to interpret Maxwell's theory of the electromagnetic field, of which he was a main protagonist in Central Europe, through mechanics. However, as a supporter of mechanics Boltzmann was by no means dogmatic. While he was adamant in his rejection of Wilhelm Ostwald's energism, he was openminded in respect to the relationship of mechanics, electromagnetism and atomistics. Personally, Boltzmann wanted to conserve and transmit the enormous achievements of mechanics, especially in connection with the mechanical theory of heat, so that these results should not be lost to future generations, but he encouraged attempts to proceed in new directions. While within the framework of statistical mechanics the atoms were treated like the material points of classical mechanics, Boltzmann resisted the initial, unwarranted, ideas about the structure and the properties of the atoms. When later valid ideas were evolved, Boltzmann warmly welcomed this progress, without however personally taking part in the new developments. In his later years, Boltzmann took an intense interest in biology. He supported Darwin's theories, and he contributed to them. He may be called an 'absolute Darwinist'. In his search for a natural explanation of the phenomena of life, he used the term 'mechanical', without meaning to limit them to the realm of classical mechanics. This terminological laxity is considered as unfortunate. Extending his application of Darwinian principles to advanced species, including man, Boltzmann put forward 'mechanical' explanations of thought, of morality, of the sense of beauty, and of

1. Mechanism of brain tumor headache.

Science.gov (United States)

Taylor, Lynne P

2014-04-01

2. INFN-Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati School on the Attractor Mechanism 2009

CERN Document Server

4th School on Attractor Mechanism : Supersymmetric Gravity and Black Holes

2013-01-01

This book is based upon lectures presented in the summer of 2009 at the INFN-Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati School on Attractor Mechanism, directed by Stefano Bellucci. The symposium included such prestigious lecturers as S. Ferrara,  G. Dall'Agata, J.F. Morales, J. Simón and M. Trigiante. All lectures were given at a pedagogical, introductory level, which is reflected in the specific "flavor" of this volume. The book also benefits from extensive discussions about, and the related reworking of, the various contributions. It is the fifth volume in a series of books on the general topics of supersymmetry, supergravity, black holes and the attractor mechanism.

3. Direct Metal Laser Sintering of Ti6Al4V for Biomedical Applications: Microstructure, Corrosion Properties, and Mechanical Treatment of Implants

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Janette Brezinová

2016-07-01

Full Text Available Ti6Al4V samples have been prepared by Direct Metal Laser Sintering (DMLS with varied laser power. Some of the samples were stress-relief annealed. The microstructure of materials was investigated using a light microscopy. Columnar grains of martensite dominate in as-made microstructure. Stress-relief annealing led to the white acicular phase growth in the structure with a fishbone arrangement on the boundary of some original martensitic needles. Mechanical properties of materials were characterized through hardness measurement in two directions relating to the sample building direction. It was found that the hardness of materials increased with a laser power and values varied from 370 to 415 HV 0.3/30. After stress-relief annealing, the structure of materials being homogenized, pattern spacing dissolved and the hardness in both directions became stabilized at values of 350–370 HV 0.3/30. The laser power affects the corrosion rate of the material. The lowest corrosion rate was recorded at the maximum laser power (190 W. Heat treatment does not affect the corrosion rate remarkably, however it leads to stabilization of corrosion potential of materials Ecorr. The surface of the samples was modified by an abrasive blasting using spherical (zirblast and sharp-edged (white corundum blasting abrasives and three levels of air pressure. The abrasive blasting of sintered materials led to a decrease of the surface roughness of materials with air pressure increasing. Blasting with zirblast led to a more significant decrease of roughness parameters compared with surfaces blasted with sharp-edged white aluminum. Different shapes of abrasives caused characteristic surface morphology.

4. Phenomena of synchronized response in biosystems and the possible mechanism.

Science.gov (United States)

Xu, Jingjing; Yang, Fan; Han, Danhong; Xu, Shengyong

2018-02-05

Phenomena of synchronized response is common among organs, tissues and cells in biosystems. We have analyzed and discussed three examples of synchronization in biosystems, including the direction-changing movement of paramecia, the prey behavior of flytraps, and the simultaneous discharge of electric eels. These phenomena and discussions support an electrical communication mechanism that in biosystems, the electrical signals are mainly soliton-like electromagnetic pulses, which are generated by the transient transmembrane ionic current through the ion channels and propagate along the dielectric membrane-based softmaterial waveguide network to complete synchronized responses. This transmission model implies that a uniform electrical communication mechanism might have been naturally developed in biosystem. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

5. Research Directions in Anthropological Pragmatics

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Piotr P. Chruszczewski

2011-08-01

Full Text Available Anthropological linguistics, and by default also anthropological pragmatics, grew as sub-disciplines of both anthropology and linguistics. “The intellectual basis for anthropological linguistics in the United States derives from Boas ([1911] 1966, whose interests and concerns led to the anthropological view of language, which is that language is an integral part of culture (…” (Klein 2006: 296. Pragmatics enters the scene, telling the researcher how to analyse the aforementioned phenomena. Therefore, anthropological pragmatics would be responsible for equipping the researcher with tools, for it is language and language-oriented mechanisms of communication, the study of which provides a much clearer insight into cultural phenomena which often direct the use of language representing culture from both the synchronic and the diachronic point of view. “[O]ne approaches language from an anthropological view, which includes the uses of language and the uses of silence, as well as the cultural problems involved in silence and speech” (ibid..

6. Suppressive mechanisms in visual motion processing: From perception to intelligence.

Science.gov (United States)

2015-10-01

Perception operates on an immense amount of incoming information that greatly exceeds the brain's processing capacity. Because of this fundamental limitation, the ability to suppress irrelevant information is a key determinant of perceptual efficiency. Here, I will review a series of studies investigating suppressive mechanisms in visual motion processing, namely perceptual suppression of large, background-like motions. These spatial suppression mechanisms are adaptive, operating only when sensory inputs are sufficiently robust to guarantee visibility. Converging correlational and causal evidence links these behavioral results with inhibitory center-surround mechanisms, namely those in cortical area MT. Spatial suppression is abnormally weak in several special populations, including the elderly and individuals with schizophrenia-a deficit that is evidenced by better-than-normal direction discriminations of large moving stimuli. Theoretical work shows that this abnormal weakening of spatial suppression should result in motion segregation deficits, but direct behavioral support of this hypothesis is lacking. Finally, I will argue that the ability to suppress information is a fundamental neural process that applies not only to perception but also to cognition in general. Supporting this argument, I will discuss recent research that shows individual differences in spatial suppression of motion signals strongly predict individual variations in IQ scores. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

7. Direct Visualization of Mechanical Beats by Means of an Oscillating Smartphone

Science.gov (United States)

Giménez, Marcos H.; Salinas, Isabel; Monsoriu, Juan A.; Castro-Palacio, Juan C.

2017-01-01

The resonance phenomenon is widely known in physics courses. Qualitatively speaking, resonance takes place in a driven oscillating system whenever the frequency approaches the natural frequency, resulting in maximal oscillatory amplitude. Very closely related to resonance is the phenomenon of mechanical beating, which occurs when the driving and…

8. Autism spectrum disorder causes, mechanisms, and treatments: focus on neuronal synapses

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Hyejung eWon

2013-08-01

Full Text Available Autism spectrum disorder (ASD is a group of developmental disabilities characterized by impairments in social interaction and communication and restricted and repetitive inter-ests/behaviors. Advances in human genomics have identified a large number of genetic varia-tions associated with ASD. These associations are being rapidly verified by a growing number of studies using a variety of approaches, including mouse genetics. These studies have also identified key mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of ASD, many of which involve synaptic dysfunctions, and have investigated novel, mechanism-based therapeutic strategies. This review will try to integrate these three key aspects of ASD research: human genetics, animal models, and potential treatments. Continued efforts in this direction should ultimately reveal core mechanisms that account for a larger fraction of ASD cases and identify neural mechanisms associated with specific ASD symptoms, providing important clues to efficient ASD treatment.

9. Mechanical seal assembly

Science.gov (United States)

Kotlyar, Oleg M.

2001-01-01

An improved mechanical seal assembly is provided for sealing rotating shafts with respect to their shaft housings, wherein the rotating shafts are subject to substantial axial vibrations. The mechanical seal assembly generally includes a rotating sealing ring fixed to the shaft, a non-rotating sealing ring adjacent to and in close contact with the rotating sealing ring for forming an annular seal about the shaft, and a mechanical diode element that applies a biasing force to the non-rotating sealing ring by means of hemispherical joint. The alignment of the mechanical diode with respect to the sealing rings is maintained by a series of linear bearings positioned axially along a desired length of the mechanical diode. Alternative embodiments include mechanical or hydraulic amplification components for amplifying axial displacement of the non-rotating sealing ring and transferring it to the mechanical diode.

10. Mechanical Seal Assembly

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Kotlyar, Oleg M.

1999-06-18

An improved mechanical seal assembly is provided for sealing rotating shafts with respect to their shaft housings, wherein the rotating shafts are subject to substantial axial vibrations. The mechanical seal assembly generally includes a rotating sealing ring fixed to the shaft, a non-rotating sealing ring adjacent to and in close contact with the rotating sealing ring for forming an annular seal about the shaft, and a mechanical diode element that applies a biasing force to the non-rotating sealing ring by means of hemispherical joint. The alignment of the mechanical diode with respect to the sealing rings is maintained by a series of linear bearings positioned axially along a desired length of the mechanical diode. Alternative embodiments include mechanical or hydraulic amplification components for amplifying axial displacement of the non-rotating sealing ring and transferring it to the mechanical diode.

11. Clinical Research with Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS): Challenges and Future Directions

Science.gov (United States)

Brunoni, Andre Russowsky; Nitsche, Michael A.; Bolognini, Nadia; Bikson, Marom; Wagner, Tim; Merabet, Lotfi; Edwards, Dylan J.; Valero-Cabre, Antoni; Rotenberg, Alexander; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro; Ferrucci, Roberta; Priori, Alberto; Boggio, Paulo; Fregni, Felipe

2011-01-01

Background Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a neuromodulatory technique that delivers low-intensity, direct current to cortical areas facilitating or inhibiting spontaneous neuronal activity. In the past ten years, tDCS physiological mechanisms of action have been intensively investigated giving support for the investigation of its applications in clinical neuropsychiatry and rehabilitation. However, new methodological, ethical, and regulatory issues emerge when translating the findings of preclinical and phase I studies into phase II and III clinical studies. The aim of this comprehensive review is to discuss the key challenges of this process and possible methods to address them. Methods We convened a workgroup of researchers in the field to review, discuss and provide updates and key challenges of neuromodulation use for clinical research. Main Findings/Discussion We reviewed several basic and clinical studies in the field and identified potential limitations, taking into account the particularities of the technique. We review and discuss the findings into four topics: (i) mechanisms of action of tDCS, parameters of use and computer-based human brain modeling investigating electric current fields and magnitude induced by tDCS; (ii) methodological aspects related to the clinical research of tDCS as divided according to study phase (i.e., preclinical, phase I, phase II and phase III studies); (iii) ethical and regulatory concerns; (iv) future directions regarding novel approaches, novel devices, and future studies involving tDCS. Finally, we propose some alternative methods to facilitate clinical research on tDCS. PMID:22037126

12. Direct reduction of N-acetoxy-PhIP by tea polyphenols: a possible mechanism for chemoprevention against PhIP-DNA adduct formation

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Lin Dongxin; Thompson, Patricia A.; Teitel, Candee; Chen Junshi; Kadlubar, Fred F.

2003-01-01

The chemopreventive effect of tea against 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP)-DNA adduct formation and its mechanism were studied. Rats were exposed to freshly prepared aqueous extracts of green tea (3% (w/v)) as the sole source of drinking water for 10 days prior to administration with a single dose of PhIP (10 mg/kg body weight) by oral gavage. PhIP-DNA adducts in the liver, colon, heart, and lung were measured using the 32 P-postlabelling technique. Rats pre-treated with tea and given PhIP 20 h before sacrifice had significantly reduced levels of PhIP-DNA adducts as compared with controls given PhIP alone. The possible mechanism of protective effect of tea on PhIP-DNA adduct formation was then examined in vitro. It was found that an aqueous extract of green and black tea, mixtures of green and black tea polyphenols, as well as purified polyphenols could strongly inhibit the DNA binding of N-acetoxy-PhIP, a putative ultimate carcinogen of PhIP formed in vivo via metabolic activation. Among these, epigallocatechin gallate was exceptionally potent. HPLC analyses of these incubation mixtures containing N-acetoxy-PhIP and the tea polyphenols each revealed the production of the parent amine, PhIP, indicating the involvement of a redox mechanism. In view of the presence of relatively high levels of tea polyphenols in rat and human plasma after ingestion of tea, this study suggests that direct reduction of the ultimate carcinogen N-acetoxy-PhIP by tea polyphenols is likely to be involved in the mechanism of chemoprotection of tea against this carcinogen

13. Mechanical-engineering aspects of mirror-fusion technology

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Fisher, D.K.; Doggett, J.N.

1982-01-01

The mirror approach to magnetic fusion has evolved from the original simple mirror cell to today's mainline effort: the tandem-mirror machine with thermal barriers. Physics and engineering research is being conducted throughout the world, with major efforts in Japan, the USSR, and the US. At least one facility under construction (MFTF-B) will approach equivalent energy breakeven in physics performance. Significant mechanical engineering development is needed, however, before a demonstration reactor can be constructed. The principal areas crucial to mirror reactor development include large high-field superconducting magnets, high-speed continuous vacuum-pumping systems, long-pulse high-power neutral-beam and rf-plasma heating systems, and efficient high-voltage high-power direct converters. Other areas common to all fusion systems include tritium handling technology, first-wall materials development, and fusion blanket design

14. Comprehensive adolescent health programs that include sexual and reproductive health services: a systematic review.

Science.gov (United States)

Kågesten, Anna; Parekh, Jenita; Tunçalp, Ozge; Turke, Shani; Blum, Robert William

2014-12-01

We systematically reviewed peer-reviewed and gray literature on comprehensive adolescent health (CAH) programs (1998-2013), including sexual and reproductive health services. We screened 36 119 records and extracted articles using predefined criteria. We synthesized data into descriptive characteristics and assessed quality by evidence level. We extracted data on 46 programs, of which 19 were defined as comprehensive. Ten met all inclusion criteria. Most were US based; others were implemented in Egypt, Ethiopia, and Mexico. Three programs displayed rigorous evidence; 5 had strong and 2 had modest evidence. Those with rigorous or strong evidence directly or indirectly influenced adolescent sexual and reproductive health. The long-term impact of many CAH programs cannot be proven because of insufficient evaluations. Evaluation approaches that take into account the complex operating conditions of many programs are needed to better understand mechanisms behind program effects.

15. Fibrous hyaluronic acid hydrogels that direct MSC chondrogenesis through mechanical and adhesive cues.

Science.gov (United States)

Kim, Iris L; Khetan, Sudhir; Baker, Brendon M; Chen, Christopher S; Burdick, Jason A

2013-07-01

16. Fluid Mechanics and Homeland Security

Science.gov (United States)

Settles, Gary S.

2006-01-01

Homeland security involves many applications of fluid mechanics and offers many opportunities for research and development. This review explores a wide selection of fluids topics in counterterrorism and suggests future directions. Broad topics range from preparedness and deterrence of impending terrorist attacks to detection, response, and recovery. Specific topics include aircraft hardening, blast mitigation, sensors and sampling, explosive detection, microfluidics and labs-on-a-chip, chemical plume dispersal in urban settings, and building ventilation. Also discussed are vapor plumes and standoff detection, nonlethal weapons, airborne disease spread, personal protective equipment, and decontamination. Involvement in these applications requires fluid dynamicists to think across the traditional boundaries of the field and to work with related disciplines, especially chemistry, biology, aerosol science, and atmospheric science.

17. Fundamentals of quantum mechanics

CERN Document Server

House, J E

2017-01-01

Fundamentals of Quantum Mechanics, Third Edition is a clear and detailed introduction to quantum mechanics and its applications in chemistry and physics. All required math is clearly explained, including intermediate steps in derivations, and concise review of the math is included in the text at appropriate points. Most of the elementary quantum mechanical models-including particles in boxes, rigid rotor, harmonic oscillator, barrier penetration, hydrogen atom-are clearly and completely presented. Applications of these models to selected “real world” topics are also included. This new edition includes many new topics such as band theory and heat capacity of solids, spectroscopy of molecules and complexes (including applications to ligand field theory), and small molecules of astrophysical interest.

18. Physical activity and self-esteem: testing direct and indirect relationships associated with psychological and physical mechanisms.

Science.gov (United States)

Zamani Sani, Seyed Hojjat; Fathirezaie, Zahra; Brand, Serge; Pühse, Uwe; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith; Gerber, Markus; Talepasand, Siavash

2016-01-01

In the present study, we investigated the relationship between physical activity (PA) and self-esteem (SE), while introducing body mass index (BMI), perceived physical fitness (PPF), and body image (BI) in adults (N =264, M =38.10 years). The findings indicated that PA was directly and indirectly associated with SE. BMI predicted SE neither directly nor indirectly, but was directly associated with PPF and both directly and indirectly with BI. Furthermore, PPF was directly related to BI and SE, and a direct association was found between BI and SE. The pattern of results suggests that among a sample of adults, PA is directly and indirectly associated with SE, PPF, and BI, but not with BMI. PA, PPF, and BI appear to play an important role in SE. Accordingly, regular PA should be promoted, in particular, among adults reporting lower SE.

19. Influence of temperature on patch residence time in parasitoids: physiological and behavioural mechanisms

Science.gov (United States)

Moiroux, Joffrey; Abram, Paul K.; Louâpre, Philippe; Barrette, Maryse; Brodeur, Jacques; Boivin, Guy

2016-04-01

Patch time allocation has received much attention in the context of optimal foraging theory, including the effect of environmental variables. We investigated the direct role of temperature on patch time allocation by parasitoids through physiological and behavioural mechanisms and its indirect role via changes in sex allocation and behavioural defences of the hosts. We compared the influence of foraging temperature on patch residence time between an egg parasitoid, Trichogramma euproctidis, and an aphid parasitoid, Aphidius ervi. The latter attacks hosts that are able to actively defend themselves, and may thus indirectly influence patch time allocation of the parasitoid. Patch residence time decreased with an increase in temperature in both species. The increased activity levels with warming, as evidenced by the increase in walking speed, partially explained these variations, but other mechanisms were involved. In T. euproctidis, the ability to externally discriminate parasitised hosts decreased at low temperature, resulting in a longer patch residence time. Changes in sex allocation with temperature did not explain changes in patch time allocation in this species. For A. ervi, we observed that aphids frequently escaped at intermediate temperature and defended themselves aggressively at high temperature, but displayed few defence mechanisms at low temperature. These defensive behaviours resulted in a decreased patch residence time for the parasitoid and partly explained the fact that A. ervi remained for a shorter time at the intermediate and high temperatures than at the lowest temperature. Our results suggest that global warming may affect host-parasitoid interactions through complex mechanisms including both direct and indirect effects on parasitoid patch time allocation.

20. Treating Alopecia Areata: Current Practices Versus New Directions.

Science.gov (United States)

Gupta, Aditya K; Carviel, Jessie; Abramovits, William

2017-02-01

Alopecia areata (AA) is non-scarring hair loss resulting from an autoimmune disorder. Severity varies from patchy hair loss that often spontaneously resolves to severe and chronic cases that can progress to total loss of scalp and body hair. Many treatments are available; however, the efficacy of these treatments has not been confirmed, especially in severe cases, and relapse rates are high. First-line treatment often includes corticosteroids such as intralesional or topical steroids for mild cases and systemic steroids or topical immunotherapy with diphenylcyclopropenone or squaric acid dibutylester in severe cases. Minoxidil and bimatoprost may also be recommended, usually in combination with another treatment. Ongoing research and new insights into mechanisms have led to proposals of innovative therapies. New directions include biologics targeting immune response as well as lasers and autologous platelet-rich plasma therapy. Preliminary data are encouraging, and it is hoped this research will translate into new options for the treatment of AA in the near future.

1. Direct measures of mechanical energy for knife mill size reduction of switchgrass, wheat straw, and corn stover.

Science.gov (United States)

Bitra, Venkata S P; Womac, Alvin R; Igathinathane, C; Miu, Petre I; Yang, Yuechuan T; Smith, David R; Chevanan, Nehru; Sokhansanj, Shahab

2009-12-01

Lengthy straw/stalk of biomass may not be directly fed into grinders such as hammer mills and disc refiners. Hence, biomass needs to be preprocessed using coarse grinders like a knife mill to allow for efficient feeding in refiner mills without bridging and choking. Size reduction mechanical energy was directly measured for switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.), wheat straw (Triticum aestivum L.), and corn stover (Zea mays L.) in an instrumented knife mill. Direct power inputs were determined for different knife mill screen openings from 12.7 to 50.8 mm, rotor speeds between 250 and 500 rpm, and mass feed rates from 1 to 11 kg/min. Overall accuracy of power measurement was calculated to be +/-0.003 kW. Total specific energy (kWh/Mg) was defined as size reduction energy to operate mill with biomass. Effective specific energy was defined as the energy that can be assumed to reach the biomass. The difference is parasitic or no-load energy of mill. Total specific energy for switchgrass, wheat straw, and corn stover chopping increased with knife mill speed, whereas, effective specific energy decreased marginally for switchgrass and increased for wheat straw and corn stover. Total and effective specific energy decreased with an increase in screen size for all the crops studied. Total specific energy decreased with increase in mass feed rate, but effective specific energy increased for switchgrass and wheat straw, and decreased for corn stover at increased feed rate. For knife mill screen size of 25.4 mm and optimum speed of 250 rpm, optimum feed rates were 7.6, 5.8, and 4.5 kg/min for switchgrass, wheat straw, and corn stover, respectively, and the corresponding total specific energies were 7.57, 10.53, and 8.87 kWh/Mg and effective specific energies were 1.27, 1.50, and 0.24 kWh/Mg for switchgrass, wheat straw, and corn stover, respectively. Energy utilization ratios were calculated as 16.8%, 14.3%, and 2.8% for switchgrass, wheat straw, and corn stover, respectively. These

2. Respiratory mechanics

CERN Document Server

Wilson, Theodore A

2016-01-01

This book thoroughly covers each subfield of respiratory mechanics: pulmonary mechanics, the respiratory pump, and flow. It presents the current understanding of the field and serves as a guide to the scientific literature from the golden age of respiratory mechanics, 1960 - 2010. Specific topics covered include the contributions of surface tension and tissue forces to lung recoil, the gravitational deformation of the lung, and the interdependence forces that act on pulmonary airways and blood vessels. The geometry and kinematics of the ribs is also covered in detail, as well as the respiratory action of the external and internal intercostal muscles, the mechanics of the diaphragm, and the quantitative compartmental models of the chest wall is also described. Additionally, flow in the airways is covered thoroughly, including the wave-speed and viscous expiratory flow-limiting mechanisms; convection, diffusion and the stationary front; and the distribution of ventilation. This is an ideal book for respiratory ...

3. Fracture Mechanics

CERN Document Server

Zehnder, Alan T

2012-01-01

Fracture mechanics is a vast and growing field. This book develops the basic elements needed for both fracture research and engineering practice. The emphasis is on continuum mechanics models for energy flows and crack-tip stress- and deformation fields in elastic and elastic-plastic materials. In addition to a brief discussion of computational fracture methods, the text includes practical sections on fracture criteria, fracture toughness testing, and methods for measuring stress intensity factors and energy release rates. Class-tested at Cornell, this book is designed for students, researchers and practitioners interested in understanding and contributing to a diverse and vital field of knowledge. Alan Zehnder joined the faculty at Cornell University in 1988. Since then he has served in a number of leadership roles including Chair of the Department of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics, and Director of the Sibley School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering.  He teaches applied mechanics and his research t...

4. Carbon out-diffusion mechanism for direct graphene growth on a silicon surface

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Kim, Byung-Sung; Lee, Jong Woon; Jang, Yamujin; Choi, Soon Hyung; Cha, Seung Nam; Sohn, Jung Inn; Kim, Jong Min; Joo, Won-Jae; Hwang, Sungwoo; Whang, Dongmok

2015-01-01

Direct growth of graphene on silicon (Si) through chemical vapor deposition has predominantly focused on surface-mediated processes due to the low carbon (C) solubility in Si. However, a considerable quantity of C atoms was incorporated in Si and formed Si 1−x C x alloy with a reduced lattice dimension even in the initial stage of direct graphene growth. Subsequent high temperature annealing promoted active C out-diffusion, resulting in the formation of a graphitic layer on the Si surface. Furthermore, the significantly low thermal conductivity of the Si 1−x C x alloy shows that the incorporated C atoms affect the properties of a semiconductor adjacent to the graphene. These findings provide a key guideline for controlling desirable properties of graphene and designing hybrid semiconductor/graphene architectures for various applications

5. Portraying mechanics of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR: A review

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Dweipayan Goswami

2016-12-01

Full Text Available Population growth and increase in food requirement is the global problem. It is inevitable to introduce new practices that help to increase agricultural productivity. Use of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR has shown potentials to be a promising technique in the practice of sustainable agriculture. A group of natural soil microbial flora acquire dwelling in the rhizosphere and on the surface of the plant roots which impose beneficial effect on the overall well-being of the plant are categorized as PGPR. Researchers are actively involved in understanding plant growth promoting mechanics employed by PGPR. Broadly, these are divided into direct and indirect mechanics. Any mechanism that directly enhances plant growth either by providing nutrients or by producing growth regulators are portrayed as direct mechanics. Whereas, any mechanisms that protects plant from acquiring infections (biotic stress or helps plant to grow healthily under environmental stresses (abiotic stress are considered indirect mechanics. This review is focused to describe cogent mechanics employed by PGPR that assists plant to sustain healthy growth. Also, we emphasized on the PGPR-based products which have been commercially developed exploiting these mechanics of PGPR.

6. Direct and indirect mechanisms for the induction of apparent DNA-protein crosslinks by far- and near-ultraviolet radiations in human cells in culture

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Peak, M.J.; Peak, J.G.; Jones, C.A.

1985-01-01

DNA from human epithelioid P/sub 3/ cells in culture was studied by alkaline elution techniques after the cells were irradiated by monochromatic 254, 290, 313, 334, 365, 405, 434, and 545 nm ultraviolet light. An action spectrum (aerobic irradiation) for the relative efficiency of induction of apparent DNA-protein covalent bonds (crosslinks) showed a maximum at about 254 nm, with a secondary peak of activity at 405 nm. No changes in the crosslink production by 290 nm radiation were observed when the cells were irradiated under anoxic conditions or in an environment of D/sub 2/O. Under anoxic conditions, the induction of crosslinks was reduced by 80% at 405 nm, and, in the presence of D/sub 2/O, it was doubled. These findings constitute evidence that far- and near-UV radiations induce crosslinks by direct (absorption of photons directly by DNA) and indirect (photosensitizations involving nonDNA cellular sensitizers and reactive species of oxygen) mechanisms respectively

7. Wetting-layer formation mechanisms of surface-directed phase separation under different quench depths with off-critical compositions in polymer binary mixture

Science.gov (United States)

Yan, Li-Tang; Xie, Xu-Ming

2007-02-01

Focusing on the off-critical condition, the quench depth dependence of surface-directed phase separation in the polymer binary mixture is numerically investigated by combination of the Cahn-Hilliard-Cook theory and the Flory-Huggins-de Gennes theory. Two distinct situations, i.e., for the wetting, the minority component is preferred by the surface and the majority component is preferred by the surface, are discussed in detail. The simulated results show that the formation mechanism of the wetting layer is affected by both the quench depth and the off-critical extent. Moreover, a diagram, illustrating the formation mechanisms of the wetting layer with various quench depths and compositions, is obtained on the basis of the simulated results. It is found that, when the minority component is preferred by the surface, the growth of the wetting layer can exhibit pure diffusion limited growth law, logarithmic growth law, and Lifshitz-Slyozov growth law. However, when the majority component is preferred by the surface, the wetting layer always grows logarithmically, regardless of the quench depth and the off-critical extent. It is interesting that the surface-induced nucleation can be observed in this case. The simulated results demonstrate that the surface-induced nucleation only occurs below a certain value of the quench depth, and a detailed range about it is calculated and indicated. Furthermore, the formation mechanisms of the wetting layer are theoretically analyzed in depth by the chemical potential gradient.

8. Magnetization reversal mechanisms under oblique magnetic fields

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Ntallis, N.; Efthimiadis, K.G., E-mail: kge@auth.gr

2017-03-01

In this work finite element micromagnetic simulations were performed in order to study the reversal mechanisms of spherical ferromagnetic particles with uniaxial magnetocrystalline anisotropy, when they are magnetized along an oblique direction with respect to the anisotropy axis. Magnetization loops are taken in different directions of external magnetic field, at different anisotropy constants and particle sizes. In the simulation results, the three reversal mechanisms (coherent, curling and domains) are observed and new phenomena arise due to the action of oblique magnetic fields. Moreover, the dependence of the critical fields with respect to the angle of the external field is presented. - Highlights: • Finite element micromagnetic simulation of the three different reversal mechanisms. • For the curling mechanism, the new phenomenon is the rotation of the vortex. • In the domain reversal mechanism, the formed domain wall is smaller than 180°. • In soft ferromagnetic particles a rearrangement of the magnetic domains is observed.

9. Role of surface on the size-dependent mechanical properties of copper nanowire under tensile load: A molecular dynamics simulation

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Liu, Wei-Ting; Hsiao, Chun-I.; Hsu, Wen-Dung

2014-01-01

In this study we have used atomistic simulations to investigate the role of surface on the size-dependent mechanical properties of nanowires. In particular, we have performed computational investigation on single crystal face-centered cubic copper nano-wires with diameters ranging from 2 to 20 nm. The wire axis for all the nanowires are considered along the [0 0 1] direction. Characterization of the initial optimized structures revealed clear differences in interatomic spacing, stress, and potential energy in all the nanowires. The mechanical properties with respect to wire diameter are evaluated by applying tension along the [0 0 1] direction until yielding. We have discussed the stress–strain relationships, Young's modulus, and the variation in potential energy from surface to the center of the wire for all the cases. Our results indicate that the mechanical response (including yield strain, Young's modulus, and resilience) is directly related to the proportion of surface to bulk type atoms present in each nanowire. Thus the size-dependent mechanical properties of single crystal copper nanowire within elastic region are attributed to the surface to volume ratio (surface effect). Using the calculated response, we have formulated a mathematical relationship, which predicts the nonlinear correlation between the mechanical properties and the diameter of the wire.

10. Role of surface on the size-dependent mechanical properties of copper nanowire under tensile load: A molecular dynamics simulation

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Liu, Wei-Ting [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan City 70101 Taiwan (China); Hsiao, Chun-I. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan City 70101 Taiwan (China); Promotion Center for Global Materials Research, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan City 70101 Taiwan (China); Hsu, Wen-Dung, E-mail: wendung@mail.ncku.edu.tw [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan City 70101 Taiwan (China); Research Center for Energy Technology and Strategy, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan City 70101 Taiwan (China); Promotion Center for Global Materials Research, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan City 70101 Taiwan (China)

2014-01-15

In this study we have used atomistic simulations to investigate the role of surface on the size-dependent mechanical properties of nanowires. In particular, we have performed computational investigation on single crystal face-centered cubic copper nano-wires with diameters ranging from 2 to 20 nm. The wire axis for all the nanowires are considered along the [0 0 1] direction. Characterization of the initial optimized structures revealed clear differences in interatomic spacing, stress, and potential energy in all the nanowires. The mechanical properties with respect to wire diameter are evaluated by applying tension along the [0 0 1] direction until yielding. We have discussed the stress–strain relationships, Young's modulus, and the variation in potential energy from surface to the center of the wire for all the cases. Our results indicate that the mechanical response (including yield strain, Young's modulus, and resilience) is directly related to the proportion of surface to bulk type atoms present in each nanowire. Thus the size-dependent mechanical properties of single crystal copper nanowire within elastic region are attributed to the surface to volume ratio (surface effect). Using the calculated response, we have formulated a mathematical relationship, which predicts the nonlinear correlation between the mechanical properties and the diameter of the wire.

11. Direct reciprocity in structured populations.

Science.gov (United States)

van Veelen, Matthijs; García, Julián; Rand, David G; Nowak, Martin A

2012-06-19

Reciprocity and repeated games have been at the center of attention when studying the evolution of human cooperation. Direct reciprocity is considered to be a powerful mechanism for the evolution of cooperation, and it is generally assumed that it can lead to high levels of cooperation. Here we explore an open-ended, infinite strategy space, where every strategy that can be encoded by a finite state automaton is a possible mutant. Surprisingly, we find that direct reciprocity alone does not lead to high levels of cooperation. Instead we observe perpetual oscillations between cooperation and defection, with defection being substantially more frequent than cooperation. The reason for this is that "indirect invasions" remove equilibrium strategies: every strategy has neutral mutants, which in turn can be invaded by other strategies. However, reciprocity is not the only way to promote cooperation. Another mechanism for the evolution of cooperation, which has received as much attention, is assortment because of population structure. Here we develop a theory that allows us to study the synergistic interaction between direct reciprocity and assortment. This framework is particularly well suited for understanding human interactions, which are typically repeated and occur in relatively fluid but not unstructured populations. We show that if repeated games are combined with only a small amount of assortment, then natural selection favors the behavior typically observed among humans: high levels of cooperation implemented using conditional strategies.

12. The regulatory mechanism of fruit ripening revealed by analyses of direct targets of the tomato MADS-box transcription factor RIPENING INHIBITOR

Science.gov (United States)

Fujisawa, Masaki; Ito, Yasuhiro

2013-01-01

The developmental process of ripening is unique to fleshy fruits and a key factor in fruit quality. The tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) MADS-box transcription factor RIPENING INHIBITOR (RIN), one of the earliest-acting ripening regulators, is required for broad aspects of ripening, including ethylene-dependent and -independent pathways. However, our knowledge of direct RIN target genes has been limited, considering the broad effects of RIN on ripening. In a recent work published in The Plant Cell, we identified 241 direct RIN target genes by chromatin immunoprecipitation coupled with DNA microarray (ChIP-chip) and transcriptome analysis. Functional classification of the targets revealed that RIN participates in the regulation of many biological processes including well-known ripening processes such as climacteric ethylene production and lycopene accumulation. In addition, we found that ethylene is required for the full expression of RIN and several RIN-targeting transcription factor genes at the ripening stage. Here, based on our recently published findings and additional data, we discuss the ripening processes regulated by RIN and the interplay between RIN and ethylene. PMID:23518588

13. Characterization of Swirl-Venturi Lean Direct Injection Designs for Aviation Gas-Turbine Combustion

Science.gov (United States)

Heath, Christopher M.

2013-01-01

Injector geometry, physical mixing, chemical processes, and engine cycle conditions together govern performance, operability and emission characteristics of aviation gas-turbine combustion systems. The present investigation explores swirl-venturi lean direct injection combustor fundamentals, characterizing the influence of key geometric injector parameters on reacting flow physics and emission production trends. In this computational study, a design space exploration was performed using a parameterized swirl-venturi lean direct injector model. From the parametric geometry, 20 three-element lean direct injection combustor sectors were produced and simulated using steady-state, Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes reacting computations. Species concentrations were solved directly using a reduced 18-step reaction mechanism for Jet-A. Turbulence closure was obtained using a nonlinear ?-e model. Results demonstrate sensitivities of the geometric perturbations on axially averaged flow field responses. Output variables include axial velocity, turbulent kinetic energy, static temperature, fuel patternation and minor species mass fractions. Significant trends have been reduced to surrogate model approximations, intended to guide future injector design trade studies and advance aviation gas-turbine combustion research.

14. Direct Problem-Based Learning (DPBL): A Framework for Integrating Direct Instruction and Problem-Based Learning Approach

Science.gov (United States)

Winarno, Sri; Muthu, Kalaiarasi Sonai; Ling, Lew Sook

2018-01-01

Direct instruction approach has been widely used in higher education. Many studies revealed that direct instruction improved students' knowledge. The characteristics of direct instruction include the subject delivered through face-to-face interaction with the lecturers and materials that sequenced deliberately and taught explicitly. However,…

15. Summary of rock mechanics work completed for Posiva before 2005

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Hudson, J.A.; Johansson, E.

2006-06-01

To plan Posiva's rock mechanics work for 2005-2006 and beyond, it was necessary to have a clear understanding of the individual components of work that had been completed for Posiva before 2005 and to assess the cumulative rock mechanics knowledge base. This review summarizes the 80 individual completed documents, which include rock mechanics reports and other reports containing rock mechanics material. They are summarised within a structured framework of rock properties, analyses and the effects of excavation. Following the introductory section, the method of structuring the rock mechanics information is presented. Then the tabulation highlighting the features of all the previous rock mechanics work is explained. This tabulation forms the Appendix; the content of each rock mechanics report that has been produced is summarized via the table headings of document number, subject area, document reference, subject matter, objectives, methodology, highlighted figures, conclusions and comments. In addition to the direct usefulness of the tabulation in summarizing each report, it has been possible to draw overall conclusions: Information has also been obtained worldwide, especially Sweden and Canada; The rock stress state has been measured but further work is required related both to in situ measurements and numerical modelling to study, e.g., the influence of deformation zones on the local stress state; The intact rock has been extensively studied: there is a good knowledge of the parameters and their values, including the anisotropic nature of the site rocks; The geometry of the fractures is included in the geological characterisation but more rock mechanics work is required on the mechanical properties; The mechanical properties of the deformation zones have not been studied in detail; The thermal properties of the site rock are relatively well understood; A new classification has been developed for constructability and long-term safety assessment. This classification

16. Isolators Including Main Spring Linear Guide Systems

Science.gov (United States)

Goold, Ryan (Inventor); Buchele, Paul (Inventor); Hindle, Timothy (Inventor); Ruebsamen, Dale Thomas (Inventor)

2017-01-01

Embodiments of isolators, such as three parameter isolators, including a main spring linear guide system are provided. In one embodiment, the isolator includes first and second opposing end portions, a main spring mechanically coupled between the first and second end portions, and a linear guide system extending from the first end portion, across the main spring, and toward the second end portion. The linear guide system expands and contracts in conjunction with deflection of the main spring along the working axis, while restricting displacement and rotation of the main spring along first and second axes orthogonal to the working axis.

17. [Pontomedullary lacerations and concomitant injuries: a review of possible underlying mechanisms].

Science.gov (United States)

2013-01-01

Anatomically, brainstem is constituted of medulla oblongata, pons and mesencephalon. Traumatic lesions of brainstem most commonly occur on pontomedullary junction. There are several possible mechanisms of pontomedullary lacerations. The first mechanism includes impact to the chin, with or without a skull base fracture, and most often leads to this fatal injury, due to impact force transmission through the jawbone and temporomandibular joint. The second mechanism includes lateral and posterior head impacts with subsequent hinge fractures, where occurrence of pontomedullary lacerations in these cases may depend on the energy of impact, as well as on the exact position of the fracture line, but less so on the head's movement. The third mechanism includes frontoposterior hyperextension of the head, due to frontal impact, concomitant with fractures or dislocations of upper spine. In the fourth mechanism, there is an absence of direct impact to the head, due to the indirect force of action after feet or buttocks-first impact. Most of these cases are accompanied by ring fractures as well. In situations such as these, the impact force is transmitted up the spinal column and upper vertebrae, and telescopically intruded into the skull, causing brainstem laceration. The jawbone and other facial bones can act as shock absorbers, and their fracture could diminish the energy transfer towards the skull and protect the brain and brainstem from injury. In all the cases with pontomedullary laceration posterior neck dissection should be performed during the autopsy, since upper spine injuries are often associated with this type of injury.

18. Pontomedullary lacerations and concomitant injuries: A review of possible underlying mechanisms

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

2013-01-01

Full Text Available Anatomically, brainstem is constituted of medulla oblongata, pons and mesencephalon. Traumatic lesions of brainstem most commonly occur on pontomedullary junction. There are several possible mechanisms of pontomedullary lacerations. The first mechanism includes impact to the chin, with or without a skull base fracture, and most often leads to this fatal injury, due to impact force transmission through the jawbone and temporomandibular joint. The second mechanism includes lateral and posterior head impacts with subsequent hinge fractures, where occurrence of pontomedullary lacerations in these cases may depend on the energy of impact, as well as on the exact position of the fracture line, but less so on the head’s movement. The third mechanism includes frontoposterior hyperextension of the head, due to frontal impact, concomitant with fractures or dislocations of upper spine. In the fourth mechanism, there is an absence of direct impact to the head, due to the indirect force of action after feet or buttocks­first impact. Most of these cases are accompanied by ring fractures as well. In situations such as these, the impact force is transmitted up the spinal column and upper vertebrae, and telescopically intruded into the skull, causing brainstem laceration. The jawbone and other facial bones can act as shock absorbers, and their fracture could diminish the energy transfer towards the skull and protect the brain and brainstem from injury. In all the cases with pontomedullary laceration posterior neck dissection should be performed during the autopsy, since upper spine injuries are often associated with this type of injury. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 45005

19. Effects of c-axis Josephson coupling on dissipation, flux dynamics and the mechanism of high-Tc superconductivity

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Gray, K.E.; Hettinger, J.D.

1995-01-01

Measurements of the c-axis transport in highly anisotropic HTS materials strongly indicate that Josephson coupling is involved. This conclusion affects various properties of the HTS cuprates, including the irreversibility behavior for transport in the ab planes, the direct c-axis transport and potentially the mechanism of Cooper pairing

20. Mechanisms of Sensorineural Cell Damage, Death and Survival in the Cochlea

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Allen Frederic Ryan

2015-04-01

Full Text Available The majority of acquired hearing loss, including presbycusis, is caused by irreversible damage to the sensorineural tissues of the cochlea. This article reviews the intracellular mechanisms that contribute to sensorineural damage in the cochlea, as well as the survival signaling pathways that can provide endogenous protection and tissue rescue. These data have primarily been generated in hearing loss not directly related to age. However, there is evidence that similar mechanisms operate in presbycusis. Moreover, accumulation of damage from other causes can contribute to age-related hearing loss. Potential therapeutic interventions to balance opposing but interconnected cell damage and survival pathways, such as antioxidants, anti-apoptotics, and pro-inflammatory cytokine inhibitors, are also discussed.

1. Characterisation of dispersion mechanisms in an urban catchment using a deterministic spatially distributed direct hydrograph travel time model

Science.gov (United States)

Rossel, F.; Gironas, J. A.

2012-12-01

The link between stream network structure and hydrologic response for natural basins has been extensively studied. It is well known that stream network organization and flow dynamics in the reaches combine to shape the hydrologic response of natural basins. Geomorphologic dispersion and hydrodynamic dispersion along with hillslope processes control to a large extent the overall variance of the hydrograph, particularly under the assumption of constant celerity throughout the basin. In addition, a third mechanism referred as to kinematic dispersion becomes relevant when considering spatial variations of celerity. On contrary, the link between the drainage network structure and overall urban terrain, and the hydrologic response in urban catchments has been much less studied. In particular, the characterization of the different dispersion mechanisms within urban areas remains to be better understood. In such areas artificial elements are expected to contribute to the total dispersion due to the variety of geometries and the spatial distribution of imperviousness. This work quantifies the different dispersion mechanisms in an urban catchment, focusing on their relevance and the spatial scales involved. For this purpose we use the Urban Morpho-climatic Instantaneous Unit Hydrograph model, a deterministic spatially distributed direct hydrograph travel time model, which computes travel times in hillslope, pipe, street and channel cells using formulations derived from kinematic wave theory. The model was applied to the Aubeniere catchment, located in Nantes, France. Unlike stochastic models, this deterministic model allows the quantification of dispersion mechanism at the local scale (i.e. the grid-cell). We found that kinematic dispersion is more relevant for small storm events, whereas geomorphologic dispersion becomes more significant for larger storms, as the mean celerity within the catchment increases. In addition, the total dispersion relates to the drainage area in

2. Respiratory mechanics to understand ARDS and guide mechanical ventilation.

Science.gov (United States)

Mauri, Tommaso; Lazzeri, Marta; Bellani, Giacomo; Zanella, Alberto; Grasselli, Giacomo

2017-11-30

As precision medicine is becoming a standard of care in selecting tailored rather than average treatments, physiological measurements might represent the first step in applying personalized therapy in the intensive care unit (ICU). A systematic assessment of respiratory mechanics in patients with the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) could represent a step in this direction, for two main reasons. Approach and Main results: On the one hand, respiratory mechanics are a powerful physiological method to understand the severity of this syndrome in each single patient. Decreased respiratory system compliance, for example, is associated with low end expiratory lung volume and more severe lung injury. On the other hand, respiratory mechanics might guide protective mechanical ventilation settings. Improved gravitationally dependent regional lung compliance could support the selection of positive end-expiratory pressure and maximize alveolar recruitment. Moreover, the association between driving airway pressure and mortality in ARDS patients potentially underlines the importance of sizing tidal volume on respiratory system compliance rather than on predicted body weight. The present review article aims to describe the main alterations of respiratory mechanics in ARDS as a potent bedside tool to understand severity and guide mechanical ventilation settings, thus representing a readily available clinical resource for ICU physicians.

3. Variation of wave directional spread parameters along the Indian coast

Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

SanilKumar, V.

through a directional wave spectrum, which represents distribution of wave energies over various wave frequencies and directions. Most widely practiced technique for directional data collection involves use of the floating buoys. The data analysis.... Estimation of directional spectra from the maximum entropy principle, Proceedings 5th International Conference on Offshore Mechanics and Arctic Engineering, Tokyo, Japan 1986; vol. I: 80-85. [6] Kuik AJ, Vledder G, Holthuijsen LH. A method for the routine...

4. Quantum mechanics

CERN Document Server

Fitzpatrick, Richard

2015-01-01

Quantum mechanics was developed during the first few decades of the twentieth century via a series of inspired guesses made by various physicists, including Planck, Einstein, Bohr, Schroedinger, Heisenberg, Pauli, and Dirac. All these scientists were trying to construct a self-consistent theory of microscopic dynamics that was compatible with experimental observations. The purpose of this book is to present quantum mechanics in a clear, concise, and systematic fashion, starting from the fundamental postulates, and developing the theory in as logical manner as possible. Topics covered in the book include the fundamental postulates of quantum mechanics, angular momentum, time-dependent and time-dependent perturbation theory, scattering theory, identical particles, and relativistic electron theory.

5. Diet-induced obesity, gut microbiota and bone, including alveolar bone loss.

Science.gov (United States)

Eaimworawuthikul, Sathima; Thiennimitr, Parameth; Chattipakorn, Nipon; Chattipakorn, Siriporn C

2017-06-01

Obesity is a major risk factor for several pathologies, including jaw bone resorption. The underlying mechanisms involved in pathological conditions resulting from obesity include chronic systemic inflammation and the development of insulin resistance. Although numerous studies have indicated the importance of the role of gut microbiota in the pathogenesis of inflammation and insulin resistance in obesity, only a few studies have established a relationship between obesity, gut microbiota and status of the jaw bone. This review aims to summarize current findings relating to these issues, focusing on the role of obesity and gut microbiota on jaw bone health, including possible mechanisms which can explain this link. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

6. Directed network modules

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Palla, Gergely; Farkas, Illes J; Pollner, Peter; Derenyi, Imre; Vicsek, Tamas

2007-01-01

A search technique locating network modules, i.e. internally densely connected groups of nodes in directed networks is introduced by extending the clique percolation method originally proposed for undirected networks. After giving a suitable definition for directed modules we investigate their percolation transition in the Erdos-Renyi graph both analytically and numerically. We also analyse four real-world directed networks, including Google's own web-pages, an email network, a word association graph and the transcriptional regulatory network of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The obtained directed modules are validated by additional information available for the nodes. We find that directed modules of real-world graphs inherently overlap and the investigated networks can be classified into two major groups in terms of the overlaps between the modules. Accordingly, in the word-association network and Google's web-pages, overlaps are likely to contain in-hubs, whereas the modules in the email and transcriptional regulatory network tend to overlap via out-hubs

7. Transition processes in solid-phase electrochemical systems including sulfur-containing components

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Arkhipova, N.V.; Mikhajlova, A.M.; Seryanov, Yu.V.

2005-01-01

Transition processes in direct-contact systems Li/Sb 2 S 3 and Li/Sb 2 S 5 are studied. As shown by potentiodynamic voltammetry, an Li 3 SbS 3 interphase is the most probable product of the cathodic reduction at direct-contact interfaces. At certain polarizations and current densities, under potentiodynamic and galvanostatic conditions, the main current-producing processes that lead to the formation of the Li 3 SbS 3 interphase compete with passivating cathodic reactions which occur via the mechanism of monolayer adsorption and result in the formation of an Li 2 S product which blocks grains of the lithium thiostibnite interphase. Effective transfer coefficients of passivating reactions are twice those of the main current-producing cathodic reactions [ru

8. 3-component beamforming analysis of ambient seismic noise field for Love and Rayleigh wave source directions

Science.gov (United States)

2014-05-01

Our knowledge about common and different origins of Love and Rayleigh waves observed in the microseism band of the ambient seismic noise field is still limited, including the understanding of source locations and source mechanisms. Multi-component array methods are suitable to address this issue. In this work we use a 3-component beamforming algorithm to obtain source directions and polarization states of the ambient seismic noise field within the primary and secondary microseism bands recorded at the Gräfenberg array in southern Germany. The method allows to distinguish between different polarized waves present in the seismic noise field and estimates Love and Rayleigh wave source directions and their seasonal variations using one year of array data. We find mainly coinciding directions for the strongest acting sources of both wave types at the primary microseism and different source directions at the secondary microseism.

9. Experimental measurement and modeling analysis on mechanical properties of incudostapedial joint.

Science.gov (United States)

Zhang, Xiangming; Gan, Rong Z

2011-10-01

The incudostapedial (IS) joint between the incus and stapes is a synovial joint consisting of joint capsule, cartilage, and synovial fluid. The mechanical properties of the IS joint directly affect the middle ear transfer function for sound transmission. However, due to the complexity and small size of the joint, the mechanical properties of the IS joint have not been reported in the literature. In this paper, we report our current study on mechanical properties of human IS joint using both experimental measurement and finite element (FE) modeling analysis. Eight IS joint samples with the incus and stapes attached were harvested from human cadaver temporal bones. Tension, compression, stress relaxation and failure tests were performed on those samples in a micro-material testing system. An analytical approach with the hyperelastic Ogden model and a 3D FE model of the IS joint including the cartilage, joint capsule, and synovial fluid were employed to derive mechanical parameters of the IS joint. The comparison of measurements and modeling results reveals the relationship between the mechanical properties and structure of the IS joint.

10. Directing the Branching Growth of Cuprous Oxide by OH- Ions

Science.gov (United States)

Chen, Kunfeng; Si, Yunfei; Xue, Dongfeng

The effect of OH- ions on the branching growth of cuprous oxide microcrystals was systematically studied by a reduction route, where copper-citrate complexes were reduced by glucose under alkaline conditions. Different copper salts including Cu(NO3)2, CuCl2, CuSO4, and Cu(Ac)2 were used in this work. The results indicate that the Cu2O branching growth habit is closely correlated to the concentration of OH- ions, which plays an important role in directing the diffusion-limited branching growth of Cu2O and influencing the reduction power of glucose. A variety of Cu2O branching patterns including 6-pod, 8-pod and 24-pod branches, have been achieved without using template and surfactant. The current method can provide a good platform for studying the growth mechanism of microcrystal branching patterns.

11. Direct mechanics assessment of elastic symmetries and properties of trabecular bone architecture

NARCIS (Netherlands)

Rietbergen, van B.; Odgaard, A.; Kabel, J.; Huiskes, H.W.J.

1996-01-01

A method is presented to find orthotropic elastic symmetries and constants directly from the elastic coefficients in the overall stiffness matrix of trabecular bone test specimens. Contrary to earlier developed techniques, this method does not require pure orthotropic behavior or additional fabric

12. Mechanisms and mechanics of porosity formation in ductile iron castings

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

M. Perzyk

2007-12-01

Full Text Available Shrinkage defects in ductile iron castings can be of two basic types: shrinkage cavities associated with the liquid contraction prior to the expansion period of the iron as well as the porosity, which may appear even if the liquid shrinkage is fully compensated. In the present paper two possible mechanisms of the porosity are presented and analyzed. The first one is the Karsay’s mechanism based on the secondary shrinkage concept. The second one is the mechanism acting during the expansion period of the iron, first suggested by Ohnaka and co-authors and essentially modified by the present authors. The mechanical interactions between casting and mould are determined for the both mechanisms. Their analysis leads to the conclusion, that porosity forms during expansion period of the melt. The direct cause is the negative pressure which appears in the central part of the casting due to the differences in expansion coefficients of the fast cooling surface layer and slow cooling inner region. Observations concerning feeding behavior of ductile iron castings, based on this mechanism, agree well with industrial practice. The secondary shrinkage is not only needless to induce the porosity, but the corresponding mechanism of its occurrence, proposed by Karsay, does not seem to be valid.

13. Neuroimaging mechanisms of change in psychotherapy for addictive behaviors: emerging translational approaches that bridge biology and behavior.

Science.gov (United States)

Feldstein Ewing, Sarah W; Chung, Tammy

2013-06-01

14. EARLY GOAL DIRECTED THERAPY AT SEPTIC SYOK

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Ayu Widyanti

2013-04-01

Full Text Available Sepsis is the most commom cause of death in children with critically ill. Using WHO criteria (severe sepsis defined as sepsis with acidosis, hypotension or both, it was determined that in 1995 there were more than 42.000 cases of severe sepsis in children in the United States with mortality rate was 10.3%. To answer that finding, evicende based protocol was made, it called early goal directed therapy (EGDT. EGDT is a comprehensive strategy to evaluate patient with septic shock include, challenge of fluid, antibiotic, vasopressor, measurement of central vein oxygen saturation, PRC transfusion, administering inotropic dan mechanic ventilation. All of these must be done in the first 6 hours since sepsis or septic shock was found, because if there is a delay of resuscitation, anything we do to increase oxygenation level of the cell will be useless.

15. Plant mechanisms of siderophore-iron utilization

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Crowley, D.E.

1986-01-01

Mechanisms of siderophore iron-utilization by plants were examined to determine whether plants have direct mechanisms for acquiring iron from microbially-produced hydroxamate siderophores or simply take up inorganic iron in equilibrium with the chelate (shuttle mechanism). Experiments were designed to determine whether the monocot plant species, oat (Avena sativa L. cv. Victory) could acquire iron from ferrichrome under hydroponic conditions in which iron uptake was most likely to occur by direct use of the chelating agent. Ten-day-old iron-deficient seedlings, grown in aerated Hoagland's nutrient solution (minus iron) buffered at pH 7.4 with CaCO 3 , were placed in fresh nutrient solution containing 10/sup -7.4/M radioactive 55 FeCl 3 (23.7 mCi/mg) with the synthetic chelate, EDDHA (10π 5 M), ferrichrome (10 -5 M), or with no chelate. After 6 days, shoot content of 55 Fe in shoots of plants provided with ferrichrome was 100-fold greater than that in shoots of plants provided with EDDHA. Therefore iron uptake by oat under these conditions not only indicates direct use of ferrichrome, but also suggest that oat may be better able to acquire iron from siderophores than from synthetic chelates. One possible mechanism for direct use of chelating agents, may involve siderophore binding sites on the plasmalemma of root cortical cells where iron is split from the chelate by enzymatic reduction of ferric to ferrous iron. To demonstrate hypothesized siderophore binding sites on oat roots, experiments examined possible competition for presumed siderophore binding sites by an inert analog of ferrichrome constructed by irreversible chelation with chromium

16. Direct RF modulation transmitter, sampling clock frequency setting method for direct RF modulation transmitter

NARCIS (Netherlands)

Fukuda, Shuichi; Nauta, Bram

2013-01-01

PROBLEM TO BE SOLVED: To provide a direct RF modulation transmitter capable of satisfying a radiation level regulation even without providing a SAW filter. SOLUTION: A direct RF modulation transmitter includes: digital/RF converters 105, 106 to which an I digital baseband signal, a Q digital

17. Direct RF modulation transmitter, sampling clock frequency setting method for direct RF modulation transmitter

NARCIS (Netherlands)

Fukuda, Shuichi; Nauta, Bram

2014-01-01

PROBLEM TO BE SOLVED: To provide a direct RF modulation transmitter capable of satisfying a radiation level regulation even without providing a SAW filter. SOLUTION: A direct RF modulation transmitter includes: digital/RF converters 105, 106 to which an I digital baseband signal, a Q digital

18. Mechanisms of traumatic shoulder injury in elite rugby players

Science.gov (United States)

Crichton, James; Jones, Doug R; Funk, Lennard

2012-01-01

Background Shoulder injuries in rugby players are common, but the mechanisms of injury are less well understood. This study aims to elucidate common mechanisms of injury and identify the patterns of injury they produce. Materials and methods Twenty-four elite rugby players, referred to the senior author for diagnosis and management of shoulder injuries, were selected. Videos of the injuries were independently reviewed by rugby-medical experts to describe the mechanisms of injury. The mechanisms reported were collated and analysed to determine the level of agreement between reviewers and conclude an overall description of injury mechanisms. Results The authors identified three mechanisms of shoulder injury from the video analysis. These are the ‘Try-Scorer’, characterised by hyperflexion of the outstretched arm such as when scoring a try; the ‘Tackler’, extension of the abducted arm behind the player while tackling; and the ‘Direct Impact’, a direct blow to the arm or shoulder when held by the side in neutral or slight adduction. The Try Scorer and Tackler mechanisms both involve a levering force on the glenohumeral joint (GHJ). These mechanisms predominantly cause GHJ dislocation, with Bankart, reverse Bankart and superior labrum anterior–posterior tears. The Try-Scorer Mechanism also caused the majority (83%) of rotator cuff tears. The Direct Hit mechanism resulted in GHJ dislocation and labral injury in 37.5% of players and was most likely to cause acromioclavicular joint dislocation and scapula fractures, injuries that were not seen with the other mechanisms. Conclusion Greater understanding of the mechanisms involved in rugby shoulder injury is useful in understanding the pathological injuries, guiding treatment and rehabilitation and aiding the development of injury-prevention methods. PMID:22510645

19. Enhancing Scalability of Sparse Direct Methods

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Li, Xiaoye S.; Demmel, James; Grigori, Laura; Gu, Ming; Xia, Jianlin; Jardin, Steve; Sovinec, Carl; Lee, Lie-Quan

2007-01-01

TOPS is providing high-performance, scalable sparse direct solvers, which have had significant impacts on the SciDAC applications, including fusion simulation (CEMM), accelerator modeling (COMPASS), as well as many other mission-critical applications in DOE and elsewhere. Our recent developments have been focusing on new techniques to overcome scalability bottleneck of direct methods, in both time and memory. These include parallelizing symbolic analysis phase and developing linear-complexity sparse factorization methods. The new techniques will make sparse direct methods more widely usable in large 3D simulations on highly-parallel petascale computers

20. Role of surface on the size-dependent mechanical properties of copper nano-wire under tensile load: A molecular dynamics simulation

Science.gov (United States)

Liu, Wei-Ting; Hsiao, Chun-I.; Hsu, Wen-Dung

2014-01-01

In this study we have used atomistic simulations to investigate the role of surface on the size-dependent mechanical properties of nano-wires. In particular, we have performed computational investigation on single crystal face-centered cubic copper nano-wires with diameters ranging from 2 to 20 nm. The wire axis for all the nano-wires are considered along the [0 0 1] direction. Characterization of the initial optimized structures revealed clear differences in interatomic spacing, stress, and potential energy in all the nano-wires. The mechanical properties with respect to wire diameter are evaluated by applying tension along the [0 0 1] direction until yielding. We have discussed the stress-strain relationships, Young's modulus, and the variation in potential energy from surface to the center of the wire for all the cases. Our results indicate that the mechanical response (including yield strain, Young's modulus, and resilience) is directly related to the proportion of surface to bulk type atoms present in each nano-wire. Thus the size-dependent mechanical properties of single crystal copper nano-wire within elastic region are attributed to the surface to volume ratio (surface effect). Using the calculated response, we have formulated a mathematical relationship, which predicts the nonlinear correlation between the mechanical properties and the diameter of the wire.

1. Catalysis and luminescence in mechanically activated polymers

NARCIS (Netherlands)

Jakobs, R.T.M.

2013-01-01

Mechanochemistry refers to chemical reactions that are induced by the direct absorption of mechanical energy. In this respect, mechanical energy can be seen as an alternative method of supplying energy to promote chemical reactions, alongside thermal energy, electrical energy and (photo)chemical

2. Mechanical, tribological and corrosion properties of CrBN films deposited by combined direct current and radio frequency magnetron sputtering

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Jahodova, Vera; Ding, Xing-zhao; Seng, Debbie H.L.; Gulbinski, W.; Louda, P.

2013-01-01

Cr–B–N films were deposited on stainless steel substrates by a combined direct current and radio frequency (RF) reactive unbalanced magnetron sputtering process using two elemental Cr and one compound BN targets. Boron content in the as-deposited films was qualitatively analyzed by time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectroscopy. Films' microstructure, mechanical and tribological properties were characterized by X-ray diffraction, nanoindentation and pin-on-disk tribometer experiments. Corrosion behavior of the Cr–B–N films was evaluated by electrochemical potentiodynamic polarization method in a 3 wt.% NaCl solution. All the films were crystallized into a NaCl-type cubic structure. At lower RF power applied on the BN target (≤ 600 W), films are relatively randomly oriented, and films' crystallinity increased with increasing RF power. With increasing RF power further (≥ 800 W), films became (200) preferentially oriented, and films' crystallinity decreased gradually. With incorporation of a small amount of boron atoms into the CrN films, hardness, wear- and corrosion-resistance were all improved evidently. The best wear and corrosion resistance was obtained for the film deposited with 600 W RF power applied on the BN target. - Highlights: • CrBN films deposited by direct current and radio frequency magnetron sputtering. • CrBN exhibited higher hardness, wear- and corrosion-resistance than pure CrN. • The best wear- and corrosion-resistant film was deposited with 600 W RF power

3. A Neurocomputational Model of Goal-Directed Navigation in Insect-Inspired Artificial Agents.

Science.gov (United States)

Goldschmidt, Dennis; Manoonpong, Poramate; Dasgupta, Sakyasingha

2017-01-01

Despite their small size, insect brains are able to produce robust and efficient navigation in complex environments. Specifically in social insects, such as ants and bees, these navigational capabilities are guided by orientation directing vectors generated by a process called path integration. During this process, they integrate compass and odometric cues to estimate their current location as a vector, called the home vector for guiding them back home on a straight path. They further acquire and retrieve path integration-based vector memories globally to the nest or based on visual landmarks. Although existing computational models reproduced similar behaviors, a neurocomputational model of vector navigation including the acquisition of vector representations has not been described before. Here we present a model of neural mechanisms in a modular closed-loop control-enabling vector navigation in artificial agents. The model consists of a path integration mechanism, reward-modulated global learning, random search, and action selection. The path integration mechanism integrates compass and odometric cues to compute a vectorial representation of the agent's current location as neural activity patterns in circular arrays. A reward-modulated learning rule enables the acquisition of vector memories by associating the local food reward with the path integration state. A motor output is computed based on the combination of vector memories and random exploration. In simulation, we show that the neural mechanisms enable robust homing and localization, even in the presence of external sensory noise. The proposed learning rules lead to goal-directed navigation and route formation performed under realistic conditions. Consequently, we provide a novel approach for vector learning and navigation in a simulated, situated agent linking behavioral observations to their possible underlying neural substrates.

4. Performance evaluation of directly photovoltaic powered DC PM (direct current permanent magnet) motor – propeller thrust system

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Atlam, Ozcan; Kolhe, Mohan

2013-01-01

Photovoltaic (PV) powered directly coupled electro-mechanical system has wide applications (e.g. PV powered cooling fans in green houses, PV water pumping system, solar vehicles). The objective of this work is to analyse the operation of directly PV powered DC PM (direct current permanent magnet) motor – propeller system for selection of motor parameters. The performance of such system mainly depends on the incident solar radiation, operating cell temperature, DC motor and propeller load parameters. It is observed that the operating points of the PV DC PM motor – propeller system matches very closely with the maximum power points (MPPs) of the PV array, if the DC PM motor – propeller parameters have been properly selected. It is found that for a specific application of such type of system, matching of torque–speed operating points with respect to the maximum power points of PV array are very important. It is ascertained through results that the DC PM motor's armature resistance, magnetic field constant, starting current to overcome the starting torque and torque coefficient are the main parameters. In designing a PV powered DC PM motor for a specific application, selection of these parameters are important for maximum utilization of the PV array output. The results of this system are useful for designing of directly PV powered DC PM motor's for aerodynamic applications. - Highlights: • We analyse the performance of directly PV powered DC PM motor – propeller system. • We examine PV electro-mechanical system for selection of DC motor parameters. • Matching of torque–speed curve to maximum power points of PV array is important

5. Protein synthesis directed by cowpea mosaic virus RNAs

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Stuik, E.

1979-01-01

The thesis concerns the proteins synthesized under direction of Cowpea mosaic virus RNAs. Sufficient radioactive labelling of proteins was achieved when 35 S as sulphate was administered to intact Vigna plants, cultivated in Hoagland solution. The large polypeptides synthesized under direction of B- and M-RNA are probably precursor molecules from which the coat proteins are generated by a mechanism of posttranslational cleavage. (Auth.)

6. Tokamak engineering mechanics

CERN Document Server

Song, Yuntao; Du, Shijun

2013-01-01

Tokamak Engineering Mechanics offers concise and thorough coverage of engineering mechanics theory and application for tokamaks, and the material is reinforced by numerous examples. Chapter topics include general principles, static mechanics, dynamic mechanics, thermal fluid mechanics and multiphysics structural mechanics of tokamak structure analysis. The theoretical principle of the design and the methods of the analysis for various components and load conditions are presented, while the latest engineering technologies are also introduced. The book will provide readers involved in the study

7. Mechanisms of action of hormonal emergency contraceptives.

Science.gov (United States)

Leung, Vivian W Y; Levine, Marc; Soon, Judith A

2010-02-01

Hormonal emergency contraceptives have been used to prevent unwanted pregnancy for more than 3 decades. The mechanisms of action of the regimen containing a combination of estrogen and progestin, known as the Yuzpe regimen, and those of the levonorgestrel regimen continue to be controversial, especially over the possibility that these regimens might act by interfering with implantation of the fertilized ovum. We performed a search of the PubMed (1949-July 2009) and EMBASE (1980-July 2009) databases to identify literature on the mechanisms of action of these contraceptive regimens, and data were extracted from pertinent English-language studies. We classified studies according to the approach taken by the investigators to study the actions of emergency contraceptives on pregnancy: an indirect method that uses statistical models to determine whether emergency contraceptives would be as effective as reported if they act only by disrupting ovulation; direct observation of the effects of emergency contraceptives on surrogate outcomes, including ovulation, sperm activity, hormonal levels, and endometrial receptivity to implantation; and analysis of directly observed pregnancy outcomes against statistical data. Acceptability of emergency contraceptives by women and clinicians may depend on personal opinions about when life or pregnancy begins. The evidence strongly supports disruption of ovulation as a mechanism of action. The data suggest that emergency contraceptives are unlikely to act by interfering with implantation, although the possibility has not been completely excluded. The data also suggest that emergency contraceptives are ineffective after ovulation. Women and clinicians who consider implantation or later events to be the beginning of pregnancy should be aware that emergency contraceptives are likely nonabortive by this definition of pregnancy.

8. Standard recommended practice for examination of fuel element cladding including the determination of the mechanical properties

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Anon.

1975-01-01

Guidelines are provided for the post-irradiation examination of fuel cladding and to achieve better correlation and interpretation of the data in the field of radiation effects. The recommended practice is applicable to metal cladding of all types of fuel elements. The tests cited are suitable for determining mechanical properties of the fuel elements cladding. Various ASTM standards and test methods are cited

9. Ranking mechanical pulps for their potential to photoyellow

Science.gov (United States)

Umesh P. Agarwal

2000-01-01

Recently found experimental evidence has provided strong support for an alternative photoyellowing mechanism that suggests that pulp- photoyellowing occurs due to direct photooxidation of hydroquinones (present in mechanical pulps) top-quinones. Because hydroquinones were found to be present in pulps, it may be possible to quantify them. Quantification of mechanical-...

10. Quantum information and the problem of mechanisms of biological evolution.

Science.gov (United States)

Melkikh, Alexey V

2014-01-01

One of the most important conditions for replication in early evolution is the de facto elimination of the conformational degrees of freedom of the replicators, the mechanisms of which remain unclear. In addition, realistic evolutionary timescales can be established based only on partially directed evolution, further complicating this issue. A division of the various evolutionary theories into two classes has been proposed based on the presence or absence of a priori information about the evolving system. A priori information plays a key role in solving problems in evolution. Here, a model of partially directed evolution, based on the learning automata theory, which includes a priori information about the fitness space, is proposed. A potential repository of such prior information is the states of biologically important molecules. Thus, the need for extended evolutionary synthesis is discussed. Experiments to test the hypothesis of partially directed evolution are proposed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

11. Mechanical drawing

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Cho, Ho Seon; Lee, Geun Hui

2004-04-15

This book deals with how to read and draw the mechanical drawing, which includes the basic of drawing like purpose, kinds, and criterion, projection, special projection drawing, omission of the figure, section, and types of section, dimensioning method, writing way of allowable limit size, tolerance of regular size, parts list and assembling drawing, fitting, mechanical elements like screw, key, pin, rivet, spring, bearing, pipe, valve, welding, geometric tolerance and mechanical materials.

12. Comparison of a two-body threshold (π,2π) reaction mechanism with the usual one-body mechanism in the deuteron

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Rockmore, R.

1984-01-01

A two-body threshold (π +- ,π +- π -+ ) reaction mechanism is suggested in direct analogy with pion absorption. The mechanism involves boson rescattering via Δ excitation. The relative importance of this mechanism and the ordinary one-body mechanism in nuclei is studied in the particular case of S-wave deuteron targets. The contribution of the two-body mechanism to the threshold reaction cross section is found to be less than 1% of the simple one-body estimate

13. Goal-Directed Acupuncture in Sports—Placebo or Doping?

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Taras I. Usichenko

2011-01-01

Full Text Available The modern pentathlon (MP, sports discipline including fencing, swimming, steeplechase and a cross-country run, requires a rapid change of central nervous and peripheral neuromuscular activity from one sport to another in order to achieve the best possible results. We describe the case where a top MP athlete was supported by a program of acupoint stimulation, which was directed to relieve the symptoms, preventing him from effective performance. Although the fact of acupoint stimulation was associated with improvement of his results, other factors like training effect, placebo and nonspecific physiological effects and their mechanisms in sports are discussed in a literature review. The popularity of complementary and alternative medicine methods among the athletes raises the question of their potential misuse as a doping in competitive sports.

14. Pemphigus—A Disease of Desmosome Dysfunction Caused by Multiple Mechanisms

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Volker Spindler

2018-02-01

Full Text Available Pemphigus is a severe autoimmune-blistering disease of the skin and mucous membranes caused by autoantibodies reducing desmosomal adhesion between epithelial cells. Autoantibodies against the desmosomal cadherins desmogleins (Dsgs 1 and 3 as well as desmocollin 3 were shown to be pathogenic, whereas the role of other antibodies is unclear. Dsg3 interactions can be directly reduced by specific autoantibodies. Autoantibodies also alter the activity of signaling pathways, some of which regulate cell cohesion under baseline conditions and alter the turnover of desmosomal components. These pathways include Ca2+, p38MAPK, PKC, Src, EGFR/Erk, and several others. In this review, we delineate the mechanisms relevant for pemphigus pathogenesis based on the histology and the ultrastructure of patients’ lesions. We then dissect the mechanisms which can explain the ultrastructural hallmarks detectable in pemphigus patient skin. Finally, we reevaluate the concept that the spectrum of mechanisms, which induce desmosome dysfunction upon binding of pemphigus autoantibodies, finally defines the clinical phenotype.

15. Korean society of mechanical engineers 60 years

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

2005-12-01

This book introduces 60 years of Korean society of mechanical engineers with birth, foundation, development process, change of enforcement regulation and articles of association, important data of this association, 60 years of parts, committee and branch, business of association like academic event, publication, technical development business, supporting research centers, bond Korean society of mechanical engineers and mechanical industry and development of related organizations, development for industrial fields and development direction of Korean society of mechanical engineers.

16. New insights into the mechanisms of the ketogenic diet.

Science.gov (United States)

Boison, Detlev

2017-04-01

High-fat, low-carbohydrate ketogenic diets have been used for almost a century for the treatment of epilepsy. Used traditionally for the treatment of refractory pediatric epilepsies, in recent years the use of ketogenic diets has experienced a revival to include the treatment of adulthood epilepsies as well as conditions ranging from autism to chronic pain and cancer. Despite the ability of ketogenic diet therapy to suppress seizures refractory to antiepileptic drugs and reports of lasting seizure freedom, the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. This review explores new insights into mechanisms mobilized by ketogenic diet therapies. Ketogenic diets act through a combination of mechanisms, which are linked to the effects of ketones and glucose restriction, and to interactions with receptors, channels, and metabolic enzymes. Decanoic acid, a component of medium-chain triclycerides, contributes to seizure control through direct α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptor inhibition, whereas drugs targeting lactate dehydrogenase reduce seizures through inhibition of a metabolic pathway. Ketogenic diet therapy also affects DNA methylation, a novel epigenetic mechanism of the diet. Ketogenic diet therapy combines several beneficial mechanisms that provide broad benefits for the treatment of epilepsy with the potential to not only suppress seizures but also to modify the course of the epilepsy.

17. Recent advances in the mechanical durability of superhydrophobic materials.

Science.gov (United States)

Milionis, Athanasios; Loth, Eric; Bayer, Ilker S

2016-03-01

Large majority of superhydrophobic surfaces have very limited mechanical wear robustness and long-term durability. This problem has restricted their utilization in commercial or industrial applications and resulted in extensive research efforts on improving resistance against various types of wear damage. In this review, advances and developments since 2011 in this field will be covered. As such, we summarize progress on fabrication, design and understanding of mechanically durable superhydrophobic surfaces. This includes an overview of recently published diagnostic techniques for probing and demonstrating tribo-mechanical durability against wear and abrasion as well as other effects such as solid/liquid spray or jet impact and underwater resistance. The review is organized in terms of various types of mechanical wear ranging from substrate adhesion, tangential surface abrasion, and dynamic impact to ultrasonic processing underwater. In each of these categories, we highlight the most successful approaches to produce robust surfaces that can maintain their non-wetting state after the wear or abrasive action. Finally, various recommendations for improvement of mechanical wear durability and its quantitative evaluation are discussed along with potential future directions towards more systematic testing methods which will also be acceptable for industry. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

18. Continuum Mechanics

CERN Document Server

Romano, Antonio

2010-01-01

This book offers a broad overview of the potential of continuum mechanics to describe a wide range of macroscopic phenomena in real-world problems. Building on the fundamentals presented in the authors' previous book, Continuum Mechanics using Mathematica(R), this new work explores interesting models of continuum mechanics, with an emphasis on exploring the flexibility of their applications in a wide variety of fields.Specific topics, which have been chosen to show the power of continuum mechanics to characterize the experimental behavior of real phenomena, include: * various aspects of nonlin

19. Micro-macro-discrepancies in nonlinear microrheology: I. Quantifying mechanisms in a suspension of Brownian ellipsoids

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

DePuit, Ryan J; Squires, Todd M

2012-01-01

Active and nonlinear microrheology experiments involve a colloidal probe that is forced to move within a material, with the goal of recovering the nonlinear rheological response properties of the material. Various mechanisms cause discrepancies between the nonlinear rheology measured microrheologically and macroscopically, including direct probe-bath collisions, the Lagrangian unsteadiness experienced by the material elements, and the spatially inhomogeneous and rheologically mixed strain field set up around the probe. Here, we perform computational nonlinear microrheology experiments, in which a colloidal probe translates through a dilute suspension of Brownian ellipsoids, whose results we compare against analogous computational experiments on the macroscopic shear rheology of the same model material. The quantitative impact of each of the mechanisms for micro-macro-discrepancy can thus be computed directly, with additional computational experiments performed where the processes in question are ‘turned off’. We show that all three discrepancy mechanisms impact the microrheological measurement quantitatively, and that none can be neglected. This motivates a search for microrheological probes whose geometry or forcing is optimized to minimize these impacts, which we present in a companion article.

20. Nonlinear Thermo-mechanical Finite Element Analysis of Polymer Foam Cored Sandwich Structures including Geometrical and Material Nonlinearity

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Palleti, Hara Naga Krishna Teja; Thomsen, Ole Thybo; Taher, Siavash Talebi

In this paper, polymer foam cored sandwich structures with fibre reinforced composite face sheets subjected to combined mechanical and thermal loads will be analysed using the commercial FE code ABAQUS® incorporating both material and geometrical nonlinearity. Large displacements and rotations...

1. Synthesis of kaolin supported nanoscale zero-valent iron and its degradation mechanism of Direct Fast Black G in aqueous solution

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Jin, Xiaoying; Chen, Zhengxian [Fujian Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Fujian Normal University, Fuzhou 350007, Fujian Province (China); Zhou, Rongbing [Institute of Environ Sci and Engineering, Hangzhou Dianzi University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310018 (China); Chen, Zuliang, E-mail: Zuliang.chen@unisa.edu.au [Fujian Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Fujian Normal University, Fuzhou 350007, Fujian Province (China); Centre for Environmental Risk Assessment and Remediation, University of South Australia, Mawson Lakes, SA 5095 (Australia)

2015-01-15

Graphical abstract: UV–visible spectra of DFBG solution using K-nZVI (1:1) nanoparticles. (a) Before reaction; (b) during reaction; (c) after reaction. - Highlights: • Kaolin-supported Fe{sup 0} nanoparticle (K-nZVI) was synthesized. • Degradation of Direct Fast Black by K-nZVI was studied. • K-nZVI was characterized by SEM, XRD, UV and FIIR. • Degradation mechanism of Direct Fast Black was proposed. - Abstract: Calcinated kaolin supported nanoscale zero-valent iron (K-nZVI) was synthesized and used for the removal of tetrad azo-group dye-Direct Fast Black G (DFBG) from aqueous solution. The results demonstrated that after reacting for 10 min with an initial concentration of DFBG 100 mg L{sup −1} (pH 9.49), 78.60% of DFBG was removed using K-nZVI, while only 41.39% and 12.56% of DFBG were removed using nZVI and kaolin, respectively. K-nZVI with a mass ratio of nZVI nanoparticles versus kaolin at 1:1 was found to have a high degree of reactivity. Furthermore, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) confirmed that nZVI was better dispersed when kaolin was present. XRD patterns indicated that iron oxides were formed after reaction. Fourier transforms infrared spectra (FTIR) and UV–visible demonstrated that the peak in the visible light region of DFBG was degraded and new bands were observed. Kinetics studies showed that the degradation of DFBG fitted well to the pseudo first-order model. The degradation of DFBG by K-nZVI was based on its adsorption onto kaolin and iron oxides, and subsequently reduction using nZVI was proposed. A significant outcome emerged in that 99.84% of DFBG in wastewater was removed using K-nZVI after reacting for 60 min.

2. Synthesis of kaolin supported nanoscale zero-valent iron and its degradation mechanism of Direct Fast Black G in aqueous solution

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Jin, Xiaoying; Chen, Zhengxian; Zhou, Rongbing; Chen, Zuliang

2015-01-01

Graphical abstract: UV–visible spectra of DFBG solution using K-nZVI (1:1) nanoparticles. (a) Before reaction; (b) during reaction; (c) after reaction. - Highlights: • Kaolin-supported Fe 0 nanoparticle (K-nZVI) was synthesized. • Degradation of Direct Fast Black by K-nZVI was studied. • K-nZVI was characterized by SEM, XRD, UV and FIIR. • Degradation mechanism of Direct Fast Black was proposed. - Abstract: Calcinated kaolin supported nanoscale zero-valent iron (K-nZVI) was synthesized and used for the removal of tetrad azo-group dye-Direct Fast Black G (DFBG) from aqueous solution. The results demonstrated that after reacting for 10 min with an initial concentration of DFBG 100 mg L −1 (pH 9.49), 78.60% of DFBG was removed using K-nZVI, while only 41.39% and 12.56% of DFBG were removed using nZVI and kaolin, respectively. K-nZVI with a mass ratio of nZVI nanoparticles versus kaolin at 1:1 was found to have a high degree of reactivity. Furthermore, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) confirmed that nZVI was better dispersed when kaolin was present. XRD patterns indicated that iron oxides were formed after reaction. Fourier transforms infrared spectra (FTIR) and UV–visible demonstrated that the peak in the visible light region of DFBG was degraded and new bands were observed. Kinetics studies showed that the degradation of DFBG fitted well to the pseudo first-order model. The degradation of DFBG by K-nZVI was based on its adsorption onto kaolin and iron oxides, and subsequently reduction using nZVI was proposed. A significant outcome emerged in that 99.84% of DFBG in wastewater was removed using K-nZVI after reacting for 60 min

3. Formation mechanism of gas bubble superlattice in UMo metal fuels: Phase-field modeling investigation

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Hu, Shenyang, E-mail: shenyang.hu@pnnl.gov; Burkes, Douglas E.; Lavender, Curt A.; Senor, David J.; Setyawan, Wahyu; Xu, Zhijie

2016-10-15

Nano-gas bubble superlattices are often observed in irradiated UMo nuclear fuels. However, the formation mechanism of gas bubble superlattices is not well understood. A number of physical processes may affect the gas bubble nucleation and growth; hence, the morphology of gas bubble microstructures including size and spatial distributions. In this work, a phase-field model integrating a first-passage Monte Carlo method to investigate the formation mechanism of gas bubble superlattices was developed. Six physical processes are taken into account in the model: 1) heterogeneous generation of gas atoms, vacancies, and interstitials informed from atomistic simulations; 2) one-dimensional (1-D) migration of interstitials; 3) irradiation-induced dissolution of gas atoms; 4) recombination between vacancies and interstitials; 5) elastic interaction; and 6) heterogeneous nucleation of gas bubbles. We found that the elastic interaction doesn’t cause the gas bubble alignment, and fast 1-D migration of interstitials along 〈110〉 directions in the body-centered cubic U matrix causes the gas bubble alignment along 〈110〉 directions. It implies that 1-D interstitial migration along [110] direction should be the primary mechanism of a fcc gas bubble superlattice which is observed in bcc UMo alloys. Simulations also show that fission rates, saturated gas concentration, and elastic interaction all affect the morphology of gas bubble microstructures.

4. Influence of segregations and hydrogen flakes on the mechanical properties of forged RPV steels

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Eiselt, C.C.; May, J.; Hein, H.

2013-01-01

In the frame of relevant 1970s/80s German research programs (e.g. FKS research program on component safety and others), many investigations on large forgings manufactured from Reactor Pressure Vessel (RPV) materials such as 20 MnMoNi 5 5 and 22 NiMoCr 3 7 have been performed. Lately, after ultrasonic testing hydrogen flakes in connection with segregation zones have been observed in a few RPV forgings. The earlier R and D programs contained a number of special heats, which covered a defined defect state (lower bound heats) with relevance to the recent observations of numerous UT indications in RPV forgings of two PWRs. Therefore, the results of these former research programs were now reviewed. The studies included an evaluation of the effects of macro/micro segregations as well as hydrogen flakes on the mechanical properties. As part of the mechanical technological experiments Charpy impact tests in different orientations (e.g. L-T, T-L and S-T) together with fracture mechanics and large scale tensile tests were carried out in segregated and non segregated material zones. In this context the letters L,T,S indicate the longitudinal, transversal and short transverse (thickness) direction with respect to rolling direction of the forging axis. The first letter indicates the direction of the principal stress, while the second letter stands for the crack propagation direction [1]. Furthermore the irradiation behavior of segregated material regions was analyzed and compared to non segregated material regions. Key results of these analyses indicate that in most cases upper shelf levels are lowered in segregated material parts compared to non segregated areas. In addition the segregations cause a larger scattering of impact energies. A high hydrogen content in combination with segregations has overall detrimental effects on the mechanical properties. However, there seems to be no specific segregation influence on the materials' irradiation reaction.

5. Acoustic noise alters selective attention processes as indicated by direct current (DC) brain potential changes.

Science.gov (United States)

Trimmel, Karin; Schätzer, Julia; Trimmel, Michael

2014-09-26

6. Acoustic Noise Alters Selective Attention Processes as Indicated by Direct Current (DC Brain Potential Changes

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Karin Trimmel

2014-09-01

7. Mechanisms of poliovirus inactivation by the direct and indirect effects of ionizing radiation

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Ward, R.L.

1980-01-01

This study was designed to measure the effects of ionizing radiation on poliovirus particles when given under conditions where either direct (in broth) or indirect (in water) effects were predominant. Under direct conditions, inactivation of poliovirus was found to be due primarily to RNA damage, although capsid damage could account for about one-third of the viral inactivation. RNA damage did not appear to be due to strand breakage and therefore was probably caused primarily by base damage or crosslink formation. Capsid damage under direct irradiation conditions did not result in significant alterations of either the sedimentation coefficients or the isoelectric points of the poliovirus particles or detectable modification of the sizes of the viral proteins. It did, however, cause loss of availability to bind to host cells. Under indirect conditions no more than 25% of viral inactivation appeared to be due to RNA damage. However, the sedimentation coefficients and isoelectric points of the viral particles were greatly altered, and their abilities to bind to cells were lost at about three-fourths the rate of loss of infectivity. Capsid damage in this case did result in changes in the sizes of capsid proteins. Therefore, the majority of the radiation inactivation under indirect conditions appeared to be due to protein damage

8. Quantum Mechanics at the Crossroads New Perspectives from History, Philosophy and Physics

CERN Document Server

Evans, James

2007-01-01

Quantum mechanics is a beautiful, strange and successful theory that originated in the 1920s. The theory, which Niels Bohr regarded as finished and complete, has in the last few decades rapidly developed in unexpected directions. An intense new focus on the stranger aspects of the theory, including entanglement and nonlocality, has resulted in new perceptions of the foundations of quantum mechanics, as well as surprising new exploitations of quantum phenomena. Historians and philosophers of science have also renewed their attention to quantum mechanics, opening up its human dimensions and asking searching questions about its meaning. This volume brings together new insights from different vantage points: Historians of physics, such as J. L. Heilbron; philosophers of science, such as Abner Shimony and Michel Bitbol; and quantum physicists, such as Wolfgang Ketterle and Roland Omnès, join forces to tackle essential questions in quantum mechanics and its interpretation. All the authors have written for a broad ...

9. Mechanical engineering science in SI units

CERN Document Server

Gwyther, J L; Williams, G

1970-01-01

0.1 Mechanical Engineering Science covers various fundamental concepts that are essential in the practice of mechanical engineering. The title is comprised of 19 chapters that detail various topics, including chemical and physical laws. The coverage of the book includes Newtonian laws, mechanical energy, friction, stress, and gravity. The text also discusses the chemical aspects of mechanical engineering, which include gas laws, states of matter, and fuel combustion. The last chapter tackles concerns in laboratory experiments. The book will be of great use to students of mechanical eng

10. Direct numerical methods of mathematical modeling in mechanical structural design

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

2002-01-01

Full text.Structural design and numerical methods are generally interactive; requiring optimization procedures as the structure is analyzed. This analysis leads to define some mathematical terms, as the stiffness matrix, which are resulting from the modeling and then used in numerical techniques during the dimensioning procedure. These techniques and many others involve the calculation of the generalized inverse of the stiffness matrix, called also the 'compliance matrix'. The aim of this paper is to introduce first, some different existing mathematical procedures, used to calculate the compliance matrix from the stiffness matrix, then apply direct numerical methods to solve the obtained system with the lowest computational time, and to compare the obtained results. The results show a big difference of the computational time between the different procedures

11. Leader Cells Define Directionality of Trunk, but Not Cranial, Neural Crest Cell Migration

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Jo Richardson

2016-05-01

Full Text Available Collective cell migration is fundamental for life and a hallmark of cancer. Neural crest (NC cells migrate collectively, but the mechanisms governing this process remain controversial. Previous analyses in Xenopus indicate that cranial NC (CNC cells are a homogeneous population relying on cell-cell interactions for directional migration, while chick embryo analyses suggest a heterogeneous population with leader cells instructing directionality. Our data in chick and zebrafish embryos show that CNC cells do not require leader cells for migration and all cells present similar migratory capacities. In contrast, laser ablation of trunk NC (TNC cells shows that leader cells direct movement and cell-cell contacts are required for migration. Moreover, leader and follower identities are acquired before the initiation of migration and remain fixed thereafter. Thus, two distinct mechanisms establish the directionality of CNC cells and TNC cells. This implies the existence of multiple molecular mechanisms for collective cell migration.

12. Direct plasma interaction with living tissue

Science.gov (United States)

Fridman, Gregory

For some time, plasma has been used in medicine to cauterize or cut tissue using heat and mechanical energy. In the recent decade, some researchers around the world have started to investigate how gas jets that pass through thermal plasma can be employed in medicine. This thesis presents the first investigation of biomedical uses of non-thermal plasma discharge which comes in direct contact with living tissue. It is demonstrated that the direct application of non-thermal plasma in air can cause rapid deactivation of bacteria on surfaces of tissues without causing any visible tissue damage. Medical need for such a device is discussed. Construction and operation of various types of non-thermal plasma power supplies and many types of treatment electrodes are presented as well. Application of this plasma to living organisms is shown to be safe from both the electrical perspective and from the biological perspective. Biological safety is revealed through a series of differential skin toxicity trials on human cadaver tissue, live hairless mouse skin tissue, live pig skin tissue, and finally in an open wound model on pigs. Direct non-thermal plasma in air is shown to deactivate bacteria about 100 times faster than indirect application using jets. A series of experiments reveal that this effectiveness is due to the ability of direct discharge to bring charges to tissue surfaces. It is demonstrated that neither ultraviolet (UV) radiation nor neutral active species such as hydroxyl radicals or ozone produced in plasma are responsible for the main effect on bacteria. Although much additional work remains on establishing detailed mechanism by which charges from plasma achieve this effect, the work carried out in this thesis clearly demonstrates that direct application of non-thermal plasma in air can be a very useful tool in medicine.

13. Tensor Arithmetic, Geometric and Mathematic Principles of Fluid Mechanics in Implementation of Direct Computational Experiments

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Bogdanov Alexander

2016-01-01

Full Text Available The architecture of a digital computing system determines the technical foundation of a unified mathematical language for exact arithmetic-logical description of phenomena and laws of continuum mechanics for applications in fluid mechanics and theoretical physics. The deep parallelization of the computing processes results in functional programming at a new technological level, providing traceability of the computing processes with automatic application of multiscale hybrid circuits and adaptive mathematical models for the true reproduction of the fundamental laws of physics and continuum mechanics.

14. Defense Mechanisms: A Bibliography.

Science.gov (United States)

Pedrini, D. T.; Pedrini, Bonnie C.

This bibliography includes studies of defense mechanisms, in general, and studies of multiple mechanisms. Defense mechanisms, briefly and simply defined, are the unconscious ego defendants against unpleasure, threat, or anxiety. Sigmund Freud deserves the clinical credit for studying many mechanisms and introducing them in professional literature.…

15. A comprehensive detailed kinetic mechanism for the simulation of transportation fuels

KAUST Repository

Mehl, Marco; Zhang, Kuiwen; Wagnon, Scott; Kukkadapu, Goutham; Westbrook, Charles K.; Pitz, William J.; Zhang, Yinjia; Curran, Henry J.; Al Rachidi, Mariam; Atef, Nour; Sarathy, Mani; Ahmed, Ahfaz

2017-01-01

This work presents a recently compiled comprehensive model for transportations fuels resulting from the collaboration of three research groups: LLNL, NUI Galway and KAUST. In the past 5 years new fundamental calculations led to significant improvements in the fidelity of detailed kinetic models of important surrogate components (e.g. n-heptane, iso-octane, toluene…) improving predictions of the combustion behavior of pure components and mixtures. By extending the newly adopted reaction rate rules, mechanisms for components that were not included in the previous LLNL gasoline and diesel surrogate mechanisms were developed (e.g. polyalkylated aromatics, cycloalkanes, components from bio-logical sources…). The major features of this updated and extended model are presented together with validation comparisons, examples of applications and future directions.

16. A comprehensive detailed kinetic mechanism for the simulation of transportation fuels

KAUST Repository

Mehl, Marco

2017-02-27

This work presents a recently compiled comprehensive model for transportations fuels resulting from the collaboration of three research groups: LLNL, NUI Galway and KAUST. In the past 5 years new fundamental calculations led to significant improvements in the fidelity of detailed kinetic models of important surrogate components (e.g. n-heptane, iso-octane, toluene…) improving predictions of the combustion behavior of pure components and mixtures. By extending the newly adopted reaction rate rules, mechanisms for components that were not included in the previous LLNL gasoline and diesel surrogate mechanisms were developed (e.g. polyalkylated aromatics, cycloalkanes, components from bio-logical sources…). The major features of this updated and extended model are presented together with validation comparisons, examples of applications and future directions.

17. Introduction to continuum mechanics

CERN Document Server

Lai, W Michael; Rubin, David

1996-01-01

Introduction to Continuum Mechanics is a recently updated and revised text which is perfect for either introductory courses in an undergraduate engineering curriculum or for a beginning graduate course.Continuum Mechanics studies the response of materials to different loading conditions. The concept of tensors is introduced through the idea of linear transformation in a self-contained chapter, and the interrelation of direct notation, indicial notation, and matrix operations is clearly presented. A wide range of idealized materials are considered through simple static and dynamic problems, a

18. Quantum mechanics at the crossroads. New perspectives from history, philosophy and physics

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Evans, J.; Thorndike, A.S.

2007-01-01

Quantum mechanics is a beautiful, strange and successful theory that originated in the 1920s. The theory, which Niels Bohr regarded as finished and complete, has in the last few decades rapidly developed in unexpected directions. An intense new focus on the stranger aspects of the theory, including entanglement and nonlocality, has resulted in new perceptions of the foundations of quantum mechanics, as well as surprising new exploitations of quantum phenomena. Historians and philosophers of science have also renewed their attention to quantum mechanics, opening up its human dimensions and asking searching questions about its meaning. This volume brings together new insights from different vantage points: Historians of physics, such as J. L. Heilbron; philosophers of science, such as Abner Shimony and Michel Bitbol; and quantum physicists, such as Wolfgang Ketterle and Roland Omncs, join forces to tackle essential questions in quantum mechanics and its interpretation. All the authors have written for a broad readership, and the resulting volume will appeal to everyone wishing to keep abreast of new developments in quantum mechanics, as well as its history and philosophy. (orig.)

19. CONCEPTUAL APPROACHES TO FORMING MECHANISM OF INVESTMENT SAFETY REALIZATION

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

2016-11-01

Full Text Available The purpose of the paper is theoretical justification of theoretical approaches while developing the mechanism of the state investment safety. The tasks of the system of the national economy investment safety are the following: developing investment potential, creating favourable investment climate, forming mechanisms of stable investment activity in the key branches of economy. At the same time, it should also be noted that the complex approach that would allow sufficiently justifying and practically solve the problems of defining indicators, factors of the investment policy and directions of its assurance in realization of the mechanism of investment policy is not sufficiently developed nowadays. This fact determines research topicality. The issue of assuring investment safety is of a special importance in Ukraine that has to assure market economy development, to overcome deformations in the economy structure, to renew products and production apparatus in the industry, to master new kinds of activities. Methodology. The survey is based on the generalization and development of views of the scientific-economic schools, uses approaches of the international agencies and recommendation and normative materials of Ukraine concerning realization of the state investment policy as a totality of interrelated levels and subsystems that allows establishing main functions of the investment safety system. Results of the survey shows that the mechanism of investment safety includes some kinds, forms and methods of organizing investment relations and investment activity, ways of their quantitative determination and establishing interdependence. The concept of investment policy is based on the complex approach and includes the blocks which are locally structured in such way that they allow forming adequate system of its indicators and conducting monitoring of their changes under the influence of the determined factors. The peculiarities and elements of

20. Human-directed aggression in the cat.

Science.gov (United States)

Curtis, Terry Marie

2008-09-01

Feline aggression-between cats or directed at humans-is, after inappropriate elimination and urine-marking behaviors, the second most common reason cats are seen by behavioral specialists. For diagnosis and treatment it is important to determine the motivation for the aggression. The more common causes for human-directed aggression in cats include play, fear, petting intolerance, and redirected aggression. Other causes include pain and maternal behavior. Sexually motivated and status related aggression are much more rare. Treatment includes a combination of behavioral modification, environmental modification, and, in some cases, medication.

1. Modeling of microstructure evolution in direct metal laser sintering: A phase field approach

Science.gov (United States)

Nandy, Jyotirmoy; Sarangi, Hrushikesh; Sahoo, Seshadev

2017-02-01

Direct Metal Laser Sintering (DMLS) is a new technology in the field of additive manufacturing, which builds metal parts in a layer by layer fashion directly from the powder bed. The process occurs within a very short time period with rapid solidification rate. Slight variations in the process parameters may cause enormous change in the final build parts. The physical and mechanical properties of the final build parts are dependent on the solidification rate which directly affects the microstructure of the material. Thus, the evolving of microstructure plays a vital role in the process parameters optimization. Nowadays, the increase in computational power allows for direct simulations of microstructures during materials processing for specific manufacturing conditions. In this study, modeling of microstructure evolution of Al-Si-10Mg powder in DMLS process was carried out by using a phase field approach. A MATLAB code was developed to solve the set of phase field equations, where simulation parameters include temperature gradient, laser scan speed and laser power. The effects of temperature gradient on microstructure evolution were studied and found that with increase in temperature gradient, the dendritic tip grows at a faster rate.

2. HEAVY AND THERMAL OIL RECOVERY PRODUCTION MECHANISMS

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Anthony R. Kovscek; Louis M. Castanier

2002-09-30

The Stanford University Petroleum Research Institute (SUPRI-A) conducts a broad spectrum of research intended to help improve the recovery efficiency from difficult to produce reservoirs including heavy oil and fractured low permeability systems. Our scope of work is relevant across near-, mid-, and long-term time frames. The primary functions of the group are to conduct direction-setting research, transfer research results to industry, and educate and train students for careers in industry. Presently, research in SUPRI-A is divided into 5 main project areas. These projects and their goals include: (1) Multiphase flow and rock properties--to develop better understanding of the physics of displacement in porous media through experiment and theory. This category includes work on imbibition, flow in fractured media, and the effect of temperature on relative permeability and capillary pressure. (2) Hot fluid injection--to improve the application of nonconventional wells for enhanced oil recovery and elucidate the mechanisms of steamdrive in low permeability, fractured porous media. (3) Mechanisms of primary heavy oil recovery--to develop a mechanistic understanding of so-called ''foamy oil'' and its associated physical chemistry. (4) In-situ combustion--to evaluate the effect of different reservoir parameters on the insitu combustion process. (5) Reservoir definition--to develop and improve techniques for evaluating formation properties from production information. What follows is a report on activities for the past year. Significant progress was made in all areas.

3. Direct calculation of ice homogeneous nucleation rate for a molecular model of water

Science.gov (United States)

Haji-Akbari, Amir; Debenedetti, Pablo G.

2015-01-01

Ice formation is ubiquitous in nature, with important consequences in a variety of environments, including biological cells, soil, aircraft, transportation infrastructure, and atmospheric clouds. However, its intrinsic kinetics and microscopic mechanism are difficult to discern with current experiments. Molecular simulations of ice nucleation are also challenging, and direct rate calculations have only been performed for coarse-grained models of water. For molecular models, only indirect estimates have been obtained, e.g., by assuming the validity of classical nucleation theory. We use a path sampling approach to perform, to our knowledge, the first direct rate calculation of homogeneous nucleation of ice in a molecular model of water. We use TIP4P/Ice, the most accurate among existing molecular models for studying ice polymorphs. By using a novel topological approach to distinguish different polymorphs, we are able to identify a freezing mechanism that involves a competition between cubic and hexagonal ice in the early stages of nucleation. In this competition, the cubic polymorph takes over because the addition of new topological structural motifs consistent with cubic ice leads to the formation of more compact crystallites. This is not true for topological hexagonal motifs, which give rise to elongated crystallites that are not able to grow. This leads to transition states that are rich in cubic ice, and not the thermodynamically stable hexagonal polymorph. This mechanism provides a molecular explanation for the earlier experimental and computational observations of the preference for cubic ice in the literature. PMID:26240318

4. Physical activity and self-esteem: testing direct and indirect relationships associated with psychological and physical mechanisms

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Zamani Sani SH

2016-10-01

Full Text Available Seyed Hojjat Zamani Sani,1 Zahra Fathirezaie,1 Serge Brand,2 Uwe Pühse,3 Edith Holsboer-Trachsler,2 Markus Gerber,3 Siavash Talepasand4 1Department of Motor Behavior, Faculty of Physical Education and Sport Science, University of Tabriz, Tabriz, Iran; 2Psychiatric Clinics of the University of Basel, Center for Affective, Stress and Sleep Disorders (ZASS, 3Department of Sport, Exercise and Health, Sport Science Section, University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland; 4Department of Psychology and Educational Sciences, Semnan University, Semnan, Iran Abstract: In the present study, we investigated the relationship between physical activity (PA and self-esteem (SE, while introducing body mass index (BMI, perceived physical fitness (PPF, and body image (BI in adults (N =264, M =38.10 years. The findings indicated that PA was directly and indirectly associated with SE. BMI predicted SE neither directly nor indirectly, but was directly associated with PPF and both directly and indirectly with BI. Furthermore, PPF was directly related to BI and SE, and a direct association was found between BI and SE. The pattern of results suggests that among a sample of adults, PA is directly and indirectly associated with SE, PPF, and BI, but not with BMI. PA, PPF, and BI appear to play an important role in SE. Accordingly, regular PA should be promoted, in particular, among adults reporting lower SE. Keywords: physical activity, self-esteem, physical fitness, body image, adults

5. Direct observation of lubricant additives using tomography techniques

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Chen, Yunyun [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Texas A& M University, College Station, Texas 77843 (United States); Sanchez, Carlos [Mechanical Engineering, Texas A& M University, College Station, Texas 77843 (United States); Parkinson, Dilworth Y. [Advanced Light Source, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Liang, Hong, E-mail: hliang@tamu.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Texas A& M University, College Station, Texas 77843 (United States); Mechanical Engineering, Texas A& M University, College Station, Texas 77843 (United States)

2016-07-25

Lubricants play important roles in daily activities such as driving, walking, and cooking. The current understanding of mechanisms of lubrication, particularly in mechanical systems, has been limited by the lack of capability in direct observation. Here, we report an in situ approach to directly observe the motion of additive particles in grease under the influence of shear. Using the K-edge tomography technique, it is possible to detect particular additives in a grease and observe their distribution through 3D visualization. A commercial grease as a reference was studied with and without an inorganic additive of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} microparticles. The results showed that it was possible to identify these particles and track their movement. Under a shear stress, Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} particles were found to adhere to the edge of calcium complex thickeners commonly used in grease. Due to sliding, the grease formed a film with increased density. This approach enables in-line monitoring of a lubricant and future investigation in mechanisms of lubrication.

6. A skeletal mechanism for biodiesel blend surrogates combustion

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An, H.; Yang, W.M.; Maghbouli, A.; Li, J.; Chua, K.J.

2014-01-01

Highlights: • A skeletal biodiesel reaction mechanism with 112 species was constructed. • The developed mechanism contains the CO, NO x and soot formation kinetics. • It was well validated against detailed reaction mechanism and experimental results. • The mechanism is suitable to simulate biodiesel, diesel and their blend fuels. - Abstract: A tri-component skeletal reaction mechanism consisting of methyl decanoate, methyl-9-decenoate, and n-heptane was developed for biodiesel combustion in diesel engine. It comprises 112 species participating in 498 reactions with the CO, NO x and soot formation mechanisms embedded. In this study, a detailed tri-component biodiesel mechanism was used as the start of mechanism reduction and the reduced mechanism was combined with a previously developed skeletal reaction mechanism for n-heptane to integrate the soot formation kinetics. A combined mechanism reduction strategy including the directed relation graph with error propagation and sensitivity analysis (DRGEPSA), peak concentration analysis, isomer lumping, unimportant reactions elimination and reaction rate adjustment methods was employed. The reduction process for biodiesel was performed over a range of initial conditions covering the pressures from 1 to 100 atm, equivalence ratios from 0.5 to 2.0 and temperatures from 700 to 1800 K, whereas for n-heptane, ignition delay predictions were compared against 17 shock tube experimental conditions. Extensive validations were performed for the developed skeletal reaction mechanism with 0-D ignition delay testing and 3-D engine simulations. The results indicated that the developed mechanism was able to accurately predict the ignition delay timings of n-heptane and biodies