WorldWideScience

Sample records for mechanism underlying rapid

  1. Mechanisms underlying rapid aldosterone effects in the kidney.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Thomas, Warren

    2012-02-01

    The steroid hormone aldosterone is a key regulator of electrolyte transport in the kidney and contributes to both homeostatic whole-body electrolyte balance and the development of renal and cardiovascular pathologies. Aldosterone exerts its action principally through the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR), which acts as a ligand-dependent transcription factor in target tissues. Aldosterone also stimulates the activation of protein kinases and secondary messenger signaling cascades that act independently on specific molecular targets in the cell membrane and also modulate the transcriptional action of aldosterone through MR. This review describes current knowledge regarding the mechanisms and targets of rapid aldosterone action in the nephron and how aldosterone integrates these responses into the regulation of renal physiology.

  2. Mechanisms underlying rapid aldosterone effects in the kidney.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Thomas, Warren

    2011-03-17

    The steroid hormone aldosterone is a key regulator of electrolyte transport in the kidney and contributes to both homeostatic whole-body electrolyte balance and the development of renal and cardiovascular pathologies. Aldosterone exerts its action principally through the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR), which acts as a ligand-dependent transcription factor in target tissues. Aldosterone also stimulates the activation of protein kinases and secondary messenger signaling cascades that act independently on specific molecular targets in the cell membrane and also modulate the transcriptional action of aldosterone through MR. This review describes current knowledge regarding the mechanisms and targets of rapid aldosterone action in the nephron and how aldosterone integrates these responses into the regulation of renal physiology.

  3. Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Al-5Mg-0.8Mn Alloys with Various Contents of Fe and Si Cast under Near-Rapid Cooling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulin Liu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Al-5Mg-0.8Mn alloys (AA5083 with various iron and silicon contents were cast under near-rapid cooling and rolled into sheets. The aim was to study the feasibility of minimizing the deteriorating level of the harmful Fe-rich phases on the mechanical properties through refining the intermetallics by significantly increasing the casting rate. The results showed that the size and density of the intermetallic particles that remained in the hot bands and the cold rolled sheets increased as the contents of iron and silicon in the alloys were increased. However, the increment of the particle sizes was limited due to the significant refinement of the intermetallics formed during casting under near-rapid cooling. The mechanical properties of the alloys reduced as the contents of iron and silicon in the alloys increased. However, the decrement of tensile strengths and ductility was quite small. Therefore, higher contents of iron and silicon could be used in the Al-5Mg-0.8Mn alloy (AA5083 alloy when the material is cast under near-rapid cooling, such as in the continuous strip casting process.

  4. Mechanical Testing of PMCs under Simulated Rapid Heat-Up Propulsion Environments. II; In-Plane Compressive Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokes, Eric H.; Shin, E. Eugene; Sutter, James K.

    2003-01-01

    Carbon fiber thermoset polymer matrix composites (PMC) with high temperature polyimide based in-situ polymerized monomer reactant (PMR) resin has been used for some time in applications which can see temperatures up to 550 F. Currently, graphite fiber PMR based composites are used in several aircraft engine components including the outer bypass duct for the GE F-404, exit flaps for the P&W F-100-229, and the core cowl for the GE/Snecma CF6-80A3. Newer formulations, including PMR-II-50 are being investigated as potential weight reduction replacements of various metallic components in next generation high performance propulsion rocket engines that can see temperatures which exceed 550 F. Extensive FEM thermal modeling indicates that these components are exposed to rapid heat-up rates (up to -200 F/sec) and to a maximum temperature of around 600 F. Even though the predicted maximum part temperatures were within the capability of PW-II-50, the rapid heat-up causes significant through-thickness thermal gradients in the composite part and even more unstable states when combined with moisture. Designing composite parts for such extreme service environments will require accurate measurement of intrinsic and transient mechanical properties and the hygrothermal performance of these materials under more realistic use conditions. The mechanical properties of polymers degrade when exposed to elevated temperatures even in the absence of gaseous oxygen. Accurate mechanical characterization of the material is necessary in order to reduce system weight while providing sufficient factors of safety. Historically, the testing of PMCs at elevated temperatures has been plagued by the antagonism between two factors. First, moisture has been shown to profoundly affect the mechanical response of these materials at temperatures above their glass transition temperature while concurrently lowering the material's Tg. Moisture phenomena is due to one or a combination of three effects, i

  5. Surface Damage Mechanism of Monocrystalline Si Under Mechanical Loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Qingliang; Zhang, Quanli; To, Suet; Guo, Bing

    2017-03-01

    Single-point diamond scratching and nanoindentation on monocrystalline silicon wafer were performed to investigate the surface damage mechanism of Si under the contact loading. The results showed that three typical stages of material removal appeared during dynamic scratching, and a chemical reaction of Si with the diamond indenter and oxygen occurred under the high temperature. In addition, the Raman spectra of the various points in the scratching groove indicated that the Si-I to β-Sn structure (Si-II) and the following β-Sn structure (Si-II) to amorphous Si transformation appeared under the rapid loading/unloading condition of the diamond grit, and the volume change induced by the phase transformation resulted in a critical depth (ductile-brittle transition) of cut (˜60 nm ± 15 nm) much lower than the theoretical calculated results (˜387 nm). Moreover, it also led to abnormal load-displacement curves in the nanoindentation tests, resulting in the appearance of elbow and pop-out effects (˜270 nm at 20 s, 50 mN), which were highly dependent on the loading/unloading conditions. In summary, phase transformation of Si promoted surface deformation and fracture under both static and dynamic mechanical loading.

  6. Unraveling the mechanisms underlying the rapid vascular effects of steroids: sorting out the receptors and the pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Ross D; Gros, Robert

    2011-07-01

    Aldosterone, oestrogens and other vasoactive steroids are important physiological and pathophysiological regulators of cardiovascular and metabolic function. The traditional view of the cardiovascular actions of these vasoactive steroids has focused on their roles as regulators of transcription via activation of their 'classical' receptors [mineralocorticoid receptors (MR) and oestrogen receptors (ER)]. However, based on a series of observations going back more than half a century, scientists have speculated that a range of steroids, including oestrogen and aldosterone, might have effects on regulation of smooth muscle contractility, cell growth and differentiation that are too rapid to be accounted for by transcriptional regulation. Recent studies performed in our laboratories (and those of others) have begun to elucidate the mechanism of rapid steroid-mediated cardiometabolic regulation. GPR30, now designated as GPER-1 (http://www.iuphar-db.org/DATABASE/FamilyIntroductionForward?familyId=22), a newly characterized 'orphan receptor', has been implicated in mediating the rapid effects of estradiol and most recently those of aldosterone. Studies to date have taught us that to understand the rapid vascular mechanisms of steroids, one must (i) know which vascular 'compartment' the steroid is acting; (ii) know which receptor the steroid hormone is activating; and (iii) not assume the receptor specificity of a steroid receptor ligand based solely on its selectivity for its traditional 'transcriptional' steroid receptor. Our newfound appreciation of the rapid effects of steroids such as aldosterone and oestrogens opens up a new vista for advancing our understanding of the biology and pathobiology of vascular regulation. © 2011 The Authors. British Journal of Pharmacology © 2011 The British Pharmacological Society.

  7. Transient burnout under rapid flow reduction condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwamura, Takamichi

    1987-01-01

    Burnout characteristics were experimentally studied using uniformly heated tube and annular test sections under rapid flow reduction conditions. Observations indicated that the onset of burnout under a flow reduction transient is caused by the dryout of a liquid film on the heated surface. The decrease in burnout mass velocity at the channel inlet with increasing flow reduction rate is attributed to the fact that the vapor flow rate continues to increase and sustain the liquid film flow after the inlet flow rate reaches the steady-state burnout flow rate. This is because the movement of the boiling boundary cannot keep up with the rapid reduction of inlet flow rate. A burnout model for the local condition could be applied to the burnout phenomena with the flow reduction under pressures of 0.5 ∼ 3.9 MPa and flow reduction rates of 0.6 ∼ 35 %/s. Based on this model, a method to predict the burnout time under a flow reduction condition was presented. The calculated burnout times agreed well with experimental results obtained by some investigators. (author)

  8. Rapid effects of estrogens on short-term memory: Possible mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paletta, Pietro; Sheppard, Paul A S; Matta, Richard; Ervin, Kelsy S J; Choleris, Elena

    2018-06-01

    Estrogens affect learning and memory through rapid and delayed mechanisms. Here we review studies on rapid effects on short-term memory. Estradiol rapidly improves social and object recognition memory, spatial memory, and social learning when administered systemically. The dorsal hippocampus mediates estrogen rapid facilitation of object, social and spatial short-term memory. The medial amygdala mediates rapid facilitation of social recognition. The three estrogen receptors, α (ERα), β (ERβ) and the G-protein coupled estrogen receptor (GPER) appear to play different roles depending on the task and brain region. Both ERα and GPER agonists rapidly facilitate short-term social and object recognition and spatial memory when administered systemically or into the dorsal hippocampus and facilitate social recognition in the medial amygdala. Conversely, only GPER can facilitate social learning after systemic treatment and an ERβ agonist only rapidly improved short-term spatial memory when given systemically or into the hippocampus, but also facilitates social recognition in the medial amygdala. Investigations into the mechanisms behind estrogens' rapid effects on short term memory showed an involvement of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) kinase pathways. Recent evidence also showed that estrogens interact with the neuropeptide oxytocin in rapidly facilitating social recognition. Estrogens can increase the production and/or release of oxytocin and other neurotransmitters, such as dopamine and acetylcholine. Therefore, it is possible that estrogens' rapid effects on short-term memory may occur through the regulation of various neurotransmitters, although more research is need on these interactions as well as the mechanisms of estrogens' actions on short-term memory. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Mechanisms Underlying Early Rapid Increases in Creatinine in Paraquat Poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Fahim; Endre, Zoltan; Jayamanne, Shaluka; Pianta, Timothy; Peake, Philip; Palangasinghe, Chathura; Chathuranga, Umesh; Jayasekera, Kithsiri; Wunnapuk, Klintean; Shihana, Fathima; Shahmy, Seyed; Buckley, Nicholas

    2015-01-01

    Background Acute kidney injury (AKI) is common after severe paraquat poisoning and usually heralds a fatal outcome. The rapid large increases in serum creatinine (Cr) exceed that which can be explained by creatinine kinetics based on loss of glomerular filtration rate (GFR). Methods and Findings This prospective multi-centre study compared the kinetics of two surrogate markers of GFR, serum creatinine and serum cystatin C (CysC), following paraquat poisoning to understand and assess renal functional loss after paraquat poisoning. Sixty-six acute paraquat poisoning patients admitted to medical units of five hospitals were included. Relative changes in creatinine and CysC were monitored in serial blood and urine samples, and influences of non-renal factors were also studied. Results Forty-eight of 66 patients developed AKI (AKIN criteria), with 37 (56%) developing moderate to severe AKI (AKIN stage 2 or 3). The 37 patients showed rapid increases in creatinine of >100% within 24 hours, >200% within 48 hours and >300% by 72 hours and 17 of the 37 died. CysC concentration increased by 50% at 24 hours in the same 37 patients and then remained constant. The creatinine/CysC ratio increased 8 fold over 72 hours. There was a modest fall in urinary creatinine and serum/urine creatinine ratios and a moderate increase in urinary paraquat during first three days. Conclusion Loss of renal function contributes modestly to the large increases in creatinine following paraquat poisoning. The rapid rise in serum creatinine most probably represents increased production of creatine and creatinine to meet the energy demand following severe oxidative stress. Minor contributions include increased cyclisation of creatine to creatinine because of acidosis and competitive or non-competitive inhibition of creatinine secretion. Creatinine is not a good marker of renal functional loss after paraquat poisoning and renal injury should be evaluated using more specific biomarkers of renal injury

  10. Molecular mechanisms underlying the emergence of bacterial pathogens: an ecological perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartoli, Claudia; Roux, Fabrice; Lamichhane, Jay Ram

    2016-02-01

    The rapid emergence of new bacterial diseases negatively affects both human health and agricultural productivity. Although the molecular mechanisms underlying these disease emergences are shared between human- and plant-pathogenic bacteria, not much effort has been made to date to understand disease emergences caused by plant-pathogenic bacteria. In particular, there is a paucity of information in the literature on the role of environmental habitats in which plant-pathogenic bacteria evolve and on the stress factors to which these microbes are unceasingly exposed. In this microreview, we focus on three molecular mechanisms underlying pathogenicity in bacteria, namely mutations, genomic rearrangements and the acquisition of new DNA sequences through horizontal gene transfer (HGT). We briefly discuss the role of these mechanisms in bacterial disease emergence and elucidate how the environment can influence the occurrence and regulation of these molecular mechanisms by directly impacting disease emergence. The understanding of such molecular evolutionary mechanisms and their environmental drivers will represent an important step towards predicting bacterial disease emergence and developing sustainable management strategies for crops. © 2015 BSPP AND JOHN WILEY & SONS LTD.

  11. Degeneration of rapid eye movement sleep circuitry underlies rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenna, Dillon; Peever, John

    2017-05-01

    During healthy rapid eye movement sleep, skeletal muscles are actively forced into a state of motor paralysis. However, in rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder-a relatively common neurological disorder-this natural process is lost. A lack of motor paralysis (atonia) in rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder allows individuals to actively move, which at times can be excessive and violent. At first glance this may sound harmless, but it is not because rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder patients frequently injure themselves or the person they sleep with. It is hypothesized that the degeneration or dysfunction of the brain stem circuits that control rapid eye movement sleep paralysis is an underlying cause of rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder. The link between brain stem degeneration and rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder stems from the fact that rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder precedes, in the majority (∼80%) of cases, the development of synucleinopathies such as Parkinson's disease, dementia with Lewy bodies, and multiple system atrophy, which are known to initially cause degeneration in the caudal brain stem structures where rapid eye movement sleep circuits are located. Furthermore, basic science and clinical evidence demonstrate that lesions within the rapid eye movement sleep circuits can induce rapid eye movement sleep-specific motor deficits that are virtually identical to those observed in rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder. This review examines the evidence that rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder is caused by synucleinopathic neurodegeneration of the core brain stem circuits that control healthy rapid eye movement sleep and concludes that rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder is not a separate clinical entity from synucleinopathies but, rather, it is the earliest symptom of these disorders. © 2017 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society. © 2017 International Parkinson and

  12. A rapid mechanism to remobilize and homogenize highly crystalline magma bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgisser, Alain; Bergantz, George W

    2011-03-10

    The largest products of magmatic activity on Earth, the great bodies of granite and their corresponding large eruptions, have a dual nature: homogeneity at the large scale and spatial and temporal heterogeneity at the small scale. This duality calls for a mechanism that selectively removes the large-scale heterogeneities associated with the incremental assembly of these magmatic systems and yet occurs rapidly despite crystal-rich, viscous conditions seemingly resistant to mixing. Here we show that a simple dynamic template can unify a wide range of apparently contradictory observations from both large plutonic bodies and volcanic systems by a mechanism of rapid remobilization (unzipping) of highly viscous crystal-rich mushes. We demonstrate that this remobilization can lead to rapid overturn and produce the observed juxtaposition of magmatic materials with very disparate ages and complex chemical zoning. What distinguishes our model is the recognition that the process has two stages. Initially, a stiff mushy magma is reheated from below, producing a reduction in crystallinity that leads to the growth of a subjacent buoyant mobile layer. When the thickening mobile layer becomes sufficiently buoyant, it penetrates the overlying viscous mushy magma. This second stage rapidly exports homogenized material from the lower mobile layer to the top of the system, and leads to partial overturn within the viscous mush itself as an additional mechanism of mixing. Model outputs illustrate that unzipping can rapidly produce large amounts of mobile magma available for eruption. The agreement between calculated and observed unzipping rates for historical eruptions at Pinatubo and at Montserrat demonstrates the general applicability of the model. This mechanism furthers our understanding of both the formation of periodically homogenized plutons (crust building) and of ignimbrites by large eruptions.

  13. Nanoscale Structural and Mechanical Analysis of Bacillus anthracis Spores Inactivated with Rapid Dry Heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felker, Daniel L.; Burggraf, Larry W.

    2014-01-01

    Effective killing of Bacillus anthracis spores is of paramount importance to antibioterrorism, food safety, environmental protection, and the medical device industry. Thus, a deeper understanding of the mechanisms of spore resistance and inactivation is highly desired for developing new strategies or improving the known methods for spore destruction. Previous studies have shown that spore inactivation mechanisms differ considerably depending upon the killing agents, such as heat (wet heat, dry heat), UV, ionizing radiation, and chemicals. It is believed that wet heat kills spores by inactivating critical enzymes, while dry heat kills spores by damaging their DNA. Many studies have focused on the biochemical aspects of spore inactivation by dry heat; few have investigated structural damages and changes in spore mechanical properties. In this study, we have inactivated Bacillus anthracis spores with rapid dry heating and performed nanoscale topographical and mechanical analysis of inactivated spores using atomic force microscopy (AFM). Our results revealed significant changes in spore morphology and nanomechanical properties after heat inactivation. In addition, we also found that these changes were different under different heating conditions that produced similar inactivation probabilities (high temperature for short exposure time versus low temperature for long exposure time). We attributed the differences to the differential thermal and mechanical stresses in the spore. The buildup of internal thermal and mechanical stresses may become prominent only in ultrafast, high-temperature heat inactivation when the experimental timescale is too short for heat-generated vapor to efficiently escape from the spore. Our results thus provide direct, visual evidences of the importance of thermal stresses and heat and mass transfer to spore inactivation by very rapid dry heating. PMID:24375142

  14. Damage mechanisms in PBT-GF30 under thermo-mechanical cyclic loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaaf, A.; De Monte, M.; Hoffmann, C.; Vormwald, M.; Quaresimin, M.

    2014-01-01

    The scope of this paper is the investigation of damage mechanisms at microscopic scale on a short glass fiber reinforced polybutylene terephthalate (PBT-GF30) under thermo-mechanical cyclic loading. In addition the principal mechanisms are verified through micro mechanical FE models. In order to investigate the fatigue behavior of the material both isothermal strain controlled fatigue (ISCF) tests at three different temperatures and thermo-mechanical fatigue (TMF) tests were conducted on plain and notched specimens, manufactured by injection molding. The goal of the work is to determine the damage mechanisms occurring under TMF conditions and to compare them with the mechanisms occurring under ISCF. For this reason fracture surfaces of TMF and ISCF samples loaded at different temperature levels were analyzed using scanning electron microscopy. Furthermore, specimens that failed under TMF were examined on microsections revealing insight into both crack initiation and crack propagation. The findings of this investigation give valuable information about the main damage mechanisms of PBT-GF30 under TMF loading and serve as basis for the development of a TMF life estimation methodology

  15. Thermal and mechanical effect during rapid heating of astroloy for improving structural integrity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popoolaa, A.P.I.; Oluwasegun, K.M.; Olorunniwo, O.E.; Atanda, P.O.; Aigbodion, V.S.

    2016-01-01

    The behaviour of γ′ phase to thermal and mechanical effects during rapid heating of Astroloy(Turbine Disc alloy) a Powder metallurgy (PM) nickel base superalloy has been investigated. The thermo-mechanical affected zone (TMAZ) and heat affected zone (HAZ) microstructure of an inertia friction welded Astroloy were simulated using a Gleeble thermo-mechanical simulation system. Detailed microstructural examination of the simulated TMAZ and HAZ and those present in actual inertial friction welded specimens showed that γ′ particles persisted during rapid heating up to a temperature where the formation of liquid is thermodynamically favoured, and subsequently re-solidified eutectically. The result obtained showed that forging during the thermo-mechanical simulation significantly enhanced resistance to weld liquation cracking of the alloy. This is attributable to strain-induced rapid isothermal dissolution of the constitutional liquation products within 150 μm from the centre of the forged sample. This was not observed in purely thermally simulated samples. The microstructure within the TMAZ of the as-welded alloy is similar to the microstructure in the forged Gleeble specimens. - Highlights: • The behaviour of γ′ phase to thermal and mechanical effects during rapid heating of Astrology • The thermo-mechanical affected zone (TMAZ) and heat affected zone (HAZ). • significantly enhanced resistance to weld liquation cracking of the alloy. • This was not observed in purely thermally simulated samples. • The microstructure within the TMAZ of the as-welded alloy is similar to the microstructure in the forged Gleeble specimens.

  16. Thermal and mechanical effect during rapid heating of astroloy for improving structural integrity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Popoolaa, A.P.I., E-mail: popoolaapi@tut.ac.za [Department of Chemical, Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Tshwane University of Technology, Pretoria (South Africa); Oluwasegun, K.M. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Obafemi Awolowo University (Nigeria); Olorunniwo, O.E., E-mail: segun_nniwo@yahoo.com [Department of Chemical, Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Tshwane University of Technology, Pretoria (South Africa); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Obafemi Awolowo University (Nigeria); Atanda, P.O. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Obafemi Awolowo University (Nigeria); Aigbodion, V.S. [Department of Chemical, Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Tshwane University of Technology, Pretoria (South Africa); Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, University of Nigeria, Nsukka (Nigeria)

    2016-05-05

    The behaviour of γ′ phase to thermal and mechanical effects during rapid heating of Astroloy(Turbine Disc alloy) a Powder metallurgy (PM) nickel base superalloy has been investigated. The thermo-mechanical affected zone (TMAZ) and heat affected zone (HAZ) microstructure of an inertia friction welded Astroloy were simulated using a Gleeble thermo-mechanical simulation system. Detailed microstructural examination of the simulated TMAZ and HAZ and those present in actual inertial friction welded specimens showed that γ′ particles persisted during rapid heating up to a temperature where the formation of liquid is thermodynamically favoured, and subsequently re-solidified eutectically. The result obtained showed that forging during the thermo-mechanical simulation significantly enhanced resistance to weld liquation cracking of the alloy. This is attributable to strain-induced rapid isothermal dissolution of the constitutional liquation products within 150 μm from the centre of the forged sample. This was not observed in purely thermally simulated samples. The microstructure within the TMAZ of the as-welded alloy is similar to the microstructure in the forged Gleeble specimens. - Highlights: • The behaviour of γ′ phase to thermal and mechanical effects during rapid heating of Astrology • The thermo-mechanical affected zone (TMAZ) and heat affected zone (HAZ). • significantly enhanced resistance to weld liquation cracking of the alloy. • This was not observed in purely thermally simulated samples. • The microstructure within the TMAZ of the as-welded alloy is similar to the microstructure in the forged Gleeble specimens.

  17. Mechanisms underlying UV-induced immune suppression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ullrich, Stephen E.

    2005-01-01

    Skin cancer is the most prevalent form of human neoplasia. Estimates suggest that in excess of one million new cases of skin cancer will be diagnosed this year alone in the United States (www.cancer.org/statistics). Fortunately, because of their highly visible location, skin cancers are more rapidly diagnosed and more easily treated than other types of cancer. Be that as it may, approximately 10,000 Americans a year die from skin cancer. The cost of treating non-melanoma skin cancer is estimated to be in excess of US$ 650 million a year [J.G. Chen, A.B. Fleischer, E.D. Smith, C. Kancler, N.D. Goldman, P.M. Williford, S.R. Feldman, Cost of non-melanoma skin cancer treatment in the United States, Dermatol. Surg. 27 (2001) 1035-1038], and when melanoma is included, the estimated cost of treating skin cancer in the United States is estimated to rise to US$ 2.9 billion annually (www.cancer.org/statistics). Because the morbidity and mortality associated with skin cancer is a major public health problem, it is important to understand the mechanisms underlying skin cancer development. The primary cause of skin cancer is the ultraviolet (UV) radiation found in sunlight. In addition to its carcinogenic potential, UV radiation is also immune suppressive. In fact, data from studies with both experimental animals and biopsy proven skin cancer patients suggest that there is an association between the immune suppressive effects of UV radiation and its carcinogenic potential. The focus of this manuscript will be to review the mechanisms underlying the induction of immune suppression following UV exposure. Particular attention will be directed to the role of soluble mediators in activating immune suppression

  18. Rapid mechanisms of DBS in OCD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Koning, P.P.

    2016-01-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) for therapy-refractory obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) patients is capable of improving psychiatric symptoms within seconds to minutes following stimulation initiation. This extraordinary response enticed my interest in exploring the underlying mechanism of DBS for

  19. Mechanism of the rapid dissolution of Pu02 under oxidizing conditions and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madic, C.; Lecomte, M.; Bourges, J.; Koehly, G.

    1991-01-01

    Until the recent years, plutonium dioxide was known to be among the metallic oxides the most difficult to dissolve. From thermodynamic calculations it can be predicted that PuO 2 will dissolve under oxidizing conditions. This can be achieved using Ag(II) species possibly regenerated by electrochemical means. The mechanism of such a process has been elucidated using carbon paste electrochemistry and 18 O labelling. These studies demonstrate that the chemical reaction limiting the overall proces is located on the surface of the solid PuO 2 , and that the first step consists in the oxidation of the plutonium into Pu(V) species. Applications of the dissolution process of PuO 2 by electrogenerated Ag(II) were growing in the recent years in FRANCE. These applications developed often in collaboration with SGN and COGEMA, concern the treatment of: out of specifications PuO 2 , incineration ashes, wastes produced during MOX fuel fabrication, and during the dismantling of old nuclear facilities. A general overview of these different applications is given

  20. Fluid Mixing in the Eye Under Rapid Eye Movement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jinglin; Gharib, Morteza

    2017-11-01

    Drug injection is an important technique in certain treatments of eye diseases. The efficacy of chemical mixing plays an important role in determining pharmacokinetics of injected drugs. In this study, we build a device to study the chemical mixing behavior in a spherical structure. The mixing process is visualized and analyzed qualitatively. We hope to understand the chemical convection and diffusion behaviors in correlation with controlled rapid mechanical movements. The results will have potential applications in treatment of eye diseases. Resnick Institute at Caltech.

  1. Autophagy as a Possible Underlying Mechanism of Nanomaterial Toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Cohignac

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The rapid development of nanotechnologies is raising safety concerns because of the potential effects of engineered nanomaterials on human health, particularly at the respiratory level. Since the last decades, many in vivo studies have been interested in the pulmonary effects of different classes of nanomaterials. It has been shown that some of them can induce toxic effects, essentially depending on their physico-chemical characteristics, but other studies did not identify such effects. Inflammation and oxidative stress are currently the two main mechanisms described to explain the observed toxicity. However, the exact underlying mechanism(s still remain(s unknown and autophagy could represent an interesting candidate. Autophagy is a physiological process in which cytoplasmic components are digested via a lysosomal pathway. It has been shown that autophagy is involved in the pathogenesis and the progression of human diseases, and is able to modulate the oxidative stress and pro-inflammatory responses. A growing amount of literature suggests that a link between nanomaterial toxicity and autophagy impairment could exist. In this review, we will first summarize what is known about the respiratory effects of nanomaterials and we will then discuss the possible involvement of autophagy in this toxicity. This review should help understand why autophagy impairment could be taken as a promising candidate to fully understand nanomaterials toxicity.

  2. Central sensitization as the mechanism underlying pain in joint hypermobility syndrome/Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, hypermobility type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Stefano, G; Celletti, C; Baron, R; Castori, M; Di Franco, M; La Cesa, S; Leone, C; Pepe, A; Cruccu, G; Truini, A; Camerota, F

    2016-09-01

    Patients with joint hypermobility syndrome/Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, hypermobility type (JHS/EDS-HT) commonly suffer from pain. How this hereditary connective tissue disorder causes pain remains unclear although previous studies suggested it shares similar mechanisms with neuropathic pain and fibromyalgia. In this prospective study seeking information on the mechanisms underlying pain in patients with JHS/EDS-HT, we enrolled 27 consecutive patients with this connective tissue disorder. Patients underwent a detailed clinical examination, including the neuropathic pain questionnaire DN4 and the fibromyalgia rapid screening tool. As quantitative sensory testing methods, we included thermal-pain perceptive thresholds and the wind-up ratio and recorded a standard nerve conduction study to assess non-nociceptive fibres and laser-evoked potentials, assessing nociceptive fibres. Clinical examination and diagnostic tests disclosed no somatosensory nervous system damage. Conversely, most patients suffered from widespread pain, the fibromyalgia rapid screening tool elicited positive findings, and quantitative sensory testing showed lowered cold and heat pain thresholds and an increased wind-up ratio. While the lack of somatosensory nervous system damage is incompatible with neuropathic pain as the mechanism underlying pain in JHS/EDS-HT, the lowered cold and heat pain thresholds and increased wind-up ratio imply that pain in JHS/EDS-HT might arise through central sensitization. Hence, this connective tissue disorder and fibromyalgia share similar pain mechanisms. WHAT DOES THIS STUDY ADD?: In patients with JHS/EDS-HT, the persistent nociceptive input due to joint abnormalities probably triggers central sensitization in the dorsal horn neurons and causes widespread pain. © 2016 European Pain Federation - EFIC®

  3. On Rural Financial and Accounting Work under the Background of Rapid Agricultural Economic Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yaozheng; TANG

    2013-01-01

    Under the background of rapid agricultural economic development,rural financial and accounting work is of great significance. From rural accounting management system,rural accountant allocation and rural accounting training,this paper analyzes current situations of rural accounting work in China. In rural financial and accounting work,there are following problems. ( 1) Accounting behavior is not standard,and basic accounting work is to be further strengthened; ( 2) Internal control is not perfect and implementation of supervision mechanism is formalized; ( 3) Few people manipulate accounting behavior and accounting information is not transparent. In view of these problems,it puts forward countermeasures for improving rural accounting work: ( 1) establishing perfect agricultural accounting system; ( 2) regulating fund management order; ( 3) promoting computerized agricultural financial and accounting work; ( 4) improving professional and comprehensive quality of rural accountants.

  4. Surviving a Dry Future: Abscisic Acid (ABA)-Mediated Plant Mechanisms for Conserving Water under Low Humidity

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAdam, Scott A. M.

    2017-01-01

    Angiosperms are able to respond rapidly to the first sign of dry conditions, a decrease in air humidity, more accurately described as an increase in the vapor pressure deficit between the leaf and the atmosphere (VPD), by abscisic acid (ABA)-mediated stomatal closure. The genes underlying this response offer valuable candidates for targeted selection of crop varieties with improved drought tolerance, a critical goal for current plant breeding programs, to maximize crop production in drier and increasingly marginalized environments, and meet the demands of a growing population in the face of a changing climate. Here, we review current understanding of the genetic mechanisms underpinning ABA-mediated stomatal closure, a key means for conserving water under dry conditions, examine how these mechanisms evolved, and discuss what remains to be investigated. PMID:29113039

  5. Mechanical measurement of hydrogen bonded host-guest systems under non-equilibrium, near-physiological conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naranjo, Teresa; Cerrón, Fernando; Nieto-Ortega, Belén; Latorre, Alfonso; Somoza, Álvaro; Ibarra, Borja; Pérez, Emilio M

    2017-09-01

    Decades after the birth of supramolecular chemistry, there are many techniques to measure noncovalent interactions, such as hydrogen bonding, under equilibrium conditions. As ensembles of molecules rapidly lose coherence, we cannot extrapolate bulk data to single-molecule events under non-equilibrium conditions, more relevant to the dynamics of biological systems. We present a new method that exploits the high force resolution of optical tweezers to measure at the single molecule level the mechanical strength of a hydrogen bonded host-guest pair out of equilibrium and under near-physiological conditions. We utilize a DNA reporter to unambiguously isolate single binding events. The Hamilton receptor-cyanuric acid host-guest system is used as a test bed. The force required to dissociate the host-guest system is ∼17 pN and increases with the pulling rate as expected for a system under non-equilibrium conditions. Blocking one of the hydrogen bonding sites results in a significant decrease of the force-to-break by 1-2 pN, pointing out the ability of the method to resolve subtle changes in the mechanical strength of the binding due to the individual H-bonding components. We believe the method will prove to be a versatile tool to address important questions in supramolecular chemistry.

  6. Mechanical properties of cork under contact stresses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parralejo, A. D.; Guiberteau, F.; Fortes, M. A.; Rosa, M. E.

    2001-01-01

    In this work our interest is focussed on the mechanical behaviour of natural cork under contact stresses. Many of the applications of this curious material are related with its mechanical response under such a stress field, however this topic has not been still sufficiently considered in the scientific literature. For this purpose, we proposed the use of Hertzian indentation tests. By using this mythology we have investigated the cork structure influence on the corresponding mechanical properties. Our results reveal a clear mechanical anisotropy effect. Moreover, the elastic modulus corresponding to specific directions have been estimated. Several are the main advantages of this specific test mythology versus traditional uniaxial compression tests, specially simplicity and local character. (Author) 9 refs

  7. A novel role of dendritic gap junction and mechanisms underlying its interaction with thalamocortical conductance in fast spiking inhibitory neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Qian-Quan

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Little is known about the roles of dendritic gap junctions (GJs of inhibitory interneurons in modulating temporal properties of sensory induced responses in sensory cortices. Electrophysiological dual patch-clamp recording and computational simulation methods were used in combination to examine a novel role of GJs in sensory mediated feed-forward inhibitory responses in barrel cortex layer IV and its underlying mechanisms. Results Under physiological conditions, excitatory post-junctional potentials (EPJPs interact with thalamocortical (TC inputs within an unprecedented few milliseconds (i.e. over 200 Hz to enhance the firing probability and synchrony of coupled fast-spiking (FS cells. Dendritic GJ coupling allows fourfold increase in synchrony and a significant enhancement in spike transmission efficacy in excitatory spiny stellate cells. The model revealed the following novel mechanisms: 1 rapid capacitive current (Icap underlies the activation of voltage-gated sodium channels; 2 there was less than 2 milliseconds in which the Icap underlying TC input and EPJP was coupled effectively; 3 cells with dendritic GJs had larger input conductance and smaller membrane response to weaker inputs; 4 synchrony in inhibitory networks by GJ coupling leads to reduced sporadic lateral inhibition and increased TC transmission efficacy. Conclusion Dendritic GJs of neocortical inhibitory networks can have very powerful effects in modulating the strength and the temporal properties of sensory induced feed-forward inhibitory and excitatory responses at a very high frequency band (>200 Hz. Rapid capacitive currents are identified as main mechanisms underlying interaction between two transient synaptic conductances.

  8. Peculiar Features of Thermal Aging and Degradation of Rapidly Quenched Stainless Steels under High-Temperature Exposures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shulga, A. V.

    2017-12-01

    This article presents the results of comparative studies of mechanical properties and microstructure of nuclear fuel tubes and semifinished stainless steel items fabricated by consolidation of rapidly quenched powders and by conventional technology after high-temperature exposures at 600 and 700°C. Tensile tests of nuclear fuel tube ring specimens of stainless austenitic steel of grade AISI 316 and ferritic-martensitic steel are performed at room temperature. The microstructure and distribution of carbon and boron are analyzed by metallography and autoradiography in nuclear fuel tubes and semifinished items. Rapidly quenched powders of the considered steels are obtained by the plasma rotating electrode process. Positive influence of consolidation of rapidly quenched powders on mechanical properties after high-temperature aging is confirmed. The correlation between homogeneous distribution of carbon and boron and mechanical properties of the considered steel is determined. The effects of thermal aging and degradation of the considered steels are determined at 600°C and 700°C, respectively.

  9. The long-term fate of permafrost peatlands under rapid climate warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swindles, Graeme T.; Morris, Paul J.; Mullan, Donal; Watson, Elizabeth J.; Turner, T. Edward; Roland, Thomas P.; Amesbury, Matthew J.; Kokfelt, Ulla; Schoning, Kristian; Pratte, Steve; Gallego-Sala, Angela; Charman, Dan J.; Sanderson, Nicole; Garneau, Michelle; Carrivick, Jonathan L.; Woulds, Clare; Holden, Joseph; Parry, Lauren; Galloway, Jennifer M.

    2015-01-01

    Permafrost peatlands contain globally important amounts of soil organic carbon, owing to cold conditions which suppress anaerobic decomposition. However, climate warming and permafrost thaw threaten the stability of this carbon store. The ultimate fate of permafrost peatlands and their carbon stores is unclear because of complex feedbacks between peat accumulation, hydrology and vegetation. Field monitoring campaigns only span the last few decades and therefore provide an incomplete picture of permafrost peatland response to recent rapid warming. Here we use a high-resolution palaeoecological approach to understand the longer-term response of peatlands in contrasting states of permafrost degradation to recent rapid warming. At all sites we identify a drying trend until the late-twentieth century; however, two sites subsequently experienced a rapid shift to wetter conditions as permafrost thawed in response to climatic warming, culminating in collapse of the peat domes. Commonalities between study sites lead us to propose a five-phase model for permafrost peatland response to climatic warming. This model suggests a shared ecohydrological trajectory towards a common end point: inundated Arctic fen. Although carbon accumulation is rapid in such sites, saturated soil conditions are likely to cause elevated methane emissions that have implications for climate-feedback mechanisms. PMID:26647837

  10. Giant panda׳s tooth enamel: Structure, mechanical behavior and toughening mechanisms under indentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Z Y; Liu, Z Q; Ritchie, R O; Jiao, D; Li, D S; Wu, H L; Deng, L H; Zhang, Z F

    2016-12-01

    The giant panda׳s teeth possess remarkable load-bearing capacity and damage resistance for masticating bamboos. In this study, the hierarchical structure and mechanical behavior of the giant panda׳s tooth enamel were investigated under indentation. The effects of loading orientation and location on mechanical properties of the enamel were clarified and the evolution of damage in the enamel under increasing load evaluated. The nature of the damage, both at and beneath the indentation surfaces, and the underlying toughening mechanisms were explored. Indentation cracks invariably were seen to propagate along the internal interfaces, specifically the sheaths between enamel rods, and multiple extrinsic toughening mechanisms, e.g., crack deflection/twisting and uncracked-ligament bridging, were active to shield the tips of cracks from the applied stress. The giant panda׳s tooth enamel is analogous to human enamel in its mechanical properties, yet it has superior hardness and Young׳s modulus but inferior toughness as compared to the bamboo that pandas primarily feed on, highlighting the critical roles of the integration of underlying tissues in the entire tooth and the highly hydrated state of bamboo foods. Our objective is that this study can aid the understanding of the structure-mechanical property relations in the tooth enamel of mammals and further provide some insight on the food habits of the giant pandas. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Azimuthal angle correlations at large rapidities. Revisiting density variation mechanism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gotsman, E. [Tel Aviv University, Department of Particle Physics, Raymond and Beverly Sackler Faculty of Exact Science, School of Physics and Astronomy, Tel Aviv (Israel); Levin, E. [Tel Aviv University, Department of Particle Physics, Raymond and Beverly Sackler Faculty of Exact Science, School of Physics and Astronomy, Tel Aviv (Israel); Universidad Tecnica Federico Santa Maria, Departemento de Fisica, Valparaiso (Chile); Centro Cientifico-Tecnologico de Valparaiso, Valparaiso (Chile)

    2017-11-15

    We discuss the angular correlation present in hadron-hadron collisions at large rapidity difference (anti α{sub S}y{sub 12} >> 1). We find that in the CGC/saturation approach the largest contribution stems from the density variation mechanism. Our principal results are that the odd Fourier harmonics (v{sub 2n+1}) decrease substantially as a function of y{sub 12}, while the even harmonics (v{sub 2n}) increase considerably with the growth of y{sub 12}. (orig.)

  12. Peeling mechanism of tomato under infrared heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Critical behaviors of peeling tomatoes using infrared heat are thermally induced peel loosening and subsequent cracking. However, the mechanism of peel loosening and cracking due to infrared heating remains unclear. This study aimed at investigating the mechanism of peeling tomatoes under infrared h...

  13. Deciphering the Cognitive and Neural Mechanisms Underlying ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Deciphering the Cognitive and Neural Mechanisms Underlying Auditory Learning. This project seeks to understand the brain mechanisms necessary for people to learn to perceive sounds. Neural circuits and learning. The research team will test people with and without musical training to evaluate their capacity to learn ...

  14. A review of visual perception mechanisms that regulate rapid adaptive camouflage in cuttlefish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiao, Chuan-Chin; Chubb, Charles; Hanlon, Roger T

    2015-09-01

    We review recent research on the visual mechanisms of rapid adaptive camouflage in cuttlefish. These neurophysiologically complex marine invertebrates can camouflage themselves against almost any background, yet their ability to quickly (0.5-2 s) alter their body patterns on different visual backgrounds poses a vexing challenge: how to pick the correct body pattern amongst their repertoire. The ability of cuttlefish to change appropriately requires a visual system that can rapidly assess complex visual scenes and produce the motor responses-the neurally controlled body patterns-that achieve camouflage. Using specifically designed visual backgrounds and assessing the corresponding body patterns quantitatively, we and others have uncovered several aspects of scene variation that are important in regulating cuttlefish patterning responses. These include spatial scale of background pattern, background intensity, background contrast, object edge properties, object contrast polarity, object depth, and the presence of 3D objects. Moreover, arm postures and skin papillae are also regulated visually for additional aspects of concealment. By integrating these visual cues, cuttlefish are able to rapidly select appropriate body patterns for concealment throughout diverse natural environments. This sensorimotor approach of studying cuttlefish camouflage thus provides unique insights into the mechanisms of visual perception in an invertebrate image-forming eye.

  15. Gas Bubble Dynamics under Mechanical Vibrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohagheghian, Shahrouz; Elbing, Brian

    2017-11-01

    The scientific community has a limited understanding of the bubble dynamics under mechanical oscillations due to over simplification of Navier-Stockes equation by neglecting the shear stress tensor and not accounting for body forces when calculating the acoustic radiation force. The current work experimental investigates bubble dynamics under mechanical vibration and resulting acoustic field by measuring the bubble size and velocity using high-speed imaging. The experimental setup consists of a custom-designed shaker table, cast acrylic bubble column, compressed air injection manifold and an optical imaging system. The mechanical vibrations resulted in accelerations between 0.25 to 10 times gravitational acceleration corresponding to frequency and amplitude range of 8 - 22Hz and 1 - 10mm respectively. Throughout testing the void fraction was limited to <5%. The bubble size is larger than resonance size and smaller than acoustic wavelength. The amplitude of acoustic pressure wave was estimated using the definition of Bjerknes force in combination with Rayleigh-Plesset equation. Physical behavior of the system was capture and classified. Bubble size, velocity as well as size and spatial distribution will be presented.

  16. What are the visual features underlying rapid object recognition?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sébastien M Crouzet

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Research progress in machine vision has been very significant in recent years. Robust face detection and identification algorithms are already readily available to consumers, and modern computer vision algorithms for generic object recognition are now coping with the richness and complexity of natural visual scenes. Unlike early vision models of object recognition that emphasized the role of figure-ground segmentation and spatial information between parts, recent successful approaches are based on the computation of loose collections of image features without prior segmentation or any explicit encoding of spatial relations. While these models remain simplistic models of visual processing, they suggest that, in principle, bottom-up activation of a loose collection of image features could support the rapid recognition of natural object categories and provide an initial coarse visual representation before more complex visual routines and attentional mechanisms take place. Focusing on biologically-plausible computational models of (bottom-up pre-attentive visual recognition, we review some of the key visual features that have been described in the literature. We discuss the consistency of these feature-based representations with classical theories from visual psychology and test their ability to account for human performance on a rapid object categorization task.

  17. Prediction study on mechanical and thermodynamic properties of orthorhombic Mg2SiO4 under high temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Jianting; Zhang, Hong; Chen, Yue; Shong, Jun; Chen, Zhuo; Yang, Juan; Zheng, Zhou; Wang, Feng

    2014-01-01

    In this work, based on density functional theory and quasi-harmonic Debye model, mechanical and thermodynamic properties of orthorhombic Mg 2 SiO 4 under high temperature are predicted. We found out that α-Mg 2 SiO 4 is mechanically stable under the condition from about 0 to 74 GPa. Results indicate that the main cause of mechanical instability is high pressure, and the effect caused by high temperature is small. C 11 , C 22 , C 33 , B and v p reduce with temperature just a little and increase with pressure obviously. Mg 2 SiO 4 has excellent resistance to strong compression; however the resistance to shear is unsatisfactory. The C v tends to the Petit and Dulong limit at high temperature under any pressure, and it is proportional to T 3 at extremely low temperature. Pressure has an opposite effect on C v than temperature. The suppressed effect on C v caused by pressure is not obvious under low and very high temperature. Mg 2 SiO 4 has three different thermal expansion coefficients (α) along a-, b- and c-axes, and α a <α c <α b . α increases rapidly at low temperature (about <300 K), and slows down at high temperature. High pressure would greatly suppress expansion caused by temperature. Nevertheless, increasing tendency of α b and α c is still obvious under high pressure, especially α b . All the properties are mainly due to Si–O covalent bonds and their directions

  18. Antidepressant effects of ketamine: mechanisms underlying fast-acting novel antidepressants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Ann Browne

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Newer antidepressants are needed for the many individuals with major depressive disorder that do not respond adequately to treatment and because of a delay of weeks before the emergence of therapeutic effects. Recent evidence from clinical trials shows that the NMDA antagonist ketamine is a revolutionary novel antidepressant because it acts rapidly and is effective for treatment-resistant patients. A single infusion of ketamine alleviates depressive symptoms in treatment-resistant depressed patients within hours and these effects may be sustained for up to 2 weeks. Although the discovery of ketamine’s effects has reshaped drug discovery for antidepressants, the psychotomimetic properties of this compound limit the use of this therapy to the most severely ill patients. In order to develop additional antidepressants like ketamine, adequate preclinical behavioral screening paradigms for fast-acting antidepressants need to be established and used to identify the underlying neural mechanisms. This review examines the preclinical literature attempting to model the antidepressant-like effects of ketamine. Acute administration of ketamine has produced effects in behavioral screens for antidepressants like the forced swim test, novelty suppression of feeding and in rodent models for depression. Protracted behavioral effects of ketamine have been reported to appear after a single treatment that last for days. This temporal pattern is similar to its clinical effects and may serve as a new animal paradigm for rapid antidepressant effects in humans. In addition, protracted changes in molecules mediating synaptic plasticity have been implicated in mediating the antidepressant-like behavioral effects of ketamine. Current preclinical studies are examining compounds with more specific pharmacological effects at glutamate receptors and synapses in order to develop additional rapidly acting antidepressants without the hallucinogenic side effects or abuse

  19. Genomic interrogation of mechanism(s) underlying cellular responses to toxicants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amin, Rupesh P.; Hamadeh, Hisham K.; Bushel, Pierre R.; Bennett, Lee; Afshari, Cynthia A.; Paules, Richard S.

    2002-01-01

    Assessment of the impact of xenobiotic exposure on human health and disease progression is complex. Knowledge of mode(s) of action, including mechanism(s) contributing to toxicity and disease progression, is valuable for evaluating compounds. Toxicogenomics, the subdiscipline which merges genomics with toxicology, holds the promise to contributing significantly toward the goal of elucidating mechanism(s) by studying genome-wide effects of xenobiotics. Global gene expression profiling, revolutionized by microarray technology and a crucial aspect of a toxicogenomic study, allows measuring transcriptional modulation of thousands of genes following exposure to a xenobiotic. We use our results from previous studies on compounds representing two different classes of xenobiotics (barbiturate and peroxisome proliferator) to discuss the application of computational approaches for analyzing microarray data to elucidate mechanism(s) underlying cellular responses to toxicants. In particular, our laboratory demonstrated that chemical-specific patterns of gene expression can be revealed using cDNA microarrays. Transcript profiling provides discrimination between classes of toxicants, as well as, genome-wide insight into mechanism(s) of toxicity and disease progression. Ultimately, the expectation is that novel approaches for predicting xenobiotic toxicity in humans will emerge from such information

  20. Mechanical stability of a salt cavern submitted to rapid pressure variations: Application to the underground storage of natural gas, compressed air and hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Djizanne-Djakeun, Hippolyte

    2014-01-01

    Salt caverns used for the underground storage of large volumes of natural gas are in high demand given the ever-increasing energy needs. The storage of renewable energy is also envisaged in these salt caverns for example, storage of compressed air and hydrogen mass storage. In both cases, salt caverns are more solicited than before because they are subject to rapid injection and withdrawal rates. These new operating modes raise new mechanical problems, illustrated in particular by sloughing, and falling of overhanging blocks at cavern wall. Indeed, to the purely mechanical stress related to changes in gas pressure variations, repeated dozens of degrees Celsius of temperature variation are superimposed; causes in particular during withdrawal, additional tensile stresses whom may lead to fractures at cavern wall; whose evolution could be dangerous. The mechanical behavior of rock salt is known: it is elasto-viscoplastic, nonlinear and highly thermo sensitive. The existing rock salt constitutive laws and failures and damages criteria have been used to analyze the behavior of caverns under the effects of these new loading. The study deals with the thermo mechanics of rocks and helps to analyze the effects of these new operations modes on the structural stability of salt caverns. The approach was to firstly design and validate a thermodynamic model of the behavior of gas in the cavern. This model was used to analyze blowout in gas salt cavern. Then, with the thermo mechanical coupling, to analyze the effects of rapid withdrawal, rapid injection and daily cycles on the structural stability of caverns. At the experimental level, we sought the optimal conditions to the occurrence and the development of cracks on a pastille and a block of rock salt. The creep behavior of rock salt specimens in triaxial extension also was analyzed. (author)

  1. [Piezosurgery for surgically assisted rapid maxillary expansion under local anesthesia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Hao; Li, Biao; Sun, Hao; Liu, Zhixu; Wang, Xudong

    2014-08-01

    This study evaluates piezosurgery for surgically assisted rapid maxillary expansion (SARME) under local anesthesia. SARME was performed on adults with maxillary transverse deficiency under local anesthesia with a piezosurgical device. Fourteen patients (six males and eight females) underwent lateral maxillary osteotomies, midpalatal osteotomies, and bilateral pterygomaxillary disjunction. The feelings of patients during the operation were determined through questionnaires. All patients underwent SARME in the out-patient operating room. The surgical procedures were completed under local anesthesia. All patients exhibited satisfactory tolerance. Ultrasonic bone-cutting surgery was recently introduced as a feasible alternative to the conventional tools of cranio-maxillofacial surgery for its technical characteristics of precision and safety. The device used was unique in that cutting action occurred when the tool was employed on mineralized tissues, but stoped on soft tissues. The results of the questionnaires showed that eight (57.14%) patients felt a mild sensation of ultrasonic vibration, tweleve (85.7 1%) felt mild tolerable pain and tooth soreness during surgery, and eleven (78.57%) felt little fear and hardly heard the ultrasonic sound. Preoperative and postoperative six months later measurements showed an evident effect of expansion. Piezosurgery enabled patients to undergo all the steps of SARME under local anesthesia, but more cases and longer follow-up are needed to verif ' the results.

  2. Magnesium alloys as body implants: fracture mechanism under dynamic and static loadings in a physiological environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhary, Lokesh; Raman, R K Singh

    2012-02-01

    It is essential that a metallic implant material possesses adequate resistance to cracking/fracture under the synergistic action of a corrosive physiological environment and mechanical loading (i.e. stress corrosion cracking (SCC)), before the implant can be put to actual use. This paper presents a critique of the fundamental issues with an assessment of SCC of a rapidly corroding material such as magnesium alloys, and describes an investigation into the mechanism of SCC of a magnesium alloy in a physiological environment. The SCC susceptibility of the alloy in a simulated human body fluid was established by slow strain rate tensile (SSRT) testing using smooth specimens under different electrochemical conditions for understanding the mechanism of SCC. However, to assess the life of the implant devices that often possess fine micro-cracks, SCC susceptibility of notched specimens was investigated by circumferential notch tensile (CNT) testing. CNT tests also produced important design data, i.e. threshold stress intensity for SCC (KISCC) and SCC crack growth rate. Fractographic features of SCC were examined using scanning electron microscopy. The SSRT and CNT results, together with fractographic evidence, confirmed the SCC susceptibility of both smooth and notched specimens of a magnesium alloy in the physiological environment. Copyright © 2011 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. 3D virtual human rapid modeling method based on top-down modeling mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LI Taotao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aiming to satisfy the vast custom-made character demand of 3D virtual human and the rapid modeling in the field of 3D virtual reality, a new virtual human top-down rapid modeling method is put for-ward in this paper based on the systematic analysis of the current situation and shortage of the virtual hu-man modeling technology. After the top-level realization of virtual human hierarchical structure frame de-sign, modular expression of the virtual human and parameter design for each module is achieved gradu-al-level downwards. While the relationship of connectors and mapping restraints among different modules is established, the definition of the size and texture parameter is also completed. Standardized process is meanwhile produced to support and adapt the virtual human top-down rapid modeling practice operation. Finally, the modeling application, which takes a Chinese captain character as an example, is carried out to validate the virtual human rapid modeling method based on top-down modeling mechanism. The result demonstrates high modelling efficiency and provides one new concept for 3D virtual human geometric mod-eling and texture modeling.

  4. Mechanical and electronic properties of monolayer and bilayer phosphorene under uniaxial and isotropic strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Ting; Han, Yang; Dong, Jinming

    2014-11-14

    The mechanical and electronic properties of both the monolayer and bilayer phosphorenes under either isotropic or uniaxial strain have been systematically investigated using first-principles calculations. It is interesting to find that: 1) Under a large enough isotropic tensile strain, the monolayer phosphorene would lose its pucker structure and transform into a flat hexagonal plane, while two inner sublayers of the bilayer phosphorene could be bonded due to its interlayer distance contraction. 2) Under the uniaxial tensile strain along a zigzag direction, the pucker distance of each layer in the bilayer phosphorene can exhibit a specific negative Poisson's ratio. 3) The electronic properties of both the monolayer and bilayer phosphorenes are sensitive to the magnitude and direction of the applied strains. Their band gaps decrease more rapidly under isotropic compressive strain than under uniaxial strain. Also, their direct-indirect band gap transitions happen at the larger isotropic tensile strains compared with that under uniaxial strain. 4) Under the isotropic compressive strain, the bilayer phosphorene exhibits a transition from a direct-gap semiconductor to a metal. In contrast, the monolayer phosphorene initially has the direct-indirect transition and then transitions to a metal. However, under isotropic tensile strain, both the bilayer and monolayer phosphorene show the direct-indirect transition and, finally, the transition to a metal. Our numerical results may open new potential applications of phosphorene in nanoelectronics and nanomechanical devices by external isotropic strain or uniaxial strain along different directions.

  5. Rapid Modulation of Aromatase Activity in the Vertebrate Brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thierry D. Charlier

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Numerous steroid hormones, including 17β-estradiol (E2, activate rapid and transient cellular, physiological, and behavioral changes in addition to their well-described genomic effects. Aromatase is the key-limiting enzyme in the production of estrogens, and the rapid modulation of this enzymatic activity could produce rapid changes in local E2 concentrations. The mechanisms that might mediate such rapid enzymatic changes are not fully understood but are currently under intense scrutiny. Recent studies in our laboratory indicate that brain aromatase activity is rapidly inhibited by an increase in intracellular calcium concentration resulting from potassium-induced depolarization or from the activation of glutamatergic receptors. Phosphorylating conditions also reduce aromatase activity within minutes, and this inhibition is blocked by the addition of multiple protein kinase inhibitors. This rapid modulation of aromatase activity by phosphorylating conditions is a general mechanism observed in different cell types and tissues derived from a variety of species, including human aromatase expressed in various cell lines. Phosphorylation processes affect aromatase itself and do not involve changes in aromatase protein concentration. The control of aromatase activity by multiple kinases suggests that several amino acids must be concomitantly phosphorylated to modify enzymatic activity but site-directed mutagenesis of several amino acids alone or in combination has not to date revealed the identity of the targeted residue(s. Altogether, the phosphorylation processes affecting aromatase activity provide a new general mechanism by which the concentration of estrogens can be rapidly altered in the brain.

  6. Rapid construction of mechanically- confined multi- cellular structures using dendrimeric intercellular linker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Xuejun; Li, Qiushi; Yi Lui, Lena Wai; Zheng, Baixue; Kang, Chiang Huen; Nugraha, Bramasta; Yue, Zhilian; Jia, Rui Rui; Fu, Hong Xia; Choudhury, Deepak; Arooz, Talha; Yan, Jie; Lim, Chwee Teck; Shen, Shali; Hong Tan, Choon; Yu, Hanry

    2010-10-01

    Tissue constructs that mimic the in vivo cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions are especially useful for applications involving the cell- dense and matrix- poor internal organs. Rapid and precise arrangement of cells into functional tissue constructs remains a challenge in tissue engineering. We demonstrate rapid assembly of C3A cells into multi- cell structures using a dendrimeric intercellular linker. The linker is composed of oleyl- polyethylene glycol (PEG) derivatives conjugated to a 16 arms- polypropylenimine hexadecaamine (DAB) dendrimer. The positively charged multivalent dendrimer concentrates the linker onto the negatively charged cell surface to facilitate efficient insertion of the hydrophobic oleyl groups into the cellular membrane. Bringing linker- treated cells into close proximity to each other via mechanical means such as centrifugation and micromanipulation enables their rapid assembly into multi- cellular structures within minutes. The cells exhibit high levels of viability, proliferation, three- dimensional (3D) cell morphology and other functions in the constructs. We constructed defined multi- cellular structures such as rings, sheets or branching rods that can serve as potential tissue building blocks to be further assembled into complex 3D tissue constructs for biomedical applications. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Driving mechanism and sources of groundwater nitrate contamination in the rapidly urbanized region of south China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qianqian; Sun, Jichao; Liu, Jingtao; Huang, Guanxing; Lu, Chuan; Zhang, Yuxi

    2015-11-01

    Nitrate contamination of groundwater has become an environmental problem of widespread concern in China. We collected 899 groundwater samples from a rapidly urbanized area, in order to identify the main sources and driving mechanisms of groundwater nitrate contamination. The results showed that the land use has a significant effect on groundwater nitrate concentration (P population growth. This study revealed that domestic wastewater and industrial wastewater were the main sources of groundwater nitrate pollution. Therefore, the priority method for relieving groundwater nitrate contamination is to control the random discharge of domestic and industrial wastewater in regions undergoing rapid urbanization. Capsule abstract. The main driving mechanism of groundwater nitrate contamination was determined to be urban construction and the secondary and tertiary industrial development, and population growth.

  8. Structural investigations of mechanical properties of Al based rapidly solidified alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karakoese, Ercan; Keskin, Mustafa

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Rapid solidification processing (RSP) involves exceptionally high cooling rates. → We correlate the microstructure of the intermetallic Al 3 Fe, Al 2 Cu and Al 3 Ni phases with the cooling rate. → The solidification rate is high enough to retain most of alloying elements in the Al matrix. → The rapid solidification has effect on the phase constitution. -- Abstract: In this study, Al based Al-3 wt.%Fe, Al-3 wt.%Cu and Al-3 wt.%Ni alloys were prepared by conventional casting. They were further processed using the melt-spinning technique and characterized by the X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) together with energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), transmission electron microscope (TEM), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and the Vickers microhardness tester. The rapidly solidified (RS) binary alloys were composed of supersaturated α-Al solid solution and finely dispersed intermetallic phases. Experimental results showed that the mechanical properties of RS alloys were enhanced, which can be attributed to significant changes in the microstructure. RS samples were measured using a microhardness test device. The dependence of microhardness H V on the solidification rate (V) was analysed. These results showed that with the increasing values of V, the values of H V increased. The enthalpies of fusion for the same alloys were determined by DSC.

  9. Finite element analysis (FEA) of dental implant fixture for mechanical stability and rapid osseointegration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabassum, Shafia; Murtaza, Ahmar; Ali, Hasan; Uddin, Zia Mohy; Zehra, Syedah Sadaf

    2017-10-01

    For rapid osseointegration of dental implant fixtures, various surface treatments including plasma spraying, hydroxyapatite coating, acid-etching, and surface grooving are used. However undesirable effects such as chemical modifications, loss of mechanical properties, prolonged processing times and post production treatment steps are often associated with these techniques. The osseointegration rate of the dental implants can be promoted by increasing the surface area of the dental implant, thus increasing the bone cells - implant material contact and allow bone tissues to grow rapidly. Additive Manufacturing (AM) techniques can be used to fabricate dental implant fixtures with desirable surface area in a single step manufacturing process. AM allows the use of Computer Aided Designing (CAD) for customised rapid prototyping of components with precise control over geometry. In this study, the dental implant fixture that replaces the tooth root was designed on commercially available software COMSOL. Nickel - titanium alloy was selected as build materials for dental implant. The geometry of the dental fixture was varied by changing the interspacing distance (thread pitch) and number of threads to increase the total surface area. Three different microstructures were introduced on the surface of dental implant. The designed models were used to examine the effect of changing geometries on the total surface area. Finite Element Analysis (FEA) was performed to investigate the effect of changing geometries on the mechanical properties of the dental implant fixtures using stress analysis.

  10. Mechanisms underlying the social enhancement of vocal learning in songbirds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yining; Matheson, Laura E; Sakata, Jon T

    2016-06-14

    Social processes profoundly influence speech and language acquisition. Despite the importance of social influences, little is known about how social interactions modulate vocal learning. Like humans, songbirds learn their vocalizations during development, and they provide an excellent opportunity to reveal mechanisms of social influences on vocal learning. Using yoked experimental designs, we demonstrate that social interactions with adult tutors for as little as 1 d significantly enhanced vocal learning. Social influences on attention to song seemed central to the social enhancement of learning because socially tutored birds were more attentive to the tutor's songs than passively tutored birds, and because variation in attentiveness and in the social modulation of attention significantly predicted variation in vocal learning. Attention to song was influenced by both the nature and amount of tutor song: Pupils paid more attention to songs that tutors directed at them and to tutors that produced fewer songs. Tutors altered their song structure when directing songs at pupils in a manner that resembled how humans alter their vocalizations when speaking to infants, that was distinct from how tutors changed their songs when singing to females, and that could influence attention and learning. Furthermore, social interactions that rapidly enhanced learning increased the activity of noradrenergic and dopaminergic midbrain neurons. These data highlight striking parallels between humans and songbirds in the social modulation of vocal learning and suggest that social influences on attention and midbrain circuitry could represent shared mechanisms underlying the social modulation of vocal learning.

  11. Microstructure and mechanical properties of a novel rapidly solidified, high-temperature Al-alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Overman, N.R., E-mail: Nicole.Overman@pnnl.gov [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, P.O. Box 999, Richland, WA 99352 (United States); Mathaudhu, S.N. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, P.O. Box 999, Richland, WA 99352 (United States); University of California, Riverside, 3401 Watkins Dr., Riverside, CA 92521 (United States); Choi, J.P.; Roosendaal, T.J.; Pitman, S. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, P.O. Box 999, Richland, WA 99352 (United States)

    2016-02-15

    Rapid solidification (RS) processing, as a production method, offers a variety of unique properties based on far-from-equilibrium microstructures obtained through rapid cooling rates. In this study, we seek to investigate the microstructures and properties of a novel Al-alloy specifically designed for high temperature mechanical stability. Synthesis of, AlFe{sub 11.4}Si{sub 1.8}V{sub 1.6}Mn{sub 0.9} (wt.%), was performed by two approaches: rotating cup atomization (“shot”) and melt spinning (“flake”). These methods were chosen because of their ability to produce alloys with tailored microstructures due to their inherent differences in cooling rate. The as-solidified precursor materials were microstructurally characterized with electron microscopy. The results show that the higher cooling rate flake material exhibited the formation of nanocrystalline regions as well additional phase morphologies not seen in the shot material. Secondary dendritic branching in the flake material was on the order of 0.1–0.25 μm whereas branching in the shot material was 0.5–1.0 μm. Consolidated and extruded material from both precursor materials was mechanically evaluated at both ambient and high (300 °C) temperature. The consolidated RS flake material is shown to exhibit higher strengths than the shot material. The ultimate tensile strength of the melt spun flake was reported as 544.2 MPa at room temperature and 298.0 MPa at 300 °C. These results forecast the ability to design alloys and processing approaches with unique non-equilibrium microstructures with robust mechanical properties at elevated temperatures. - Highlights: • A novel alloy, AlFe{sub 11.4}Si{sub 1.8}V{sub 1.6}Mn{sub 0.9} was fabricated by rapid solidification. • Room temperature yield strength exceeded 500 MPa. • Elevated temperature (300 °C) yield strength exceeded 275 MPa. • Forging, after extrusion of the alloy resulted in microstructural coarsening. • Decreased strength and ductility was

  12. On the mechanism of rapid postirradiation recovery of yeast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glazunov, A.V.; Kapul'tsevich, Yu.G.

    1983-01-01

    Rapid postirradiation recovery of diploid yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is equally effective both in water and in a liquid nutrition medium. In the haploid strains, rapid recovery occurs more readily in the log phase than in the stationary phase of growth. In the diploid strains, rapid recovery is more effective in the log phase than in the stationary phase. Rapid recovery of yeast does not require an additional protein synthesis. Damages induced by UV-light are not sub ected to rapid recovery

  13. Rapid inversion: running animals and robots swing like a pendulum under ledges.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Michel Mongeau

    Full Text Available Escaping from predators often demands that animals rapidly negotiate complex environments. The smallest animals attain relatively fast speeds with high frequency leg cycling, wing flapping or body undulations, but absolute speeds are slow compared to larger animals. Instead, small animals benefit from the advantages of enhanced maneuverability in part due to scaling. Here, we report a novel behavior in small, legged runners that may facilitate their escape by disappearance from predators. We video recorded cockroaches and geckos rapidly running up an incline toward a ledge, digitized their motion and created a simple model to generalize the behavior. Both species ran rapidly at 12-15 body lengths-per-second toward the ledge without braking, dove off the ledge, attached their feet by claws like a grappling hook, and used a pendulum-like motion that can exceed one meter-per-second to swing around to an inverted position under the ledge, out of sight. We discovered geckos in Southeast Asia can execute this escape behavior in the field. Quantification of these acrobatic behaviors provides biological inspiration toward the design of small, highly mobile search-and-rescue robots that can assist us during natural and human-made disasters. We report the first steps toward this new capability in a small, hexapedal robot.

  14. Rapid Inversion: Running Animals and Robots Swing like a Pendulum under Ledges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mongeau, Jean-Michel; McRae, Brian; Jusufi, Ardian; Birkmeyer, Paul; Hoover, Aaron M.; Fearing, Ronald; Full, Robert J.

    2012-01-01

    Escaping from predators often demands that animals rapidly negotiate complex environments. The smallest animals attain relatively fast speeds with high frequency leg cycling, wing flapping or body undulations, but absolute speeds are slow compared to larger animals. Instead, small animals benefit from the advantages of enhanced maneuverability in part due to scaling. Here, we report a novel behavior in small, legged runners that may facilitate their escape by disappearance from predators. We video recorded cockroaches and geckos rapidly running up an incline toward a ledge, digitized their motion and created a simple model to generalize the behavior. Both species ran rapidly at 12–15 body lengths-per-second toward the ledge without braking, dove off the ledge, attached their feet by claws like a grappling hook, and used a pendulum-like motion that can exceed one meter-per-second to swing around to an inverted position under the ledge, out of sight. We discovered geckos in Southeast Asia can execute this escape behavior in the field. Quantification of these acrobatic behaviors provides biological inspiration toward the design of small, highly mobile search-and-rescue robots that can assist us during natural and human-made disasters. We report the first steps toward this new capability in a small, hexapedal robot. PMID:22701594

  15. Instabilities in rapid directional solidification under weak flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowal, Katarzyna N.; Davis, Stephen H.; Voorhees, Peter W.

    2017-12-01

    We examine a rapidly solidifying binary alloy under directional solidification with nonequilibrium interfacial thermodynamics viz. the segregation coefficient and the liquidus slope are speed dependent and attachment-kinetic effects are present. Both of these effects alone give rise to (steady) cellular instabilities, mode S , and a pulsatile instability, mode P . We examine how weak imposed boundary-layer flow of magnitude |V | affects these instabilities. For small |V | , mode S becomes a traveling and the flow stabilizes (destabilizes) the interface for small (large) surface energies. For small |V | , mode P has a critical wave number that shifts from zero to nonzero giving spatial structure. The flow promotes this instability and the frequencies of the complex conjugate pairs each increase (decrease) with flow for large (small) wave numbers. These results are obtained by regular perturbation theory in powers of V far from the point where the neutral curves cross, but requires a modified expansion in powers of V1 /3 near the crossing. A uniform composite expansion is then obtained valid for all small |V | .

  16. Rapid Genetic Adaptation during the First Four Months of Survival under Resource Exhaustion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avrani, Sarit; Bolotin, Evgeni; Katz, Sophia; Hershberg, Ruth

    2017-07-01

    Many bacteria, including the model bacterium Escherichia coli can survive for years within spent media, following resource exhaustion. We carried out evolutionary experiments, followed by whole genome sequencing of hundreds of evolved clones to study the dynamics by which E. coli adapts during the first 4 months of survival under resource exhaustion. Our results reveal that bacteria evolving under resource exhaustion are subject to intense selection, manifesting in rapid mutation accumulation, enrichment in functional mutation categories and extremely convergent adaptation. In the most striking example of convergent adaptation, we found that across five independent populations adaptation to conditions of resource exhaustion occurs through mutations to the three same specific positions of the RNA polymerase core enzyme. Mutations to these three sites are strongly antagonistically pleiotropic, in that they sharply reduce exponential growth rates in fresh media. Such antagonistically pleiotropic mutations, combined with the accumulation of additional mutations, severely reduce the ability of bacteria surviving under resource exhaustion to grow exponentially in fresh media. We further demonstrate that the three positions at which these resource exhaustion mutations occur are conserved for the ancestral E. coli allele, across bacterial phyla, with the exception of nonculturable bacteria that carry the resource exhaustion allele at one of these positions, at very high frequencies. Finally, our results demonstrate that adaptation to resource exhaustion is not limited by mutational input and that bacteria are able to rapidly adapt under resource exhaustion in a temporally precise manner through allele frequency fluctuations. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  17. Thermally induced dispersion mechanisms for aluminum-based plate-type fuels under rapid transient energy deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Georgevich, V.; Taleyarkham, R.P.; Navarro-Valenti, S.; Kim, S.H.

    1995-01-01

    A thermally induced dispersion model was developed to analyze for dispersive potential and determine onset of fuel plate dispersion for Al-based research and test reactor fuels. Effect of rapid energy deposition in a fuel plate was simulated. Several data types for Al-based fuels tested in the Nuclear Safety Research Reactor in Japan and in the Transient Reactor Test in Idaho were reviewed. Analyses of experiments show that onset of fuel dispersion is linked to a sharp rise in predicted strain rate, which futher coincides with onset of Al vaporization. Analysis also shows that Al oxidation and exothermal chemical reaction between the fuel and Al can significantly affect the energy deposition characteristics, and therefore dispersion onset connected with Al vaporization, and affect onset of vaporization

  18. DNA under Force: Mechanics, Electrostatics, and Hydration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingqiang Li

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Quantifying the basic intra- and inter-molecular forces of DNA has helped us to better understand and further predict the behavior of DNA. Single molecule technique elucidates the mechanics of DNA under applied external forces, sometimes under extreme forces. On the other hand, ensemble studies of DNA molecular force allow us to extend our understanding of DNA molecules under other forces such as electrostatic and hydration forces. Using a variety of techniques, we can have a comprehensive understanding of DNA molecular forces, which is crucial in unraveling the complex DNA functions in living cells as well as in designing a system that utilizes the unique properties of DNA in nanotechnology.

  19. Rapid shift in thermal resistance between generations through maternal heat exposure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zizzari, Z.V.; Ellers, J.

    2014-01-01

    Given the current rapid climate change, understanding the mechanisms underlying heat tolerance and its plasticity is an important goal of global change biology. Soil fauna communities are especially vulnerable because of their limited dispersal ability. It is generally recognized that

  20. Elevated temperature mechanical properties of a rapidly solidified A1-Fe-V-Si alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitra, S.

    1992-01-01

    Dispersion strengthened Al alloys based on the Al-Fe-V-Si quartenary system have recently been developed using rapid solidification techniques. Rapid solidification techniques which resulted in the above mentioned alloys have also been used to manufacture another commercial alloy, FVS 1212, with 37 volume % of dispersoid. The alloy has shown excellent resistance to coarsening at high temperatures and to creep deformation. Elevated temperature exposure of FVS 1212, for times up to 100 hours, resulted in a significant loss in room temperature mechanical properties only beyond 500 degrees C while 1000 hours at 425 degrees C did not result in any degradation of mechanical but no detailed study of the tensile behavior of FVS 1212 at slow strain rates and elevated temperatures has been reported to date. This paper reports that the present study was undertaken to investigate the tensile behavior of FVS 1212 from room temperature to 400 degrees C at strain rates of 6.56 x 10 - 5/sec and 6.56 x 10 -6 /sec. The study focussed on dynamic strain aging effects and strain hardening behavior, while the effect of strain rate on the flow behavior at elevated temperatures was also evaluated

  1. Turing mechanism underlying a branching model for lung morphogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Hui; Sun, Mingzhu; Zhao, Xin

    2017-01-01

    The mammalian lung develops through branching morphogenesis. Two primary forms of branching, which occur in order, in the lung have been identified: tip bifurcation and side branching. However, the mechanisms of lung branching morphogenesis remain to be explored. In our previous study, a biological mechanism was presented for lung branching pattern formation through a branching model. Here, we provide a mathematical mechanism underlying the branching patterns. By decoupling the branching model, we demonstrated the existence of Turing instability. We performed Turing instability analysis to reveal the mathematical mechanism of the branching patterns. Our simulation results show that the Turing patterns underlying the branching patterns are spot patterns that exhibit high local morphogen concentration. The high local morphogen concentration induces the growth of branching. Furthermore, we found that the sparse spot patterns underlie the tip bifurcation patterns, while the dense spot patterns underlies the side branching patterns. The dispersion relation analysis shows that the Turing wavelength affects the branching structure. As the wavelength decreases, the spot patterns change from sparse to dense, the rate of tip bifurcation decreases and side branching eventually occurs instead. In the process of transformation, there may exists hybrid branching that mixes tip bifurcation and side branching. Since experimental studies have reported that branching mode switching from side branching to tip bifurcation in the lung is under genetic control, our simulation results suggest that genes control the switch of the branching mode by regulating the Turing wavelength. Our results provide a novel insight into and understanding of the formation of branching patterns in the lung and other biological systems.

  2. On the mechanical properties of tooth enamel under spherical indentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Herzl

    2014-11-01

    The mechanical properties of tooth enamel generally exhibit large variations, which reflect its structural and material complexity. Some key properties were evaluated under localized contact, simulating actual functioning conditions. Prominent cusps of extracted human molar teeth were polished down ~0.7 mm below the cusp tip and indented by tungsten carbide balls. The internal damage was assessed after unloading from longitudinal or transverse sections. The ultimate tensile stress (UTS) was determined using a novel bilayer specimen. The damage is characterized by penny-like radial cracks driven by hoop stresses and cylindrical cracks driven along protein-rich interrod materials by shear stresses. Shallow cone cracks typical of homogeneous materials which may cause rapid tooth wear under repeat contact are thus avoided. The mean stress vs. indentation strain curve is highly nonlinear, attributable to plastic shearing of protein between and within enamel rods. This curve is also affected by damage, especially radial cracks, the onset of which depends on ball radius. Several material properties were extracted from the tests, including shear strain at the onset of ring cracks γ(F) (=0.14), UTS (=119 MPa), toughness K(C) (=0.94 MPa m(1/2)), a crack propagation law and a constitutive response determined by trial and error with the aid of a finite-element analysis. These quantities, which are only slightly sensitive to anatomical location within the enamel region tested, facilitate a quantitative assessment of crown failure. Causes for variations in published UTS and K(C) values are discussed. Copyright © 2014 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Mechanisms Underlying the Risk to Develop Drug Addiction, Insights From Studies in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryvkin, Julia; Bentzur, Assa; Zer-Krispil, Shir; Shohat-Ophir, Galit

    2018-01-01

    The ability to adapt to environmental changes is an essential feature of biological systems, achieved in animals by a coordinated crosstalk between neuronal and hormonal programs that allow rapid and integrated organismal responses. Reward systems play a key role in mediating this adaptation by reinforcing behaviors that enhance immediate survival, such as eating or drinking, or those that ensure long-term survival, such as sexual behavior or caring for offspring. Drugs of abuse co-opt neuronal and molecular pathways that mediate natural rewards, which under certain circumstances can lead to addiction. Many factors can contribute to the transition from drug use to drug addiction, highlighting the need to discover mechanisms underlying the progression from initial drug use to drug addiction. Since similar responses to natural and drug rewards are present in very different animals, it is likely that the central systems that process reward stimuli originated early in evolution, and that common ancient biological principles and genes are involved in these processes. Thus, the neurobiology of natural and drug rewards can be studied using simpler model organisms that have their systems stripped of some of the immense complexity that exists in mammalian brains. In this paper we review studies in Drosophila melanogaster that model different aspects of natural and drug rewards, with an emphasis on how motivational states shape the value of the rewarding experience, as an entry point to understanding the mechanisms that contribute to the vulnerability of drug addiction.

  4. Mechanisms Underlying the Risk to Develop Drug Addiction, Insights From Studies in Drosophila melanogaster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Ryvkin

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The ability to adapt to environmental changes is an essential feature of biological systems, achieved in animals by a coordinated crosstalk between neuronal and hormonal programs that allow rapid and integrated organismal responses. Reward systems play a key role in mediating this adaptation by reinforcing behaviors that enhance immediate survival, such as eating or drinking, or those that ensure long-term survival, such as sexual behavior or caring for offspring. Drugs of abuse co-opt neuronal and molecular pathways that mediate natural rewards, which under certain circumstances can lead to addiction. Many factors can contribute to the transition from drug use to drug addiction, highlighting the need to discover mechanisms underlying the progression from initial drug use to drug addiction. Since similar responses to natural and drug rewards are present in very different animals, it is likely that the central systems that process reward stimuli originated early in evolution, and that common ancient biological principles and genes are involved in these processes. Thus, the neurobiology of natural and drug rewards can be studied using simpler model organisms that have their systems stripped of some of the immense complexity that exists in mammalian brains. In this paper we review studies in Drosophila melanogaster that model different aspects of natural and drug rewards, with an emphasis on how motivational states shape the value of the rewarding experience, as an entry point to understanding the mechanisms that contribute to the vulnerability of drug addiction.

  5. Extreme Temperature Exceedances Change more Rapidly Under Future Warming in Regions of non-Gaussian Short Temperature Distribution Tails

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loikith, P. C.; Neelin, J. D.; Meyerson, J.

    2017-12-01

    Regions of shorter-than-Gaussian warm and cold side temperature distribution tails are shown to occur in spatially coherent patterns in the current climate. Under such conditions, warming may be manifested in more complex ways than if the underlying distribution were close to Gaussian. For example, under a uniform warm shift, the simplest prototype for future warming, a location with a short warm side tail would experience a greater increase in extreme warm exceedances compared to if the distribution were Gaussian. Similarly, for a location with a short cold side tail, a uniform warm shift would result in a rapid decrease in extreme cold exceedances. Both scenarios carry major societal and environmental implications including but not limited to negative impacts on human and ecosystem health, agriculture, and the economy. It is therefore important for climate models to be able to realistically reproduce short tails in simulations of historical climate in order to boost confidence in projections of future temperature extremes. Overall, climate models contributing to the fifth phase of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project capture many of the principal observed regions of short tails. This suggests the underlying dynamics and physics occur on scales resolved by the models, and helps build confidence in model projections of extremes. Furthermore, most GCMs show more rapid changes in exceedances of extreme temperature thresholds in regions of short tails. Results therefore suggest that the shape of the tails of the underlying temperature distribution is an indicator of how rapidly a location will experience changes to extreme temperature occurrence under future warming.

  6. Amount of fear extinction changes its underlying mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Bobae; Kim, Jihye; Park, Kyungjoon; Lee, Sukwon; Song, Sukwoon; Choi, Sukwoo

    2017-07-03

    There has been a longstanding debate on whether original fear memory is inhibited or erased after extinction. One possibility that reconciles this uncertainty is that the inhibition and erasure mechanisms are engaged in different phases (early or late) of extinction. In this study, using single-session extinction training and its repetition (multiple-session extinction training), we investigated the inhibition and erasure mechanisms in the prefrontal cortex and amygdala of rats, where neural circuits underlying extinction reside. The inhibition mechanism was prevalent with single-session extinction training but faded when single-session extinction training was repeated. In contrast, the erasure mechanism became prevalent when single-session extinction training was repeated. Moreover, ablating the intercalated neurons of amygdala, which are responsible for maintaining extinction-induced inhibition, was no longer effective in multiple-session extinction training. We propose that the inhibition mechanism operates primarily in the early phase of extinction training, and the erasure mechanism takes over after that.

  7. Structure and mechanical properties of Al-3Fe rapidly solidified alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karakoese, Ercan; Keskin, Mustafa

    2011-01-01

    The Al based Al-3 wt%Fe alloy was prepared by conventionally casting (ingot) and further processed the melt-spinning technique and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) together with energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and the Vickers microhardness tester. The rapidly solidified (RS) binary alloys were composed of supersaturated α-Al solid solution and finely dispersed intermetallic phases. Experimental results showed that the mechanical properties of RS alloys were enhanced, which can be attributed to significant changes in the microstructure. The dependence of microhardness H V on the solidification rate (V) was analysed. These results showed that with the increasing values of V, the values of H V increased.

  8. Rapidity gap survival in central exclusive diffraction: Dynamical mechanisms and uncertainties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strikman, Mark; Weiss, Christian

    2009-01-01

    We summarize our understanding of the dynamical mechanisms governing rapidity gap survival in central exclusive diffraction, pp -> p + H + p (H = high-mass system), and discuss the uncertainties in present estimates of the survival probability. The main suppression of diffractive scattering is due to inelastic soft spectator interactions at small pp impact parameters and can be described in a mean-field approximation (independent hard and soft interactions). Moderate extra suppression results from fluctuations of the partonic configurations of the colliding protons. At LHC energies absorptive interactions of hard spectator partons associated with the gg -> H process reach the black-disk regime and cause substantial additional suppression, pushing the survival probability below 0.01.

  9. Mechanical and Permeability Characteristics of Latex-Modified Pre-Packed Pavement Repair Concrete as a Function of the Rapid-Set Binder Content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae-Woong Han

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated the strength and durability characteristics of latex-polymer-modified, pre-packed pavement repair concrete (LMPPRC with a rapid-set binder. The rapid-set binder was a mixture of rapid-set cement and silica sand, where the fluidity was controlled using a latex polymer. The resulting mix exhibited a compressive strength of ¥21 MPa and a flexural strength of ¥3.5 MPa after 4 h of curing (i.e., the traffic opening term for emergency repairs of pavement. The ratio of latex polymer to rapid-set binder material was varied through 0.40, 0.33, 0.29, and 0.25. Mechanical characterization revealed that the mechanical performance, permeability, and impact resistance increased as the ratio of latex polymer to rapid-set binder decreased. The mixture exhibited a compressive strength of ¥21 MPa after 4 h when the ratio of latex polymer to rapid-set binder material was ¤0.29. The mixture exhibited a flexural strength of ¥3.5 MPa after 4 h when the ratio of latex polymer to rapid-set binder material was ¤0.33. The permeability resistance to chloride ions satisfied 2000 C after 7 days of curing for all ratios. The ratio of latex polymer to rapid-set binder material that satisfied all conditions for emergency pavement repair was ¤0.29.

  10. Control of a perturbed under-actuated mechanical system

    KAUST Repository

    Zayane, Chadia; Laleg-Kirati, Taous-Meriem; Chemori, Ahmed

    2015-01-01

    In this work, the trajectory tracking problem for an under-actuated mechanical system in presence of unknown input disturbances is addressed. The studied inertia wheel inverted pendulum falls in the class of non minimum phase systems. The proposed

  11. Exploration of mechanisms underlying the strain-rate-dependent mechanical property of single chondrocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, Trung Dung; Gu, YuanTong, E-mail: yuantong.gu@qut.edu.au [School of Chemistry, Physics and Mechanical Engineering, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, Queensland (Australia)

    2014-05-05

    Based on the characterization by Atomic Force Microscopy, we report that the mechanical property of single chondrocytes has dependency on the strain-rates. By comparing the mechanical deformation responses and the Young's moduli of living and fixed chondrocytes at four different strain-rates, we explore the deformation mechanisms underlying this dependency property. We found that the strain-rate-dependent mechanical property of living cells is governed by both of the cellular cytoskeleton and the intracellular fluid when the fixed chondrocytes are mainly governed by their intracellular fluid, which is called the consolidation-dependent deformation behavior. Finally, we report that the porohyperelastic constitutive material model which can capture the consolidation-dependent behavior of both living and fixed chondrocytes is a potential candidature to study living cell biomechanics.

  12. Deformation Mechanisms of Gum Metals Under Nanoindentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankaran, Rohini Priya

    defect structures to applied loading, we perform ex-situ nanoindentation. Nanoindentation is a convenient method as the plastic deformation is localized and probes a nominally defect free volume of the material. We subsequently characterize the defect structures in these alloys with both conventional TEM and advanced techniques such as HAADF HRSTEM and nanoprobe diffraction. These advanced techniques allow for a more thorough understanding of the observed deformation features. The main findings from this investigation are as follows. As expected we observe that a non-equilibrium phase, o, is present in the leaner beta-stabilized alloy, ST Ref-1. We do not find any direct evidence of secondary phases in STGM, and we find the beta phase in CWGM, along with lath microstructure with subgrain structure consisting of dislocation cell networks. Upon nanoindentation, we find twinning accompanied by beta nucleation on the twin boundary in ST Ref-1 samples. This result is consistent with previous findings and is reasonable considering the alloy is unstable with respect to beta transformation. We find deformation nanotwinning in cold worked gum metals under nanoindentation, which is initially surprising. We argue that when viewed as a nanocrystalline material, such a deformation mechanism is consistent with previous work, and furthermore, a deformation nanotwinned structure does not preclude an ideal shear mechanism from operating in the alloy. Lastly, we observe continuous lattice rotations in STGM under nanoindentation via nanoprobe diffraction. With this technique, for the first time we can demonstrate that the lattice rotations are truly continuous at the nanoscale. We can quantify this lattice rotation, and find that even though the rotation is large, it may be mediated by a reasonable geometrically necessary dislocation density, and note that similar rotations are typically observed in other materials under nanoindentation. HRSTEM and conventional TEM data confirm the

  13. Cell-Nonautonomous Mechanisms Underlying Cellular and Organismal Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medkour, Younes; Svistkova, Veronika; Titorenko, Vladimir I

    2016-01-01

    Cell-autonomous mechanisms underlying cellular and organismal aging in evolutionarily distant eukaryotes have been established; these mechanisms regulate longevity-defining processes within a single eukaryotic cell. Recent findings have provided valuable insight into cell-nonautonomous mechanisms modulating cellular and organismal aging in eukaryotes across phyla; these mechanisms involve a transmission of various longevity factors between different cells, tissues, and organisms. Herein, we review such cell-nonautonomous mechanisms of aging in eukaryotes. We discuss the following: (1) how low molecular weight transmissible longevity factors modulate aging and define longevity of cells in yeast populations cultured in liquid media or on solid surfaces, (2) how communications between proteostasis stress networks operating in neurons and nonneuronal somatic tissues define longevity of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans by modulating the rates of aging in different tissues, and (3) how different bacterial species colonizing the gut lumen of C. elegans define nematode longevity by modulating the rate of organismal aging. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Crack assessment of pipe under combined thermal and mechanical load

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Tae Kwang; Kim, Yun Jae

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, J-integral and transient C(t)-integral, which were key parameters in low temperature and high temperature fracture mechanics, under combined thermal and mechanical load were estimated via 3-dimensional finite element analyses. Various type of thermal and mechanical load, material hardening were considered to decrease conservatism in existing solutions. As a results, V-factor and redistribution time for combined thermal and mechanical load were proposed to calculate J-integral and C(t)-integral, respectively.

  15. On Rural Financial and Accounting Work under the Background of Rapid Agricultural Economic Development

    OpenAIRE

    Tang, Yaozheng

    2013-01-01

    Under the background of rapid agricultural economic development, rural financial and accounting work is of great significance. From rural accounting management system, rural accountant allocation and rural accounting training, this paper analyzes current situations of rural accounting work in China. In rural financial and accounting work, there are following problems. (1) Accounting behavior is not standard, and basic accounting work is to be further strengthened; (2) Internal control is not ...

  16. Mechanisms underlying the volume regulation of interstitial fluid by capillaries: a simulation study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yukiko Himeno

    2016-03-01

    Conclusion: Mathematical analyses revealed that the system of the capillary is stable near the equilibrium point at steady state and normal physiological capillary pressure. The time course of the tissue-volume change was determined by two kinetic mechanisms: rapid fluid exchange and slow protein fluxes.

  17. Transport mechanisms in low-resistance ohmic contacts to p-InP formed by rapid thermal annealing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Thomas; Leistiko, Otto

    1993-01-01

    process is related to interdiffusion and compound formation between the metal elements and the InP. The onset of low specific contact resistance is characterized by a change in the dominant transport mechanism; from predominantly a combination of thermionic emission and field emission to purely thermionic......Thermionic emission across a very small effective Schottky barrier (0-0.2 eV) are reported as being the dominant transport process mechanism in very low-resistance ohmic contacts for conventional AuZn(Ni) metallization systems top-InP formed by rapid thermal annealing. The barrier modulation...

  18. Phytophthora capsici - Loss of Heterozygosity (LOH): A Widespread Mechanism for Rapid Adaptation (7th Annual SFAF Meeting, 2012)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mudge, Joanne

    2012-06-01

    Joanne Mudge on "Phytophthora capsici - Loss of Heterozygosity (LOH): A Widespread Mechanism for Rapid Mutation" at the 2012 Sequencing, Finishing, Analysis in the Future Meeting held June 5-7, 2012 in Santa Fe, New Mexico.

  19. Hierarchically rough, mechanically durable and superhydrophobic epoxy coatings through rapid evaporation spray method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simovich, Tomer; Wu, Alex H.; Lamb, Robert N.

    2015-01-01

    A mechanically durable and scalable superhydrophobic coating was fabricated by combining the advantages of both bottom-up and top-down approaches into a one-pot, one-step application method. This is achieved by spray coating a solution consisting of silica nanoparticles, which are embedded within epoxy resin, onto a heated substrate to rapidly drive both solvent evaporation and curing simultaneously. By maintaining a high substrate temperature, the arrival of spray-delivered micrometer-sized droplets are rapidly cured onto the substrate to form surface microroughness, while simultaneously, rapid solvent evaporation within each droplet results in the formation of a nanoporous structure. SEM, dual-beam FIB, and cross-sectional TEM/EDAX elemental mapping were used to confirm both the chemistry and the requisite micro- and nano-porosity within the coating structure requisite for superhydrophobicity. The resultant coatings exhibit contact angles greater than 150° (153.8° ± 0.8°) and roll-off angles of 8° ± 2°, with a coating hardness of 6H on the pencil hardness scale, and a rating of 5 on an ASTM crosshatch test. - Highlights: • A highly superhydrophobic coating was fabricated utilizing epoxy and nanoparticles. • The coating was demonstrated to be very durable and abrasion resistant. • The fabrication involves a novel, scalable one-pot synthesis technique

  20. Hierarchically rough, mechanically durable and superhydrophobic epoxy coatings through rapid evaporation spray method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simovich, Tomer; Wu, Alex H.; Lamb, Robert N., E-mail: rnlamb@unimelb.edu.au

    2015-08-31

    A mechanically durable and scalable superhydrophobic coating was fabricated by combining the advantages of both bottom-up and top-down approaches into a one-pot, one-step application method. This is achieved by spray coating a solution consisting of silica nanoparticles, which are embedded within epoxy resin, onto a heated substrate to rapidly drive both solvent evaporation and curing simultaneously. By maintaining a high substrate temperature, the arrival of spray-delivered micrometer-sized droplets are rapidly cured onto the substrate to form surface microroughness, while simultaneously, rapid solvent evaporation within each droplet results in the formation of a nanoporous structure. SEM, dual-beam FIB, and cross-sectional TEM/EDAX elemental mapping were used to confirm both the chemistry and the requisite micro- and nano-porosity within the coating structure requisite for superhydrophobicity. The resultant coatings exhibit contact angles greater than 150° (153.8° ± 0.8°) and roll-off angles of 8° ± 2°, with a coating hardness of 6H on the pencil hardness scale, and a rating of 5 on an ASTM crosshatch test. - Highlights: • A highly superhydrophobic coating was fabricated utilizing epoxy and nanoparticles. • The coating was demonstrated to be very durable and abrasion resistant. • The fabrication involves a novel, scalable one-pot synthesis technique.

  1. Lithium-Ion Battery Online Rapid State-of-Power Estimation under Multiple Constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shun Xiang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims to realize a rapid online estimation of the state-of-power (SOP with multiple constraints of a lithium-ion battery. Firstly, based on the improved first-order resistance-capacitance (RC model with one-state hysteresis, a linear state-space battery model is built; then, using the dual extended Kalman filtering (DEKF method, the battery parameters and states, including open-circuit voltage (OCV, are estimated. Secondly, by employing the estimated OCV as the observed value to build the second dual Kalman filters, the battery SOC is estimated. Thirdly, a novel rapid-calculating peak power/SOP method with multiple constraints is proposed in which, according to the bisection judgment method, the battery’s peak state is determined; then, one or two instantaneous peak powers are used to determine the peak power during T seconds. In addition, in the battery operating process, the actual constraint that the battery is under is analyzed specifically. Finally, three simplified versions of the Federal Urban Driving Schedule (SFUDS with inserted pulse experiments are conducted to verify the effectiveness and accuracy of the proposed online SOP estimation method.

  2. Mechanism of crack initiation and crack growth under thermal and mechanical fatigue loading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Utz, S.; Soppa, E.; Silcher, H.; Kohler, C. [Stuttgart Univ. (Germany). Materials Testing Inst.

    2013-07-01

    The present contribution is focused on the experimental investigations and numerical simulations of the deformation behaviour and crack development in the austenitic stainless steel X6CrNiNb18-10 under thermal and mechanical cyclic loading in HCF and LCF regimes. The main objective of this research is the understanding of the basic mechanisms of fatigue damage and the development of simulation methods, which can be applied further in safety evaluations of nuclear power plant components. In this context the modelling of crack initiation and crack growth inside the material structure induced by varying thermal or mechanical loads are of particular interest. The mechanisms of crack initiation depend among other things on the type of loading, microstructure, material properties and temperature. The Nb-stabilized austenitic stainless steel in the solution-annealed condition was chosen for the investigations. Experiments with two kinds of cyclic loading - pure thermal and pure mechanical - were carried out and simulated. The fatigue behaviour of the steel X6CrNiNb18-10 under thermal loading was studied within the framework of the joint research project [4]. Interrupted thermal cyclic tests in the temperature range of 150 C to 300 C combined with non-destructive residual stress measurements (XRD) and various microscopic investigations, e.g. in SEM (Scanning Electron Microscope), were used to study the effects of thermal cyclic loading on the material. This thermal cyclic loading leads to thermal induced stresses and strains. As a result intrusions and extrusions appear inside the grains (at the surface), at which microcracks arise and evolve to a dominant crack. Finally, these microcracks cause a continuous and significant decrease of residual stresses. The fatigue behaviour of the steel X6CrNiNb18-10 under mechanical loading at room temperature was studied within the framework of the research project [5], [8]. With a combination of interrupted LCF tests and EBSD

  3. Mechanism of crack initiation and crack growth under thermal and mechanical fatigue loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Utz, S.; Soppa, E.; Silcher, H.; Kohler, C.

    2013-01-01

    The present contribution is focused on the experimental investigations and numerical simulations of the deformation behaviour and crack development in the austenitic stainless steel X6CrNiNb18-10 under thermal and mechanical cyclic loading in HCF and LCF regimes. The main objective of this research is the understanding of the basic mechanisms of fatigue damage and the development of simulation methods, which can be applied further in safety evaluations of nuclear power plant components. In this context the modelling of crack initiation and crack growth inside the material structure induced by varying thermal or mechanical loads are of particular interest. The mechanisms of crack initiation depend among other things on the type of loading, microstructure, material properties and temperature. The Nb-stabilized austenitic stainless steel in the solution-annealed condition was chosen for the investigations. Experiments with two kinds of cyclic loading - pure thermal and pure mechanical - were carried out and simulated. The fatigue behaviour of the steel X6CrNiNb18-10 under thermal loading was studied within the framework of the joint research project [4]. Interrupted thermal cyclic tests in the temperature range of 150 C to 300 C combined with non-destructive residual stress measurements (XRD) and various microscopic investigations, e.g. in SEM (Scanning Electron Microscope), were used to study the effects of thermal cyclic loading on the material. This thermal cyclic loading leads to thermal induced stresses and strains. As a result intrusions and extrusions appear inside the grains (at the surface), at which microcracks arise and evolve to a dominant crack. Finally, these microcracks cause a continuous and significant decrease of residual stresses. The fatigue behaviour of the steel X6CrNiNb18-10 under mechanical loading at room temperature was studied within the framework of the research project [5], [8]. With a combination of interrupted LCF tests and EBSD

  4. Ideas for the rapid development of the structural models in mechanical engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oanta, E.; Raicu, A.; Panait, C.

    2017-08-01

    Conceiving computer based instruments is a long run concern of the authors. Some of the original solutions are: optimal processing of the large matrices, interfaces between the programming languages, approximation theory using spline functions, numerical programming increased accuracy based on the extended arbitrary precision libraries. For the rapid development of the models we identified the following directions: atomization, ‘librarization’, parameterization, automatization and integration. Each of these directions has some particular aspects if we approach mechanical design problems or software development. Atomization means a thorough top-down decomposition analysis which offers an insight regarding the basic features of the phenomenon. Creation of libraries of reusable mechanical parts and libraries of programs (data types, functions) save time, cost and effort when a new model must be conceived. Parameterization leads to flexible definition of the mechanical parts, the values of the parameters being changed either using a dimensioning program or in accord to other parts belonging to the same assembly. The resulting templates may be also included in libraries. Original software applications are useful for the model’s input data generation, to input the data into CAD/FEA commercial applications and for the data integration of the various types of studies included in the same project.

  5. Setting Mechanical Properties of High Strength Steels for Rapid Hot Forming Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löbbe, Christian; Hering, Oliver; Hiegemann, Lars; Tekkaya, A. Erman

    2016-01-01

    Hot stamping of sheet metal is an established method for the manufacturing of light weight products with tailored properties. However, the generally-applied continuous roller furnace manifests two crucial disadvantages: the overall process time is long and a local setting of mechanical properties is only feasible through special cooling techniques. Hot forming with rapid heating directly before shaping is a new approach, which not only reduces the thermal intervention in the zones of critical formability and requested properties, but also allows the processing of an advantageous microstructure characterized by less grain growth, additional fractions (e.g., retained austenite), and undissolved carbides. Since the austenitization and homogenization process is strongly dependent on the microstructure constitution, the general applicability for the process relevant parameters is unknown. Thus, different austenitization parameters are analyzed for the conventional high strength steels 22MnB5, Docol 1400M, and DP1000 in respect of the mechanical properties. In order to characterize the resulting microstructure, the light optical and scanning electron microscopy, micro and macro hardness measurements, and the X-ray diffraction are conducted subsequent to tensile tests. The investigation proves not only the feasibility to adjust the strength and ductility flexibly, unique microstructures are also observed and the governing mechanisms are clarified. PMID:28773354

  6. Fracture mechanics of hydroxyapatite single crystals under geometric confinement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libonati, Flavia; Nair, Arun K; Vergani, Laura; Buehler, Markus J

    2013-04-01

    Geometric confinement to the nanoscale, a concept that refers to the characteristic dimensions of structural features of materials at this length scale, has been shown to control the mechanical behavior of many biological materials or their building blocks, and such effects have also been suggested to play a crucial role in enhancing the strength and toughness of bone. Here we study the effect of geometric confinement on the fracture mechanism of hydroxyapatite (HAP) crystals that form the mineralized phase in bone. We report a series of molecular simulations of HAP crystals with an edge crack on the (001) plane under tensile loading, and we systematically vary the sample height whilst keeping the sample and the crack length constant. We find that by decreasing the sample height the stress concentration at the tip of the crack disappears for samples with a height smaller than 4.15nm, below which the material shows a different failure mode characterized by a more ductile mechanism with much larger failure strains, and the strength approaching that of a flaw-less crystal. This study directly confirms an earlier suggestion of a flaw-tolerant state that appears under geometric confinement and may explain the mechanical stability of the reinforcing HAP platelets in bone. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Believing versus interacting: Behavioural and neural mechanisms underlying interpersonal coordination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Konvalinka, Ivana; Bauer, Markus; Kilner, James

    When two people engage in a bidirectional interaction with each other, they use both bottom-up sensorimotor mechanisms such as monitoring and adapting to the behaviour of the other, as well as top-down cognitive processes, modulating their beliefs and allowing them to make decisions. Most research...... in joint action has investigated only one of these mechanisms at a time – low-level processes underlying joint coordination, or high-level cognitive mechanisms that give insight into how people think about another. In real interactions, interplay between these two mechanisms modulates how we interact...

  8. Rapid Tempering of Martensitic Stainless Steel AISI420: Microstructure, Mechanical and Corrosion Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasi-Khazaei, Bijan; Mollaahmadi, Akbar

    2017-04-01

    In this research, the effect of rapid tempering on the microstructure, mechanical properties and corrosion resistance of AISI 420 martensitic stainless steel has been investigated. At first, all test specimens were austenitized at 1050 °C for 1 h and tempered at 200 °C for 1 h. Then, the samples were rapidly reheated by a salt bath furnace in a temperature range from 300 to 1050 °C for 2 min and cooled in air. The tensile tests, impact, hardness and electrochemical corrosion were carried out on the reheated samples. Scanning electron microscopy was used to study the microstructure and fracture surface. To investigate carbides, transmission electron microscopy and also scanning electron microscopy were used. X-ray diffraction was used for determination of the retained austenite. The results showed that the minimum properties such as the tensile strength, impact energy, hardness and corrosion resistance were obtained at reheating temperature of 700 °C. Semi-continuous carbides in the grain boundaries were seen in this temperature. Secondary hardening phenomenon was occurred at reheating temperature of 500 °C.

  9. Mechanical behavior of silicon carbide nanoparticles under uniaxial compression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Qiuxiang; Fei, Jing; Tang, Chao; Zhong, Jianxin; Meng, Lijun, E-mail: ljmeng@xtu.edu.cn [Xiangtan University, Hunan Key Laboratory for Micro-Nano Energy Materials and Devices, Faculty of School of Physics and Optoelectronics (China)

    2016-03-15

    The mechanical behavior of SiC nanoparticles under uniaxial compression was investigated using an atomic-level compression simulation technique. The results revealed that the mechanical deformation of SiC nanocrystals is highly dependent on compression orientation, particle size, and temperature. A structural transformation from the original zinc-blende to a rock-salt phase is identified for SiC nanoparticles compressed along the [001] direction at low temperature. However, the rock-salt phase is not observed for SiC nanoparticles compressed along the [110] and [111] directions irrespective of size and temperature. The high-pressure-generated rock-salt phase strongly affects the mechanical behavior of the nanoparticles, including their hardness and deformation process. The hardness of [001]-compressed nanoparticles decreases monotonically as their size increases, different from that of [110] and [111]-compressed nanoparticles, which reaches a maximal value at a critical size and then decreases. Additionally, a temperature-dependent mechanical response was observed for all simulated SiC nanoparticles regardless of compression orientation and size. Interestingly, the hardness of SiC nanocrystals with a diameter of 8 nm compressed in [001]-orientation undergoes a steep decrease at 0.1–200 K and then a gradual decline from 250 to 1500 K. This trend can be attributed to different deformation mechanisms related to phase transformation and dislocations. Our results will be useful for practical applications of SiC nanoparticles under high pressure.

  10. An analytically solvable model for rapid evolution of modular structure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadav Kashtan

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Biological systems often display modularity, in the sense that they can be decomposed into nearly independent subsystems. Recent studies have suggested that modular structure can spontaneously emerge if goals (environments change over time, such that each new goal shares the same set of sub-problems with previous goals. Such modularly varying goals can also dramatically speed up evolution, relative to evolution under a constant goal. These studies were based on simulations of model systems, such as logic circuits and RNA structure, which are generally not easy to treat analytically. We present, here, a simple model for evolution under modularly varying goals that can be solved analytically. This model helps to understand some of the fundamental mechanisms that lead to rapid emergence of modular structure under modularly varying goals. In particular, the model suggests a mechanism for the dramatic speedup in evolution observed under such temporally varying goals.

  11. Organic nitrates: update on mechanisms underlying vasodilation, tolerance and endothelial dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Münzel, Thomas; Steven, Sebastian; Daiber, Andreas

    2014-12-01

    Given acutely, organic nitrates, such as nitroglycerin (GTN), isosorbide mono- and dinitrates (ISMN, ISDN), and pentaerythrityl tetranitrate (PETN), have potent vasodilator and anti-ischemic effects in patients with acute coronary syndromes, acute and chronic congestive heart failure and arterial hypertension. During long-term treatment, however, side effects such as nitrate tolerance and endothelial dysfunction occur, and therapeutic efficacy of these drugs rapidly vanishes. Recent experimental and clinical studies have revealed that organic nitrates per se are not just nitric oxide (NO) donors, but rather a quite heterogeneous group of drugs considerably differing for mechanisms underlying vasodilation and the development of endothelial dysfunction and tolerance. Based on this, we propose that the term nitrate tolerance should be avoided and more specifically the terms of GTN, ISMN and ISDN tolerance should be used. The present review summarizes preclinical and clinical data concerning organic nitrates. Here we also emphasize the consequences of chronic nitrate therapy on the supersensitivity of the vasculature to vasoconstriction and on the increased autocrine expression of endothelin. We believe that these so far rather neglected and underestimated side effects of chronic therapy with at least GTN and ISMN are clinically important. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Rapid screening for entry inhibitors of highly pathogenic viruses under low-level biocontainment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aparna Talekar

    Full Text Available Emerging viruses including Nipah, Hendra, Lujo, and Junin viruses have enormous potential to spread rapidly. Nipah virus, after emerging as a zoonosis, has also evolved the capacity for human-to-human transmission. Most of the diseases caused by these pathogens are untreatable and require high biocontainment conditions. Universal methods for rapidly identifying and screening candidate antivirals are urgently needed. We have developed a modular antiviral platform strategy that relies on simple bioinformatic and genetic information about each pathogen. Central to this platform is the use of envelope glycoprotein cDNAs to establish multi-cycle replication systems under BSL2 conditions for viral pathogens that normally require BSL3 and BSL4 facilities. We generated monoclonal antibodies against Nipah G by cDNA immunization in rats, and we showed that these antibodies neutralize both Nipah and Hendra live viruses. We then used these effective Henipavirus inhibitors to validate our screening strategy. Our proposed strategy should contribute to the response capability for emerging infectious diseases, providing a way to initiate antiviral development immediately upon identifying novel viruses.

  13. Nonlinear Mechanics of MEMS Rectangular Microplates under Electrostatic Actuation

    KAUST Repository

    Saghir, Shahid

    2016-01-01

    The first objective of the dissertation is to develop a suitable reduced order model capable of investigating the nonlinear mechanical behavior of von-Karman plates under electrostatic actuation. The second objective is to investigate the nonlinear

  14. Combined toxicity and underlying mechanisms of a mixture of eight heavy metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Qi; Gu, Yuanliang; Yue, Xia; Mao, Guochuan; Wang, Yafei; Su, Hong; Xu, Jin; Shi, Hongbo; Zou, Baobo; Zhao, Jinshun; Wang, Renyuan

    2017-02-01

    With the rapid development of modernization and industrialization in China, a large quantity of heavy metals, including zinc, copper, lead, cadmium and mercury, have been entering the atmosphere, soil and water, the latter being the primary route of pollution. In the present study, in vitro experiments were performed to examine the joint toxicity and the underlying mechanisms of the eight most common heavy metals contaminating offshore waters on the eastern coast of Ningbo region. Using a cell cycle assay, cell apoptosis and reactive oxygen species (ROS) detection methods, the present study demonstrated that the heavy metal mixture arrested JB6 cells at the S phase, induced the generation of ROS and cell apoptosis. A luciferase assay indicated that the levels of activator protein‑1 and nuclear factor‑κB transcription factors were upregulated. Upregulation of the protein levels of C‑jun and p65 were detected in the JB6 cells by western blot analysis; these two genes have important roles in cell carcinogenesis. These results provide a useful reference for further investigations on the combined toxicity of the exposure to multiple heavy metals.

  15. Peripheral Receptor Mechanisms Underlying Orofacial Muscle Pain and Hyperalgesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saloman, Jami L.

    Musculoskeletal pain conditions, particularly those associated with temporomandibular joint and muscle disorders (TMD) are severely debilitating and affect approximately 12% of the population. Identifying peripheral nociceptive mechanisms underlying mechanical hyperalgesia, a prominent feature of persistent muscle pain, could contribute to the development of new treatment strategies for the management of TMD and other muscle pain conditions. This study provides evidence of functional interactions between ligand-gated channels, P2X3 and TRPV1/TRPA1, in trigeminal sensory neurons, and proposes that these interactions underlie the development of mechanical hyperalgesia. In the masseter muscle, direct P2X3 activation, via the selective agonist αβmeATP, induced a dose- and time-dependent hyperalgesia. Importantly, the αβmeATP-induced hyperalgesia was prevented by pretreatment of the muscle with a TRPV1 antagonist, AMG9810, or the TRPA1 antagonist, AP18. P2X3 was co-expressed with both TRPV1 and TRPA1 in masseter muscle afferents confirming the possibility for intracellular interactions. Moreover, in a subpopulation of P2X3 /TRPV1 positive neurons, capsaicin-induced Ca2+ transients were significantly potentiated following P2X3 activation. Inhibition of Ca2+-dependent kinases, PKC and CaMKII, prevented P2X3-mechanical hyperalgesia whereas blockade of Ca2+-independent PKA did not. Finally, activation of P2X3 induced phosphorylation of serine, but not threonine, residues in TRPV1 in trigeminal sensory neurons. Significant phosphorylation was observed at 15 minutes, the time point at which behavioral hyperalgesia was prominent. Similar data were obtained regarding another nonselective cation channel, the NMDA receptor (NMDAR). Our data propose P2X3 and NMDARs interact with TRPV1 in a facilitatory manner, which could contribute to the peripheral sensitization underlying masseter hyperalgesia. This study offers novel mechanisms by which individual pro-nociceptive ligand

  16. Rapid parallel evolution overcomes global honey bee parasite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oddie, Melissa; Büchler, Ralph; Dahle, Bjørn; Kovacic, Marin; Le Conte, Yves; Locke, Barbara; de Miranda, Joachim R; Mondet, Fanny; Neumann, Peter

    2018-05-16

    In eusocial insect colonies nestmates cooperate to combat parasites, a trait called social immunity. However, social immunity failed for Western honey bees (Apis mellifera) when the ectoparasitic mite Varroa destructor switched hosts from Eastern honey bees (Apis cerana). This mite has since become the most severe threat to A. mellifera world-wide. Despite this, some isolated A. mellifera populations are known to survive infestations by means of natural selection, largely by supressing mite reproduction, but the underlying mechanisms of this are poorly understood. Here, we show that a cost-effective social immunity mechanism has evolved rapidly and independently in four naturally V. destructor-surviving A. mellifera populations. Worker bees of all four 'surviving' populations uncapped/recapped worker brood cells more frequently and targeted mite-infested cells more effectively than workers in local susceptible colonies. Direct experiments confirmed the ability of uncapping/recapping to reduce mite reproductive success without sacrificing nestmates. Our results provide striking evidence that honey bees can overcome exotic parasites with simple qualitative and quantitative adaptive shifts in behaviour. Due to rapid, parallel evolution in four host populations this appears to be a key mechanism explaining survival of mite infested colonies.

  17. Underlying mechanisms of improving physical activity behavior after rehabilitation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Ploeg, H.P.; Streppel, K.R.; van der Beek, A.J.; van der Woude, L.H.V.; van Harten, W.H.; van Mechelen, W.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Regular physical activity is beneficial for the health and functioning of people with a disability. Effective components of successful physical activity promotion interventions should be identified and disseminated. Purpose: To study the underlying mechanisms of the combined sport

  18. Underlying Mechanisms of Improving Physical Activity Behavior after Rehabilitation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Ploeg, Hidde P.; Streppel, Kitty R.M.; van der Beek, Allard J.; Woude, Luc H.V.; van Harten, Willem H.; Vollenbroek-Hutten, Miriam Marie Rosé; van Mechelen, Willem

    2008-01-01

    Background: Regular physical activity is beneficial for the health and functioning of people with a disability. Effective components of successful physical activity promotion interventions should be identified and disseminated. Purpose: To study the underlying mechanisms of the combined sport

  19. On the dynamic mechanical property and deformation mechanism of as-extruded Mg-Sn-Ca alloys under tension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Qiuyan; Pan, Hucheng; Tang, Aitao; Ren, Yuping; Song, Bo; Qin, Gaowu; Zhang, Mingxing; Pan, Fusheng

    2016-01-01

    To further understand the deformation mechanism of magnesium alloys and expand their applications under dynamic conditions, the newly developed Mg-2Sn-1Ca alloy (TX21) is selected as the representative sample and tested under wide loading rate ranging from quasi-static to dynamic level (10"−"3–500/s). Both ultimate tensile strength and elongation of the as-extruded TX21 alloys increase with strain rate. Although twinning is accompanied due to the enhanced activity at higher strain rate, the preferential activation of dislocations is readily clarified and confirmed as the dominant deformation modes. Active interactions of pyramidal dislocations result in the higher strain hardening ability and could be correlated to the obviously positive strain-rate sensitivity for mechanical properties. Moreover, it is observed that the larger grain size and higher content of solute atoms dissolved in matrix would lead to the more active dislocations and twinning formations. The present results would provide insight into further understanding the deformation mechanism under dynamic rate loading and designing Mg alloy suitable for impact conditions.

  20. On the dynamic mechanical property and deformation mechanism of as-extruded Mg-Sn-Ca alloys under tension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Qiuyan [National Engineering Research Center for Magnesium Alloys, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); Pan, Hucheng [Key Laboratory for Anisotropy and Texture of Materials (Ministry of Education), Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819 (China); Tang, Aitao, E-mail: tat@cqu.edu.cn [National Engineering Research Center for Magnesium Alloys, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); Ren, Yuping [Key Laboratory for Anisotropy and Texture of Materials (Ministry of Education), Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819 (China); Song, Bo [Faculty of Materials and Energy, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715 (China); Qin, Gaowu, E-mail: qingw@smm.neu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory for Anisotropy and Texture of Materials (Ministry of Education), Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819 (China); Zhang, Mingxing [School of Mechanical and Mining Engineering, University of Queensland, St Lucia, QLD 4072 (Australia); Pan, Fusheng [National Engineering Research Center for Magnesium Alloys, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China)

    2016-05-10

    To further understand the deformation mechanism of magnesium alloys and expand their applications under dynamic conditions, the newly developed Mg-2Sn-1Ca alloy (TX21) is selected as the representative sample and tested under wide loading rate ranging from quasi-static to dynamic level (10{sup −3}–500/s). Both ultimate tensile strength and elongation of the as-extruded TX21 alloys increase with strain rate. Although twinning is accompanied due to the enhanced activity at higher strain rate, the preferential activation of dislocations is readily clarified and confirmed as the dominant deformation modes. Active interactions of pyramidal dislocations result in the higher strain hardening ability and could be correlated to the obviously positive strain-rate sensitivity for mechanical properties. Moreover, it is observed that the larger grain size and higher content of solute atoms dissolved in matrix would lead to the more active dislocations and twinning formations. The present results would provide insight into further understanding the deformation mechanism under dynamic rate loading and designing Mg alloy suitable for impact conditions.

  1. Animal behavior models of the mechanisms underlying antipsychotic atypicality.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geyer, M.A.; Ellenbroek, B.A.

    2003-01-01

    This review describes the animal behavior models that provide insight into the mechanisms underlying the critical differences between the actions of typical vs. atypical antipsychotic drugs. Although many of these models are capable of differentiating between antipsychotic and other psychotropic

  2. Dispersion strengthening of precipitation hardened Al-Cu-Mg alloys prepared by rapid solidification and mechanical alloying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilman, P. S.; Sankaran, K. K.

    1988-01-01

    Several Al-4Cu-1Mg-1.5Fe-0.75Ce alloys have been processed from either rapidly solidified or mechanically alloyed powder using various vacuum degassing parameters and consolidation techniques. Strengthening by the fine subgrains, grains, and the dispersoids individually or in combination is more effective when the alloys contain shearable precipitates; consequently, the strength of the alloys is higher in the naturally aged rather than the artificially aged condition. The strengths of the mechanically alloyed variants are greater than those produced from prealloyed powder. Properties and microstructural features of these dispersion strengthened alloys are discussed in regards to their processing histories.

  3. Legitimation for Early and Rapid Internationalization: A Review of Research in International Entrepreneurship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laine, Igor; Kuivalainen, Olli; Marinova, Svetla Trifonova

    In this paper we respond to Cavusgil and Knight’s call for future research to address the question of born global firms overcome inherent liabilities to achieve legitimacy in foreign markets. To contribute to this call, we have systematically reviewed the extant international entrepreneurship...... literature. By analyzing existing evidence on building organizational legitimacy by early and rapidly internationalizing firms, our review helps to understand reasons and underlying mechanisms of successful legitimation of early and rapid internationalization thus ultimately explaining existence...... entrepreneurship....

  4. Fuel cladding behavior under rapid loading conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yueh, K.; Karlsson, J.; Stjärnsäter, J.; Schrire, D.; Ledergerber, G.; Munoz-Reja, C.; Hallstadius, L.

    2016-02-01

    A modified burst test (MBT) was used in an extensive test program to characterize fuel cladding failure behavior under rapid loading conditions. The MBT differs from a normal burst test with the use of a driver tube to simulate the expansion of a fuel pellet, thereby producing a partial strain driven deformation condition similar to that of a fuel pellet expansion in a reactivity insertion accident (RIA). A piston/cylinder assembly was used to pressurize the driver tube. By controlling the speed and distance the piston travels the loading rate and degree of sample deformation could be controlled. The use of a driver tube with a machined gauge section localizes deformation and allows for continuous monitoring of the test sample diameter change at the location of maximum hoop strain, during each test. Cladding samples from five irradiated fuel rods were tested between 296 and 553 K and loading rates from 1.5 to 3.5/s. The test rods included variations of Zircaloy-2 with different liners and ZIRLO, ranging in burn-up from 41 to 74 GWd/MTU. The test results show cladding ductility is strongly temperature and loading rate dependent. Zircaloy-2 cladding ductility degradation due to operational hydrogen pickup started to recover at approximately 358 K for test condition used in the study. This recovery temperature is strongly loading rate dependent. At 373 K, ductility recovery was small for loading rates less than 8 ms equivalent RIA pulse width, but longer than 8 ms the ductility recovery increased exponentially with increasing pulse width, consistent with literature observations of loading rate dependent brittle-to-ductile (BTD) transition temperature. The cladding ductility was also observed to be strongly loading rate/pulse width dependent for BWR cladding below the BTD temperature and Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) cladding at both 296 and 553 K.

  5. Mechanism for rapid sawtooth crashes in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aydemir, A.Y.; Hazeltine, R.D.

    1986-09-01

    The sawtooth oscillations in the soft x-ray signals observed in tokamaks are associated with periodic changes in the central electron temperature, T/sub e/. Typically, a slow phase during which the central temperature slowly rises is followed by a fast drop in T/sub e/, associated with flattening of the central temperature. The time scale of the slow phase is determined by various transport processes such as ohmic heating. The resistive internal kink mode was invoked by Kadomtsev to explain the crash phase of the oscillations. Fast crash times observed in the large tokamaks are studied here, especially the fast crashes observed in JET. These sawtooth oscillations are characterized by the absence of any discrenible precursor oscillations, and a rapid collapse of the central temperature in about 100 microseconds. During the crash phase, the hot core region rapidly moves outward and is replaced by colder plasma. Then, this highly asymmetric state relaxes (in ∼100μsec) to a poloidally symmetric state in which a ring of hot plasma surrounds the colder core plasma, producing a hollow pressure profile

  6. Mechanisms Underlying Stress Fracture and the Influence of Sex and Race/Ethnicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-16-1-0652 TITLE: Mechanisms Underlying Stress Fracture and the Influence of Sex and Race/Ethnicity PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR...5a. CONTRACT NUMBER W81XWH-16-1-0652 Mechanisms Underlying Stress Fracture and the Influence of Sex and Race/Ethnicity 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH...to stress fracture risk. In particular, in Study 1, we will perform advanced skeletal imaging along with gait-assessments in subjects with history of

  7. Rapid microwave-assisted nonaqueous synthesis and growth mechanism of AgCl/Ag, and its daylight-driven plasmonic photocatalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jing; Zhang, Lizhi

    2011-03-21

    We report on a rapid microwave-assisted nonaqueous synthesis and the growth mechanism of AgCl/Ag with controlled size and shape. By rationally varying the reaction temperature and the microwave irradiation time, we achieved the transformation of nanocubes to rounded triangular pyramids by a combined process of "oriented attachment" and Ostwald ripening. The surface plasmon resonance (SPR) properties of the as-prepared AgCl/Ag have been found to be somewhat dependent on the size, morphology, and composition. The as-prepared AgCl/Ag exhibits high photocatalytic activity and good reusability for decomposing organic pollutants (such as methyl orange (MO), rhodamine B (RhB), and pentachlorophenol (PCP)) under indoor artificial daylight illumination (ca. 1 mW cm(-2)). The AgCl/Ag has also been found to display a superior ability to harvest diffuse indoor daylight (ca. 5 mW cm(-2)), and could complete the degradation of 10 mg  L(-1) MO within 15 min. Experiments involving the trapping of active species have shown that the photocatalytic degradation of organic pollutants in the AgCl/Ag system may proceed through direct hole transfer. This study has revealed that plasmonic daylight photocatalysis may open a new frontier for indoor pollutant control around the clock under fluorescent lamp illumination. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Failure Mechanisms of Brittle Rocks under Uniaxial Compression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Taoying; Cao, Ping

    2017-09-01

    The behaviour of a rock mass is determined not only by the properties of the rock matrix, but mostly by the presence and properties of discontinuities or fractures within the mass. The compression test on rock-like specimens with two prefabricated transfixion fissures, made by pulling out the embedded metal inserts in the pre-cured period was carried out on the servo control uniaxial loading tester. The influence of the geometry of pre-existing cracks on the cracking processes was analysed with reference to the experimental observation of crack initiation and propagation from pre-existing flaws. Based on the rock fracture mechanics and the stress-strain curves, the evolution failure mechanism of the fissure body was also analyzed on the basis of exploring the law of the compression-shear crack initiation, wing crack growth and rock bridge connection. Meanwhile, damage fracture mechanical models of a compression-shear rock mass are established when the rock bridge axial transfixion failure, tension-shear combined failure, or wing crack shear connection failure occurs on the specimen under axial compression. This research was of significance in studying the failure mechanism of fractured rock mass.

  9. Atomic and electronic structure transformations of silver nanoparticles under rapid cooling conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobato, I; Rojas, J; Landauro, C V; Torres, J

    2009-02-04

    The structural evolution and dynamics of silver nanodrops Ag(2869) (4.4 nm in diameter) under rapid cooling conditions have been studied by means of molecular dynamics simulations and electronic density of state calculations. The interaction of silver atoms is modelled by a tight-binding semiempirical interatomic potential proposed by Cleri and Rosato. The pair correlation functions and the pair analysis technique are used to reveal the structural transition in the process of solidification. It is shown that Ag nanoparticles evolve into different nanostructures under different cooling processes. At a cooling rate of 1.5625 × 10(13) K s(-1) the nanoparticles preserve an amorphous-like structure containing a large amount of 1551 and 1541 pairs which correspond to icosahedral symmetry. For a lower cooling rate (1.5625 × 10(12) K s(-1)), the nanoparticles transform into a crystal-like structure consisting mainly of 1421 and 1422 pairs which correspond to the face centred cubic and hexagonal close packed structures, respectively. The variations of the electronic density of states for the differently cooled nanoparticles are small, but in correspondence with the structural changes.

  10. Evolution under changing climates: climatic niche stasis despite rapid evolution in a non-native plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Jake M

    2013-09-22

    A topic of great current interest is the capacity of populations to adapt genetically to rapidly changing climates, for example by evolving the timing of life-history events, but this is challenging to address experimentally. I use a plant invasion as a model system to tackle this question by combining molecular markers, a common garden experiment and climatic niche modelling. This approach reveals that non-native Lactuca serriola originates primarily from Europe, a climatic subset of its native range, with low rates of admixture from Asia. It has rapidly refilled its climatic niche in the new range, associated with the evolution of flowering phenology to produce clines along climate gradients that mirror those across the native range. Consequently, some non-native plants have evolved development times and grow under climates more extreme than those found in Europe, but not among populations from the native range as a whole. This suggests that many plant populations can adapt rapidly to changed climatic conditions that are already within the climatic niche space occupied by the species elsewhere in its range, but that evolution to conditions outside of this range is more difficult. These findings can also help to explain the prevalence of niche conservatism among non-native species.

  11. Mechanical Degradation of Porous NiTi Alloys Under Static and Cyclic Loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, Seyyed Alireza

    2017-12-01

    Pore characteristics and morphology have significant effect on mechanical behavior of porous NiTi specimens. In this research, porous NiTi with different pore sizes, shapes and morphology were produced by powder metallurgy methods using space-holder materials. The effect of the pore characteristics on the mechanical properties was investigated by static and cyclic compression tests at body temperature. The results show that specimens with low porosity and isolated pores exhibit more mechanical strength and recoverable strain. The specimen with 36% porosity produced without space holder could preserve its properties up to 10% strain and its strain recovery was complete after cyclic compression tests. On the other hand, the specimens produced by a urea space holder with more than 60% interconnected porosity show rapid degradation of their scaffolds. The highly porous specimens degraded even below 5% strain due to crack formation and propagation in the thin pore walls. For highly porous specimens produced by a NaCl space holder, the pores are partially interconnected with a cubic shape; nevertheless, their mechanical behavior is close to low-porosity specimens.

  12. Rapid Forgetting Results from Competition over Time between Items in Visual Working Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pertzov, Yoni; Manohar, Sanjay; Husain, Masud

    2017-01-01

    Working memory is now established as a fundamental cognitive process across a range of species. Loss of information held in working memory has the potential to disrupt many aspects of cognitive function. However, despite its significance, the mechanisms underlying rapid forgetting remain unclear, with intense recent debate as to whether it is…

  13. Neural mechanisms of rapid sensitivity to syntactic anomaly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert E. Kim

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Recent psycholinguistic models hypothesize that anticipatory processing can speed the response to linguistic input during language comprehension by pre-activating representations necessary for word recognition. We investigated the neurocognitive mechanisms of anticipatory processing by recording event-related brain responses (ERPs to syntactically anomalous (The thief was caught by for police and well-formed (e.g., The thief was caught by the police sentences. One group of participants saw anomalies elicited by the same word in every instance (e.g., for; low-variability stimuli, providing high affordances for predictions about the word-form appearing in the critical position. A second group saw anomalies elicited by seven different prepositions (at, of, on, for, from, over, with; high-variability stimuli across the study, creating a more difficult prediction task. Syntactic category anomalies enhanced the occipital-temporal N170 component of the ERP, indicating rapid sensitivity—within 200 ms of word onset—to syntactic anomaly. For low-variability but not the high-variability stimuli, syntactic anomaly also enhanced the earlier occipital-temporal P1 component, around 130 ms after word-onset, indicating that affordances for prediction engendered earlier sensitivity to syntactic anomaly. Independent components analysis revealed three sources within the ERP signal whose functional dynamics were consistent with predictive processing and early responses to syntactic anomaly. Distributed neural source modeling (sLORETA of these early-active sources produced a candidate network for early responses to words during reading in the right posterior-occipital, left occipital-temporal, and medial parietal cortex.

  14. Visual investigation of transient fuel behavior under a rapid heating condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, Shinzo

    1981-10-01

    An in-reactor experimental research on fuel behavior under reactivity initiated accident (RIA) conditions is being conducted in the Nuclear Safety Research Reactor (NSRR). The optical system in which a non-browning lens periscope is directly installed in the test section was successfully developed for photographing transient fuel behavior. Several phenomena which had never been revealed before were observed in the slow motion pictures taken in the NSRR experiments which were performed in the water and air environments. As for incipient failure mechanism for an unirradiated fuel rod under RIA conditions, brittle fracture of the cladding during quenching is dominant. However, a split cracking possibly occurs during even red hot state of the cladding. It is considered that the crack is generated by the local internal pressure increase at the specified region blocked up due to the melting of the cladding inner surface. The film boiling is unexpectablly violent specially in the early stage of the transient, and film thickness becomes 5 -- 6 mm at maximum. The observed thick vapor film can not be explained by the conventional theory, but the effect of hydrogen which is produced by Zircaloy-water reaction is reasonably explained to form thick film in the report. The molten fuel was expelled from the cladding in the experiment which was performed in an air environment. The expelled fuel fragmented due to possibly initial motion effect, not mechanical collision effect, because Weber number is smaller than the critical value. (author)

  15. Rapid detoxification from opioid dependence under general anaesthesia versus standard methadone tapering : abstinence rates and withdrawal distress experiences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krabbe, Paul F M; Koning, Jeroen P F; Heinen, Nadia; Laheij, Robert J F; van Cauter, R M Victory; De Jong, Cor A J

    The aim of this work was to study abstinence rates and withdrawal effects of rapid detoxification of opioid-dependents under general anaesthesia (RD-GA) compared to standard methadone tapering (SMT) using a prospective clinical trial with a follow-up of 3 months, as a preliminary study at the

  16. Rapid detoxification from opioid dependence under general anaesthesia versus standard methadone tapering: abstinence rates and withdrawal distress experiences.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krabbe, P.F.M.; Koning, J.P.; Heinen, N.; Laheij, R.J.F.; Cauter, R.M.V. van; Jong, C.A.J. de

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this work was to study abstinence rates and withdrawal effects of rapid detoxification of opioid-dependents under general anaesthesia (RD-GA) compared to standard methadone tapering (SMT) using a prospective clinical trial with a follow-up of 3 months, as a preliminary study at the

  17. Complex fluids under microflow probed by SAXS: rapid microfabrication and analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, Hazel P; Luckham, Paul F; Cabral, Joao T; Brooks, Nicholas J; Seddon, John M; Terrill, Nick J; Kowalski, Adam J

    2010-01-01

    We report a combined microfluidic and online synchrotron small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) study of complex surfactant mixtures under flow. We investigate the influence of a series of flow constrictions, generating well-defined, periodic extensional flow fields, on the microstructure of two model surfactant mixtures containing SDS and CTAC. Specifically, the lamella spacing, orientation and structural order are reported and correlated with the imposed flow field: geometry, flow velocity and residence time. The design, fabrication and operation of a microfluidic system using rapid prototyping is described in detail. We show that polydimethyl siloxane (PDMS), ubiquitous in microfabrication, provides a suitable matrix for SAXS microdevices provided that: (i) PDMS thickness are kept to a minimum while retaining structural integrity (∼1000μm) and (ii) scattering from the structure of interest is sufficiently decoupled from the amorphous background scattering. The combination SAXS-microfluidics provides unprecedented opportunities to elucidate the non-equilibrium structure formation and relaxation of complex fluids, demonstrated here for concentrated surfactant mixtures.

  18. Complex fluids under microflow probed by SAXS: rapid microfabrication and analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, Hazel P; Luckham, Paul F; Cabral, Joao T [Department of Chemical Engineering, Imperial College London, Exhibition Road, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Brooks, Nicholas J; Seddon, John M [Department of Chemistry, Imperial College London, Exhibition Road, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Terrill, Nick J [Diamond Light Source Ltd., Diamond House, Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Chilton, Didcot, Oxfordshire, OX11 0DE (United Kingdom); Kowalski, Adam J, E-mail: j.cabral@imperial.ac.u [Unilever Research and Development, Port Sunlight Laboratory, Bebington, Wirral, CH63 3JW (United Kingdom)

    2010-10-01

    We report a combined microfluidic and online synchrotron small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) study of complex surfactant mixtures under flow. We investigate the influence of a series of flow constrictions, generating well-defined, periodic extensional flow fields, on the microstructure of two model surfactant mixtures containing SDS and CTAC. Specifically, the lamella spacing, orientation and structural order are reported and correlated with the imposed flow field: geometry, flow velocity and residence time. The design, fabrication and operation of a microfluidic system using rapid prototyping is described in detail. We show that polydimethyl siloxane (PDMS), ubiquitous in microfabrication, provides a suitable matrix for SAXS microdevices provided that: (i) PDMS thickness are kept to a minimum while retaining structural integrity ({approx}1000{mu}m) and (ii) scattering from the structure of interest is sufficiently decoupled from the amorphous background scattering. The combination SAXS-microfluidics provides unprecedented opportunities to elucidate the non-equilibrium structure formation and relaxation of complex fluids, demonstrated here for concentrated surfactant mixtures.

  19. Mechanisms Underlying the Antidepressant Response and Treatment Resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjorie Rose Levinstein

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Depression is a complex and heterogeneous disorder affecting millions of Americans. There are several different medications and other treatments that are available and effective for many patients with depression. However, a substantial percentage of patients fail to achieve remission with these currently available interventions, and relapse rates are high. Therefore, it is necessary to determine both the mechanisms underlying the antidepressant response and the differences between responders and non-responders to treatment. Delineation of these mechanisms largely relies on experiments that utilize animal models. Therefore, this review provides an overview of the various mouse models that are currently used to assess the antidepressant response, such as chronic mild stress, social defeat, and chronic corticosterone. We discuss how these mouse models can be used to advance our understanding of the differences between responders and non-responders to antidepressant treatment. We also provide an overview of experimental treatment modalities that are used for treatment-resistant depression, such as deep brain stimulation and ketamine administration. We will then review the various genetic polymorphisms and transgenic mice that display resistance to antidepressant treatment. Finally, we synthesize the published data to describe a potential neural circuit underlying the antidepressant response and treatment resistance.

  20. Rapid desensitization induces internalization of antigen-specific IgE on mouse mast cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oka, Tatsuya; Rios, Eon J; Tsai, Mindy; Kalesnikoff, Janet; Galli, Stephen J

    2013-10-01

    Rapid desensitization transiently prevents severe allergic reactions, allowing administration of life-saving therapies in previously sensitized patients. However, the mechanisms underlying successful rapid desensitization are not fully understood. We sought to investigate whether the mast cell (MC) is an important target of rapid desensitization in mice sensitized to exhibit IgE-dependent passive systemic anaphylaxis in vivo and to investigate the antigen specificity and underlying mechanisms of rapid desensitization in our mouse model. C57BL/6 mice (in vivo) or primary isolated C57BL/6 mouse peritoneal mast cells (PMCs; in vitro) were passively sensitized with antigen-specific anti-2,4-dinitrophenyl IgE, anti-ovalbumin IgE, or both. MCs were exposed over a short period of time to increasing amounts of antigen (2,4-dinitrophenyl-human serum albumin or ovalbumin) in the presence of extracellular calcium in vitro or by means of intravenous administration to sensitized mice in vivo before challenging the mice with or exposing the PMCs to optimal amounts of specific or irrelevant antigen. Rapidly exposing mice or PMCs to progressively increasing amounts of specific antigen inhibited the development of antigen-induced hypothermia in sensitized mice in vivo and inhibited antigen-induced PMC degranulation and prostaglandin D2 synthesis in vitro. Such MC hyporesponsiveness was induced antigen-specifically and was associated with a significant reduction in antigen-specific IgE levels on MC surfaces. Rapidly exposing MCs to progressively increasing amounts of antigen can both enhance the internalization of antigen-specific IgE on the MC surface and also desensitize these cells in an antigen-specific manner in vivo and in vitro. Copyright © 2013 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Force scanning: a rapid, high-resolution approach for spatial mechanical property mapping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darling, E M

    2011-01-01

    Atomic force microscopy (AFM) can be used to co-localize mechanical properties and topographical features through property mapping techniques. The most common approach for testing biological materials at the microscale and nanoscale is force mapping, which involves taking individual force curves at discrete sites across a region of interest. The limitations of force mapping include long testing times and low resolution. While newer AFM methodologies, like modulated scanning and torsional oscillation, circumvent this problem, their adoption for biological materials has been limited. This could be due to their need for specialized software algorithms and/or hardware. The objective of this study is to develop a novel force scanning technique using AFM to rapidly capture high-resolution topographical images of soft biological materials while simultaneously quantifying their mechanical properties. Force scanning is a straightforward methodology applicable to a wide range of materials and testing environments, requiring no special modification to standard AFMs. Essentially, if a contact-mode image can be acquired, then force scanning can be used to produce a spatial modulus map. The current study first validates this technique using agarose gels, comparing results to ones achieved by the standard force mapping approach. Biologically relevant demonstrations are then presented for high-resolution modulus mapping of individual cells, cell-cell interfaces, and articular cartilage tissue.

  2. Depression and Chronic Liver Diseases: Are There Shared Underlying Mechanisms?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoqin Huang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of depression is higher in patients with chronic liver disease (CLD than that in the general population. The mechanism described in previous studies mainly focused on inflammation and stress, which not only exists in CLD, but also emerges in common chronic diseases, leaving the specific mechanism unknown. This review was to summarize the prevalence and risk factors of depression in CLD including chronic hepatitis B, chronic hepatitis, alcoholic liver disease, and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, and to point out the possible underlying mechanism of this potential link. Clarifying the origins of this common comorbidity (depression and CLD may provide more information to understand both diseases.

  3. Potential of wind power projects under the Clean Development Mechanism in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michaelowa Axel

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background So far, the cumulative installed capacity of wind power projects in India is far below their gross potential (≤ 15% despite very high level of policy support, tax benefits, long term financing schemes etc., for more than 10 years etc. One of the major barriers is the high costs of investments in these systems. The Clean Development Mechanism (CDM of the Kyoto Protocol provides industrialized countries with an incentive to invest in emission reduction projects in developing countries to achieve a reduction in CO2 emissions at lowest cost that also promotes sustainable development in the host country. Wind power projects could be of interest under the CDM because they directly displace greenhouse gas emissions while contributing to sustainable rural development, if developed correctly. Results Our estimates indicate that there is a vast theoretical potential of CO2 mitigation by the use of wind energy in India. The annual potential Certified Emissions Reductions (CERs of wind power projects in India could theoretically reach 86 million. Under more realistic assumptions about diffusion of wind power projects based on past experiences with the government-run programmes, annual CER volumes by 2012 could reach 41 to 67 million and 78 to 83 million by 2020. Conclusion The projections based on the past diffusion trend indicate that in India, even with highly favorable assumptions, the dissemination of wind power projects is not likely to reach its maximum estimated potential in another 15 years. CDM could help to achieve the maximum utilization potential more rapidly as compared to the current diffusion trend if supportive policies are introduced.

  4. Mechanical Behavior of Shale Rock under Uniaxial Cyclic Loading and Unloading Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baoyun Zhao

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate the mechanical behavior of shale rock under cyclic loading and unloading condition, two kinds of incremental cyclic loading tests were conducted. Based on the result of the short-term uniaxial incremental cyclic loading test, the permanent residual strain, modulus, and damage evolution were analyzed firstly. Results showed that the relationship between the residual strains and the cycle number can be expressed by an exponential function. The deformation modulus E50 and elastic modulus ES first increased and then decreased with the peak stress under the loading condition, and both of them increased approximately linearly with the peak stress under the unloading condition. On the basis of the energy dissipation, the damage variables showed an exponential increasing with the strain at peak stress. The creep behavior of the shale rock was also analyzed. Results showed that there are obvious instantaneous strain, decay creep, and steady creep under each stress level and the specimen appears the accelerated creep stage under the 4th stress of 51.16 MPa. Based on the characteristics of the Burgers creep model, a viscoelastic-plastic creep model was proposed through viscoplastic mechanics, which agrees very well with the experimental results and can better describe the creep behavior of shale rock better than the Burgers creep model. Results can provide some mechanics reference evidence for shale gas development.

  5. Vascular mechanisms underlying the hypotensive effect of Rumex acetosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qamar, Hafiz Misbah-Ud-Din; Qayyum, Rahila; Salma, Umme; Khan, Shamim; Khan, Taous; Shah, Abdul Jabbar

    2018-12-01

    Rumex acetosa L. (Polygonaceae) is well known in traditional medicine for its therapeutic efficacy as an antihypertensive. The study investigates antihypertensive potential of crude methanol extract (Ra.Cr) and fractions of Rumex acetosa in normotensive and hypertensive rat models and probes the underlying vascular mechanisms. Ra.Cr and its fractions were tested in vivo on normotensive and hypertensive Sprague-Dawley rats under anaesthesia for blood pressure lowering effect. In vitro experiments on rat and Oryctolagus cuniculus rabbit aortae were employed to probe the underlying vasorelaxant mechanism. In normotensive rats under anaesthesia, Ra.Cr caused fall in MAP (40 mmHg) at 50 mg/kg with % fall of 27.88 ± 4.55. Among the fractions tested, aqueous fraction was more potent at the dose of 50 mg/kg with % fall of 45.63 ± 2.84. In hypertensive rats under similar conditions, extract and fractions showed antihypertensive effect at same doses while aqueous fraction being more potent, exhibited 68.53 ± 4.45% fall in MAP (70 mmHg). In isolated rat aortic rings precontracted with phenylephrine (PE), Ra.Cr and fractions induced endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation, which was partially blocked in presence of l-NAME, indomethacin and atropine. In isolated rabbit aortic rings pre-contracted with PE and K + -(80 mM), Ra.Cr induced vasorelaxation and shifted Ca 2+ concentration-response curves to the right and suppressed PE peak formation, similar to verapamil, in Ca 2+ -free medium. The data indicate that l-NAME and atropine-sensitive endothelial-derived NO and COX enzyme inhibitors and Ca 2+ entry blocking-mediated vasodilator effect of the extract explain its antihypertensive potential.

  6. Arterial Injury and Endothelial Repair: Rapid Recovery of Function after Mechanical Injury in Healthy Volunteers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindsey Tilling

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Previous studies suggest a protracted course of recovery after mechanical endothelial injury; confounders may include degree of injury and concomitant endothelial dysfunction. We sought to define the time course of endothelial function recovery using flow-mediated dilation (FMD, after ischaemia-reperfusion (IR and mechanical injury in patients and healthy volunteers. The contribution of circulating CD133+/CD34+/VEGFR2+ “endothelial progenitor” (EPC or repair cells to endothelial repair was also examined. Methods. 28 healthy volunteers aged 18–35 years underwent transient forearm ischaemia induced by cuff inflation around the proximal biceps and radial artery mechanical injury induced by inserting a wire through a cannula. A more severe mechanical injury was induced using an arterial sheath and catheter inserted into the radial artery of 18 patients undergoing angiography. Results. IR and mechanical injury produced immediate impairment of FMD (from 6.5 ± 1.2% to 2.9 ± 2.2% and from 7.4 ± 2.3% to 1.5 ± 1.6% for IR and injury, resp., each P<0.001 but recovered within 6 hours and 2 days, respectively. FMD took up to 4 months to recover in patients. Circulating EPC did not change significantly during the injury/recovery period in all subjects. Conclusions. Recovery of endothelial function after IR and mechanical injury is rapid and not associated with a change in circulating EPC.

  7. Revealing vilazodone's binding mechanism underlying its partial agonism to the 5-HT1A receptor in the treatment of major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Guoxun; Xue, Weiwei; Yang, Fengyuan; Zhang, Yang; Chen, Yuzong; Yao, Xiaojun; Zhu, Feng

    2017-11-01

    It has been estimated that major depressive disorder (MDD) will become the second largest global burden among all diseases by 2030. Various types of drugs, including selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs), and serotonin receptor partial agonist/reuptake inhibitors (SPARIs), have been approved and become the primary or first-line medications prescribed for MDD. SPARI was expected to demonstrate more enhanced drug efficacy and a rapid onset of action as compared to SSRI and SNRI. As one of the most famous SPARIs, vilazodone was approved by the FDA for the treatment of MDD. Because of the great clinical importance of vilazodone, its binding mechanism underlying its partial agonism to the 5-HT 1A receptor (5-HT 1A R) could provide valuable information to SPARIs' drug-like properties. However, this mechanism has not been reported to date; consequently, the rational design of new efficacious SPARI-based MDD drugs is severely hampered. To explore the molecular mechanism of vilazodone, an integrated computational strategy was adopted in this study to reveal its binding mechanism and prospective structural feature at the agonist binding site of 5-HT 1A R. As a result, 22 residues of this receptor were identified as hotspots, consistently favoring the binding of vilazodone and its analogues, and a common binding mechanism underlying their partial agonism to 5-HT 1A R was, therefore, discovered. Moreover, three main interaction features between vilazodone and 5-HT 1A R have been revealed and schematically summarized. In summary, this newly identified binding mechanism will provide valuable information for medicinal chemists working in the field of rational design of novel SPARIs for MDD treatment.

  8. A possible realization of Einstein's causal theory underlying quantum mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yussouff, M.

    1979-06-01

    It is shown that a new microscopic mechanics formulated earlier can be looked upon as a possible causal theory underlying quantum mechanics, which removes Einstein's famous objections against quantum theory. This approach is free from objections raised against Bohm's hidden variable theory and leads to a clear physical picture in terms of familiar concepts, if self interactions are held responsible for deviations from classical behaviour. The new level of physics unfolded by this approach may reveal novel frontiers in high-energy physics. (author)

  9. Rapid Inhibition Profiling in Bacillus subtilis to Identify the Mechanism of Action of New Antimicrobials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamsa, Anne; Lopez-Garrido, Javier; Quach, Diana; Riley, Eammon P; Pogliano, Joe; Pogliano, Kit

    2016-08-19

    Increasing antimicrobial resistance has become a major public health crisis. New antimicrobials with novel mechanisms of action (MOA) are desperately needed. We previously developed a method, bacterial cytological profiling (BCP), which utilizes fluorescence microscopy to rapidly identify the MOA of antimicrobial compounds. BCP is based upon our discovery that cells treated with antibiotics affecting different metabolic pathways generate different cytological signatures, providing quantitative information that can be used to determine a compound's MOA. Here, we describe a system, rapid inhibition profiling (RIP), for creating cytological profiles of new antibiotic targets for which there are currently no chemical inhibitors. RIP consists of the fast, inducible degradation of a target protein followed by BCP. We demonstrate that degrading essential proteins in the major metabolic pathways for DNA replication, transcription, fatty acid biosynthesis, and peptidoglycan biogenesis in Bacillus subtilis rapidly produces cytological profiles closely matching that of antimicrobials targeting the same pathways. Additionally, RIP and antibiotics targeting different steps in fatty acid biosynthesis can be differentiated from each other. We utilize RIP and BCP to show that the antibacterial MOA of four nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory antibiotics differs from that proposed based on in vitro data. RIP is a versatile method that will extend our knowledge of phenotypes associated with inactivating essential bacterial enzymes and thereby allow for screening for molecules that inhibit novel essential targets.

  10. Cognitive mechanisms underlying disorganization of thought in a genetic syndrome (47,XXY)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Rijn, Sophie; Aleman, Andre; De Sonneville, Leo; Swaab, Hanna

    Because of the risk for development of psychopathology such as psychotic symptoms, it has been suggested that studying men with the XXY karyotype may help in the search for underlying cognitive, neural and genetic mechanisms. The aim of this study was to identify cognitive mechanisms that may

  11. First-principles investigation of mechanical and electronic properties of tetragonal NbAl3 under tension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Zhen; Liu, Qi-Jun; Liu, Fu-Sheng; Tang, Bin

    2018-06-01

    Using the density functional theory calculations, the mechanical and electronic properties of NbAl3 under different tensile loads were investigated. The calculated lattice parameters, elastic constants and mechanical properties (bulk modulus, shear modulus, Young's modulus, Poisson's ratio, Pugh's criterion and Cauchy's pressure) indicated that our results were in agreement with the published experimental and theoretical data at zero tension. With respect to NbAl3 under tension in this paper, the crystal structure was changed from tetragonal to orthorhombic under tension along the [100] and [101] directions. The NbAl3 crystal has been classified as brittle material under tension from 0 to 20 GPa. The obtained Young's modulus and Debye temperature monotonically decreased with increasing tension stress. Combining with mechanical and electronic properties in detail, the decreased mechanical properties were mainly due to the weakening of covalency.

  12. "Cedar Rapids Community School District v. Garret F.": School Districts Must Pay for Nursing Services under the IDEA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Charles J.

    1999-01-01

    In "Cedar Rapids Community School District v. Garrett F." (1999), the U.S. Supreme Court decided that continuous nursing constitutes a "related service" under the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act. The case involved a 16-year-old who has been paralyzed since early childhood. Cost per student could be $20,000 to…

  13. Self-consistent viscous heating of rapidly compressed turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Alejandro; Morgan, Brandon

    2017-11-01

    Given turbulence subjected to infinitely rapid deformations, linear terms representing interactions between the mean flow and the turbulence dictate the evolution of the flow, whereas non-linear terms corresponding to turbulence-turbulence interactions are safely ignored. For rapidly deformed flows where the turbulence Reynolds number is not sufficiently large, viscous effects can't be neglected and tend to play a prominent role, as shown in the study of Davidovits & Fisch (2016). For such a case, the rapid increase of viscosity in a plasma-as compared to the weaker scaling of viscosity in a fluid-leads to the sudden viscous dissipation of turbulent kinetic energy. As shown in Davidovits & Fisch, increases in temperature caused by the direct compression of the plasma drive sufficiently large values of viscosity. We report on numerical simulations of turbulence where the increase in temperature is the result of both the direct compression (an inviscid mechanism) and the self-consistent viscous transfer of energy from the turbulent scales towards the thermal energy. A comparison between implicit large-eddy simulations against well-resolved direct numerical simulations is included to asses the effect of the numerical and subgrid-scale dissipation on the self-consistent viscous This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  14. Rapidly quenched amorphous and microcrystalline solders for atomic power industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalin, V.A.; Fedotov, V.T.; Sevryukov, O.N.; Grigor'ev, A.E.; Skuratov, L.A.; Sulaberidze, V.Sh.; Yurchenko, A.D.; Sokolov, V.F.; Rodionov, V.A.

    1996-01-01

    The possibility of using strip amorphous brazing alloys STEMET on Ni, Cu, Ti or Al base to braze various materials (stainless steels - zirconium, ceramics - metal, copper alloys, titanium alloys, cermets, molybdenum, beryllium) is under study. Experimental bench is designed and brazing regimes are developed for various dissimilar materials. Mechanical and corrosion tests of brazed joints show that rapidly quenching STEMET type brazing alloys are promising materials for manufacturing components of irradiating devices [ru

  15. Effects of high latitude protected areas on bird communities under rapid climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santangeli, Andrea; Rajasärkkä, Ari; Lehikoinen, Aleksi

    2017-06-01

    Anthropogenic climate change is rapidly becoming one of the main threats to biodiversity, along with other threats triggered by human-driven land-use change. Species are already responding to climate change by shifting their distributions polewards. This shift may create a spatial mismatch between dynamic species distributions and static protected areas (PAs). As protected areas represent one of the main pillars for preserving biodiversity today and in the future, it is important to assess their contribution in sheltering the biodiversity communities, they were designated to protect. A recent development to investigate climate-driven impacts on biological communities is represented by the community temperature index (CTI). CTI provides a measure of the relative temperature average of a community in a specific assemblage. CTI value will be higher for assemblages dominated by warm species compared with those dominated by cold-dwelling species. We here model changes in the CTI of Finnish bird assemblages, as well as changes in species densities, within and outside of PAs during the past four decades in a large boreal landscape under rapid change. We show that CTI has markedly increased over time across Finland, with this change being similar within and outside PAs and five to seven times slower than the temperature increase. Moreover, CTI has been constantly lower within than outside of PAs, and PAs still support communities, which show colder thermal index than those outside of PAs in the 1970s and 1980s. This result can be explained by the higher relative density of northern species within PAs than outside. Overall, our results provide some, albeit inconclusive, evidence that PAs may play a role in supporting the community of northern species. Results also suggest that communities are, however, shifting rapidly, both inside and outside of PAs, highlighting the need for adjusting conservation measures before it is too late. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Kinetic theory approach to modeling of cellular repair mechanisms under genome stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinpeng Qi

    Full Text Available Under acute perturbations from outer environment, a normal cell can trigger cellular self-defense mechanism in response to genome stress. To investigate the kinetics of cellular self-repair process at single cell level further, a model of DNA damage generating and repair is proposed under acute Ion Radiation (IR by using mathematical framework of kinetic theory of active particles (KTAP. Firstly, we focus on illustrating the profile of Cellular Repair System (CRS instituted by two sub-populations, each of which is made up of the active particles with different discrete states. Then, we implement the mathematical framework of cellular self-repair mechanism, and illustrate the dynamic processes of Double Strand Breaks (DSBs and Repair Protein (RP generating, DSB-protein complexes (DSBCs synthesizing, and toxins accumulating. Finally, we roughly analyze the capability of cellular self-repair mechanism, cellular activity of transferring DNA damage, and genome stability, especially the different fates of a certain cell before and after the time thresholds of IR perturbations that a cell can tolerate maximally under different IR perturbation circumstances.

  17. Kinetic theory approach to modeling of cellular repair mechanisms under genome stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Jinpeng; Ding, Yongsheng; Zhu, Ying; Wu, Yizhi

    2011-01-01

    Under acute perturbations from outer environment, a normal cell can trigger cellular self-defense mechanism in response to genome stress. To investigate the kinetics of cellular self-repair process at single cell level further, a model of DNA damage generating and repair is proposed under acute Ion Radiation (IR) by using mathematical framework of kinetic theory of active particles (KTAP). Firstly, we focus on illustrating the profile of Cellular Repair System (CRS) instituted by two sub-populations, each of which is made up of the active particles with different discrete states. Then, we implement the mathematical framework of cellular self-repair mechanism, and illustrate the dynamic processes of Double Strand Breaks (DSBs) and Repair Protein (RP) generating, DSB-protein complexes (DSBCs) synthesizing, and toxins accumulating. Finally, we roughly analyze the capability of cellular self-repair mechanism, cellular activity of transferring DNA damage, and genome stability, especially the different fates of a certain cell before and after the time thresholds of IR perturbations that a cell can tolerate maximally under different IR perturbation circumstances.

  18. Characterization of aluminium alloys rapidly solidified

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monteiro, W.A.

    1988-01-01

    This paper discussed the investigation of the microstructural and mechanical properties of the aluminium alloys (3003; 7050; Al-9% Mg) rapidly solidified by melt spinning process (cooling rate 10 4 - 10 6 K/s). The rapidly solidification process of the studied aluminium alloys brought a microcrystallinity, a minimum presence of coarse precipitation and, also, better mechanical properties of them comparing to the same alloys using ingot process. (author) [pt

  19. Control of a perturbed under-actuated mechanical system

    KAUST Repository

    Zayane, Chadia

    2015-11-05

    In this work, the trajectory tracking problem for an under-actuated mechanical system in presence of unknown input disturbances is addressed. The studied inertia wheel inverted pendulum falls in the class of non minimum phase systems. The proposed high order sliding mode control architecture including a controller and differentiator allows to track accurately the predefined trajectory and to stabilize the internal dynamics. The robustness of the proposed approach is illustrated through different perturbation and output noise configurations.

  20. Mechanisms underlying astringency: introduction to an oral tribology approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upadhyay, Rutuja; Brossard, Natalia; Chen, Jianshe

    2016-03-01

    Astringency is one of the predominant factors in the sensory experience of many foods and beverages ranging from wine to nuts. The scientific community is discussing mechanisms that explain this complex phenomenon, since there are no conclusive results which correlate well with sensory astringency. Therefore, the mechanisms and perceptual characteristics of astringency warrant further discussion and investigation. This paper gives a brief introduction of the fundamentals of oral tribology forming a basis of the astringency mechanism. It discusses the current state of the literature on mechanisms underlying astringency describing the existing astringency models. The review discusses the crucial role of saliva and its physiology which contributes significantly in astringency perception in the mouth. It also provides an overview of research concerned with the physiological and psychophysical factors that mediate the perception of this sensation, establishing the ground for future research. Thus, the overall aim of the review is to establish the critical roles of oral friction (thin-film lubrication) in the sensation of astringency and possibly of some other specific sensory features.

  1. Rapid Convergence of Energy and Free Energy Profiles with Quantum Mechanical Size in Quantum Mechanical-Molecular Mechanical Simulations of Proton Transfer in DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Susanta; Nam, Kwangho; Major, Dan Thomas

    2018-03-13

    In recent years, a number of quantum mechanical-molecular mechanical (QM/MM) enzyme studies have investigated the dependence of reaction energetics on the size of the QM region using energy and free energy calculations. In this study, we revisit the question of QM region size dependence in QM/MM simulations within the context of energy and free energy calculations using a proton transfer in a DNA base pair as a test case. In the simulations, the QM region was treated with a dispersion-corrected AM1/d-PhoT Hamiltonian, which was developed to accurately describe phosphoryl and proton transfer reactions, in conjunction with an electrostatic embedding scheme using the particle-mesh Ewald summation method. With this rigorous QM/MM potential, we performed rather extensive QM/MM sampling, and found that the free energy reaction profiles converge rapidly with respect to the QM region size within ca. ±1 kcal/mol. This finding suggests that the strategy of QM/MM simulations with reasonably sized and selected QM regions, which has been employed for over four decades, is a valid approach for modeling complex biomolecular systems. We point to possible causes for the sensitivity of the energy and free energy calculations to the size of the QM region, and potential implications.

  2. Rapid Synthesis and Formation Mechanism of Core-Shell-Structured La-Doped SrTiO3 with a Nb-Doped Shell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nam-Hee Park

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available To provide a convenient and practical synthesis process for metal ion doping on the surface of nanoparticles in an assembled nanostructure, core-shell-structured La-doped SrTiO3 nanocubes with a Nb-doped surface layer were synthesized via a rapid synthesis combining a rapid sol-precipitation and hydrothermal process. The La-doped SrTiO3 nanocubes were formed at room temperature by a rapid dissolution of NaOH pellets during the rapid sol-precipitation process, and the Nb-doped surface (shell along with Nb-rich edges formed on the core nanocubes via the hydrothermal process. The formation mechanism of the core-shell-structured nanocubes and their shape evolution as a function of the Nb doping level were investigated. The synthesized core-shell-structured nanocubes could be arranged face-to-face on a SiO2/Si substrate by a slow evaporation process, and this nanostructured 10 μm thick thin film showed a smooth surface.

  3. Age-associated impairments in contraction-induced rapid-onset vasodilatation within the forearm are independent of mechanical factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, William E; Kruse, Nicholas T; Casey, Darren P

    2018-05-01

    What is the central question of this study? We examined whether the mechanical contribution to contraction-induced rapid-onset vasodilatation (ROV) differed with age and whether ROV is associated with peripheral artery stiffness. Furthermore, we examined how manipulation of perfusion pressure modulates ROV in young and older adults. What is the main finding and its importance? The mechanical contribution to ROV is similar in young and older adults. Conversely, peripheral arterial stiffness is not associated with ROV. Enhancing perfusion pressure augments ROV to a similar extent in young and older adults. These results suggest that age-related attenuations in ROV are not attributable to a mechanical component and that ROV responses are independent of peripheral artery stiffness. Contraction-induced rapid-onset vasodilatation (ROV) is modulated by perfusion and transmural pressure in young adults; however, this effect remains unknown in older adults. The present study examined the mechanical contribution to ROV in young versus older adults, the influence of perfusion pressure and whether these responses are associated with arterial stiffness. Forearm vascular conductance (in millilitres per minute per 100 mmHg) was measured in 12 healthy young (24 ± 4 years old) and 12 older (67 ± 3 years old) adults during: (i) single dynamic contractions at 20% of maximal voluntary contraction; and (ii) single external mechanical compression of the forearm (200 mmHg) positioned above, at and below heart level. Carotid-radial pulse-wave velocity characterized upper limb arterial stiffness. Total ROV responses to single muscle contractions and single external mechanical compressions were attenuated in older adults at heart level (P mechanical contribution to contraction-induced peak (46 ± 14 versus 40 ± 18%; P = 0.21) and total (37 ± 21 versus 32 ± 18%; P = 0.27) responses were not different between young and older adults. Reducing or enhancing perfusion

  4. Study on Mechanical Properties of Barite Concrete under Impact Load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Z. F.; Cheng, K.; Wu, D.; Gan, Y. C.; Tao, Q. W.

    2018-03-01

    In order to research the mechanical properties of Barite concrete under impact load, a group of concrete compression tests was carried out under the impact load by using the drop test machine. A high-speed camera was used to record the failure process of the specimen during the impact process. The test results show that:with the increase of drop height, the loading rate, the peak load, the strain under peak load, the strain rate and the dynamic increase factor (DIF) all increase gradually. The ultimate tensile strain is close to each other, and the time of impact force decreases significantly, showing significant strain rate effect.

  5. micro-mechanical experimental investigation and modelling of strain and damage of argillaceous rocks under combined hydric and mechanical loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, L.

    2012-01-01

    The hydro-mechanical behavior of argillaceous rocks, which are possible host rocks for underground radioactive nuclear waste storage, is investigated by means of micro-mechanical experimental investigations and modellings. Strain fields at the micrometric scale of the composite structure of this rock, are measured by the combination of environmental scanning electron microscopy, in situ testing and digital image correlation technique. The evolution of argillaceous rocks under pure hydric loading is first investigated. The strain field is strongly heterogeneous and manifests anisotropy. The observed nonlinear deformation at high relative humidity (RH) is related not only to damage, but also to the nonlinear swelling of the clay mineral itself, controlled by different local mechanisms depending on RH. Irreversible deformations are observed during hydric cycles, as well as a network of microcracks located in the bulk of the clay matrix and/or at the inclusion-matrix interface. Second, the local deformation field of the material under combined hydric and mechanical loadings is quantified. Three types of deformation bands are evidenced under mechanical loading, either normal to stress direction (compaction), parallel (microcracking) or inclined (shear). Moreover, they are strongly controlled by the water content of the material: shear bands are in particular prone to appear at high RH states. In view of understanding the mechanical interactions a local scale, the material is modeled as a composite made of non-swelling elastic inclusions embedded in an elastic swelling clay matrix. The internal stress field induced by swelling strain incompatibilities between inclusions and matrix, as well as the overall deformation, is numerically computed at equilibrium but also during the transient stage associated with a moisture gradient. An analytical micro-mechanical model based on Eshelby's solution is proposed. In addition, 2D finite element computations are performed. Results

  6. Progressive damage analysis of carbon/epoxy laminates under couple laser and mechanical loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanlei Liu

    Full Text Available A multiscale model based bridge theory is proposed for the progressive damage analysis of carbon/epoxy laminates under couple laser and mechanical loading. The ablation model is adopted to calculate ablation temperature changing and ablation surface degradation. The polynomial strengthening model of matrix is used to improve bridging model for reducing parameter input. Stiffness degradation methods of bridging model are also improved in order to analyze the stress redistribution more accurately when the damage occurs. Thermal-mechanical analyses of the composite plate are performed using the ABAQUS/Explicit program with the developed model implemented in the VUMAT. The simulation results show that this model can be used to proclaim the mesoscale damage mechanism of composite laminates under coupled loading. Keywords: Laser irradiation, Multiscale analysis, Bridge model, Thermal-mechanical

  7. An NMDA Receptor-Dependent Mechanism Underlies Inhibitory Synapse Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinglong Gu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the mammalian brain, GABAergic synaptic transmission provides inhibitory balance to glutamatergic excitatory drive and controls neuronal output. The molecular mechanisms underlying the development of GABAergic synapses remain largely unclear. Here, we report that NMDA-type ionotropic glutamate receptors (NMDARs in individual immature neurons are the upstream signaling molecules essential for GABAergic synapse development, which requires signaling via Calmodulin binding motif in the C0 domain of the NMDAR GluN1 subunit. Interestingly, in neurons lacking NMDARs, whereas GABAergic synaptic transmission is strongly reduced, the tonic inhibition mediated by extrasynaptic GABAA receptors is increased, suggesting a compensatory mechanism for the lack of synaptic inhibition. These results demonstrate a crucial role for NMDARs in specifying the development of inhibitory synapses, and suggest an important mechanism for controlling the establishment of the balance between synaptic excitation and inhibition in the developing brain.

  8. Priors engaged in long-latency responses to mechanical perturbations suggest a rapid update in state estimation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frédéric Crevecoeur

    Full Text Available In every motor task, our brain must handle external forces acting on the body. For example, riding a bike on cobblestones or skating on irregular surface requires us to appropriately respond to external perturbations. In these situations, motor predictions cannot help anticipate the motion of the body induced by external factors, and direct use of delayed sensory feedback will tend to generate instability. Here, we show that to solve this problem the motor system uses a rapid sensory prediction to correct the estimated state of the limb. We used a postural task with mechanical perturbations to address whether sensory predictions were engaged in upper-limb corrective movements. Subjects altered their initial motor response in ∼60 ms, depending on the expected perturbation profile, suggesting the use of an internal model, or prior, in this corrective process. Further, we found trial-to-trial changes in corrective responses indicating a rapid update of these perturbation priors. We used a computational model based on Kalman filtering to show that the response modulation was compatible with a rapid correction of the estimated state engaged in the feedback response. Such a process may allow us to handle external disturbances encountered in virtually every physical activity, which is likely an important feature of skilled motor behaviour.

  9. Redistribution of hematoma to spinal subdural space as a mechanism for the rapid spontaneous resolution of posttraumatic intracranial acute subdural hematoma: case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Sui To; Yuen, Ming Keung; Fok, Kam Fuk; Yuen, Shing Chau; Yam, Kwong Yui; Fong, Dawson

    2009-01-01

    Rapid spontaneous resolution of posttraumatic intracranial ASDH has been reported in the literature since 1986. We report a case to demonstrate that redistribution of hematoma to the spinal subdural space is a mechanism for the rapid spontaneous resolution of posttraumatic intracranial ASDH. A 73-year-old woman with a slipped-and-fell injury had a worst GCS score of 8/15. Computerized tomography of the brain demonstrated a large intracranial ASDH with mass effect. Conservative management was decided because of her poor premorbid general condition. Rapid clinical improvement was observed within 5 hours after the CT. Progress CT of the brain at 45 hours postinjury showed that the size of the intracranial ASDH was markedly diminished. The CT findings apparently demonstrated a caudal distribution of the intracranial ASDH over the tentorium and then into the posterior fossa. To investigate this further, an MRI of the spine was performed, which showed that there was spinal SDH in the cervical and thoracic spine. This is the first report demonstrating that redistribution of posttraumatic intracranial ASDH to the spinal subdural space is one of the mechanisms behind the rapid spontaneous resolution of posttraumatic intracranial ASDH in the acute phase.

  10. Damage evolution of TBC system under in-phase thermo-mechanical tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitazawa, R.; Tanaka, M.; Kagawa, Y.; Liu, Y.F.

    2010-01-01

    In-phase thermo-mechanical tests (TMF) of EB-PVD Y 2 O 3 -ZrO 2 thermal barrier coating (TBC) system (8 wt% Y 2 O 3 -ZrO 2 /CoNiCrAlY/IN-738 substrate) were done under a through-the-thick-direction thermal gradient from TBC surface temperature at 1150 deg. C to substrate temperature at 1000 deg. C. Deformation and failure behaviors of the TBC system were observed at the macroscopic and microscopic scales and damage evolution of the system under in-phase thermo-mechanical test was discussed. Special attention was paid to TBC layer cracking, thermally grown oxide (TGO) layer formation and void formation in bond coat and substrate. Effect of TMF conditions on the damage evolution behaviors was also discussed.

  11. Effect of Rapid Solidification and Addition of Cu3P on the Mechanical Properties of Hypereutectic Al-Si Alloys

    OpenAIRE

    Suárez-Rosales,Miguel Ángel; Pinto-Segura,Raúl; Palacios-Beas,Elia Guadalupe; Hernández-Herrera,Alfredo; Chávez-Alcalá,José Federico

    2016-01-01

    The combined processes; rapid solidification, addition of Cu3P compound and heat treatments to improve the mechanical properties of the hypereutectic Al-13Si, Al-20Si and Al-20Si-1.5Fe-0.7Mn alloys (in wt. %) was studied. Optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy were used to characterize the microstructures. The mechanical properties were evaluated by tensile tests. It was found that the cooling rate (20-50°C/s) used to solidify the alloys plus the addition of Cu3P compound favored...

  12. Mechanical properties of graphene nanoribbons under uniaxial tensile strain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoneyama, Kazufumi; Yamanaka, Ayaka; Okada, Susumu

    2018-03-01

    Based on the density functional theory with the generalized gradient approximation, we investigated the mechanical properties of graphene nanoribbons in terms of their edge shape under a uniaxial tensile strain. The nanoribbons with armchair and zigzag edges retain their structure under a large tensile strain, while the nanoribbons with chiral edges are fragile against the tensile strain compared with those with armchair and zigzag edges. The fracture started at the cove region, which corresponds to the border between the zigzag and armchair edges for the nanoribbons with chiral edges. For the nanoribbons with armchair edges, the fracture started at one of the cove regions at the edges. In contrast, the fracture started at the inner region of the nanoribbons with zigzag edges. The bond elongation under the tensile strain depends on the mutual arrangement of covalent bonds with respect to the strain direction.

  13. Rapid Elimination of the Persistent Synergid through a Cell Fusion Mechanism

    KAUST Repository

    Maruyama, Daisuke

    2015-05-01

    In flowering plants, fertilization-dependent degeneration of the persistent synergid cell ensures one-on-one pairings of male and female gametes. Here, we report that the fusion of the persistent synergid cell and the endosperm selectively inactivates the persistent synergid cell in Arabidopsis thaliana. The synergid-endosperm fusion causes rapid dilution of pre-secreted pollen tube attractant in the persistent synergid cell and selective disorganization of the synergid nucleus during the endosperm proliferation, preventing attractions of excess number of pollen tubes (polytubey). The synergid-endosperm fusion is induced by fertilization of the central cell, while the egg cell fertilization predominantly activates ethylene signaling, an inducer of the synergid nuclear disorganization. Therefore, two female gametes (the egg and the central cell) control independent pathways yet coordinately accomplish the elimination of the persistent synergid cell by double fertilization. Two female gametes (the egg cell and the central cell) in flowering plants coordinately prevent attractions of excess number of pollen tubes via two mechanisms to inactivate persistent synergid cell. © 2015 Elsevier Inc.

  14. Mechanical Design of AM Fabricated Prismatic Rods under Torsion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manzhirov Alexander V.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We study the stress-strain state of viscoelastic prismatic rods fabricated or repaired by additive manufacturing technologies under torsion. An adequate description of the processes involved is given by methods of a new scientific field, mechanics of growing solids. Three main stages of the deformation process (before the beginning of growth, in the course of growth, and after the termination of growth are studied. Two versions of statement of two problems are given: (i given the torque, find the stresses, displacements, and torsion; (ii given the torsion, find the stresses, displacements, and torque. Solution methods using techniques of complex analysis are presented. The results can be used in mechanical and instrument engineering.

  15. Groundwater flow system under a rapidly urbanizing coastal city as determined by hydrogeochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagabu, Makoto; Shimada, Jun; Delinom, Robert; Tsujimura, Maki; Taniguchi, Makoto

    2011-01-01

    In the Jakarta area (Indonesia), excessive groundwater pumping due to the rapidly increasing population has caused groundwater-related problems such as brackish water contamination in coastal areas and land subsidence. In this study, we adopted multiple hydrogeochemical techniques to demonstrate the groundwater flow system in the Jakarta area. Although almost all groundwater existing in the Jakarta basin is recharged at similar elevations, the water quality and residence time demonstrates a clear difference between the shallow and deep aquifers. Due to the rapid decrease in the groundwater potential in urban areas, we found that the seawater intrusion and the shallow and deep groundwaters are mixing, a conclusion confirmed by major ions, Br -:Cl - ratios, and chlorofluorocarbon (CFC)-12 analysis. Spring water and groundwater samples collected from the southern mountainside area show younger age characteristics with high concentrations of 14C and Ca-HCO 3 type water chemistry. We estimated the residence times of these groundwaters within 45 years under piston flow conditions by tritium analysis. Also, these groundwater ages can be limited to 20-30 years with piston flow evaluated by CFCs. Moreover, due to the magnitude of the CFC-12 concentration, we can use a pseudo age indicator in this field study, because we found a positive correlation between the major type of water chemistry and the CFC-12 concentration.

  16. Mechanical and tribological behaviour of molten salt processed self-lubricated aluminium composite under different treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannan, C.; Ramanujam, R.

    2018-05-01

    The aim of this research work is to evaluate the mechanical and tribological behaviour of Al 7075 based self-lubricated hybrid nanocomposite under different treated conditions viz. as-cast, T6 and deep cryo treated. In order to overcome the drawbacks associated with conventional stir casting, a combinational approach that consists of molten salt processing, ultrasonic assistance and optimized mechanical stirring is adopted in this study to fabricate the nanocomposite. The mechanical characterisation tests carried out on this nanocomposite reveals an improvement of about 39% in hardness and 22% in ultimate tensile strength possible under T6 condition. Under specific conditions, the wear rate can be reduced to the extent of about 63% through the usage of self-lubricated hybrid nanocomposite under T6 condition.

  17. Molecular mechanics of silk nanostructures under varied mechanical loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bratzel, Graham; Buehler, Markus J

    2012-06-01

    Spider dragline silk is a self-assembling tunable protein composite fiber that rivals many engineering fibers in tensile strength, extensibility, and toughness, making it one of the most versatile biocompatible materials and most inviting for synthetic mimicry. While experimental studies have shown that the peptide sequence and molecular structure of silk have a direct influence on the stiffness, toughness, and failure strength of silk, few molecular-level analyses of the nanostructure of silk assemblies, in particular, under variations of genetic sequences have been reported. In this study, atomistic-level structures of wildtype as well as modified MaSp1 protein from the Nephila clavipes spider dragline silk sequences, obtained using an in silico approach based on replica exchange molecular dynamics and explicit water molecular dynamics, are subjected to simulated nanomechanical testing using different force-control loading conditions including stretch, pull-out, and peel. The authors have explored the effects of the poly-alanine length of the N. clavipes MaSp1 peptide sequence and identify differences in nanomechanical loading conditions on the behavior of a unit cell of 15 strands with 840-990 total residues used to represent a cross-linking β-sheet crystal node in the network within a fibril of the dragline silk thread. The specific loading condition used, representing concepts derived from the protein network connectivity at larger scales, have a significant effect on the mechanical behavior. Our analysis incorporates stretching, pull-out, and peel testing to connect biochemical features to mechanical behavior. The method used in this study could find broad applications in de novo design of silk-like tunable materials for an array of applications. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Temporomandibular disorders and painful comorbidities: clinical association and underlying mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Yuri Martins; Conti, Paulo César Rodrigues; de Faria, Flavio Augusto Cardoso; Bonjardim, Leonardo Rigoldi

    2017-03-01

    The association between temporomandibular disorders (TMDs) and headaches, cervical spine dysfunction, and fibromyalgia is not artefactual. The aim of this review is to describe the comorbid relationship between TMD and these three major painful conditions and to discuss the clinical implications and the underlying pain mechanisms involved in these relationships. Common neuronal pathways and central sensitization processes are acknowledged as the main factors for the association between TMD and primary headaches, although the establishment of cause-effect mechanisms requires further clarification and characterization. The biomechanical aspects are not the main factors involved in the comorbid relationship between TMD and cervical spine dysfunction, which can be better explained by the neuronal convergence of the trigeminal and cervical spine sensory pathways as well as by central sensitization processes. The association between TMD and fibromyalgia also has supporting evidence in the literature, and the proposed main mechanism underlying this relationship is the impairment of the descending pain inhibitory system. In this particular scenario, a cause-effect relationship is more likely to occur in one direction, that is, fibromyalgia as a risk factor for TMD. Therefore, clinical awareness of the association between TMD and painful comorbidities and the support of multidisciplinary approaches are required to recognize these related conditions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Carbon Footprint Management of Road Freight Transport under the Carbon Emission Trading Mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Growing concern over environmental issues has considerably increased the number of regulations and legislation that aim to curb carbon emissions. Carbon emission trading mechanism, which is one of the most effective means, has been broadly adopted by several countries. This paper presents a road truck routing problem under the carbon emission trading mechanism. By introducing a calculation method of carbon emissions that considers the load and speed of the vehicle among other factors, a road truck routing optimizing model under the cap and trade mechanism based on the Travelling Salesman Problem (TSP is described. Compared with the classical TSP model that only considers the economic cost, this model suggests that the truck routing decision under the cap and trade mechanism is more effective in reducing carbon emissions. A modified tabu search algorithm is also proposed to obtain solutions within a reasonable amount of computation time. We theoretically and numerically examine the impacts of carbon trading, carbon cap, and carbon price on truck routing decision, carbon emissions, and total cost. From the results of numerical experiments, we derive interesting observations about how to control the total cost and reduce carbon emissions.

  20. Two distinct neural mechanisms underlying indirect reciprocity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Takamitsu; Takezawa, Masanori; Nakawake, Yo; Kunimatsu, Akira; Yamasue, Hidenori; Nakamura, Mitsuhiro; Miyashita, Yasushi; Masuda, Naoki

    2014-03-18

    Cooperation is a hallmark of human society. Humans often cooperate with strangers even if they will not meet each other again. This so-called indirect reciprocity enables large-scale cooperation among nonkin and can occur based on a reputation mechanism or as a succession of pay-it-forward behavior. Here, we provide the functional and anatomical neural evidence for two distinct mechanisms governing the two types of indirect reciprocity. Cooperation occurring as reputation-based reciprocity specifically recruited the precuneus, a region associated with self-centered cognition. During such cooperative behavior, the precuneus was functionally connected with the caudate, a region linking rewards to behavior. Furthermore, the precuneus of a cooperative subject had a strong resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) with the caudate and a large gray matter volume. In contrast, pay-it-forward reciprocity recruited the anterior insula (AI), a brain region associated with affective empathy. The AI was functionally connected with the caudate during cooperation occurring as pay-it-forward reciprocity, and its gray matter volume and rsFC with the caudate predicted the tendency of such cooperation. The revealed difference is consistent with the existing results of evolutionary game theory: although reputation-based indirect reciprocity robustly evolves as a self-interested behavior in theory, pay-it-forward indirect reciprocity does not on its own. The present study provides neural mechanisms underlying indirect reciprocity and suggests that pay-it-forward reciprocity may not occur as myopic profit maximization but elicit emotional rewards.

  1. Mechanism of texture formation by hot deformation in rapidly quenched FeNdB

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, L.; Graham, C.D. Jr.

    1990-01-01

    The development of crystallographic texture in rapidly quenched Fe 14 Nd 2 B has been investigated by hot deformation. The method was to catch the process in a state of partial completion, and then use transmission electron microscopy to examine the structure. The degree of texture formation was determined by x-ray diffraction and by magnetic measurements, and the hardness and the anisotropy in hardness were measured up to 600 degree C. It was concluded, in agreement with others but with additional evidence, that preferential growth of favorably oriented grains during plastic deformation produces the texture. The nature of the plastic deformation remains unclear, since no dislocations are observed in Fe 14 Nd 2 B. It was found that when samples are compressed at temperatures near 600 degree C under low stresses for long times, they become Nd rich at the bottom, presumably because of flow of the Nd-rich liquid phase under the influence of gravity. In such samples, plastic deformation and crystallographic orientation occurs preferentially at the Nd-rich end

  2. Mechanical characteristics of heterogeneous structures obtained by high-temperature brazing of corrosion-resistant steels with rapidly quenched non-boron nickel-based alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalin, B.; Penyaz, M.; Ivannikov, A.; Sevryukov, O.; Bachurina, D.; Fedotov, I.; Voennov, A.; Abramov, E.

    2018-01-01

    Recently, the use rapidly quenched boron-containing nickel filler metals for high temperature brazing corrosion resistance steels different classes is perspective. The use of these alloys leads to the formation of a complex heterogeneous structure in the diffusion zone that contains separations of intermediate phases such as silicides and borides. This structure negatively affects the strength characteristics of the joint, especially under dynamic loads and in corrosive environment. The use of non-boron filler metals based on the Ni-Si-Be system is proposed to eliminate this structure in the brazed seam. Widely used austenitic 12Cr18Ni10Ti and ferrite-martensitic 16Cr12MoSiWNiVNb reactor steels were selected for research and brazing was carried out. The mechanical characteristics of brazed joints were determined using uniaxial tensile and impact toughness tests, and fractography was investigated by electron microscopy.

  3. Cavitation behavior observed in three monoleaflet mechanical heart valves under accelerated testing conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Chi-Wen; Liu, Jia-Shing; Li, Chi-Pei; Lu, Po-Chien; Hwang, Ned H

    2008-01-01

    Accelerated testing provides a substantial amount of data on mechanical heart valve durability in a short period of time, but such conditions may not accurately reflect in vivo performance. Cavitation, which occurs during mechanical heart valve closure when local flow field pressure decreases below vapor pressure, is thought to play a role in valve damage under accelerated conditions. The underlying flow dynamics and mechanisms behind cavitation bubble formation are poorly understood. Under physiologic conditions, random perivalvular cavitation is difficult to capture. We applied accelerated testing at a pulse rate of 600 bpm and transvalvular pressure of 120 mm Hg, with synchronized videographs and high-frequency pressure measurements, to study cavitation of the Medtronic Hall Standard (MHS), Medtronic Hall D-16 (MHD), and Omni Carbon (OC) valves. Results showed cavitation bubbles between 340 and 360 micros after leaflet/housing impact of the MHS, MHD, and OC valves, intensified by significant leaflet rebound. Squeeze flow, Venturi, and water hammer effects each contributed to cavitation, depending on valve design.

  4. Mechanisms underlying KCNQ1channel cell volume sensitivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammami, Sofia

    Cells are constantly exposed to changes in cell volume during cell metabolism, nutrient uptake, cell proliferation, cell migration and salt and water transport. In order to cope with these perturbations, potassium channels in line with chloride channels have been shown to be likely contributors...... to the process of cell volume adjustments. A great diversity of potassium channels being members of either the 6TM, 4 TM or 2 TM K+ channel gene family have been shown to be strictly regulated by small, fast changes in cell volume. However, the precise mechanism underlying the K+ channel sensitivity to cell...... volume alterations is not yet fully understood. The KCNQ1 channel belonging to the voltage gated KCNQ family is considered a precise sensor of volume changes. The goal of this thesis was to elucidate the mechanism that induces cell volume sensitivity. Until now, a number of investigators have implicitly...

  5. Crack formation and crack propagation under multiaxial mechanical and thermal stresses. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The 25th meeting of the DV Fracture Group was held on 16/17 February 1993 at Karlsruhe Technical University. The main topic, ''Crack formation and crack propagation under multiaxial mechanical and thermal stresses'', was discussed by five invited papers (by K.J. Miller, D. Loehe, H.A. Richard, W. Brocks, A. Brueckner-Foit) and 23 short papers. The other 21 papers were devoted to various domains of fracture mechanics, with emphasis on elastoplastic fracture mechanics. (orig./MM) [de

  6. A mechanical deformation model of metallic fuel pin under steady state conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, D. W.; Lee, B. W.; Kim, Y. I.; Han, D. H.

    2004-01-01

    As a mechanical deformation model of the MACSIS code predicts the cladding deformation due to the simple thin shell theory, it is impossible to predict the FCMI(Fuel-Cladding Mechanical Interaction). Therefore, a mechanical deformation model used the generalized plane strain is developed. The DEFORM is a mechanical deformation routine which is used to analyze the stresses and strains in the fuel and cladding of a metallic fuel pin of LMRs. The accuracy of the program is demonstrated by comparison of the DEFORM predictions with the result of another code calculations or experimental results in literature. The stress/strain distributions of elastic part under free thermal expansion condition are completely matched with the results of ANSYS code. The swelling and creep solutions are reasonably well agreed with the simulations of ALFUS and LIFE-M codes, respectively. The predicted cladding strains are under estimated than experimental data at the range of high burnup. Therefore, it is recommended that the fine tuning of the DEFORM based on various range of experimental data

  7. Using repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation to study the underlying neural mechanisms of human motor learning and memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Censor, Nitzan; Cohen, Leonardo G

    2011-01-01

    In the last two decades, there has been a rapid development in the research of the physiological brain mechanisms underlying human motor learning and memory. While conventional memory research performed on animal models uses intracellular recordings, microfusion of protein inhibitors to specific brain areas and direct induction of focal brain lesions, human research has so far utilized predominantly behavioural approaches and indirect measurements of neural activity. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS), a safe non-invasive brain stimulation technique, enables the study of the functional role of specific cortical areas by evaluating the behavioural consequences of selective modulation of activity (excitation or inhibition) on memory generation and consolidation, contributing to the understanding of the neural substrates of motor learning. Depending on the parameters of stimulation, rTMS can also facilitate learning processes, presumably through purposeful modulation of excitability in specific brain regions. rTMS has also been used to gain valuable knowledge regarding the timeline of motor memory formation, from initial encoding to stabilization and long-term retention. In this review, we summarize insights gained using rTMS on the physiological and neural mechanisms of human motor learning and memory. We conclude by suggesting possible future research directions, some with direct clinical implications.

  8. Damage evolution of TBC system under in-phase thermo-mechanical tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kitazawa, R.; Tanaka, M.; Kagawa, Y. [Research Center for Advanced Science and Technology, University of Tokyo, 4-6-1 Komaba, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 153-8904 (Japan); Liu, Y.F., E-mail: yfliu@hyper.rcast.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Research Center for Advanced Science and Technology, University of Tokyo, 4-6-1 Komaba, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 153-8904 (Japan)

    2010-10-15

    In-phase thermo-mechanical tests (TMF) of EB-PVD Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}-ZrO{sub 2} thermal barrier coating (TBC) system (8 wt% Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}-ZrO{sub 2}/CoNiCrAlY/IN-738 substrate) were done under a through-the-thick-direction thermal gradient from TBC surface temperature at 1150 deg. C to substrate temperature at 1000 deg. C. Deformation and failure behaviors of the TBC system were observed at the macroscopic and microscopic scales and damage evolution of the system under in-phase thermo-mechanical test was discussed. Special attention was paid to TBC layer cracking, thermally grown oxide (TGO) layer formation and void formation in bond coat and substrate. Effect of TMF conditions on the damage evolution behaviors was also discussed.

  9. Rapid and reversible impairments of short- and long-term social recognition memory are caused by acute isolation of adult rats via distinct mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahar-Gold, Hadar; Gur, Rotem; Wagner, Shlomo

    2013-01-01

    Mammalian social organizations require the ability to recognize and remember individual conspecifics. This social recognition memory (SRM) can be examined in rodents using their innate tendency to investigate novel conspecifics more persistently than familiar ones. Here we used the SRM paradigm to examine the influence of housing conditions on the social memory of adult rats. We found that acute social isolation caused within few days a significant impairment in acquisition of short-term SRM of male and female rats. Moreover, SRM consolidation into long-term memory was blocked following only one day of social isolation. Both impairments were reversible, but with different time courses. Furthermore, only the impairment in SRM consolidation was reversed by systemic administration of arginine-vasopressin (AVP). In contrast to SRM, object recognition memory was not affected by social isolation. We conclude that acute social isolation rapidly induces reversible changes in the brain neuronal and molecular mechanisms underlying SRM, which hamper its acquisition and completely block its consolidation. These changes occur via distinct, AVP sensitive and insensitive mechanisms. Thus, acute social isolation of rats swiftly causes changes in their brain and interferes with their normal social behavior.

  10. Rapid and reversible impairments of short- and long-term social recognition memory are caused by acute isolation of adult rats via distinct mechanisms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadar Shahar-Gold

    Full Text Available Mammalian social organizations require the ability to recognize and remember individual conspecifics. This social recognition memory (SRM can be examined in rodents using their innate tendency to investigate novel conspecifics more persistently than familiar ones. Here we used the SRM paradigm to examine the influence of housing conditions on the social memory of adult rats. We found that acute social isolation caused within few days a significant impairment in acquisition of short-term SRM of male and female rats. Moreover, SRM consolidation into long-term memory was blocked following only one day of social isolation. Both impairments were reversible, but with different time courses. Furthermore, only the impairment in SRM consolidation was reversed by systemic administration of arginine-vasopressin (AVP. In contrast to SRM, object recognition memory was not affected by social isolation. We conclude that acute social isolation rapidly induces reversible changes in the brain neuronal and molecular mechanisms underlying SRM, which hamper its acquisition and completely block its consolidation. These changes occur via distinct, AVP sensitive and insensitive mechanisms. Thus, acute social isolation of rats swiftly causes changes in their brain and interferes with their normal social behavior.

  11. Underlying mechanism in the water chemistry of nuclear systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walton, G.N.

    1978-01-01

    The equilibrium between dissolved hydrogen and oxygen in the molecular decomposition of water, and the equilibrium between hydrogen ions and hydroxyl ions in the ionic dissociation of water, both constitute important underlying mechanisms in the corrosion behaviour of water. The two equilibria, and the rates of the reactions involved in water and steam, will be compared and contrasted as a function of temperature, pressure and radiation. The effects of the equilibria on the hydrolysis and solubility of ferrous and ferric ions, and the ions of other metals, will be discussed in relation to the control of conditions in the coolant circuits of nuclear reactors. A third mechanism to discussed is the electrochemical exchange reactions that can contribute to the contamination of circuits. (author)

  12. Study of corrosion susceptibility of stainless steel-304 and stainless steel-316 under mechanical stress in diluted boiling nitric acid with chlorides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desjardins, D.; Puiggali, M.; El Kheloui, A.; Petit, M.C.; Clement, C.; Berge, J.P.

    1991-01-01

    A detailed study of corrosion of stressed 304 and 316 stainless steels in boiling solutions of diluted nitric acid in presence of chloride is presented. After a chemical study of the electrolyte, the different kinds of corrosion observed are represented on HNO 3 concentration - Cl - concentration diagrams. A more fundamental study based on several electrochemical techniques (forward scan and return potentiodynamic curves, potentiokinetic curves with different scan rates, sample depassivation by rapid straining under potentiostatic control) is carried out. The results allow to confirm the observations and to explain them in terms of competition between anodic dissolution, depassivation, repassivation processes with a precise analyze of the role of the solution and of the mechanical stress [fr

  13. Microelectromechanical high-density energy storage/rapid release system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, M. Steven; Allen, James J.; Meeks, Kent D.; Jensen, Brian D.; Miller, Samuel L.

    1999-08-01

    One highly desirable characteristic of electrostatically driven microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) is that they consume very little power. The corresponding drawback is that the force they produce may be inadequate for many applications. It has previously been demonstrated that gear reduction units or microtransmissions can substantially increase the torque generated by microengines. Operating speed, however, is also reduced by the transmission gear ratio. Some applications require both high speed and high force. If this output is only required for a limited period of time, then energy could be stored in a mechanical system and rapidly released upon demand. We have designed, fabricated, and demonstrated a high-density energy storage/rapid release system that accomplishes this task. Built using a 5-level surface micromachining technology, the assembly closely resembles a medieval crossbow. Energy releases on the order of tens of nanojoules have already been demonstrated, and significantly higher energy systems are under development.

  14. The long-term fate of permafrost peatlands under rapid climate warming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Swindles, Graeme T.; Morris, Paul J.; Mullan, Donal

    2015-01-01

    Permafrost peatlands contain globally important amounts of soil organic carbon, owing to cold conditions which suppress anaerobic decomposition. However, climate warming and permafrost thaw threaten the stability of this carbon store. The ultimate fate of permafrost peatlands and their carbon...... stores is unclear because of complex feedbacks between peat accumulation, hydrology and vegetation. Field monitoring campaigns only span the last few decades and therefore provide an incomplete picture of permafrost peatland response to recent rapid warming. Here we use a high-resolution palaeoecological...... approach to understand the longer-term response of peatlands in contrasting states of permafrost degradation to recent rapid warming. At all sites we identify a drying trend until the late-twentieth century; however, two sites subsequently experienced a rapid shift to wetter conditions as permafrost thawed...

  15. Music and Memory in Alzheimer's Disease and The Potential Underlying Mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peck, Katlyn J; Girard, Todd A; Russo, Frank A; Fiocco, Alexandra J

    2016-01-01

    With population aging and a projected exponential expansion of persons diagnosed with Alzheimer's disease (AD), the development of treatment and prevention programs has become a fervent area of research and discovery. A growing body of evidence suggests that music exposure can enhance memory and emotional function in persons with AD. However, there is a paucity of research that aims to identify specific underlying neural mechanisms associated with music's beneficial effects in this particular population. As such, this paper reviews existing anecdotal and empirical evidence related to the enhancing effects of music exposure on cognitive function and further provides a discussion on the potential underlying mechanisms that may explain music's beneficial effect. Specifically, this paper will outline the potential role of the dopaminergic system, the autonomic nervous system, and the default network in explaining how music may enhance memory function in persons with AD.

  16. Plant-insect interactions under bacterial influence: ecological implications and underlying mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugio, Akiko; Dubreuil, Géraldine; Giron, David; Simon, Jean-Christophe

    2015-02-01

    Plants and insects have been co-existing for more than 400 million years, leading to intimate and complex relationships. Throughout their own evolutionary history, plants and insects have also established intricate and very diverse relationships with microbial associates. Studies in recent years have revealed plant- or insect-associated microbes to be instrumental in plant-insect interactions, with important implications for plant defences and plant utilization by insects. Microbial communities associated with plants are rich in diversity, and their structure greatly differs between below- and above-ground levels. Microbial communities associated with insect herbivores generally present a lower diversity and can reside in different body parts of their hosts including bacteriocytes, haemolymph, gut, and salivary glands. Acquisition of microbial communities by vertical or horizontal transmission and possible genetic exchanges through lateral transfer could strongly impact on the host insect or plant fitness by conferring adaptations to new habitats. Recent developments in sequencing technologies and molecular tools have dramatically enhanced opportunities to characterize the microbial diversity associated with plants and insects and have unveiled some of the mechanisms by which symbionts modulate plant-insect interactions. Here, we focus on the diversity and ecological consequences of bacterial communities associated with plants and herbivorous insects. We also highlight the known mechanisms by which these microbes interfere with plant-insect interactions. Revealing such mechanisms in model systems under controlled environments but also in more natural ecological settings will help us to understand the evolution of complex multitrophic interactions in which plants, herbivorous insects, and micro-organisms are inserted. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions

  17. Physical mechanism causing rapid changes in ultrarelativistic electron pitch angle distributions right after a shock arrival: Evaluation of an electron dropout event

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, X.-J.; Li, W.; Thorne, R. M.; Angelopoulos, V.; Ma, Q.; Li, J.; Bortnik, J.; Nishimura, Y.; Chen, L.; Baker, D. N.; Reeves, G. D.; Spence, H. E.; Kletzing, C. A.; Kurth, W. S.; Hospodarsky, G. B.; Blake, J. B.; Fennell, J. F.

    2016-09-01

    Three mechanisms have been proposed to explain relativistic electron flux depletions (dropouts) in the Earth's outer radiation belt during storm times: adiabatic expansion of electron drift shells due to a decrease in magnetic field strength, magnetopause shadowing and subsequent outward radial diffusion, and precipitation into the atmosphere (driven by EMIC wave scattering). Which mechanism predominates in causing electron dropouts commonly observed in the outer radiation belt is still debatable. In the present study, we evaluate the physical mechanism that may be primarily responsible for causing the sudden change in relativistic electron pitch angle distributions during a dropout event observed by Van Allen Probes during the main phase of the 27 February 2014 storm. During this event, the phase space density of ultrarelativistic (>1 MeV) electrons was depleted by more than 1 order of magnitude over the entire radial extent of the outer radiation belt (3 pitch angle distribution under a compressed magnetic field topology based on actual solar wind conditions. Although these ultrarelativistic electrons exhibit highly anisotropic (peaked in 90°), energy-dependent pitch angle distributions, which appear to be associated with the typical EMIC wave scattering, comparison of the modeled electron distribution to electron measurements indicates that drift shell splitting is responsible for this rapid change in electron pitch angle distributions. This further indicates that magnetopause loss is the predominant cause of the electron dropout right after the shock arrival.

  18. Insights into the Mechanisms Underlying Boron Homeostasis in Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akira Yoshinari

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Boron is an essential element for plants but is toxic in excess. Therefore, plants must adapt to both limiting and excess boron conditions for normal growth. Boron transport in plants is primarily based on three transport mechanisms across the plasma membrane: passive diffusion of boric acid, facilitated diffusion of boric acid via channels, and export of borate anion via transporters. Under boron -limiting conditions, boric acid channels and borate exporters function in the uptake and translocation of boron to support growth of various plant species. In Arabidopsis thaliana, NIP5;1 and BOR1 are located in the plasma membrane and polarized toward soil and stele, respectively, in various root cells, for efficient transport of boron from the soil to the stele. Importantly, sufficient levels of boron induce downregulation of NIP5;1 and BOR1 through mRNA degradation and proteolysis through endocytosis, respectively. In addition, borate exporters, such as Arabidopsis BOR4 and barley Bot1, function in boron exclusion from tissues and cells under conditions of excess boron. Thus, plants actively regulate intracellular localization and abundance of transport proteins to maintain boron homeostasis. In this review, the physiological roles and regulatory mechanisms of intracellular localization and abundance of boron transport proteins are discussed.

  19. PHYSIOLOGICAL QUALITY OF SOYBEAN SEEDS UNDER MECHANICAL INJURIES CAUSED BY COMBINES

    OpenAIRE

    FÁBIO PALCZEWSKI PACHECO; LÚCIA HELENA PEREIRA NÓBREGA; GISLAINE PICOLLO DE LIMA; MÁRCIA SANTORUM; WALTER BOLLER; LORIVAN FORMIGHIERI

    2015-01-01

    The mechanical harvesting causes injuries on seeds and may affect their quality. Different threshing mechanisms and their adjustments may also affect the intensity of impacts that machines cause on seeds. So, this study aimed at diagnosing and evaluating the effect of two combines: the first one with a threshing system of axial flow and the other one with a threshing system of tangential flow, under adjustments of concave opening (10 mm, 30 mm and 10 mm for a combine with axial ...

  20. Frictional behaviour of polymer films under mechanical and electrostatic loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ginés, R; Christen, R; Motavalli, M; Bergamini, A; Ermanni, P

    2013-01-01

    Different polymer foils, namely polyimide, FEP, PFA and PVDF were tested on a setup designed to measure the static coefficient of friction between them. The setup was designed according to the requirements of a damping device based on electrostatically tunable friction. The foils were tested under different mechanically applied forces and showed reproducible results for the static coefficient of friction. With the same setup the measurements were performed under an electric field as the source of the normal force. Up to a certain electric field the values were in good agreement. Beyond this field discrepancies were found. (paper)

  1. Failure mechanism of monolayer graphene under hypervelocity impact of spherical projectile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Kang; Zhan, Haifei; Hu, De'An; Gu, Yuantong

    2016-09-01

    The excellent mechanical properties of graphene have enabled it as appealing candidate in the field of impact protection or protective shield. By considering a monolayer graphene membrane, in this work, we assessed its deformation mechanisms under hypervelocity impact (from 2 to 6 km/s), based on a serial of in silico studies. It is found that the cracks are formed preferentially in the zigzag directions which are consistent with that observed from tensile deformation. Specifically, the boundary condition is found to exert an obvious influence on the stress distribution and transmission during the impact process, which eventually influences the penetration energy and crack growth. For similar sample size, the circular shape graphene possesses the best impact resistance, followed by hexagonal graphene membrane. Moreover, it is found the failure shape of graphene membrane has a strong relationship with the initial kinetic energy of the projectile. The higher kinetic energy, the more number the cracks. This study provides a fundamental understanding of the deformation mechanisms of monolayer graphene under impact, which is crucial in order to facilitate their emerging future applications for impact protection, such as protective shield from orbital debris for spacecraft.

  2. Behavior of duplex stainless steel casting defects under mechanical loadings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jayet-Gendrot, S [Electricite de France, 77 - Moret-sur-Loing (France). Dept. of Materials Study; Gilles, P; Migne, C [Societe Franco-Americaine de Constructions Atomiques (FRAMATOME), 92 - Paris-La-Defense (France)

    1997-04-01

    Several components in the primary circuit of pressurized water reactors are made of cast duplex stainless steels. This material contains small casting defects, mainly shrinkage cavities, due to the manufacturing process. In safety analyses, the structural integrity of the components is studied. In order to assess the real severity of the casting defects under mechanical loadings, an experimental program was carried out. It consisted of testing, under both cyclic and monotonic solicitations, three-point bend specimens containing either a natural defect (in the form of a localized cluster of cavities) or a machined notch having the dimensions of the cluster`s envelope. The tests are analyzed in order to develop a method that takes into account the behavior of castings defects in a more realistic fashion than by an envelope crack. Various approaches are investigated, including the search of equivalent defects or of criteria based on continuum mechanics concepts, and compared with literature data. This study shows the conservatism of current safety analyses in modelling casting defects by envelope semi-elliptical cracks and contributes to the development of alternative approaches. (author) 18 refs.

  3. Nonlinear Mechanics of MEMS Rectangular Microplates under Electrostatic Actuation

    KAUST Repository

    Saghir, Shahid

    2016-12-01

    The first objective of the dissertation is to develop a suitable reduced order model capable of investigating the nonlinear mechanical behavior of von-Karman plates under electrostatic actuation. The second objective is to investigate the nonlinear static and dynamic behavior of rectangular microplates under small and large actuating forces. In the first part, we present and compare various approaches to develop reduced order models for the nonlinear von-Karman rectangular microplates actuated by nonlinear electrostatic forces. The reduced-order models aim to investigate the static and dynamic behavior of the plate under small and large actuation forces. A fully clamped microplate is considered. Different types of basis functions are used in conjunction with the Galerkin method to discretize the governing equations. First we investigate the convergence with the number of modes retained in the model. Then for validation purpose, a comparison of the static results is made with the results calculated by a nonlinear finite element model. The linear eigenvalue problem for the plate under the electrostatic force is solved for a wide range of voltages up to pull-in. In the second part, we present an investigation of the static and dynamic behavior of a fully clamped microplate. We investigate the effect of different non-dimensional design parameters on the static response. The forced-vibration response of the plate is then investigated when the plate is excited by a harmonic AC load superimposed to a DC load. The dynamic behavior is examined near the primary and secondary (superharmonic and subharmonic) resonances. The microplate shows a strong hardening behavior due to the cubic nonlinearity of midplane stretching. However, the behavior switches to softening as the DC load is increased. Next, near-square plates are studied to understand the effect of geometric imperfections of microplates. In the final part of the dissertation, we investigate the mechanical behavior of

  4. Neural mechanisms underlying morphine withdrawal in addicted patients: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nima Babhadiashar

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Morphine is one of the most potent alkaloid in opium, which has substantial medical uses and needs and it is the first active principle purified from herbal source. Morphine has commonly been used for relief of moderate to severe pain as it acts directly on the central nervous system; nonetheless, its chronic abuse increases tolerance and physical dependence, which is commonly known as opiate addiction. Morphine withdrawal syndrome is physiological and behavioral symptoms that stem from prolonged exposure to morphine. A majority of brain regions are hypofunctional over prolonged abstinence and acute morphine withdrawal. Furthermore, several neural mechanisms are likely to contribute to morphine withdrawal. The present review summarizes the literature pertaining to neural mechanisms underlying morphine withdrawal. Despite the fact that morphine withdrawal is a complex process, it is suggested that neural mechanisms play key roles in morphine withdrawal.

  5. Physiological mechanisms underlying animal social behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seebacher, Frank; Krause, Jens

    2017-08-19

    Many species of animal live in groups, and the group represents the organizational level within which ecological and evolutionary processes occur. Understanding these processes, therefore, relies on knowledge of the mechanisms that permit or constrain group formation. We suggest that physiological capacities and differences in physiology between individuals modify fission-fusion dynamics. Differences between individuals in locomotor capacity and metabolism may lead to fission of groups and sorting of individuals into groups with similar physiological phenotypes. Environmental impacts such as hypoxia can influence maximum group sizes and structure in fish schools by altering access to oxygenated water. The nutritional environment determines group cohesion, and the increase in information collected by the group means that individuals should rely more on social information and form more cohesive groups in uncertain environments. Changing environmental contexts require rapid responses by individuals to maintain group coordination, which are mediated by neuroendocrine signalling systems such as nonapeptides and steroid hormones. Brain processing capacity may constrain social complexity by limiting information processing. Failure to evaluate socially relevant information correctly limits social interactions, which is seen, for example, in autism. Hence, functioning of a group relies to a large extent on the perception and appropriate processing of signals from conspecifics. Many if not all physiological systems are mechanistically linked, and therefore have synergistic effects on social behaviour. A challenge for the future lies in understanding these interactive effects, which will improve understanding of group dynamics, particularly in changing environments.This article is part of the themed issue 'Physiological determinants of social behaviour in animals'. © 2017 The Author(s).

  6. Rapid, computer vision-enabled murine screening system identifies neuropharmacological potential of two new mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven L Roberds

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The lack of predictive in vitro models for behavioral phenotypes impedes rapid advancement in neuropharmacology and psychopharmacology. In vivo behavioral assays are more predictive of activity in human disorders, but such assays are often highly resource-intensive. Here we describe the successful application of a computer vision-enabled system to identify potential neuropharmacological activity of two new mechanisms. The analytical system was trained using multiple drugs that are used clinically to treat depression, schizophrenia, anxiety, and other psychiatric or behavioral disorders. During blinded testing the PDE10 inhibitor TP-10 produced a signature of activity suggesting potential antipsychotic activity. This finding is consistent with TP-10’s activity in multiple rodent models that is similar to that of clinically used antipsychotic drugs. The CK1ε inhibitor PF-670462 produced a signature consistent with anxiolytic activity and, at the highest dose tested, behavioral effects similar to that of opiate analgesics. Neither TP-10 nor PF-670462 was included in the training set. Thus, computer vision-based behavioral analysis can facilitate drug discovery by identifying neuropharmacological effects of compounds acting through new mechanisms.

  7. Catalysis of Silver catfish Major Hepatic Glutathione Transferase proceeds via rapid equilibrium sequential random Mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayodele O. Kolawole

    Full Text Available Fish hepatic glutathione transferases are connected with the elimination of intracellular pollutants and detoxification of organic micro-pollutants in their aquatic ecosystem. The two-substrate steady state kinetic mechanism of Silver catfish (Synodontis eupterus major hepatic glutathione transferases purified to apparent homogeneity was explored. The enzyme was dimeric enzyme with a monomeric size of 25.6 kDa. Initial-velocity studies and Product inhibition patterns by methyl glutathione and chloride with respect to GSH-CDNB; GSH-ρ-nitrophenylacetate; and GSH-Ethacrynic acid all conforms to a rapid equilibrium sequential random Bi Bi kinetic mechanism rather than steady state sequential random Bi Bi kinetic. α was 2.96 ± 0.35 for the model. The pH profile of Vmax/KM (with saturating 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene and variable GSH concentrations showed apparent pKa value of 6.88 and 9.86. Inhibition studies as a function of inhibitor concentration show that the enzyme is a homodimer and near neutral GST. The enzyme poorly conjugates 4-hydroxylnonenal and cumene hydroperoxide and may not be involved in oxidative stress protection. The seGST is unique and overwhelmingly shows characteristics similar to those of homodimeric class Pi GSTs, as was indicated by its kinetic mechanism, substrate specificity and inhibition studies. The rate- limiting step, probably the product release, of the reaction is viscosity-dependent and is consequential if macro-viscosogen or micro-viscosogen. Keywords: Silver catfish, Glutathione transferase, Steady-state, Kinetic mechanism, Inhibition

  8. Laboratory experiments for understanding mechanical properties of fractured granite under supercritical conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitamura, M.; Takahashi, M.; Takagi, K.; Hirano, N.; Tsuchiya, N.

    2017-12-01

    To extract geothermal energy effectively and safely from magma and/or adjacent hot rock, we need to tackle many issues which require new technology development, such as a technique to control a risk from induced-earthquakes. On a development of induced-earthquake mitigation technology, it is required to understand roles of factors on occurrences of the induced-earthquake (e.g., strength, crack density, and fluid-rock reaction) and their intercorrelations (e.g., Asanuma et al., 2012). Our purpose of this series of experiments is to clarify a relationship between the rock strength and the crack density under supercritical conditions. We conducted triaxial deformation test on intact granite rock strength under high-temperature (250 - 750°C), high-pressure (104 MPa) condition at a constant load velocity (0.1 μm/sec) using a gas-rig at AIST. We used Oshima granite, which has initially Young's modulus increased with decreasing the temperature from 32.3 GPa at 750°C to 57.4 GPa at 250°C. At 400 °C, the stress drop accelerated the deformation with 98 times faster velocity than that at load-point. In contrast, at 650°C and 750°C, the velocity during stress drop kept the same order of the load-point velocity. Therefore, the deformation mechanism may start to be changed from brittle to ductile when the temperature exceeds 650°C. Highly dense cracked granite specimens were formed by a rapid decompression test (RDT) using an autoclave settled at Tohoku University (Hirano et al., 2016JpGU), caused by a reduction of fluid pressure within 1-2 sec from vapor/supercritical state (10 - 48 MPa, 550 °C) to ambient pressure. The specimens after RDT show numerous microcracks on X-ray CT images. The RDT imposed the porosity increasing towards 3.75 % and Vp and Vs decreasing towards 1.37±0.52 km/s and 0.97±0.25 km/s. The Poisson's ratio shows the negative values in dry and 0.5 in wet. In the meeting, we will present results of triaxial deformation test on such cracked granites

  9. Toward a mechanistic understanding of human-induced rapid environmental change: A case study linking energy development, avian nest predation, and predators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hethcoat, Matthew G.; Chalfoun, Anna D.

    2015-01-01

    Demographic consequences of human-induced rapid environmental change (HIREC) have been widely documented for many populations. The mechanisms underlying such patterns, however, are rarely investigated and yet are critical to understand for effective conservation and management.

  10. An analytical model of the mechanical properties of bulk coal under confined stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, G.X.; Wang, Z.T.; Rudolph, V.; Massarotto, P.; Finley, R.J.

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents the development of an analytical model which can be used to relate the structural parameters of coal to its mechanical properties such as elastic modulus and Poisson's ratio under a confined stress condition. This model is developed primarily to support process modeling of coalbed methane (CBM) or CO2-enhanced CBM (ECBM) recovery from coal seam. It applied an innovative approach by which stresses acting on and strains occurring in coal are successively combined in rectangular coordinates, leading to the aggregated mechanical constants. These mechanical properties represent important information for improving CBM/ECBM simulations and incorporating within these considerations of directional permeability. The model, consisting of constitutive equations which implement a mechanically consistent stress-strains correlation, can be used as a generalized tool to study the mechanical and fluid behaviors of coal composites. An example using the model to predict the stress-strain correlation of coal under triaxial confined stress by accounting for the elastic and brittle (non-elastic) deformations is discussed. The result shows a good agreement between the prediction and the experimental measurement. ?? 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Mechanism for ion-induced mixing of GaAs-AlGaAs interfaces by rapid thermal annealing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kahen, K.B.; Rajeswaran, G.; Lee, S.T.

    1988-01-01

    A mechanism for the transient-enhanced interdiffusion of GaAs-AlGaAs interfaces during rapid thermal annealing of ion-implanted heterostructures is proposed. The model is based on the solution of the coupled diffusion equations involving the excess vacancies and the post-implantation Al distribution following ion implantation. Both initial distributions are obtained from the solution of a three-dimensional Monte Carlo simulation of ion implantation into a heterostructure sample. In general, the model is valid for time frames within which impurity diffusion does not occur appreciably so that impurity-enhanced diffusion remains a weak effect

  12. Fatigue response of a PZT multilayer actuator under high-field electric cycling with mechanical preload

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hong; Wereszczak, Andrew A.; Lin, Hua-Tay

    2009-01-01

    An electric fatigue test system was developed for evaluating the reliability of piezoelectric actuators with a mechanical loading capability. Fatigue responses of a lead zirconate titanate (PZT) multilayer actuator with a platethrough electrode configuration were studied under an electric field (1.7 times that of the coercive field of PZT material) and a concurrent mechanical preload (30.0 MPa). A total of 109 cycles was carried out. Variations in charge density and mechanical strain under the high electric field and constant mechanical loads were observed during the fatigue test. The dc and the first harmonic (at 10 Hz) dielectric and piezoelectric coefficients were subsequently characterized using fast Fourier transformation. Both the dielectric and the piezoelectric coefficients exhibited a monotonic decrease prior to 2.86×108 cycles under certain preloading conditions, and then fluctuated. Both the dielectric loss tangent and the piezoelectric loss tangent also fluctuated after a decrease. The results are interpreted and discussed with respect to domain wall activities, microdefects, and other anomalies.

  13. Simulation of fatigue damage in ferroelectric polycrystals under mechanical/electrical loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozinov, S.; Kuna, M.

    2018-07-01

    The reliability of smart-structures made of ferroelectric ceramics is essentially reduced by the formation of cracks under the action of external electrical and/or mechanical loading. In the current research a numerical model for low-cycle fatigue in ferroelectric mesostructures is proposed. In the finite element simulations a combination of two user element routines is utilized. The first one is used to model a micromechanical ferroelectric domain switching behavior inside the grains. The second one is used to simulate fatigue damage of grain boundaries by a cohesive zone model (EMCCZM) based on an electromechanical cyclic traction-separation law (TSL). For numerical simulations a scanning electron microscope image of the ceramic's grain structure was digitalized and meshed. The response of this mesostructure to cyclic electrical or mechanical loading is systematically analyzed. As a result of the simulations, the distribution of electric potential, field, displacement and polarization as well as mechanical stresses and deformations inside the grains are obtained. At the grain boundaries, the formation and evolution of damage are analyzed until final failure and induced degradation of electric permittivity. It is found that the proposed model correctly mimics polycrystalline behavior during poling processes and progressive damage under cyclic electromechanical loading. To the authors' knowledge, it is the first model and numerical analysis of ferroelectric polycrystals taking into account both domain reorientation and cohesive modeling of intergranular fracture. It can help to understand failure mechanisms taking place in ferroelectrics during fatigue processes.

  14. Rapid analytical assessment of the mechanical perturbations induced by non-isothermal injection into a subsurface formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Simone, Silvia; Carrera, Jesús; María Gómez Castro, Berta

    2016-04-01

    Fluid injection into geological formations is required for several engineering operations, e.g. geothermal energy production, hydrocarbon production and storage, CO2 storage, wastewater disposal, etc. Non-isothermal fluid injection causes alterations of the pressure and temperature fields, which affect the mechanical stability of the reservoir. This coupled thermo-hydro-mechanical behavior has become a matter of special interest because of public concern about induced seismicity. The response is complex and its evaluation often requires numerical modeling. Nevertheless, analytical solutions are useful in improving our understanding of interactions, identifying the controlling parameters, testing codes and in providing a rapid assessment of the system response to an alteration. We present an easy-to-use solution to the transient advection-conduction heat transfer problem for parallel and radial flow. The solution is then applied to derive analytical expressions for hydraulic and thermal driven displacements and stresses. The validity is verified by comparison with numerical simulations and yields fairly accurate results. The solution is then used to illustrate some features of the poroelastic and thermoelastic response and, in particular, the sensitivity to the external mechanical constraints and to the reservoir dimension.

  15. An investigation of the mechanism underlying teacher aggression : Testing I3 theory and the General Aggression Model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Montuoro, Paul; Mainhard, Tim

    2017-01-01

    Background: Considerable research has investigated the deleterious effects of teachers responding aggressively to students who misbehave, but the mechanism underlying this dysfunctional behaviour remains unknown. Aims: This study investigated whether the mechanism underlying teacher aggression

  16. Reliability Issues and Solutions in Flexible Electronics Under Mechanical Fatigue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Seol-Min; Choi, In-Suk; Kim, Byoung-Joon; Joo, Young-Chang

    2018-03-01

    Flexible devices are of significant interest due to their potential expansion of the application of smart devices into various fields, such as energy harvesting, biological applications and consumer electronics. Due to the mechanically dynamic operations of flexible electronics, their mechanical reliability must be thoroughly investigated to understand their failure mechanisms and lifetimes. Reliability issue caused by bending fatigue, one of the typical operational limitations of flexible electronics, has been studied using various test methodologies; however, electromechanical evaluations which are essential to assess the reliability of electronic devices for flexible applications had not been investigated because the testing method was not established. By employing the in situ bending fatigue test, we has studied the failure mechanism for various conditions and parameters, such as bending strain, fatigue area, film thickness, and lateral dimensions. Moreover, various methods for improving the bending reliability have been developed based on the failure mechanism. Nanostructures such as holes, pores, wires and composites of nanoparticles and nanotubes have been suggested for better reliability. Flexible devices were also investigated to find the potential failures initiated by complex structures under bending fatigue strain. In this review, the recent advances in test methodology, mechanism studies, and practical applications are introduced. Additionally, perspectives including the future advance to stretchable electronics are discussed based on the current achievements in research.

  17. Elsevier Trophoblast Research Award lecture: Molecular mechanisms underlying estrogen functions in trophoblastic cells--focus on leptin expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambino, Y P; Maymó, J L; Pérez Pérez, A; Calvo, J C; Sánchez-Margalet, V; Varone, C L

    2012-02-01

    The steroid hormone 17β-estradiol is an estrogen that influences multiple aspects of placental function and fetal development in humans. During early pregnancy it plays a role in the regulation of blastocyst implantation, trophoblast differentiation and invasiveness, remodeling of uterine arteries, immunology and trophoblast production of hormones such as leptin. Estradiol exerts some effects through the action of classical estrogen receptors ERα and ERβ, which act as ligand-activated transcription factors and regulate gene expression. In addition, estradiol can elicit rapid responses from membrane-associated receptors, like activation of protein-kinase pathways. Thus, the cellular effects of estradiol will depend on the specific receptors expressed and the integration of their signaling events. Leptin, the 16,000MW protein product of the obese gene, was originally considered an adipocyte-derived signaling molecule for the central control of metabolism. However, pleiotropic effects of leptin have been identified in reproduction and pregnancy. The leptin gene is expressed in placenta, where leptin promotes proliferation and survival of trophoblastic cells. Expression of leptin in placenta is highly regulated by key pregnancy molecules as hCG and estradiol. The aim of this paper is to review the molecular mechanisms underlying estrogen functions in trophoblastic cells; focusing on mechanisms involved in estradiol regulation of placental leptin expression. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Hemostatic mechanism underlying microbubble-enhanced non-focused ultrasound in the treatment of a rabbit liver trauma model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Da-wei; Tian, Meng; Yang, Jian-zheng; Du, Peng; Bi, Jie; Zhu, Xinjian

    2016-01-01

    The aim of our study was to investigate the hemostatic mechanism underlying microbubble-enhanced non-focused ultrasound treatment of liver trauma. Thirty rabbits with liver trauma were randomly divided into three groups—the microbubble-enhanced ultrasound (MEUS; further subdivided based on exposure intensity into MEUS1 [0.11 W/cm2], MEUS2 [0.55 W/cm2], and MEUS3 [1.1 W/cm2]), ultrasound without microbubbles (US), and microbubbles without ultrasound (MB) groups. The pre- and post-treatment bleeding weight and visual bleeding scores were evaluated. The serum liver enzyme concentrations as well as the blood perfusion level represented by mean peak contrast intensity (PI) ratio in the treatment area were analyzed. The hemostatic mechanism was evaluated by histological and transmission electron microscopic examination of liver tissue samples. The MEUS subgroups 1–3 (grade 0–1, grade 0–2, and grade 1–2, respectively) exhibited significantly lower post-treatment visual bleeding scores than the US and MB groups (both, grade 3–4; all, P hepatic cells became edematous and compressed the hepatic sinus and associated blood vessels. However, the serum liver enzyme levels were not significantly altered. Microbubble-enhanced non-focused ultrasound does not significantly affect blood perfusion and liver function and can be used to induce rapid hemostasis in case of liver trauma. PMID:27633577

  19. Biochemical mechanisms of signaling: perspectives in plants under arsenic stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Ejazul; Khan, Muhammad Tahir; Irem, Samra

    2015-04-01

    Plants are the ultimate food source for humans, either directly or indirectly. Being sessile in nature, they are exposed to various biotic and abiotic stresses because of changing climate that adversely effects their growth and development. Contamination of heavy metals is one of the major abiotic stresses because of anthropogenic as well as natural factors which lead to increased toxicity and accumulation in plants. Arsenic is a naturally occurring metalloid toxin present in the earth crust. Due to its presence in terrestrial and aquatic environments, it effects the growth of plants. Plants can tolerate arsenic using several mechanisms like phytochelation, vacuole sequestration and activation of antioxidant defense systems. Several signaling mechanisms have evolved in plants that involve the use of proteins, calcium ions, hormones, reactive oxygen species and nitric oxide as signaling molecules to cope with arsenic toxicity. These mechanisms facilitate plants to survive under metal stress by activating their defense systems. The pathways by which these stress signals are perceived and responded is an unexplored area of research and there are lots of gaps still to be filled. A good understanding of these signaling pathways can help in raising the plants which can perform better in arsenic contaminated soil and water. In order to increase the survival of plants in contaminated areas there is a strong need to identify suitable gene targets that can be modified according to needs of the stakeholders using various biotechnological techniques. This review focuses on the signaling mechanisms of plants grown under arsenic stress and will give an insight of the different sensory systems in plants. Furthermore, it provides the knowledge about several pathways that can be exploited to develop plant cultivars which are resistant to arsenic stress or can reduce its uptake to minimize the risk of arsenic toxicity through food chain thus ensuring food security. Copyright © 2015

  20. Thermal stability of nafion membranes under mechanical stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quintilii, M; Struis, R [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1997-06-01

    The feasibility of adequately modified fluoro-ionomer membranes (NAFION{sup R}) is demonstrated for the selective separation of methanol synthesis products from the raw reactor gas at temperatures around 200{sup o}C. For an economically relevant application of this concept on a technical scale the Nafion membranes should be thin ({approx_equal}10 {mu}m) and thermally stable over a long period of time (1-2 years). In cooperation with industry (Methanol Casale SA, Lugano (CH)), we test the thermal stability of Nafion hollow fibers and supported Nafion thin sheet membranes at temperatures between 160 and 200{sup o}C under mechanical stress by applying a gas pressure difference over the membrane surface ({Delta}P{<=} 40 bar). Tests with the hollow fibers revealed that Nafion has visco-elastic properties. Tests with 50 {mu}m thin Nafion sheets supported by a porous metal carrier at 200{sup o}C and {Delta}P=39 bar showed no mechanical defects over a period of 92 days. (author) 5 figs., 4 refs.

  1. Model evaluation of denitrification under rapid infiltration basin systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhavan, Maryam; Imhoff, Paul T; Andres, A Scott; Finsterle, Stefan

    2013-09-01

    Rapid Infiltration Basin Systems (RIBS) are used for disposing reclaimed wastewater into soil to achieve additional treatment before it recharges groundwater. Effluent from most new sequenced batch reactor wastewater treatment plants is completely nitrified, and denitrification (DNF) is the main reaction for N removal. To characterize effects of complex surface and subsurface flow patterns caused by non-uniform flooding on DNF, a coupled overland flow-vadose zone model is implemented in the multiphase flow and reactive transport simulator TOUGHREACT. DNF is simulated in two representative soils varying the application cycle, hydraulic loading rate, wastewater quality, water table depth, and subsurface heterogeneity. Simulations using the conventional specified flux boundary condition under-predict DNF by as much as 450% in sand and 230% in loamy sand compared to predictions from the coupled overland flow-vadose zone model, indicating that simulating coupled flow is critical for predicting DNF in cases where hydraulic loading rates are not sufficient to spread the wastewater over the whole basin. Smaller ratios of wetting to drying time and larger hydraulic loading rates result in greater water saturations, more anoxic conditions, and faster water transport in the vadose zone, leading to greater DNF. These results in combination with those from different water table depths explain why reported DNF varied with soil type and water table depth in previous field investigations. Across all simulations, cumulative percent DNF varies between 2 and 49%, indicating that NO₃ removal in RIBS may vary widely depending on operational procedures and subsurface conditions. These modeling results improve understanding of DNF in RIBS and suggest operational procedures that may improve NO₃ removal. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Dynamic Response and Failure Mechanism of Brittle Rocks Under Combined Compression-Shear Loading Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yuan; Dai, Feng

    2018-03-01

    A novel method is developed for characterizing the mechanical response and failure mechanism of brittle rocks under dynamic compression-shear loading: an inclined cylinder specimen using a modified split Hopkinson pressure bar (SHPB) system. With the specimen axis inclining to the loading direction of SHPB, a shear component can be introduced into the specimen. Both static and dynamic experiments are conducted on sandstone specimens. Given carefully pulse shaping, the dynamic equilibrium of the inclined specimens can be satisfied, and thus the quasi-static data reduction is employed. The normal and shear stress-strain relationships of specimens are subsequently established. The progressive failure process of the specimen illustrated via high-speed photographs manifests a mixed failure mode accommodating both the shear-dominated failure and the localized tensile damage. The elastic and shear moduli exhibit certain loading-path dependence under quasi-static loading but loading-path insensitivity under high loading rates. Loading rate dependence is evidently demonstrated through the failure characteristics involving fragmentation, compression and shear strength and failure surfaces based on Drucker-Prager criterion. Our proposed method is convenient and reliable to study the dynamic response and failure mechanism of rocks under combined compression-shear loading.

  3. Design options for cooperation mechanisms under the new European renewable energy directive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klessmann, Corinna; Lamers, Patrick; Ragwitz, Mario; Resch, Gustav

    2010-01-01

    In June 2009, a new EU directive on the promotion of renewable energy sources (RES) entered into effect. The directive 2009/28/EC, provides for three cooperation mechanisms that will allow member states to achieve their national RES target in cooperation with other member states: statistical transfer, joint projects, and joint support schemes. This article analyses the pros and cons of the three mechanisms and explores design options for their implementation through strategic and economic questions: How to counterbalance the major drawbacks of each mechanism? How to reflect a balance of costs and benefits between the involved member states? The analysis identifies a number of design options that respond to these questions, e.g. long term contracts to ensure sufficient flexibility for statistical transfers, a coordinated, standardised joint project approach to increase transparency in the European market, and a stepwise harmonisation of joint support schemes that is based on a cost-effective accounting approach. One conclusion is that the three cooperation mechanisms are closely interlinked. One can consider their relation to be a gradual transition from member state cooperation under fully closed national support systems in case of statistical transfers, to cooperation under fully open national support systems in a joint support scheme.

  4. Mechanisms underlying the associations of maternal age with adverse perinatal outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lawlor, Debbie A; Mortensen, Laust; Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo

    2011-01-01

    The mechanisms underlying the association between maternal age (both young and older maternal age) and adverse perinatal outcomes are unclear. Methods We examined the association of maternal age at first birth with preterm birth (<37 weeks gestation) and small for gestational age (SGA) in a cohor...

  5. Investigation of sheet steel St 37.2 under mechanical impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berg, H.P.; Brennecke, P.; Koester, R.; Friehmelt, V.

    1990-01-01

    Special waste originating, e.g. from chemical industry and radioactive wastes are emplaced in disposal mines. Slinger stowing is an approved technique to fill up residual voids in emplacement rooms. If it should be applied, possible mechanical loads on the integrity of sheet steel containers have to be considered. By theoretical calculations and by experiments under variation of different parameters using test specimen and backfill material from the Konrad mine using the container type V as an example it has been shown that sheet steel St 37.2 with a wall thickness of 3 mm will withstand mechanical impact imposed by backfill particles having a speed of 24 m/s. (orig.) [de

  6. Urban flood risk warning under rapid urbanization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yangbo; Zhou, Haolan; Zhang, Hui; Du, Guoming; Zhou, Jinhui

    2015-05-01

    In the past decades, China has observed rapid urbanization, the nation's urban population reached 50% in 2000, and is still in steady increase. Rapid urbanization in China has an adverse impact on urban hydrological processes, particularly in increasing the urban flood risks and causing serious urban flooding losses. Urban flooding also increases health risks such as causing epidemic disease break out, polluting drinking water and damaging the living environment. In the highly urbanized area, non-engineering measurement is the main way for managing urban flood risk, such as flood risk warning. There is no mature method and pilot study for urban flood risk warning, the purpose of this study is to propose the urban flood risk warning method for the rapidly urbanized Chinese cities. This paper first presented an urban flood forecasting model, which produces urban flood inundation index for urban flood risk warning. The model has 5 modules. The drainage system and grid dividing module divides the whole city terrain into drainage systems according to its first-order river system, and delineates the drainage system into grids based on the spatial structure with irregular gridding technique; the precipitation assimilation module assimilates precipitation for every grids which is used as the model input, which could either be the radar based precipitation estimation or interpolated one from rain gauges; runoff production module classifies the surface into pervious and impervious surface, and employs different methods to calculate the runoff respectively; surface runoff routing module routes the surface runoff and determines the inundation index. The routing on surface grid is calculated according to the two dimensional shallow water unsteady flow algorithm, the routing on land channel and special channel is calculated according to the one dimensional unsteady flow algorithm. This paper then proposed the urban flood risk warning method that is called DPSIR model based

  7. Applications of probabilistic fracture mechanics to FBR components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yagawa, Genki; Yoshimura, Shinobu; Takenaka, Makoto; Hojo, Kiminobu; Kaguchi, Hitoshi.

    1991-01-01

    A probabilistic fracture mechanics code PCCF which could analyze half-elliptical crack behavior in a plate under creep-fatigue condition using nonlinear fracture mechanics parameters was developed. The effects of bending stress level on failure probability was studied using the PCCF as test analyses. As the results, failure mode was leakage not break in all cases analyzed in this study. It is shown that leak probability is sensitive to stress level and increase rapidly around yield stress of materials. (J.P.N.)

  8. Investigation on the interaction of catalase with sodium lauryl sulfonate and the underlying mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Jia, Rui; Wang, Jiaxi; Sun, Zhiqiang; Wu, Zitao; Liu, Rutao; Zong, Wansong

    2018-02-01

    As a classic type of anionic surfactants, sodium lauryl sulfonate (SLS) might change the structure and function of antioxidant enzyme catalase (CAT) through their direct interactions. However, the underlying molecular mechanism is still unknown. This study investigated the direct interaction of SLS with CAT molecule and the underlying mechanisms using multi-spectroscopic methods, isothermal titration calorimetry, and molecular docking studies. No obvious effects were observed on CAT structure and activity under low SLS concentration exposure. The particle size of CAT molecule decreased and CAT activity was slightly inhibited under high SLS concentration exposure. SLS prefers to bind to the interface of CAT mainly via van der Waals' forces and hydrogen bonds. Subsequently, SLS interacts with the amino acid residues around the heme groups of CAT via hydrophobic interactions and might inhibit CAT activity. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Detecting method for crude oil price fluctuation mechanism under different periodic time series

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, Xiangyun; Fang, Wei; An, Feng; Wang, Yue

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • We proposed the concept of autoregressive modes to indicate the fluctuation patterns. • We constructed transmission networks for studying the fluctuation mechanism. • There are different fluctuation mechanism under different periodic time series. • Only a few types of autoregressive modes control the fluctuations in crude oil price. • There are cluster effects during the fluctuation mechanism of autoregressive modes. - Abstract: Current existing literatures can characterize the long-term fluctuation of crude oil price time series, however, it is difficult to detect the fluctuation mechanism specifically under short term. Because each fluctuation pattern for one short period contained in a long-term crude oil price time series have dynamic characteristics of diversity; in other words, there exhibit various fluctuation patterns in different short periods and transmit to each other, which reflects the reputedly complicate and chaotic oil market. Thus, we proposed an incorporated method to detect the fluctuation mechanism, which is the evolution of the different fluctuation patterns over time from the complex network perspective. We divided crude oil price time series into segments using sliding time windows, and defined autoregressive modes based on regression models to indicate the fluctuation patterns of each segment. Hence, the transmissions between different types of autoregressive modes over time form a transmission network that contains rich dynamic information. We then capture transmission characteristics of autoregressive modes under different periodic time series through the structure features of the transmission networks. The results indicate that there are various autoregressive modes with significantly different statistical characteristics under different periodic time series. However, only a few types of autoregressive modes and transmission patterns play a major role in the fluctuation mechanism of the crude oil price, and these

  10. Mechanical properties of the human spinal cord under the compressive loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, Alireza; Shojaei, Ahmad; Tehrani, Pedram

    2017-12-01

    The spinal cord as the most complex and critical part of the human body is responsible for the transmission of both motor and sensory impulses between the body and the brain. Due to its pivotal role any types of physical injury in that disrupts its function following by shortfalls, including the minor motor and sensory malfunctions as well as complicate quadriplegia and lifelong ventilator dependency. In order to shed light on the injuries to the spinal cord, the application of the computational models to simulate the trauma impact loading to that are deemed required. Nonetheless, it has not been fulfilled since there is a paucity of knowledge about the mechanical properties of the spinal cord, especially the cervical one, under the compressive loading on the grounds of the difficulty in obtaining this tissue from the human body. This study was aimed at experimentally measuring the mechanical properties of the human cervical spinal cord of 24 isolated fresh samples under the unconfined compressive loading at a relatively low strain rate. The stress-strain data revealed the elastic modulus and maximum/failure stress of 40.12±6.90 and 62.26±5.02kPa, respectively. Owing to the nonlinear response of the spinal cord, the Yeoh, Ogden, and Mooney-Rivlin hyperelastic material models have also been employed. The results may have implications not only for understanding the linear elastic and nonlinear hyperelastic mechanical properties of the cervical spinal cord under the compressive loading, but also for providing a raw data for investigating the injury as a result of the trauma thru the numerical simulations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Reliability-based optimization of maintenance scheduling of mechanical components under fatigue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaurepaire, P.; Valdebenito, M.A.; Schuëller, G.I.; Jensen, H.A.

    2012-01-01

    This study presents the optimization of the maintenance scheduling of mechanical components under fatigue loading. The cracks of damaged structures may be detected during non-destructive inspection and subsequently repaired. Fatigue crack initiation and growth show inherent variability, and as well the outcome of inspection activities. The problem is addressed under the framework of reliability based optimization. The initiation and propagation of fatigue cracks are efficiently modeled using cohesive zone elements. The applicability of the method is demonstrated by a numerical example, which involves a plate with two holes subject to alternating stress. PMID:23564979

  12. Behavior of duplex stainless steel casting defects under mechanical loadings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jayet-Gendrot, S.; Gilles, P.

    2000-01-01

    Several components in the primary circuit of pressurized water reactors are made of cast duplex stainless steels. This material contains small casting defects, mainly shrinkage cavities, due to the manufacturing process. In safety analyses, the structural integrity of the components is studied under the most severe assumptions: presence of a large defect, accidental loadings and end-of-life material properties accounting for its thermal aging embrittlement at the service temperature. The casting defects are idealized as semi-circular surface cracks or notches that have envelope dimensions. In order to assess the real severity of the casting defects under mechanical loadings, an experimental program was carried out. It consisted of testing, under both cyclic and monotonic solicitations, three-point bend specimens containing either a natural defect (in the form of a localized cluster of cavities) or a machined notch having the dimensions of the cluster's envelope. The results show that shrinkage cavities are far less harmful than envelope notches thanks to the metal bridges between cavities. Under fatigue loadings, the generalized initiation of a cluster of cavities (defined when the cluster becomes a crack of the same global size) is reached for a number of cycles that is much higher than the one leading to the initiation of a notch. In the case of monotonic loadings, specimens with casting defects offer a very high resistance to ductile tearing. The tests are analyzed in order to develop a method that takes into account the behavior of casting defects in a more realistic fashion than by an envelope crack. Various approaches are investigated, including the search of equivalent defects or of criteria based on continuum mechanics concepts, and compared with literature data. This study shows the conservatism of current safety analyses in modeling casting defects by envelope semi-elliptical cracks and contributes to the development of alternative approaches. (orig.)

  13. Contact force and mechanical loss of multistage cable under tension and bending

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ru, Yanyun; Yong, Huadong; Zhou, Youhe

    2016-10-01

    A theoretical model for calculating the stress and strain states of cabling structures with different loadings has been developed in this paper. We solve the problem for the first- and second-stage cable with tensile or bending strain. The contact and friction forces between the strands are presented by two-dimensional contact model. Several theoretical models have been proposed to verify the results when the triplet subjected to the tensile strain, including contact force, contact stresses, and mechanical loss. It is found that loadings will affect the friction force and the mechanical loss of the triplet. The results show that the contact force and mechanical loss are dependent on the twist pitch. A shorter twist pitch can lead to higher contact force, while the trend of mechanical loss with twist pitch is complicated. The mechanical loss may be reduced by adjusting the twist pitch reasonably. The present model provides a simple analysis method to investigate the mechanical behaviors in multistage-structures under different loads.

  14. Friction Stir Weld Failure Mechanisms in Aluminum-Armor Structures Under Ballistic Impact Loading Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    REPORT Friction Stir Weld Failure Mechanisms in Aluminum-Armor Structures Under Ballistic Impact Loading Conditions 14. ABSTRACT 16. SECURITY...properties and of the attendant ballistic-impact failure mechanisms in prototypical friction stir welding (FSW) joints found in armor structures made of high...mechanisms, friction stir welding M. Grujicic, B. Pandurangan, A. Arakere, C-F. Yen, B. A. Cheeseman Clemson University Office of Sponsored Programs 300

  15. Mechanisms underlying probucol-induced hERG-channel deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi YQ

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Yuan-Qi Shi,1,* Cai-Chuan Yan,1,* Xiao Zhang,1 Meng Yan,1 Li-Rong Liu,1 Huai-Ze Geng,1 Lin Lv,1 Bao-Xin Li1,21Department of Pharmacology, Harbin Medical University, 2State-Province Key Laboratory of Biopharmaceutical Engineering, Harbin, Heilongjiang, People’s Republic of China*These authors contributed equally to this workAbstract: The hERG gene encodes the pore-forming α-subunit of the rapidly activating delayed rectifier potassium channel (IKr, which is important for cardiac repolarization. Reduction of IhERG due to genetic mutations or drug interferences causes long QT syndrome, leading to life-threatening cardiac arrhythmias (torsades de pointes or sudden death. Probucol is a cholesterol-lowering drug that could reduce hERG current by decreasing plasma membrane hERG protein expression and eventually cause long QT syndrome. Here, we investigated the mechanisms of probucol effects on IhERG and hERG-channel expression. Our data demonstrated that probucol reduces SGK1 expression, known as SGK isoform, in a concentration-dependent manner, resulting in downregulation of phosphorylated E3 ubiquitin ligase Nedd4-2 expression, but not the total level of Nedd4-2. As a result, the hERG protein reduces, due to the enhanced ubiquitination level. On the contrary, carbachol could enhance the phosphorylation level of Nedd4-2 as an alternative to SGK1, and thus rescue the ubiquitin-mediated degradation of hERG channels caused by probucol. These discoveries provide a novel mechanism of probucol-induced hERG-channel deficiency, and imply that carbachol or its analog may serve as potential therapeutic compounds for the handling of probucol cardiotoxicity.Keywords: long QT, hERG potassium channels, probucol, SGK1, Nedd4-2

  16. Mechanisms underlying prorenin actions on hypothalamic neurons implicated in cardiometabolic control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soledad Pitra

    2016-10-01

    Conclusions: We identified novel neuronal targets and cellular mechanisms underlying PR/PRR actions in critical hypothalamic neurons involved in cardiometabolic regulation. This fundamental mechanistic information regarding central PR/PRR actions is essential for the development of novel RAS-based therapeutic targets for the treatment of cardiometabolic disorders in obesity and hypertension.

  17. Model test study of evaporation mechanism of sand under constant atmospheric condition

    OpenAIRE

    CUI, Yu Jun; DING, Wenqi; SONG, Weikang

    2014-01-01

    The evaporation mechanism of Fontainebleau sand using a large-scale model chamber is studied. First, the evaporation test on a layer of water above sand surface is performed under various atmospheric conditions, validating the performance of the chamber and the calculation method of actual evaporation rate by comparing the calculated and measured cumulative evaporations. Second,the evaporation test on sand without water layer is conducted under constant atmospheric condition. Both the evoluti...

  18. Contraction and elongation: Mechanics underlying cell boundary deformations in epithelial tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hara, Yusuke

    2017-06-01

    The cell-cell boundaries of epithelial cells form cellular frameworks at the apical side of tissues. Deformations in these boundaries, for example, boundary contraction and elongation, and the associated forces form the mechanical basis of epithelial tissue morphogenesis. In this review, using data from recent Drosophila studies on cell boundary contraction and elongation, I provide an overview of the mechanism underlying the bi-directional deformations in the epithelial cell boundary, that are sustained by biased accumulations of junctional and apico-medial non-muscle myosin II. Moreover, how the junctional tensions exist on cell boundaries in different boundary dynamics and morphologies are discussed. Finally, some future perspectives on how recent knowledge about single cell boundary-level mechanics will contribute to our understanding of epithelial tissue morphogenesis are discussed. © 2017 Japanese Society of Developmental Biologists.

  19. The Mediated MIMIC Model for Understanding the Underlying Mechanism of DIF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Ying; Shao, Can; Lathrop, Quinn N.

    2016-01-01

    Due to its flexibility, the multiple-indicator, multiple-causes (MIMIC) model has become an increasingly popular method for the detection of differential item functioning (DIF). In this article, we propose the mediated MIMIC model method to uncover the underlying mechanism of DIF. This method extends the usual MIMIC model by including one variable…

  20. Mechanical Behaviour of Bolted Joints Under Impact Rates of Loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    M. (1995). Bearing Strength of Autoclave and oven cured kevlar / epoxy laminates under static and dynamic loading. Compostes, 451-456. Kretsis, G...Joints in Glass Fibre/ Epoxy Laminates. Composites, Volume 16. No 2. Kolsky, H. (1949). An Investigation of the Mechanical Properties of Materials at...elongating the pulse width. The responses are read by the strain gages bonded on the incident and transmission bar with Vishay AE-10 epoxy . The gages

  1. Neural mechanisms underlying cognitive control of men with lifelong antisocial behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiffer, Boris; Pawliczek, Christina; Mu Ller, Bernhard; Forsting, Michael; Gizewski, Elke; Leygraf, Norbert; Hodgins, Sheilagh

    2014-04-30

    Results of meta-analyses suggested subtle deficits in cognitive control among antisocial individuals. Because almost all studies focused on children with conduct problems or adult psychopaths, however, little is known about cognitive control mechanisms among the majority of persistent violent offenders who present an antisocial personality disorder (ASPD). The present study aimed to determine whether offenders with ASPD, relative to non-offenders, display dysfunction in the neural mechanisms underlying cognitive control and to assess the extent to which these dysfunctions are associated with psychopathic traits and trait impulsivity. Participants comprised 21 violent offenders and 23 non-offenders who underwent event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging while performing a non-verbal Stroop task. The offenders, relative to the non-offenders, exhibited reduced response time interference and a different pattern of conflict- and error-related activity in brain areas involved in cognitive control, attention, language, and emotion processing, that is, the anterior cingulate, dorsolateral prefrontal, superior temporal and postcentral cortices, putamen, thalamus, and amygdala. Moreover, between-group differences in behavioural and neural responses revealed associations with core features of psychopathy and attentional impulsivity. Thus, the results of the present study confirmed the hypothesis that offenders with ASPD display alterations in the neural mechanisms underlying cognitive control and that those alterations relate, at least in part, to personality characteristics. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  2. Unraveling the mechanisms underlying postural instability in Parkinson's disease using dynamic posturography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nonnekes, J.H.; Kam, D. de; Geurts, A.C.; Weerdesteijn, V.G.M.; Bloem, B.R.

    2013-01-01

    Postural instability, one of the cardinal symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD), has devastating consequences for affected patients. Better strategies to prevent falls are needed, but this calls for an improved understanding of the complex mechanisms underlying postural instability. We must also

  3. Feeding Problems and Their Underlying Mechanisms in the Esophageal Atresia–Tracheoesophageal Fistula Patient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahoney, Lisa; Rosen, Rachel

    2017-01-01

    Feeding difficulties such as dysphagia, coughing, choking, or vomiting during meals, slow eating, oral aversion, food refusal, and stressful mealtimes are common in children with repaired esophageal atresia (EA) and the reasons for this are often multifactorial. The aim of this review is to describe the possible underlying mechanisms contributing to feeding difficulties in patients with EA and approaches to management. Underlying mechanisms for these feeding difficulties include esophageal dysphagia, oropharyngeal dysphagia and aspiration, and aversions related to prolonged gastrostomy tube feeding. The initial diagnostic evaluation for feeding difficulties in a patient with EA may involve an esophagram, videofluoroscopic imaging or fiberoptic endoscopic evaluation during swallowing, upper endoscopy with biopsies, pH-impedance testing, and/or esophageal motility studies. The main goal of management is to reduce the factors contributing to feeding difficulties and may include reducing esophageal stasis, maximizing reflux therapies, treating underlying lung disease, dilating strictures, and altering feeding methods, routes, or schedules. PMID:28620597

  4. [Study on mechanism of SOM stabilization of paddy soils under long-term fertilizations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Lu; Zhou, Ping; Tong, Cheng-Li; Shi, Hui; Wu, Jin-Shui; Huang, Tie-Ping

    2013-02-01

    Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) was applied to study the structure of soil organic matter (SOM) of paddy soils under long-term different fertilization treatments. The aim was to clarify the different distribution of SOM between different fertilization methods and between topsoil and subsoil, and to explore the stability mechanism of SOM under different fertilization treatments. The results showed that the content of topsoil organic carbon (SOC) was the highest under organic-inorganic fertilizations, with the increment of SOC by 18.5%, 12.9% and 18.4% under high organic manure (HOM), low organic manure (LOM) and straw returning (STW) respectively compared with no fertilization treatment (CK). The long-term fertilizations also changed the chemical structure of SOM. As compared with CK, different fertilization treatments increased the functional group absorbing intensity of chemical resistance compounds (aliphatic, aromaticity), carbohydrate and organo-silicon compounds, which was the most distinctive under treatments of HOM, LOM and STW. For example, the absorbing intensity of alkyl was 0.30, 0.25 and 0.29 under HOM, LOM and STW, respectively. These values were increased by 87% , 56% and 81% as compared with that under CK treatment. The functional group absorbing intensity of SOM in the topsoil was stronger than that in the subsoil, with the most distinctive difference under HOM, LOM and STW treatments. The present research indicated that the enhanced chemical resistance of functional group of SOM may contribute to the high contents of SOC in the paddy soils under long-term organic-inorganic fertilizations, which also suggested a chemical stabilization mechanism of SOM in the paddy soils.

  5. Bypassing the 'rapid-clearance-in-males-buffer': A fourth mechanism to explain how concurrency enhances STI spread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenyon, Chris R

    2017-12-01

    A number of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) persist for a considerably shorter period in the male urethra than the vagina. If the gap between sequential partnerships is longer than the duration of STI colonization in males, then this would protect future female partners from this STI in a setting of serial monogamy. If, however, males have more than one partner at a time (concurrency), then this would enable the STI to bypass this gap/buffer. We therefore propose bypassing the rapid-clearance-in-males-buffer as a fourth mechanism, whereby concurrency could enhance the spread of STIs.

  6. Mechanical properties of cellulose electro-active paper under different environmental conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Heung Soo; Kim, Jaehwan; Jung, Woochul; Ampofo, Joshua; Craft, William; Sankar, Jagannathan

    2008-01-01

    The mechanical properties of cellulose-based electro-active paper (EAPap) are investigated under various environmental conditions. Cellulose EAPap has been discovered as a smart material that can be used as both sensor and actuator. Its advantages include low voltage operation, light weight, low power consumption, biodegradability and low cost. EAPap is made with cellulose paper coated with thin electrodes. EAPap shows a reversible and reproducible bending movement as well as longitudinal displacement under an electric field. However, EAPap is a complex anisotropic material which has not been fully characterized. This study investigates the mechanical properties of cellulose-based EAPap, including Young's modulus, yield strength, ultimate strength and creep, along with orientation directions, humidity and temperature levels. To test the materials in different humidity and temperature levels, a special material testing system was made that can control the testing environmental conditions. The initial Young's modulus of EAPap is in the range of 4–9 GPa, which was higher than that of other polymer materials. Also, the Young's modulus is orientation dependent, which may be associated with the piezoelectricity of EAPap materials. The elastic strength and stiffness gradually decreased when the humidity and temperature were increased. Creep and relaxation were observed under constant stress and strain, respectively. Through scanning electron microscopy, EAPap is shown to exhibit both layered and oriented cellulose macromolecular structures that impact both the elastic and plastic behavior

  7. Deterioration of mechanical properties of high strength structural steel S460N under transient state fire condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiang, Xuhong; Bijlaard, Frans S.K.; Kolstein, Henk

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Mechanical properties of S460N under transient state fire condition are obtained. ► Elevated-temperature mechanical properties of steels are dependent on steel grades. ► No design standard is applicable to HSS S460N under transient state fire condition. ► Specific statements on various HSS in fire should be proposed in design standards. ► Research results offer accurate material property for structural design engineers. -- Abstract: 911 World Trade Centre Tragedy put fire safety of constructional steel structures into question. Since then, more and more research attention has been paid to the elevated-temperature mechanical properties of structural steels, which is a critical basis of evaluating the fire performance of steel structures. In the literature the available mechanical properties of structural steels under fire conditions were mainly obtained from steady state test method, as steady state test method is easier to perform than transient state test method and offers stress–strain curves directly. However, the transient state fire condition is considered to be more realistic to represent the real condition when constructions are exposed to fire. In order to reveal the deterioration of mechanical properties of the commonly used high strength structural steel S460N under transient state fire condition, tensile tests were conducted under various constant stress levels up to 800 MPa. The reduction factors of elastic modulus, yield and ultimate strengths of S460N under transient state fire condition were obtained and compared with current leading design standards and available literature. The application of such accurate elevated-temperature mechanical properties reduction factors of S460N can ensure a safe fire-resistance design and evaluation of steel structures with high strength steel S460N under transient state fire condition. This experimental study also supports other relative research on fire performance of steel structures with

  8. How diagnostic tests help to disentangle the mechanisms underlying neuropathic pain symptoms in painful neuropathies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truini, Andrea; Cruccu, Giorgio

    2016-02-01

    Neuropathic pain, ie, pain arising directly from a lesion or disease affecting the somatosensory afferent pathway, manifests with various symptoms, the commonest being ongoing burning pain, electrical shock-like sensations, and dynamic mechanical allodynia. Reliable insights into the mechanisms underlying neuropathic pain symptoms come from diagnostic tests documenting and quantifying somatosensory afferent pathway damage in patients with painful neuropathies. Neurophysiological investigation and skin biopsy studies suggest that ongoing burning pain primarily reflects spontaneous activity in nociceptive-fiber pathways. Electrical shock-like sensations presumably arise from high-frequency ectopic bursts generated in demyelinated, nonnociceptive, Aβ fibers. Although the mechanisms underlying dynamic mechanical allodynia remain debatable, normally innocuous stimuli might cause pain by activating spared and sensitized nociceptive afferents. Extending the mechanistic approach to neuropathic pain symptoms might advance targeted therapy for the individual patient and improve testing for new drugs.

  9. A novel multi-responsive polyampholyte composite hydrogel with excellent mechanical strength and rapid shrinking rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Kun; Tan, Ying; Chen, Qiang; An, Huiyong; Li, Wenbo; Dong, Lisong; Wang, Pixin

    2010-05-15

    Series of hydrophilic core-shell microgels with cross-linked poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAAm) as core and poly(vinyl amine) (PVAm) as shell are synthesized via surfactant-free emulsion polymerization. Then, the microgels are treated with a small amount of potassium persulfate (KPS) to generate free radicals on the amine nitrogens of PVAm, which subsequently initiate the graft copolymerization of acrylic acid (AA), acryloyloxyethyl trimethyl ammonium chloride (DAC), and acrylamide (AAm) onto microgels to prepare multi-responsive composite hydrogels. The composite hydrogels consist of cross-linked ungrafted polyampholyte chains as the first network and microgels with grafted polyampholyte chains as graft point and second network and show surprising mechanical strength and rapid response rate. The investigation shows the compress strength of composite hydrogels is up to 17-30 MPa, which is 60-100 times higher than that of the hydrogel matrix. The composite hydrogel shows reversible switch of transmittance when traveling the lowest critical temperature (LCST) of microgels. When the composite hydrogel swollen in pH 2.86 solution at ambient condition is immersed into the pH 7.00 solution at 45 °C, a rapid dynamic shrinking can be observed. And the character time (τ) of shrinking dynamic of composite hydrogel is 251.9 min, which is less than that of hydrogel matrix (τ=2273.7 min). Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Cardiac and respiratory responses of rainbow trout, bluegills and brown bullhead catfish during rapid hypoxia and recovery under normoxic conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marvin, Jr, D E; Burton, D T

    1973-01-01

    Heart rate, ventilation rate and routine oxygen consumption were measured in Salmo gairdneri, Lepomis macrochirus and Ictalurus nebulosus during rapid hypoxic stress and recovery under normoxic conditions. Cardiac and respiratory responses during hypoxia were similar to those reported in the literature for teleost fish. Immediate increases in heart rate and ventilation rate occurred in all three species after stress. When the mean heart rate for each species at 1 hr post-stress was compared with its pre-stress rate, differences in recovery patterns were found in all species. During recovery from hypoxia, rapid increases in oxygen consumption, above pre-stress levels, occurred in S. gairdneri and L. macrochirus. No significant differences between pre-stress and post-stress values were found in I. nebulosus.

  11. Mechanisms of astrocytic K(+) clearance and swelling under high extracellular K(+) concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Shingo; Kurachi, Yoshihisa

    2016-03-01

    In response to the elevation of extracellular K(+) concentration ([K(+)]out), astrocytes clear excessive K(+) to maintain conditions necessary for neural activity. K(+) clearance in astrocytes occurs via two processes: K(+) uptake and K(+) spatial buffering. High [K(+)]out also induces swelling in astrocytes, leading to edema and cell death in the brain. Despite the importance of astrocytic K(+) clearance and swelling, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Here, we report results from a simulation analysis of astrocytic K(+) clearance and swelling. Astrocyte models were constructed by incorporating various mechanisms such as intra/extracellular ion concentrations of Na(+), K(+), and Cl(-), cell volume, and models of Na,K-ATPase, Na-K-Cl cotransporter (NKCC), K-Cl cotransporter, inwardly-rectifying K(+) (KIR) channel, passive Cl(-) current, and aquaporin channel. The simulated response of astrocyte models under the uniform distribution of high [K(+)]out revealed significant contributions of NKCC and Na,K-ATPase to increases of intracellular K(+) and Cl(-) concentrations, and swelling. Moreover, we found that, under the non-uniform distribution of high [K(+)]out, KIR channels localized at synaptic clefts absorbed excess K(+) by depolarizing the equivalent potential of K(+) (E K) above membrane potential, while K(+) released through perivascular KIR channels was enhanced by hyperpolarizing E K and depolarizing membrane potential. Further analysis of simulated drug effects revealed that astrocyte swelling was modulated by blocking each of the ion channels and transporters. Our simulation analysis revealed controversial mechanisms of astrocytic K(+) clearance and swelling resulting from complex interactions among ion channels and transporters.

  12. Effects of cavity surface temperature on mechanical properties of specimens with and without a weld line in rapid heat cycle molding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Guilong; Zhao, Guoqun; Wang, Xiaoxin

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Higher cavity surface temperature reduces tensile strength of non-weldline part. ► Higher cavity surface temperature increases weldline tensile strength for PS and PP. ► Higher cavity surface temperature reduces weldline tensile strength for ABS, ABS/PMMA, ABS/PMMA/nano-C a CO 3 and FRPP. ► Tensile strength is reduced more by the weldline than impact strength. ► FRPP has the lowest weld line factor than other plastics without reinforced fibers. - Abstract: Rapid heat cycle molding (RHCM) is a recently developed injection molding technology to enhance surface esthetic of the parts. By rapid heating and cooling of mold cavity surfaces in molding process, it can greatly alleviate or even eliminate the surface defects such as flow mark, weld line, glass fiber rich surface, silver mark, jetting mark, and swirl mark, and also improve gloss finish and dimensional accuracy without prolonging the molding cycle. Besides surface esthetic, mechanical property is also a very import issue for the molded plastic part. The aim of this study is focusing on the effects of the cavity surface temperature just before filling, T cs , in RHCM on the mechanical strength of the specimen with and without weld line. Six kinds of typical plastics including polystyrene (PS), polypropylene (PP), acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS), acrylonitrile butadiene styrene/polymethylmethacrylate (ABS/PMMA), ABS/PMMA/nano-C a CO 3 and glass fiber reinforced polypropylene (FRPP) are used in experiments. The specimens with and without a weld line are produced with the different T cs on the developed electric-heating RHCM system. Tensile tests and notched Izod impact tests are conducted to characterize the mechanical strength of the specimens molded with different cavity surface temperatures. Simulations, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and optical microscope are implemented to explain the impact mechanism of T cs on mechanical properties

  13. Microscale failure mechanisms leading to internal short circuit in Li-ion batteries under complex loading scenarios

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sahraei, E.; Bosco, E.; Dixon, B.; Lai, B.

    2016-01-01

    One of the least understood mechanisms of Li-ion batteries is the development of internal short circuits under mechanical loads. In this study, a micro mechanical model is developed and subjected to various loading scenarios to understand the sequence of failure in the multi-layer, multi-material

  14. Evolution of the bonding mechanism of ZnO under isotropic compression: A first-principles study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, G.C.; Sun, L.Z.; Wang, J.B.; Zhong, X.L.; Zhou, Y.C.

    2008-01-01

    The electronic structure and the bonding mechanism of ZnO under isotropic pressure have been studied by using the full-potential linear augmented plane wave (FP-LAPW) method within the density-functional theory (DFT) based on LDA+U exchange correlation (EXC) potential. We used the theory of Atoms in Molecules (AIM) method to analyze the change of the charge transfer and the bonding strength under isotropic pressure. The results of the theoretical analysis show that charge transfer between Zn and O atomic basins nearly linearly increases with the increasing pressure. Charge density along the Zn-O bond increases under the high pressure. The bonding strength and the ionicity of Zn-O bond also increase with the increasing pressure. The linear evolution process of the bonding mechanism under isotropic pressure was shown clearly in the present paper

  15. The pathologic mechanisms underlying lumbar distraction spinal cord injury in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Di; Zheng, Chao; Wu, Ji; Xue, Jing; Huang, Rongrong; Wu, Di; Song, Yueming

    2017-11-01

    A reliable experimental rabbit model of distraction spinal cord injury (SCI) was established to successfully simulate gradable and replicable distraction SCI. However, further research is needed to elucidate the pathologic mechanisms underlying distraction SCI. The aim of this study was to investigate the pathologic mechanisms underlying lumbar distraction SCI in rabbits. This is an animal laboratory study. Using a self-designed spine distractor, the experimental animals were divided into a control group and 10%, 20%, and 30% distraction groups. Pathologic changes to the spinal cord microvessels in the early stage of distraction SCI were identified by perfusion of the spinal cord vasculature with ink, production of transparent specimens, observation by light microscopy, and observation of corrosion casts of the spinal cord microvascular architecture by scanning electron microscopy. Malondialdehyde (MDA) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) concentrations in the injured spinal cord tissue were measured after 8 hours. With an increasing degree and duration of distraction, the spinal cord microvessels were only partially filled and had the appearance of spasm until rupture and hemorrhage were observed. The MDA concentration increased and the SOD concentration decreased in the spinal cord tissue. Changes to the internal and external spinal cord vessels led to spinal cord ischemia, which is a primary pathologic mechanism of distraction SCI. Lipid peroxidation mediated by free radicals took part in secondary pathologic damage of distraction SCI. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Rapid 3D printing of anatomically accurate and mechanically heterogeneous aortic valve hydrogel scaffolds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hockaday, L A; Kang, K H; Colangelo, N W; Cheung, P Y C; Duan, B; Wu, J; Bonassar, L J; Butcher, J T; Malone, E; Lipson, H; Girardi, L N; Chu, C C

    2012-01-01

    The aortic valve exhibits complex three-dimensional (3D) anatomy and heterogeneity essential for the long-term efficient biomechanical function. These are, however, challenging to mimic in de novo engineered living tissue valve strategies. We present a novel simultaneous 3D printing/photocrosslinking technique for rapidly engineering complex, heterogeneous aortic valve scaffolds. Native anatomic and axisymmetric aortic valve geometries (root wall and tri-leaflets) with 12–22 mm inner diameters (ID) were 3D printed with poly-ethylene glycol-diacrylate (PEG-DA) hydrogels (700 or 8000 MW) supplemented with alginate. 3D printing geometric accuracy was quantified and compared using Micro-CT. Porcine aortic valve interstitial cells (PAVIC) seeded scaffolds were cultured for up to 21 days. Results showed that blended PEG-DA scaffolds could achieve over tenfold range in elastic modulus (5.3±0.9 to 74.6±1.5 kPa). 3D printing times for valve conduits with mechanically contrasting hydrogels were optimized to 14 to 45 min, increasing linearly with conduit diameter. Larger printed valves had greater shape fidelity (93.3±2.6, 85.1±2.0 and 73.3±5.2% for 22, 17 and 12 mm ID porcine valves; 89.1±4.0, 84.1±5.6 and 66.6±5.2% for simplified valves). PAVIC seeded scaffolds maintained near 100% viability over 21 days. These results demonstrate that 3D hydrogel printing with controlled photocrosslinking can rapidly fabricate anatomical heterogeneous valve conduits that support cell engraftment. (paper)

  17. Mechanisms Mediating Vibration-induced Chronic Musculoskeletal Pain Analyzed in the Rat

    OpenAIRE

    Dina, Olayinka A.; Joseph, Elizabeth K.; Levine, Jon D.; Green, Paul G.

    2009-01-01

    While occupational exposure to vibration is a common cause of acute and chronic musculoskeletal pain, eliminating exposure produces limited symptomatic improvement, and re-exposure precipitates rapid recurrence or exacerbation. To evaluate mechanisms underlying these pain syndromes, we have developed a model in the rat, in which exposure to vibration (60–80 Hz) induces, in skeletal muscle, both acute mechanical hyperalgesia as well as long-term changes characterized by enhanced hyperalgesia t...

  18. Mechanisms for closing bores and releasably securing articles within the bores under longitudinal load

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klahn, F.C.; Nolan, J.H.; Wills, C.

    1979-01-01

    This invention relates to mechanisms for closing bores of tubular passages and for releasably securing articles within the bores under longitudinal load. The system includes an axially movable latch, an actuator and locking devices. Embodiments of the invention can be used as closure mechanisms for tubular irradiation surveillance specimen assembly holders used in nuclear reactors. (UK)

  19. Mechanisms for closing bores and releasably securing articles within the bores under longitudinal load

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalen, D.D.; Mitchem, J.W.

    1979-01-01

    This invention relates to mechanisms for closing bores of tubular passages and for releasably securing articles within the bores under longitudinal load. The system includes an axially movable actuator and a latch which engages the tubular opening. Embodiments of the invention can be used as closure mechanisms for tubular irradiation surveillance specimen assembly holders used in nuclear reactors. (UK)

  20. Nonlinear Dynamic Analysis of Telescopic Mechanism for Truss Structure Bridge Inspection Vehicle Under Pedestrian Excitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenwen Sui

    Full Text Available Abstract Nonlinear dynamic analysis of an axially moving telescopic mechanism for truss structure bridge inspection vehicle under pedestrian excitation is carried out. A biomechanically inspired inverted-pendulum model is utilized to simplify the pedestrian. The nonlinear equations of motion for the beam-pedestrian system are derived using the Hamilton's principle. The equations are transformed into two ordinary differential equations by applying the Galerkin's method at the first two orders. The solutions to the equations are acquired by using the Newmark-β method associated with the Newton-Raphson method. The time-dependent feature of the eigenfunctions for the two beams are taken into consideration in the solutions. Accordingly, the equations of motion for a simplified system, in which the pedestrian is regarded as moving cart, are given. In the numerical examples, dynamic responses of the telescopic mechanism in eight conditions of different beam-telescoping and pedestrian-moving directions are simulated. Comparisons between the vibrations of the beams under pedestrian excitation and corresponding moving cart are carried out to investigate the influence of the pedestrian excitation on the telescopic mechanism. The results show that the displacement of the telescopic mechanism under pedestrian excitation is smaller than that under moving cart especially when the pedestrian approaches the beams end. Additionally, compared with moving cart, the pedestrian excitation can effectively strengthen the vibration when the beam extension is small or when the pedestrian is close to the beams end.

  1. An Investigation of the Mechanism Underlying Teacher Aggression: Testing I[superscript 3] Theory and the General Aggression Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montuoro, Paul; Mainhard, Tim

    2017-01-01

    Background: Considerable research has investigated the deleterious effects of teachers responding aggressively to students who misbehave, but the mechanism underlying this dysfunctional behaviour remains unknown. Aims: This study investigated whether the mechanism underlying teacher aggression follows I[superscript 3] theory or General Aggression…

  2. Cyclic life of superalloy IN738LC under in-phase and out-of-phase thermo-mechanical fatigue loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Hongjun; Wahi, R.P.; Wever, H.

    1995-01-01

    The cyclic life of IN738LC, a widely used nickel base superalloy for blades in stationary gas turbines, was investigated under thermo-mechanical fatigue loading using a temperature variation range of 1023 to 1223 K, with temperature variation rate in the range of 6 to 15 K/min. Simple thermo-mechanical cycles with linear sequences corresponding to in-phase (IP) and out-of-phase (OP) tests were performed. Both the IP and OP tests were carried out at different constant mechanical strain ranges varied between 0.8 to 2.0% and at a constant mechanical strain rate of 10 -5 s -1 . Thermo-mechanical fatigue lives under both test conditions were compared with each other and with those of isothermal LCF tests at a temperature of 1223 K. The results show that the life under thermo-mechanical fatigue is strongly dependent on the nature of the test, i.e. stress controlled or strain controlled. (orig.)

  3. The Rapid Formation of Localized Compaction Bands Under Hydrostatic Load Leading to Pore-pressure Transients in Compacting Rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faulkner, D.; Leclere, H.; Bedford, J. D.; Behnsen, J.; Wheeler, J.

    2017-12-01

    Compaction of porous rocks can occur uniformly or within localized deformation bands. The formation of compaction bands and their effects on deformation behaviour are poorly understood. Porosity may be primary and compaction can occur with burial, or it can be produced by metamorphic reactions with a solid volume reduction, that can then undergo collapse. We report results from hydrostatic compaction experiments on porous bassanite (CaSO4.0.5H2O) aggregates. Gypsum (CaSO4.2H2O) is first dehydrated under low effective pressure, 4 MPa, to produce a bassanite aggregate with a porosity of 27%. Compaction is induced by increasing confining pressure at rates from 0.001 MPa/s to 0.02 MPa/s while the sample is maintained at a temperature of 115°C. At slow compaction rates, porosity collapse proceeds smoothly. At higher compaction rates, sudden increases in the pore-fluid pressure occur with a magnitude of 5 MPa. Microstructural investigations using X-ray microtomography and SEM observations show that randomly oriented localized compaction features occur in all samples, where the bulk porosity of 18% outside the band is reduced to 5% inside the band. Previous work on deformation bands has suggested that localized compactive features only form under an elevated differential stress and not under a hydrostatic stress state. The magnitude of the pore-pressure pulses can be explained by the formation of compaction bands. The results indicate that the compaction bands can form by rapid (unstable) propagation across the sample above a critical strain rate, or quasi-statically at low compaction rates without pore-fluid pressure bursts. The absence of pore-fluid pressure bursts at slow compaction rates can be explained by viscous deformation of the bassanite aggregate around the tip of a propagating compaction band, relaxing stress, and promoting stable propagation. Conversely, at higher compaction rates, viscous deformation cannot relax the stress sufficiently and unstable

  4. Nanomaterials modulate stem cell differentiation: biological interaction and underlying mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Min; Li, Song; Le, Weidong

    2017-10-25

    Stem cells are unspecialized cells that have the potential for self-renewal and differentiation into more specialized cell types. The chemical and physical properties of surrounding microenvironment contribute to the growth and differentiation of stem cells and consequently play crucial roles in the regulation of stem cells' fate. Nanomaterials hold great promise in biological and biomedical fields owing to their unique properties, such as controllable particle size, facile synthesis, large surface-to-volume ratio, tunable surface chemistry, and biocompatibility. Over the recent years, accumulating evidence has shown that nanomaterials can facilitate stem cell proliferation and differentiation, and great effort is undertaken to explore their possible modulating manners and mechanisms on stem cell differentiation. In present review, we summarize recent progress in the regulating potential of various nanomaterials on stem cell differentiation and discuss the possible cell uptake, biological interaction and underlying mechanisms.

  5. Mechanisms Underlying HIV-Associated Noninfectious Lung Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presti, Rachel M; Flores, Sonia C; Palmer, Brent E; Atkinson, Jeffrey J; Lesko, Catherine R; Lau, Bryan; Fontenot, Andrew P; Roman, Jesse; McDyer, John F; Twigg, Homer L

    2017-11-01

    Pulmonary disease remains a primary source of morbidity and mortality in persons living with HIV (PLWH), although the advent of potent combination antiretroviral therapy has resulted in a shift from predominantly infectious to noninfectious pulmonary complications. PLWH are at high risk for COPD, pulmonary hypertension, and lung cancer even in the era of combination antiretroviral therapy. The underlying mechanisms of this are incompletely understood, but recent research in both human and animal models suggests that oxidative stress, expression of matrix metalloproteinases, and genetic instability may result in lung damage, which predisposes PLWH to these conditions. Some of the factors that drive these processes include tobacco and other substance use, direct HIV infection and expression of specific HIV proteins, inflammation, and shifts in the microbiome toward pathogenic and opportunistic organisms. Further studies are needed to understand the relative importance of these factors to the development of lung disease in PLWH. Copyright © 2017 American College of Chest Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Neural mechanisms underlying human consensus decision-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Shinsuke; Adachi, Ryo; Dunne, Simon; Bossaerts, Peter; O'Doherty, John P

    2015-04-22

    Consensus building in a group is a hallmark of animal societies, yet little is known about its underlying computational and neural mechanisms. Here, we applied a computational framework to behavioral and fMRI data from human participants performing a consensus decision-making task with up to five other participants. We found that participants reached consensus decisions through integrating their own preferences with information about the majority group members' prior choices, as well as inferences about how much each option was stuck to by the other people. These distinct decision variables were separately encoded in distinct brain areas-the ventromedial prefrontal cortex, posterior superior temporal sulcus/temporoparietal junction, and intraparietal sulcus-and were integrated in the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex. Our findings provide support for a theoretical account in which collective decisions are made through integrating multiple types of inference about oneself, others, and environments, processed in distinct brain modules. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Tokamak plasma variations under rapid compression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmes, J.A.; Peng, Y.K.M.; Lynch, S.J.

    1980-04-01

    Changes in plasmas undergoing large, rapid compressions are examined numerically over the following range of aspect ratios A:3 greater than or equal to A greater than or equal to 1.5 for major radius compressions of circular, elliptical, and D-shaped cross sections; and 3 less than or equal to A less than or equal to 6 for minor radius compressions of circular and D-shaped cross sections. The numerical approach combines the computation of fixed boundary MHD equilibria with single-fluid, flux-surface-averaged energy balance, particle balance, and magnetic flux diffusion equations. It is found that the dependences of plasma current I/sub p/ and poloidal beta anti β/sub p/ on the compression ratio C differ significantly in major radius compressions from those proposed by Furth and Yoshikawa. The present interpretation is that compression to small A dramatically increases the plasma current, which lowers anti β/sub p/ and makes the plasma more paramagnetic. Despite large values of toroidal beta anti β/sub T/ (greater than or equal to 30% with q/sub axis/ approx. = 1, q/sub edge/ approx. = 3), this tends to concentrate more toroidal flux near the magnetic axis, which means that a reduced minor radius is required to preserve the continuity of the toroidal flux function F at the plasma edge. Minor radius compressions to large aspect ratio agree well with the Furth-Yoshikawa scaling laws

  8. Understanding and imitating unfamiliar actions: distinct underlying mechanisms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joana C Carmo

    Full Text Available The human "mirror neuron system" has been proposed to be the neural substrate that underlies understanding and, possibly, imitating actions. However, since the brain activity with mirror properties seems insufficient to provide a good description for imitation of actions outside one's own repertoire, the existence of supplementary processes has been proposed. Moreover, it is unclear whether action observation requires the same neural mechanisms as the explicit access to their meaning. The aim of this study was two-fold as we investigated whether action observation requires different processes depending on 1 whether the ultimate goal is to imitate or understand the presented actions and 2 whether the to-be-imitated actions are familiar or unfamiliar to the subject. Participants were presented with both meaningful familiar actions and meaningless unfamiliar actions that they had to either imitate or discriminate later. Event-related Potentials were used as differences in brain activity could have been masked by the use of other techniques with lower temporal resolution. In the imitation task, a sustained left frontal negativity was more pronounced for meaningless actions than for meaningful ones, starting from an early time-window. Conversely, observing unfamiliar versus familiar actions with the intention of discriminating them led to marked differences over right centro-posterior scalp regions, in both middle and latest time-windows. These findings suggest that action imitation and action understanding may be sustained by dissociable mechanisms: while imitation of unfamiliar actions activates left frontal processes, that are likely to be related to learning mechanisms, action understanding involves dedicated operations which probably require right posterior regions, consistent with their involvement in social interactions.

  9. Rapid and long-term effects of water deficit on gas exchange and hydraulic conductance of silver birch trees grown under varying atmospheric humidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellin, Arne; Niglas, Aigar; Õunapuu-Pikas, Eele; Kupper, Priit

    2014-03-24

    Effects of water deficit on plant water status, gas exchange and hydraulic conductance were investigated in Betula pendula under artificially manipulated air humidity in Eastern Estonia. The study was aimed to broaden an understanding of the ability of trees to acclimate with the increasing atmospheric humidity predicted for northern Europe. Rapidly-induced water deficit was imposed by dehydrating cut branches in open-air conditions; long-term water deficit was generated by seasonal drought. The rapid water deficit quantified by leaf (ΨL) and branch water potentials (ΨB) had a significant (P gas exchange parameters, while inclusion of ΨB in models resulted in a considerably better fit than those including ΨL, which supports the idea that stomatal openness is regulated to prevent stem rather than leaf xylem dysfunction. Under moderate water deficit (ΨL≥-1.55 MPa), leaf conductance to water vapour (gL), transpiration rate and leaf hydraulic conductance (KL) were higher (P water deficit (ΨLwater availability, i.e. due to higher soil water potential in H treatment. Two functional characteristics (gL, KL) exhibited higher (P water deficit in trees grown under increased air humidity. The experiment supported the hypothesis that physiological traits in trees acclimated to higher air humidity exhibit higher sensitivity to rapid water deficit with respect to two characteristics - leaf conductance to water vapour and leaf hydraulic conductance. Disproportionate changes in sensitivity of stomatal versus leaf hydraulic conductance to water deficit will impose greater risk of desiccation-induced hydraulic dysfunction on the plants, grown under high atmospheric humidity, in case of sudden weather fluctuations, and might represent a potential threat in hemiboreal forest ecosystems. There is no trade-off between plant hydraulic capacity and photosynthetic water-use efficiency on short time scale.

  10. The mechanism underlying fast germination of tomato cultivar LA2711.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Rongchao; Chu, Zhuannan; Zhang, Haijun; Li, Ying; Wang, Jinfang; Li, Dianbo; Weeda, Sarah; Ren, Shuxin; Ouyang, Bo; Guo, Yang-Dong

    2015-09-01

    Seed germination is important for early plant morphogenesis as well as abiotic stress tolerance, and is mainly controlled by the phytohormones abscisic acid (ABA) and gibberellic acid (GA). Our previous studies identified a salt-tolerant tomato cultivar, LA2711, which is also a fast-germinating genotype, compared to its salt-sensitive counterpart, ZS-5. In an effort to further clarify the mechanism underlying this phenomenon, we compared the dynamic levels of ABA and GA4, the transcript abundance of genes involved in their biosynthesis and catabolism as well as signal transduction between the two cultivars. In addition, we tested seed germination sensitivity to ABA and GAs. Our results revealed that insensitivity of seed germination to exogenous ABA and low ABA content in seeds are the physiological mechanisms conferring faster germination rates of LA2711 seeds. SlCYP707A2, which encodes an ABA catabolic enzyme, may play a decisive role in the fast germination rate of LA2711, as it showed a significantly higher level of expression in LA2711 than ZS-5 at most time points tested during germination. The current results will enable us to gain insight into the mechanism(s) regarding seed germination of tomato and the role of fast germination in stress tolerance. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Handedness is related to neural mechanisms underlying hemispheric lateralization of face processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frässle, Stefan; Krach, Sören; Paulus, Frieder Michel; Jansen, Andreas

    2016-06-01

    While the right-hemispheric lateralization of the face perception network is well established, recent evidence suggests that handedness affects the cerebral lateralization of face processing at the hierarchical level of the fusiform face area (FFA). However, the neural mechanisms underlying differential hemispheric lateralization of face perception in right- and left-handers are largely unknown. Using dynamic causal modeling (DCM) for fMRI, we aimed to unravel the putative processes that mediate handedness-related differences by investigating the effective connectivity in the bilateral core face perception network. Our results reveal an enhanced recruitment of the left FFA in left-handers compared to right-handers, as evidenced by more pronounced face-specific modulatory influences on both intra- and interhemispheric connections. As structural and physiological correlates of handedness-related differences in face processing, right- and left-handers varied with regard to their gray matter volume in the left fusiform gyrus and their pupil responses to face stimuli. Overall, these results describe how handedness is related to the lateralization of the core face perception network, and point to different neural mechanisms underlying face processing in right- and left-handers. In a wider context, this demonstrates the entanglement of structurally and functionally remote brain networks, suggesting a broader underlying process regulating brain lateralization.

  12. Ultrahigh-Q mechanical oscillators through optical trapping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, D E; Ni, K-K; Painter, O; Kimble, H J

    2012-01-01

    Rapid advances are being made toward optically cooling a single mode of a micro-mechanical system to its quantum ground state and observing the quantum behavior at macroscopic scales. Reaching this regime in room-temperature environments requires a stringent condition on the mechanical quality factor Q m and frequency f m , Q m f m ≳ k B T bath /h, which so far has been marginally satisfied only in a small number of systems. Here we propose and analyze a new class of systems that should enable one to obtain unprecedented Q-frequency products. The technique is based on the use of optical forces to ‘trap’ and stiffen the motion of a tethered mechanical structure, thereby freeing the resulting mechanical frequencies and decoherence rates from the underlying material properties. (paper)

  13. Rapid and Efficient Protein Digestion using Trypsin Coated Magnetic Nanoparticles under Pressure Cycles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Byoungsoo; Lopez-Ferrer, Daniel; Kim, Byoung Chan; Na, Hyon Bin; Park, Yong Il; Weitz, Karl K.; Warner, Marvin G.; Hyeon, Taeghwan; Lee, Sang-Won; Smith, Richard D.; Kim, Jungbae

    2011-01-01

    Trypsin-coated magnetic nanoparticles (EC-TR/NPs), prepared via a simple crosslinking of the enzyme to magnetic nanoparticles, were highly stable and could be easily captured using a magnet after the digestion was complete. EC-TR/NPs showed a negligible loss of trypsin activity after multiple uses and continuous shaking, while a control sample of covalently-attached trypsin on NPs resulted in a rapid inactivation under the same conditions due to the denaturation and autolysis of trypsin. Digestions were carried out on a single model protein, a five protein mixture, and a whole mouse brain proteome, and also compared for digestion at atmospheric pressure and 37 ºC for 12 h, and in combination with pressure cycling technology (PCT) at room temperature for 1 min. In all cases, the EC-TR/NPs performed equally as well or better than free trypsin in terms of the number of peptide/protein identifications and reproducibility across technical replicates. However, the concomitant use of EC-TR/NPs and PCT resulted in very fast (~1 min) and more reproducible digestions.

  14. Asymmetric migration of human keratinocytes under mechanical stretch and cocultured fibroblasts in a wound repair model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongyuan Lü

    Full Text Available Keratinocyte migration during re-epithelization is crucial in wound healing under biochemical and biomechanical microenvironment. However, little is known about the underlying mechanisms whereby mechanical tension and cocultured fibroblasts or keratinocytes modulate the migration of keratinocytes or fibroblasts. Here we applied a tensile device together with a modified transwell assay to determine the lateral and transmembrane migration dynamics of human HaCaT keratinocytes or HF fibroblasts. A novel pattern of asymmetric migration was observed for keratinocytes when they were cocultured with non-contact fibroblasts, i.e., the accumulative distance of HaCaT cells was significantly higher when moving away from HF cells or migrating from down to up cross the membrane than that when moving close to HF cells or when migrating from up to down, whereas HF migration was symmetric. This asymmetric migration was mainly regulated by EGF derived from fibroblasts, but not transforming growth factor α or β1 production. Mechanical stretch subjected to fibroblasts fostered keratinocyte asymmetric migration by increasing EGF secretion, while no role of mechanical stretch was found for EGF secretion by keratinocytes. These results provided a new insight into understanding the regulating mechanisms of two- or three-dimensional migration of keratinocytes or fibroblasts along or across dermis and epidermis under biomechanical microenvironment.

  15. Inspection Mechanism and Experimental Study of Prestressed Reverse Tension Method under PC Beam Bridge Anchorage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Zhang

    2018-03-01

    the prestress under anchorage is directly related to the structural security and performance of PC beam bridge. The reverse tension method is a kind of inspection which confirms the prestress by exerting reversed tension load on the exposed prestressing tendon of beam bridge anchoring system. The thesis elaborately expounds the inspection mechanism and mechanical effect of reverse tension method, theoretically analyzes the influential elements of inspection like tool anchorage deformation, compression of conjuncture, device glide, friction of anchorage loop mouth and elastic compression of concrete, and then presents the following formula to calculate prestress under anchorage. On the basis of model experiment, the thesis systematically studies some key issues during the reverse tension process of PC beam bridge anchorage system like the formation of stress-elongation curve, influential factors, judgment method of prestress under anchorage, variation trend and compensation scale, verifies the accuracy of mechanism analysis and demonstrates: the prestress under anchorage is less than or equal to 75% of the ultimate strength of prestressing tendon, the error of inspect result is less than 1%, which can meet with the demands of construction. The research result has provided theoretical basis and technical foundation for the promotion and application of reverse tension in bridge construction.

  16. Observation of events with a large rapidity gap in deep inelastic scattering at HERA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derrick, M.; Krakauer, D.; Magill, S.

    1993-07-01

    In deep inelastic, neutral current scattering of electrons and protons at √s=296 GeV, we observe in the ZEUS detector events with a large rapidity gap in the hadronic final state. They occur in the region of small Bjorken x and are observed up to Q 2 of 100 GeV 2 . They account for about 5% of the events with Q 2 ≥10 GeV 2 . Their general properties are inconsistent with the dominant mechanism of deep inelastic scattering, where color is transferred between the scattered quark and the proton remnant, and suggest that the underlying production mechanism is the diffractive dissociation of the virtual photon. (orig.)

  17. Behavioral Effects of Upper Respiratory Tract Illnesses: A Consideration of Possible Underlying Cognitive Mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew P. Smith

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Previous research has shown that both experimentally induced upper respiratory tract illnesses (URTIs and naturally occurring URTIs influence mood and performance. The present study investigated possible cognitive mechanisms underlying the URTI-performance changes. Those who developed a cold (N = 47 had significantly faster, but less accurate, performance than those who remained healthy (N = 54. Illness had no effect on manipulations designed to influence encoding, response organisation (stimulus-response compatilibility or response preparation. Similarly, there was no evidence that different components of working memory were impaired. Overall, the present research confirms that URTIs can have an effect on performance efficiency. Further research is required to identify the physiological and behavioral mechanisms underlying these effects.

  18. Exact solution for stresses/displacements in a multilayered hollow cylinder under thermo-mechanical loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeo, W.H.; Purbolaksono, J.; Aliabadi, M.H.; Ramesh, S.; Liew, H.L.

    2017-01-01

    In this study, a new analytical solution by the recursive method for evaluating stresses/displacements in multilayered hollow cylinder under thermo-mechanical loading was developed. The results for temperature distribution, displacements and stresses obtained by using the proposed solution were shown to be in good agreement with the FEM results. The proposed analytical solution was also found to produce more accurate results than those by the analytical solution reported in literature. - Highlights: • A new analytical solution for evaluating stresses in multilayered hollow cylinder under thermo-mechanical loading. • A simple computational procedure using a recursive method. • A promising technique for evaluating the operating axial and hoop stresses in pressurized composite vessels.

  19. Microstructures and mechanical properties of the Ce containing cast iron super-rapidly melted. Chokosoku yokaishita gan seriumu chutetsu no soshiki to kikaiteki seishitsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kowata, T.; Hiratsuka, S.; Horie, H. (Iwate Univ., Iwate (Japan). Faculty of Engineering); Matsumoto, T. (Taiyo Steel Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan))

    1994-04-25

    Spheroidal graphite cast iron and CV graphite cast iron were prepared by super-rapid remelting of parent alloys containing definite amounts of cerium (Ce) in a high frequency and super-rapid induction smelting furnace. Their graphite structure, amounts of Ce remained and mechanical properties were investigated by comparing with those prepared by ordinary remelting. Further, super-rapid remelting of parent alloys added with aluminum (Al) or titanium (Ti) was investigated to make certain whether it stabilizes the CV graphite structure. The results obtained are summarized as follows. Mere remelting of Ce-added parent alloys is sufficient to yield CV and spheroidal graphite structures. Whereas the yield of Ce melted remains at 28% in ordinary remelting, that in the super-rapid remelting reaches 63%. Whereas the Ce amount needed in parent alloys to get CV graphite structures is 0.08% in ordinary remelting, that in super-rapid remelting is 0.025%. The addition of Al shows no inhibitory effect on graphite spheroidation. On the contrary, it raises the degree of spheroidization. The addition of Ti inhibits the spheroidization, whereby the amount range of Ce remaining to be embedded in the graphite structure can be extended, thus ensuring stable production of CV graphite cast iron. 5 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. Mechanical failure of zigzag graphene nanoribbons under tensile strain induced by edge reconstruction

    KAUST Repository

    Cheng, Yingchun

    2012-10-01

    The structural and mechanical properties of graphene nanoribbons (GNRs) under uniaxial tensile strain are studied by density functional theory. The ideal strength of a zigzag GNR (120 GPa) is close to that of pristine graphene. However, for a GNR with both edges reconstructed to pentagon–heptagon pairs (from hexagon–hexagon pairs) it decreases to 94 GPa and the maximum tensile strain is reduced to 15%. Our results constitute a comprehensive picture of the edge structure effect on the mechanical properties of GNRs.

  1. Mechanical failure of zigzag graphene nanoribbons under tensile strain induced by edge reconstruction

    KAUST Repository

    Cheng, Yingchun; Schwingenschlö gl, Udo; Zhu, Zhiyong

    2012-01-01

    The structural and mechanical properties of graphene nanoribbons (GNRs) under uniaxial tensile strain are studied by density functional theory. The ideal strength of a zigzag GNR (120 GPa) is close to that of pristine graphene. However, for a GNR with both edges reconstructed to pentagon–heptagon pairs (from hexagon–hexagon pairs) it decreases to 94 GPa and the maximum tensile strain is reduced to 15%. Our results constitute a comprehensive picture of the edge structure effect on the mechanical properties of GNRs.

  2. A systems biology-based approach to uncovering the molecular mechanisms underlying the effects of dragon's blood tablet in colitis, involving the integration of chemical analysis, ADME prediction, and network pharmacology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haiyu Xu

    Full Text Available Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM is one of the oldest East Asian medical systems. The present study adopted a systems biology-based approach to provide new insights relating to the active constituents and molecular mechanisms underlying the effects of dragon's blood (DB tablets for the treatment of colitis. This study integrated chemical analysis, prediction of absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (ADME, and network pharmacology. Firstly, a rapid, reliable, and accurate ultra-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry method was employed to identify 48 components of DB tablets. In silico prediction of the passive absorption of these compounds, based on Caco-2 cell permeability, and their P450 metabolism enabled the identification of 22 potentially absorbed components and 8 metabolites. Finally, networks were constructed to analyze interactions between these DB components/metabolites absorbed and their putative targets, and between the putative DB targets and known therapeutic targets for colitis. This study provided a great opportunity to deepen the understanding of the complex pharmacological mechanisms underlying the effects of DB in colitis treatment.

  3. Predictable 'meta-mechanisms' emerge from feedbacks between transpiration and plant growth and cannot be simply deduced from short-term mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tardieu, François; Parent, Boris

    2017-06-01

    Growth under water deficit is controlled by short-term mechanisms but, because of numerous feedbacks, the combination of these mechanisms over time often results in outputs that cannot be deduced from the simple inspection of individual mechanisms. It can be analysed with dynamic models in which causal relationships between variables are considered at each time-step, allowing calculation of outputs that are routed back to inputs for the next time-step and that can change the system itself. We first review physiological mechanisms involved in seven feedbacks of transpiration on plant growth, involving changes in tissue hydraulic conductance, stomatal conductance, plant architecture and underlying factors such as hormones or aquaporins. The combination of these mechanisms over time can result in non-straightforward conclusions as shown by examples of simulation outputs: 'over production of abscisic acid (ABA) can cause a lower concentration of ABA in the xylem sap ', 'decreasing root hydraulic conductance when evaporative demand is maximum can improve plant performance' and 'rapid root growth can decrease yield'. Systems of equations simulating feedbacks over numerous time-steps result in logical and reproducible emergent properties that can be viewed as 'meta-mechanisms' at plant level, which have similar roles as mechanisms at cell level. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. New developments on the neurobiological and pharmaco-genetic mechanisms underlying internet and videogame addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, Aviv; Lejoyeux, Michel

    2015-03-01

    There is emerging evidence that the psychobiological mechanisms underlying behavioral addictions such as internet and videogame addiction resemble those of addiction for substances of abuse. Review of brain imaging, treatment and genetic studies on videogame and internet addiction. Literature search of published articles between 2009 and 2013 in Pubmed using "internet addiction" and "videogame addiction" as the search word. Twenty-nine studies have been selected and evaluated under the criteria of brain imaging, treatment, and genetics. Brain imaging studies of the resting state have shown that long-term internet game playing affected brain regions responsible for reward, impulse control and sensory-motor coordination. Brain activation studies have shown that videogame playing involved changes in reward and loss of control and that gaming pictures have activated regions similarly to those activated by cue-exposure to drugs. Structural studies have shown alterations in the volume of the ventral striatum possible as result of changes in reward. Furthermore, videogame playing was associated with dopamine release similar in magnitude to those of drugs of abuse and that there were faulty inhibitory control and reward mechanisms videogame addicted individuals. Finally, treatment studies using fMRI have shown reduction in craving for videogames and reduced associated brain activity. Videogame playing may be supported by similar neural mechanisms underlying drug abuse. Similar to drug and alcohol abuse, internet addiction results in sub-sensitivity of dopamine reward mechanisms. Given the fact that this research is in its early stage it is premature to conclude that internet addiction is equivalent to substance addictions. © American Academy of Addiction Psychiatry.

  5. A fibre optic oxygen sensor that detects rapid PO2 changes under simulated conditions of cyclical atelectasis in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Formenti, Federico; Chen, Rongsheng; McPeak, Hanne; Matejovic, Martin; Farmery, Andrew D; Hahn, Clive E W

    2014-01-15

    Two challenges in the management of Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome are the difficulty in diagnosing cyclical atelectasis, and in individualising mechanical ventilation therapy in real-time. Commercial optical oxygen sensors can detect [Formula: see text] oscillations associated with cyclical atelectasis, but are not accurate at saturation levels below 90%, and contain a toxic fluorophore. We present a computer-controlled test rig, together with an in-house constructed ultra-rapid sensor to test the limitations of these sensors when exposed to rapidly changing [Formula: see text] in blood in vitro. We tested the sensors' responses to simulated respiratory rates between 10 and 60 breaths per minute. Our sensor was able to detect the whole amplitude of the imposed [Formula: see text] oscillations, even at the highest respiratory rate. We also examined our sensor's resistance to clot formation by continuous in vivo deployment in non-heparinised flowing animal blood for 24h, after which no adsorption of organic material on the sensor's surface was detectable by scanning electron microscopy. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Ablation characteristics and reaction mechanism of insulation materials under slag deposition condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Yiwen; Li, Jiang; Liu, Yang

    2017-07-01

    Current understanding of the physical and chemical processes involved in the ablation of insulation materials by highly aluminized solid propellants is limited. The study on the heat transfer and ablation principle of ethylene propylene diene monomer (EPDM) materials under slag deposition condition is essential for future design or modification of large solid rocket motors (SRMs) for launch application. In this paper, the alumina liquid flow pattern and the deposition principle in full-scale SRM engines are discussed. The interaction mechanism between the alumina droplets and the wall are analyzed. Then, an experimental method was developed to simulate the insulation material ablation under slag deposition condition. Experimental study was conducted based on a laboratory-scale device. Meanwhile, from the analysis of the cross-sectional morphology and chemical composition of the charring layer after ablation, the reaction mechanism of the charring layer under deposition condition was discussed, and the main reaction equation was derived. The numerical simulation and experimental results show the following. (i) The alumina droplet flow in the deposition section of the laboratory-scale device is similar to that of a full-scale SRM. (ii) The charring layer of the EPDM insulator displays a porous tight/loose structure under high-temperature slag deposition condition. (iii) A seven-step carbothermal reduction in the alumina is derived and established under high-pressure and high-temperature environment in the SRM combustion chamber. (iv) The analysis using thermodynamic software indicates that the reaction of the alumina and charring layer initially forms Al4C3 during the operation. Then, Al element and Al2OC compound are subsequently produced with the reduction in the release of gas CO as well with continuous environmental heating.

  7. From Sound to Significance: Exploring the Mechanisms Underlying Emotional Reactions to Music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juslin, Patrik N; Barradas, Gonçalo; Eerola, Tuomas

    2015-01-01

    A common approach to studying emotional reactions to music is to attempt to obtain direct links between musical surface features such as tempo and a listener's responses. However, such an analysis ultimately fails to explain why emotions are aroused in the listener. In this article we explore an alternative approach, which aims to account for musical emotions in terms of a set of psychological mechanisms that are activated by different types of information in a musical event. This approach was tested in 4 experiments that manipulated 4 mechanisms (brain stem reflex, contagion, episodic memory, musical expectancy) by selecting existing musical pieces that featured information relevant for each mechanism. The excerpts were played to 60 listeners, who were asked to rate their felt emotions on 15 scales. Skin conductance levels and facial expressions were measured, and listeners reported subjective impressions of relevance to specific mechanisms. Results indicated that the target mechanism conditions evoked emotions largely as predicted by a multimechanism framework and that mostly similar effects occurred across the experiments that included different pieces of music. We conclude that a satisfactory account of musical emotions requires consideration of how musical features and responses are mediated by a range of underlying mechanisms.

  8. Molecular Mechanisms Underlying the Epileptogenesis and Seizure Progression in Tuberous Sclerosis Complex 1 Deficient Mouse Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    dysregulation in epileptogenesis in the developing brain? 2) What are the molecular mechanisms downstream of mTOR hyperactivation that trigger epileptogenesis...underlying epilepsy. Hopefully, a knowledge of these mechanisms will aid in a rational development of therapies. KEYWORDS Tuberous Sclerosis, Epilepsy

  9. Investigation on the rapid degradation of congo red catalyzed by activated carbon powder under microwave irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Zhaohong; Shan Yabo; Wang Jun; Ling Hongjie; Zang Shuliang; Gao Wei; Zhao Zhe; Zhang Huachun

    2007-01-01

    Azo dyestuff-congo red in aqueous solution can be degraded rapidly under microwave irradiation in the presence of activated carbon powder. The results showed that the degradation ratio could reach 87.79% for 25 mL total volume with 50 mg/L congo red and 2.0 g/L activated carbon powder under 1.5 min microwave irradiation. Furthermore, within the same irradiation time, congo red could be degraded fully by increasing addition amount (e.g. 3.6 g/L) of activated carbon powder and the degradation ratio was up to 96.49%. Otherwise, with the same addition amount, congo red also could be degraded completely by prolonging irradiation time (e.g. 2.5 min) and the degradation ratio was up to 97.88%. In addition, the influences of microwave irradiation time, initial concentration of congo red, addition amount and used times of activated carbon powder as well as solution acidity on the degradation were discussed in details adopting UV-vis spectra, FT-IR spectra, ion chromatography, high phase liquid chromatography (HPLC) and TOC analysis technologies. Here, the method using activated carbon powder as catalyst under microwave irradiation shows many advantages including high degradation ratios, short reaction time, low costs, no intermediates and no secondary pollution. Therefore, it may be fit for dealing with various azo dyestuff wastewaters on a large scale

  10. Mechanical stress analysis for a fuel rod under normal operating conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pino, Eddy S.; Giovedi, Claudia; Serra, Andre da Silva; Abe, Alfredo Y.

    2013-01-01

    Nuclear reactor fuel elements consist mainly in a system of a nuclear fuel encapsulated by a cladding material subject to high fluxes of energetic neutrons, high operating temperatures, pressure systems, thermal gradients, heat fluxes and with chemical compatibility with the reactor coolant. The design of a nuclear reactor requires, among a set of activities, the evaluation of the structural integrity of the fuel rod submitted to different loads acting on the fuel rod and the specific properties (dimensions and mechanical and thermal properties) of the cladding material and coolant, including thermal and pressure gradients produced inside the rod due to the fuel burnup. In this work were evaluated the structural mechanical stresses of a fuel rod using stainless steel as cladding material and UO 2 with a low degree of enrichment as fuel pellet on a PWR (pressurized water reactor) under normal operating conditions. In this sense, tangential, radial and axial stress on internal and external cladding surfaces considering the orientations of 0 deg, 90 deg and 180 deg were considered. The obtained values were compared with the limit values for stress to the studied material. From the obtained results, it was possible to conclude that, under the expected normal reactor operation conditions, the integrity of the fuel rod can be maintained. (author)

  11. Uncovering the underlying physical mechanisms of biological systems via quantification of landscape and flux

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Li; Chu Xiakun; Yan Zhiqiang; Zheng Xiliang; Zhang Kun; Zhang Feng; Yan Han; Wu Wei; Wang Jin

    2016-01-01

    In this review, we explore the physical mechanisms of biological processes such as protein folding and recognition, ligand binding, and systems biology, including cell cycle, stem cell, cancer, evolution, ecology, and neural networks. Our approach is based on the landscape and flux theory for nonequilibrium dynamical systems. This theory provides a unifying principle and foundation for investigating the underlying mechanisms and physical quantification of biological systems. (topical review)

  12. Age differences in the underlying mechanisms of stereotype threat effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popham, Lauren E; Hess, Thomas M

    2015-03-01

    The goals of the present study were to (a) examine whether age differences exist in the mechanisms underlying stereotype threat effects on cognitive performance and (b) examine whether emotion regulation abilities may buffer against threat effects on performance. Older and younger adults were exposed to positive or negative age-relevant stereotypes, allowing us to examine the impact of threat on regulatory focus and working memory. Self-reported emotion regulation measures were completed prior to the session. Older adults' performance under threat suggested a prevention-focused approach to the task, indexed by increased accuracy and reduced speed. The same pattern was observed in younger adults, but the effects were not as strong. Age differences emerged when examining the availability of working memory resources under threat, with young adults showing decrements, whereas older adults did not. Emotion regulation abilities moderated threat effects in young adults but not in older adults. The results provide support for the notion that stereotype threat may lead to underperformance through somewhat different pathways in older and younger adults. Future research should further examine whether the underlying reason for this age difference is rooted in age-related improvements in emotion regulation. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Transformational Leadership and Organizational Citizenship Behavior: A Meta-Analytic Test of Underlying Mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nohe, Christoph; Hertel, Guido

    2017-01-01

    Based on social exchange theory, we examined and contrasted attitudinal mediators (affective organizational commitment, job satisfaction) and relational mediators (trust in leader, leader-member exchange; LMX) of the positive relationship between transformational leadership and organizational citizenship behavior (OCB). Hypotheses were tested using meta-analytic path models with correlations from published meta-analyses (761 samples with 227,419 individuals overall). When testing single-mediator models, results supported our expectations that each of the mediators explained the relationship between transformational leadership and OCB. When testing a multi-mediator model, LMX was the strongest mediator. When testing a model with a latent attitudinal mechanism and a latent relational mechanism, the relational mechanism was the stronger mediator of the relationship between transformational leadership and OCB. Our findings help to better understand the underlying mechanisms of the relationship between transformational leadership and OCB.

  14. Mechanisms underlying epithelium-dependent relaxation in rat bronchioles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kroigaard, Christel; Dalsgaard, Thomas; Simonsen, Ulf

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the mechanisms underlying epithelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor (EpDHF)-type relaxation in rat bronchioles. Immunohistochemistry was performed, and rat bronchioles and pulmonary arteries were mounted in microvascular myographs for functional studies. An opener of small...... (SK(Ca)) and intermediate (IK(Ca))-conductance calcium-activated potassium channels, NS309 (6,7-dichloro-1H-indole-2,3-dione 3-oxime) was used to induce EpDHF-type relaxation. IK(Ca) and SK(Ca)3 positive immunoreactions were observed mainly in the epithelium and endothelium of bronchioles and arteries......, respectively. In 5-hydroxytryptamine (1 microM)-contracted bronchioles (828 +/- 20 microm, n = 84) and U46619 (0.03 microM)-contracted arteries (720 +/- 24 microm, n = 68), NS309 (0.001-10 microM) induced concentration-dependent relaxations that were reduced by epithelium/endothelium removal and by blocking IK...

  15. Imitation in Newborn Infants: Exploring the Range of Gestures Imitated and the Underlying Mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meltzoff, Andrew N.; Moore, M. Keith

    1989-01-01

    Evaluated psychological mechanisms underlying imitation of facial actions in 40 newborn infants. Results showed imitation of head movement and a tongue-protrusion gesture. Subjects imitated from memory after displays had stopped. (RJC)

  16. Deformation mechanisms in Ti/TiN multilayer under compressive loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Wei; Ayoub, Georges; Salehinia, Iman; Mansoor, Bilal; Zbib, Hussein

    2017-01-01

    The promising mechanical, physical and chemical properties of nano-scale metal/ceramic multilayers (MCMs) are of high interest for extreme environment applications. Understanding the plastic deformation mechanisms and the variables affecting those properties is therefore essential. The interface characteristics and the plastic deformation mechanisms under compressive loading in a Ti/TiN multilayer with a semi-coherent interface are numerically investigated. The interface structure of the Ti/TiN interface and the interface misfit dislocation were characterized using molecular dynamic simulations combined with atomically informed Frank-Bilby method. Three possible atomic stacking interface structures are identified according to the crystallographic analysis of the interface. Upon relaxation, large interface areas are occupied with the energetically stable configuration. Furthermore, the higher energy stacking are transformed into misfit dislocations or dislocation nodes. The molecular dynamic compressive stress strain response of the Ti/TiN multilayers exhibited three distinctive peaks. The first peak was generated by the dislocation dissociation of perfect dislocation into pairs of partials dislocation around extended nodes region at the interface. Upon further compression the second peak, identified as the first yielding, resulted from the activation of pyramidal slip planes in the Ti layer. Finally, a third peak identified as the second yielding, occurred when dislocation nucleated/transmitted in/into the TiN layer.

  17. Tension (re)builds: Biophysical mechanisms of embryonic wound repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zulueta-Coarasa, Teresa; Fernandez-Gonzalez, Rodrigo

    2017-04-01

    Embryonic tissues display an outstanding ability to rapidly repair wounds. Epithelia, in particular, serve as protective layers that line internal organs and form the skin. Thus, maintenance of epithelial integrity is of utmost importance for animal survival, particularly at embryonic stages, when an immune system has not yet fully developed. Rapid embryonic repair of epithelial tissues is conserved across species, and involves the collective migration of the cells around the wound. The migratory cell behaviours associated with wound repair require the generation and transmission of mechanical forces, not only for the cells to move, but also to coordinate their movements. Here, we review the forces involved in embryonic wound repair. We discuss how different force-generating structures are assembled at the molecular level, and the mechanisms that maintain the balance between force-generating structures as wounds close. Finally, we describe the mechanisms that cells use to coordinate the generation of mechanical forces around the wound. Collective cell movements and their misregulation have been associated with defective tissue repair, developmental abnormalities and cancer metastasis. Thus, we propose that understanding the role of mechanical forces during embryonic wound closure will be crucial to develop therapeutic interventions that promote or prevent collective cell movements under pathological conditions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Spin-Label CW Microwave Power Saturation and Rapid Passage with Triangular Non-Adiabatic Rapid Sweep (NARS) and Adiabatic Rapid Passage (ARP) EPR Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kittell, Aaron W.; Hyde, James S.

    2015-01-01

    Non-adiabatic rapid passage (NARS) electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy was introduced by Kittell, A.W., Camenisch, T.G., Ratke, J.J. Sidabras, J.W., Hyde, J.S., 2011 as a general purpose technique to collect the pure absorption response. The technique has been used to improve sensitivity relative to sinusoidal magnetic field modulation, increase the range of inter-spin distances that can be measured under near physiological conditions, and enhance spectral resolution in copper (II) spectra. In the present work, the method is extended to CW microwave power saturation of spin-labeled T4 Lysozyme (T4L). As in the cited papers, rapid triangular sweep of the polarizing magnetic field was superimposed on slow sweep across the spectrum. Adiabatic rapid passage (ARP) effects were encountered in samples undergoing very slow rotational diffusion as the triangular magnetic field sweep rate was increased. The paper reports results of variation of experimental parameters at the interface of adiabatic and non-adiabatic rapid sweep conditions. Comparison of the forward (up) and reverse (down) triangular sweeps is shown to be a good indicator of the presence of rapid passage effects. Spectral turning points can be distinguished from spectral regions between turning points in two ways: differential microwave power saturation and differential passage effects. Oxygen accessibility data are shown under NARS conditions that appear similar to conventional field modulation data. However, the sensitivity is much higher, permitting, in principle, experiments at substantially lower protein concentrations. Spectral displays were obtained that appear sensitive to rotational diffusion in the range of rotational correlation times of 10−3 to 10−7 s in a manner that is analogous to saturation transfer spectroscopy. PMID:25917132

  19. Microcracking in composite laminates under thermal and mechanical loading. Thesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddocks, Jason R.

    1995-01-01

    Composites used in space structures are exposed to both extremes in temperature and applied mechanical loads. Cracks in the matrix form, changing the laminate thermoelastic properties. The goal of the present investigation is to develop a predictive methodology to quantify microcracking in general composite laminates under both thermal and mechanical loading. This objective is successfully met through a combination of analytical modeling and experimental investigation. In the analysis, the stress and displacement distributions in the vicinity of a crack are determined using a shear lag model. These are incorporated into an energy based cracking criterion to determine the favorability of crack formation. A progressive damage algorithm allows the inclusion of material softening effects and temperature-dependent material properties. The analysis is implemented by a computer code which gives predicted crack density and degraded laminate properties as functions of any thermomechanical load history. Extensive experimentation provides verification of the analysis. AS4/3501-6 graphite/epoxy laminates are manufactured with three different layups to investigate ply thickness and orientation effects. Thermal specimens are cooled to progressively lower temperatures down to -184 C. After conditioning the specimens to each temperature, cracks are counted on their edges using optical microscopy and in their interiors by sanding to incremental depths. Tensile coupons are loaded monotonically to progressively higher loads until failure. Cracks are counted on the coupon edges after each loading. A data fit to all available results provides input parameters for the analysis and shows them to be material properties, independent of geometry and loading. Correlation between experiment and analysis is generally very good under both thermal and mechanical loading, showing the methodology to be a powerful, unified tool. Delayed crack initiation observed in a few cases is attributed to a

  20. An agent-based simulation of power generation company behavior in electricity markets under different market-clearing mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aliabadi, Danial Esmaeili; Kaya, Murat; Şahin, Güvenç

    2017-01-01

    Deregulated electricity markets are expected to provide affordable electricity for consumers through promoting competition. Yet, the results do not always fulfill the expectations. The regulator's market-clearing mechanism is a strategic choice that may affect the level of competition in the market. We conceive of the market-clearing mechanism as composed of two components: pricing rules and rationing policies. We investigate the strategic behavior of power generation companies under different market-clearing mechanisms using an agent-based simulation model which integrates a game-theoretical understanding of the auction mechanism in the electricity market and generation companies' learning mechanism. Results of our simulation experiments are presented using various case studies representing different market settings. The market in simulations is observed to converge to a Nash equilibrium of the stage game or to a similar state under most parameter combinations. Compared to pay-as-bid pricing, bid prices are closer to marginal costs on average under uniform pricing while GenCos' total profit is also higher. The random rationing policy of the ISO turns out to be more successful in achieving lower bid prices and lower GenCo profits. In minimizing GenCos' total profit, a combination of pay-as-bid pricing rule and random rationing policy is observed to be the most promising. - Highlights: • An agent-based simulation of generation company behavior in electricity markets is developed. • Learning dynamics of companies is modeled with an extended Q-learning algorithm. • Different market clearing mechanisms of the regulator are compared. • Convergence to Nash equilibria is analyzed under different cases. • The level of competition in the market is studied.

  1. Mutations Phe785Leu and Thr618Met in Na+, K+-ATPase, Associated with Familial Rapid-Onset Dystonia Parkinsonism, Interfere with Na+ Interaction by Distinct Mechanisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schack, Vivien Rodacker; Toustrup-Jensen, Mads Schak; Vilsen, Bente

    The Na+, K+-ATPase plays key roles in brain function. Recently, missense mutations in the Na+, K+-ATPase were found associated with familial rapid-onset dystonia parkinsonism (FRDP). Here, we have characterized the functional consequences of FRDP mutations Phe785Leu and Thr618Met. Both mutations...... lead to functionally altered, but active, Na+, K+-pumps that display reduced apparent affinity for cytoplasmic Na+, but the underlying mechanism differs between the mutants. In Phe785Leu, the interaction of the E1 form with Na+ is defective, and the E1-E2 equilibrium is not displaced. In Thr618Met......, the Na+ affinity is reduced because of displacement of the conformational equilibrium in favor of the K+-occluded E2(K2) form. In both mutants, K+ interaction at the external activating sites of the E2P phosphoenzyme is normal. The change of cellular Na+ homeostasis is likely a major factor contributing...

  2. Mutations Phe785Leu and Thr618Met in Na+, K+-ATPase, Associated with Familial Rapid-Onset Dystonia Parkinsonism, Interfere with Na+ Interaction by Distinct Mechanisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schack, Vivien Rodacker; Toustrup-Jensen, Mads Schak; Vilsen, Bente

    The Na+, K+-ATPase plays key roles in brain function. Recently, missense mutations in the Na+, K+-ATPase were found associated with familial rapid-onset dystonia parkinsonism (FRDP). We have characterized the functional consequences of FRDP mutations Phe785Leu and Thr618Met. Both mutations lead...... to functionally altered, but active, Na+, K+-pumps that display reduced apparent affinity for cytoplasmic Na+, but the underlying mechanism differs between the mutants. In Phe785Leu, the interaction of the E1 form with Na+ is defective, and the E1-E2 equilibrium is not displaced. In Thr618Met, the Na+ affinity...... is reduced because of displacement of the conformational equilibrium in favor of the K+-occluded E2(K2) form. In both mutants, K+ interaction at the external activating sites of the E2P phosphoenzyme is normal. The change of cellular Na+ homeostasis is likely a major factor contributing to the development...

  3. Failure mechanisms of aluminium foams under compressive loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sáenz, E.

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is the investigation of the major failure mechanisms of aluminium foams, which were obtained by powder metallurgy route, under compressive loads. The study was focused on two commonly aluminium alloys AlMg1Si or A 6061 and AlSi12. Due to the fact that the failure mechanisms strongly depend on the density and the macrostructural properties of the material, the mechanical properties always have to be correlated to the structural properties. Therefore, macrostructural investigations were used as a basis to establish the correlation between structural and mechanical properties. This was done with a commercially available image analysis system. The average cell size, the cell size distribution and the cell density (number of cells/area were obtained. In order to evaluate the influence of foaming direction on the cell morphology, some cross sections parallel to the foaming direction were prepared. For the characterization of the mechanical compression properties the compressive or upper yield strength (UYS, the densification strain (eD, the energy absorption (Ea and the efficiency (Eff were obtained. Furthermore, the failure behavior of the samples was in-situ observed with a digital video camera and continuously recorded during the test.

    El objetivo de este estudio es investigar los principales mecanismos de fallo de espumas de aluminio sometidas a cargas de compresión. Las espumas metálicas fueron obtenidas mediante el proceso pulvimetalúrgico, utilizándose como materia prima dos aleaciones comerciales AlMg1Si o A 6061 y AlSi12. Debido a que los mecanismos de fallo en este tipo de materiales depende fuertemente de la densidad y las características macroestructurales del material, en este estudio se busca correlacionar las propiedades mecánicas con estas características. La macroestructura se caracterizó mediante análisis de imagen. El tamaño de celda promedio, la distribución de tamaño y la densidad de

  4. The Immunomodulatory Effects of Macrolides—A Systematic Review of the Underlying Mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Zimmermann

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundThe mechanisms underlying the non-antimicrobial immunomodulatory properties of macrolides are not well understood.ObjectivesTo systematically review the evidence for the immunomodulatory properties of macrolides in humans and to describe the underlying mechanism and extent of their influence on the innate and adaptive immune system.MethodsA systematic literature search was done in MEDLINE using the OVID interface from 1946 to December 2016 according to the preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analysis (PRISMA. Original articles investigating the influence of four macrolides (azithromycin, clarithromycin, erythromycin, and roxithromycin on immunological markers in humans were included.ResultsWe identified 22 randomized, controlled trials, 16 prospective cohort studies, and 8 case–control studies investigating 47 different immunological markers (186 measurements in 1,834 participants. The most frequently reported outcomes were a decrease in the number of neutrophils, and the concentrations of neutrophil elastase, interleukin (IL-8, IL-6, IL-1beta, tumor necrosis factor (TNF-alpha, eosinophilic cationic protein, and matrix metalloproteinase 9. Inhibition of neutrophil function was reported more frequently than eosinophil function. A decrease in T helper (Th 2 cells cytokines (IL-4, IL-5, IL-6 was reported more frequently than a decrease in Th1 cytokines (IL-2, INF-gamma.ConclusionMacrolides influence a broad range of immunological mechanisms resulting in immunomodulatory effects. To optimize the treatment of chronic inflammatory diseases by macrolides, further studies are necessary, particularly comparing different macrolides and dose effect relationships.

  5. Effects of delaying transplanting on agronomic traits and grain yield of rice under mechanical transplantation pattern.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qihua Liu

    Full Text Available A delay in the mechanical transplantation (MT of rice seedlings frequently occurs in Huanghuai wheat-rice rotation cropping districts of China, due to the late harvest of wheat, the poor weather conditions and the insufficiency of transplanters, missing the optimum transplanting time and causing seedlings to age. To identify how delaying transplanting rice affects the agronomic characteristics including the growth duration, photosynthetic productivity and dry matter remobilization efficiency and the grain yield under mechanical transplanting pattern, an experiment with a split-plot design was conducted over two consecutive years. The main plot includes two types of cultivation: mechanical transplanting and artificial transplanting (AT. The subplot comprises four japonica rice cultivars. The results indicate that the rice jointing, booting, heading and maturity stages were postponed under MT when using AT as a control. The tiller occurrence number, dry matter weight per tiller, accumulative dry matter for the population, leaf area index, crop growth rate, photosynthetic potential, and dry matter remobilization efficiency of the leaf under MT significantly decreased compared to those under AT. In contrast, the reduction rate of the leaf area during the heading-maturity stage was markedly enhanced under MT. The numbers of effective panicles and filled grains per panicle and the grain yield significantly decreased under MT. A significant correlation was observed between the dry matter production, remobilization and distribution characteristics and the grain yield. We infer that, as with rice from old seedlings, the decrease in the tiller occurrence, the photosynthetic productivity and the assimilate remobilization efficiency may be important agronomic traits that are responsible for the reduced grain yield under MT.

  6. Research on energy conversion mechanism of a screw centrifugal pump under the water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quan, H; Li, R N; Han, W; Cheng, X R; Shen, Z J; Su, Q M

    2013-01-01

    In order to research screw centrifugal pump impeller power capability and energy conversion mechanism, we used Navier-Stokes equation and standard k-ε equation turbulence model on the basis of the Euler equations to carry out screw centrifugal pump internal flow numerical simulation. This was explored by simulating specific design conditions; the medium is water, variation of speed and pressure of flow filed under the action of the impeller, and the screw centrifugal impeller shroud line and wheel line segment take monitoring sites. The monitoring points are between dynamic head and static head change to analyze the energy conversion capability along the impeller corners of screw centrifugal pump. The results show that the energy of fluid of the screw centrifugal pump is provided by spiral segment, the spiral segment in front of the impeller has played a multi-level role, it has significant reference value to research the energy conversion mechanism of screw centrifugal pump under solid-liquid two phase

  7. CISM course on mechanical behaviour of soils under environmentally induced cyclic loads

    CERN Document Server

    Wood, David; Mechanical Behaviour of Soils Under Environmentally Induced Cyclic Loads

    2012-01-01

    The book gives a comprehensive description of the mechanical response of soils (granular and cohesive materials) under cyclic loading. It provides the geotechnical engineer with the theoretical and analytical tools necessary for the evaluation of settlements developng with time under cyclic, einvironmentally idncued loads (such as wave motion, wind actions, water table level variation) and their consequences for the serviceability and durability of structures such as the shallow or deep foundations used in offshore engineering, caisson beakwaters, ballast and airport pavements and also to interpret monitoring data, obtained from both natural and artificial slopes and earth embankments, for the purposes of risk assessment and mitigation.

  8. Biological mechanisms underlying the role of physical fitness in health and resilience

    OpenAIRE

    Silverman, Marni N.; Deuster, Patricia A.

    2014-01-01

    Physical fitness, achieved through regular exercise and/or spontaneous physical activity, confers resilience by inducing positive psychological and physiological benefits, blunting stress reactivity, protecting against potentially adverse behavioural and metabolic consequences of stressful events and preventing many chronic diseases. In this review, we discuss the biological mechanisms underlying the beneficial effects of physical fitness on mental and physical health. Physical fitness appear...

  9. Rapid freezing of water under dynamic compression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myint, Philip C.; Belof, Jonathan L.

    2018-06-01

    Understanding the behavior of materials at extreme pressures is a central issue in fields like aerodynamics, astronomy, and geology, as well as for advancing technological grand challenges such as inertial confinement fusion. Dynamic compression experiments to probe high-pressure states often encounter rapid phase transitions that may cause the materials to behave in unexpected ways, and understanding the kinetics of these phase transitions remains an area of great interest. In this review, we examine experimental and theoretical/computational efforts to study the freezing kinetics of water to a high-pressure solid phase known as ice VII. We first present a detailed analysis of dynamic compression experiments in which water has been observed to freeze on sub-microsecond time scales to ice VII. This is followed by a discussion of the limitations of currently available molecular and continuum simulation methods in modeling these experiments. We then describe how our phase transition kinetics models, which are based on classical nucleation theory, provide a more physics-based framework that overcomes some of these limitations. Finally, we give suggestions on future experimental and modeling work on the liquid–ice VII transition, including an outline of the development of a predictive multiscale model in which molecular and continuum simulations are intimately coupled.

  10. Mechanisms of rapid sympatric speciation by sex reversal and sexual selection in cichlid fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lande, R; Seehausen, O; van Alphen, J J

    2001-01-01

    Mechanisms of speciation in cichlid fish were investigated by analyzing population genetic models of sexual selection on sex-determining genes associated with color polymorphisms. The models are based on a combination of laboratory experiments and field observations on the ecology, male and female mating behavior, and inheritance of sex-determination and color polymorphisms. The models explain why sex-reversal genes that change males into females tend to be X-linked and associated with novel colors, using the hypothesis of restricted recombination on the sex chromosomes, as suggested by previous theory on the evolution of recombination. The models reveal multiple pathways for rapid sympatric speciation through the origin of novel color morphs with strong assortative mating that incorporate both sex-reversal and suppressor genes. Despite the lack of geographic isolation or ecological differentiation, the new species coexists with the ancestral species either temporarily or indefinitely. These results may help to explain different patterns and rates of speciation among groups of cichlids, in particular the explosive diversification of rock-dwelling haplochromine cichlids.

  11. Possible Mechanisms Underlying the Therapeutic Effects of Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chervyakov, Alexander V.; Chernyavsky, Andrey Yu.; Sinitsyn, Dmitry O.; Piradov, Michael A.

    2015-01-01

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is an effective method used to diagnose and treat many neurological disorders. Although repetitive TMS (rTMS) has been used to treat a variety of serious pathological conditions including stroke, depression, Parkinson’s disease, epilepsy, pain, and migraines, the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying the effects of long-term TMS remain unclear. In the present review, the effects of rTMS on neurotransmitters and synaptic plasticity are described, including the classic interpretations of TMS effects on synaptic plasticity via long-term potentiation and long-term depression. We also discuss the effects of rTMS on the genetic apparatus of neurons, glial cells, and the prevention of neuronal death. The neurotrophic effects of rTMS on dendritic growth and sprouting and neurotrophic factors are described, including change in brain-derived neurotrophic factor concentration under the influence of rTMS. Also, non-classical effects of TMS related to biophysical effects of magnetic fields are described, including the quantum effects, the magnetic spin effects, genetic magnetoreception, the macromolecular effects of TMS, and the electromagnetic theory of consciousness. Finally, we discuss possible interpretations of TMS effects according to dynamical systems theory. Evidence suggests that a rTMS-induced magnetic field should be considered a separate physical factor that can be impactful at the subatomic level and that rTMS is capable of significantly altering the reactivity of molecules (radicals). It is thought that these factors underlie the therapeutic benefits of therapy with TMS. Future research on these mechanisms will be instrumental to the development of more powerful and reliable TMS treatment protocols. PMID:26136672

  12. Neuro-cognitive mechanisms underlying the emotional modulation of word reading

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    A novel neural model for emotional modulation of word reading is proposed. This model has four principal hypotheses: the dominant activation region hypothesis, the emotional modulation hypothesis, the attentional level hypothesis, and the interaction hypothesis. Four lines of research were reviewed to provide evidence for these hypotheses: (1) neuro-cognitive studies on the mechanisms of word reading (i.e., neural networks for reading); (2) studies on the influence of words' emotional valence on word reading; (3) studies of the effect of attention on word reading; and (4) studies on emotional modulation of word reading under different attentional levels.

  13. Review on CNC-Rapid Prototyping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    M Nafis O Z; Nafrizuan M Y; Munira M A; Kartina J

    2012-01-01

    This article reviewed developments of Computerized Numerical Control (CNC) technology in rapid prototyping process. Rapid prototyping (RP) can be classified into three major groups; subtractive, additive and virtual. CNC rapid prototyping is grouped under the subtractive category which involves material removal from the workpiece that is larger than the final part. Richard Wysk established the use of CNC machines for rapid prototyping using sets of 2½-D tool paths from various orientations about a rotary axis to machine parts without refixturing. Since then, there are few developments on this process mainly aimed to optimized the operation and increase the process capabilities to stand equal with common additive type of RP. These developments include the integration between machining and deposition process (hybrid RP), adoption of RP to the conventional machine and optimization of the CNC rapid prototyping process based on controlled parameters. The article ended by concluding that the CNC rapid prototyping research area has a vast space for improvement as in the conventional machining processes. Further developments and findings will enhance the usage of this method and minimize the limitation of current approach in building a prototype.

  14. Rapid resensitization of purinergic receptor function in human platelets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundell, S J; Barton, J F; Mayo-Martin, M B; Hardy, A R; Poole, A W

    2008-08-01

    Adenosine diphosphate (ADP) is a critical regulator of platelet activation, mediating its actions through two G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), the P2Y(1) and P2Y(12) purinergic receptors. Recently, we demonstrated that both receptors desensitize and internalize in human platelets by differential kinase-dependent mechanisms. To demonstrate whether responses to P2Y(1) and P2Y(12) purinergic receptors resensitize in human platelets and determine the role of receptor traffic in this process. These studies were undertaken either in human platelets or in cells stably expressing epitope-tagged P2Y(1) and P2Y(12) purinergic receptor constructs. In this study we show for the first time that responses to both of these receptors can rapidly resensitize following agonist-dependent desensitization in human platelets. Further, we show that in human platelets or in 1321N1 cells stably expressing receptor constructs, the disruption of receptor internalization, dephosphorylation or subsequent receptor recycling is sufficient to block resensitization of purinergic receptor responses. We also show that, in platelets, internalization of both these receptors is dependent upon dynamin, and that this process is required for resensitization of responses. This study is therefore the first to show that both P2Y(1) and P2Y(12) receptor activities are rapidly and reversibly modulated in human platelets, and it reveals that the underlying mechanism requires receptor trafficking as an essential part of this process.

  15. Rapid magnetic hardening by rapid thermal annealing in NdFeB-based nanocomposites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chu, K.-T.; Jin, Z Q; Chakka, Vamsi M; Liu, J P [Department of Physics, University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington, TX 76019 (United States)

    2005-11-21

    A systematic study of heat treatments and magnetic hardening of NdFeB-based melt-spun nanocomposite ribbons have been carried out. Comparison was made between samples treated by rapid thermal annealing and by conventional furnace annealing. Heating rates up to 200 K s{sup -1} were adopted in the rapid thermal processing. It was observed that magnetic hardening can be realized in an annealing time as short as 1 s. Coercivity of 10.2 kOe in the nanocomposites has been obtained by rapid thermal annealing for 1 s, and prolonged annealing did not give any increase in coercivity. Detailed results on the effects of annealing time, temperature and heating rate have been obtained. The dependence of magnetic properties on the annealing parameters has been investigated. Structural characterization revealed that there is a close correlation between magnetic hardening and nanostructured morphology. The coercivity mechanism was also studied by analysing the magnetization minor loops.

  16. Investigation of deterioration mechanism of electrical ceramic insulating materials under high temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizutani, Yoshinobu; Ito, Tetsuo; Okamoto, Tatsuki; Kumazawa, Ryoji; Aizawa, Rie; Moriyama, Hideshige

    2000-01-01

    It is thought that ceramic insulator can be applied to electric power equipments that are under high temperature not to be able use organic materials. Our research has suggested components of mica-alumina combined insulation. As the results of and carried out temperature accelerating test, combined insulation life is expected long term over 40 years at over 500-Celsius degrees. However to construct high reliable insulating system, it is clarified deterioration mechanism on combined insulation and evaluates life of that. Therefore we carried out metal behavior test and voltage aging test using mica-sheet and alumina-cloth that are components of combined insulation under high temperature in nitrogen gas atmosphere. It is cleared two metal behavior mechanisms: One is that the opening of insulator are filled up with copper that is oxidized, the other is the metal diffuses in alumina-cloth through surface. And distance of metal behavior is able to be estimated at modulate temperature and in modulate time. It is also cleared that alumina-cloth is deteriorated by metal behavior into alumina-cloth. These results indicate that combined insulation is deteriorated from electrode side by metal behavior and is finally broken down through alumina-cloth. (author)

  17. Mechanical behavior of glass/epoxy composite laminate with varying amount of MWCNTs under different loadings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, K. K.; Rawat, Prashant

    2018-05-01

    This paper investigates the mechanical response of three phased (glass/MWCNTs/epoxy) composite laminate under three different loadings. Flexural strength, short beam strength and low-velocity impact (LVI) testing are performed to find an optimum doping percentage value for maximum enhancement in mechanical properties. In this work, MWCNTs were used as secondary reinforcement for three-phased composite plate. MWCNT doping was done in a range of 0–4 wt% of the thermosetting matrix system. Symmetrical design eight layered glass/epoxy laminate with zero bending extension coupling laminate was fabricated using a hybrid method i.e. hand lay-up technique followed by vacuum bagging method. Ranging analysis of MWCNT mixing highlighted the enhancement in flexural, short beam strength and improvement in damage tolerance under LVI loading. While at higher doping wt%, agglomeration of MWCNTs are observed. Results of mechanical testing proposed an optimized doping value for maximum strength and damage resistance of the laminate.

  18. Mechanical characteristics under monotonic and cyclic simple shear of spark plasma sintered ultrafine-grained nickel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dirras, G.; Bouvier, S.; Gubicza, J.; Hasni, B.; Szilagyi, T.

    2009-01-01

    The present work focuses on understanding the mechanical behavior of bulk ultrafine-grained nickel specimens processed by spark plasma sintering of high purity nickel nanopowder and subsequently deformed under large amplitude monotonic simple shear tests and strain-controlled cyclic simple shear tests at room temperature. During cyclic tests, the samples were deformed up to an accumulated von Mises strain of about ε VM = 0.75 (the flow stress was in the 650-700 MPa range), which is extremely high in comparison with the low tensile/compression ductility of this class of materials at quasi-static conditions. The underlying physical mechanisms were investigated by electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction profile analysis. Lattice dislocation-based plasticity leading to cell formation and dislocation interactions with twin boundaries contributed to the work-hardening of these materials. The large amount of plastic strain that has been reached during the shear tests highlights intrinsic mechanical characteristics of the ultrafine-grained nickel studied here.

  19. Mechanical characteristics under monotonic and cyclic simple shear of spark plasma sintered ultrafine-grained nickel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dirras, G., E-mail: dirras@univ-paris13.fr [LPMTM - CNRS, Institut Galilee, Universite Paris 13, 99 Avenue J.B. Clement, 93430 Villetaneuse (France); Bouvier, S. [LPMTM - CNRS, Institut Galilee, Universite Paris 13, 99 Avenue J.B. Clement, 93430 Villetaneuse (France); Gubicza, J. [Department of Materials Physics, Eoetvoes Lorand University, P.O.B. 32, Budapest H-1518 (Hungary); Hasni, B. [LPMTM - CNRS, Institut Galilee, Universite Paris 13, 99 Avenue J.B. Clement, 93430 Villetaneuse (France); Szilagyi, T. [Department of Materials Physics, Eoetvoes Lorand University, P.O.B. 32, Budapest H-1518 (Hungary)

    2009-11-25

    The present work focuses on understanding the mechanical behavior of bulk ultrafine-grained nickel specimens processed by spark plasma sintering of high purity nickel nanopowder and subsequently deformed under large amplitude monotonic simple shear tests and strain-controlled cyclic simple shear tests at room temperature. During cyclic tests, the samples were deformed up to an accumulated von Mises strain of about {epsilon}{sub VM} = 0.75 (the flow stress was in the 650-700 MPa range), which is extremely high in comparison with the low tensile/compression ductility of this class of materials at quasi-static conditions. The underlying physical mechanisms were investigated by electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction profile analysis. Lattice dislocation-based plasticity leading to cell formation and dislocation interactions with twin boundaries contributed to the work-hardening of these materials. The large amount of plastic strain that has been reached during the shear tests highlights intrinsic mechanical characteristics of the ultrafine-grained nickel studied here.

  20. Intercomparison of chemical mechanisms for air quality policy formulation and assessment under North American conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derwent, Richard

    2017-07-01

    The intercomparison of seven chemical mechanisms for their suitability for air quality policy formulation and assessment is described. Box modeling techniques were employed using 44 sets of background environmental conditions covering North America to constrain the chemical development of the longer lived species. The selected mechanisms were modified to enable an unbiased assessment of the adequacy of the parameterizations of photochemical ozone production from volatile organic compound (VOC) oxidation in the presence of NO x . Photochemical ozone production rates responded differently to 30% NO x and VOC reductions with the different mechanisms, despite the striking similarities between the base-case ozone production rates. The 30% reductions in NO x and VOCs also produced changes in OH. The responses in OH to 30% reductions in NO x and VOCs appeared to be more sensitive to mechanism choice, compared with the responses in the photochemical ozone production rates. Although 30% NO x reductions generally led to decreases in OH, 30% reductions in VOCs led to increases in OH, irrespective of mechanism choice and background environmental conditions. The different mechanisms therefore gave different OH responses to NO x and VOC reductions and so would give different responses in terms of changes in the fate and behavior of air toxics, acidification and eutrophication, and fine particle formation compared with others, in response to ozone control strategies. Policymakers need to understand that there are likely to be inherent differences in the responses to ozone control strategies between different mechanisms, depending on background environmental conditions and the extents of NO x and VOC reductions under consideration. The purpose of this paper is to compare predicted ozone responses to NO x and VOC reductions with seven chemical mechanisms under North American conditions. The good agreement found between the tested mechanisms should provide some support for their

  1. Influence of Rapid Freeze-Thaw Cycling on the Mechanical Properties of Sustainable Strain-Hardening Cement Composite (2SHCC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seok-Joon Jang

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides experimental results to investigate the mechanical properties of sustainable strain-hardening cement composite (2SHCC for infrastructures after freeze-thaw actions. To improve the sustainability of SHCC materials in this study, high energy-consumptive components—silica sand, cement, and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA fibers—in the conventional SHCC materials are partially replaced with recycled materials such as recycled sand, fly ash, and polyethylene terephthalate (PET fibers, respectively. To investigate the mechanical properties of green SHCC that contains recycled materials, the cement, PVA fiber and silica sand were replaced with 10% fly ash, 25% PET fiber, and 10% recycled aggregate based on preliminary experimental results for the development of 2SHCC material, respectively. The dynamic modulus of elasticity and weight for 2SHCC material were measured at every 30 cycles of freeze-thaw. The effects of freeze-thaw cycles on the mechanical properties of sustainable SHCC are evaluated by conducting compressive tests, four-point flexural tests, direct tensile tests and prism splitting tests after 90, 180, and 300 cycles of rapid freeze-thaw. Freeze-thaw testing was conducted according to ASTM C 666 Procedure A. Test results show that after 300 cycles of freezing and thawing actions, the dynamic modulus of elasticity and mass loss of damaged 2SHCC were similar to those of virgin 2SHCC, while the freeze-thaw cycles influence mechanical properties of the 2SHCC material except for compressive behavior.

  2. Experimental Investigation on Shock Mechanical Properties of Red Sandstone under Preloaded 3D Static Stresses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niu Yong

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Triaxial impact mechanical performance experiment was performed to study the mechanical properties of red sandstone subjected to three-dimensional (3D coupled static and dynamic loads, i.e., three confining pressures (0, 5, and 10 MPa and three axial pressures (11, 27, and 43 MPa. A modified 3D split Hopkinson pressure bar testing system was used. The change trend in the deformation of red sandstone and the strength and failure modes under axial pressures and confining pressures were analyzed. Results show that, when the confining pressure is constant, the compressive strength, secant modulus, and energy absorbed per unit volume of red sandstone initially increases and subsequently decreases, whereas the average strain rate exhibits an opposite trend. When the axial pressure is constant, both the compressive strength and secant modulus of red sandstone are enhanced, but the average strain rate is decreased with increasing confining pressure. The energy absorbed per unit volume is initially increased and subsequently decreased as the confining pressure increases. Red sandstone exhibits a cone-shaped compression–shear failure mode under the 3D coupled static and dynamic loads. The conclusions serve as theoretical basis on the mechanical properties of deep medium-strength rock under a high ground stress and external load disturbance condition

  3. Interactivity effects in social media marketing on brand engagement: an investigation of underlying mechanisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Antheunis, M.L.; van Noort, G.; Eisend, M.; Langner, T.

    2011-01-01

    Although, SNS advertising spending increases, research on SNS campaigning is still underexposed. First, this study aims to investigate the effect of SNS campaign interactivity on the receivers brand engagement, taking four underlying mechanisms into account (brand identification, campaign

  4. Hardening and softening mechanisms of pearlitic steel wire under torsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Tian-Zhang; Zhang, Shi-Hong; Zhang, Guang-Liang; Song, Hong-Wu; Cheng, Ming

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Mechanical behavior of pearlitic steel wire is studied using torsion. • Work hardening results from refinement lamellar pearlitic structure. • Softening results from recovery, shear bands and lamellar fragmentations. • A microstructure based analytical flow stress model is established. - Abstract: The mechanical behaviors and microstructure evolution of pearlitic steel wires under monotonic shear deformation have been investigated by a torsion test and a number of electron microscopy techniques including scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), with an aim to reveal the softening and hardening mechanisms of a randomly oriented pearlitic structure during a monotonic stain path. Significantly different from the remarkable strain hardening in cold wire drawing, the strain hardening rate during torsion drops to zero quickly after a short hardening stage. The microstructure observations indicate that the inter-lamellar spacing (ILS) decreases and the dislocations accumulate with strain, which leads to hardening of the material. Meanwhile, when the strain is larger than 0.154, the enhancement of dynamic recovery, shear bands (SBs) and cementite fragmentations results in the softening and balances the strain hardening. A microstructure based analytical flow stress model with considering the influence of ILS on the mean free path of dislocations and the softening caused by SBs and cementite fragmentations, has been established and the predicted flow shear curve meets well with the measured curve in the torsion test

  5. Ultrastructural changes of cell walls under intense mechanical treatment of selective plant raw material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bychkov, Aleksey L.; Ryabchikova, E.I.; Korolev, K.G.; Lomovsky, O.I.

    2012-01-01

    Structural changes of cell walls under intense mechanical treatment of corn straw and oil-palm fibers were studied by electron and light microscopy. Differences in the character of destruction of plant biomass were revealed, and the dependence of destruction mechanisms on the structure of cell walls and lignin content was demonstrated. We suggest that the high reactivity of the particles of corn straw (about 18% of lignin) after intense mechanical treatment is related to disordering of cell walls and an increase of the surface area, while in the case of oil palm (10% of lignin) the major contribution into an increase in the reactivity is made by an increase of surface area. -- Highlights: ► Structure of cell walls determines the processes of plant materials' destruction. ► Ultrastructure of highly lignified materials strongly disordering by mechanical action. ► Ultrastructure of low-lignified materials is not disordering by mechanical action.

  6. Molecular mechanisms underlying formation of long-term reward memories and extinction memories in the honeybee (Apis mellifera)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    The honeybee (Apis mellifera) has long served as an invertebrate model organism for reward learning and memory research. Its capacity for learning and memory formation is rooted in the ecological need to efficiently collect nectar and pollen during summer to ensure survival of the hive during winter. Foraging bees learn to associate a flower's characteristic features with a reward in a way that resembles olfactory appetitive classical conditioning, a learning paradigm that is used to study mechanisms underlying learning and memory formation in the honeybee. Due to a plethora of studies on appetitive classical conditioning and phenomena related to it, the honeybee is one of the best characterized invertebrate model organisms from a learning psychological point of view. Moreover, classical conditioning and associated behavioral phenomena are surprisingly similar in honeybees and vertebrates, suggesting a convergence of underlying neuronal processes, including the molecular mechanisms that contribute to them. Here I review current thinking on the molecular mechanisms underlying long-term memory (LTM) formation in honeybees following classical conditioning and extinction, demonstrating that an in-depth analysis of the molecular mechanisms of classical conditioning in honeybees might add to our understanding of associative learning in honeybees and vertebrates. PMID:25225299

  7. Flow method for rapid production of Batio3 nanoparticles in supercritical water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atashfaraz, M.; Shariati-Niassar, M.; Ohara, Satoshi; Takami, S.; Umetsu, M.; Naka, T.; Adschiri, T.

    2006-01-01

    Fine BaTiO 3 nanoparticles were obtained by hydrothermal synthesis under supercritical conditions with batch and flow type experimental methods. Mixture of barium hydroxide and titanium oxide starting solution was treated in the supercritical wafer at 400 d eg C and 30 MPa. The size of nanoparticles synthesized in the flow type experiment was smaller than that in the batch type. Rapid heating in a flow, reactor is effective to synthesize smaller size and narrower particle size distribution for the BaTiO 3 , nanoparticles. The mechanism for this result was discussed based on the solubility of titanium oxide

  8. The Effect of a Rapid Heating Rate, Mechanical Vibration and Surfactant Chemistry on the Structure–Property Relationships of Epoxy/Clay Nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Magniez

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The role of processing conditions and intercalant chemistry in montmorillonite clays on the dispersion, morphology and mechanical properties of two epoxy/clay nanocomposite systems was investigated in this paper. This work highlights the importance of employing complementary techniques (X-ray diffraction, small angle X-ray scattering, optical microscopy and transmission electron microscopy to correlate nanomorphology to macroscale properties. Materials were prepared using an out of autoclave manufacturing process equipped to generate rapid heating rates and mechanical vibration. The results suggested that the quaternary ammonium surfactant on C30B clay reacted with the epoxy during cure, while the primary ammonium surfactant (I.30E catalysed the polymerisation reaction. These effects led to important differences in nanocomposite clay morphologies. The use of mechanical vibration at 4 Hz prior to matrix gelation was found to facilitate clay dispersion and to reduce the area fraction of I.30E clay agglomerates in addition to increasing flexural strength by over 40%.

  9. The Effect of a Rapid Heating Rate, Mechanical Vibration and Surfactant Chemistry on the Structure–Property Relationships of Epoxy/Clay Nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuhiji, Betime; Attard, Darren; Thorogood, Gordon; Hanley, Tracey; Magniez, Kevin; Bungur, Jenny; Fox, Bronwyn

    2013-01-01

    The role of processing conditions and intercalant chemistry in montmorillonite clays on the dispersion, morphology and mechanical properties of two epoxy/clay nanocomposite systems was investigated in this paper. This work highlights the importance of employing complementary techniques (X-ray diffraction, small angle X-ray scattering, optical microscopy and transmission electron microscopy) to correlate nanomorphology to macroscale properties. Materials were prepared using an out of autoclave manufacturing process equipped to generate rapid heating rates and mechanical vibration. The results suggested that the quaternary ammonium surfactant on C30B clay reacted with the epoxy during cure, while the primary ammonium surfactant (I.30E) catalysed the polymerisation reaction. These effects led to important differences in nanocomposite clay morphologies. The use of mechanical vibration at 4 Hz prior to matrix gelation was found to facilitate clay dispersion and to reduce the area fraction of I.30E clay agglomerates in addition to increasing flexural strength by over 40%. PMID:28811457

  10. The Memory Trace Supporting Lose-Shift Responding Decays Rapidly after Reward Omission and Is Distinct from Other Learning Mechanisms in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, Aaron J; Thapa, Rajat

    2016-01-01

    The propensity of animals to shift choices immediately after unexpectedly poor reinforcement outcomes is a pervasive strategy across species and tasks. We report here that the memory supporting such lose-shift responding in rats rapidly decays during the intertrial interval and persists throughout training and testing on a binary choice task, despite being a suboptimal strategy. Lose-shift responding is not positively correlated with the prevalence and temporal dependence of win-stay responding, and it is inconsistent with predictions of reinforcement learning on the task. These data provide further evidence that win-stay and lose-shift are mediated by dissociated neural mechanisms and indicate that lose-shift responding presents a potential confound for the study of choice in the many operant choice tasks with short intertrial intervals. We propose that this immediate lose-shift responding is an intrinsic feature of the brain's choice mechanisms that is engaged as a choice reflex and works in parallel with reinforcement learning and other control mechanisms to guide action selection.

  11. Using Drosophila to discover mechanisms underlying type 2 diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald W. Alfa

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Mechanisms of glucose homeostasis are remarkably well conserved between the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster and mammals. From the initial characterization of insulin signaling in the fly came the identification of downstream metabolic pathways for nutrient storage and utilization. Defects in these pathways lead to phenotypes that are analogous to diabetic states in mammals. These discoveries have stimulated interest in leveraging the fly to better understand the genetics of type 2 diabetes mellitus in humans. Type 2 diabetes results from insulin insufficiency in the context of ongoing insulin resistance. Although genetic susceptibility is thought to govern the propensity of individuals to develop type 2 diabetes mellitus under appropriate environmental conditions, many of the human genes associated with the disease in genome-wide association studies have not been functionally studied. Recent advances in the phenotyping of metabolic defects have positioned Drosophila as an excellent model for the functional characterization of large numbers of genes associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Here, we examine results from studies modeling metabolic disease in the fruit fly and compare findings to proposed mechanisms for diabetic phenotypes in mammals. We provide a systematic framework for assessing the contribution of gene candidates to insulin-secretion or insulin-resistance pathways relevant to diabetes pathogenesis.

  12. The underlying mechanism of action for various medicinal properties of Piper betle (betel).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haslan, H; Suhaimi, F H; Thent, Zar Chi; Das, S

    2015-01-01

    Piper betle (betel) plant belongs to the Piperaceae family. Piper. betle is widely known for its potent medicinal properties. Various active compounds are present in Piper. betle such as allylpyrocatechol, hydroxychavicol, piperbetol, ethylpiperbetol, piperol A, piperol B, chavibetol, and alkaloids which account for these beneficial medicinal properties. In the present narrative review, we looked into the various active compounds present in the Piper betle and attempted to understand their underlying mechanism of action. Proper understanding of the molecular biology involving the mechanism of action may help in better drug formulation and provide better therapeutic actions in the field of alternative and complementary medicine.

  13. Mechanical Modeling of a WIPP Drum Under Pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Jeffrey A. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2014-11-25

    Mechanical modeling was undertaken to support the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) technical assessment team (TAT) investigating the February 14th 2014 event where there was a radiological release at the WIPP. The initial goal of the modeling was to examine if a mechanical model could inform the team about the event. The intention was to have a model that could test scenarios with respect to the rate of pressurization. It was expected that the deformation and failure (inability of the drum to contain any pressure) would vary according to the pressurization rate. As the work progressed there was also interest in using the mechanical analysis of the drum to investigate what would happen if a drum pressurized when it was located under a standard waste package. Specifically, would the deformation be detectable from camera views within the room. A finite element model of a WIPP 55-gallon drum was developed that used all hex elements. Analyses were conducted using the explicit transient dynamics module of Sierra/SM to explore potential pressurization scenarios of the drum. Theses analysis show similar deformation patterns to documented pressurization tests of drums in the literature. The calculated failure pressures from previous tests documented in the literature vary from as little as 16 psi to 320 psi. In addition, previous testing documented in the literature shows drums bulging but not failing at pressures ranging from 69 to 138 psi. The analyses performed for this study found the drums failing at pressures ranging from 35 psi to 75 psi. When the drums are pressurized quickly (in 0.01 seconds) there is significant deformation to the lid. At lower pressurization rates the deformation of the lid is considerably less, yet the lids will still open from the pressure. The analyses demonstrate the influence of pressurization rate on deformation and opening pressure of the drums. Analyses conducted with a substantial mass on top of the closed drum demonstrate that the

  14. Microstructural and mechanical properties analysis of extruded Sn–0.7Cu solder alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdoul-Aziz Bogno

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The properties and performance of lead-free solder alloys such as fluidity and wettability are defined by the alloy composition and solidification microstructure. Rapid solidification of metallic alloys is known to result in refined microstructures with reduced microsegregation and improved mechanical properties of the final products as compared to normal castings. The rapidly solidified Sn-based solders by melt spinning were shown to be suitable for soldering with low temperature and short soldering duration. In the present study, rapidly solidified Sn–0.7 wt.%Cu droplets generated by impulse atomization (IA were achieved as well as directional solidification under transient conditions at lower cooling rate. This paper reports on a comparative study of the rapidly solidified and the directionally solidified samples. Different but complementary characterization techniques were used to fully analyze the solidification microstructures of the samples obtained under the two cooling regimes. These include X-ray diffractometry (XRD and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. In order to compare the tensile strength and elongation to fracture of the directionally solidified ingot and strip castings with the atomized droplet, compaction and extrusion of the latter were carried out. It was shown that more balanced and superior tensile mechanical properties are available for the hot extruded samples from compacted as-atomized Sn–0.7 wt.%Cu droplets. Further, elongation-to-fracture was 2–3× higher than that obtained for the directionally solidified samples.

  15. The thermal dependency of locomotor performance evolves rapidly within an invasive species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosmala, Georgia K; Brown, Gregory P; Christian, Keith A; Hudson, Cameron M; Shine, Richard

    2018-05-01

    Biological invasions can stimulate rapid shifts in organismal performance, via both plasticity and adaptation. We can distinguish between these two proximate mechanisms by rearing offspring from populations under identical conditions and measuring their locomotor abilities in standardized trials. We collected adult cane toads ( Rhinella marina ) from invasive populations that inhabit regions of Australia with different climatic conditions. We bred those toads and raised their offspring under common-garden conditions before testing their locomotor performance. At high (but not low) temperatures, offspring of individuals from a hotter location (northwestern Australia) outperformed offspring of conspecifics from a cooler location (northeastern Australia). This disparity indicates that, within less than 100 years, thermal performance in cane toads has adapted to the novel abiotic challenges that cane toads have encountered during their invasion of tropical Australia.

  16. Disrupted rapid eye movement sleep predicts poor declarative memory performance in post-traumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipinska, Malgorzata; Timol, Ridwana; Kaminer, Debra; Thomas, Kevin G F

    2014-06-01

    Successful memory consolidation during sleep depends on healthy slow-wave and rapid eye movement sleep, and on successful transition across sleep stages. In post-traumatic stress disorder, sleep is disrupted and memory is impaired, but relations between these two variables in the psychiatric condition remain unexplored. We examined whether disrupted sleep, and consequent disrupted memory consolidation, is a mechanism underlying declarative memory deficits in post-traumatic stress disorder. We recruited three matched groups of participants: post-traumatic stress disorder (n = 16); trauma-exposed non-post-traumatic stress disorder (n = 15); and healthy control (n = 14). They completed memory tasks before and after 8 h of sleep. We measured sleep variables using sleep-adapted electroencephalography. Post-traumatic stress disorder-diagnosed participants experienced significantly less sleep efficiency and rapid eye movement sleep percentage, and experienced more awakenings and wake percentage in the second half of the night than did participants in the other two groups. After sleep, post-traumatic stress disorder-diagnosed participants retained significantly less information on a declarative memory task than controls. Rapid eye movement percentage, wake percentage and sleep efficiency correlated with retention of information over the night. Furthermore, lower rapid eye movement percentage predicted poorer retention in post-traumatic stress disorder-diagnosed individuals. Our results suggest that declarative memory consolidation is disrupted during sleep in post-traumatic stress disorder. These data are consistent with theories suggesting that sleep benefits memory consolidation via predictable neurobiological mechanisms, and that rapid eye movement disruption is more than a symptom of post-traumatic stress disorder. © 2014 European Sleep Research Society.

  17. Peripheral afferent mechanisms underlying acupuncture inhibition of cocaine behavioral effects in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seol Ah Kim

    Full Text Available Administration of cocaine increases locomotor activity by enhancing dopamine transmission. To explore the peripheral mechanisms underlying acupuncture treatment for drug addiction, we developed a novel mechanical acupuncture instrument (MAI for objective mechanical stimulation. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether acupuncture inhibition of cocaine-induced locomotor activity is mediated through specific peripheral nerves, the afferents from superficial or deep tissues, or specific groups of nerve fibers. Mechanical stimulation of acupuncture point HT7 with MAI suppressed cocaine-induced locomotor activity in a stimulus time-dependent manner, which was blocked by severing the ulnar nerve or by local anesthesia. Suppression of cocaine-induced locomotor activity was elicited after HT7 stimulation at frequencies of either 50 (for Meissner corpuscles or 200 (for Pacinian corpuscles Hz and was not affected by block of C/Aδ-fibers in the ulnar nerve with resiniferatoxin, nor generated by direct stimulation of C/Aδ-fiber afferents with capsaicin. These findings suggest that HT7 inhibition of cocaine-induced locomotor activity is mediated by A-fiber activation of ulnar nerve that originates in superficial and deep tissue.

  18. Mechanical characterisation of porcine rectus sheath under uniaxial and biaxial tension.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Lyons, Mathew

    2014-06-03

    Incisional hernia development is a significant complication after laparoscopic abdominal surgery. Intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) is known to initiate the extrusion of intestines through the abdominal wall, but there is limited data on the mechanics of IAP generation and the structural properties of rectus sheath. This paper presents an explanation of the mechanics of IAP development, a study of the uniaxial and biaxial tensile properties of porcine rectus sheath, and a simple computational investigation of the tissue. Analysis using Laplace׳s law showed a circumferential stress in the abdominal wall of approx. 1.1MPa due to an IAP of 11kPa, commonly seen during coughing. Uniaxial and biaxial tensile tests were conducted on samples of porcine rectus sheath to characterise the stress-stretch responses of the tissue. Under uniaxial tension, fibre direction samples failed on average at a stress of 4.5MPa at a stretch of 1.07 while cross-fibre samples failed at a stress of 1.6MPa under a stretch of 1.29. Under equi-biaxial tension, failure occurred at 1.6MPa with the fibre direction stretching to only 1.02 while the cross-fibre direction stretched to 1.13. Uniaxial and biaxial stress-stretch plots are presented allowing detailed modelling of the tissue either in silico or in a surrogate material. An FeBio computational model of the tissue is presented using a combination of an Ogden and an exponential power law model to represent the matrix and fibres respectively. The structural properties of porcine rectus sheath have been characterised and add to the small set of human data in the literature with which it may be possible to develop methods to reduce the incidence of incisional hernia development.

  19. Fracture Mechanisms of Zirconium Diboride Ultra-High Temperature Ceramics under Pulse Loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skripnyak, Vladimir V.; Bragov, Anatolii M.; Skripnyak, Vladimir A.; Lomunov, Andrei K.; Skripnyak, Evgeniya G.; Vaganova, Irina K.

    2015-06-01

    Mechanisms of failure in ultra-high temperature ceramics (UHTC) based on zirconium diboride under pulse loading were studied experimentally by the method of SHPB and theoretically using the multiscale simulation method. The obtained experimental and numerical data are evidence of the quasi-brittle fracture character of nanostructured zirconium diboride ceramics under compression and tension at high strain rates and the room temperatures. Damage of nanostructured porous zirconium diboride -based UHTC can be formed under stress pulse amplitude below the Hugoniot elastic limit. Fracture of nanostructured ultra-high temperature ceramics under pulse and shock-wave loadings is provided by fast processes of intercrystalline brittle fracture and relatively slow processes of quasi-brittle failure via growth and coalescence of microcracks. A decrease of the shear strength can be caused by nano-voids clusters in vicinity of triple junctions between ceramic matrix grains and ultrafine-grained ceramics. This research was supported by grants from ``The Tomsk State University Academic D.I. Mendeleev Fund Program'' and also N. I. Lobachevski State University of Nizhny Novgorod (Grant of post graduate mobility).

  20. Parametric study of control mechanism of cortical bone remodeling under mechanical stimulus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yanan; Qin, Qing-Hua

    2010-03-01

    The control mechanism of mechanical bone remodeling at cellular level was investigated by means of an extensive parametric study on a theoretical model described in this paper. From a perspective of control mechanism, it was found that there are several control mechanisms working simultaneously in bone remodeling which is a complex process. Typically, an extensive parametric study was carried out for investigating model parameter space related to cell differentiation and apoptosis which can describe the fundamental cell lineage behaviors. After analyzing all the combinations of 728 permutations in six model parameters, we have identified a small number of parameter combinations that can lead to physiologically realistic responses which are similar to theoretically idealized physiological responses. The results presented in the work enhanced our understanding on mechanical bone remodeling and the identified control mechanisms can help researchers to develop combined pharmacological-mechanical therapies to treat bone loss diseases such as osteoporosis.

  1. Elucidating the molecular mechanisms underlying cellular response to biophysical cues using synthetic biology approaches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Denning, Denise; Roos, Wouter H

    2016-01-01

    The use of synthetic surfaces and materials to influence and study cell behavior has vastly progressed our understanding of the underlying molecular mechanisms involved in cellular response to physicochemical and biophysical cues. Reconstituting cytoskeletal proteins and interfacing them with a

  2. First-principles predictions of structural, mechanical and electronic properties of βTiNb under high pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Z. P.; Fang, Q. H.; Li, J.; Liu, B.

    2018-04-01

    Structural, mechanical and electronic properties of βTiNb alloy under high pressure have been investigated based on the density functional theory (DFT). The dependences of dimensionless volume ratio, elastic constants, bulk modulus, Young's modulus, shear modulus, ductile/brittle, anisotropy and Poisson's ratio on applied pressure are all calculated successfully. The results reveal that βTiNb alloy is mechanically stable under pressure below 23.45 GPa, and the pressure-induced phase transformation could occur beyond this critical value. Meanwhile, the applied pressure can effectively promote the mechanical properties of βTiNb alloy, including the resistances to volume change, elastic deformation and shear deformation, as well as the material ductility and metallicity. Furthermore, the calculated electronic structures testify that βTiNb alloy performs the metallicity and the higher pressure reduces the structural stability of unit cell.

  3. Underlying mechanisms and the evolving influence of diet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lesli Hingstrup

    2012-01-01

    Obesity is determined by both genetic and environmental factors. Since 2007, 52 genes have been associated with obesity and obesity-related measurements in genome-wide association studies (GWAS), among these the fat and obesity-associated gene (FTO). Despite the success in identifying genes predi...... and the microbiome that can be modified by diet, and by genotype, adding to the complexity of determining the contributors to obesity....... has been shown to attenuate the effect of FTO on obesity. Several studies have examined gene-diet interactions in relation to obesity, but only a few suggestive interactions have been identified. This is most probably due to small effect sizes of the interactions and thereby a demand for large samples...... to increased risk of developing obesity. Recently, the intestinal microbiome, the collected genome of the bacteria, also has been associated with obesity and with specific dietary profiles. The underlying mechanisms determining the susceptibility to obesity do not only include the genome but also the epigenome...

  4. Optimal Contract Design for Cooperative Relay Incentive Mechanism under Moral Hazard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nan Zhao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cooperative relay can effectively improve spectrum efficiency by exploiting the spatial diversity in the wireless networks. However, wireless nodes may acquire different network information with various users’ location and mobility, channels’ conditions, and other factors, which results in asymmetric information between the source and the relay nodes (RNs. In this paper, the relay incentive mechanism between relay nodes and the source is investigated under the asymmetric information. By modelling multiuser cooperative relay as a labour market, a contract model with moral hazard for relay incentive is proposed. To effectively incentivize the potential RNs to participate in cooperative relay, the optimization problems are formulated to maximize the source’s utility while meeting the feasible conditions under both symmetric and asymmetric information scenarios. Numerical simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed contract design scheme for cooperative relay.

  5. An investigation of the mechanical behavior of initially curved microplates under electrostatic actuation

    KAUST Repository

    Saghir, Shahid

    2018-03-28

    In this article, we investigate the mechanical behavior of initially curved microplates under electrostatic actuation. Microplates are essential components of many Micro-Electro-Mechanical System devices; however, they commonly undergo an initial curvature imperfection, due to the microfabrication process. Initial curvature imperfection significantly affects the mechanical behavior of microplates. In this work, we derive a dynamic analogue of the von Kármán governing equation for such plates. These equations are then used to develop a reduced order model based on the Galerkin procedure to simulate the static and dynamic behavior of the microplate. Two profiles of initial curvature commonly encountered in microfabricated structures are considered, where one assumes a variation in shape along one dimension of the plate only (cylindrical bending shape) while the other assumes a variation in shape along both dimensions of the plate. Their effects on both the static and dynamic responses of the microplates are examined and compared. We validate the reduced order model by comparing the calculated static behavior and the fundamental natural frequency with those computed by a finite element model over a range of the initial plate rise. The static behavior of the microplate is investigated when varying the DC voltage. Then, the dynamic behavior of the microplate is examined under the application of a harmonic AC voltage superimposed to a DC voltage.

  6. A rapid compensation method for launch data of long-range rockets under influence of the Earth's disturbing gravity field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baolin MA

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Regarding the rapid compensation of the influence of the Earth’ s disturbing gravity field upon trajectory calculation, the key point lies in how to derive the analytical solutions to the partial derivatives of the state of burnout point with respect to the launch data. In view of this, this paper mainly expounds on two issues: one is based on the approximate analytical solution to the motion equation for the vacuum flight section of a long-range rocket, deriving the analytical solutions to the partial derivatives of the state of burnout point with respect to the changing rate of the final-stage pitch program; the other is based on the initial positioning and orientation error propagation mechanism, proposing the analytical calculation formula for the partial derivatives of the state of burnout point with respect to the launch azimuth. The calculation results of correction data are simulated and verified under different circumstances. The simulation results are as follows: (1 the accuracy of approximation between the analytical solutions and the results attained via the difference method is higher than 90%, and the ratio of calculation time between them is lower than 0.2%, thus demonstrating the accuracy of calculation of data corrections and advantages in calculation speed; (2 after the analytical solutions are compensated, the longitudinal landing deviation of the rocket is less than 20 m and the lateral landing deviation of the rocket is less than 10 m, demonstrating that the corrected data can meet the requirements for the hit accuracy of a long-range rocket.

  7. Epigenetic mechanisms in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbarian, Schahram

    2014-09-01

    Schizophrenia is a major psychiatric disorder that lacks a unifying neuropathology, while currently available pharmacological treatments provide only limited benefits to many patients. This review will discuss how the field of neuroepigenetics could contribute to advancements of the existing knowledge on the neurobiology and treatment of psychosis. Genome-scale mapping of DMA methylation, histone modifications and variants, and chromosomal loopings for promoter-enhancer interactions and other epigenetic determinants of genome organization and function are likely to provide important clues about mechanisms contributing to dysregulated expression of synaptic and metabolic genes in schizophrenia brain, including the potential links to the underlying genetic risk architecture and environmental exposures. In addition, studies in animal models are providing a rapidly increasing list of chromatin-regulatory mechanisms with significant effects on cognition and complex behaviors, thereby pointing to the therapeutic potential of epigenetic drug targets in the nervous system.

  8. POSSIBLE MECHANISMS UNDERLYING THE THERAPEUTIC EFFECTS OF TRANSCRANIAL MAGNETIC STIMULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander eChervyakov

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS is an effective method used to diagnose and treat many neurological disorders. Although repetitive TMS (rTMS has been used to treat a variety of serious pathological conditions including stroke, depression, Parkinson's disease, epilepsy, pain, and migraines, the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying the effects of long-term TMS remain unclear. In the present review, the effects of rTMS on neurotransmitters and synaptic plasticity are described, including the classic interpretations of TMS effects on synaptic plasticity via long-term potentiation (LTP and long-term depression (LTD. We also discuss the effects of rTMS on the genetic apparatus of neurons, glial cells and the prevention of neuronal death. The neurotrophic effects of rTMS on dendritic growth and sprouting and neurotrophic factors are described, including change in brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF concentration under the influence of rTMS. Also, non-classical effects of TMS related to biophysical effects of magnetic fields are described, including the quantum effects, the magnetic spin effects, genetic magnetoreception, the macromolecular effects of TMS, and the electromagnetic theory of consciousness. Finally, we discuss possible interpretations of TMS effects according to dynamical systems theory. Evidence suggests that a rTMS-induced magnetic field should be considered a separate physical factor that can be impactful at the subatomic level and that rTMS is capable of significantly altering the reactivity of molecules (radicals. It is thought that these factors underlie the therapeutic benefits of therapy with TMS. Future research on these mechanisms will be instrumental to the development of more powerful and reliable TMS treatment protocols.

  9. Evaluating Public Plantation and Community Planted Forests under the CDM and REDD+ Mechanism for Carbon Stock in Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ram Asheshwar MANDAL

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Public plantations (PPs and Community planted forests (CPFs are inimitable types of participatory forest management practices in Nepal, but their eligibility issues under the framework of clean development mechanism (CDM and reducing emission from the deforestation and forest degradation mechanism (REDD+ are not evaluated. So, to explore the management system of PP and CPF, we compared forest carbon stocks in plantations and evaluated these plantations under these mechanisms as objectives of this research. The relevant documents were revised and altogether 55 samples were collected from Shreepur, Banauta and Bisbity PPs and Sita, Ramnagar and Jogikuti CPFs, in Mahottary district, Nepal. The equation of Chave et al was used to calculate the biomass, which was further converted into carbon. Meanwhile, management practices were evaluated under the framework of CDM and REDD+. The PPs are public land managed, especially by disadvantaged communities, while CPFs are the patches of national forest managed by users. The variation in carbon stock was found to be highest (148.89 ton ha-1 in Sita CPF and lowest (30.34 ton ha-1 in Bisbitty PP. In fact, it is difficult to certify plantations under CDM, due to its complexity, but they can easily be candidate to the REDD+ mechanism, if they are bundled with large forest blocks.

  10. Underlying Mechanisms of Tinnitus: Review and Clinical Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, James A.; Roberts, Larry E.; Caspary, Donald M.; Theodoroff, Sarah M.; Salvi, Richard J.

    2016-01-01

    Background The study of tinnitus mechanisms has increased tenfold in the last decade. The common denominator for all of these studies is the goal of elucidating the underlying neural mechanisms of tinnitus with the ultimate purpose of finding a cure. While these basic science findings may not be immediately applicable to the clinician who works directly with patients to assist them in managing their reactions to tinnitus, a clear understanding of these findings is needed to develop the most effective procedures for alleviating tinnitus. Purpose The goal of this review is to provide audiologists and other health-care professionals with a basic understanding of the neurophysiological changes in the auditory system likely to be responsible for tinnitus. Results It is increasingly clear that tinnitus is a pathology involving neuroplastic changes in central auditory structures that take place when the brain is deprived of its normal input by pathology in the cochlea. Cochlear pathology is not always expressed in the audiogram but may be detected by more sensitive measures. Neural changes can occur at the level of synapses between inner hair cells and the auditory nerve and within multiple levels of the central auditory pathway. Long-term maintenance of tinnitus is likely a function of a complex network of structures involving central auditory and nonauditory systems. Conclusions Patients often have expectations that a treatment exists to cure their tinnitus. They should be made aware that research is increasing to discover such a cure and that their reactions to tinnitus can be mitigated through the use of evidence-based behavioral interventions. PMID:24622858

  11. Sulfur transformation during rapid hydropyrolysis of coal under high pressure by using a continuous free fall pyrolyzer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    W.-C. Xu; M. Kumagai

    2003-02-01

    The behavior of sulfur transformation during rapid hydropyrolysis of coal was investigated using a pressurized, continuous free fall pyrolyzer under the conditions of temperature ranging from 923 to 1123 K and hydrogen pressure up to 5 MPa. The yields of sulfur converted to gas, tar and char were determined, together with the analyses of sulfur form distributions in coals and chars. The results showed that the decomposition of inorganic sulfur species was affected only by the temperature, while the increases in temperature and hydrogen pressure obviously enhanced the removal of organic sulfur from coal. The extent of organic sulfur removal was proportional to the coal conversion, depending on coal type. A significant retention of gaseous sulfur products by the organic matrix of the char was observed during hydropyrolysis of a Chinese coal above 1023 K, even under the pressurized hydrogen atmosphere. The kinetic analysis indicates that the rate of organic sulfur removal from coal was 0.2th-order with respect to the hydrogen pressure, and the activation energy for total sulfur removal and organic sulfur removal is 17 26 and 13 55 kJ/mol, respectively. The low activation energies suggest that the transformation and removal of sulfur from coal might be controlled by the diffusion and/or thermodynamic equilibrium during hydropyrolysis under the pressurized conditions. 29 refs., 10 figs., 3 tabs.

  12. A fracture mechanics study of tungsten failure under high heat flux loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Muyuan

    2015-01-01

    The performance of fusion devices is highly dependent on plasma-facing components. Tungsten is the most promising candidate material for armors in plasma-facing components in ITER and DEMO. However, the brittleness of tungsten below the ductile-to-brittle transition temperature is very critical to the reliability of plasma-facing components. In this work, thermo-mechanical and fracture behaviors of tungsten are predicted numerically under fusion relevant thermal loadings.

  13. Effect of fuel assembly mechanical design changes on dynamic response of reactor pressure vessel system under extreme loadings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhandari, D.R.; Hankinson, M.F.

    1993-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a study to assess the effect of fuel assembly mechanical design changes on the dynamic response of a pressurized water reactor vessel and reactor internals under Loss-Of-Coolant Accident (LOCA) conditions. The results of this study show that the dynamic response of the reactor vessel internals and the core under extreme loadings, such as LOCA, is very sensitive to fuel assembly mechanical design changes. (author)

  14. Study of the changes in the magnetic properties of stainless steels under mechanical treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iankov, R.; Rusanov, V., E-mail: rusanov@phys.uni-sofia.bg [Magna Powertrain Ltd., Industrial Zone Rakowski (Bulgaria); Paneva, D.; Mitov, I. [Institute of Catalysis, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences (Bulgaria); Trautwein, A. X. [Institut für Physik, Universität zu Lübeck (Germany)

    2016-12-15

    Six types of stainless steels (SS) were studied for changes in its structure and magnetic properties under mechanical treatment. Depending on intensity and duration of the process of plastic deformation and the SS type the paramagnetic austenite structure transforms partially to completely into ferrite structure with ferromagnetic behaviour. Some of the SS tested were found slightly modified yet in the process of its manufacturing. Only one SS type with high Ni content preserved its structure and paramagnetic properties even after very intense mechanical treatment.

  15. Different intra- and interspecific facilitation mechanisms between two Mediterranean trees under a climate change scenario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gimeno, Teresa E; Escudero, Adrián; Valladares, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    In harsh environments facilitation alleviates biotic and abiotic constraints on tree recruitment. Under ongoing drier climate change, we expect facilitation to increase as a driver of coexistence. However, this might not hold under extreme abiotic stress and when the outcome depends on the interaction with other drivers such as altered herbivore pressure due to land use change. We performed a field water-manipulation experiment to quantify the importance of facilitation in two coexisting Mediterranean trees (dominant Juniperus thurifera and coexisting Quercus ilex subsp. ballota) under a climate change scenario. Shifts in canopy dominance favouring Q. ilex could be based on the extension of heterospecific facilitation to the detriment of conspecific alleviation. We found that saplings of both species transplanted under the canopy of nurse trees had greater survival probability, growth and photochemical efficiency. Intra- and interspecific facilitation mechanisms differed: alleviation of abiotic stress benefited both species during summer and J. thurifera during winter, whereas browsing protection was relevant only for Q. ilex. Facilitation was greater under the dry treatment only for Q. ilex, which partially agreed with the predictions of the stress gradient hypothesis. We conclude that present rainfall availability limits neither J. thurifera nor Q. ilex establishment. Nevertheless, under current global change scenarios, imposing increasing abiotic stress together with altered herbivore browsing, nurse trees could differentially facilitate the establishment of Q. ilex due to species-specific traits, i.e. palatability; drought, heat and cold tolerance, underlying species differences in the facilitation mechanisms and eventually triggering a change from pure juniper woodlands to mixed formations.

  16. Rapid evolution in insect pests: the importance of space and time in population genomics studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pélissié, Benjamin; Crossley, Michael S; Cohen, Zachary Paul; Schoville, Sean D

    2018-04-01

    Pest species in agroecosystems often exhibit patterns of rapid evolution to environmental and human-imposed selection pressures. Although the role of adaptive processes is well accepted, few insect pests have been studied in detail and most research has focused on selection at insecticide resistance candidate genes. Emerging genomic datasets provide opportunities to detect and quantify selection in insect pest populations, and address long-standing questions about mechanisms underlying rapid evolutionary change. We examine the strengths of recent studies that stratify population samples both in space (along environmental gradients and comparing ancestral vs. derived populations) and in time (using chronological sampling, museum specimens and comparative phylogenomics), resulting in critical insights on evolutionary processes, and providing new directions for studying pests in agroecosystems. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Mechanisms of mechanical strain memory in airway smooth muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hak Rim; Hai, Chi-Ming

    2005-10-01

    We evaluated the hypothesis that mechanical deformation of airway smooth muscle induces structural remodeling of airway smooth muscle cells, thereby modulating mechanical performance in subsequent contractions. This hypothesis implied that past experience of mechanical deformation was retained (or "memorized") as structural changes in airway smooth muscle cells, which modulated the cell's subsequent contractile responses. We termed this phenomenon mechanical strain memory. Preshortening has been found to induce attenuation of both force and isotonic shortening velocity in cholinergic receptor-activated airway smooth muscle. Rapid stretching of cholinergic receptor-activated airway smooth muscle from an initial length to a final length resulted in post-stretch force and myosin light chain phosphorylation that correlated significantly with initial length. Thus post-stretch muscle strips appeared to retain memory of the initial length prior to rapid stretch (mechanical strain memory). Cytoskeletal recruitment of actin- and integrin-binding proteins and Erk 1/2 MAPK appeared to be important mechanisms of mechanical strain memory. Sinusoidal length oscillation led to force attenuation during oscillation and in subsequent contractions in intact airway smooth muscle, and p38 MAPK appeared to be an important mechanism. In contrast, application of local mechanical strain to cultured airway smooth muscle cells induced local actin polymerization and cytoskeletal stiffening. It is conceivable that deep inspiration-induced bronchoprotection may be a manifestation of mechanical strain memory such that mechanical deformation from past breathing cycles modulated the mechanical performance of airway smooth muscle in subsequent cycles in a continuous and dynamic manner.

  18. A CHROMATIN MODIFYING ENZYME, SDG8, IS REQUIRED FOR MORPHOLOGICAL, GENE EXPRESSION, AND EPIGENETIC RESPONSES TO MECHANICAL STIMULATION

    OpenAIRE

    Christopher Ian Cazzonelli; Nazia eNisar; Andrea C Roberts; Kevin eMurray; Justin O Borevitz; Barry James Pogson

    2014-01-01

    Thigmomorphogenesis is viewed as being a response process of acclimation to short repetitive bursts of mechanical stimulation or touch. The underlying molecular mechanisms that coordinate changes in how touch signals lead to long-term morphological changes are enigmatic. Touch responsive gene expression is rapid and transient, and no transcription factor or DNA regulatory motif has been reported that could confer a genome wide mechanical stimulus. We report here on a chromatin modifying enzy...

  19. A chromatin modifying enzyme, SDG8, is involved in morphological, gene expression, and epigenetic responses to mechanical stimulation

    OpenAIRE

    Cazzonelli, Christopher I.; Nisar, Nazia; Roberts, Andrea C.; Murray, Kevin D.; Borevitz, Justin O.; Pogson, Barry J.

    2014-01-01

    Thigmomorphogenesis is viewed as being a response process of acclimation to short repetitive bursts of mechanical stimulation or touch. The underlying molecular mechanisms that coordinate changes in how touch signals lead to long-term morphological changes are enigmatic. Touch responsive gene expression is rapid and transient, and no transcription factor or DNA regulatory motif has been reported that could confer a genome wide mechanical stimulus. We report here on a chromatin modifying enzym...

  20. The underlying toxicological mechanism of chemical mixtures: A case study on mixture toxicity of cyanogenic toxicants and aldehydes to Photobacterium phosphoreum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian, Dayong; Lin, Zhifen; Zhou, Xianghong; Yin, Daqiang

    2013-01-01

    Intracellular chemical reaction of chemical mixtures is one of the main reasons that cause synergistic or antagonistic effects. However, it still remains unclear what the influencing factors on the intracellular chemical reaction are, and how they influence on the toxicological mechanism of chemical mixtures. To reveal this underlying toxicological mechanism of chemical mixtures, a case study on mixture toxicity of cyanogenic toxicants and aldehydes to Photobacterium phosphoreum was employed, and both their joint effects and mixture toxicity were observed. Then series of two-step linear regressions were performed to describe the relationships between joint effects, the expected additive toxicities and descriptors of individual chemicals (including concentrations, binding affinity to receptors, octanol/water partition coefficients). Based on the quantitative relationships, the underlying joint toxicological mechanisms were revealed. The result shows that, for mixtures with their joint effects resulting from intracellular chemical reaction, their underlying toxicological mechanism depends on not only their interaction with target proteins, but also their transmembrane actions and their concentrations. In addition, two generic points of toxicological mechanism were proposed including the influencing factors on intracellular chemical reaction and the difference of the toxicological mechanism between single reactive chemicals and their mixtures. This study provided an insight into the understanding of the underlying toxicological mechanism for chemical mixtures with intracellular chemical reaction. - Highlights: • Joint effects of nitriles and aldehydes at non-equitoxic ratios were determined. • A novel descriptor, ligand–receptor interaction energy (E binding ), was employed. • Quantitative relationships for mixtures were developed based on a novel descriptor. • The underlying toxic mechanism was revealed based on quantitative relationships. • Two generic

  1. The underlying toxicological mechanism of chemical mixtures: A case study on mixture toxicity of cyanogenic toxicants and aldehydes to Photobacterium phosphoreum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tian, Dayong [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, Anyang Institute of Technology, Anyang 455000 (China); Lin, Zhifen, E-mail: lzhifen@tongji.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Zhou, Xianghong [Department of Public Management, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Yin, Daqiang [Key Laboratory of Yangtze River Water Environment, Ministry of Education, College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China)

    2013-10-15

    Intracellular chemical reaction of chemical mixtures is one of the main reasons that cause synergistic or antagonistic effects. However, it still remains unclear what the influencing factors on the intracellular chemical reaction are, and how they influence on the toxicological mechanism of chemical mixtures. To reveal this underlying toxicological mechanism of chemical mixtures, a case study on mixture toxicity of cyanogenic toxicants and aldehydes to Photobacterium phosphoreum was employed, and both their joint effects and mixture toxicity were observed. Then series of two-step linear regressions were performed to describe the relationships between joint effects, the expected additive toxicities and descriptors of individual chemicals (including concentrations, binding affinity to receptors, octanol/water partition coefficients). Based on the quantitative relationships, the underlying joint toxicological mechanisms were revealed. The result shows that, for mixtures with their joint effects resulting from intracellular chemical reaction, their underlying toxicological mechanism depends on not only their interaction with target proteins, but also their transmembrane actions and their concentrations. In addition, two generic points of toxicological mechanism were proposed including the influencing factors on intracellular chemical reaction and the difference of the toxicological mechanism between single reactive chemicals and their mixtures. This study provided an insight into the understanding of the underlying toxicological mechanism for chemical mixtures with intracellular chemical reaction. - Highlights: • Joint effects of nitriles and aldehydes at non-equitoxic ratios were determined. • A novel descriptor, ligand–receptor interaction energy (E{sub binding}), was employed. • Quantitative relationships for mixtures were developed based on a novel descriptor. • The underlying toxic mechanism was revealed based on quantitative relationships. • Two

  2. Experimental study of the anisotropic properties of argillite under moisture and mechanical loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, D.S.; Chanchole, S.; Wang, L.L.; Bornert, M.; Gatmiri, B.

    2012-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. Due to various factors, such as sedimentation, layered morphology of clay mineral, in-situ stress, etc., the behavior of argillite rocks is often anisotropic. In order to study the anisotropy of the Callovo-Oxfordian (COx) argillite considered as a possible host rock for high-level radioactive nuclear waste repository in France, a series of tests including uniaxial compression and dehydration and hydration at different constant applied stress levels, are carried out using a specific setup combining mechanical and moisture loading devices. During these hydro-mechanical tests, this specific setup can also continuously capture images of the sample surfaces to be subsequently analyzed using Digital Image Correlation techniques (DIC) in order to determine full-field strains. In this study, three sampling directions are used with the angle θ between the bedding plane and the cylindrical sample axis equal to 45 deg., 60 deg. and 90 deg.. To investigate the mechanical anisotropy, uniaxial compressive tests with mechanical loading and unloading cycles are performed on several different samples at the same moisture level. The results show that the mechanical parameters (apparent modulus, failure stress) depend on loading orientation relative to the stratification plane. For a given water content, the failure stress reaches maximum values for θ =90 deg. and minimum values for θ =45 deg.. To study the hydric anisotropy, dehydration and hydration tests under stress-free conditions are performed on two cylindrical samples (θ=90 deg. and θ=60 deg.). Three cycles of hydration and dehydration are carried out by varying the relative humidity between 40% and 95%. The sample weight, the deformation measured by strain gages and the relative humidity are continuously recorded during the test by means of another specific setup described in [Pham et al., 2007]. Fig.1a illustrates the evolution of the strains of the sample EST28030-No

  3. A numerical study of crack interactions under thermo-mechanical load using EFGM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pant, Mohit; Singh, I. V.; Mishra, B. K.

    2011-01-01

    In this work, element free Galerkin method (EFGM) has been used to obtain the solution of various edge crack problems under thermo-mechanical loads as it provides a versatile technique to model stationary as well as moving crack problems without re-meshing. Standard diffraction criterion has been modified with multiple crack weight technique to characterize the presence of various cracks in the domain of influence of a particular node. The effect of crack inclination has been studied for single as well as two edge cracks, whereas the cracks interaction has been studied for two edge cracks lying on same as well as opposite edges under plane stress conditions. The values of mode-I and mode-II stress intensity factors have been evaluated by the interaction integral approach

  4. Evaluation of mechanical properties for spherical magnetic regenerator materials fabricated by rapid solidification process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okamura, M.; Sori, N.; Saito, A.

    1997-01-01

    Various magnetic regenerator materials, such as Er 3 Ni, Er 3 Co and ErNi, are fabricated in the form of a spherical particle by a rapid solidification process. 4 K level refrigeration has been obtained by a GM refrigerator using these materials. However, the magnetic regenerator materials are considered brittle, as they are intermetallic compounds. It is important to evaluate the mechanical properties of these materials to confirm reliability as a regenerator material. In this paper, experimental results of compression and vibration tests for magnetic regenerator materials are described. The technical point of this study is to use spherical particles as test samples. The compressive stress of 20 MPa was applied to these spherical particles and no fractured spheres were observed. Similarly, no fractured spheres were found after the vibration test, in which the maximum acceleration was 30 X 9.8 m/s 2 and the number of vibration times was 1 X 10 6 , insofar as there was no room to stir spherical particles in a regenerator. In practice, the reliability of magnetic regenerator materials has been confirmed by a long-run test of 7,000 h in a usual GM refrigerator

  5. Genome Sequencing and Mapping Reveal Loss of Heterozygosity as a Mechanism for Rapid Adaptation in the Vegetable Pathogen Phytophthora capsici

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lamour, Kurt H.; Mudge, Joann; Gobena, Daniel; Hurtado-Gonzales, Oscar P.; Schmutz, Jeremy; Kuo, Alan; Miller, Neil A.; Rice, Brandon J.; Raffaele, Sylvain; Cano, Liliana M.; Bharti, Arvind K.; Donahoo, Ryan S.; Finely, Sabra; Huitema, Edgar; Hulvey, Jon; Platt, Darren; Salamov, Asaf; Savidor, Alon; Sharma, Rahul; Stam, Remco; Sotrey, Dylan; Thines, Marco; Win, Joe; Haas, Brian J.; Dinwiddie, Darrell L.; Jenkins, Jerry; Knight, James R.; Affourtit, Jason P.; Han, Cliff S.; Chertkov, Olga; Lindquist, Erika A.; Detter, Chris; Grigoriev, Igor V.; Kamoun, Sophien; Kingsmore, Stephen F.

    2012-02-07

    The oomycete vegetable pathogen Phytophthora capsici has shown remarkable adaptation to fungicides and new hosts. Like other members of this destructive genus, P. capsici has an explosive epidemiology, rapidly producing massive numbers of asexual spores on infected hosts. In addition, P. capsici can remain dormant for years as sexually recombined oospores, making it difficult to produce crops at infested sites, and allowing outcrossing populations to maintain significant genetic variation. Genome sequencing, development of a high-density genetic map, and integrative genomic or genetic characterization of P. capsici field isolates and intercross progeny revealed significant mitotic loss of heterozygosity (LOH) in diverse isolates. LOH was detected in clonally propagated field isolates and sexual progeny, cumulatively affecting >30percent of the genome. LOH altered genotypes for more than 11,000 single-nucleotide variant sites and showed a strong association with changes in mating type and pathogenicity. Overall, it appears that LOH may provide a rapid mechanism for fixing alleles and may be an important component of adaptability for P. capsici.

  6. Rapidly curable electrically conductive clear coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowman, Mark P.; Anderson, Lawrence G.; Post, Gordon L.

    2018-01-16

    Rapidly curable electrically conductive clear coatings are applied to substrates. The electrically conductive clear coating includes to clear layer having a resinous binder with ultrafine non-stoichiometric tungsten oxide particles dispersed therein. The clear coating may be rapidly cured by subjecting the coating to infrared radiation that heats the tungsten oxide particles and surrounding resinous binder. Localized heating increases the temperature of the coating to thereby thermally cure the coating, while avoiding unwanted heating of the underlying substrate.

  7. Temperature-dependent dynamic mechanical properties of magnetorheological elastomers under magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ju, Benxiang, E-mail: jubenxiang@qq.com [National Instrument Functional Materials Engineering Technology Research Center, Chongqing 400707 (China); Tang, Rui; Zhang, Dengyou; Yang, Bailian [National Instrument Functional Materials Engineering Technology Research Center, Chongqing 400707 (China); Yu, Miao; Liao, Changrong [College of Optoelectronic Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China)

    2015-01-15

    Both anisotropic and isotropic magnetorheological elastomer (MRE) samples were fabricated by using as-prepared polyurethane (PU) matrix and carbonyl iron particles. Temperature-dependent dynamic mechanical properties of MRE were investigated and analyzed. Due to the unique structural features of as-prepared matrix, temperature has a greater impact on the properties of as-prepared MRE, especially isotropic MRE. With increasing of temperature and magnetic field, MR effect of isotropic MRE can reach up to as high as 4176.5% at temperature of 80 °C, and the mechanism of the temperature-dependent in presence of magnetic field was discussed. These results indicated that MRE is a kind of temperature-dependent material, and can be cycled between MRE and MR plastomer (MRP) by varying temperature. - Highlights: • Both anisotropic and isotropic MRE were fabricated by using as-prepared matrix. • Temperature-dependent properties of MRE under magnetic field were investigated. • As-prepared MRE can transform MRE to MRP by adjusting temperature.

  8. Mechanical properties and fracture behaviour of defective phosphorene nanotubes under uniaxial tension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ping; Pei, Qing-Xiang; Huang, Wei; Zhang, Yong-Wei

    2017-12-01

    The easy formation of vacancy defects and the asymmetry in the two sublayers of phosphorene nanotubes (PNTs) may result in brand new mechanical properties and failure behaviour. Herein, we investigate the mechanical properties and fracture behaviour of defective PNTs under uniaxial tension using molecular dynamics simulations. Our simulation results show that atomic vacancies cause local stress concentration and thus significantly reduce the fracture strength and fracture strain of PNTs. More specifically, a 1% defect concentration is able to reduce the fracture strength and fracture strain by as much as 50% and 66%, respectively. Interestingly, the reduction in the mechanical properties is found to depend on the defect location: a defect located in the outer sublayer has a stronger effect than one located in the inner layer, especially for PNTs with a small diameter. Temperature is also found to strongly influence the mechanical properties of both defect-free and defective PNTs. When the temperature is increased from 0 K to 400 K, the fracture strength and fracture strain of defective PNTs with a defect concentration of 1% are reduced further by 71% and 61%, respectively. These findings are of great importance for the structural design of PNTs as building blocks in nanodevices.

  9. Magnetization reversal mechanisms under oblique magnetic fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ntallis, N.; Efthimiadis, K.G., E-mail: kge@auth.gr

    2017-03-01

    In this work finite element micromagnetic simulations were performed in order to study the reversal mechanisms of spherical ferromagnetic particles with uniaxial magnetocrystalline anisotropy, when they are magnetized along an oblique direction with respect to the anisotropy axis. Magnetization loops are taken in different directions of external magnetic field, at different anisotropy constants and particle sizes. In the simulation results, the three reversal mechanisms (coherent, curling and domains) are observed and new phenomena arise due to the action of oblique magnetic fields. Moreover, the dependence of the critical fields with respect to the angle of the external field is presented. - Highlights: • Finite element micromagnetic simulation of the three different reversal mechanisms. • For the curling mechanism, the new phenomenon is the rotation of the vortex. • In the domain reversal mechanism, the formed domain wall is smaller than 180°. • In soft ferromagnetic particles a rearrangement of the magnetic domains is observed.

  10. Effect of natural uranium on the UMR-106 osteoblastic cell line: impairment of the autophagic process as an underlying mechanism of uranium toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierrefite-Carle, Valérie; Santucci-Darmanin, Sabine; Breuil, Véronique; Gritsaenko, Tatiana; Vidaud, Claude; Creff, Gaelle; Solari, Pier Lorenzo; Pagnotta, Sophie; Al-Sahlanee, Rasha; Auwer, Christophe Den; Carle, Georges F

    2017-04-01

    Natural uranium (U), which is present in our environment, exerts a chemical toxicity, particularly in bone where it accumulates. Generally, U is found at oxidation state +VI in its oxocationic form [Formula: see text] in aqueous media. Although U(VI) has been reported to induce cell death in osteoblasts, the cells in charge of bone formation, the molecular mechanism for U(VI) effects in these cells remains poorly understood. The objective of our study was to explore U(VI) effect at doses ranging from 5 to 600 µM, on mineralization and autophagy induction in the UMR-106 model osteoblastic cell line and to determine U(VI) speciation after cellular uptake. Our results indicate that U(VI) affects mineralization function, even at subtoxic concentrations (metal exposure. We observed that U(VI) was able to rapidly activate autophagy but an inhibition of the autophagic flux was observed after 24 h. Thus, our results indicate that U(VI) perturbs osteoblastic functions by reducing mineralization capacity. Our study identifies for the first time U(VI) in the form of meta-autunite in mammalian cells. In addition, U(VI)-mediated inhibition of the autophagic flux may be one of the underlying mechanisms leading to the decreased mineralization and the toxicity observed in osteoblasts.

  11. Simulated airplane headache: a proxy towards identification of underlying mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bui, Sebastian Bao Dinh; Petersen, Torben; Poulsen, Jeppe Nørgaard; Gazerani, Parisa

    2017-12-01

    Airplane Headache (AH) occurs during flights and often appears as an intense, short lasting headache during take-off or landing. Reports are limited on pathological mechanisms underlying the occurrence of this headache. Proper diagnosis and treatments would benefit from identification of potential pathways involved in AH pathogenesis. This study aimed at providing a simulated airplane headache condition as a proxy towards identification of its underlying mechanisms. Fourteen participants including 7 volunteers suffering from AH and 7 healthy matched controls were recruited after meeting the diagnostic and safety criteria based on an approved study protocol. Simulation of AH was achieved by entering a pressure chamber with similar characteristics of an airplane flight. Selected potential biomarkers including salivary prostaglandin E 2 (PGE 2 ), cortisol, facial thermo-images, blood pressure, pulse, and saturation pulse oxygen (SPO) were defined and values were collected before, during and after flight simulation in the pressure chamber. Salivary samples were analyzed with ELISA techniques, while data analysis and statistical tests were handled with SPSS version 22.0. All participants in the AH-group experienced a headache attack similar to AH experience during flight. The non-AH-group did not experience any headaches. Our data showed that the values for PGE 2 , cortisol and SPO were significantly different in the AH-group in comparison with the non-AH-group during the flight simulation in the pressure chamber. The pressure chamber proved useful not only to provoke AH-like attack but also to study potential biomarkers for AH in this study. PGE 2 , and cortisol levels together with SPO presented dysregulation during the simulated AH-attack in affected individuals compared with healthy controls. Based on these findings we propose to use pressure chamber as a model to induce AH, and thus assess new potential biomarkers for AH in future studies.

  12. Neurodevelopmental Disorders and Environmental Toxicants: Epigenetics as an Underlying Mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    The increasing prevalence of neurodevelopmental disorders, especially autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), calls for more research into the identification of etiologic and risk factors. The Developmental Origin of Health and Disease (DOHaD) hypothesizes that the environment during fetal and childhood development affects the risk for many chronic diseases in later stages of life, including neurodevelopmental disorders. Epigenetics, a term describing mechanisms that cause changes in the chromosome state without affecting DNA sequences, is suggested to be the underlying mechanism, according to the DOHaD hypothesis. Moreover, many neurodevelopmental disorders are also related to epigenetic abnormalities. Experimental and epidemiological studies suggest that exposure to prenatal environmental toxicants is associated with neurodevelopmental disorders. In addition, there is also evidence that environmental toxicants can result in epigenetic alterations, notably DNA methylation. In this review, we first focus on the relationship between neurodevelopmental disorders and environmental toxicants, in particular maternal smoking, plastic-derived chemicals (bisphenol A and phthalates), persistent organic pollutants, and heavy metals. We then review studies showing the epigenetic effects of those environmental factors in humans that may affect normal neurodevelopment. PMID:28567415

  13. MECHANICAL BEHAVIOR OF PRESTRESSED VISCOELASTIC ADHESIVE AREAS UNDER COMBINING LOADINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halil Murat Enginsoy

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article, mechanical behaviors of adhesive tape VHB 4950 elastomeric material, which is an element of acrylic polymer group and which is in viscoelastic behavior, under different pre-stress conditions and complex forces of different geometric parameters created by combining loadings have been experimentally and numerically investigated. In experimental studies, loading-unloading cyclic tests, one of the different standardized tests for the mechanical characterization of viscoelastic material, have been applied which give the most suitable convergent optimization parameters for the finite element model. Different material models were also investigated by using the data obtained from loading-unloading test results in all numerical models. According to the experimental results, the most suitable material parameters were determined with the Abaqus Parallel Rheological Framework Model (PRF for 4 Yeoh Networks with Bergstrom-Boyce Flow model created in the Mcalibration software for finite element analysis. Subsequently, using these material parameters, finite element analysis was performed as three dimension non-linear viscoelastic with a commercial finite element software Abaqus. The finite element analysis results showed good correlation to the Force (N-Displacement (mm experimental data for maximum load-carrying capacity of structural specimens.

  14. Neurodevelopmental Disorders and Environmental Toxicants: Epigenetics as an Underlying Mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen Quoc Vuong Tran

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The increasing prevalence of neurodevelopmental disorders, especially autism spectrum disorders (ASD and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD, calls for more research into the identification of etiologic and risk factors. The Developmental Origin of Health and Disease (DOHaD hypothesizes that the environment during fetal and childhood development affects the risk for many chronic diseases in later stages of life, including neurodevelopmental disorders. Epigenetics, a term describing mechanisms that cause changes in the chromosome state without affecting DNA sequences, is suggested to be the underlying mechanism, according to the DOHaD hypothesis. Moreover, many neurodevelopmental disorders are also related to epigenetic abnormalities. Experimental and epidemiological studies suggest that exposure to prenatal environmental toxicants is associated with neurodevelopmental disorders. In addition, there is also evidence that environmental toxicants can result in epigenetic alterations, notably DNA methylation. In this review, we first focus on the relationship between neurodevelopmental disorders and environmental toxicants, in particular maternal smoking, plastic-derived chemicals (bisphenol A and phthalates, persistent organic pollutants, and heavy metals. We then review studies showing the epigenetic effects of those environmental factors in humans that may affect normal neurodevelopment.

  15. Time to rethink the neural mechanisms of learning and memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallistel, Charles R; Balsam, Peter D

    2014-02-01

    Most studies in the neurobiology of learning assume that the underlying learning process is a pairing - dependent change in synaptic strength that requires repeated experience of events presented in close temporal contiguity. However, much learning is rapid and does not depend on temporal contiguity, which has never been precisely defined. These points are well illustrated by studies showing that the temporal relations between events are rapidly learned- even over long delays- and that this knowledge governs the form and timing of behavior. The speed with which anticipatory responses emerge in conditioning paradigms is determined by the information that cues provide about the timing of rewards. The challenge for understanding the neurobiology of learning is to understand the mechanisms in the nervous system that encode information from even a single experience, the nature of the memory mechanisms that can encode quantities such as time, and how the brain can flexibly perform computations based on this information. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Estimation of mechanical properties of gelatin using a microbubble under acoustic radiation force

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirota, Eriko; Ando, Keita

    2015-01-01

    This paper is concerned with observations of the translation of a microbubble (80 μm or 137 μm in radius) in a viscoelastic medium (3 w% gelatin), which is induced by acoustic radiation force originating from 1 MHz focused ultrasound. An optical system using a high-speed camera was designed to visualize the bubble translation and deformation. If the bubble remains its spherical shape under the sonication, the bubble translation we observed can be described by theory based on the Voigt model for linear viscoelastic solids; mechanical properties of the gelatin are calculated from measurements of the terminal displacement under the sonication. (paper)

  17. Real-time electricity pricing mechanism in China based on system dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, Yongxiu; Zhang, Jixiang

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The system dynamics is used to research the real-time electricity pricing mechanism. • Four kinds of the real-time electricity pricing models are carried out and simulated. • It analysed the electricity price, the user satisfaction and the social benefits under the different models. • Market pricing is the trend of the real-time electricity pricing mechanism. • Initial development path of the real-time price mechanism for China is designed between 2015 and 2030. - Abstract: As an important means of demand-side response, the reasonable formulation of the electricity price mechanism will have an important impact on the balance between the supply and demand of electric power. With the introduction of Chinese intelligence apparatus and the rapid development of smart grids, real-time electricity pricing, as the frontier electricity pricing mechanism in the smart grid, will have great significance on the promotion of energy conservation and the improvement of the total social surplus. From the perspective of system dynamics, this paper studies different real-time electricity pricing mechanisms based on load structure, cost structure and bidding and analyses the situation of user satisfaction and the total social surplus under different pricing mechanisms. Finally, through the comparative analysis of examples under different real-time pricing scenarios, this paper aims to explore and design the future dynamic real-time electricity pricing mechanism in China, predicts the dynamic real-time pricing level and provides a reference for real-time electricity price promotion in the future

  18. RapidIO as a multi-purpose interconnect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baymani, Simaolhoda; Alexopoulos, Konstantinos; Valat, Sébastien

    2017-10-01

    RapidIO (http://rapidio.org/) technology is a packet-switched high-performance fabric, which has been under active development since 1997. Originally meant to be a front side bus, it developed into a system level interconnect which is today used in all 4G/LTE base stations world wide. RapidIO is often used in embedded systems that require high reliability, low latency and scalability in a heterogeneous environment - features that are highly interesting for several use cases, such as data analytics and data acquisition (DAQ) networks. We will present the results of evaluating RapidIO in a data analytics environment, from setup to benchmark. Specifically, we will share the experience of running ROOT and Hadoop on top of RapidIO. To demonstrate the multi-purpose characteristics of RapidIO, we will also present the results of investigating RapidIO as a technology for high-speed DAQ networks using a generic multi-protocol event-building emulation tool. In addition we will present lessons learned from implementing native ports of CERN applications to RapidIO.

  19. Underlying mechanism of drug-drug interaction between pioglitazone and gemfibrozil: Gemfibrozil acyl-glucuronide is a mechanism-based inhibitor of CYP2C8.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takagi, Motoi; Sakamoto, Masaya; Itoh, Tomoo; Fujiwara, Ryoichi

    2015-08-01

    While co-administered gemfibrozil can increase the area under the concentration/time curve (AUC) of pioglitazone more than 3-fold, the underlying mechanism of the drug-drug interaction between gemfibrozil and pioglitazone has not been fully understood. In the present study, gemfibrozil preincubation time-dependently inhibited the metabolism of pioglitazone in the cytochrome P450 (CYP)- and UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT)-activated human liver microsomes. We estimated the kinact and K'app values, which are the maximum inactivation rate constant and the apparent dissociation constant, of gemfibrozil to be 0.071 min(-1) and 57.3 μM, respectively. In this study, the kobs, in vivo value was defined as a parameter that indicates the potency of the mechanism-based inhibitory effect at the blood drug concentration in vivo. The kobs, in vivo values of potent mechanism-based inhibitors, clarithromycin and erythromycin, were estimated to be 0.0096 min(-1) and 0.0051 min(-1), respectively. The kobs, in vivo value of gemfibrozil was 0.0060 min(-1), which was comparable to those of clarithromycin and erythromycin, suggesting that gemfibrozil could be a mechanism-based inhibitor as potent as clarithromycin and erythromycin in vivo. Copyright © 2015 The Japanese Society for the Study of Xenobiotics. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Estrogen Regulates Protein Synthesis and Actin Polymerization in Hippocampal Neurons through Different Molecular Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briz, Victor; Baudry, Michel

    2014-01-01

    Estrogen rapidly modulates hippocampal synaptic plasticity by activating selective membrane-associated receptors. Reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton and stimulation of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR)-mediated protein synthesis are two major events required for the consolidation of hippocampal long-term potentiation and memory. Estradiol regulates synaptic plasticity by interacting with both processes, but the underlying molecular mechanisms are not yet fully understood. Here, we used acute rat hippocampal slices to analyze the mechanisms underlying rapid changes in mTOR activity and actin polymerization elicited by estradiol. Estradiol-induced mTOR phosphorylation was preceded by rapid and transient activation of both extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and protein kinase B (Akt) and by phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) degradation. These effects were prevented by calpain and ERK inhibitors. Estradiol-induced mTOR stimulation did not require activation of classical estrogen receptors (ER), as specific ERα and ERβ agonists (PPT and DPN, respectively) failed to mimic this effect, and ER antagonists could not block it. Estradiol rapidly activated both RhoA and p21-activated kinase (PAK). Furthermore, a specific inhibitor of RhoA kinase (ROCK), H1152, and a potent and specific PAK inhibitor, PF-3758309, blocked estradiol-induced cofilin phosphorylation and actin polymerization. ER antagonists also blocked these effects of estrogen. Consistently, both PPT and DPN stimulated PAK and cofilin phosphorylation as well as actin polymerization. Finally, the effects of estradiol on actin polymerization were insensitive to protein synthesis inhibitors, but its stimulation of mTOR activity was impaired by latrunculin A, a drug that disrupts actin filaments. Taken together, our results indicate that estradiol regulates local protein synthesis and cytoskeletal reorganization via different molecular mechanisms and signaling pathways. PMID:24611062

  1. Mechanisms Underlying the Anti-Aging and Anti-Tumor Effects of Lithocholic Bile Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Arlia-Ciommo

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Bile acids are cholesterol-derived bioactive lipids that play essential roles in the maintenance of a heathy lifespan. These amphipathic molecules with detergent-like properties display numerous beneficial effects on various longevity- and healthspan-promoting processes in evolutionarily distant organisms. Recent studies revealed that lithocholic bile acid not only causes a considerable lifespan extension in yeast, but also exhibits a substantial cytotoxic effect in cultured cancer cells derived from different tissues and organisms. The molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying the robust anti-aging and anti-tumor effects of lithocholic acid have emerged. This review summarizes the current knowledge of these mechanisms, outlines the most important unanswered questions and suggests directions for future research.

  2. Mechanism of Secondary Hardening in Rapid Tempering of Dual-Phase Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Dulal Chandra; Nayak, Sashank S.; Biro, Elliot; Gerlich, Adrian P.; Zhou, Y.

    2014-12-01

    Dual-phase steel with ferrite-martensite-bainite microstructure exhibited secondary hardening in the subcritical heat affected zone during fiber laser welding. Rapid isothermal tempering conducted in a Gleeble simulator also indicated occurrence of secondary hardening at 773 K (500 °C), as confirmed by plotting the tempered hardness against the Holloman-Jaffe parameter. Isothermally tempered specimens were characterized by analytic transmission electron microscopy and high-angle annular dark-field imaging. The cementite (Fe3C) and TiC located in the bainite phase of DP steel decomposed upon rapid tempering to form needle-shaped Mo2C (aspect ratio ranging from 10 to 25) and plate-shaped M4C3 carbides giving rise to secondary hardening. Precipitation of these thermodynamically stable and coherent carbides promoted the hardening phenomenon. However, complex carbides were only seen in the tempered bainite and were not detected in the tempered martensite. The martensite phase decomposed into ferrite and spherical Fe3C, and interlath-retained austenite decomposed into ferrite and elongated carbide.

  3. Mechanical Behavior of Red Sandstone under Incremental Uniaxial Cyclical Compressive and Tensile Loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baoyun Zhao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Uniaxial experiments were carried out on red sandstone specimens to investigate their short-term and creep mechanical behavior under incremental cyclic compressive and tensile loading. First, based on the results of short-term uniaxial incremental cyclic compressive and tensile loading experiments, deformation characteristics and energy dissipation were analyzed. The results show that the stress-strain curve of red sandstone has an obvious memory effect in the compressive and tensile loading stages. The strains at peak stresses and residual strains increase with the cycle number. Energy dissipation, defined as the area of the hysteresis loop in the stress-strain curves, increases nearly in a power function with the cycle number. Creep test of the red sandstone was also conducted. Results show that the creep curve under each compressive or tensile stress level can be divided into decay and steady stages, which cannot be described by the conventional Burgers model. Therefore, an improved Burgers creep model of rock material is constructed through viscoplastic mechanics, which agrees very well with the experimental results and can describe the creep behavior of red sandstone better than the Burgers creep model.

  4. The tunable mechanical property of water-filled carbon nanotubes under an electric field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Hongfei; Zhang, Zhongqiang; Zhang, Hongwu; Chen, Zhen; Zong, Zhi; Zheng, Yonggang

    2014-03-01

    The spring-induced compression of water-filled carbon nanotubes (CNTs) under an electric field is investigated by molecular dynamics simulations. Due to the incompressibility and polarity of water, the mechanical property of CNTs can be tuned through filling with water molecules and applying an electric field. To explore the variation of the mechanical property of water-filled CNTs, the effects of the CNT length, the filling density and the electric field intensity are examined. The simulation results indicate that the water filling and electric field can result in a slight change in the elastic property (the elastic modulus and Poisson's ratio) of water-filled CNTs. However, the yield stress and average post-buckling stress exhibit a significant response to the water density and electric field intensity. As compared to hollow CNTs, the increment in yield stress of the water-filled CNTs under an electric field of 2.0 V Å-1 is up to 35.29%, which is even higher than that resulting from metal filling. The findings from this study provide a valuable theoretical basis for designing and fabricating the controlling units at the nanoscale.

  5. Single-particle motion in rapidly rotating nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bengtsson, R.; Frisk, H.

    1985-01-01

    The motion of particles belonging to a single-j shell is described in terms of classical orbitals. The effects of rapid rotation and pairing correlations are discussed and the results are compared with the quantum mechanical orbitals. (orig.)

  6. Mechanical Behavior of BFRP-Steel Composite Plate under Axial Tension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunyu Li

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Combining the advantages of basalt fiber-reinforced polymer (BFRP material and steel material, a novel BFRP-steel composite plate (BSP is proposed, where a steel plate is sandwiched between two outer BFRP laminates. The main purpose of this research is to investigate the mechanical behavior of the proposed BSP under uniaxial tension and cyclic tension. Four groups of BSP specimens with four different BFRP layers and one control group of steel plate specimens were prepared. A uniaxial tensile test and a cyclic tensile test were conducted to determine the initial elastic modulus, postyield stiffness, yield strength, ultimate bearing capacity and residual deformation. Test results indicated that the stress-strain curve of the BSP specimen was bilinear prior to the fracture of the outer BFRP, and the BSP specimen had stable postyield stiffness and small residual deformation after the yielding of the inner steel plate. The postyield modulus of BSP specimens increased almost linearly with the increasing number of outer BFRP layers, as well as the ultimate bearing capacity. Moreover, the predicted results from the selected models under both monotonic tension and cyclic tension were in good agreement with the experimental data.

  7. Fatigue degradation and failure of rotating composite structures - Materials characterisation and underlying mechanisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gamstedt, E K; Andersen, S I

    2001-03-01

    The present review concerns rotating composite structures, in which fatigue degradation is of key concern for in-service failure. Such applications are for instance rotor blades in wind turbines, helicopter rotor blades, flywheels for energy storage, marine and aeronautical propellers, and rolls for paper machines. The purpose is to identify areas where impending efforts should be made to make better use of composite materials in these applications. In order to obtain better design methodologies, which would allow more reliable and slender structures, improved test methods are necessary. Furthermore, the relation between structural, component and specimen test results should be better understood than what is presently the case. Improved predictive methods rely on a better understanding of the underlying damage mechanisms. With mechanism-based models, the component substructure or even the material microstructure could be optimised for best possible fatigue resistance. These issues are addressed in the present report, with special emphasis on test methods, and scaling from damage mechanisms to relevant material properties. (au)

  8. Mechanisms underlying the effects of prenatal psychosocial stress on child outcomes: beyond the HPA axis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beijers, R.; Buitelaar, J.K.; Weerth, C. de

    2014-01-01

    Accumulating evidence from preclinical and clinical studies indicates that maternal psychosocial stress and anxiety during pregnancy adversely affect child outcomes. However, knowledge on the possible mechanisms underlying these relations is limited. In the present paper, we review the most often

  9. Fatigue behaviour of the austenitic steel 1.4550 under mechanical and thermal cyclic loading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siegele, D.; Fingerhuth, J.; Varfolomeev, I.; Moroz, S. [Fraunhofer Institute for Mechanics of Materials (IWM), Freiburg (Germany)

    2014-07-01

    Fatigue behaviour of the austenitic steel 1.4550 (X6CrNiNb18-10) under low-cycle fatigue and high-cycle thermal fatigue was investigated with in two research projects supported by the Federal Ministry of Economic Affairs and Energy and the Ministry of Education and Research. The objectives of the projects were the gain of deep understanding of the damage mechanisms under mechanical and thermal cyclic loading and the development of material models and simulation procedures for an improved lifetime assessment. In comparison to the advanced mechanism based material models engineering computational procedures were proven with respect to their applicability and conservatisms. For thermal cyclic loading, test equipment and technique were developed which allow for cyclic thermal loading with temperature ranges between 1 00 C and 300 C and frequencies between 0.1 and 1 Hz. As a result, tests with a temperature range of 150 C and lower showed no crack formation up to 300,000 cycles. For temperature ranges of 200 C and higher multiple crack patterns were observed with the deepest crack of about 1.3 mm after 1,000,000 cycles, whereas the difference in crack depth between 300,000 and 1,000,000 cycles was negligibly small. To model the fatigue lifetime, the D{sub TMF} damage parameter was applied to the low-cycle fatigue and the thermal, high frequent fatigue tests. For thermal fatigue, the analyses predicted in agreement with the tests crack initiation followed by crack propagation, subsequent retardation and arrest. This behaviour can be explained qualitatively and quantitatively using the methods of linear-elastic fracture mechanics, whereas the consideration of the interaction of multiple cracks is essential to describe the experimentally observed crack retardation. The results for thermal fatigue are in the scatterband of the mechanical p and thermo-mechanical fatigue results and the cycles to failure are 10 times higher than those estimated according to the KTA fatigue

  10. Autism spectrum disorder causes, mechanisms, and treatments: focus on neuronal synapses

    OpenAIRE

    Won, Hyejung; Mah, Won; Kim, Eunjoon

    2013-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a group of developmental disabilities characterized by impairments in social interaction and communication and restricted and repetitive interests/behaviors. Advances in human genomics have identified a large number of genetic variations associated with ASD. These associations are being rapidly verified by a growing number of studies using a variety of approaches, including mouse genetics. These studies have also identified key mechanisms underlying the patho...

  11. Choosing fitness-enhancing innovations can be detrimental under fluctuating environments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julian Z Xue

    Full Text Available The ability to predict the consequences of one's behavior in a particular environment is a mechanism for adaptation. In the absence of any cost to this activity, we might expect agents to choose behaviors that maximize their fitness, an example of directed innovation. This is in contrast to blind mutation, where the probability of becoming a new genotype is independent of the fitness of the new genotypes. Here, we show that under environments punctuated by rapid reversals, a system with both genetic and cultural inheritance should not always maximize fitness through directed innovation. This is because populations highly accurate at selecting the fittest innovations tend to over-fit the environment during its stable phase, to the point that a rapid environmental reversal can cause extinction. A less accurate population, on the other hand, can track long term trends in environmental change, keeping closer to the time-average of the environment. We use both analytical and agent-based models to explore when this mechanism is expected to occur.

  12. Statistical model for the mechanical behavior of the tissue engineering non-woven fibrous matrices under large deformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizvi, Mohd Suhail; Pal, Anupam

    2014-09-01

    The fibrous matrices are widely used as scaffolds for the regeneration of load-bearing tissues due to their structural and mechanical similarities with the fibrous components of the extracellular matrix. These scaffolds not only provide the appropriate microenvironment for the residing cells but also act as medium for the transmission of the mechanical stimuli, essential for the tissue regeneration, from macroscopic scale of the scaffolds to the microscopic scale of cells. The requirement of the mechanical loading for the tissue regeneration requires the fibrous scaffolds to be able to sustain the complex three-dimensional mechanical loading conditions. In order to gain insight into the mechanical behavior of the fibrous matrices under large amount of elongation as well as shear, a statistical model has been formulated to study the macroscopic mechanical behavior of the electrospun fibrous matrix and the transmission of the mechanical stimuli from scaffolds to the cells via the constituting fibers. The study establishes the load-deformation relationships for the fibrous matrices for different structural parameters. It also quantifies the changes in the fiber arrangement and tension generated in the fibers with the deformation of the matrix. The model reveals that the tension generated in the fibers on matrix deformation is not homogeneous and hence the cells located in different regions of the fibrous scaffold might experience different mechanical stimuli. The mechanical response of fibrous matrices was also found to be dependent on the aspect ratio of the matrix. Therefore, the model establishes a structure-mechanics interdependence of the fibrous matrices under large deformation, which can be utilized in identifying the appropriate structure and external mechanical loading conditions for the regeneration of load-bearing tissues. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Study of elastic and thermodynamic properties of uranium dioxide under high temperature and pressure with density functional theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Mu; Wang Feng; Zheng Zhou; Liu Xiankun; Jiang Tao

    2013-01-01

    The elastic and thermodynamic properties of UO 2 under extreme physical condition are studied by using the density functional theory and quasi-harmonic Debye model. Results show that UO 2 is still stable ionic crystal under high temperatures, and pressures. Tetragonal shear constant is steady under high pressures and temperatures, while elastic constant C 44 is stable under high temperatures, but rises with pressure sharply. Bulk modulus, shear modulus and Young's modulus increase with pressure rapidly, but temperature would not cause evident debasement of the moduli, all of which indicate that UO 2 has excellent mechanical properties. Heat capacity of different pressures increases with temperature and is close to the Dulong-Petit limit near 1000 K. Debye temperature decreases with temperature, and increases with pressure. Under low pressure, thermal expansion coefficient raises with temperature rapidly, and then gets slow at higher pressure and temperature. Besides, the thermal expansion coefficient of UO 2 is much lower than that of other nuclear materials. (authors)

  14. Emerging new tools to study and treat muscle pathologies: genetics and molecular mechanisms underlying skeletal muscle development, regeneration, and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crist, Colin

    2017-01-01

    Skeletal muscle is the most abundant tissue in our body, is responsible for generating the force required for movement, and is also an important thermogenic organ. Skeletal muscle is an enigmatic tissue because while on the one hand, skeletal muscle regeneration after injury is arguably one of the best-studied stem cell-dependent regenerative processes, on the other hand, skeletal muscle is still subject to many degenerative disorders with few therapeutic options in the clinic. It is important to develop new regenerative medicine-based therapies for skeletal muscle. Future therapeutic strategies should take advantage of rapidly developing technologies enabling the differentiation of skeletal muscle from human pluripotent stem cells, along with precise genome editing, which will go hand in hand with a steady and focused approach to understanding underlying mechanisms of skeletal muscle development, regeneration, and disease. In this review, I focus on highlighting the recent advances that particularly have relied on developmental and molecular biology approaches to understanding muscle development and stem cell function. Copyright © 2016 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Deep Learning Fluid Mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barati Farimani, Amir; Gomes, Joseph; Pande, Vijay

    2017-11-01

    We have developed a new data-driven model paradigm for the rapid inference and solution of the constitutive equations of fluid mechanic by deep learning models. Using generative adversarial networks (GAN), we train models for the direct generation of solutions to steady state heat conduction and incompressible fluid flow without knowledge of the underlying governing equations. Rather than using artificial neural networks to approximate the solution of the constitutive equations, GANs can directly generate the solutions to these equations conditional upon an arbitrary set of boundary conditions. Both models predict temperature, velocity and pressure fields with great test accuracy (>99.5%). The application of our framework for inferring and generating the solutions of partial differential equations can be applied to any physical phenomena and can be used to learn directly from experiments where the underlying physical model is complex or unknown. We also have shown that our framework can be used to couple multiple physics simultaneously, making it amenable to tackle multi-physics problems.

  16. Growth of 2D and 3D plane cracks under thermo-mechanical loading with varying amplitudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sbitti, Amine

    2009-01-01

    After a presentation of the phenomenon of thermal fatigue (in industrial applications and nuclear plants), this research thesis reports the investigation of the growth and arrest of a 2D crack under thermal fatigue (temperature and stress distribution over thickness, calculation of stress intensity factors, laws of fatigue crack growth, growth under varying amplitude), and the investigation of 3D crack growth under cyclic loading with varying amplitudes (analytic and numerical calculation of stress intensity factors, variational formulation in failure mechanics, 3D crack propagation under fatigue, use of the Aster code, use of the extended finite element method or X-FEM). The author discusses the origin and influence of the 3D crack network under thermal fatigue

  17. Theoretical modeling of mechanical homeostasis of a mammalian cell under gravity-directed vector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Lüwen; Zhang, Chen; Zhang, Fan; Lü, Shouqin; Sun, Shujin; Lü, Dongyuan; Long, Mian

    2018-02-01

    Translocation of dense nucleus along gravity vector initiates mechanical remodeling of a eukaryotic cell. In our previous experiments, we quantified the impact of gravity vector on cell remodeling by placing an MC3T3-E1 cell onto upward (U)-, downward (D)-, or edge-on (E)- orientated substrate. Our experimental data demonstrate that orientation dependence of nucleus longitudinal translocation is positively correlated with cytoskeletal (CSK) remodeling of their expressions and structures and also is associated with rearrangement of focal adhesion complex (FAC). However, the underlying mechanism how CSK network and FACs are reorganized in a mammalian cell remains unclear. In this paper, we developed a theoretical biomechanical model to integrate the mechanosensing of nucleus translocation with CSK remodeling and FAC reorganization induced by a gravity vector. The cell was simplified as a nucleated tensegrity structure in the model. The cell and CSK filaments were considered to be symmetrical. All elements of CSK filaments and cytomembrane that support the nucleus were simplified as springs. FACs were simplified as an adhesion cluster of parallel bonds with shared force. Our model proposed that gravity vector-directed translocation of the cell nucleus is mechanically balanced by CSK remodeling and FAC reorganization induced by a gravitational force. Under gravity, dense nucleus tends to translocate and exert additional compressive or stretching force on the cytoskeleton. Finally, changes of the tension force acting on talin by microfilament alter the size of FACs. Results from our model are in qualitative agreement with those from experiments.

  18. Simple and rapid mercury ion selective electrode based on 1-undecanethiol assembled Au substrate and its recognition mechanism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Xian-Qing; Liang, Hai-Qing [Hunan Provincial Key Laboratory of Materials Protection for Electric Power and Transportation, School of Chemistry and Biological Engineering, Changsha University of Science and Technology, Changsha 410114 (China); Cao, Zhong, E-mail: zhongcao2004@163.com [Hunan Provincial Key Laboratory of Materials Protection for Electric Power and Transportation, School of Chemistry and Biological Engineering, Changsha University of Science and Technology, Changsha 410114 (China); Xiao, Qing [Hunan Provincial Key Laboratory of Materials Protection for Electric Power and Transportation, School of Chemistry and Biological Engineering, Changsha University of Science and Technology, Changsha 410114 (China); Xiao, Zhong-Liang, E-mail: xiaozhongliang@163.com [Hunan Provincial Key Laboratory of Materials Protection for Electric Power and Transportation, School of Chemistry and Biological Engineering, Changsha University of Science and Technology, Changsha 410114 (China); State Key Laboratory of High Performance Complex Manufacturing, School of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Song, Liu-Bin [Hunan Provincial Key Laboratory of Materials Protection for Electric Power and Transportation, School of Chemistry and Biological Engineering, Changsha University of Science and Technology, Changsha 410114 (China); Chen, Dan [Hunan Airbluer Environmental Protection Technology Co., Ltd., Changsha 410014 (China); Wang, Fu-Liang [State Key Laboratory of High Performance Complex Manufacturing, School of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China)

    2017-03-01

    A simple and rapid mercury ion selective electrode based on 1-undecanethiol (1-UDT) assembled Au substrate (Au/1-UDT) has been well constructed. 1-UDT was for the purpose of generating self-assembled monolayer on gold surface to recognize Hg{sup 2+} in aqueous solution, which had a working concentration range of 1.0 × 10{sup −} {sup 8}–1.0 × 10{sup −4} mol L{sup −1}, with a Nernst response slope of 28.83 ± 0.4 mV/-pC, a detection limit of 4.5 × 10{sup −9} mol L{sup −1}, and a good selectivity over the other tested cations. Also, the Au/1-UDT possessed good reproducibility, stability, and short response time. The recovery obtained for the determination of mercury ion in practical tremella samples was in the range of 99.8–103.4%. Combined electrochemical analysis and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) with quantum chemical computation, the probable recognition mechanism of the electrode for selective recognition of Hg{sup 2+} has been investigated. The covalent bond formed between mercury and sulfur is stronger than the one between gold and sulfur and thus prevents the adsorption of 1-UDT molecules on the gold surface. The quantum chemical computation with density functional theory further demonstrates that the strong interaction between the mercury atom and the sulfur atom on the gold surface leads to the gold sulfur bond ruptured and the gold mercury metallophilic interaction. - Highlights: • A simple and rapid mercury ion selective electrode has been well constructed. • The Au/1-UDT electrode for sensing Hg{sup 2+} has a sensitivity of 28.83 ± 0.4 mV/− pC. • The ISE method has a detection limit of Hg{sup 2+} down to 4.5 × 10{sup −9} mol L{sup −1}. • A mechanism with density functional theory for recognition of Hg{sup 2+} is developed. • The quantum chemical computation demonstrates Au-Hg metallophilic interaction.

  19. Vascular Adventitia Calcification and Its Underlying Mechanism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Na Li

    Full Text Available Previous research on vascular calcification has mainly focused on the vascular intima and media. However, we show here that vascular calcification may also occur in the adventitia. The purpose of this work is to help elucidate the pathogenic mechanisms underlying vascular calcification. The calcified lesions were examined by Von Kossa staining in ApoE-/- mice which were fed high fat diets (HFD for 48 weeks and human subjects aged 60 years and older that had died of coronary heart disease, heart failure or acute renal failure. Explant cultured fibroblasts and smooth muscle cells (SMCswere obtained from rat adventitia and media, respectively. After calcification induction, cells were collected for Alizarin Red S staining. Calcified lesions were observed in the aorta adventitia and coronary artery adventitia of ApoE-/-mice, as well as in the aorta adventitia of human subjects examined. Explant culture of fibroblasts, the primary cell type comprising the adventitia, was successfully induced for calcification after incubation with TGF-β1 (20 ng/ml + mineralization media for 4 days, and the phenotype conversion vascular adventitia fibroblasts into myofibroblasts was identified. Culture of SMCs, which comprise only a small percentage of all cells in the adventitia, in calcifying medium for 14 days resulted in significant calcification.Vascular calcification can occur in the adventitia. Adventitia calcification may arise from the fibroblasts which were transformed into myofibroblasts or smooth muscle cells.

  20. Resveratrol increases nucleus pulposus matrix synthesis through activating the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway under mechanical compression in a disc organ culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Xiaorui; Leng, Xiaoming; Zhao, Man; Wu, Mei; Chen, Amei; Hong, Guoju; Sun, Ping

    2017-12-22

    Disc nucleus pulposus (NP) matrix homeostasis is important for normal disc function. Mechanical overloading seriously decreases matrix synthesis and increases matrix degradation. The present study aims to investigate the effects of resveratrol on disc NP matrix homeostasis under a relatively high-magnitude mechanical compression and the potential mechanism underlying this process. Porcine discs were perfusion-cultured and subjected to a relatively high-magnitude mechanical compression (1.3 MPa at a frequency of 1.0 Hz for 2 h once per day) for 7 days in a mechanically active bioreactor. The non-compressed discs were used as controls. Resveratrol was added along with culture medium to observe the effects of resveratrol on NP matrix synthesis under mechanical load respectively. NP matrix synthesis was evaluated by histology, biochemical content (glycosaminoglycan (GAG) and hydroxyproline (HYP)), and expression of matrix macromolecules (aggrecan and collagen II). Results showed that this high-magnitude mechanical compression significantly decreased NP matrix content, indicated by the decreased staining intensity of Alcian Blue and biochemical content (GAG and HYP), and the down-regulated expression of NP matrix macromolecules (aggrecan and collagen II). Further analysis indicated that resveratrol partly stimulated NP matrix synthesis and increased activity of the PI3K/Akt pathway in a dose-dependent manner under mechanical compression. Together, resveratrol is beneficial for disc NP matrix synthesis under mechanical overloading, and the activation of the PI3K/Akt pathway may participate in this regulatory process. Resveratrol may be promising to regenerate mechanical overloading-induced disc degeneration. © 2017 The Author(s).

  1. Genetic architecture underlying convergent evolution of egg-laying behavior in a seed-feeding beetle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Charles W; Wagner, James D; Cline, Sara; Thomas, Frances Ann; Messina, Frank J

    2009-05-01

    Independent populations subjected to similar environments often exhibit convergent evolution. An unresolved question is the frequency with which such convergence reflects parallel genetic mechanisms. We examined the convergent evolution of egg-laying behavior in the seed-feeding beetle Callosobruchus maculatus. Females avoid ovipositing on seeds bearing conspecific eggs, but the degree of host discrimination varies among geographic populations. In a previous experiment, replicate lines switched from a small host to a large one evolved reduced discrimination after 40 generations. We used line crosses to determine the genetic architecture underlying this rapid response. The most parsimonious genetic models included dominance and/or epistasis for all crosses. The genetic architecture underlying reduced discrimination in two lines was not significantly different from the architecture underlying differences between geographic populations, but the architecture underlying the divergence of a third line differed from all others. We conclude that convergence of this complex trait may in some cases involve parallel genetic mechanisms.

  2. Yueju Pill Rapidly Induces Antidepressant-Like Effects and Acutely Enhances BDNF Expression in Mouse Brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenda Xue

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The traditional antidepressants have a major disadvantage in delayed onset of efficacy, and the emerging fast-acting antidepressant ketamine has adverse behavioral and neurotoxic effects. Yueju pill, an herb medicine formulated eight hundred years ago by Doctor Zhu Danxi, has been popularly prescribed in China for alleviation of depression-like symptoms. Although several clinical outcome studies reported the relative short onset of antidepressant effects of Yueju, this has not been scientifically investigated. We, therefore, examined the rapid antidepressant effect of Yueju in mice and tested the underlying molecular mechanisms. We found that acute administration of ethanol extract of Yueju rapidly attenuated depressive-like symptoms in learned helpless paradigm, and the antidepressant-like effects were sustained for at least 24 hours in tail suspension test in ICR mice. Additionally, Yueju, like ketamine, rapidly increased the expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF in the hippocampus, whereas the BDNF mRNA expression remained unaltered. Yueju rapidly reduced the phosphorylation of eukaryotic elongation factor 2 (eEF2, leading to desuppression of BDNF synthesis. Unlike ketamine, both the BDNF expression and eEF2 phosphorylation were revered at 24 hours after Yueju administration. This study is the first to demonstrate the rapid antidepressant effects of an herb medicine, offering an opportunity to improve therapy of depression.

  3. Susceptibility of Permafrost Soil Organic Carbon under Warming Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Z.; Wullschleger, S. D.; Liang, L.; Graham, D. E.; Gu, B.

    2015-12-01

    Degradation of soil organic carbon (SOC) that has been stored in permafrost is a key concern under warming climate because it could provide a positive feedback. Studies and conceptual models suggest that SOC degradation is largely controlled by the decomposability of SOC, but it is unclear exactly what portions of SOC are susceptible to rapid breakdown and what mechanisms may be involved in SOC degradation. Using a suite of analytical techniques, we examined the dynamic consumption and production of labile SOC compounds, including sugars, alcohols, and small molecular weight organic acids in incubation experiments (up to 240 days at either -2 or 8 °C) with a tundra soil under anoxic conditions, where SOC respiration and iron(III) reduction were monitored. We observe that sugars and alcohols are main components in SOC accounting for initial rapid release of CO2 and CH4 through anaerobic fermentation, whereas the fermentation products such as acetate and formate are subsequently utilized as primary substrates for methanogenesis. Iron(III) reduction is correlated to acetate production and methanogenesis, suggesting its important roles as an electron acceptor in tundra SOC respiration. These observations corroborate strongly with the glucose addition during incubation, in which rapid CO2 and CH4 production is observed concurrently with rapid production and consumption of organics such as acetate. Thus, the biogeochemical processes we document here are pertinent to understanding the accelerated SOC decomposition with temperature and could provide basis for model predicting feedbacks to climate warming in the Arctic.

  4. Scientific conception on mechanisms of calcium homeostasis disorders under low dose effect of ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abylaev, Zh.A.; Dospolova, Zh.G.

    1997-01-01

    Scientific conception of probable consequences of calcium homeostasis disorders in personals, exposed to low dose effect of ionizing radiation has been developed. Principle positions of the conception is that pathologic processes development have different ways of conducting. During predominance of low doses of external gamma-radiation there is leading pathologic mechanism (mechanism 1) of disorder neuroendocrine regulation of both the calcium and the phosphor. In this case sicks have disorders of both the vegetative tonus and the endocrine status. Under internal irradiation (mechanism 2) there is disfunction of organs and systems (bore changes and disorders of hormone status). These changes are considered as consequence of negative action on organism of incorporated long-living radionuclides. Radio-toxic factors action (mechanism 3) provokes the excess of hormones, which acting on bone tissue and could be cause of steroid osteoporosis. Influence of chronic stress factor (mechanism 4) enlarges and burden action on organism of low radiation doses. It is emphasized, that decisive role in development of pathologic processes has mechanism of disturbance of neuroendocrine regulation of calcium exchange

  5. Microstructural development under interrupted hot deformation and the mechanical properties of a cast Mg–Gd–Y–Zr alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiao, Zhenyu [Educational Key Laboratory of Nonferrous Metal Materials Science and Engineering, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Yang, Xuyue [Educational Key Laboratory of Nonferrous Metal Materials Science and Engineering, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Institute for Materials Microstructure, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Yang, Yi; Zhang, Zhirou; Zhang, Duxiu; Li, Yi [Educational Key Laboratory of Nonferrous Metal Materials Science and Engineering, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Sakai, Taku [UEC Tokyo (The University of Electro-Communications), Chofu, Tokyo 182-8585 (Japan)

    2016-01-15

    Microstructural development under interrupted hot deformation of a cast Mg–Gd–Y–Zr alloy was investigated by optical microscopy (OM) and electron backscattering diffraction (EBSD) technology and the resultant mechanical properties were detected through tensile tests at room temperature. Ultrafine grains (UFGs) were remarkably developed under the condition of interrupted hot forging, resulting in an improvement of ambient mechanical properties. The basal texture was weakened by an effective increase of the volume fraction of UFGs under interrupted hot forging. These resulted in an improvement of tensile ductility with little or no drop in strength, i.e. the volume fraction of UFGs was raised from 30% to 70%, leading to an increase of the ambient tensile elongation from 15% to 23%.

  6. Interleukin 1β induces rapid phosphorylation and redistribution of talin: A possible mechanism for modulation of fibroblast focal adhesion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qwarnstroem, E.E.; MacFarlane, S.A.; Page, R.C.; Dower, S.K.

    1991-01-01

    The majority of interleukin 1 (IL-1) receptors in human fibroblasts has been shown to be localized at focal adhesions. This study describes rapid alterations caused by IL-1β/IL-1-receptor interaction at these sites. Fibroblast monolayers, incubated with IL-1β and prepared for electron microscopy, showed successive loss of cell-substratum contact and fewer and less-pronounced processes. Immunocytochemistry revealed loss and redistribution of the talin staining initially observed after 5-15 min of IL-1β incubation. Similarly, the cytoskeleton showed a decrease in staining and a disorganization starting from 15 to 30 min after IL-1 addition, whereas extracellular fibronectin appeared largely unaffected. Prelabeling with [ 32 P]phosphate showed a 2- to 3-fold increase in the level of talin phosphorylation, peaking at 15 min. Phospho amino acid analyses revealed a higher level of serine and threonine phosphorylation. The data suggest that the action of IL-1β on fibroblasts may be partially mediated by direct phosphorylation of talin via activation of a protein serine/threonine kinase, leading to changes in transmembrane linkage proteins and the cytoskeleton. Such alterations at focal adhesions may provide a mechanism by which IL-1 can rapidly modulate cell-matrix interactions during inflammation and wound healing

  7. Performance of a Rapid-Scan Vacuum Michelson Interferometer at the NSLS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brierly, P.; Dumas, P.; Smith, M.; Williams, G.P.

    2001-01-01

    A commercial Nicolet Magna series rapid-scan Michelson Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) was installed in a vacuum housing and integrated into the U4IR beamline at the National Synchrotron Light Source at Brookhaven National Laboratory. The frequency reference laser was mounted outside vacuum, but the moving mirror mechanism and the dynamic alignment system for the fixed mirror were in vacuum. The performance of the instrument was measured in the usual way by measuring the repeatability of data collected under specific conditions of aperture, resolution and mirror scanning velocity. We briefly discuss the beamline design, to put the interferometer in context, then present signal to noise data which we discuss in terms of both instrument performance and also storage ring stability. Under optimal conditions, the instrument has a reproducibility of 0.01% in 1 minute of measuring time at a resolution of 2 cmss, -1 , over a range from 100-3000 cm -1

  8. Coral bleaching under thermal stress: putative involvement of host/symbiont recognition mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal-Dupiol, Jeremie; Adjeroud, Mehdi; Roger, Emmanuel; Foure, Laurent; Duval, David; Mone, Yves; Ferrier-Pages, Christine; Tambutte, Eric; Tambutte, Sylvie; Zoccola, Didier; Allemand, Denis; Mitta, Guillaume

    2009-08-04

    Coral bleaching can be defined as the loss of symbiotic zooxanthellae and/or their photosynthetic pigments from their cnidarian host. This major disturbance of reef ecosystems is principally induced by increases in water temperature. Since the beginning of the 1980s and the onset of global climate change, this phenomenon has been occurring at increasing rates and scales, and with increasing severity. Several studies have been undertaken in the last few years to better understand the cellular and molecular mechanisms of coral bleaching but the jigsaw puzzle is far from being complete, especially concerning the early events leading to symbiosis breakdown. The aim of the present study was to find molecular actors involved early in the mechanism leading to symbiosis collapse. In our experimental procedure, one set of Pocillopora damicornis nubbins was subjected to a gradual increase of water temperature from 28 degrees C to 32 degrees C over 15 days. A second control set kept at constant temperature (28 degrees C). The differentially expressed mRNA between the stressed states (sampled just before the onset of bleaching) and the non stressed states (control) were isolated by Suppression Subtractive Hybridization. Transcription rates of the most interesting genes (considering their putative function) were quantified by Q-RT-PCR, which revealed a significant decrease in transcription of two candidates six days before bleaching. RACE-PCR experiments showed that one of them (PdC-Lectin) contained a C-Type-Lectin domain specific for mannose. Immunolocalisation demonstrated that this host gene mediates molecular interactions between the host and the symbionts suggesting a putative role in zooxanthellae acquisition and/or sequestration. The second gene corresponds to a gene putatively involved in calcification processes (Pdcyst-rich). Its down-regulation could reflect a trade-off mechanism leading to the arrest of the mineralization process under stress. Under thermal stress

  9. Fracture mechanics in new designed power module under thermo-mechanical loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Durand Camille

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Thermo-mechanically induced failure is a major reliability issue in the microelectronic industry. On this account, a new type of Assembly Interconnected Technology used to connect MOSFETs in power modules has been developed. The reliability is increased by using a copper clip soldered on the top side of the chip, avoiding the use of aluminium wire bonds, often responsible for the failure of the device. Thus the new designed MOSFET package does not follow the same failure mechanisms as standard modules. Thermal and power cycling tests were performed on these new packages and resulting failures were analyzed. Thermo-mechanical simulations including cracks in the aluminium metallization and intermetallics (IMC were performed using Finite Element Analysis in order to better understand crack propagation and module behaviour.

  10. A coupled diffusion-fluid pressure model to predict cell density distribution for cells encapsulated in a porous hydrogel scaffold under mechanical loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Feihu; Vaughan, Ted J; Mc Garrigle, Myles J; McNamara, Laoise M

    2017-10-01

    Tissue formation within tissue engineering (TE) scaffolds is preceded by growth of the cells throughout the scaffold volume and attachment of cells to the scaffold substrate. It is known that mechanical stimulation, in the form of fluid perfusion or mechanical strain, enhances cell differentiation and overall tissue formation. However, due to the complex multi-physics environment of cells within TE scaffolds, cell transport under mechanical stimulation is not fully understood. Therefore, in this study, we have developed a coupled multiphysics model to predict cell density distribution in a TE scaffold. In this model, cell transport is modelled as a thermal conduction process, which is driven by the pore fluid pressure under applied loading. As a case study, the model is investigated to predict the cell density patterns of pre-osteoblasts MC3T3-e1 cells under a range of different loading regimes, to obtain an understanding of desirable mechanical stimulation that will enhance cell density distribution within TE scaffolds. The results of this study have demonstrated that fluid perfusion can result in a higher cell density in the scaffold region closed to the outlet, while cell density distribution under mechanical compression was similar with static condition. More importantly, the study provides a novel computational approach to predict cell distribution in TE scaffolds under mechanical loading. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Words, rules, and mechanisms of language acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endress, Ansgar D; Bonatti, Luca L

    2016-01-01

    We review recent artificial language learning studies, especially those following Endress and Bonatti (Endress AD, Bonatti LL. Rapid learning of syllable classes from a perceptually continuous speech stream. Cognition 2007, 105:247-299), suggesting that humans can deploy a variety of learning mechanisms to acquire artificial languages. Several experiments provide evidence for multiple learning mechanisms that can be deployed in fluent speech: one mechanism encodes the positions of syllables within words and can be used to extract generalization, while the other registers co-occurrence statistics of syllables and can be used to break a continuum into its components. We review dissociations between these mechanisms and their potential role in language acquisition. We then turn to recent criticisms of the multiple mechanisms hypothesis and show that they are inconsistent with the available data. Our results suggest that artificial and natural language learning is best understood by dissecting the underlying specialized learning abilities, and that these data provide a rare opportunity to link important language phenomena to basic psychological mechanisms. For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Injury-induced rapid activation of MAPK signaling in dechorionated eggs and larvae of the silkworm Bombyx mori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Shi-Hong; Chen, Chien-Hung

    2017-04-01

    Previous study showed that diapause in Bombyx mori eggs can be terminated by dechorionation and that activation in the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) in dechorionated cultured eggs is involved in diapause termination. In the present study, the possible mechanism underlying activation of ERK upon dechorionation was further investigated. Results showed that mechanical injury of diapause eggs without medium incubation also resulted in rapid increase in the phospho-ERK levels and that injury increased the phospho-ERK levels at different stages of both diapause eggs and eggs in which diapause initiation was prevented by HCl. Effects of anaerobiosis on dechorionation-stimulated phospho-ERK levels showed that the mechanical injury itself but not the dramatic increase in oxygen uptake upon injury is involved in a rapid activation of ERK. Chemical anaerobiosis on dechorionation-stimulated phospho-ERK levels and the in vivo effect of anaerobiosis showed that the supply of oxygen also plays a role in ERK signaling. In addition, injury induced the phosphorylation of c-jun N-terminal kinases (JNKs) and p38 kinase, components of two parallel MAPK pathways. A kinase assay showed a dramatic increase in JNK kinase activity in egg lysates upon injury. When newly hatched first instar larvae were injured, an increase in the phospho-ERK levels similar to that in dechorionated eggs was observed. From the results, we hypothesize that the injury-induced rapid activation of MAPK signaling, which serves as a natural signal for embryonic development, is related to diapause termination in dechorionated eggs. © 2015 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  13. Pluripotent Stem Cell Studies Elucidate the Underlying Mechanisms of Early Embryonic Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingyu Li

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Early embryonic development is a multi-step process that is intensively regulated by various signaling pathways. Because of the complexity of the embryo and the interactions between the germ layers, it is very difficult to fully understand how these signals regulate embryo patterning. Recently, pluripotent stem cell lines derived from different developmental stages have provided an in vitro system for investigating molecular mechanisms regulating cell fate decisions. In this review, we summarize the major functions of the BMP, FGF, Nodal and Wnt signaling pathways, which have well-established roles in vertebrate embryogenesis. Then, we highlight recent studies in pluripotent stem cells that have revealed the stage-specific roles of BMP,FGF and Nodal pathways during neural differentiation. These findings enhance our understanding of the stepwise regulation of embryo patterning by particular signaling pathways and provide new insight into the mechanisms underlying early embryonic development.

  14. Thermo-Mechanical Properties of Semi-Degradable Poly(β-amino ester)-co-Methyl Methacrylate Networks under Simulated Physiological Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safranski, David L.; Crabtree, Jacob C.; Huq, Yameen R.; Gall, Ken

    2011-01-01

    Poly(β-amino ester) networks are being explored for biomedical applications, but they may lack the mechanical properties necessary for long term implantation. The objective of this study is to evaluate the effect of adding methyl methacrylate on networks' mechanical properties under simulated physiological conditions. The networks were synthesized in two parts: (1) a biodegradable crosslinker was formed from a diacrylate and amine, (2) and then varying concentrations of methyl methacrylate were added prior to photopolymerizing the network. Degradation rate, mechanical properties, and glass transition temperature were studied as a function of methyl methacrylate composition. The crosslinking density played a limited role on mechanical properties for these networks, but increasing methyl methacrylate concentration improved the toughness by several orders of magnitude. Under simulated physiological conditions, networks showed increasing toughness or sustained toughness as degradation occurred. This work establishes a method of creating degradable networks with tailorable toughness while undergoing partial degradation. PMID:21966028

  15. Statistical mechanics of fluids under internal constraints: Rigorous results for the one-dimensional hard rod fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corti, D.S.; Debenedetti, P.G.

    1998-01-01

    The rigorous statistical mechanics of metastability requires the imposition of internal constraints that prevent access to regions of phase space corresponding to inhomogeneous states. We derive exactly the Helmholtz energy and equation of state of the one-dimensional hard rod fluid under the influence of an internal constraint that places an upper bound on the distance between nearest-neighbor rods. This type of constraint is relevant to the suppression of boiling in a superheated liquid. We determine the effects of this constraint upon the thermophysical properties and internal structure of the hard rod fluid. By adding an infinitely weak and infinitely long-ranged attractive potential to the hard core, the fluid exhibits a first-order vapor-liquid transition. We determine exactly the equation of state of the one-dimensional superheated liquid and show that it exhibits metastable phase equilibrium. We also derive statistical mechanical relations for the equation of state of a fluid under the action of arbitrary constraints, and show the connection between the statistical mechanics of constrained and unconstrained ensembles. copyright 1998 The American Physical Society

  16. Corporate debts ad credit performance under the new mechanism of reorganization of the Russian banks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey A. Andryushin

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective to explore the dynamics and factors of formation of corporate debts the characteristics of low credit activity of the Russian banks and regulation of liquidity deficit of enterprises under the new reorganization mechanism in the Russian banking sector. Methods systematic approach to the cognition of economic phenomena which allows to study them in their dynamic development taking into account the influence of various environmental factors. The systematic approach determined selection of specific research methods empirical logical comparative and statistical. Results the article is devoted to the problems of declining credit activity of commercial banks under the conditions of economic activity revival as well as to assessing the impact of the new reorganization mechanism on this process. It is shown that in the recent years the nonfinancial sector faces the trend of optimizing the corporate debts and the liquidity deficit which reduced the demand for loans and as a consequence decreased the banksrsquo credit activity. To analyze the dynamics of deficitsurplus of liquidity in the corporate sector a new classification of liquidity deficitsurplus levels was introduced. Based on the proposed classification the risk factors were identified that influenced the dynamics of indebtedness in the corporate sector. The article also analyses the modern monetary mechanism of money supply in the economy and its transformation. It was determined that the main limitation of credit issuance by commercial banks is their capital not the reserve multiplier. The new mechanism of credit institutionsrsquo financial recovery and its impact on the banksrsquo credit activity was estimated. The conditions of liquidity deficiency reduction in the Russian companies were analyzed in the medium term. Scientific novelty for the first time on the basis of system analysis methods the growth factors of the corporate debt load were identified the peculiarities of low

  17. Different neurophysiological mechanisms underlying word and rule extraction from speech.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth De Diego Balaguer

    Full Text Available The initial process of identifying words from spoken language and the detection of more subtle regularities underlying their structure are mandatory processes for language acquisition. Little is known about the cognitive mechanisms that allow us to extract these two types of information and their specific time-course of acquisition following initial contact with a new language. We report time-related electrophysiological changes that occurred while participants learned an artificial language. These changes strongly correlated with the discovery of the structural rules embedded in the words. These changes were clearly different from those related to word learning and occurred during the first minutes of exposition. There is a functional distinction in the nature of the electrophysiological signals during acquisition: an increase in negativity (N400 in the central electrodes is related to word-learning and development of a frontal positivity (P2 is related to rule-learning. In addition, the results of an online implicit and a post-learning test indicate that, once the rules of the language have been acquired, new words following the rule are processed as words of the language. By contrast, new words violating the rule induce syntax-related electrophysiological responses when inserted online in the stream (an early frontal negativity followed by a late posterior positivity and clear lexical effects when presented in isolation (N400 modulation. The present study provides direct evidence suggesting that the mechanisms to extract words and structural dependencies from continuous speech are functionally segregated. When these mechanisms are engaged, the electrophysiological marker associated with rule-learning appears very quickly, during the earliest phases of exposition to a new language.

  18. Supersymmetric quantum mechanics under point singularities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchino, Takashi; Tsutsui, Izumi

    2003-01-01

    We provide a systematic study on the possibility of supersymmetry (SUSY) for one-dimensional quantum mechanical systems consisting of a pair of lines R or intervals [-l, l] each having a point singularity. We consider the most general singularities and walls (boundaries) at x = ±l admitted quantum mechanically, using a U(2) family of parameters to specify one singularity and similarly a U(1) family of parameters to specify one wall. With these parameter freedoms, we find that for a certain subfamily the line systems acquire an N = 1 SUSY which can be enhanced to N = 4 if the parameters are further tuned, and that these SUSY are generically broken except for a special case. The interval systems, on the other hand, can accommodate N = 2 or N = 4 SUSY, broken or unbroken, and exhibit a rich variety of (degenerate) spectra. Our SUSY systems include the familiar SUSY systems with the Dirac δ(x)-potential, and hence are extensions of the known SUSY quantum mechanics to those with general point singularities and walls. The self-adjointness of the supercharge in relation to the self-adjointness of the Hamiltonian is also discussed

  19. Physical mechanism causing rapid changes in ultrarelativistic electron pitch angle distributions right after a shock arrival: Evaluation of an electron dropout event: Drift Shell Splitting on the Dayside

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, X.-J.; University of California, Los Angeles, CA; Li, W.; Boston University, MA; Thorne, R. M.

    2016-01-01

    Three mechanisms have been proposed to explain relativistic electron flux depletions (dropouts) in the Earth's outer radiation belt during storm times: adiabatic expansion of electron drift shells due to a decrease in magnetic field strength, magnetopause shadowing and subsequent outward radial diffusion, and precipitation into the atmosphere (driven by EMIC wave scattering). Which mechanism predominates in causing electron dropouts commonly observed in the outer radiation belt is still debatable. In the present study, we evaluate the physical mechanism that may be primarily responsible for causing the sudden change in relativistic electron pitch angle distributions during a dropout event observed by Van Allen Probes during the main phase of the 27 February 2014 storm. During this event, the phase space density of ultrarelativistic (>1MeV) electrons was depleted by more than 1 order of magnitude over the entire radial extent of the outer radiation belt (3 < L* < 5) in less than 6 h after the passage of an interplanetary shock. We model the electron pitch angle distribution under a compressed magnetic field topology based on actual solar wind conditions. Although these ultrarelativistic electrons exhibit highly anisotropic (peaked in 90°), energy-dependent pitch angle distributions, which appear to be associated with the typical EMIC wave scattering, comparison of the modeled electron distribution to electron measurements indicates that drift shell splitting is responsible for this rapid change in electron pitch angle distributions. This further indicates that magnetopause loss is the predominant cause of the electron dropout right after the shock arrival.

  20. Plant MAPK cascades: Just rapid signaling modules?

    KAUST Repository

    Boudsocq, Marie; Danquah, Agyemang; Zé licourt, Axel de; Hirt, Heribert; Colcombet, Jean

    2015-01-01

    rapid MAPK activation, we showed that the activation of the new MAPK module is delayed and relies on the MAP3K protein synthesis. In this addendum, we discuss the role of this original and unexpected activation mechanism of MAPK cascades which suggests

  1. Rapidity resummation for B-meson wave functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shen Yue-Long

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Transverse-momentum dependent (TMD hadronic wave functions develop light-cone divergences under QCD corrections, which are commonly regularized by the rapidity ζ of gauge vector defining the non-light-like Wilson lines. The yielding rapidity logarithms from infrared enhancement need to be resummed for both hadronic wave functions and short-distance functions, to achieve scheme-independent calculations of physical quantities. We briefly review the recent progress on the rapidity resummation for B-meson wave functions which are the key ingredients of TMD factorization formulae for radiative-leptonic, semi-leptonic and non-leptonic B-meson decays. The crucial observation is that rapidity resummation induces a strong suppression of B-meson wave functions at small light-quark momentum, strengthening the applicability of TMD factorization in exclusive B-meson decays. The phenomenological consequence of rapidity-resummation improved B-meson wave functions is further discussed in the context of B → π transition form factors at large hadronic recoil.

  2. Experimental study on the thermo-mechanical behaviour of stiff clay under non-isotropic stress state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, Anh Minh; Cui, Yu-Jun; Li, Xiang-Ling

    2012-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. Stiff clay is usually considered as possible host-rock for geological radioactive waste disposal due to its low permeability and its self-sealing capacity. Boom Clay, for instance, is one of the clays currently considered by the Belgian radioactive waste management agency Ondraf/Niras as a potential host for a geological repository. In order to analyse the performance of this material, it is important to understand its behaviour under the coupled thermo-hydro-mechanical solicitations. In laboratory, several studies have been performed to study the volume change of clay under coupled thermomechanical loading. The results show that heating under drained conditions can induce thermal dilation at low confining stress and thermal contraction at high confining stress. On the other hand, compression tests performed at constant temperature show that the compressibility parameters of soil can be modified by temperature change. These features are now well considered in constitutive laws based on the framework of elasto-plasticity. Under undrained conditions, heating can increase pore-water pressure and this behaviour can be simulated using the theoretical thermo-poro-elastic framework. The temperature effect on the soil behaviour under triaxial compression is also often considered. It is commonly accepted that heating decreases the shear strength of clay but this softening can be hidden by the thermal contraction that occurs during heating which can induce at the same time soil hardening. In spite of these existing works, laboratory tests considering the thermo-mechanical loading path that the soil can be subjected to are still rare. Actually, in the case of geological radioactive waste disposal, after the installation of waste canisters, the soil is expected to be heated under non-isotropic stress state. Most of the existing laboratory works show heating tests in odometer cell or triaxial cell under isotropic stress

  3. Push-and-stick mechanism for charged and excited small cluster emission under ion bombardment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bitensky, I.S.; Parilis, E.S.; Wojciechowski, I.A.

    1992-01-01

    The mechanism for the formation, excitation and ionization of small clusters emitted under ion bombardment is discussed. It is shown that the increased degree of ionization for the transition metal dimers, trimers and tetramers can be explained by the existence of an additional effective channel for their formation, namely the associative ionization process. A simple estimate shows that the sticking together of a fast cascade atom and the pushed out surface atom is 30-40 times more effective for dimer formation, than the recombination of two fast atoms. This push-and-stick mechanism of cluster formation could also be effective for the formation of trimers and tetramers. (orig.)

  4. Dynamic Performance of Maximum Power Point Trackers in TEG Systems Under Rapidly Changing Temperature Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Man, E. A.; Sera, D.; Mathe, L.; Schaltz, E.; Rosendahl, L.

    2016-03-01

    Characterization of thermoelectric generators (TEG) is widely discussed and equipment has been built that can perform such analysis. One method is often used to perform such characterization: constant temperature with variable thermal power input. Maximum power point tracking (MPPT) methods for TEG systems are mostly tested under steady-state conditions for different constant input temperatures. However, for most TEG applications, the input temperature gradient changes, exposing the MPPT to variable tracking conditions. An example is the exhaust pipe on hybrid vehicles, for which, because of the intermittent operation of the internal combustion engine, the TEG and its MPPT controller are exposed to a cyclic temperature profile. Furthermore, there are no guidelines on how fast the MPPT must be under such dynamic conditions. In the work discussed in this paper, temperature gradients for TEG integrated in several applications were evaluated; the results showed temperature variation up to 5°C/s for TEG systems. Electrical characterization of a calcium-manganese oxide TEG was performed at steady-state for different input temperatures and a maximum temperature of 401°C. By using electrical data from characterization of the oxide module, a solar array simulator was emulated to perform as a TEG. A trapezoidal temperature profile with different gradients was used on the TEG simulator to evaluate the dynamic MPPT efficiency. It is known that the perturb and observe (P&O) algorithm may have difficulty accurately tracking under rapidly changing conditions. To solve this problem, a compromise must be found between the magnitude of the increment and the sampling frequency of the control algorithm. The standard P&O performance was evaluated experimentally by using different temperature gradients for different MPPT sampling frequencies, and efficiency values are provided for all cases. The results showed that a tracking speed of 2.5 Hz can be successfully implemented on a TEG

  5. A micromechanical study of the damage mechanics of acrylic particulate composites under thermomechanical loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Shihua

    The main aim of this dissertation was to characterize the damage mechanism and fatigue behavior of the acrylic particulate composite. This dissertation also investigated how the failure mechanism is influenced by changes in certain parameters including the volume fraction of particle, the interfacial bonding strength, the stiffness and thickness of the interphase, and the CTE mismatch between the particle and the matrix. Monotonic uniaxial tensile and compressive testing under various temperatures and strain rates, isothermal low-cycle mechanical testing and thermal cycling of a plate with a cutout were performed. The influence of the interfacial bonding strength between the particle and the matrix on the failure mechanism of the ATH filled PMMA was investigated using in situ observations under uniaxial loading conditions. For composites with weak interfacial bonding, the debonding is the major damage mode. For composites with strong interfacial bonding, the breakage of the agglomerate of particles is the major damage mode. Experimental studies also demonstrated the significant influence of interfacial bonding strength on the fatigue life of the ATH filled PMMA. The damage was characterized in terms of the elastic modulus degradation, the load-drop parameter, the plastic strain range and the hysteresis dissipation. Identifying the internal state variables that quantify material degradation under thermomechanical loading is an active research field. In this dissertation, the entropy production, which is a measure of the irreversibility of the thermodynamic system, is used as the metric for damage. The close correlation between the damage measured in terms of elastic modulus degradation and that obtained from the finite element simulation results validates the entropy based damage evolution function. A micromechanical model for acrylic particulate composites with imperfect interfacial bonds was proposed. Acrylic particulate composites are treated as three

  6. Mechanical and Thermophysical Properties of Cubic Rock-Salt AlN Under High Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebga, Noudjoud; Daoud, Salah; Sun, Xiao-Wei; Bioud, Nadhira; Latreche, Abdelhakim

    2018-03-01

    Density functional theory, density functional perturbation theory, and the Debye model have been used to investigate the structural, elastic, sound velocity, and thermodynamic properties of AlN with cubic rock-salt structure under high pressure, yielding the equilibrium structural parameters, equation of state, and elastic constants of this interesting material. The isotropic shear modulus, Pugh ratio, and Poisson's ratio were also investigated carefully. In addition, the longitudinal, transverse, and average elastic wave velocities, phonon contribution to the thermal conductivity, and interesting thermodynamic properties were predicted and analyzed in detail. The results demonstrate that the behavior of the elastic wave velocities under increasing hydrostatic pressure explains the hardening of the corresponding phonons. Based on the elastic stability criteria under pressure, it is found that AlN with cubic rock-salt structure is mechanically stable, even at pressures up to 100 GPa. Analysis of the Pugh ratio and Poisson's ratio revealed that AlN with cubic rock-salt structure behaves in brittle manner.

  7. [Strategies and mechanisms of soil springtails in adapting lower temperature environment: research progress].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jing; Wang, Yun-Biao; Wu, Dong-Hui

    2012-12-01

    Low temperature and drought are the main environmental factors threatening the animals living in arctic area and cold temperate regions. To adapt the severe environment, the animals should adopt appropriate strategies. As a group of arthopods with freeze-avoiding strategy, soil springtails have the similar ecological mechanisms and modes of cold resistance/tolerance as insects, manifesting in the cold acclimation and drought tolerance to decrease the damage of ice crystal formation. During cold acclimation, there are a rapid increase of glycerol, a rapid decrease of fucose and glucose, and the production of anti-freeze proteins (AFP) , and exists the inter-transformation of different kinds of lipids to improve the flow of cell membrane to protect the cell from low temperature injury. In addition, soil springtails have their own specific modes and mechanisms to tolerate low temperature stress, mainly the vertical migration under the protection of snow cover and the excretion of ice nucleator from haemolymph, illustrating that it's of significance to research the cryobiology of soil springtails. This paper summarized the modes and mechanisms of soil springtails in tolerating low temperature environment, reviewed the research progress on the eco-physiology of the springtails, discussed the existing problems of the researches on the low temperature tolerance of the springtails, and prospected the research directions of the springtails low temperature ecology under the background of global change.

  8. The Mechanical Behaviors of Various Dental Implant Materials under Fatigue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatma Bayata

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The selection of materials has a considerable role on long-term stability of implants. The materials having high resistance to fatigue are required for dental implant applications since these implants are subjected to cyclic loads during chewing. This study evaluates the performance of different types of materials (AISI 316L stainless steel, alumina and its porous state, CoCr alloys, yttrium-stabilized zirconia (YSZ, zirconia-toughened alumina (ZTA, and cp Ti with the nanotubular TiO2 surface by finite element analysis (FEA under real cyclic biting loads and researches the optimum material for implant applications. For the analysis, the implant design generated by our group was utilized. The mechanical behavior and the life of the implant under biting loads were estimated based on the material and surface properties. According to the condition based on ISO 14801, the FEA results showed that the equivalent von Mises stress values were in the range of 226.95 MPa and 239.05 MPa. The penetration analysis was also performed, and the calculated penetration of the models onto the bone structure ranged between 0.0037389 mm and 0.013626 mm. L-605 CoCr alloy-assigned implant model showed the least penetration, while cp Ti with the nanotubular TiO2 surface led to the most one. However, the difference was about 0.01 mm, and it may not be evaluated as a distinct difference. As the final numerical evaluation item, the fatigue life was executed, and the results were achieved in the range of 4 × 105 and 1 × 109 cycles. These results indicated that different materials showed good performance for each evaluation component, but considering the overall mechanical performance and the treatment process (implant adsorption by means of surface properties, cp Ti with the nanotubular TiO2 surface material was evaluated as the suitable one, and it may also be implied that it displayed enough performance in the designed dental implant model.

  9. Mechanism Underlying the Spatial Pattern Formation of Dominant Tree Species in a Natural Secondary Forest.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guodong Jia

    Full Text Available Studying the spatial pattern of plant species may provide significant insights into processes and mechanisms that maintain stand stability. To better understand the dynamics of naturally regenerated secondary forests, univariate and bivariate Ripley's L(r functions were employed to evaluate intra-/interspecific relationships of four dominant tree species (Populus davidiana, Betula platyphylla, Larix gmelinii and Acer mono and to distinguish the underlying mechanism of spatial distribution. The results showed that the distribution of soil, water and nutrients was not fragmented but presented clear gradients. An overall aggregated distribution existed at most distances. No correlation was found between the spatial pattern of soil conditions and that of trees. Both positive and negative intra- and interspecific relationships were found between different DBH classes at various distances. Large trees did not show systematic inhibition of the saplings. By contrast, the inhibition intensified as the height differences increased between the compared pairs. Except for Larix, universal inhibition of saplings by upper layer trees occurred among other species, and this reflected the vertical competition for light. Therefore, we believe that competition for light rather than soil nutrients underlies the mechanism driving the formation of stand spatial pattern in the rocky mountainous areas examined.

  10. Failure mechanism of coated biomaterials under high impact-sliding contact stresses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ying

    This study uses a newly developed testing method--- inclined cyclic impact-sliding test to investigate the failure behaviors of different types of biomaterials, (SS316L, Ti6Al4V and CoCr) coated by different coatings (TiN, DLC and PEO), under extremely high dynamic contact stress conditions. This test method can simulate the combined impact and sliding/rolling loading conditions, which is very practical in many aspects of commercial usages. During the tests, fatigue cracking, chipping, peeling and material transferring were observed in damaged area. This research is mainly focused on the failure behaviors of load-bearing materials which cyclic impacting and sliding are always involved. This purpose was accomplished in the three stages: First, impact-sliding test was carried out on TiN coated unhardened M2. It was found that soft substrate can cause early failure of coating due to the considerable plastic deformation in the substrate. In this case, stronger substrate is required to support coating better when tested under high contact stresses. Second, PEO coated Ti-6Al-4V was tested under pure sliding and impact-sliding wear conditions. PEO coating was found not strong enough to afford the high contact pressure under cyclic impact-sliding wear test due to its porous surface structure. However, the wear performance of PEO coating was enhanced due to the sub-stoichiometric oxide. To sum up, for load-bearing biomedical implants involved in high impacting movement, PEO coating may not be a promising surface protection. Third, the dense, smooth PVD/CVD bio-inert coatings were reconsidered. DLC and TiN coatings, combined by different substrates together with different interface materials were tested under the cyclic impact-sliding test using a set of proper loading. The results show that to choose a proper combination of coating, interface and substrate based on their mechanical properties is of great importance under the test condition. Hard substrates provide support

  11. The Dynamic Evolution of Firms’ Pollution Control Strategy under Graded Reward-Penalty Mechanism

    OpenAIRE

    Li Ming Chen; Wen Ping Wang

    2016-01-01

    The externality of pollution problem makes firms lack enough incentive to reduce pollution emission. Therefore, it is necessary to design a reasonable environmental regulation mechanism so as to effectively urge firms to control pollution. In order to inspire firms to control pollution, we divide firms into different grades according to their pollution level and construct an evolutionary game model to analyze the interaction between government’s regulation and firms’ pollution control under g...

  12. Novel instrument for characterizing comprehensive physical properties under multi-mechanical loads and multi-physical field coupling conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Changyi; Zhao, Hongwei; Ma, Zhichao; Qiao, Yuansen; Hong, Kun; Ren, Zhuang; Zhang, Jianhai; Pei, Yongmao; Ren, Luquan

    2018-02-01

    Functional materials represented by ferromagnetics and ferroelectrics are widely used in advanced sensor and precision actuation due to their special characterization under coupling interactions of complex loads and external physical fields. However, the conventional devices for material characterization can only provide a limited type of loads and physical fields and cannot simulate the actual service conditions of materials. A multi-field coupling instrument for characterization has been designed and implemented to overcome this barrier and measure the comprehensive physical properties under complex service conditions. The testing forms include tension, compression, bending, torsion, and fatigue in mechanical loads, as well as different external physical fields, including electric, magnetic, and thermal fields. In order to offer a variety of information to reveal mechanical damage or deformation forms, a series of measurement methods at the microscale are integrated with the instrument including an indentation unit and in situ microimaging module. Finally, several coupling experiments which cover all the loading and measurement functions of the instrument have been implemented. The results illustrate the functions and characteristics of the instrument and then reveal the variety in mechanical and electromagnetic properties of the piezoelectric transducer ceramic, TbDyFe alloy, and carbon fiber reinforced polymer under coupling conditions.

  13. Research on the mechanical characteristic of the bentonite mixture material under the groundwater environment of Horonobe. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takaji, Kazuhiko; Shigeno, Yoshimasa; Simogouchi, Takafumi

    2005-02-01

    In the Horonobe underground research project, various in-situ experiments are conducted in order to confirm the applicability of the Engineered Barrier System (EBS) design techniques shown in H12 report, to understand the long-term effects of EBS, and to improve the reliability of the prediction method. Moreover, since it is assumed that the circumference of Horonobe underground research laboratory is the saline water environment, to understand the mechanical behavior of the bentonite mixture material under the saline water environment is important when influenced in design of in-situ experiments. In this study, unconfined compression tests, consolidated-undrained triaxial compression tests and long-term consolidation tests of the bentonite mixture material were performed using groundwater that is extracted near the Horonobe underground research laboratory, and simulation analyses of EBS over a period of time using the results of laboratory experiments etc. were carried out. Consequently, although compressive strength and the elastic modulus under the saline water environment declined compared with that the fresh water, neither shear deformation behavior under triaxial stress condition nor volume deformation behavior by consolidation test almost had a difference, and it was suggested that there were few possibilities that the saline water had serious influence mechanically also about long-term mechanical behavior. (author)

  14. Towards identifying the mechanisms underlying field-aligned edge-loss of HHFW power on NSTX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perkins, R. J.; Bell, R. E.; Bertelli, N.; Diallo, A.; Gerhardt, S.; Hosea, J. C.; Jaworski, M. A.; LeBlanc, B. P.; Kramer, G. J.; Maingi, R.; Phillips, C. K.; Podestà, M.; Roquemore, L.; Scotti, F.; Taylor, G.; Wilson, J. R.; Ahn, J-W.; Gray, T. K.; Green, D. L.; McLean, A.

    2014-01-01

    Fast-wave heating will be a major heating scheme on ITER, as it can heat ions directly and is relatively unaffected by the large machine size unlike neutral beams. However, fast-wave interactions with the plasma edge can lead to deleterious effects such as, in the case of the high-harmonic fast-wave (HHFW) system on NSTX, large losses of fast-wave power in the scrape off layer (SOL) under certain conditions. In such scenarios, a large fraction of the lost HHFW power is deposited on the upper and lower divertors in bright spiral shapes. The responsible mechanism(s) has not yet been identified but may include fast-wave propagation in the scrape off layer, parametric decay instability, and RF currents driven by the antenna reactive fields. Understanding and mitigating these losses is important not only for improving the heating and current-drive on NSTX-Upgrade but also for understanding fast-wave propagation across the SOL in any fast-wave system. This talk summarizes experimental results demonstrating that the flow of lost HHFW power to the divertor regions largely follows the open SOL magnetic field lines. This lost power flux is relatively large close to both the antenna and the last closed flux surface with a reduced level in between, so the loss mechanism cannot be localized to the antenna. At the same time, significant losses also occur along field lines connected to the inboard edge of the bottom antenna plate. The power lost within the spirals is roughly estimated, showing that these field-aligned losses to the divertor are significant but may not account for the total HHFW loss. To elucidate the role of the onset layer for perpendicular fast-wave propagation with regards to fast-wave propagation in the SOL, a cylindrical cold-plasma model is being developed. This model, in addition to advanced RF codes such as TORIC and AORSA, is aimed at identifying the underlying mechanism(s) behind these SOL losses, to minimize their effects in NSTX-U, and to predict

  15. Towards identifying the mechanisms underlying field-aligned edge-loss of HHFW power on NSTX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perkins, R. J.; Bell, R. E.; Bertelli, N.; Diallo, A.; Gerhardt, S.; Hosea, J. C.; Jaworski, M. A.; LeBlanc, B. P.; Kramer, G. J.; Maingi, R.; Phillips, C. K.; Podestà, M.; Roquemore, L.; Scotti, F.; Taylor, G.; Wilson, J. R. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, NJ (United States); Ahn, J-W.; Gray, T. K.; Green, D. L.; McLean, A. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); and others

    2014-02-12

    Fast-wave heating will be a major heating scheme on ITER, as it can heat ions directly and is relatively unaffected by the large machine size unlike neutral beams. However, fast-wave interactions with the plasma edge can lead to deleterious effects such as, in the case of the high-harmonic fast-wave (HHFW) system on NSTX, large losses of fast-wave power in the scrape off layer (SOL) under certain conditions. In such scenarios, a large fraction of the lost HHFW power is deposited on the upper and lower divertors in bright spiral shapes. The responsible mechanism(s) has not yet been identified but may include fast-wave propagation in the scrape off layer, parametric decay instability, and RF currents driven by the antenna reactive fields. Understanding and mitigating these losses is important not only for improving the heating and current-drive on NSTX-Upgrade but also for understanding fast-wave propagation across the SOL in any fast-wave system. This talk summarizes experimental results demonstrating that the flow of lost HHFW power to the divertor regions largely follows the open SOL magnetic field lines. This lost power flux is relatively large close to both the antenna and the last closed flux surface with a reduced level in between, so the loss mechanism cannot be localized to the antenna. At the same time, significant losses also occur along field lines connected to the inboard edge of the bottom antenna plate. The power lost within the spirals is roughly estimated, showing that these field-aligned losses to the divertor are significant but may not account for the total HHFW loss. To elucidate the role of the onset layer for perpendicular fast-wave propagation with regards to fast-wave propagation in the SOL, a cylindrical cold-plasma model is being developed. This model, in addition to advanced RF codes such as TORIC and AORSA, is aimed at identifying the underlying mechanism(s) behind these SOL losses, to minimize their effects in NSTX-U, and to predict

  16. Concurrent material-fabrication optimization of metal-matrix laminates under thermo-mechanical loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saravanos, D. A.; Morel, M. R.; Chamis, C. C.

    1991-01-01

    A methodology is developed to tailor fabrication and material parameters of metal-matrix laminates for maximum loading capacity under thermomechanical loads. The stresses during the thermomechanical response are minimized subject to failure constrains and bounds on the laminate properties. The thermomechanical response of the laminate is simulated using nonlinear composite mechanics. Evaluations of the method on a graphite/copper symmetric cross-ply laminate were performed. The cross-ply laminate required different optimum fabrication procedures than a unidirectional composite. Also, the consideration of the thermomechanical cycle had a significant effect on the predicted optimal process.

  17. Kidney branching morphogenesis under the control of a ligand–receptor-based Turing mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menshykau, Denis; Iber, Dagmar

    2013-01-01

    The main signalling proteins that control early kidney branching have been defined. Yet the underlying mechanism is still elusive. We have previously shown that a Schnakenberg-type Turing mechanism can recapitulate the branching and protein expression patterns in wild-type and mutant lungs, but it is unclear whether this mechanism would extend to other branched organs that are regulated by other proteins. Here, we show that the glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor–RET regulatory interaction gives rise to a Schnakenberg-type Turing model that reproduces the observed budding of the ureteric bud from the Wolffian duct, its invasion into the mesenchyme and the observed branching pattern. The model also recapitulates all relevant protein expression patterns in wild-type and mutant mice. The lung and kidney models are both based on a particular receptor–ligand interaction and require (1) cooperative binding of ligand and receptor, (2) a lower diffusion coefficient for the receptor than for the ligand and (3) an increase in the receptor concentration in response to receptor–ligand binding (by enhanced transcription, more recycling or similar). These conditions are met also by other receptor–ligand systems. We propose that ligand–receptor-based Turing patterns represent a general mechanism to control branching morphogenesis and other developmental processes. (paper)

  18. Ageing under mechanical stress: first experiments for a silver based multilayer mirror

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalo, Arnaud; Ravel, Guillaume; Ignat, Michel; Cousin, Bernard; Swain, Michael V.

    2017-11-01

    Improving materials and devices reliability is a major concern to the spatial industry. Results are reported for satellite mirrors-like specimens consisting in oxide-protected metal systems. Optical coatings were deposited by electron beam evaporation. Mechanical stress fields in multi-layered materials play an important role. The stress state can have far-reaching implications both in kinetics and thermodynamics. Therefore an integrated apparatus with four-point bending equipment was designed. The technique allowed us to exert stress into a film or a system of films on a substrate concurrently with thermal treatment. In order to achieve the first tests performed with the help of the apparatus, various preliminary characterizations were required. The article reports the preliminary micro-mechanical testing of the materials (ultra micro-indentation to evaluate the elastic modulus of the samples materials and wafer curvature technique to determine the specimen residual stress) and the first ageing experiment. Experimental evidence of accelerated ageing under stress is successfully reported.

  19. Microscale experimental investigation of deformation and damage of argillaceous rocks under cyclic hydric and mechanical loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Linlin; Yang, Diansen; Heripre, Eva; Chanchole, Serge; Bornert, Michel; Pouya, Ahmad; Halphen, Bernard

    2012-01-01

    Document available in abstract form only. Argillaceous rocks are possible host rocks for underground nuclear waste repositories. They exhibit complex coupled thermo-hydro-chemo-mechanical behavior, the description of which would strongly benefit from an improved experimental insight on their deformation and damage mechanisms at microscale. We present some recent observations of the evolution of these rocks at the scale of their composite microstructure, essentially made of a clay matrix with embedded carbonates and quartz particles with sizes ranging from a few to several tens of micrometers, when they are subjected to cyclic variations of relative humidity and mechanical loading. They are based on the combination of high definition and high resolution imaging in an environmental scanning electron microscope (ESEM), in situ hydro-mechanical loading of the samples, and digital image correlation techniques. Samples, several millimeters in diameter, are held at a constant temperature of 2 deg. Celsius while the vapor pressure in the ESEM chamber is varied from a few to several hundreds of Pascals, generating a relative humidity ranging from about 10% up to 90%. Results show a strongly heterogeneous deformation field at microscale, which is the result of complex hydro-mechanical interactions. In particular, it can be shown that local swelling incompatibilities can generate irreversible deformations in the clay matrix, even if the overall hydric deformations seem reversible. In addition, local damage can be generated, in the form of a network of microcracks, located in the bulk of the clay matrix and/or at the interface between clay and other mineral particles. The morphology of this network, described in terms of crack length, orientation and preferred location, has been observed to be dependent on the speed of the variation of the relative humidity, and is different in a saturation or desaturation process. Besides studying the deformation and damage under hydric

  20. Enhancement of radiation effect using beta-lapachone and underlying mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, Ki Jung; Lee, Hyung Sik; Bai, Se Kyung; Song, Chang Won

    2013-01-01

    Beta-lapachone (β-Lap; 3,4-dihydro-2, 2-dimethyl-2H-naphthol[1, 2-b]pyran-5,6-dione) is a novel anti-cancer drug under phase I/II clinical trials. (β-Lap has been demonstrated to cause apoptotic and necrotic death in a variety of human cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. The mechanisms underlying the (β-Lap toxicity against cancer cells has been controversial. The most recent view is that (β-Lap, which is a quinone compound, undergoes two-electron reduction to hydroquinone form utilizing NAD(P)H or NADH as electron source. This two-electron reduction of (β-Lap is mediated by NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase (NQO1), which is known to mediate the reduction of many quinone compounds. The hydroquinone forms of (β-Lap then spontaneously oxidizes back to the original oxidized (β-Lap, creating futile cycling between the oxidized and reduced forms of (β-Lap. It is proposed that the futile recycling between oxidized and reduced forms of (β-Lap leads to two distinct cell death pathways. First one is that the two-electron reduced (β-Lap is converted first to one-electron reduced (β-Lap, i.e., semiquinone (β-Lap (SQ)- causing production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which then causes apoptotic cell death. The second mechanism is that severe depletion of NAD(P)H and NADH as a result of futile cycling between the quinone and hydroquinone forms of β- p causes severe disturbance in cellular metabolism leading to apoptosis and necrosis. The relative importance of the aforementioned two mechanisms, i.e., generation of ROS or depletion of NAD(P)H/NADH, may vary depending on cell type and environment. Importantly, the NQO1 level in cancer cells has been found to be higher than that in normal cells indicating that β-Lap may be preferentially toxic to cancer cells relative to non-cancer cells. The cellular level of NQO1 has been found to be significantly increased by divergent physical and chemical stresses including ionizing radiation. Recent reports clearly demonstrated

  1. Quantum mechanics of rapidly and periodically driven systems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ansatz, through the formulation of the Schrödinger equation. The result, like .... The underlying strategy is to make an asymptotic expansion of the generator S ..... MB acknowledges financial support from the Council of Scientific and Industrial.

  2. Neural Mechanisms Underlying Risk and Ambiguity Attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blankenstein, Neeltje E; Peper, Jiska S; Crone, Eveline A; van Duijvenvoorde, Anna C K

    2017-11-01

    Individual differences in attitudes to risk (a taste for risk, known probabilities) and ambiguity (a tolerance for uncertainty, unknown probabilities) differentially influence risky decision-making. However, it is not well understood whether risk and ambiguity are coded differently within individuals. Here, we tested whether individual differences in risk and ambiguity attitudes were reflected in distinct neural correlates during choice and outcome processing of risky and ambiguous gambles. To these ends, we developed a neuroimaging task in which participants ( n = 50) chose between a sure gain and a gamble, which was either risky or ambiguous, and presented decision outcomes (gains, no gains). From a separate task in which the amount, probability, and ambiguity level were varied, we estimated individuals' risk and ambiguity attitudes. Although there was pronounced neural overlap between risky and ambiguous gambling in a network typically related to decision-making under uncertainty, relatively more risk-seeking attitudes were associated with increased activation in valuation regions of the brain (medial and lateral OFC), whereas relatively more ambiguity-seeking attitudes were related to temporal cortex activation. In addition, although striatum activation was observed during reward processing irrespective of a prior risky or ambiguous gamble, reward processing after an ambiguous gamble resulted in enhanced dorsomedial PFC activation, possibly functioning as a general signal of uncertainty coding. These findings suggest that different neural mechanisms reflect individual differences in risk and ambiguity attitudes and that risk and ambiguity may impact overt risk-taking behavior in different ways.

  3. Neural mechanisms underlying paradoxical performance for monetary incentives are driven by loss aversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chib, Vikram S; De Martino, Benedetto; Shimojo, Shinsuke; O'Doherty, John P

    2012-05-10

    Employers often make payment contingent on performance in order to motivate workers. We used fMRI with a novel incentivized skill task to examine the neural processes underlying behavioral responses to performance-based pay. We found that individuals' performance increased with increasing incentives; however, very high incentive levels led to the paradoxical consequence of worse performance. Between initial incentive presentation and task execution, striatal activity rapidly switched between activation and deactivation in response to increasing incentives. Critically, decrements in performance and striatal deactivations were directly predicted by an independent measure of behavioral loss aversion. These results suggest that incentives associated with successful task performance are initially encoded as a potential gain; however, when actually performing a task, individuals encode the potential loss that would arise from failure. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Mechanisms underlying reduced fertility in anovular dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, J E P; Bisinotto, R S; Ribeiro, E S

    2016-07-01

    Resumption of ovulation after parturition is a coordinated process that involves recoupling of the GH/insulin-like growth factor 1 axis in the liver, increase in follicular development and steroidogenesis, and removal of negative feedback from estradiol in the hypothalamus. Infectious diseases and metabolic disorders associated with extensive negative energy balance during early lactation disrupt this pathway and delay first ovulation postpartum. Extended periods of anovulation postpartum exert long-lasting effects on fertility in dairy cows including the lack of spontaneous estrus, reduced pregnancy per artificial insemination (P/AI), and increased risk of pregnancy loss. Concentrations of progesterone in anovular cows subjected to synchronized programs for AI are insufficient to optimize follicular maturation, oocyte competence, and subsequent fertility to AI. Ovulation of first wave follicles, which develop under low concentrations of progesterone, reduces embryo quality in the first week after fertilization and P/AI in dairy cows. Although the specific mechanisms by which anovulation and low concentrations of progesterone impair oocyte quality have not been defined, studies with persistent follicles support the involvement of premature resumption of meiosis and degradation of maternal RNA. Suboptimal concentrations of progesterone before ovulation also increase the synthesis of PGF2α in response to oxytocin during the subsequent estrous cycle, which explains the greater incidence of short luteal phases after the first AI postpartum in anovular cows compared with estrous cyclic herd mates. It is suggested that increased spontaneous luteolysis early in the estrous cycle is one of the mechanisms that contributes to early embryonic losses in anovular cows. Anovulation also leads to major shifts in gene expression in elongated conceptuses during preimplantation stages of pregnancy. Transcripts involved with control of energy metabolism and DNA repair were

  5. Path integrals for inertialess classical particles under-going rapid stochastic trembling. I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bezak, V.

    1978-01-01

    Feynman path integrals are studied in reference to the Fokker-Planck (Smoluchowski) equation. Examples are presented including the motion of an inertialess classical charged particle between electrodes in plate and cylindrical capacitors with charges fluctuating rapidly as Gaussian white-noise stochastic processes. Another example concerns magnetodiffusion of a charged particle in an non-polarized electromagnetic beam characterized by a white-noise spectrum. (author)

  6. Colloid and radionuclide retention mechanisms in fractured rock under near-natural flow conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delos, A.; Schaefer, T.; Geckeis, H.; Guimera, J.; Carrera, J.; Fanghaenel, T.

    2005-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: Experiments in fractured host rock (Grimsel Test Site, GTS, Switzerland) revealed that the colloid relevance for actinide migration is high due to the specific geochemical groundwater conditions [1]. However, even under such conditions it is found that retention of colloids and colloid-borne actinides becomes significant under near-natural groundwater flow rates (1-10 m/a) [2]. Underlying mechanisms of colloid and radionuclide retention are not well understood up to now. The present study co-funded by the NoE ACTINET-6 focuses on (i) the kinetics of actinide-colloid interactions and (ii) the relevance of matrix diffusion as a competition process to other retention mechanisms which affect the actinides behavior in fractured rock systems such as the Grimsel granodiorite. Colloid migration is studied with well defined model colloids as e.g. fluorescence dyed carboxylated polystyrene particles, and natural colloids extracted from bentonite (FEBEX) and from fracture filling material (GTS). In order to study the influence of matrix porosity on actinides migration, those experiments are performed in columns of well defined geometry filled with microporous unmodified silica spheres, porous ceramic material and natural fracture filling material from the GTS. The behaviour of actinides (Pu(IV) and Am(III)) sorbed onto bentonite colloids is investigated in column and batch experiments. All experiments are performed under anoxic conditions. Colloid characterization methods used in this study include the combination of photon correlation spectroscopy (PCS), laser-induced breakdown detection (LIBD), fluorimetry and field flow fractionation (FFF). Experimental results and their application to the parametrisation of reactive colloid transport models are discussed. [1] Geckeis H, Schaefer T, Hauser W, Rabung T, Missana T, Degueldre C, Moeri A, Eikenberg J, Fierz T, Alexander WR (2004) Results of the Colloid and Radionuclide Retention experiment

  7. Mechanical response of collagen molecule under hydrostatic compression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saini, Karanvir; Kumar, Navin

    2015-01-01

    Proteins like collagen are the basic building blocks of various body tissues (soft and hard). Collagen molecules find their presence in the skeletal system of the body where they bear mechanical loads from different directions, either individually or along with hydroxy-apatite crystals. Therefore, it is very important to understand the mechanical behavior of the collagen molecule which is subjected to multi-axial state of loading. The estimation of strains of collagen molecule along different directions resulting from the changes in hydrostatic pressure magnitude, can provide us new insights into its mechanical behavior. In the present work, full atomistic simulations have been used to study global (volumetric) as well as local (along different directions) mechanical properties of the hydrated collagen molecule which is subjected to different hydrostatic pressure magnitudes. To estimate the local mechanical properties, the strains of collagen molecule along its longitudinal and transverse directions have been acquired at different hydrostatic pressure magnitudes. In spite of non-homogeneous distribution of atoms within the collagen molecule, the calculated values of local mechanical properties have been found to carry the same order of magnitude along the longitudinal and transverse directions. It has been demonstrated that the values of global mechanical properties like compressibility, bulk modulus, etc. as well as local mechanical properties like linear compressibility, linear elastic modulus, etc. are functions of magnitudes of applied hydrostatic pressures. The mechanical characteristics of collagen molecule based on the atomistic model have also been compared with that of the continuum model in the present work. The comparison showed up orthotropic material behavior for the collagen molecule. The information on collagen molecule provided in the present study can be very helpful in designing the future bio-materials.

  8. Mechanical response of collagen molecule under hydrostatic compression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saini, Karanvir; Kumar, Navin

    2015-04-01

    Proteins like collagen are the basic building blocks of various body tissues (soft and hard). Collagen molecules find their presence in the skeletal system of the body where they bear mechanical loads from different directions, either individually or along with hydroxy-apatite crystals. Therefore, it is very important to understand the mechanical behavior of the collagen molecule which is subjected to multi-axial state of loading. The estimation of strains of collagen molecule along different directions resulting from the changes in hydrostatic pressure magnitude, can provide us new insights into its mechanical behavior. In the present work, full atomistic simulations have been used to study global (volumetric) as well as local (along different directions) mechanical properties of the hydrated collagen molecule which is subjected to different hydrostatic pressure magnitudes. To estimate the local mechanical properties, the strains of collagen molecule along its longitudinal and transverse directions have been acquired at different hydrostatic pressure magnitudes. In spite of non-homogeneous distribution of atoms within the collagen molecule, the calculated values of local mechanical properties have been found to carry the same order of magnitude along the longitudinal and transverse directions. It has been demonstrated that the values of global mechanical properties like compressibility, bulk modulus, etc. as well as local mechanical properties like linear compressibility, linear elastic modulus, etc. are functions of magnitudes of applied hydrostatic pressures. The mechanical characteristics of collagen molecule based on the atomistic model have also been compared with that of the continuum model in the present work. The comparison showed up orthotropic material behavior for the collagen molecule. The information on collagen molecule provided in the present study can be very helpful in designing the future bio-materials. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights

  9. Mechanical response of collagen molecule under hydrostatic compression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saini, Karanvir, E-mail: karans@iitrpr.ac.in; Kumar, Navin

    2015-04-01

    Proteins like collagen are the basic building blocks of various body tissues (soft and hard). Collagen molecules find their presence in the skeletal system of the body where they bear mechanical loads from different directions, either individually or along with hydroxy-apatite crystals. Therefore, it is very important to understand the mechanical behavior of the collagen molecule which is subjected to multi-axial state of loading. The estimation of strains of collagen molecule along different directions resulting from the changes in hydrostatic pressure magnitude, can provide us new insights into its mechanical behavior. In the present work, full atomistic simulations have been used to study global (volumetric) as well as local (along different directions) mechanical properties of the hydrated collagen molecule which is subjected to different hydrostatic pressure magnitudes. To estimate the local mechanical properties, the strains of collagen molecule along its longitudinal and transverse directions have been acquired at different hydrostatic pressure magnitudes. In spite of non-homogeneous distribution of atoms within the collagen molecule, the calculated values of local mechanical properties have been found to carry the same order of magnitude along the longitudinal and transverse directions. It has been demonstrated that the values of global mechanical properties like compressibility, bulk modulus, etc. as well as local mechanical properties like linear compressibility, linear elastic modulus, etc. are functions of magnitudes of applied hydrostatic pressures. The mechanical characteristics of collagen molecule based on the atomistic model have also been compared with that of the continuum model in the present work. The comparison showed up orthotropic material behavior for the collagen molecule. The information on collagen molecule provided in the present study can be very helpful in designing the future bio-materials.

  10. Training and transfer of training in rapid visual search for camouflaged targets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark B Neider

    Full Text Available Previous examinations of search under camouflage conditions have reported that performance improves with training and that training can engender near perfect transfer to similar, but novel camouflage-type displays [1]. What remains unclear, however, are the cognitive mechanisms underlying these training improvements and transfer benefits. On the one hand, improvements and transfer benefits might be associated with higher-level overt strategy shifts, such as through the restriction of eye movements to target-likely (background display regions. On the other hand, improvements and benefits might be related to the tuning of lower-level perceptual processes, such as figure-ground segregation. To decouple these competing possibilities we had one group of participants train on camouflage search displays and a control group train on non-camouflage displays. Critically, search displays were rapidly presented, precluding eye movements. Before and following training, all participants completed transfer sessions in which they searched novel displays. We found that search performance on camouflage displays improved with training. Furthermore, participants who trained on camouflage displays suffered no performance costs when searching novel displays following training. Our findings suggest that training to break camouflage is related to the tuning of perceptual mechanisms and not strategic shifts in overt attention.

  11. Mechanical behavior of confined self-compacting reinforced concrete circular columns under concentric axial loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fouad Khairallah

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available While there is abundant research information on ordinary confined concrete, there are little data on the behavior of Self-Compacting Concrete (SCC under such condition. Due to higher shrinkage and lower coarse aggregate content of SCC compared to that of Normal Concrete (NC, its composite performance under confined conditions needs more investigation. This paper has been devoted to investigate and compare the mechanical behavior of confined concrete circular columns cast with SCC and NC under concentric axial loading. The parameters affecting are including concrete compressive strength and confinement configuration. Twenty column specimens were casted and confined using four confinement techniques, CFRP wrap, FRP tube, GFRP wrap, and spiral steel hoops. The performance of the tested column specimens is evaluated based on mode of failure, load–displacement curve, stress–strain characteristics, ultimate strength, ductility, and degree of confinement.

  12. Structural integrity and failure mechanisms of a smart piezoelectric actuator under a cyclic bending mode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woo, Sung-Choong; Goo, Nam Seo

    2008-01-01

    Information on the onset and evolution of damage within materials is essential for guaranteeing the integrity of actuator systems. The authors have evaluated the structural integrity and the failure mechanisms of smart composite actuators with a PZT ceramic plate under electric cyclic loading. For this, two kinds of actuators, actuator 1 and actuator 2, were manufactured. Prior to the main testing, performance testing was performed on the actuators to determine their resonant frequencies. Electric cyclic tests were conducted up to twenty million cycles. An acoustic emission technique was used for monitoring the damage evolution in real time. We observed the extent of the damage after testing using scanning electron microscopy and reflected optical microscopy to support characteristics in the acoustic emission behavior that corresponded to specific types of damage mechanisms. It was shown that the initial damage mechanism of the smart composite actuator under electric cyclic loading originated from the transgranular micro-fatigue damage in the PZT ceramic layer. With increasing cycles, a local intergranular crack initiated and developed onto the surface of the PZT ceramic layer or propagated into the internal layer. Finally, short-circuiting led to the electric breakdown of the actuator. These results were different depending on the drive frequencies and the configuration of the actuators. Moreover, we differentiated between the aforementioned damage mechanisms via AE signal pattern analyses based on the primary frequency and the waveform. From our results, we conclude that the drive frequency and the existence of a protecting layer are dominant factors in the structural integrity of the smart composite actuator

  13. Mechanical properties of novel forms of graphyne under strain: A density functional theory study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majidi, Roya

    2017-06-01

    The mechanical properties of two forms of graphyne sheets named α-graphyne and α2-graphyne under uniaxial and biaxial strains were studied. In-plane stiffness, bulk modulus, and shear modulus were calculated based on density functional theory. The in-plane stiffness, bulk modulus, and shear modulus of α2-graphyne were found to be larger than that of α-graphyne. The maximum values of supported uniaxial and biaxial strains before failure were determined. The α-graphyne was entered into the plastic region with the higher magnitude of tension in comparison to α2-graphyne. The mechanical properties of α-graphyne family revealed that these forms of graphyne are proper materials for use in nanomechanical applications.

  14. Ictal SPECT in patients with rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Geert; Bitterlich, Marion; Kuwert, Torsten; Ritt, Philipp; Stefan, Hermann

    2015-05-01

    Rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder is a rapid eye movement parasomnia clinically characterized by acting out dreams due to disinhibition of muscle tone in rapid eye movement sleep. Up to 80-90% of the patients with rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder develop neurodegenerative disorders within 10-15 years after symptom onset. The disorder is reported in 45-60% of all narcoleptic patients. Whether rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder is also a predictor for neurodegeneration in narcolepsy is not known. Although the pathophysiology causing the disinhibition of muscle tone in rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder has been studied extensively in animals, little is known about the mechanisms in humans. Most of the human data are from imaging or post-mortem studies. Recent studies show altered functional connectivity between substantia nigra and striatum in patients with rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder. We were interested to study which regions are activated in rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder during actual episodes by performing ictal single photon emission tomography. We studied one patient with idiopathic rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder, one with Parkinson's disease and rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder, and two patients with narcolepsy and rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder. All patients underwent extended video polysomnography. The tracer was injected after at least 10 s of consecutive rapid eye movement sleep and 10 s of disinhibited muscle tone accompanied by movements registered by an experienced sleep technician. Ictal single photon emission tomography displayed the same activation in the bilateral premotor areas, the interhemispheric cleft, the periaqueductal area, the dorsal and ventral pons and the anterior lobe of the cerebellum in all patients. Our study shows that in patients with Parkinson's disease and rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder-in contrast to wakefulness

  15. Modulating Conscious Movement Intention by Noninvasive Brain Stimulation and the Underlying Neural Mechanisms

    OpenAIRE

    Douglas, Zachary H.; Maniscalco, Brian; Hallett, Mark; Wassermann, Eric M.; He, Biyu J.

    2015-01-01

    Conscious intention is a fundamental aspect of the human experience. Despite long-standing interest in the basis and implications of intention, its underlying neurobiological mechanisms remain poorly understood. Using high-definition transcranial DC stimulation (tDCS), we observed that enhancing spontaneous neuronal excitability in both the angular gyrus and the primary motor cortex caused the reported time of conscious movement intention to be ∼60–70 ms earlier. Slow brain waves recorded ∼2–...

  16. Rapid spontaneous resolution of an acute subdural hematoma: Case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bae, Won Kyong; Kim, Pyo Nyun; Kim, Il Young; Lee, Byoung Ho; Lee, Kyeong Seok; Bae, Hack Gun; Yun, Il Gyu [Soonchunhyang University, Chonan Hospital, Chonan (Korea, Republic of)

    1989-10-15

    We present a case of acute subdural hematoma which was rapidly resolved without surgical intervention. This 31 year old man had a hematoma of which thickness was 9 mm and was paraplegic due to fracture-dislocation of thoracic spine at the level of TII-12 Rapid recovery of consciousness despite of sizable hematoma made to take a serial CT scanning instead of immediate surgical interventions. The hematoma was resolved within 4 hours without surgery. Possible mechanism of this rapid spontaneous resolution is discussed with brief review of the related literature.

  17. Linear Analytical Solutions of Mechanical Sensitivity in Large Deflection of Unsymmetrically Layered Piezoelectric Plate under Pretension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Fu Chen

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Linear analytical study on the mechanical sensitivity in large deflection of unsymmetrically layered and laterally loaded piezoelectric plate under pretension is conducted. von Karman plate theory for large deflection is utilized but extended to the case of an unsymmetrically layered plate embedded with a piezoelectric layer. The governing equations thus obtained are simplified by omitting the arising nonlinear terms, yielding a Bessel or modified Bessel equation for the lateral slope. Depending on the relative magnitude of the piezoelectric effect, for both cases, analytical solutions of various geometrical responses are developed and formulated via Bessel and modified Bessel functions. The associated ultimate radial stresses are further derived following lamina constitutive law to evaluate the mechanical sensitivity of the considered plate. For a nearly monolithic plate under a very low applied voltage, the results are in good agreement with those for a single-layered case due to pure mechanical load available in literature, and thus the present approach is checked. For a two-layered unsymmetric plate made of typical silicon-based materials, a sound piezoelectric effect is illustrated particularly in a low pretension condition.

  18. The quantum mechanics solver. How to apply quantum theory to modern physics. 2. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basdevant, J.L.; Dalibard, J.

    2006-01-01

    The Quantum Mechanics Solver uniquely illustrates the application of quantum mechanical concepts to various fields of modern physics. It aims at encouraging the reader to apply quantum mechanics to research problems in fields such as molecular physics, condensed matter physics or laser physics. Advanced undergraduates and graduate students will find a rich and challenging source of material for further exploration. This book consists of a series of problems concerning present-day experimental or theoretical questions on quantum mechanics. All of these problems are based on actual physical examples, even if sometimes the mathematical structure of the models under consideration is simplified intentionally in order to get hold of the physics more rapidly. The new edition features new themes, such as the progress in measuring neutrino oscillations, quantum boxes, the quantum thermometer etc. Secondly, it includes a brief summary on the basics of quantum mechanics and the formalism we use. Finally, the problems under three main themes: Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms; Quantum Entanglement and Measurement; and Complex Systems. (orig.)

  19. Acoustic and Vibration Control for an Underwater Structure under Mechanical Excitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi-Jian Zhu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Acoustic and vibration control for an underwater structure under mechanical excitation has been investigated by using negative feedback control algorithm. The underwater structure is modeled with cylindrical shells, conical shells, and circular bulkheads, of which the motion equations are built with the variational approach, respectively. Acoustic property is analyzed by the Helmholtz integration formulation with boundary element method. Based on negative feedback control algorithm, a control loop with a coupling use of piezoelectric sensor and actuator is built, and accordingly some numerical examples are carried out on active control of structural vibration and acoustic response. Effects of geometrical and material parameters on acoustic and vibration properties are investigated and discussed.

  20. A Portable Kit for Rapid Diagnosis of Infectious Diseases under Field Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-08-14

    INFECTIONS SHIGELLA TYPHOID FEVER STREPTOCOCCUS An example of a public health application for rapid diagnosis using the COAG test is provided by studies...than in infections in Fig. Principles of gel diffusion (GD) and of counter- monkeys with human parasites (BID%%IAL et al. 1973, immunoelectrophoresis...the cerebrospinal fluid and immunofluorescence tests for detection of malaria te ai preient ith croup inal fuidan antibodies in Aotus monkeys

  1. Coral bleaching under thermal stress: putative involvement of host/symbiont recognition mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tambutte Sylvie

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Coral bleaching can be defined as the loss of symbiotic zooxanthellae and/or their photosynthetic pigments from their cnidarian host. This major disturbance of reef ecosystems is principally induced by increases in water temperature. Since the beginning of the 1980s and the onset of global climate change, this phenomenon has been occurring at increasing rates and scales, and with increasing severity. Several studies have been undertaken in the last few years to better understand the cellular and molecular mechanisms of coral bleaching but the jigsaw puzzle is far from being complete, especially concerning the early events leading to symbiosis breakdown. The aim of the present study was to find molecular actors involved early in the mechanism leading to symbiosis collapse. Results In our experimental procedure, one set of Pocillopora damicornis nubbins was subjected to a gradual increase of water temperature from 28°C to 32°C over 15 days. A second control set kept at constant temperature (28°C. The differentially expressed mRNA between the stressed states (sampled just before the onset of bleaching and the non stressed states (control were isolated by Suppression Subtractive Hybridization. Transcription rates of the most interesting genes (considering their putative function were quantified by Q-RT-PCR, which revealed a significant decrease in transcription of two candidates six days before bleaching. RACE-PCR experiments showed that one of them (PdC-Lectin contained a C-Type-Lectin domain specific for mannose. Immunolocalisation demonstrated that this host gene mediates molecular interactions between the host and the symbionts suggesting a putative role in zooxanthellae acquisition and/or sequestration. The second gene corresponds to a gene putatively involved in calcification processes (Pdcyst-rich. Its down-regulation could reflect a trade-off mechanism leading to the arrest of the mineralization process under stress

  2. Mechanisms underlying the antihypertensive properties of Urtica dioica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qayyum, Rahila; Qamar, Hafiz Misbah-Ud-Din; Khan, Shamim; Salma, Umme; Khan, Taous; Shah, Abdul Jabbar

    2016-09-01

    Urtica dioica has traditionally been used in the management of cardiovascular disorders especially hypertension. The aim of this study was to explore pharmacological base of its use in hypertension. Crude methanolic extract of U. dioica (Ud.Cr) and its fractions (Ud.EtAc, Ud.nHex, Ud.Chl and Ud.Aq) were tested in vivo on normotensive and hypertensive rats under anesthesia for blood pressure lowering effect. In-vitro experiments on rat and rabbit aortae were employed to probe the vasorelaxation mechanism(s). The responses were measured using pressure and force transducers connected to PowerLab Data Acquisition System. Ud.Cr and fractions were found more effective antihypertensive in hypertensive rats than normotensive with remarkable potency exhibited by the ethyl acetate fraction. The effect was same in the presence of atropine. In isolated rat aortic rings, Ud.Cr and all its fractions exhibited L-NAME sensitive endothelium-dependent vasodilator effect and also inhibit K(+) (80 mM)-induced pre-contractions. In isolated rabbit thoracic aortic rings Ud.Cr and its fractions induced relaxation with more potency against K(+) (80 mM) than phenylephrine (1 µM) like verapamil, showing Ud.EtAc fraction the most potent one. Pre-incubation of aortic rings with Ud.Cr and its fractions exhibited Ca(2+) channel blocking activity comparable with verapamil by shifting Ca(2+) concentration response curves to the right. Ud.Cr and its fractions also ablated the intracellular Ca(2+) release by suppressing PE peak formation in Ca(2+) free medium. When tested on basal tension, the crude extract and all fractions were devoid of any vasoconstrictor effect. These data indicate that crude methanolic extract and its fractions possess antihypertensive effect. Identification of NO-mediated vasorelaxation and calcium channel blocking effects explain the antihypertensive potential of U. dioica and provide a potential pharmacological base to its medicinal use in the management of hypertension.

  3. Autism spectrum disorder causes, mechanisms, and treatments: focus on neuronal synapses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Won, Hyejung; Mah, Won; Kim, Eunjoon

    2013-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a group of developmental disabilities characterized by impairments in social interaction and communication and restricted and repetitive interests/behaviors. Advances in human genomics have identified a large number of genetic variations associated with ASD. These associations are being rapidly verified by a growing number of studies using a variety of approaches, including mouse genetics. These studies have also identified key mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of ASD, many of which involve synaptic dysfunctions, and have investigated novel, mechanism-based therapeutic strategies. This review will try to integrate these three key aspects of ASD research: human genetics, animal models, and potential treatments. Continued efforts in this direction should ultimately reveal core mechanisms that account for a larger fraction of ASD cases and identify neural mechanisms associated with specific ASD symptoms, providing important clues to efficient ASD treatment.

  4. Numerical and experimental characterization of ceramic pebble beds under cycling mechanical loading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pupeschi, S., E-mail: pupeschi.simone@hotmail.it [Institute for Applied Materials, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) (Germany); Knitter, R.; Kamlah, M. [Institute for Applied Materials, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) (Germany); Gan, Y. [School of Civil Engineering, The University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, 2006 (Australia)

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • The effect of cyclic loading on the mechanical response of pebble beds was assessed. • Numerical simulations were performed with KIT-DEM code. • The numerical simulations were compared with the experimental outcomes. • A good qualitative agreement between experimental and simulation results was found. • The pebble size distribution affects the mechanical response of the assemblies. - Abstract: All solid breeder concepts considered to be tested in ITER (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor), make use of lithium-based ceramics in the form of pebble-packed beds as tritium breeder. A thorough understanding of the thermal and mechanical properties of the ceramic pebble beds under fusion relevant conditions is essential for the design of the breeder blanket modules of future fusion reactors. In this study, the effect of cyclic loading on the mechanical behaviour of pebble bed assemblies was investigated using a Discrete Element Method (DEM) code. The numerical simulations were compared with the experimental outcomes. The results of numerical simulations show that the pebble size distribution affects noticeably the stress-strain behaviour of the assemblies. A good qualitative agreement between experimental and simulation results was found in terms of difference between residual strains of consecutive cycles. An increase of the oedometric modulus with the compressive load was observed for all investigated compositions in both experimental and DEM simulations. The numerical results show an increase of the oedometric modulus (E) with progressive compaction of the assemblies due to the cycling loading, while no significant influence of the pebbles size distribution was observed.

  5. Rapid MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edelman, R.R.; Buxton, R.B.; Brady, T.J.

    1988-01-01

    Conventional magnetic resonance (MR) imaging methods typically require several minutes to produce an image, but the periods of respiration, cardiac motion and peristalsis are on the order of seconds or less. The need to reduce motion artifact, as well as the need to reduce imaging time for patient comfort and efficiency, have provided a strong impetus for the development of rapid imaging methods. For abdominal imaging, motion artifacts due to respiration can be significantly reduced by collecting the entire image during one breath hold. For other applications, such as following the kinetics of administered contrast agents, rapid imaging is essential to achieve adequate time resolution. A shorter imaging time entails a cost in image signal/noise (S/N), but improvements in recent years in magnet homogeneity, gradient and radiofrequency coil design have led to steady improvements in S/N and consequently in image quality. For many chemical applications the available S/N is greater than needed, and a trade-off of lower S/N for a shorter imaging time is acceptable. In this chapter, the authors consider the underlying principles of rapid imaging as well as clinical applications of these methods. The bulk of this review concentrates on short TR imaging, but methods that provide for a more modest decrease in imaging time as well as or those that dramatically shorten the imaging time to tens of milliseconds are also discussed

  6. Formation of nano quasicrystalline and crystalline phases by mechanical alloying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shamah, A.M.; Ibrahim, S.; Hanna, F.F.

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Mechanical alloying (MA) is an important method to investigate the formation of nano sized quasicrystalline phases in Al 86 Cr 14 , Al 84 Fe 16 and Al 62.5 Cu 25 Fe 12.5 compounds. The second part of the present work is an attempt to examine the possibility of formation of the i-phase of the Al 62.5 Cu 25 Fe 12.5 , which lies in the region of the perfect i-phase in the ternary phase diagram, by rapid solidification method. To perform the obtained quasi phase mechanical alloying and heat treatment at the rapid solidified sample were done. - Abstract: In the present work, the formation of nano quasicrystalline icosahedral phase in Al 86 Cr 14 , Al 84 Fe 16 and Al 62.5 Cu 25 Fe 12.5 alloys has been investigated by mechanical alloying. Mixtures of quasicrystalline and related crystalline phases have been observed under various milling conditions. The X-ray diffraction, differential thermal analysis and electrical resistivity techniques have been used for characterization and physical property measurements. The particle size was calculated by X-ray profile using Williamson-Hall plot method and it was found to be 25-50 nm size.

  7. Rapid emergence and mechanisms of resistance by U87 glioblastoma cells to doxorubicin in an in vitro tumor microfluidic ecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Robert; Lee, Sanghyuk; Park, Sungsu

    We have developed a microfluidic device consisting of approximately 500 hexagonal micro-compartments which provides a complex ecology with wide ranges of drug and nutrient gradients and local populations. This ecology of a fragmented metapopulation induced the drug resistance in stage IV U87 glioblastoma cells to doxorubicin in seven days. Exome and transcriptome sequencing of the resistant cells identified mutations and differentially expressed genes. Gene ontology and pathway analyses of the genes identified showed that they were functionally relevant with the established mechanisms of doxorubicin action. Functional experiments support the in silico analyses and together demonstrate the effects of these genetic changes. Our findings suggest that given the rapid evolution of resistance and the focused response, this technology could act as a rapid screening modality for genetic aberrations leading to resistance to chemotherapy as well as counter-selection of drugs unlikely to be successful ultimately. Technology Innovation Program of the Ministry of Trade, Industry and Energy, Republic of Korea (10050154 to S.L. and S.P.), the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF-2014M3C9A3065221 to S.L., NRF-2015K1A4A3047851 to J.K. and S.L.) funded by the Minis.

  8. A multi-scale approach of mechanical and transport properties of cementitious materials under rises of temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caratini, G.

    2012-01-01

    The modern industrial activities (storage of nuclear waste, geothermal wells, nuclear power plants,...) can submit cementitious materials to some extreme conditions, for example at temperatures above 200 C. This level of temperature will induce phenomena of dehydration in the cement paste, particularly impacting the CSH hydrates which led to the mechanical cohesion. The effects of these temperatures on the mechanical and transport properties have been the subject of this thesis.To understand these effects, we need to take into account the heterogeneous, porous, multi-scale aspects of these materials. To do this, micro-mechanics and homogenization tools based on the Eshelby problem's solution were used. Moreover, to support this multi-scale modeling, mechanical testing based on the theory of porous media were conducted. The measurements of modulus compressibility, permeability and porosity under confining pressure were used to investigate the mechanisms of degradation of these materials during thermal loads up to 400 C. (author)

  9. Innovative Application of Mechanical Activation for Rare Earth Elements Recovering: Process Optimization and Mechanism Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Quanyin; Deng, Chao; Li, Jinhui

    2016-01-01

    With the rapidly expanding use of fluorescent lamps (FLs) and increasing interest in conservation and sustainable utilization of critical metals such as rare earth elements (REEs), the recovering of REEs from phosphors in waste FLs is becoming a critical environmental and economic issue. To effectively recycle REEs with metallurgical methods, mechanical activation by ball milling was introduced to pretreat the waste phosphors. This current study put the emphasis on the mechanical activation and leaching processes for REEs, and explored the feasibility of the method from both theoretical and practical standpoints. Results showed physicochemical changes of structural destruction and particle size reduction after mechanical activation, leading to the easy dissolution of REEs in the activated samples. Under optimal conditions, dissolution yields of 89.4%, 93.1% and 94.6% for Tb, Eu and Y, respectively, were achieved from activated waste phosphors using hydrochloric acid as the dissolution agent. The shrinking core model proved to be the most applicable for the leaching procedure, with an apparent activation energy of 10.96 ± 2.79 kJ/mol. This novel process indicates that mechanical activation is an efficient method for recovering REEs from waste phosphors, and it has promising potential for REE recovery with low cost and high efficiency.

  10. The Ecology of Exercise: Mechanisms Underlying Individual Variation in Behavior, Activity, and Performance: An Introduction to Symposium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killen, Shaun S; Calsbeek, Ryan; Williams, Tony D

    2017-08-01

    Wild animals often engage in intense physical activity while performing tasks vital for their survival and reproduction associated with foraging, avoiding predators, fighting, providing parental care, and migrating. In this theme issue we consider how viewing these tasks as "exercise"-analogous to that performed by human athletes-may help provide insight into the mechanisms underlying individual variation in these types of behaviors and the importance of physical activity in an ecological context. In this article and throughout this issue, we focus on four key questions relevant to the study of behavioral ecology that may be addressed by studying wild animal behavior from the perspective of exercise physiology: (1) How hard do individual animals work in response to ecological (or evolutionary) demands?; (2) Do lab-based studies of activity provide good models for understanding activity in free-living animals and individual variation in traits?; (3) Can animals work too hard during "routine" activities?; and (4) Can paradigms of "exercise" and "training" be applied to free-living animals? Attempts to address these issues are currently being facilitated by rapid technological developments associated with physiological measurements and the remote tracking of wild animals, to provide mechanistic insights into the behavior of free-ranging animals at spatial and temporal scales that were previously impossible. We further suggest that viewing the behaviors of non-human animals in terms of the physical exercise performed will allow us to fully take advantage of these technological advances, draw from knowledge and conceptual frameworks already in use by human exercise physiologists, and identify key traits that constrain performance and generate variation in performance among individuals. It is our hope that, by highlighting mechanisms of behavior and performance, the articles in this issue will spur on further synergies between physiologists and ecologists, to take

  11. Rapid prototyping using robot welding : process description

    OpenAIRE

    Ribeiro, António Fernando; Norrish, John

    1997-01-01

    Rapid Prototyping is a relatively recent technique to produce component prototypes for industry in a much shorter period of time, since the time to market a product is essential to its success. A new Rapid Prototyping process which uses metal as the raw material had been under development at Cranfield University in the last few years. The process uses a Gas Metal Arc fusion welding robot which deposits successive layers of metal in such way that it forms a 3D solid component. Firstly, a CAD s...

  12. Thermodynamic pathways to melting, ablation, and solidification in absorbing solids under pulsed laser irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lorazo, Patrick; Lewis, Laurent J.; Meunier, Michel

    2006-01-01

    The thermodynamic pathways involved in laser irradiation of absorbing solids are investigated in silicon for pulse durations of 500 fs and 100 ps. This is achieved by accounting for carrier and atom dynamics within a combined Monte Carlo and molecular-dynamics scheme and simultaneously tracking the time evolution of the irradiated material in ρ-T-P space. Our simulations reveal thermal changes in long-range order and state of aggregation driven, in most cases, by nonequilibrium states of rapidly heated or promptly cooled matter. Under femtosecond irradiation near the ablation threshold, the system is originally pulled to a near-critical state following rapid ( -12 s) disordering of the mechanically unstable crystal and isochoric heating of the resulting metallic liquid. The latter is then adiabatically cooled to the liquid-vapor regime where phase explosion of the subcritical, superheated melt is initiated by a direct conversion of translational, mechanical energy into surface energy on a ∼10 -12 -10 -11 s time scale. At higher fluences, matter removal involves, instead, the fragmentation of an initially homogeneous fluid subjected to large strain rates upon rapid, supercritical expansion in vacuum. Under picosecond irradiation, homogeneous and, at later times, heterogeneous melting of the superheated solid are followed by nonisochoric heating of the molten metal. In this case, the subcritical liquid material is subsequently cooled onto the binodal by thermal conduction and explosive boiling does not take place; as a result, ablation is associated with a ''trivial'' fragmentation process, i.e., the relatively slow expansion and dissociation into liquid droplets of supercritical matter near thermodynamic equilibrium. This implies a liquid-vapor equilibration time of ∼10 -11 -10 -10 s and heating along the binodal under nanosecond irradiation. Solidification of the nonablated, supercooled molten material is eventually observed on a ∼10 -11 -10 -9 s time scale

  13. PHYSIOLOGICAL QUALITY OF SOYBEAN SEEDS UNDER MECHANICAL INJURIES CAUSED BY COMBINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FÁBIO PALCZEWSKI PACHECO

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The mechanical harvesting causes injuries on seeds and may affect their quality. Different threshing mechanisms and their adjustments may also affect the intensity of impacts that machines cause on seeds. So, this study aimed at diagnosing and evaluating the effect of two combines: the first one with a threshing system of axial flow and the other one with a threshing system of tangential flow, under adjustments of concave opening (10 mm, 30 mm and 10 mm for a combine with axial flow and 3.0 mm, 15 mm and 3.0 mm for a combine with tangential flow and three cylinder rotations on the quality of soybean seeds harvested at two moisture contents. Soybean seeds of cultivar 'ND 4910' were harvested at 16.6% moisture (mid - morning and 13.7% moisture in the afternoon. The seeds quality was evaluated by germination tests, germination speed index (GSI, germination rate, moisture content, percentage of purity and vigor by tetrazolium test. Despite the combine, the results showed that the mechanical injury has most reduced seeds quality, at 16.6% moisture content, concave opening of 30 mm (axial and 10 mm (tangential and cylinder rotation of 1100 rpm (axial and 1000 (tangential, both with the highest rotations used. The combine with tangential flow had the highest degree of seeds purity. When seeds moisture content at harvest was close to 13.7%, there was the highest seed injury, while, at 16.6%, there was the highest number of crushed soybeans, regardless the combine adjustment.

  14. Mechanical strength of an ITER coil insulation system under static and dynamic load after reactor irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bittner-Rohrhofer, K.; Humer, K.; Weber, H.W.; Hamada, K.; Sugimoto, M.; Okuno, K.

    2002-01-01

    The insulation system proposed by the Japanese Home Team for the ITER Toroidal Field coil (TF coil) is a T-glass-fiber/Kapton reinforced epoxy prepreg system. In order to assess the material performance under the actual operating conditions of the coils, the insulation system was irradiated in the TRIGA reactor (Vienna) to a fast neutron fluence of 2x10 22 m -2 (E>0.1 MeV). After measurements of swelling, all mechanical tests were carried out at 77 K. Tensile and short-beam-shear (SBS) tests were performed under static loading conditions. In addition, tension-tension fatigue experiments up to about 10 6 cycles were made. The laminate swells in the through-thickness direction by 0.86% at the highest dose level. The fatigue tests as well as the static tests do not show significant influences of the irradiation on the mechanical behavior of this composite

  15. Mechanical strength of an ITER coil insulation system under static and dynamic load after reactor irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bittner-Rohrhofer, K.; Humer, K.; Weber, H. W.; Hamada, K.; Sugimoto, M.; Okuno, K.

    2002-12-01

    The insulation system proposed by the Japanese Home Team for the ITER Toroidal Field coil (TF coil) is a T-glass-fiber/Kapton reinforced epoxy prepreg system. In order to assess the material performance under the actual operating conditions of the coils, the insulation system was irradiated in the TRIGA reactor (Vienna) to a fast neutron fluence of 2×10 22 m -2 ( E>0.1 MeV). After measurements of swelling, all mechanical tests were carried out at 77 K. Tensile and short-beam-shear (SBS) tests were performed under static loading conditions. In addition, tension-tension fatigue experiments up to about 10 6 cycles were made. The laminate swells in the through-thickness direction by 0.86% at the highest dose level. The fatigue tests as well as the static tests do not show significant influences of the irradiation on the mechanical behavior of this composite.

  16. Rapid pointwise stabilization of vibrating strings and beams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alia BARHOUMI

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Applying a general construction and using former results on the observability we prove, under rather general assumptions, a rapid pointwise stabilization of vibrating strings and beams.

  17. Template preparation for rapid PCR in Colletotrichum lindemuthianum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roca M. Gabriela

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Isolation of DNA for PCR is time-consuming and involves many reagents. The aim of this work was to optimise a rapid and easy PCR methodology without previous DNA isolation. Different strains of the phytopathogenic fungus Colletotrichum lindemuthianum were used. Protoplasts were generated using lytic enzymes under high incubation temperatures using different methodologies to obtain the template. A rapid (10 minute methodology was successful for smaller amplicons (<750 bp.

  18. Effect of fiber distribution and realignment on the nonlinear and inhomogeneous mechanical properties of human supraspinatus tendon under longitudinal tensile loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lake, Spencer P; Miller, Kristin S; Elliott, Dawn M; Soslowsky, Louis J

    2009-12-01

    Tendon exhibits nonlinear stress-strain behavior that may be partly due to movement of collagen fibers through the extracellular matrix. While a few techniques have been developed to evaluate the fiber architecture of other soft tissues, the organizational behavior of tendon under load has not been determined. The supraspinatus tendon (SST) of the rotator cuff is of particular interest for investigation due to its complex mechanical environment and corresponding inhomogeneity. In addition, SST injury occurs frequently with limited success in treatment strategies, illustrating the need for a better understanding of SST properties. Therefore, the objective of this study was to quantitatively evaluate the inhomogeneous tensile mechanical properties, fiber organization, and fiber realignment under load of human SST utilizing a novel polarized light technique. Fiber distributions were found to become more aligned under load, particularly during the low stiffness toe-region, suggesting that fiber realignment may be partly responsible for observed nonlinear behavior. Fiber alignment was found to correlate significantly with mechanical parameters, providing evidence for strong structure-function relationships in tendon. Human SST exhibits complex, inhomogeneous mechanical properties and fiber distributions, perhaps due to its complex loading environment. Surprisingly, histological grade of degeneration did not correlate with mechanical properties.

  19. Search for an onset mechanism that operates for both CMEs and substorms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. L. Siscoe

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Substorms and coronal mass ejections have been cited as the most accessible examples of the explosive energy conversion phenomenon that seems to characterize one of the behavior modes of cosmic plasmas. This paper addresses the question of whether these two examples – substorms and CMEs – support or otherwise the idea that explosive energy conversion is the result of a single process operating in different places and under different conditions. As a candidate mechanism that might be common to both substorms and CMEs we use the Forbes catastrophe model for CMEs because before testing it appears to have the potential, suitably modified, to operate also for substorms. The essence of the FCM is a sudden onset of an imbalance of the forces acting on an incipient CME. The imbalance of forces causes the CME to start to rise. Beneath the rising CME conditions develop that favor the onset of magnetic reconnection which then releases the CME and assists its expulsion. Thus the signature of the FCM is a temporally ordered sequence in which there is first the appearance of force imbalance which leads to upward (or outward motion of the CME which leads to magnetic reconnection under it which expedites rapid expulsion. We look for the FCM signature in the output of two global magnetospheric MHD simulations that produce substorm-like events. We find the ordered sequence of events as stated but with a significant difference: there is no plasmoid prior to the onset of rapid reconnection, that is, there is no counterpart to the incipient CME on which an imbalance of forces acts to initiate the action in the FCM. If this result – that rapid tailward motion precedes the rapid reconnection of substorm expansion – is ultimately verified by other studies, it suggests that a description of the cause of substorm expansion should identify the cause of the preceding rapid tailward motion, since this leads necessarily to rapid reconnection, whatever the

  20. Rapidity gap survival in enhanced Pomeron scheme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ostapchenko, Sergey [Frankfurt Institute for Advanced Studies, Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Moscow State University, D.V. Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics, Moscow (Russian Federation); Bleicher, Marcus [Frankfurt Institute for Advanced Studies, Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Goethe-Universitat, Institute for Theoretical Physics, Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

    2018-01-15

    We apply the phenomenological Reggeon field theory framework to investigate rapidity gap survival (RGS) probability for diffractive dijet production in proton-proton collisions. In particular, we study in some detail rapidity gap suppression due to elastic rescatterings of intermediate partons in the underlying parton cascades, described by enhanced (Pomeron-Pomeron interaction) diagrams. We demonstrate that such contributions play a subdominant role, compared to the usual, so-called ''eikonal'', rapidity gap suppression due to elastic rescatterings of constituent partons of the colliding protons. On the other hand, the overall RGS factor proves to be sensitive to color fluctuations in the proton. Hence, experimental data on diffractive dijet production can be used to constrain the respective model approaches. (orig.)

  1. Modeling of the mechanical behavior of austenitic stainless steels under pure fatigue and fatigue relaxation loadings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hajjaji-Rachdi, Fatima

    2015-01-01

    Austenitic stainless steels are potential candidates for structural components of sodium-cooled fast neutron reactors. Many of these components will be subjected to cyclic loadings including long hold times (1 month) under creep or relaxation at high temperature. These hold times are unattainable experimentally. The aim of the present study is to propose mechanical models which take into account the involved mechanisms and their interactions during such complex loadings. First, an experimental study of the pure fatigue and fatigue-relaxation behavior of 316L(N) at 500 C has been carried out with very long hold times (10 h and 50 h) compared with the ones studied in literature. Tensile tests at 600 C with different applied strain rates have been undertaken in order to study the dynamic strain ageing phenomenon. Before focusing on more complex loadings, the mean field homogenization approach has been used to predict the mechanical behavior of different FCC metals and alloys under low cycle fatigue at room temperature. Both Hill-Hutchinson and Kroener models have been used. Next, a physically-based model based on dislocation densities has been developed and its parameters measured. The model allows predictions in a qualitative agreement with experimental data for tensile loadings. Finally, this model has been enriched to take into account visco-plasticity, dislocation climb and interaction between dislocations and solute atoms, which are influent during creep-fatigue or fatigue relaxation at high temperature. The proposed model uses three adjustable parameters only and allows rather accurate prediction of the behavior of 316L(N) steel under tensile loading and relaxation. (author) [fr

  2. Dynamic tensile behaviour and deformational mechanism of C5191 phosphor bronze under high strain rates deformation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Dao-chun [College of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Nanjing 210016 (China); College of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering, Taizhou Vocational & Technical College, Taizhou 318000 (China); Chen, Ming-he, E-mail: meemhchen@nuaa.edu.cn [College of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Nanjing 210016 (China); Wang, Lei; Cheng, Hu [College of Mechanical Engineering, Taizhou University, Taizhou 318000 (China)

    2016-01-01

    High speed stamping process is used to high strength and high electrical conductivity phosphor bronze with extremely high strain rates more than 10{sup 3} s{sup −1}. This study on the dynamic tensile behaviour and deformational mechanism is to optimise the high speed stamping processes and improve geometrical precision in finished products. Thus, the tensile properties and deformation behaviour of C5191 phosphor bronze under quasi-static tensile condition at a strain rate of 0.001 s{sup −1} by electronic universal testing machine, and dynamic tensile condition at strain rate of 500, 1000 and 1500 s{sup −1} by split Hopkinson tensile bar (SHTB) apparatus were studied. The effects of strain rate and the deformation mechanism were investigated by means of SEM and TEM. The results showed that the yield strength and tensile strength of C5191 phosphor bronze under high strain rates deformation increased by 32.77% and 11.07% respectively compared with quasi-static condition, the strain hardening index increases from 0.075 to 0.251, and the strength of the material strain rates sensitivity index change from 0.005 to 0.022, which presented a clear sensitive to strain rates. Therefore, it is claimed that the dominant deformation mechanism was changed by the dislocation motion under different strain rates, and the ability of plastic deformation of C5191 phosphor bronze increased due to the number of movable dislocations increased significantly, started multi-line slip, and the soft effect of adiabatic temperature rise at the strain rate ranging from 500 to 1500 s{sup −1}.

  3. An Actomyosin-Arf-GEF Negative Feedback Loop for Tissue Elongation under Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Junior J; Zulueta-Coarasa, Teresa; Maier, Janna A; Lee, Donghoon M; Bruce, Ashley E E; Fernandez-Gonzalez, Rodrigo; Harris, Tony J C

    2017-08-07

    In response to a pulling force, a material can elongate, hold fast, or fracture. During animal development, multi-cellular contraction of one region often stretches neighboring tissue. Such local contraction occurs by induced actomyosin activity, but molecular mechanisms are unknown for regulating the physical properties of connected tissue for elongation under stress. We show that cytohesins, and their Arf small G protein guanine nucleotide exchange activity, are required for tissues to elongate under stress during both Drosophila dorsal closure (DC) and zebrafish epiboly. In Drosophila, protein localization, laser ablation, and genetic interaction studies indicate that the cytohesin Steppke reduces tissue tension by inhibiting actomyosin activity at adherens junctions. Without Steppke, embryogenesis fails, with epidermal distortions and tears resulting from myosin misregulation. Remarkably, actomyosin network assembly is necessary and sufficient for local Steppke accumulation, where live imaging shows Steppke recruitment within minutes. This rapid negative feedback loop provides a molecular mechanism for attenuating the main tension generator of animal tissues. Such attenuation relaxes tissues and allows orderly elongation under stress. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Portable Diagnostics and Rapid Germination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunn, Zachary Spencer [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-12-01

    In the Bioenergy and Defense Department of Sandia National Laboratories, characterization of the BaDx (Bacillus anthracis diagnostic cartridge) was performed and rapid germination chemistry was investigated. BaDx was tested with complex sample matrixes inoculated with Bacillus anthracis, and the trials proved that BaDx will detect Bacillus anthracis in a variety of the medium, such as dirt, serum, blood, milk, and horse fluids. The dimensions of the device were altered to accommodate an E. coli or Listeria lateral flow immunoassay, and using a laser printer, BaDx devices were manufactured to identify E. coli and Listeria. Initial testing with E. coli versions of BaDx indicate that the device will be viable as a portable diagnostic cartridge. The device would be more effective with faster bacteria germination; hence studies were performed the use of rapid germination chemistry. Trials with calcium dipicolinic acid displayed increased cell germination, as shown by control studies using a microplate reader. Upon lyophilization the rapid germination chemistry failed to change growth patterns, indicating that the calcium dipicolinic acid was not solubilized under the conditions tested. Although incompatible with the portable diagnostic device, the experiments proved that the rapid germination chemistry was effective in increasing cell germination.

  5. Pontomedullary lacerations and concomitant head and neck injuries: their underlying mechanism. A prospective autopsy study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Živković, Vladimir; Nikolić, Slobodan; Strajina, Veljko; Babić, Dragan; Djonić, Danijela; Djurić, Marija

    2012-09-01

    It is a well-documented fact that pontomedullary lacerations (PML) occur as a result of severe craniocervical injury, but their underlying mechanism has yet to be fully clarified. The aim of this prospective study has been to give greater insight into the underlying mechanism of PML through determining the site of blunt head-impact, as well as the presence of concomitant head and neck injuries in cases of brainstem PML. A total of 56 cases with partial PML have been analysed for this study. The case group was composed of 40 men and 16 women, averaging in age 44.2 ± 19.2 years and consisting of 7 motorcyclists, 4 bicyclists, 18 car occupants, 16 pedestrians, and 10 victims of falls from a height, as well as 1 victim of a fall from standing height. The presented study has shown that there are several possible mechanisms of PML. Impact to the chin, with or without a skull base fracture, most often leads to this fatal injury, due to the impact force transmission either through the jawbone or vertebral column; most likely in combination with a fronto-posterior hyperextension of the head. Additionally, lateral head-impacts with subsequent hinge fractures and PML may also be a possible mechanism. The jawbone and other facial bones are able to act as shock absorbers, and their fracture may diminish the energy transfer towards the skull and protect the brain and brainstem from injury. The upper cervical spine can act as damper and energy absorber as well, and may prevent any occurrence of fracture to the base of the skull.

  6. New Insights on Neurobiological Mechanisms underlying Alcohol Addiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Changhai; Noronha, Antonio; Morikawa, Hitoshi; Alvarez, Veronica A.; Stuber, Garret D.; Szumlinski, Karen K.; Kash, Thomas L.; Roberto, Marisa; Wilcox, Mark V.

    2012-01-01

    Alcohol dependence/addiction is mediated by complex neural mechanisms that involve multiple brain circuits and neuroadaptive changes in a variety of neurotransmitter and neuropeptide systems. Although recent studies have provided substantial information on the neurobiological mechanisms that drive alcohol drinking behavior, significant challenges remain in understanding how alcohol-induced neuroadaptations occur and how different neurocircuits and pathways cross-talk. This review article highlights recent progress in understanding neural mechanisms of alcohol addiction from the perspectives of the development and maintenance of alcohol dependence. It provides insights on cross talks of different mechanisms and reviews the latest studies on metaplasticity, structural plasticity, interface of reward and stress pathways, and cross-talk of different neural signaling systems involved in binge-like drinking and alcohol dependence. PMID:23159531

  7. Ontogeny of thermoregulatory mechanisms in king penguin chicks (Aptenodytes patagonicus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duchamp, Claude; Rouanet, Jean Louis; Barré, Hervé

    2002-04-01

    The rapid maturation of thermoregulatory mechanisms may be of critical importance for optimising chick growth and survival and parental energy investment under harsh climatic conditions. The ontogeny of thermoregulatory mechanisms was studied in growing king penguin chicks from hatching to the full emancipation observed at 1 month of age in the sub-Antarctic area (Crozet Archipelago). Newly hatched chicks showed small, but significant regulatory thermogenesis (21% rise in heat production assessed by indirect calorimetry), but rapidly became hypothermic. Within a few days, both resting (+32%) and peak (+52%) metabolic rates increased. The first week of life was characterised by a two-fold rise in thermogenic capacity in the cold, while thermal insulation was not improved. During the second and third weeks of age, thermal insulation markedly rose (two-fold drop in thermal conductance) in relation to down growth, while resting heat production was slightly reduced (-13%). Shivering (assessed by electromyography) was visible right after hatching, although its efficiency was limited. Thermogenic efficiency of shivering increased five-fold with age during the first weeks of life, but there was no sign of non-shivering thermogenesis. We conclude that thermal emancipation of king penguin chicks may be primarily determined by improvement of thermal insulation after thermogenic processes have become sufficiently matured. Both insulative and metabolic adaptations are required for the rapid ontogeny of thermoregulation and thermal emancipation in growing king penguin chicks.

  8. High Early-Age Strength Concrete for Rapid Repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maler, Matthew O.

    The aim of this research was to identify High Early-Age Strength (HES) concrete batch designs, and evaluate their suitability for use in the rapid repair of highways and bridge decks. To this end, two criteria needed to be met; a minimum compressive strength of 20.68 MPa (3000 psi) in no later than 12 hours, and a drying shrinkage of less than 0.06 % at 28 days after curing. The evaluations included both air-entrained, and non-air-entrained concretes. The cement types chosen for this study included Type III and Type V Portland cement and "Rapid Set"--a Calcium Sulfoaluminate (CSA) cement. In addition, two blended concretes containing different ratios of Type V Portland cement and CSA cement were investigated. The evaluation of the studied concretes included mechanical properties and transport properties. Additionally, dimensional stability and durability were investigated. Evaluations were conducted based on cement type and common cement factor. Fresh property tests showed that in order to provide a comparable workability, and still remain within manufactures guideline for plasticizer, the water-to-cement ratio was adjusted for each type of cement utilized. This resulted in the need to increase the water-to-cement ratio as the Blaine Fineness of the cement type increased (0.275 for Type V Portland cement, 0.35 for Type III Portland cement, and 0.4 for Rapid Set cement). It was also observed that negligible changes in setting time occurred with increasing cement content, whereas changes in cement type produced notable differences. The addition of air-entrainment had beneficial effect on workability for the lower cement factors. Increasing trends for peak hydration heat were seen with increases in cement factor, cement Blaine Fineness, and accelerator dosage. Evaluation of hardened properties revealed opening times as low as 5 hours for Type V Portland cement with 2.0 % accelerator per cement weight and further reduction in opening time by an hour when accelerator

  9. Atomic and electronic structure transformations of silver nanoparticles under rapid cooling conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Lobato, I.; Rojas, J.; Landauro, C. V.; Torres, J.

    2008-01-01

    The structural evolution and dynamics of silver nanodrops Ag${}_{2896}$ (4.4 nm in diameter) during rapid cooling conditions has been studied by means of molecular dynamics simulations and electronic density of state calculations. The interaction of silver atoms is modeled by a tight-binding semiempirical interatomic potential proposed by Cleri and Rosato. The pair correlation functions and the pair analysis technique is applied to reveal the structural transition in the process of solidifica...

  10. Oxidative Stress and Mitochondrial Activation as the Main Mechanisms Underlying Graphene Toxicity against Human Cancer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Jarosz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the development of nanotechnology graphene and graphene-based nanomaterials have attracted the most attention owing to their unique physical, chemical, and mechanical properties. Graphene can be applied in many fields among which biomedical applications especially diagnostics, cancer therapy, and drug delivery have been arousing a lot of interest. Therefore it is essential to understand better the graphene-cell interactions, especially toxicity and underlying mechanisms for proper use and development. This review presents the recent knowledge concerning graphene cytotoxicity and influence on different cancer cell lines.

  11. Sperm competition risk drives rapid ejaculate adjustments mediated by seminal fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, Michael J; Steeves, Tammy E; Gemmell, Neil J; Rosengrave, Patrice C

    2017-10-31

    In many species, males can make rapid adjustments to ejaculate performance in response to sperm competition risk; however, the mechanisms behind these changes are not understood. Here, we manipulate male social status in an externally fertilising fish, chinook salmon ( Oncorhynchus tshawytscha ), and find that in less than 48 hr, males can upregulate sperm velocity when faced with an increased risk of sperm competition. Using a series of in vitro sperm manipulation and competition experiments, we show that rapid changes in sperm velocity are mediated by seminal fluid and the effect of seminal fluid on sperm velocity directly impacts paternity share and therefore reproductive success. These combined findings, completely consistent with sperm competition theory, provide unequivocal evidence that sperm competition risk drives plastic adjustment of ejaculate quality, that seminal fluid harbours the mechanism for the rapid adjustment of sperm velocity and that fitness benefits accrue to males from such adjustment.

  12. The mechanical stability of retained austenite in low-alloyed TRIP steel under shear loading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blondé, R., E-mail: r.j.p.blonde@tudelft.nl [Fundamental Aspects of Materials and Energy, Faculty of Applied Sciences, Delft University of Technology, Mekelweg 15, 2629 JB Delft (Netherlands); Materials Innovation Institute, Mekelweg 2, 2628 CD Delft (Netherlands); Jimenez-Melero, E., E-mail: enrique.jimenez-melero@manchester.ac.uk [Dalton Cumbrian Facility, The University of Manchester, Westlakes Science and Technology Park, Moor Row, Cumbria CA24 3HA (United Kingdom); Zhao, L., E-mail: lie.zhao@tudelft.nl [Materials Innovation Institute, Mekelweg 2, 2628 CD Delft (Netherlands); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Delft University of Technology, Mekelweg 2, 2628 CD Delft (Netherlands); Schell, N., E-mail: norbert.schell@hzg.de [Institute of Materials Research, Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht, Max Planck Strasse 1, 21502 Geesthacht (Germany); Brück, E., E-mail: e.h.bruck@tudelft.nl [Fundamental Aspects of Materials and Energy, Faculty of Applied Sciences, Delft University of Technology, Mekelweg 15, 2629 JB Delft (Netherlands); Zwaag, S. van der, E-mail: s.vanderzwaag@tudelft.nl [Novel Aerospace Materials Group, Faculty of Aerospace Engineering, Delft University of Technology, Kluyverweg 1, 2629 HS Delft (Netherlands); Dijk, N.H. van, E-mail: n.h.vandijk@tudelft.nl [Fundamental Aspects of Materials and Energy, Faculty of Applied Sciences, Delft University of Technology, Mekelweg 15, 2629 JB Delft (Netherlands)

    2014-01-31

    The microstructure evolution during shear loading of a low-alloyed TRIP steel with different amounts of the metastable austenite phase and its equivalent DP grade has been studied by in-situ high-energy X-ray diffraction. A detailed powder diffraction analysis has been performed to probe the austenite-to-martensite transformation by characterizing simultaneously the evolution of the austenite phase fraction and its carbon concentration, the load partitioning between the austenite and the ferritic matrix and the texture evolution of the constituent phases. Our results show that for shear deformation the TRIP effect extends over a significantly wider deformation range than for simple uniaxial loading. A clear increase in average carbon content during the mechanically-induced transformation indicates that austenite grains with a low carbon concentration are least stable during shear loading. The observed texture evolution indicates that under shear loading the orientation dependence of the austenite stability is relatively weak, while it has previously been found that under tensile load the {110}〈001〉 component transforms preferentially. The mechanical stability of retained austenite in TRIP steel is found to be a complex interplay between the interstitial carbon concentration in the austenite, the grain orientation and the load partitioning.

  13. Efferocytosis is an innate antibacterial mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Constance J; Booty, Matthew G; Rosebrock, Tracy R; Nunes-Alves, Cláudio; Desjardins, Danielle M; Keren, Iris; Fortune, Sarah M; Remold, Heinz G; Behar, Samuel M

    2012-09-13

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis persists within macrophages in an arrested phagosome and depends upon necrosis to elude immunity and disseminate. Although apoptosis of M. tuberculosis-infected macrophages is associated with reduced bacterial growth, the bacteria are relatively resistant to other forms of death, leaving the mechanism underlying this observation unresolved. We find that after apoptosis, M. tuberculosis-infected macrophages are rapidly taken up by uninfected macrophages through efferocytosis, a dedicated apoptotic cell engulfment process. Efferocytosis of M. tuberculosis sequestered within an apoptotic macrophage further compartmentalizes the bacterium and delivers it along with the apoptotic cell debris to the lysosomal compartment. M. tuberculosis is killed only after efferocytosis, indicating that apoptosis itself is not intrinsically bactericidal but requires subsequent phagocytic uptake and lysosomal fusion of the apoptotic body harboring the bacterium. While efferocytosis is recognized as a constitutive housekeeping function of macrophages, these data indicate that it can also function as an antimicrobial effector mechanism. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Rapid tests and urine sampling techniques for the diagnosis of urinary tract infection (UTI) in children under five years: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiting, Penny; Westwood, Marie; Watt, Ian; Cooper, Julie; Kleijnen, Jos

    2005-04-05

    Urinary tract infection (UTI) is one of the most common sources of infection in children under five. Prompt diagnosis and treatment is important to reduce the risk of renal scarring. Rapid, cost-effective, methods of UTI diagnosis are required as an alternative to culture. We conducted a systematic review to determine the diagnostic accuracy of rapid tests for detecting UTI in children under five years of age. The evidence supports the use of dipstick positive for both leukocyte esterase and nitrite (pooled LR+ = 28.2, 95% CI: 17.3, 46.0) or microscopy positive for both pyuria and bacteriuria (pooled LR+ = 37.0, 95% CI: 11.0, 125.9) to rule in UTI. Similarly dipstick negative for both LE and nitrite (Pooled LR- = 0.20, 95% CI: 0.16, 0.26) or microscopy negative for both pyuria and bacteriuria (Pooled LR- = 0.11, 95% CI: 0.05, 0.23) can be used to rule out UTI. A test for glucose showed promise in potty-trained children. However, all studies were over 30 years old. Further evaluation of this test may be useful. Dipstick negative for both LE and nitrite or microscopic analysis negative for both pyuria and bacteriuria of a clean voided urine, bag, or nappy/pad specimen may reasonably be used to rule out UTI. These patients can then reasonably be excluded from further investigation, without the need for confirmatory culture. Similarly, combinations of positive tests could be used to rule in UTI, and trigger further investigation.

  15. Autism spectrum disorder causes, mechanisms, and treatments: focus on neuronal synapses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyejung eWon

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Autism spectrum disorder (ASD is a group of developmental disabilities characterized by impairments in social interaction and communication and restricted and repetitive inter-ests/behaviors. Advances in human genomics have identified a large number of genetic varia-tions associated with ASD. These associations are being rapidly verified by a growing number of studies using a variety of approaches, including mouse genetics. These studies have also identified key mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of ASD, many of which involve synaptic dysfunctions, and have investigated novel, mechanism-based therapeutic strategies. This review will try to integrate these three key aspects of ASD research: human genetics, animal models, and potential treatments. Continued efforts in this direction should ultimately reveal core mechanisms that account for a larger fraction of ASD cases and identify neural mechanisms associated with specific ASD symptoms, providing important clues to efficient ASD treatment.

  16. THE EUROPEAN MECHANISM FOR FINANCIAL STABILITY AND THE EURO-PLUS PACT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AUGUSTIN FUEREA

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The economic crisis that has affected countries from all continents has generated, among others, also a strong financial crisis, which in turn, has caused serious imbalances in the economic and financial environment of EU Member States.Under these circumstances, the Council, being in an exceptional situation, “outside the control of Member States”, as it itself states in the Preamble to Regulation No. 407/2010, considered necessary, “the immediate establishment of a stabilization mechanism at EU level in order to maintain the financial stability in the European Union”, mechanism that “would enable the Union to respond in a coordinated, rapid and effective way to the serious difficulties undergone by a certain Member State”

  17. Morphological and molecular variations induce mitochondrial dysfunction as a possible underlying mechanism of athletic amenorrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Ruo-Hong; Wen, Shi-Lei; Wang, Qiang; Zhou, Hong-Ying; Feng, Shi

    2018-01-01

    Female athletes may experience difficulties in achieving pregnancy due to athletic amenorrhea (AA); however, the underlying mechanisms of AA remain unknown. The present study focuses on the mitochondrial alteration and its function in detecting the possible mechanism of AA. An AA rat model was established by excessive swimming. Hematoxylin and eosin staining, and transmission electron microscopic methods were performed to evaluate the morphological changes of the ovary, immunohistochemical examinations and radioimmunoassays were used to detect the reproductive hormones and corresponding receptors. Reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) was used to test the mtDNA copy number. PCR and western blot analysis were used to test the expression of ND2. The change of morphological features of the rat ovaries revealed evident abnormalities. Particularly, the features of the mitochondria were markedly altered. In addition, reproductive hormones in the serum and tissues of AA rats were also detected to evaluate the function of the ovaries, and the levels of these hormones were significantly decreased. Furthermore, the mitochondrial DNA copy number (mtDNA) and expression of NADH dehydrogenase subunit 2 (ND2) were quantitated by qPCR or western blot analysis. Accordingly, the mtDNA copy number and expression of ND2 expression were markedly reduced in the AA rats. In conclusion, mitochondrial dysfunction in AA may affect the cellular energy supply and, therefore, result in dysfunction of the ovary. Thus, mitochondrial dysfunction may be considered as a possible underlying mechanism for the occurrence of AA.

  18. Molecular mechanisms underlying mancozeb-induced inhibition of TNF-alpha production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corsini, Emanuela; Viviani, Barbara; Birindelli, Sarah; Gilardi, Federica; Torri, Anna; Codeca, Ilaria; Lucchi, Laura; Bartesaghi, Stefano; Galli, Corrado L.; Marinovich, Marina; Colosio, Claudio

    2006-01-01

    after mancozeb treatment, confirming NF-κB binding as an intracellular target of mancozeb. Overall, this study contributes to our understanding of the mechanism underlying mancozeb-induced immunotoxicity

  19. MECHANICAL BEHAVIOR OF COLD BITUMINOUS MIXTURE UNDER EFFECTS OF STATIC AND REPEATED LOADS1

    OpenAIRE

    Tamyres Karla da Silva; Carlos Alexandre Braz de Carvalho; Geraldo Luciano de Oliveira Marques; Dario Cardoso de Lima; Taciano Oliveira da Silva; Carlos Cardoso Machado

    2017-01-01

    Abstract This paper presents the results of an experimental research aimed at analyzing the mechanical behavior of a cold bituminous mixture under effects of static and repeated loads. Initially, a Marshall mixture design was performed to determine the mixture design contents according to standard DNER (1994a). After obtaining the mixture design contents, nine bituminous specimens were molded and subjected to the following tests: resilient modulus, tensile strength by diametral compression, a...

  20. Different routes, same pathways: Molecular mechanisms under silver ion and nanoparticle exposures in the soil sentinel Eisenia fetida

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novo, Marta; Lahive, Elma; Díez-Ortiz, María; Matzke, Marianne; Morgan, Andrew J.; Spurgeon, David J.; Svendsen, Claus; Kille, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Use of nanotechnology products is increasing; with silver (Ag) nanoparticles particularly widely used. A key uncertainty surrounding the risk assessment of AgNPs is whether their effects are driven through the same mechanism of action that underlies the toxic effects of Ag ions. We present the first full transcriptome study of the effects of Ag ions and NPs in an ecotoxicological model soil invertebrate, the earthworm Eisenia fetida. Gene expression analyses indicated similar mechanisms for both silver forms with toxicity being exerted through pathways related to ribosome function, sugar and protein metabolism, molecular stress, disruption of energy production and histones. The main difference seen between Ag ions and NPs was associated with potential toxicokinetic effects related to cellular internalisation and communication, with pathways related to endocytosis and cilia being significantly enriched. These results point to a common final toxicodynamic response, but initial internalisation driven by different exposure routes and toxicokinetic mechanisms. - Highlights: • Molecular effects underlying Ag ions and NPs exposure were studied in Eisenia fetida. • Full transcriptomic study of a genetically characterised lineage. • NPs and ions presented a similar toxicodynamic response. • Internalisation of the two Ag forms by different toxicokinetic mechanisms. - Transcriptomic analyses after exposure of earthworms to silver NPs or ions showed a final common toxicodynamic response, but internalisation by different toxicokinetic mechanisms