Yoshihara, Lena; Roth, Christian J; Wall, Wolfgang A
2017-04-01
In this article, a novel approach is presented for combining standard fluid-structure interaction with additional volumetric constraints to model fluid flow into and from homogenised solid domains. The proposed algorithm is particularly interesting for investigations in the field of respiratory mechanics as it enables the mutual coupling of airflow in the conducting part and local tissue deformation in the respiratory part of the lung by means of a volume constraint. In combination with a classical monolithic fluid-structure interaction approach, a comprehensive model of the human lung can be established that will be useful to gain new insights into respiratory mechanics in health and disease. To illustrate the validity and versatility of the novel approach, three numerical examples including a patient-specific lung model are presented. The proposed algorithm proves its capability of computing clinically relevant airflow distribution and tissue strain data at a level of detail that is not yet achievable, neither with current imaging techniques nor with existing computational models. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Fluid mechanics in fluids at rest.
Brenner, Howard
2012-07-01
Using readily available experimental thermophoretic particle-velocity data it is shown, contrary to current teachings, that for the case of compressible flows independent dye- and particle-tracer velocity measurements of the local fluid velocity at a point in a flowing fluid do not generally result in the same fluid velocity measure. Rather, tracer-velocity equality holds only for incompressible flows. For compressible fluids, each type of tracer is shown to monitor a fundamentally different fluid velocity, with (i) a dye (or any other such molecular-tagging scheme) measuring the fluid's mass velocity v appearing in the continuity equation and (ii) a small, physicochemically and thermally inert, macroscopic (i.e., non-Brownian), solid particle measuring the fluid's volume velocity v(v). The term "compressibility" as used here includes not only pressure effects on density, but also temperature effects thereon. (For example, owing to a liquid's generally nonzero isobaric coefficient of thermal expansion, nonisothermal liquid flows are to be regarded as compressible despite the general perception of liquids as being incompressible.) Recognition of the fact that two independent fluid velocities, mass- and volume-based, are formally required to model continuum fluid behavior impacts on the foundations of contemporary (monovelocity) fluid mechanics. Included therein are the Navier-Stokes-Fourier equations, which are now seen to apply only to incompressible fluids (a fact well-known, empirically, to experimental gas kineticists). The findings of a difference in tracer velocities heralds the introduction into fluid mechanics of a general bipartite theory of fluid mechanics, bivelocity hydrodynamics [Brenner, Int. J. Eng. Sci. 54, 67 (2012)], differing from conventional hydrodynamics in situations entailing compressible flows and reducing to conventional hydrodynamics when the flow is incompressible, while being applicable to both liquids and gases.
Solving problems in fluid mechanics. Vol. 1
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Douglas, J.F.
1986-01-01
Fluid mechanics is that part of applied mechanics concerned with the statics and dynamics of liquids and gases. The presentation is in a pedagogically sound question-and-answer format, which includes many worked examples preceding the exercises. This book which assumes only an elementary knowledge of mathematics and mechanics, offers a clear exposition of topics including hydrostatics, fluid pressure and the stability of floating bodies, fluid motion, flow measurement, pipelines, open channel flow, and fluid friction
FOREWORD Fluid Mechanics and Fluid Power (FMFP)
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
This section of the Special Issue carries selected articles from the Fluid Mechanics and Fluid. Power Conference held during 12–14 December 2013 at the National Institute of Technology,. Hamirpur (HP). The section includes three review articles and nine original research articles. These were selected on the basis of their ...
Finite element computational fluid mechanics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Baker, A.J.
1983-01-01
This book analyzes finite element theory as applied to computational fluid mechanics. It includes a chapter on using the heat conduction equation to expose the essence of finite element theory, including higher-order accuracy and convergence in a common knowledge framework. Another chapter generalizes the algorithm to extend application to the nonlinearity of the Navier-Stokes equations. Other chapters are concerned with the analysis of a specific fluids mechanics problem class, including theory and applications. Some of the topics covered include finite element theory for linear mechanics; potential flow; weighted residuals/galerkin finite element theory; inviscid and convection dominated flows; boundary layers; parabolic three-dimensional flows; and viscous and rotational flows
XXII Fluid Mechanics Conference (KKMP2016)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
2016-01-01
This Journal of Physics: Conference Series contains papers that have been presented at XXII Fluid Mechanics Conference (XXII FMC) held in Słok near Bełchatów in Poland during llth-14th September of 2016. The Conference is organized by Wrocław University of Science and Technology, Polish Academy of Sciences - Committee of Mechanics and Foun-dation for Development of Wroclaw University of Science and Technology. Let us recall some historical facts: Fluid Mechanics Conferences have been taking place every two years since 1974, which makes a total of forty-two years. The goal of this conference is to provide a forum for exposure and exchange of ideas, methods and results in fluid mechanics. We have already met in Bełchatów 10 years ago (XVII KKMP). It was a successful meeting. Since then the National Conference on Fluid Mechanics has changed title and has started to be named Fluid Mechanics Conference in the hopes that it will attract more participants from other countries. English became the Conference's first language and we started to invite world leading scientists - working in the field of fluid mechanics. At the 2006 conference we hosted for the first time prof. Keith Moffatt from the Cambridge University. In this year prof. Moffatt once again promised us to arrive to Bełchatów. The whole fluid mechanics community celebrates 9 2 anniversary of his birthday. So let us also wish happy anniversary to prof. Moffatt. In the mean time we had to pay last respects to our collages. Prof. Prosnak who is regarded as a founder of the Notational Conference on Fluid Mechanics and is well known through his books. Prof. Puzyrewski who was present at all conferences so far. He was providing via his discussions a special value to these conferences, and our colleague prof. Konrad Bajer who was intended to be the organizer and host of the present conference. Short memories to them will be given during the opening ceremony. Conference topics include, but are not limited
Proceedings of industrial applications of fluid mechanics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sherif, S.A.; Morrow, T.B.; Marshall, L.R.; Dalton, C.
1990-01-01
The is the fourth Forum on Industrial Applications of Fluid Mechanics sponsored by the Fluid Mechanics Committee of the ASME Fluids Engineering Division. The Forum objective is to promote the discussion and interchange of current information on developing and state-of-the-art applications of fluid mechanics technology. The program is organized as a technical forum to encourage the presentation of new ideas, especially those which may be so innovative that a conservative review process might delay their dissemination to the fluids engineering community. Four sessions and a total of 17 papers are scheduled for this program. Three of the four sessions were devoted to contributed papers, while the fourth is a panel discussion with three invited presentations. All papers were reviewed editorially to assure that they are related to the forum theme The papers were not evaluated technically, and therefore carry no endorsement from the Fluid Mechanics Committee or the Fluids Engineering Division with regard to peer evaluation. The forum presentations will focus on specific applications of fluid mechanics technology. Lively discussion of the papers is encouraged at the forum. The Fluid Mechanics Committee plans to sponsor a forum with an industrial applications theme each year at the ASME Winter Annual Meeting. In 1991, the scope of the forum will be enlarged to include the topic of textile applications of fluid mechanics, and another panel session featuring speakers with industrial experience in different areas of fluid mechanics applications. In future years, it is anticipated that the forum will solicit papers from other areas where fluid mechanics technology is applied
Drazin, Philip
1987-01-01
Outlines the contents of Volume II of "Principia" by Sir Isaac Newton. Reviews the contributions of subsequent scientists to the physics of fluid dynamics. Discusses the treatment of fluid mechanics in physics curricula. Highlights a few of the problems of modern research in fluid dynamics. Shows that problems still remain. (CW)
Michell, S J
2013-01-01
Fluid and Particle Mechanics provides information pertinent to hydraulics or fluid mechanics. This book discusses the properties and behavior of liquids and gases in motion and at rest. Organized into nine chapters, this book begins with an overview of the science of fluid mechanics that is subdivided accordingly into two main branches, namely, fluid statics and fluid dynamics. This text then examines the flowmeter devices used for the measurement of flow of liquids and gases. Other chapters consider the principle of resistance in open channel flow, which is based on improper application of th
Fluid mechanics problems and solutions
Spurk, Joseph H
1997-01-01
his collection of over 200 detailed worked exercises adds to and complements the textbook Fluid Mechanics by the same author, and illustrates the teaching material through examples. In the exercises the fundamental concepts of Fluid Mechanics are applied to obtaining the solution of diverse concrete problems, and in doing this the student's skill in the mathematical modeling of practical problems is developed. In addition, 30 challenging questions without detailed solutions have been included, and while lecturers will find these questions suitable for examinations and tests, the student himself can use them to check his understanding of the subject.
Annual review of fluid mechanics. Volume 23
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lumley, J.L.; Van Dyke, M.; Reed, H.L.
1991-01-01
Recent advances in theoretical, experimental, and computational fluid mechanics are discussed in a collection of annual review essays. Topics addressed include Lagrangian ocean studies, drag reduction in nature, the hydraulics of rotating strait and sill flow, analytical methods for the development of Reynolds-stress closures in turbulence, and exact solutions of the Navier-Stokes equations. Consideration is given to the theory of hurricanes, flow phenomena in CVD of thin films, particle-imaging techniques for experimental fluid mechanics, symmetry and symmetry-breaking bifurcations in fluid dynamics, turbulent mixing in stratified fluids, numerical simulation of transition in wall-bounded shear flows, fractals and multifractals in fluid turbulence, and coherent motions in the turbulent boundary layer
Relativistic viscoelastic fluid mechanics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fukuma, Masafumi; Sakatani, Yuho
2011-01-01
A detailed study is carried out for the relativistic theory of viscoelasticity which was recently constructed on the basis of Onsager's linear nonequilibrium thermodynamics. After rederiving the theory using a local argument with the entropy current, we show that this theory universally reduces to the standard relativistic Navier-Stokes fluid mechanics in the long time limit. Since effects of elasticity are taken into account, the dynamics at short time scales is modified from that given by the Navier-Stokes equations, so that acausal problems intrinsic to relativistic Navier-Stokes fluids are significantly remedied. We in particular show that the wave equations for the propagation of disturbance around a hydrostatic equilibrium in Minkowski space-time become symmetric hyperbolic for some range of parameters, so that the model is free of acausality problems. This observation suggests that the relativistic viscoelastic model with such parameters can be regarded as a causal completion of relativistic Navier-Stokes fluid mechanics. By adjusting parameters to various values, this theory can treat a wide variety of materials including elastic materials, Maxwell materials, Kelvin-Voigt materials, and (a nonlinearly generalized version of) simplified Israel-Stewart fluids, and thus we expect the theory to be the most universal description of single-component relativistic continuum materials. We also show that the presence of strains and the corresponding change in temperature are naturally unified through the Tolman law in a generally covariant description of continuum mechanics.
Relativistic viscoelastic fluid mechanics.
Fukuma, Masafumi; Sakatani, Yuho
2011-08-01
A detailed study is carried out for the relativistic theory of viscoelasticity which was recently constructed on the basis of Onsager's linear nonequilibrium thermodynamics. After rederiving the theory using a local argument with the entropy current, we show that this theory universally reduces to the standard relativistic Navier-Stokes fluid mechanics in the long time limit. Since effects of elasticity are taken into account, the dynamics at short time scales is modified from that given by the Navier-Stokes equations, so that acausal problems intrinsic to relativistic Navier-Stokes fluids are significantly remedied. We in particular show that the wave equations for the propagation of disturbance around a hydrostatic equilibrium in Minkowski space-time become symmetric hyperbolic for some range of parameters, so that the model is free of acausality problems. This observation suggests that the relativistic viscoelastic model with such parameters can be regarded as a causal completion of relativistic Navier-Stokes fluid mechanics. By adjusting parameters to various values, this theory can treat a wide variety of materials including elastic materials, Maxwell materials, Kelvin-Voigt materials, and (a nonlinearly generalized version of) simplified Israel-Stewart fluids, and thus we expect the theory to be the most universal description of single-component relativistic continuum materials. We also show that the presence of strains and the corresponding change in temperature are naturally unified through the Tolman law in a generally covariant description of continuum mechanics.
Fluid mechanics fundamentals and applications
Cengel, Yunus
2013-01-01
Cengel and Cimbala's Fluid Mechanics Fundamentals and Applications, communicates directly with tomorrow's engineers in a simple yet precise manner. The text covers the basic principles and equations of fluid mechanics in the context of numerous and diverse real-world engineering examples. The text helps students develop an intuitive understanding of fluid mechanics by emphasizing the physics, using figures, numerous photographs and visual aids to reinforce the physics. The highly visual approach enhances the learning of Fluid mechanics by students. This text distinguishes itself from others by the way the material is presented - in a progressive order from simple to more difficult, building each chapter upon foundations laid down in previous chapters. In this way, even the traditionally challenging aspects of fluid mechanics can be learned effectively. McGraw-Hill is also proud to offer ConnectPlus powered by Maple with the third edition of Cengel/Cimbabla, Fluid Mechanics. This innovative and powerful new sy...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kreider, J.F.
1985-01-01
This book is an introduction on fluid mechanics incorporating computer applications. Topics covered are as follows: brief history; what is a fluid; two classes of fluids: liquids and gases; the continuum model of a fluid; methods of analyzing fluid flows; important characteristics of fluids; fundamentals and equations of motion; fluid statics; dimensional analysis and the similarity principle; laminar internal flows; ideal flow; external laminar and channel flows; turbulent flow; compressible flow; fluid flow measurements
Fluid mechanics of heart valves.
Yoganathan, Ajit P; He, Zhaoming; Casey Jones, S
2004-01-01
Valvular heart disease is a life-threatening disease that afflicts millions of people worldwide and leads to approximately 250,000 valve repairs and/or replacements each year. Malfunction of a native valve impairs its efficient fluid mechanic/hemodynamic performance. Artificial heart valves have been used since 1960 to replace diseased native valves and have saved millions of lives. Unfortunately, despite four decades of use, these devices are less than ideal and lead to many complications. Many of these complications/problems are directly related to the fluid mechanics associated with the various mechanical and bioprosthetic valve designs. This review focuses on the state-of-the-art experimental and computational fluid mechanics of native and prosthetic heart valves in current clinical use. The fluid dynamic performance characteristics of caged-ball, tilting-disc, bileaflet mechanical valves and porcine and pericardial stented and nonstented bioprostheic valves are reviewed. Other issues related to heart valve performance, such as biomaterials, solid mechanics, tissue mechanics, and durability, are not addressed in this review.
Fluid Mechanics and Homeland Security
Settles, Gary S.
2006-01-01
Homeland security involves many applications of fluid mechanics and offers many opportunities for research and development. This review explores a wide selection of fluids topics in counterterrorism and suggests future directions. Broad topics range from preparedness and deterrence of impending terrorist attacks to detection, response, and recovery. Specific topics include aircraft hardening, blast mitigation, sensors and sampling, explosive detection, microfluidics and labs-on-a-chip, chemical plume dispersal in urban settings, and building ventilation. Also discussed are vapor plumes and standoff detection, nonlethal weapons, airborne disease spread, personal protective equipment, and decontamination. Involvement in these applications requires fluid dynamicists to think across the traditional boundaries of the field and to work with related disciplines, especially chemistry, biology, aerosol science, and atmospheric science.
Fay, James A.; Sonwalkar, Nishikant
1996-05-01
This CD-ROM is designed to accompany James Fay's Introduction to Fluid Mechanics. An enhanced hypermedia version of the textbook, it offers a number of ways to explore the fluid mechanics domain. These include a complete hypertext version of the original book, physical-experiment video clips, excerpts from external references, audio annotations, colored graphics, review questions, and progressive hints for solving problems. Throughout, the authors provide expert guidance in navigating the typed links so that students do not get lost in the learning process. System requirements: Macintosh with 68030 or greater processor and with at least 16 Mb of RAM. Operating System 6.0.4 or later for 680x0 processor and System 7.1.2 or later for Power-PC. CD-ROM drive with 256- color capability. Preferred display 14 inches or above (SuperVGA with 1 megabyte of VRAM). Additional system font software: Computer Modern postscript fonts (CM/PS Screen Fonts, CMBSY10, and CMTT10) and Adobe Type Manager (ATM 3.0 or later). James A. Fay is Professor Emeritus and Senior Lecturer in the Department of Mechanical Engineering at MIT.
Editorial Special Issue on Fluid Mechanics and Fluid Power (FMFP ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
This special issue of Sadhana contains selected papers from two conferences related to fluid mechanics held in India recently, Fluid Mechanics and Fluid Power conference at NIT, Hamirpur, and an International Union of Theoretical ... A simple, well thought out, flow visualization experiment or a computation can sometimes ...
Shinbrot, Marvin
2012-01-01
Readable and user-friendly, this high-level introduction explores the derivation of the equations of fluid motion from statistical mechanics, classical theory, and a portion of the modern mathematical theory of viscous, incompressible fluids. 1973 edition.
[Research advances of fluid bio-mechanics in bone].
Chen, Zebin; Huo, Bo
2017-04-01
It has been found for more than one century that when experiencing mechanical loading, the structure of bone will adapt to the changing mechanical environment, which is called bone remodeling. Bone remodeling is charaterized as two processes of bone formation and bone resorption. A large number of studies have confirmed that the shear stress is resulted from interstitial fluid flow within bone cavities under mechanical loading and it is the key factor of stimulating the biological responses of bone cells. This review summarizes the major research progress during the past years, including the biological response of bone cells under fluid flow, the pressure within bone cavities, the theoretical modeling, numerical simulation and experiments about fluid flow within bone, and finally analyzes and predicts the possible tendency in this field in the future.
New Directions in Mathematical Fluid Mechanics
Fursikov, Andrei V
2010-01-01
The scientific interests of Professor A.V. Kazhikhov were fundamentally devoted to Mathematical Fluid Mechanics, where he achieved outstanding results that had, and still have, a significant influence on this field. This volume, dedicated to the memory of A.V. Kazhikhov, presents the latest contributions from renowned world specialists in a number of new important directions of Mathematical Physics, mostly of Mathematical Fluid Mechanics, and, more generally, in the field of nonlinear partial differential equations. These results are mostly related to boundary value problems and to control problems for the Navier-Stokes equations, and for equations of heat convection. Other important topics include non-equilibrium processes, Poisson-Boltzmann equations, dynamics of elastic body, and related problems of function theory and nonlinear analysis.
Mechanics of couple-stress fluid coatings
Waxman, A. M.
1982-01-01
The formal development of a theory of viscoelastic surface fluids with bending resistance - their kinematics, dynamics, and rheology are discussed. It is relevant to the mechanics of fluid drops and jets coated by a thin layer of immiscible fluid with rather general rheology. This approach unifies the hydrodynamics of two-dimensional fluids with the mechanics of an elastic shell in the spirit of a Cosserat continuum. There are three distinct facets to the formulation of surface continuum mechanics. Outlined are the important ideas and results associated with each: the kinematics of evolving surface geometries, the conservation laws governing the mechanics of surface continua, and the rheological equations of state governing the surface stress and moment tensors.
A Course in Fluid Mechanics of Suspensions.
Davis, Robert H.
1989-01-01
Discusses a course focusing on fluid mechanics and physical chemistry of suspensions. Describes the main themes of the lectures and includes a list of course outlines. Possible textbooks and many journal articles are listed. (YP)
Fluid mechanics and heat transfer advances in nonlinear dynamics modeling
Asli, Kaveh Hariri
2015-01-01
This valuable new book focuses on new methods and techniques in fluid mechanics and heat transfer in mechanical engineering. The book includes the research of the authors on the development of optimal mathematical models and also uses modern computer technology and mathematical methods for the analysis of nonlinear dynamic processes. It covers technologies applicable to both fluid mechanics and heat transfer problems, which include a combination of physical, mechanical, and thermal techniques. The authors develop a new method for the calculation of mathematical models by computer technology, using parametric modeling techniques and multiple analyses for mechanical system. The information in this book is intended to help reduce the risk of system damage or failure. Included are sidebar discussions, which contain information and facts about each subject area that help to emphasize important points to remember.
Advances in Environmental Fluid Mechanics
Mihailovic, Dragutin T
2010-01-01
Environmental fluid mechanics (EFM) is the scientific study of transport, dispersion and transformation processes in natural fluid flows on our planet Earth, from the microscale to the planetary scale. This book brings together scientists and engineers working in research institutions, universities and academia, who engage in the study of theoretical, modeling, measuring and software aspects in environmental fluid mechanics. It provides a forum for the participants, and exchanges new ideas and expertise through the presentations of up-to-date and recent overall achievements in this field.
Finite approximations in fluid mechanics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hirschel, E.H.
1986-01-01
This book contains twenty papers on work which was conducted between 1983 and 1985 in the Priority Research Program ''Finite Approximations in Fluid Mechanics'' of the German Research Society (Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft). Scientists from numerical mathematics, fluid mechanics, and aerodynamics present their research on boundary-element methods, factorization methods, higher-order panel methods, multigrid methods for elliptical and parabolic problems, two-step schemes for the Euler equations, etc. Applications are made to channel flows, gas dynamical problems, large eddy simulation of turbulence, non-Newtonian flow, turbomachine flow, zonal solutions for viscous flow problems, etc. The contents include: multigrid methods for problems from fluid dynamics, development of a 2D-Transonic Potential Flow Solver; a boundary element spectral method for nonstationary viscous flows in 3 dimensions; navier-stokes computations of two-dimensional laminar flows in a channel with a backward facing step; calculations and experimental investigations of the laminar unsteady flow in a pipe expansion; calculation of the flow-field caused by shock wave and deflagration interaction; a multi-level discretization and solution method for potential flow problems in three dimensions; solutions of the conservation equations with the approximate factorization method; inviscid and viscous flow through rotating meridional contours; zonal solutions for viscous flow problems
Basniev, Kaplan S; Chilingar, George V 0
2012-01-01
The mechanics of fluid flow is a fundamental engineering discipline explaining both natural phenomena and human-induced processes, and a thorough understanding of it is central to the operations of the oil and gas industry. This book, written by some of the world's best-known and respected petroleum engineers, covers the concepts, theories, and applications of the mechanics of fluid flow for the veteran engineer working in the field and the student, alike. It is a must-have for any engineer working in the oil and gas industry.
The fluid mechanics of channel fracturing flows: experiment
Rashedi, Ahmadreza; Tucker, Zachery; Ovarlez, Guillaume; Hormozi, Sarah
2017-11-01
We show our preliminary experimental results on the role of fluid mechanics in channel fracturing flows, particularly yield stress fracturing fluids. Recent trends in the oil industry have included the use of cyclic pumping of a proppant slurry interspersed with a yield stress fracturing fluid, which is found to increase wells productivity, if particles disperse in a certain fashion. Our experimental study aims to investigate the physical mechanisms responsible for dispersing the particles (proppant) within a yield stress carrier fluid, and to measure the dispersion of proppant slugs in various fracturing regimes. To this end we have designed and built a unique experimental setup that resembles a fracture configuration coupled with a particle image/tracking velocimetry setup operating at micro to macro dimensions. Moreover, we have designed optically engineered suspensions of complex fluids with tunable yield stress and consistency, well controlled density match-mismatch properties and refractive indices for both X-rays and visible lights. We present our experimental system and preliminary results. NSF (Grant No. CBET-1554044- CAREER), ACS PRF (Grant No. 55661-DNI9).
Dynamics of polymeric liquids. Vol. 1, 2nd Ed.: Fluid mechanics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bird, R.B.; Armstrong, R.C.; Hassager, O.
1987-01-01
This book examines Newtonian liquids and polymer fluid mechanics. It begins with a review of the main ideas of fluid dynamics as well as key points of Newtonian fluids. Major revisions include extensive updating of all material and a greater emphasis on fluid dynamics problem solving. It presents summaries of experiments describing the difference between polymeric and simple fluids. In addition, it traces, roughly in historical order, various methods for solving polymer fluid dynamics problems
A cyber-physical approach to experimental fluid mechanics
Mackowski, Andrew Williams
This Thesis documents the design, implementation, and use of a novel type of experimental apparatus, termed Cyber-Physical Fluid Dynamics (CPFD). Unlike traditional fluid mechanics experiments, CPFD is a general-purpose technique that allows one to impose arbitrary forces on an object submerged in a fluid. By combining fluid mechanics with robotics, we can perform experiments that would otherwise be incredibly difficult or time-consuming. More generally, CPFD allows a high degree of automation and control of the experimental process, allowing for much more efficient use of experimental facilities. Examples of CPFD's capabilites include imposing a gravitational force in the horizontal direction (allowing a test object to "fall" sideways in a water channel), simulating nonlinear springs for a vibrating fluid-structure system, or allowing a self-propelled body to move forward under its own force. Because experimental parameters (including forces and even the mass of the test object) are defined in software, one can define entire ensembles of experiments to run autonomously. CPFD additionally integrates related systems such as water channel speed control, LDV flow speed measurements, and PIV flowfield measurements. The end result is a general-purpose experimental system that opens the door to a vast array of fluid-structure interaction problems. We begin by describing the design and implementation of CPFD, the heart of which is a high-performance force-feedback control system. Precise measurement of time-varying forces (including removing effects of the test object's inertia) is more critical here than in typical robotic force-feedback applications. CPFD is based on an integration of ideas from control theory, fluid dynamics, computer science, electrical engineering, and solid mechanics. We also describe experiments using the CPFD experimental apparatus to study vortex-induced vibration (VIV) and oscillating-airfoil propulsion. We show how CPFD can be used to simulate
On the fluid mechanics of fires
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
TIESZEN,SHELDON R.
2000-02-29
Fluid mechanics research related to fire is reviewed with focus on canonical flows, multiphysics coupling aspects, experimental and numerical techniques. Fire is a low-speed, chemically-reacting, flow in which buoyancy plans an important role. Fire research has focused on two canonical flows, the reacting boundary-layer and the reacting free plume. There is rich, multi-lateral, bi-directional, coupling among fluid mechanics and scalar transport, combustion, and radiation. There is only a limited experimental fluid-mechanics database for fire due to measurement difficulties in the harsh environment, and the focus within the fire community on thermal/chemical consequences. Increasingly, computational fluid dynamics techniques are being used to provide engineering guidance on thermal/chemical consequences and to study fire phenomenology.
Fluid mechanics for engineers. A graduate textbook
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Schobeiri, Meinhard T. [Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering
2010-07-01
The contents of this book covers the material required in the Fluid Mechanics Graduate Core Course (MEEN-621) and in Advanced Fluid Mechanics, a Ph.D-level elective course (MEEN-622), both of which I have been teaching at Texas A and M University for the past two decades. While there are numerous undergraduate fluid mechanics texts on the market for engineering students and instructors to choose from, there are only limited texts that comprehensively address the particular needs of graduate engineering fluid mechanics courses. To complement the lecture materials, the instructors more often recommend several texts, each of which treats special topics of fluid mechanics. This circumstance and the need to have a textbook that covers the materials needed in the above courses gave the impetus to provide the graduate engineering community with a coherent textbook that comprehensively addresses their needs for an advanced fluid mechanics text. Although this text book is primarily aimed at mechanical engineering students, it is equally suitable for aerospace engineering, civil engineering, other engineering disciplines, and especially those practicing professionals who perform CFD-simulation on a routine basis and would like to know more about the underlying physics of the commercial codes they use. Furthermore, it is suitable for self study, provided that the reader has a sufficient knowledge of calculus and differential equations. (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Granger, R.A.
1985-01-01
This text offers the most comprehensive approach available to fluid mechanics. The author takes great care to insure a physical understanding of concepts grounded in applied mathematics. The presentation of theory is followed by engineering applications, helping students develop problem-solving skills from the perspective of a professional engineer. Extensive use of detailed examples reinforces the understanding of theoretical concepts
Introductory fluid mechanics for physicists and mathematicians
Pert, Geoffrey J
2013-01-01
This textbook presents essential methodology for physicists of the theory and applications of fluid mechanics within a single volume. Building steadily through a syllabus, it will be relevant to almost all undergraduate physics degrees which include an option on hydrodynamics, or a course in which hydrodynamics figures prominently.
Fluid mechanics a geometrical point of view
Rajeev, S G
2018-01-01
Fluid Mechanics: A Geometrical Point of View emphasizes general principles of physics illustrated by simple examples in fluid mechanics. Advanced mathematics (e.g., Riemannian geometry and Lie groups) commonly used in other parts of theoretical physics (e.g. General Relativity or High Energy Physics) are explained and applied to fluid mechanics. This follows on from the author's book Advanced Mechanics (Oxford University Press, 2013). After introducing the fundamental equations (Euler and Navier-Stokes), the book provides particular cases: ideal and viscous flows, shocks, boundary layers, instabilities, and transients. A restrained look at integrable systems (KdV) leads into a formulation of an ideal fluid as a hamiltonian system. Arnold's deep idea, that the instability of a fluid can be understood using the curvature of the diffeomorphism group, will be explained. Leray's work on regularity of Navier-Stokes solutions, and the modern developments arising from it, will be explained in language for physicists...
Handbook of mathematical analysis in mechanics of viscous fluids
Novotný, Antonín
2018-01-01
Mathematics has always played a key role for researches in fluid mechanics. The purpose of this handbook is to give an overview of items that are key to handling problems in fluid mechanics. Since the field of fluid mechanics is huge, it is almost impossible to cover many topics. In this handbook, we focus on mathematical analysis on viscous Newtonian fluid. The first part is devoted to mathematical analysis on incompressible fluids while part 2 is devoted to compressible fluids.
Fluid Mechanics An Introduction to the Theory of Fluid Flows
Durst, Franz
2008-01-01
Advancements of fluid flow measuring techniques and of computational methods have led to new ways to treat laminar and turbulent flows. These methods are extensively used these days in research and engineering practise. This also requires new ways to teach the subject to students at higher educational institutions in an introductory manner. The book provides the knowledge to students in engineering and natural science needed to enter fluid mechanics applications in various fields. Analytical treatments are provided, based on the Navier-Stokes equations. Introductions are also given into numerical and experimental methods applied to flows. The main benefit the reader will derive from the book is a sound introduction into all aspects of fluid mechanics covering all relevant subfields.
NASA Ames Fluid Mechanics Laboratory research briefs
Davis, Sanford (Editor)
1994-01-01
The Ames Fluid Mechanics Laboratory research program is presented in a series of research briefs. Nineteen projects covering aeronautical fluid mechanics and related areas are discussed and augmented with the publication and presentation output of the Branch for the period 1990-1993.
Annual review of fluid mechanics. Volume 22
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lumley, J.L.; Van Dyke, M.; Reed, H.L.
1990-01-01
Topics presented include rapid granular flows, issues in viscoelastic fluid mechanics, wave loads on offshore structures, boundary layers in the general ocean circulation, parametrically forced surface waves, wave-mean flow interactions in the equatorial ocean, and local and global instabilities in spatially developing flows. Also presented are aerodynamics of human-powered flight, aerothermodynamics and transition in high-speed wind tunnels at NASA-Langley, wakes behind blunt bodies, and mixing, chaotic advection, and turbulence. Also addressed are the history of the Reynolds number, panel methods in computational fluid dynamics, numerical multipole and boundary integral equation techniques in Stokes flow, plasma turbulence, optical rheometry, and viscous-flow paradoxes
Interfacial Fluid Mechanics A Mathematical Modeling Approach
Ajaev, Vladimir S
2012-01-01
Interfacial Fluid Mechanics: A Mathematical Modeling Approach provides an introduction to mathematical models of viscous flow used in rapidly developing fields of microfluidics and microscale heat transfer. The basic physical effects are first introduced in the context of simple configurations and their relative importance in typical microscale applications is discussed. Then,several configurations of importance to microfluidics, most notably thin films/droplets on substrates and confined bubbles, are discussed in detail. Topics from current research on electrokinetic phenomena, liquid flow near structured solid surfaces, evaporation/condensation, and surfactant phenomena are discussed in the later chapters. This book also: Discusses mathematical models in the context of actual applications such as electrowetting Includes unique material on fluid flow near structured surfaces and phase change phenomena Shows readers how to solve modeling problems related to microscale multiphase flows Interfacial Fluid Me...
Fluid mechanics as a driver of tissue-scale mechanical signaling in organogenesis.
Gilbert, Rachel M; Morgan, Joshua T; Marcin, Elizabeth S; Gleghorn, Jason P
2016-12-01
Organogenesis is the process during development by which cells self-assemble into complex, multi-scale tissues. Whereas significant focus and research effort has demonstrated the importance of solid mechanics in organogenesis, less attention has been given to the fluid forces that provide mechanical cues over tissue length scales. Fluid motion and pressure is capable of creating spatial gradients of forces acting on cells, thus eliciting distinct and localized signaling patterns essential for proper organ formation. Understanding the multi-scale nature of the mechanics is critically important to decipher how mechanical signals sculpt developing organs. This review outlines various mechanisms by which tissues generate, regulate, and sense fluid forces and highlights the impact of these forces and mechanisms in case studies of normal and pathological development.
Topology optimization of fluid mechanics problems
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Gersborg-Hansen, Allan
While topology optimization for solid continuum structures have been studied for about 20 years and for the special case of trusses for many more years, topology optimization of fluid mechanics problems is more recent. Borrvall and Petersson [1] is the seminal reference for topology optimization......D Navier-Stokes equation as well as an example with convection dominated transport in 2D Stokes flow. Using Stokes flow limits the range of applications; nonetheless, the present work gives a proof-of-concept for the application of the method within fluid mechanics problems and it remains...... processing tool. Prior to design manufacturing this allows the engineer to quantify the performance of the computed topology design using standard, credible analysis tools with a body-fitted mesh. [1] Borrvall and Petersson (2003) "Topology optimization of fluids in Stokes flow", Int. J. Num. Meth. Fluids...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Truckenbrodt, E.
1980-01-01
The second volume contains the chapter 4 to 6. Whereas chapter 1 deals with the introduction into the mechanics of fluids and chapter 2 with the fundamental laws of fluid and thermal fluid dynamics, in chapter 3 elementary flow phenomena in fluids with constant density are treated. Chapter 4 directly continues chapter 3 and describes elementary flow phenomena in fluids with varying density. Fluid statics again is treated as a special case. If compared with the first edition the treatment of unsteady laminar flow and of pipe flow for a fluid with varying density were subject to a substantial extension. In chapter 5 rotation-free and rotating potential flows are presented together. By this means it is achieved to explain the behaviour of the multidimensional fictionless flow in closed form. A subchapter describes some related problems of potential theory like the flow along a free streamline and seepage flow through a porous medium. The boundary layer flows in chapter 6 are concerned with the flow and temperature boundary layer in laminar and turbulent flows at a fired wall. In it differential and integral methods are applied of subchapter reports on boundary layer flows without a fixed boundary, occurring e.g. in an open jet and in a wake flow. The problems of intermittence and of the Coanda effect are briefly mentioned. (orig./MH)
Advances in cardiovascular fluid mechanics: bench to bedside.
Dasi, Lakshmi P; Sucosky, Philippe; de Zelicourt, Diane; Sundareswaran, Kartik; Jimenez, Jorge; Yoganathan, Ajit P
2009-04-01
This paper presents recent advances in cardiovascular fluid mechanics that define the current state of the art. These studies include complex multimodal investigations with advanced measurement and simulation techniques. We first discuss the complex flows within the total cavopulmonary connection in Fontan patients. We emphasize the quantification of energy losses by studying the importance of caval offsets as well as the differences among various Fontan surgical protocols. In our studies of the fluid mechanics of prosthetic heart valves, we reveal for the first time the full three-dimensional complexity of flow fields in the vicinity of bileaflet and trileaflet valves and the microscopic hinge flow dynamics. We also present results of these valves functioning in a patient-specific native aorta geometry. Our in vitro mitral valve studies show the complex mechanism of the native mitral valve apparatus. We demonstrate that the different components of the mitral valve have independent and synergistically complex functions that allow the valve to operate efficiently. We also show how valve mechanics change under pathological and repair conditions associated with enlarged ventricles. Finally, our ex vivo studies on the interactions between the aortic valve and its surrounding hemodynamic environment are aimed at providing insights into normal valve function and valve pathology. We describe the development of organ- and tissue-culture systems and the biological response of the tissue subjected to their respective simulated mechanical environment. The studies noted above have enhanced our understanding of the complex fluid mechanics associated with the cardiovascular system and have led to new translational technologies.
Mechanical testing of hydraulic fluids II; Mechanische Pruefung von Hydraulikfluessigkeiten II
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kessler, M.; Feldmann, D.G.; Laukart, V.
2001-09-01
Since May 1996 the Institute for Mechanical Engineering Design 1 of Technical University of Hamburg-Harburg is working on the topic of ''Mechanical Testing of Hydraulic fluids''. The first project lasting 2 1/2 years was completed in 1999, the results are published as the DGMK report 514. Within these project a testing principle for the ''mechanical testing'' of hydraulic fluids has been derived, a prototype of a test rig was designed and set in operation at the authors' institute. This DGMK-report 514-1 describes the results of the second project, which investigates the operating behaviour of the test-rig more in detail. Several test-runs with a total number of 11 different hydraulic fluids show the dependence of the different lubricating behaviour of the tested fluids and their friction and wear behaviour during the tests in a reproducible way. The aim of the project was to derive a testing principle including the design of a suitable test-rig for the mechanical testing of hydraulic fluids. Based on the described results it can be stated that with the developed test it is possible to test the lubricity of hydraulic fluids reproducible and in correlation to field experiences within a relatively short time, so the target was reached. (orig.)
Fluids and the evolution of rock mechanical properties
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Reuschle, Thierry
1989-01-01
This research thesis reports the study of the various phenomena of fluid-solid interaction (mechanical or chemical interaction with fracturing by fluid overpressure, slow crack propagation, and pore deformation by transfer in solution) which may occur in the interaction of fluids with rocks. The author first presents the formalism of slow crack propagation based on the generalisation of the Griffith criterion. The model results are compared with experimental results obtained on four materials (glass, quartz, sandstone, and micrite) by using the double-torsion test. In the second part, the author addresses the issue of pore deformation by transfer in solution: dissolution and crystallisation under stress. The Gibbs chemical potential equation is firstly generalised to the case of a circular pore, and a formalism combining mechanics and thermodynamics is then proposed. A set of simulations highlights important parameters. In the third part, the author addresses the problem of fluid-rock mechanical interaction by studying the mechanical role of fluid pressure in crack initiation and propagation [fr
The Status of Fluid Mechanics in Bioengineering Curricula.
Miller, Gerald E.; Hyman, William A.
1981-01-01
Describes the status of fluid mechanics courses in bioengineering curricula. A survey of institutions offering bioengineering degrees indicates that over half do not require fluid mechanics courses. Suggests increasing number of mechanics courses to increase the quality of bioengineering students and to prepare students for graduate work and more…
Isogeometric Analysis and Shape Optimization in Fluid Mechanics
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nielsen, Peter Nørtoft
This thesis brings together the fields of fluid mechanics, as the study of fluids and flows, isogeometric analysis, as a numerical method to solve engineering problems using computers, and shape optimization, as the art of finding "best" shapes of objects based on some notion of goodness. The flow...... approximations, and for shape optimization purposes also due to its tight connection between the analysis and geometry models. The thesis is initiated by short introductions to fluid mechanics, and to the building blocks of isogeometric analysis. As the first contribution of the thesis, a detailed description...... isogeometric analysis may serve as a natural framework for shape optimization within fluid mechanics. We construct an efficient regularization measure for avoiding inappropriate parametrizations during optimization, and various numerical examples of shape optimization for fluids are considered, serving...
Fluid Mechanics of Blood Clot Formation.
Fogelson, Aaron L; Neeves, Keith B
2015-01-01
Intravascular blood clots form in an environment in which hydrodynamic forces dominate and in which fluid-mediated transport is the primary means of moving material. The clotting system has evolved to exploit fluid dynamic mechanisms and to overcome fluid dynamic challenges to ensure that clots that preserve vascular integrity can form over the wide range of flow conditions found in the circulation. Fluid-mediated interactions between the many large deformable red blood cells and the few small rigid platelets lead to high platelet concentrations near vessel walls where platelets contribute to clotting. Receptor-ligand pairs with diverse kinetic and mechanical characteristics work synergistically to arrest rapidly flowing cells on an injured vessel. Variations in hydrodynamic stresses switch on and off the function of key clotting polymers. Protein transport to, from, and within a developing clot determines whether and how fast it grows. We review ongoing experimental and modeling research to understand these and related phenomena.
The genesis of fluid mechanics, 1640-1780
Calero, Julián Simón
2008-01-01
Fluid Mechanics, as a scientific discipline in a modern sense, was established between the last third of the 17th century and the first half of the 18th one. This book analyses its genesis, following its evolution along two basic lines of research, which have been named the "problem of resistance" and the "problem of discharge". This approach highlights the existence of a remarkable experimental aspect in the aforementioned research lines, together with their link with problems of a practical nature, such as ballistics, hydraulics, fluid-using machines or naval theory. On the other hand, although previous studies usually present fluid mechanics from the point of view of mathematics, this is complemented here by an engineering viewpoint; gathering attempts made in the beginnings of fluid mechanics to see if the theory was capable of productive application in practical terms. This is nothing unusual in a time where the quality of knowledge and skill is measured largely by its usefulness. (c) Universidad Naciona...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jain, Anuj; Paul, Akshoy Ranjan
2016-01-01
Fluid Mechanics and Fluid Power (FMFP) Conference is an important meeting to promote all activities in the field of Fluid Mechanics and Fluid Power in India. FMFP-2016 offers great opportunity to scientists, researchers, engineers and business executives from all parts of the world to share the recent advancements and future trends in all aspects of fluid mechanics and fluid power- be it theoretical, experimental, applied and computational, and build network. It covers theoretical and experimental fluid dynamics, flow instability, transition, turbulence and control, fluid machinery, turbomachinery and fluid power, IC engines and gas turbines, multiphase flows, fluid-structure interaction and flow-induced noise, micro and nano fluid mechanics, bio-inspired fluid mechanics, energy and environment, specialized topics (transport phenomena in materials processing and manufacturing, MHD and EHD flows, granular flows, nuclear reactor, thermal hydraulics, defence and space engineering, sustainable habitat. Papers relevant to INIS are indexed separately
Fluid mechanics in the perivascular space.
Wang, Peng; Olbricht, William L
2011-04-07
Perivascular space (PVS) within the brain is an important pathway for interstitial fluid (ISF) and solute transport. Fluid flowing in the PVS can affect these transport processes and has significant impacts on physiology. In this paper, we carry out a theoretical analysis to investigate the fluid mechanics in the PVS. With certain assumptions and approximations, we are able to find an analytical solution to the problem. We discuss the physical meanings of the solution and particularly examine the consequences of the induced fluid flow in the context of convection-enhanced delivery (CED). We conclude that peristaltic motions of the blood vessel walls can facilitate fluid and solute transport in the PVS. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Topological fluid mechanics of Axisymmetric Flow
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Brøns, Morten
1998-01-01
Topological fluid mechanics in the sense of the present paper is the study and classification of flow patterns close to a critical point. Here we discuss the topology of steady viscous incompressible axisymmetric flows in the vicinity of the axis. Following previous studies the velocity field v...... to the authors knowledge has not been used systematically to high orders in topological fluid mechanics. We compare the general results with experimental and computational results on the Vogel-Ronneberg flow. We show that the topology changes observed when recirculating bubbles on the vortex axis are created...
1994-01-01
This report summarizes research conducted at the Institute for Computer Applications in Science and Engineering in applied mathematics, fluid mechanics, and computer science during the period October 1, 1993 through March 31, 1994. The major categories of the current ICASE research program are: (1) applied and numerical mathematics, including numerical analysis and algorithm development; (2) theoretical and computational research in fluid mechanics in selected areas of interest to LaRC, including acoustics and combustion; (3) experimental research in transition and turbulence and aerodynamics involving LaRC facilities and scientists; and (4) computer science.
Blanks, Robert F.
1979-01-01
A humanistic approach to teaching fluid mechanics is described which minimizes lecturing, increases professor-student interaction, uses group and individual problem solving sessions, and allows for student response. (BB)
Application of the principle of similarity fluid mechanics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hendricks, R.C.; Sengers, J.V.
1979-01-01
Possible applications of the principle of similarity to fluid mechanics is described and illustrated. In correlating thermophysical properties of fluids, the similarity principle transcends the traditional corresponding states principle. In fluid mechanics the similarity principle is useful in correlating flow processes that can be modeled adequately with one independent variable (i.e., one-dimensional flows). In this paper we explore the concept of transforming the conservation equations by combining similarity principles for thermophysical properties with those for fluid flow. We illustrate the usefulness of the procedure by applying such a transformation to calculate two phase critical mass flow through a nozzle
Teaching fluid mechanics to high schoolers: methods, challenges, and outcome
Manikantan, Harishankar
2017-11-01
This talk will summarize the goals, methods, and both short- and long-term feedback from two high-school-level courses in fluid mechanics involving 43 students and cumulatively spanning over 100 hours of instruction. The goals of these courses were twofold: (a) to spark an interest in science and engineering and attract a more diverse demographic into college-level STEM programs; and (b) to train students in a `college-like' method of approaching the physics of common phenomena, with fluid mechanics as the context. The methods of instruction included classes revolving around the idea of dispelling misconceptions, group activities, `challenge' rounds and mock design projects to use fluid mechanics phenomena to achieve a specified goal, and simple hands-on experiments. The feedback during instruction was overwhelmingly positive, particularly in terms of a changing and favorable attitude towards math and engineering. Long after the program, a visible impact lies in a diverse group of students acknowledging that the course had a positive effect in their decision to choose an engineering or science major in a four-year college.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Paraschivoiu, I.; Prud'homme, M.; Robillard, L.; Vasseur, P.
2003-01-01
This book constitutes at the same time theoretical and practical base relating to the phenomena associated with fluid mechanics. The concept of continuum is at the base of the approach developed in this work. The general advance proceeds of simple balances of forces as into hydrostatic to more complex situations or inertias, the internal stresses and the constraints of Reynolds are taken into account. This advance is not only theoretical but contains many applications in the form of solved problems, each chapter ending in a series of suggested problems. The major part of the applications relates to the incompressible flows
An introduction to the mechanics of fluids
Truesdell, C
2000-01-01
The authors have backgrounds which are ideally suited for writing this book. The late C. Truesdell is well known for his monumental treatises on continuum thermomechanics. K.R. Rajagopal has made many important contributions to the mechanics of continua in general, and to nonlinear fluids in particular. They have produced a compact, moderately general book which encompasses many fluid models of current interest…The book is written very clearly and contains a large number of exercises and their solutions. The level of mathematics is that commonly taught to undergraduates in mathematics departments. This is an excellent book which is highly recommended to students and researchers in fluid mechanics. —Mathematical Reviews The writing style is quintessential Truesdellania: purely mathematical, breathtaking, irrepressible, irreverent, uncompromising, taking no prisoners...The book is filled with historical nuggets…Its pure, exact mathematics will baptize, enlighten and exhilarate. —Applied Mechanics Review...
Fractional vector calculus and fluid mechanics
Lazopoulos, Konstantinos A.; Lazopoulos, Anastasios K.
2017-04-01
Basic fluid mechanics equations are studied and revised under the prism of fractional continuum mechanics (FCM), a very promising research field that satisfies both experimental and theoretical demands. The geometry of the fractional differential has been clarified corrected and the geometry of the fractional tangent spaces of a manifold has been studied in Lazopoulos and Lazopoulos (Lazopoulos KA, Lazopoulos AK. Progr. Fract. Differ. Appl. 2016, 2, 85-104), providing the bases of the missing fractional differential geometry. Therefore, a lot can be contributed to fractional hydrodynamics: the basic fractional fluid equations (Navier Stokes, Euler and Bernoulli) are derived and fractional Darcy's flow in porous media is studied.
Selected topics of fluid mechanics
Kindsvater, Carl E.
1958-01-01
The fundamental equations of fluid mechanics are specific expressions of the principles of motion which are ascribed to Isaac Newton. Thus, the equations which form the framework of applied fluid mechanics or hydraulics are, in addition to the equation of continuity, the Newtonian equations of energy and momentum. These basic relationships are also the foundations of river hydraulics. The fundamental equations are developed in this report with sufficient rigor to support critical examinations of their applicability to most problems met by hydraulic engineers of the Water Resources Division of the United States Geological Survey. Physical concepts are emphasized, and mathematical procedures are the simplest consistent with the specific requirements of the derivations. In lieu of numerical examples, analogies, and alternative procedures, this treatment stresses a brief methodical exposition of the essential principles. An important objective of this report is to prepare the user to read the literature of the science. Thus, it begins With a basic vocabulary of technical symbols, terms, and concepts. Throughout, emphasis is placed on the language of modern fluid mechanics as it pertains to hydraulic engineering. The basic differential and integral equations of simple fluid motion are derived, and these equations are, in turn, used to describe the essential characteristics of hydrostatics and piezometry. The one-dimensional equations of continuity and motion are defined and are used to derive the general discharge equation. The flow net is described as a means of demonstrating significant characteristics of two-dimensional irrotational flow patterns. A typical flow net is examined in detail. The influence of fluid viscosity is described as an obstacle to the derivation of general, integral equations of motion. It is observed that the part played by viscosity is one which is usually dependent on experimental evaluation. It follows that the dimensionless ratios known as
On the fluid mechanics of bilabial plosives
Pelorson, X.; Hofmans, G.C.J.; Ranucci, M.; Bosch, R.C.M.
1997-01-01
In this paper we present a review of some fluid mechanical phenomena involved in bilabial plosive sound production. As a basis for further discussion, firstly an in vivo experimental set-up is described. The order of magnitude of some important geometrical and fluid dynamical quantities is
Fluid Mechanics of Fish Swimming
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 14; Issue 1. Fluid Mechanics of Fish Swimming - Lift-based Propulsion. Jaywant H Arakeri. General Article Volume 14 Issue 1 January 2009 pp 32-46. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:
Fluid coupling in a discrete model of cochlear mechanics.
Elliott, Stephen J; Lineton, Ben; Ni, Guangjian
2011-09-01
A discrete model of cochlear mechanics is introduced that includes a full, three-dimensional, description of fluid coupling. This formulation allows the fluid coupling and basilar membrane dynamics to be analyzed separately and then coupled together with a simple piece of linear algebra. The fluid coupling is initially analyzed using a wavenumber formulation and is separated into one component due to one-dimensional fluid coupling and one comprising all the other contributions. Using the theory of acoustic waves in a duct, however, these two components of the pressure can also be associated with a far field, due to the plane wave, and a near field, due to the evanescent, higher order, modes. The near field components are then seen as one of a number of sources of additional longitudinal coupling in the cochlea. The effects of non-uniformity and asymmetry in the fluid chamber areas can also be taken into account, to predict both the pressure difference between the chambers and the mean pressure. This allows the calculation, for example, of the effect of a short cochlear implant on the coupled response of the cochlea. © 2011 Acoustical Society of America
The Pi-Theorem Applications to Fluid Mechanics and Heat and Mass Transfer
Yarin, L P
2012-01-01
This volume presents applications of the Pi-Theorem to fluid mechanics and heat and mass transfer. The Pi-theorem yields a physical motivation behind many flow processes and therefore it constitutes a valuable tool for the intelligent planning of experiments in fluids. After a short introduction to the underlying differential equations and their treatments, the author presents many novel approaches how to use the Pi-theorem to understand fluid mechanical issues. The book is a great value to the fluid mechanics community, as it cuts across many subdisciplines of experimental fluid mechanics.
Fluid mechanics phenomena in microgravity; ASME Winter Annual Meeting, Anaheim, CA, Nov. 8-13, 1992
Siginer, Dennis A. (Editor); Weislogel, Mark M. (Editor)
1992-01-01
This paper is the first in a series of symposia presenting research activity in microgravity fluid mechanics. General topics addressed include two-phase flow and transport phenomena, thermo-capillary flow, and interfacial stability. Papers present mathmatical models of fluid dynamics in the microgravity environment. Applications suggested include space manufacturing and storage of liquids in low gravity.
Topological Fluid Mechanics with Applications to Free Surfaces and Axisymmetric Flows
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Brøns, Morten
1996-01-01
Topological fluid mechanics is the study of qualitative features of fluid patterns. We discuss applications to the flow beneath a stagnant surface film, and to patterns in axisymmetric flow.......Topological fluid mechanics is the study of qualitative features of fluid patterns. We discuss applications to the flow beneath a stagnant surface film, and to patterns in axisymmetric flow....
Annual review of numerical fluid mechanics and heat transfer. Volume 1
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chawla, T.C.
1987-01-01
Numerical techniqes for the analysis of problems in fluid mechanics and heat transfer are discussed, reviewing the results of recent investigations. Topics addressed include thermal radiation in particulate media with dependent and independent scattering, pressure-velocity coupling in incompressiblefluid flow, new explicit methods for diffusion problems, and one-dimensional reaction-diffusion equations in combustion theory. Consideration is given to buckling flows, multidimensional radiative-transfer analysis in participating media, freezing and melting problems, and complex heat-transfer processes in heat-generating horizontal fluid layers
Magnetic particle translation as a surrogate measure for synovial fluid mechanics.
Shah, Yash Y; Maldonado-Camargo, Lorena; Patel, Neal S; Biedrzycki, Adam H; Yarmola, Elena G; Dobson, Jon; Rinaldi, Carlos; Allen, Kyle D
2017-07-26
The mechanics of synovial fluid vary with disease progression, but are difficult to quantify quickly in a clinical setting due to small sample volumes. In this study, a novel technique to measure synovial fluid mechanics using magnetic nanoparticles is introduced. Briefly, microspheres embedded with superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles, termed magnetic particles, are distributed through a 100μL synovial fluid sample. Then, a permanent magnet inside a protective sheath is inserted into the synovial fluid sample. Magnetic particles translate toward the permanent magnet and the percentage of magnetic particles collected by the magnet in a given time can be related to synovial fluid viscosity. To validate this relationship, magnetic particle translation was demonstrated in three phases. First, magnetic particle translation was assessed in glycerol solutions with known viscosities, demonstrating that as fluid viscosity increased, magnetic particle translation decreased. Next, the relationship between magnetic particle translation and synovial fluid viscosity was assessed using bovine synovial fluid that was progressively degenerated via ultrasonication. Here, particle collection in a given amount of time increased as fluid degenerated, demonstrating that the relationship between particle collection and fluid mechanics holds in non-Newtonian synovial fluid. Finally, magnetic particle translation was used to assess differences between healthy and OA affected joints in equine synovial fluid. Here, particle collection in a given time was higher in OA joints relative to healthy horses (pfluid mechanics in limited volumes of synovial fluid sample. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Fluid Mechanics, Drag Reduction and Advanced Configuration Aeronautics
Bushnell, Dennis M.
2000-01-01
This paper discusses Advanced Aircraft configurational approaches across the speed range, which are either enabled, or greatly enhanced, by clever Flow Control. Configurations considered include Channel Wings with circulation control for VTOL (but non-hovering) operation with high cruise speed, strut-braced CTOL transports with wingtip engines and extensive ('natural') laminar flow control, a midwing double fuselage CTOL approach utilizing several synergistic methods for drag-due-to-lift reduction, a supersonic strut-braced configuration with order of twice the L/D of current approaches and a very advanced, highly engine flow-path-integrated hypersonic cruise machine. This paper indicates both the promise of synergistic flow control approaches as enablers for 'Revolutions' in aircraft performance and fluid mechanic 'areas of ignorance' which impede their realization and provide 'target-rich' opportunities for Fluids Research.
Effective Hydro-Mechanical Properties of Fluid-Saturated Fracture Networks
Pollmann, N.; Vinci, C.; Renner, J.; Steeb, H.
2015-12-01
Consideration of hydro-mechanical processes is essential for the characterization of liquid-resources as well as for many engineering applications. Furthermore, the modeling of seismic waves in fractured porous media finds application not only in geophysical exploration but also reservoir management. Fractures exhibit high-aspect-ratio geometries, i.e. they constitute thin and long hydraulic conduits. Motivated by this peculiar geometry, the investigation of the hydro-mechanically coupled processes is performed by means of a hybrid-dimensional modeling approach. The effective material behavior of domains including complex fracture patterns in a porous rock is assessed by investigating the fluid pressure and the solid displacement of the skeleton saturated by compressible fluids. Classical balance equations are combined with a Poiseuille-type flow in the dimensionally reduced fracture. In the porous surrounding rock, the classical Biot-theory is applied. For simple geometries, our findings show that two main fluid-flow processes occur, leak-off from fractures to the surrounding rock and fracture flow within and between the connected fractures. The separation of critical frequencies of the two flow processes is not straightforward, in particular for systems containing a large number of fractures. Our aim is to model three dimensional hydro-mechanically coupled processes within complex fracture patterns and in particular determine the frequency-dependent attenuation characteristics. Furthermore, the effect of asperities of the fracture surfaces on the fracture stiffness and on the hydraulic conductivity will be added to the approach.
Second GAMM-conference on numerical methods in fluid mechanics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hirschel, E.H.; Geller, W.
1977-01-01
Proceedings of the Second GAMM-Conference on Numerical Methods in Fluid Mechanics held at the DFVLR, Koeln, October 11 to 13, 1977. The conference was attended by approximately 100 participants from 13 European countries representing quite different fields ranging from Aerodynamics to Nuclear Energy. At the meeting 34 papers were presented, many of them concerned with basic problems in the field. It was well demonstrated that Numerical Methods in Fluid Mechanics do not only serve as means for the computation of flow fields but also as tools in the analysis of fluid mechanical phenomena, a role of large future importance if one considers the complexity especially of three-dimensional flows. (orig./RW) [de
Mechanical design problems associated with turbopump fluid film bearings
Evces, Charles R.
1990-01-01
Most high speed cryogenic turbopumps for liquid propulsion rocket engines currently use ball or roller contact bearings for rotor support. The operating speeds, loads, clearances, and environments of these pumps combine to make bearing wear a limiting factor on turbopump life. An example is the high pressure oxygen turbopump (HPOTP) used in the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME). Although the HPOTP design life is 27,000 seconds at 30,000 rpms, or approximately 50 missions, bearings must currently be replaced after 2 missions. One solution to the bearing wear problem in the HPOTP, as well as in future turbopump designs, is the utilization of fluid film bearings in lieu of continuous contact bearings. Hydrostatic, hydrodynamic, and damping seal bearings are all replacement candidates for contact bearings in rocket engine high speed turbomachinery. These three types of fluid film bearings have different operating characteristics, but they share a common set of mechanical design opportunities and difficulties. Results of research to define some of the mechanical design issues are given. Problems considered include transient strat/stop rub, non-operational rotor support, bearing wear inspection and measurement, and bearing fluid supply route. Emphasis is given to the HPOTP preburner pump (PBP) bearing, but the results are pertinent to high-speed cryogenic turbomachinery in general.
Problems in Microgravity Fluid Mechanics: G-Jitter Convection
Homsy, G. M.
2005-01-01
This is the final report on our NASA grant, Problems in Microgravity Fluid Mechanics NAG3-2513: 12/14/2000 - 11/30/2003, extended through 11/30/2004. This grant was made to Stanford University and then transferred to the University of California at Santa Barbara when the PI relocated there in January 2001. Our main activity has been to conduct both experimental and theoretical studies of instabilities in fluids that are relevant to the microgravity environment, i.e. those that do not involve the action of buoyancy due to a steady gravitational field. Full details of the work accomplished under this grant are given below. Our work has focused on: (i) Theoretical and computational studies of the effect of g-jitter on instabilities of convective states where the convection is driven by forces other than buoyancy (ii) Experimental studies of instabilities during displacements of miscible fluid pairs in tubes, with a focus on the degree to which these mimic those found in immiscible fluids. (iii) Theoretical and experimental studies of the effect of time dependent electrohydrodynamic forces on chaotic advection in drops immersed in a second dielectric liquid. Our objectives are to acquire insight and understanding into microgravity fluid mechanics problems that bear on either fundamental issues or applications in fluid physics. We are interested in the response of fluids to either a fluctuating acceleration environment or to forces other than gravity that cause fluid mixing and convection. We have been active in several general areas.
Mechanical stimulation of bone cells using fluid flow
Huesa, C.; Bakker, A.D.
2012-01-01
This chapter describes several methods suitable for mechanically stimulating monolayers of bone cells by fluid shear stress (FSS) in vitro. Fluid flow is generated by pumping culture medium through two parallel plates, one of which contains a monolayer of cells. Methods for measuring nitric oxide
10th International Symposium on Applications of Laser Techniques to Fluid Mechanics
Adrian, R J; Heitor, M V; Maeda, M; Tropea, C; Whitelaw, J H
2002-01-01
This volume includes revised and extended versions of selected papers presented at the Tenth International Symposium on Applications of Laser Techniques to Fluid Mechanics held at the Calouste Gulbenkian Foundation in Lisbon, during the period of July 10 to 13, 2000. The papers describe instrumentation developments for Velocity, Scalar and Multi-Phase Flows and results of measurements of Turbulent Flows, and Combustion and Engines. The papers demonstrate the continuing and healthy interest in the development of understanding of new methodologies and implementation in terms of new instrumentation. The prime objective of the Tenth Symposium was to provide a forum for the presentation of the most advanced research on laser techniques for flow measurements, and communicate significant results to fluid mechanics. The application of laser techniques to scientific and engineering fluid flow research was emphasized, but contributions to the theory and practice of laser methods were also considered where they facilita...
Active Learning in Fluid Mechanics: Youtube Tube Flow and Puzzling Fluids Questions
Hrenya, Christine M.
2011-01-01
Active-learning exercises appropriate for a course in undergraduate fluid mechanics are presented. The first exercise involves an experiment in gravity-driven tube flow, with small groups of students partaking in a contest to predict the experimental flow rates using the mechanical energy balance. The second exercise takes the form of an…
On the Use of Computers for Teaching Fluid Mechanics
Benson, Thomas J.
1994-01-01
Several approaches for improving the teaching of basic fluid mechanics using computers are presented. There are two objectives to these approaches: to increase the involvement of the student in the learning process and to present information to the student in a variety of forms. Items discussed include: the preparation of educational videos using the results of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) calculations, the analysis of CFD flow solutions using workstation based post-processing graphics packages, and the development of workstation or personal computer based simulators which behave like desk top wind tunnels. Examples of these approaches are presented along with observations from working with undergraduate co-ops. Possible problems in the implementation of these approaches as well as solutions to these problems are also discussed.
Fully coupled thermal-mechanical-fluid flow model for nonliner geologic systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hart, R.D.
1981-01-01
A single model is presented which describes fully coupled thermal-mechanical-fluid flow behavior of highly nonlinear, dynamic or quasistatic, porous geologic systems. The mathematical formulation for the model utilizes the continuum theory of mixtures to describe the multiphase nature of the system, and incremental linear constitutive theory to describe the path dependency of nonlinear material behavior. The model, incorporated in an explicit finite difference numerical procedure, was implemented in two different computer codes. A special-purpose one-dimensional code, SNEAKY, was written for initial validation of the coupling mechanisms and testing of the coupled model logic. A general purpose commercially available code, STEALTH, developed for modeling dynamic nonlinear thermomechanical processes, was modified to include fluid flow behavior and the coupling constitutive model. The fully explicit approach in the coupled calculation facilitated the inclusion of the coupling mechanisms and complex constitutive behavior. Analytical solutions pertaining to consolidation theory for soils, thermoelasticity for solids, and hydrothermal convection theory provided verification of stress and fluid flow, stress and conductive heat transfer, and heat transfer and fluid flow couplings, respectively, in the coupled model. A limited validation of the adequacy of the coupling constitutive assumptions was also performed by comparison with the physical response from two laboratory tests. Finally, the full potential of the coupled model is illustrated for geotechnical applications in energy-resource related areas. Examples in the areas of nuclear waste isolation and cut-and-fill mining are cited
An Introduction to Computational Fluid Mechanics by Example
Biringen, Sedat
2011-01-01
This new book builds on the original classic textbook entitled: An Introduction to Computational Fluid Mechanics by C. Y. Chow which was originally published in 1979. In the decades that have passed since this book was published the field of computational fluid dynamics has seen a number of changes in both the sophistication of the algorithms used but also advances in the computer hardware and software available. This new book incorporates the latest algorithms in the solution techniques and supports this by using numerous examples of applications to a broad range of industries from mechanical
Neural Control Mechanisms and Body Fluid Homeostasis
Johnson, Alan Kim
1998-01-01
The goal of the proposed research was to study the nature of afferent signals to the brain that reflect the status of body fluid balance and to investigate the central neural mechanisms that process this information for the activation of response systems which restore body fluid homeostasis. That is, in the face of loss of fluids from intracellular or extracellular fluid compartments, animals seek and ingest water and ionic solutions (particularly Na(+) solutions) to restore the intracellular and extracellular spaces. Over recent years, our laboratory has generated a substantial body of information indicating that: (1) a fall in systemic arterial pressure facilitates the ingestion of rehydrating solutions and (2) that the actions of brain amine systems (e.g., norepinephrine; serotonin) are critical for precise correction of fluid losses. Because both acute and chronic dehydration are associated with physiological stresses, such as exercise and sustained exposure to microgravity, the present research will aid in achieving a better understanding of how vital information is handled by the nervous system for maintenance of the body's fluid matrix which is critical for health and well-being.
Barati Farimani, Amir; Gomes, Joseph; Pande, Vijay
2017-11-01
We have developed a new data-driven model paradigm for the rapid inference and solution of the constitutive equations of fluid mechanic by deep learning models. Using generative adversarial networks (GAN), we train models for the direct generation of solutions to steady state heat conduction and incompressible fluid flow without knowledge of the underlying governing equations. Rather than using artificial neural networks to approximate the solution of the constitutive equations, GANs can directly generate the solutions to these equations conditional upon an arbitrary set of boundary conditions. Both models predict temperature, velocity and pressure fields with great test accuracy (>99.5%). The application of our framework for inferring and generating the solutions of partial differential equations can be applied to any physical phenomena and can be used to learn directly from experiments where the underlying physical model is complex or unknown. We also have shown that our framework can be used to couple multiple physics simultaneously, making it amenable to tackle multi-physics problems.
Rotating fluid models in classical and quantum mechanics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Arvieu, R.; Troudet, T.
1979-01-01
To describe the behavior of high-spin nuclei it is necessary to refer back to the classical mechanics of fluids in rotation where some results are general enough to apply to the rotational nuclear fluid. It is then shown that the quantum model of rotational oscillator gives a simple classification of rotating configurations [fr
Computational fluid mechanics and heat transfer
Pletcher, Richard H; Anderson, Dale
2012-01-01
""I have always considered this book the best gift from one generation to the next in computational fluid dynamics. I earnestly recommend this book to graduate students and practicing engineers for the pleasure of learning and a handy reference. The description of the basic concepts and fundamentals is thorough and is crystal clear for understanding. And since 1984, two newer editions have kept abreast to the new, relevant, and fully verified advancements in CFD.""-Joseph J.S. Shang, Wright State University""Computational Fluid Mechanics and Heat Transfer is very well written to be used as a t
Molecular mechanics and structure of the fluid-solid interface in simple fluids
Wang, Gerald J.; Hadjiconstantinou, Nicolas G.
2017-09-01
Near a fluid-solid interface, the fluid spatial density profile is highly nonuniform at the molecular scale. This nonuniformity can have profound effects on the dynamical behavior of the fluid and has been shown to play an especially important role when modeling a wide variety of nanoscale heat and momentum transfer phenomena. We use molecular-mechanics arguments and molecular-dynamics (MD) simulations to develop a better understanding of the structure of the first fluid layer directly adjacent to the solid in the layering regime, as delineated by a nondimensional number that compares the effects of wall-fluid interaction to thermal energy. Using asymptotic analysis of the Nernst-Planck equation, we show that features of the fluid density profile close to the wall, such as the areal density of the first layer ΣFL (defined as the number of atoms in this layer per unit of fluid-solid interfacial area), can be expressed as polynomial functions of the fluid average density ρave. This is found to be in agreement with MD simulations, which also show that the width of the first layer hFL is a linear function of the average density and only a weak function of the temperature T . These results can be combined to show that, for system average densities corresponding to a dense fluid (ρave≥0.7 ), the ratio C ≡ΣFLρavehFL, representing a density enhancement with respect to the bulk fluid, depends only weakly on temperature and is essentially independent of density. Further MD simulations suggest that the above results, nominally valid for large systems (solid in contact with semi-infinite fluid), also describe fluid-solid interfaces under considerable nanoconfinement, provided ρave is appropriately defined.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Farnaz Fekri
Full Text Available Drug delivery to tumors is limited by several factors, including drug permeability of the target cell plasma membrane. Ultrasound in combination with microbubbles (USMB is a promising strategy to overcome these limitations. USMB treatment elicits enhanced cellular uptake of materials such as drugs, in part as a result of sheer stress and formation of transient membrane pores. Pores formed upon USMB treatment are rapidly resealed, suggesting that other processes such as enhanced endocytosis may contribute to the enhanced material uptake by cells upon USMB treatment. How USMB regulates endocytic processes remains incompletely understood. Cells constitutively utilize several distinct mechanisms of endocytosis, including clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME for the internalization of receptor-bound macromolecules such as Transferrin Receptor (TfR, and distinct mechanism(s that mediate the majority of fluid-phase endocytosis. Tracking the abundance of TfR on the cell surface and the internalization of its ligand transferrin revealed that USMB acutely enhances the rate of CME. Total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy experiments revealed that USMB treatment altered the assembly of clathrin-coated pits, the basic structural units of CME. In addition, the rate of fluid-phase endocytosis was enhanced, but with delayed onset upon USMB treatment relative to the enhancement of CME, suggesting that the two processes are distinctly regulated by USMB. Indeed, vacuolin-1 or desipramine treatment prevented the enhancement of CME but not of fluid phase endocytosis upon USMB, suggesting that lysosome exocytosis and acid sphingomyelinase, respectively, are required for the regulation of CME but not fluid phase endocytosis upon USMB treatment. These results indicate that USMB enhances both CME and fluid phase endocytosis through distinct signaling mechanisms, and suggest that strategies for potentiating the enhancement of endocytosis upon USMB treatment may
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Johansen, Per; Rømer, Daniel; Andersen, Torben Ole
2014-01-01
The increasing interest in hydraulic transmissions in wind and wave energy applications has created an incentive for the development of high efficiency fluid power machinery. Modeling and analysis of fluid power machinery loss mechanisms are necessary in order to accommodate this demand. At present...... fully coupled thermo-elastic models has been used to simulate and study loss mechanisms in various tribological interfaces. Consequently, a reasonable focus of further development is to couple the interface models and the rigid body mechanics of fluid power machinery. The focus of the current paper...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Corti, D.S.; Debenedetti, P.G.
1998-01-01
The rigorous statistical mechanics of metastability requires the imposition of internal constraints that prevent access to regions of phase space corresponding to inhomogeneous states. We derive exactly the Helmholtz energy and equation of state of the one-dimensional hard rod fluid under the influence of an internal constraint that places an upper bound on the distance between nearest-neighbor rods. This type of constraint is relevant to the suppression of boiling in a superheated liquid. We determine the effects of this constraint upon the thermophysical properties and internal structure of the hard rod fluid. By adding an infinitely weak and infinitely long-ranged attractive potential to the hard core, the fluid exhibits a first-order vapor-liquid transition. We determine exactly the equation of state of the one-dimensional superheated liquid and show that it exhibits metastable phase equilibrium. We also derive statistical mechanical relations for the equation of state of a fluid under the action of arbitrary constraints, and show the connection between the statistical mechanics of constrained and unconstrained ensembles. copyright 1998 The American Physical Society
Isogeometric shape optimization in fluid mechanics
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nørtoft, Peter; Gravesen, Jens
2013-01-01
The subject of this work is numerical shape optimization in fluid mechanics, based on isogeometric analysis. The generic goal is to design the shape of a 2-dimensional flow domain to minimize some prescribed objective while satisfying given geometric constraints. As part of the design problem...
A statistical mechanics approach to mixing in stratified fluids
Venaille , Antoine; Gostiaux , Louis; Sommeria , Joël
2016-01-01
Accepted for the Journal of Fluid Mechanics; Predicting how much mixing occurs when a given amount of energy is injected into a Boussinesq fluid is a longstanding problem in stratified turbulence. The huge number of degrees of freedom involved in these processes renders extremely difficult a deterministic approach to the problem. Here we present a statistical mechanics approach yielding a prediction for a cumulative, global mixing efficiency as a function of a global Richard-son number and th...
Fluid transportation mechanisms by a coupled system of elastic membranes and magnetic fluids
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ido, Y.; Tanaka, K.; Sugiura, Y.
2002-01-01
The basic properties of the fluid transportation mechanism that is produced by the coupled waves propagating along a thin elastic membrane covering a magnetic fluid layer in a shallow and long rectangular vessel are investigated. It is shown that the progressive magnetic field induced by the rectangular pulses generates sinusoidal vibration of the displacement of elastic membrane and makes the system work more efficiently than the magnetic field induced by the pulse-width-modulation method
Mechanism of chain formation in nanofluid based MR fluids
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Patel, Rajesh
2011-01-01
Mechanism of structure formation in bidispersed colloids is important for its physical and optical properties. It is microscopically observed that the mechanism of chain formation in magnetic nanofluid based magnetorheological (MR) fluid is quite different from that in the conventional MR fluid. Under the application of magnetic field the magnetic nanoparticles are filled inside the structural microcavities formed due to the association of large magnetic particles, and some of the magnetic nanoparticles are attached at the end of the chains formed by the large particles. The dipolar energy of the large particles in a magnetic nanofluid matrix becomes effective magnetic permeability (μ eff ) times smaller than that of the neutral medium. Inclusion of magnetic nanoparticles (∼10 nm) with large magnetic particles (∼3-5 μm) restricts the aggregation of large particles, which causes the field induced phase separation in MR fluids. Hence, nanofluid based MR fluids are more stable than conventional MR fluids, which subsequently increase their application potentiality. - Research highlights: → In bidispersed magnetic colloids nanoparticles are attached at the end of the chains formed by the large particles. → Inclusion of magnetic nanoparticles (∼10 nm) with large magnetic particles (∼3-5 m) restricts the aggregation of large particles. → Nanofluid based MR fluids are more stable than conventional MR fluids.
Statistical mechanics and the physics of fluids
Tosi, Mario
This volume collects the lecture notes of a course on statistical mechanics, held at Scuola Normale Superiore di Pisa for third-to-fifth year students in physics and chemistry. Three main themes are covered in the book. The first part gives a compact presentation of the foundations of statistical mechanics and their connections with thermodynamics. Applications to ideal gases of material particles and of excitation quanta are followed by a brief introduction to a real classical gas and to a weakly coupled classical plasma, and by a broad overview on the three states of matter.The second part is devoted to fluctuations around equilibrium and their correlations. Coverage of liquid structure and critical phenomena is followed by a discussion of irreversible processes as exemplified by diffusive motions and by the dynamics of density and heat fluctuations. Finally, the third part is an introduction to some advanced themes: supercooling and the glassy state, non-Newtonian fluids including polymers and liquid cryst...
Fluid mechanics experiments in oscillatory flow. Volume 1
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Seume, J.; Friedman, G.; Simon, T.W.
1992-03-01
Results of a fluid mechanics measurement program is oscillating flow within a circular duct are present. The program began with a survey of transition behavior over a range of oscillation frequency and magnitude and continued with a detailed study at a single operating point. Such measurements were made in support of Stirling engine development. Values of three dimensionless parameters, Re max , Re W , and A R , embody the velocity amplitude, frequency of oscillation and mean fluid displacement of the cycle, respectively. Measurements were first made over a range of these parameters which included operating points of all Stirling engines. Next, a case was studied with values of these parameters that are representative of the heat exchanger tubes in the heater section of NASA's Stirling cycle Space Power Research Engine (SPRE). Measurements were taken of the axial and radical components of ensemble-averaged velocity and rms-velocity fluctuation and the dominant Reynolds shear stress, at various radial positions for each of four axial stations. In each run, transition from laminar to turbulent flow, and in reverse, were identified and sufficient data was gathered to propose the transition mechanism. Models of laminar and turbulent boundary layers were used to process the data into wall coordinates and to evaluate skin friction coefficients. Such data aids in validating computational models and is useful in comparing oscillatory flow characteristics to those of fully-developed steady flow. Data were taken with a contoured entry to each end of the test section and with flush square inlets so that the effects of test section inlet geometry on transition and turbulence are documented. The following is presented in two-volumes. Volume I contains the text of the report including figures and supporting appendices. Volume II contains data reduction program listings and tabulated data (including its graphical presentation)
Recent developments of mathematical fluid mechanics
Giga, Yoshikazu; Kozono, Hideo; Okamoto, Hisashi; Yamazaki, Masao
2016-01-01
The book addresses recent developments of the mathematical research on the Navier-Stokes and Euler equations as well as on related problems. In particular, there are covered: 1) existence, uniqueness, and the regularity of weak solutions; 2) stability of the motion in rest and the asymptotic behavior of solutions; 3) singularity and blow-up of weak and strong solutions; 4) vorticity and energy conservation; 5) motions of rotating fluids, or of fluids surrounding a rotating body; 6) free boundary problems; 7) maximal regularity theory and other abstract results for mathematical fluid mechanics. For this quarter century, these topics have been playing a central role in both pure and applied mathematics and having a great influence to the developm ent of the functional analysis, harmonic analysis and numerical analysis whose tools make a a substantial contribution to the investigation of nonlinear partial differential equations, particularly the Navier-Stokes and the Euler equations. There are 24...
Electroresponsive Aqueous Silk Protein As “Smart” Mechanical Damping Fluid
2015-01-01
Here we demonstrate the effectiveness of an electroresponsive aqueous silk protein polymer as a smart mechanical damping fluid. The aqueous polymer solution is liquid under ambient conditions, but is reversibly converted into a gel once subjected to an electric current, thereby increasing or decreasing in viscosity. This nontoxic, biodegradable, reversible, edible fluid also bonds to device surfaces and is demonstrated to reduce friction and provide striking wear protection. The friction and mechanical damping coefficients are shown to modulate with electric field exposure time and/or intensity. Damping coefficient can be modulated electrically, and then preserved without continued power for longer time scales than conventional “smart” fluid dampers. PMID:24750065
Anti-collapse mechanism of CBM fuzzy-ball drilling fluid
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lihui Zheng
2016-03-01
Full Text Available Although fuzzy-ball drilling fluid has been successfully applied in CBM well drilling, it is necessary to study its anti-collapse mechanism so that adjustable coalbed sealing effects, controllable sealing strength, rational sealing cost and controllable reservoir damage degree can be realized. In this paper, laboratory measurement was performed on the uniaxial compressive strength of the plungers of No. 3 coalbed in the Qinshui Basin and the inlet pressure of Ø38 mm coal plunger displacement. The strengths of coal plungers were tested and compared after 2% potassium chloride solution, low-solids polymer drilling fluid and fuzzy-ball drilling fluid were injected into the coal plungers respectively. It is shown that coal strength rises by 38.46% after the fuzzy-ball drilling fluid is injected (in three groups; and that no fuzzy-ball drilling fluid is lost at the displacement pressures of 20.73 and 21.46 MPa, nor 2% potassium chloride solution is leaked at such pressures of 24.79 and 25.64 MPa after the plunger was sealed by the fuzzy-ball drilling fluid. This indicates that the fuzzy-ball drilling fluid can increase the formation resistance to fluid. Indoor microscopic observation was conducted on the sealing process of the fuzzy-ball drilling fluid in sand packs with coal cuttings of three grain sizes (60–80, 80–100 and 100–120 mesh. It is shown that the leakage pathways of different sizes are sealed by the vesicles in the form of accumulation, stretch and blockage. And there are vesicles at the inlet ends of the flowing pathways in the shape of beaded blanket. The impact force of drilling tools on the sidewalls is absorbed by the vesicles due to their elasticity and tenacity, so the sidewall instability caused by drilling tools is relieved. It is concluded that the main anti-collapse mechanisms of the CBM fuzzy-ball drilling fluid are to raise the coal strength, increase the formation resistance to fluid, and buffer the impact of
[Present status and trend of heart fluid mechanics research based on medical image analysis].
Gan, Jianhong; Yin, Lixue; Xie, Shenghua; Li, Wenhua; Lu, Jing; Luo, Anguo
2014-06-01
With introduction of current main methods for heart fluid mechanics researches, we studied the characteristics and weakness for three primary analysis methods based on magnetic resonance imaging, color Doppler ultrasound and grayscale ultrasound image, respectively. It is pointed out that particle image velocity (PIV), speckle tracking and block match have the same nature, and three algorithms all adopt block correlation. The further analysis shows that, with the development of information technology and sensor, the research for cardiac function and fluid mechanics will focus on energy transfer process of heart fluid, characteristics of Chamber wall related to blood fluid and Fluid-structure interaction in the future heart fluid mechanics fields.
Fluid mechanics of environmental interfaces
Gualtieri, Carlo
2008-01-01
Fluid Mechanics of Environmental Interfaces describes the concept of the environmental interface, defined as a surface between two either abiotic or biotic systems. These are in relative motion and exchange mass, heat and momentum through biophysical and/or chemical processes. These processes are fluctuating temporally and spatially.The book will be of interest to graduate students, PhD students as well as researchers in environmental sciences, civil engineering and environmental engineering, (geo)physics and applied mathematics.
[Improving myocardial mechanics parameters of severe burn rabbits with oral fluid resuscitation].
Ruan, Jing; Zhang, Bing-qian; Wang, Guang; Luo, Zhong-hua; Zheng, Qing-yi; Zheng, Jian-sheng; Huang, Yue-sheng; Xiao, Rong
2008-08-01
To investigate the protective effect of oral fluid resuscitation on cardiac function in severe burn rabbits. One hundred and fifty rabbits were randomly divided into normal control group (NC group, n = 6, without treatment), burn group (B group, n = 42, without fluid therapy), immediate oral fluid resuscitation group (C group, n = 42), delayed oral fluid resuscitation group (D group, n = 30) and delayed and rapid oral fluid resuscitation group (E group, n = 30). The rabbits in B, C, D, E groups were subjected to 40% TBSA full-thickness burn, then were treated with fluid therapy immediately after burn (C group), at 6 hour after burn (D, E groups). The myocardial mechanics parameters including mean arterial pressure (MAP), left ventricular systolic pressure (LVSP), left ventricular end diastolic pressure (LVEDP), LV +/- dp/dt max were observed at 2, 6, 8, 12, 24, 36 and 48 post burn hour (PBH). Urine output was also examined. The level of LVSP, LV +/- dp/dt max in B roup were significantly lower than those in NC group. The level of LVSP, LV +/- dp/dt max in the C and E group were singnificantly increased during 24 hour after burn. The level of LV + dp/dt max and LV-dp/dt max in C group peaked at 8 PBH (892 +/- 116 kPa/s) and at 6PBH (724 +/- 149 kPa/s) respectively. The levels of LV +/- dp/dt max, LVSP in D group at each time point were similar to B group (P > 0.05). Both the levels of LV +/- dp/dt max in E group peaked at 8 PBH. The level of LVEDP was no obvious difference between B and other groups at each time point (P > 0.05). The changes of MAP and urine output on 24 PBH in each group were similar to above indices. Effective oral fluid therapy in severe burn rabbits during 24 hours after burn can ameliorate myocardial mechanics parameters. The amount of fluid resuscitation can be estimated according to relevant formula for delayed fluid resuscitation in burn rabbits.
Mechanics of solids and fluids
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ziegler, F.
1991-01-01
This book is a comprehensive treatise on the mechanics of solids and fluids, with a significant application to structural mechanics. In reading through the text, I can not help being impressed with Dr. Ziegler's command of both historical and contemporary developments of theoretical and applied mechanics. The book is a unique volume which contains information not easily found throughout the related literature. The book opens with a fundamental consideration of the kinematics of particle motion, followed by those of rigid body and deformable medium .In the latter case, both small and finite deformation have been presented concisely, paving the way for the constitutive description given later in the book. In both chapters one and two, the author has provided sufficient applications of the theoretical principles introduced. Such a connection between theory and appication is a common theme throughout every chapter, and is quite an attractive feature of the book
Interpreting Students’ Perceptions in Fluid Mechanics Learning Outcomes
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Filomena SOARES
2015-11-01
Full Text Available The objective of this study is to analyse the impact of introducing a practical work in the learning process of the Fluid Transport Systems course in Chemical Engineering degree. The students, in groups of two or three elements, were free to choose the application case in order to develop the practical work proposed by the responsible teachers. The students selected a centrifugal pump to supply water to houses or buildings and designed the piping system. The practical work was evaluated through the written report. The students’ perceptions were analysed through a questionnaire. The learning outcomes were also considered in order to understand how the fluid mechanics concepts were acquired. In the teachers’ point of view the teamwork should enable the development of students’ soft skills and competencies, promoting the ability to integrate and work in teams. The students changed their learning processing and perception becoming more reflective and less accommodative, forcing them to think critically and share opinions. Regarding the Fluid Mechanics assessment, the practical work increased, in average, the final grade at least one value.
Fluid mechanics and heat transfer spirally fluted tubing
Larue, J. C.; Libby, P. A.; Yampolsky, J. S.
1981-08-01
The objective of this program is to develop both a qualitative and a quantitative understanding of the fluid mechanics and heat transfer mechanisms that underlie the measured performance of the spirally fluted tubes under development at General Atomic. The reason for the interest in the spirally fluted tubes is that results to date have indicated three advantages to this tubing concept: The fabrication technique of rolling flutes on strip and subsequently spiralling and simultaneously welding the strip to form tubing results in low fabrication costs, approximately equal to those of commercially welded tubing. The heat transfer coefficient is increased without a concomitant increase of the friction coefficient on the inside of the tube. In single-phase axial flow of water, the helical flutes continuously induce rotation of the flow both within and without the tube as a result of the effect of curvature. An increase in condensation heat transfer on the outside of the tube is achieved. In a vertical orientation with fluid condensing on the outside of the helically fluted tube, the flutes provide a channel for draining the condensed fluid.
A blended learning approach to teach fluid mechanics in engineering
Rahman, Ataur
2017-05-01
This paper presents a case study on the teaching and learning of fluid mechanics at the University of Western Sydney (UWS), Australia, by applying a blended learning approach (BLA). In the adopted BLA, various flexible learning materials have been made available to the students such as online recorded lectures, online recorded tutorials, hand written tutorial solutions, discussion board and online practice quizzes. The lecture and tutorial class times have been primarily utilised to discuss confusing topics and engage students with practical issues in applying the theories learnt in fluid mechanics. Based on the data of over 734 students over a 4-year period, it has been shown that a BLA has improved the learning experience of the fluid mechanics students in UWS. The overall percentage of student satisfaction in this subject has increased by 18% in the BLA case compared with the traditional one.
Computational modelling in fluid mechanics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hauguel, A.
1985-01-01
The modelling of the greatest part of environmental or industrial flow problems gives very similar types of equations. The considerable increase in computing capacity over the last ten years consequently allowed numerical models of growing complexity to be processed. The varied group of computer codes presented are now a complementary tool of experimental facilities to achieve studies in the field of fluid mechanics. Several codes applied in the nuclear field (reactors, cooling towers, exchangers, plumes...) are presented among others [fr
Fluid Mechanics of Taylor Bubbles and Slug Flows in Vertical Channels
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Anglart, Henryk; Podowski, Michael Z.
2002-01-01
Fluid mechanics of Taylor bubbles and slug flows is investigated in vertical, circular channels using detailed, three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics simulations. The Volume of Fluid model with the interface-sharpening algorithm, implemented in the commercial CFX4 code, is used to predict the shape and velocity of Taylor bubbles moving along a vertical channel. Several cases are investigated, including both a single Taylor bubble and a train of bubbles rising in water. It is shown that the potential flow solution underpredicts the water film thickness around Taylor bubbles. Furthermore, the computer simulations that are performed reveal the importance of properly modeling the three-dimensional nature of phenomena governing the motion of Taylor bubbles. Based on the present results, a new formula for the evaluation of bubble shape is derived. Both the shape of Taylor bubbles and the bubble rise velocity predicted by the proposed model agree well with experimental observations. Furthermore, the present model shows good promise in predicting the coalescence of Taylor bubbles
STAFAN, Fluid Flow, Mechanical Stress in Fractured Rock of Nuclear Waste Repository
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Huyakorn, P.; Golis, M.J.
1989-01-01
1 - Description of program or function: STAFAN (Stress And Flow Analysis) is a two-dimensional, finite-element code designed to model fluid flow and the interaction of fluid pressure and mechanical stresses in a fractured rock surrounding a nuclear waste repository. STAFAN considers flow behavior of a deformable fractured system with fracture-porous matrix interactions, the coupling effects of fluid pressure and mechanical stresses in a medium containing discrete joints, and the inelastic response of the individual joints of the rock mass subject to the combined fluid pressure and mechanical loading. 2 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: STAFAN does not presently contain thermal coupling, and it is unable to simulate inelastic deformation of the rock mass and variably saturated or two-phase flow in the fractured porous medium system
1992-01-01
Research conducted at the Institute for Computer Applications in Science and Engineering in applied mathematics, numerical analysis, fluid mechanics including fluid dynamics, acoustics, and combustion, aerodynamics, and computer science during the period 1 Apr. 1992 - 30 Sep. 1992 is summarized.
Blocken, B.J.E.; Gualtieri, C.
2012-01-01
Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) is increasingly used to study a wide variety of complex Environmental Fluid Mechanics (EFM) processes, such as water flow and turbulent mixing of contaminants in rivers and estuaries and wind flow and air pollution dispersion in urban areas. However, the accuracy
Oscillatory fluid flow influences primary cilia and microtubule mechanics.
Espinha, Lina C; Hoey, David A; Fernandes, Paulo R; Rodrigues, Hélder C; Jacobs, Christopher R
2014-07-01
Many tissues are sensitive to mechanical stimuli; however, the mechanotransduction mechanism used by cells remains unknown in many cases. The primary cilium is a solitary, immotile microtubule-based extension present on nearly every mammalian cell which extends from the basal body. The cilium is a mechanosensitive organelle and has been shown to transduce fluid flow-induced shear stress in tissues, such as the kidney and bone. The majority of microtubules assemble from the mother centriole (basal body), contributing significantly to the anchoring of the primary cilium. Several studies have attempted to quantify the number of microtubules emanating from the basal body and the results vary depending on the cell type. It has also been shown that cellular response to shear stress depends on microtubular integrity. This study hypothesizes that changing the microtubule attachment of primary cilia in response to a mechanical stimulus could change primary cilia mechanics and, possibly, mechanosensitivity. Oscillatory fluid flow was applied to two different cell types and the microtubule attachment to the ciliary base was quantified. For the first time, an increase in microtubules around primary cilia both with time and shear rate in response to oscillatory fluid flow stimulation was demonstrated. Moreover, it is presented that the primary cilium is required for this loading-induced cellular response. This study has demonstrated a new role for the cilium in regulating alterations in the cytoplasmic microtubule network in response to mechanical stimulation, and therefore provides a new insight into how cilia may regulate its mechanics and thus the cells mechanosensitivity. Copyright © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
A consideration on pipe-wall thinning mechanisms from an aspect of fluid-mechanics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Inada, Fumio; Yoneda, Kimitoshi; Morita, Ryo; Fujiwara, Kazutoshi; Furuya, Masahiro
2008-01-01
The contribution of the fluid mechanics to the piping wall thinning phenomena was investigated. It was shown that the fluid force to the wall was quite different between flow accelerated corrosion (FAC) and erosion. The turbulent mass transfer, which is one of the primary factors of FAC, was analogous to the turbulent heat transfer. The model that the molecular transport in the viscous sublayer nearby soon of wall was predominant was practicable. In addition, the mass transport was predicted using commercial codes of computational fluid dynamics. Some prediction results of the mass transfer in orifice and the elbow using above techniques were explained. (author)
Stanley Corrsin Award Talk: Fluid Mechanics of Fungi and Slime
Brenner, Michael
2013-11-01
There are interesting fluid mechanics problems everywhere, even in the most lowly and hidden corners of forest floors. Here I discuss some questions we have been working on in recent years involving fungi and slime. A critical issue for the ecology of fungi and slime is nutrient availability: nutrient sources are highly heterogeneous, and strategies are necessary to find food when it runs out. In the fungal phylum Ascomycota, spore dispersal is the primary mechanism for finding new food sources. The defining feature of this phylum is the ascus, a fluid filled sac from which spores are ejected, through a build up in osmotic pressure. We outline the (largely fluid mechanical) design constraints on this ejection strategy, and demonstrate how it provides strong constraints for the diverse morphologies of spores and asci found in nature. The core of the argument revisits a classical problem in elastohydrodynamic lubrication from a different perspective. A completely different strategy for finding new nutrient is found by slime molds and fungi that stretch out - as a single organism- over enormous areas (up to hectares) over forest floors. As a model problem we study the slime mold Physarum polycephalum, which forages with a large network of connected tubes on the forest floors. Localized regions in the network find nutrient sources and then pump the nutrients throughout the entire organism. We discuss fluid mechanical mechanisms for coordinating this transport, which generalize peristalsis to pumping in a heterogeneous network. We give a preliminary discussion to how physarum can detect a nutrient source and pump the nutrient throughout the organism.
Fluid mechanics experiments in oscillatory flow. Volume 2: Tabulated data
Seume, J.; Friedman, G.; Simon, T. W.
1992-01-01
Results of a fluid mechanics measurement program in oscillating flow within a circular duct are presented. The program began with a survey of transition behavior over a range of oscillation frequency and magnitude and continued with a detailed study at a single operating point. Such measurements were made in support of Stirling engine development. Values of three dimensionless parameters, Re sub max, Re sub w, and A sub R, embody the velocity amplitude, frequency of oscillation, and mean fluid displacement of the cycle, respectively. Measurements were first made over a range of these parameters that are representative of the heat exchanger tubes in the heater section of NASA's Stirling cycle Space Power Research Engine (SPRE). Measurements were taken of the axial and radial components of ensemble-averaged velocity and rms velocity fluctuation and the dominant Reynolds shear stress, at various radial positions for each of four axial stations. In each run, transition from laminar to turbulent flow, and its reverse, were identified and sufficient data was gathered to propose the transition mechanism. Volume 2 contains data reduction program listings and tabulated data (including its graphics).
Flippin' Fluid Mechanics--Comparison Using Two Groups
Webster, Donald R.; Majerich, David M.; Madden, Amanda G.
2016-01-01
A flipped classroom approach was implemented in an undergraduate fluid mechanics course. Students watched short, online video lectures before class, participated in active in-class problem solving sessions (in pairs), and completed individualized online quizzes weekly. In-class activities were designed to develop problem-solving skills and teach…
Fluid mechanics experiments in oscillatory flow. Volume 1: Report
Seume, J.; Friedman, G.; Simon, T. W.
1992-01-01
Results of a fluid mechanics measurement program in oscillating flow within a circular duct are presented. The program began with a survey of transition behavior over a range of oscillation frequency and magnitude and continued with a detailed study at a single operating point. Such measurements were made in support of Stirling engine development. Values of three dimensionless parameters, Re(sub max), Re(sub w), and A(sub R), embody the velocity amplitude, frequency of oscillation and mean fluid displacement of the cycle, respectively. Measurements were first made over a range of these parameters which included operating points of all Stirling engines. Next, a case was studied with values of these parameters that are representative of the heat exchanger tubes in the heater section of NASA's Stirling cycle Space Power Research Engine (SPRE). Measurements were taken of the axial and radial components of ensemble-averaged velocity and rms-velocity fluctuation and the dominant Reynolds shear stress, at various radial positions for each of four axial stations. In each run, transition from laminar to turbulent flow, and its reverse, were identified and sufficient data was gathered to propose the transition mechanism. Models of laminar and turbulent boundary layers were used to process the data into wall coordinates and to evaluate skin friction coefficients. Such data aids in validating computational models and is useful in comparing oscillatory flow characteristics to those of fully-developed steady flow. Data were taken with a contoured entry to each end of the test section and with flush square inlets so that the effects of test section inlet geometry on transition and turbulence are documented. Volume 1 contains the text of the report including figures and supporting appendices. Volume 2 contains data reduction program listings and tabulated data (including its graphical presentation).
Appplication of a general fluid mechanics program to NTP system modeling
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lee, S.K.
1993-01-01
An effort is currently underway at NASA and the Department of Energy (DOE) to develop an accurate model for predicting nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP) system performance. The objective of the effort is to develop several levels of computer programs which vary in detail and complexity according to user's needs. The current focus is on the Level 1 steady-state, parametric system model. This system model will combine a general fluid mechanics program, SAFSIM, with the ability to analyze turbines, pumps, nozzles, and reactor physics. SAFSIM (System Analysis Flow SIMulator) is a FORTRAN computer program that simulates integrated performance of systems involving fluid mechanics, heat transfer, and reactor dynamics. SAFSIM has the versatility to allow simulation of almost any system, including a nuclear reactor system. The focus of this paper is the validation of SAFSIM's capabilities as a base computational engine for a nuclear thermal propulsion system model. Validation is being accomplished by modeling of a nuclear engine test using SAFSIM and comparing the results to known experimental data
Teaching Fluid Mechanics to the Beginning Graduate Student--An Objective-Oriented Approach.
Liu, Henry
A premature embarkation in specialized areas of fluid mechanics by the beginning graduate student, without having first thoroughly learned the basics, leads to learning difficulties and destroys zeal for learning. To avoid these problems, many schools in the U.S. offer beginning graduate courses in fluid mechanics (BGCFM). Because the success or…
Serious Fun: Using Toys to Demonstrate Fluid Mechanics Principles
Saviz, Camilla M.; Shakerin, Said
2014-01-01
Many students have owned or seen fluids toys in which two immiscible fluids within a closed container can be tilted to generate waves. These types of inexpensive and readily available toys are fun to play with, but they are also useful for provoking student learning about fluid properties or complex fluid behavior, including drop formation and…
Diffuse-Interface Methods in Fluid Mechanics
Anderson, D. M.; McFadden, G. B.; Wheeler, A. A.
1997-01-01
The authors review the development of diffuse-interface models of hydrodynamics and their application to a wide variety of interfacial phenomena. The authors discuss the issues involved in formulating diffuse-interface models for single-component and binary fluids. Recent applications and computations using these models are discussed in each case. Further, the authors address issues including sharp-interface analyses that relate these models to the classical free-boundary problem, related computational approaches to describe interfacial phenomena, and related approaches describing fully-miscible fluids.
Vieira, Sheila Lopes; de Arruda, Antonio Celso Fonseca
In the majority of published articles on the topic, ER fluids have been studied as if they were viscous liquids. In this work, electrorheological fluids were characterized as solids and their mechanical properties were determined. The results infer that ER materials are controllably resistant to compression, tensile and shear stress, in this order of magnitude. More precisely, fluids made of starch have elasticity modulus similar to that of rubber, they have tensile strength 103 to 5×104 times lower than that of low density polyethylene (LDPE), static yield stress 4×104 to 8×105 times lower than that of acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene terpolymer (ABS) and fatigue life similar to some polymers like polyethylene(PE) and polypropylene (PP).
Revisiting Newtonian and Non-Newtonian Fluid Mechanics Using Computer Algebra
Knight, D. G.
2006-01-01
This article illustrates how a computer algebra system, such as Maple[R], can assist in the study of theoretical fluid mechanics, for both Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids. The continuity equation, the stress equations of motion, the Navier-Stokes equations, and various constitutive equations are treated, using a full, but straightforward,…
CISM course on stochastic methods in fluid mechanics
Chibbaro, Sergio
2013-01-01
Since their first introduction in natural sciences through the work of Einstein on Brownian motion in 1905 and further works, in particular by Langevin, Smoluchowski and others, stochastic processes have been used in several areas of science and technology. For example, they have been applied in chemical studies, or in fluid turbulence and for combustion and reactive flows. The articles in this book provide a general and unified framework in which stochastic processes are presented as modeling tools for various issues in engineering, physics and chemistry, with particular focus on fluid mechan
Multidomain multiphase fluid mechanics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sha, W.T.; Soo, S.L.
1976-10-01
A set of multiphase field equations--conversion of mass, momentum and energy--based on multiphase mechanics is developed. Multiphase mechanics applies to mixtures of phases which are separated by interfaces and are mutually exclusive. Based on the multiphase mechanics formulation, additional terms appear in the field equations when the physical size of the dispersed phase (bubble or droplet) is many times larger than the inter-molecular spacing. These terms are the inertial coupling due to virtual mass and the additional viscous coupling due to unsteadiness of the flow field. The multiphase formulation given here takes into account the discreteness of particles of dispersed phases and, at the same time, the necessity of the distributive representation of field variables via space-time averaging when handling a large number of particles. The provision for multidomain transition further permits us to treat dispersed phases which are large compared to the characteristic dimension of the flow system via interdomain relations. The multidomain multiphase approach provides a framework for us to model the various flow regimes. Because some of the transport parameters associated with the system equations are not well known at the present time, an idealized two-domain two-phase solution approach is proposed as a first step. Finally, comparisons are made between the field equations formulated based on the multidomain-multiphase fluid mechanics and the pertinent existing models, and their relative significances are discussed. The desirability of consistent approximation and simplifications possible for dilute suspensions are discussed
Multiscale methods in computational fluid and solid mechanics
Borst, de R.; Hulshoff, S.J.; Lenz, S.; Munts, E.A.; Brummelen, van E.H.; Wall, W.; Wesseling, P.; Onate, E.; Periaux, J.
2006-01-01
First, an attempt is made towards gaining a more systematic understanding of recent progress in multiscale modelling in computational solid and fluid mechanics. Sub- sequently, the discussion is focused on variational multiscale methods for the compressible and incompressible Navier-Stokes
Huang, Weifeng; Liao, Chuanjun; Liu, Xiangfeng; Suo, Shuangfu; Liu, Ying; Wang, Yuming
2014-09-01
Hydrostatic mechanical face seals for reactor coolant pumps are very important for the safety and reliability of pressurized-water reactor power plants. More accurate models on the operating mechanism of the seals are needed to help improve their performance. The thermal fluid-solid interaction (TFSI) mechanism of the hydrostatic seal is investigated in this study. Numerical models of the flow field and seal assembly are developed. Based on the mechanism for the continuity condition of the physical quantities at the fluid-solid interface, an on-line numerical TFSI model for the hydrostatic mechanical seal is proposed using an iterative coupling method. Dynamic mesh technology is adopted to adapt to the changing boundary shape. Experiments were performed on a test rig using a full-size test seal to obtain the leakage rate as a function of the differential pressure. The effectiveness and accuracy of the TFSI model were verified by comparing the simulation results and experimental data. Using the TFSI model, the behavior of the seal is presented, including mechanical and thermal deformation, and the temperature field. The influences of the rotating speed and differential pressure of the sealing device on the temperature field, which occur widely in the actual use of the seal, are studied. This research proposes an on-line and assembly-based TFSI model for hydrostatic mechanical face seals, and the model is validated by full-sized experiments.
McNair, James N; Newbold, J Denis
2012-05-07
Most ecological studies of particle transport in streams that focus on fine particulate organic matter or benthic invertebrates use the Exponential Settling Model (ESM) to characterize the longitudinal pattern of particle settling on the bed. The ESM predicts that if particles are released into a stream, the proportion that have not yet settled will decline exponentially with transport time or distance and will be independent of the release elevation above the bed. To date, no credible basis in fluid mechanics has been established for this model, nor has it been rigorously tested against more-mechanistic alternative models. One alternative is the Local Exchange Model (LEM), which is a stochastic advection-diffusion model that includes both longitudinal and vertical spatial dimensions and is based on classical fluid mechanics. The LEM predicts that particle settling will be non-exponential in the near field but will become exponential in the far field, providing a new theoretical justification for far-field exponential settling that is based on plausible fluid mechanics. We review properties of the ESM and LEM and compare these with available empirical evidence. Most evidence supports the prediction of both models that settling will be exponential in the far field but contradicts the ESM's prediction that a single exponential distribution will hold for all transport times and distances. Copyright Â© 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Fluid mechanics of Windkessel effect.
Mei, C C; Zhang, J; Jing, H X
2018-01-08
We describe a mechanistic model of Windkessel phenomenon based on the linear dynamics of fluid-structure interactions. The phenomenon has its origin in an old-fashioned fire-fighting equipment where an air chamber serves to transform the intermittent influx from a pump to a more steady stream out of the hose. A similar mechanism exists in the cardiovascular system where blood injected intermittantly from the heart becomes rather smooth after passing through an elastic aorta. In existing haeodynamics literature, this mechanism is explained on the basis of electric circuit analogy with empirical impedances. We present a mechanistic theory based on the principles of fluid/structure interactions. Using a simple one-dimensional model, wave motion in the elastic aorta is coupled to the viscous flow in the rigid peripheral artery. Explicit formulas are derived that exhibit the role of material properties such as the blood density, viscosity, wall elasticity, and radii and lengths of the vessels. The current two-element model in haemodynamics is shown to be the limit of short aorta and low injection frequency and the impedance coefficients are derived theoretically. Numerical results for different aorta lengths and radii are discussed to demonstrate their effects on the time variations of blood pressure, wall shear stress, and discharge. Graphical Abstract A mechanistic analysis of Windkessel Effect is described which confirms theoretically the well-known feature that intermittent influx becomes continuous outflow. The theory depends only on the density and viscosity of the blood, the elasticity and dimensions of the vessel. Empirical impedence parameters are avoided.
Shocks, singularities and oscillations in nonlinear optics and fluid mechanics
Santo, Daniele; Lannes, David
2017-01-01
The book collects the most relevant results from the INdAM Workshop "Shocks, Singularities and Oscillations in Nonlinear Optics and Fluid Mechanics" held in Rome, September 14-18, 2015. The contributions discuss recent major advances in the study of nonlinear hyperbolic systems, addressing general theoretical issues such as symmetrizability, singularities, low regularity or dispersive perturbations. It also investigates several physical phenomena where such systems are relevant, such as nonlinear optics, shock theory (stability, relaxation) and fluid mechanics (boundary layers, water waves, Euler equations, geophysical flows, etc.). It is a valuable resource for researchers in these fields. .
Fluid mechanics of environmental interfaces
Gualtieri, Carlo
2012-01-01
Preface Preface of the first editionBiographies of the authors Part one - Preliminaries1. Environmental fluid mechanics: Current issues and future outlook B. Cushman-Roisin, C. Gualtieri & D.T. MihailovicPart two - Processes at atmospheric interfaces2. Point source atmospheric diffusionB. Rajkovic, I. Arsenic & Z. Grsic3. Air-sea interaction V. Djurdjevic & B. Rajkovic4. Modelling of flux exchanges between heterogeneous surfaces and atmosphere D.T. Mihailovic & D. Kapor5. Desert dust uptake-transport and deposition mechanisms - impacts of dust on radiation, clouds and precipitation G. Kallos, P. Katsafados & C. SpyrouPart three - Processes at water interfaces6. Gas-transfer at unsheared free-surfaces C. Gualtieri & G. Pulci Doria7. Advective diffusion of air bubbles in turbulent water flows H. Chanson8. Exchanges at the bed sediments-water column interface F.A. Bombardelli & P.A. Moreno9. Surface water and streambed sediment interaction: The hyporheic exchange D. Tonina10. Environm...
David, C.; Dautriat, J. D.; Sarout, J.; Macault, R.; Bertauld, D.
2014-12-01
Water weakening is a well-known phenomenon which can lead to subsidence during the production of hydrocarbon reservoirs. The example of the Ekofisk oil field in the North Sea has been well documented for years. In order to assess water weakening effects in reservoir rocks, previous studies have focused on changes in the failure envelopes derived from mechanical tests conducted on rocks saturated either with water or with inert fluids. However, little attention has been paid so far on the mechanical behaviour during the fluid injection stage, like in enhanced oil recovery operations. We studied the effect of fluid injection on the mechanical behaviour of Sherwood sandstone, a weakly-consolidated sandstone sampled at Ladram Bay in UK. In order to highlight possible weakening effects, water and inert oil have been injected into critically-loaded samples to assess their effect on strength and elastic properties and to derive the acoustic signature of the saturation front for each fluid. The specimens were instrumented with 16 ultrasonic P-wave transducers for both passive and active acoustic monitoring during fluid injection and loading. After conducting standard triaxial tests on three samples saturated with air, water and oil respectively, mechanical creep tests were conducted on dry samples loaded at 80% of the compressive strength of the dry rock. While these conditions are kept constant, a fluid is injected at the bottom end of the sample with a low back pressure (0.5 MPa) to minimize effective stress variations during injection. Both water and oil were used as the injected pore fluid in two experiments. As soon as the fluids start to flow into the samples, creep is taking place with a much higher strain rate for water injection compared to oil injection. A transition from secondary creep to tertiary creep is observed in the water injection test whereas in the oil injection test no significant creep acceleration is observed after one pore volume of oil was
Binous, Housam
2007-01-01
We study four non-Newtonian fluid mechanics problems using Mathematica[R]. Constitutive equations describing the behavior of power-law, Bingham and Carreau models are recalled. The velocity profile is obtained for the horizontal flow of power-law fluids in pipes and annuli. For the vertical laminar film flow of a Bingham fluid we determine the…
Vectors, tensors and the basic equations of fluid mechanics
Aris, Rutherford
1962-01-01
Introductory text, geared toward advanced undergraduate and graduate students, applies mathematics of Cartesian and general tensors to physical field theories and demonstrates them in terms of the theory of fluid mechanics. 1962 edition.
Research in Applied Mathematics, Fluid Mechanics and Computer Science
1999-01-01
This report summarizes research conducted at the Institute for Computer Applications in Science and Engineering in applied mathematics, fluid mechanics, and computer science during the period October 1, 1998 through March 31, 1999.
Bilateral patching in retinal detachment: fluid mechanics and retinal "settling".
Foster, William J
2011-07-20
When a patient suffers a retinal detachment and surgery is delayed, it is known clinically that bilaterally patching the patient may allow the retina to partially reattach or "settle." Although this procedure has been performed since the 1860s, there is still debate as to how such a maneuver facilitates the reattachment of the retina. Finite element calculations using commercially available analysis software are used to elucidate the influence of reduction in eye movement caused by bilateral patching on the flow of subretinal fluid in a physical model of retinal detachment. It was found that by coupling fluid mechanics with structural mechanics, a physically consistent explanation of increased retinal detachment with eye movements can be found in the case of traction on the retinal hole. Large eye movements increase vitreous traction and detachment forces on the edge of the retinal hole, creating a subretinal vacuum and facilitating increased subretinal fluid. Alternative models, in which intraocular fluid flow is redirected into the subretinal space, are not consistent with these simulations. The results of these simulations explain the physical principles behind bilateral patching and provide insight that can be used clinically. In particular, as is known clinically, bilateral patching may facilitate a decrease in the height of a retinal detachment. The results described here provide a description of a physical mechanism underlying this technique. The findings of this study may aid in deciding whether to bilaterally patch patients and in counseling patients on pre- and postoperative care.
Partitioned fluid-solid coupling for cardiovascular blood flow: left-ventricular fluid mechanics.
Krittian, Sebastian; Janoske, Uwe; Oertel, Herbert; Böhlke, Thomas
2010-04-01
We present a 3D code-coupling approach which has been specialized towards cardiovascular blood flow. For the first time, the prescribed geometry movement of the cardiovascular flow model KaHMo (Karlsruhe Heart Model) has been replaced by a myocardial composite model. Deformation is driven by fluid forces and myocardial response, i.e., both its contractile and constitutive behavior. Whereas the arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian formulation (ALE) of the Navier-Stokes equations is discretized by finite volumes (FVM), the solid mechanical finite elasticity equations are discretized by a finite element (FEM) approach. Taking advantage of specialized numerical solution strategies for non-matching fluid and solid domain meshes, an iterative data-exchange guarantees the interface equilibrium of the underlying governing equations. The focus of this work is on left-ventricular fluid-structure interaction based on patient-specific magnetic resonance imaging datasets. Multi-physical phenomena are described by temporal visualization and characteristic FSI numbers. The results gained show flow patterns that are in good agreement with previous observations. A deeper understanding of cavity deformation, blood flow, and their vital interaction can help to improve surgical treatment and clinical therapy planning.
Fluid Mechanics of Wing Adaptation for Separation Control
Chandrasekhara, M. S.; Wilder, M. C.; Carr, L. W.; Davis, Sanford S. (Technical Monitor)
1997-01-01
The unsteady fluid mechanics associated with use of a dynamically deforming leading edge airfoil for achieving compressible flow separation control has been experimentally studied. Changing the leading edge curvature at rapid rates dramatically alters the flow vorticity dynamics which is responsible for the many effects observed in the flow.
Application of ICT supported learning in fluid mechanics
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Brohus, Henrik; Svidt, Kjeld
2004-01-01
of tools for knowledge transfer facilitates deep understanding and increases learning efficiency. Air flow is by nature invisible and represents a further challenge in the effort of providing sufficient understanding of typical flow patterns and behaviour of room air flow. An example of visualisation......This paper focuses on the application of ICT, Information & Communication Technology, supported learning in the area of fluid mechanics education. Taking a starting point in a course in Ventilation Technology, including room air flow and contaminant distribution, it explains how ICT may be used...... actively in the learning environment to increase efficiency in the learning process. The paper comprises past experiences and lessons learnt as well as prospect for future development in the area. A model is presented that describes a high efficiency learning environment where ICT plays an important role...
Fluid mechanics. 5. enlarged ed.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kalide, W.
1980-01-01
Originally written for students in the field of engineering, this book may also be of use in the engineering practice. The subject is presented with a view to practice. Fundamental theorems of fluid mechanics are presented without going too much into theory. The chapter on supersonic flow has been extended in the fifth edition as this is a field of great importance in engineering. The new chapter on gas dynamics takes account of these processes in turbine and compressure construction and aeronautical engineering. There is an appendix with material data, characteristic values, flow resistance coefficients, diagrams and two tables with rated pressure loss values for pipeline flow. (orig./GL)
Gamez-Montero, P. Javier; Raush, Gustavo; Domènech, Lluis; Castilla, Robert; García-Vílchez, Mercedes; Moreno, Hipòlit; Carbó, Albert
2015-01-01
"Mechanics" and "Fluids" are familiar concepts for any newly-registered engineering student. However, when combined into the term "Fluid Mechanics", students are thrust into the great unknown. The present article demonstrates the process of adaptation employed by the Fluid Mechanics course in the undergraduate…
Links between fluid mechanics and quantum mechanics: a model for information in economics?
Haven, Emmanuel
2016-05-28
This paper tallies the links between fluid mechanics and quantum mechanics, and attempts to show whether those links can aid in beginning to build a formal template which is usable in economics models where time is (a)symmetric and memory is absent or present. An objective of this paper is to contemplate whether those formalisms can allow us to model information in economics in a novel way. © 2016 The Author(s).
Potential fluid mechanic pathways of platelet activation.
Shadden, Shawn C; Hendabadi, Sahar
2013-06-01
Platelet activation is a precursor for blood clotting, which plays leading roles in many vascular complications and causes of death. Platelets can be activated by chemical or mechanical stimuli. Mechanically, platelet activation has been shown to be a function of elevated shear stress and exposure time. These contributions can be combined by considering the cumulative stress or strain on a platelet as it is transported. Here, we develop a framework for computing a hemodynamic-based activation potential that is derived from a Lagrangian integral of strain rate magnitude. We demonstrate that such a measure is generally maximized along, and near to, distinguished material surfaces in the flow. The connections between activation potential and these structures are illustrated through stenotic flow computations. We uncover two distinct structures that may explain observed thrombus formation at the apex and downstream of stenoses. More broadly, these findings suggest fundamental relationships may exist between potential fluid mechanic pathways for mechanical platelet activation and the mechanisms governing their transport.
Flippin' Fluid Mechanics - Quasi-experimental Pre-test and Post-test Comparison Using Two Groups
Webster, D. R.; Majerich, D. M.; Luo, J.
2014-11-01
A flipped classroom approach has been implemented in an undergraduate fluid mechanics course. Students watch short on-line videos before class, participate in active in-class problem solving (in dyads), and complete individualized on-line quizzes weekly. In-class activities are designed to achieve a trifecta of: 1. developing problem solving skills, 2. learning subject content, and 3. developing inquiry skills. The instructor and assistants provide critical ``just-in-time tutoring'' during the in-class problem solving sessions. Comparisons are made with a simultaneous section offered in a traditional mode by a different instructor. Regression analysis was used to control for differences among students and to quantify the effect of the flipped fluid mechanics course. The dependent variable was the students' combined final examination and post-concept inventory scores and the independent variables were pre-concept inventory score, gender, major, course section, and (incoming) GPA. The R-square equaled 0.45 indicating that the included variables explain 45% of the variation in the dependent variable. The regression results indicated that if the student took the flipped fluid mechanics course, the dependent variable (i.e., combined final exam and post-concept inventory scores) was raised by 7.25 points. Interestingly, the comparison group reported significantly more often that their course emphasized memorization than did the flipped classroom group.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Gromov, Pavel; Gromova, Irina; Olsen, Charlotta J.
2013-01-01
Tumor interstitial fluid (TIF) is a proximal fluid that, in addition to the set of blood soluble phase-borne proteins, holds a subset of aberrantly externalized components, mainly proteins, released by tumor cells and tumor microenvironment through various mechanisms, which include classical...
Birmingham, E; Grogan, J A; Niebur, G L; McNamara, L M; McHugh, P E
2013-04-01
Bone marrow found within the porous structure of trabecular bone provides a specialized environment for numerous cell types, including mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Studies have sought to characterize the mechanical environment imposed on MSCs, however, a particular challenge is that marrow displays the characteristics of a fluid, while surrounded by bone that is subject to deformation, and previous experimental and computational studies have been unable to fully capture the resulting complex mechanical environment. The objective of this study was to develop a fluid structure interaction (FSI) model of trabecular bone and marrow to predict the mechanical environment of MSCs in vivo and to examine how this environment changes during osteoporosis. An idealized repeating unit was used to compare FSI techniques to a computational fluid dynamics only approach. These techniques were used to determine the effect of lower bone mass and different marrow viscosities, representative of osteoporosis, on the shear stress generated within bone marrow. Results report that shear stresses generated within bone marrow under physiological loading conditions are within the range known to stimulate a mechanobiological response in MSCs in vitro. Additionally, lower bone mass leads to an increase in the shear stress generated within the marrow, while a decrease in bone marrow viscosity reduces this generated shear stress.
A diffusion tensor imaging tractography algorithm based on Navier-Stokes fluid mechanics.
Hageman, Nathan S; Toga, Arthur W; Narr, Katherine L; Shattuck, David W
2009-03-01
We introduce a fluid mechanics based tractography method for estimating the most likely connection paths between points in diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) volumes. We customize the Navier-Stokes equations to include information from the diffusion tensor and simulate an artificial fluid flow through the DTI image volume. We then estimate the most likely connection paths between points in the DTI volume using a metric derived from the fluid velocity vector field. We validate our algorithm using digital DTI phantoms based on a helical shape. Our method segmented the structure of the phantom with less distortion than was produced using implementations of heat-based partial differential equation (PDE) and streamline based methods. In addition, our method was able to successfully segment divergent and crossing fiber geometries, closely following the ideal path through a digital helical phantom in the presence of multiple crossing tracts. To assess the performance of our algorithm on anatomical data, we applied our method to DTI volumes from normal human subjects. Our method produced paths that were consistent with both known anatomy and directionally encoded color images of the DTI dataset.
Effect of Chamber Backpressure on Swirl Injector Fluid Mechanics
Kenny, R. Jeremy; Hulka, James R.; Moser, Marlow D.; Rhys, Noah O.
2008-01-01
A common propellant combination used for high thrust generation is GH2/LOX. Historical GH2/LOX injection elements have been of the shear-coaxial type. Element type has a large heritage of research work to aid in element design. The swirl-coaxial element, despite its many performance benefits, has a relatively small amount of historical, LRE-oriented work to draw from. Design features of interest are grounded in the fluid mechanics of the liquid swirl process itself, are based on data from low-pressure, low mass flow rate experiments. There is a need to investigate how high ambient pressures and mass flow rates influence internal and external swirl features. The objective of this research is to determine influence of varying liquid mass flow rate and ambient chamber pressure on the intact-length fluid mechanics of a liquid swirl element.
Application of computational fluid mechanics to atmospheric pollution problems
Hung, R. J.; Liaw, G. S.; Smith, R. E.
1986-01-01
One of the most noticeable effects of air pollution on the properties of the atmosphere is the reduction in visibility. This paper reports the results of investigations of the fluid dynamical and microphysical processes involved in the formation of advection fog on aerosols from combustion-related pollutants, as condensation nuclei. The effects of a polydisperse aerosol distribution, on the condensation/nucleation processes which cause the reduction in visibility are studied. This study demonstrates how computational fluid mechanics and heat transfer modeling can be applied to simulate the life cycle of the atmosphereic pollution problems.
Contact mechanics for poroelastic, fluid-filled media, with application to cartilage.
Persson, B N J
2016-12-21
I study a simple contact mechanics model for a poroelastic, fluid-filled solid squeezed against a rigid, randomly rough substrate. I study how the fluid is squeezed out from the interface, and how the area of contact, and the average interfacial separation, change with time. I present numerical results relevant for a human cartilage. I show that for a fluid filled poroelastic solid the probability of cavitation (and the related wear as the cavities implode), and dynamical scraping (defined below and in Hutt and Persson, J. Chem. Phys. 144, 124903 (2016)), may be suppressed by fluid flow from the poroelastic solid into the (roughness induced) interfacial gap between the solids.
Experimental study on the fluid stratification mechanism in the density lock
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gu Haifeng; Yan Changqi; Sun Licheng
2009-01-01
Visualized experiments were conducted on the forming process of stratification between hot and cold fluids in three tubes with different diameters. The results show that the working fluids were divided into three layers from top to bottom: convective, interfacial, and constant temperature layers. The working fluid in the convective layer always retains the property of a high rate of temperature increase. The rate of temperature increase in the interfacial layer gradually decreased from top to bottom and was less than that in the convective layer. The working fluid temperature in the constant-temperature layer remained stable. Based on the experimental study, we built a simplified theoretical model and analyzed the stratification mechanism. The results indicate the following stratification mechanism: because of the existence of the transition points in the heat transfer modes, the differences in the rates of temperature increase appear. These differences result in the appearance of fluid stratification. In addition, research on the process of stratification under different conditions tells us that the structure of the density lock influences the position of the transition point. The density lock with a structure of variable cross-sectional grids can effectively control the position of the transition points of the heat transfer modes. (author)
The Fluid Mechanics of the Bible: Miracles Explainable by Christian Science?
Lang, Amy
2015-11-01
The Bible is full of accounts clearly in violation of our scientific understanding of fluid mechanics. Examples include the floating axe head, Jesus walking on the water and immediately calming a storm. ``Jesus of Nazareth was the most scientific man that ever trod the globe. He plunged beneath the material surface of things, and found the spiritual cause,'' wrote Mary Baker Eddy (1821-1910), the founder of a now well-established religion known as Christian Science, in her seminal work Science & Health with Key to the Scriptures. She asserted that Jesus' miracles were in accord with the, ``Science of God's unchangeable law.'' She also proclaimed that matter is a derivative of consciousness. Independently with the discovery of quantum mechanics, physicists such as Max Planck and Sir James Jeans began to make similar statements (``The Mental Universe'', Nature, 2005). More recently, Max Tegmark (MIT) theorized that consciousness is a state of matter (New Scientist, April 2014). Using a paradigm shift from matter to consciousness as the primary substance, one can scientifically explain how a mental activity (i.e. prayer) could influence the physical. Since this conference is next door to the original church of Christian Science (Const. 1894), this talk will discuss various fluid-mechanic miracles in the Bible and provide an explanation based on divine metaphysics while providing an overview of scientific Christianity and its unifying influence to the fields of science, theology and medicine.
Annual review of fluid mechanics. Volume 15
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Van Dyke, M.; Wehausen, J.V.; Lumley, J.L.
1983-01-01
A survey of experimental results and analytical techniques for modelling various flows and the behavior of flows around flown-driven machinery is presented. Attention is given to analytical models for wind flows and power extraction by horizontal axis wind turbines. The phenomena occurring in the impact of compressible fluids with a solid body are described, as are the instabilities, pattern formation, and turbulence in flames. Homogeneous turbulence is explored, theories for autorotation by falling bodies are discussed, and attention is devoted to theoretical models for magneto-atmospheric waves and their presence in solar activity. The design characteristics of low Reynolds number airfoils are explored, and numerical and fluid mechanics formulations for integrable, chaotic, and turbulent vortex motion in two-dimensional flows are reviewed. Finally, measurements and models of turbulent wall jets for engineering purposes are examined
Instructor's Guide for Fluid Mechanics: A Modular Approach.
Cox, John S.
This guide is designed to assist engineering teachers in developing an understanding of fluid mechanics in their students. The course is designed around a set of nine self-paced learning modules, each of which contains a discussion of the subject matter; incremental objectives; problem index, set and answers; resource materials; and a quiz with…
Introduction to the internal fluid mechanics research session
Miller, Brent A.; Povinelli, Louis A.
1990-01-01
Internal fluid mechanics research at LeRC is directed toward an improved understanding of the important flow physics affecting aerospace propulsion systems, and applying this improved understanding to formulate accurate predictive codes. To this end, research is conducted involving detailed experimentation and analysis. The following three papers summarize ongoing work and indicate future emphasis in three major research thrusts: inlets, ducts, and nozzles; turbomachinery; and chemical reacting flows. The underlying goal of the research in each of these areas is to bring internal computational fluid mechanic to a state of practical application for aerospace propulsion systems. Achievement of this goal requires that carefully planned and executed experiments be conducted in order to develop and validate useful codes. It is critical that numerical code development work and experimental work be closely coupled. The insights gained are represented by mathematical models that form the basis for code development. The resultant codes are then tested by comparing them with appropriate experiments in order to ensure their validity and determine their applicable range. The ultimate user community must be a part of this process to assure relevancy of the work and to hasten its practical application. Propulsion systems are characterized by highly complex and dynamic internal flows. Many complex, 3-D flow phenomena may be present, including unsteadiness, shocks, and chemical reactions. By focusing on specific portions of a propulsion system, it is often possible to identify the dominant phenomena that must be understood and modeled for obtaining accurate predictive capability. The three major research thrusts serve as a focus leading to greater understanding of the relevant physics and to an improvement in analytic tools. This in turn will hasten continued advancements in propulsion system performance and capability.
Advances in fluid modeling and turbulence measurements
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wada, Akira; Ninokata, Hisashi; Tanaka, Nobukazu
2002-01-01
The context of this book consists of four fields: Environmental Fluid Mechanics; Industrial Fluid Mechanics; Fundamentals of Fluid Mechanics; and Turbulence Measurements. Environmental Fluid Mechanics includes free surface flows in channels, rivers, seas, and estuaries. It also discusses wind engineering issues, ocean circulation model and dispersion problems in atmospheric, water and ground water environments. In Industrial Fluid Mechanics, fluid phenomena in energy exchanges, modeling of turbulent two- or multi-phase flows, swirling flows, flows in combustors, variable density flows and reacting flows, flows in turbo-machines, pumps and piping systems, and fluid-structure interaction are discussed. In Fundamentals of Fluid Mechanics, progress in modeling turbulent flows and heat/mass transfers, computational fluid dynamics/numerical techniques, parallel computing algorithms, applications of chaos/fractal theory in turbulence are reported. In Turbulence Measurements, experimental studies of turbulent flows, experimental and post-processing techniques, quantitative and qualitative flow visualization techniques are discussed. Separate abstracts were presented for 15 of the papers in this issue. The remaining 89 were considered outside the subject scope of INIS. (J.P.N.)
The mechanism of reequilibration of solids in the presence of a fluid phase
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Putnis, Andrew; Putnis, Christine V.
2007-01-01
The preservation of morphology (pseudomorphism) and crystal structure during the transformation of one solid phase to another is regularly used as a criterion for a solid-state mechanism, even when there is a fluid phase present. However, a coupled dissolution-reprecipitation mechanism also preserves the morphology and transfers crystallographic information from parent to product by epitaxial nucleation. The generation of porosity in the product phase is a necessary condition for such a mechanism as it allows fluid to maintain contact with a reaction interface which moves through the parent phase from the original surface. We propose that interface-coupled dissolution-reprecipitation is a general mechanism for reequilibration of solids in the presence of a fluid phase. - Graphical abstract: A single crystal of KBr is transformed to a porous single crystal of KCl by immersion in saturated KCl solution. The image shows partial transformation of a crystal of KBr (core) to KCl (porous, milky rim) by an interface coupled dissolution-reprecipitation mechanism. The external dimensions and crystallographic orientation of the original crystal are preserved, while a reaction interface moves through the crystal
Fluid-injection and the mechanics of frictional stability of shale-bearing faults
Scuderi, Marco Maria; Collettini, Cristiano; Marone, Chris
2017-04-01
Fluid overpressure is one of the primary mechanisms for triggering tectonic fault slip and human-induced seismicity. This mechanism is appealing because fluids lubricate the fault and reduce the effective normal stress that holds the fault in place. However, current models of earthquake nucleation, based on rate- and state- friction, imply that stable sliding is favored by the increase of pore fluid pressure. Despite this apparent dilemma, there are a few studies on the role of fluid pressure in frictional stability under controlled, laboratory conditions. Here, we describe laboratory experiments on shale fault gouge, conducted in the double direct shear configuration in a true-triaxial machine. To characterize frictional stability and hydrological properties we performed three types of experiments: 1) stable sliding shear experiment to determine the material failure envelope resulting in fault strength of µ=0.28 and fault zone permeability (k 10-19m2); 2) velocity step experiments to determine the rate- and state- frictional properties, characterized by a velocity strengthening behavior with a negative rate parameter b, indicative of stable aseismic creep; 3) creep experiment to study fault slip evolution with increasing pore-fluid pressure. In these creep experiments fault slip history can be divided in three main stages: a) for low fluid pressure the fault is locked and undergoes compaction; b) with increasing fluid pressurization, we observe aseismic creep (i.e. v=0.0001 µm/s) associated with fault dilation, with maintained low permeability; c) As fluid pressure is further increased and we approach the failure criteria fault begins to accelerate, the dilation rate increases causing an increase in permeability. Following the first acceleration we document complex fault slip behavior characterized by periodic accelerations and decelerations with slip velocity that remains slow (i.e. v 200 µm/s), never approaching dynamic slip rates. Surprisingly, this complex
[Research activities in applied mathematics, fluid mechanics, and computer science
1995-01-01
This report summarizes research conducted at the Institute for Computer Applications in Science and Engineering in applied mathematics, fluid mechanics, and computer science during the period April 1, 1995 through September 30, 1995.
The fluid mechanics of scleral buckling surgery for the repair of retinal detachment.
Foster, William Joseph; Dowla, Nadia; Joshi, Saurabh Y; Nikolaou, Michael
2010-01-01
Scleral buckling is a common surgical technique used to treat retinal detachments that involves suturing a radial or circumferential silicone element on the sclera. Although this procedure has been performed since the 1960s, and there is a reasonable experimental model of retinal detachment, there is still debate as to how this surgery facilitates the re-attachment of the retina. Finite element calculations using the COMSOL Multiphysics system are utilized to explain the influence of the scleral buckle on the flow of sub-retinal fluid in a physical model of retinal detachment. We found that, by coupling fluid mechanics with structural mechanics, laminar fluid flow and the Bernoulli effect are necessary for a physically consistent explanation of retinal reattachment. Improved fluid outflow and retinal reattachment are found with low fluid viscosity and rapid eye movements. A simulation of saccadic eye movements was more effective in removing sub-retinal fluid than slower, reading speed, eye movements in removing subretinal fluid. The results of our simulations allow us to explain the physical principles behind scleral buckling surgery and provide insight that can be utilized clinically. In particular, we find that rapid eye movements facilitate more rapid retinal reattachment. This is contradictory to the conventional wisdom of attempting to minimize eye movements.
Friction mechanisms and interfacial slip at fluid-solid interfaces
Leger, L
2003-01-01
We present series of experiments based on near field laser velocimetry, developed to characterize the friction mechanisms at fluid-solid interfaces. For polymers, entangled polymer melts are sheared against smooth solid surfaces, covered by surface attached polymer chains of the same chemical species, having a controlled surface density. Direct measurements of the interfacial velocity and of the shear force allow identification of the molecular mechanisms of friction. Depending on the value of the inverse of the shear rate experienced by the polymer compared to the reptation time, the transition between a regime of high and a regime of low friction observed when increasing the shear rate can be related to disentanglement or to the extraction of the surface chains from the bulk polymer. Surfaces with adjusted friction properties can thus be designed by choosing chain anchored length and surface density. For simple fluids, the direct measurements of the interfacial velocity show that, contrary to the usual hypo...
Impact simulation of liquid-filled containers including fluid-structure interaction--Part 1: Theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sauve, R.G.; Morandin, G.D.; Nadeau, E.
1993-01-01
In a number of applications, the hydrodynamic effect of a fluid must be included in the structural evaluation of liquid-filled vessels undergoing transient loading. Prime examples are liquid radioactive waste transportation packages. These packages must demonstrate the ability to withstand severe accidental impact scenarios. A hydrodynamic model of the fluid is developed using a finite element discretization of the momentum equations for a three-dimensional continuum. An inviscid fluid model with an isotropic stress state is considered. A barotropic equation of state, relating volumetric strain to pressure, is used to characterize the fluid behavior. The formulation considers the continuum as a compressible medium only, so that no tension fields are permitted. The numerical technique is incorporated into the existing general-purpose three-dimensional structural computer code H3DMAP. Part 1 of the paper describes the theory and implementation along with comparisons with classical theory. Part 2 describes the experimental validations of the theoretical approach. Excellent correlation between predicted and experimental results is obtained
Fluid and solid mechanics in a poroelastic network induced by ultrasound.
Wang, Peng; Olbricht, William L
2011-01-04
We made a theoretical analysis on the fluid and solid mechanics in a poroelastic medium induced by low-power ultrasound. Using a perturbative approach, we were able to linearize the governing equations and obtain analytical solutions. We found that ultrasound could propagate in the medium as a mechanical wave, but would dissipate due to frictional forces between the fluid and the solid phase. The amplitude of the wave depends on the ultrasonic power input. We applied this model to the problem of drug delivery to soft biological tissues by low-power ultrasound and proposed a mechanism for enhanced drug penetration. We have also found the coexistence of two acoustic waves under certain circumstances and pointed out the importance of very accurate experimental determination of the high-frequency properties of brain tissue. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Nonequilibrium chiral fluid dynamics including dissipation and noise
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nahrgang, Marlene; Herold, Christoph; Bleicher, Marcus; Leupold, Stefan
2011-01-01
We present a consistent theoretical approach for the study of nonequilibrium effects in chiral fluid dynamics within the framework of the linear σ model with constituent quarks. Treating the quarks as an equilibrated heat bath, we use the influence functional formalism to obtain a Langevin equation for the σ field. This allows us to calculate the explicit form of the damping coefficient and the noise correlators. For a self-consistent derivation of both the dynamics of the σ field and the quark fluid, we have to employ the 2PI (two-particle irreducible) effective action formalism. The energy dissipation from the field to the fluid is treated in the exact formalism of the 2PI effective action where a conserved energy-momentum tensor can be constructed. We derive its form and comment on approximations generating additional terms in the energy-momentum balance of the entire system.
Fiszdon, W
1965-01-01
Fluid Dynamics Transactions, Volume 2 compiles 46 papers on fluid dynamics, a subdiscipline of fluid mechanics that deals with fluid flow. The topics discussed in this book include developments in interference theory for aeronautical applications; diffusion from sources in a turbulent boundary layer; unsteady motion of a finite wing span in a compressible medium; and wall pressure covariance and comparison with experiment. The certain classes of non-stationary axially symmetric flows in magneto-gas-dynamics; description of the phenomenon of secondary flows in curved channels by means of co
Fluid Mechanics and Fluid Power (FMFP)
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Amitabh Bhattacharya
of renewable energy (e.g., via wind, hydrokinetic generators), creating low-cost healthcare ... multiphase flow, turbulence, bio-fluid dynamics, atmospheric flows, microfluidic flows, and ... study the challenging problem of entry of solids in water.
Software for principles of fluid mechanics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kreider, J.F.
1985-01-01
This book is intended as a software supplement and provides a means for solving problems rapidly to determine the relative importance of flow and environmental parameters. Topics covered include the following: momentum equation: rocket trajectory; Bernoulli's equation: pipe plug-flow or Bernoulli's equation: tank drawing; fluid statics: submerged gate, or fluid statics: manometry; laminar flow: pipe fittings plus straight pipe, or laminar external flow: between parallel planes; ideal flow: plot of pressure distribution on a cylinder with circulation; laminar external flow: drag force and friction coefficient; turbulent external flow: drag force and friction coefficient on flat plate; turbulent external flow: drag force and friction coefficient on sphere; turbulent pipe flow: fittings plus straight sections (moody diagram); turbulent channel flow; isentropic compressible flow; normal shocks: property changes errors; choked nozzle flow; pump curve and system curve simultaneous solution; and fan affinity laws
The effect of the pore-fluid factor on strength and failure mechanism of Wilkeson sandstone
Kätker, A. K.; Rempe, M.; Renner, J.
2016-12-01
The effective stress law, σn,eff = σn - αpf, is a central tool in analysing phenomena related to hydromechanical coupling, such as fluid-induced seismicity or aftershock activity. The effective-stress coefficient α assumes different values for specific physical properties and may deviate from 1. The limited number of studies suggest that brittle compressive strength obeys an effective-stress law when effective drainage is achieved. Yet, open questions remain regarding, e.g., the role of the loading path. We performed suites of triaxial compression tests on samples of Wilkeson sandstone at a range of pore-fluid pressures but identical effective confining pressure (60, 100, and 120 MPa) maintaining the pore-fluid factor λ = pf / pc constant (0.05, 0.2, 0.4, 0.55) during the isostatic loading stage to ensure uniform loading paths. Samples were shortened with a strain rate of 4×10-7 s-1 yielding drained conditions. All tests were terminated at a total axial strain of 4.5% for comparability of microstructures. The tests also included continuous permeability determination and ultrasonic p-wave-velocity measurements to monitor microstructural evolution. Results from experiments conducted at peff = 100 MPa show that dry samples exhibit a higher peak strength and brittle failure while water-saturated samples tend to deform at lower stress by cataclastic flow indicating physico-chemical weakening. Regardless of pore-fluid factor, the saturated experiments exhibit similar peak and residual strength. Differences in failure mechanism (degree of macroscopic localization) and volumetric strain evolution are however noticed, albeit without systematic relation to pore-fluid factor. Microstructure analyses by optical and scanning electron microscopy revealed an evolution from localized shear zones in dry experiments and experiments with a low pore-fluid factor to rather distributed cataclastic flow for experiments with high pore fluid factors. Yet, mechanical and structural
Respiratory mechanics and fluid dynamics after lung resection surgery.
Miserocchi, Giuseppe; Beretta, Egidio; Rivolta, Ilaria
2010-08-01
Thoracic surgery that requires resection of a portion of lung or of a whole lung profoundly alters the mechanical and fluid dynamic setting of the lung-chest wall coupling, as well as the water balance in the pleural space and in the remaining lung. The most frequent postoperative complications are of a respiratory nature, and their incidence increases the more the preoperative respiratory condition seems compromised. There is an obvious need to identify risk factors concerning mainly the respiratory function, without neglecting the importance of other comorbidities, such as coronary disease. At present, however, a satisfactory predictor of postoperative cardiopulmonary complications is lacking; postoperative morbidity and mortality have remained unchanged in the last 10 years. The aim of this review is to provide a pathophysiologic interpretation of the main respiratory complications of a respiratory nature by relying on new concepts relating to lung fluid dynamics and mechanics. New parameters are proposed to improve evaluation of respiratory function from pre- to the early postoperative period when most of the complications occur. Published by Elsevier Inc.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sriram, Krishna B; Courtney, Deborah; Yang, Ian A; Bowman, Rayleen V; Fong, Kwun M; Relan, Vandana; Clarke, Belinda E; Duhig, Edwina E; Windsor, Morgan N; Matar, Kevin S; Naidoo, Rishendran; Passmore, Linda; McCaul, Elizabeth
2012-01-01
The diagnosis of malignant pleural effusions (MPE) is often clinically challenging, especially if the cytology is negative for malignancy. DNA integrity index has been reported to be a marker of malignancy. The aim of this study was to evaluate the utility of pleural fluid DNA integrity index in the diagnosis of MPE. We studied 75 pleural fluid and matched serum samples from consecutive subjects. Pleural fluid and serum ALU DNA repeats [115bp, 247bp and 247bp/115bp ratio (DNA integrity index)] were assessed by real-time quantitative PCR. Pleural fluid and serum mesothelin levels were quantified using ELISA. Based on clinico-pathological evaluation, 52 subjects had MPE (including 16 mesotheliomas) and 23 had benign effusions. Pleural fluid DNA integrity index was higher in MPE compared with benign effusions (1.2 vs. 0.8; p<0.001). Cytology had a sensitivity of 55% in diagnosing MPE. If cytology and pleural fluid DNA integrity index were considered together, they exhibited 81% sensitivity and 87% specificity in distinguishing benign and malignant effusions. In cytology-negative pleural effusions (35 MPE and 28 benign effusions), elevated pleural fluid DNA integrity index had an 81% positive predictive value in detecting MPEs. In the detection of mesothelioma, at a specificity of 90%, pleural fluid DNA integrity index had similar sensitivity to pleural fluid and serum mesothelin (75% each respectively). Pleural fluid DNA integrity index is a promising diagnostic biomarker for identification of MPEs, including mesothelioma. This biomarker may be particularly useful in cases of MPE where pleural aspirate cytology is negative, and could guide the decision to undertake more invasive definitive testing. A prospective validation study is being undertaken to validate our findings and test the clinical utility of this biomarker for altering clinical practice
Fluid mechanical responses to nutrient depletion in fungi and biofilmsa)
Brenner, Michael P.
2014-10-01
In both fungi and bacterial biofilms, when nutrients are depleted, the organisms cannot physically migrate to find a new source, but instead must develop adaptations that allow them to survive. This paper reviews our work attempting to discover design principles for these adaptations. We develop fluid mechanical models, and aim to understand whether these suggest organizing principles for the observed morphological diversity. Determining whether a proposed organizing principle explains extant biological designs is fraught with difficulty: simply because a design principle predicts characteristics similar to an organism's morphology could just as well be accidental as revealing. In each of the two sets of examples, we adopt different strategies to develop understanding in spite of this difficulty. Within the fungal phylum Ascomycota, we use the large observed diversity of different morphological solutions to the fundamental fluid mechanical problem to measure how far each solution is from a design optimum, thereby measuring how far the extant designs deviate from the hypothesized optimum. This allows comparing different design principles to each other. For biofilms, we use engineering principles to make qualitative predictions of what types of adaptations might exist given the physicochemical properties of the repertoire of proteins that bacteria can create, and then find evidence for these adaptations in experiments. While on the surface this paper addresses the particular adaptations used by the fungal phylum Ascomycota and bacterial biofilms, we also aim to motivate discussion of different approaches to using design principles, fluid mechanical or otherwise, to rationalize observed engineering solutions in biology.
Shape matters: Near-field fluid mechanics dominate the collective motions of ellipsoidal squirmers.
Kyoya, K; Matsunaga, D; Imai, Y; Omori, T; Ishikawa, T
2015-12-01
Microswimmers show a variety of collective motions. Despite extensive study, questions remain regarding the role of near-field fluid mechanics in collective motion. In this paper, we describe precisely the Stokes flow around hydrodynamically interacting ellipsoidal squirmers in a monolayer suspension. The results showed that various collective motions, such as ordering, aggregation, and whirls, are dominated by the swimming mode and the aspect ratio. The collective motions are mainly induced by near-field fluid mechanics, despite Stokes flow propagation over a long range. These results emphasize the importance of particle shape in collective motion.
Zamir, Mair; Moore, James E; Fujioka, Hideki; Gaver, Donald P
2010-03-01
In the field of fluid flow within the human body, focus has been placed on the transportation of blood in the systemic circulation since the discovery of that system; but, other fluids and fluid flow phenomena pervade the body. Some of the most fascinating fluid flow phenomena within the human body involve fluids other than blood and a service other than transport--the lymphatic and pulmonary systems are two striking examples. While transport is still involved in both cases, this is not the only service which they provide and blood is not the only fluid involved. In both systems, filtration, extraction, enrichment, and in general some "treatment" of the fluid itself is the primary function. The study of the systemic circulation has also been conventionally limited to treating the system as if it were an open-loop system governed by the laws of fluid mechanics alone, independent of physiological controls and regulations. This implies that system failures can be explained fully in terms of the laws of fluid mechanics, which of course is not the case. In this paper we examine the clinical implications of these issues and of the special biofluid mechanics issues involved in the lymphatic and pulmonary systems.
Fluids in crustal deformation: Fluid flow, fluid-rock interactions, rheology, melting and resources
Lacombe, Olivier; Rolland, Yann
2016-11-01
Fluids exert a first-order control on the structural, petrological and rheological evolution of the continental crust. Fluids interact with rocks from the earliest stages of sedimentation and diagenesis in basins until these rocks are deformed and/or buried and metamorphosed in orogens, then possibly exhumed. Fluid-rock interactions lead to the evolution of rock physical properties and rock strength. Fractures and faults are preferred pathways for fluids, and in turn physical and chemical interactions between fluid flow and tectonic structures, such as fault zones, strongly influence the mechanical behaviour of the crust at different space and time scales. Fluid (over)pressure is associated with a variety of geological phenomena, such as seismic cycle in various P-T conditions, hydrofracturing (including formation of sub-horizontal, bedding-parallel veins), fault (re)activation or gravitational sliding of rocks, among others. Fluid (over)pressure is a governing factor for the evolution of permeability and porosity of rocks and controls the generation, maturation and migration of economic fluids like hydrocarbons or ore forming hydrothermal fluids, and is therefore a key parameter in reservoir studies and basin modeling. Fluids may also help the crust partially melt, and in turn the resulting melt may dramatically change the rheology of the crust.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sauve, R.G.; Morandin, G.D.; Nadeau, E.
1993-01-01
In a number of applications, the hydrodynamic effect of a fluid must be included in the structural evaluation of liquid-filled vessels undergoing transient loading. Prime examples are liquid radioactive waste transportation packages. These packages must demonstrate the ability to withstand severe accidental impact scenarios. A hydrodynamic model of the fluid is developed using a finite element discretization of the momentum equations for a three-dimensional continuum. An inviscid fluid model with an isotropic stress state is considered. A barotropic equation of state, relating volumetric strain to pressure, is used to characterize the fluid behavior. The formulation considers the continuum as a compressible medium only, so that no tension fields are permitted. The numerical technique is incorporated into the existing general-purpose three-dimensional structural computer code H3DMAP. Part 1 of the paper describes the theory and implementation along with comparisons with classical theory. Part 2 describes the experimental validation of the theoretical approach. Excellent correlation between predicted and experimental results is obtained
Scaling options for integral experiments for molten salt fluid mechanics and heat transfer
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Philippe Bardet; Per F Peterson
2005-01-01
experiments can reproduce molten salt phenomena including natural, mixed, and forced convection fluid mechanics and heat transfer, and free surface fluid mechanics, with very small scaling distortion. Weber number controlled phenomena like bubble entrainment and droplet formation are also simulated with relatively low distortion. Both molten salts and mineral oils are transparent, permitting flow visualization to be used, and the oil index of refraction nearly matches acrylic. Oils have much lower wetting angles than molten salts with typical container materials, so significant distortion of wetting-angle related phenomena, such as capillary driven flows, can be expected. Overall, scaled experiments using light mineral oils have very attractive benefits for studying molten salt fluid mechanics and heat transfer. This paper discusses scaling in detail, and presents examples from fusion chamber fluid mechanics experiments. (authors)
Wei, Wei; Gu, Zhaolin
2015-10-01
Particulates in natural and industrial flows have two basic forms: liquid (droplet) and solid (particle). Droplets would be charged in the presence of the applied electric field (e.g. electrospray). Similar to the droplet charging, particles can also be charged under the external electric field (e.g. electrostatic precipitator), while in the absence of external electric field, tribo-electrostatic charging is almost unavoidable in gas-solid two-phase flows due to the consecutive particle contacts (e.g. electrostatic in fluidized bed or wind-blown sand). The particle charging may be beneficial, or detrimental. Although electrostatics in particulate entrained fluid flow systems have been so widely used and concerned, the mechanisms of particulate charging are still lack of a thorough understanding. The motivation of this review is to explore a clear understanding of particulate charging and movement of charged particulate in two-phase flows, by summarizing the electrification mechanisms, physical models of particulate charging, and methods of charging/charged particulate entrained fluid flow simulations. Two effective methods can make droplets charged in industrial applications: corona charging and induction charging. The droplet charge to mass ratio by corona charging is more than induction discharge. The particle charging through collisions could be attributed to electron transfer, ion transfer, material transfer, and/or aqueous ion shift on particle surfaces. The charges on charged particulate surface can be measured, nevertheless, the charging process in nature or industry is difficult to monitor. The simulation method might build a bridge of investigating from the charging process to finally charged state on particulate surface in particulate entrained fluid flows. The methodology combining the interface tracking under the action of the applied electric with the fluid flow governing equations is applicable to the study of electrohydrodynamics problems. The charge
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wei, Wei [School of Energy and Power Engineering, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan, Hubei, 430063 (China); School of Human Settlements and Civil Engineering, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an, Shaanxi, 710049 (China); Gu, Zhaolin, E-mail: guzhaoln@mail.xjtu.edu.cn [School of Human Settlements and Civil Engineering, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an, Shaanxi, 710049 (China)
2015-10-28
Particulates in natural and industrial flows have two basic forms: liquid (droplet) and solid (particle). Droplets would be charged in the presence of the applied electric field (e.g. electrospray). Similar to the droplet charging, particles can also be charged under the external electric field (e.g. electrostatic precipitator), while in the absence of external electric field, tribo-electrostatic charging is almost unavoidable in gas–solid two-phase flows due to the consecutive particle contacts (e.g. electrostatic in fluidized bed or wind-blown sand). The particle charging may be beneficial, or detrimental. Although electrostatics in particulate entrained fluid flow systems have been so widely used and concerned, the mechanisms of particulate charging are still lack of a thorough understanding. The motivation of this review is to explore a clear understanding of particulate charging and movement of charged particulate in two-phase flows, by summarizing the electrification mechanisms, physical models of particulate charging, and methods of charging/charged particulate entrained fluid flow simulations. Two effective methods can make droplets charged in industrial applications: corona charging and induction charging. The droplet charge to mass ratio by corona charging is more than induction discharge. The particle charging through collisions could be attributed to electron transfer, ion transfer, material transfer, and/or aqueous ion shift on particle surfaces. The charges on charged particulate surface can be measured, nevertheless, the charging process in nature or industry is difficult to monitor. The simulation method might build a bridge of investigating from the charging process to finally charged state on particulate surface in particulate entrained fluid flows. The methodology combining the interface tracking under the action of the applied electric with the fluid flow governing equations is applicable to the study of electrohydrodynamics problems. The
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wei, Wei; Gu, Zhaolin
2015-01-01
Particulates in natural and industrial flows have two basic forms: liquid (droplet) and solid (particle). Droplets would be charged in the presence of the applied electric field (e.g. electrospray). Similar to the droplet charging, particles can also be charged under the external electric field (e.g. electrostatic precipitator), while in the absence of external electric field, tribo-electrostatic charging is almost unavoidable in gas–solid two-phase flows due to the consecutive particle contacts (e.g. electrostatic in fluidized bed or wind-blown sand). The particle charging may be beneficial, or detrimental. Although electrostatics in particulate entrained fluid flow systems have been so widely used and concerned, the mechanisms of particulate charging are still lack of a thorough understanding. The motivation of this review is to explore a clear understanding of particulate charging and movement of charged particulate in two-phase flows, by summarizing the electrification mechanisms, physical models of particulate charging, and methods of charging/charged particulate entrained fluid flow simulations. Two effective methods can make droplets charged in industrial applications: corona charging and induction charging. The droplet charge to mass ratio by corona charging is more than induction discharge. The particle charging through collisions could be attributed to electron transfer, ion transfer, material transfer, and/or aqueous ion shift on particle surfaces. The charges on charged particulate surface can be measured, nevertheless, the charging process in nature or industry is difficult to monitor. The simulation method might build a bridge of investigating from the charging process to finally charged state on particulate surface in particulate entrained fluid flows. The methodology combining the interface tracking under the action of the applied electric with the fluid flow governing equations is applicable to the study of electrohydrodynamics problems. The
Sheldon, Claire A; Kwon, Young Joon; Liu, Grant T; McCormack, Shana E
2015-02-01
Pseudotumor cerebri syndrome (PTCS) is defined by the presence of elevated intracranial pressure (ICP) in the setting of normal brain parenchyma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Headache, vision changes, and papilledema are common presenting features. Up to 10% of appropriately treated patients may experience permanent visual loss. The mechanism(s) underlying PTCS is unknown. PTCS occurs in association with a variety of conditions, including kidney disease, obesity, and adrenal insufficiency, suggesting endocrine and/or metabolic derangements may occur. Recent studies suggest that fluid and electrolyte balance in renal epithelia is regulated by a complex interaction of metabolic and hormonal factors; these cells share many of the same features as the choroid plexus cells in the central nervous system (CNS) responsible for regulation of CSF dynamics. Thus, we posit that similar factors may influence CSF dynamics in both types of fluid-sensitive tissues. Specifically, we hypothesize that, in patients with PTCS, mitochondrial metabolites (glutamate, succinate) and steroid hormones (cortisol, aldosterone) regulate CSF production and/or absorption. In this integrated mechanism review, we consider the clinical and molecular evidence for each metabolite and hormone in turn. We illustrate how related intracellular signaling cascades may converge in the choroid plexus, drawing on evidence from functionally similar tissues.
Fluid mechanics of fusion lasers. Final technical report
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shwartx, J.; Golik, R.J.; Merkle, C.L.; Ausherman, D.R.; Fishman, E.
1978-04-01
The primary objective of this study is to define the fluid mechanical requirements for a repetitively-pulsed high energy laser that may be used as a driver in an inertial confinement fusion system designed for electric power generation. Emphasis was placed on defining conceptual designs of efficient laser flow systems that are capable of conserving gas and minimizing operating power requirements. The development of effective pressure wave suppression concepts to produce acceptable beam quality for fusion applications was also considered
Kaminsky, R; Morbiducci, U; Rossi, M; Scalise, L; Verdonck, P; Grigioni, M
2007-02-01
Prosthetic heart valves (PHVs) have been used to replace diseased native valves for more than five decades. Among these, mechanical PHVs are the most frequently implanted. Unfortunately, these devices still do not achieve ideal behavior and lead to many complications, many of which are related to fluid mechanics. The fluid dynamics of mechanical PHVs are particularly complex and the fine-scale characteristics of such flows call for very accurate experimental techniques. Adequate temporal resolution can be reached by applying time-resolved PIV, a high-resolution dynamic technique which is able to capture detailed chronological changes in the velocity field. The aim of this experimental study is to investigate the evolution of the flow field in a detailed time domain of a commercial bileaflet PHV in a mock-loop mimicking unsteady conditions, by means of time-resolved 2D Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV). The investigated flow field corresponded to the region immediately downstream of the valve plane. Spatial resolution as in "standard" PIV analysis of prosthetic valve fluid dynamics was used. The combination of a Nd:YLF high-repetition-rate double-cavity laser with a high frame rate CMOS camera allowed a detailed, highly temporally resolved acquisition (up to 10000 fps depending on the resolution) of the flow downstream of the PHV. Features that were observed include the non-homogeneity and unsteadiness of the phenomenon and the presence of large-scale vortices within the field, especially in the wake of the valve leaflets. Furthermore, we observed that highly temporally cycle-resolved analysis allowed the different behaviors exhibited by the bileaflet valve at closure to be captured in different acquired cardiac cycles. By accurately capturing hemodynamically relevant time scales of motion, time-resolved PIV characterization can realistically be expected to help designers in improving PHV performance and in furnishing comprehensive validation with experimental data
Houben, R.J.; Leclercq, P.A.; Cramers, C.A.M.G.
1991-01-01
Ionization mechanisms have been studied for supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) with mass spectrometric (MS) detection. One of the problems associated with SFC-MS is the interference of mobile phase constituents in the ionization process, which complicates the interpretation of the resulting
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Drew, D.A.; Flaherty, J.E.
1986-01-01
The mathematical analysis of fluid mechanics and stability and its applications in science and engineering are examined in reviews and reports. Topics addressed include Taylor-vortex flow, isothermal fluid-film lubrication theories, the morphology of spiral galaxies, rotating-fluid problems in ballistics, coupled Lorenz oscillators, the connection between chaos and turbulence, plane-front alloy solidification versus free-surface Benard convection, and the nonlinear stability of spiral flow between rotating cylinders with a small gap. Consideration is given to resonance conditions for forced two-dimensional channel flows, the secondary bifurcation of standing surface waves in rectangular basins, instability in the flow of granular materials, and the supercritical dynamics of baroclinic disturbances
A Blended Learning Approach to Teach Fluid Mechanics in Engineering
Rahman, Ataur
2017-01-01
This paper presents a case study on the teaching and learning of fluid mechanics at the University of Western Sydney (UWS), Australia, by applying a blended learning approach (BLA). In the adopted BLA, various flexible learning materials have been made available to the students such as online recorded lectures, online recorded tutorials, hand…
International Symposium on Boundary Element Methods : Advances in Solid and Fluid Mechanics
Tseng, Kadin
1990-01-01
The Boundary Element Method (BEM) has become established as an effective tool for the solutions of problems in engineering science. The salient features of the BEM have been well documented in the open literature and therefore will not be elaborated here. The BEM research has progressed rapidly, especially in the past decade and continues to evolve worldwide. This Symposium was organized to provide an international forum for presentation of current research in BEM for linear and nonlinear problems in solid and fluid mechanics and related areas. To this end, papers on the following topics were included: rotary wing aerodynamics, unsteady aerodynamics, design and optimization, elasticity, elasto dynamics and elastoplasticity, fracture mechanics, acoustics, diffusion and wave motion, thermal analysis, mathematical aspects and boundary/finite element coupled methods. A special session was devoted to parallel/vector supercomputing with emphasis on mas sive parallelism. This Symposium was sponsored by United ...
A Two-Phase Solid/Fluid Model for Dense Granular Flows Including Dilatancy Effects
Mangeney, Anne; Bouchut, Francois; Fernandez-Nieto, Enrique; Narbona-Reina, Gladys
2015-04-01
We propose a thin layer depth-averaged two-phase model to describe solid-fluid mixtures such as debris flows. It describes the velocity of the two phases, the compression/dilatation of the granular media and its interaction with the pore fluid pressure, that itself modifies the friction within the granular phase (Iverson et al., 2010). The model is derived from a 3D two-phase model proposed by Jackson (2000) based on the 4 equations of mass and momentum conservation within the two phases. This system has 5 unknowns: the solid and fluid velocities, the solid and fluid pressures and the solid volume fraction. As a result, an additional equation inside the mixture is necessary to close the system. Surprisingly, this issue is inadequately accounted for in the models that have been developed on the basis of Jackson's work (Bouchut et al., 2014). In particular, Pitman and Le replaced this closure simply by imposing an extra boundary condition at the surface of the flow. When making a shallow expansion, this condition can be considered as a closure condition. However, the corresponding model cannot account for a dissipative energy balance. We propose here an approach to correctly deal with the thermodynamics of Jackson's equations. We close the mixture equations by a weak compressibility relation involving a critical density, or equivalently a critical pressure. Moreover, we relax one boundary condition, making it possible for the fluid to escape the granular media when compression of the granular mass occurs. Furthermore, we introduce second order terms in the equations making it possible to describe the evolution of the pore fluid pressure in response to the compression/dilatation of the granular mass without prescribing an extra ad-hoc equation for the pore pressure. We prove that the energy balance associated with this Jackson closure is dissipative, as well as its thin layer associated model. We present several numerical tests for the 1D case that are compared to the
Wei, Tie; Ford, Julie
2015-01-01
This article provides information about the integration of innovative hands-on activities within a sophomore-level Fluid Mechanics course at New Mexico Tech. The course introduces students to the fundamentals of fluid mechanics with emphasis on teaching key equations and methods of analysis for solving real-world problems. Strategies and examples…
Bleckmann, Horst
2012-01-01
This book is the closing report of the national priority program Nature-Inspired Fluid Mechanics (Schwerpunktprogramm SPP 1207: Strömungsbeeinflussung in der Natur und Technik). Nature-inspired fluid mechanics is one subset of biomimetics, a discipline which has received increased attention over the last decade, with numerous faculties and degree courses devoted solely to exploring ‘nature as a model’ for engineering applications. To save locomotion energy, evolution has optimized the design of animals such that friction loss is minimized. In addition to many morphological adaptations, animals that are often exposed to water or air currents have developed special behaviors that allow them to use the energy contained in air or water fluctuations for energy savings. Such flow manipulation and control is not only important for many animals, but also for many engineering applications. Since living beings have been optimized by several million years of evolution it is very likely that many engineering discipl...
Ups and downs of using ``kitchen sink'' experiments in an introductory fluid mechanics class
Kaye, Nigel
2015-11-01
Both positive and negative experiences from two semesters of using take home ``kitchen sink'' experiments in an introductory civil engineering fluid mechanics class are reported. Four different experimental assignments were given each semester to groups of four students. The students were tasked with using common household equipment to measure various properties of fluids or fluid flows. These included the density of cooking oil, the exit velocity from a garden hose, and the mass flux of air from a compressed air can. Students were given minimal guidance on how to do the measurements and each measurement had to be done in at least two different ways. The labs were used to relate their course work to everyday situations and was also used as a platform for discussing experimental uncertainty and error propagation in calculations. In general the students successfully completed each task using at least one method. Finding a second method sometimes proved problematic. The presentation will discuss the logistics of running the program and the positive and negative aspects from the instructor viewpoint. A summary of student feedback on the labs will also be presented. Links to resources for those interested in implementing such a program will be provided.
Effects of mechanical layering on hydrofracture emplacement and fluid transport in reservoirs
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sonja Leonie Philipp
2013-12-01
Full Text Available Fractures generated by internal fluid pressure, for example, dykes, mineral veins, many joints and man-made hydraulic fractures, are referred to as hydrofractures. Together with shear fractures, they contribute significantly to the permeability of fluid reservoirs such as those of petroleum, geothermal water, and groundwater. Analytical and numerical models show that – in homogeneous host rocks – any significant overpressure in hydrofractures theoretically generates very high crack tip tensile stresses. Consequently, overpressured hydrofractures should propagate and help to form interconnected fracture systems that would then contribute to the permeability of fluid reservoirs. Field observations, however, show that in heterogeneous and anisotropic, e.g., layered, rocks many hydrofractures become arrested or offset at layer contacts and do not form vertically interconnected networks. The most important factors that contribute to hydrofracture arrest are discontinuities (including contacts, stiffness changes between layers, and stress barriers, where the local stress field is unfavourable to hydrofracture propagation. A necessary condition for a hydrofracture to propagate to the surface is that the stress field along its potential path is everywhere favourable to extension-fracture formation so that the probability of hydrofracture arrest is minimised. Mechanical layering and the resulting heterogeneous stress field largely control whether evolving hydrofractures become confined to single layers (strata¬bound frac¬tures or not (non-stratabound fractures and, there¬fore, if a vertically intercon¬nec¬ted fracture system forms. Non-stratabound hydrofractures may propagate through many layers and generate interconnected fracture systems. Such systems commonly reach the percolation threshold and largely control the overall permeability of the fluid reservoirs within which they develop.
Basic Coandă MAV Fluid Dynamics and Flight Mechanics
Djojodihardjo, H.; Ahmed, RI
2017-04-01
Capitalizing on the basic fundamental principles, the Fluid Dynamics and Flight Mechanics of a semi-spherical Coandă MAV configurations are revisited and analyzed as a baseline. A mathematical model for a spherical Coandă MAV in hover and translatory motion is developed and analyzed from first physical principles. To gain further insight into the prevailing flow field around a Coandă MAV, as well as to verify the theoretical prediction presented in the work, a computational fluid dynamic CFD simulations for a Coandă MAV generic model are elaborated. The mathematical model and derived performance measures are shown to be capable in describing the physical phenomena of the flow field of the semi-spherical Coandă MAV. The relationships between the relevant parameters of the mathematical model of the Coandă MAV to the forces acting on it are elaborated subsequently.
Regulation of extracellular fluid volume and renal function
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Henriksen, Jens Henrik Sahl
2011-01-01
Normal fluid homoeostasis includes dynamic shifts in water, crystalloids, and proteins between the various compartments of the body (1–3). The fluid dynamics are controlled by refined mechanisms that include water and solute intake, renal handling, haemodynamic/oncotic forces, and neurohumoral...
Two-fluid turbulence including electron inertia
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Andrés, Nahuel, E-mail: nandres@iafe.uba.ar; Gómez, Daniel [Instituto de Astronomía y Física del Espacio, CC. 67, suc. 28, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina); Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Pabellón I, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina); Gonzalez, Carlos; Martin, Luis; Dmitruk, Pablo [Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires and IFIBA, CONICET, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina)
2014-12-15
We present a full two-fluid magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) description for a completely ionized hydrogen plasma, retaining the effects of the Hall current, electron pressure, and electron inertia. According to this description, each plasma species introduces a new spatial scale: the ion inertial length λ{sub i} and the electron inertial length λ{sub e}, which are not present in the traditional MHD description. In the present paper, we seek for possible changes in the energy power spectrum in fully developed turbulent regimes, using numerical simulations of the two-fluid equations in two-and-a-half dimensions. We have been able to reproduce different scaling laws in different spectral ranges, as it has been observed in the solar wind for the magnetic energy spectrum. At the smallest wavenumbers where plain MHD is valid, we obtain an inertial range following a Kolmogorov k{sup −5∕3} law. For intermediate wavenumbers such that λ{sub i}{sup −1}≪k≪λ{sub e}{sup −1}, the spectrum is modified to a k{sup −7∕3} power-law, as has also been obtained for Hall-MHD neglecting electron inertia terms. When electron inertia is retained, a new spectral region given by k>λ{sub e}{sup −1} arises. The power spectrum for magnetic energy in this region is given by a k{sup −11∕3} power law. Finally, when the terms of electron inertia are retained, we study the self-consistent electric field. Our results are discussed and compared with those obtained in the solar wind observations and previous simulations.
Burgher, J. K.; Finkel, D.; Adesope, O. O.; Van Wie, B. J.
2015-01-01
This study used a within-subjects experimental design to compare the effects of learning with lecture and hands-on desktop learning modules (DLMs) in a fluid mechanics and heat transfer class. The hands-on DLM implementation included the use of worksheets and one of two heat exchangers: an evaporative cooling device and a shell and tube heat…
The chemo-mechanical effect of cutting fluid on material removal in diamond scribing of silicon
Kumar, Arkadeep; Melkote, Shreyes N.
2017-07-01
The mechanical integrity of silicon wafers cut by diamond wire sawing depends on the damage (e.g., micro-cracks) caused by the cutting process. The damage type and extent depends on the material removal mode, i.e., ductile or brittle. This paper investigates the effect of cutting fluid on the mode of material removal in diamond scribing of single crystal silicon, which simulates the material removal process in diamond wire sawing of silicon wafers. We conducted scribing experiments with a diamond tipped indenter in the absence (dry) and in the presence of a water-based cutting fluid. We found that the cutting mode is more ductile when scribing in the presence of cutting fluid compared to dry scribing. We explain the experimental observations by the chemo-mechanical effect of the cutting fluid on silicon, which lowers its hardness and promotes ductile mode material removal.
Nonlinear mechanics a supplement to theoretical mechanics of particles and continua
Fetter, Alexander L
2006-01-01
In their prior Dover book, Theoretical Mechanics of Particles and Continua, Alexander L. Fetter and John Dirk Walecka provided a lucid and self-contained account of classical mechanics, together with appropriate mathematical methods. This supplement-an update of that volume-offers a bridge to contemporary mechanics.The original book's focus on continuum mechanics-with chapters on sound waves in fluids, surface waves on fluids, heat conduction, and viscous fluids-forms the basis for this supplement's discussion of nonlinear continuous systems. Topics include linearized stability analysis; a det
Dependence of fracture mechanical and fluid flow properties on fracture roughness and sample size
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tsang, Y.W.; Witherspoon, P.A.
1983-01-01
A parameter study has been carried out to investigate the interdependence of mechanical and fluid flow properties of fractures with fracture roughness and sample size. A rough fracture can be defined mathematically in terms of its aperture density distribution. Correlations were found between the shapes of the aperture density distribution function and the specific fractures of the stress-strain behavior and fluid flow characteristics. Well-matched fractures had peaked aperture distributions that resulted in very nonlinear stress-strain behavior. With an increasing degree of mismatching between the top and bottom of a fracture, the aperture density distribution broadened and the nonlinearity of the stress-strain behavior became less accentuated. The different aperture density distributions also gave rise to qualitatively different fluid flow behavior. Findings from this investigation make it possible to estimate the stress-strain and fluid flow behavior when the roughness characteristics of the fracture are known and, conversely, to estimate the fracture roughness from an examination of the hydraulic and mechanical data. Results from this study showed that both the mechanical and hydraulic properties of the fracture are controlled by the large-scale roughness of the joint surface. This suggests that when the stress-flow behavior of a fracture is being investigated, the size of the rock sample should be larger than the typical wave length of the roughness undulations
Editorial Special Issue on Fluid Mechanics and Fluid Power (FMFP ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
a shark is more efficient than a propeller; the notoriously complicated and nonlinear Navier–. Stokes equations governing fluid motion provide fertile ground for research to both applied and pure mathematicians. There is the phenomenon of turbulence in fluid flows. A statement in 1932, attributed to Horace Lamb, author of ...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Berryman, J.G.
2010-06-01
The mechanics of vertically layered porous media has some similarities to and some differences from the more typical layered analysis for purely elastic media. Assuming welded solid contact at the solid-solid interfaces implies the usual continuity conditions, which are continuity of the vertical (layering direction) stress components and the horizontal strain components. These conditions are valid for both elastic and poroelastic media. Differences arise through the conditions for the pore pressure and the increment of fluid content in the context of fluid-saturated porous media. The two distinct conditions most often considered between any pair of contiguous layers are: (1) an undrained fluid condition at the interface, meaning that the increment of fluid content is zero (i.e., {delta}{zeta} = 0), or (2) fluid pressure continuity at the interface, implying that the change in fluid pressure is zero across the interface (i.e., {delta}p{sub f} = 0). Depending on the types of measurements being made on the system and the pertinent boundary conditions for these measurements, either (or neither) of these two conditions might be directly pertinent. But these conditions are sufficient nevertheless to be used as thought experiments to determine the expected values of all the poroelastic coefficients. For quasi-static mechanical changes over long time periods, we expect drained conditions to hold, so the pressure must then be continuous. For high frequency wave propagation, the pore-fluid typically acts as if it were undrained (or very nearly so), with vanishing of the fluid increment at the boundaries being appropriate. Poroelastic analysis of both these end-member cases is discussed, and the general equations for a variety of applications to heterogeneous porous media are developed. In particular, effective stress for the fluid permeability of such poroelastic systems is considered; fluid permeabilities characteristic of granular media or tubular pore shapes are treated
Fluid-mechanic model for fabrication of nanoporous fibers by electrospinning
Fan Chengxu; Sun Zhaoyang; Xu Lan
2017-01-01
A charged jet in the electrospinning process for fabrication of nanoporous fibers is studied theoretically. A fluid-mechanic model considering solvent evaporation is established to research the effect of solvent evaporation on nanopore structure formation. The model gives a powerful tool to offering in-depth physical under-standing and controlling over electrospinning parameters such as voltage, flow rate, and solvent evaporation rate.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Patel, Vipul M.; Gaurav; Mehta, Hemantkumar B.
2017-01-01
Highlights: • Startup mechanism and thermal performance of a CLPHP is reported. • Influence of pure fluids, water-based binary fluids and surfactant solutions are investigated. • Startup heat flux is observed lower for acetone and higher for water compared to all other working fluids. • Thermal resistance is observed to decrease with increase in heat input irrespective of working fluids. • CLPHP is observed to perform better with acetone, water-acetone, water-45 PPM and water-60 PPM surfactant solutions. - Abstract: Development of efficient cooling system is a tricky and challenging task in the field of electronics. Pulsating heat pipe has a great prospect in the upcoming days for an effective cooling solution due to its excellent heat transfer characteristics. Experimental investigations are reported on a Closed Loop Pulsating Heat Pipe (CLPHP). The influence of working fluids on startup mechanism and thermal performance of a CLPHP are carried out on 2 mm, nine turn copper capillary. Total eleven (11) working fluids are prepared and investigated. Deionized (DI) Water (H_2O), ethanol (C_2H_6O), methanol (CH_3OH) and acetone (C_3H_6O) are used as pure fluids. The water-based mixture (1:1) of acetone, methanol and ethanol are used as binary fluids. Sodium Dodecyl Sulphate (SDS, NaC_1_2H_2_5SO_4) is used as a surfactant to prepare the water-based surfactant solutions of 30 PPM, 45 PPM, 60 PPM and 100 PPM. The filling ratio is kept as 50%. The vertical bottom heating position of a CLPHP is considered. Heat input is varied in the range of 10–110 W. Significant influence is observed for water-based binary fluids and surfactant solutions on startup mechanism and thermal performance of a CLPHP compared to DI water used as the pure working fluid.
Fluid Mechanics of Aquatic Locomotion at Large Reynolds Numbers
Govardhan, RN; Arakeri, JH
2011-01-01
Abstract | There exist a huge range of fish species besides other aquatic organisms like squids and salps that locomote in water at large Reynolds numbers, a regime of flow where inertial forces dominate viscous forces. In the present review, we discuss the fluid mechanics governing the locomotion of such organisms. Most fishes propel themselves by periodic undulatory motions of the body and tail, and the typical classification of their swimming modes is based on the fraction of their body...
Use of Facebook in Teaching: A Case Study of a Fluid Mechanics Course
Mandavgane, Sachin A.
2016-01-01
Fluid mechanics (FM) is a core course of the chemical, mechanical, civil, and aerospace engineering programs. Students have both theory and practical classes in FM. The general expectation is that students should be able to demonstrate the fundamentals learnt in theory and get hands-on experience during the lab course. In this regard, students…
Fluid and electrolyte homeostasis during spaceflight: Elucidation of mechanisms in a primate
Churchill, Susanne
1990-01-01
Although it is now well accepted that exposure to the hypogravic environment of space induces a shift of fluid from the lower extremities toward the upper body, the actual physiological responses to this central volume expansion have not been well characterized. Because it is likely that the fluid and electrolyte response to hypogravity plays a critical role in the development of Cardiovascular Deconditioning, elucidation of these mechanisms is of critical importance. The goal of flight experiment 223, scheduled to fly on SLS-2, is the definition of the basic renal, fluid and electrolyte response to spaceflight in four instrumented squirrel monkeys. The studies were those required to support the development of flight hardware and optimal inflight procedures, and to evaluate a ground-based model for weightlessness, lower body positive pressure (LBPP).
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Rasmussen, Anders Rønne; Sørensen, Mads Peter; Gaididei, Yuri Borisovich
2010-01-01
A wave equation, that governs finite amplitude acoustic disturbances in a thermoviscous Newtonian fluid, and includes nonlinear terms up to second order, is proposed. The equation preserves the Hamiltonian structure of the fundamental fluid dynamical equations in the non dissipative limit. An exact...... thermoviscous shock solution is derived. This solution is, in an overall sense, equivalent to the Taylor shock solution of the Burgers equation. However, in contrast to the Burgers equation, the model equation considered here is capable to describe waves propagating in opposite directions. Studies of head...
Fluid-mechanic model for fabrication of nanoporous fibers by electrospinning
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Fan Chengxu
2017-01-01
Full Text Available A charged jet in the electrospinning process for fabrication of nanoporous fibers is studied theoretically. A fluid-mechanic model considering solvent evaporation is established to research the effect of solvent evaporation on nanopore structure formation. The model gives a powerful tool to offering in-depth physical under-standing and controlling over electrospinning parameters such as voltage, flow rate, and solvent evaporation rate.
A Finite-Volume computational mechanics framework for multi-physics coupled fluid-stress problems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bailey, C; Cross, M.; Pericleous, K.
1998-01-01
Where there is a strong interaction between fluid flow, heat transfer and stress induced deformation, it may not be sufficient to solve each problem separately (i.e. fluid vs. stress, using different techniques or even different computer codes). This may be acceptable where the interaction is static, but less so, if it is dynamic. It is desirable for this reason to develop software that can accommodate both requirements (i.e. that of fluid flow and that of solid mechanics) in a seamless environment. This is accomplished in the University of Greenwich code PHYSICA, which solves both the fluid flow problem and the stress-strain equations in a unified Finite-Volume environment, using an unstructured computational mesh that can deform dynamically. Example applications are given of the work of the group in the metals casting process (where thermal stresses cause elasto- visco-plastic distortion)
Fluid Mechanics, Arterial Disease, and Gene Expression.
Tarbell, John M; Shi, Zhong-Dong; Dunn, Jessilyn; Jo, Hanjoong
2014-01-01
This review places modern research developments in vascular mechanobiology in the context of hemodynamic phenomena in the cardiovascular system and the discrete localization of vascular disease. The modern origins of this field are traced, beginning in the 1960s when associations between flow characteristics, particularly blood flow-induced wall shear stress, and the localization of atherosclerotic plaques were uncovered, and continuing to fluid shear stress effects on the vascular lining endothelial) cells (ECs), including their effects on EC morphology, biochemical production, and gene expression. The earliest single-gene studies and genome-wide analyses are considered. The final section moves from the ECs lining the vessel wall to the smooth muscle cells and fibroblasts within the wall that are fluid me chanically activated by interstitial flow that imposes shear stresses on their surfaces comparable with those of flowing blood on EC surfaces. Interstitial flow stimulates biochemical production and gene expression, much like blood flow on ECs.
Siewert, S; Sämann, M; Schmidt, W; Stiehm, M; Falke, K; Grabow, N; Guthoff, R; Schmitz, K-P
2015-12-01
Glaucoma is the leading cause of irreversible blindness worldwide. In therapeutically refractory cases, alloplastic glaucoma drainage devices (GDD) are being increasingly used to decrease intraocular pressure. Current devices are mainly limited by fibrotic encapsulation and postoperative hypotension. Preliminary studies have described the development of a glaucoma microstent to control aqueous humour drainage from the anterior chamber into the suprachoroidal space. One focus of these studies was on the design of a micro-mechanical valve placed in the anterior chamber to inhibit postoperative hypotension. The present report describes the coupled analysis of fluid-structure interaction (FSI) as basis for future improvements in the design micro-mechanical valves. FSI analysis was carried out with ANSYS 14.5 software. Solid and fluid geometry were combined in a model, and the corresponding material properties of silicone (Silastic Rx-50) and water at room temperature were assigned. The meshing of the solid and fluid domains was carried out in accordance with the results of a convergence study with tetrahedron elements. Structural and fluid mechanical boundary conditions completed the model. The FSI analysis takes into account geometric non-linearity and adaptive remeshing to consider changing geometry. A valve opening pressure of 3.26 mmHg was derived from the FSI analysis and correlates well with the results of preliminary experimental fluid mechanical studies. Flow resistance was calculated from non-linear pressure-flow characteristics as 8.5 × 10(-3) mmHg/µl · min(-1) and 2.7 × 10(-3) mmHg/µl · min(-1), respectively before and after valve opening pressure is exceeded. FSI analysis indicated leakage flow before valve opening, which is due to the simplified model geometry. The presented bidirectional coupled FSI analysis is a powerful tool for the development of new designs of micro-mechanical valves for GDD and may help to minimise the time and cost
Fluid load support and contact mechanics of hemiarthroplasty in the natural hip joint.
Pawaskar, Sainath Shrikant; Ingham, Eileen; Fisher, John; Jin, Zhongmin
2011-01-01
The articular cartilage covering the ends of the bones of diarthrodial synovial joints is thought to have evolved so that the loads are transferred under different and complex conditions, with a very high degree of efficiency and without compromising the structural integrity of the tissue for the life of an individual. These loading conditions stem from different activities such as walking, and standing. The integrity of cartilage may however become compromised due to congenital disease, arthritis or trauma. Hemiarthroplasty is a potentially conservative treatment when only the femoral cartilage is affected as in case of femoral neck fractures. In hemiarthroplasty, a metallic femoral prosthesis is used to articulate against the natural acetabular cartilage. It has also been hypothesized that biphasic lubrication is the predominant mechanism protecting the cartilage through a very high fluid load support which lowers friction. This may be altered due to hemiarthroplasty and have a direct effect on the frictional shear stresses and potentially cartilage degradation and wear. This study modelled nine activities of daily living and investigated the contact mechanics of a hip joint with a hemiarthroplasty, focussing particularly on the role of the fluid phase. It was shown that in most of the activities studied the peak contact stresses and peak fluid pressures were in the superior dome or lateral roof of the acetabulum. Total fluid load support was very high (~90%) in most of the activities which would shield the solid phase from being subjected to very high contact stresses. This was dependent not only on the load magnitude but also the direction and hence on the location of the contact area with respect to the cartilage coverage. Lower fluid load support was found when the contact area was nearer the edges where the fluid drained easily. Copyright © 2010 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Tian, Shan; Zhu, Fengping; Hu, Ruiping; Tian, Song; Chen, Xingxing; Lou, Dan; Cao, Bing; Chen, Qiulei; Li, Bai; Li, Fang; Bai, Yulong; Wu, Yi; Zhu, Yulian
2018-01-01
Exercise preconditioning is a simple and effective way to prevent ischemia. This paper further provided the mechanism in hemodynamic aspects at the cellular level. To study the anti-apoptotic effects of fluid mechanics preconditioning, Cultured rats brain microvascular endothelial cells were given fluid intervention in a parallel plate flow chamber before oxygen glucose deprivation. It showed that fluid mechanics preconditioning could inhibit the apoptosis of endothelial cells, and this process might be mediated by the shear stress activation of Tie-2 on cells membrane surface and Bcl-2 on the mitochondria surface. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Introducing Innovative Approaches to Learning in Fluid Mechanics: A Case Study
Gynnild, Vidar; Myrhaug, Dag; Pettersen, Bjornar
2007-01-01
The purpose of the current article is to examine the impact of laboratory demonstrations and computer visualizations on learning in a third-year fluid mechanics course at Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU). As a first step, on entering the course, students were exposed to a laboratory demonstration focusing on the nature of…
Fluid mechanics of eating, swallowing and digestion - overview and perspectives.
Engmann, Jan; Burbidge, Adam S
2013-02-26
From a very simplistic viewpoint, the human digestive system can be regarded as a long tube (with dramatic variations in diameter, cross-section, wall properties, pumping mechanisms, regulating valves and in-line sensors). We single out a few fluid mechanical phenomena along the trajectory of a food bolus from the mouth to the small intestine and discuss how they influence sensorial perception, safe transport, and nutrient absorption from a bolus. The focus is on lubrication flows between the tongue and palate, the oropharyngeal stage of swallowing and effects of flow on absorption in the small intestine. Specific challenges and opportunities in this research area are highlighted.
Leak Mitigation in Mechanically Pumped Fluid Loops for Long Duration Space Missions
Miller, Jennifer R.; Birur, Gajanana; Bame, David; Mastropietro, A. J.; Bhandari, Pradeep; Lee, Darlene; Karlmann, Paul; Liu, Yuanming
2013-01-01
Mechanically pumped fluid loops (MPFLs) are increasingly considered for spacecraft thermal control. A concern for long duration space missions is the leak of fluid leading to performance degradation or potential loop failure. An understanding of leak rate through analysis, as well as destructive and non-destructive testing, provides a verifiable means to quantify leak rates. The system can be appropriately designed to maintain safe operating pressures and temperatures throughout the mission. Two MPFLs on the Mars Science Laboratory Spacecraft, launched November 26, 2011, maintain the temperature of sensitive electronics and science instruments within a -40 deg C to 50 deg C range during launch, cruise, and Mars surface operations. With over 100 meters of complex tubing, fittings, joints, flex lines, and pumps, the system must maintain a minimum pressure through all phases of the mission to provide appropriate performance. This paper describes the process of design, qualification, test, verification, and validation of the components and assemblies employed to minimize risks associated with excessive fluid leaks from pumped fluid loop systems.
Atomistic Modeling of the Fluid-Solid Interface in Simple Fluids
Hadjiconstantinou, Nicolas; Wang, Gerald
2017-11-01
Fluids can exhibit pronounced structuring effects near a solid boundary, typically manifested in a layered structure that has been extensively shown to directly affect transport across the interface. We present and discuss several results from molecular-mechanical modeling and molecular-dynamics (MD) simulations aimed at characterizing the structure of the first fluid layer directly adjacent to the solid. We identify a new dimensionless group - termed the Wall number - which characterizes the degree of fluid layering, by comparing the competing effects of wall-fluid interaction and thermal energy. We find that in the layering regime, several key features of the first layer layer - including its distance from the solid, its width, and its areal density - can be described using mean-field-energy arguments, as well as asymptotic analysis of the Nernst-Planck equation. For dense fluids, the areal density and the width of the first layer can be related to the bulk fluid density using a simple scaling relation. MD simulations show that these results are broadly applicable and robust to the presence of a second confining solid boundary, different choices of wall structure and thermalization, strengths of fluid-solid interaction, and wall geometries.
Fluid mechanics. An introduction. Technische Stroemungslehre. Eine Einfuehrung
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kalide, W
1980-01-01
Originally written for students in the field of engineering, this book may also be of use in the engineering practice. The subject is presented with a view to practice. Fundamental theorems of fluid mechanics are presented without going too much into theory. The chapter on supersonic flow has been extended in the fifth edition as this is a field of great importance in engineering. The new chapter on gas dynamics takes account of these processes in turbine and compressor construction and aeronautical engineering. There is an appendix with material data, characteristic values, flow resistance coefficients, diagrams and two tables with rated pressure loss values for pipeline flow.
Computational thermal, chemical, fluid, and solid mechanics for geosystems management.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Davison, Scott; Alger, Nicholas; Turner, Daniel Zack; Subia, Samuel Ramirez; Carnes, Brian; Martinez, Mario J.; Notz, Patrick K.; Klise, Katherine A.; Stone, Charles Michael; Field, Richard V., Jr.; Newell, Pania; Jove-Colon, Carlos F.; Red-Horse, John Robert; Bishop, Joseph E.; Dewers, Thomas A.; Hopkins, Polly L.; Mesh, Mikhail; Bean, James E.; Moffat, Harry K.; Yoon, Hongkyu
2011-09-01
This document summarizes research performed under the SNL LDRD entitled - Computational Mechanics for Geosystems Management to Support the Energy and Natural Resources Mission. The main accomplishment was development of a foundational SNL capability for computational thermal, chemical, fluid, and solid mechanics analysis of geosystems. The code was developed within the SNL Sierra software system. This report summarizes the capabilities of the simulation code and the supporting research and development conducted under this LDRD. The main goal of this project was the development of a foundational capability for coupled thermal, hydrological, mechanical, chemical (THMC) simulation of heterogeneous geosystems utilizing massively parallel processing. To solve these complex issues, this project integrated research in numerical mathematics and algorithms for chemically reactive multiphase systems with computer science research in adaptive coupled solution control and framework architecture. This report summarizes and demonstrates the capabilities that were developed together with the supporting research underlying the models. Key accomplishments are: (1) General capability for modeling nonisothermal, multiphase, multicomponent flow in heterogeneous porous geologic materials; (2) General capability to model multiphase reactive transport of species in heterogeneous porous media; (3) Constitutive models for describing real, general geomaterials under multiphase conditions utilizing laboratory data; (4) General capability to couple nonisothermal reactive flow with geomechanics (THMC); (5) Phase behavior thermodynamics for the CO2-H2O-NaCl system. General implementation enables modeling of other fluid mixtures. Adaptive look-up tables enable thermodynamic capability to other simulators; (6) Capability for statistical modeling of heterogeneity in geologic materials; and (7) Simulator utilizes unstructured grids on parallel processing computers.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yonghui Xie
2014-01-01
Full Text Available A three-dimensional fluid-thermal-structural coupled analysis for a radial inflow micro gas turbine is conducted. First, a fluid-thermal coupled analysis of the flow and temperature fields of the nozzle passage and the blade passage is performed by using computational fluid dynamics (CFD. The flow and heat transfer characteristics of different sections are analyzed in detail. The thermal load and the aerodynamic load are then obtained from the temperature field and the pressure distribution. The stress distributions of the blade are finally studied by using computational solid mechanics (CSM considering three cases of loads: thermal load, aerodynamics load combined with centrifugal load, and all the three types of loads. The detailed parameters of the flow, temperature, and the stress are obtained and analyzed. The numerical results obtained provide a useful knowledge base for further exploration of radial gas turbine design.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Prymak, O.; Klocke, A.; Kahl-Nieke, B.; Epple, M.
2003-01-01
The aim of this study was to analyze in vitro the fatigue resistance of nickel-titanium (NiTi) and CuNiTi orthodontic wires when subjected to forces and fluids which are present intraorally. The wires were subjected to dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) while they were immersed into different fluids with mechanical loading parameters similar to those that are subjected in the mouth. The characteristic temperatures of transitions and a rough surface structure on the perimeter of the wires were determined by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), respectively, before and after the DMA experiments. Stainless steel wires were used for comparison. In general, NiTi wires fractured earlier than the stainless steel specimens. Survival times were lower for the NiTi wires when immersed in fluids (water, citric acid, NaCl solution, artificial saliva, and fluoridated artificial saliva) than in air. SEM surface analysis showed that the NiTi and CuNiTi wires had a rougher surface than steel wires. The fracture occurred within a short number of loading cycles. Until fracture occurred, the mechanical properties remained mostly constant
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Prymak, O.; Klocke, A.; Kahl-Nieke, B.; Epple, M
2003-07-25
The aim of this study was to analyze in vitro the fatigue resistance of nickel-titanium (NiTi) and CuNiTi orthodontic wires when subjected to forces and fluids which are present intraorally. The wires were subjected to dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) while they were immersed into different fluids with mechanical loading parameters similar to those that are subjected in the mouth. The characteristic temperatures of transitions and a rough surface structure on the perimeter of the wires were determined by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), respectively, before and after the DMA experiments. Stainless steel wires were used for comparison. In general, NiTi wires fractured earlier than the stainless steel specimens. Survival times were lower for the NiTi wires when immersed in fluids (water, citric acid, NaCl solution, artificial saliva, and fluoridated artificial saliva) than in air. SEM surface analysis showed that the NiTi and CuNiTi wires had a rougher surface than steel wires. The fracture occurred within a short number of loading cycles. Until fracture occurred, the mechanical properties remained mostly constant.
Fluid Mechanics and Complex Variable Theory: Getting Past the 19th Century
Newton, Paul K.
2017-01-01
The subject of fluid mechanics is a rich, vibrant, and rapidly developing branch of applied mathematics. Historically, it has developed hand-in-hand with the elegant subject of complex variable theory. The Westmont College NSF-sponsored workshop on the revitalization of complex variable theory in the undergraduate curriculum focused partly on…
Chen, Guobao; Lv, Yonggang; Guo, Pan; Lin, Chongwen; Zhang, Xiaomei; Yang, Li; Xu, Zhiling
2013-07-01
Stem cells have the ability to self-renew and to differentiate into multiple mature cell types during early life and growth. Stem cells adhesion, proliferation, migration and differentiation are affected by biochemical, mechanical and physical surface properties of the surrounding matrix in which stem cells reside and stem cells can sensitively feel and respond to the microenvironment of this matrix. More and more researches have proven that three dimensional (3D) culture can reduce the gap between cell culture and physiological environment where cells always live in vivo. This review summarized recent findings on the studies of matrix mechanics that control stem cells (primarily mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs)) fate in 3D environment, including matrix stiffness and extracellular matrix (ECM) stiffness. Considering the exchange of oxygen and nutrients in 3D culture, the effect of fluid shear stress (FSS) on fate decision of stem cells was also discussed in detail. Further, the difference of MSCs response to matrix stiffness between two dimensional (2D) and 3D conditions was compared. Finally, the mechanism of mechanotransduction of stem cells activated by matrix mechanics and FSS in 3D culture was briefly pointed out.
Travelling wave solutions for a surface wave equation in fluid mechanics
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Tian Yi
2016-01-01
Full Text Available This paper considers a non-linear wave equation arising in fluid mechanics. The exact traveling wave solutions of this equation are given by using G'/G-expansion method. This process can be reduced to solve a system of determining equations, which is large and difficult. To reduce this process, we used Wu elimination method. Example shows that this method is effective.
Quantitative image processing in fluid mechanics
Hesselink, Lambertus; Helman, James; Ning, Paul
1992-01-01
The current status of digital image processing in fluid flow research is reviewed. In particular, attention is given to a comprehensive approach to the extraction of quantitative data from multivariate databases and examples of recent developments. The discussion covers numerical simulations and experiments, data processing, generation and dissemination of knowledge, traditional image processing, hybrid processing, fluid flow vector field topology, and isosurface analysis using Marching Cubes.
Classical mechanics including an introduction to the theory of elasticity
Hentschke, Reinhard
2017-01-01
This textbook teaches classical mechanics as one of the foundations of physics. It describes the mechanical stability and motion in physical systems ranging from the molecular to the galactic scale. Aside from the standard topics of mechanics in the physics curriculum, this book includes an introduction to the theory of elasticity and its use in selected modern engineering applications, e.g. dynamic mechanical analysis of viscoelastic materials. The text also covers many aspects of numerical mechanics, ranging from the solution of ordinary differential equations, including molecular dynamics simulation of many particle systems, to the finite element method. Attendant Mathematica programs or parts thereof are provided in conjunction with selected examples. Numerous links allow the reader to connect to related subjects and research topics. Among others this includes statistical mechanics (separate chapter), quantum mechanics, space flight, galactic dynamics, friction, and vibration spectroscopy. An introductory...
Heat transfers and related effects in supercritical fluids
Zappoli, Bernard; Garrabos, Yves
2015-01-01
This book investigates the unique hydrodynamics and heat transfer problems that are encountered in the vicinity of the critical point of fluids. Emphasis is given on weightlessness conditions, gravity effects and thermovibrational phenomena. Near their critical point, fluids indeed obey universal behavior and become very compressible and expandable. Their comportment, when gravity effects are suppressed, becomes quite unusual. The problems that are treated in this book are of interest to students and researchers interested in the original behavior of near-critical fluids as well as to engineers that have to manage supercritical fluids. A special chapter is dedicated to the present knowledge of critical point phenomena. Specific data for many fluids are provided, ranging from cryogenics (hydrogen) to high temperature (water). Basic information in statistical mechanics, mathematics and measurement techniques is also included. The basic concepts of fluid mechanics are given for the non-specialists to be able to ...
Finite element procedures for coupled linear analysis of heat transfer, fluid and solid mechanics
Sutjahjo, Edhi; Chamis, Christos C.
1993-01-01
Coupled finite element formulations for fluid mechanics, heat transfer, and solid mechanics are derived from the conservation laws for energy, mass, and momentum. To model the physics of interactions among the participating disciplines, the linearized equations are coupled by combining domain and boundary coupling procedures. Iterative numerical solution strategy is presented to solve the equations, with the partitioning of temporal discretization implemented.
Laser metrology in fluid mechanics granulometry, temperature and concentration measurements
Boutier, Alain
2013-01-01
In fluid mechanics, non-intrusive measurements are fundamental in order to improve knowledge of the behavior and main physical phenomena of flows in order to further validate codes.The principles and characteristics of the different techniques available in laser metrology are described in detail in this book.Velocity, temperature and concentration measurements by spectroscopic techniques based on light scattered by molecules are achieved by different techniques: laser-induced fluorescence, coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering using lasers and parametric sources, and absorption sp
High-performance coupled poro-hydro-mechanical models to resolve fluid escape pipes
Räss, Ludovic; Makhnenko, Roman; Podladchikov, Yury
2017-04-01
Field observations and laboratory experiments exhibit inelastic deformation features arising in many coupled settings relevant to geo-applications. These irreversible deformations and their specific patterns suggest a rather ductile or brittle mechanism, such as viscous creep or micro cracks, taking place on both geological (long) and human (short) timescales. In order to understand the underlying mechanisms responsible for these deformation features, there is a current need to accurately resolve the non-linearities inherent to strongly coupled physical processes. Among the large variety of modelling tools and softwares available nowadays in the community, very few are capable to efficiently solve coupled systems with high accuracy in both space and time and run efficiently on modern hardware. Here, we propose a robust framework to solve coupled multi-physics hydro-mechanical processes on very high spatial and temporal resolution in both two and three dimensions. Our software relies on the Finite-Difference Method and a pseudo-transient scheme is used to converge to the implicit solution of the system of poro-visco-elasto-plastic equations at each physical time step. The rheology including viscosity estimates for major reservoir rock types is inferred from novel lab experiments and confirms the ease of flow of sedimentary rocks. Our results propose a physical mechanism responsible for the generation of high permeability pathways in fluid saturated porous media and predict their propagation in rates observable on operational timescales. Finally, our software scales linearly on more than 5000 GPUs.
Mechanisms underlying the volume regulation of interstitial fluid by capillaries: a simulation study
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yukiko Himeno
2016-03-01
Conclusion: Mathematical analyses revealed that the system of the capillary is stable near the equilibrium point at steady state and normal physiological capillary pressure. The time course of the tissue-volume change was determined by two kinetic mechanisms: rapid fluid exchange and slow protein fluxes.
The fluid mechanics of natural ventilation
Linden, Paul
1999-11-01
Natural ventilation of buildings is the flow generated by temperature differences and by the wind. Modern buildings have extreme designs with large, tall open plan spaces and large cooling requirements. Natural ventilation offers a means of cooling these buildings and providing good indoor air quality. The essential feature of ventilation is an exchange between an interior space and the external ambient. Recent work shows that in many circumstances temperature variations play a controlling feature on the ventilation since the directional buoyancy force has a large influence on the flow patterns within the space and on the nature of the exchange with the outside. Two forms of buoyancy-driven ventilation are discussed: mixing ventilation in which the interior is at approximately uniform temperature and displacement ventilation where there is strong internal stratification. The dynamics of these flows are considered and the effects of wind on them are examined both experimentally and theoretically. The aim behind this work is to give designers rules and intuition on how air moves within a building and the research shows a fascinating branch of fluid mechanics.
Current Solid Mechanics Research
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Tvergaard, Viggo
2016-01-01
About thirty years ago James Lighthill wrote an essay on “What is Mechanics?” With that he also included some examples of the applications of mechanics. While his emphasis was on fluid mechanics, his own research area, he also included examples from research activities in solid mechanics....
Device Stores and Discharges Metered Fluid
Hooper, S. L.; Setzer, D.
1983-01-01
Hand-held container accepts measured amount of liquid from pressurized supply. Supply pressure drives spring-loaded piston that stores enough mechanical energy to discharge measured liquid into another container. Original application of container was to rehydrate sterilized pre-packaged food in zerogravity environment of space vehicles. Possible terrestrial applicatios include dispensing of toxic fluids or metering of fluids for household, commercial or laboratory uses.
Statistical mechanics of homogeneous partly pinned fluid systems.
Krakoviack, Vincent
2010-12-01
The homogeneous partly pinned fluid systems are simple models of a fluid confined in a disordered porous matrix obtained by arresting randomly chosen particles in a one-component bulk fluid or one of the two components of a binary mixture. In this paper, their configurational properties are investigated. It is shown that a peculiar complementarity exists between the mobile and immobile phases, which originates from the fact that the solid is prepared in presence of and in equilibrium with the adsorbed fluid. Simple identities follow, which connect different types of configurational averages, either relative to the fluid-matrix system or to the bulk fluid from which it is prepared. Crucial simplifications result for the computation of important structural quantities, both in computer simulations and in theoretical approaches. Finally, possible applications of the model in the field of dynamics in confinement or in strongly asymmetric mixtures are suggested.
Interstitial Fluid Flow: The Mechanical Environment of Cells and Foundation of Meridians
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Wei Yao
2012-01-01
Full Text Available Using information from the deep dissection, microobservation, and measurement of acupoints in the upper and lower limbs of the human body, we developed a three-dimensional porous medium model to simulate the flow field using FLUENT software and to study the shear stress on the surface of interstitial cells (mast cells caused by interstitial fluid flow. The numerical simulation results show the following: (i the parallel nature of capillaries will lead to directional interstitial fluid flow, which may explain the long interstitial tissue channels or meridians observed in some experiments; (ii when the distribution of capillaries is staggered, increases in the velocity alternate, and the velocity tends to be uniform, which is beneficial for substance exchange; (iii interstitial fluid flow induces a shear stress, with magnitude of several Pa, on interstitial cell membranes, which will activate cells and lead to a biological response; (iv capillary and interstitial parameters, such as capillary density, blood pressure, capillary permeability, interstitial pressure, and interstitial porosity, affect the shear stress on cell surfaces. The numerical simulation results suggest that in vivo interstitial fluid flow constitutes the mechanical environment of cells and plays a key role in guiding cell activities, which may explain the meridian phenomena and the acupuncture effects observed in experiments.
Mckillop, A. A.; Baughn, J. W.; Dwyer, H. A.
1976-01-01
Major research advances in heat transfer and fluid dynamics are outlined, with particular reference to relevant energy problems. Of significant importance are such topics as synthetic fuels in combustion, turbulence models, combustion modeling, numerical methods for interacting boundary layers, and light-scattering diagnostics for gases. The discussion covers thermal convection, two-phase flow and boiling heat transfer, turbulent flows, combustion, and aerospace heat transfer problems. Other areas discussed include compressible flows, fluid mechanics and drag, and heat exchangers. Featured topics comprise heat and salt transfer in double-diffusive systems, limits of boiling heat transfer in a liquid-filled enclosure, investigation of buoyancy-induced flow stratification in a cylindrical plenum, and digital algorithms for dynamic analysis of a heat exchanger. Individual items are announced in this issue.
Pawaskar, Sainath Shrikant; Fisher, John; Jin, Zhongmin
2010-03-01
Contact detection in cartilage contact mechanics is an important feature of any analytical or computational modeling investigation when the biphasic nature of cartilage and the corresponding tribology are taken into account. The fluid flow boundary conditions will change based on whether the surface is in contact or not, which will affect the interstitial fluid pressurization. This in turn will increase or decrease the load sustained by the fluid phase, with a direct effect on friction, wear, and lubrication. In laboratory experiments or clinical hemiarthroplasty, when a rigid indenter or metallic prosthesis is used to apply load to the cartilage, there will not be any fluid flow normal to the surface in the contact region due to the impermeable nature of the indenter/prosthesis. In the natural joint, on the other hand, where two cartilage surfaces interact, flow will depend on the pressure difference across the interface. Furthermore, in both these cases, the fluid would flow freely in non-contacting regions. However, it should be pointed out that the contact area is generally unknown in advance in both cases and can only be determined as part of the solution. In the present finite element study, a general and robust algorithm was proposed to decide nodes in contact on the cartilage surface and, accordingly, impose the fluid flow boundary conditions. The algorithm was first tested for a rigid indenter against cartilage model. The algorithm worked well for two-dimensional four-noded and eight-noded axisymmetric element models as well as three-dimensional models. It was then extended to include two cartilages in contact. The results were in excellent agreement with the previous studies reported in the literature.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Damsgaard, Anders; Egholm, David Lundbek; Beem, Lucas H.
The macroscopic behavior of granular materials is the result of the self-organizing complexity of the constituent grains. Granular materials are known for their ability to change phase, where each phase is characterized by distinct mechanical properties. This rich generic phenomenology has made...... it difficult to constrain generalized and adequate mathematical models for their mechanical behavior. Glaciers and ice streams often move by deformation of underlying melt-water saturated sediments. Glacier flow models including subglacial sediment deformation use simplified a priori assumptions for sediment......, the method imposes intense computational requirements on the computational time step. The majority of steps in the granular dynamics algorithm are massively parallel, which makes the DEM an obvious candidate for exploiting the capabilities of modern GPUs. The granular computations are coupled to a fluid...
Extrema principles of entrophy production and energy dissipation in fluid mechanics
Horne, W. Clifton; Karamcheti, Krishnamurty
1988-01-01
A survey is presented of several extrema principles of energy dissipation as applied to problems in fluid mechanics. An exact equation is derived for the dissipation function of a homogeneous, isotropic, Newtonian fluid, with terms associated with irreversible compression or expansion, wave radiation, and the square of the vorticity. By using entropy extrema principles, simple flows such as the incompressible channel flow and the cylindrical vortex are identified as minimal dissipative distributions. The principal notions of stability of parallel shear flows appears to be associated with a maximum dissipation condition. These different conditions are consistent with Prigogine's classification of thermodynamic states into categories of equilibrium, linear nonequilibrium, and nonlinear nonequilibrium thermodynamics; vortices and acoustic waves appear as examples of dissipative structures. The measurements of a typical periodic shear flow, the rectangular wall jet, show that direct measurements of the dissipative terms are possible.
A systems approach to theoretical fluid mechanics: Fundamentals
Anyiwo, J. C.
1978-01-01
A preliminary application of the underlying principles of the investigator's general system theory to the description and analyses of the fluid flow system is presented. An attempt is made to establish practical models, or elements of the general fluid flow system from the point of view of the general system theory fundamental principles. Results obtained are applied to a simple experimental fluid flow system, as test case, with particular emphasis on the understanding of fluid flow instability, transition and turbulence.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Allen, R.R. Jr.
1987-01-01
The Lin constraint has been utilized by a number of authors who have sought to develop Eulerian variational principles in both fluid mechanics and electromagnetics (or plasmadynamics). This dissertation first reviews the work of earlier authors concerning the development of variational principles in both the Eulerian and Lagrangian nomenclatures. In the process, it is shown whether or not the Euler-Lagrange equations that result from the variational principles are equivalent to the generally accepted equations of motion. In particular, it is shown in the case of several Eulerian variational principles that imposition of the Lin constraint results in Euler-Lagrange equations equivalent to the generally accepted equations of motion, whereas neglect of the Lin constraint results in restrictive Euler-Lagrange equations. In an effort to improve the physical motivation behind introduction of the Lin constraint, a new variational constraint is developed based on teh concept of surface forces within a fluid. Additionally, it is shown that a quantity often referred to as the canonical momentum of a charged fluid is not always a constant of the motion of the fluid; and it is demonstrated that there does not exist an unconstrained Eulerian variational principle giving rise to the generally accepted equations of motion for both a perfect fluid and a cold, electromagnetic fluid
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang Han; Yang Yongming; Hu Yüe; Zhang Huisheng; Zhang Zhenyu
2008-01-01
A numerical method for simulating the motion and deformation of an axisymmetric bubble or drop rising or falling in another infinite and initially stationary fluid is developed based on the volume of fluid (VOF) method in the frame of two incompressible and immiscible viscous fluids under the action of gravity, taking into consideration of surface tension effects. A comparison of the numerical results by this method with those by other works indicates the validity of the method. In the frame of inviscid and incompressible fluids without taking into consideration of surface tension effects, the mechanisms of the generation of the liquid jet and the transition from spherical shape to toroidal shape during the bubble or drop deformation, the increase of the ring diameter of the toroidal bubble or drop and the decrease of its cross-section area during its motion, and the effects of the density ratio of the two fluids on the deformation of the bubble or drop are analysed both theoretically and numerically. (condensed matter: structure, thermal and mechanical properties)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dumbser, Michael, E-mail: michael.dumbser@unitn.it [Department of Civil, Environmental and Mechanical Engineering, University of Trento, Via Mesiano 77, 38123 Trento (Italy); Peshkov, Ilya, E-mail: peshkov@math.nsc.ru [Open and Experimental Center for Heavy Oil, Université de Pau et des Pays de l' Adour, Avenue de l' Université, 64012 Pau (France); Romenski, Evgeniy, E-mail: evrom@math.nsc.ru [Sobolev Institute of Mathematics, 4 Acad. Koptyug Avenue, 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Novosibirsk State University, 2 Pirogova Str., 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Zanotti, Olindo, E-mail: olindo.zanotti@unitn.it [Department of Civil, Environmental and Mechanical Engineering, University of Trento, Via Mesiano 77, 38123 Trento (Italy)
2016-06-01
Highlights: • High order schemes for a unified first order hyperbolic formulation of continuum mechanics. • The mathematical model applies simultaneously to fluid mechanics and solid mechanics. • Viscous fluids are treated in the frame of hyper-elasticity as generalized visco-plastic solids. • Formal asymptotic analysis reveals the connection with the Navier–Stokes equations. • The distortion tensor A in the model appears to be well-suited for flow visualization. - Abstract: This paper is concerned with the numerical solution of the unified first order hyperbolic formulation of continuum mechanics recently proposed by Peshkov and Romenski [110], further denoted as HPR model. In that framework, the viscous stresses are computed from the so-called distortion tensor A, which is one of the primary state variables in the proposed first order system. A very important key feature of the HPR model is its ability to describe at the same time the behavior of inviscid and viscous compressible Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids with heat conduction, as well as the behavior of elastic and visco-plastic solids. Actually, the model treats viscous and inviscid fluids as generalized visco-plastic solids. This is achieved via a stiff source term that accounts for strain relaxation in the evolution equations of A. Also heat conduction is included via a first order hyperbolic system for the thermal impulse, from which the heat flux is computed. The governing PDE system is hyperbolic and fully consistent with the first and the second principle of thermodynamics. It is also fundamentally different from first order Maxwell–Cattaneo-type relaxation models based on extended irreversible thermodynamics. The HPR model represents therefore a novel and unified description of continuum mechanics, which applies at the same time to fluid mechanics and solid mechanics. In this paper, the direct connection between the HPR model and the classical hyperbolic–parabolic Navier
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dumbser, Michael; Peshkov, Ilya; Romenski, Evgeniy; Zanotti, Olindo
2016-01-01
Highlights: • High order schemes for a unified first order hyperbolic formulation of continuum mechanics. • The mathematical model applies simultaneously to fluid mechanics and solid mechanics. • Viscous fluids are treated in the frame of hyper-elasticity as generalized visco-plastic solids. • Formal asymptotic analysis reveals the connection with the Navier–Stokes equations. • The distortion tensor A in the model appears to be well-suited for flow visualization. - Abstract: This paper is concerned with the numerical solution of the unified first order hyperbolic formulation of continuum mechanics recently proposed by Peshkov and Romenski [110], further denoted as HPR model. In that framework, the viscous stresses are computed from the so-called distortion tensor A, which is one of the primary state variables in the proposed first order system. A very important key feature of the HPR model is its ability to describe at the same time the behavior of inviscid and viscous compressible Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids with heat conduction, as well as the behavior of elastic and visco-plastic solids. Actually, the model treats viscous and inviscid fluids as generalized visco-plastic solids. This is achieved via a stiff source term that accounts for strain relaxation in the evolution equations of A. Also heat conduction is included via a first order hyperbolic system for the thermal impulse, from which the heat flux is computed. The governing PDE system is hyperbolic and fully consistent with the first and the second principle of thermodynamics. It is also fundamentally different from first order Maxwell–Cattaneo-type relaxation models based on extended irreversible thermodynamics. The HPR model represents therefore a novel and unified description of continuum mechanics, which applies at the same time to fluid mechanics and solid mechanics. In this paper, the direct connection between the HPR model and the classical hyperbolic–parabolic Navier
Vaughan, O. H., Jr.; Hung, R. J.
1975-01-01
Skylab 4 crew members performed a series of demonstrations showing the oscillations, rotations, as well as collision coalescence of water droplets which simulate various physical models of fluids under low gravity environment. The results from Skylab demonstrations provide information and illustrate the potential of an orbiting space-oriented research laboratory for the study of more sophisticated fluid mechanic experiments. Experiments and results are discussed.
Wave Interactions and Fluid Flows
Craik, Alex D. D.
1988-07-01
This up-to-date and comprehensive account of theory and experiment on wave-interaction phenomena covers fluids both at rest and in their shear flows. It includes, on the one hand, water waves, internal waves, and their evolution, interaction, and associated wave-driven means flow and, on the other hand, phenomena on nonlinear hydrodynamic stability, especially those leading to the onset of turbulence. This study provide a particularly valuable bridge between these two similar, yet different, classes of phenomena. It will be of value to oceanographers, meteorologists, and those working in fluid mechanics, atmospheric and planetary physics, plasma physics, aeronautics, and geophysical and astrophysical fluid dynamics.
Fluid mechanics aspects of magnetic drug targeting.
Odenbach, Stefan
2015-10-01
Experiments and numerical simulations using a flow phantom for magnetic drug targeting have been undertaken. The flow phantom is a half y-branched tube configuration where the main tube represents an artery from which a tumour-supplying artery, which is simulated by the side branch of the flow phantom, branches off. In the experiments a quantification of the amount of magnetic particles targeted towards the branch by a magnetic field applied via a permanent magnet is achieved by impedance measurement using sensor coils. Measuring the targeting efficiency, i.e. the relative amount of particles targeted to the side branch, for different field configurations one obtains targeting maps which combine the targeting efficiency with the magnetic force densities in characteristic points in the flow phantom. It could be shown that targeting efficiency depends strongly on the magnetic field configuration. A corresponding numerical model has been set up, which allows the simulation of targeting efficiency for variable field configuration. With this simulation good agreement of targeting efficiency with experimental data has been found. Thus, the basis has been laid for future calculations of optimal field configurations in clinical applications of magnetic drug targeting. Moreover, the numerical model allows the variation of additional parameters of the drug targeting process and thus an estimation of the influence, e.g. of the fluid properties on the targeting efficiency. Corresponding calculations have shown that the non-Newtonian behaviour of the fluid will significantly influence the targeting process, an aspect which has to be taken into account, especially recalling the fact that the viscosity of magnetic suspensions depends strongly on the magnetic field strength and the mechanical load.
Fluid-Structure Interaction Mechanisms for Close-In Explosions
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Andrew B. Wardlaw Jr.
2000-01-01
Full Text Available This paper examines fluid-structure interaction for close-in internal and external underwater explosions. The resulting flow field is impacted by the interaction between the reflected explosion shock and the explosion bubble. This shock reflects off the bubble as an expansion that reduces the pressure level between the bubble and the target, inducing cavitation and its subsequent collapse that reloads the target. Computational examples of several close-in interaction cases are presented to document the occurrence of these mechanisms. By comparing deformable and rigid body simulations, it is shown that cavitation collapse can occur solely from the shock-bubble interaction without the benefit of target deformation. Addition of a deforming target lowers the flow field pressure, facilitates cavitation and cavitation collapse, as well as reducing the impulse of the initial shock loading.
Experiments and Modeling of G-Jitter Fluid Mechanics
Leslie, F. W.; Ramachandran, N.; Whitaker, Ann F. (Technical Monitor)
2002-01-01
While there is a general understanding of the acceleration environment onboard an orbiting spacecraft, past research efforts in the modeling and analysis area have still not produced a general theory that predicts the effects of multi-spectral periodic accelerations on a general class of experiments nor have they produced scaling laws that a prospective experimenter can use to assess how an experiment might be affected by this acceleration environment. Furthermore, there are no actual flight experimental data that correlates heat or mass transport with measurements of the periodic acceleration environment. The present investigation approaches this problem with carefully conducted terrestrial experiments and rigorous numerical modeling for better understanding the effect of residual gravity and gentler on experiments. The approach is to use magnetic fluids that respond to an imposed magnetic field gradient in much the same way as fluid density responds to a gravitational field. By utilizing a programmable power source in conjunction with an electromagnet, both static and dynamic body forces can be simulated in lab experiments. The paper provides an overview of the technique and includes recent results from the experiments.
Dong, Guanyu
2018-03-01
In order to analyze the microscopic stress field acting on residual oil droplets in micro pores, calculate its deformation, and explore the hydrodynamic mechanism of viscous-elastic fluids displacing oil droplets, the viscous-elastic fluid flow equations in micro pores are established by choosing the Upper Convected Maxwell constitutive equation; the numerical solutions of the flow field are obtained by volume control and Alternate Direction Implicit methods. From the above, the velocity field and microscopic stress field; the forces acting on residual oil droplets; the deformations of residual oil droplets by various viscous-elastic displacing fluids and at various Wiesenberg numbers are calculated and analyzed. The result demonstrated that both the normal stress and horizontal force acting on the residual oil droplets by viscous-elastic fluids are much larger compared to that of inelastic fluid; the distribution of normal stress changes abruptly; under the condition of the same pressure gradient in the system under investigation, the ratio of the horizontal forces acting on the residual oil droplets by different displacing fluids is about 1:8:20, which means that under the above conditions, the driving force on a oil droplet is 20 times higher for a viscous-elastic fluid compared to that of a Newtonian Fluid. The conclusions are supportive of the mechanism that viscous-elastic driving fluids can increase the Displacement Efficiency. This should be of help in designing new chemicals and selecting Enhanced Oil Recovery systems.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kiørboe, Thomas
2013-01-01
, and mechanisms for mobility of the parties involved. Here, I describe the mechanisms of sensing, escaping predators, and capturing prey in marine pelagic copepods. I demonstrate that feeding tradeoffs vary with feeding mode, and I describe simple fluid mechanical models that are used to quantify these tradeoffs......Many animals are predator and prey at the same time. This dual position represents a fundamental dilemma because gathering food often leads to increased exposure to predators. The optimization of the tradeoff between eating and not being eaten depends strongly on the sensing, feeding...
Wang, Jie; Zhao, Shougen; Wu, Dafang; Jing, Xingjian
2016-01-01
Micro-vibration isolation is a hot topic in spacecraft vibration control, and fluid based vibration isolators alternatively provide a good and reliable solution to this challenging issue. In this paper, a novel fluid based micro-vibration isolator (FBMVI) is investigated. According to its inherent working principle and deformation pattern, the generation mechanisms of the damping and stiffness characteristics are derived, which are nonlinear functions of the environmental temperature. Then a lumped parameter model which is expressed by the physical design parameters (PDPs) is constructed, and the corresponding performance objective indices (POIs) are also obtained by applying the equivalence of mechanical impedance. Based on the finite element analysis of the internal damping component, a single variable method is further adopted to carry out the parametric study, and the influences of each PDP on the POIs are analyzed in details. Finally, experiments are conducted to identify the variation of fluid bulk modulus with the outside environmental temperature, and to validate the performance of the isolator under different temperature environments. The tested results show great consistence compared with the predicted tendencies of the parametric study. The results of this study can provide a very useful insight into and/or an important guidance for the design and application of this type of FBMVIs in engineering practice.
Microgravity Fluids for Biology, Workshop
Griffin, DeVon; Kohl, Fred; Massa, Gioia D.; Motil, Brian; Parsons-Wingerter, Patricia; Quincy, Charles; Sato, Kevin; Singh, Bhim; Smith, Jeffrey D.; Wheeler, Raymond M.
2013-01-01
Microgravity Fluids for Biology represents an intersection of biology and fluid physics that present exciting research challenges to the Space Life and Physical Sciences Division. Solving and managing the transport processes and fluid mechanics in physiological and biological systems and processes are essential for future space exploration and colonization of space by humans. Adequate understanding of the underlying fluid physics and transport mechanisms will provide new, necessary insights and technologies for analyzing and designing biological systems critical to NASAs mission. To enable this mission, the fluid physics discipline needs to work to enhance the understanding of the influence of gravity on the scales and types of fluids (i.e., non-Newtonian) important to biology and life sciences. In turn, biomimetic, bio-inspired and synthetic biology applications based on physiology and biology can enrich the fluid mechanics and transport phenomena capabilities of the microgravity fluid physics community.
Fracturing Fluid Leak-off for Deep Volcanic Rock in Zhungeer Basin: Mechanism and Control Method
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Huang Bo
2017-01-01
Full Text Available The deep volcanic reservoir in Zhungeer Basin is buried in over 4000m depth, which is characterized by complex lithology (breccia, andesite, basalt, etc., high elastic modulus and massive natural fractures. During hydraulic fracturing, hydraulic fracture will propagate and natural fractures will be triggered by the increasing net pressure. However, the extension of fractures, especially natural fractures, would aggravate the leak-off effect of fracturing fluid, and consequently decrease the fracturing success rate. 4 out of 12 fracturing wells in the field have failed to add enough proppants due to fluid loss. In order to increase the success rate and efficiency of hydraulic fracturing for deep volcanic reservoir, based on theoretical and experimental method, the mechanism of fracturing fluid leak-off is deeply studied. We propose a dualistic proppant scheme and employ the fluid loss reducer to control the fluid leak-off in macro-fractures and micro-fractures respectively. The proposed technique remarkably improved the success rate in deep volcanic rock fracturing. It bears important theoretical value and practical significance to improve the hydraulic fracturing design for deep volcanic reservoir.
Cascade Controller Including Back-stepping for Hydraulic-Mechanical Systems
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Choux, Martin; Hovland, Geir; Blanke, Mogens
2012-01-01
Development of a cascade controller structure including adaptive backstepping for a nonlinear hydraulic-mechanical system is considered in this paper where a dynamic friction (LuGre) model is included to obtain the necessary accuracy. The paper compares the performance of two variants of an adapt......Development of a cascade controller structure including adaptive backstepping for a nonlinear hydraulic-mechanical system is considered in this paper where a dynamic friction (LuGre) model is included to obtain the necessary accuracy. The paper compares the performance of two variants...... of an adaptive backstepping tracking controller with earlier results. The new control architecture is analysed and enhanced tracking performance is demonstrated when including the extended friction model. The complexity of the backstepping procedure is significantly reduced due to the cascade structure. Hence...
Taoka, Toshiaki; Naganawa, Shinji
2018-04-10
After Kanda's first report in 2014 on gadolinium (Gd) deposition in brain tissue, a considerable number of studies have investigated the explanation for the observation. Gd deposition in brain tissue after repeated administration of gadolinium-based contrast medium (GBCM) has been histologically proven, and chelate stability has been shown to affect the deposition. However, the mechanism for this deposition has not been fully elucidated. Recently, a hypothesis was introduced that involves the 'glymphatic system', which is a coined word that combines 'gl' for glia cell and 'lymphatic' system. According to this hypothesis, the perivascular space functions as a conduit for cerebrospinal fluid to flow into the brain parenchyma. The perivascular space around the arteries allows cerebrospinal fluid to enter the interstitial space of the brain tissue through water channels controlled by aquaporin 4. The cerebrospinal fluid entering the interstitial space clears waste proteins from the tissue. It then flows into the perivascular space around the vein and is discharged outside the brain. In addition to the hypothesis regarding the glymphatic system, some reports have described that after GBCM administration, some of the GBCM distributes through systemic blood circulation and remains in other compartments including the cerebrospinal fluid. It is thought that the GBCM distributed into the cerebrospinal fluid cavity via the glymphatic system may remain in brain tissue for a longer duration compared to the GBCM in systemic circulation. Glymphatic system may of course act as a clearance system for GBCM from brain tissue. Based on these findings, the mechanism for Gd deposition in the brain will be discussed in this review. The authors speculate that the glymphatic system may be the major contributory factor to the deposition and clearance of gadolinium in brain tissue.
Theoretical models for supercritical fluid extraction.
Huang, Zhen; Shi, Xiao-Han; Jiang, Wei-Juan
2012-08-10
For the proper design of supercritical fluid extraction processes, it is essential to have a sound knowledge of the mass transfer mechanism of the extraction process and the appropriate mathematical representation. In this paper, the advances and applications of kinetic models for describing supercritical fluid extraction from various solid matrices have been presented. The theoretical models overviewed here include the hot ball diffusion, broken and intact cell, shrinking core and some relatively simple models. Mathematical representations of these models have been in detail interpreted as well as their assumptions, parameter identifications and application examples. Extraction process of the analyte solute from the solid matrix by means of supercritical fluid includes the dissolution of the analyte from the solid, the analyte diffusion in the matrix and its transport to the bulk supercritical fluid. Mechanisms involved in a mass transfer model are discussed in terms of external mass transfer resistance, internal mass transfer resistance, solute-solid interactions and axial dispersion. The correlations of the external mass transfer coefficient and axial dispersion coefficient with certain dimensionless numbers are also discussed. Among these models, the broken and intact cell model seems to be the most relevant mathematical model as it is able to provide realistic description of the plant material structure for better understanding the mass-transfer kinetics and thus it has been widely employed for modeling supercritical fluid extraction of natural matters. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Behavior of fluids in a weightless environment
Fester, D. A.; Eberhardt, R. N.; Tegart, J. R.
1977-01-01
Fluid behavior in a low-g environment is controlled primarily by surface tension forces. Certain fluid and system characteristics determine the magnitude of these forces for both a free liquid surface and liquid in contact with a solid. These characteristics, including surface tension, wettability or contact angle, system geometry, and the relationships governing their interaction, are discussed. Various aspects of fluid behavior in a low-g environment are then presented. This includes the formation of static interface shapes, oscillation and rotation of drops, coalescence, the formation of foams, tendency for cavitation, and diffusion in liquids which were observed during the Skylab fluid mechanics science demonstrations. Liquid reorientation and capillary pumping to establish equilibrium configurations for various system geometries, observed during various free-fall (drop-tower) low-g tests, are also presented. Several passive low-g fluid storage and transfer systems are discussed. These systems use surface tension forces to control the liquid/vapor interface and provide gas-free liquid transfer and liquid-free vapor venting.
Review of coaxial flow gas core nuclear rocket fluid mechanics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Weinstein, H.
1976-01-01
In a prematurely aborted attempt to demonstrate the feasibility of using a gas core nuclear reactor as a rocket engine, NASA initiated a number of studies on the relevant fluid mechanics problems. These studies were carried out at NASA laboratories, universities and industrial research laboratories. Because of the relatively sudden termination of most of this work, a unified overview was never presented which demonstrated the accomplishments of the program and pointed out the areas where additional work was required for a full understanding of the cavity flow. This review attempts to fulfill a part of this need in two important areas
Lin, Min; Luo, Zheng Yuan; Bai, Bo Feng; Xu, Feng; Lu, Tian Jian
2011-03-23
Dental thermal pain is a significant health problem in daily life and dentistry. There is a long-standing question regarding the phenomenon that cold stimulation evokes sharper and more shooting pain sensations than hot stimulation. This phenomenon, however, outlives the well-known hydrodynamic theory used to explain dental thermal pain mechanism. Here, we present a mathematical model based on the hypothesis that hot or cold stimulation-induced different directions of dentinal fluid flow and the corresponding odontoblast movements in dentinal microtubules contribute to different dental pain responses. We coupled a computational fluid dynamics model, describing the fluid mechanics in dentinal microtubules, with a modified Hodgkin-Huxley model, describing the discharge behavior of intradental neuron. The simulated results agreed well with existing experimental measurements. We thence demonstrated theoretically that intradental mechano-sensitive nociceptors are not "equally sensitive" to inward (into the pulp) and outward (away from the pulp) fluid flows, providing mechanistic insights into the difference between hot and cold dental pain. The model developed here could enable better diagnosis in endodontics which requires an understanding of pulpal histology, neurology and physiology, as well as their dynamic response to the thermal stimulation used in dental practices.
Bio-chemo-mechanics of thoracic aortic aneurysms.
Wagenseil, Jessica E
2018-03-01
Most thoracic aortic aneurysms (TAAs) occur in the ascending aorta. This review focuses on the unique bio-chemo-mechanical environment that makes the ascending aorta susceptible to TAA. The environment includes solid mechanics, fluid mechanics, cell phenotype, and extracellular matrix composition. Advances in solid mechanics include quantification of biaxial deformation and complex failure behavior of the TAA wall. Advances in fluid mechanics include imaging and modeling of hemodynamics that may lead to TAA formation. For cell phenotype, studies demonstrate changes in cell contractility that may serve to sense mechanical changes and transduce chemical signals. Studies on matrix defects highlight the multi-factorial nature of the disease. We conclude that future work should integrate the effects of bio-chemo-mechanical factors for improved TAA treatment.
Relation between boundary slip mechanisms and waterlike fluid behavior
Ternes, Patricia; Salcedo, Evy; Barbosa, Marcia C.
2018-03-01
The slip of a fluid layer in contact with a solid confining surface is investigated for different temperatures and densities using molecular dynamic simulations. We show that for an anomalous waterlike fluid the slip goes as follows: for low levels of shear, defect slip appears and is related to the particle exchange between the fluid layers; at high levels of shear, global slip occurs and is related to the homogeneous distribution of the fluid in the confining surfaces. The oscillations in the transition velocity from defect to global slip are shown to be associated with changes in the layering distribution in the anomalous fluid.
Cheng, Lei; Li, Yizeng; Grosh, Karl
2013-08-15
An approximate boundary condition is developed in this paper to model fluid shear viscosity at boundaries of coupled fluid-structure system. The effect of shear viscosity is approximated by a correction term to the inviscid boundary condition, written in terms of second order in-plane derivatives of pressure. Both thin and thick viscous boundary layer approximations are formulated; the latter subsumes the former. These approximations are used to develop a variational formation, upon which a viscous finite element method (FEM) model is based, requiring only minor modifications to the boundary integral contributions of an existing inviscid FEM model. Since this FEM formulation has only one degree of freedom for pressure, it holds a great computational advantage over the conventional viscous FEM formulation which requires discretization of the full set of linearized Navier-Stokes equations. The results from thick viscous boundary layer approximation are found to be in good agreement with the prediction from a Navier-Stokes model. When applicable, thin viscous boundary layer approximation also gives accurate results with computational simplicity compared to the thick boundary layer formulation. Direct comparison of simulation results using the boundary layer approximations and a full, linearized Navier-Stokes model are made and used to evaluate the accuracy of the approximate technique. Guidelines are given for the parameter ranges over which the accurate application of the thick and thin boundary approximations can be used for a fluid-structure interaction problem.
Ishii, Katsuya
2011-08-01
This issue includes a special section on computational fluid dynamics (CFD) in memory of the late Professor Kunio Kuwahara, who passed away on 15 September 2008, at the age of 66. In this special section, five articles are included that are based on the lectures and discussions at `The 7th International Nobeyama Workshop on CFD: To the Memory of Professor Kuwahara' held in Tokyo on 23 and 24 September 2009. Professor Kuwahara started his research in fluid dynamics under Professor Imai at the University of Tokyo. His first paper was published in 1969 with the title 'Steady Viscous Flow within Circular Boundary', with Professor Imai. In this paper, he combined theoretical and numerical methods in fluid dynamics. Since that time, he made significant and seminal contributions to computational fluid dynamics. He undertook pioneering numerical studies on the vortex method in 1970s. From then to the early nineties, he developed numerical analyses on a variety of three-dimensional unsteady phenomena of incompressible and compressible fluid flows and/or complex fluid flows using his own supercomputers with academic and industrial co-workers and members of his private research institute, ICFD in Tokyo. In addition, a number of senior and young researchers of fluid mechanics around the world were invited to ICFD and the Nobeyama workshops, which were held near his villa, and they intensively discussed new frontier problems of fluid physics and fluid engineering at Professor Kuwahara's kind hospitality. At the memorial Nobeyama workshop held in 2009, 24 overseas speakers presented their papers, including the talks of Dr J P Boris (Naval Research Laboratory), Dr E S Oran (Naval Research Laboratory), Professor Z J Wang (Iowa State University), Dr M Meinke (RWTH Aachen), Professor K Ghia (University of Cincinnati), Professor U Ghia (University of Cincinnati), Professor F Hussain (University of Houston), Professor M Farge (École Normale Superieure), Professor J Y Yong (National
Special requirements for the fluid mechanical design of hard coal-fired SCR retrofit units
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
NONE
2006-07-01
The system design of high-dust SCR units for retrofits is a challenge that is to be mastered in order to meet the fluid mechanical requirements. Retrofitting power plants with NOx control technologies is a cost-intensive adventure that many utilities are undertaking. Except for a few recent new boiler installations, SCR installations must be considered as retrofit projects. In most cases the limitation of space on site entails unfavorable conditions that do not allow appropriate upstream conditions for SCR catalysts. To comply with the requirements of high performance DeNOx systems and to lower the investment costs for retrofit units, several technical solutions and concepts for the reactor layout, for NOx and dust distribution, for flow stabilization in diffusers, and advanced ammonia injection systems are explained in this paper. Balcke-Duerr offers customer-tailored solutions for flow optimization, which are evaluated by model studies. Physical flow and dust model tests in an appropriate scale provide flexibility to test various engineering concepts. The experience of Balcke-Duerr is based on continuous research and development activities over the last 25 years and more than 350 executed projects for gas flow optimization applications. The success of these installations is a direct result of the key decisions based on the improved fluid mechanical design and proper system integration. This paper also identifies the sensible design particularities and solutions that have two be considered in the fluid mechanical design of high-dust SCR retrofit units. This article demonstrates that the layout of SCR units must be carefully reviewed in order to meet the performance requirements and to avoid problems, i.e. wear, catalyst plugging and ammonia slip. 9 refs., 18 figs.
Study of a few problems concerning plasma physics and fluid mechanics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Colin, M.
2011-01-01
The works presented in this thesis deal with solving partial differential equations concerning the laser-plasma interaction and some issues in fluid mechanics. All these works involve significant research in the modelization field: the approximation of oscillating hyperbolic systems, the simulation of Zakharov-type systems involving the Raman effect, Hele-Shaw models and gigantic micelles models. They also tackles theoretical issues like the existence and the uniqueness of solutions, the stability or instability of solitary waves, the optimal control, error estimation and model convergency
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Bogdanov Alexander
2016-01-01
Full Text Available The architecture of a digital computing system determines the technical foundation of a unified mathematical language for exact arithmetic-logical description of phenomena and laws of continuum mechanics for applications in fluid mechanics and theoretical physics. The deep parallelization of the computing processes results in functional programming at a new technological level, providing traceability of the computing processes with automatic application of multiscale hybrid circuits and adaptive mathematical models for the true reproduction of the fundamental laws of physics and continuum mechanics.
Yielding to stress: Recent developments in viscoplastic fluid mechanics
BALMFORTH, Neil; FRIGAARD, Ian A.; OVARLEZ, Guillaume
2014-01-01
The archetypal feature of a viscoplastic fluid is its yield stress: If the material is not sufficiently stressed, it behaves like a solid, but once the yield stress is exceeded, the material flows like a fluid. Such behavior characterizes materials common in industries such as petroleum and chemical processing, cosmetics, and food processing and in geophysical fluid dynamics. The most common idealization of a viscoplastic fluid is the Bingham model, which has been widely used to rationalize e...
Micro/Nanospheres Generation by Fluid-Fluid Interaction Technology: A Literature Review.
Lei, Lei; Bergstrom, Don; Zhang, Bing; Zhang, Hongbo; Yin, Ruixue; Song, Ki-Young; Zhang, Wenjun
2017-01-01
This review focuses on the fundamental fluid mechanics which governs the generation of micro/nanospheres. The micro/nanosphere generation process has gathered significant attention in the past two decades, since micro/nanospheres are widely used in drug delivery, food science, cosmetics, and other application areas. Many methods have been developed based on different operating principles, such as microfluidic methods, electrospray methods, chemical methods, and so forth. This paper focuses on microfluidic methods. Although the structure of the microfluidic devices may be different, the operating principles behind them are often very similar. Following an initial discussion of the fluid mechanics related to the generation of microspheres, various design approaches are discussed, including T-junction, flow focusing, membrane emulsification, modified T-junction, and double emulsification methods. The advantages and problems associated with each method are also discussed. Next, the most commonly used computational fluid dynamics (CFD) methods are reviewed at three different levels: microscopic, mesoscopic, and macroscopic. Finally, the issues identified in the current literature are discussed, and some suggestions are offered regarding the future direction of technology development related to micro/nanosphere generation. Few relevant patents to the topic have been reviewed and cited. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.
Escape response of planktonic protists to fluid mechanical signals
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jakobsen, Hans Henrik
2001-01-01
The escape response to fluid mechanical signals was examined in 6 protists, 4 ciliates and 2 dinoflagellates. When exposed to a siphon flow. 3 species of ciliates, Balanion comatum, Strobilidium sp., and Mesodinium pulex, responded with escape jumps. The threshold deformation rates required...... times lower than that of a non-jumping similar sized protist when the predator was Temora longicornis, which captures prey entrained in a feeding current. However, when the predator was the ambush- feeding copepod Acartia tonsa, the predation mortalities of jumping and non-jumping protists were...... of similar magnitude. Escape responses may thus be advantageous in some situations. However, jumping behaviour may also enhance susceptibility to some predators, explaining the different predator avoidance strategies (jumping or not) that have evolved in planktonic protists....
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Randa Aly Soliman
2015-04-01
Conclusions: Baseline stroke volume variation ⩾8.15% predicted fluid responsiveness in mechanically ventilated patients with acute circulatory failure. The study also confirmed the ability of pulse pressure variation to predict fluid responsiveness.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Paweł H. Malinowski
2018-04-01
Full Text Available Composite materials are commonly used in many branches of industry. One of the effective methods to join the carbon fibre reinforced polymer (CFRP parts includes the use of adhesives. There is a search on effective methods for quality assurance of bonded parts. In the research here reported the influence of surface pre-bond modification on the adhesive bonds of CFRP plates has been analyzed. Adherends surface modifications, to include defects affecting the bonding quality, were obtained through surface thermal treatment, surface contamination with de-icing fluid and a combination of both the previously described treatments. Characterization of bonded joints was performed by means of mechanical testing, ultrasounds and electromechanical impedance (EMI measurements. The study here proposed has also the aim to evaluate the ability of different destructive and non-destructive techniques to assess the quality of the bonds. While mechanical tests were strongly affected by the surface modifications, results obtained ultrasound and EMI test have demonstrate only a limited ability of these techniques to differentiate between the different samples. In fact, ultrasounds did not show any changes in the bondline, due to pre-bond modifications. However, this technique was able to detect delamination in CFRP for one of the samples thermally treated at 280 °C. Electromechanical impedance (EMI measurements showed similar behavior as mechanical tests for samples thermally treated at 260 °C and 280 °C, and for the sample whose surface modification was made with a combination of thermally and de-icing fluid treatments.
Nambu brackets in fluid mechanics and magnetohydrodynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Salazar, Roberto; Kurgansky, Michael V
2010-01-01
Concrete examples of the construction of Nambu brackets for equations of motion (both 3D and 2D) of Boussinesq stratified fluids and also for magnetohydrodynamical equations are given. It serves a generalization of Hamiltonian formulation for the considered equations of motion. Two alternative Nambu formulations are proposed, first by using fluid dynamical (kinetic) helicity and/or enstrophy as constitutive elements and second, by using the existing conservation laws of the governing equation.
Semiclassical statistical mechanics of fluids
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Singh, Y.; Sinha, S.K.
1981-01-01
The problem of calculating the equilibrium properties of fluids in the semiclassical limit when the quantum effects are small is studied. Particle distribution functions and thermodynamic quantities are defined in terms of the Slater sum and methods for evaluating the Slater sum are discussed. It is shown that the expansion method employing the usual Wigner-Kirkwood or Hemmer-Jancovici series is not suitable to treat the properties of the condensed state. Using the grand canonical ensemble and functional differentiation technique we develop cluster expansion series of the Helmholtz free energy and pair correlation functions. Using topological reduction we transform these series to more compact form involving a renormalized potential or a renormalized Mayer function. Then the convergence of the two series is improved by an optimal choice of the renormalized potential or the Mayer function. Integral equation theories are derived and used to devise perturbation methods. An application of these methods to the calculation of the virial coefficients, thermodynamic properties and the pair correlation function for model fluids is discussed. (orig.)
Ding, Fang; Meng, Huan-xin; Li, Qi-qiang; Zhao, Yi-bing; Feng, Xiang-hui; Zhang, Li
2010-04-18
To evaluate the subgingival prevalent rates of 6 periodontal pathogenic bacteria in gingival crevicular fluids of CP patients before and after treatment, to analyze the relationship between the prevalent variance and periodontal clinical parameters, and to provide a microbiologic method of evaluating curative effect and estimating the prognosis. Gingival crevicular fluids of 13 CP patients were collected at baseline, 2 weeks, 2 months and 4 months after periodontal mechanical treatment. Also, gingival crevicular fluids were collected from 11 healthy subjects. Six periodontal pathogenic bacteria including Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans (Aa), Porphyromonas gingivalis(Pg), Tannerella forsythensis (Tf), Prevotella intermedia (Pi), Fusobacterium nucleatum(Fn), Prevotella nigrescens (Pn) were detected by 16S rRNA based PCR. The PLI, PD, BI of the CP patients 2 months and 4 months after periodontal mechanical treatment were evidently less than those before treatment. These 4 months after treatment were a little more than those 2 months after. The six bacteria were more frequently detected in the CP patients at baseline than in healthy controls. The prevalent rates of Tf (42.1%, 73.7%, 70.2%), Pg (47.4%, 68.4%, 77.2%), Aa (15.8%, 22.8%, 7.0%), Pn (38.6%, 57.9%, 64.9%), Pi(15.8%, 38.6%, 42.1%) 2 weeks, 2 months and 4 months following treatment were significantly lower than those at baseline (Tf 96.5%, Pg 93.0%, Aa 36.8%, Pn 86.0%, Pi 84.2%), but the prevalent rates of all the detected bacteria 2 months after treatment were higher than those at 2 weeks after. Tf, Pg, Aa, Pn and Pi may cooperate in the development of CP. The changes of periodontal pathogenic bacteria could be detected before the changes of clinical parameters and the patients should be re-evaluated and re-treated regularly within 2 months after treatment.
Saintillan, David
2018-01-01
An active fluid denotes a viscous suspension of particles, cells, or macromolecules able to convert chemical energy into mechanical work by generating stresses on the microscale. By virtue of this internal energy conversion, these systems display unusual macroscopic rheological signatures, including a curious transition to an apparent superfluid-like state where internal activity exactly compensates viscous dissipation. These behaviors are unlike those of classical complex fluids and result from the coupling of particle configurations with both externally applied flows and internally generated fluid disturbances. Focusing on the well-studied example of a suspension of microswimmers, this review summarizes recent experiments, models, and simulations in this area and highlights the critical role played by the rheological response of these active materials in a multitude of phenomena, from the enhanced transport of passive suspended objects to the emergence of spontaneous flows and collective motion.
Computational fluid dynamics incompressible turbulent flows
Kajishima, Takeo
2017-01-01
This textbook presents numerical solution techniques for incompressible turbulent flows that occur in a variety of scientific and engineering settings including aerodynamics of ground-based vehicles and low-speed aircraft, fluid flows in energy systems, atmospheric flows, and biological flows. This book encompasses fluid mechanics, partial differential equations, numerical methods, and turbulence models, and emphasizes the foundation on how the governing partial differential equations for incompressible fluid flow can be solved numerically in an accurate and efficient manner. Extensive discussions on incompressible flow solvers and turbulence modeling are also offered. This text is an ideal instructional resource and reference for students, research scientists, and professional engineers interested in analyzing fluid flows using numerical simulations for fundamental research and industrial applications. • Introduces CFD techniques for incompressible flow and turbulence with a comprehensive approach; • Enr...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Pedro Javier Gamez-Montero
2015-03-01
Full Text Available “Mechanics” and “Fluids” are familiar concepts for any newly-registered engineering student. However, when combined into the term “Fluid Mechanics”, students are thrust into the great unknown. The present article demonstrates the process of adaptation employed by the Fluid Mechanics course in the undergraduate engineering program, along with the teaching methodology, teaching materials and results obtained, evaluating the final objective in terms of student satsfaction and level of learning.
Berthelon, Josselin; Sassi, William; Burov, Evgueni
2016-04-01
Many source-rocks are shale and constitute potential detachment levels in Fold-and-Thrust Belts (FTB): the toarcian Schistes-Cartons in the French Chartreuse FTB for example. Their mechanical properties can change during their burial and thermal maturation, as for example when large amount of hydrocarbon fluids are generated. A structural reconstruction of the Chartreuse FTB geo-history places the Toarcian Formation as the major decollement horizon. In this work, a mechanical analysis integrating the fluids overpressuring development is proposed to discuss on the validity of the structural interpretation. At first, an analogue of the Chartreuse Toarcian Fm, the albanian Posidonia Schist, is documented as it can provide insights on its initial properties and composition of its kerogen content. Laboratory characterisation documents the vertical evolution of the mineralogical, geochemical and mechanical parameters of this potential decollement layer. These physical parameters (i.e. Total Organic Carbon (TOC), porosity/permeability relationship, friction coefficient) are used to address overpressure buildup in the frontal part of the Chartreuse FTB with TEMISFlow Arctem Basin modelling approach (Faille et al, 2014) and the structural emplacement of the Chartreuse thrust units using the FLAMAR thermo-mechanical model (Burov et al, 2014). The hydro-mechanical modeling results highlight the calendar, distribution and magnitude of the overpressure that developed within the source-rock in the footwall of a simple fault-bend fold structure localized in the frontal part of the Chartreuse FTB. Several key geological conditions are required to create an overpressure able to fracture the shale-rocks and induce a significant change in the rheological behaviour: high TOC, low permeability, favourable structural evolution. These models highlight the importance of modeling the impact of a diffuse natural hydraulic fracturing to explain fluids propagation toward the foreland within
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dutrow, Barbara
2008-01-01
Our research evaluates the hypothesis that feedback amongst thermal-chemical-mechanical processes operative in fluid-rock systems alters the fluid flow dynamics of the system which, in turn, affects chemical transport and temporal and spatial scales of equilibria, thus impacting the resultant mineral textural development of rocks. Our methods include computational experimentation and detailed analyses of fluid-infiltrated rocks from well-characterized terranes. This work focuses on metamorphic rocks and hydrothermal systems where minerals and their textures are utilized to evaluate pressure (P), temperature (T), and time (t) paths in the evolution of mountain belts and ore deposits, and to interpret tectonic events and the timing of these events. Our work on coupled processes also extends to other areas where subsurface flow and transport in porous media have consequences such as oil and gas movement, geothermal system development, transport of contaminants, nuclear waste disposal, and other systems rich in fluid-rock reactions. Fluid-rock systems are widespread in the geologic record. Correctly deciphering the products resulting from such systems is important to interpreting a number of geologic phenomena. These systems are characterized by complex interactions involving time-dependent, non-linear processes in heterogeneous materials. While many of these interactions have been studied in isolation, they are more appropriately analyzed in the context of a system with feedback. When one process impacts another process, time and space scales as well as the overall outcome of the interaction can be dramatically altered. Our goals to test this hypothesis are: to develop and incorporate algorithms into our 3D heat and mass transport code to allow the effects of feedback to be investigated numerically, to analyze fluid infiltrated rocks from a variety of terranes at differing P-T conditions, to identify subtle features of the infiltration of fluids and/or feedback, and
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
NONE
1997-03-01
The general purpose of the program is the development of efficient algorithms, their implementation in codes of Computational Fluid Mechanics (CFD), and the experimental verification of these codes. Flows of both fundamental and applied nature will be investigated, including flows in industrial process equipment, about aerodynamics structures and ships, and flows over bed forms of importance for sediment transport. The experimental work will include the development of improved techniques, emphasizing optical methods. The objectives will be met through a coordinated experimental and theoretical/computational research program, organized in 7 specific projects: 1. CFD-methods and algorithms. 2. Spectral element simulation of ultrafiltration. 3. Turbulent swirling flows. 4. Near-wall models of turbulence. 5. Flow over bed forms. 6. Flow past ship hull. 7. Development of experimental techniques. (EG) 10 refs.
Mechanics of Fluid-Filled Interstitial Gaps. I. Modeling Gaps in a Compact Tissue.
Parent, Serge E; Barua, Debanjan; Winklbauer, Rudolf
2017-08-22
Fluid-filled interstitial gaps are a common feature of compact tissues held together by cell-cell adhesion. Although such gaps can in principle be the result of weak, incomplete cell attachment, adhesion is usually too strong for this to occur. Using a mechanical model of tissue cohesion, we show that, instead, a combination of local prevention of cell adhesion at three-cell junctions by fluidlike extracellular material and a reduction of cortical tension at the gap surface are sufficient to generate stable gaps. The size and shape of these interstitial gaps depends on the mechanical tensions between cells and at gap surfaces, and on the difference between intracellular and interstitial pressures that is related to the volume of the interstitial fluid. As a consequence of the dependence on tension/tension ratios, the presence of gaps does not depend on the absolute strength of cell adhesion, and similar gaps are predicted to occur in tissues of widely differing cohesion. Tissue mechanical parameters can also vary within and between cells of a given tissue, generating asymmetrical gaps. Within limits, these can be approximated by symmetrical gaps. Copyright © 2017 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Bone tissue engineering: the role of interstitial fluid flow
Hillsley, M. V.; Frangos, J. A.
1994-01-01
It is well established that vascularization is required for effective bone healing. This implies that blood flow and interstitial fluid (ISF) flow are required for healing and maintenance of bone. The fact that changes in bone blood flow and ISF flow are associated with changes in bone remodeling and formation support this theory. ISF flow in bone results from transcortical pressure gradients produced by vascular and hydrostatic pressure, and mechanical loading. Conditions observed to alter flow rates include increases in venous pressure in hypertension, fluid shifts occurring in bedrest and microgravity, increases in vascularization during the injury-healing response, and mechanical compression and bending of bone during exercise. These conditions also induce changes in bone remodeling. Previously, we hypothesized that interstitial fluid flow in bone, and in particular fluid shear stress, serves to mediate signal transduction in mechanical loading- and injury-induced remodeling. In addition, we proposed that a lack or decrease of ISF flow results in the bone loss observed in disuse and microgravity. The purpose of this article is to review ISF flow in bone and its role in osteogenesis.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Panayotounakos D. E.
1996-01-01
Full Text Available We develop a new unique technique in constructing closed-form solutions for several nonlinear partial differential systems appearing in fluid mechanics and gas dynamics. The obtained solutions include fewer arbitrary functions than needed for general solutions, fact that permits us to specify them according to the initial state, or the geometry, of each specific problem under consideration. In order to apply the before mentioned technique we construct closed-form solutions concerning the gas-dynamic equations with constant pressure, the dynamic equations of an ideal gas in isentropic flow, and the two-dimensional incompressible boundary layer flow.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jian Zhou
2016-09-01
Full Text Available Hydraulic fracturing is a useful tool for enhancing rock mass permeability for shale gas development, enhanced geothermal systems, and geological carbon sequestration by the high-pressure injection of a fracturing fluid into tight reservoir rocks. Although significant advances have been made in hydraulic fracturing theory, experiments, and numerical modeling, when it comes to the complexity of geological conditions knowledge is still limited. Mechanisms of fluid injection-induced fracture initiation and propagation should be better understood to take full advantage of hydraulic fracturing. This paper presents the development and application of discrete particle modeling based on two-dimensional particle flow code (PFC2D. Firstly, it is shown that the modeled value of the breakdown pressure for the hydraulic fracturing process is approximately equal to analytically calculated values under varied in situ stress conditions. Furthermore, a series of simulations for hydraulic fracturing in competent rock was performed to examine the influence of the in situ stress ratio, fluid injection rate, and fluid viscosity on the borehole pressure history, the geometry of hydraulic fractures, and the pore-pressure field, respectively. It was found that the hydraulic fractures in an isotropic medium always propagate parallel to the orientation of the maximum principal stress. When a high fluid injection rate is used, higher breakdown pressure is needed for fracture propagation and complex geometries of fractures can develop. When a low viscosity fluid is used, fluid can more easily penetrate from the borehole into the surrounding rock, which causes a reduction of the effective stress and leads to a lower breakdown pressure. Moreover, the geometry of the fractures is not particularly sensitive to the fluid viscosity in the approximate isotropic model.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dorning, J.
1981-01-01
The research and development over the past eight years on local Green's function methods for the high-accuracy, high-efficiency numerical solution of nuclear engineering problems is reviewed. The basic concepts and key ideas are presented by starting with an expository review of the original fully two-dimensional local Green's function methods developed for neutron diffusion and heat conduction, and continuing through the progressively more complicated and more efficient nodal Green's function methods for neutron diffusion, heat conduction and neutron transport to establish the background for the recent development of Green's function methods in computational fluid mechanics. Some of the impressive numerical results obtained via these classes of methods for nuclear engineering problems are briefly summarized. Finally, speculations are proffered on future directions in which the development of these types of methods in fluid mechanics and other areas might lead. (orig.) [de
Computational fluid mechanics in R and D on uranium enrichment
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Soubbaramayer, O.
1988-01-01
Uranium enrichment represents an essential link in the cycle of nuclear fuels for power production. There are many processes of uranium enrichment, but three of them dominate the nuclear history as well in the past (Gaseous diffusion and centrifugation) as in the present (Laser process). The important role played by the Numerical Fluid Mechanics in the three processes is pointed out. The type of problem raised by Gaseous Diffusion is Channel Flow with wall suction, by Centrifugation, flow of a Compressible gas in a strongly rotating cylinder (Stewartson and Ekman layers) and by Laser process, Thermocapillary-buoyancy flow of a molten metal in an evaporation crucible. The methods and results in these problems are reviewed. 18 refs, 11 figs
Collective fluid mechanics of honeybee nest ventilation
Gravish, Nick; Combes, Stacey; Wood, Robert J.; Peters, Jacob
2014-11-01
Honeybees thermoregulate their brood in the warm summer months by collectively fanning their wings and creating air flow through the nest. During nest ventilation workers flap their wings in close proximity in which wings continuously operate in unsteady oncoming flows (i.e. the wake of neighboring worker bees) and near the ground. The fluid mechanics of this collective aerodynamic phenomena are unstudied and may play an important role in the physiology of colony life. We have performed field and laboratory observations of the nest ventilation wing kinematics and air flow generated by individuals and groups of honeybee workers. Inspired from these field observations we describe here a robotic model system to study collective flapping wing aerodynamics. We microfabricate arrays of 1.4 cm long flapping wings and observe the air flow generated by arrays of two or more fanning robotic wings. We vary phase, frequency, and separation distance among wings and find that net output flow is enhanced when wings operate at the appropriate phase-distance relationship to catch shed vortices from neighboring wings. These results suggest that by varying position within the fanning array honeybee workers may benefit from collective aerodynamic interactions during nest ventilation.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kempka Thomas
2015-04-01
Full Text Available We assessed the synergetic benefits of simultaneous formation fluid extraction during CO2 injection for reservoir pressure management by coupled hydro-mechanical simulations at the prospective Vedsted storage site located in northern Denmark. Effectiveness of reservoir pressure management was investigated by simulation of CO2 storage without any fluid extraction as well as with 66% and 100% equivalent volume formation fluid extraction from four wells positioned for geothermal heat recovery. Simulation results demonstrate that a total pressure reduction of up to about 1.1 MPa can be achieved at the injection well. Furthermore, the areal pressure perturbation in the storage reservoir can be significantly decreased compared to the simulation scenario without any formation fluid extraction. Following a stress regime analysis, two stress regimes were considered in the coupled hydro-mechanical simulations indicating that the maximum ground surface uplift is about 0.24 m in the absence of any reservoir pressure management. However, a ground uplift mitigation of up to 37.3% (from 0.24 m to 0.15 m can be achieved at the injection well by 100% equivalent volume formation fluid extraction. Well-based adaptation of fluid extraction rates can support achieving zero displacements at the proposed formation fluid extraction wells located close to urban infrastructure. Since shear and tensile failure do not occur under both stress regimes for all investigated scenarios, it is concluded that a safe operation of CO2 injection with simultaneous formation fluid extraction for geothermal heat recovery can be implemented at the Vedsted site.
Extension of Generalized Fluid System Simulation Program's Fluid Property Database
Patel, Kishan
2011-01-01
This internship focused on the development of additional capabilities for the General Fluid Systems Simulation Program (GFSSP). GFSSP is a thermo-fluid code used to evaluate system performance by a finite volume-based network analysis method. The program was developed primarily to analyze the complex internal flow of propulsion systems and is capable of solving many problems related to thermodynamics and fluid mechanics. GFSSP is integrated with thermodynamic programs that provide fluid properties for sub-cooled, superheated, and saturation states. For fluids that are not included in the thermodynamic property program, look-up property tables can be provided. The look-up property tables of the current release version can only handle sub-cooled and superheated states. The primary purpose of the internship was to extend the look-up tables to handle saturated states. This involves a) generation of a property table using REFPROP, a thermodynamic property program that is widely used, and b) modifications of the Fortran source code to read in an additional property table containing saturation data for both saturated liquid and saturated vapor states. Also, a method was implemented to calculate the thermodynamic properties of user-fluids within the saturation region, given values of pressure and enthalpy. These additions required new code to be written, and older code had to be adjusted to accommodate the new capabilities. Ultimately, the changes will lead to the incorporation of this new capability in future versions of GFSSP. This paper describes the development and validation of the new capability.
Elastic contact mechanics: percolation of the contact area and fluid squeeze-out.
Persson, B N J; Prodanov, N; Krick, B A; Rodriguez, N; Mulakaluri, N; Sawyer, W G; Mangiagalli, P
2012-01-01
The dynamics of fluid flow at the interface between elastic solids with rough surfaces depends sensitively on the area of real contact, in particular close to the percolation threshold, where an irregular network of narrow flow channels prevails. In this paper, numerical simulation and experimental results for the contact between elastic solids with isotropic and anisotropic surface roughness are compared with the predictions of a theory based on the Persson contact mechanics theory and the Bruggeman effective medium theory. The theory predictions are in good agreement with the experimental and numerical simulation results and the (small) deviation can be understood as a finite-size effect. The fluid squeeze-out at the interface between elastic solids with randomly rough surfaces is studied. We present results for such high contact pressures that the area of real contact percolates, giving rise to sealed-off domains with pressurized fluid at the interface. The theoretical predictions are compared to experimental data for a simple model system (a rubber block squeezed against a flat glass plate), and for prefilled syringes, where the rubber plunger stopper is lubricated by a high-viscosity silicon oil to ensure functionality of the delivery device. For the latter system we compare the breakloose (or static) friction, as a function of the time of stationary contact, to the theory prediction.
Effect of fluid balance on alveolar-arterial oxygen gradient in mechanically ventilated patients.
Aliyali, Masoud; Sharifpour, Ali; Tavakoli, Abdolrasol
2011-01-01
Fluid balance affects outcome in critically ill patients. We studied the effect of fluid balance on oxygen exchange by assessing alveolar-arterial oxygen gradient (PA-a O2) in mechanically ventilated patients. Our primary objective was to evaluate the difference in PA-aO2 and the secondary goal was to evaluate the differences in age and mortality rate. This retrospective observational study was performed on patients who were admitted to medical and surgical ICUs of Sari Imam Hospital, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, from 2003 to 2009. Daily fluid balance was calculated by input minus output. Thirty patients with continuous positive fluid balance (PFB) and 30 subjects with continuous negative fluid balance (NFB) during 4 consecutive days were enrolled in this study. PA-a O2 was calculated in these two groups. The mean (±SD) age was 48.9±21.2 yrs. in PFB group (19 males and 11 females) and 37.1±15.7 yrs. in NFB group (25 males and 5 females) which showed a statistically significant difference in age between the two groups (p = 0.017). The 24h, 48h, and 96h fluid balances were 1226(cc)±881, 1311(cc)±751, and 957(cc)±661 in PFB group and -1122(cc)±692, -920(cc)±394, and -1164(cc)±695 in NFB group, respectively. The mean differences (±SD) of PA-a O2 in 24h, 48h, and 96h versus the same value in the admission day were 11.3±39.2, 1.69±51.1, and -1.50±64 in PFB subjects and -21.8±60.8, -27.8±84.9, and -19.3±68.7 in NFB patients. The difference was statistically significant only in the first day of admission (p = 0.015). However, no difference was detected in overall mean oxygen gradient during 96h among the two groups. Mortality rate was significantly higher in PFB patients (P < 0.0001). Positive fluid balance had no significant effect on PA-a O2 but can be used as a predictor of mortality.
Noncommuting fields and non-Abelian fluids
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jackiw, R.
2004-01-01
The original ideas about noncommuting coordinates are recalled. The connection between U(1) gauge fields defined on noncommuting coordinates and fluid mechanics is explained. Non-Abelian fluid mechanics is described
Some aspects of fluid-structure coupling
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kulak, R.F.
1982-01-01
The numerical simulation of nonlinear, transient fluid-structure interactions (FSI) is a current area of concern by researchers in various fields, including the field of nuclear reactor safety. This paper primarily discusses the formulation used in an algorithm that couples three-dimensional hydrodynamic and structural domains. The fluid domain is governed by the Navier-Stokes equations, and the structural domain is governed by the equations of nonlinear structural dynamics. Here, both the fluid and structure are discretized using finite elements. The fluid is discretized with eight-noded quasi-Eulerian hexahedrons and the structural components are represented by Lagrangian triangular plate elements. The semi-discretized equations of motion are solved using an explicit temporal integrator. The coupling is accomplished by satisfying interface mechanics. The structure imposes kinematic constraints to the moving fluid boundary, and the fluid in turn provides an external loading on the structure. At each interface node, normals are computed from the nodal basis functions of only the hydrodynamic nodes. By defining the interface normal in this manner, it becomes independent of the type of structural boundary (i.e. shell, plate, continuum etc.) and thus makes this aspect of the coupling independent of the structure type. Results for several problems are presented and these include a comparison between analytical results for a FSI problem and numerical predictions
Kleinstreuer, Clement
2018-01-01
Modern Fluid Dynamics, Second Edition provides up-to-date coverage of intermediate and advanced fluids topics. The text emphasizes fundamentals and applications, supported by worked examples and case studies. Scale analysis, non-Newtonian fluid flow, surface coating, convection heat transfer, lubrication, fluid-particle dynamics, microfluidics, entropy generation, and fluid-structure interactions are among the topics covered. Part A presents fluids principles, and prepares readers for the applications of fluid dynamics covered in Part B, which includes computer simulations and project writing. A review of the engineering math needed for fluid dynamics is included in an appendix.
An intelligent data acquisition system for fluid mechanics research
Cantwell, E. R.; Zilliac, G.; Fukunishi, Y.
1989-01-01
This paper describes a novel data acquisition system for use with wind-tunnel probe-based measurements, which incorporates a degree of specific fluid dynamics knowledge into a simple expert system-like control program. The concept was developed with a rudimentary expert system coupled to a probe positioning mechanism operating in a small-scale research wind tunnel. The software consisted of two basic elements, a general-purpose data acquisition system and the rulebased control element to take and analyze data and supplying decisions as to where to measure, how many data points to take, and when to stop. The system was validated in an experiment involving a vortical flow field, showing that it was possible to increase the resolution of the experiment or, alternatively, reduce the total number of data points required, to achieve parity with the results of most conventional data acquisition approaches.
Fluid Mechanics of a High Performance Racing Bicycle Wheel
Mercat, Jean-Pierre; Cretoux, Brieuc; Huat, Francois-Xavier; Nordey, Benoit; Renaud, Maxime; Noca, Flavio
2013-11-01
In 2012, MAVIC released the most aerodynamic bicycle wheel on the market, the CXR 80. The french company MAVIC has been a world leader for many decades in the manufacturing of bicycle wheels for competitive events such as the Olympic Games and the Tour de France. Since 2010, MAVIC has been in a research partnership with the University of Applied Sciences in Geneva, Switzerland, for the aerodynamic development of bicycle wheels. While most of the development up to date has been performed in a classical wind tunnel, recent work has been conducted in an unusual setting, a hydrodynamic towing tank, in order to achieve low levels of turbulence and facilitate quantitative flow visualization (PIV). After a short introduction on the aerodynamics of bicycle wheels, preliminary fluid mechanics results based on this novel setup will be presented.
Preparation and Characterization of Water-Based Nano-fluids for Nuclear Applications
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Williams, W.C.; Forrest, E.; Hu, L.W.; Buongiorno, J.
2006-01-01
As part of an effort to evaluate water-based nano-fluids for nuclear applications, preparation and characterization has been performed for nano-fluids being considered for MIT's nano-fluid heat transfer experiments. Three methods of generating these nano-fluids are available: creating them from chemical precipitation, purchasing the nano-particles in powder form and mixing them with the base fluid, and direct purchase of prepared nano-fluids. Characterization of nano-fluids includes colloidal stability, size distribution, concentration, and elemental composition. Quality control of the nano-fluids to be used for heat transfer testing is crucial; an exact knowledge of the fluid constituents is essential to uncovering mechanisms responsible for heat transport enhancement. Testing indicates that nano-fluids created by mixing a liquid with nano-particles in powder form are often not stable, although some degree of stabilization is obtainable with pH control and/or surfactant addition. Some commercially available prepared nano-fluids have been found to contain unacceptable levels of impurities and/or include a different weight percent of nano-particles compared to vendor specifications. Tools utilized to characterize and qualify nano-fluids for this study include neutron activation analysis (NAA), inductively-coupled plasma spectroscopy (ICP), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) imaging, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and dynamic light scattering (DLS). Preparation procedures and characterization results for selected nano-fluids will be discussed in detail. (authors)
Jiang, Houshuo; Meneveau, Charles; Osborn, Thomas R.
2003-11-01
Copepods are small crustaceans living in oceans and fresh waters and play an important role in the marine and freshwater food webs. As they are the biggest biomass in the oceans some call them "the insects of the sea". Previous laboratory observations have shown that the fluid mechanical phenomena occurring at copepod body scale are crucial for the survival of copepods. One of the interesting phenomena is that many calanoid copepods display various behaviors to create the feeding currents for the purpose of capturing food particles. We have developed a fluid mechanical model to study the feeding currents. The model is a self-propelled body model in that the Navier-Stokes equations are properly coupled with the dynamic equations for the copepod's body. The model has been solved both analytically using the Stokes approximation with a spherical body shape and numerically using CFD with a realistic body shape.
Collyer, A. A.
1973-01-01
Discusses theories underlying Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids by explaining flow curves exhibited by plastic, shear-thining, and shear-thickening fluids and Bingham plastic materials. Indicates that the exact mechanism governing shear-thickening behaviors is a problem of further study. (CC)
Yielding to Stress: Recent Developments in Viscoplastic Fluid Mechanics
Balmforth, Neil J.; Frigaard, Ian A.; Ovarlez, Guillaume
2014-01-01
The archetypal feature of a viscoplastic fluid is its yield stress: If the material is not sufficiently stressed, it behaves like a solid, but once the yield stress is exceeded, the material flows like a fluid. Such behavior characterizes materials common in industries such as petroleum and chemical processing, cosmetics, and food processing and in geophysical fluid dynamics. The most common idealization of a viscoplastic fluid is the Bingham model, which has been widely used to rationalize experimental data, even though it is a crude oversimplification of true rheological behavior. The popularity of the model is in its apparent simplicity. Despite this, the sudden transition between solid-like behavior and flow introduces significant complications into the dynamics, which, as a result, has resisted much analysis. Over recent decades, theoretical developments, both analytical and computational, have provided a better understanding of the effect of the yield stress. Simultaneously, greater insight into the material behavior of real fluids has been afforded by advances in rheometry. These developments have primed us for a better understanding of the various applications in the natural and engineering sciences.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Fei Wang
Full Text Available Fluid-structural coupling occurs when microcantilever sensors vibrate in a fluid. Due to the complexity of the mechanical characteristics of microcantilevers and lack of high-precision microscopic mechanical testing instruments, effective methods for studying the fluid-structural coupling of microcantilevers are lacking, especially for non-rectangular microcantilevers. Here, we report fluid-structure interactions (FSI of the cable-membrane structure via a macroscopic study. The simplified aeroelastic model was introduced into the microscopic field to establish a fluid-structure coupling vibration model for microcantilever sensors. We used the finite element method to solve the coupled FSI system. Based on the simplified aeroelastic model, simulation analysis of the effects of the air environment on the vibration of the commonly used rectangular microcantilever was also performed. The obtained results are consistent with the literature. The proposed model can also be applied to the auxiliary design of rectangular and non-rectangular sensors used in fluid environments.
Tribodynamic Modeling of Digital Fluid Power Motors
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Johansen, Per
. In fluid power motoring and pumping units, a significant problem is that loss mechanisms do not scale down with diminishing power throughput. Although machines can reach peak efficiencies above 95%, the actual efficiency during operation, which includes part-load situations, is much lower. The invention...... of digital fluid power displacement units has been able to address this problem. The main idea of the digital fluid power displacement technology is to disable individual chambers, by use of electrical actuated valves. A displacement chamber is disabled by keeping the valve, between the chamber and the low...... design methods and tools are important to the development of digital fluid power machines. The work presented in this dissertation is part of a research program focusing on the development of digital fluid power MW-motors for use in hydraulic drive train in wind turbines. As part of this development...
Vandre, Eric
2014-11-01
Dynamic wetting is crucial to processes where a liquid displaces another fluid along a solid surface, such as the deposition of a coating liquid onto a moving substrate. Dynamic wetting fails when process speed exceeds some critical value, leading to incomplete fluid displacement and transient phenomena that impact a variety of applications, such as microfluidic devices, oil-recovery systems, and splashing droplets. Liquid coating processes are particularly sensitive to wetting failure, which can induce air entrainment and other catastrophic coating defects. Despite the industrial incentives for careful control of wetting behavior, the hydrodynamic factors that influence the transition to wetting failure remain poorly understood from empirical and theoretical perspectives. This work investigates the fundamentals of wetting failure in a variety of systems that are relevant to industrial coating flows. A hydrodynamic model is developed where an advancing fluid displaces a receding fluid along a smooth, moving substrate. Numerical solutions predict the onset of wetting failure at a critical substrate speed, which coincides with a turning point in the steady-state solution path for a given set of system parameters. Flow-field analysis reveals a physical mechanism where wetting failure results when capillary forces can no longer support the pressure gradients necessary to steadily displace the receding fluid. Novel experimental systems are used to measure the substrate speeds and meniscus shapes associated with the onset of air entrainment during wetting failure. Using high-speed visualization techniques, air entrainment is identified by the elongation of triangular air films with system-dependent size. Air films become unstable to thickness perturbations and ultimately rupture, leading to the entrainment of air bubbles. Meniscus confinement in a narrow gap between the substrate and a stationary plate is shown to delay air entrainment to higher speeds for a variety of
Todd, Jocelyn N; Maak, Travis G; Ateshian, Gerard A; Maas, Steve A; Weiss, Jeffrey A
2018-03-01
Osteoarthritis of the hip can result from mechanical factors, which can be studied using finite element (FE) analysis. FE studies of the hip often assume there is no significant loss of fluid pressurization in the articular cartilage during simulated activities and approximate the material as incompressible and elastic. This study examined the conditions under which interstitial fluid load support remains sustained during physiological motions, as well as the role of the labrum in maintaining fluid load support and the effect of its presence on the solid phase of the surrounding cartilage. We found that dynamic motions of gait and squatting maintained consistent fluid load support between cycles, while static single-leg stance experienced slight fluid depressurization with significant reduction of solid phase stress and strain. Presence of the labrum did not significantly influence fluid load support within the articular cartilage, but prevented deformation at the cartilage edge, leading to lower stress and strain conditions in the cartilage. A morphologically accurate representation of collagen fibril orientation through the thickness of the articular cartilage was not necessary to predict fluid load support. However, comparison with simplified fibril reinforcement underscored the physiological importance. The results of this study demonstrate that an elastic incompressible material approximation is reasonable for modeling a limited number of cyclic motions of gait and squatting without significant loss of accuracy, but is not appropriate for static motions or numerous repeated motions. Additionally, effects seen from removal of the labrum motivate evaluation of labral reattachment strategies in the context of labral repair. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Analytical and Numerical Studies of Several Fluid Mechanical Problems
Kong, D. L.
2014-03-01
In this thesis, three parts, each with several chapters, are respectively devoted to hydrostatic, viscous, and inertial fluids theories and applications. Involved topics include planetary, biological fluid systems, and high performance computing technology. In the hydrostatics part, the classical Maclaurin spheroids theory is generalized, for the first time, to a more realistic multi-layer model, establishing geometries of both the outer surface and the interfaces. For one of its astrophysical applications, the theory explicitly predicts physical shapes of surface and core-mantle-boundary for layered terrestrial planets, which enables the studies of some gravity problems, and the direct numerical simulations of dynamo flows in rotating planetary cores. As another application of the figure theory, the zonal flow in the deep atmosphere of Jupiter is investigated for a better understanding of the Jovian gravity field. An upper bound of gravity field distortions, especially in higher-order zonal gravitational coefficients, induced by deep zonal winds is estimated firstly. The oblate spheroidal shape of an undistorted Jupiter resulting from its fast solid body rotation is fully taken into account, which marks the most significant improvement from previous approximation based Jovian wind theories. High viscosity flows, for example Stokes flows, occur in a lot of processes involving low-speed motions in fluids. Microorganism swimming is such a typical case. A fully three dimensional analytic solution of incompressible Stokes equation is derived in the exterior domain of an arbitrarily translating and rotating prolate spheroid, which models a large family of microorganisms such as cocci bacteria. The solution is then applied to the magnetotactic bacteria swimming problem, and good consistency has been found between theoretical predictions and laboratory observations of the moving patterns of such bacteria under magnetic fields. In the analysis of dynamics of planetary
Hamiltonian description of the ideal fluid
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Morrison, P.J.
1998-01-01
The Hamiltonian viewpoint of fluid mechanical systems with few and infinite number of degrees of freedom is described. Rudimentary concepts of finite-degree-of-freedom Hamiltonian dynamics are reviewed, in the context of the passive advection of a scalar or tracer field by a fluid. The notions of integrability, invariant-tori, chaos, overlap criteria, and invariant-tori breakup are described in this context. Preparatory to the introduction of field theories, systems with an infinite number of degrees of freedom, elements of functional calculus and action principles of mechanics are reviewed. The action principle for the ideal compressible fluid is described in terms of Lagrangian or material variables. Hamiltonian systems in terms of noncanonical variables are presented, including several examples of Eulerian or inviscid fluid dynamics. Lie group theory sufficient for the treatment of reduction is reviewed. The reduction from Lagrangian to Eulerian variables is treated along with Clebsch variable decompositions. Stability in the canonical and noncanonical Hamiltonian contexts is described. Sufficient conditions for stability, such as Rayleigh-like criteria, are seen to be only sufficient in the general case because of the existence of negative-energy modes, which are possessed by interesting fluid equilibria. Linearly stable equilibria with negative energy modes are argued to be unstable when nonlinearity or dissipation is added. The energy-Casimir method is discussed and a variant of it that depends upon the notion of dynamical accessibility is described. The energy content of a perturbation about a general fluid equilibrium is calculated using three methods. copyright 1998 The American Physical Society
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Song Haiyan
2017-01-01
Full Text Available It is important to study the properties and mechanics of egg drop impacts in order to reduce egg loss during processing and logistics and to provide a basis for the protective packaging of egg products. In this paper, we present the results of our study of the effects of the structural parameters on the mechanical properties of an egg using a finite element model of the egg. Based on Fluid-Solid coupling theory, a finite element model of an egg was constructed using ADINA, a finite element calculation and analysis software package. To simplify the model, the internal fluid of the egg was considered to be a homogeneous substance. The egg drop impact was simulated by the coupling solution, and the feasibility of the model was verified by comparison with the experimental results of a drop test. In summary, the modeling scheme was shown to be feasible and the simulation results provide a theoretical basis for the optimum design of egg packaging and egg processing equipment.
"Audacity or Precision": The Paradoxes of Henri Villat's Fluid Mechanics in Interwar France
Aubin , David
2010-01-01
In Interwar France, Henri Villat became the true leader of theoretical researches on fluid mechanics. Most of his original work was done before the First World War; it was highly theoretical and its applicability was questioned. After having organized the first post-WWI International Congress of Mathematicians in 1920, Villat became the editor of the famous Journal de math\\'ematiques pure et appliqu\\'es and the director of the influential book series "M\\'emorial des sciences math\\'ematiques."...
Intrauterine Defensive Mechanism of Amniotic Fluid and Fetal Membranes
金山, 尚裕
1994-01-01
To determine the intrauterine defensive role of urinary trypsin inhibitor (UTI), we studied the effects of UTI in amniotic fluid, fetal membranes and myometrium. The level of UTI was 94±34U/ml in neonatal urine (compared to adult urine 8.0±6.0U/ml) and 88±37U/ml in amniotic fluid. This may indicate that the main source of UTI in the amniotic fluid is the fetal urine. UTI was found to be concentrated in vernix, fetal intestine, amniotic membranes and uterine myometrium. Immunostaining of term ...
Generalised fluid dynamics and quantum mechanics
Broer, L.J.F.
1974-01-01
A generalised theory of irrotational fluid flow is developed in hamiltonian form. This allows a systematic derivation of equations for momentum, energy and the rate of work. It is shown that a nonlinear field equation for weakly interacting condensed bosons as given by Gross1) and the one-electron
Dissipative fluid mechanics of nuclei
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Morgenstern, B.
1987-11-01
With the aim to describe nucleus-nucleus collisions at low energies in the present thesis for the first time dissipative fluid dynamics for large-amplitude nuclear motion have been formulated. Thereby the collective dynamics are described in a scaling approximation in which the wave function of the system is distorted by a vortex-free velocity field. For infintely extended nuclear matter this scaling of the wave functions leads to a deformation of the Fermi sphere. Two-body collisions destroy the collective deformation of the Fermi sphere and yield so the dissipative contribution of the motion. Equations of motion for a finite set of collective variables and a field equation for the collective velocity potential in the limit of infinitely many degrees of freedom were developed. In the elastic limit oscillations around the equilibrium position are described. For small collective amplitudes and vortex-free velocity fields the integrodifferential equation for the velocity potential in the elastic limit could be transformed to the divergence of the field equation of fluid dynamics. In the dissipative limit an equation results which is similar to the Navier-Stokes equation and transforms to the divergence of the Navier-Stokes equation for vortex-free fields. It was shown that generally the dynamics of the many-body system is described by non-Markovian equations. (orig./HSI) [de
A fluid-mechanical model of elastocapillary coalescence
Singh, Kiran
2014-03-25
© 2014 Cambridge University Press. We present a fluid-mechanical model of the coalescence of a number of elastic objects due to surface tension. We consider an array of spring-block elements separated by thin liquid films, whose dynamics are modelled using lubrication theory. With this simplified model of elastocapillary coalescence, we present the results of numerical simulations for a large number of elements, N = O(10^{4}). A linear stability analysis shows that pairwise coalescence is always the most unstable mode of deformation. However, the numerical simulations show that the cluster sizes actually produced by coalescence from a small white-noise perturbation have a distribution that depends on the relative strength of surface tension and elasticity, as measured by an elastocapillary number K. Both the maximum cluster size and the mean cluster size scale like K^{-1/2} for small K. An analytical solution for the response of the system to a localized perturbation shows that such perturbations generate propagating disturbance fronts, which leave behind \\'frozen-in\\' clusters of a predictable size that also depends on K. A good quantitative comparison between the cluster-size statistics from noisy perturbations and this \\'frozen-in\\' cluster size suggests that propagating fronts may play a crucial role in the dynamics of coalescence.
Crystal Growth and Fluid Mechanics Problems in Directional Solidification
Tanveer, Saleh A.; Baker, Gregory R.; Foster, Michael R.
2001-01-01
Our work in directional solidification has been in the following areas: (1) Dynamics of dendrites including rigorous mathematical analysis of the resulting equations; (2) Examination of the near-structurally unstable features of the mathematically related Hele-Shaw dynamics; (3) Numerical studies of steady temperature distribution in a vertical Bridgman device; (4) Numerical study of transient effects in a vertical Bridgman device; (5) Asymptotic treatment of quasi-steady operation of a vertical Bridgman furnace for large Rayleigh numbers and small Biot number in 3D; and (6) Understanding of Mullins-Sererka transition in a Bridgman device with fluid dynamics is accounted for.
Fluid mechanics of needle valves with rounded components Part I: Configurations and models
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Tesař, Václav
2017-01-01
Roč. 254, February (2017), s. 101-108 ISSN 0924-4247 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-23046S Institutional support: RVO:61388998 Keywords : needle valves * valve with rounded inlet * valve Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics OBOR OECD: Fluids and plasma physics (including surface physics) Impact factor: 2.499, year: 2016 http://ac.els-cdn.com/S0924424716310226/1-s2.0-S0924424716310226-main.pdf?_tid=f1570ee0-2f46-11e7-b057-00000aab0f26&acdnat=1493736920_595bfaae6a6922d4213225a968d5d74c
The mechanism of fluid secretion in the rabbit pancreas studied by means of various inhibitors.
Kuijpers, G A; Van Nooy, I G; De Pont, J J; Bonting, S L
1984-12-05
In order to increase our understanding of the mechanism of pancreatic fluid secretion we have studied the effects of various transport inhibitors on this process in the isolated rabbit pancreas. In this preparation, a high rate of unstimulated fluid secretion occurs, which probably originates from the ductular cells. Inhibitory are ouabain, furosemide, bumetanide, piretanide, 4-acetamido-4'-isothiocyanostilbene-2,2'-disulfonic acid (SITS) and acetazolamide, with their half-inhibitory concentrations: 2 X 10(-6) M (ouabain), 1.3 X 10(-3) M (furosemide), 2.2 X 10(-3) M (bumetanide and piretanide) and 1.4 X 10(-4) M (SITS). With acetazolamide a maximal inhibition of only 20% is found at 10(-3) M. Amiloride (10(-3) M) has no effect on pancreatic fluid secretion. The inhibitory effects on HCO-3 output are always larger and those on Cl- output lower than those on fluid secretion. The results suggest that the ouabain-sensitive (Na+ + K+)-ATPase system provides the energy for a Na+-gradient-driven Cl--HCO-3-exchange transport system, sensitive to the loop diuretics furosemide, bumetanide and piretanide and to SITS. This system would drive the transcellular transport of HCO-3 and secondarily that of cations, Cl- and water.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Limei Tian
2015-11-01
Full Text Available Studies have shown that the structure of dolphin skin controls fluid media dynamically. Gaining inspiration from this phenomenon, a kind of bionic structural heterogeneous composite material was designed. The bionic structural heterogeneous composite material is composed of two materials: a rigid metal base layer with bionic structures and an elastic polymer surface layer with the corresponding mirror structures. The fluid control mechanism of the bionic structural heterogeneous composite material was investigated using a fluid–solid interaction method in ANSYS Workbench. The results indicated that the bionic structural heterogeneous composite material’s fluid control mechanism is its elastic deformation, which is caused by the coupling action between the elastic surface material and the bionic structure. This deformation can decrease the velocity gradient of the fluid boundary layer through changing the fluid–solid actual contact surface and reduce the frictional force. The bionic structural heterogeneous composite material can also absorb some energy through elastic deformation and avoid energy loss. The bionic structural heterogeneous composite material was applied to the impeller of a centrifugal pump in a contrast experiment, increasing the pump efficiency by 5% without changing the hydraulic model of the impeller. The development of this bionic structural heterogeneous composite material will be straightforward from an engineering point of view, and it will have valuable practical applications.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhou Jianfeng; Gu Boqin
2007-01-01
The heat transfer model of the rotating ring and the stationary ring of mechanical seal was built. The method to calculate the frictional heat that transferred by the rings was given. the coupling analysis of the frictional heat of fluid film and thermal deformation of end faces was carried out by using FEA and BP ANN, and the relationship among the rotational speed ω, the fluid film thickness h i on the inner diameter of sealing face and the radial separation angle β of deformed end faces was obtained. Corresponding to a given ω, h i and β can be obtained by the equilibrium condition between the closing force and the bearing force of fluid film. The relationship between the leakage rate and the closing force was analyzed, and the fundamental of controlling the leakage rate by regulating the closing force was also discussed. (authors)
Song, Yuntao; Du, Shijun
2013-01-01
Tokamak Engineering Mechanics offers concise and thorough coverage of engineering mechanics theory and application for tokamaks, and the material is reinforced by numerous examples. Chapter topics include general principles, static mechanics, dynamic mechanics, thermal fluid mechanics and multiphysics structural mechanics of tokamak structure analysis. The theoretical principle of the design and the methods of the analysis for various components and load conditions are presented, while the latest engineering technologies are also introduced. The book will provide readers involved in the study
Ghosal, Sandip
2004-01-01
Electroosmotic flow (EOF) usually accompanies electrophoretic migration of charged species in capillary electrophoresis unless special precautions are taken to suppress it. The presence of the EOF provides certain advantages in separations. It is an alternative to mechanical pumps, which are inefficient and difficult to build at small scales, for transporting reagents and analytes on microfluidic chips. The downside is that any imperfection that distorts the EOF profile reduces the separation efficiency. In this paper, the basic facts about EOF are reviewed from the perspective of fluid mechanics and its effect on separations in free solution capillary zone electrophoresis is discussed in the light of recent advances.
Analysis of Skylab IV fluid mechanic science demonstration
Klett, M. G.; Bourgeois, S. V.
1975-01-01
Several science demonstrations performed on Skylab III and IV were concerned with the behavior of fluid drops free floating in microgravity. These demonstrations, with large liquid drops, included the oscillation, rotation, impact and coalescence, and air injection into the drops. Rayleigh's analysis of the oscillation of spherical drops of a liquid predicts accurately the effect of size and surface tension on the frequency of vibrated water globules in the Skylab demonstration. However, damping occurred much faster than predicted by Lamb's or Scriven's analyses of the damping time for spherical drops. The impact demonstrations indicated that a minimum velocity is necessary to overcome surface forces and effect a coalescence, but a precise criterion for the coalescence of liquids in low g could not be determined.
Viscous Flow with Large Fluid-Fluid Interface Displacement
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Rasmussen, Henrik Koblitz; Hassager, Ole; Saasen, Arild
1998-01-01
The arbitrary Lagrange-Euler (ALE) kinematic description has been implemented in a 3D transient finite element program to simulate multiple fluid flows with fluid-fluid interface or surface displacements. The description of fluid interfaces includes variable interfacial tension, and the formulation...... is useful in the simulation of low and intermediate Reynolds number viscous flow. The displacement of two immiscible Newtonian fluids in a vertical (concentric and eccentric) annulus and a (vertical and inclined)tube is simulated....
Computational fluid-dynamic model of laser-induced breakdown in air
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dors, Ivan G.; Parigger, Christian G.
2003-01-01
Temperature and pressure profiles are computed by the use of a two-dimensional, axially symmetric, time-accurate computational fluid-dynamic model for nominal 10-ns optical breakdown laser pulses. The computational model includes a kinetics mechanism that implements plasma equilibrium kinetics in ionized regions and nonequilibrium, multistep, finite-rate reactions in nonionized regions. Fluid-physics phenomena following laser-induced breakdown are recorded with high-speed shadowgraph techniques. The predicted fluid phenomena are shown by direct comparison with experimental records to agree with the flow patterns that are characteristic of laser spark decay
Yoon, Jeoung Seok; Zang, Arno; Zimmermann, Günter; Stephansson, Ove
2016-04-01
Operation of fluid injection into and withdrawal from the subsurface for various purposes has been known to induce earthquakes. Such operations include hydraulic fracturing for shale gas extraction, hydraulic stimulation for Enhanced Geothermal System development and waste water disposal. Among these, several damaging earthquakes have been reported in the USA in particular in the areas of high-rate massive amount of wastewater injection [1] mostly with natural fault systems. Oil and gas production have been known to induce earthquake where pore fluid pressure decreases in some cases by several tens of Mega Pascal. One recent seismic event occurred in November 2013 near Azle, Texas where a series of earthquakes began along a mapped ancient fault system [2]. It was studied that a combination of brine production and waste water injection near the fault generated subsurface pressures sufficient to induced earthquakes on near-critically stressed faults. This numerical study aims at investigating the occurrence mechanisms of such earthquakes induced by fluid injection [3] and withdrawal by using hydro-geomechanical coupled dynamic simulator (Itasca's Particle Flow Code 2D). Generic models are setup to investigate the sensitivity of several parameters which include fault orientation, frictional properties, distance from the injection well to the fault, amount of fluid withdrawal around the injection well, to the response of the fault systems and the activation magnitude. Fault slip movement over time in relation to the diffusion of pore pressure is analyzed in detail. Moreover, correlations between the spatial distribution of pore pressure change and the locations of induced seismic events and fault slip rate are investigated. References [1] Keranen KM, Weingarten M, Albers GA, Bekins BA, Ge S, 2014. Sharp increase in central Oklahoma seismicity since 2008 induced by massive wastewater injection, Science 345, 448, DOI: 10.1126/science.1255802. [2] Hornbach MJ, DeShon HR
Farassat, Fereidoun; Myers, Michael K.
2011-01-01
This paper is the first part of a three part tutorial on multidimensional generalized functions (GFs) and their applications in aeroacoustics and fluid mechanics. The subject is highly fascinating and essential in many areas of science and, in particular, wave propagation problems. In this tutorial, we strive to present rigorously and clearly the basic concepts and the tools that are needed to use GFs in applications effectively and with ease. We give many examples to help the readers in understanding the mathematical ideas presented here. The first part of the tutorial is on the basic concepts of GFs. Here we define GFs, their properties and some common operations on them. We define the important concept of generalized differentiation and then give some interesting elementary and advanced examples on Green's functions and wave propagation problems. Here, the analytic power of GFs in applications is demonstrated with ease and elegance. Part 2 of this tutorial is on the diverse applications of generalized derivatives (GDs). Part 3 is on generalized Fourier transformations and some more advanced topics. One goal of writing this tutorial is to convince readers that, because of their powerful operational properties, GFs are absolutely essential and useful in engineering and physics, particularly in aeroacoustics and fluid mechanics.
Mass sensors with mechanical traps for weighing single cells in different fluids.
Weng, Yaochung; Delgado, Francisco Feijó; Son, Sungmin; Burg, Thomas P; Wasserman, Steven C; Manalis, Scott R
2011-12-21
We present two methods by which single cells can be mechanically trapped and continuously monitored within the suspended microchannel resonator (SMR) mass sensor. Since the fluid surrounding the trapped cell can be quickly and completely replaced on demand, our methods are well suited for measuring changes in cell size and growth in response to drugs or other chemical stimuli. We validate our methods by measuring the density of single polystyrene beads and Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast cells with a precision of approximately 10(-3) g cm(-3), and by monitoring the growth of single mouse lymphoblast cells before and after drug treatment.
Transport Coefficients of Fluids
Eu, Byung Chan
2006-01-01
Until recently the formal statistical mechanical approach offered no practicable method for computing the transport coefficients of liquids, and so most practitioners had to resort to empirical fitting formulas. This has now changed, as demonstrated in this innovative monograph. The author presents and applies new methods based on statistical mechanics for calculating the transport coefficients of simple and complex liquids over wide ranges of density and temperature. These molecular theories enable the transport coefficients to be calculated in terms of equilibrium thermodynamic properties, and the results are shown to account satisfactorily for experimental observations, including even the non-Newtonian behavior of fluids far from equilibrium.
Han, Duanduan; Ugaz, Victor
2017-01-01
Three self-contained mini-labs were integrated into a core undergraduate fluid mechanics course, with the goal of delivering hands-on content in a manner scalable to large class sizes. These mini-labs supported learning objectives involving friction loss in pipes, flow measurement, and centrifugal pump analysis. The hands-on experiments were…
Pore Fluid Effects on Shear Modulus for Sandstones with Soft Anisotropy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Berryman, J G
2004-01-01
A general analysis of poroelasticity for vertical transverse isotropy (VTI) shows that four eigenvectors are pure shear modes with no coupling to the pore-fluidmechanics. The remaining two eigenvectors are linear combinations of pure compression and uniaxial shear, both of which are coupled to the fluid mechanics. After reducing the problem to a 2x2 system, the analysis shows in a relatively elementary fashion how a poroelastic system with isotropic solid elastic frame, but with anisotropy introduced through the poroelastic coefficients, interacts with the mechanics of the pore fluid and produces shear dependence on fluid properties in the overall mechanical system. The analysis shows, for example, that this effect is always present (though sometimes small in magnitude) in the systems studied, and can be quite large (up to a definite maximum increase of 20 per cent) in some rocks--including Spirit River sandstone and Schuler-Cotton Valley sandstone
Zhao, Feihu; Vaughan, Ted J; Mc Garrigle, Myles J; McNamara, Laoise M
2017-10-01
Tissue formation within tissue engineering (TE) scaffolds is preceded by growth of the cells throughout the scaffold volume and attachment of cells to the scaffold substrate. It is known that mechanical stimulation, in the form of fluid perfusion or mechanical strain, enhances cell differentiation and overall tissue formation. However, due to the complex multi-physics environment of cells within TE scaffolds, cell transport under mechanical stimulation is not fully understood. Therefore, in this study, we have developed a coupled multiphysics model to predict cell density distribution in a TE scaffold. In this model, cell transport is modelled as a thermal conduction process, which is driven by the pore fluid pressure under applied loading. As a case study, the model is investigated to predict the cell density patterns of pre-osteoblasts MC3T3-e1 cells under a range of different loading regimes, to obtain an understanding of desirable mechanical stimulation that will enhance cell density distribution within TE scaffolds. The results of this study have demonstrated that fluid perfusion can result in a higher cell density in the scaffold region closed to the outlet, while cell density distribution under mechanical compression was similar with static condition. More importantly, the study provides a novel computational approach to predict cell distribution in TE scaffolds under mechanical loading. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
2017-07-05
SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: We use multiscale modeling and computational fluid dynamics to examine the stability of a swimming organism in the face of...information is estimated to average 1 hour per response, including the time for reviewing instructions, searching existing data sources, gathering and
Johan, Wiklund; Reinhardt, Kotze; Beat, Birkhofer; Stefano, Ricci; Valentino, Meacci; Mats, Stading; Rainer, Haldenwang; SP-Technical Research Institute of Sweden; FPRC, Cape Peninsula University of Technology; Sika Services AG; Information Engineering Department - University of Florence; Information Engineering Department - University of Florence; SP-Technical Research Institute of Sweden; FPRC, Cape Peninsula University of Technology
2015-01-01
In this work we have presented the world's first commercially available embedded in-line fluids characterization system, "Flow-Viz". It has been specifically designed for the non-invasive, in-line, continuous, real-time velocity profile and rheological assessment of opaque, non-Newtonian industrial fluids. The Flow-Viz system has been successfully installed in pilot plants of international companies and used also for academic research. The technology has been applied to a wide range of fluids...
Schulze, Waltraud X.; Sanggaard, Kristian W.; Kreuzer, Ines; Knudsen, Anders D.; Bemm, Felix; Thøgersen, Ida B.; Bräutigam, Andrea; Thomsen, Line R.; Schliesky, Simon; Dyrlund, Thomas F.; Escalante-Perez, Maria; Becker, Dirk; Schultz, Jörg; Karring, Henrik; Weber, Andreas; Højrup, Peter; Hedrich, Rainer; Enghild, Jan J.
2012-01-01
The Venus flytrap (Dionaea muscipula) is one of the most well-known carnivorous plants because of its unique ability to capture small animals, usually insects or spiders, through a unique snap-trapping mechanism. The animals are subsequently killed and digested so that the plants can assimilate nutrients, as they grow in mineral-deficient soils. We deep sequenced the cDNA from Dionaea traps to obtain transcript libraries, which were used in the mass spectrometry-based identification of the proteins secreted during digestion. The identified proteins consisted of peroxidases, nucleases, phosphatases, phospholipases, a glucanase, chitinases, and proteolytic enzymes, including four cysteine proteases, two aspartic proteases, and a serine carboxypeptidase. The majority of the most abundant proteins were categorized as pathogenesis-related proteins, suggesting that the plant's digestive system evolved from defense-related processes. This in-depth characterization of a highly specialized secreted fluid from a carnivorous plant provides new information about the plant's prey digestion mechanism and the evolutionary processes driving its defense pathways and nutrient acquisition. PMID:22891002
Fluid Mechanics of Urban Environments
Fernando, Harindra J.
2008-11-01
The rapid urbanization of the Earth has led to highly populated cities that act as concentrated centers of anthropogenic stressors on the natural environment. The degradation of environmental quality due to such stressors, in turn, greatly impacts human behavior. Anthropogenic stressors largely originate as a result of coupling between man-made urban elements (i.e., networks of engineering and socio-economic infrastructures) and the environment, for which surrounding fluid motions play a key role. In recent years, research efforts have been directed at the understanding and modeling of fluid motions in urban areas, infrastructure dynamics and interactions thereof, with the hope of identifying environmental impacts of urbanization and complex outcomes (or ``emergent properties'') of nominally simple interactions between infrastructures and environment. Such consequences play an important role in determining the ``resilience'' of cities under anthropogenic stressors, defined as maintaining the structure and essential functions of an urbanity without regime shifts. Holistic integrated models that meld the dynamics of infrastructures and environment as well as ``quality of life'' attributes are becoming powerful decision-making tools with regard to sustainability of urban areas (continuance or even enhancement of socio-economic activities in harmony with the environment). The rudimentary forms of integrated models are beginning to take shape, augmented by comprehensive field studies and advanced measurement platforms to validate them. This presentation deals with the challenges of modeling urban atmosphere, subject to anthropogenic forcing. An important emergent property, the Urban Heat Island, and its role in determining resilience and sustainability of cities will be discussed based on the prediction of a coupled model.
Brom, Sarah Susanne; Schnitzspahn, Katharina Marlene; Melzer, Marlen; Hagner, Franziska; Bernhard, Anka; Kliegel, Matthias
2014-03-01
The aim of the present study was to test if a cognitive strategy improves older adults' prospective memory performance in a naturalistic health task. Moreover, it was tested if a possible strategy effect is moderated by individual differences. Therefore, a group of older adults was asked to perform a task taken from the medication adherence literature (i.e., blood pressure monitoring). Half of them were asked to form implementation intentions. Additionally, crystallized pragmatics and fluid mechanics, conscientiousness, self-efficacy, and lifestyle factors were assessed as possible moderators. Results showed a strong positive strategy effect on prospective memory. Moreover, the effect was qualified by a significant interaction and only emerged for participants with low levels in fluid mechanics. No other moderator showed an effect. In conclusion, an enhancing effect of implementation intentions on prospective memory seems to be dependent on individual differences in cognitive capacity and less related to key motivational or personality variables.
Brenner, Howard
2011-12-01
This paper presents a unified theory of phoretic phenomena in single-component fluids. Simple formulas are given for the phoretic velocities of small inert force-free non-Brownian particles migrating through otherwise quiescent single-component gases and liquids and animated by a gradient in the fluid's temperature (thermophoresis), pressure (barophoresis), density (pycnophoresis), or any combination thereof. The ansatz builds upon a recent paper [Phys. Rev. E 84, 046309 (2011)] concerned with slip of the fluid's mass velocity at solid surfaces--that is, with phenomena arising from violations of the classical no-slip fluid-mechanical boundary condition. Experimental and other data are cited in support of the phoretic model developed herein.
Instrumentation, measurements, and experiments in fluids
Rathakrishnan, E
2007-01-01
NEED AND OBJECTIVE OF EXPERIMENTAL STUDY Some Fluid Mechanics MeasurementsMeasurement SystemsSome of the Important Quantities Associated with FluidFlow MeasurementsFUNDAMENTALS OF FLUID MECHANICSProperties of FluidsThermodynamic PropertiesSurface TensionAnalysis of Fluid FlowBasic and Subsidiary Laws for Continuous MediaKinematics of Fluid FlowStreamlinesPotential FlowViscous FlowsGas DynamicsWIND TUNNELSLow-Speed Wind TunnelsPower Losses in a Wind TunnelHigh-Speed Wind TunnelsHypersonic TunnelsInstrume
Van Dam, Jeremy Daniel; Turnquist, Norman Arnold; Raminosoa, Tsarafidy; Shah, Manoj Ramprasad; Shen, Xiaochun
2015-09-29
An electric machine is presented. The electric machine includes a hollow rotor; and a stator disposed within the hollow rotor, the stator defining a flow channel. The hollow rotor includes a first end portion defining a fluid inlet, a second end portion defining a fluid outlet; the fluid inlet, the fluid outlet, and the flow channel of the stator being configured to allow passage of a fluid from the fluid inlet to the fluid outlet via the flow channel; and wherein the hollow rotor is characterized by a largest cross-sectional area of hollow rotor, and wherein the flow channel is characterized by a smallest cross-sectional area of the flow channel, wherein the smallest cross-sectional area of the flow channel is at least about 25% of the largest cross-sectional area of the hollow rotor. An electric fluid pump and a power generation system are also presented.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Guangjian Ni
2014-01-01
Full Text Available The cochlea plays a crucial role in mammal hearing. The basic function of the cochlea is to map sounds of different frequencies onto corresponding characteristic positions on the basilar membrane (BM. Sounds enter the fluid-filled cochlea and cause deflection of the BM due to pressure differences between the cochlear fluid chambers. These deflections travel along the cochlea, increasing in amplitude, until a frequency-dependent characteristic position and then decay away rapidly. The hair cells can detect these deflections and encode them as neural signals. Modelling the mechanics of the cochlea is of help in interpreting experimental observations and also can provide predictions of the results of experiments that cannot currently be performed due to technical limitations. This paper focuses on reviewing the numerical modelling of the mechanical and electrical processes in the cochlea, which include fluid coupling, micromechanics, the cochlear amplifier, nonlinearity, and electrical coupling.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sun Zong-Li; Kang Yan-Shuang
2011-01-01
Classical density functional theory is used to study the associating Lennard—Jones fluids in contact with spherical hard wall of different curvature radii. The interfacial properties including contact density and fluid-solid interfacial tension are investigated. The influences of associating energy, curvature of hard wall and the bulk density of fluids on these properties are analyzed in detail. The results may provide helpful clues to understand the interfacial properties of other complex fluids. (condensed matter: structure, mechanical and thermal properties)
Brims, Fraser J H; Davies, Michael G; Elia, Andy; Griffiths, Mark J D
2015-01-01
Pleural effusions occur commonly after cardiac surgery and the effects of drainage on gas exchange in this population are not well established. We examined pulmonary function indices following drainage of pleural effusions in cardiac surgery patients. We performed a retrospective study examining the effects of pleural fluid drainage on the lung function indices of patients recovering from cardiac surgery requiring mechanical ventilation for more than 7 days. We specifically analysed patients who had pleural fluid removed via an intercostal tube (ICT: drain group) compared with those of a control group (no effusion, no ICT). In the drain group, 52 ICTs were sited in 45 patients. The mean (SD) volume of fluid drained was 1180 (634) mL. Indices of oxygenation were significantly worse in the drain group compared with controls prior to drainage. The arterial oxygen tension (PaO2)/fractional inspired oxygen (FiO2) (P/F) ratio improved on day 1 after ICT placement (mean (SD), day 0: 31.01 (8.92) vs 37.18 (10.7); pdrain group patients were more likely to have an improved mode of ventilation on day 1 compared with controls (p=0.028). Pleural effusion after cardiac surgery may impair oxygenation. Drainage of pleural fluid is associated with a rapid and sustained improvement in oxygenation.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. A. Hemeda
2013-01-01
Full Text Available An extension of the so-called new iterative method (NIM has been used to handle linear and nonlinear fractional partial differential equations. The main property of the method lies in its flexibility and ability to solve nonlinear equations accurately and conveniently. Therefore, a general framework of the NIM is presented for analytical treatment of fractional partial differential equations in fluid mechanics. The fractional derivatives are described in the Caputo sense. Numerical illustrations that include the fractional wave equation, fractional Burgers equation, fractional KdV equation, fractional Klein-Gordon equation, and fractional Boussinesq-like equation are investigated to show the pertinent features of the technique. Comparison of the results obtained by the NIM with those obtained by both Adomian decomposition method (ADM and the variational iteration method (VIM reveals that the NIM is very effective and convenient. The basic idea described in this paper is expected to be further employed to solve other similar linear and nonlinear problems in fractional calculus.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Costa, V.A.F. [Departamento de Engenharia Mecanica, Universidade de Aveiro, Campus Universitario de Santiago, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal)
2006-07-15
Care needs to be taken when considering the viscous dissipation in the energy conservation formulation of the natural convection problem in fluid-saturated porous media. The unique energy formulation compatible with the First Law of Thermodynamics informs us that if the viscous dissipation term is taken into account, also the work of pressure forces term needs to be taken into account. In integral terms, the work of pressure forces must equal the energy dissipated by viscous effects, and the net energy generation in the overall domain must be zero. If only the (positive) viscous dissipation term is considered in the energy conservation equation, the domain behaves as a heat multiplier, with an heat output greater than the heat input. Only the energy formulation consistent with the First Law of Thermodynamics leads to the correct flow and temperature fields, as well as of the heat transfer parameters characterizing the involved porous device. Attention is given to the natural convection problem in a square enclosure filled with a fluid-saturated porous medium, using the Darcy Law to describe the fluid flow, but the main ideas and conclusions apply equally for any general natural or mixed convection heat transfer problem. It is also analyzed the validity of the Oberbeck-Boussinesq approximation when applied to natural convection problems in fluid-saturated porous media. (author)
Fluid-structure interactions models, analysis and finite elements
Richter, Thomas
2017-01-01
This book starts by introducing the fundamental concepts of mathematical continuum mechanics for fluids and solids and their coupling. Special attention is given to the derivation of variational formulations for the subproblems describing fluid- and solid-mechanics as well as the coupled fluid-structure interaction problem. Two monolithic formulations for fluid-structure interactions are described in detail: the well-established ALE formulation and the modern Fully Eulerian formulation, which can effectively deal with problems featuring large deformation and contact. Further, the book provides details on state-of-the-art discretization schemes for fluid- and solid-mechanics and considers the special needs of coupled problems with interface-tracking and interface-capturing techniques. Lastly, advanced topics like goal-oriented error estimation, multigrid solution and gradient-based optimization schemes are discussed in the context of fluid-structure interaction problems.
Modelling of reactive fluid transport in deformable porous rocks
Yarushina, V. M.; Podladchikov, Y. Y.
2009-04-01
One outstanding challenge in geology today is the formulation of an understanding of the interaction between rocks and fluids. Advances in such knowledge are important for a broad range of geologic settings including partial melting and subsequent migration and emplacement of a melt into upper levels of the crust, or fluid flow during regional metamorphism and metasomatism. Rock-fluid interaction involves heat and mass transfer, deformation, hydrodynamic flow, and chemical reactions, thereby necessitating its consideration as a complex process coupling several simultaneous mechanisms. Deformation, chemical reactions, and fluid flow are coupled processes. Each affects the others. Special effort is required for accurate modelling of the porosity field through time. Mechanical compaction of porous rocks is usually treated under isothermal or isoentropic simplifying assumptions. However, joint consideration of both mechanical compaction and reactive porosity alteration requires somewhat greater than usual care about thermodynamic consistency. Here we consider the modelling of multi-component, multi-phase systems, which is fundamental to the study of fluid-rock interaction. Based on the conservation laws for mass, momentum, and energy in the form adopted in the theory of mixtures, we derive a thermodynamically admissible closed system of equations describing the coupling of heat and mass transfer, chemical reactions, and fluid flow in a deformable solid matrix. Geological environments where reactive transport is important are located at different depths and accordingly have different rheologies. In the near surface, elastic or elastoplastic properties would dominate, whereas viscoplasticity would have a profound effect deeper in the lithosphere. Poorly understood rheologies of heterogeneous porous rocks are derived from well understood processes (i.e., elasticity, viscosity, plastic flow, fracturing, and their combinations) on the microscale by considering a
Modelling the fluid mechanics of cilia and flagella in reproduction and development.
Montenegro-Johnson, Thomas D; Smith, Andrew A; Smith, David J; Loghin, Daniel; Blake, John R
2012-10-01
Cilia and flagella are actively bending slender organelles, performing functions such as motility, feeding and embryonic symmetry breaking. We review the mechanics of viscous-dominated microscale flow, including time-reversal symmetry, drag anisotropy of slender bodies, and wall effects. We focus on the fundamental force singularity, higher-order multipoles, and the method of images, providing physical insight and forming a basis for computational approaches. Two biological problems are then considered in more detail: 1) left-right symmetry breaking flow in the node, a microscopic structure in developing vertebrate embryos, and 2) motility of microswimmers through non-Newtonian fluids. Our model of the embryonic node reveals how particle transport associated with morphogenesis is modulated by the gradual emergence of cilium posterior tilt. Our model of swimming makes use of force distributions within a body-conforming finite-element framework, allowing the solution of nonlinear inertialess Carreau flow. We find that a three-sphere model swimmer and a model sperm are similarly affected by shear-thinning; in both cases swimming due to a prescribed beat is enhanced by shear-thinning, with optimal Deborah number around 0.8. The sperm exhibits an almost perfect linear relationship between velocity and the logarithm of the ratio of zero to infinite shear viscosity, with shear-thickening hindering cell progress.
Thermostating highly confined fluids.
Bernardi, Stefano; Todd, B D; Searles, Debra J
2010-06-28
In this work we show how different use of thermostating devices and modeling of walls influence the mechanical and dynamical properties of confined nanofluids. We consider a two dimensional fluid undergoing Couette flow using nonequilibrium molecular dynamics simulations. Because the system is highly inhomogeneous, the density shows strong fluctuations across the channel. We compare the dynamics produced by applying a thermostating device directly to the fluid with that obtained when the wall is thermostated, considering also the effects of using rigid walls. This comparison involves an analysis of the chaoticity of the fluid and evaluation of mechanical properties across the channel. We look at two thermostating devices with either rigid or vibrating atomic walls and compare them with a system only thermostated by conduction through vibrating atomic walls. Sensitive changes are observed in the xy component of the pressure tensor, streaming velocity, and density across the pore and the Lyapunov localization of the fluid. We also find that the fluid slip can be significantly reduced by rigid walls. Our results suggest caution in interpreting the results of systems in which fluid atoms are thermostated and/or wall atoms are constrained to be rigid, such as, for example, water inside carbon nanotubes.
Fluid flow behaviour of gas-condensate and near-miscible fluids at the pore scale
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dawe, Richard A. [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of West Indies, St. Augustine (Trinidad and Tobago); Grattoni, Carlos A. [Department of Earth Science and Engineering, Imperial College, London, SW7 2BP (United Kingdom)
2007-02-15
Retrograde condensate reservoir behaviour is complex with much of the detailed mechanisms of the multiphase fluid transport and mass transfer between the phases within the porous matrix still speculative. Visual modelling of selected processes occurring at the pore level under known and controlled boundary conditions can give an insight to fluid displacements at the core scale and help the interpretation of production behaviour at reservoir scale. Visualisation of the pore scale two-phase flow mechanisms has been studied experimentally at low interfacial tensions, < 0.5 mN/m, using a partially miscible fluid system in glass visual micro models. As the interfacial tension decreases the balance between fluid-fluid forces (interfacial, spreading and viscous) and fluid-solid interactions (wettability and viscous interactions) changes. Data measurements in the laboratory, particularly relative permeability, will therefore always be difficult especially for condensate fluids just below their dew point. What is certain is that gas production from a gas-condensate leads to condensate dropout when pressure falls below the dew point, either within the wellbore or, more importantly, in the reservoir. This paper illustrates some pore scale physics, particularly interfacial phenomena at low interfacial tension, which has relevance to appreciating the flow of condensate fluids close to their dew point either near the wellbore (which affects well productivity) or deep inside the reservoir (which affects condensate recovery). (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jang, Byeong Ju
1984-01-01
This book is made up of 5 chapters. They are fluid mechanics, fluid machines, Industrial thermodynamics, steam boiler and steam turbine. It introduces hydrostatics, basic theory of fluid movement and law of momentum. It also deals with centrifugal pump, axial flow pump, general hydraulic turbine, and all phenomena happening in the pump. It covers the law of thermodynamics, perfect gas, properties of steam, and flow of gas and steam and water tube boiler. Lastly it explains basic format, theory, loss and performance as well as principle part of steam turbine.
Analysis of fluid lubrication mechanisms in metal forming at mesoscopic scale
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Dubar, L.; Hubert, C.; Christiansen, Peter
2012-01-01
The lubricant entrapment and escape phenomena in metal forming are studied experimentally as well as numerically. Experiments are carried out in strip reduction of aluminium sheet applying a transparent die to study the fluid flow between mesoscopic cavities. The numerical analysis involves two...... computation steps. The first one is a fully coupled fluid-structure Finite Element computation, where pockets in the surface are plastically deformed leading to the pressurization of the entrapped fluid. The second step computes the fluid exchange between cavities through the plateaus of asperity contacts...
Geophysical aspects of underground fluid dynamics and mineral transformation process
Khramchenkov, Maxim; Khramchenkov, Eduard
2014-05-01
components, heat release and absorption, phase transitions, rock destruction occurs. Extensive usage of computational resources in limits of traditional models of the mechanics of porous media cannot guarantee full correctness of obtained models and results. The present work is dedicated to the retrieval of new ways to formulate and construct such models. It was shown that in some important cases there is a governing equation of non-linear diffusion equation type (well-known Fisher equation). In addition, some geophysical aspects of filtration process in usual non-swelling soils, swelling porous rocks and coupled process of consolidation and chemical interaction between fluid and skeleton material, including earth quakes, are considered.
Smoothed particle hydrodynamics modelling in continuum mechanics: fluid-structure interaction
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Groenenboom P. H. L.
2009-06-01
Full Text Available Within this study, the implementation of the smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH method solving the complex problem of interaction between a quasi-incompressible fluid involving a free surface and an elastic structure is outlined. A brief description of the SPH model for both the quasi-incompressible fluid and the isotropic elastic solid is presented. The interaction between the fluid and the elastic structure is realised through the contact algorithm. The results of numerical computations are confronted with the experimental as well as computational data published in the literature.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Le Guen, Y.
2006-10-01
CO 2 injection into geological repositories will induce chemical and mechanical instabilities. The study of these instabilities is based on experimental deformation of natural rock samples under stress, in the presence of fluids containing, or not, dissolved CO 2 . Triaxial cells used for the experiments permitted an independent control and measurement of stress, temperature, fluid pressure and composition. Vertical strains were measured during several months, with a resolution of 1.10 -12 s -1 on the strain rate. Simultaneously, fluids were analysed in order to quantify fluid-rock interactions. For limestone samples, percolation of CO 2 -rich fluids increases strain rate by a factor 1.7 up to 5; on the other hand, sandstone deformation remained almost the same. Increase in strain rate with limestone samples was explained by injected water acidification by the CO 2 which increases rock solubility and reaction kinetics. On the opposite, small effect of CO 2 on quartz explains the absence of deformation. X-ray observations confirmed the importance of rock composition and structure on the porosity evolution. Numerical simulations of rock elastic properties showed increasing shear stress into the sample. Measured deformation showed an evolution of reservoir rocks mechanical properties. It was interpreted as the consequence of pressure solution mechanisms both at grains contacts and on grain free surfaces. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ishii, Takemasa; Marui, Atsunao; Takahashi, Manabu; Tsukamoto, Hitoshi
1999-01-01
Aim of this study are to elucidate transfer and diffusion mechanism of fluid under an environment of deep geological environment by each two geological media such as fractured and porous media, to establish a precise evaluation method on hydrogeological features, to develop a new researching method on transfer and diffusion mechanism of fluid at field, and to conduct model construction and effect evaluation of fluid at deep underground based on measuring values. As a result, on cracking medium, it was found that a value relating to storage rate could be evaluated simultaneously, that both water permeability coefficient and storage rate decreased as sealing pressure of specimen increased, and that change of hydrologic features in specimen could be evaluated more accurately. And, on porous medium, it was conducted to compare mutually two water permeability coefficients obtained by using three kinds of sedimentation rock with different interstitial ratio and two testing methods of transient pulse method and changing water level method. (G.K.)
Flippin' Fluid Mechanics - Comparison of Blended Classroom vs. Traditional Lecture
Webster, D. R.; Kadel, R. S.; Newstetter, W. C.
2017-11-01
We conducted a study of student performance in and perceptions of a blended classroom delivery of a junior-level fluid mechanics course. In the blended pedagogy, students watch short on-line videos before class, participate in interactive in-class problem solving (in dyads), and complete individualized on-line quizzes weekly. Comparisons are made among four sections of the blended classroom delivery in the period of 2013-2017 to eleven sections delivered in a traditional lecture-style format by the same instructor in 2002-2012. The results reveal dramatic improvement in student engagement, perceptions, and achievement in the blended pedagogy. For instance, the withdrawal/fail/barely-passing (WFD) rate is significantly lower for the blended classroom (8.6% vs. 16.3%; p self-perception of how-much-learned, perception of the value of the course activities, and the overall effectiveness of the course and instructor in the blended classroom.
Rabbah, Jean-Pierre; Saikrishnan, Neelakantan; Yoganathan, Ajit P
2013-02-01
Numerical models of the mitral valve have been used to elucidate mitral valve function and mechanics. These models have evolved from simple two-dimensional approximations to complex three-dimensional fully coupled fluid structure interaction models. However, to date these models lack direct one-to-one experimental validation. As computational solvers vary considerably, experimental benchmark data are critically important to ensure model accuracy. In this study, a novel left heart simulator was designed specifically for the validation of numerical mitral valve models. Several distinct experimental techniques were collectively performed to resolve mitral valve geometry and hemodynamics. In particular, micro-computed tomography was used to obtain accurate and high-resolution (39 μm voxel) native valvular anatomy, which included the mitral leaflets, chordae tendinae, and papillary muscles. Three-dimensional echocardiography was used to obtain systolic leaflet geometry. Stereoscopic digital particle image velocimetry provided all three components of fluid velocity through the mitral valve, resolved every 25 ms in the cardiac cycle. A strong central filling jet (V ~ 0.6 m/s) was observed during peak systole with minimal out-of-plane velocities. In addition, physiologic hemodynamic boundary conditions were defined and all data were synchronously acquired through a central trigger. Finally, the simulator is a precisely controlled environment, in which flow conditions and geometry can be systematically prescribed and resultant valvular function and hemodynamics assessed. Thus, this work represents the first comprehensive database of high fidelity experimental data, critical for extensive validation of mitral valve fluid structure interaction simulations.
Self-excited oscillation due to the fluid discharge over a flexible weir, 1
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hisano, Katsumi; Kaneko, Shigehiko
1989-01-01
The excitation mechanism of a self-excited oscillation due to the fluid discharge over a flexible weir was investigated both theoretically and experimentally. A new type of hydroelastic instability was discovered during test operations of the Super-Phenix LMFBR reactor in France. According to the recent report by Aita, this phenomenon includes two types of instability modes: one is sloshing mode which means the oscillation of a weir associated with coupled sloshing modes of both feeding and restitution fluid collectors; the other is a hydroelastic mode which means the oscillation of a weir associated with fluid-shell modes. In this report, the excitation mechanism of a sloshing mode is discussed by calculating the excitation energy brought by discharge to the fluid-structure system. The theoretical results for the range of sloshing mode instability almost agreed with the experimental data. (author)
Self-excited oscillation due to the fluid discharge over a flexible weir, 2
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hisano, Katsumi; Kaneko, Shigehiko
1990-01-01
The excitation mechanism of a self-excited oscillation due to the fluid discharge over a flexible weir was investigated both theoretically and experimentally. A new type of hydroelastic instability was discovered during test operations of the Super-Phenix LMFBR reactor in France. According to a recent report by Aita, this phenomenon includes two types of instability modes: one is the sloshing mode which means the oscillation of a weir associated with coupled sloshing modes of both feeding and restitution fluid collectors; the other is a hydroelastic mode which means the oscillation of a weir associated with fluid-shell modes. In this report, the excitation mechanism of a hydroelastic mode is discussed by calculating the excitation energy brought by discharge to the fluid-structure system. The theoretical results for the range of hydroelastic mode instability virtually agreed with the experimental data. (author)
Danso, E K; Mäkelä, J T A; Tanska, P; Mononen, M E; Honkanen, J T J; Jurvelin, J S; Töyräs, J; Julkunen, P; Korhonen, R K
2015-06-01
Meniscus adapts to joint loads by depth- and site-specific variations in its composition and structure. However, site-specific mechanical characteristics of intact meniscus under compression are poorly known. In particular, mechanical nonlinearities caused by different meniscal constituents (collagen and fluid) are not known. In the current study, in situ indentation testing was conducted to determine site-specific elastic, viscoelastic and poroelastic properties of intact human menisci. Lateral and medial menisci (n=26) were harvested from the left knee joint of 13 human cadavers. Indentation tests, using stress-relaxation and dynamic (sinusoidal) loading protocols, were conducted for menisci at different sites (anterior, middle, posterior, n=78). Sample- and site-specific axisymmetric finite element models with fibril-reinforced poroelastic properties were fitted to the corresponding stress-relaxation curves to determine the mechanical parameters. Elastic moduli, especially the instantaneous and dynamic moduli, showed site-specific variation only in the medial meniscus (pmeniscus. The phase angle showed no statistically significant variation between the sites (p>0.05). The values for the strain-dependent fibril network modulus (nonlinear behaviour of collagen) were significantly different (pmeniscus only between the middle and posterior sites. For the strain-dependent permeability coefficient, only anterior and middle sites showed a significant difference (pmeniscus. This parameter demonstrated a significant difference (pmeniscus shows more site-dependent variation in the mechanical properties as compared to lateral meniscus. In particular, anterior horn of medial meniscus was the stiffest and showed the most nonlinear mechanical behaviour. The nonlinearity was related to both collagen fibrils and fluid. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Quantum field theory of fluids.
Gripaios, Ben; Sutherland, Dave
2015-02-20
The quantum theory of fields is largely based on studying perturbations around noninteracting, or free, field theories, which correspond to a collection of quantum-mechanical harmonic oscillators. The quantum theory of an ordinary fluid is "freer", in the sense that the noninteracting theory also contains an infinite collection of quantum-mechanical free particles, corresponding to vortex modes. By computing a variety of correlation functions at tree and loop level, we give evidence that a quantum perfect fluid can be consistently formulated as a low-energy, effective field theory. We speculate that the quantum behavior is radically different from both classical fluids and quantum fields.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Behjat, E.; Aminmansoor, F.; Abbasi, H. [Faculty of Energy Engineering and Physics, Amirkabir University of Technology, P. O. Box 15875-4413, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)
2015-08-15
Disintegration of a Gaussian profile into ion-acoustic solitons in the presence of trapped electrons [H. Hakimi Pajouh and H. Abbasi, Phys. Plasmas 15, 082105 (2008)] is revisited. Through a hybrid (Vlasov-Fluid) model, the restrictions associated with the simple modified Korteweg de-Vries (mKdV) model are studied. For instance, the lack of vital information in the phase space associated with the evolution of electron velocity distribution, the perturbative nature of mKdV model which limits it to the weak nonlinear cases, and the special spatio-temporal scaling based on which the mKdV is derived. Remarkable differences between the results of the two models lead us to conclude that the mKdV model can only monitor the general aspects of the dynamics, and the precise picture including the correct spatio-temporal scales and the properties of solitons should be studied within the framework of hybrid model.
Heating production fluids in a wellbore
Orrego, Yamila; Jankowski, Todd A.
2016-07-12
A method for heating a production fluid in a wellbore. The method can include heating, using a packer fluid, a working fluid flowing through a first medium disposed in a first section of the wellbore, where the first medium transfers heat from the packer fluid to the working fluid. The method can also include circulating the working fluid into a second section of the wellbore through a second medium, where the second medium transfers heat from the working fluid to the production fluid. The method can further include returning the working fluid to the first section of the wellbore through the first medium.
Evidence of nonuniqueness and oscillatory solutions in computational fluid mechanics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nunziato, J.W.; Gartling, D.K.; Kipp, M.E.
1985-01-01
We will review some of our recent experiences in computing solutions for nonlinear fluids in relatively simple, two-dimensional geometries. The purpose of this discussion will be to display by example some of the interesting but difficult questions that arise when ill-behaved solutions are obtained numerically. We will consider two examples. As the first example, we will consider a nonlinear elastic (compressible) fluid with chemical reactions and discuss solutions for detonation and detonation failure in a two-dimensional cylinder. In this case, the numerical algorithm utilizes a finite-difference method with artificial viscosity (von Neumann-Richtmyer method) and leads to two, distinctly different, stable solutions depending on the time step criterion used. The second example to be considered involves the convection of a viscous fluid in a rectangular container as a result of an exothermic polymerization reaction. A solidification front develops near the top of the container and propagates down through the fluid, changing the aspect ratio of the region ahead of the front. Using a Galerkin-based finite element method, a numerical solution of the partial differential equations is obtained which tracks the front and correctly predicts the fluid temperatures near the walls. However, the solution also exhibits oscillatory behavior with regard to the number of cells in the fluid ahead of the front and in the strength of the cells. More definitive experiments and analysis are required to determine whether this oscillatory phenomena is a numerical artifact or a physical reality. 20 refs., 14 figs
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Eskesen, T G; Wetterslev, M; Perner, A
2016-01-01
PURPOSE: Central venous pressure (CVP) has been shown to have poor predictive value for fluid responsiveness in critically ill patients. We aimed to re-evaluate this in a larger sample subgrouped by baseline CVP values. METHODS: In April 2015, we systematically searched and included all clinical...
Tumor interstitial fluid - a treasure trove of cancer biomarkers.
Gromov, Pavel; Gromova, Irina; Olsen, Charlotta J; Timmermans-Wielenga, Vera; Talman, Mai-Lis; Serizawa, Reza R; Moreira, José M A
2013-11-01
Tumor interstitial fluid (TIF) is a proximal fluid that, in addition to the set of blood soluble phase-borne proteins, holds a subset of aberrantly externalized components, mainly proteins, released by tumor cells and tumor microenvironment through various mechanisms, which include classical secretion, non-classical secretion, secretion via exosomes and membrane protein shedding. Consequently, the interstitial aqueous phase of solid tumors is a highly promising resource for the discovery of molecules associated with pathological changes in tissues. Firstly, it allows one to delve deeper into the regulatory mechanisms and functions of secretion-related processes in tumor development. Secondly, the anomalous secretion of molecules that is innate to tumors and the tumor microenvironment, being associated with cancer progression, offers a valuable source for biomarker discovery and possible targets for therapeutic intervention. Here we provide an overview of the features of tumor-associated interstitial fluids, based on recent and updated information obtained mainly from our studies of breast cancer. Data from the study of interstitial fluids recovered from several other types of cancer are also discussed. This article is a part of a Special Issue entitled: The Updated Secretome. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Andreassen, Katrine Alling; Fabricius, Ida Lykke
2010-01-01
Injection of water into chalk hydrocarbon reservoirs has led to mechanical yield and failure. Laboratory experiments on chalk samples correspondingly show that the mechanical properties of porous chalk depend on pore fluid and temperature. In case of water-saturated samples, the concentration...... is controlled by solid-fluid friction. The reference frequency is thus a measure of this friction, and we propose that the fluid effect on mechanical properties of chalk may be the result of liquid-solid friction. We reviewed 622 published experiments on mechanical properties of porous chalk. The data include...... chalk samples that were tested at temperatures from 20 °C to 130 °C with the following pore fluids: fresh water, synthetic seawater, glycol, and oil of varying viscosity. The critical frequency is calculated for each experiment. For each specimen, we calculate the thickness to the slipping plane outside...
Fluid mechanics of additive manufacturing of metal objects by accretion of droplets - a survey
Tesař, Václav
2016-03-01
Paper presents a survey of principles of additive manufacturing of metal objects by accretion of molten metal droplets, focusing on fluid-mechanical problems that deserve being investigated. The main problem is slowness of manufacturing due to necessarily small size of added droplets. Increase of droplet repetition rate calls for basic research of the phenomena that take place inside and around the droplets: ballistics of their flight, internal flowfield with heat and mass transfer, oscillation of surfaces, and the ways to elimination of satellite droplets.
Electrorheological fluids and methods
Green, Peter F.; McIntyre, Ernest C.
2015-06-02
Electrorheological fluids and methods include changes in liquid-like materials that can flow like milk and subsequently form solid-like structures under applied electric fields; e.g., about 1 kV/mm. Such fluids can be used in various ways as smart suspensions, including uses in automotive, defense, and civil engineering applications. Electrorheological fluids and methods include one or more polar molecule substituted polyhedral silsesquioxanes (e.g., sulfonated polyhedral silsesquioxanes) and one or more oils (e.g., silicone oil), where the fluid can be subjected to an electric field.
Analytical approach to linear fractional partial differential equations arising in fluid mechanics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Momani, Shaher; Odibat, Zaid
2006-01-01
In this Letter, we implement relatively new analytical techniques, the variational iteration method and the Adomian decomposition method, for solving linear fractional partial differential equations arising in fluid mechanics. The fractional derivatives are described in the Caputo sense. The two methods in applied mathematics can be used as alternative methods for obtaining analytic and approximate solutions for different types of fractional differential equations. In these methods, the solution takes the form of a convergent series with easily computable components. The corresponding solutions of the integer order equations are found to follow as special cases of those of fractional order equations. Some numerical examples are presented to illustrate the efficiency and reliability of the two methods
Fluid catalytic cracking : Feedstocks and reaction mechanism
Dupain, X.
2006-01-01
The Fluid Catalytic Cracking (FCC) process is one of the key units in a modern refinery. Traditionally, its design is primarily aimed for the production of gasoline from heavy oil fractions, but as co-products also diesel blends and valuable gasses (e.g. propene and butenes) are formed in
Brims, Fraser J H; Davies, Michael G; Elia, Andy; Griffiths, Mark J D
2015-01-01
Background Pleural effusions occur commonly after cardiac surgery and the effects of drainage on gas exchange in this population are not well established. We examined pulmonary function indices following drainage of pleural effusions in cardiac surgery patients. Methods We performed a retrospective study examining the effects of pleural fluid drainage on the lung function indices of patients recovering from cardiac surgery requiring mechanical ventilation for more than 7 days. We specifically analysed patients who had pleural fluid removed via an intercostal tube (ICT: drain group) compared with those of a control group (no effusion, no ICT). Results In the drain group, 52 ICTs were sited in 45 patients. The mean (SD) volume of fluid drained was 1180 (634) mL. Indices of oxygenation were significantly worse in the drain group compared with controls prior to drainage. The arterial oxygen tension (PaO2)/fractional inspired oxygen (FiO2) (P/F) ratio improved on day 1 after ICT placement (mean (SD), day 0: 31.01 (8.92) vs 37.18 (10.7); pdrain group patients were more likely to have an improved mode of ventilation on day 1 compared with controls (p=0.028). Conclusions Pleural effusion after cardiac surgery may impair oxygenation. Drainage of pleural fluid is associated with a rapid and sustained improvement in oxygenation. PMID:26339492
Quantum mechanical description of the two fluid model of liquid /sup 4/He solving the Bloch equation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fung, P.C.W.; Lam, C.C.
1986-01-01
The authors apply the U-matrix theory recently developed (Lam and Fung, Phys. Rev. A, vol.27, p.1760, 1983) to study certain physical properties of liquid /sup 4/He across a range of temperatures including the lambda -point. They propose a model for the chemical potential mu which is constant above T/sub lambda / but is a function of T below T/sub lambda /. They have discovered that the super-particles 'emerge' mathematically due to the uncommutability of the Hamiltonians at different temperatures, leading to a quantum mechanical description of the two-fluid model. Using the two-particle potential function deduced from scattering data, they have calculated numerically the approximate values of the number density for a range of temperatures starting from T/sub lambda /, taking the hard-core diameter Delta , 'effective chemical potential' mu ' as parameters
Ultrasonic Doppler Velocity Profiler for Fluid Flow
2012-01-01
The ultrasonic velocity profile (UVP) method, first developed in medical engineering, is now widely used in clinical settings. The fluid mechanical basis of UVP was established in investigations by the author and his colleagues with work demonstrating that UVP is a powerful new tool in experimental fluid mechanics. There are diverse examples, ranging from problems in fundamental fluid dynamics to applied problems in mechanical, chemical, nuclear, and environmental engineering. In all these problems, the methodological principle in fluid mechanics was converted from point measurements to spatio-temporal measurements along a line. This book is the first monograph on UVP that offers comprehensive information about the method, its principles, its practice, and applied examples, and which serves both current and new users. Current users can confirm that their application configurations are correct, which will help them to improve the configurations so as to make them more efficient and effective. New users will be...
2nd International Conference on Multiscale Computational Methods for Solids and Fluids
2016-01-01
This volume contains the best papers presented at the 2nd ECCOMAS International Conference on Multiscale Computations for Solids and Fluids, held June 10-12, 2015. Topics dealt with include multiscale strategy for efficient development of scientific software for large-scale computations, coupled probability-nonlinear-mechanics problems and solution methods, and modern mathematical and computational setting for multi-phase flows and fluid-structure interaction. The papers consist of contributions by six experts who taught short courses prior to the conference, along with several selected articles from other participants dealing with complementary issues, covering both solid mechanics and applied mathematics. .
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Muller, J [IRSID, Institut de Recherches Siderurgie, 57 - Maizieres-les-Metz (France)
1997-12-31
Radiant heat transfer is the main solution retained in many iron and steel metallurgy installations (re-heating and annealing furnaces etc..). Today, it has become important to dispose of performing radiant heat transfer models in heat transfer and fluid mechanics simulation softwares, and well adapted to multidimensional industrial problems. This work presents the discrete ordinate radiant heat transfer model developed at the IRSID (the French institute of research in iron and steel metallurgy) and coupled with the PHOENICS heat transfer-fluid mechanics software. Three modeling approaches are presented concerning the radiative properties of gases (H{sub 2}O-CO{sub 2}). A ``weighted grey gases sum`` model gives satisfactory results for several 1-D validation cases. (J.S.) 20 refs.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Muller, J. [IRSID, Institut de Recherches Siderurgie, 57 - Maizieres-les-Metz (France)
1996-12-31
Radiant heat transfer is the main solution retained in many iron and steel metallurgy installations (re-heating and annealing furnaces etc..). Today, it has become important to dispose of performing radiant heat transfer models in heat transfer and fluid mechanics simulation softwares, and well adapted to multidimensional industrial problems. This work presents the discrete ordinate radiant heat transfer model developed at the IRSID (the French institute of research in iron and steel metallurgy) and coupled with the PHOENICS heat transfer-fluid mechanics software. Three modeling approaches are presented concerning the radiative properties of gases (H{sub 2}O-CO{sub 2}). A ``weighted grey gases sum`` model gives satisfactory results for several 1-D validation cases. (J.S.) 20 refs.
Fluid mechanics relevant to flow through pretreatment of cellulosic biomass.
Archambault-Léger, Véronique; Lynd, Lee R
2014-04-01
The present study investigates fluid mechanical properties of cellulosic feedstocks relevant to flow through (FT) pretreatment for biological conversion of cellulosic biomass. The results inform identifying conditions for which FT pretreatment can be implemented in a practical context. Measurements of pressure drop across packed beds, viscous compaction and water absorption are reported for milled and not milled sugarcane bagasse, switchgrass and poplar, and important factors impacting viscous flow are deduced. Using biomass knife-milled to pass through a 2mm sieve, the observed pressure drop was highest for bagasse, intermediate for switchgrass and lowest for poplar. The highest pressure drop was associated with the presence of more fine particles, greater viscous compaction and the degree of water absorption. Using bagasse without particle size reduction, the instability of the reactor during pretreatment above 140kg/m(3) sets an upper bound on the allowable concentration for continuous stable flow. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Iacovino, K.; Till, C. B.
2017-12-01
It is widely observed that arc magmas are the most oxidized magmas on Earth. One frequently cited explanation calls on the flux of aqueous fluid from the highly oxidized down-going slab to catalyze sub-arc mantle melting and impose a highly oxidized redox signature on the mantle wedge. Fluid inclusions from sub-arc mantle xenoliths provide evidence that "slab fluids" may be highly oxidizing (fO2 QFM+1.5; Brandon & Draper, 1996; Frost and Ballhaus, 1998), but for decades, determination of the precise reactive mechanism potentially responsible for the transfer of O2 from slab to mantle has been elusive. Pure H2O has been shown to have insufficient oxidizing capacity to affect mantle redox, but H2O-rich fluids may facilitate the mobilization of Fe3+ or other multivalent cations and/or O2 transfer via the reduction of sulfate, particularly if such fluids are hypersaline. Here we present the first results from experiments designed to investigate fluid-mediated element transfer, including redox reactions, at the slab-mantle interface. These data include the first direct measurements of the intrinsic oxygen fugacity of fluids released during slab dehydration using sliding binary alloy redox sensors. Experiments were performed on natural Fe3+-bearing antigorite serpentinite at 1-2 GPa and 800°C in a piston cylinder at Arizona State University, analogous to conditions in a subducting slab and sufficient to cause the breakdown of starting material into forsteritic olivine, Mg-rich clinopyroxene, magnetite, and aqueous fluid. Experimental time series allow for the detection of (and correction for) any buffering effect on the sample by the experimental assembly. Initial results indicate that the dehydration of sulfur-free antigorite serpentinite can generate fluids with fO2 several orders of magnitude above that of MORB mantle and similar to those observed in natural sub-arc fluid inclusions. Careful measurements of the chemistry of fluid and solid run products will elucidate
Williams, Monique; Villarreal, Amanda; Bozhilov, Krassimir; Lin, Sabrina; Talbot, Prue
2013-01-01
Background Electronic cigarettes (EC) deliver aerosol by heating fluid containing nicotine. Cartomizer EC combine the fluid chamber and heating element in a single unit. Because EC do not burn tobacco, they may be safer than conventional cigarettes. Their use is rapidly increasing worldwide with little prior testing of their aerosol. Objectives We tested the hypothesis that EC aerosol contains metals derived from various components in EC. Methods Cartomizer contents and aerosols were analyzed...
Fundamentals of Geophysical Fluid Dynamics
McWilliams, James C.
2006-07-01
Earth's atmosphere and oceans exhibit complex patterns of fluid motion over a vast range of space and time scales. These patterns combine to establish the climate in response to solar radiation that is inhomogeneously absorbed by the materials comprising air, water, and land. Spontaneous, energetic variability arises from instabilities in the planetary-scale circulations, appearing in many different forms such as waves, jets, vortices, boundary layers, and turbulence. Geophysical fluid dynamics (GFD) is the science of all these types of fluid motion. This textbook is a concise and accessible introduction to GFD for intermediate to advanced students of the physics, chemistry, and/or biology of Earth's fluid environment. The book was developed from the author's many years of teaching a first-year graduate course at the University of California, Los Angeles. Readers are expected to be familiar with physics and mathematics at the level of general dynamics (mechanics) and partial differential equations. Covers the essential GFD required for atmospheric science and oceanography courses Mathematically rigorous, concise coverage of basic theory and applications to both oceans and atmospheres Author is a world expert; this book is based on the course he has taught for many years Exercises are included, with solutions available to instructors from solutions@cambridge.org
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Andreassen, Katrine Alling; Fabricius, Ida Lykke
2010-01-01
Injection of water into chalk hydrocarbon reservoirs has lead to mechanical yield and failure. Laboratory experiments on chalk samples correspondingly show that the mechanical properties of porous chalk depend on pore fluid and temperature. Water has a significant softening effect on elastic...... and we propose that the fluid effect on mechanical properties of highly porous chalk may be the result of liquid‐solid friction. Applying a different strain or stress rate is influencing the rock strength and needs to be included. The resulting function is shown to relate to the material dependent...... and rate independent b-factor used when describing the time dependent mechanical properties of soft rock or soils. As a consequence it is then possible to further characterize the material constant from the porosity and permeability of the rock as well as from pore fluid density and viscosity which...
Gehne, Stephan; Benson, Philip; Koor, Nick; Enfield, Mark
2017-04-01
The finding of considerable volumes of hydrocarbon resources within tight sedimentary rock formations in the UK led to focused attention on the fundamental fracture properties of low permeability rock types and hydraulic fracturing. Despite much research in these fields, there remains a scarcity of available experimental data concerning the fracture mechanics of fluid driven fracturing and the fracture properties of anisotropic, low permeability rock types. In this study, hydraulic fracturing is simulated in a controlled laboratory environment to track fracture nucleation (location) and propagation (velocity) in space and time and assess how environmental factors and rock properties influence the fracture process and the developing fracture network. Here we report data on employing fluid overpressure to generate a permeable network of micro tensile fractures in a highly anisotropic shale ( 50% P-wave velocity anisotropy). Experiments are carried out in a triaxial deformation apparatus using cylindrical samples. The bedding planes are orientated either parallel or normal to the major principal stress direction (σ1). A newly developed technique, using a steel guide arrangement to direct pressurised fluid into a sealed section of an axially drilled conduit, allows the pore fluid to contact the rock directly and to initiate tensile fractures from the pre-defined zone inside the sample. Acoustic Emission location is used to record and map the nucleation and development of the micro-fracture network. Indirect tensile strength measurements at atmospheric pressure show a high tensile strength anisotropy ( 60%) of the shale. Depending on the relative bedding orientation within the stress field, we find that fluid induced fractures in the sample propagate in two of the three principal fracture orientations: Divider and Short-Transverse. The fracture progresses parallel to the bedding plane (Short-Transverse orientation) if the bedding plane is aligned (parallel) with the
Thermal and Fluid Mechanical Investigation of an Internally Cooled Piston Rod
Klotsche, K.; Thomas, C.; Hesse, U.
2017-08-01
The Internal Cooling of Reciprocating Compressor Parts (ICRC) is a promising technology to reduce the temperature of the thermally stressed piston and piston rod of process gas compressors. The underlying heat transport is based on the flow of a two-phase cooling medium that is contained in the hollow reciprocating assembly. The reciprocating motion forces the phases to mix, enabling an enhanced heat transfer. In order to investigate this heat transfer, experimental results from a vertically reciprocating hollow rod are presented that show the influence of different liquid charges for different working temperatures. In addition, pressure sensors are used for a crank angle dependent analysis of the fluid mechanical processes inside the rod. The results serve to investigate the two-phase flow in terms of the velocity and distribution of the liquid and vapour phase for different liquid fractions.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Anon.
1986-01-01
Plasma and fluid physics includes the fields of fusion research and space investigation. This book discusses the most important advances in these areas over the past decade and recommends a stronger commitment to basic research in plasma and fluid physics. The book recommends that plasma and fluid physics be included in physics curriculums because of their increasing importance in energy and defense. The book also lists recent accomplishments in the fields of general plasma physics, fusion plasma confinement and heating, space and astrophysical plasmas, and fluid physics and lists research opportunities in these areas. A funding summary explains how research monies are allocated and suggests ways to improve their effectiveness
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Anon.
1987-01-01
Papers are presented on beam vibration, turbulent flow, pressure vessels, plasticity, fracture mechanics, stochastics, elastic stability, and space structures and bridges. Also considered are shell vibration, design optimization, plate vibration, numerical methods in fluid mechanics, contact mechanics, constitutive models, turbulent and wake flow, and buckling. Other topics include composite shells, nonlinear vibrations, suspended particles, geomechanics, acoustics, chaotic motion, and dissimilar materials. Papers are also presented on fluid-structure interactions, tribology, thermoelasticity, active vibration control, creep, vehicle and tire mechanics, and residual stresses
The effect of lymphatic valve morphology on fluid transport
Alexeev, Alexander; Ballard, Matthew; Nepiyushchikh, Zhanna; Dixon, Brandon
2016-11-01
The lymphatic vasculature is present in nearly all invertebrate tissue, and is essential in the transport of fluid and particles such as immune cells, antigens, proteins and lipids from the tissue to lymph nodes and to the venous circulation. Lymphatic vessels are made of up a series of contractile units that work together in harmony as "micro hearts" to pump fluid against a pressure gradient. Lymphatic valves are critical to this functionality, as they open and close with the oscillating pressure gradients from contractions, thus allowing flow in only one direction and leading to a net pumping effect. We use a hybrid lattice-Boltzmann lattice spring model which captures fluid-solid interactions through two-way coupling between a viscous fluid and lymphatic valves in a section of a lymphatic vessel to study the dynamics of lymphatic valves and their effect on fluid transport. Further, we investigate the effect of variations in valve geometry and material properties on fluid pumping. This work helps to increase our understanding of the mechanisms of lymphatic fluid transport, which has implications in a variety of pathologies, including cancer metastasis, autoimmunity, atherosclerosis and obesity. Support from NSF CMMI 1635133 is gratefully acknowledged.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Liddelow, S A; Dziegielewska, K M; Møllgård, K
2011-01-01
Specialized populations of choroid plexus epithelial cells have previously been shown to be responsible for the transfer of individual plasma proteins from blood to the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), contributing to their characteristically high concentrations in CSF of the developing brain. The mech......Specialized populations of choroid plexus epithelial cells have previously been shown to be responsible for the transfer of individual plasma proteins from blood to the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), contributing to their characteristically high concentrations in CSF of the developing brain....... The mechanism of this protein transfer remains elusive. Using a marsupial, Monodelphis domestica, we demonstrate that the albumin-binding protein SPARC (osteonectin/BM-40/culture-shock protein) is present in a subset of choroid plexus epithelial cells from its first appearance, throughout development...
Spectral methods and their implementation to solution of aerodynamic and fluid mechanic problems
Streett, C. L.
1987-01-01
Fundamental concepts underlying spectral collocation methods, especially pertaining to their use in the solution of partial differential equations, are outlined. Theoretical accuracy results are reviewed and compared with results from test problems. A number of practical aspects of the construction and use of spectral methods are detailed, along with several solution schemes which have found utility in applications of spectral methods to practical problems. Results from a few of the successful applications of spectral methods to problems of aerodynamic and fluid mechanic interest are then outlined, followed by a discussion of the problem areas in spectral methods and the current research under way to overcome these difficulties.
Computational fluid mechanics qualification calculations for the code TEACH
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
DeGrazia, M.C.; Fitzsimmons, L.B.; Reynolds, J.T.
1979-11-01
KAPL is developing a predictive method for three-dimensional (3-D) turbulent fluid flow configurations typically encountered in the thermal-hydraulic design of a nuclear reactor. A series of experiments has been selected for analysis to investigate the adequacy of the two-equation turbulence model developed at Imperial College, London, England for predicting the flow patterns in simple geometries. The analysis of these experiments is described with the two-dimensional (2-D) turbulent fluid flow code TEACH. This work qualifies TEACH for a variety of geometries and flow conditions
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Monique Williams
Full Text Available Electronic cigarettes (EC deliver aerosol by heating fluid containing nicotine. Cartomizer EC combine the fluid chamber and heating element in a single unit. Because EC do not burn tobacco, they may be safer than conventional cigarettes. Their use is rapidly increasing worldwide with little prior testing of their aerosol.We tested the hypothesis that EC aerosol contains metals derived from various components in EC.Cartomizer contents and aerosols were analyzed using light and electron microscopy, cytotoxicity testing, x-ray microanalysis, particle counting, and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry.The filament, a nickel-chromium wire, was coupled to a thicker copper wire coated with silver. The silver coating was sometimes missing. Four tin solder joints attached the wires to each other and coupled the copper/silver wire to the air tube and mouthpiece. All cartomizers had evidence of use before packaging (burn spots on the fibers and electrophoretic movement of fluid in the fibers. Fibers in two cartomizers had green deposits that contained copper. Centrifugation of the fibers produced large pellets containing tin. Tin particles and tin whiskers were identified in cartridge fluid and outer fibers. Cartomizer fluid with tin particles was cytotoxic in assays using human pulmonary fibroblasts. The aerosol contained particles >1 µm comprised of tin, silver, iron, nickel, aluminum, and silicate and nanoparticles (<100 nm of tin, chromium and nickel. The concentrations of nine of eleven elements in EC aerosol were higher than or equal to the corresponding concentrations in conventional cigarette smoke. Many of the elements identified in EC aerosol are known to cause respiratory distress and disease.The presence of metal and silicate particles in cartomizer aerosol demonstrates the need for improved quality control in EC design and manufacture and studies on how EC aerosol impacts the health of users and bystanders.
Williams, Monique; Villarreal, Amanda; Bozhilov, Krassimir; Lin, Sabrina; Talbot, Prue
2013-01-01
Electronic cigarettes (EC) deliver aerosol by heating fluid containing nicotine. Cartomizer EC combine the fluid chamber and heating element in a single unit. Because EC do not burn tobacco, they may be safer than conventional cigarettes. Their use is rapidly increasing worldwide with little prior testing of their aerosol. We tested the hypothesis that EC aerosol contains metals derived from various components in EC. Cartomizer contents and aerosols were analyzed using light and electron microscopy, cytotoxicity testing, x-ray microanalysis, particle counting, and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry. The filament, a nickel-chromium wire, was coupled to a thicker copper wire coated with silver. The silver coating was sometimes missing. Four tin solder joints attached the wires to each other and coupled the copper/silver wire to the air tube and mouthpiece. All cartomizers had evidence of use before packaging (burn spots on the fibers and electrophoretic movement of fluid in the fibers). Fibers in two cartomizers had green deposits that contained copper. Centrifugation of the fibers produced large pellets containing tin. Tin particles and tin whiskers were identified in cartridge fluid and outer fibers. Cartomizer fluid with tin particles was cytotoxic in assays using human pulmonary fibroblasts. The aerosol contained particles >1 µm comprised of tin, silver, iron, nickel, aluminum, and silicate and nanoparticles (<100 nm) of tin, chromium and nickel. The concentrations of nine of eleven elements in EC aerosol were higher than or equal to the corresponding concentrations in conventional cigarette smoke. Many of the elements identified in EC aerosol are known to cause respiratory distress and disease. The presence of metal and silicate particles in cartomizer aerosol demonstrates the need for improved quality control in EC design and manufacture and studies on how EC aerosol impacts the health of users and bystanders.
Spencer, A J M
2004-01-01
The mechanics of fluids and the mechanics of solids represent the two major areas of physics and applied mathematics that meet in continuum mechanics, a field that forms the foundation of civil and mechanical engineering. This unified approach to the teaching of fluid and solid mechanics focuses on the general mechanical principles that apply to all materials. Students who have familiarized themselves with the basic principles can go on to specialize in any of the different branches of continuum mechanics. This text opens with introductory chapters on matrix algebra, vectors and Cartesian ten
Bazile , Alban; Hachem , Elie; Larroya-Huguet , Juan-Carlos; Mesri , Youssef
2018-01-01
International audience; In this work, we present a new a posteriori error estimator based on the Variational Multiscale method for anisotropic adaptive fluid mechanics problems. The general idea is to combine the large scale error based on the solved part of the solution with the sub-mesh scale error based on the unresolved part of the solution. We compute the latter with two different methods: one using the stabilizing parameters and the other using bubble functions. We propose two different...
Fluid dynamics theory, computation, and numerical simulation
Pozrikidis, C
2017-01-01
This book provides an accessible introduction to the basic theory of fluid mechanics and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) from a modern perspective that unifies theory and numerical computation. Methods of scientific computing are introduced alongside with theoretical analysis and MATLAB® codes are presented and discussed for a broad range of topics: from interfacial shapes in hydrostatics, to vortex dynamics, to viscous flow, to turbulent flow, to panel methods for flow past airfoils. The third edition includes new topics, additional examples, solved and unsolved problems, and revised images. It adds more computational algorithms and MATLAB programs. It also incorporates discussion of the latest version of the fluid dynamics software library FDLIB, which is freely available online. FDLIB offers an extensive range of computer codes that demonstrate the implementation of elementary and advanced algorithms and provide an invaluable resource for research, teaching, classroom instruction, and self-study. This ...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Song, Yuntao; Wu, Weiyue; Du, Shijun
2014-01-01
Provides a systematic introduction to tokamaks in engineering mechanics. Includes design guides based on full mechanical analysis, which makes it possible to accurately predict load capacity and temperature increases. Presents comprehensive information on important design factors involving materials. Covers the latest advances in and up-to-date references on tokamak devices. Numerous examples reinforce the understanding of concepts and provide procedures for design. Tokamak Engineering Mechanics offers concise and thorough coverage of engineering mechanics theory and application for tokamaks, and the material is reinforced by numerous examples. Chapter topics include general principles, static mechanics, dynamic mechanics, thermal fluid mechanics and multiphysics structural mechanics of tokamak structure analysis. The theoretical principle of the design and the methods of the analysis for various components and load conditions are presented, while the latest engineering technologies are also introduced. The book will provide readers involved in the study of mechanical/fusion engineering with a general understanding of tokamak engineering mechanics.
Ore-forming fluid system of bauxite in WZD area of northern Guizhou province, China
Cui, Tao
2017-12-01
The ore-forming fluid system of bauxite in Wuchuan-Zheng,an-Daozhen (short for WZD) Area of northern Guizhou Province was studied from the perspective of deposit formation mechanism. It was discovered that ore-forming fluids were mainly effective for transporting and leaching during the formation of bauxite. The means of transport mainly included colloidal transport, suspended transport and gravity flow transport. In the course of their leaching, fluids had a range of chemical reactions, as a result of which elements such as silicon and iron migrated downwards. In this process, properties of fluids changed as well.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Berle Magnus
2011-05-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background The mechanisms behind formation and filling of intracranial arachnoid cysts (AC are poorly understood. The aim of this study was to evaluate AC fluid by proteomics to gain further knowledge about ACs. Two goals were set: 1 Comparison of AC fluid from individual patients to determine whether or not temporal AC is a homogenous condition; and 2 Evaluate the protein content of a pool of AC fluid from several patients and qualitatively compare this with published protein lists of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF and plasma. Methods AC fluid from 15 patients with temporal AC was included in this study. In the AC protein comparison experiment, AC fluid from 14 patients was digested, analyzed by LC-MS/MS using a semi-quantitative label-free approach and the data were compared by principal component analysis (PCA to gain knowledge of protein homogeneity of AC. In the AC proteome evaluation experiment, AC fluid from 11 patients was pooled, digested, and fractionated by SCX chromatography prior to analysis by LC-MS/MS. Proteins identified were compared to published databases of proteins identified from CSF and plasma. AC fluid proteins not found in these two databases were experimentally searched for in lumbar CSF taken from neurologically-normal patients, by a targeted protein identification approach called MIDAS (Multiple Reaction Monitoring (MRM initiated detection and sequence analysis. Results We did not identify systematic trends or grouping of data in the AC protein comparison experiment, implying low variability between individual proteomic profiles of AC. In the AC proteome evaluation experiment, we identified 199 proteins. When compared to previously published lists of proteins identified from CSF and plasma, 15 of the AC proteins had not been reported in either of these datasets. By a targeted protein identification approach, we identified 11 of these 15 proteins in pooled CSF from neurologically-normal patients, demonstrating that
Complex fluids in biological systems experiment, theory, and computation
2015-01-01
This book serves as an introduction to the continuum mechanics and mathematical modeling of complex fluids in living systems. The form and function of living systems are intimately tied to the nature of surrounding fluid environments, which commonly exhibit nonlinear and history dependent responses to forces and displacements. With ever-increasing capabilities in the visualization and manipulation of biological systems, research on the fundamental phenomena, models, measurements, and analysis of complex fluids has taken a number of exciting directions. In this book, many of the world’s foremost experts explore key topics such as: Macro- and micro-rheological techniques for measuring the material properties of complex biofluids and the subtleties of data interpretation Experimental observations and rheology of complex biological materials, including mucus, cell membranes, the cytoskeleton, and blood The motility of microorganisms in complex fluids and the dynamics of active suspensions Challenges and solut...
ERCOFTAC Symposium on Unsteady Separation in Fluid-Structure Interaction
Bottaro, Alessandro; Thompson, Mark
2016-01-01
This book addresses flow separation within the context of fluid-structure interaction phenomena. Here, new findings from two research communities focusing on fluids and structures are brought together, emphasizing the importance of a unified multidisciplinary approach. The book covers the theory, experimental findings, numerical simulations, and modeling in fluid dynamics and structural mechanics for both incompressible and compressible separated unsteady flows. There is a focus on the morphing of lifting structures in order to increase their aerodynamic and/or hydrodynamic performances, to control separation and to reduce noise, as well as to inspire the design of novel structures. The different chapters are based on contributions presented at the ERCOFTAC Symposium on Unsteady Separation in Fluid-Structure Interaction held in Mykonos, Greece, 17-21 June, 2013 and include extended discussions and new highlights. The book is intended for students, researchers and practitioners in the broad field of computatio...
Dostál, P; Senkeřík, M; Pařízková, R; Bareš, D; Zivný, P; Zivná, H; Cerný, V
2010-01-01
Hypothermia was shown to attenuate ventilator-induced lung injury due to large tidal volumes. It is unclear if the protective effect of hypothermia is maintained under less injurious mechanical ventilation in animals without previous lung injury. Tracheostomized rats were randomly allocated to non-ventilated group (group C) or ventilated groups of normothermia (group N) and mild hypothermia (group H). After two hours of mechanical ventilation with inspiratory fraction of oxygen 1.0, respiratory rate 60 min(-1), tidal volume 10 ml x kg(-1), positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) 2 cm H2O or immediately after tracheostomy in non-ventilated animals inspiratory pressures were recorded, rats were sacrificed, pressure-volume (PV) curve of respiratory system constructed, bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid and aortic blood samples obtained. Group N animals exhibited a higher rise in peak inspiratory pressures in comparison to group H animals. Shift of the PV curve to right, higher total protein and interleukin-6 levels in BAL fluid were observed in normothermia animals in comparison with hypothermia animals and non-ventilated controls. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha was lower in the hypothermia group in comparison with normothermia and non-ventilated groups. Mild hypothermia attenuated changes in respiratory system mechanics and modified cytokine concentration in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid during low lung volume ventilation in animals without previous lung injury.
The Fluid Foil: The Seventh Simple Machine
Mitts, Charles R.
2012-01-01
A simple machine does one of two things: create a mechanical advantage (lever) or change the direction of an applied force (pulley). Fluid foils are unique among simple machines because they not only change the direction of an applied force (wheel and axle); they convert fluid energy into mechanical energy (wind and Kaplan turbines) or vice versa,…
Hamiltonian description of the ideal fluid
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Morrison, P.J.
1994-01-01
Fluid mechanics is examined from a Hamiltonian perspective. The Hamiltonian point of view provides a unifying framework; by understanding the Hamiltonian perspective, one knows in advance (within bounds) what answers to expect and what kinds of procedures can be performed. The material is organized into five lectures, on the following topics: rudiments of few-degree-of-freedom Hamiltonian systems illustrated by passive advection in two-dimensional fluids; functional differentiation, two action principles of mechanics, and the action principle and canonical Hamiltonian description of the ideal fluid; noncanonical Hamiltonian dynamics with examples; tutorial on Lie groups and algebras, reduction-realization, and Clebsch variables; and stability and Hamiltonian systems
FOREWORD Fluid Mechanics and Fluid Power (FMFP)
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
journal for their enthusiastic help. The articles contained in this section of the Special Issue represent diversity and content. We hope that the readers are stimulated by the choice of the articles and their presentation. May 2015. AMIT AGRAWAL. Department of Mechanical Engineering,. Indian Institute of Technology Bombay ...
Bernard, Peter S
2015-01-01
This book presents a focused, readable account of the principal physical and mathematical ideas at the heart of fluid dynamics. Graduate students in engineering, applied math, and physics who are taking their first graduate course in fluids will find this book invaluable in providing the background in physics and mathematics necessary to pursue advanced study. The book includes a detailed derivation of the Navier-Stokes and energy equations, followed by many examples of their use in studying the dynamics of fluid flows. Modern tensor analysis is used to simplify the mathematical derivations, thus allowing a clearer view of the physics. Peter Bernard also covers the motivation behind many fundamental concepts such as Bernoulli's equation and the stream function. Many exercises are designed with a view toward using MATLAB or its equivalent to simplify and extend the analysis of fluid motion including developing flow simulations based on techniques described in the book.
Working fluid selection for organic Rankine cycles - Impact of uncertainty of fluid properties
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Frutiger, Jerome; Andreasen, Jesper Graa; Liu, Wei
2016-01-01
of processmodels and constraints 2) selection of property models, i.e. Penge Robinson equation of state 3)screening of 1965 possible working fluid candidates including identification of optimal process parametersbased on Monte Carlo sampling 4) propagating uncertainty of fluid parameters to the ORC netpower output......This study presents a generic methodology to select working fluids for ORC (Organic Rankine Cycles)taking into account property uncertainties of the working fluids. A Monte Carlo procedure is described as a tool to propagate the influence of the input uncertainty of the fluid parameters on the ORC....... The net power outputs of all the feasible working fluids were ranked including their uncertainties. The method could propagate and quantify the input property uncertainty of the fluidproperty parameters to the ORC model, giving an additional dimension to the fluid selection process. In the given analysis...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Irina A Buhimschi
2008-04-01
Full Text Available Though recent advancement in proteomics has provided a novel perspective on several distinct pathogenetic mechanisms leading to preterm birth (inflammation, bleeding, the etiology of most preterm births still remains elusive. We conducted a multidimensional proteomic analysis of the amniotic fluid to identify pathways related to preterm birth in the absence of inflammation or bleeding.A proteomic fingerprint was generated from fresh amniotic fluid using surface-enhanced laser desorbtion ionization time of flight (SELDI-TOF mass spectrometry in a total of 286 consecutive samples retrieved from women who presented with signs or symptoms of preterm labor or preterm premature rupture of the membranes. Inflammation and/or bleeding proteomic patterns were detected in 32% (92/286 of the SELDI tracings. In the remaining tracings, a hierarchical algorithm was applied based on descriptors quantifying similarity/dissimilarity among proteomic fingerprints. This allowed identification of a novel profile (Q-profile based on the presence of 5 SELDI peaks in the 10-12.5 kDa mass area. Women displaying the Q-profile (mean+/-SD, gestational age: 25+/-4 weeks, n = 40 were more likely to deliver preterm despite expectant management in the context of intact membranes and normal amniotic fluid clinical results. Utilizing identification-centered proteomics techniques (fluorescence two-dimensional differential gel electrophoresis, robotic tryptic digestion and mass spectrometry coupled with Protein ANalysis THrough Evolutionary Relationships (PANTHER ontological classifications, we determined that in amniotic fluids with Q-profile the differentially expressed proteins are primarily involved in non-inflammatory biological processes such as protein metabolism, signal transduction and transport.Proteomic profiling of amniotic fluid coupled with non-hierarchical bioinformatics algorithms identified a subgroup of patients at risk for preterm birth in the absence of intra
Stenger, M. B.; Hargens, A. R.; Dulchavsky, S. A.; Arbeille, P.; Danielson, R. W.; Ebert, D. J.; Garcia, K. M.; Johnston, S. L.; Laurie, S. S.; Lee, S. M. C.;
2017-01-01
Introduction. NASA's Human Research Program is focused on addressing health risks associated with long-duration missions on the International Space Station (ISS) and future exploration-class missions beyond low Earth orbit. Visual acuity changes observed after short-duration missions were largely transient, but now more than 50 percent of ISS astronauts have experienced more profound, chronic changes with objective structural findings such as optic disc edema, globe flattening and choroidal folds. These structural and functional changes are referred to as the visual impairment and intracranial pressure (VIIP) syndrome. Development of VIIP symptoms may be related to elevated intracranial pressure (ICP) secondary to spaceflight-induced cephalad fluid shifts, but this hypothesis has not been tested. The purpose of this study is to characterize fluid distribution and compartmentalization associated with long-duration spaceflight and to determine if a relation exists with vision changes and other elements of the VIIP syndrome. We also seek to determine whether the magnitude of fluid shifts during spaceflight, as well as any VIIP-related effects of those shifts, are predicted by the crewmember's pre-flight status and responses to acute hemodynamic manipulations, specifically posture changes and lower body negative pressure. Methods. We will examine a variety of physiologic variables in 10 long-duration ISS crewmembers using the test conditions and timeline presented in the figure below. Measures include: (1) fluid compartmentalization (total body water by D2O, extracellular fluid by NaBr, intracellular fluid by calculation, plasma volume by CO rebreathe, interstitial fluid by calculation); (2) forehead/eyelids, tibia, and calcaneus tissue thickness (by ultrasound); (3) vascular dimensions by ultrasound (jugular veins, cerebral and carotid arteries, vertebral arteries and veins, portal vein); (4) vascular dynamics by MRI (head/neck blood flow, cerebrospinal fluid
Fluid mechanics of additive manufacturing of metal objects by accretion of droplets – a survey
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Tesař Václav
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Paper presents a survey of principles of additive manufacturing of metal objects by accretion of molten metal droplets, focusing on fluid-mechanical problems that deserve being investigated. The main problem is slowness of manufacturing due to necessarily small size of added droplets. Increase of droplet repetition rate calls for basic research of the phenomena that take place inside and around the droplets: ballistics of their flight, internal flowfield with heat and mass transfer, oscillation of surfaces, and the ways to elimination of satellite droplets.
The fluid mechanics of root canal irrigation.
Gulabivala, K; Ng, Y-L; Gilbertson, M; Eames, I
2010-12-01
Root canal treatment is a common dental operation aimed at removing the contents of the geometrically complex canal chambers within teeth; its purpose is to remove diseased or infected tissue. The complex chamber is first enlarged and shaped by instruments to a size sufficient to deliver antibacterial fluids. These irrigants help to dissolve dying tissue, disinfect the canal walls and space and flush out debris. The effectiveness of the procedure is limited by access to the canal terminus. Endodontic research is focused on finding the instruments and clinical procedures that might improve success rates by more effectively reaching the apical anatomy. The individual factors affecting treatment outcome have not been unequivocally deciphered, partly because of the difficulty in isolating them and in making the link between simplified, general experimental models and the complex biological objects that are teeth. Explicitly considering the physical processes within the root canal can contribute to the resolution of these problems. The central problem is one of fluid motion in a confined geometry, which makes the dispersion and mixing of irrigant more difficult because of the absence of turbulence over much of the canal volume. The effects of treatments can be understood through the use of scale models, mathematical modelling and numerical computations. A particular concern in treatment is that caustic irrigant may penetrate beyond the root canal, causing chemical damage to the jawbone. In fact, a stagnation plane exists beyond the needle tip, which the irrigant cannot penetrate. The goal is therefore to shift the stagnation plane apically to be coincident with the canal terminus without extending beyond it. Needle design may solve some of the problems but the best design for irrigant penetration conflicts with that for optimal removal of the bacterial biofilm from the canal wall. Both irrigant penetration and biofilm removal may be improved through canal fluid
The fluid mechanics of root canal irrigation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gulabivala, K; Ng, Y-L; Gilbertson, M; Eames, I
2010-01-01
Root canal treatment is a common dental operation aimed at removing the contents of the geometrically complex canal chambers within teeth; its purpose is to remove diseased or infected tissue. The complex chamber is first enlarged and shaped by instruments to a size sufficient to deliver antibacterial fluids. These irrigants help to dissolve dying tissue, disinfect the canal walls and space and flush out debris. The effectiveness of the procedure is limited by access to the canal terminus. Endodontic research is focused on finding the instruments and clinical procedures that might improve success rates by more effectively reaching the apical anatomy. The individual factors affecting treatment outcome have not been unequivocally deciphered, partly because of the difficulty in isolating them and in making the link between simplified, general experimental models and the complex biological objects that are teeth. Explicitly considering the physical processes within the root canal can contribute to the resolution of these problems. The central problem is one of fluid motion in a confined geometry, which makes the dispersion and mixing of irrigant more difficult because of the absence of turbulence over much of the canal volume. The effects of treatments can be understood through the use of scale models, mathematical modelling and numerical computations. A particular concern in treatment is that caustic irrigant may penetrate beyond the root canal, causing chemical damage to the jawbone. In fact, a stagnation plane exists beyond the needle tip, which the irrigant cannot penetrate. The goal is therefore to shift the stagnation plane apically to be coincident with the canal terminus without extending beyond it. Needle design may solve some of the problems but the best design for irrigant penetration conflicts with that for optimal removal of the bacterial biofilm from the canal wall. Both irrigant penetration and biofilm removal may be improved through canal fluid
Palazzi, Elisa; Fraedrich, Klaus
2016-01-01
This volume provides an overview of the fluid aspects of the climate system, focusing on basic aspects as well as recent research developments. It will bring together contributions from diverse fields of the physical, mathematical and engineering sciences. The volume will be useful to doctorate students, postdocs and researchers working on different aspects of atmospheric, oceanic and environmental fluid dynamics. It will also be of interest to researchers interested in quantitatively understanding how fluid dynamics can be applied to the climate system, and to climate scientists willing to gain a deeper insight into the fluid mechanics underlying climate processes.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hameed Shihab
2012-06-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background/Aims Infants with diabetes insipidus (DI, especially those with impaired thirst mechanism or hypothalamic hyperphagia, are prone to severe sodium fluctuations, often requiring hospitalization. We aimed to avoid dangerous fluctuations in serum sodium and improve parental independence. Methods A 16-month old girl with central DI, absent thirst mechanism and hyperphagia following surgery for hypothalamic astrocytoma had erratic absorption of oral DDAVP during chemotherapy cycles. She required prolonged hospitalizations for hypernatremia and hyponatremic seizure. Intensive monitoring of fluid balance, weight and clinical assessment of hydration were not helpful in predicting serum sodium. Discharge home was deemed unsafe. Oral DDAVP was switched to subcutaneous (twice-daily injections, starting with 0.01mcg/dose, increasing to 0.024mcg/dose. The parents adjusted daily fluid allocation by sliding-scale, according to the blood sodium level (measured by handheld i-STAT analyser, Abbott. We adjusted the DDAVP dose if fluid allocation differed from maintenance requirements for 3 consecutive days. Results After 2.5 months, sodium was better controlled, with 84% of levels within reference range (135-145 mmol/L vs. only 51% on the old regimen (p = 0.0001. The sodium ranged from 132-154 mmol/L, compared to 120–156 on the old regimen. She was discharged home. Conclusion This practical regimen improved sodium control, parental independence, and allowed discharge home.
Hameed, Shihab; Mendoza-Cruz, Abel C; Neville, Kristen A; Woodhead, Helen J; Walker, Jan L; Verge, Charles F
2012-06-09
Infants with diabetes insipidus (DI), especially those with impaired thirst mechanism or hypothalamic hyperphagia, are prone to severe sodium fluctuations, often requiring hospitalization. We aimed to avoid dangerous fluctuations in serum sodium and improve parental independence. A 16-month old girl with central DI, absent thirst mechanism and hyperphagia following surgery for hypothalamic astrocytoma had erratic absorption of oral DDAVP during chemotherapy cycles. She required prolonged hospitalizations for hypernatremia and hyponatremic seizure. Intensive monitoring of fluid balance, weight and clinical assessment of hydration were not helpful in predicting serum sodium. Discharge home was deemed unsafe. Oral DDAVP was switched to subcutaneous (twice-daily injections, starting with 0.01mcg/dose, increasing to 0.024mcg/dose). The parents adjusted daily fluid allocation by sliding-scale, according to the blood sodium level (measured by handheld i-STAT analyser, Abbott). We adjusted the DDAVP dose if fluid allocation differed from maintenance requirements for 3 consecutive days. After 2.5 months, sodium was better controlled, with 84% of levels within reference range (135-145 mmol/L) vs. only 51% on the old regimen (p = 0.0001). The sodium ranged from 132-154 mmol/L, compared to 120-156 on the old regimen. She was discharged home. This practical regimen improved sodium control, parental independence, and allowed discharge home.
Nodal methods for problems in fluid mechanics and neutron transport
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Azmy, Y.Y.
1985-01-01
A new high-accuracy, coarse-mesh, nodal integral approach is developed for the efficient numerical solution of linear partial differential equations. It is shown that various special cases of this general nodal integral approach correspond to several high efficiency nodal methods developed recently for the numerical solution of neutron diffusion and neutron transport problems. The new approach is extended to the nonlinear Navier-Stokes equations of fluid mechanics; its extension to these equations leads to a new computational method, the nodal integral method which is implemented for the numerical solution of these equations. Application to several test problems demonstrates the superior computational efficiency of this new method over previously developed methods. The solutions obtained for several driven cavity problems are compared with the available experimental data and are shown to be in very good agreement with experiment. Additional comparisons also show that the coarse-mesh, nodal integral method results agree very well with the results of definitive ultra-fine-mesh, finite-difference calculations for the driven cavity problem up to fairly high Reynolds numbers
Bai, Ge; Bee, Jared S; Biddlecombe, James G; Chen, Quanmin; Leach, W Thomas
2012-02-28
Agitation of small amounts of liquid is performed routinely in biopharmaceutical process, formulation, and packaging development. Protein degradation commonly results from agitation, but the specific stress responsible or degradation mechanism is usually not well understood. Characterization of the agitation stress methods is critical to identifying protein degradation mechanisms or specific sensitivities. In this study, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) was used to model agitation of 1 mL of fluid by four types of common laboratory agitation instruments, including a rotator, orbital shaker, magnetic stirrer and vortex mixer. Fluid stresses in the bulk liquid and near interfaces were identified, quantified and compared. The vortex mixer provides the most intense stresses overall, while the stir bar system presented locally intense shear proximal to the hydrophobic stir bar surface. The rotator provides gentler fluid stresses, but the air-water interfacial area and surface stresses are relatively high given its low rotational frequency. The orbital shaker provides intermediate-level stresses but with the advantage of a large stable platform for consistent vial-to-vial homogeneity. Selection of experimental agitation methods with targeted types and intensities of stresses can facilitate better understanding of protein degradation mechanisms and predictability for "real world" applications. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Transport equations, Level Set and Eulerian mechanics. Application to fluid-structure coupling
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Maitre, E.
2008-11-01
My works were devoted to numerical analysis of non-linear elliptic-parabolic equations, to neutron transport equation and to the simulation of fabrics draping. More recently I developed an Eulerian method based on a level set formulation of the immersed boundary method to deal with fluid-structure coupling problems arising in bio-mechanics. Some of the more efficient algorithms to solve the neutron transport equation make use of the splitting of the transport operator taking into account its characteristics. In the present work we introduced a new algorithm based on this splitting and an adaptation of minimal residual methods to infinite dimensional case. We present the case where the velocity space is of dimension 1 (slab geometry) and 2 (plane geometry) because the splitting is simpler in the former
Heat transfer and fluid flow in biological processes advances and applications
Becker, Sid
2015-01-01
Heat Transfer and Fluid Flow in Biological Processes covers emerging areas in fluid flow and heat transfer relevant to biosystems and medical technology. This book uses an interdisciplinary approach to provide a comprehensive prospective on biofluid mechanics and heat transfer advances and includes reviews of the most recent methods in modeling of flows in biological media, such as CFD. Written by internationally recognized researchers in the field, each chapter provides a strong introductory section that is useful to both readers currently in the field and readers interested in learning more about these areas. Heat Transfer and Fluid Flow in Biological Processes is an indispensable reference for professors, graduate students, professionals, and clinical researchers in the fields of biology, biomedical engineering, chemistry and medicine working on applications of fluid flow, heat transfer, and transport phenomena in biomedical technology. Provides a wide range of biological and clinical applications of fluid...
Wiputra, Hadi; Lai, Chang Quan; Lim, Guat Ling; Heng, Joel Jia Wei; Guo, Lan; Soomar, Sanah Merchant; Leo, Hwa Liang; Biwas, Arijit; Mattar, Citra Nurfarah Zaini; Yap, Choon Hwai
2016-12-01
There are 0.6-1.9% of US children who were born with congenital heart malformations. Clinical and animal studies suggest that abnormal blood flow forces might play a role in causing these malformation, highlighting the importance of understanding the fetal cardiovascular fluid mechanics. We performed computational fluid dynamics simulations of the right ventricles, based on four-dimensional ultrasound scans of three 20-wk-old normal human fetuses, to characterize their flow and energy dynamics. Peak intraventricular pressure gradients were found to be 0.2-0.9 mmHg during systole, and 0.1-0.2 mmHg during diastole. Diastolic wall shear stresses were found to be around 1 Pa, which could elevate to 2-4 Pa during systole in the outflow tract. Fetal right ventricles have complex flow patterns featuring two interacting diastolic vortex rings, formed during diastolic E wave and A wave. These rings persisted through the end of systole and elevated wall shear stresses in their proximity. They were observed to conserve ∼25.0% of peak diastolic kinetic energy to be carried over into the subsequent systole. However, this carried-over kinetic energy did not significantly alter the work done by the heart for ejection. Thus, while diastolic vortexes played a significant role in determining spatial patterns and magnitudes of diastolic wall shear stresses, they did not have significant influence on systolic ejection. Our results can serve as a baseline for future comparison with diseased hearts. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.
Mechanisms controlling the volume of pleural fluid and extravascular lung water
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
G. Miserocchi
2009-12-01
Full Text Available Pleural and interstitial lung fluid volumes are strictly controlled and maintained at the minimum thanks to the ability of lymphatics to match the increase in filtration rate. In the pleural cavity, fluid accumulation is easily accommodated by retraction of lung and chest wall (high compliance of the pleural space; the increase of lymph flow per unit increase in pleural fluid volume is high due to the great extension of the parietal lymphatic. However, for the lung interstitium, the increase in lymph flow to match increased filtration does not need to be so great. In fact, increased filtration only causes a minor increase in extravascular water volume (<10% due to a marked increase in interstitial pulmonary pressure (low compliance of the extracellular matrix which, in turn, buffers further filtration. Accordingly, a less extended lymphatic network is needed. The efficiency of lymphatic control is achieved through a high lymphatic conductance in the pleural fluid and through a low interstitial compliance for the lung interstitium. Fluid volume in both compartments is so strictly controlled that it is difficult to detect initial deviations from the physiological state; thus, a great physiological advantage turns to be a disadvantage on a clinical basis as it prevents an early diagnosis of developing disease.
Ludwig Prandtl and Boundary Layers in Fluid Flow
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
His research is ... research in fluid mechan- ... For common fluids the viscous force is proportional to .... that the analogy is only a very crude, qualitative one. ..... separation is turbulent and the fluid in the wake is nearly stagnant. Method of.
Vapour loss (``boiling'') as a mechanism for fluid evolution in metamorphic rocks
Trommsdorff, Volkmar; Skippen, George
1986-11-01
The calculation of fluid evolution paths during reaction progress is considered for multicomponent systems and the results applied to the ternary system, CO2-H2O-NaCl. Fluid evolution paths are considered for systems in which a CO2-rich phase of lesser density (vapour) is preferentially removed from the system leaving behind a saline aqueous phase (liquid). Such “boiling” leads to enrichment of the residual aqueous phase in dissolved components and, for certain reaction stoichiometries, to eventual saturation of the fluids in salt components. Distinctive textures, particularly radiating growths of prismatic minerals such as tremolite or diopside, are associated with saline fluid inclusions and solid syngenetic salt inclusions at a number of field localities. The most thoroughly studied of these localities is Campolungo, Switzerland, where metasomatic rocks have developed in association with fractures and veins at 500° C and 2,000 bars of pressure. The petrography of these rocks suggests that fluid phase separation into liquid and vapour has been an important process during metasomatism. Fracture systems with fluids at pressure less than lithostatic may facilitate the loss of the less dense vapour phase to conditions of the amphibolite facies.
Thermophysical properties of supercritical fluids and fluid mixtures
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sengers, J.V.
1989-08-01
The purpose of the research is to extend the theory of critical phenomena in fluids and fluid mixtures to obtain scientifically based equations that include the crossover from the asymptotic singular behavior of the thermophysical properties close to the critical point to the regular behavior of these properties far away from the critical point
Fluid instabilities and wakes in a soap-film tunnel
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vorobieff, P.; Ecke, R.E.
1999-01-01
We present a compact, low-budget two-dimensional hydrodynamic flow visualization system based on a tilted, gravity-driven soap film tunnel. This system is suitable for demonstrations and studies of a variety of fluid mechanics problems, including turbulent wakes past bluff bodies and lifting surfaces, Kelvin - Helmholtz instability, and grid turbulence. copyright 1999 American Association of Physics Teachers
Dynamics of viscoelastic fluid filaments in microfluidic devices
Steinhaus, Benjamin; Shen, Amy Q.; Sureshkumar, Radhakrishna
2007-07-01
The effects of fluid elasticity and channel dimension on polymeric droplet formation in the presence of a flowing continuous Newtonian phase are investigated systematically by using different molecular weight (MW) poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) solutions and varying microchannel dimensions with constant orifice width (w) to depth (h) ratio (w/h=1/2) and w =25μm, 50μm, 100μm, and 1mm. The flow rate is varied so that the mean shear rate is practically identical for all cases considered. Relevant times scales include inertia-capillary Rayleigh time τR=(Rmax3ρ/σ)1/2, viscocapillary Tomotika time τT=η0Rmax/σ, and the polymer relaxation time λ, where ρ is the fluid density of the dispersed phase, σ is the interfacial tension, η0 is the zero shear viscosity of the dispersed polymer phase, and Rmax is the maximum filament radius. Dimensionless numbers include the elasticity number E =λν/Rmax2, elastocapillary number Ec=λ/τT, and Deborah number, De =λ/τR, where ν =η0/ρ is the kinematic shear viscosity of the fluids. Experiments show that higher MW Boger fluids possessing longer relaxation times and larger extensional viscosities exhibit longer thread lengths and longer pinch-off times (tp). The polymer filament dynamics are controlled primarily by an elastocapillary mechanism with increasing elasticity effect at smaller length scales (larger E and Ec). However, with weaker elastic effects (i.e., larger w and lower MW), pinch-off is initiated by inertia-capillary mechanisms, followed by an elastocapillary regime. A high degree of correlation exists between the dimensionless pinch-off times and the elasticity numbers. We also observe that higher elasticity number E yields smaller effective λ. Based on the estimates of polymer scission probabilities predicted by Brownian dynamics simulations for uniaxial extensional flows, polymer chain scission is likely to occur for ultrasmall orifices and high MW fluids, yielding smaller λ. Finally, the inhibition of
Monteith, Corey E; Brunner, Matthew E; Djagaeva, Inna; Bielecki, Anthony M; Deutsch, Joshua M; Saxton, William M
2016-05-10
The transport of cytoplasmic components can be profoundly affected by hydrodynamics. Cytoplasmic streaming in Drosophila oocytes offers a striking example. Forces on fluid from kinesin-1 are initially directed by a disordered meshwork of microtubules, generating minor slow cytoplasmic flows. Subsequently, to mix incoming nurse cell cytoplasm with ooplasm, a subcortical layer of microtubules forms parallel arrays that support long-range, fast flows. To analyze the streaming mechanism, we combined observations of microtubule and organelle motions with detailed mathematical modeling. In the fast state, microtubules tethered to the cortex form a thin subcortical layer and undergo correlated sinusoidal bending. Organelles moving in flows along the arrays show velocities that are slow near the cortex and fast on the inward side of the subcortical microtubule layer. Starting with fundamental physical principles suggested by qualitative hypotheses, and with published values for microtubule stiffness, kinesin velocity, and cytoplasmic viscosity, we developed a quantitative coupled hydrodynamic model for streaming. The fully detailed mathematical model and its simulations identify key variables that can shift the system between disordered (slow) and ordered (fast) states. Measurements of array curvature, wave period, and the effects of diminished kinesin velocity on flow rates, as well as prior observations on f-actin perturbation, support the model. This establishes a concrete mechanistic framework for the ooplasmic streaming process. The self-organizing fast phase is a result of viscous drag on kinesin-driven cargoes that mediates equal and opposite forces on cytoplasmic fluid and on microtubules whose minus ends are tethered to the cortex. Fluid moves toward plus ends and microtubules are forced backward toward their minus ends, resulting in buckling. Under certain conditions, the buckling microtubules self-organize into parallel bending arrays, guiding varying directions
Introduction to thermo-fluids systems design
Garcia McDonald, André
2012-01-01
A fully comprehensive guide to thermal systems design covering fluid dynamics, thermodynamics, heat transfer and thermodynamic power cycles Bridging the gap between the fundamental concepts of fluid mechanics, heat transfer and thermodynamics, and the practical design of thermo-fluids components and systems, this textbook focuses on the design of internal fluid flow systems, coiled heat exchangers and performance analysis of power plant systems. The topics are arranged so that each builds upon the previous chapter to convey to the reader that topics are not stand-alone i
Bayesian inverse problems for functions and applications to fluid mechanics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cotter, S L; Dashti, M; Robinson, J C; Stuart, A M
2009-01-01
In this paper we establish a mathematical framework for a range of inverse problems for functions, given a finite set of noisy observations. The problems are hence underdetermined and are often ill-posed. We study these problems from the viewpoint of Bayesian statistics, with the resulting posterior probability measure being defined on a space of functions. We develop an abstract framework for such problems which facilitates application of an infinite-dimensional version of Bayes theorem, leads to a well-posedness result for the posterior measure (continuity in a suitable probability metric with respect to changes in data), and also leads to a theory for the existence of maximizing the posterior probability (MAP) estimators for such Bayesian inverse problems on function space. A central idea underlying these results is that continuity properties and bounds on the forward model guide the choice of the prior measure for the inverse problem, leading to the desired results on well-posedness and MAP estimators; the PDE analysis and probability theory required are thus clearly dileneated, allowing a straightforward derivation of results. We show that the abstract theory applies to some concrete applications of interest by studying problems arising from data assimilation in fluid mechanics. The objective is to make inference about the underlying velocity field, on the basis of either Eulerian or Lagrangian observations. We study problems without model error, in which case the inference is on the initial condition, and problems with model error in which case the inference is on the initial condition and on the driving noise process or, equivalently, on the entire time-dependent velocity field. In order to undertake a relatively uncluttered mathematical analysis we consider the two-dimensional Navier–Stokes equation on a torus. The case of Eulerian observations—direct observations of the velocity field itself—is then a model for weather forecasting. The case of
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Anon.
1982-01-01
Various topics in applied mathematics are addressed. The subjects discussed include: two-phase flow, nonlinear fracture mechanics, tribology, interfacial fluid mechanics, mechanical behavior of composite materials, large motions of systems containing flexible bodies, geophysical fluid dynamics, structural reliability and damage assessment, electromagnetoelastic interactions, flows in materials processing, qualitative theory of dynamical systems, and mechanics of energy technology
Magnetohydrodynamic pump with a system for promoting flow of fluid in one direction
Lemoff, Asuncion V [Union City, CA; Lee, Abraham P [Irvine, CA
2010-07-13
A magnetohydrodynamic pump for pumping a fluid. The pump includes a microfluidic channel for channeling the fluid, a MHD electrode/magnet system operatively connected to the microfluidic channel, and a system for promoting flow of the fluid in one direction in the microfluidic channel. The pump has uses in the medical and biotechnology industries for blood-cell-separation equipment, biochemical assays, chemical synthesis, genetic analysis, drug screening, an array of antigen-antibody reactions, combinatorial chemistry, drug testing, medical and biological diagnostics, and combinatorial chemistry. The pump also has uses in electrochromatography, surface micromachining, laser ablation, inkjet printers, and mechanical micromilling.
A contemporary look at Hermann Hankel's 1861 pioneering work on Lagrangian fluid dynamics
Frisch, Uriel; Grimberg, Gérard; Villone, Barbara
2017-12-01
The present paper is a companion to the paper by Villone and Rampf (2017), titled "Hermann Hankel's On the general theory of motion of fluids, an essay including an English translation of the complete Preisschrift from 1861" together with connected documents [Eur. Phys. J. H 42, 557-609 (2017)]. Here we give a critical assessment of Hankel's work, which covers many important aspects of fluid dynamics considered from a Lagrangian-coordinates point of view: variational formulation in the spirit of Hamilton for elastic (barotropic) fluids, transport (we would now say Lie transport) of vorticity, the Lagrangian significance of Clebsch variables, etc. Hankel's work is also put in the perspective of previous and future work. Hence, the action spans about two centuries: from Lagrange's 1760-1761 Turin paper on variational approaches to mechanics and fluid mechanics problems to Arnold's 1966 founding paper on the geometrical/variational formulation of incompressible flow. The 22-year-old Hankel - who was to die 12 years later — emerges as a highly innovative master of mathematical fluid dynamics, fully deserving Riemann's assessment that his Preisschrift contains "all manner of good things."
Slip behaviour of experimental faults subjected to fluid pressure stimulation: carbonates vs. shales
Collettini, C.; Scuderi, M. M.; Marone, C.
2017-12-01
Fluid overpressure is one of the primary mechanisms for triggering tectonic fault slip and human-induced seismicity. This mechanism has been invoked to explain the dramatic increase in seismicity associated with waste water disposal in intra-plate setting, and it is appealing because fluids lubricate the fault and reduce the effective normal stress that holds the fault in place. Although, this basic physical mechanism is well understood, several fundamental questions remain including the apparent delay between fluid injection and seismicity, the role of fault zone rheology, and the relationship between injection volume and earthquake size. Moreover, models of earthquake nucleation predict that a reduction in normal stress, as expected for fluid overpressure, should stabilize fault slip. Here, we address these questions using laboratory experiments, conducted in the double direct shear configuration in a true-triaxial machine on carbonates and shale fault gouges. In particular, we: 1) evaluate frictional strength and permeability, 2) characterize the rate- and state- friction parameters and 3) study fault slip evolution during fluid pressure stimulations. With increasing fluid pressure, when shear and effective normal stresses reach the failure condition, in calcite gouges, characterized by slightly velocity strengthening behaviour, we observe an acceleration of slip that spontaneously evolves into dynamic failure. For shale gouges, with a strong rate-strengthening behaviour, we document complex fault slip behavior characterized by periodic accelerations and decelerations with slip velocity that remains slow (i.e. v 200 µm/s), never approaching dynamic slip rates. Our data indicate that fault rheology and fault stability is controlled by the coupling between fluid pressure and rate- and state- friction parameters suggesting that their comprehensive characterization is fundamental for assessing the role of fluid pressure in natural and human induced earthquakes.
Introduction to the concept of added mass in fluid mechanics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pham Dan Tam.
1977-07-01
The physical phenomenum which leads to the concept of added mass for an inviscid fluid is recalled. The added-mass tensor for a solid body moving through an unbounded fluid is defined and some of its properties are presented. The Taylor theorem is exposed, which enables some of the tensor components to be analytically derived in particular cases. Added-mass values are provided for bodies of particular shape. Applications of the added-mass concept to different problems are given [fr
An in-pipe mobile micromachine using fluid power. A mechanism adaptable to pipe diameters
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yoshida, Kazuhiro; Yokota, Shinichi; Takahashi, Ken
2000-01-01
To realize micro maintenance robots for small diameter pipes of nuclear reactors and so on, high power in-pipe mobile micromachines have been required. The authors have proposed the bellows microactuator using fluid power and have tried to apply the actuators to in-pipe mobile micromachines. In the previous papers, some inchworm mobile machine prototypes with 25 mm in diameter are fabricated and the traveling performances are experimentally investigated. In this paper, to miniaturize the in-pipe mobile machine and to make it adaptable to pipe diameters, firstly, a simple rubber-tube actuator constrained with a coil-spring is proposed and the static characteristics are investigated. Secondly, a supporting mechanism which utilizes a toggle mechanism and is adaptable to pipe diameters is proposed and the supporting forces are investigated. Finally, an in-pipe mobile micromachine for pipe with 4 - 5 mm in diameter is fabricated and the maximum traveling velocity of 7 mm/s in both ahead and astern movements is experimentally verified. (author)
Burazin, Andrijana; Drapaca, Corina S; Tenti, Giuseppe; Sivaloganathan, Siv
2018-05-01
Although the mechanisms responsible for elevated interstitial fluid pressure (IFP) in tumours remain obscure, it seems clear that high IFP represents a barrier to drug delivery (since the resulting adverse pressure gradient implies a reduction in the driving force for transvascular exchange of both fluid and macromolecules). R. Jain and co-workers studied this problem, and although the conclusions drawn from their idealized mathematical models offered useful insights into the causes of elevated IFP, they by no means gave a definitive explanation for this phenomenon. In this paper, we use poroelasticity theory to also develop a macroscopic mathematical model to describe the time evolution of a solid tumour, but focus our attention on the mechanisms responsible for the rise of the IFP, from that for a healthy interstitium to that measured in malignant tumours. In particular, we discuss a number of possible time scales suggested by our mathematical model and propose a tumour-dependent time scale that leads to results in agreement with experimental observations. We apply our mathematical model to simulate the effect of "vascular normalization" (as proposed by Jain in Nat Med 7:987-989, 2001) on the IFP profile and discuss and contrast our conclusions with those of previous work in the literature.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Irwan Iskandar
2018-03-01
Full Text Available The Tampomas Volcano is a Quaternary volcano located on Java Island and controlled by a west-northwest–east-southeast (WNW-ESE regional fault trend. This regional structure acts as conduits for the hydrothermal fluids to ascend from a deeper system toward the surface and, in the end, mix with groundwater. In this research, water geochemistry, gas chemistry and isotopes 2H, 18O and 13C were used to explore the subsurface fluid characteristics and mixing mechanisms of the hydrothermal fluids with groundwater. In addition to those geochemical methods, soil-gas and dissolved 222Rn observations were performed to understand the geological control of fluid chemistry. Based on the analytical results, the hydrothermal system of Tampomas is only developed at the northeastern flank of the volcano, which is mainly controlled by NE-SW structures as deep fluid conduits, while the Cimalaka Caldera Rim around Sekarwangi act as the boundary flow of the system. This system is also categorized as an “intermediate temperature system” wherein fluid is derived from the interaction between the volcanic host-rock at 170 ± 10 °C mixed with trace organic gas input from sedimentary formation; afterwards, the fluid flows laterally and is diluted with groundwater near the surface. Soil-gas and dissolved 222Rn confirm that these permeable zones are effective conduits for the ascending thermal fluids. It is found that NE faults carry higher trace elements from the deeper system, while the circular feature of the Caldera Rim acts as the boundary of the hydrothermal system.
Fundamental trends in fluid-structure interaction
Galdi, Giovanni P
2010-01-01
The interaction of a fluid with a solid body is a widespread phenomenon in nature, occurring at different scales and different applied disciplines. Interestingly enough, even though the mathematical theory of the motion of bodies in a liquid is one of the oldest and most classical problems in fluid mechanics, mathematicians have, only very recently, become interested in a systematic study of the basic problems related to fluid-structure interaction, from both analytical and numerical viewpoints. ""Fundamental Trends in Fluid-Structure Interaction"" is a unique collection of important papers wr
Fluid Mechanics of the Vascular Basement Membrane in the Brain
Coloma, Mikhail; Hui, Jonathan; Chiarot, Paul; Huang, Peter; Carare, Roxana; McLeod, Kenneth; Schaffer, David
2013-11-01
Beta-amyloid is a normal product of brain metabolic function and is found within the interstitial fluid of the brain. Failure of the clearance of beta-amyloid from the aging brain leads to its accumulation within the walls of arteries and to Alzheimer's disease. The vascular basement membrane (VBM) within the walls of cerebral arteries surrounds the spirally arranged smooth muscle cells and represents an essential pathway for removal of beta-amyloid from the brain. This process fails with the stiffening of arterial walls associated with aging. In this study we hypothesize that the deformation of the VBM associated with arterial pulsations drives the interstitial fluid to drain in the direction opposite of the arterial blood flow. This hypothesis is theoretically investigated by modeling the VBM as a thin, coaxial, fluid-filled porous medium surrounding a periodically deforming cylindrical tube. Flow and boundary conditions required to achieve such a backward clearance are derived through a control volume analysis of mass, momentum, and energy.
Application of a magnetic fluid seal to rotary blood pumps
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mitamura, Y; Arioka, S; Azegami, M; Sakota, D; Sekine, K
2008-01-01
A magnetic fluid seal enables mechanical contact-free rotation of a shaft without frictional heat and material wear and hence has excellent durability. However, the durability of a magnetic fluid seal decreases in liquid. The life of a seal applied to a rotary blood pump is not known. We have developed a magnetic fluid seal that has a shield mechanism minimizing the influence of the rotary pump on the magnetic fluid. The developed magnetic fluid seal worked for over 286 days in a continuous flow condition, for 24 days (on-going) in a pulsatile flow condition and for 24 h (electively terminated) in blood flow. The magnetic fluid seal is promising as a shaft seal for rotary blood pumps
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Reardon, F.H.; Thinh, N.D.
1987-01-01
Experimental and analytical techniques in heat transfer and fluid dynamics and state-of-the-art applications are examined in reviews and reports. Topics discussed include the recirculation characteristics of a vortex pump, simulation of radial-flow impellers using the Navier-Stokes equations, the transient effect in composite-medium conduction or diffusion, flow in a tube with a porous obstruction, the measurement of the physical heat-transfer coefficient, and a penalty FEM for combined forced and free convection in a rectangular enclosure. Consideration is given to heat transfer in the entrance region of multiply connected ducts, working-fluid selection for low-temperature Rankine cycles, a computational-experimental method for monitoring particulate flux in fluid streams, medical applications of a vortex aerosol generator, and the interaction of unlike propellant droplets in various reactive environments
Some applications of magnetic resonance imaging in fluid mechanics: Complex flows and complex fluids
Bonn, Daniel; Rodts, Stephane; Groenink, Maarten; Rafai, Salima; Shahidzadeh-Bonn, Noushine; Coussot, Philippe
2008-01-01
The review deals with applications of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques to study flow. We first briefly discuss the principles of flow measurement by MRI and give examples of some applications, such as multiphase flows, the MRI rheology of complex fluid flows, and blood flows in the human
A computational DFT study of structural transitions in textured solid-fluid interfaces
Yatsyshin, Petr; Parry, Andrew O.; Kalliadasis, Serafim
2015-11-01
Fluids adsorbed at walls, in capillary pores and slits, and in more exotic, sculpted geometries such as grooves and wedges can exhibit many new phase transitions, including wetting, pre-wetting, capillary-condensation and filling, compared to their bulk counterparts. As well as being of fundamental interest to the modern statistical mechanical theory of inhomogeneous fluids, these are also relevant to nanofluidics, chemical- and bioengineering. In this talk we will show using a microscopic Density Functional Theory (DFT) for fluids how novel, continuous, interfacial transitions associated with the first-order prewetting line, can occur on steps, in grooves and in wedges, that are sensitive to both the range of the intermolecular forces and interfacial fluctuation effects. These transitions compete with wetting, filling and condensation producing very rich phase diagrams even for relatively simple geometries. We will also discuss practical aspects of DFT calculations, and demonstrate how this statistical-mechanical framework is capable of yielding complex fluid structure, interfacial tensions, and regions of thermodynamic stability of various fluid configurations. As a side note, this demonstrates that DFT is an excellent tool for the investigations of complex multiphase systems. We acknowledge financial support from the European Research Council via Advanced Grant No. 247031.
Bhandari, Pradeep; Dudik, Brenda; Birur, Gajanana; Karlmann, Paul; Bame, David; Mastropietro, A. J.
2012-01-01
For single phase mechanically pumped fluid loops used for thermal control of spacecraft, a gas charged accumulator is typically used to modulate pressures within the loop. This is needed to accommodate changes in the working fluid volume due to changes in the operating temperatures as the spacecraft encounters varying thermal environments during its mission. Overall, the three key requirements on the accumulator to maintain an appropriate pressure range throughout the mission are: accommodation of the volume change of the fluid due to temperature changes, avoidance of pump cavitation and prevention of boiling in the liquid. The sizing and design of such an accumulator requires very careful and accurate accounting of temperature distribution within each element of the working fluid for the entire range of conditions expected, accurate knowledge of volume of each fluid element, assessment of corresponding pressures needed to avoid boiling in the liquid, as well as the pressures needed to avoid cavitation in the pump. The appropriate liquid and accumulator strokes required to accommodate the liquid volume change, as well as the appropriate gas volumes, require proper sizing to ensure that the correct pressure range is maintained during the mission. Additionally, a very careful assessment of the process for charging both the gas side and the liquid side of the accumulator is required to properly position the bellows and pressurize the system to a level commensurate with requirements. To achieve the accurate sizing of the accumulator and the charging of the system, sophisticated EXCEL based spreadsheets were developed to rapidly come up with an accumulator design and the corresponding charging parameters. These spreadsheets have proven to be computationally fast and accurate tools for this purpose. This paper will describe the entire process of designing and charging the system, using a case study of the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) fluid loops, which is en route to
Fluid elastic vibration of nuclear fuel assemblies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kim, S. N.; Jung, S. Y.
1998-01-01
Since utilities and fuel venders have adopted the fuel design of high burn-up and improved thermal margin flow mixing vane, several PWR nuclear power plants have in recent years experienced fretting wear fuel rod failure due to flow induced vibration. Flow induced vibration can be resulted from fluidelastic instability, periodic shedding, turbulence-induced excitation, and acoustic resonance (1). Among these mechanisms found in the core of nuclear power plant, the governing mechanism that is fluidelastic instability, could be inferred from the analysis of fuel failure patterns. Therefore, to simulate the fuel failure in nuclear power plants, Tanaka's model (2) was chosen as most suitable one, which is well explaining the damage pattern, in particular it's second row damage characteristics. In the model, unsteady fluid dynamic forces acting on the vibrating cyclinders were included which consists of the inertia forces due to the added mass of fluid, damping forces of fluid in phase to the cylinder vibrating velocity, and stiffness forces proportional to cylinder displacements. However, the model did not account for radiation effect-spring forces deflection. So, the model was modified to account for the spring force relaxation due to radiation exposure. The stiffness of spring was fitted with experimental data. Finally the critical velocities were calculated with the modified spring force at beginning and end of cycle
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
NONE
1997-10-01
The general purpose of the program has been the development of efficient algorithms, their implementation in codes of Computational Fluid Mechanics (CFD), and the experimental verification of these codes. Flows of both fundamental and applied nature has been investigated, including flows in industrial process equipment, about aerodynamics structures and ships, and flows over bed forms of importance for sediment transport. The experimental work has included the development of improved techniques, emphasizing optical methods. The objectives were realized through a coordinated experimental and theoretical/computation research program, organized in 6 specific projects: 1. CFD-methods and algorithms. 2. Special element simulation of ultrafiltration. 3. Turbulent swirling flows; 4. Near-wall models of turbulence and development of experimental techniques. 5. Flow over bed forms. 6. Flow past ship hull. (au)
Book review: Partial Differential Equations and Fluid Mechanics
Muntean, A.
2011-01-01
The baak is the result of the workshop Partial Differential Equations and Fluid Dynamics that look place at the Mathematics Institute of the University of Warwick. May 21st - 23rd, 2007. It contains ten review and research papers which provide an accessible summary of a wide range of active research
Mechanics of granular-frictional-visco-plastic fluids in civil and mining engineering
Alehossein, H.; Qin, Z.
2013-10-01
The shear stress generated in mine backfill slurries and fresh concrete contains both velocity gradient dependent and frictional terms, categorised as frictional viscous plastic fluids. This paper discusses application of the developed analytical solution for flow rate as a function of pressure and pressure gradient in discs, pipes and cones for such frictional Bingham-Herschel-Bulkley fluids. This paper discusses application of this continuum fluid model to industrial materials like mine and mineral slurries, backfills and fresh concrete tests.
Space Station fluid management logistics
Dominick, Sam M.
1990-01-01
Viewgraphs and discussion on space station fluid management logistics are presented. Topics covered include: fluid management logistics - issues for Space Station Freedom evolution; current fluid logistics approach; evolution of Space Station Freedom fluid resupply; launch vehicle evolution; ELV logistics system approach; logistics carrier configuration; expendable fluid/propellant carrier description; fluid carrier design concept; logistics carrier orbital operations; carrier operations at space station; summary/status of orbital fluid transfer techniques; Soviet progress tanker system; and Soviet propellant resupply system observations.
[Arterial pressure curve and fluid status].
Pestel, G; Fukui, K
2009-04-01
Fluid optimization is a major contributor to improved outcome in patients. Unfortunately, anesthesiologists are often in doubt whether an additional fluid bolus will improve the hemodynamics of the patient or not as excess fluid may even jeopardize the condition. This article discusses physiological concepts of liberal versus restrictive fluid management followed by a discussion on the respective capabilities of various monitors to predict fluid responsiveness. The parameter difference in pulse pressure (dPP), derived from heart-lung interaction in mechanically ventilated patients is discussed in detail. The dPP cutoff value of 13% to predict fluid responsiveness is presented together with several assessment techniques of dPP. Finally, confounding variables on dPP measurements, such as ventilation parameters, pneumoperitoneum and use of norepinephrine are also mentioned.
Conservative fluid management prevents age-associated ventilator induced mortality.
Herbert, Joseph A; Valentine, Michael S; Saravanan, Nivi; Schneck, Matthew B; Pidaparti, Ramana; Fowler, Alpha A; Reynolds, Angela M; Heise, Rebecca L
2016-08-01
Approximately 800 thousand patients require mechanical ventilation in the United States annually with an in-hospital mortality rate of over 30%. The majority of patients requiring mechanical ventilation are over the age of 65 and advanced age is known to increase the severity of ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI) and in-hospital mortality rates. However, the mechanisms which predispose aging ventilator patients to increased mortality rates are not fully understood. Ventilation with conservative fluid management decreases mortality rates in acute respiratory distress patients, but to date there has been no investigation of the effect of conservative fluid management on VILI and ventilator associated mortality rates. We hypothesized that age-associated increases in susceptibility and incidence of pulmonary edema strongly promote age-related increases in ventilator associated mortality. 2month old and 20month old male C57BL6 mice were mechanically ventilated with either high tidal volume (HVT) or low tidal volume (LVT) for up to 4h with either liberal or conservative fluid support. During ventilation, lung compliance, total lung capacity, and hysteresis curves were quantified. Following ventilation, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid was analyzed for total protein content and inflammatory cell infiltration. Wet to dry ratios were used to directly measure edema in excised lungs. Lung histology was performed to quantify alveolar barrier damage/destruction. Age matched non-ventilated mice were used as controls. At 4h, both advanced age and HVT ventilation significantly increased markers of inflammation and injury, degraded pulmonary mechanics, and decreased survival rates. Conservative fluid support significantly diminished pulmonary edema and improved pulmonary mechanics by 1h in advanced age HVT subjects. In 4h ventilations, conservative fluid support significantly diminished pulmonary edema, improved lung mechanics, and resulted in significantly lower mortality rates in
Damodara, Vijaya; Chen, Daniel H; Lou, Helen H; Rasel, Kader M A; Richmond, Peyton; Wang, Anan; Li, Xianchang
2017-05-01
Emissions from flares constitute unburned hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide (CO), soot, and other partially burned and altered hydrocarbons along with carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) and water. Soot or visible smoke is of particular concern for flare operators/regulatory agencies. The goal of the study is to develop a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model capable of predicting flare combustion efficiency (CE) and soot emission. Since detailed combustion mechanisms are too complicated for (CFD) application, a 50-species reduced mechanism, LU 3.0.1, was developed. LU 3.0.1 is capable of handling C 4 hydrocarbons and soot precursor species (C 2 H 2 , C 2 H 4 , C 6 H 6 ). The new reduced mechanism LU 3.0.1 was first validated against experimental performance indicators: laminar flame speed, adiabatic flame temperature, and ignition delay. Further, CFD simulations using LU 3.0.1 were run to predict soot emission and CE of air-assisted flare tests conducted in 2010 in Tulsa, Oklahoma, using ANSYS Fluent software. Results of non-premixed probability density function (PDF) model and eddy dissipation concept (EDC) model are discussed. It is also noteworthy that when used in conjunction with the EDC turbulence-chemistry model, LU 3.0.1 can reasonably predict volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions as well. A reduced combustion mechanism containing 50 C 1 -C 4 species and soot precursors has been developed and validated against experimental data. The combustion mechanism is then employed in the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) of modeling of soot emission and combustion efficiency (CE) of controlled flares for which experimental soot and CE data are available. The validated CFD modeling tools are useful for oil, gas, and chemical industries to comply with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) mandate to achieve smokeless flaring with a high CE.
Mechanics of magnetic fluid column in strong magnetic fields
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Polunin, V.M.; Ryapolov, P.A., E-mail: r-piter@yandex.ru; Platonov, V.B.
2017-06-01
Elastic-and magnetic properties of magnetic fluid confined by ponderomotive force in a tube fixed in horizontal position are considered. The system is placed in a strong magnetic field under the influence of external static and dynamic perturbations. An experimental setup has been developed. A theoretical basis of the processes of magnetic colloid elastic deformation has been proposed. The values of the static ponderomotive elasticity coefficient and the elasticity coefficient under dynamic action are experimentally determined. The calculations of the saturation magnetization for two magnetic fluid samples, carried out according to the equation containing the dynamic elasticity coefficient, are in good agreement with the experimental magnetization curve. The described method is of interest when studying magnetophoresis and aggregation of nanoparticles in magnetic colloids.
Mechanisms underlying rhythmic locomotion: body–fluid interaction in undulatory swimming
Chen, J.; Friesen, W. O.; Iwasaki, T.
2011-01-01
Swimming of fish and other animals results from interactions of rhythmic body movements with the surrounding fluid. This paper develops a model for the body–fluid interaction in undulatory swimming of leeches, where the body is represented by a chain of rigid links and the hydrodynamic force model is based on resistive and reactive force theories. The drag and added-mass coefficients for the fluid force model were determined from experimental data of kinematic variables during intact swimming, measured through video recording and image processing. Parameter optimizations to minimize errors in simulated model behaviors revealed that the resistive force is dominant, and a simple static function of relative velocity captures the essence of hydrodynamic forces acting on the body. The model thus developed, together with the experimental kinematic data, allows us to investigate temporal and spatial (along the body) distributions of muscle actuation, body curvature, hydrodynamic thrust and drag, muscle power supply and energy dissipation into the fluid. We have found that: (1) thrust is generated continuously along the body with increasing magnitude toward the tail, (2) drag is nearly constant along the body, (3) muscle actuation waves travel two or three times faster than the body curvature waves and (4) energy for swimming is supplied primarily by the mid-body muscles, transmitted through the body in the form of elastic energy, and dissipated into the water near the tail. PMID:21270304
Computational mechanics research at ONR
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kushner, A.S.
1986-01-01
Computational mechanics is not an identified program at the Office of Naval Research (ONR), but rather plays a key role in the Solid Mechanics, Fluid Mechanics, Energy Conversion, and Materials Science programs. The basic philosophy of the Mechanics Division at ONR is to support fundamental research which expands the basis for understanding, predicting, and controlling the behavior of solid and fluid materials and systems at the physical and geometric scales appropriate to the phenomena of interest. It is shown in this paper that a strong commonalty of computational mechanics drivers exists for the forefront research areas in both solid and fluid mechanics
A novel mechanical model for phase-separation in debris flows
Pudasaini, Shiva P.
2015-04-01
Understanding the physics of phase-separation between solid and fluid phases as a two-phase mass moves down slope is a long-standing challenge. Here, I propose a fundamentally new mechanism, called 'separation-flux', that leads to strong phase-separation in avalanche and debris flows. This new model extends the general two-phase debris flow model (Pudasaini, 2012) to include a separation-flux mechanism. The new flux separation mechanism is capable of describing and controlling the dynamically evolving phase-separation, segregation, and/or levee formation in a real two-phase, geometrically three-dimensional debris flow motion and deposition. These are often observed phenomena in natural debris flows and industrial processes that involve the transportation of particulate solid-fluid mixture material. The novel separation-flux model includes several dominant physical and mechanical aspects that result in strong phase-separation (segregation). These include pressure gradients, volume fractions of solid and fluid phases and their gradients, shear-rates, flow depth, material friction, viscosity, material densities, boundary structures, gravity and topographic constraints, grain shape, size, etc. Due to the inherent separation mechanism, as the mass moves down slope, more and more solid particles are brought to the front, resulting in a solid-rich and mechanically strong frontal surge head followed by a weak tail largely consisting of the viscous fluid. The primary frontal surge head followed by secondary surge is the consequence of the phase-separation. Such typical and dominant phase-separation phenomena are revealed here for the first time in real two-phase debris flow modeling and simulations. However, these phenomena may depend on the bulk material composition and the applied forces. Reference: Pudasaini, Shiva P. (2012): A general two-phase debris flow model. J. Geophys. Res., 117, F03010, doi: 10.1029/2011JF002186.
Optimized CO{sub 2} miscible hydrocarbon fracturing fluids
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Taylor, R.S.; Funkhouser, G.P.; Fyten, G.; Attaway, D.; Watkins, H. [Halliburton Energy Services, Calgary, AB (Canada); Lestz, R.S. [Chevron Canada Resources, Calgary, AB (Canada); Loree, D. [FracEx Inc. (Canada)
2006-07-01
Carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) miscible hydrocarbon fracturing fluids address issues of fluid retention in low-permeability gas reservoirs, including undersaturated and underpressured reservoirs. An optimized surfactant gel technology using carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) hydrocarbon fracturing fluids applicable to all gas-well stimulation applications was discussed in this paper. The crosslinked surfactant gel technology improved proppant transport, leakoff control, and generation of effective fracture half-length. Tests indicated that application of the surfactant cooled the fracture face, which had the effect of extending break times and increasing viscosity during pumping periods. Rapid recovery of the fracturing fluid eliminated the need for swabbing in some cases, and the fluid system was not adversely affected by shear. However, rheological test equipment capable of mixing liquid CO{sub 2} and viscosified hydrocarbons at downhole temperatures is required to determine rheology and required chemical concentrations. It was recommended that to achieve an effective methane-drive cleanup mechanism, treatments should be designed so that the gellant system can be effective with up to 50 per cent CO{sub 2} dissolved in oil. It was concluded that it should be possible to apply the technology to low permeability gas reservoirs. Viscosity curves and friction data were presented. Issues concerning the selection of tubulars and flowback procedures were also discussed. It was suggested that the cost of the hydrocarbon fracturing fluid can be recovered by the sale of recovered load fluid. 6 refs., 4 figs.
Hamiltonian models for the Madelung fluid and generalized Langevin equations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nonnenmacher, T.F.
1985-01-01
We present a Hamiltonian formulation of some type of an 'electromagnetic' Madelung fluid leading to a fluid mechanics interpretation of the Aharonov-Bohm effect and to a subsidary condition to be required in order to make the correspondence between Schroedinger's quantum mechanics and Madelung's fluid mechanics unique. Then we discuss some problems related with the Brownian oscillator. Our aim is to start out with a Hamiltonian for the composite system with surrounding heat bath) and to finally arrive at a stochastic differential equation with completely determined statistical properties. (orig./HSI)
Volumetric velocimetry for fluid flows
Discetti, Stefano; Coletti, Filippo
2018-04-01
In recent years, several techniques have been introduced that are capable of extracting 3D three-component velocity fields in fluid flows. Fast-paced developments in both hardware and processing algorithms have generated a diverse set of methods, with a growing range of applications in flow diagnostics. This has been further enriched by the increasingly marked trend of hybridization, in which the differences between techniques are fading. In this review, we carry out a survey of the prominent methods, including optical techniques and approaches based on medical imaging. An overview of each is given with an example of an application from the literature, while focusing on their respective strengths and challenges. A framework for the evaluation of velocimetry performance in terms of dynamic spatial range is discussed, along with technological trends and emerging strategies to exploit 3D data. While critical challenges still exist, these observations highlight how volumetric techniques are transforming experimental fluid mechanics, and that the possibilities they offer have just begun to be explored.
Computational methods for fluid dynamics
Ferziger, Joel H
2002-01-01
In its 3rd revised and extended edition the book offers an overview of the techniques used to solve problems in fluid mechanics on computers and describes in detail those most often used in practice. Included are advanced methods in computational fluid dynamics, like direct and large-eddy simulation of turbulence, multigrid methods, parallel computing, moving grids, structured, block-structured and unstructured boundary-fitted grids, free surface flows. The 3rd edition contains a new section dealing with grid quality and an extended description of discretization methods. The book shows common roots and basic principles for many different methods. The book also contains a great deal of practical advice for code developers and users, it is designed to be equally useful to beginners and experts. The issues of numerical accuracy, estimation and reduction of numerical errors are dealt with in detail, with many examples. A full-feature user-friendly demo-version of a commercial CFD software has been added, which ca...
Tresoldi, Claudia; Bianchi, Elena; Pellegata, Alessandro Filippo; Dubini, Gabriele; Mantero, Sara
2017-08-01
The in vitro replication of physiological mechanical conditioning through bioreactors plays a crucial role in the development of functional Small-Caliber Tissue-Engineered Blood Vessels. An in silico scaffold-specific model under pulsatile perfusion provided by a bioreactor was implemented using a fluid-structure interaction (FSI) approach for viscoelastic tubular scaffolds (e.g. decellularized swine arteries, DSA). Results of working pressures, circumferential deformations, and wall shear stress on DSA fell within the desired physiological range and indicated the ability of this model to correctly predict the mechanical conditioning acting on the cells-scaffold system. Consequently, the FSI model allowed us to a priori define the stimulation pattern, driving in vitro physiological maturation of scaffolds, especially with viscoelastic properties.
Synovial fluid lubrication of artificial joints: protein film formation and composition.
Fan, Jingyun; Myant, Connor; Underwood, Richard; Cann, Philippa
2012-01-01
Despite design improvements, wear of artificial implants remains a serious health issue particularly for Metal-on-Metal (MoM) hips where the formation of metallic wear debris has been linked to adverse tissue response. Clearly it is important to understand the fundamental lubrication mechanisms which control the wear process. It is usually assumed that MoM hips operate in the ElastoHydrodynamic Lubrication (EHL) regime where film formation is governed by the bulk fluid viscosity; however there is little experimental evidence of this. The current paper critically examines synovial fluid lubrication mechanisms and the effect of synovial fluid chemistry. Two composition parameters were chosen; protein content and pH, both of which are known to change in diseased or post-operative synovial fluid. Film thickness and wear tests were carried out for a series of model synovial fluid solutions. Two distinct film formation mechanisms were identified; an adsorbed surface film and a high-viscosity gel. The entrainment of this gel controls film formation particularly at low speeds. However wear of the femoral head still occurs and this is thought to be due primarily to a tribo-corrosion mechanisms. The implications of this new lubrication mechanism and the effect of different synovial fluid chemistries are examined. One important conclusion is that patient synovial fluid chemistry plays an important role in determining implant wear and the likelihood of failure.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kang, Seok Hoon; Park, Sang Hu; Son, Chang Min; Ha, Man Young; Min, June Kee; Jeong, Ho Sung [Pusan Nat' l Univ., Busan (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Jongrae [Korea Maritime Univ., Busan (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hyun Jun [Donghwa Entec Co., Ltd., Busan (Korea, Republic of)
2013-01-15
Recent years have witnessed a strong need for eco friendly and energy efficient systems owing to global environmental problems. A heat exchanger is a well known mechanical rig that has long been used in many energy systems. The use of a heat exchanger in an airplane engine has been attempted. In this case, the heat exchanger should be redesigned to be compact, lightweight, and highly reliable, and the issue of mechanical integrity gains importance. Therefore, in this study, we proposed a method for evaluating the mechanical integrity of a tube type heat exchanger. A U shaped single tube was used as an example, and its behavior and stress distribution were studied using fluid structure interaction (FSI) analysis.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lamb, J.P.
1987-01-01
Recent advances in applied mechanics are addressed in reviews and reports of theoretical and experimental investigations. Topics examined include cellular biomechanics, computational fluid mechanics, continuum damage mechanics, dispersed systems, the dynamic stability of structures, experimental methods in mechanics, and fluid mechanics in material processing. Consideration is given to manufacturing processes, material modeling for fracture, the mechanics of particulate media, NDE, space structures, stability and the transition to turbulence, temporal and spatial chaos, and unsteady aerodynamics
Effect of lung resection on pleuro-pulmonary mechanics and fluid balance.
Salito, C; Bovio, D; Orsetti, G; Salati, M; Brunelli, A; Aliverti, A; Miserocchi, G
2016-01-15
The aim of the study was to determine in human patients the effect of lung resection on lung compliance and on pleuro-pulmonary fluid balance. Pre and post-operative values of compliance were measured in anesthetized patients undergoing resection for lung cancer (N=11) through double-lumen bronchial intubation. Lung compliance was measured for 10-12 cm H2O increase in alveolar pressure from 5 cm H2O PEEP in control and repeated after resection. No air leak was assessed and pleural fluid was collected during hospital stay. A significant negative correlation (r(2)=0.68) was found between compliance at 10 min and resected mass. Based on the pre-operative estimated lung weight, the decrease in compliance following lung resection exceeded by 10-15% that expected from resected mass. Significant negative relationships were found by relating pleural fluid drainage flow to the remaining lung mass and to post-operative lung compliance. Following lung re-expansion, data suggest a causative relationship between the decrease in compliance and the perturbation in pleuro-pulmonary fluid balance. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
The Fast and Non-capillary Fluid Filling Mechanism in the Hummingbird's Tongue
Rico-Guevara, Alejandro; Fan, Tai-Hsi; Rubega, Margaret
2014-03-01
Hummingbirds gather nectar by inserting their beaks inside flowers and cycling their tongues at a frequency of up to 20 Hz. It is unclear how they achieve efficiency at this high licking rate. Ever since proposed in 1833, it has been believed that hummingbird tongues are a pair of tiny straws filled with nectar by capillary rise. Our discoveries are very different from this general consensus. The tongue does not draw up floral nectar via capillary action under experimental conditions that resemble natural ones. Theoretical models based on capillary rise were mistaken and unsuitable for estimating the fluid intake rate and to support foraging theories. We filmed (up to 1265 frames/s) the fluid uptake in 20 species of hummingbirds that belong to 7 out of the 9 main hummingbird clades. We found that the fluid filling within the portions of the tongue that remain outside the nectar is about five times faster than capillary filling. We present strong evidence to rule out the capillarity model. We introduce a new fluid-structure interaction and hydrodynamic model and compare the results with field experimental data to explain how hummingbirds actually extract fluid from flowers at the lick level.
Mass transfer in nano-fluids: A review
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ashrafmansouri, Seyedeh-Saba; Esfahany, Mohsen Nasr
2014-01-01
Growing attention has been recently paid to nano-fluids because of their potential for augmenting transfer processes - i.e., heat and mass transfer. Conflicting results have been reported in the literature on mass transfer in nano-fluids. The aim of this paper is to summarize the literature on mass transfer in nano-fluids stating the conflicts and possible reasons. Literature on mass transfer in nano-fluids has been reviewed in two sections. The first section concentrates on surveying mass diffusivity in nano-fluids while the second section focuses on convective mass transfer in nano-fluids. In each section, published articles, type of nano-fluids used, size and concentration range of nanoparticles, measurement methods, maximum observed enhancement, and suggested mass transport mechanisms are summarized. (authors)
Cardiac fluid dynamics meets deformation imaging.
Dal Ferro, Matteo; Stolfo, Davide; De Paris, Valerio; Lesizza, Pierluigi; Korcova, Renata; Collia, Dario; Tonti, Giovanni; Sinagra, Gianfranco; Pedrizzetti, Gianni
2018-02-20
Cardiac function is about creating and sustaining blood in motion. This is achieved through a proper sequence of myocardial deformation whose final goal is that of creating flow. Deformation imaging provided valuable contributions to understanding cardiac mechanics; more recently, several studies evidenced the existence of an intimate relationship between cardiac function and intra-ventricular fluid dynamics. This paper summarizes the recent advances in cardiac flow evaluations, highlighting its relationship with heart wall mechanics assessed through the newest techniques of deformation imaging and finally providing an opinion of the most promising clinical perspectives of this emerging field. It will be shown how fluid dynamics can integrate volumetric and deformation assessments to provide a further level of knowledge of cardiac mechanics.
Fluid migration studies in salt
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shefelbine, H.C.; Raines, G.E.
1980-01-01
This discussion will be limited to the migration of water trapped in the rock salt under the influence of the heat field produced by nuclear waste. This is of concern because hypotheticl scenarios have been advanced in which this fluid movement allows radionuclides to escape to the biosphere. While portions of these scenarios are supported by observation, none of the complete scenarios has been demonstrated. The objectives of the present fluid migration studies are two-fold: 1. determine the character of the trapped fluid in terms of quantity, habitat and chemical constituents; and 2. define the mechanisms that cause the fluid to migrate toward heat sources. Based on the observations to date, fluid migration will not have a major impact on repository integrity. However, the above objectives will be pursued until the impacts, if any, can be quantified
Personal Computer (PC) based image processing applied to fluid mechanics
Cho, Y.-C.; Mclachlan, B. G.
1987-01-01
A PC based image processing system was employed to determine the instantaneous velocity field of a two-dimensional unsteady flow. The flow was visualized using a suspension of seeding particles in water, and a laser sheet for illumination. With a finite time exposure, the particle motion was captured on a photograph as a pattern of streaks. The streak pattern was digitized and processed using various imaging operations, including contrast manipulation, noise cleaning, filtering, statistical differencing, and thresholding. Information concerning the velocity was extracted from the enhanced image by measuring the length and orientation of the individual streaks. The fluid velocities deduced from the randomly distributed particle streaks were interpolated to obtain velocities at uniform grid points. For the interpolation a simple convolution technique with an adaptive Gaussian window was used. The results are compared with a numerical prediction by a Navier-Stokes computation.
Heat Transfer Phenomena of Supercritical Fluids
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Krau, Carmen Isabella; Kuhn, Dietmar; Schulenberg, Thomas [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Institute for Nuclear and Energy Technologies, 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany)
2008-07-01
In concepts for supercritical water cooled reactors, the reactor core is cooled and moderated by water at supercritical pressures. The significant temperature dependence of the fluid properties of water requires an exact knowledge of the heat transfer mechanism to avoid fuel pin damages. Near the pseudo-critical point a deterioration of heat transfer might happen. Processes, that take place in this case, are not fully understood and are due to be examined systematically. In this paper a general overview on the properties of supercritical water is given, experimental observations of different authors will be reviewed in order to identify heat transfer phenomena and onset of occurrence. The conceptional design of a test rig to investigate heat transfer in the boundary layer will be discussed. Both, water and carbon dioxide, may serve as operating fluids. The loop, including instrumentation and safety devices, is shown and suitable measuring methods are described. (authors)
Fluid Assisted Compaction and Deformation of Reservoir Lithologies; FINAL
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kronenberg, A.K.; Chester, F.M.; Chester, J.S.; Hajash, A.; He, W.; Karner, S.; Lenz, S.
2002-01-01
The compaction and diagenesis of sandstones that form reservoirs to hydrocarbons depend on mechanical compaction processes, fluid flow at local and regional scales, and chemical processes of dissolution, precipitation and diffusional solution transport. The compaction and distortional deformation of quartz aggregates exposed to reactive aqueous fluids have been investigated experimentally at varying critical and subcritical stress states and time scales. Pore fluid compositions and reaction rates during deformation have been measured and compared with creep rates. Relative contributions of mechanical and chemical processes to deformation and pore structure evolution have been evaluated using acoustic emission (AE) measurements and scanning electron microscope (SEM) observations. At the subcritical conditions investigated, creep rates and acoustic emission rates fit transient logarithmic creep laws. Based on AE and SEM observations, we conclude that intragranular cracking and grain rearrangement are the dominant strain mechanisms. Specimens show little evidence of stress-enhanced solution transfer. At long times under wet conditions, the dominant strain mechanism gradually shifts from critical cracking at grain contacts with high stress concentrations to fluid-assisted sub-critical cracking
Personalised fluid resuscitation in the ICU: still a fluid concept?
van Haren, Frank
2017-12-28
The administration of intravenous fluid to critically ill patients is one of the most common, but also one of the most fiercely debated, interventions in intensive care medicine. Even though many thousands of patients have been enrolled in large trials of alternative fluid strategies, consensus remains elusive and practice is widely variable. Critically ill patients are significantly heterogeneous, making a one size fits all approach unlikely to be successful.New data from basic, animal, and clinical research suggest that fluid resuscitation could be associated with significant harm. There are several important limitations and concerns regarding fluid bolus therapy as it is currently being used in clinical practice. These include, but are not limited to: the lack of an agreed definition; limited and short-lived physiological effects; no evidence of an effect on relevant patient outcomes; and the potential to contribute to fluid overload, specifically when fluid responsiveness is not assessed and when targets and safety limits are not used.Fluid administration in critically ill patients requires clinicians to integrate abnormal physiological parameters into a clinical decision-making model that also incorporates the likely diagnosis and the likely risk or benefit in the specific patient's context. Personalised fluid resuscitation requires careful attention to the mnemonic CIT TAIT: context, indication, targets, timing, amount of fluid, infusion strategy, and type of fluid.The research agenda should focus on experimental and clinical studies to: improve our understanding of the physiological effects of fluid infusion, e.g. on the glycocalyx; evaluate new types of fluids; evaluate novel fluid minimisation protocols; study the effects of a no-fluid strategy for selected patients and scenarios; and compare fluid therapy with other interventions. The adaptive platform trial design may provide us with the tools to evaluate these types of interventions in the intrinsically
On the variational principle for the equations of perfect fluid dynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Serre, D.
1993-01-01
One gives a new version of the variational principle δL = 0, L being the usual Lagrangian, for the perfect fluid mechanics. It is formally equivalent to the well-known principle but it gives the first rigorous derivation of the conservation laws (momentum and energy), including the discontinuous case (shock waves, contact discontinuities). Thanks to a new formulation of the constraints, we do not involve any Lagrange multiplier, which in previous works were neither physically relevant, since they do not appear in the Euler equations, nor mathematically relevant. We even give a variational interpretation of the entropy inequality when shock waves occur. Our method covers all aspects of the perfect fluids, including stationary and unstationary motion, compressible and incompressible fluids, axisymmetric case. When the velocity field admits a stream function, the variational principle gives rise to extremal points of the Lagrangian on various infinite dimensional manifolds. For a suitable choice of this manifold, the flow is itself periodic, that is all the fluid particles have a periodic motion with the same period. The flow describes a closed geodesic on some group of diffeomorphisms. (author). 10 refs
A three-dimensional thermal-fluid analysis of flat heat pipes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Xiao, Bin; Faghri, Amir [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Connecticut, 261 Glenbrook Road, Unit 2337, Storrs, CT 06269 (United States)
2008-06-15
A detailed, three-dimensional model has been developed to analyze the thermal hydrodynamic behaviors of flat heat pipes without empirical correlations. The model accounts for the heat conduction in the wall, fluid flow in the vapor chambers and porous wicks, and the coupled heat and mass transfer at the liquid/vapor interface. The flat pipes with and without vertical wick columns in the vapor channel are intensively investigated in the model. Parametric effects, including evaporative heat input and size on the thermal and hydrodynamic behavior in the heat pipes, are investigated. The results show that, the vertical wick columns in the vapor core can improve the thermal and hydrodynamic performance of the heat pipes, including thermal resistance, capillary limit, wall temperature, pressure drop, and fluid velocities due to the enhancement of the fluid/heat mechanism form the bottom condenser to the top evaporator. The results predict that higher evaporative heat input improves the thermal and hydrodynamic performance of the heat pipe, and shortening the size of heat pipe degrades the thermal performance of the heat pipe. (author)
Sedov, L
1968-01-01
At its meeting on April 23, 1965 in Paris the Bureau of IUTAM decided to have a Symposium on the Irreversible Aspects of Continaum Mechanics held in June 1966 in Vienna. In addition, a Symposium on the Transfer of Physical Characteristics in Moving Fluids which, orig inally, had been scheduled to take place in Stockholm was rescheduled to be held in Vienna immediately following the Symposium on the Irre versible Aspects of Continuum Mechanics. It was felt that the subjects of the two symposia were so closely related that participants should be given an opportunity to attend both. Both decisions were unanimously approved by the members of the General Assembly of IUTAM. Prof. H. PARKUS, Vienna, was appointed Chairman of the Symposium on the Irreversible Aspects, and Prof. L. I. SEDOV, Moscow, was appointed Chairman of the Symposium on the Transfer of Physical Characteristics, with Prof. P ARKUS being re sponsible for the local organization of both symposia. In accordance with the policy set forth by IUTAM...
Analysis of the static yield stress for giant electrorheological fluids
Seo, Youngwook P.; Choi, Hyoung Jin; Seo, Yongsok
2017-08-01
Cheng et al. (2010)'s experimental results for the static yield stress of giant electrorheological (GER) fluids over the full range of electric field strengths were reanalyzed by applying Seo's scaling function which could include both the polarization and the conductivity models. The Seo's scaling function could correctly fit the yield stress behavior of GER suspensions behavior after if a proper normalization of the yield stress data was taken which collapse them onto a single curve. The model predictions were also contrasted with recently proposed Choi et al.'s scaling function to rouse the attention for a proper consideration of the GER fluid mechanisms.
Smart Fluid System Dually Responsive to Light and Electric Fields: An Electrophotorheological Fluid.
Yoon, Chang-Min; Jang, Yoonsun; Noh, Jungchul; Kim, Jungwon; Jang, Jyongsik
2017-10-24
Electrophotorheological (EPR) fluids, whose rheological activity is dually responsive to light and electric fields (E fields), is formulated by mixing photosensitive spiropyran-decorated silica (SP-sSiO 2 ) nanoparticles with zwitterionic lecithin and mineral oil. A reversible photorheological (PR) activity of the EPR fluid is developed via the binding and releasing mechanism of lecithin and merocyanine (MC, a photoisomerized form of SP) under ultraviolet (UV) and visible (VIS) light applications. Moreover, the EPR fluid exhibits an 8-fold higher electrorheological (ER) performance compared to the SP-sSiO 2 nanoparticle-based ER fluid (without lecithin) under an E field, which is attributed to the enhanced dielectric properties facilitated by the binding of the lecithin and SP molecules. Upon dual application of UV light and an E field, the EPR fluid exhibits high EPR performance (ca. 115.3 Pa) that far exceeds its separate PR (ca. 0.8 Pa) and ER (ca. 57.5 Pa) activities, because of the synergistic contributions of the PR and ER effects through rigid and fully connected fibril-like structures. Consequently, this study offers a strategy on formulation of dual-stimuli responsive smart fluid systems.
Immiscible multicomponent lattice Boltzmann model for fluids with ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
College of Mechanical Engineering, Tongji University, 4800# Cao'an Road, ... was developed from a discretized fluid model known as the lattice gas automata ... of two immiscible fluids, several lattice Boltzmann (LB) models have been ...
Stochastic Eulerian Lagrangian methods for fluid-structure interactions with thermal fluctuations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Atzberger, Paul J.
2011-01-01
We present approaches for the study of fluid-structure interactions subject to thermal fluctuations. A mixed mechanical description is utilized combining Eulerian and Lagrangian reference frames. We establish general conditions for operators coupling these descriptions. Stochastic driving fields for the formalism are derived using principles from statistical mechanics. The stochastic differential equations of the formalism are found to exhibit significant stiffness in some physical regimes. To cope with this issue, we derive reduced stochastic differential equations for several physical regimes. We also present stochastic numerical methods for each regime to approximate the fluid-structure dynamics and to generate efficiently the required stochastic driving fields. To validate the methodology in each regime, we perform analysis of the invariant probability distribution of the stochastic dynamics of the fluid-structure formalism. We compare this analysis with results from statistical mechanics. To further demonstrate the applicability of the methodology, we perform computational studies for spherical particles having translational and rotational degrees of freedom. We compare these studies with results from fluid mechanics. The presented approach provides for fluid-structure systems a set of rather general computational methods for treating consistently structure mechanics, hydrodynamic coupling, and thermal fluctuations.
Compressions of electrorheological fluids under different initial gap distances.
Tian, Yu; Wen, Shizhu; Meng, Yonggang
2003-05-01
Compressions of electrorheological (ER) fluids have been carried out under different initial gap distances and different applied voltages. The nominal yield stresses of the compressed ER fluid under different conditions, according to the mechanics of compressing continuous fluids considering the yield stress of the plastic fluid, have been calculated. Curves of nominal yield stress under different applied voltages at an initial gap distance of 4 mm overlapped well and were shown to be proportional to the square of the external electric field and agree well with the traditional description. With the decrease of the initial gap distance, the difference between the nominal yield stress curves increased. The gap distance effect on the compression of ER fluids could not be explained by the traditional description based on the Bingham model and the continuous media theory. An explanation based on the mechanics of particle chain is proposed to describe the gap distance effect on the compression of ER fluids.
“Unfriending” IV fluids. Where are we currently with fluid ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
What end-points do we target once we decide to give fluids? • At what rate should fluid be administered? ... South African market, has been ascribed to many factors, including strong marketing. This marketing was ... However much of this work comes from severe sepsis and ongoing critical care. It is probably reasonable to ...
Mechanics of undulatory swimming in a frictional fluid.
Ding, Yang; Sharpe, Sarah S; Masse, Andrew; Goldman, Daniel I
2012-01-01
The sandfish lizard (Scincus scincus) swims within granular media (sand) using axial body undulations to propel itself without the use of limbs. In previous work we predicted average swimming speed by developing a numerical simulation that incorporated experimentally measured biological kinematics into a multibody sandfish model. The model was coupled to an experimentally validated soft sphere discrete element method simulation of the granular medium. In this paper, we use the simulation to study the detailed mechanics of undulatory swimming in a "granular frictional fluid" and compare the predictions to our previously developed resistive force theory (RFT) which models sand-swimming using empirically determined granular drag laws. The simulation reveals that the forward speed of the center of mass (CoM) oscillates about its average speed in antiphase with head drag. The coupling between overall body motion and body deformation results in a non-trivial pattern in the magnitude of lateral displacement of the segments along the body. The actuator torque and segment power are maximal near the center of the body and decrease to zero toward the head and the tail. Approximately 30% of the net swimming power is dissipated in head drag. The power consumption is proportional to the frequency in the biologically relevant range, which confirms that frictional forces dominate during sand-swimming by the sandfish. Comparison of the segmental forces measured in simulation with the force on a laterally oscillating rod reveals that a granular hysteresis effect causes the overestimation of the body thrust forces in the RFT. Our models provide detailed testable predictions for biological locomotion in a granular environment.
Receptor-mediated mechanism for the transport of prolactin from blood to cerebrospinal fluid
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Walsh, R.J.; Slaby, F.J.; Posner, B.I.
1987-01-01
Prolactin (PRL) interacts with areas of the central nervous system which reside behind the blood-brain barrier. While vascular PRL does not cross this barrier, it is readily accessible to the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from which it may gain access to the PRL-responsive areas of the brain. Studies were undertaken to characterize the mechanism responsible for the translocation of PRL from blood to CSF. Rats were given external jugular vein injections of [ 125 -I]iodo-PRL in the presence or absence of an excess of unlabeled ovine PRL (oPRL), human GH, bovine GH, or porcine insulin. CSF and choroid plexus were removed 60 min later. CSF samples were electrophoresed on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide slab gels and resultant autoradiographs were analyzed with quantitative microdensitometry. The data revealed that unlabeled lactogenic hormones, viz. oPRL and human GH, caused a statistically significant inhibition of [ 125 I]iodo-PRL transport from blood to CSF. In contrast, nonlactogenic hormones, viz bovine GH and insulin, had no effect on [ 125 I]iodo-PRL transport into the CSF. An identical pattern of competition was observed in the binding of hormone to the choroid plexus. Furthermore, vascular injections of [ 125 I]iodo-PRL administered with a range of concentrations of unlabeled oPRL revealed a dose-response inhibition in the transport of [ 125 I]iodo-PRL from blood to CSF. The study demonstrates that PRL enters the CSF by a specific, PRL receptor-mediated transport mechanism. The data is consistent with the hypothesis that the transport mechanism resides at the choroid plexus. The existence of this transport mechanism reflects the importance of the cerebroventricular system in PRL-brain interactions
Maitland, Kathryn; George, Elizabeth C; Evans, Jennifer A; Kiguli, Sarah; Olupot-Olupot, Peter; Akech, Samuel O; Opoka, Robert O; Engoru, Charles; Nyeko, Richard; Mtove, George; Reyburn, Hugh; Brent, Bernadette; Nteziyaremye, Julius; Mpoya, Ayub; Prevatt, Natalie; Dambisya, Cornelius M; Semakula, Daniel; Ddungu, Ahmed; Okuuny, Vicent; Wokulira, Ronald; Timbwa, Molline; Otii, Benedict; Levin, Michael; Crawley, Jane; Babiker, Abdel G; Gibb, Diana M
2013-03-14
Early rapid fluid resuscitation (boluses) in African children with severe febrile illnesses increases the 48-hour mortality by 3.3% compared with controls (no bolus). We explored the effect of boluses on 48-hour all-cause mortality by clinical presentation at enrolment, hemodynamic changes over the first hour, and on different modes of death, according to terminal clinical events. We hypothesize that boluses may cause excess deaths from neurological or respiratory events relating to fluid overload. Pre-defined presentation syndromes (PS; severe acidosis or severe shock, respiratory, neurological) and predominant terminal clinical events (cardiovascular collapse, respiratory, neurological) were described by randomized arm (bolus versus control) in 3,141 severely ill febrile children with shock enrolled in the Fluid Expansion as Supportive Therapy (FEAST) trial. Landmark analyses were used to compare early mortality in treatment groups, conditional on changes in shock and hypoxia parameters. Competing risks methods were used to estimate cumulative incidence curves and sub-hazard ratios to compare treatment groups in terms of terminal clinical events. Of 2,396 out of 3,141 (76%) classifiable participants, 1,647 (69%) had a severe metabolic acidosis or severe shock PS, 625 (26%) had a respiratory PS and 976 (41%) had a neurological PS, either alone or in combination. Mortality was greatest among children fulfilling criteria for all three PS (28% bolus, 21% control) and lowest for lone respiratory (2% bolus, 5% control) or neurological (3% bolus, 0% control) presentations. Excess mortality in bolus arms versus control was apparent for all three PS, including all their component features. By one hour, shock had resolved (responders) more frequently in bolus versus control groups (43% versus 32%, P <0.001), but excess mortality with boluses was evident in responders (relative risk 1.98, 95% confidence interval 0.94 to 4.17, P = 0.06) and 'non-responders' (relative risk 1
Fluids Demonstrations: Trailing Vortices, Plateau Border, Angle of Repose, and Flow Instability
Shakerin, Said
2018-01-01
Demonstrations of physics phenomena via relatively simple devices and toys have been around for a long time. Because of the pedagogical value of demonstrations, this journal and other periodicals have published papers on the subject of classroom demonstrations including those related to fluid mechanics. Four new, low-cost apparatuses that…
The Impact of Solid Surface Features on Fluid-Fluid Interface Configuration
Araujo, J. B.; Brusseau, M. L. L.
2017-12-01
Pore-scale fluid processes in geological media are critical for a broad range of applications such as radioactive waste disposal, carbon sequestration, soil moisture distribution, subsurface pollution, land stability, and oil and gas recovery. The continued improvement of high-resolution image acquisition and processing have provided a means to test the usefulness of theoretical models developed to simulate pore-scale fluid processes, through the direct quantification of interfaces. High-resolution synchrotron X-ray microtomography is used in combination with advanced visualization tools to characterize fluid distributions in natural geologic media. The studies revealed the presence of fluid-fluid interface associated with macroscopic features on the surfaces of the solids such as pits and crevices. These features and respective fluid interfaces, which are not included in current theoretical or computational models, may have a significant impact on accurate simulation and understanding of multi-phase flow, energy, heat and mass transfer processes.
Elliott, Morgan; Martin, David
2015-01-01
For my summer internship project, I organized a pilot study to analyze the effects of a cephalic fluid shift on venous return and right ventricular mechanics to increase right ventricular and venous knowledge. To accomplish this pilot study, I wrote a testing protocol, obtained Institutional Review Board (IRB) approval, completed subject payment forms, lead testing sessions, and analyzed the data. This experiment used -20deg head down tilt (20 HDT) as the ground based simulation for the fluid shift that occurs during spaceflight and compared it to data obtained from the seated and supine positions. Using echocardiography, data was collected for the right ventricle, hepatic vein, internal jugular vein, external jugular vein, and inferior vena cava. Additionally, non-invasive venous pressure measurements, similar to those soon to be done in-orbit, were collected. It was determined that the venous return from below the heard is increased during 20 HDT, which was supported by increased hepatic vein velocities, increased right ventricular inflow, and increased right ventricular strain at 20 HDT relative to seated values. Jugular veins in the neck undergo an increase in pressure and area, but no significant increase in flow, relative to seated values when a subject is tilted 20 HDT. Contrary to the initial expectations based on this jugular flow, there was no significant increase in central venous pressure, as evidenced by no change in Doppler indices for right arterial pressure or inferior vena cava diameter. It is suspected that these differences in pressure are due to the hydrostatic pressure indifference point shifting during tilt; there is a potential for a similar phenomenon with microgravity. This data will hopefully lead to a more in-depth understanding of the response of the body to microgravity and how those relate to the previously mentioned cardiovascular risk of fluid shift that is associated with spaceflight. These results were presented in greater detail
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
NONE
1998-09-01
The title describes the two tasks summarized in this report. The remainder of the report contains information on meetings held or to be held on the subjects. The US National Committee for Rock Mechanics (USNC/RM) provides for US participation in international activities in rock mechanics, principally through adherence to the International Society for Rock Mechanics (ISRM). It also keeps the US rock mechanics community informed about new programs directed toward major areas of national concern in which rock mechanics problems represent critical or limiting factors, such as energy resources, excavation, underground storage and waste disposal, and reactor siting. The committee also guides or produces advisory studies and reports on problem areas in rock mechanics. A new panel under the auspices of the US National Committee for Rock Mechanics has been appointed to conduct a study on Conceptual Models of Fluid Infiltration in Fractured Media. The study has health and environmental applications related to the underground flow of pollutants through fractured rock in and around mines and waste repositories. Support of the study has been received from the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the Department of Energy`s Yucca Mountain Project Office. The new study builds on the success of a recent USNC/RM report entitled Rock Fractures and Fluid Flow: Contemporary Understanding and Applications (National Academy Press, 1996, 551 pp.). A summary of the new study is provided.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1998-01-01
The title describes the two tasks summarized in this report. The remainder of the report contains information on meetings held or to be held on the subjects. The US National Committee for Rock Mechanics (USNC/RM) provides for US participation in international activities in rock mechanics, principally through adherence to the International Society for Rock Mechanics (ISRM). It also keeps the US rock mechanics community informed about new programs directed toward major areas of national concern in which rock mechanics problems represent critical or limiting factors, such as energy resources, excavation, underground storage and waste disposal, and reactor siting. The committee also guides or produces advisory studies and reports on problem areas in rock mechanics. A new panel under the auspices of the US National Committee for Rock Mechanics has been appointed to conduct a study on Conceptual Models of Fluid Infiltration in Fractured Media. The study has health and environmental applications related to the underground flow of pollutants through fractured rock in and around mines and waste repositories. Support of the study has been received from the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the Department of Energy's Yucca Mountain Project Office. The new study builds on the success of a recent USNC/RM report entitled Rock Fractures and Fluid Flow: Contemporary Understanding and Applications (National Academy Press, 1996, 551 pp.). A summary of the new study is provided
Prevalence, extension and characteristics of fluid-fluid levels in bone and soft tissue tumors
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dyck, P. van; Venstermans, C.; Gielen, J.; Parizel, P.M. [University Hospital Antwerp, Department of Radiology, Edegem (Belgium); Vanhoenacker, F.M. [University Hospital Antwerp, Department of Radiology, Edegem (Belgium); AZ St-Maarten, Department of Radiology, Duffel/Mechelen (Belgium); Vogel, J. [Leiden University Medical Centre, Department of Orthopedics, Leiden (Netherlands); Kroon, H.M.; Bloem, J.L. [Leiden University Medical Centre, Department of Radiology, Leiden (Netherlands); Schepper, A.M.A. de [University Hospital Antwerp, Department of Radiology, Edegem (Belgium); Leiden University Medical Centre, Department of Radiology, Leiden (Netherlands)
2006-12-15
The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence, extension and signal characteristics of fluid-fluid levels in a large series of 700 bone and 700 soft tissue tumors. Out of a multi-institutional database, MRI of 700 consecutive patients with a bone tumor and MRI of 700 consecutive patients with a soft tissue neoplasm were retrospectively reviewed for the presence of fluid-fluid levels. Extension (single, multiple and proportion of the lesion occupied by fluid-fluid levels) and signal characteristics on magnetic resonance imaging of fluid-fluid levels were determined. In all patients, pathologic correlation was available. Of 700 patients with a bone tumor, 19 (10 male and 9 female; mean age, 29 years) presented with a fluid-fluid level (prevalence 2.7%). Multiple fluid-fluid levels occupying at least one half of the total volume of the lesion were found in the majority of patients. Diagnoses included aneurysmal bone cyst (ten cases), fibrous dysplasia (two cases), osteoblastoma (one case), simple bone cyst (one case), telangiectatic osteosarcoma (one case), ''brown tumor'' (one case), chondroblastoma (one case) and giant cell tumor (two cases). Of 700 patients with a soft tissue tumor, 20 (9 males and 11 females; mean age, 34 years) presented with a fluid-fluid level (prevalence 2.9%). Multiple fluid-fluid levels occupying at least one half of the total volume of the lesion were found in the majority of patients. Diagnoses included cavernous hemangioma (12 cases), synovial sarcoma (3 cases), angiosarcoma (1 case), aneurysmal bone cyst of soft tissue (1 case), myxofibrosarcoma (1 case) and high-grade sarcoma ''not otherwise specified'' (2 cases). In our series, the largest reported in the literature to the best of our knowledge, the presence of fluid-fluid levels is a rare finding with a prevalence of 2.7 and 2.9% in bone and soft tissue tumors, respectively. Fluid-fluid levels remain a non-specific finding and can
Fakir, Rachid; Barka, Noureddine; Brousseau, Jean
2018-03-01
This paper proposes a statistical approach to analyze the mechanical properties of a standard test specimen, of cylindrical geometry and in steel 4340, with a diameter of 6 mm, heat-treated and quenched in three different fluids. Samples were evaluated in standard tensile test to access their characteristic quantities: hardness, modulus of elasticity, yield strength, tensile strength and ultimate deformation. The proposed approach is gradually being built (a) by a presentation of the experimental device, (b) a presentation of the experimental plan and the results of the mechanical tests, (c) anova analysis of variance and a representation of the output responses using the RSM response surface method, and (d) an analysis of the results and discussion. The feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed approach leads to a precise and reliable model capable of predicting the variation of mechanical properties, depending on the tempering temperature, the tempering time and the cooling capacity of the quenching medium.
FRACTURING FLUID CHARACTERIZATION FACILITY
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Subhash Shah
2000-08-01
Hydraulic fracturing technology has been successfully applied for well stimulation of low and high permeability reservoirs for numerous years. Treatment optimization and improved economics have always been the key to the success and it is more so when the reservoirs under consideration are marginal. Fluids are widely used for the stimulation of wells. The Fracturing Fluid Characterization Facility (FFCF) has been established to provide the accurate prediction of the behavior of complex fracturing fluids under downhole conditions. The primary focus of the facility is to provide valuable insight into the various mechanisms that govern the flow of fracturing fluids and slurries through hydraulically created fractures. During the time between September 30, 1992, and March 31, 2000, the research efforts were devoted to the areas of fluid rheology, proppant transport, proppant flowback, dynamic fluid loss, perforation pressure losses, and frictional pressure losses. In this regard, a unique above-the-ground fracture simulator was designed and constructed at the FFCF, labeled ''The High Pressure Simulator'' (HPS). The FFCF is now available to industry for characterizing and understanding the behavior of complex fluid systems. To better reflect and encompass the broad spectrum of the petroleum industry, the FFCF now operates under a new name of ''The Well Construction Technology Center'' (WCTC). This report documents the summary of the activities performed during 1992-2000 at the FFCF.
Changes to the geometry and fluid mechanics of the carotid siphon in the pediatric Moyamoya disease.
Jamil, Muhammad; Tan, Germaine Xin Yi; Huq, Mehnaz; Kang, Heidi; Lee, Zhi Rui; Tang, Phua Hwee; Hu, Xi Hong; Yap, Choon Hwai
2016-12-01
The Moyamoya disease is a cerebrovascular disease that causes occlusion of the distal end of the internal carotid artery, leading to the formation of multiple tiny collateral arteries. To date, the pathogenesis of Moyamoya is unknown. Improved understanding of the changes to vascular geometry and fluid mechanics of the carotid siphon during disease may improve understanding of the pathogenesis, prognosis techniques and disease management. A retrospective analysis of Magnetic Resonance Angiography (MRA) images was performed for Moyamoya pediatric patients (MMD) (n = 23) and control (Ctrl) pediatric patients (n = 20). The Ctrl group was composed of patients who complained of headache and had normal MRA. We performed segmentation of MRA images to quantify geometric parameters of the artery. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) was performed to quantify the hemodynamic parameters. MMD internal carotid and carotid siphons were smaller in cross-sectional areas, and shorter in curved vascular length. Vascular curvature remained constant over age and vascular size and did not change between Ctrl and MMD, but MMD carotid siphon had lower tortuosity in the posterior bend, and higher torsion in the anterior bend. Wall shear stress and secondary flows were significantly lower in MMD, but the ratio of secondary flow kinetic energy to primary flow kinetic energy were similar between MMD and Ctrl. There were alterations to both the geometry and the flow mechanics of the carotid siphons of Moyamoya patients but it is unclear whether hemodynamics is the cause or the effect of morphological changes observed.
Supercritical fluids technology. Pt. 1 General topics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Marongiu, B.; De Giorgi, M. R.; Porcedda, S.; Cadoni, E.
1998-01-01
Supercritical fluids technology is among the emerging 'clean' technologies, that allows the minimization in the use of chemical and thermic treatments and products irradiation, diminishing the quantity of liquid wastes to be treated. In this first article phase equilibria thermodynamics and fluid mechanics of transport phenomena are reviewed [it
Jóźwik, Jagoda; Kałużna-Czaplińska, Joanna
2016-01-01
Currently, analysis of various human body fluids is one of the most essential and promising approaches to enable the discovery of biomarkers or pathophysiological mechanisms for disorders and diseases. Analysis of these fluids is challenging due to their complex composition and unique characteristics. Development of new analytical methods in this field has made it possible to analyze body fluids with higher selectivity, sensitivity, and precision. The composition and concentration of analytes in body fluids are most often determined by chromatography-based techniques. There is no doubt that proper use of knowledge that comes from a better understanding of the role of body fluids requires the cooperation of scientists of diverse specializations, including analytical chemists, biologists, and physicians. This article summarizes current knowledge about the application of different chromatographic methods in analyses of a wide range of compounds in human body fluids in order to diagnose certain diseases and disorders.
Fluid Mechanics Of Molten Metal Droplets In Additive Manufacturing
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Tesař, Václav; Šonský, Jiří
2016-01-01
Roč. 4, č. 4 (2016), s. 403-412 ISSN 2046-0546 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-23046S Institutional support: RVO:61388998 Keywords : additive manufacturing * droplets * molten metal Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics http://www.witpress.com/elibrary/cmem-volumes/4/4/1545
Relativistic elasticity of stationary fluid branes
Armas, Jay; Obers, Niels A.
2013-02-01
Fluid mechanics can be formulated on dynamical surfaces of arbitrary codimension embedded in a background space-time. This has been the main object of study of the blackfold approach in which the emphasis has primarily been on stationary fluid configurations. Motivated by this approach we show under certain conditions that a given stationary fluid configuration living on a dynamical surface of vanishing thickness and satisfying locally the first law of thermodynamics will behave like an elastic brane when the surface is subject to small deformations. These results, which are independent of the number of space-time dimensions and of the fluid arising from a gravitational dual, reveal the (electro)elastic character of (charged) black branes when considering extrinsic perturbations.
Complex fluids modeling and algorithms
Saramito, Pierre
2016-01-01
This book presents a comprehensive overview of the modeling of complex fluids, including many common substances, such as toothpaste, hair gel, mayonnaise, liquid foam, cement and blood, which cannot be described by Navier-Stokes equations. It also offers an up-to-date mathematical and numerical analysis of the corresponding equations, as well as several practical numerical algorithms and software solutions for the approximation of the solutions. It discusses industrial (molten plastics, forming process), geophysical (mud flows, volcanic lava, glaciers and snow avalanches), and biological (blood flows, tissues) modeling applications. This book is a valuable resource for undergraduate students and researchers in applied mathematics, mechanical engineering and physics.
Standardization of Thermo-Fluid Modeling in Modelica.Fluid
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Franke, Rudiger; Casella, Francesco; Sielemann, Michael; Proelss, Katrin; Otter, Martin; Wetter, Michael
2009-09-01
This article discusses the Modelica.Fluid library that has been included in the Modelica Standard Library 3.1. Modelica.Fluid provides interfaces and basic components for the device-oriented modeling of onedimensional thermo-fluid flow in networks containing vessels, pipes, fluid machines, valves and fittings. A unique feature of Modelica.Fluid is that the component equations and the media models as well as pressure loss and heat transfer correlations are decoupled from each other. All components are implemented such that they can be used for media from the Modelica.Media library. This means that an incompressible or compressible medium, a single or a multiple substance medium with one or more phases might be used with one and the same model as long as the modeling assumptions made hold. Furthermore, trace substances are supported. Modeling assumptions can be configured globally in an outer System object. This covers in particular the initialization, uni- or bi-directional flow, and dynamic or steady-state formulation of mass, energy, and momentum balance. All assumptions can be locally refined for every component. While Modelica.Fluid contains a reasonable set of component models, the goal of the library is not to provide a comprehensive set of models, but rather to provide interfaces and best practices for the treatment of issues such as connector design and implementation of energy, mass and momentum balances. Applications from various domains are presented.
Effects of walking in deep venous thrombosis: a new integrated solid and fluid mechanics model.
López, Josep M; Fortuny, Gerard; Puigjaner, Dolors; Herrero, Joan; Marimon, Francesc; Garcia-Bennett, Josep
2017-05-01
Deep venous thrombosis (DVT) is a common disease. Large thrombi in venous vessels cause bad blood circulation and pain; and when a blood clot detaches from a vein wall, it causes an embolism whose consequences range from mild to fatal. Walking is recommended to DVT patients as a therapeutical complement. In this study the mechanical effects of walking on a specific patient of DVT were simulated by means of an unprecedented integration of 3 elements: a real geometry, a biomechanical model of body tissues, and a computational fluid dynamics study. A set of computed tomography images of a patient's leg with a thrombus in the popliteal vein was employed to reconstruct a geometry model. Then a biomechanical model was used to compute the new deformed geometry of the vein as a function of the fiber stretch level of the semimembranosus muscle. Finally, a computational fluid dynamics study was performed to compute the blood flow and the wall shear stress (WSS) at the vein and thrombus walls. Calculations showed that either a lengthening or shortening of the semimembranosus muscle led to a decrease of WSS levels up to 10%. Notwithstanding, changes in blood viscosity properties or blood flow rate may easily have a greater impact in WSS. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Persistent Homology to describe Solid and Fluid Structures during Multiphase Flow
Herring, A. L.; Robins, V.; Liu, Z.; Armstrong, R. T.; Sheppard, A.
2017-12-01
The question of how to accurately and effectively characterize essential fluid and solid distributions and structures is a long-standing topic within the field of porous media and fluid transport. For multiphase flow applications, considerable research effort has been made to describe fluid distributions under a range of conditions; including quantification of saturation levels, fluid-fluid pressure differences and interfacial areas, and fluid connectivity. Recent research has effectively used topological metrics to describe pore space and fluid connectivity, with researchers demonstrating links between pore-scale nonwetting phase topology to fluid mobilization and displacement mechanisms, relative permeability, fluid flow regimes, and thermodynamic models of multiphase flow. While topology is clearly a powerful tool to describe fluid distribution, topological metrics by definition provide information only on the connectivity of a phase, not its geometry (shape or size). Physical flow characteristics, e.g. the permeability of a fluid phase within a porous medium, are dependent on the connectivity of the pore space or fluid phase as well as the size of connections. Persistent homology is a technique which provides a direct link between topology and geometry via measurement of topological features and their persistence from the signed Euclidean distance transform of a segmented digital image (Figure 1). We apply persistent homology analysis to measure the occurrence and size of pore-scale topological features in a variety of sandstones, for both the dry state and the nonwetting phase fluid during two-phase fluid flow (drainage and imbibition) experiments, visualized with 3D X-ray microtomography. The results provide key insights into the dominant topological features and length scales of a media which control relevant field-scale engineering properties such as fluid trapping, absolute permeability, and relative permeability.