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Sample records for mechanical shock behavior

  1. Shock loading influence on mechanical behavior of high purity iron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buy, Francois; Voltz, Christophe

    2004-01-01

    This paper proposes the analysis of shock wave effects for high purity iron. The method developed is based on the characterization of the mechanical behavior of as received and shocked material. Shock effect is generated through plate impact tests performed in the range of 4 GPa to 39 GPa on a single stage light gas gun or a powder gun. Therefore, as-received and impacted materials are characterized. A formalism proposed by J.R.Klepaczko and based on physical relations has been adopted to describe stress strain curves

  2. High temperature mechanical properties and surface fatigue behavior improving of steel alloy via laser shock peening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ren, N.F.; Yang, H.M.; Yuan, S.Q.; Wang, Y.; Tang, S.X.; Zheng, L.M.; Ren, X.D.; Dai, F.Z.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The properties of 00C r 12 were improved by laser shock processing. • A deep layer of residual compressive stresses was introduced. • Fatigue life was enhanced about 58% at elevated temperature up to 600 °C. • The pinning effect is the reason of prolonging fatigue life at high temperature. - Abstract: Laser shock peening was carried out to reveal the effects on ASTM: 410L 00C r 12 microstructures and fatigue resistance in the temperature range 25–600 °C. The new conception of pinning effect was proposed to explain the improvements at the high temperature. Residual stress was measured by X-ray diffraction with sin 2 ψ method, a high temperature extensometer was utilized to measure the strain and control the strain signal. The grain and precipitated phase evolutionary process were observed by scanning electron microscopy. These results show that a deep layer of compressive residual stress is developed by laser shock peening, and ultimately the isothermal stress-controlled fatigue behavior is enhanced significantly. The formation of high density dislocation structure and the pinning effect at the high temperature, which induces a stronger surface, lower residual stress relaxation and more stable dislocation arrangement. The results have profound guiding significance for fatigue strengthening mechanism of components at the elevated temperature

  3. The influence of peak stress on the mechanical behavior and the substructural evolution in shock-prestrained zirconium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cerreta, E.; Gray, G.T. III; Henrie, B.L.; Brown, D.W.; Hixson, R.S.; Rigg, P.A.

    2004-01-01

    The post shock mechanical behavior and substructure evolution of zirconium (Zr) under shock prestrained at 5.8 and 8 GPa, above and below the pressure induced α-ω phase transition, has been quantified. The reload yield stress of Zr shock prestrained to 8 GPa was found to exhibit enhanced shock hardening when compared to the flow stress measured quasi-statically at an equivalent strain. In contrast, the reload yield behavior of Zr specimens shocked to 5.8 GPa did not exhibit enhanced shock hardening. The microstructure of the as-annealed and shock prestrained materials were examined. The presence of a reduced available glide distance due to a relatively more well developed dislocation substructure and increased twinning over quasi-static specimens deformed to comparable strains correlates with the increased yield stresses after shock prestraining at 8 GPa. Additionally, the retention of ∼ 40% by volume metastable high-pressure ω-phase in specimens shocked to 8 GPa and its absence in the 5.8 GPa specimen, is thought to contribute to the increased yield stress in the 8 GPa specimens

  4. Mechanical shock absorber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vrillon, Bernard.

    1973-01-01

    The mechanical shock absorber described is made of a constant thickness plate pierced with circular holes regularly distributed in such a manner that for all the directions along which the strain is applied during the shock, the same section of the substance forming the plate is achieved. The shock absorber is made in a metal standing up to extensive deformation before breaking, selected from a group comprising mild steels and austenitic stainless steels. This apparatus is used for handling pots of fast neutron reactor fuel elements [fr

  5. Computerized simulation of the mechanical behavior of wood-filled shock absorbers of radioactive materials transport casks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neumann, Martin; Wille, Frank

    2011-01-01

    In Germany the mechanical component inspection of transport containers for radioactive materials is performed by BAM (Bundesanstalt fuer Materialforschung und -pruefung) under consideration of national and international standards and guidelines. Experimental and calculative (analytical and numerical) techniques combined with material and/or component testing are the basis of assessment concepts according the state of the art. The authors describe the experiences of BAM concerning assessment and description of the mechanical behavior of shock absorbing components, including modeling strategies, material models, drop tests and experiment-calculation comparison. Energy absorbing components are used to reduce the impact forces at the container in case of a transport accident. In Germany wood filled thin-walled constructions are used. The deformation behavior of the wood is a main part of the calculative simulation procedures in comparison with experimental tests.

  6. Mechanical Behavior of Nanostructured and Ultrafine Grained Materials under Shock Wave Loadings. Experimental Data and Results of Computer Simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skripnyak, Vladimir

    2011-06-01

    Features of mechanical behavior of nanostructured (NS) and ultrafine grained (UFG) metal and ceramic materials under quasistatic and shock wave loadings are discussed in this report. Multilevel models developed within the approach of computational mechanics of materials were used for simulation mechanical behavior of UFG and NS metals and ceramics. Comparisons of simulation results with experimental data are presented. Models of mechanical behavior of nanostructured metal alloys takes into account a several structural factors influencing on the mechanical behavior of materials (type of a crystal lattice, density of dislocations, a size of dislocation substructures, concentration and size of phase precipitation, and distribution of grains sizes). Results show the strain rate sensitivity of the yield stress of UFG and polycrystalline alloys is various in a range from 103 up to 106 1/s. But the difference of the Hugoniot elastic limits of a UFG and coarse-grained alloys may be not considerable. The spall strength, the yield stress of UFG and NS alloys are depend not only on grains size, but a number of factors such as a distribution of grains sizes, a concentration and sizes of voids and cracks, a concentration and sizes of phase precipitation. Some titanium alloys with grain sizes from 300 to 500 nm have the quasi-static yield strength and the tensile strength twice higher than that of coarse grained counterparts. But the spall strength of the UFG titanium alloys is only 10 percents above than that of coarse grained alloys. At the same time it was found the spall strength of the bulk UFG aluminium and magnesium alloys with precipitation strengthening is essentially higher in comparison of coarse-grained counterparts. The considerable decreasing of the strain before failure of UFG alloys was predicted at high strain rates. The Hugoniot elastic limits of oxide nanoceramics depend not only on the porosity, but also on sizes and volume distribution of voids.

  7. Simulation of mechanical shock environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lalanne, Christian.

    1975-07-01

    Shocks can produce a severe mechanical environment which must be taken into account when designing and developing new equipments. After some mathematical (Laplace and Fourier transforms) and mechanical recalls (response of a one degree freedom system to a sinusoidal excitation), different analysis methods are compared, these methods being the most used now to compare relative severities of tests and establish specifications. A few chapter deal with the different properties of simple, easy to produce, shock shapes. Then some now-in-use programmators or shock-machines specifications are shown. A final chapter concerns acceleration transducers [fr

  8. Fracture mechanics analysis of reactor pressure vessel under pressurized thermal shock - The effect of elastic-plastic behavior and stainless steel cladding -

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joo, Jae Hwang; Kang, Ki Ju; Jhung, Myung Jo

    2002-01-01

    Performed here is an assessment study for deterministic fracture mechanics analysis of a pressurized thermal shock (PTS). The PTS event means an event or transient in pressurized water reactors (PWRs) causing severe overcooling (thermal shock) concurrent with or followed by significant pressure in the reactor vessel. The problems consisting of two transients and 10 cracks are solved and maximum stress intensity factors and maximum allowable nil-ductility reference temperatures are calculated. Their results are compared each other to address the general characteristics between transients, crack types and analysis methods. The effects of elastic-plastic material behavior and clad coating on the inner surface are explored

  9. Shock-induced mechanical response and spall fracture behavior of an extra-low interstitial grade Ti–6Al–4V alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ren, Yu; Wang, Fuchi [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081 (China); National Key Laboratory of Science and Technology on Materials Under Shock and Impact, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081 (China); Tan, Chengwen, E-mail: tanchengwen@126.com [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081 (China); National Key Laboratory of Science and Technology on Materials Under Shock and Impact, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081 (China); Wang, Shuyou [State Key Laboratory of Explosion Science and Technology, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081 (China); Yu, Xiaodong [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081 (China); National Key Laboratory of Science and Technology on Materials Under Shock and Impact, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081 (China); Jiang, Jianwei [State Key Laboratory of Explosion Science and Technology, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081 (China); Ma, Honglei [China Astronaut Research and Training Center, Beijing 100094 (China); Cai, Hongnian [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081 (China); National Key Laboratory of Science and Technology on Materials Under Shock and Impact, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081 (China)

    2013-08-20

    The mechanical response and spall fracture behavior of an extra-low interstitial (ELI) grade Ti–6Al–4V alloy are systemically investigated during one-dimensional shock loading. The effects of oxygen content on the shock response and dynamic failure characteristic of Ti–6Al–4V are also shown through the comparison of the obtained results with those for commercial Ti–6Al–4V. The measured Hugoniot elastic limit (HEL) of Ti–6Al–4V ELI is lower than that of commercial Ti–6Al–4V. While the fitted shock parameters and the measured Hugoniot in the stress-particle velocity space of Ti–6Al–4V ELI are found to be almost identical to those of commercial Ti–6Al–4V. These results indicate that the oxygen content can significantly affect the HEL of Ti–6Al–4V, but has little or no influence on the shock response of this alloy beyond the HEL. The postshock Ti–6Al–4V ELI does not display shock-induced strengthening during quasistatic and dynamic compression tests. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analyses reveal that the lack of high density dislocations or dislocation cells limits the shock-induced strengthening effect, although dislocation multiplication and tangles lead to increased yield strength and strain hardening rate of the reloaded material. Finally, Ti–6Al–4V ELI is demonstrated to spall in a ductile manner, and has similar spall strengths to those of commercial Ti–6Al–4V under different shock loading conditions. The oxygen content exerts no effect on the spall fracture manner of Ti–6Al–4V, although reducing the oxygen content enables this alloy to endure more micro-damages.

  10. Shock-induced mechanical response and spall fracture behavior of an extra-low interstitial grade Ti–6Al–4V alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ren, Yu; Wang, Fuchi; Tan, Chengwen; Wang, Shuyou; Yu, Xiaodong; Jiang, Jianwei; Ma, Honglei; Cai, Hongnian

    2013-01-01

    The mechanical response and spall fracture behavior of an extra-low interstitial (ELI) grade Ti–6Al–4V alloy are systemically investigated during one-dimensional shock loading. The effects of oxygen content on the shock response and dynamic failure characteristic of Ti–6Al–4V are also shown through the comparison of the obtained results with those for commercial Ti–6Al–4V. The measured Hugoniot elastic limit (HEL) of Ti–6Al–4V ELI is lower than that of commercial Ti–6Al–4V. While the fitted shock parameters and the measured Hugoniot in the stress-particle velocity space of Ti–6Al–4V ELI are found to be almost identical to those of commercial Ti–6Al–4V. These results indicate that the oxygen content can significantly affect the HEL of Ti–6Al–4V, but has little or no influence on the shock response of this alloy beyond the HEL. The postshock Ti–6Al–4V ELI does not display shock-induced strengthening during quasistatic and dynamic compression tests. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analyses reveal that the lack of high density dislocations or dislocation cells limits the shock-induced strengthening effect, although dislocation multiplication and tangles lead to increased yield strength and strain hardening rate of the reloaded material. Finally, Ti–6Al–4V ELI is demonstrated to spall in a ductile manner, and has similar spall strengths to those of commercial Ti–6Al–4V under different shock loading conditions. The oxygen content exerts no effect on the spall fracture manner of Ti–6Al–4V, although reducing the oxygen content enables this alloy to endure more micro-damages

  11. Shock Isolation Elements Testing for High Input Loadings. Volume III. Mechanical Shock Isolation Elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    SHOCK ABSORBERS ), (*GUIDED MISSILE SILOS, SHOCK ABSORBERS ), (*SPRINGS, (*SHOCK(MECHANICS), REDUCTION), TORSION BARS, ELASTOMERS, DAMPING, EQUATIONS OF MOTION, MODEL TESTS, TEST METHODS, NUCLEAR EXPLOSIONS, HARDENING.

  12. Advanced and Exploratory Shock Sensing Mechanisms.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelsen, Nicholas H. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Kolb, James D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Kulkarni, Akshay G. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Sorscher, Zachary [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Habing, Clayton D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Mathis, Allen [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Beller, Zachary J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-09-01

    Mechanical component response to shock environments must be predictable in order to ensure reliability and safety. Whether the shock input results from accidental drops during transportation to projectile impact scenarios, the system must irreversibly transition into a safe state that is incapable of triggering the component . With this critical need in mind, the 2017 Nuclear Weapons Summer Product Realization Institute (NW SPRINT) program objective sought the design of a passive shock failsafe with emphasis on additively manufactured (AM) components. Team Advanced and Exploratory (A&E) responded to the challenge by designing and delivering multiple passive shock sensing mech anisms that activate within a prescribed mechanical shock threshold. These AM failsafe designs were tuned and validated using analytical and computational techniques including the shock response spectrum (SRS) and finite element analysis (FEA). After rapid prototyping, the devices experienced physical shock tests conducted on Sandia drop tables to experimentally verify performance. Keywords: Additive manufacturing, dynamic system, failsafe, finite element analysis, mechanical shock, NW SPRINT, shock respon se spectrum

  13. Mechanical Properties of Shock-Damaged Rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Hongliang; Ahrens, T. J.

    1994-01-01

    Stress-strain tests were performed both on shock-damaged gabbro and limestone. The effective Young's modulus decreases with increasing initial damage parameter value, and an apparent work-softening process occurs prior to failure. To further characterize shock-induced microcracks, the longitudinal elastic wave velocity behavior of shock-damaged gabbro in the direction of compression up to failure was measured using an acoustic transmission technique under uniaxial loading. A dramatic increase in velocity was observed for the static compressive stress range of 0-50 MPa. Above that stress range, the velocity behavior of lightly damaged (D(sub 0) less than 0.1) gabbro is almost equal to unshocked gabbro. The failure strength of heavily-damaged (D(sub 0) greater than 0.1) gabbro is approx. 100-150 MPa, much lower than that of lightly damaged and unshocked gabbros (approx. 230-260 MPa). Following Nur's theory, the crack shape distribution was analyzed. The shock-induced cracks in gabbro appear to be largely thin penny-shaped cracks with c/a values below 5 x 10(exp -4). Moreover, the applicability of Ashby and Sammis's theory relating failure strength and damage parameter of shock-damaged rocks was examined and was found to yield a good estimate of the relation of shock-induced deficit in elastic modulus with the deficit in compressive strength.

  14. Mechanical vibration and shock analysis, sinusoidal vibration

    CERN Document Server

    Lalanne, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Everything engineers need to know about mechanical vibration and shock...in one authoritative reference work! This fully updated and revised 3rd edition addresses the entire field of mechanical vibration and shock as one of the most important types of load and stress applied to structures, machines and components in the real world. Examples include everything from the regular and predictable loads applied to turbines, motors or helicopters by the spinning of their constituent parts to the ability of buildings to withstand damage from wind loads or explosions, and the need for cars to m

  15. Shock wave effects in copper: Design of an experimental device for post recovery mechanical testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buy, Francois; Llorca, Fabrice

    2002-01-01

    The mechanical behavior of metals may prove high changes with strain rate and pressure loading history. In order to investigate the effect of a shock on the ulterior mechanical behavior of high purity copper, we set up an experimental device inspired from G. T. Gray III's works. This device, based on the trapping of shock waves after a plane plate impact is validated by numerical simulations. The aim of these simulations is the evaluation of the heterogeneity of plastic deformation. Shock pressures up to 10 GPa have been investigated. The plastic strain levels subsequent to the shock are between 0.08 and 0.15 in the sample

  16. Multiple-shock initiation via statistical crack mechanics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dienes, J.K.; Kershner, J.D.

    1998-12-31

    Statistical Crack Mechanics (SCRAM) is a theoretical approach to the behavior of brittle materials that accounts for the behavior of an ensemble of microcracks, including their opening, shear, growth, and coalescence. Mechanical parameters are based on measured strain-softening behavior. In applications to explosive and propellant sensitivity it is assumed that closed cracks act as hot spots, and that the heating due to interfacial friction initiates reactions which are modeled as one-dimensional heat flow with an Arrhenius source term, and computed in a subscale grid. Post-ignition behavior of hot spots is treated with the burn model of Ward, Son and Brewster. Numerical calculations using SCRAM-HYDROX are compared with the multiple-shock experiments of Mulford et al. in which the particle velocity in PBX 9501 is measured with embedded wires, and reactions are initiated and quenched.

  17. Dynamic strength behavior of a Zr-based bulk metallic glass under shock loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Yu-Ying; Xi Feng; Dai Cheng-Da; Cai Ling-Cang; Tan Ye; Li Xue-Mei; Wu Qiang; Tan Hua

    2015-01-01

    Dynamic strength behavior of Zr 51 Ti 5 Ni 10 Cu 25 Al 9 bulk metallic glass (BMG) up to 66 GPa was investigated in a series of plate impact shock-release and shock-reload experiments. Particle velocity profiles measured at the sample/LiF window interface were used to estimate the shear stress, shear modulus, and yield stress in shocked BMG. Beyond confirming the previously reported strain-softening of shear stress during the shock loading process for BMGs, it is also shown that the softened Zr-BMG still has a high shear modulus and can support large yield stress when released or reloaded from the shocked state, and both the shear modulus and the yield stress appear as strain-hardening behaviors. The work provides a much clearer picture of the strength behavior of BMGs under shock loading, which is useful to comprehensively understand the plastic deformation mechanisms of BMGs. (paper)

  18. Collisionless Weibel shocks: Full formation mechanism and timing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bret, A. [ETSI Industriales, Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha, 13071 Ciudad Real (Spain); Instituto de Investigaciones Energéticas y Aplicaciones Industriales, Campus Universitario de Ciudad Real, 13071 Ciudad Real (Spain); Stockem, A. [GoLP/Instituto de Plasmas e Fusão Nuclear, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, Lisbon (Portugal); Institut für Theoretische Physik, Lehrstuhl IV: Weltraum- und Astrophysik, Ruhr-Universität Bochum, D-44780 Bochum (Germany); Narayan, R. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, MS-51 Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138 (United States); Silva, L. O. [GoLP/Instituto de Plasmas e Fusão Nuclear, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, Lisbon (Portugal)

    2014-07-15

    Collisionless shocks in plasmas play an important role in space physics (Earth's bow shock) and astrophysics (supernova remnants, relativistic jets, gamma-ray bursts, high energy cosmic rays). While the formation of a fluid shock through the steepening of a large amplitude sound wave has been understood for long, there is currently no detailed picture of the mechanism responsible for the formation of a collisionless shock. We unravel the physical mechanism at work and show that an electromagnetic Weibel shock always forms when two relativistic collisionless, initially unmagnetized, plasma shells encounter. The predicted shock formation time is in good agreement with 2D and 3D particle-in-cell simulations of counterstreaming pair plasmas. By predicting the shock formation time, experimental setups aiming at producing such shocks can be optimised to favourable conditions.

  19. Acceleration mechanisms flares, magnetic reconnection and shock waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colgate, S.A.

    1979-01-01

    Several mechanisms are briefly discussed for the acceleration of particles in the astrophysical environment. Included are hydrodynamic acceleration, spherically convergent shocks, shock and a density gradient, coherent electromagnetic acceleration, the flux tube origin, symmetries and instabilities, reconnection, galactic flares, intergalactic acceleration, stochastic acceleration, and astrophysical shocks. It is noted that the supernova shock wave models still depend critically on the presupernova star structure and the assumption of highly compact presupernova models for type I supernovae. 37 references

  20. Computerized simulation of the mechanical behavior of wood-filled shock absorbers of radioactive materials transport casks; Rechnerische Simulation des mechanischen Verhaltens von holzgefuellten Stossdaempfern von Transportbehaeltern fuer radioaktive Stoffe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neumann, Martin; Wille, Frank [Bundesanstalt fuer Materialforschung und -pruefung (BAM), Berlin (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    In Germany the mechanical component inspection of transport containers for radioactive materials is performed by BAM (Bundesanstalt fuer Materialforschung und -pruefung) under consideration of national and international standards and guidelines. Experimental and calculative (analytical and numerical) techniques combined with material and/or component testing are the basis of assessment concepts according the state of the art. The authors describe the experiences of BAM concerning assessment and description of the mechanical behavior of shock absorbing components, including modeling strategies, material models, drop tests and experiment-calculation comparison. Energy absorbing components are used to reduce the impact forces at the container in case of a transport accident. In Germany wood filled thin-walled constructions are used. The deformation behavior of the wood is a main part of the calculative simulation procedures in comparison with experimental tests.

  1. Mechanical response of shock conditioned HPNS-5 (R-1) grout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plannerer, H.N.

    1997-01-01

    HPNS-5 (R-1) grout is a portland cement formulated mix designed for use as a rigid containment plug in vertical boreholes at the Nevada Test Site. Coincident with field testing of this grout in 1991 and 1992 , two arums of the grout mix were collected and positioned in the by pass drift of the DISTANT ZENITH event to expose the grout to passage of a nuclear driven stress wave. The drums were later retrieved to determine the mechanical behavior of the shock conditioned grout. Sealed hollow tubes positioned within the grout-filled drums to detect ductile flow on passage of the stress wave were found partially to completely filled with HPNS-5 grout following the experiment. Static mechanical tests support the evidence for ductile flow and place the transition from brittle fracture failure to ductile behavior in the shock conditioned grout at a confining stress between ambient and 5 MPa (725 psi). Uniaxial and triaxial tests delineated a stress-strain field for interstice collapse that interposes between the mechanics of linear elastic deformation and dilatancy. Hydrostatic stress loading between 25 MPa (3.6 ksi) and 60 MPa (8.7 ksi) results in a significant change of permanent set from 1% to greater than 15% volume strain

  2. On the influence of mechanical surface treatments--deep rolling and laser shock peening--on the fatigue behavior of Ti-6Al-4V at ambient and elevated temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nalla, R.K.; Altenberger, I.; Noster, U.; Liu, G.Y.; Scholtes, B.; Ritchie, R.O.

    2003-01-01

    It is well known that mechanical surface treatments, such as deep rolling, shot peening and laser shock peening, can significantly improve the fatigue behavior of highly-stressed metallic components. Deep rolling (DR) is particularly attractive since it is possible to generate, near the surface, deep compressive residual stresses and work hardened layers while retaining a relatively smooth surface finish. In the present investigation, the effect of DR on the low-cycle fatigue (LCF) and high-cycle fatigue (HCF) behavior of a Ti-6Al-4V alloy is examined, with particular emphasis on the thermal and mechanical stability of the residual stress states and the near-surface microstructures. Preliminary results on laser shock peened Ti-6Al-4V are also presented for comparison. Particular emphasis is devoted to the question of whether such surface treatments are effective for improving the fatigue properties at elevated temperatures up to ∼450 deg. C, i.e. at a homologous temperature of ∼0.4T/T m (where T m is the melting temperature). Based on cyclic deformation and stress/life (S/N) fatigue behavior, together with the X-ray diffraction and in situ transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observations of the microstructure, it was found that deep rolling can be quite effective in retarding the initiation and initial propagation of fatigue cracks in Ti-6Al-4V at such higher temperatures, despite the almost complete relaxation of the near-surface residual stresses. In the absence of such stresses, it is shown that the near-surface microstructures, which in Ti-6Al-4V consist of a layer of work hardened nanoscale grains, play a critical role in the enhancement of fatigue life by mechanical surface treatment

  3. PIV tracer behavior on propagating shock fronts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glazyrin, Fyodor N; Mursenkova, Irina V; Znamenskaya, Irina A

    2016-01-01

    The present work was aimed at the quantitative particle image velocimetry (PIV) measurement of a velocity field near the front of a propagating shock wave and the study of the dynamics of liquid tracers crossing the shock front. For this goal, a shock tube with a rectangular cross-section (48  ×  24 mm) was used. The flat shock wave with Mach numbers M  =  1.4–2.0 propagating inside the tube channel was studied as well as an expanding shock wave propagating outside the channel with M  =  1.2–1.8 at its main axis. The PIV imaging of the shock fronts was carried out with an aerosol of dioctyl sebacate (DEHS) as tracer particles. The pressures of the gas in front of the shock waves studied ranged from 0.013 Mpa to 0.1 MPa in the series of experiments. The processed PIV data, compared to the 1D normal shock theory, yielded consistent values of wake velocity immediately behind the plain shock wave. Special attention was paid to the blurring of the velocity jump on the shock front due to the inertial particle lag and peculiarities of the PIV technique. A numerical algorithm was developed for analysis and correction of the PIV data on the shock fronts, based on equations of particle-flow interaction. By application of this algorithm, the effective particle diameter of the DEHS aerosol tracers was estimated as 1.03  ±  0.12 μm. A number of different formulations for particle drag were tested with this algorithm, with varying success. The results show consistency with previously reported experimental data obtained for cases of stationary shock waves. (paper)

  4. Mechanisms of shock-induced dynamic friction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winter, R E; Ball, G J; Keightley, P T

    2006-01-01

    The mechanism of shock-induced dynamic friction has been explored through an integrated programme of experiments and numerical simulations. A novel experimental technique has been developed for observing the sub-surface deformation in aluminium when sliding against a steel anvil at high velocity and pressure. The experimental observations suggest that slight differences in conditions at the interface between the metals affect frictional behaviour even at the very high-velocity, high-pressure regime studied here. However, a clear finding from the experimental work is the presence of two distinct modes of deformation termed deep and shallow. The deep deformation is observed in a region of the aluminium specimen where the interfacial velocity is relatively low and the shallow deformation is observed in a region where the interfacial velocity is higher. A 1D numerical treatment is presented which predicts the existence of two mechanisms for dynamic friction termed 'asymptotic melting' and 'slide-then-lock'. In both modes there is a warm-up phase in which the interface temperature is increased by frictional heating. For high initial sliding velocity, this is followed by the onset of the asymptotic melting state, in which the temperature is almost constant and melting is approached asymptotically. This mechanism produces low late-time frictional stress and shallow deformation. For lower initial sliding velocity, the warm-up terminates in a violent work hardening event that locks the interface and launches a strong plastic shear wave into the weaker material. This slide-then-lock mechanism is characterized by sustained high frictional stress and deep plastic deformation. These predicted mechanisms offer a plausible and consistent explanation for the abrupt transitions in the depth of sub-surface deformation observed in the experiments. A key conclusion arising from the current work is that the frictional stress does not vary smoothly with pressure or sliding velocity

  5. Drift mechanism for energetic charged particles at shocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webb, G.M.; Axford, W.I.; Terasawa, T.

    1983-01-01

    The energy changes of energetic charged particles at a plane shock due to the so-called drift mechanism are analyzed by using the ''adiabatic treatment.'' The analysis shows that for a fast MHD shock, particles lose energy owing to acceleration (curvature) drift in the magnetic field at the shock with the drift velocity being antiparallel to the electric field, and they gain energy owing to gradient drift parallel to the electric field. It is shown that particles with pitch angles aligned along the magnetic field which pass through the shock tend to lose energy owing to acceleration drift, whereas particles with pitch angles nonaligned to the magnetic field gain energy owing to gradient drift. Particles that are reflected by the shock always gain energy. Slow-mode shocks may be similarly analyzed, but in this case curvature drifts give rise to particle energy gains, and gradient drifts result in particle energy losses

  6. The Mechanism of Microcirculatory Failure in Shock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-05-01

    response to regional and systemic shock. Surgery 77:268, 1975. 10. Weksler BB, et al: Synthesis of PGI2 (prostacyclin) by cultured human and bovine ... bovine blood platelets. J Biol Chem 252:5871, 1977. -. . Q •( 14. Roth GJ and Mejerus PW: Acetylation of prostaglandin synthetase by aspirin. Proc Natl...gases were determined every 30 minutes and metabolic acidosis was treated with sodium bicarbonate. After 90 minutes the animals were resuscitated by

  7. Mechanical analysis of a heat-shock induced developmental defect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crews, Sarah M.; McCleery, W. Tyler; Hutson, M. Shane

    2014-03-01

    Embryonic development in Drosophila is a complex process involving coordinated movements of mechanically interacting tissues. Perturbing this system with a transient heat shock can result in a number of developmental defects. In particular, a heat shock applied during the earliest morphogenetic movements of gastrulation can lead to apparent recovery, but then subsequent morphogenetic failure 5-6 hours later during germ band retraction. The process of germ band retraction requires an intact amnioserosa - a single layered extra-embryonic epithelial tissue - and heat shock at gastrulation can induce the later opening of holes in the amnioserosa. These holes are highly correlated with failures of germ band retraction. These holes could be caused by a combination of mechanical weakness in the amnioserosa or local increases in mechanical stress. Here, we assess the role of mechanical stress using confocal imaging to compare cell and tissue morphology in the amnioserosa of normal and heat-shocked embryos and laser hole drilling to map the stress field around the times and locations at which heat-shock induced holes open.

  8. Shocks, singularities and oscillations in nonlinear optics and fluid mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Santo, Daniele; Lannes, David

    2017-01-01

    The book collects the most relevant results from the INdAM Workshop "Shocks, Singularities and Oscillations in Nonlinear Optics and Fluid Mechanics" held in Rome, September 14-18, 2015. The contributions discuss recent major advances in the study of nonlinear hyperbolic systems, addressing general theoretical issues such as symmetrizability, singularities, low regularity or dispersive perturbations. It also investigates several physical phenomena where such systems are relevant, such as nonlinear optics, shock theory (stability, relaxation) and fluid mechanics (boundary layers, water waves, Euler equations, geophysical flows, etc.). It is a valuable resource for researchers in these fields. .

  9. Simulation on the shock attenuation behavior of coupled RHA and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper presents the shock attenuation behavior of engineering materials namely Rolled Homogenous Armor (RHA) and sandwich composite when subject to blast loadings. Blast loading on sandwich composite structure and monolithic material are investigated using LSDYNA 3D with Arbitrary LagrangianEulerian ...

  10. Elastic-plastic fracture mechanics study of thermal shock cracking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirano, K.; Kobayashi, H.; Nakazawa, H.

    1980-01-01

    This paper describes thermal shock experiments conducted on a nuclear pressure vessel steel (A533 Grade B Class 1), an AISI304 steel and a tool steel (JIS SKD62) using both a new thermal shock test facility and method. Analysis of their quasi-static thermal stress intensity factors is performed on the basis of linear-elastic fracture mechanics; and a thermal shock fracture toughness value, Ksub(tsc) is evaluated. Then elastic-plastic fracture toughness tests are carried out in the same high temperature range of the thermal shock experiment, and a relation between the stretched zone width, SZW, formed as a result of the fatigue precrack tip plastic blunting and the J-integral is clarified. An elastic-plastic thermal shock fracture toughness value, Jsub(tsc), is evaluated from a critical value of the stretched zone width, SZWsub(tsc), at the initiation of the thermal shock cracking by using the relation between SZW and J. The Jsub(tsc) value is compared with an elastic-plastic fracture toughness value, Jsub(Ic), and the difference between these Jsub(tsc) and Jsub(Ic) values is discussed on the basis of fractography. (author)

  11. Energy-harvesting shock absorber with a mechanical motion rectifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhongjie; Zuo, Lei; Kuang, Jian; Luhrs, George

    2013-02-01

    Energy-harvesting shock absorbers are able to recover the energy otherwise dissipated in the suspension vibration while simultaneously suppressing the vibration induced by road roughness. They can work as a controllable damper as well as an energy generator. An innovative design of regenerative shock absorbers is proposed in this paper, with the advantage of significantly improving the energy harvesting efficiency and reducing the impact forces caused by oscillation. The key component is a unique motion mechanism, which we called ‘mechanical motion rectifier (MMR)’, to convert the oscillatory vibration into unidirectional rotation of the generator. An implementation of a MMR-based harvester with high compactness is introduced and prototyped. A dynamic model is created to analyze the general properties of the motion rectifier by making an analogy between mechanical systems and electrical circuits. The model is capable of analyzing electrical and mechanical components at the same time. Both simulation and experiments are carried out to verify the modeling and the advantages. The prototype achieved over 60% efficiency at high frequency, much better than conventional regenerative shock absorbers in oscillatory motion. Furthermore, road tests are done to demonstrate the feasibility of the MMR shock absorber, in which more than 15 Watts of electricity is harvested while driving at 15 mph on a smooth paved road. The MMR-based design can also be used for other applications of vibration energy harvesting, such as from tall buildings or long bridges.

  12. Energy-harvesting shock absorber with a mechanical motion rectifier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Zhongjie; Zuo, Lei; Kuang, Jian; Luhrs, George

    2013-01-01

    Energy-harvesting shock absorbers are able to recover the energy otherwise dissipated in the suspension vibration while simultaneously suppressing the vibration induced by road roughness. They can work as a controllable damper as well as an energy generator. An innovative design of regenerative shock absorbers is proposed in this paper, with the advantage of significantly improving the energy harvesting efficiency and reducing the impact forces caused by oscillation. The key component is a unique motion mechanism, which we called ‘mechanical motion rectifier (MMR)’, to convert the oscillatory vibration into unidirectional rotation of the generator. An implementation of a MMR-based harvester with high compactness is introduced and prototyped. A dynamic model is created to analyze the general properties of the motion rectifier by making an analogy between mechanical systems and electrical circuits. The model is capable of analyzing electrical and mechanical components at the same time. Both simulation and experiments are carried out to verify the modeling and the advantages. The prototype achieved over 60% efficiency at high frequency, much better than conventional regenerative shock absorbers in oscillatory motion. Furthermore, road tests are done to demonstrate the feasibility of the MMR shock absorber, in which more than 15 Watts of electricity is harvested while driving at 15 mph on a smooth paved road. The MMR-based design can also be used for other applications of vibration energy harvesting, such as from tall buildings or long bridges. (paper)

  13. Use of noninvasive and invasive mechanical ventilation in cardiogenic shock

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hongisto, Mari; Lassus, Johan; Tarvasmaki, Tuukka

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Despite scarce data, invasive mechanical ventilation (MV) is widely recommended over non-invasive ventilation (NIV) for ventilatory support in cardiogenic shock (CS). We assessed the real-life use of different ventilation strategies in CS and their influence on outcome focusing on the...

  14. Study on the Shock-transmission Mechanism of Stock Price among China, Russia and India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Menggen Chen

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Researchers pay more and more attention on the price comovement-effect among international stock markets. This paper deals with the transmission mechanism of price shocks among three stock markets of China, Russia and India, with a sample of weekly returns. The results showed that the price fluctuation of each market has an influence on other markets, although the price behavior is significantly independent. The impact of external price innovations will last 5 or 6 weeks usually and disappear after about 8 weeks. The pattern of transmission-mechanism for the price shocks is very different from each other. Besides, a further study revealed that the influence of external shocks on the domestic stock price increased significantly among the three markets after the 2008 international financial crisis.

  15. Thermal shock behavior of rare earth modified alumina ceramic composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Junlong; Liu, Changxia [Ludong Univ., Yantai (China). School of Transportation

    2017-05-15

    Alumina matrix ceramic composites toughened by AlTiC master alloys, diopside and rare earths were fabricated by hot-pressing and their thermal shock behavior was investigated and compared with that of monolithic alumina. Results showed that the critical thermal shock temperature (ΔT) of monolithic alumina was 400 C. However, it decreased to 300 C for alumina incorporating only AlTiC master alloys, and increased with further addition of diopside and rare earths. Improvement of thermal shock resistance was obtained for alumina ceramic composites containing 9.5 wt.% AlTiC master alloys and 0.5 wt.% rare earth additions, which was mainly attributed to the formation of elongated grains in the composites.

  16. Thermal shock fatigue behavior of TiC/Al2O3 composite ceramics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SI Tingzhi; LIU Ning; ZHANG Qingan; YOU Xianqing

    2008-01-01

    The thermal shock fatigue behaviors of pure hot-pressed alumina and 30 wt. % TiC/Al2O3 composites were studied. The effect of TiC and Al2O3 starting particle size on the mechanical properties of the composites was discussed. Indentation-quench test was conducted to evaluate the effect of thermal fatigue temperature difference (ΔT) and number of thermal cycles (N) on fatigue crack growth (Δα). The mechanical properties and thermal fatigue resistance of TiC/Al2O3 composites are remarkably improved by the addition of TiC. The thermal shock fatigue of monolithic alumina and TiC/Al2O3 composites is due to a "true" cycling effect (thermal fatigue). Crack deflection and bridging are the predominant reasons for the improvement of thermal shock fatigue resistance of the composites.

  17. Mechanic- and hydraulic shock-absorbers - layout, construction, operation experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kluge, M.

    1981-01-01

    The problem lies in the protection of the flexible supported power plant components against undesired sudden movements. Various shock absorbing systems are at disposal in this case: Mechanical and hydraulic shock absorbers, whose functioning systems are shown in figures. The operation experience showed a series of deficiencies, as demonstrated on various figures. In order to avoid them, some important recommendations are given. Requirements and layout are demonstrated according to todays' state-of-the-art. The admissible stresses, resulting from the summary of various specifications for the analytical evidence will be described. Development and construction will be explained in detail by means of pictures with cross sections of original shock absorbers. Todays' construction characteristics will be summarized. The final remark includes a request for generally valid guidelines. (orig.) [de

  18. Dissipation Mechanisms and Particle Acceleration at the Earth's Bow Shock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, M. I.; Burch, J. L.; Broll, J. M.; Genestreti, K.; Torbert, R. B.; Ergun, R.; Wei, H.; Giles, B. L.; Russell, C. T.; Phan, T.; Chen, L. J.; Lai, H.; Wang, S.; Schwartz, S. J.; Allen, R. C.; Mauk, B.; Gingell, I.

    2017-12-01

    NASA's Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) mission has four spacecraft equipped with identical state-of-the-art instruments that acquire magnetic and electric field, plasma wave, and particle data at unprecedented temporal resolution to study the fundamental physics of magnetic reconnection in the Earth's magnetosphere. During Phase 1a, MMS also encountered and crossed the Earth's bow shock more than 300 times. We use burst data during 2 bow shock crossings to shed new light on key open questions regarding the formation, evolution, and dissipation mechanisms at collisionless shocks. Specifically, we focus on two events that exhibit clear differences in the ion and electron properties, the associated wave activity, and, therefore in the nature of the dissipation. In the case of a quasi-perpendicular, low beta shock crossing, we find that the dissipation processes are most likely associated with field-aligned electron beams that are coincident with high frequency electrostatic waves. On the other hand, the dissipation processes at an oblique, high beta shock crossing are largely governed by the quasi-static electric field and generation of magnetosonic whistler waves that result in perpendicular temperature anisotropy for the electrons. We also discuss the implications of these results for ion heating, reflection, and particle acceleration.

  19. Iron Damage and Spalling Behavior below and above Shock Induced α ε Phase Transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voltz, Christophe; Buy, Francois; Roy, Gilles

    2006-01-01

    The study of dynamic damage and fracture of iron has been undertaken below and above phase transition by series of time resolved experiments using both light gas launcher and powder gun. Shock wave tests were conducted by symmetrical impacts of high purity iron. To reveal the material behavior we have done shock experiments where the target is covered with a window in order to limit release amplitude and to avoid specimen fragmentation. Metallurgical analysis of soft recovered samples yields information about damage and fracture processes related to thermo-mechanical loading paths. Tests conducted without window allow studying effects of both phase change and release transition. Optical and SEM characterizations lead us to observe several modes of damage: brittle, ductile diffuse with void growth and heavily localized smooth one. These figures are related with: rarefaction shock waves or interfaces between transformed and not transformed iron. Simulations are performed with the 1D to compare experimental data with numerical results. We explain post-mortem observations by the complex shock wave structure interactions: P1 and P2 shock fronts associated with some corresponding shock release during unloading stages

  20. Interbank funding as insurance mechanism for (persistent) liquidity shocks

    OpenAIRE

    Bluhm, Marcel

    2015-01-01

    The interbank market is important for the efficient functioning of the financial system, transmission of monetary policy and therefore ultimately the real economy. In particular, it facilitates banks' liquidity management. This paper aims at extending the literature which views interbank markets as mutual liquidity insurance mechanism by taking into account persistence of liquidity shocks. Following a theory of long-term interbank funding a financial system which is modeled as a micro-founded...

  1. Control rod drive mechanism with shock absorber for nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chevereau, G.

    1989-01-01

    The mechanism usable in a PWR has a shaft carrying the bar vertically displaceable in the reactor internals and a dash pot with a hydraulic cylinder and a piston. The cylinder has a large diameter perforated upper section to the cylinder, a small diameter lower section, a piston traversed by the control rod sized to fit into the upper section and forced downwards when the control descends. The shock absorbing chamber is defined between the piston and the upper section [fr

  2. Mechanical behavior of superalloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Floreen, S.

    1986-04-01

    Recent developments affecting the mechanical behavior of superalloys over three ranges of operating temperatures are reviewed. At lower temperatures, activity has been focused on stress corrosion cracking susceptibility in light water reactor and sour gas well environments. The susceptibility to intergranular crack growth is critically dependent upon the grain boundary chemistry, and a method of minimizing the sensitivity of the boundaries to attack has been pursued. At intermediate temperatures, considerable effort has been directed toward increasing the tensile and fatigue strengths. The higher strength materials, however, show increased fracture sensitivity. In particular, embrittlement due to diffusion into the grain boundaries of aggressive species, such as oxygen or sulfur from the environments, becomes a problem. Minor element alloying additions of boron, zirconium, magnesium, etc., are helpful in retarding the degradation caused by the environment. At higher temperatures, the major thrust is toward improving the creep strength. The weak link in the materials, which is the transverse grain boundaries, has been eliminated by the use of specialized processing steps to produce either directionally solidified materials with minimum transverse grain boundaries, or single crystal materials. Single crystal materials permit alloying and heat treating modifications that further enhance the creep strength. The materials are very anisotropic in properties, but are successfully used in turbine blades and could be useful in other special applications

  3. ANALYSIS OF THE MECHANICAL STRENGTH OF A DRIVING MECHANISM CALLED SHOCK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan ILINCIOIU

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available It evaluates the maximum static and dynamic stresses produced in the elements of a quadrilateral mechanism transporting a vehicle in the storage in an urban park. Determine multiplier shock hazard if the mechanism freezes and increases mechanical stress.

  4. Pannus-Related Mechanical Valve Dysfunction Leading to Hemodynamic Shock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manabu Shiraishi

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Mechanical prosthetic valve dysfunction caused by pannus formation is rare. Pannus restricts movement of prosthetic valve leaflets, resulting in severe aortic regurgitation. We describe the case of a 77-year-old woman who presented to the emergency room with increasing dyspnea, ischemia, and shock secondary to mechanical aortic valve dysfunction. Transesophageal echocardiography showed a blockade of the leaflets of the mechanical aortic valve, with severe aortic regurgitation. She underwent emergent cardiac surgery for aortic valve replacement. Pannus formation should be considered as a potential cause of acute severe aortic regurgitation in a patient with a small-sized mechanical aortic prosthesis in the supra-annular position. On a pathological exam, extensive pannus was found on the ventricular side of the prosthetic valve, extending from the ring into the central orifice. [Arch Clin Exp Surg 2012; 1(1.000: 50-53

  5. Oxidized Metal Powders for Mechanical Shock and Crush Safety Enhancers; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    GARINO, TERRY J.

    2002-01-01

    The use of oxidized metal powders in mechanical shock or crush safety enhancers in nuclear weapons has been investigated. The functioning of these devices is based on the remarkable electrical behavior of compacts of certain oxidized metal powders when subjected to compressive stress. For example, the low voltage resistivity of a compact of oxidized tantalum powder was found to decrease by over six orders of magnitude during compaction between 1 MPa, where the thin, insulating oxide coatings on the particles are intact, to 10 MPa, where the oxide coatings have broken down along a chain of particles spanning the electrodes. In this work, the behavior of tantalum and aluminum powders was investigated. The low voltage resistivity during compaction of powders oxidized under various conditions was measured and compared. In addition, the resistivity at higher voltages and the dielectric breakdown strength during compaction were also measured. A key finding was that significant changes in the electrical properties persist after the removal of the stress so that a mechanical shock enhancer is feasible. This was verified by preliminary shock experiments. Finally, conceptual designs for both types of enhancers are presented

  6. Thermal shock behavior of nano-sized SiC particulate reinforced AlON composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, X.J. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, School of Materials and Metallurgy, Northeastern University, Shenyang, Liaoning 110004 (China); Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, Ryerson University, Toronto, Ontario M5B 2K3 (Canada); Ru, H.Q., E-mail: ruhq@smm.neu.edu.cn [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, School of Materials and Metallurgy, Northeastern University, Shenyang, Liaoning 110004 (China); Chen, D.L., E-mail: dchen@ryerson.ca [Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, Ryerson University, Toronto, Ontario M5B 2K3 (Canada); Zhang, N.; Liang, B. [Key Laboratory of Advanced Materials Manufacturing Technology of Liaoning Province, Shenyang University, Shenyang, Liaoning 110044 (China)

    2012-03-25

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Addition of nano-SiC particles enhances residual strength and critical temperature. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Young's modulus decreases with increasing quenching temperature. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Linear relationship between residual strength and thermal shock times is obtained. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Rougher fracture surfaces in the SiC-AlON composites are observed. - Abstract: Aluminum oxynitride (AlON) has been considered as a potential ceramic material for high-performance structural and advanced refractory applications. Thermal shock resistance is a major concern and an important performance index of high-temperature ceramics. While silicon carbide (SiC) particles have been proven to improve mechanical properties of AlON ceramic, the high-temperature thermal shock behavior was unknown. The aim of this investigation was to identify the thermal shock resistance and underlying mechanisms of AlON ceramic and 8 wt% SiC-AlON composites over a temperature range between 175 Degree-Sign C and 275 Degree-Sign C. The residual strength and Young's modulus after thermal shock decreased with increasing quenching temperature and thermal shock times due to large temperature gradients and thermal stresses caused by abrupt water-quenching. A linear relationship between the residual strength and thermal shock times was observed in both pure AlON and SiC-AlON composites. The addition of nano-sized SiC particles increased both residual strength and critical temperature from 200 Degree-Sign C in the monolithic AlON to 225 Degree-Sign C in the SiC-AlON composites due to the toughening effect, the lower coefficient of thermal expansion and higher thermal conductivity of SiC. The enhancement of the thermal shock resistance in the SiC-AlON composites was directly related to the change of fracture mode from intergranular cracking along with cleavage-type fracture in the AlON to a rougher fracture surface with ridge

  7. The microstructural mechanism for mechanical property of LY2 aluminum alloy after laser shock processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo, Kai-yu; Lu, Jin-zhong; Zhang, Ling-feng; Zhong, Jun-wei; Guan, Hai-bing; Qian, Xiao-ming

    2010-01-01

    This paper described nanoindentation techniques for measuring thin films mechanical properties, including elastic modulus and nano-hardness. The effects of laser shock processing (LSP) on elastic modulus and nano-hardness of the sample manufactured by LY2 aluminum alloy were experimentally investigated by nanoindentation techniques. Transmission electron microscope (TEM) observations of the microstructures in different regions after LSP are carried out. Experimental results showed that the values of nano-hardness and elastic modulus in the laser-shocked region were obviously increased by 58.13% and 61.74% compared to those in the non-shocked region, respectively. The influences of LSP on microstructure and grain size of LY2 aluminum alloy were discussed, and the enhancement mechanism of LSP on nano-hardness and elastic modulus was also addressed.

  8. Molecular Mechanisms in the shock induced decomposition of FOX-7

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Ankit; Tiwari, Subodh C.; Nakano, Aiichiro; Vashishta, Priya; Kalia, Rajiv; CACS Team

    Experimental and first principle computational studies on FOX 7 have either involved a very small system consisting of a few atoms or they did not take into account the decomposition mechanisms under extreme conditions of temperature and pressure. We have performed a large-scale reactive MD simulation using ReaxFF-lg force field to study the shock decomposition of FOX 7. The chemical composition of the principal decomposition products correlates well with experimental observations. Furthermore, we observed that the production of N2 and H2O was inter molecular in nature and was through different chemical pathways. Moreover, the production of CO and CO2 was delayed due to production of large stable C,O atoms cluster. These critical insights into the initial processes involved in the shock induced decomposition of FOX-7 will greatly help in understanding the factors playing an important role in the insensitiveness of this high energy material. This research is supported by AFOSR Award No. FA9550-16-1-0042.

  9. A numerical study of fundamental shock noise mechanisms. Ph.D. Thesis - Cornell Univ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meadows, Kristine R.

    1995-01-01

    The results of this thesis demonstrate that direct numerical simulation can predict sound generation in unsteady aerodynamic flows containing shock waves. Shock waves can be significant sources of sound in high speed jet flows, on helicopter blades, and in supersonic combustion inlets. Direct computation of sound permits the prediction of noise levels in the preliminary design stage and can be used as a tool to focus experimental studies, thereby reducing cost and increasing the probability of a successfully quiet product in less time. This thesis reveals and investigates two mechanisms fundamental to sound generation by shocked flows: shock motion and shock deformation. Shock motion is modeled by the interaction of a sound wave with a shock. During the interaction, the shock wave begins to move and the sound pressure is amplified as the wave passes through the shock. The numerical approach presented in this thesis is validated by the comparison of results obtained in a quasi-one dimensional simulation with linear theory. Analysis of the perturbation energy demonstrated for the first time that acoustic energy is generated by the interaction. Shock deformation is investigated by the numerical simulation of a ring vortex interacting with a shock. This interaction models the passage of turbulent structures through the shock wave. The simulation demonstrates that both acoustic waves and contact surfaces are generated downstream during the interaction. Analysis demonstrates that the acoustic wave spreads cylindrically, that the sound intensity is highly directional, and that the sound pressure level increases significantly with increasing shock strength. The effect of shock strength on sound pressure level is consistent with experimental observations of shock noise, indicating that the interaction of a ring vortex with a shock wave correctly models a dominant mechanism of shock noise generation.

  10. Shock Mechanism Analysis and Simulation of High-Power Hydraulic Shock Wave Simulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoqiu Xu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The simulation of regular shock wave (e.g., half-sine can be achieved by the traditional rubber shock simulator, but the practical high-power shock wave characterized by steep prepeak and gentle postpeak is hard to be realized by the same. To tackle this disadvantage, a novel high-power hydraulic shock wave simulator based on the live firing muzzle shock principle was proposed in the current work. The influence of the typical shock characteristic parameters on the shock force wave was investigated via both theoretical deduction and software simulation. According to the obtained data compared with the results, in fact, it can be concluded that the developed hydraulic shock wave simulator can be applied to simulate the real condition of the shocking system. Further, the similarity evaluation of shock wave simulation was achieved based on the curvature distance, and the results stated that the simulation method was reasonable and the structural optimization based on software simulation is also beneficial to the increase of efficiency. Finally, the combination of theoretical analysis and simulation for the development of artillery recoil tester is a comprehensive approach in the design and structure optimization of the recoil system.

  11. Physical mechanisms in shock-induced turbulent separated flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolling, D. S.

    1987-12-01

    It has been demonstrated that the flow downstream of the moving shock is separated and that the foot of the shock is effectively the instantaneous separation point. The shock induced turbulent separation is an intermittant process and the separation line indicated by surface tracer methods, such as kerosene-lampblack, is a downstream boundary of a region of intermittent separation.

  12. Influence of additives on microstructures, mechanical properties and shock-induced reaction characteristics of Al/Ni composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiong, Wei; Zhang, Xianfeng, E-mail: lynx@mail.njust.edu.cn; Wu, Yang; He, Yong; Wang, Chuanting; Guo, Lei

    2015-11-05

    Granular composites containing aluminum (Al) and nickel (Ni) are typical structural energetic materials, which possess ideal combination of both mechanical properties and energy release capability. The influence of two additives, namely Teflon (PTFE) and copper (Cu), on mechanical properties and shock-induced chemical reaction (SICR) characteristics of Al/Ni material system has been investigated. Three composites, namely Al/Ni, Al/Ni/PTFE and Al/Ni/Cu with same volumetric ratio of Al powder to Ni powder, were processed by means of static pressing. Scanning electron microscopy was used to study the microstructure of the mentioned three composites. Quasi static compression tests were also conducted to determine the mechanical properties and fracture behavior of the mentioned three composites. It was shown that the additives affected both compressive strength and fracture mode of the three composites. Impact initiation experiments on the mentioned three composites were performed to determine their shock-induced chemical reaction characteristics by considering pressure histories measured in the test chamber. The experimental results showed that the additives had significant effects on critical initiation velocity, reaction rate, reaction efficiency and post-reaction behavior. - Highlights: • .Al/Ni, Al/Ni/PTFE and Al/Ni/Cu were processed by means of static pressing. • .Microstructures, mechanical properties and shock-induced reactions were studied. • .Microstructures affect both compressive strength and fracture mode. • .Impact velocity is an important factor in shock-induced chemical characteristics. • .Each additive has significant effects on energy release behavior.

  13. Influence of additives on microstructures, mechanical properties and shock-induced reaction characteristics of Al/Ni composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiong, Wei; Zhang, Xianfeng; Wu, Yang; He, Yong; Wang, Chuanting; Guo, Lei

    2015-01-01

    Granular composites containing aluminum (Al) and nickel (Ni) are typical structural energetic materials, which possess ideal combination of both mechanical properties and energy release capability. The influence of two additives, namely Teflon (PTFE) and copper (Cu), on mechanical properties and shock-induced chemical reaction (SICR) characteristics of Al/Ni material system has been investigated. Three composites, namely Al/Ni, Al/Ni/PTFE and Al/Ni/Cu with same volumetric ratio of Al powder to Ni powder, were processed by means of static pressing. Scanning electron microscopy was used to study the microstructure of the mentioned three composites. Quasi static compression tests were also conducted to determine the mechanical properties and fracture behavior of the mentioned three composites. It was shown that the additives affected both compressive strength and fracture mode of the three composites. Impact initiation experiments on the mentioned three composites were performed to determine their shock-induced chemical reaction characteristics by considering pressure histories measured in the test chamber. The experimental results showed that the additives had significant effects on critical initiation velocity, reaction rate, reaction efficiency and post-reaction behavior. - Highlights: • .Al/Ni, Al/Ni/PTFE and Al/Ni/Cu were processed by means of static pressing. • .Microstructures, mechanical properties and shock-induced reactions were studied. • .Microstructures affect both compressive strength and fracture mode. • .Impact velocity is an important factor in shock-induced chemical characteristics. • .Each additive has significant effects on energy release behavior

  14. Fracture-mechanics data deduced from thermal-shock and related experiments with LWR pressure-vessel material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheverton, R.D.; Canonico, D.A.; Iskander, S.K.; Bolt, S.E.; Holz, P.P.; Nanstad, R.K.; Stelzman, W.J.

    1982-01-01

    Pressurized water reactors (PWRs) are susceptible to certain types of hypothetical accidents that can subject the reactor pressure vessel to severe thermal shock, that is, a rapid cooling of the inner surface of the vessel wall. The thermal-shock loading, coupled with the radiation-induced reduction in the material fracture toughness, introduces the possibility of propagation of preexistent flaws and what at one time were regarded as somewhat unique fracture-oriented conditions. Several postulated reactor accidents have been analyzed to discover flaw behavior trends; seven intermediate-scale thermal-shock experiments with steel cylinders have been conducted; and corresponding materials characterization studies have been performed. Flaw behavior trends and related fracture-mechanics data deduced from these studies are discussed

  15. Effects of high shock pressures and pore morphology on hot spot mechanisms in HMX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springer, H. K.; Tarver, C. M.; Bastea, S.

    2017-01-01

    The shock initiation and detonation behavior of heterogeneous solid explosives is governed by its microstructure and reactive properties. New additive manufacturing techniques offer unprecedented control of explosive microstructures previously impossible, enabling us to develop novel explosives with tailored shock sensitivity and detonation properties. Since microstructure-performance relationships are not well established for explosives, there is little material design guidance for these manufacturing techniques. In this study, we explore the effects of high shock pressures (15-38 GPa) with long shock durations and different pore morphologies on hot spot mechanisms in HMX. HMX is chosen as the model material because we have experimental data on many of the chemical-thermal-mechanical properties required for pore collapse simulations. Our simulations are performed using the multi-physics arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian finite element hydrocode, ALE3D, with Cheetah-based models for the unreacted and the product equation-of-states. We use a temperature-dependent specific heat with the unreacted equation-of-state and a temperature-dependent viscosity model to ensure accurate shock temperatures for subsequent chemistry. The Lindemann Law model is used for shock melting in HMX. In contrast to previous pore collapse studies at lower shock pressures (≤10 GPa) in HMX and shorter post-collapse burning times, our calculations show that shock melting occurs above 15 GPa due to higher bulk heating and a prominent elongated ("jet-like") hot spot region forms at later times. The combination of the elongated, post-collapse hot spot region and the higher bulk heating with increasing pressure dramatically increases the growth rate of reaction. Our calculations show that the reaction rate, dF/dt, increases with increasing shock pressure. We decompose the reaction rate into ignition ((dF/dt)ig) and growth ((dF/dt)gr) phases to better analyze our results. We define the ignition phase

  16. Thermal shock behavior of toughened gadolinium zirconate/YSZ double-ceramic-layered thermal barrier coating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhong, Xinghua; Zhao, Huayu; Zhou, Xiaming; Liu, Chenguang; Wang, Liang; Shao, Fang; Yang, Kai; Tao, Shunyan; Ding, Chuanxian

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Gd 2 Zr 2 O 7 /YSZ DCL thermal barrier coating was designed and fabricated. • The Gd 2 Zr 2 O 7 top ceramic layer was toughened by addition of nanostructured 3YSZ. • Remarkable improvement in thermal shock resistance of the DCL coating was achieved. - Abstract: Double-ceramic-layered (DCL) thermal barrier coating system comprising of toughened Gadolinium zirconate (Gd 2 Zr 2 O 7 , GZ) as the top ceramic layer and 4.5 mol% Y 2 O 3 partially-stabilized ZrO 2 (4.5YSZ) as the bottom ceramic layer was fabricated by plasma spraying and thermal shock behavior of the DCL coating was investigated. The GZ top ceramic layer was toughened by addition of nanostructured 3 mol% Y 2 O 3 partially-stabilized ZrO 2 (3YSZ) to improve fracture toughness of the matrix. The thermal shock resistance of the DCL coating was enhanced significantly compared to that of single-ceramic-layered (SCL) GZ-3YSZ composite coating, which is believed to be primarily attributed to the two factors: (i) the increase in fracture toughness of the top ceramic layer by incorporating nanostructured YSZ particles and (ii) the improvement in strain tolerance through the utilization of 4.5YSZ as the bottom ceramic layer. In addition, the failure mechanisms are mainly attributed to the still low fracture toughness of the top ceramic layer and oxidation of the bond-coat

  17. How Negative Affectivity Moderates the Relationship between Shocks, Embeddedness and Worker Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtom, Brooks C.; Burton, James P.; Crossley, Craig D.

    2012-01-01

    We integrated the unfolding model of turnover, job embeddedness theory and affective events theory to build and test a model specifying the relationship between negative shocks, on-the-job embeddedness and important employee behaviors. The results showed that embeddedness mediates the relationship between negative shocks and job search behaviors…

  18. The effect of Y2O3 addition on thermal shock behavior of magnesium aluminate spinel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pošarac Milica

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of yttria additive on the thermal shock behavior of magnesium aluminate spinel has been investigated. As a starting material we used spinel (MgAl2O4 obtained by the modified glycine nitrate procedure (MGNP. Sintered products were characterized in terms of phase analysis, densities, thermal shock, monitoring the damaged surface area in the refractory specimen during thermal shock and ultrasonic determination of the Dynamic Young modulus of elasticity. It was found that a new phase between yttria and alumina is formed, which improved thermal shock properties of the spinel refractories. Also densification of samples is enhanced by yttria addition.

  19. PLANETARY EMBRYO BOW SHOCKS AS A MECHANISM FOR CHONDRULE FORMATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mann, Christopher R.; Boley, Aaron C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy University of British Columbia Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z1 (Canada); Morris, Melissa A. [Physics Department State University of New York at Cortland Cortland, NY 13045 (United States)

    2016-02-20

    We use radiation hydrodynamics with direct particle integration to explore the feasibility of chondrule formation in planetary embryo bow shocks. The calculations presented here are used to explore the consequences of a Mars-size planetary embryo traveling on a moderately excited orbit through the dusty, early environment of the solar system. The embryo’s eccentric orbit produces a range of supersonic relative velocities between the embryo and the circularly orbiting gas and dust, prompting the formation of bow shocks. Temporary atmospheres around these embryos, which can be created via volatile outgassing and gas capture from the surrounding nebula, can non-trivially affect thermal profiles of solids entering the shock. We explore the thermal environment of solids that traverse the bow shock at different impact radii, the effects that planetoid atmospheres have on shock morphologies, and the stripping efficiency of planetoidal atmospheres in the presence of high relative winds. Simulations are run using adiabatic and radiative conditions, with multiple treatments for the local opacities. Shock speeds of 5, 6, and 7 km s{sup −1} are explored. We find that a high-mass atmosphere and inefficient radiative conditions can produce peak temperatures and cooling rates that are consistent with the constraints set by chondrule furnace studies. For most conditions, the derived cooling rates are potentially too high to be consistent with chondrule formation.

  20. Shock-induced electrical activity in polymeric solids. A mechanically induced bond scission model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graham, R.A.

    1979-01-01

    When polymeric solids are subjected to high-pressure shock loading, two anomalous electrical phenomena, shock-induced conduction and shock-induced polarization, are observed. The present paper proposes a model of mechanically induced bond scission within the shock front to account for the effects. An experimental study of shock-induced polarization in poly(pyromellitimide) (Vespel SP-1) is reported for shock compressions from 17 to 23% (pressures from 2.5 to 5.4 GPa). Poly(pyromellitimide) is found to be a strong generator of such polarization and the polarization is found to reflect an irreversible or highly hysteretic process. The present measurements are combined with prior measurements to establish a correlation between monomer structure and strength of shock-induced polarization; feeble signals are observed in the simpler monomer repeat units of poly(tetrafluoroethylene) and polyethylene while the strongest signals are observed in more complex monomers of poly(methyl methacrylate) and poly(pyromellitimide). It is also noted that there is an apparent correlation between shock-induced conduction and shock-induced polarization. Such shock-induced electrical activity is also found to be well correlated with the propensity for mechanical bond scission observed in experiments carried out in conventional mechanochemical studies. The bond scission model can account for characteristics observed for electrical activity in shock-loaded polymers and their correlation to monomer structure. Localization of elastic energy within the monomer repeat unit or along the main chain leads to the different propensities for bond scission and resulting shock-induced electrical activity

  1. Discrimination of Thermal versus Mechanical Effects of Shock on Rock Magnetic Properties of Spherically Shocked up to 10-160 GPa Basalt and Diabase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezaeva, N. S.; Swanson-Hysell, N.; Tikoo, S.; Badyukov, D. D.; Kars, M. A. C.; Egli, R.; Chareev, D. A.; Fairchild, L. M.

    2016-12-01

    Understanding how shock waves generated during hypervelocity impacts affect rock magnetic properties is key for interpreting the paleomagnetic records of lunar rocks, meteorites, and cratered planetary surfaces. Laboratory simulations of impacts show that ultra-high shocks may induce substantial post-shock heating of the target material. At high pressures (>10 GPa), shock heating occurs in tandem with mechanical effects, such as grain fracturing and creation of crystallographic defects and dislocations within magnetic grains. This makes it difficult to conclude whether shock-induced changes in the rock magnetic properties of target materials are primarily associated with mechanical or thermal effects. Here we present novel experimental methods to discriminate between mechanical and thermal effects of shock on magnetic properties and illustrate it with two examples of spherically shocked terrestrial basalt and diabase [1], which were shocked to pressures of 10 to >160 GPa, and investigate possible explanations for the observed shock-induced magnetic hardening (i.e., increase in remanent coercivity Bcr). The methods consist of i) conducting extra heating experiments at temperatures resembling those experienced during high-pressure shock events on untreated equivalents of shocked rocks (with further comparison of Bcr of shocked and heated samples) and ii) quantitative comparison of high-resolution first-order reversal curve (FORC) diagrams (field step: 0.5-0.7 mT) for shocked, heated and untreated specimens. Using this approach, we demonstrated that the shock-induced coercivity hardening in our samples is predominantly due to solid-state, mechanical effects of shock rather than alteration associated with shock heating. Indeed, heating-induced changes in Bcr in the post-shock temperature range were minor. Visual inspection of FORC contours (in addition to detailed analyses) reveals a stretching of the FORC distribution of shocked sample towards higher coercivities

  2. Schedules of electric shock presentation in the behavioral control of imprinted ducklings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, J E

    1972-09-01

    The behavioral effects of various schedules of electric shock presentation were investigated during and after the imprinting of Peking ducklings to moving stimuli. The behavior of following a moving imprinted stimulus was differentially controlled by a multiple schedule of punishment and avoidance that respectively suppressed and maintained following behavior. Pole-pecking, reinforced by presentations of the imprinted stimulus, was suppressed by response-produced shock (punishment); various schedules of response-independent shock and delayed punishment had an overall minimal effect. The delivery of response-independent shock in the presence of one of two stimuli, both during and after imprinting, resulted in a marked reduction in choice of the stimulus paired with shock. The experiments provide no support for a differentiation of imprinting from learning on the basis of the behavioral effects of aversive stimuli. Instead, as is the case with other organisms, the schedule under which shock is delivered to imprinted ducklings appears to be an important determinant of the temporal patterning of subsequent behavior.

  3. Robust design of microelectronics assemblies against mechanical shock, temperature and moisture effects of temperature, moisture and mechanical driving forces

    CERN Document Server

    Wong, E-H

    2015-01-01

    Robust Design of Microelectronics Assemblies Against Mechanical Shock, Temperature and Moisture discusses how the reliability of packaging components is a prime concern to electronics manufacturers. The text presents a thorough review of this important field of research, providing users with a practical guide that discusses theoretical aspects, experimental results, and modeling techniques. The authors use their extensive experience to produce detailed chapters covering temperature, moisture, and mechanical shock induced failure, adhesive interconnects, and viscoelasticity. Useful progr

  4. Analysis and Mitigation of Mechanical Shock Effects on High Speed Planing Boats

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Keams, Sean

    2001-01-01

    .... Operation of these boats, particularly in rough seas, exposes the occupants to severe mechanical shock exposure that has been linked to significant increase in the rates of acute and chronic injury...

  5. Evaluating the Mechanism of Oil Price Shocks and Fiscal Policy Responses in the Malaysian Economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bekhet, Hussain A; Yusoff, Nora Yusma Mohamed

    2013-01-01

    The paper aims to explore the symmetric impact of oil price shock on economy, to understand its mechanism channel and how fiscal policy response towards it. The Generalized Impulse Response Function and Variance Decomposition under the VAR methodology were employed. The empirical findings suggest that symmetric oil price shock has a positive and direct impact on oil revenue and government expenditure. However, the real GDP is vulnerable in a short-term but not in the long term period. These results would confirm that fiscal policy is the main mechanism channel that mitigates the adverse effects oil price shocks to the economy.

  6. Evaluating the Mechanism of Oil Price Shocks and Fiscal Policy Responses in the Malaysian Economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekhet, Hussain A.; Yusoff, Nora Yusma Mohamed

    2013-06-01

    The paper aims to explore the symmetric impact of oil price shock on economy, to understand its mechanism channel and how fiscal policy response towards it. The Generalized Impulse Response Function and Variance Decomposition under the VAR methodology were employed. The empirical findings suggest that symmetric oil price shock has a positive and direct impact on oil revenue and government expenditure. However, the real GDP is vulnerable in a short-term but not in the long term period. These results would confirm that fiscal policy is the main mechanism channel that mitigates the adverse effects oil price shocks to the economy.

  7. Mechanisms of behavior modification in clinical behavioral medicine in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhiyin; Su, Zhonghua; Ji, Feng; Zhu, Min; Bai, Bo

    2014-08-01

    Behavior modification, as the core of clinical behavioral medicine, is often used in clinical settings. We seek to summarize behavior modification techniques that are commonly used in clinical practice of behavioral medicine in China and discuss possible biobehavioral mechanisms. We reviewed common behavior modification techniques in clinical settings in China, and we reviewed studies that explored possible biobehavioral mechanisms. Commonly used clinical approaches of behavior modification in China include behavior therapy, cognitive therapy, cognitive-behavioral therapy, health education, behavior management, behavioral relaxation training, stress management intervention, desensitization therapy, biofeedback therapy, and music therapy. These techniques have been applied in the clinical treatment of a variety of diseases, such as chronic diseases, psychosomatic diseases, and psychological disorders. The biobehavioral mechanisms of these techniques involve the autonomic nervous system, neuroendocrine system, neurobiochemistry, and neuroplasticity. Behavior modification techniques are commonly used in the treatment of a variety of somatic and psychological disorders in China. Multiple biobehavioral mechanisms are involved in successful behavior modification.

  8. Thermal shock resistance behavior of a functionally graded ceramic: Effects of finite cooling rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhihe Jin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This work presents a semi-analytical model to explore the effects of cooling rate on the thermal shock resistance behavior of a functionally graded ceramic (FGC plate with a periodic array of edge cracks. The FGC is assumed to be a thermally heterogeneous material with constant elastic modulus and Poisson's ratio. The cooling rate applied at the FGC surface is modeled using a linear ramp function. An integral equation method and a closed form asymptotic temperature solution are employed to compute the thermal stress intensity factor (TSIF. The thermal shock residual strength and critical thermal shock of the FGC plate are obtained using the SIF criterion. Thermal shock simulations for an Al2O3/Si3N4 FGC indicate that a finite cooling rate leads to a significantly higher critical thermal shock than that under the sudden cooling condition. The residual strength, however, is relatively insensitive to the cooling rate.

  9. Nonstationarity of a two-dimensional perpendicular shock: Competing mechanisms

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lembège, B.; Savoini, P.; Hellinger, Petr; Trávníček, Pavel M.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 114, A03217 (2009), A03217/1-A03217/21 ISSN 0148-0227 R&D Pro jects: GA AV ČR IAA300420702; GA AV ČR IAA300420602 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30420517 Keywords : Collisionless shocks * self-reformation * nonlinear waves Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 3.082, year: 2009

  10. Behavior of porous tungsten under shock compression at room temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dandekar, D.P.; Lamothe, R.M.

    1977-01-01

    This work reports the results of room-temperature shock-compression experiments on porous tungsten. The porous tungsten was fabricated by sintering 1-μm tungsten particles. The initial density of the material was 15290 kg/m 3 . Around 97% of the pores in the material were interconnected. The main features of the results are as follows: (1) porous tungsten behaves as a linear elastic material to 1.43 GPa; (2) the shock wave following the elastic precursor is unstable in the material in the stress range 1.43--2.7 GPa; (3) a stable two-wave structure is established at and above 6.4 GPa; (4) the response of porous tungsten is accurately described by the Mie-Grueneisen equation of state at stresses above 4.9 GPa, the stress at which the voids suffer a complete extinction in the material; (5) the deformations induced in the material due to shock compression are irreversible; (6) the recentered Hugoniot of porous tungsten becomes stiffer with the increasing magnitude of initial compressive stress

  11. Crack propagation behavior of TiN coatings by laser thermal shock experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Youngkue; Jeon, Seol; Jeon, Min-seok; Shin, Hyun-Gyoo; Chun, Ho Hwan; Lee, Youn-seoung; Lee, Heesoo

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► The crack propagation behavior of TiN coating after laser thermal shock experiment was observed by using FIB and TEM. ► Intercolumnar cracks between TiN columnar grains were predominant cracking mode after laser thermal shock. ► Cracks were propagated from the coating surface to the substrate at low laser pulse energy and cracks were originated at coating-substrate interface at high laser pulse energy. ► The cracks from the interface spread out transversely through the weak region of the columnar grains by repetitive laser shock. - Abstract: The crack propagation behavior of TiN coatings, deposited onto 304 stainless steel substrates by arc ion plating technique, related to a laser thermal shock experiment has been investigated using focused ion beam (FIB) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The ablated regions of TiN coatings by laser ablation system have been investigated under various conditions of pulse energies and number of laser pulses. The intercolumnar cracks were predominant cracking mode following laser thermal shock tests and the cracks initiated at coating surface and propagated in a direction perpendicular to the substrate under low loads conditions. Over and above those cracks, the cracks originated from coating-substrate interface began to appear with increasing laser pulse energy. The cracks from the interface also spread out transversely through the weak region of the columnar grains by repetitive laser shock.

  12. Response of the seated human body to whole-body vertical vibration: discomfort caused by mechanical shocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zhen; Griffin, Michael J

    2017-03-01

    The frequency dependence of discomfort caused by vertical mechanical shocks has been investigated with 20 seated males exposed to upward and downward shocks at 13 fundamental frequencies (1-16 Hz) and 18 magnitudes (±0.12 to ±8.3 ms -2 ). The rate of growth of discomfort with increasing shock magnitude depended on the fundamental frequency of the shocks, so the frequency dependence of equivalent comfort contours (for both vertical acceleration and vertical force measured at the seat) varied with shock magnitude. The rate of growth of discomfort was similar for acceleration and force, upward and downward shocks, and lower and higher magnitude shocks. The frequency dependence of discomfort from shocks differs from that of sinusoidal vibrations having the same fundamental frequencies. This arises in part from the frequency content of the shock. Frequency weighting W b in BS 6841:1987 and ISO 2631-1:1997 provided reasonable estimates of the discomfort caused by the shocks investigated in this study. Practitioner Summary: No single frequency weighting can accurately predict the discomfort caused by mechanical shocks over wide ranges of shock magnitude, but vibration dose values with frequency weighting W b provide reasonable estimates of discomfort caused by shocks similar to those investigated in this study with peak accelerations well below 1 g.

  13. Thermal chemical-mechanical reactive flow model of shock initiation in solid explosives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicholls, A.L. III; Tarver, C.M.

    1998-01-01

    The three dimensional Arbitrary Lagrange Eulerian hydrodynamic computer code ALE3D with fully coupled thermal-chemical-mechanical material models provides the framework for the development of a physically realistic model of shock initiation and detonation of solid explosives. The processes of hot spot formation during shock compression, subsequent ignition of reaction or failure to react, growth of reaction in individual hot spots, and coalescence of reacting hot spots during the transition to detonation can now be modeled using Arrhenius chemical kinetic rate laws and heat transfer to propagate the reactive flow. This paper discusses the growth rates of reacting hot spots in HMX and TATB and their coalescence during shock to detonation transition. Hot spot deflagration rates are found to be fast enough to consume explosive particles less than 10 mm in diameter during typical shock duration times, but larger particles must fragment and create more reactive surface area in order to be rapidly consumed

  14. Thermal shock effect on Mechanical and Physical properties of pre-moisture treated GRE composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraverty, A. P.; Panda, A. B.; Mohanty, U. K.; Mishra, S. C.; Biswal, B. B.

    2018-03-01

    Many practical situations may be encountered under which a GFRP (Glass fibre reinforced polymer) composite, during its service life, is exposed to the severities of sudden temperature fluctuations. Moisture absorption of GRE (Glass fibre reinforced epoxy) composites followed by various gradients of temperature fluctuations may cause thermo- mechanical degradation. It is on this context, the hand layed GRE composite samples are exposed to up-thermal shock (-40°C to +50°C) and down-thermal shock (+50°C to -40°C) for various time interval after several periods of moisture (hydrothermal/hygrothermal) conditioning. The thermally shocked GRE specimens are put to 3-point bend test to divulge inter laminar shear strength (ILSS). Least ILSS values are recorded for the samples with maximum period of moisture treatments under with both up-thermal and down-thermal shock conditions. Lower glass transition temperature (Tg) values, as revealed through the low temperature DSC test, are exhibited at maximum durations of both up-thermal and down-thermal shock for the samples with higher periods of hygrothermal/hydrothermal treatments. SEM fractographs of representative GRE specimens after optimum period of moisture treatments and thermal shock show the various modes of failures.

  15. Shock wave energy dissipation behavior (SWED) in Network forming ionic liquids (NILs): A Molecular dynamics study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guda Vishnu, Karthik; Strachan, Alejandro

    2017-06-01

    SWED materials play a crucial role in protecting both personnel and structures in close proximity to blasts or ballistic impact. Exposure to shock waves with intensities as low as 1 MPa can cause brain injury in personnel and, hence, it is extremely important to understand the mechanisms operating in SWED materials and help design improved formulations. Recent experimental studies show that NILs containing di-ammonium cations and citrate anions with glass transition temperatures (Tg) below room temperature exhibit shockwave absorption characteristics that outperform polyurea (PU), a benchmark SWED assessment material. The experimentalists further hypothesized that the increased SWED ability in NILs with longer side chains (in di-ammonium cation) is due to a permanent structural ordering and nano-scale segregation. We use molecular dynamics simulations with the Dreiding force field to study shock propagation mechanisms in NILs. Shock propagation mechanisms in these materials are explored by performing both Hugoniostat and large scale non-equilibrium molecular dynamics (NEMD) simulations at 300 K. The simulation results show that the NIL 5-6 (5 C atoms (back bone) and 6 C atoms (side chain)) attenuates shocks better than NIL 5-3 (3 C atoms (side chain) and higher Tg) and PMMA in agreement with experimental observation. The simulations show that under shock loading the structures lose long range order; we find no evidence of nano-segregation nor or permanent structural changes.

  16. A mechanical analysis of woodpecker drumming and its application to shock-absorbing systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Sang-Hee; Park, Sungmin

    2011-01-01

    A woodpecker is known to drum the hard woody surface of a tree at a rate of 18 to 22 times per second with a deceleration of 1200 g, yet with no sign of blackout or brain damage. As a model in nature, a woodpecker is studied to find clues to develop a shock-absorbing system for micromachined devices. Its advanced shock-absorbing mechanism, which cannot be explained merely by allometric scaling, is analyzed in terms of endoskeletal structures. In this analysis, the head structures (beak, hyoid, spongy bone, and skull bone with cerebrospinal fluid) of the golden-fronted woodpecker, Melanerpes aurifrons, are explored with x-ray computed tomography images, and their shock-absorbing mechanism is analyzed with a mechanical vibration model and an empirical method. Based on these analyses, a new shock-absorbing system is designed to protect commercial micromachined devices from unwanted high-g and high-frequency mechanical excitations. The new shock-absorbing system consists of close-packed microglasses within two metal enclosures and a viscoelastic layer fastened by steel bolts, which are biologically inspired from a spongy bone contained within a skull bone encompassed with the hyoid of a woodpecker. In the experimental characterizations using a 60 mm smoothbore air-gun, this bio-inspired shock-absorbing system shows a failure rate of 0.7% for the commercial micromachined devices at 60 000 g, whereas a conventional hard-resin method yields a failure rate of 26.4%, thus verifying remarkable improvement in the g-force tolerance of the commercial micromachined devices.

  17. A novel regenerative shock absorber with a speed doubling mechanism and its Monte Carlo simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ran; Wang, Xu; Liu, Zhenwei

    2018-03-01

    A novel regenerative shock absorber has been designed and fabricated. The novelty of the presented work is the application of the double speed regenerative shock absorber that utilizes the rack and pinion mechanism to increase the magnet speed with respect to the coils for higher power output. The simulation models with parameters identified from finite element analysis and the experiments are developed. The proposed regenerative shock absorber is compared with the regenerative shock absorber without the rack and pinion mechanism, when they are integrated into the same quarter vehicle suspension system. The sinusoidal wave road profile displacement excitation and the random road profile displacement excitation with peak amplitude of 0.035 m are applied as the inputs in the frequency range of 0-25 Hz. It is found that with the sinusoidal and random road profile displacement input, the proposed innovative design can increase the output power by 4 times comparing to the baseline design. The proposed double speed regenerative shock absorber also presents to be more sensitive to the road profile irregularity than the single speed regenerative shock absorber as suggested by Monte Carlo simulation. Lastly the coil mass and amplification factor are studied for sensitivity analysis and performance optimization, which provides a general design method of the regenerative shock absorbers. It shows that for the system power output, the proposed design becomes more sensitive to either the coil mass or amplification factor depending on the amount of the coil mass. With the specifically selected combination of the coil mass and amplification factor, the optimized energy harvesting performance can be achieved.

  18. Behavior of deep flaws in a thick-wall cylinder under thermal shock loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheverton, R.D.

    1979-01-01

    Behavior of inner-surface flaws in thick-walled vessels was studied in a 991-mm OD x 152 mm wall x 1220 mm length cylinder with toughness properties similar to those for HSST Plate. The initial temperature of 93 0 C and a thermal shock medium of liquid nitrogen (-197 0 C) were employed. The initial flaw selected was a sharp, 16 mm deep, long (1220 mm) axial crack. Crack arrest methodology was shown to be valid for deep flaws under severe thermal shock

  19. Investigation of the dynamic behavior in materials submitted to sub-picosecond laser driven shock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuq-Lelandais, Jean-Paul

    2010-01-01

    Laser driven shocks allow to investigate materials behavior at high strain rate and present a great interest for research and industrial applications. The latest laser technologies evolutions provide an access to shorter regimes in duration, below the picosecond. This work, which results from a collaboration between the P' institute, the PIMM laboratory and the CEA-DAM, is dedicated to the characterization of the metallic material behavior in this ultra-short mode (aluminium, tantalum), leading to extreme dynamic solicitation in the target (>10 7 s -1 ). The study includes the validation of experimental results obtained on the LULI 100 TW facility by comparison with numerical model. First, the study is orientated to the femtosecond (fs) laser-matter interaction, which is different from what happens in nanosecond regime. Indeed, the characteristic duration scale is comparable to several molecular phenomena like non-equilibrium electrons-ions states. The aim is to determine the equivalent pressure loading induced by the laser pulse on the target. Then, the shock wave propagation within the target has been studied and particularly its pressure decay, notably strong in this regime. In this configuration, the spalls observed are thin, a few μm order, and show a planar rupture morphology. The results obtained by post-mortem observation show that the spall thickness is thinner if the target thickness is reduced. The spalls are characterized by the VISAR measurement. Within the framework of dynamic damage modeling and rupture criteria dimensioning, particularly those which have been validated in the ns regime as Kanel, shots with different thicknesses have been carried out to determine the damage properties in function of strain rate and validate the parameters by prolongation to the ultra-shorts modes. Then, the study has been generalized to the 2D propagation waves, which can explain the spall diameter evolutions. Meanwhile, microscopic simulations of ultra-short laser

  20. Plastic deformation mechanism of polycrystalline copper foil shocked with femtosecond laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ye, Y.X.; Feng, Y.Y.; Lian, Z.C.; Hua, Y.Q.

    2014-01-01

    Plastic deformation mechanism of polycrystalline copper foil shocked with femtosecond (fs) laser has been characterized through optical microscopy (OM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Experiments of ns laser shocking copper (Cu) and fs laser shocking aluminum (Al) were also conducted for comparison. Dislocations arranged in multiple forms, profuse twins and stacking faults (SFs) coexist in the fs laser shocked copper. At small strain condition, dislocation slip is the dominant deformation mode and small amount of SFs act as complementary mechanism. With strain increasing, profuse twins and SFs form to accommodate the plastic deformation. Furthermore, new formed SFs incline to locate around the old ones because the dislocation densities there are more higher. So there is a high probability for new SFs overlapping on old ones to form twins, or connecting old ones to lengthen them, which eventually produce the phenomena that twins connect with each other or twins connect with SFs. Strain greatly influences the dislocation density. Twins and SFs are more dependent on strain rate and shock pressure. Medium stacking fault energy (SFE) of copper helps to extend partial dislocations and provides sources for forming SFs and twins.

  1. Using Quantum Mechanics to Predict Shock Properties of Explosives

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Romero, N. A; Mattson, W. D; Rice, B. M

    2006-01-01

    .... As little as ten years ago, quantum mechanical calculations were restricted to predictions of static properties of systems containing tens of atoms, thus limiting first principles explorations to gas...

  2. The role of environmental shocks in shaping prosocial behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duchoslav, Jan

    2017-01-01

    All economic activity requires some degree of cooperation, and the process of economic development involves many social dilemmas. It is therefore crucial to understand how the preferences which guide our behavior vis-à-vis these situations are shaped. The ability and willingness to work for the

  3. Experimental Insights into the Mechanisms of Particle Acceleration by Shock Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scolamacchia, T.; Scheu, B.; Dingwell, D. B.

    2011-12-01

    The generation of shock waves is common during explosive volcanic eruptions. Particles acceleration following shock wave propagation has been experimentally observed suggesting the potential hazard related to this phenomenon. Experiments and numerical models focused on the dynamics of formation and propagation of different types of shock waves when overpressurized eruptive mixtures are suddenly released in the atmosphere, using a pseudo-gas approximation to model those mixtures. Nevertheless, the results of several studies indicated that the mechanism of coupling between a gas and solid particles is valid for a limited grain-size range, which at present is not well defined. We are investigating particle acceleration mechanisms using a vertical shock tube consisting of a high-pressure steel autoclave (450 mm long, 28 mm in diameter), pressurized with argon, and a low-pressure 140 mm long acrylic glass autoclave, with the same internal diameter of the HP reservoir. Shock waves are generated by Ar decompression at atmospheric pressures at Pres/Pamb 100:1 to 150:1, through the failure of a diaphragm. Experiments were performed either with empty autoclave or suspending solid analogue particles 150 μm in size inside the LP autoclave. Incident Mach number varied from 1.7 to 2.1. Absolute and relative pressure sensors monitored P histories during the entire process, and a high-speed camera recorded particles movement at 20,000 to 30,000 fps. Preliminary results indicate pressure multiplication at the contact between shock waves and the particles in a time lapse of 100s μs, suggesting a possible different mechanism with respect to gas-particle coupling for particle acceleration.

  4. Structure, phase content and mechanical properties of aluminium with hard particles after shock-wave compaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulkov, S; Vorozhtsov, S; Turuntaev, I

    2015-01-01

    The possibilities to combine metal and metal oxide powders in various compositions open a broad range of mechanical and thermal behavior. When using in nanostructured components the resulting materials might exhibit even more interesting properties, like product effectiveness, tensile strength, wear resistance, endurance and corrosion resistance. Intermetallics like TiAl could be obtained as TiAl x in a quality similar to that obtained from melting where only eutectic mixture can be produced. Similar effects are possible when compacting nanoceramic powders whereas these can be combined with intermetallics. Currently, it is very difficult to produce wires and special shaped parts from high temperature superconducting materials. The compacting by explosives could solve this problem.The present paper uses explosion compacting of Al nanoparticles to create nanocomposite with increased physico-mechanical properties. Russian civil explosive Uglenit was chosen as high energy material (HEM) for shock-wave compaction. The different schemes and conditions were suggested to run the explosion process. Al nanoparticles as produced by electric wire explosion contain 8-10% of aluminum oxide. That aluminum oxide can serve as strengthening material in the final nanocomposite which may be generated in various compositions by explosive compacting. Further modifications of nanocomposites were obtained when including nanodiamonds into the mixture with aluminum nanoparticles with different percentages. The addition of nanodiamonds results in a substantial strengthening effect.The experiments with compacting aluminum nanoparticles by explosives are described in detail including the process variations and conditions. The physico-mechanical properties of the nanocomposites are determined and discussed by considering the applied conditions. Especially, microstructure and phases of the obtained nanocomposites are analyzed by X-ray diffraction. (paper)

  5. Structure, phase content and mechanical properties of aluminium with hard particles after shock-wave compaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkov, S.; Vorozhtsov, S.; Turuntaev, I.

    2015-04-01

    The possibilities to combine metal and metal oxide powders in various compositions open a broad range of mechanical and thermal behavior. When using in nanostructured components the resulting materials might exhibit even more interesting properties, like product effectiveness, tensile strength, wear resistance, endurance and corrosion resistance. Intermetallics like TiAl could be obtained as TiAlx in a quality similar to that obtained from melting where only eutectic mixture can be produced. Similar effects are possible when compacting nanoceramic powders whereas these can be combined with intermetallics. Currently, it is very difficult to produce wires and special shaped parts from high temperature superconducting materials. The compacting by explosives could solve this problem.The present paper uses explosion compacting of Al nanoparticles to create nanocomposite with increased physico-mechanical properties. Russian civil explosive Uglenit was chosen as high energy material (HEM) for shock-wave compaction. The different schemes and conditions were suggested to run the explosion process. Al nanoparticles as produced by electric wire explosion contain 8-10% of aluminum oxide. That aluminum oxide can serve as strengthening material in the final nanocomposite which may be generated in various compositions by explosive compacting. Further modifications of nanocomposites were obtained when including nanodiamonds into the mixture with aluminum nanoparticles with different percentages. The addition of nanodiamonds results in a substantial strengthening effect. The experiments with compacting aluminum nanoparticles by explosives are described in detail including the process variations and conditions. The physico-mechanical properties of the nanocomposites are determined and discussed by considering the applied conditions. Especially, microstructure and phases of the obtained nanocomposites are analyzed by X-ray diffraction.

  6. Effect of laser shock on tensile deformation behavior of a single crystal nickel-base superalloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, G.X.; Liu, J.D.; Qiao, H.C.; Zhou, Y.Z.; Jin, T.; Zhao, J.B.; Sun, X.F.; Hu, Z.Q.

    2017-01-01

    This investigation focused on the tensile deformation behavior of a single crystal nickel-base superalloy, both in virgin condition and after laser shock processing (LSP) with varied technology parameters. Nanoindention tests were carried out on the sectioned specimens after LSP treatment to characterize the surface strengthening effect. Stress strain curves of tensile specimens were analyzed, and microstructural observations of the fracture surface and the longitudinal cross-sections of ruptured specimens were performed via scanning electron microscope (SEM), in an effort to clarify the fracture mechanisms. The results show that a surface hardening layer with the thickness of about 0.3–0.6 mm was gained by the experimental alloys after LSP treatment, but the formation of surface hardening layer had not affected the yield strength. Furthermore, fundamental differences in the plastic responses at different temperatures due to LSP treatment had been discovered. At 700 °C, the slip deformation was held back when it extended to the surface hardening layer and the ensuing slip steps improved the plasticity; however, at 1000 °C, surface hardening layer hindered the macro necking, which resulted in the relatively lower plasticity.

  7. Effect of laser shock on tensile deformation behavior of a single crystal nickel-base superalloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, G.X. [Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 72 Wenhua Road, Shenyang 110016 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, 19 Yuquan Road, Beijing 100049 (China); Liu, J.D., E-mail: jdliu@imr.ac.cn [Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 72 Wenhua Road, Shenyang 110016 (China); Qiao, H.C. [Shenyang Institute of Automation, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 114 Nanta Road, Shenyang 110016 (China); Zhou, Y.Z. [Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 72 Wenhua Road, Shenyang 110016 (China); Jin, T., E-mail: tjin@imr.ac.cn [Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 72 Wenhua Road, Shenyang 110016 (China); Zhao, J.B. [Shenyang Institute of Automation, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 114 Nanta Road, Shenyang 110016 (China); Sun, X.F.; Hu, Z.Q. [Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 72 Wenhua Road, Shenyang 110016 (China)

    2017-02-16

    This investigation focused on the tensile deformation behavior of a single crystal nickel-base superalloy, both in virgin condition and after laser shock processing (LSP) with varied technology parameters. Nanoindention tests were carried out on the sectioned specimens after LSP treatment to characterize the surface strengthening effect. Stress strain curves of tensile specimens were analyzed, and microstructural observations of the fracture surface and the longitudinal cross-sections of ruptured specimens were performed via scanning electron microscope (SEM), in an effort to clarify the fracture mechanisms. The results show that a surface hardening layer with the thickness of about 0.3–0.6 mm was gained by the experimental alloys after LSP treatment, but the formation of surface hardening layer had not affected the yield strength. Furthermore, fundamental differences in the plastic responses at different temperatures due to LSP treatment had been discovered. At 700 °C, the slip deformation was held back when it extended to the surface hardening layer and the ensuing slip steps improved the plasticity; however, at 1000 °C, surface hardening layer hindered the macro necking, which resulted in the relatively lower plasticity.

  8. Mechanical Properties and Thermal Shock Resistance Analysis of BNNT/Si3N4 Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shouren; Wang, Gaoqi; Wen, Daosheng; Yang, Xuefeng; Yang, Liying; Guo, Peiquan

    2018-04-01

    BNNT/Si3N4 ceramic composites with different weight amount of BNNT fabricated by hot isostatic pressing were introduced. The mechanical properties and thermal shock resistance of the composites were investigated. The results showed that BNNT-added ceramic composites have a finer and more uniform microstructure than that of BNNT-free Si3N4 ceramic because of the retarding effect of BNNT on Si3N4 grain growth. The addition of 1.5 wt.% BNNT results in simultaneous increase in flexural strength, fracture toughness, and thermal shock resistance. The analysis of the results indicates that BNNT brings many thermal transport channels in the microstructure, increasing the efficiency of thermal transport, therefore results in increase of thermal shock resistance. In addition, BNNT improves the residual flexural strength of composites by crack deflection, bridging, branching and pinning, which increase the crack propagation resistance.

  9. Classifying the mechanisms of electrochemical shock in ion-intercalation materials

    OpenAIRE

    Woodford, William; Carter, W. Craig; Chiang, Yet-Ming

    2014-01-01

    “Electrochemical shock” – the electrochemical cycling-induced fracture of materials – contributes to impedance growth and performance degradation in ion-intercalation batteries, such as lithium-ion. Using a combination of micromechanical models and acoustic emission experiments, the mechanisms of electrochemical shock are identified, classified, and modeled in targeted model systems with different composition and microstructure. A particular emphasis is placed on mechanical degradation occurr...

  10. A child in a state of shock in emercency department: classification, mechanisms and treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Равіч Maрцін

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Paediatric shock is a life-threatening condition that can often be difficult to recognize in the emergency department, especially in early stages. Once recognized, the emphasis of therapy is to correct cellular metabolism and gas exchange by increasing oxygen and other substrate delivery to tissue beds. This review discusses various mechanisms and aetiology of shock are discussed, among them hypoxia in infancy, hypovolaemia, impaired distribution, obstruction of the cardiac outflow and sepsis.In septic shock providing oxygen, improving tissue perfusion through restoration in the intravascular volume, augmentation of cardiac output, preservation of kidney function, and administering antibiotics in a timely manner have all been shown to significantly improve outcomes in children. Simple  algorithms for first aid in emergency room are given, emphasizes the importance of effective surveillance and timely recognition of this disease process, to significantly reduce morbidity and mortality. The review indicates how to identify specific markers of septic shock, lays out the essential components of goal-directed therapy, and ways to avoid the devastating consequences of shock in paediatric patients

  11. Relationship between mechanical characteristics and thermal shock stability of refractories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volkov-Husovic, T.; Raic, K.

    2003-01-01

    Thermal stability of the refractory material with the content of 60 % Al 2 O 3 was investigated. Water quench test (JUS.B.D8.319) was applied as experimental method for thermal stability testing. Damage of porous materials is commonly related to a modification of strength that is mostly a reduction. This is linked with characteristics related to pore space. Mechanical characteristics are considered such as compressive strength, dynamic modulus of elasticity and resistance parameters resulting from resonance frequency measurements, as well as ultrasonic velocity. (Original)

  12. A Lever Coupling Mechanism in Dual-Mass Micro-Gyroscopes for Improving the Shock Resistance along the Driving Direction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Gao

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the design and application of a lever coupling mechanism to improve the shock resistance of a dual-mass silicon micro-gyroscope with drive mode coupled along the driving direction without sacrificing the mechanical sensitivity. Firstly, the mechanical sensitivity and the shock response of the micro-gyroscope are theoretically analyzed. In the mechanical design, a novel lever coupling mechanism is proposed to change the modal order and to improve the frequency separation. The micro-gyroscope with the lever coupling mechanism optimizes the drive mode order, increasing the in-phase mode frequency to be much larger than the anti-phase one. Shock analysis results show that the micro-gyroscope structure with the designed lever coupling mechanism can notably reduce the magnitudes of the shock response and cut down the stress produced in the shock process compared with the traditional elastic coupled one. Simulations reveal that the shock resistance along the drive direction is greatly increased. Consequently, the lever coupling mechanism can change the gyroscope’s modal order and improve the frequency separation by structurally offering a higher stiffness difference ratio. The shock resistance along the driving direction is tremendously enhanced without loss of the mechanical sensitivity.

  13. Mechanical Behavior of Microelectromechanical Microshutters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Devin Edward; Jones, Justin Scott; Li, Mary J.

    2014-01-01

    A custom micro-mechanical test system was constructed using off-the-shelf components to characterize the mechanical properties of microshutters. Microshutters are rectangular microelectromechanical apertures which open and close about a narrow torsion bar hinge. Displacement measurements were verified using both capacitive and digital image correlation techniques. Repeatable experiments on Si3N4 cantilever beams verified that the test system operates consistently. Using beam theory, the modulus of elasticity of the low stress Si3N4 was approximately 150 GPa, though significant uncertainty exists for this measurement due primarily to imprecise knowledge of the cantilever thickness. Tests conducted on microshutter arrays concluded that reducing the Si3N4 thickness from 250 nm to 500 nm reduces the torsional stiffness by a factor of approximately four. This is in good agreement with analytical and finite element models of the microshutters.

  14. Shock Isolation Elements Testing for High Input Loadings. Volume II. Foam Shock Isolation Elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    SHOCK ABSORBERS ), (*GUIDED MISSILE SILOS, SHOCK ABSORBERS ), (*EXPANDED PLASTICS, (*SHOCK(MECHANICS), REDUCTION), TEST METHODS, SHOCK WAVES, STRAIN(MECHANICS), LOADS(FORCES), MATHEMATICAL MODELS, NUCLEAR EXPLOSIONS, HARDENING.

  15. The Effect of Wealth Shocks on Loss Aversion: Behavior and Neural Correlates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. S. Chandrasekhar Pammi

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Kahneman and Tversky (1979 first demonstrated that when individuals decide whether or not to accept a gamble, potential losses receive more weight than possible gains in the decision. This phenomenon is referred to as loss aversion. We investigated how loss aversion in risky financial decisions is influenced by sudden changes to wealth, employing both behavioral and neurobiological measures. We implemented an fMRI experimental paradigm, based on that employed by Tom et al. (2007. There are two treatments, called RANDOM and CONTINGENT. In RANDOM, the baseline setting, the changes to wealth, referred to as wealth shocks in economics, are independent of the actual choices participants make. Under CONTINGENT, we induce the belief that the changes in income are a consequence of subjects' own decisions. The magnitudes and sequence of the shocks to wealth are identical between the CONTINGENT and RANDOM treatments. We investigated whether more loss aversion existed in one treatment than another. The behavioral results showed significantly greater loss aversion in CONTINGENT compared to RANDOM after a negative wealth shock. No differences were observed in the response to positive shocks. The fMRI results revealed a neural loss aversion network, comprising the bilateral striatum, amygdala and dorsal anterior cingulate cortex that was common to the CONTINGENT and RANDOM tasks. However, the ventral prefrontal cortex, primary somatosensory cortex and superior occipital cortex, showed greater activation in response to a negative change in wealth due to individual's own decisions than when the change was exogenous. These results indicate that striatum activation correlates with loss aversion independently of the source of the shock, and that the ventral prefrontal cortex (vPFC codes the experimental manipulation of agency in one's actions influencing loss aversion.

  16. The Effect of Wealth Shocks on Loss Aversion: Behavior and Neural Correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pammi, V S Chandrasekhar; Ruiz, Sergio; Lee, Sangkyun; Noussair, Charles N; Sitaram, Ranganatha

    2017-01-01

    Kahneman and Tversky (1979) first demonstrated that when individuals decide whether or not to accept a gamble, potential losses receive more weight than possible gains in the decision. This phenomenon is referred to as loss aversion. We investigated how loss aversion in risky financial decisions is influenced by sudden changes to wealth, employing both behavioral and neurobiological measures. We implemented an fMRI experimental paradigm, based on that employed by Tom et al. (2007). There are two treatments, called RANDOM and CONTINGENT. In RANDOM, the baseline setting, the changes to wealth, referred to as wealth shocks in economics, are independent of the actual choices participants make. Under CONTINGENT, we induce the belief that the changes in income are a consequence of subjects' own decisions. The magnitudes and sequence of the shocks to wealth are identical between the CONTINGENT and RANDOM treatments. We investigated whether more loss aversion existed in one treatment than another. The behavioral results showed significantly greater loss aversion in CONTINGENT compared to RANDOM after a negative wealth shock. No differences were observed in the response to positive shocks. The fMRI results revealed a neural loss aversion network, comprising the bilateral striatum, amygdala and dorsal anterior cingulate cortex that was common to the CONTINGENT and RANDOM tasks. However, the ventral prefrontal cortex, primary somatosensory cortex and superior occipital cortex, showed greater activation in response to a negative change in wealth due to individual's own decisions than when the change was exogenous. These results indicate that striatum activation correlates with loss aversion independently of the source of the shock, and that the ventral prefrontal cortex (vPFC) codes the experimental manipulation of agency in one's actions influencing loss aversion.

  17. Twin boundary spacing effects on shock response and spall behaviors of hierarchically nanotwinned fcc metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan, Fuping; Chen, Liu; Jiang, Ping; Wu, Xiaolei

    2014-01-01

    Atomistic deformation mechanisms of hierarchically nano-twinned (NT) Ag under shock conditions have been investigated using a series of large-scale molecular dynamics simulations. For the same grain size d and the same spacing of primary twins λ 1 , the average flow stress behind the shock front in hierarchically NT Ag first increases with decreasing spacing of secondary twins λ 2 , achieving a maximum at a critical λ 2 , and then drops as λ 2 decreases further. Above the critical λ 2 , the deformation mechanisms are dominated by three type strengthening mechanisms: (a) partial dislocations emitted from grain boundaries (GBs) travel across other boundaries; (b) partial dislocations emitted from twin boundaries (TBs) travel across other TBs; (c) formation of tertiary twins. Below the critical λ 2 , the deformation mechanism are dominated by two softening mechanisms: (a) detwinning of secondary twins; (b) formation of new grains by cross slip of partial dislocations. Moreover, the twin-free nanocrystalline (NC) Ag is found to have lower average flow stress behind the shock front than those of all hierarchically NT Ag samples except the one with the smallest λ 2 of 0.71 nm. No apparent correlation between the spall strength and λ 2 is observed in hierarchically NT Ag, since voids always nucleate at both GBs and boundaries of the primary twins. However, twin-free NC Ag is found to have higher spall strength than hierarchically NT Ag. Voids can only nucleate from GBs for twin-free NC Ag, therefore, twin-free NC Ag has less nucleation sources along the shock direction when compared to hierarchically NT Ag, which requiring higher tensile stress to create spallation. These findings should contribute to the understandings of deformation mechanisms of hierarchically NT fcc metals under extreme deformation conditions

  18. Medial thalamic 18-FDG uptake following inescapable shock correlates with subsequent learned helpless behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirrione, M.M.; Schulz, D.; Dewey, S.L.; Henn, F.A.

    2009-01-01

    The learned helplessness paradigm has been repeatedly shown to correlate with neurobiological aspects of depression in humans. In this model, rodents are exposed inescapable foot-shock in order to reveal susceptibility to escape deficit, defined as 'learned helplessness' (LH). Few methods are available to probe the neurobiological aspects underlying the differences in susceptibility in the living animal, thus far being limited to studies examining regional neurochemical changes with microdialysis. With the widespread implementation of small animal neuroimaging methods, including positron emission tomography (PET), it is now possible to explore the living brain on a systems level to define regional changes that may correlate with vulnerability to stress. In this study, 12 wild type Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to 40 minutes of inescapable foot-shock followed by metabolic imaging using 2-deoxy-2[ 18 F]fluoro-D-glucose (18-FDG) 1 hour later. The escape test was performed on these rats 48 hours later (to accommodate radiotracer decay), where they were given the opportunity to press a lever to shut off the shock. A region of interest (ROI) analysis was used to investigate potential correlations (Pearson Regression Coefficients) between regional 18-FDG uptake following inescapable shock and subsequent learned helpless behavior (time to finish the test; number of successful lever presses within 20 seconds of shock onset). ROI analysis revealed a significant positive correlation between time to finish and 18-FDG uptake, and a negative correlation between lever presses and uptake, in the medial thalamic area (p=0.033, p=0.036). This ROI included the paraventricular thalamus, mediodorsal thalamus, and the habenula. In an effort to account for possible spillover artifact, the posterior thalamic area (including ventral medial and lateral portions) was also evaluated but did not reveal significant correlations (p=0.870, p=0.897). No other significant correlations were found

  19. Thermal fluid mixing behavior during medium break LOCA in evaluation of pressurized thermal shock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Jae Won; Bang, Young Seok; Seul, Kwang Won; Kim, Hho Jung [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-12-31

    Thermal fluid mixing behavior during a postulated medium-size hot leg break loss of coolant accident is analyzed for the international comparative assessment study on pressurized thermal shock (PTS-ICAS) proposed by OECD-NEA. The applicability of RELAP5 code to analyze the thermal fluid mixing behavior is evaluated through a simple modeling relevant to the problem constraints. Based on the calculation result, the onset of thermal stratification is investigated using Theofanous`s empirical correlation. Sensitivity calculations using a fine node model and crossflow model are also performed to evaluate the modeling capability on multi-dimensional characteristics related to thermal fluid mixing. 6 refs., 8 figs. (Author)

  20. Thermal fluid mixing behavior during medium break LOCA in evaluation of pressurized thermal shock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Jae Won; Bang, Young Seok; Seul, Kwang Won; Kim, Hho Jung

    1998-01-01

    Thermal fluid mixing behavior during a postulated medium-size hot leg break loss of coolant accident is analyzed for the international comparative assessment study on pressurized thermal shock (PTS-ICAS) proposed by OECD-NEA. the applicability of RELAP5 code to analyze the thermal fluid mixing behavior is evaluated through a simple modeling relevant to the problem constraints. Based on the calculation result, the onset of thermal stratification is investigated using Theofanous's empirical correlation. Sensitivity calculations using a fine node model and crossflow model are also performed to evaluate the modeling capability on multi-dimensional characteristics related to thermal fluid mixing

  1. Exposure to whole-body vibration and mechanical shock: a field study of quad bike use in agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milosavljevic, Stephan; McBride, David I; Bagheri, Nasser; Vasiljev, Radivoj M; Mani, Ramakrishnan; Carman, Allan B; Rehn, Borje

    2011-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine exposure to whole-body vibration (WBV) and mechanical shock in rural workers who use quad bikes and to explore how personal, physical, and workplace characteristics influence exposure. A seat pad mounted triaxial accelerometer and data logger recorded full workday vibration and shock data from 130 New Zealand rural workers. Personal, physical, and workplace characteristics were gathered using a modified version of the Whole Body Vibration Health Surveillance Questionnaire. WBVs and mechanical shocks were analysed in accordance with the International Standardization for Organization (ISO 2631-1 and ISO 2631-5) standards and are presented as vibration dose value (VDV) and mechanical shock (S(ed)) exposures. VDV(Z) consistently exceeded European Union (Guide to good practice on whole body vibration. Directive 2002/44/EC on minimum health and safety, European Commission Directorate General Employment, Social Affairs and Equal Opportunities. 2006) guideline exposure action thresholds with some workers exceeding exposure limit thresholds. Exposure to mechanical shock was also evident. Increasing age had the strongest (negative) association with vibration and shock exposure with body mass index (BMI) having a similar but weaker effect. Age, daily driving duration, dairy farming, and use of two rear shock absorbers created the strongest multivariate model explaining 33% of variance in VDV(Z). Only age and dairy farming combined to explain 17% of the variance for daily mechanical shock. Twelve-month prevalence for low back pain was highest at 57.7% and lowest for upper back pain (13.8%). Personal (age and BMI), physical (shock absorbers and velocity), and workplace characteristics (driving duration and dairy farming) suggest that a mix of engineered workplace and behavioural interventions is required to reduce this level of exposure to vibration and shock.

  2. Shock compression behavior of a mixture of cubic and hexagonal boron nitride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xiaojun; Yang, Gang; Zhao, Bin; Li, Peiyun; Yang, Jun; Leng, Chunwei; Liu, Hanyu; Huang, Haijun; Fei, Yingwei

    2018-05-01

    We report Hugoniot measurements on a mixture of cubic boron nitride (cBN) and hexagonal boron nitride (hBN, ˜10% in weight) to investigate the shock compression behavior of BN at Hugoniot stresses up to 110 GPa. We observed a discontinuity at ˜77 GPa along the Hugoniot and interpreted it as the manifestation of the shock-induced phase transition of hBN to cBN. The experimental stress at 77-110 GPa shows significant deviation from the hydrodynamic Hugoniot of cBN calculated using the Mie-Grüneisen model coupled with the reported 300 K-isotherms of cBN. Our investigation reveals that material strength in cBN increases with the experimental stress at least up to 110 GPa. The material strength might be preserved at higher stress if we consider the previously reported high stress data.

  3. Research on Formation Mechanism of Dynamic Response and Residual Stress of Sheet Metal Induced by Laser Shock Wave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Aixin; Cao, Yupeng; Wang, Heng; Zhang, Zhengang

    2018-01-01

    In order to reveal the quantitative control of the residual stress on the surface of metal materials, the relevant theoretical and experimental studies were carried out to investigate the dynamic response of metal thin plates and the formation mechanism of residual stress induced by laser shock wave. In this paper, the latest research trends on the surface residual stress of laser shock processing technology were elaborated. The main progress of laser shock wave propagation mechanism and dynamic response, laser shock, and surface residual stress were discussed. It is pointed out that the multi-scale characterization of laser and material, surface residual stress and microstructure change is a new hotspot in laser shock strengthening technology.

  4. Effects of laser shock peening on stress corrosion behavior of 7075 aluminum alloy laser welded joints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, J.T., E-mail: jiasqq1225@126.com [School of Mechanical Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013 (China); School of Materials Engineering, Jiangsu University of Technology, Changzhou 213001 (China); Zhang, Y.K. [School of Mechanical Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013 (China); School of Mechanical Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing 211189 (China); Chen, J.F.; Zhou, J.Y.; Ge, M.Z.; Lu, Y.L.; Li, X.L. [School of Materials Engineering, Jiangsu University of Technology, Changzhou 213001 (China)

    2015-10-28

    7075 aluminum alloy weldments were processed by an intensive process known as laser shock peening (LSP), meanwhile its stress corrosion behaviors were observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and slow strain rate tensile (SSRT) tests. Results showed that the effect of LSP on corrosion behavior of the joint was fairly useful and obvious. With LSP, the elongation, time of fracture and static toughness after the SSRT test were improved by 11.13%, 20% and 100%, respectively. At the same time, the location of the fracture also changed. LSP led to a transition of the fracture type from transgranular to intergranular The reasons for these enhancements of the joint on corrosion behavior were caused by microstructure, residual stress, micro-hardness, and fracture appearance.

  5. Impact of Isothermal Aging and Testing Temperature on Large Flip-Chip BGA Interconnect Mechanical Shock Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Tae-Kyu; Chen, Zhiqiang; Guirguis, Cherif; Akinade, Kola

    2017-10-01

    The stability of solder interconnects in a mechanical shock environment is crucial for large body size flip-chip ball grid array (FCBGA) electronic packages. Additionally, the junction temperature increases with higher electric power condition, which brings the component into an elevated temperature environment, thus introducing another consideration factor for mechanical stability of interconnection joints. Since most of the shock performance data available were produced at room temperature, the effect of elevated temperature is of interest to ensure the reliability of the device in a mechanical shock environment. To achieve a stable␣interconnect in a dynamic shock environment, the interconnections must tolerate mechanical strain, which is induced by the shock wave input and reaches the particular component interconnect joint. In this study, large body size (52.5 × 52.5 mm2) FCBGA components assembled on 2.4-mm-thick boards were tested with various isothermal pre-conditions and testing conditions. With a heating element embedded in the test board, a test temperature range from room temperature to 100°C was established. The effects of elevated temperature on mechanical shock performance were investigated. Failure and degradation mechanisms are identified and discussed based on the microstructure evolution and grain structure transformations.

  6. On the theory of behavioral mechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzendolet, E

    1999-12-01

    The Theory of Behavioral Mechanics is the behavioral analogue of Newton's laws of motion, with the rate of responding in operant conditioning corresponding to physical velocity. In an earlier work, the basic relation between rate of responding and sessions under two FI schedules and over a range of commonly used session values had been shown to be a power function. Using that basic relation, functions for behavioral acceleration, mass, and momentum are derived here. Data from other laboratories also support the applicability of a power function to VI schedules. A particular numerical value is introduced here to be the standard reference value for the behavioral force under the VI-60-s schedule. This reference allows numerical values to be calculated for the behavioral mass and momentum of individual animals. A comparison of the numerical values of the momenta of two animals can be used to evaluate their relative resistances to change, e.g., to extinction, which is itself viewed as a continuously changing behavioral force being imposed on the animal. This overall numerical approach allows behavioral force-values to be assigned to various experimental conditions such as the evaluation of the behavioral force of a medication dosage.

  7. EFFECTS OF LASER SHOCK PEENING ON SCC BEHAVIOR OF ALLOY 600

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abhishek Telang; Amrinder Gill; S.R.Mannava; Vijay K. Vasudevan; Dong Qian; Sebastien P. Teysseyre

    2013-08-01

    In this study, the effects of laser shock peening (LSP) on stress corrosion cracking (SCC) behavior of Alloy 600 in tetrathionate solution were investigated. The degree of sensitization was quantified using double loop electrochemical potentiokinetic reactivation (DLEPR) tests. The sensitized Alloy 600 was demonstrated to be susceptible to intergranular SCC in tetrathionate solution. Following LSP, residual stresses and the amount of plastic strain introduced in Alloy 600 were characterized. The effects of LSP on SCC susceptibility of Alloy 600 in tetrathionate solution were evaluated by slow strain rate tests and constant load tests. Results indicate a significant increase in resistance to crack initiation and decreased susceptibility to SCC after LSP.

  8. Global Mechanical Response and Its Relation to Deformation and Failure Modes at Various Length Scales Under Shock Impact in Alumina AD995 Armor Ceramic

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dandekar, D. P; McCauley, J. W; Green, W. H; Bourne, N. K; Chen, M. W

    2008-01-01

    ... maps relating the experimentally measured global mechanical response of a material through matured shock wave diagnostics to the nature of concurrent deformation and damage generated at varying length scales under shock wave loading.

  9. Quantitative evaluation of the mechanical strength of titanium/composite bonding using laser-generated shock waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducousso, M.; Bardy, S.; Rouchausse, Y.; Bergara, T.; Jenson, F.; Berthe, L.; Videau, L.; Cuvillier, N.

    2018-03-01

    Intense acoustic shock waves were applied to evaluate the mechanical strength of structural epoxy bonds between a TA6V4 titanium alloy and a 3D woven carbon/epoxy composite material. Two bond types with different mechanical strengths were obtained from two different adhesive reticulations, at 50% and 90% of conversion, resulting in longitudinal static strengths of 10 and 39 MPa and transverse strengths of 15 and 35 MPa, respectively. The GPa shock waves were generated using ns-scale intense laser pulses and reaction principles to a confined plasma expansion. Simulations taking into account the laser-matter interaction, plasma relaxation, and non-linear shock wave propagation were conducted to aid interpretation of the experiments. Good correlations were obtained between the experiments and the simulation and between different measurement methods of the mechanical strength (normalized tests vs laser-generated shock waves). Such results open the door toward certification of structural bonding.

  10. On the Mechanical Behavior of Advanced Composite Material Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinson, Jack

    During the period between 1993 and 2004, the author, as well as some colleagues and graduate students, had the honor to be supported by the Office of Naval Research to conduct research in several aspects of the behavior of structures composed of composite materials. The topics involved in this research program were numerous, but all contributed to increasing the understanding of how various structures that are useful for marine applications behaved. More specifically, the research topics focused on the reaction of structures that were made of fiber reinforced polymer matrix composites when subjected to various loads and environmental conditions. This included the behavior of beam, plate/panel and shell structures. It involved studies that are applicable to fiberglass, graphite/carbon and Kevlar fibers imbedded in epoxy, polyester and other polymeric matrices. Unidirectional, cross-ply, angle ply, and woven composites were involved, both in laminated, monocoque as well as in sandwich constructions. Mid-plane symmetric as well as asymmetric laminates were studied, the latter involving bending-stretching coupling and other couplings that only can be achieved with advanced composite materials. The composite structures studied involved static loads, dynamic loading, shock loading as well as thermal and hygrothermal environments. One major consideration was determining the mechanical properties of composite materials subjected to high strain rates because the mechanical properties vary so significantly as the strain rate increases. A considerable number of references are cited for further reading and study for those interested.

  11. Mechanical to electrical energy conversion by shock wave effect in a ferro-electric material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    David, Jean

    1977-01-01

    The shock wave propagation through a polarized ferroelectric ceramic changes or destroys remanent polarization and this way allows to get, in adequate electrical circuit, a volume energy of about 2 J/ cm 3 , during a time of the order of 0,4 μs; which corresponds to a peak - power of 5 MW/cm 3 . The present report has for objective to specify the optimum working conditions of this mechanical to electrical conversion from ceramic characteristics, load circuit connected to its electrodes and from the characteristics of the pressure wave which travels through the materials which constitute the converter. After a few lines about the ferroelectric materials and about the shock waves, the shock generator, the used setting and measures are described. A mathematical model which exhibits the transducer operation and a computation of the allowable electrical energy are given. For ending, the released electrical energies by industrial and laboratory ceramics are compared to the estimated computations and a thermodynamical balance is carried out. (author) [fr

  12. Young’s modulus evaluation and thermal shock behavior of a porous SiC/cordierite composite material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pošarac-Marković M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Porous SiC/Cordierite Composite Material with graphite content (10% was synthesized. Evaluation of Young modulus of elasticity and thermal shock behavior of these samples was presented. Thermal shock behavior was monitored using water quench test, and non destructive methods such are UPVT and image analysis were also used for accompaniment the level of destruction of the samples during water quench test. Based on the level of destruction graphical modeling of critical number of cycles was given. This approach was implemented on discussion of the influence of the graphite content on thermal stability behavior of the samples. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III 45012

  13. Neural Circuit Mechanisms of Social Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Patrick; Hong, Weizhe

    2018-04-04

    We live in a world that is largely socially constructed, and we are constantly involved in and fundamentally influenced by a broad array of complex social interactions. Social behaviors among conspecifics, either conflictive or cooperative, are exhibited by all sexually reproducing animal species and are essential for the health, survival, and reproduction of animals. Conversely, impairment in social function is a prominent feature of several neuropsychiatric disorders, such as autism spectrum disorders and schizophrenia. Despite the importance of social behaviors, many fundamental questions remain unanswered. How is social sensory information processed and integrated in the nervous system? How are different social behavioral decisions selected and modulated in brain circuits? Here we discuss conceptual issues and recent advances in our understanding of brain regions and neural circuit mechanisms underlying the regulation of social behaviors. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Kinetic mix mechanisms in shock-driven inertial confinement fusion implosions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rinderknecht, H. G.; Sio, H.; Li, C. K.; Zylstra, A. B.; Rosenberg, M. J.; Frenje, J. A.; Gatu Johnson, M.; Séguin, F. H.; Petrasso, R. D. [Plasma Science and Fusion Center, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Hoffman, N.; Kagan, G.; Molvig, K. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Betti, R.; Yu Glebov, V.; Meyerhofer, D. D.; Sangster, T. C.; Seka, W.; Stoeckl, C. [Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14623 (United States); Bellei, C.; Amendt, P. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); and others

    2014-05-15

    Shock-driven implosions of thin-shell capsules, or “exploding pushers,” generate low-density, high-temperature plasmas in which hydrodynamic instability growth is negligible and kinetic effects can play an important role. Data from implosions of thin deuterated-plastic shells with hydroequivalent D{sup 3}He gas fills ranging from pure deuterium to pure {sup 3}He [H. G. Rinderknecht et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 135001 (2014)] were obtained to evaluate non-hydrodynamic fuel-shell mix mechanisms. Simulations of the experiments including reduced ion kinetic models support ion diffusion as an explanation for these data. Several additional kinetic mechanisms are investigated and compared to the data to determine which are important in the experiments. Shock acceleration of shell deuterons is estimated to introduce mix less than or comparable to the amount required to explain the data. Beam-target mechanisms are found to produce yields at most an order of magnitude less than the observations.

  15. Part I. Mechanisms of injury associated with extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy; Part II. Exsolution of volatiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Danny Dwayne

    Part I - Shock waves are focused in extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) machines to strengths sufficient to fracture kidney stones. Substantial side effects-most of them acute-have resulted from this procedure, including injury to soft tissue. The focusing of shock waves through various layers of tissue is a complex process which stimulates many bio-mechano-chemical responses.This thesis presents results of an in vitro study of the initial mechanical stimulus. Planar nitrocellulose membranes of order 10 um thick were used as models of thin tissue structures. Two modes of failure were recorded: Failure due to cavitation collapsing on or near the membranes, and failure induced by altering the structure of shock waves. Tests were done in water at and around F2 to characterize the extent of cavitation damage, and was found to be confined within the focal region, 1.2 cm along the axis of focus.Scattering media were used to simulate the effects of acoustic nonuniformity of tissue and to alter the structure of focusing shock waves. 40 um diameter (average) hollow glass spheres were added to ethylene glycol, glycerine and castor oil to vary the properties of the scattering media. Multiple layer samples of various types of phantom tissue were tested in degassed castor oil to gauge the validity of the scattering media. The scattering media and tissue samples increased the rise time decreased strain rate in a similar fashion. Membranes were damaged by the decreased strain rate and accumulated effects of the altered structure: After about 20 or so shocks immersed in the scattering media and after about 100 shocks behind the tissue samples. The mode of failure was tearing with multiple tears in some cases from about .1 cm to about 3 cm depending of the number of shocks and membrane thickness.Part II - This work examines the exsolution of volatiles-carbon dioxide from water-in a cylindrical test cell under different pressure conditions. Water was supersaturated with

  16. Opiate-like electroencephalographic and behavioral effects of electroconvulsive shock in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tortella, F C; Cowan, A; Belenky, G L; Holaday, J W

    1981-12-03

    Rats were studied (a) after a single transauricular electroshock (acute ECS) and (b) following 10 consecutive once-daily shocks (chronic ECS). ECS produced a generalized convulsion marked by a polyspike EEG seizure. The seizure was followed by a period of postictal depression (PID) characterized by EEG high-voltage synchrony, EMG quietening, and an associated stuporous behavior in the rat. Acute ECS produced a maximal of 33 +/- 8 (S.E.) percent above control in the EEG voltage output during postictus, with the PID lasting 2680 +/- 658 sec. Chronic ECS resulted in a significant enhancement of these acute responses. Pretreating rats with naloxone (0.3-10 mg/kg s.c.) antagonized the postictal effects of acute ECS, but not of chronic ECS. These naloxone-sensitive postictal EEG and behavioral changes appear to reflect a release of endogenous opioid peptides during ictus, a finding consistent with the hypothesis that electroshock activates opioid systems.

  17. Mechanisms of chemotherapy-induced behavioral toxicities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth G Vichaya

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available While chemotherapeutic agents have yielded relative success in the treatment of cancer, patients are often plagued with unwanted and even debilitating side-effects from the treatment which can lead to dose reduction or even cessation of treatment. Common side effects (symptoms of chemotherapy include (i cognitive deficiencies such as problems with attention, memory and executive functioning; (ii fatigue and motivational deficit; and (iii neuropathy. These symptoms often develop during treatment but can remain even after cessation of chemotherapy, severely impacting long-term quality of life. Little is known about the underlying mechanisms responsible for the development of these behavioral toxicities, however, neuroinflammation is widely considered to be one of the major mechanisms responsible for chemotherapy-induced symptoms. Here, we critically assess what is known in regards to the role of neuroinflammation in chemotherapy-induced symptoms. We also argue that, based on the available evidence neuroinflammation is unlikely the only mechanism involved in the pathogenesis of chemotherapy-induced behavioral toxicities. We evaluate two other putative candidate mechanisms. To this end we discuss the mediating role of damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs activated in response to chemotherapy-induced cellular damage. We also review the literature with respect to possible alternative mechanisms such as a chemotherapy-induced change in the bioenergetic status of the tissue involving changes in mitochondrial function in relation to chemotherapy-induced behavioral toxicities. Understanding the mechanisms that underlie the emergence of fatigue, neuropathy, and cognitive difficulties is vital to better treatment and long-term survival of cancer patients.

  18. Economic transactions, opportunistic behavior and protective mechanisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Carsten Allan

    Whenever actors participate in transactions they expose themselves to risks of various kinds. Some of these risks are attributable to events outside the control of the participants and are unavoidable. Others originate in, or are aggrevated by, opportunistic actions undertaken by contract partners...... and other co-operators. This paper is concerned with the latter type of risk and the protection against it. Six protective mechanisms, which may serve as safeguards against opportunistic behavior, are presented and discussed. Special attention is paid to reputation effects. It is noted that such effects may...... account for the lack of opportunistic behavior with which networks are often credited. No protective mechanism is, however, effective under all circumstances....

  19. Elastic-plastic Fracture Mechanics Assessment of nozzle corners submitted to thermal shock loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapuliot, S.; Marie, S.

    2016-01-01

    This paper focuses on the development of a simplified analytical scheme for the elastic-plastic Fracture Mechanics Assessment of large nozzle corners. Within that frame, following the specific numerical effort performed for the definition of a Stress Intensity Factor compendium, complementary elastic-plastic developments are proposed here for the consideration of the thermal shock loading in the elastic-plastic domain: this type of loading is a major loading for massive structures such as nozzle corners of large components. Thus, an important numerical was performed in order to extend the applicability domain of existing analytical schemes to those complex geometries. The final formulation is a simple one, applicable to a large variety of materials and geometrical configurations as long as the structure is large and the defect remains small in comparison to the internal radius of the nozzle. - Highlights: • Fracture Mechanics Assessment of large nozzle corners. • Elastic-plastic Stress Intensity Factor determination under thermal shock loading. • Semi-analytical schemes for J calculation.

  20. The strengthening mechanism of a nickel-based alloy after laser shock processing at high temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Yinghong; Zhou, Liucheng; He, Weifeng; He, Guangyu; Wang, Xuede; Nie, Xiangfan; Wang, Bo; Luo, Sihai; Li, Yuqin

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the strengthening mechanism of laser shock processing (LSP) at high temperatures in the K417 nickel-based alloy. Using a laser-induced shock wave, residual compressive stresses and nanocrystals with a length of 30–200 nm and a thickness of 1 μm are produced on the surface of the nickel-based alloy K417. When the K417 alloy is subjected to heat treatment at 900 °C after LSP, most of the residual compressive stress relaxes while the microhardness retains good thermal stability; the nanocrystalline surface has not obviously grown after the 900 °C per 10 h heat treatment, which shows a comparatively good thermal stability. There are several reasons for the good thermal stability of the nanocrystalline surface, such as the low value of cold hardening of LSP, extreme high-density defects and the grain boundary pinning of an impure element. The results of the vibration fatigue experiments show that the fatigue strength of K417 alloy is enhanced and improved from 110 to 285 MPa after LSP. After the 900 °C per 10 h heat treatment, the fatigue strength is 225 MPa; the heat treatment has not significantly reduced the reinforcement effect. The feature of the LSP strengthening mechanism of nickel-based alloy at a high temperature is the co-working effect of the nanocrystalline surface and the residual compressive stress after thermal relaxation. (paper)

  1. The mechanical behavior of microcellular foams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozkul, M.H.; Mark, J.E. (Cincinnati Univ., OH (USA)); Aubert, J.H. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (USA))

    1990-01-01

    The mechanical behavior of microcellular open-cell foams prepared by a thermally induced phase separation process are investigated. The foams studied were prepared from isotactic polystyrene, polyacrylonitrile, and poly(4-methyl-1-pentene) (rigid foams), and polyurethane and Lycra (elastomeric foams). Their densities were in the range 0.04--0.27 g/cm3. Conventional polystyrene foams were used for comparison. The moduli and collapse stresses of these foams were measured in compression and compared with the current constitutive laws which relate mechanical properties to densities. A reinforcement technique based on the in-situ precipitation of silica was used to improve the mechanical properties. 13 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  2. Basic thermal–mechanical properties and thermal shock, fatigue resistance of swaged + rolled potassium doped tungsten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Xiaoxin; Yan, Qingzhi, E-mail: qzyan@ustb.edu.cn; Lang, Shaoting; Xia, Min; Ge, Changchun

    2014-09-15

    Highlights: • The potassium doped tungsten grade was achieved via swaging + rolling process. • The cracking threshold of the W–K alloy was in the range of 0.44–0.66 GW/m{sup 2}. • Recrystallization occurred at 0.66–1.1 GW/m{sup 2} during the thermal shock tests. • No cracks emerged during the thermal fatigue tests (0.44 GW/m{sup 2}, 1000 cycles). • Recrystallization occurred after 1000 cycles during the thermal fatigue tests. - Abstract: The potassium doped tungsten (W–K) grade was achieved via swaging + rolling process. The swaged + rolled W–K alloy exhibited acceptable thermal conductivity of 159.1 W/m K and ductile-to-brittle transition temperature of about 873 K while inferior mechanical properties attributed to the coarse pores and small deformation degree. Then the thermal shock, fatigue resistance of the W–K grade were characterized by an electron beam facility. Thermal shock tests were conducted at absorbed power densities varied from 0.22 to 1.1 GW/m{sup 2} in a step of 0.22 GW/m{sup 2}. The cracking threshold was in the range of 0.44–0.66 GW/m{sup 2}. Furthermore, recrystallization occurred in the subsurface of the specimens tested at 0.66–1.1 GW/m{sup 2} basing on the analysis of microhardness and microstructure. Thermal fatigue tests were performed at 0.44 GW/m{sup 2} up to 1000 cycles and no cracks emerged throughout the tests. Moreover, recrystallization occurred after 1000 cycles.

  3. Stochastic shock response spectrum decomposition method based on probabilistic definitions of temporal peak acceleration, spectral energy, and phase lag distributions of mechanical impact pyrotechnic shock test data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, James Ho-Jin; Duran, Adam

    2016-08-01

    Most of the times pyrotechnic shock design and test requirements for space systems are provided in Shock Response Spectrum (SRS) without the input time history. Since the SRS does not describe the input or the environment, a decomposition method is used to obtain the source time history. The main objective of this paper is to develop a decomposition method producing input time histories that can satisfy the SRS requirement based on the pyrotechnic shock test data measured from a mechanical impact test apparatus. At the heart of this decomposition method is the statistical representation of the pyrotechnic shock test data measured from the MIT Lincoln Laboratory (LL) designed Universal Pyrotechnic Shock Simulator (UPSS). Each pyrotechnic shock test data measured at the interface of a test unit has been analyzed to produce the temporal peak acceleration, Root Mean Square (RMS) acceleration, and the phase lag at each band center frequency. Maximum SRS of each filtered time history has been calculated to produce a relationship between the input and the response. Two new definitions are proposed as a result. The Peak Ratio (PR) is defined as the ratio between the maximum SRS and the temporal peak acceleration at each band center frequency. The ratio between the maximum SRS and the RMS acceleration is defined as the Energy Ratio (ER) at each band center frequency. Phase lag is estimated based on the time delay between the temporal peak acceleration at each band center frequency and the peak acceleration at the lowest band center frequency. This stochastic process has been applied to more than one hundred pyrotechnic shock test data to produce probabilistic definitions of the PR, ER, and the phase lag. The SRS is decomposed at each band center frequency using damped sinusoids with the PR and the decays obtained by matching the ER of the damped sinusoids to the ER of the test data. The final step in this stochastic SRS decomposition process is the Monte Carlo (MC

  4. Pressurized thermal shock probabilistic fracture mechanics sensitivity analysis for Yankee Rowe reactor pressure vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickson, T.L.; Cheverton, R.D.; Bryson, J.W.; Bass, B.R.; Shum, D.K.M.; Keeney, J.A.

    1993-08-01

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) requested Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to perform a pressurized-thermal-shock (PTS) probabilistic fracture mechanics (PFM) sensitivity analysis for the Yankee Rowe reactor pressure vessel, for the fluences corresponding to the end of operating cycle 22, using a specific small-break-loss- of-coolant transient as the loading condition. Regions of the vessel with distinguishing features were to be treated individually -- upper axial weld, lower axial weld, circumferential weld, upper plate spot welds, upper plate regions between the spot welds, lower plate spot welds, and the lower plate regions between the spot welds. The fracture analysis methods used in the analysis of through-clad surface flaws were those contained in the established OCA-P computer code, which was developed during the Integrated Pressurized Thermal Shock (IPTS) Program. The NRC request specified that the OCA-P code be enhanced for this study to also calculate the conditional probabilities of failure for subclad flaws and embedded flaws. The results of this sensitivity analysis provide the NRC with (1) data that could be used to assess the relative influence of a number of key input parameters in the Yankee Rowe PTS analysis and (2) data that can be used for readily determining the probability of vessel failure once a more accurate indication of vessel embrittlement becomes available. This report is designated as HSST report No. 117

  5. Basic thermal-mechanical properties and thermal shock, fatigue resistance of swaged + rolled potassium doped tungsten

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoxin; Yan, Qingzhi; Lang, Shaoting; Xia, Min; Ge, Changchun

    2014-09-01

    The potassium doped tungsten (W-K) grade was achieved via swaging + rolling process. The swaged + rolled W-K alloy exhibited acceptable thermal conductivity of 159.1 W/m K and ductile-to-brittle transition temperature of about 873 K while inferior mechanical properties attributed to the coarse pores and small deformation degree. Then the thermal shock, fatigue resistance of the W-K grade were characterized by an electron beam facility. Thermal shock tests were conducted at absorbed power densities varied from 0.22 to 1.1 GW/m2 in a step of 0.22 GW/m2. The cracking threshold was in the range of 0.44-0.66 GW/m2. Furthermore, recrystallization occurred in the subsurface of the specimens tested at 0.66-1.1 GW/m2 basing on the analysis of microhardness and microstructure. Thermal fatigue tests were performed at 0.44 GW/m2 up to 1000 cycles and no cracks emerged throughout the tests. Moreover, recrystallization occurred after 1000 cycles.

  6. Energy convergence of shock waves and its destruction mechanism in cone-roof combustion chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Han; Yao, Anren; Yao, Chunde; Gao, Jian

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Experiments with simulations are designed to probe into engine severe knock. • Energy convergence at central and edge region is observed in closed-limited space. • Modes with different intensities and mechanism of energy convergence are revealed. • Chamber shape and equivalence ratio can affect the energy convergence. • The destruction effects of energy convergence on pistons are recognized. - Abstract: Energy convergence is considered as an important phenomenon in internal combustion engines under severe knock, in which shock waves caused by violent combustion may aggregate the energy released by fuel burning to damage engine parts like pistons and spark plugs easily. In order to reveal such convergence mechanism and its destruction effects, a novel detonation bomb experiment combined with numerical simulations are conducted. In bomb experiments, a detonation wave is forcibly introduced into a clearance-variable cone-roof combustion chamber by a high energy spark ignition. Four pressure transducers were installed in different positions to monitor the energy convergence. Combined with the experiments, numerical simulations were conducted to reveal the convergence modes and mechanisms. Finally, destruction samples were presented to validate this research. It’s found that the energy convergence of shock waves always occurs in middle and edge region, which are vulnerable to be damaged. Three modes of energy convergence are concluded for middle region while several ways of energy convergence are concluded for edge region, which are all related with the chamber shape and may result in different levels of convergence. It’s also found that though detonation strength (knock intensity) can be changed by both equivalence ratios and initial pressures, only the equivalence ratios can change the convergence modes while the initial pressures cannot.

  7. Behaviors and housing inertia are key factors in determining the consequences of a shock in transportation costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gusdorf, Francois; Hallegatte, Stephane

    2007-01-01

    This paper investigates the consequences of a sudden increase in transportation costs when household behaviors and building inertia are accounted for. A theoretical framework is proposed, capturing the interactions between behaviors, transportation costs and urban structure. Numerical simulations show that changes in households and landowners' choices reduce significantly the long-term adverse effects of a shock in transportation costs. Indeed, the shock translates, over the long run, into a more concentrated housing that limits households utility losses and maintains landowners' income. But, because of building inertia, the shock leads first to a long transition, during which the adjustment is constrained by a suboptimal housing-supply structure. Then, households support larger losses than in the final stage, though lower than with no behavior adjustment, and landowners experience a large decrease in their aggregate income and an important redistribution of wealth. Thus, behaviors and building inertia are key factors in determining the vulnerability to transportation price variability and to the introduction of climate policies. Our policy conclusions are that: (i) if a long-term increase in transportation costs is unavoidable because of climate change or resource scarcity, a smooth change prevents to some extent the negative transition effects and (ii) fast-growing cities of the developing world can reduce their future vulnerability to shocks in transportation costs through the implementation of policies that limit urban sprawl

  8. Shock Wave Dynamics in Weakly Ionized Plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Joseph A., III

    1999-01-01

    An investigation of the dynamics of shock waves in weakly ionized argon plasmas has been performed using a pressure ruptured shock tube. The velocity of the shock is observed to increase when the shock traverses the plasma. The observed increases cannot be accounted for by thermal effects alone. Possible mechanisms that could explain the anomalous behavior include a vibrational/translational relaxation in the nonequilibrium plasma, electron diffusion across the shock front resulting from high electron mobility, and the propagation of ion-acoustic waves generated at the shock front. Using a turbulence model based on reduced kinetic theory, analysis of the observed results suggest a role for turbulence in anomalous shock dynamics in weakly ionized media and plasma-induced hypersonic drag reduction.

  9. Fundamental Electronic Structure Characteristics and Mechanical Behavior of Aerospace Materials

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Freeman, Arthur J; Kontsevoi, Oleg Y; Gornostyrev, Yuri N; Medvedeva, Nadezhda I

    2008-01-01

    To fulfill the great potential of intermetallic alloys for high temperature structural applications, it is essential to understand the mechanisms controlling their mechanical behavior on the microscopic level...

  10. Multiscale modeling of beryllium: quantum mechanics and laser-driven shock experiments using novel diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swift, D.C.; Paisley, Dennis L.; Kyrala, George A.; Hauer, Allan

    2002-01-01

    Ab initio quantum mechanics was used to construct a thermodynamically complete and rigorous equation of state for beryllium in the hexagonal and body-centred cubic structures, and to predict elastic constants as a function of compression. The equation of state agreed well with Hugoniot data and previously-published equations of state, but the temperatures were significantly different. The hexagonal/bcc phase boundary agreed reasonably well with published data, suggesting that the temperatures in our new equation of state were accurate. Shock waves were induced in single crystals and polycrystalline foils of beryllium, by direct illumination using the TRIDENT laser at Los Alamos. The velocity history at the surface of the sample was measured using a line-imaging VISAR, and transient X-ray diffraction (TXD) records were obtained with a plasma backlighter and X-ray streak cameras. The VISAR records exhibited elastic precursors, plastic waves, phase changes and spall. Dual TXD records were taken, in Bragg and Laue orientations. The Bragg lines moved in response to compression in the uniaxial direction. Because direct laser drive was used, the results had to be interpreted with the aid of radiation hydrodynamics simulations to predict the loading history for each laser pulse. In the experiments where there was evidence of polymorphism in the VISAR record, additional lines appeared in the Bragg and Laue records. The corresponding pressures were consistent with the phase boundary predicted by the quantum mechanical equation of state for beryllium. A model of the response of a single crystal of beryllium to shock loading is being developed using these new theoretical and experimental results. This model will be used in meso-scale studies of the response of the microstructure, allowing us to develop a more accurate representation of the behaviour of polycrystalline beryllium.

  11. Analysis of crack behavior in the JRC Ispra pressurized thermal shock experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jovanovic, A.; Lucia, A.C.

    1990-01-01

    The analytical work performed in the framework of the Pressurized Thermal Shock (PTS) experimental research at the JRC Ispra, Italy, is described in the paper. In particular, the development of the FRAP preprocessor and development and implementation of a methodology for analysis of local non-stationary heat transfer coefficients during a PTS, have been tackled. FRAP is used as a front-end for the finite element code ABAQUS, for the heat transfer, stress and fracture mechanics analyses. The ABAQUS results are used further on, for the probabilistic fatigue crack analysis performed by the JRC Ispra code COVASTOL. Only the preliminary results of application of FRAP, ABAQUS and COVASTOL codes in the experiment are given in this paper, in order to illustrate the applied analytical procedure. (orig.)

  12. A fracture mechanics method of evaluating structural integrity of a reactor vessel due to thermal shock effects following LOCA condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramani, D.T.

    1977-01-01

    The importance of knowledge of structural integrity of a reactor vessel due to thermal shock effects, is related to safety and operational requirements in assessing the adequacy and flawless functioing of the nuclear power systems. Followig a loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) condition the integrity of the reactor vessel due to a sudden thermal shock induced by actuation of emergency core cooling system (ECCS), must be maintained to ensure safe and orderly shutdown of the reactor and its components. The paper encompasses criteria underlaying a fracture mechanics method of analysis to evaluate structural integrity of a typical 950 MWe PWR vessel as a result of very drastic changes in thermal and mechanical stress levels in the reactor vessel wall. The main object of this investigation therefore consists in assessing the capability of a PWR vessel to withstand the most critical thermal shock without inpairing its ability to conserve vital coolant owing to probable crack propagation. (Auth.)

  13. Transient thermal-mechanical behavior of cracked glass-cloth-reinforced epoxy laminates at low temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shindo, Y.; Ueda, S.

    1997-01-01

    We consider the transient thermal-mechanical response of cracked G-10CR glass-cloth-reinforced epoxy laminates with temperature-dependent properties. The glass-cloth-reinforced epoxy laminates are suddenly cooled on the surfaces. A generalized plane strain finite element model is used to study the influence of warp angle and crack formation on the thermal shock behavior of two-layer woven laminates at low temperatures. Numerical calculations are carried out, and the transient temperature distribution and the thermal-mechanical stresses are shown graphically

  14. Effects of laser shock processing on mechanical properties and micro-structure of ANSI 304 austenitic stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo, K.Y.; Lu, J.Z.; Zhang, Y.K.; Zhou, J.Z.; Zhang, L.F.; Dai, F.Z.; Zhang, L.; Zhong, J.W.; Cui, C.Y.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Effects of LSP on mechanical properties of stainless steel ANSI 304 are evaluated. → LSP can clearly enhance the values of mechanical properties in the shocked region. → Martensite transformation does not take place in the surface layer subjected to LSP. → Enhancement mechanisms of LSP on mechanical property of stainless steel are revealed. → The results can provide some insights on the surface modification of stainless steel. - Abstract: The aim of this article is to address the effects of a single laser shock processing (LSP) impact on the nano-hardness, elastic modulus, residual stress and phase transformation of ANSI 304 austenitic stainless steel. Residual stress distribution of the LSP-shocked region is determined by X-ray diffraction (XRD) with sin 2 ψ method, and the micro-structural features in the near-surface layer are characterized by using cross-sectional optical microscopy (OM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). By comparing with the untreated samples, LSP can clearly improve nano-hardness, elastic modulus, and residual stress in the LSP-shocked region. The underlying enhancement mechanisms of LSP on nano-hardness, elastic modulus and residual stress of stainless steel ANSI 304 are also revealed. These studies may provide some important insights into surface modification for metal materials.

  15. Mutant p53 - heat shock response oncogenic cooperation: a new mechanism of cancer cell survival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evguenia eAlexandrova

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The main tumor suppressor function of p53 as a ‘guardian of the genome’ is to respond to cellular stress by transcriptional activation of apoptosis, growth arrest or senescence in damaged cells. Not surprisingly, mutations in the p53 gene are the most frequent genetic alteration in human cancers. Importantly, mutant p53 (mutp53 proteins not only lose their wild-type tumor suppressor activity, but also can actively promote tumor development. Two main mechanisms accounting for mutp53 proto-oncogenic activity are inhibition of the wild-type p53 in a dominant-negative fashion and gain of additional oncogenic activities known as gain-of-function (GOF. Here we discuss a novel mechanism of mutp53 GOF, which relies on its oncogenic cooperation with the heat shock machinery. This coordinated adaptive mechanism renders cancer cells more resistant to proteotoxic stress and provides both, a strong survival advantage to cancer cells and a promising means for therapeutic intervention.

  16. Oxidation and thermal shock behavior of thermal barrier coated 18/10CrNi alloy with coating modifications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guergen, Selim [Vocational School of Transportation, Anadolu University, Eskisehir (Turkmenistan); Diltemiz, Seyid Fehmi [Turkish Air Force1st Air Supply and Maintenance Center Command, Eskisehir (Turkmenistan); Kushan, Melih Cemal [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Eskisehir Osmangazi University, Eskisehir (Turkmenistan)

    2017-01-15

    In this study, substrates of 18/10CrNi alloy plates were initially sprayed with a Ni-21Cr-10Al-1Y bond coat and then with an yttria stabilized zirconia top coat by plasma spraying. Subsequently, plasma-sprayed Thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) were treated with two different modification methods, namely, vacuum heat treatment and laser glazing. The effects of modifications on the oxidation and thermal shock behavior of the coatings were evaluated. The effect of coat thickness on the bond strength of the coats was also investigated. Results showed enhancement of the oxidation resistance and thermal shock resistance of TBCs following modifications. Although vacuum heat treatment and laser glazing exhibited comparable results as per oxidation resistance, the former generated the best improvement in the thermal shock resistance of the TBCs. Bond strength also decreased as coat thickness increased.

  17. Thermo-hydro-mechanical behavior of argillite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tran, Duy Thuong; Dormieux, Luc; Lemarchand, Eric; Skoczylas, Frederic

    2012-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. Argillite is a very low permeability geo-material widely encountered: that is the reason why it is an excellent candidate for the storage of long-term nuclear waste depositories. This study focuses on argillites from Meuse-Haute-Marne (East of France) which forms a geological layer located approximately 400 m and 500 m depth. We know that this material is made up of a mixture of shale, quartz and calcite phases. The multi-scale definition of this material suggests the derivation of micro-mechanics reasonings in order to better account for the mechanisms occurring at the local (nano and micro-) scale and controlling the macroscopic mechanical behavior. In this work, up-scaling techniques are used in the context of thermo-hydro-mechanical couplings. The first step consists in clarifying the morphology of the microstructure at the relevant scales (particles arrangement, pore size distribution) and identifying the mechanisms that take place at those scales. These local informations provide the input data of micro-mechanics based models. Schematic picture of the microstructure where the argillite material behaves as a dual-porosity, with liquid in both micro-pores and interlayer space in between clay solid platelets, seems a reasonable starting point for this micro-mechanical modelling of clay. This allows us to link the physical phenomena (swelling clays) and the mechanical properties (elastic moduli, Poisson's ratio). At the pressure applied by the fluid on the solid platelets appears as the sum of the uniform pressure in the micro-pores and of a swelling overpressure depending on the distance between platelets and on the ion concentration in the micro-pores. The latter is proved to be responsible for a local elastic modulus of physical origin. This additional elastic component may strongly be influenced by both relative humidity and temperature. A first contribution of this study is to analysing this local elastic

  18. Flaw behavior in mechanically loaded clad plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iskander, S.K.; Robinson, G.C.; Oland, C.B.

    1989-01-01

    A small crack near the inner surface of clad nuclear reactor pressure vessels is an important consideration in the safety assessment of the structural integrity of the vessel. Four-point bend tests on large plate specimens, conforming to ASTM specification for pressure vessel plates, alloy steels, quenched and tempered, Mn-Mo and Mn-Mo-Ni (A533) grade B six clad and two unclad with stainless steels 308, 309 and 312 weld wires, were performed to determine the effect of cladding upon the propagation of small surface cracks subjected to stress states. Results indicated that the tough surface layer composed of cladding and/or heat-affected zone has enhanced the load-bearing capacity of plates under conditions where unclad plates have ruptured. The results are interpreted in terms of fracture mechanics. The behavior of flaws in clad reactor pressure vessels is examined in the light of the test results. 11 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs

  19. Probabilistic fracture mechanics analysis of reactor vessel for pressurized thermal shock: the effect of residual stress and fracture toughness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Sung Gyu; Jin, Tae Eun; Jhung, Myung Jo; Choi, Young Hwan

    2003-01-01

    The structural integrity of the reactor vessel with the approaching end of life must be assured for pressurized thermal shock. The regulation specifies the screening criteria for this and requires that specific analysis be performed for the reactor vessel which is anticipated to exceed the screening criteria at the end of plant life. In case the screening criteria is exceeded by the deterministic analysis, probabilistic analysis must be performed to show that failure probability is within the limit. In this study, probabilistic fracture mechanics analysis of the reactor vessel for pressurized thermal shock is performed and the effects of residual stress and master curve on the failure probability are investigated

  20. Shock compression behavior of bi-material powder composites with disparate melting temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sullivan, Kyle T.; Swift, Damian; Barham, Matthew; Stölken, James; Kuntz, Joshua; Kumar, Mukul

    2014-01-01

    Laser driven experiments were used to investigate the shock compression behavior of powder processed Bismuth/Tungsten (Bi/W) composite samples. The constituents provide different functionality to the composite behavior as Bi could be shock melted at the pressures attained in this work, while the W could not. Samples were prepared by uniaxial pressing, and the relative density was measured as a function of particle size, applied pressure, and composition for both hot and cold pressing conditions. This resulted in sample densities between 73% and 99% of the theoretical maximum density, and also noticeable differences in microstructure in the hot and cold pressed samples. The compression waves were generated with a 1.3 × 1.3 mm square spot directly onto the surface of the sample, using irradiances between 10 12 and 10 13  W/cm 2 , which resulted in calculated peak pressures between 50 and 150 GPa within a few micrometers. Sample recovery and post-mortem analysis revealed the formation of a crater on the laser drive surface, and the depth of this crater corresponded to the depth to which the Bi had been melted. The melt depth was found to be primarily a function of residual porosity and composition, and ranged from 167 to 528 μm. In general, a higher porosity led to a larger melt depth. Direct numerical simulations were performed, and indicated that the observed increase in melt depth for low-porosity samples could be largely attributed to increased heating associated with work done for pore collapse. However, the relative scaling was sensitive to composition, with low volume fraction Bi samples exhibiting a much stronger dependence on porosity than high Bi content samples. Select samples were repeated using an Al foil ablator, but there were no noticeable differences ensuring that the observed melting was indeed pressure-driven and was not a result of direct laser heating. The resultant microstructures and damage near the spall surface were also investigated

  1. Mechanisms Involved in Secondary Cardiac Dysfunction in Animal Models of Trauma and Hemorrhagic Shock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Nick M; Wall, Johanna; Naganathar, Veena; Brohi, Karim; De'Ath, Henry D

    2017-10-01

    Clinical evidence reveals the existence of a trauma-induced secondary cardiac injury (TISCI) that is associated with poor patient outcomes. The mechanisms leading to TISCI in injured patients are uncertain. Conversely, animal models of trauma hemorrhage have repeatedly demonstrated significant cardiac dysfunction following injury, and highlighted mechanisms through which this might occur. The aim of this review was to provide an overview of the animal studies describing TISCI and its pathophysiology.Basic science models of trauma show evidence of innate immune system activation via Toll-like receptors, the exact protagonists of which remain unclear. Shortly following trauma and hemorrhage, cardiomyocytes upregulate gene regulatory protein and inflammatory molecule expression including nuclear factor kappa beta, tumor necrosis factor alpha, and interleukin-6. This is associated with expression of membrane bound adhesion molecules and chemokines leading to marked myocardial leukocyte infiltration. This cell activation and infiltration is linked to a rise in enzymes that cause oxidative and nitrative stress and subsequent protein misfolding within cardiomyocytes. Such protein damage may lead to reduced contractility and myocyte apoptosis. Other molecules have been identified as cardioprotective following injury. These include p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases and heat shock proteins.The balance between increasing damaging mediators and a reduction in cardio-protective molecules appears to define myocardial function following trauma. Exogenous therapeutics have been trialled in rodents with promising abilities to favorably alter this balance, and subsequently lead to improved cardiac function.

  2. Effect of thermal shock on mechanical properties of injection-molded thermoplastic denture base resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Yutaka; Hamanaka, Ippei; Shimizu, Hiroshi

    2012-07-01

    This study investigated the effect of thermal shock on the mechanical properties of injection-molded thermoplastic denture base resins. Four thermoplastic resins (two polyamides, one polyethylene terephthalate, one polycarbonate) and, as a control, a conventional heat-polymerized polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA), were tested. Specimens of each denture base material were fabricated according to ISO 1567 and were either thermocycled or not thermocycled (n = 10). The flexural strength at the proportional limit (FS-PL), the elastic modulus and the Charpy impact strength of the denture base materials were estimated. Thermocycling significantly decreased the FS-PL of one of the polyamides and the PMMA and it significantly increased the FS-PL of one of the polyamides. In addition, thermocycling significantly decreased the elastic modulus of one of the polyamides and significantly increased the elastic moduli of one of the polyamides, the polyethylene terephthalate, polycarbonate and PMMA. Thermocycling significantly decreased the impact strength of one of the polyamides and the polycarbonate. The mechanical properties of injection-molded thermoplastic denture base resins changed after themocycling.

  3. Mechanism of flow choking at shock boiling-up of a liquid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Labuntsov, D.A.; Avdeev, A.A.

    1982-01-01

    The theory of the outflow of a saturated or non-heated liquid with thermodynamic parameters reaching the critical point from diaphragms and short nozzles has been developed basing on the concept of the boiling-up jump. Three characteristic flow conditions have been revealed: hydraulic, conditions when boiling-up jump is formed, and conditions of radial expansion of the flow. If the initial flow's parameters are low, the hydraulic conditions are realized. The expansion of the flow-passage cross-section of flow small jets by the final value takes place when the spinoidal overheating is reached near the exit cut-off at a small distance equal to the thickness of the boiling-up zone; and that causes the intensive jet dispersion in the radial direction. In case of overheatings close to the thermodynamic critical point, a boiling-up jump is formed inside the channel. The mechanism of flow choking has been analyzed; recommendations on calculation of the critical flow rate of a boiling-up liquid are given. The studied mechanism of flow choking at shock boiling-up of the flow permits to draw a rather detailed physical picture of the phenomenon and to give an explanation of the majority of experimentally-observed effects

  4. Mechanical behavior of porous ceramic disks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pucheu, M.A; Sandoval, M.L; Tomba Martinez, A.G; Camerucci, M.A

    2008-01-01

    The mechanical behavior of green and sintered porous ceramic materials, obtained by processing control, in relation to the microstructure developed was studied. Disks in green state were prepared by direct thermal consolidation of aqueous suspensions of kaolin, talc and alumina (preliminary mixture of cordierite) with the addition of different starches as consolidating/binding agents and as formers of pores at high temperature. Commercial kaolin (C-80 washed kaolin, Piedra Grande S.A., Argentina), micronized talc (Talc 40, China), calcinated alumina (A2G ALCOA, USA) and commercial potato, manioc, modified potato and corn starches were used as raw materials. The preliminary ceramic mixture was prepared based on the composition in oxides of the ceramic raw materials, in a relationship that was as close as possible to stoichiometric cordierite. Aqueous suspensions of the powders (65% solids; 0.5% sodium naphtolenosulfonate; 1% Dolapix with 17% of each kind of starch were prepared by intensive mechanical mixing, homogenization (ball mills, 2h) and extracting the air with vacuum 20 min. Disks were prepared (diameter=20-30 mm; thickness=3-4 mm) by thermal consolidation of the suspensions in steel molds at the maximum swelling factor temperature (Tms) for each starch (75- 85 o C) for 4h and, later drying at 50 o C, 12h. The porous materials of cordierite were obtained by calcination and reaction-sintering using a controlled thermal cycle: 1 o C/min up to 650 o C, 2h; 3 o C/min up to 1330 o C, 4h and 5 o C/min to room temperature. The characterization of the porous materials in green and sintered state was done by measuring density and apparent porosity, distribution of pore sizes and SEM. The mechanical resistance of the materials in green and sintered state was evaluated in diametrical compression (Instron universal testing machine servo hydraulic model 8501), in position control (0.1-0.2 mm/min) with a statistical number of test pieces, at room air temperature. The

  5. Influence of Shock Wave on the Flutter Behavior of Fan Blades Investigated

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Rakesh; Bakhle, Milind A.; Stefko, George L.

    2003-01-01

    Modern fan designs have blades with forward sweep; a lean, thin cross section; and a wide chord to improve performance and reduce noise. These geometric features coupled with the presence of a shock wave can lead to flutter instability. Flutter is a self-excited dynamic instability arising because of fluid-structure interaction, which causes the energy from the surrounding fluid to be extracted by the vibrating structure. An in-flight occurrence of flutter could be catastrophic and is a significant design issue for rotor blades in gas turbines. Understanding the flutter behavior and the influence of flow features on flutter will lead to a better and safer design. An aeroelastic analysis code, TURBO, has been developed and validated for flutter calculations at the NASA Glenn Research Center. The code has been used to understand the occurrence of flutter in a forward-swept fan design. The forward-swept fan, which consists of 22 inserted blades, encountered flutter during wind tunnel tests at part speed conditions.

  6. Dynamic behaviors of a Zr-based bulk metallic glass under ramp wave and shock wave loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binqiang Luo

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Dynamic behaviors of Zr51Ti5Ni10Cu25Al9 bulk metallic glass were investigated using electric gun and magnetically driven isentropic compression device which provide shock and ramp wave loading respectively. Double-wave structure was observed under shock compression while three-wave structure was observed under ramp compression in 0 ∼ 18GPa. The HEL of Zr51Ti5Ni10Cu25Al9 is 8.97 ± 0.61GPa and IEL is 8.8 ± 0.3GPa, respectively. Strength of Zr51Ti5Ni10Cu25Al9 estimated from HEL is 5.0 ± 0.3GPa while the strength estimated from IEL is 3.6 ± 0.1GPa. Shock wave velocity versus particle velocity curve of Zr51Ti5Ni10Cu25Al9 under shock compression appears to be bilinear and a kink appears at about 18GPa. The Lagrangian sound speed versus particle velocity curve of Zr51Ti5Ni10Cu25Al9 under ramp wave compression exhibits two discontinuances and are divided to three regions: elastic, plastic-I and plastic-II. The first jump-down occurs at elastic-plastic transition and the second appears at about 17GPa. In elastic and plastic-I regions, Lagrangian sound speed increases linearly with particle velocity, respectively. Characteristic response of sound speed in plastic-I region disagree with shock result in the same pressure region(7GPa ∼ 18GPa, but is consistent with shock result at higher pressure(18-110GPa.

  7. The crucifixion of Jesus: review of hypothesized mechanisms of death and implications of shock and trauma-induced coagulopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergeron, Joseph W

    2012-04-01

    The crucifixion of Jesus is arguably the most well-known and controversial execution in history. Christian faithful, dating back to the time of Jesus, have believed that Jesus was executed by crucifixion and later returned physically to life again. Others have questioned whether Jesus actually died by crucifixion, at all. From review of medical literature, physicians have failed to agree on a specific mechanism of Jesus' death. A search of Medline/Pubmed was completed with respect to crucifixion, related topics, and proposed mechanisms of Jesus' death. Several hypotheses for the mechanism of Jesus' death have been presented in medical literature, including 1) Pulmonary embolism 2) Cardiac rupture 3) Suspension trauma 4) Asphyxiation 5) Fatal stab wound, and 6) Shock. Each proposed mechanism of Jesus' death will be reviewed. The events of Jesus' execution are described, as they are pertinent to development of shock. Traumatic shock complicated by trauma-induced coagulopathy is proposed as a contributing factor, and possibly the primary mechanism, of Jesus' death by crucifixion. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  8. FAVOR: A new fracture mechanics code for reactor pressure vessels subjected to pressurized thermal shock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickson, T.L.

    1993-01-01

    This report discusses probabilistic fracture mechanics (PFM) analysis which is a major element of the comprehensive probabilistic methodology endorsed by the NRC for evaluation of the integrity of Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) pressure vessels subjected to pressurized-thermal-shock (PTS) transients. It is anticipated that there will be an increasing need for an improved and validated PTS PFM code which is accepted by the NRC and utilities, as more plants approach the PTS screening criteria and are required to perform plant-specific analyses. The NRC funded Heavy Section Steel Technology (HSST) Program at Oak Ridge National Laboratories is currently developing the FAVOR (Fracture Analysis of Vessels: Oak Ridge) PTS PFM code, which is intended to meet this need. The FAVOR code incorporates the most important features of both OCA-P and VISA-II and contains some new capabilities such as PFM global modeling methodology, the capability to approximate the effects of thermal streaming on circumferential flaws located inside a plume region created by fluid and thermal stratification, a library of stress intensity factor influence coefficients, generated by the NQA-1 certified ABAQUS computer code, for an adequate range of two and three dimensional inside surface flaws, the flexibility to generate a variety of output reports, and user friendliness

  9. Structure and mechanical behavior of bird beaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seki, Yasuaki

    The structure and mechanical behavior of Toco toucan (Ramphastos toco) and Wreathed hornbill (Rhyticeros undulatus) beaks were examined. The structure of Toco toucan and Wreathed hornbill beak was found to be a sandwich composite with an exterior of keratin and a fibrous bony network of closed cells made of trabeculae. A distinctive feature of the hornbill beak is its casque formed from cornified keratin layers. The casque is believed to have an acoustic function due to the complex internal structure. The toucan and hornbill beaks have a hollow region that extends from proximal to mid-section. The rhamphotheca is comprised of super-posed polygonal scales (45 mum diameter and 1 mum thickness) fixed by some organic adhesive. The branched intermediate filaments embedded in keratin matrix were discovered by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The diameter of intermediate laments was ~10 nm. The orientation of intermediate filaments was examined with TEM tomography and the branched filaments were homogeneously distributed. The closed-cell foam is comprised of the fibrous structure of bony struts with an edge connectivity of three or four and the cells are sealed off by the thin membranes. The volumetric structure of bird beak foam was reproduced by computed tomography for finite element modeling.

  10. Extracorporeal shock wave therapy in inflammatory diseases: molecular mechanism that triggers anti-inflammatory action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariotto, Sofia; de Prati, Alessandra Carcereri; Cavalieri, Elisabetta; Amelio, Ernesto; Marlinghaus, Ernst; Suzuki, Hisanori

    2009-01-01

    Shock waves (SW), defined as a sequence of single sonic pulses characterised by high peak pressure (100 MPa), a fast rise in pressure (conveyed by an appropriate generator to a specific target area at an energy density ranging from 0.03 to 0.11 mJ/mm(2). Extracorporeal SW (ESW) therapy was first used on patients in 1980 to break up kidney stones. During the last ten years, this technique has been successfully employed in orthopaedic diseases such as pseudoarthosis, tendinitis, calcarea of the shoulder, epicondylitis, plantar fasciitis and several inflammatory tendon diseases. In particular, treatment of the tendon and muscle tissues was found to induce a long-time tissue regeneration effect in addition to having a more immediate anthalgic and anti-inflammatory outcome. In keeping with this, an increase in neoangiogenesis in the tendons of dogs was observed after 4-8 weeks of ESW treatment. Furthermore, clinical observations indicate an immediate increase in blood flow around the treated area. Nevertheless, the biochemical mechanisms underlying these effects have yet to be fully elucidated. In the present review, we briefly detail the physical properties of ESW and clinical cases treated with this therapy. We then go on to describe the possible molecular mechanism that triggers the anti-inflammatory action of ESW, focusing on the possibility that ESW may modulate endogenous nitric oxide (NO) production either under normal or inflammatory conditions. Data on the rapid enhancement of endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) activity in ESW-treated cells suggest that increased NO levels and the subsequent suppression of NF-kappaB activation may account, at least in part, for the clinically beneficial action on tissue inflammation.

  11. MIGRE: an Expert System as an aid for loose part diagnosis and mechanical shocks interpretation in nuclear plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monnier, B.; Puyal, C.; Fernandes, A.; Martin, C.

    1990-01-01

    This paper presents an application of the expert system technique to one of the functions which participate to the surveillance of the primary circuit of water-pressurized reactors: the detection of loose parts and the interpretation of mechanical shocks. First, we describe the domain of expertise and the context in which this expert system will be used. Then we deal with the principles and the different levels involved in the knowledge modeling and with the structure of the expert system

  12. Molecular mechanisms of the angiogenic effects of low-energy shock wave therapy: roles of mechanotransduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatanaka, Kazuaki; Ito, Kenta; Shindo, Tomohiko; Kagaya, Yuta; Ogata, Tsuyoshi; Eguchi, Kumiko; Kurosawa, Ryo; Shimokawa, Hiroaki

    2016-09-01

    We have previously demonstrated that low-energy extracorporeal cardiac shock wave (SW) therapy improves myocardial ischemia through enhanced myocardial angiogenesis in a porcine model of chronic myocardial ischemia and in patients with refractory angina pectoris. However, the detailed molecular mechanisms for the SW-induced angiogenesis remain unclear. In this study, we thus examined the effects of SW irradiation on intracellular signaling pathways in vitro. Cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were treated with 800 shots of low-energy SW (1 Hz at an energy level of 0.03 mJ/mm(2)). The SW therapy significantly upregulated mRNA expression and protein levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS). The SW therapy also enhanced phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (Erk1/2) and Akt. Furthermore, the SW therapy enhanced phosphorylation of caveolin-1 and the expression of HUTS-4 that represents β1-integrin activity. These results suggest that caveolin-1 and β1-integrin are involved in the SW-induced activation of angiogenic signaling pathways. To further examine the signaling pathways involved in the SW-induced angiogenesis, HUVECs were transfected with siRNA of either β1-integrin or caveolin-1. Knockdown of either caveolin-1 or β1-integrin suppressed the SW-induced phosphorylation of Erk1/2 and Akt and upregulation of VEGF and eNOS. Knockdown of either caveolin-1 or β1-integrin also suppressed SW-induced enhancement of HUVEC migration in scratch assay. These results suggest that activation of mechanosensors on cell membranes, such as caveolin-1 and β1-integrin, and subsequent phosphorylation of Erk and Akt may play pivotal roles in the SW-induced angiogenesis. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  13. FAVOR: A new fracture mechanics code for reactor pressure vessels subjected to pressurized thermal shock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickson, T.L.

    1993-01-01

    Probabilistic fracture mechanics (PFM) analysis is a major element of the comprehensive probabilistic methodology endorsed by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) for evaluation of the integrity of pressurized water reactor pressure vessels subjected to pressurized-thermal-shock (PTS) transients. OCA-P and VISA-II are PTS PFM computer codes that are currently referenced in Regulatory Guide 1.154 as acceptable codes for performing plant-specific analyses. These codes perform PFM analyses to estimate the increase in vessel failure probability as the vessel accumulates radiation damage over the operating life of the vessel. Experience with the application of these codes in the last few years has provided insights into areas where they could be improved. As more plants approach the PTS screening criteria and are required to perform plant-specific analyses, there will be an increasing need for an improved and validated PTS PFM code that is accepted by the NRC and utilities. The NRC funded Heavy Section Steel Technology Program (HSST) at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory is currently developing the FAVOR (Fracture Analysis of Vessels: Oak Ridge) code, which is expected to meet this need. The FAVOR code incorporates the most important features of both OCA-P and VISA-II and contains some new capabilities such as (1) a PFM global modeling methodology; (2) the calculation of the axial stress component associated with coolant streaming beneath an inlet nozzle; (3) a library of stress intensity factor influence coefficients, generated by the NQA-1 certified ABAQUS computer code, for an appropriate range of two and three dimensional inner-surface flaws; (4) the flexibility to generate a variety of output reports; and (5) enhanced user friendliness

  14. Behavioral Outcomes Differ Between Rotational Acceleration and Blast Mechanisms of Mild Traumatic Brain Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian D. Stemper

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI can result from a number of mechanisms, including blunt impact, head rotational acceleration, exposure to blast, and penetration of projectiles. Mechanism is likely to influence the type, severity, and chronicity of outcomes. The objective of this study was to determine differences in the severity and time-course of behavioral outcomes following blast and rotational mTBI. The Medical College of Wisconsin (MCW Rotational Injury model and a shock tube model of primary blast injury were used to induce mTBI in rats and behavioral assessments were conducted within the first week, as well as 30 and 60 days following injury. Acute recovery time demonstrated similar increases over protocol-matched shams, indicating acute injury severity equivalence between the two mechanisms. Post-injury behavior in the elevated plus maze demonstrated differing trends, with rotationally injured rats acutely demonstrating greater activity, whereas blast-injured rats had decreased activity that developed at chronic time points. Similarly, blast-injured rats demonstrated trends associated with cognitive deficits that were not apparent following rotational injuries. These findings demonstrate that rotational and blast injury result in behavioral changes with different qualitative and temporal manifestations. Whereas rotational injury was characterized by a rapidly emerging phenotype consistent with behavioral disinhibition, blast injury was associated with emotional and cognitive differences that were not evident acutely, but developed later, with an anxiety-like phenotype still present in injured animals at our most chronic measurements.

  15. Nonthermal ions and associated magnetic field behavior at a quasi-parallel earth's bow shock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, W. P.; Pardaens, A. K.; Schwartz, S. J.; Burgess, D.; Luehr, H.; Kessel, R. L.; Dunlop, M.; Farrugia, C. J.

    1993-01-01

    Attention is given to ion and magnetic field measurements at the earth's bow shock from the AMPTE-UKS and -IRM spacecraft, which were examined in high time resolution during a 45-min interval when the field remained closely aligned with the model bow shock normal. Dense ion beams were detected almost exclusively in the midst of short-duration periods of turbulent magnetic field wave activity. Many examples of propagation at large elevation angles relative to the ecliptic plane, which is inconsistent with reflection in the standard model shock configuration, were discovered. The associated waves are elliptically polarized and are preferentially left-handed in the observer's frame of reference, but are less confined to the maximum variance plane than other previously studied foreshock waves. The association of the wave activity with the ion beams suggests that the former may be triggered by an ion-driven instability, and possible candidates are discussed.

  16. Release of Bacterial Spores from the Inner Walls of a Stainless Steel Cup Subjected to Thermal Stresses and Mechanical Shock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolochow, H.; Chatigny, M.; Hebert, J.

    1973-01-01

    The release and fallout of particulates from surfaces afforded thermal or impact stress is of concern for control of contamination of Mars from planetary landing vehicles. A metal vessel contaminated by aerosols of spores was used as a model system and the fallout of spores as affected by various mechanisms was examined. Thermal stresses simulating those expected on the Mars lander dislodged approximately .01% of the aerosol deposited surface burden as did a landing shock of 8 to 10G deceleration. Spores imprinted by finger or swab contact yielded similar results. In all cases where repeated cycling of temperature, motion, or shock were employed the majority of fallout occurred in the first cycle. Particles released from the surface were predominantly in the size range 1 to 5 microns.

  17. Temperatures, strains and crack behavior during local thermal shock tests on the RPV-cylinder of the HDR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neubrech, G.E.; Goerner, F.; Siebler, T.

    1987-01-01

    This report summarises and critically discusses the results obtained from thermal shocks locally applied to the inner surface of the RPV-cylinder. This evaluation is based on on-line measurements (temperatures and strains at the RPV-wall during the thermal shock loading, non-destructive-testing), on materials investigations, and on theoretical investigations (finite element calculations, fracture mechanics analyses). The comparison between the corresponding measured and calculated results serves as a basis for subsequent assessments. It was the object of these tests to achieve the following primary aims: - Investigation of the loading conditions produced by local thermal shocks during realistic cooling processes. - A better understanding of the physical processes involved in crack initiation and propagation resulting from thermocyclic loading. - Assessment of non-destructive-testing methods with respect to detection and analysis of cracks as a basis for fracture mechanical evaluations. - Assessment of the reliability of the applied structural analysis methods. - Production of naturally formed deep cracks on the inner surface of the RPV-cylinder by means of excessive cooling processes. (orig./HP)

  18. Controlled by the Corporate Narrative: Obama's Education Policy, the Shock Doctrine, and Mechanisms of Capitalist Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lea, Virginia

    2011-01-01

    This article aims to illuminate how and why public schools have been sustained and/or strengthened as hierarchical, inequitable, and undemocratic sites that serve the corporate capitalist state. In doing so, the author draws on three theoretical ideas: the "shock doctrine," described vividly by Naomi Klein (2007); "critical…

  19. Characterization of shocked beryllium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Papin P.A.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available While numerous studies have investigated the low-strain-rate constitutive response of beryllium, the combined influence of high strain rate and temperature on the mechanical behavior and microstructure of beryllium has received limited attention over the last 40 years. In the current work, high strain rate tests were conducted using both explosive drive and a gas gun to accelerate the material. Prior studies have focused on tensile loading behavior, or limited conditions of dynamic strain rate and/or temperature. Two constitutive strength (plasticity models, the Preston-Tonks-Wallace (PTW and Mechanical Threshold Stress (MTS models, were calibrated using common quasi-static and Hopkinson bar data. However, simulations with the two models give noticeably different results when compared with the measured experimental wave profiles. The experimental results indicate that, even if fractured by the initial shock loading, the Be remains sufficiently intact to support a shear stress following partial release and subsequent shock re-loading. Additional “arrested” drive shots were designed and tested to minimize the reflected tensile pulse in the sample. These tests were done to both validate the model and to put large shock induced compressive loads into the beryllium sample.

  20. Dynamic behavior of zirconium alloy E110 under submicrosecond shock-wave loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazakov D.N.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Stress waves have been measured under shock wave loading of zirconium alloy E110 samples with the 0.5 – 8 mm thickness at normal and elevated temperatures. Duration of shock loading pulses varied from ∼0.05 up to 1μs with the amplitude varying from 3.4 up to 23 GPa. Free-surface velocity profiles have been registered using VISAR and PDV interferometers with nanosecond resolution. Attenuation of the elastic precursor has been measured to determine plastic strain rate behind the elastic precursor front. The plastic strain rate was observed to decrease with propagation from 106 s−1 at the 0.46-mm distance down to 2 ⋅ 104 s−1 at the 8-mm distance. Spall strength has been measured under normal and elevated temperatures. Spall strength versus strain rate relationships have been constructed in the 105 s−1 – 106s−1 range. Under shock compression higher than 10.6 GPa, the three-wave configuration of the shock wave has been registered and the polymorphous α → ω transition is considered to be the reason of this phenomenon. This work was supported by State Atomic Energy Corporation “Rosatom” within State Contract # H.4x.44.90.13.1111

  1. Dynamic behavior of zirconium alloy E110 under submicrosecond shock-wave loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazakov, D. N.; Kozelkov, O. E.; Mayorova, A. S.; Malyugina, S. N.; Mokrushin, S. S.; Pavlenko, A. V.

    2015-09-01

    Stress waves have been measured under shock wave loading of zirconium alloy E110 samples with the 0.5 - 8 mm thickness at normal and elevated temperatures. Duration of shock loading pulses varied from ˜0.05 up to 1μs with the amplitude varying from 3.4 up to 23 GPa. Free-surface velocity profiles have been registered using VISAR and PDV interferometers with nanosecond resolution. Attenuation of the elastic precursor has been measured to determine plastic strain rate behind the elastic precursor front. The plastic strain rate was observed to decrease with propagation from 106 s-1 at the 0.46-mm distance down to 2 ṡ 104 s-1 at the 8-mm distance. Spall strength has been measured under normal and elevated temperatures. Spall strength versus strain rate relationships have been constructed in the 105 s-1 - 106s-1 range. Under shock compression higher than 10.6 GPa, the three-wave configuration of the shock wave has been registered and the polymorphous α → ω transition is considered to be the reason of this phenomenon. This work was supported by State Atomic Energy Corporation "Rosatom" within State Contract # H.4x.44.90.13.1111

  2. Consumer behavior as a mechanism for identity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. M. Kuzmuk

    2015-03-01

    Given this vital question is presence of  ukrainian society manifestations of contemporary consumer culture in which consumption can be considered as social­communicative function that has qualitative and quantitative characteristics and is mechanism for constructing person’s identity.

  3. Shock Initiation of Damaged Explosives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chidester, S K; Vandersall, K S; Tarver, C M

    2009-10-22

    Explosive and propellant charges are subjected to various mechanical and thermal insults that can increase their sensitivity over the course of their lifetimes. To quantify this effect, shock initiation experiments were performed on mechanically and thermally damaged LX-04 (85% HMX, 15% Viton by weight) and PBX 9502 (95% TATB, 5% Kel-F by weight) to obtain in-situ manganin pressure gauge data and run distances to detonation at various shock pressures. We report the behavior of the HMX-based explosive LX-04 that was damaged mechanically by applying a compressive load of 600 psi for 20,000 cycles, thus creating many small narrow cracks, or by cutting wedge shaped parts that were then loosely reassembled, thus creating a few large cracks. The thermally damaged LX-04 charges were heated to 190 C for long enough for the beta to delta solid - solid phase transition to occur, and then cooled to ambient temperature. Mechanically damaged LX-04 exhibited only slightly increased shock sensitivity, while thermally damaged LX-04 was much more shock sensitive. Similarly, the insensitive explosive PBX 9502 was mechanically damaged using the same two techniques. Since PBX 9502 does not undergo a solid - solid phase transition but does undergo irreversible or 'rachet' growth when thermally cycled, thermal damage to PBX 9502 was induced by this procedure. As for LX-04, the thermally damaged PBX 9502 demonstrated a greater shock sensitivity than mechanically damaged PBX 9502. The Ignition and Growth reactive flow model calculated the increased sensitivities by igniting more damaged LX-04 and PBX 9502 near the shock front based on the measured densities (porosities) of the damaged charges.

  4. Effects and mechanisms of cavidine protecting mice against LPS-induced endotoxic shock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Weifeng, E-mail: liwf@mail.xjtu.edu.cn; Zhang, Hailin; Niu, Xiaofeng, E-mail: niuxf@mail.xjtu.edu.cn; Wang, Xiumei; Wang, Yu; He, Zehong; Yao, Huan

    2016-08-15

    LPS sensitized mice are usually considered as an experimental model of endotoxin shock. The present study aims to evaluate effects of cavidine on LPS-induced endotoxin shock. Mice were intraperitoneally administrated with cavidine (1, 3 and 10 mg/kg) or DEX (5 mg/kg) at 1 and 12 h before injecting LPS (30 mg/kg) intraperitoneally. Blood samples, liver, lung and kidney tissues were harvested after LPS injection. The study demonstrated that pretreatment with cavidine reduced the mortality of mice during 72 h after endotoxin injection. In addition, cavidine administration significantly attenuated histological pathophysiology features of LPS-induced injury in lung, liver and kidney. Furthermore, cavidine administration inhibited endotoxin-induced production of pro-inflammatory cytokines including TNF-α, IL-6 and HMGB1. Moreover, cavidine pretreatment attenuated the phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinase primed by LPS. In summary, cavidine protects mice against LPS-induced endotoxic shock via inhibiting early pro-inflammatory cytokine TNF-α, IL-6 and late-phase cytokine HMGB1, and the modulation of HMGB1 may be related with MAPK signal pathway. - Highlights: • Cavidine significantly reduced mortality in mice during 72 h after LPS injection. • Cavidine attenuated histopathological changes in lung, liver and kidney. • Cavidine decreased the level of early inflammatory cytokine TNF-α, IL-6 in LPS- stimulated mice. • Cavidine inhibited late inflammatory cytokine HMGB1 through MAPK pathway.

  5. Animal behavior models of the mechanisms underlying antipsychotic atypicality.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geyer, M.A.; Ellenbroek, B.A.

    2003-01-01

    This review describes the animal behavior models that provide insight into the mechanisms underlying the critical differences between the actions of typical vs. atypical antipsychotic drugs. Although many of these models are capable of differentiating between antipsychotic and other psychotropic

  6. Microstructural response and grain refinement mechanism of commercially pure titanium subjected to multiple laser shock peening impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, J.Z.; Wu, L.J.; Sun, G.F.; Luo, K.Y.; Zhang, Y.K.; Cai, J.; Cui, C.Y.; Luo, X.M.

    2017-01-01

    The microstructural response and grain subdivision process in commercially pure (CP) titanium subjected to multiple laser shock peening (LSP) impacts were investigated by means of optical microscopy (OM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observations. The micro-hardness curves as a function of the impact time were also determined. The deformation-induced grain refinement mechanism of the close-packed hexagonal (hcp) material by laser shock wave was subsequently analyzed. Experimental results showed that uniform equiaxed grains with an average size of less than 50 nm were generated due to the ultra-high plastic strain induced by multiple LSP impacts. Special attention was paid to four types of novel deformation-induced microstructural features, including a layered slip band in the tension deformation zone, and inverse-transformation martensite, micro-twin grating and micro-twin collision in the compression deformation zone. Furthermore, the grain refinement mechanism in the near-surface layer of CP titanium subjected to multiple LSP impacts contains two types of simultaneous subdivision modes: multi-directional mechanical twin (MT)-MT intersections at (sub)micrometer scale, and the intersection between longitudinal secondary MTs and transverse dislocation walls at nanometer scale. In addition, both grain refinement (nanocrystallization) and the existence of a small amount of inverse-transformation martensite induced by multiple LSP impacts contribute to an increase in the micro-hardness of the near-surface layer.

  7. Dynamic behavior of small heat shock protein inhibition on amyloid fibrillization of a small peptide (SSTSAA) from RNase A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xi, Dong; Dong, Xiao; Deng, Wei; Lai, Luhua

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: ► Mechanism of small heat shock protein inhibition on fibril formation was studied. ► Peptide SSTSAA with modified ends was used for amyloid fibril formation. ► FRET signal was followed during the fibril formation. ► Mj HSP16.5 inhibits fibril formation when introduced in the lag phase. ► Mj HSP16.5 slows down fibril formation when introduced after the lag phase. -- Abstract: Small heat shock proteins, a class of molecular chaperones, are reported to inhibit amyloid fibril formation in vitro, while the mechanism of inhibition remains unknown. In the present study, we investigated the mechanism by which Mj HSP16.5 inhibits amyloid fibril formation of a small peptide (SSTSAA) from RNase A. A model peptide (dansyl-SSTSAA-W) was designed by introducing a pair of fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) probes into the peptide, allowing for the monitoring of fibril formation by this experimental model. Mj HSP16.5 completely inhibited fibril formation of the model peptide at a molar ratio of 1:120. The dynamic process of fibril formation, revealed by FRET, circular dichroism, and electron microscopy, showed a lag phase of about 2 h followed by a fast growth period. The effect of Mj HSP16.5 on amyloid fibril formation was investigated by adding it into the incubation solution during different growth phases. Adding Mj HSP16.5 to the incubating peptide before or during the lag phase completely inhibited fibril formation. However, introducing Mj HSP16.5 after the lag phase only slowed down the fibril formation process by adhering to the already formed fibrils. These findings provide insight into the inhibitory roles of small heat shock proteins on amyloid fibril formation at the molecular level.

  8. Dynamic behavior of small heat shock protein inhibition on amyloid fibrillization of a small peptide (SSTSAA) from RNase A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xi, Dong [BNLMS, State Key Laboratory of Structural Chemistry for Unstable and Stable Species, College of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Center for Theoretical Biology, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Dong, Xiao; Deng, Wei [BNLMS, State Key Laboratory of Structural Chemistry for Unstable and Stable Species, College of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Lai, Luhua, E-mail: lhlai@pku.edu.cn [BNLMS, State Key Laboratory of Structural Chemistry for Unstable and Stable Species, College of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Center for Theoretical Biology, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)

    2011-12-09

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mechanism of small heat shock protein inhibition on fibril formation was studied. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Peptide SSTSAA with modified ends was used for amyloid fibril formation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer FRET signal was followed during the fibril formation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mj HSP16.5 inhibits fibril formation when introduced in the lag phase. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mj HSP16.5 slows down fibril formation when introduced after the lag phase. -- Abstract: Small heat shock proteins, a class of molecular chaperones, are reported to inhibit amyloid fibril formation in vitro, while the mechanism of inhibition remains unknown. In the present study, we investigated the mechanism by which Mj HSP16.5 inhibits amyloid fibril formation of a small peptide (SSTSAA) from RNase A. A model peptide (dansyl-SSTSAA-W) was designed by introducing a pair of fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) probes into the peptide, allowing for the monitoring of fibril formation by this experimental model. Mj HSP16.5 completely inhibited fibril formation of the model peptide at a molar ratio of 1:120. The dynamic process of fibril formation, revealed by FRET, circular dichroism, and electron microscopy, showed a lag phase of about 2 h followed by a fast growth period. The effect of Mj HSP16.5 on amyloid fibril formation was investigated by adding it into the incubation solution during different growth phases. Adding Mj HSP16.5 to the incubating peptide before or during the lag phase completely inhibited fibril formation. However, introducing Mj HSP16.5 after the lag phase only slowed down the fibril formation process by adhering to the already formed fibrils. These findings provide insight into the inhibitory roles of small heat shock proteins on amyloid fibril formation at the molecular level.

  9. Computations of slowly moving shocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karni, S.; Canic, S.

    1997-01-01

    Computations of slowly moving shocks by shock capturing schemes may generate oscillations are generated already by first-order schemes, but become more pronounced in higher-order schemes which seem to exhibit different behaviors: (i) the first-order upwind (UW) scheme which generates strong oscillations and (ii) the Lax-Friedrichs scheme which appears not to generate any disturbances at all. A key observation is that in the UW case, the numerical viscosity in the shock family vanishes inside the slow shock layer. Simple scaling arguments show the third-order effects on the solution may no longer be neglected. We derive the third-order modified equation for the UW scheme and regard the oscillatory solution as a traveling wave solution of the parabolic modified equation for the perturbation. We then look at the governing equation for the perturbation, which points to a plausible mechanism by which postshock oscillations are generated. It contains a third-order source term that becomes significant inside the shock layer, and a nonlinear coupling term which projects the perturbation on all characteristic fields, including those not associated with the shock family. 5 refs., 8 figs

  10. A prototype of behavior selection mechanism based on emotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guofeng; Li, Zushu

    2007-12-01

    In bionic methodology rather than in design methodology more familiar with, summarizing the psychological researches of emotion, we propose the biologic mechanism of emotion, emotion selection role in creature evolution and a anima framework including emotion similar to the classical control structure; and consulting Prospect Theory, build an Emotion Characteristic Functions(ECF) that computer emotion; two more emotion theories are added to them that higher emotion is preferred and middle emotion makes brain run more efficiently, emotional behavior mechanism comes into being. A simulation of proposed mechanism are designed and carried out on Alife Swarm software platform. In this simulation, a virtual grassland ecosystem is achieved where there are two kinds of artificial animals: herbivore and preyer. These artificial animals execute four types of behavior: wandering, escaping, finding food, finding sex partner in their lives. According the theories of animal ethnology, escaping from preyer is prior to other behaviors for its existence, finding food is secondly important behavior, rating is third one and wandering is last behavior. In keeping this behavior order, based on our behavior characteristic function theory, the specific functions of emotion computing are built of artificial autonomous animals. The result of simulation confirms the behavior selection mechanism.

  11. The mechanical behavior of nanoscale metallic multilayers: A survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Q.; Xie, J. Y.; Wang, F.; Huang, P.; Xu, K. W.; Lu, T. J.

    2015-06-01

    The mechanical behavior of nanoscale metallic multilayers (NMMs) has attracted much attention from both scientific and practical views. Compared with their monolithic counterparts, the large number of interfaces existing in the NMMs dictates the unique behavior of this special class of structural composite materials. While there have been a number of reviews on the mechanical mechanism of microlaminates, the rapid development of nanotechnology brought a pressing need for an overview focusing exclusively on a property-based definition of the NMMs, especially their size-dependent microstructure and mechanical performance. This article attempts to provide a comprehensive and up-to-date review on the microstructure, mechanical property and plastic deformation physics of NMMs. We hope this review could accomplish two purposes: (1) introducing the basic concepts of scaling and dimensional analysis to scientists and engineers working on NMM systems, and (2) providing a better understanding of interface behavior and the exceptional qualities the interfaces in NMMs display at atomic scale.

  12. An overview of low back pain and occupational exposures to whole-body vibration and mechanical shocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovenzi, Massimo; Schust, Marianne; Mauro, Marcella

    2017-12-14

    This paper offers an overview of the relation of low back pain (LBP) to occupational exposures to whole-body vibration (WBV) and mechanical shocks. LBP is a condition of multifactorial origin and is a very common health problem in the general population. Among occupational risk factors, epidemiological studies of driving occupations have provided evidence for strong associations between LBP and occupational exposures to WBV and mechanical shocks. Since it is hard to separate the contribution of WBV exposure to disorders in the lower back from that of other individual, ergonomic or psychosocial risk factors, a quantitative exposure-response relationship for WBV cannot be outlined precisely. Experimental research has provided biodynamic support to the findings of epidemiological studies, showing that in controlled laboratory conditions exposure to WBV can cause mechanical overload to the human spine. The EU Directive on mechanical vibration has established daily exposure action and limit values to protect the workers against the risk from WBV. There is some evidence that the EU exposure limit values are excessive, so much so that an elevated risk of LBP has been found for WBV exposures beneath the EU limit values. In the Italian arm of the EU VIBRISKS prospective cohort study of professional drivers, measures of internal lumbar load (compressive and shear peak forces), calculated by means of anatomy-based finite-element models, were found better predictors of the occurrence over time of low back disorders than the metrics of external exposure suggested by the EU Directive on mechanical vibration. Further biodynamic and epidemiological studies are needed to validate the findings of the VIBRISKS study.

  13. Adolescent Suicidal Behavior and Substance Use: Developmental Mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald M. Dougherty

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Adolescent suicidal behaviors and substance use are disturbingly common. Research suggests overlap of some of the etiological mechanisms for both adolescent suicidal behavior and substance use, yet clear understanding of the complex relations between these behaviors and their causal underpinnings is lacking. A growing body of evidence and a diathesis model (Mann et al. 1999; Mann, 2003 highlight the importance of impulse control as a proximal risk factor for adolescent suicidal and substance use behaviors. This literature review extends current theory on the relationships between adolescent suicidal behavior and substance use by: (1 examining how, when, and to what extent adolescent development is affected by poor impulse control, stressful life events, substance use behavior, and biological factors; (2 presenting proposed causal mechanisms by which these risk factors interact to increase risk for suicidal behaviors and substance use; and (3 proposing specific new hypotheses to extend the diathesis model to adolescents at risk for suicide and substance use. More specifically, new hypotheses are presented that predict bidirectional relationships between stressful life events and genetic markers of 5-HT dysregulation; substance use behavior and impulsivity; and substance use behavior and suicide attempts. The importance of distinguishing between different developmental trajectories of suicidal and substance use behaviors, and the effects of specific risk and protective mechanisms are discussed. Use of new statistical approaches that provide for the comparison of latent growth curves and latent class models is recommended to identify differences in developmental trajectories of suicidal behavior and substance use. Knowledge gained from these prospective longitudinal methods should lead to greater understanding on the timing, duration, and extent to which specific risk and protective factors influence the outcomes of suicidal behavior and substance

  14. Members of the heat-shock protein 70 family promote cancer cell growth by distinct mechanisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rohde, Mikkel; Daugaard, Mads; Jensen, Mette Hartvig

    2005-01-01

    Whereas the stress-inducible heat-shock protein 70 (Hsp70) has gained plenty of attention as a putative target for tumor therapy, little is known about the role of other Hsp70 proteins in cancer. Here we present the first thorough analysis of the expression and function of the cytosolic Hsp70...... proteins in human cancer cells and identify Hsp70-2, a protein essential for spermatogenesis, as an important regulator of cancer cell growth. Targeted knock-down of the individual family members by RNA interference revealed that both Hsp70 and Hsp70-2 were required for cancer cell growth, whereas...

  15. Mechanical behavior of mullite-zirconia composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahnoune F.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In this work, mechanical properties of mullite–zirconia composites synthesised through reaction sintering of Algerian kaolin, α-Al2O3, and ZrO2 were characterized. Phases present and their transformations were characterized using x-ray diffraction. Hardness H and fracture toughness KIC were measured by Vickers indentation using a Zwick microhardness tester. The flexural strength was measured through three point bending test using an Instron Universal Testing Machine. It was found that the increase of ZrO2 content (from 0 to 32wt.% decreased the microhardness of the composites from 14 to 10.8 GPa. However, the increase of ZrO2 content (from 0 to 24wt.% increased the flexural strength of the composites from 142 to 390 MPa then decreased it with further increase of ZrO2 content. Also, the fracture toughness increased from 1.8 to 2.9 MPa.m1/2 with the increase of ZrO2 content from 0 to 32 wt.%; and the rate of the increase decreased at higher fractions of ZrO2 content. The average linear coefficient of thermal expansion (within the range 50 to 1450°C for samples containing 0 and 16 wt.% ZrO2 sintered at 1600°C for 2 hours was 4.7 x10-6 K-1 and 5.2 x 10-6 K-1 respectively.

  16. Dynamic mechanical behaviors of Fangshan marble

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Yao

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Dynamic strength parameters are extensively used in mining engineering and rock mechanics. However, there are no widely accepted dynamic failure models for rocks. In this study, the dynamic punching shear strength, uniaxial compressive strength (UCS and tensile strength of fine-grained Fangshan marble (FM are first measured by using a split Hopkinson pressure bar (SHPB system. The pulse-shaping technique is then implemented to maintain the dynamic force balance in SHPB tests. Experimental results show that the dynamic punching shear strength, UCS and tensile strength increase with the loading rate. A recently developed dynamic Mohr-Coulomb theory is then used to interpret the testing data. In this model, the angle of internal friction ϕ is assumed to be independent of loading rate and is obtained using the static strength values. According to the dynamic Mohr-Coulomb theory, the dynamic UCS and the dynamic tensile strength are predicted from the dynamic punching shear strength. Furthermore, based on this dynamic theory, the dynamic UCS is predicted from the dynamic tensile strength. The consistency between the predicted and measured dynamic strengths demonstrates that the dynamic Mohr-Coulomb theory is applicable to FM.

  17. Mechanical Behavior of Additively Manufactured Uranium-6 wt. pct. Niobium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, A. S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Wraith, M. W. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Burke, S. C. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Hamza, A. V. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Brown, D. W. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Clausen, B. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Hsiung, L. L. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); McKeown, J. T. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Lindvall, R. E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Sedillo, E. M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Teslich, N. E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Torres, S. G. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Urabe, D. S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Freeman, D. C. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Alexander, P. A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Iniguez, M. R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Ryerson, F. J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Ancheta, D. S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Lotscher, J. P. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Young, E. W. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Evans, C. L. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Florando, J. N. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Gallegos, G. F. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Margraff, M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Hrousis, C. A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Campbell, G. H. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-09-15

    This report describes an effort to process uranium-6 weight% niobium using laser powder bed fusion. The chemistry, crystallography, microstructure and mechanical response resulting from this process are discussed with particular emphasis on the effect of the laser powder bed fusion process on impurities. In an effort to achieve homogenization and uniform mechanical behavior from different builds, as well as to induce a more conventional loading response, we explore post-processing heat treatments on this complex alloy. Elevated temperature heat treatment for recrystallization is evaluated and the effect of recrystallization on mechanical behavior in laser powder bed fusion processed U-6Nb is discussed. Wrought-like mechanical behavior and grain sizes are achieved through post-processing and are reported herein.

  18. Experimental approach and micro-mechanical modeling of the mechanical behavior of irradiated zirconium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onimus, F.

    2003-12-01

    Zirconium alloys cladding tubes containing nuclear fuel of the Pressurized Water Reactors constitute the first safety barrier against the dissemination of radioactive elements. Thus, it is essential to predict the mechanical behavior of the material in-reactor conditions. This study aims, on the one hand, to identify and characterize the mechanisms of the plastic deformation of irradiated zirconium alloys and, on the other hand, to propose a micro-mechanical modeling based on these mechanisms. The experimental analysis shows that, for the irradiated material, the plastic deformation occurs by dislocation channeling. For transverse tensile test and internal pressure test this channeling occurs in the basal planes. However, for axial tensile test, the study revealed that the plastic deformation also occurs by channeling but in the prismatic and pyramidal planes. In addition, the study of the macroscopic mechanical behavior, compared to the deformation mechanisms observed by TEM, suggested that the internal stress is higher in the case of irradiated material than in the case of non-irradiated material, because of the very heterogeneous character of the plastic deformation. This analysis led to a coherent interpretation of the mechanical behavior of irradiated materials, in terms of deformation mechanisms. The mechanical behavior of irradiated materials was finally modeled by applying homogenization methods for heterogeneous materials. This model is able to reproduce adequately the mechanical behavior of the irradiated material, in agreement with the TEM observations. (author)

  19. Behavioral and neural Darwinism: selectionist function and mechanism in adaptive behavior dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDowell, J J

    2010-05-01

    An evolutionary theory of behavior dynamics and a theory of neuronal group selection share a common selectionist framework. The theory of behavior dynamics instantiates abstractly the idea that behavior is selected by its consequences. It implements Darwinian principles of selection, reproduction, and mutation to generate adaptive behavior in virtual organisms. The behavior generated by the theory has been shown to be quantitatively indistinguishable from that of live organisms. The theory of neuronal group selection suggests a mechanism whereby the abstract principles of the evolutionary theory may be implemented in the nervous systems of biological organisms. According to this theory, groups of neurons subserving behavior may be selected by synaptic modifications that occur when the consequences of behavior activate value systems in the brain. Together, these theories constitute a framework for a comprehensive account of adaptive behavior that extends from brain function to the behavior of whole organisms in quantitative detail. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Effect of mechanical ventilation on systemic oxygen extraction and lactic acidosis during early septic shock in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffel, M I; Astiz, M E; Rackow, E C; Weil, M H

    1990-01-01

    We studied the effect of mechanical ventilation on systemic oxygen extraction and lactic acidosis in peritonitis and shock in rats. Sepsis was induced by cecal ligation and perforation. After tracheostomy, rats were randomized to spontaneous breathing (S) or mechanical ventilation with paralysis (V). Five animals were studied in each group. The V animals were paralyzed with pancuronium bromide to eliminate respiratory effort. Mechanical ventilation consisted of controlled ventilation using a rodent respirator with periodic adjustment of minute ventilation to maintain PaCO2 and pH within normal range. Arterial and central venous blood gases and thermodilution cardiac output were measured at baseline before abdominal surgery, and sequentially at 0.5, 3.5, and 6 h after surgery. At 6 h, cardiac output was 193 +/- 30 ml/kg.min in S animals and 199 +/- 32 ml/kg.min in V animals (NS). The central venous oxygen saturation was 27.4 +/- 4.7% in S animals and 30.0 +/- 6.4% in V animals (NS). Systemic oxygen extraction was 70 +/- 5% in S animals and 67 +/- 6% in V animals (NS). Arterial lactate was 2.4 +/- 0.4 mmol/L in S animals and 2.2 +/- 0.5 mmol/L in V animals (NS). The S animals developed lethal hypotension at 6.6 +/- 0.4 h compared to 6.8 +/- 0.4 h in V animals (NS). These data suggest that mechanical ventilation does not decrease systemic oxygen extraction or ameliorate the development of lactic acidosis during septic shock.

  1. Computational methods for fracture mechanics analysis of pressurized-thermal-shock experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bass, B.R.; Bryan, R.H.; Bryson, J.W.; Merkle, J.G.

    1984-01-01

    Extensive computational analyses are required to determine material parameters and optimum pressure-temperature transients compatible with proposed pressurized-thermal-shock (PTS) test scenarios and with the capabilities of the PTS test facility at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Computational economy has led to the application of techniques suitable for parametric studies involving the analysis of a large number of transients. These techniques, which include analysis capability for two- and three-dimensional (2-D and 3-D) superposition, inelastic ligament stability, and upper-shelf arrest, have been incorporated into the OCA/USA computer program. Features of the OCA/USA program are discussed, including applications to the PTS test configuration

  2. Computational methods for fracture mechanics analysis of pressurized-thermal-shock experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bass, B.R.; Bryan, R.H.; Bryson, J.W.; Merkle, J.G.

    1984-01-01

    Extensive computational analyses are required to determine material parameters and optimum pressure-temperature transients compatible with proposed pressurized-thermal-shock (PTS) test scenarios and with the capabilities of the PTS test facility at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Computational economy has led to the application of techniques suitable for parametric studies involving the analysis of a large number of transients. These techniques, which include analysis capability for two- and three-dimensional (2-D and 3-D) superposition, inelastic ligament stability, and upper-shelf arrest, have been incorporated into the OCA/ USA computer program. Features of the OCA/USA program are discussed, including applications to the PTS test configuration. (author)

  3. Holographic interferometric observation of shock wave focusing to extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takayama, Kazuyoshi; Obara, Tetsuro; Onodera, Osamu

    1991-04-01

    Underwater shock wave focusing is successfully applied to disintegrate and remove kidney stones or gallbladder stones without using surgical operations. This treatment is one of the most peaceful applications ofshock waves and is named as the Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy. Ajoint research project is going on between the Institute ofFluid Science, Tohoku University and the School ofMedicine, Tohoku University. The paper describes a result of the fundamental research on the underwater shock wave focusing applied to the ESWL. Quantitatively to visualize the underwater shock waves, various optical flow visualization techniques were successfully used such as holographic interferometry, and shadowgraphs combined with Ima-Con high speed camera. Double exposure holographic interferometric observation revealed the mechanism of generation, propagation and focusing of underwater shock waves. The result of the present research was already used to manufacture a prototype machine and it has already been applied successfully to ESWL crinical treatments. However, despite of success in the clinical treatments, important fundamental questions still remain unsolved, i.e., effects of underwater shock wave focusing on tissue damage during the treatment. Model experiments were conducted to clarify mechanism of the tissue damage associated with the ESWL. Shock-bubble interactions were found responsible to the tissue damage during the ESWL treatment. In order to interprete experimental findings and to predict shock wave behavior and high pressures, a numerical simulation was carried. The numerical results agreed with the experiments.

  4. An evolutionary framework for studying mechanisms of social behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Hans A; Beery, Annaliese K; Blumstein, Daniel T; Couzin, Iain D; Earley, Ryan L; Hayes, Loren D; Hurd, Peter L; Lacey, Eileen A; Phelps, Steven M; Solomon, Nancy G; Taborsky, Michael; Young, Larry J; Rubenstein, Dustin R

    2014-10-01

    Social interactions are central to most animals and have a fundamental impact upon the phenotype of an individual. Social behavior (social interactions among conspecifics) represents a central challenge to the integration of the functional and mechanistic bases of complex behavior. Traditionally, studies of proximate and ultimate elements of social behavior have been conducted by distinct groups of researchers, with little communication across perceived disciplinary boundaries. However, recent technological advances, coupled with increased recognition of the substantial variation in mechanisms underlying social interactions, should compel investigators from divergent disciplines to pursue more integrative analyses of social behavior. We propose an integrative conceptual framework intended to guide researchers towards a comprehensive understanding of the evolution and maintenance of mechanisms governing variation in sociality. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Semiclassical asymptotic behavior and the rearrangement mechanisms for Coulomb particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogdanov, A.V.; Gevorkyan, A.S.; Dubrovskii, G.V.

    1986-01-01

    The semiclassical asymptotic behavior of the eikonal amplitude of the resonance rearrangement in a system of three Coulomb particles is studied. It is shown that the general formula for the amplitude correctly describes two classical mechanisms (pickup and knockout) and one nonclassical mechanism (stripping). The classical mechanisms predominate at high energies, while the stripping mechanism predominates at lower energies. In the region of medium energies the dominant mechanism is the pickup (or Thomas) mechanism, which is realized by nonclassical means. For such transitions the classical cross section diverges, and the amplitude must be computed on a complex trajectory. The physical reasons for introducing the approximate complex trajectories are discussed. The contributions of all the mechanisms to the rearrangement cross section are found in their analytic forms

  6. A novel heat shock protein alpha 8 (Hspa8) molecular network mediating responses to stress- and ethanol-related behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urquhart, Kyle R; Zhao, Yinghong; Baker, Jessica A; Lu, Ye; Yan, Lei; Cook, Melloni N; Jones, Byron C; Hamre, Kristin M; Lu, Lu

    2016-04-01

    Genetic differences mediate individual differences in susceptibility and responses to stress and ethanol, although, the specific molecular pathways that control these responses are not fully understood. Heat shock protein alpha 8 (Hspa8) is a molecular chaperone and member of the heat shock protein family that plays an integral role in the stress response and that has been implicated as an ethanol-responsive gene. Therefore, we assessed its role in mediating responses to stress and ethanol across varying genetic backgrounds. The hippocampus is an important mediator of these responses, and thus, was examined in the BXD family of mice in this study. We conducted bioinformatic analyses to dissect genetic factors modulating Hspa8 expression, identify downstream targets of Hspa8, and examined its role. Hspa8 is trans-regulated by a gene or genes on chromosome 14 and is part of a molecular network that regulates stress- and ethanol-related behaviors. To determine additional components of this network, we identified direct or indirect targets of Hspa8 and show that these genes, as predicted, participate in processes such as protein folding and organic substance metabolic processes. Two phenotypes that map to the Hspa8 locus are anxiety-related and numerous other anxiety- and/or ethanol-related behaviors significantly correlate with Hspa8 expression. To more directly assay this relationship, we examined differences in gene expression following exposure to stress or alcohol and showed treatment-related differential expression of Hspa8 and a subset of the members of its network. Our findings suggest that Hspa8 plays a vital role in genetic differences in responses to stress and ethanol and their interactions.

  7. Shock Waves

    CERN Document Server

    Jiang, Z

    2005-01-01

    The International Symposium on Shock Waves (ISSW) is a well established series of conferences held every two years in a different location. A unique feature of the ISSW is the emphasis on bridging the gap between physicists and engineers working in fields as different as gas dynamics, fluid mechanics and materials sciences. The main results presented at these meetings constitute valuable proceedings that offer anyone working in this field an authoritative and comprehensive source of reference.

  8. Mechanical Model for Dynamic Behavior of Concrete Under Impact Loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yuanxiang

    Concrete is a geo-material which is used substantively in the civil building and military safeguard. One coupled model of damage and plasticity to describe the complex behavior of concrete subjected to impact loading is proposed in this research work. The concrete is assumed as homogeneous continuum with pre-existing micro-cracks and micro-voids. Damage to concrete is caused due to micro-crack nucleation, growth and coalescence, and defined as the probability of fracture at a given crack density. It induces a decrease of strength and stiffness of concrete. Compaction of concrete is physically a collapse of the material voids. It produces the plastic strain in the concrete and, at the same time, an increase of the bulk modulus. In terms of crack growth model, micro-cracks are activated, and begin to propagate gradually. When crack density reaches a critical value, concrete takes place the smashing destroy. The model parameters for mortar are determined using plate impact experiment with uni-axial strain state. Comparison with the test results shows that the proposed model can give consistent prediction of the impact behavior of concrete. The proposed model may be used to design and analysis of concrete structures under impact and shock loading. This work is supported by State Key Laboratory of Explosion science and Technology, Beijing Institute of Technology (YBKT14-02).

  9. Unlimited Relativistic Shock Surfing Acceleration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ucer, D.; Shapiro, V. D.

    2001-01-01

    Nonrelativistic shock surfing acceleration at quasiperpendicular shocks is usually considered to be a preacceleration mechanism for slow pickup ions to initiate diffusive shock acceleration. In shock surfing, the particle accelerates along the shock front under the action of the convective electric field of the plasma flow. However, the particle also gains kinetic energy normal to the shock and eventually escapes downstream. We consider the case when ions are accelerated to relativistic velocities. In this case, the ions are likely to be trapped for infinitely long times, because the energy of bounce oscillations tends to decrease during acceleration. This suggests the possibility of unlimited acceleration by shock surfing

  10. Inclusions and mechanical behavior in the short transverse direction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aubert, H.; Bouleau, M.; Laniesse, J.; Lelong, C.; Pigoury, M.

    1977-01-01

    The variables liable to characterize the distribution of inclusions in plates, and the relationships between the mechanical properties and the fatigue behavior in, on the one hand, the short transverse direction, and, on the other hand, the inclusions are studied. A decoherence is shown between inclusions and matrix as the cause of the failure by lamellar tearing [fr

  11. Mechanical Behavior of Fully Expanded Commercially Available Endovascular Coronary Stents

    OpenAIRE

    Tambaca, Josip; Canic, Suncica; Kosor, Mate; Fish, R. David; Paniagua, David

    2011-01-01

    The mechanical behavior of endovascular coronary stents influences their therapeutic efficacy. Through computational studies, researchers can analyze device performance and improve designs. We developed a 1-dimensional finite element method, net-based algorithm and used it to analyze the effects of radial loading and bending in commercially available stents. Our computational study included designs modeled on the Express, Cypher, Xience, and Palmaz stents.

  12. Numerical simulation of mechanical behavior of composite materials

    CERN Document Server

    Oller, Sergio

    2014-01-01

    An original mechanical formulation to treat nonlinear orthotropic behavior of composite materials is presented in this book. It also examines different formulations that allow us to evaluate the behavior of composite materials through the composition of its components, obtaining a new composite material. Also two multiple scale homogenization methods are given, one based on the analytical study of the cells (Ad-hoc homogenization), and other one, more general based on the finite element procedure applied on the macro scale (upper-scale) and in the micro scale (sub-scale). A very general formulation to simulate the mechanical behavior for traditional composite structures (plywood, reinforced concrete, masonry, etc.), as well as the new composite materials reinforced with long and short fibers, nanotubes, etc., are also shown in this work. Typical phenomena occurring in composite materials are also described in this work, including fiber-matrix debounding, local buckling of fibers and its coupling with the over...

  13. Mechanical behavior of recycled polyethylene/piassava fiber composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elzubair, Amal, E-mail: amal@metalmat.ufrj.br [Universidade Federal de Rio de Janeiro, Departamento de Engenharia Metalurgica e de Materiais, Ilha do Fundao, Bloco F, 21941-972 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Praca General Tiburcio, 80, Urca, 22290-270 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Miguez Suarez, Joao Carlos, E-mail: jmiguez@ime.eb.br [Instituto Militar de Engenharia, Secao de Engenharia Mecanica e de Materiais, Praca General Tiburcio, 80, Urca, 22290-270, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Praca General Tiburcio, 80, Urca, 22290-270 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2012-11-15

    The use of natural fibers for reinforcement of thermoplastics (which are found in domestic waste) is desirable since it is based on abundant and renewable resources and can be ecologically correct. Leopoldinia piassaba Wallace (commonly known as piassava), a palm tree native of Amazon-Brazil, is cheap, easily found in Brazilian markets and the main component of home appliances and decorative goods. The subject of the present work is a study of mechanical properties of composites of recycled high density polyethylene (HDPE-r) reinforced with untreated, and treated (silane and NaOH) piassava fibers, in proportions varying from 0% to 20% and injection molded under fixed processing conditions. The influence of increasing amounts of piassava fibers and of surface treatment on the mechanical behavior of the composites was investigated by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), mechanical testing (tensile and flexure) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The topography of the fractured surfaces of tested tensile specimens of unfilled and filled recycled HDPE was also observed by SEM and correlated with the mechanical behavior. As the fiber content increases, the composites show a gradual change in the mechanical properties and in the fracture mechanisms. Composites with 15% and 20% of piassava fibers were found to exhibit the best mechanical performance.

  14. Epigenetic mechanisms in experience-driven memory formation and behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puckett, Rosemary E; Lubin, Farah D

    2011-01-01

    Epigenetic mechanisms have long been associated with the regulation of gene-expression changes accompanying normal neuronal development and cellular differentiation; however, until recently these mechanisms were believed to be statically quiet in the adult brain. Behavioral neuroscientists have now begun to investigate these epigenetic mechanisms as potential regulators of gene-transcription changes in the CNS subserving synaptic plasticity and long-term memory (LTM) formation. Experimental evidence from learning and memory animal models has demonstrated that active chromatin remodeling occurs in terminally differentiated postmitotic neurons, suggesting that these molecular processes are indeed intimately involved in several stages of LTM formation, including consolidation, reconsolidation and extinction. Such chromatin modifications include the phosphorylation, acetylation and methylation of histone proteins and the methylation of associated DNA to subsequently affect transcriptional gene readout triggered by learning. The present article examines how such learning-induced epigenetic changes contribute to LTM formation and influence behavior. In particular, this article is a survey of the specific epigenetic mechanisms that have been demonstrated to regulate gene expression for both transcription factors and growth factors in the CNS, which are critical for LTM formation and storage, as well as how aberrant epigenetic processing can contribute to psychological states such as schizophrenia and drug addiction. Together, the findings highlighted in this article support a novel role for epigenetic mechanisms in the adult CNS serving as potential key molecular regulators of gene-transcription changes necessary for LTM formation and adult behavior. PMID:22126252

  15. Thermo-hydro-mechanical behavior of fractured rock mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coste, F.

    1997-12-01

    The purpose of this research is to model Thermo-Hydro-Mechanical behavior of fractured rock mass regarding a nuclear waste re-depository. For this, a methodology of modeling was proposed and was applied to a real underground site (EDF site at Nouvelle Romanche). This methodology consists, in a first step, to determine hydraulic and mechanical REV. Beyond the greatest of these REV, development of a finite element code allows to model all the fractures in an explicit manner. The homogenized mechanical properties are determined in drained and undrained boundary conditions by simulating triaxial tests that represent rock mass subject to loading. These simulations allow to study the evolution of hydraulic and mechanical properties as a function of stress state. Drained and undrained boundary conditions enable to discuss the validity of assimilation of a fractured rock mass to a porous medium. The simulations lead to a better understanding of the behavior of the fractured rock masses and allow to show the dominant role of the shear behavior of the fractures on the hydraulic and mechanical homogenized properties. From a thermal point of view, as long as conduction is dominant, thermal properties of the rock mass are almost the same as those the intact rock. (author)

  16. A 20-year multicentre outcome analysis of salvage mechanical circulatory support for refractory cardiogenic shock after cardiac surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maziar Khorsandi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Refractory post-cardiotomy cardiogenic shock (PCCS is a relatively rare phenomenon that can lead to rapid multi-organ dysfunction syndrome and is almost invariably fatal without advanced mechanical circulatory support (AMCS, namely extra-corporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO or ventricular assist devices (VAD. In this multicentre observational study we retrospectively analyzed the outcomes of salvage venoarterial ECMO (VA ECMO and VAD for refractory PCCS in the 3 adult cardiothoracic surgery centres in Scotland over a 20-year period. Methods The data was obtained through the Edinburgh, Glasgow and Aberdeen cardiac surgery databases. Our inclusion criteria included any adult patient from April 1995 to April 2015 who had received salvage VA ECMO or VAD for PCCS refractory to intra-aortic balloon pump (IABP and maximal inotropic support following adult cardiac surgery. Results A total of 27 patients met the inclusion criteria. Age range was 34–83 years (median 51 years. There was a large male predominance (n = 23, 85 %. Overall 23 patients (85 % received VA ECMO of which 14 (61 % had central ECMO and 9 (39 % had peripheral ECMO. Four patients (15 % were treated with short-term VAD (BiVAD = 1, RVAD = 1 and LVAD = 2. The most common procedure-related complication was major haemorrhage (n = 10. Renal failure requiring renal replacement therapy (n = 7, fatal stroke (n = 5, septic shock (n = 2, and a pseudo-aneurysm at the femoral artery cannulation site (n = 1 were also observed. Overall survival to hospital discharge was 40.7 %. All survivors were NYHA class I-II at 12 months’ follow-up. Conclusion AMCS for refractory PCCS carries a survival benefit and achieves acceptable functional recovery despite a significant complication rate.

  17. 2010 Thin Film & Small Scale Mechanical Behavior Gordon Research Conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Thomas Balk

    2010-07-30

    Over the past decades, it has been well established that the mechanical behavior of materials changes when they are confined geometrically at least in one dimension to small scale. It is the aim of the 2010 Gordon Conference on 'Thin Film and Small Scale Mechanical Behavior' to discuss cutting-edge research on elastic, plastic and time-dependent deformation as well as degradation mechanisms like fracture, fatigue and wear at small scales. As in the past, the conference will benefit from contributions from fundamental studies of physical mechanisms linked to material science and engineering reaching towards application in modern applications ranging from optical and microelectronic devices and nano- or micro-electrical mechanical systems to devices for energy production and storage. The conference will feature entirely new testing methodologies and in situ measurements as well as recent progress in atomistic and micromechanical modeling. Particularly, emerging topics in the area of energy conversion and storage, such as material for batteries will be highlighted. The study of small-scale mechanical phenomena in systems related to energy production, conversion or storage offer an enticing opportunity to materials scientists, who can provide new insight and investigate these phenomena with methods that have not previously been exploited.

  18. Structural VAR analysis of monetary transmission mechanism and central bank’s response to equity volatility shock in Taiwan

    OpenAIRE

    Lo, Chi-Sheng

    2016-01-01

    This research applies recursive Structural Vector Auto Regression (SVAR) model with short-run restriction into two kinds of shocks: monetary and volatility. The first SVAR estimates the shock of contractionary monetary policy on Taiwan’s key monthly macroeconomic variables including exports, CPI, exchange rate, money supply, and Taiwan Weighted Stock Exchange (TWSE) Index. The second SVAR estimates the shock of Generalized Autoregressive Conditional Heteroskedasticity (GARCH) volatility of TW...

  19. Experimental analysis on physical and mechanical properties of thermal shock damage of granite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He Xiao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to explore the changes of mechanical and physical properties of granite under different thermal loading effects. Uniaxial compression experiments studying the rules of the influence of temperature load on mechanical properties of granite were carried out. After high-temperature heating at above 600 °C, granite tended to have stronger ductility and plasticity as well as declined peak stress and compressive strength. Thermogravimetry - differential scanning calorimetry (TG-DSC analysis results showed that, thermal load at different temperatures induced reactions such as water loss, oxidation and crystallization in the microstructure of granite, which led to physical changes of granite. Hence it is concluded that, heating can significantly weaken the mechanical performance of granite, which provides an important support for the optimization of heating assisted processing of granite. It also reveals that, heating assisted cutting technique can effectively lower energy consumption and improve processing efficiency.

  20. Mechanical behavior and stress effects in hard superconductors: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, C.C.; Easton, D.S.

    1977-11-01

    The mechanical properties of type II superconducting materials are reviewed as well as the effect of stress on the superconducting properties of these materials. The bcc alloys niobium-titanium and niobium-zirconium exhibit good strength and extensive ductility at room temperature. Mechanical tests on these alloys at 4.2 0 K revealed serrated stress-strain curves, nonlinear elastic effects and reduced ductility. The nonlinear behavior is probably due to twinning and detwinning or a reversible stress-induced martensitic transformation. The brittle A-15 compound superconductors, such as Nb 3 Sn and V 3 Ga, exhibit unusual elastic properties and structural instabilities at cryogenic temperatures. Multifilamentary composites consisting of superconducting filaments in a normal metal matrix are generally used for superconducting devices. The mechanical properties of alloy and compound composites, tapes, as well as composites of niobium carbonitride chemically vapor deposited on high strength carbon fibers are presented. Hysteretic stress-strain behavior in the metal matrix composites produces significant heat generation, an effect which may lead to degradation in the performance of high field magnets. Measurements of the critical current density, J/sub c/, under stress in a magnetic field are reported. Modest stress-reversible degradation in J/sub c/ was observed in niobium-titanium composites, while more serious degradation was found in Nb 3 Sn samples. The importance of mechanical behavior to device performance is discussed

  1. On the Effects of Viscosity on the Shock Waves for a Hydrodynamical Case—Part I: Basic Mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huseyin Cavus

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The interaction of shock waves with viscosity is one of the central problems in the supersonic regime of compressible fluid flow. In this work, numerical solutions of unmagnetised fluid equations, with the viscous stress tensor, are investigated for a one-dimensional shock wave. In the algorithm developed the viscous stress terms are expressed in terms of the relevant Reynolds number. The algorithm concentrated on the compression rate, the entropy change, pressures, and Mach number ratios across the shock wave. The behaviour of solutions is obtained for the Reynolds and Mach numbers defining the medium and shock wave in the supersonic limits.

  2. Thermal shock behavior of W-ZrC/Sc2O3 composites under two different transient events by electron and laser irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hong-Yu; Luo, Lai-Ma; Zan, Xiang; Xu, Qiu; Tokunaga, Kazutoshi; Liu, Jia-Qin; Zhu, Xiao-Yong; Cheng, Ji-Gui; Wu, Yu-Cheng

    2018-02-01

    The transient thermal shock behaviors of W-ZrC/Sc2O3 composites with different ZrC contents were evaluated using transient thermal shock test by electron and laser beams. The effects of different ZrC doping contents on the surface morphology and thermal shock resistance of W-ZrC/Sc2O3 composites were then investigated. Similarity and difference between effects of electron and laser beam transient heat loading were also discussed in this study. Repeated heat loading resulted in thermal fatigue of the irradiated W-ZrC/Sc2O3 samples by thermal stress, leading to the rough surface morphologies with cracks. After different transient thermal tests, significant surface roughening, cracks, surface melting, and droplet ejection occurred. W-2vol.%Sc2O3 sample has superior thermal properties and greater resistance to surface modifications under transient thermal shock, and with the increasing ZrC content in W alloys, thermal shock resistance of W-Zr/Sc2O3 sample tends to be unsatisfied.

  3. Thermal shock behavior of platinum aluminide bond coat/electron beam-physical vapor deposited thermal barrier coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Zhenhua, E-mail: zhxuciac@163.com [Beijing Institute of Aeronautical Materials, Department 5, P.O. Box 81-5, Beijing 100095 (China); Dai, Jianwei [Beijing Institute of Aeronautical Materials, Department 5, P.O. Box 81-5, Beijing 100095 (China); Niu, Jing [Shenyang Liming Aero-engine (Group) Corporation Ltd., Institute of Metallurgical Technology, Technical Center, Shengyang 110043 (China); Li, Na; Huang, Guanghong; He, Limin [Beijing Institute of Aeronautical Materials, Department 5, P.O. Box 81-5, Beijing 100095 (China)

    2014-12-25

    Highlights: • TBCs of (Ni, Pt)Al bond coat with grit blasting process and YSZ ceramic coating. • Grain boundary ridges are the sites for spallation damage initiation in TBCs. • Ridges removed, cavities formation appeared and the damage initiation deteriorated. • Damage initiation and progression at interface lead to a buckling failure. - Abstract: Thermal barrier coating systems (TBCs) including of chemical vapor deposited (Ni, Pt)Al bond coat with grit blasting process and electron beam physical vapor deposited Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}-stabilized-ZrO{sub 2} (YSZ) ceramic coating were investigated. The phase structures, surface and cross-sectional morphologies, thermal shock behaviors and residual stresses of the coatings were studied in detail. Grain boundary ridges still remain on the surface of bond coat prior to the deposition of the ceramic coating, which are shown to be the major sites for spallation damage initiation in TBCs. When these ridges are mostly removed, they appear some of cavities formation and then the damage initiation mode is deteriorated. Damage initiation and progression occurs at the bond coat to thermally grown oxide (TGO) interface leading to a buckling failure behavior. A buckle failure once started may be arrested when it runs into a region of high bond coat to TGO interface toughness. Thus, complete failure requires further loss in toughness of the bond coat to TGO interface during cooling. The suppressed cavities formation, the removed ridges at the grain boundaries, the relative high TGO to bond coat interface toughness, the uniform growth behavior of TGO thickening and the lower of the residual stress are the primary factors for prolonging the lifetime of TBCs.

  4. Mechanical behavior of the ATLAS B0 model coil

    CERN Document Server

    Foussat, A; Acerbi, E; Alessandria, F; Berthier, R; Broggi, F; Daël, A; Dudarev, A; Mayri, C; Miele, P; Reytier, M; Rossi, L; Sorbi, M; Sun, Z; ten Kate, H H J; Vanenkov, I; Volpini, G

    2002-01-01

    The ATLAS B0 model coil has been developed and constructed to verify the design parameters and the manufacture techniques of the Barrel Toroid coils (BT) that are under construction for the ATLAS Detector. Essential for successful operation is the mechanical behavior of the superconducting coil and its support structure. In the ATLAS magnet test facility, a magnetic mirror is used to reproduce in the model coil the electromagnetic forces of the BT coils when assembled in the final Barrel Toroid magnet system. The model coil is extensively equipped with mechanical instrumentation to monitor stresses and force levels as well as contraction during a cooling down and excitation up to nominal current. The installed set up of strain gauges, position sensors and capacitive force transducers is presented. Moreover the first mechanical results in terms of expected main stress, strain and deformation values are presented based on detailed mechanical analysis of the design. (7 refs).

  5. Microstructure and Mechanical Behavior of High-Entropy Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Licavoli, Joseph J.; Gao, Michael C.; Sears, John S.; Jablonski, Paul D.; Hawk, Jeffrey A.

    2015-10-01

    High-entropy alloys (HEAs) have generated interest in recent years due to their unique positioning within the alloy world. By incorporating a number of elements in high proportion, usually of equal atomic percent, they have high configurational entropy, and thus, they hold the promise of interesting and useful properties such as enhanced strength and alloy stability. The present study investigates the mechanical behavior, fracture characteristics, and microstructure of two single-phase FCC HEAs CoCrFeNi and CoCrFeNiMn with some detailed attention given to melting, homogenization, and thermo-mechanical processing. Ingots approaching 8 kg in mass were made by vacuum induction melting to avoid the extrinsic factors inherent to small-scale laboratory button samples. A computationally based homogenization heat treatment was given to both alloys in order to eliminate any solidification segregation. The alloys were then fabricated in the usual way (forging, followed by hot rolling) with typical thermo-mechanical processing parameters employed. Transmission electron microscopy was subsequently used to assess the single-phase nature of the alloys prior to mechanical testing. Tensile specimens (ASTM E8) were prepared with tensile mechanical properties obtained from room temperature through 800 °C. Material from the gage section of selected tensile specimens was extracted to document room and elevated temperature deformation within the HEAs. Fracture surfaces were also examined to note fracture failure modes. The tensile behavior and selected tensile properties were compared with results in the literature for similar alloys.

  6. Mechanical behavior of silicon carbide nanoparticles under uniaxial compression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Qiuxiang; Fei, Jing; Tang, Chao; Zhong, Jianxin; Meng, Lijun, E-mail: ljmeng@xtu.edu.cn [Xiangtan University, Hunan Key Laboratory for Micro-Nano Energy Materials and Devices, Faculty of School of Physics and Optoelectronics (China)

    2016-03-15

    The mechanical behavior of SiC nanoparticles under uniaxial compression was investigated using an atomic-level compression simulation technique. The results revealed that the mechanical deformation of SiC nanocrystals is highly dependent on compression orientation, particle size, and temperature. A structural transformation from the original zinc-blende to a rock-salt phase is identified for SiC nanoparticles compressed along the [001] direction at low temperature. However, the rock-salt phase is not observed for SiC nanoparticles compressed along the [110] and [111] directions irrespective of size and temperature. The high-pressure-generated rock-salt phase strongly affects the mechanical behavior of the nanoparticles, including their hardness and deformation process. The hardness of [001]-compressed nanoparticles decreases monotonically as their size increases, different from that of [110] and [111]-compressed nanoparticles, which reaches a maximal value at a critical size and then decreases. Additionally, a temperature-dependent mechanical response was observed for all simulated SiC nanoparticles regardless of compression orientation and size. Interestingly, the hardness of SiC nanocrystals with a diameter of 8 nm compressed in [001]-orientation undergoes a steep decrease at 0.1–200 K and then a gradual decline from 250 to 1500 K. This trend can be attributed to different deformation mechanisms related to phase transformation and dislocations. Our results will be useful for practical applications of SiC nanoparticles under high pressure.

  7. Collision of two shock waves as a hypothetical mechanism of producing drifting radio bursts in the 400-500 MHz range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karlicky, M.

    1978-01-01

    After the proton flare of July 3, 1974 a hitherto unclassified phenomenon with a diffusion ''banner'' and with a considerably decelerating drift within the type II and III burst drifts range was observed in the radio dynamic spectrum between 410 and 470 MHz. The hypothesis is presented that the phenomenon is due to the collision of two shock waves, propagating against one another, during which the flux of electromagnetic radiation is considerably enhanced relative to the sum of the fluxes of the electromagnetic radiation of the individual shock waves. The Newkirk 4-density model of the corona is used to describe the phenomenon, the mechanism of plasmon-plasmon conversion in electromagnetic radiation with a double plasma frequency is considered and, according to the parameters derived from the dynamic spectrum, the velocities, radii of curvature and direction of propagation of the anticipated shock waves are analysed in a simplifed symmetric case. (author)

  8. Sierra/SolidMechanics 4.48 User's Guide: Addendum for Shock Capabilities.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plews, Julia A.; Crane, Nathan K; de Frias, Gabriel Jose; Le, San; Littlewood, David John; Merewether, Mark Thomas; Mosby, Matthew David; Pierson, Kendall H.; Porter, Vicki L.; Shelton, Timothy; Thomas, Jesse David; Tupek, Michael R.; Veilleux, Michael; Xavier, Patrick G.

    2018-03-01

    This is an addendum to the Sierra/SolidMechanics 4.48 User's Guide that documents additional capabilities available only in alternate versions of the Sierra/SolidMechanics (Sierra/SM) code. These alternate versions are enhanced to provide capabilities that are regulated under the U.S. Department of State's International Traffic in Arms Regulations (ITAR) export-control rules. The ITAR regulated codes are only distributed to entities that comply with the ITAR export-control requirements. The ITAR enhancements to Sierra/SM in- clude material models with an energy-dependent pressure response (appropriate for very large deformations and strain rates) and capabilities for blast modeling. Since this is an addendum to the standard Sierra/SM user's guide, please refer to that document first for general descriptions of code capability and use.

  9. Experimental Investigation on Shock Mechanical Properties of Red Sandstone under Preloaded 3D Static Stresses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niu Yong

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Triaxial impact mechanical performance experiment was performed to study the mechanical properties of red sandstone subjected to three-dimensional (3D coupled static and dynamic loads, i.e., three confining pressures (0, 5, and 10 MPa and three axial pressures (11, 27, and 43 MPa. A modified 3D split Hopkinson pressure bar testing system was used. The change trend in the deformation of red sandstone and the strength and failure modes under axial pressures and confining pressures were analyzed. Results show that, when the confining pressure is constant, the compressive strength, secant modulus, and energy absorbed per unit volume of red sandstone initially increases and subsequently decreases, whereas the average strain rate exhibits an opposite trend. When the axial pressure is constant, both the compressive strength and secant modulus of red sandstone are enhanced, but the average strain rate is decreased with increasing confining pressure. The energy absorbed per unit volume is initially increased and subsequently decreased as the confining pressure increases. Red sandstone exhibits a cone-shaped compression–shear failure mode under the 3D coupled static and dynamic loads. The conclusions serve as theoretical basis on the mechanical properties of deep medium-strength rock under a high ground stress and external load disturbance condition

  10. Basic description of tailings from Aitik focusing on mechanical behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Bhanbhro, Riaz; Knutsson, Roger; Rodriguez, Juan; Edeskär, Tommy; Knutsson, Sven

    2013-01-01

    Tailings are artificial granular materials that behave different as compared to natural soil of equal grain sizes. Tailings particle sizes, shapes, gradation and mechanical behavior may influence the performance of tailings dams. Hence it is essential to understand the tailings materials in depth. This article describes present studies being carried out on Aitik tailings. Basic tailings characteristics including specific gravity, phase relationships, particle sizes, particle shapes and direct...

  11. Regular behaviors in SU(2) Yang-Mills classical mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Xiaoming

    1997-01-01

    In order to study regular behaviors in high-energy nucleon-nucleon collisions, a representation of the vector potential A i a is defined with respect to the (a,i)-dependence in the SU(2) Yang-Mills classical mechanics. Equations of the classical infrared field as well as effective potentials are derived for the elastic or inelastic collision of two plane wave in a three-mode model and the decay of an excited spherically-symmetric field

  12. Liquidity Shocks, Market Maker Turnover, and Bidding Behavior in Treasury Auctions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gonzalez-Eiras, Martin; Rudiger, Jesper

    2017-01-01

    aggressively. They also bid more aggressively for existing securities that are reissued when the regulation tightens the requirements for secondary market participation. Consistent with regulations which imply that auctioned securities are not a prime source of liquidity, we find that banks which face...... liquidity needs bid less aggressively for them. A novel implication of our results is that in institutional settings that feature turnover of market makers, bidding behavior should be modeled in a dynamic setting. We introduce a dynamic model and show that static estimates over-predict true valuations when...

  13. Assessing Mongolian gerbil emotional behavior: effects of two shock intensities and response-independent shocks during an extended inhibitory-avoidance task

    OpenAIRE

    Camilo Hurtado-Parrado; Camilo González-León; Mónica A. Arias-Higuera; Angelo Cardona; Lucia G. Medina; Laura García-Muñoz; Christian Sánchez; Julián Cifuentes; Juan Carlos Forigua; Andrea Ortiz; Cesar A. Acevedo-Triana; Javier L. Rico

    2017-01-01

    Despite step-down inhibitory avoidance procedures that have been widely implemented in rats and mice to study learning and emotion phenomena, performance of other species in these tasks has received less attention. The case of the Mongolian gerbil is of relevance considering the discrepancies in the parameters of the step-down protocols implemented, especially the wide range of foot-shock intensities (i.e., 0.4–4.0 mA), and the lack of information on long-term performance, extinction effects,...

  14. Documentation of probabilistic fracture mechanics codes used for reactor pressure vessels subjected to pressurized thermal shock loading: Parts 1 and 2. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balkey, K.; Witt, F.J.; Bishop, B.A.

    1995-06-01

    Significant attention has been focused on the issue of reactor vessel pressurized thermal shock (PTS) for many years. Pressurized thermal shock transient events are characterized by a rapid cooldown at potentially high pressure levels that could lead to a reactor vessel integrity concern for some pressurized water reactors. As a result of regulatory and industry efforts in the early 1980's, a probabilistic risk assessment methodology has been established to address this concern. Probabilistic fracture mechanics analyses are performed as part of this methodology to determine conditional probability of significant flaw extension for given pressurized thermal shock events. While recent industry efforts are underway to benchmark probabilistic fracture mechanics computer codes that are currently used by the nuclear industry, Part I of this report describes the comparison of two independent computer codes used at the time of the development of the original U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) pressurized thermal shock rule. The work that was originally performed in 1982 and 1983 to compare the U.S. NRC - VISA and Westinghouse (W) - PFM computer codes has been documented and is provided in Part I of this report. Part II of this report describes the results of more recent industry efforts to benchmark PFM computer codes used by the nuclear industry. This study was conducted as part of the USNRC-EPRI Coordinated Research Program for reviewing the technical basis for pressurized thermal shock (PTS) analyses of the reactor pressure vessel. The work focused on the probabilistic fracture mechanics (PFM) analysis codes and methods used to perform the PTS calculations. An in-depth review of the methodologies was performed to verify the accuracy and adequacy of the various different codes. The review was structured around a series of benchmark sample problems to provide a specific context for discussion and examination of the fracture mechanics methodology

  15. Absolute Hugoniot measurements from a spherically convergent shock using x-ray radiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swift, Damian C.; Kritcher, Andrea L.; Hawreliak, James A.; Lazicki, Amy; MacPhee, Andrew; Bachmann, Benjamin; Döppner, Tilo; Nilsen, Joseph; Collins, Gilbert W.; Glenzer, Siegfried; Rothman, Stephen D.; Kraus, Dominik; Falcone, Roger W.

    2018-05-01

    The canonical high pressure equation of state measurement is to induce a shock wave in the sample material and measure two mechanical properties of the shocked material or shock wave. For accurate measurements, the experiment is normally designed to generate a planar shock which is as steady as possible in space and time, and a single state is measured. A converging shock strengthens as it propagates, so a range of shock pressures is induced in a single experiment. However, equation of state measurements must then account for spatial and temporal gradients. We have used x-ray radiography of spherically converging shocks to determine states along the shock Hugoniot. The radius-time history of the shock, and thus its speed, was measured by radiographing the position of the shock front as a function of time using an x-ray streak camera. The density profile of the shock was then inferred from the x-ray transmission at each instant of time. Simultaneous measurement of the density at the shock front and the shock speed determines an absolute mechanical Hugoniot state. The density profile was reconstructed using the known, unshocked density which strongly constrains the density jump at the shock front. The radiographic configuration and streak camera behavior were treated in detail to reduce systematic errors. Measurements were performed on the Omega and National Ignition Facility lasers, using a hohlraum to induce a spatially uniform drive over the outside of a solid, spherical sample and a laser-heated thermal plasma as an x-ray source for radiography. Absolute shock Hugoniot measurements were demonstrated for carbon-containing samples of different composition and initial density, up to temperatures at which K-shell ionization reduced the opacity behind the shock. Here we present the experimental method using measurements of polystyrene as an example.

  16. Molecular Dynamics Simulation Connections and Mechanical Properties of Cu/Al Explosion Shock Interface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHANG Yan

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Based on the molecular dynamics (MD method, transient explosive welding process of Cu/Al junction point was revealed from the microscopic aspect, and mechanical properties and machinability of the Cu/Al nano-weldment were studied. The results show that kinetic energy is converted into internal energy in the system after the collision. The heterogeneous atoms penetrate into each other and the diffusion effect of copper atoms is better than aluminium atoms. The elastic modulus of the nano-weldment is 64.56 GPa, which is between copper's and aluminium's; however, its yield strength is less than those of the two monocrystals. Interactions between dislocations and disordered lattices cause the stress strengthening in the plastic deformation stage, which causes that the stress values of the weldment is larger than those of the two monocrystals. This strengthening mechanism is also reflected in the cutting process, and the weldment has the highest average cutting force 117.80 nN. A mass of dislocations nucleate in the disordered lattice areas of the weldment, and they spread at 45¯ to the cutting direction. However, dislocations pile up when their propagation is hindered by the disordered lattices and interface, which leads to the work hardening effect.

  17. Volume Resistivity and Mechanical Behavior of Epoxy Nanocomposite Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. F. Abdelkarim

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Electrical and mechanical properties of polymer composite materials are investigated through the determination of resistivity and hardness for composites samples. Epoxy composite samples have been prepared with different concentrations of certain inorganic fillers such as; Titanium dioxide (TiO2 and Silica (SiO2, of various size (micro, nano and hybrid to study the electrical and mechanical behavior. The volume resistivity reaches 3.23×1014 ohm.cm for the micro silica composite. Surface of composite material has been mechanically examined by hardness test. The results show that the resistivity of microcomposites and nanocmposites are increased with the decrease of filler concentration. But the resistivity of hybrid composites is increased with the increase of filler concentration. Maximum hardness value was obtained from hybrid silica composite with 0.1% filler concentration.

  18. Mechanisms of transgenerational inheritance of addictive-like behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vassoler, F M; Sadri-Vakili, G

    2014-04-04

    Genetic factors are implicated in the heritability of drug abuse. However, even with advances in current technology no specific genes have been identified that are critical for the transmission of drug-induced phenotypes to subsequent generations. It is now evident that epigenetic factors contribute to disease heritability and represent a link between genes and the environment. Recently, epigenetic mechanisms have been shown to underlie drug-induced structural, synaptic, and behavioral plasticity by coordinating the expression of gene networks within the brain. Therefore, the epigenome provides a direct mechanism for drugs of abuse to influence the genetic events involved in the development of addiction as well as its heritability to subsequent generations. In this review we discuss the mechanisms underlying intergenerational epigenetic transmission, highlight studies that demonstrate this phenomenon with particular attention to the field of addiction, and identify gaps for future studies. Copyright © 2013 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Microstructure and hot corrosion behavior of the Ni-based superalloy GH202 treated by laser shock processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao, Jiangdong [School of Material Science and Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang, Jiangsu 212013 (China); Mechanical and Electrical Department, Nantong Shipping College, Nantong, Jiangsu 226010 (China); Zhang, Junsong [School of Material Science and Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang, Jiangsu 212013 (China); Hua, Yinqun, E-mail: huayq@ujs.edu.cn [School of Material Science and Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang, Jiangsu 212013 (China); Chen, Ruifang [School of Mechanical Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang, Jiangsu 212013 (China); Li, Zhibao [School of Material Science and Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang, Jiangsu 212013 (China); Ye, Yunxia [School of Mechanical Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang, Jiangsu 212013 (China)

    2017-03-15

    The effects of laser shock processing on microstructure, the residual stress, and hot corrosion behavior of the Ni-based superalloy GH202 were investigated. The microstructures of GH202 before and after laser shock processing (LSP) were characterized by electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD) and transmission electron microscope (TEM). A large number of crystal defects (twins, dislocation arrays, and high dense tangles) were generated on the surface of GH202 treated with LSP. The cross-sectional compressive residual stress and micro-hardness of specimens treated by LSP were improved significantly. The corrosion kinetics of GH202 with or without LSP treatment at 800 °C and 900 °C were investigated. Analysis by X-ray diffraction (XRD) revealed that the corrosion products mainly consist of Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3}, TiO{sub 2}, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, NiO, CrS, Ni{sub 3}S{sub 2}, and Na{sub 2}CrO{sub 4}. The surface and cross-section morphologies were observed by scanning electron microscope (SEM) combined with energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). The results confirmed that the crystal defects induced by LSP promotes the creation of diffusion paths for elements (Cr, Al, and Ti), allowing the formation of tiny homogeneous oxidation films in a very short time. Additionally, the spallation of oxidation film on the treated specimens was alleviated significantly. Overall, the hot corrosion resistance of Ni-based GH202 induced by LSP was improved in Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} and NaCl molten salt from 800 °C to 900 °C. - Highlights: • Microstructure changes of GH202 before and after LSP were observed by EBSD and TEM. • The hardness and residual compressive stress after LSP were significantly increased. • The increased diffusion paths for elements helped to form oxidation films quickly. • Hot corrosion resistance of GH202 after LSP was significantly improved.

  20. Mechanisms of Behavioral and Affective Treatment Outcomes in a Cognitive Behavioral Intervention for Boys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Jeffrey D; Loeber, Rolf

    2016-01-01

    Evidence for effective treatment for behavioral problems continues to grow, yet evidence about the effective mechanisms underlying those interventions has lagged behind. The Stop Now and Plan (SNAP) program is a multicomponent intervention for boys between 6 and 11. This study tested putative treatment mechanisms using data from 252 boys in a randomized controlled trial of SNAP versus treatment as usual. SNAP includes a 3 month group treatment period followed by individualized intervention, which persisted through the 15 month study period. Measures were administered in four waves: at baseline and at 3, 9 and 15 months after baseline. A hierarchical linear modeling strategy was used. SNAP was associated with improved problem-solving skills, prosocial behavior, emotion regulation skills, and reduced parental stress. Prosocial behavior, emotion regulation skills and reduced parental stress partially mediated improvements in child aggression. Improved emotion regulation skills partially mediated treatment-related child anxious-depressed outcomes. Improvements in parenting behaviors did not differ between treatment conditions. The results suggest that independent processes may drive affective and behavioral outcomes, with some specificity regarding the mechanisms related to differing treatment outcomes.

  1. Conception and realization of an expert system to help the interpretation of the mechanical shocks in a nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunet, E.

    1988-01-01

    The computer system MIGRE, developed with the aim of helping the understanding of mechanical shocks in the nuclear power plant primary circuit. The MIGRE system allows the description of a study domain, the acquisition and exploitation of operational knowledges. The structural organization of the system is submitted to two constraints: in the first place, the system's operation depends on the accomplishment and development of an application, and on a diagnostic's research; the second constraint is the fact that the work space of PROLOG, on Macintoch, is restricted. A specific configuration is associated to each one of the work environments. The organization principle (in ''hierarchical Worlds'') of a program by PROLOG, allows to reach easily this kind of architecture. This principle makes a modular organization easy and allows to distinguish statical from dynamical steps of the system. The selection of the system different functions takes place by menus. The transition from one configuration to another is automatically effectuated and unseen by the user. Problems applying the Knowledge acquisition and the wandering bodies function, are also considered [fr

  2. Experimental analysis of shock wave effects in copper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Llorca, Fabrice; Buy, Francois; Farre, Jose

    2002-01-01

    This paper proposes the analysis of shock wave effects for a high purity copper. The method developed is based on the analysis of the mechanical behavior of as received and shocked materials. Shock effect is generated through plates impact tests performed in the range 9 GPa to 12 GPa on a single stage light gas gun. Therefore, as-received and impacted materials are characterized on quasi static and Split Hopkinson apparatus. The difference between measured stresses between as received and shocked materials allows to understand shock effects in the low pressure range of study. A specific modeling approach is engaged in order to give indications about the evolution of the microstructure of the materials

  3. Transient thermal-mechanical coupling behavior analysis of mechanical seals during start-up operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, B. C.; Meng, X. K.; Shen, M. X.; Peng, X. D.

    2016-05-01

    A transient thermal-mechanical coupling model for a contacting mechanical seal during start-up has been developed. It takes into consideration the coupling relationship among thermal-mechanical deformation, film thickness, temperature and heat generation. The finite element method and multi-iteration technology are applied to solve the temperature distribution and thermal-mechanical deformation as well as their evolution behavior. Results show that the seal gap transforms from negative coning to positive coning and the contact area of the mechanical seal gradually decreases during start-up. The location of the maximum temperature and maximum contact pressure move from the outer diameter to inside diameter. The heat generation and the friction torque increase sharply at first and then decrease. Meanwhile, the contact force decreases and the fluid film force and leakage rate increase.

  4. Investigations on GSK-3β/NF-kB signaling in stress and stress adaptive behavior in electric foot shock subjected mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bali, Anjana; Jaggi, Amteshwar Singh

    2016-04-01

    The present study was designed to explore the role of GSK-3β and NF-kB signaling in electric foot shock-induced stress and stress adaptation. Mice were subjected to foot shocks of 0.5mA intensity and 1s duration of 1h to produce acute stress. Animals were exposed to the same stressor for 5 days to induce stress adaptation. The behavioral alterations were assessed using the actophotometer, hole board, open field and social interaction tests. The serum corticosterone levels were assessed as a marker of the HPA axis. The levels of total GSK-3β, p-GSK-3β-S9 and p-NF-kB were determined in the hippocampus, frontal cortex and amygdala. Acute electric foot shock stress produced behavioral and biochemical changes; decreased the levels of p-GSK-3β-S9, produced no change in total GSK-3β levels and increased p-NF-kB levels in the brain. However, repeated exposure of foot shock stress restored the behavioral and biochemical changes along with normalization of p-GSK-3β-S9 and p-NF-kB levels. Administration of AR-A01, a selective GSK-3β inhibitor, or diethyldithiocarbamic acid (DDTC), a selective NF-kB inhibitor, diminished acute stress-induced behavioral and biochemical changes. Furthermore, AR-A014418 normalized acute stress-induced alterations in p-GSK-3β-S9 and p-NF-kB levels, however, DDTC selectively restored NF-kB levels without any change in p-GSK-3β-S9 levels. It probably suggests that NF-kB is a downstream mediator of the GSK-3 signaling cascade. It may conclude that acute stress associated decrease in p-GSK-3β-S9 and increase in p-NF-kB levels in the brain contribute in the development of behavioral and biochemical alterations and normalization of GSK-3β/NF-kB signaling may contribute in stress adaptive behavior in response to repeated electric foot shock-subjected mice. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Effects of elastic anisotropy on mechanical behavior of intermetallic compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoo, M.H.

    1991-01-01

    Fundamental aspects of the deformation and fracture behavior of ordered intermetallic compounds are examined within the framework of linear anisotropic elasticity theory of dislocations and cracks. The orientation dependence and the tension/compression asymmetry of yield stress are explained in terms of the anisotropic coupling effect of non-glide stresses to the glide strain. The anomalous yield behavior is related to the disparity (edge/screw) of dislocation mobility and the critical stress required for the dislocation multiplication mechanism of Frank-Read type. The slip-twin conjugate relationship, extensive faulting, and pseudo-twinning (martensitic transformation) at a crack tip can be enhanced also by the anisotropic coupling effect, which may lead to transformation toughening of shear type

  6. Household and community income, economic shocks and risky sexual behavior of young adults: evidence from the Cape Area Panel Study 2002 and 2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinkelman, Taryn; Lam, David; Leibbrandt, Murray

    2007-11-01

    To describe recent trends in adolescent sexual behavior in Cape Town, South Africa, and to determine whether household and community poverty and negative economic shocks predict risky sexual behavior. Matched survey data on 2993 African and coloured youth from the Cape Area Panel Study 2002 and 2005. Sexual debut, multiple sexual partners in past year, condom use at last sex, measured in 2002 and 2005. We tested for changes over time in reported sexual behavior and estimate multivariate probit models to measure the association between 2002 individual, household and community characteristics and 2005 sexual behavior. There was a statistically significant increase in condom use and a decrease in the incidence of multiple sexual partners between 2002 and 2005 for young women aged 17-22 years. Young women in households with 10% higher income were 0.53% less likely to debut sexually by 2005; young men in communities with a 10% higher poverty rate were 5% less likely to report condom use at last sex. Negative economic shocks are associated with a 0.04% increase in the probability of multiple partnerships for young women. Education is positively correlated with sexual debut for young women and with multiple partnerships for both sexes. Trends in sexual behavior between 2002 and 2005 indicate significant shifts towards safer practices. There is little evidence of a relationship between negative economic shocks, household and community poverty, and risky behavior. We hypothesize that the unexpected positive relationship between education and sexual debut may be driven by peer effects in schools with substantial age mixing.

  7. Finite element method (FEM) model of the mechanical stress on phospholipid membranes from shock waves produced in nanosecond electric pulses (nsEP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Ronald; Roth, Caleb C.; Shadaram, Mehdi; Beier, Hope; Ibey, Bennett L.

    2015-03-01

    The underlying mechanism(s) responsible for nanoporation of phospholipid membranes by nanosecond pulsed electric fields (nsEP) remains unknown. The passage of a high electric field through a conductive medium creates two primary contributing factors that may induce poration: the electric field interaction at the membrane and the shockwave produced from electrostriction of a polar submersion medium exposed to an electric field. Previous work has focused on the electric field interaction at the cell membrane, through such models as the transport lattice method. Our objective is to model the shock wave cell membrane interaction induced from the density perturbation formed at the rising edge of a high voltage pulse in a polar liquid resulting in a shock wave propagating away from the electrode toward the cell membrane. Utilizing previous data from cell membrane mechanical parameters, and nsEP generated shockwave parameters, an acoustic shock wave model based on the Helmholtz equation for sound pressure was developed and coupled to a cell membrane model with finite-element modeling in COMSOL. The acoustic structure interaction model was developed to illustrate the harmonic membrane displacements and stresses resulting from shockwave and membrane interaction based on Hooke's law. Poration is predicted by utilizing membrane mechanical breakdown parameters including cortical stress limits and hydrostatic pressure gradients.

  8. Perinatal programming of neuroendocrine mechanisms connecting feeding behavior and stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah J Spencer

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Feeding behavior is closely regulated by neuroendocrine mechanisms that can be influenced by stressful life events. However, the feeding response to stress varies among individuals with some increasing and others decreasing food intake after stress. In addition to the impact of acute lifestyle and genetic backgrounds, the early life environment can have a life-long influence on neuroendocrine mechanisms connecting stress to feeding behavior and may partially explain these opposing feeding responses to stress. In this review I will discuss the perinatal programming of adult hypothalamic stress and feeding circuitry. Specifically I will address how early life (prenatal and postnatal nutrition, early life stress, and the early life hormonal profile can program the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis, the endocrine arm of the body’s response to stress long-term and how these changes can, in turn, influence the hypothalamic circuitry responsible for regulating feeding behavior. Thus, over- or under-feeding and / or stressful events during critical windows of early development can alter glucocorticoid (GC regulation of the HPA axis, leading to changes in the GC influence on energy storage and changes in GC negative feedback on HPA axis-derived satiety signals such as corticotropin-releasing-hormone. Furthermore, peripheral hormones controlling satiety, such as leptin and insulin are altered by early life events, and can be influenced, in early life and adulthood, by stress. Importantly, these neuroendocrine signals act as trophic factors during development to stimulate connectivity throughout the hypothalamus. The interplay between these neuroendocrine signals, the perinatal environment, and activation of the stress circuitry in adulthood thus strongly influences feeding behavior and may explain why individuals have unique feeding responses to similar stressors.

  9. Toward a quantitative understanding of mechanical behavior of nanocrystalline metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dao, M.; Lu, L.; Asaro, R.J.; Hosson, J.T.M. de; Ma, E.

    2007-01-01

    Focusing on nanocrystalline (nc) pure face-centered cubic metals, where systematic experimental data are available, this paper presents a brief overview of the recent progress made in improving mechanical properties of nc materials, and in quantitatively and mechanistically understanding the underlying mechanisms. The mechanical properties reviewed include strength, ductility, strain rate and temperature dependence, fatigue and tribological properties. The highlighted examples include recent experimental studies in obtaining both high strength and considerable ductility, the compromise between enhanced fatigue limit and reduced crack growth resistance, the stress-assisted dynamic grain growth during deformation, and the relation between rate sensitivity and possible deformation mechanisms. The recent advances in obtaining quantitative and mechanics-based models, developed in line with the related transmission electron microscopy and relevant molecular dynamics observations, are discussed with particular attention to mechanistic models of partial/perfect-dislocation or deformation-twin-mediated deformation processes interacting with grain boundaries, constitutive modeling and simulations of grain size distribution and dynamic grain growth, and physically motivated crystal plasticity modeling of pure Cu with nanoscale growth twins. Sustained research efforts have established a group of nanocrystalline and nanostructured metals that exhibit a combination of high strength and considerable ductility in tension. Accompanying the gradually deepening understanding of the deformation mechanisms and their relative importance, quantitative and mechanisms-based constitutive models that can realistically capture experimentally measured and grain-size-dependent stress-strain behavior, strain-rate sensitivity and even ductility limit are becoming available. Some outstanding issues and future opportunities are listed and discussed

  10. Response of the seated human body to whole-body vertical vibration: biodynamic responses to mechanical shocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zhen; Griffin, Michael J

    2017-03-01

    The biodynamic response of the seated human body has been investigated with 20 males exposed to upward and downward shocks at 13 fundamental frequencies (1-16 Hz) and 18 magnitudes (up to ±8.3 ms -2 ). For 1- and 2- degree-of-freedom models, the stiffness and damping coefficients were obtained by fitting seat acceleration waveforms predicted from the measured force to the measured seat acceleration waveform. Stiffness and damping coefficients were also obtained in the frequency domain with random vibration. The optimum stiffness and damping coefficients varied with the magnitude and the frequency of shocks. With both upward and downward shocks, the resonance frequency of the models decreased from 6.3 to 4 Hz as the vibration dose values of the shocks increased from 0.05 to 2.0 ms -1.75 . The stiffness and damping obtained from responses to shocks were correlated with, and similar to, the stiffness and damping obtained with random vibration. Practitioner Summary: When modelling the dynamic response of the seated human body to vertical acceleration less than 1 g, the relation between force and acceleration can be well represented by a single degree-of-freedom model although the optimum stiffness and damping depend on the magnitude and frequency of sinusoidal, random or shock motion.

  11. Shock and vibration effects on performance reliability and mechanical integrity of proton exchange membrane fuel cells: A critical review and discussion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haji Hosseinloo, Ashkan; Ehteshami, Mohsen Mousavi

    2017-10-01

    Performance reliability and mechanical integrity are the main bottlenecks in mass commercialization of PEMFCs for applications with inherent harsh environment such as automotive and aerospace applications. Imparted shock and vibration to the fuel cell in such applications could bring about numerous issues including clamping torque loosening, gas leakage, increased electrical resistance, and structural damage and breakage. Here, we provide a comprehensive review and critique of the literature focusing on the effects of mechanically harsh environment on PEMFCs, and at the end, we suggest two main future directions in FC technology research that need immediate attention: (i) developing a generic and adequately accurate dynamic model of PEMFCs to assess the dynamic response of FC devices, and (ii) designing effective and robust shock and vibration protection systems based on the developed models in (i).

  12. Dynamical behaviors of the shock compacton in the nonlinearly Schrödinger equation with a source term

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin, Jiuli; Zhao, Liuwei

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, the dynamics from the shock compacton to chaos in the nonlinearly Schrödinger equation with a source term is investigated in detail. The existence of unclosed homoclinic orbits which are not connected with the saddle point indicates that the system has a discontinuous fiber solution which is a shock compacton. We prove that the shock compacton is a weak solution. The Melnikov technique is used to detect the conditions for the occurrence from the shock compacton to chaos and further analysis of the conditions for chaos suppression. The results show that the system turns to chaos easily under external disturbances. The critical parameter values for chaos appearing are obtained analytically and numerically using the Lyapunov exponents and the bifurcation diagrams

  13. Dynamic Mechanical Behaviors of 6082-T6 Aluminum Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Yibo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The structural components of high speed trains are usually made of aluminum alloys, for example, 6082. The dynamic mechanical behavior of the material is one of key factors considered in structural design and safety assessment. In this paper, dynamic mechanical experiments were conducted with strain rate ranging from 0.001 s−1 to 100 s−1 using Instron tensile testing machine. The true stress-strain curves were fitted based on experimental data. Johnson-Cook model of 6082-T6 aluminum alloy was built to investigate the effect of strain and strain rate on flow stress. It has shown that the flow stress was sensitive to the strain rate. Yield strength and tensile strength increased with a high strain rate, which showed strain rate effect to some extent. Fracture analysis was carried out by using Backscattered Electron imaging (BSE. As strain rate increased, more precipitates were generated in fracture.

  14. Continuum mechanical and computational aspects of material behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fried, Eliot; Gurtin, Morton E.

    2000-02-10

    The focus of the work is the application of continuum mechanics to materials science, specifically to the macroscopic characterization of material behavior at small length scales. The long-term goals are a continuum-mechanical framework for the study of materials that provides a basis for general theories and leads to boundary-value problems of physical relevance, and computational methods appropriate to these problems supplemented by physically meaningful regularizations to aid in their solution. Specific studies include the following: the development of a theory of polycrystalline plasticity that incorporates free energy associated with lattice mismatch between grains; the development of a theory of geometrically necessary dislocations within the context of finite-strain plasticity; the development of a gradient theory for single-crystal plasticity with geometrically necessary dislocations; simulations of dynamical fracture using a theory that allows for the kinking and branching of cracks; computation of segregation and compaction in flowing granular materials.

  15. Mechanical behavior and fatigue in polymeric composites at low temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katz, Y.; Bussiba, A.; Mathias, H.

    1986-01-01

    Advanced fiber reinforced polymeric composite materials are often suggested as structural materials at low temperature. In this study, graphite epoxy and Kevlar-49/epoxy systems were investigated. Fatigue behavior was emphasized after establishing the standard monotonic mechanical properties, including fracture resistance parameters at 77, 190, and 296 K. Tension-tension fatigue crack propagation testing was carried out at nominal constant stress intensity amplitudes using precracked compact tensile specimens. The crack tip damage zone was measured and tracked by an electro-potential device, opening displacement gage, microscopic observation, and acoustic emission activity recording. Fractograhic and metallographic studies were performed with emphasis on fracture morphology and modes, failure processes, and description of sequential events. On the basis of these experimental results, the problem of fatigue resistance, including low temperature effects, is analyzed and discussed. The fundamental concepts of fatigue in composites are assessed, particularly in terms of fracture mechanics methods

  16. Mechanical Properties and Brittle Behavior of Silica Aerogels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thierry Woignier

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Sets of silica gels: aerogels, xerogels and sintered aerogels, have been studied in the objective to understand the mechanical behavior of these highly porous solids. The mechanical behaviour of gels is described in terms of elastic and brittle materials, like glasses or ceramics. The magnitude of the elastic and rupture modulus is several orders of magnitude lower compared to dense glass. The mechanical behaviours (elastic and brittle are related to the same kinds of gel characteristics: pore volume, silanol content and pore size. Elastic modulus depends strongly on the volume fraction of pores and on the condensation reaction between silanols. Concerning the brittleness features: rupture modulus and toughness, it is shown that pores size plays an important role. Pores can be considered as flaws in the terms of fracture mechanics and the flaw size is related to the pore size. Weibull’s theory is used to show the statistical nature of flaw. Moreover, stress corrosion behaviour is studied as a function of environmental conditions (water and alcoholic atmosphere and temperature.

  17. MECHANICAL BEHAVIOR OF PRESTRESSED VISCOELASTIC ADHESIVE AREAS UNDER COMBINING LOADINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halil Murat Enginsoy

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article, mechanical behaviors of adhesive tape VHB 4950 elastomeric material, which is an element of acrylic polymer group and which is in viscoelastic behavior, under different pre-stress conditions and complex forces of different geometric parameters created by combining loadings have been experimentally and numerically investigated. In experimental studies, loading-unloading cyclic tests, one of the different standardized tests for the mechanical characterization of viscoelastic material, have been applied which give the most suitable convergent optimization parameters for the finite element model. Different material models were also investigated by using the data obtained from loading-unloading test results in all numerical models. According to the experimental results, the most suitable material parameters were determined with the Abaqus Parallel Rheological Framework Model (PRF for 4 Yeoh Networks with Bergstrom-Boyce Flow model created in the Mcalibration software for finite element analysis. Subsequently, using these material parameters, finite element analysis was performed as three dimension non-linear viscoelastic with a commercial finite element software Abaqus. The finite element analysis results showed good correlation to the Force (N-Displacement (mm experimental data for maximum load-carrying capacity of structural specimens.

  18. Chitosan/bentonite bionanocomposites: morphology and mechanical behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braga, C.R.C.; Melo, F.M.A. de; Vitorino, I.F.; Fook, M.V.L.; Silva, S.M.L.

    2010-01-01

    This study chitosan/bentonite bionanocomposite films were prepared by solution intercalation process, seeking to investigate the effect of the chitosan/bentonite ratio (5/1 e 10/1) on the morphology and mechanical behavior of the bionanocomposites. It was used as nanophase, Argel sodium bentonite (AN), was provided by Bentonit Uniao Nordeste-BUN (Campina Grande, Brazil) and as biopolymer matrix the chitosan of low molecular weight and degree of deacetylation of 86,7% was supplied by Polymar (Fortaleza, Brazil). The bionanocomposites was investigated by X-ray diffraction and tensile properties. According to the results, the morphology and the mechanical behavior of the bionanocomposite was affected by the ratio of chitosan/bentonite. The chitosan/bentonite ratio (5/1 and 10/1) indicated the formation of an intercalated nanostructure and of the predominantly exfoliated nanostructure, respectively. And the considerable increases in the resistance to the traction were observed mainly for the bionanocomposite with predominantly exfoliated morphology. (author)

  19. Subgrain Rotation Behavior in Sn3.0Ag0.5Cu-Sn37Pb Solder Joints During Thermal Shock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jing; Tan, Shihai; Guo, Fu

    2018-01-01

    Ball grid array (BGA) samples were soldered on a printed circuit board with Sn37Pb solder paste to investigate the recrystallization induced by subgrain rotation during thermal shock. The composition of the solder balls was Sn3.0Ag0.5Cu-Sn37Pb, which comprised mixed solder joints. The BGA component was cross-sectioned before thermal shock. The microstructure and grain orientations were obtained by a scanning electron microscope equipped with an electron back-scattered diffraction system. Two mixed solder joints at corners of the BGA component were selected as the subjects. The results showed that recrystallization occurred at the corner of the solder joints after 200 thermal shock cycles. The recrystallized subgrains had various new grain orientations. The newly generated grain orientations were closely related to the initial grain orientations, which indicated that different subgrain rotation behaviors could occur in one mixed solder joint with the same initial grain orientation. When the misorientation angles were very small, the rotation axes were about Sn [100], [010] and [001], as shown by analyzing the misorientation angles and subgrain rotation axes, while the subgrain rotation behavior with large misorientation angles in the solder joints was much more complicated. As Pb was contained in the solder joints and the stress was concentrated on the corner of the mixed solder joints, concaves and cracks were formed. When the adjacent recrystallized subgrains were separated, and the process of the continuous recrystallization was limited.

  20. Influence of temperature on the mechanical behavior of polyvinylidene fluoride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goncalez, Viviane; Pasqualino, Ilson Paranhos; Costa, Marysilvia Ferreira da

    2009-01-01

    Polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) is a semicrystalline polymer that presents four crystalline phases being the non polar alpha phase the most common. Due to the very good chemical stability as well a good mechanical properties, PVDF is successfully employed as pressure barrier layers in risers. Meanwhile, its long time behavior in the presence of temperature and in direct contact with fluids is not yet well established. In this work, PVDF stress-strain behavior and stress relaxation with temperature were investigated. It was observed a decrease in elasticity modulus with increasing temperature although the decrease was not linear with temperature increase. The temperature increase also caused the decrease in the relaxation modulus (G(t)). It was also observed that samples strained up to 10% showed a more drastic decrease in modulus compared to samples strained up to 5% regardless the temperature. This behavior was expected and it was attributed to the fact that larger deformation associated to temperature facilitates mobility of the amorphous chains. Through the analysis of x-ray diffraction (XRD) it was observed that the structure was not change after relaxation tests regardless of the test temperature. Experimental results were used to validate the numerical model developed where good correlation with the experimental results were observed. (author)

  1. Opioid/NMDA receptors blockade reverses the depressant-like behavior of foot shock stress in the mouse forced swimming test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haj-Mirzaian, Arya; Ostadhadi, Sattar; Kordjazy, Nastaran; Dehpour, Ahmad Reza; Ejtemaei Mehr, Shahram

    2014-07-15

    Opioid and glutamatergic receptors have a key role in depression following stress. In this study, we assessed opioid and glutamatergic receptors interaction with the depressant-like behavior of acute foot-shock stress in the mouse forced swimming test. Stress was induced by intermittent foot shock stimulation during 30min and swim periods were afterwards conducted by placing mice in separated glass cylinders filled with water for 6min. The immobility time during the last 4min of the test was considered. Acute foot-shock stress significantly increased the immobility time of mice compared to non-stressed control group (P≤0.01). Administration of non-selective opioid receptors antagonist, naltrexone (1 and 2mg/kg, i.p.), and the selective non-competitive NMDA receptor antagonist, MK-801 (0.05mg/kg, i.p.), and the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, fluoxetine (5mg/kg), significantly reduced the immobility time in stressed animals (P≤0.01). Lower doses of MK-801 (0.01mg/kg), naltrexone (0.3mg/kg), NMDA (75mg/kg) and morphine(5mg/kg) had no effect on foot-shock stressed mice. Combined treatment of sub-effective doses of naltrexone and MK-801 significantly showed an antidepressant-like effect (P≤0.001). On the other hand, co-administration of non-effective doses of NMDA and morphine with effective doses of naltrexone and MK-801 reversed the anti-immobility effect of these drugs. Taken together, we have for the first time demonstrated the possible role of opioid/NMDA receptors signaling in the depressant-like effect of foot-shock stress, and proposed the use of drugs that act like standard anti-depressants in stress-induced depression. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Collective mechanical behavior of multilayer colloidal arrays of hollow nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Jie; Retsch, Markus; Thomas, Edwin L; Boyce, Mary C

    2012-04-03

    The collective mechanical behavior of multilayer colloidal arrays of hollow silica nanoparticles (HSNP) is explored under spherical nanoindentation through a combination of experimental, numerical, and theoretical approaches. The effective indentation modulus E(ind) is found to decrease with an increasing number of layers in a nonlinear manner. The indentation force versus penetration depth behavior for multilayer hollow particle arrays is predicted by an approximate analytical model based on the spring stiffness of the individual particles and the multipoint, multiparticle interactions as well as force transmission between the layers. The model is in good agreement with experiments and with detailed finite element simulations. The ability to tune the effective indentation modulus, E(ind), of the multilayer arrays by manipulating particle geometry and layering is revealed through the model, where E(ind) = (0.725m(-3/2) + 0.275)E(mon) and E(mon) is the monolayer modulus and m is number of layers. E(ind) is seen to plateau with increasing m to E(ind_plateau) = 0.275E(mon) and E(mon) scales with (t/R)(2), t being the particle shell thickness and R being the particle radius. The scaling law governing the nonlinear decrease in indentation modulus with an increase in layer number (E(ind) scaling with m(-3/2)) is found to be similar to that governing the indentation modulus of thin solid films E(ind_solid) on a stiff substrate (where E(ind_solid) scales with h(-1.4) and also decreases until reaching a plateau value) which also decreases with an increase in film thickness h. However, the mechanisms underlying this trend for the colloidal array are clearly different, where discrete particle-to-particle interactions govern the colloidal array behavior in contrast to the substrate constraint on deformation, which governs the thickness dependence of the continuous thin film indentation modulus.

  3. Shock Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    The electrician pictured is installing a General Electric Ground Fault Interrupter (GFI), a device which provides protection against electrical shock in the home or in industrial facilities. Shocks due to defective wiring in home appliances or other electrical equipment can cause severe burns, even death. As a result, the National Electrical Code now requires GFIs in all new homes constructed. This particular type of GFI employs a sensing element which derives from technology acquired in space projects by SCI Systems, Inc., Huntsville, Alabama, producer of sensors for GE and other manufacturers of GFI equipment. The sensor is based on the company's experience in developing miniaturized circuitry for space telemetry and other spacecraft electrical systems; this experience enabled SCI to package interruptor circuitry in the extremely limited space available and to produce sensory devices at practicable cost. The tiny sensor measures the strength of the electrical current and detects current differentials that indicate a fault in the functioning of an electrical system. The sensing element then triggers a signal to a disconnect mechanism in the GFI, which cuts off the current in the faulty circuit.

  4. Long-Term Mechanical Behavior of Nano Silica Sol Grouting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongjiang Pan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The longevity of grouting has a significant effect on the safe and sustainable operation of many engineering projects. A 500-day experiment was carried out to study the long-term mechanical behavior of nano silica sol grouting. The nano silica sol was activated with different proportions of a NaCl catalyst and cured under fluctuating temperature and humidity conditions. The mechanical parameters of the grout samples were tested using an electrohydraulic uniaxial compression tester and an improved Vicat instrument. Scanning electron microscope, X-ray diffraction, and ultrasonic velocity tests were carried out to analyze the strength change micro-mechanism. Tests showed that as the catalyst dosage in the grout mix is decreased, the curves on the graphs showing changes in the weight and geometric parameters of the samples over time could be divided into three stages, a shrinkage stage, a stable stage, and a second shrinkage stage. The catalyst improved the stability of the samples and reduced moisture loss. Temperature rise was also a driving force for moisture loss. Uniaxial compressive stress-strain curves for all of the samples were elastoplastic. The curves for uniaxial compression strength and secant modulus plotted against time could be divided into three stages. Sample brittleness increased with time and the brittleness index increased with higher catalyst dosages in the latter part of the curing time. Plastic strength-time curves exhibit allometric scaling. Curing conditions mainly affect the compactness, and then affect the strength.

  5. Long-Term Mechanical Behavior of Nano Silica Sol Grouting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Nong; Zhang, Chenghao; Qian, Deyu; Han, Changliang; Yang, Sen

    2018-01-01

    The longevity of grouting has a significant effect on the safe and sustainable operation of many engineering projects. A 500-day experiment was carried out to study the long-term mechanical behavior of nano silica sol grouting. The nano silica sol was activated with different proportions of a NaCl catalyst and cured under fluctuating temperature and humidity conditions. The mechanical parameters of the grout samples were tested using an electrohydraulic uniaxial compression tester and an improved Vicat instrument. Scanning electron microscope, X-ray diffraction, and ultrasonic velocity tests were carried out to analyze the strength change micro-mechanism. Tests showed that as the catalyst dosage in the grout mix is decreased, the curves on the graphs showing changes in the weight and geometric parameters of the samples over time could be divided into three stages, a shrinkage stage, a stable stage, and a second shrinkage stage. The catalyst improved the stability of the samples and reduced moisture loss. Temperature rise was also a driving force for moisture loss. Uniaxial compressive stress-strain curves for all of the samples were elastoplastic. The curves for uniaxial compression strength and secant modulus plotted against time could be divided into three stages. Sample brittleness increased with time and the brittleness index increased with higher catalyst dosages in the latter part of the curing time. Plastic strength-time curves exhibit allometric scaling. Curing conditions mainly affect the compactness, and then affect the strength. PMID:29337897

  6. Silver nanoparticles in aquatic environments: Physiochemical behavior and antimicrobial mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chiqian; Hu, Zhiqiang; Deng, Baolin

    2016-01-01

    Nanosilver (silver nanoparticles or AgNPs) has unique physiochemical properties and strong antimicrobial activities. This paper provides a comprehensive review of the physicochemical behavior (e.g., dissolution and aggregation) and antimicrobial mechanisms of nanosilver in aquatic environments. The inconsistency in calculating the Gibbs free energy of formation of nanosilver [ΔGf(AgNPs)] in aquatic environments highlights the research needed to carefully determine the thermodynamic stability of nanosilver. The dissolutive release of silver ion (Ag(+)) in the literature is often described using a pseudo-first-order kinetics, but the fit is generally poor. This paper proposes a two-stage model that could better predict silver ion release kinetics. The theoretical analysis suggests that nanosilver dissolution could occur under anoxic conditions and that nanosilver may be sulfidized to form silver sulfide (Ag2S) under strict anaerobic conditions, but more investigation with carefully-designed experiments is required to confirm the analysis. Although silver ion release is likely the main antimicrobial mechanism of nanosilver, the contributions of (ion-free) AgNPs and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation to the overall toxicity of nanosilver must not be neglected. Several research directions are proposed to better understand the dissolution kinetics of nanosilver and its antimicrobial mechanisms under various aquatic environmental conditions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. HDM model magnet mechanical behavior with high manganese steel collars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snyder, J.R.

    1994-01-01

    Westinghouse Electric Corporation (WEC) is presently under contract to the SSCL to design, develop, fabricate, and deliver superconducting dipole magnets for the High Energy Booster (HEB). As a first step toward these objectives SSCL supplied a design for short model magnets of 1.8 m in length (DSB). This design was used as a developmental tool for all phases of engineering and fabrication. Mechanical analysis of the HDM (High Energy Booster Dipole Magnets) model magnet design as specified by SSCL was performed with the following objectives: (1) to develop a thorough understanding of the design; (2) to review and verify through analytical and numerical analyses the SSCL model magnet design; (3) to identify any deficiencies that would violate design parameters specified in the HDM Design Requirements Document. A detailed analysis of the model magnet mechanical behavior was pursued by constructing a quarter section finite element model and solving with the ANSYS finite element code. Collar materials of Nitronic-40 and High-Manganese steel were both considered for the HEB model magnet program with the High-Manganese being the final selection. The primary mechanical difference in the two materials is the much lower thermal contraction of the High-Manganese steel. With this material the collars will contract less than the enclosing yoke producing an increased collar yoke interference during cooldown

  8. Novel mechanical behaviors of wurtzite CdSe nanowires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fu, Bing [Shanghai Normal University, Department of Physics (China); Chen, Li [MCPHS University, School of Arts and Sciences (United States); Xie, Yiqun; Feng, Jie; Ye, Xiang, E-mail: yexiang@shnu.edu.cn [Shanghai Normal University, Department of Physics (China)

    2015-09-15

    As an important semiconducting nanomaterial, CdSe nanowires have attracted much attention. Although many studies have been conducted in the electronic and optical properties of CdSe NWs, the mechanical properties of Wurtzite (WZ) CdSe nanowires remain unclear. Using molecular dynamics simulations, we have studied the tensile mechanical properties and behaviors of [0001]-oriented Wurtzite CdSe nanowires. By monitoring the stretching processes of CdSe nanowires, three distinct structures are found: the WZ wire, a body-centered tetragonal structure with four-atom rings (denoted as BCT-4), and a structure that consists of ten-atom rings with two four-atom rings (denoted as TAR-4) which is observed for the first time. Not only the elastic tensile characteristics are highly reversible under unloading, but a reverse transition between TAR-4 and BCT-4 is also observed. The stretching processes also have a strong dependence on temperature. A tubular structure similar to carbon nanotubes is observed at 150 K, a single-atom chain is formed at 300, 350 and 450 K, and a double-atom chain is found at 600 K. Our findings on tensile mechanical properties of WZ CdSe nanowires does not only provide inspiration to future study on other properties of CdSe nanomaterials but also help design and build efficient nanoscale devices.

  9. Shock wave science and technology reference library

    CERN Document Server

    2009-01-01

    This book is the second of several volumes on solids in the Shock Wave Science and Technology Reference Library. These volumes are primarily concerned with high-pressure shock waves in solid media, including detonation and high-velocity impact and penetration events. Of the four extensive chapters in this volume, the first two describe the reactive behavior of condensed phase explosives, - Condensed-Phase Explosives: Shock Initiation and Detonation Phenomena (SA Sheffield and R Engelke) - First Principles Molecular Simulations of Energetic Materials at High-Pressures (F Zhang, S Alavi, and TK Woo), and the remaining two discuss the inert, mechanical response of solid materials. - Combined Compression and Shear Plane Waves (ZP Tang and JB Aidun), and - Dynamic Fragmentation of Solids (D Grady). All chapters are each self-contained, and can be read independently of each other. They offer a timely reference, for beginners as well as professional scientists and engineers, on the foundations of detonation phenomen...

  10. Features in the Behavior of the Solar Wind behind the Bow Shock Front near the Boundary of the Earth's Magnetosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grib, S. A.; Leora, S. N.

    2017-12-01

    Macroscopic discontinuous structures observed in the solar wind are considered in the framework of magnetic hydrodynamics. The interaction of strong discontinuities is studied based on the solution of the generalized Riemann-Kochin problem. The appearance of discontinuities inside the magnetosheath after the collision of the solar wind shock wave with the bow shock front is taken into account. The propagation of secondary waves appearing in the magnetosheath is considered in the approximation of one-dimensional ideal magnetohydrodynamics. The appearance of a compression wave reflected from the magnetopause is indicated. The wave can nonlinearly break with the formation of a backward shock wave and cause the motion of the bow shock towards the Sun. The interaction between shock waves is considered with the well-known trial calculation method. It is assumed that the velocity of discontinuities in the magnetosheath in the first approximation is constant on the average. All reasonings and calculations correspond to consideration of a flow region with a velocity less than the magnetosonic speed near the Earth-Sun line. It is indicated that the results agree with the data from observations carried out on the WIND and Cluster spacecrafts.

  11. Giant panda׳s tooth enamel: Structure, mechanical behavior and toughening mechanisms under indentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Z Y; Liu, Z Q; Ritchie, R O; Jiao, D; Li, D S; Wu, H L; Deng, L H; Zhang, Z F

    2016-12-01

    The giant panda׳s teeth possess remarkable load-bearing capacity and damage resistance for masticating bamboos. In this study, the hierarchical structure and mechanical behavior of the giant panda׳s tooth enamel were investigated under indentation. The effects of loading orientation and location on mechanical properties of the enamel were clarified and the evolution of damage in the enamel under increasing load evaluated. The nature of the damage, both at and beneath the indentation surfaces, and the underlying toughening mechanisms were explored. Indentation cracks invariably were seen to propagate along the internal interfaces, specifically the sheaths between enamel rods, and multiple extrinsic toughening mechanisms, e.g., crack deflection/twisting and uncracked-ligament bridging, were active to shield the tips of cracks from the applied stress. The giant panda׳s tooth enamel is analogous to human enamel in its mechanical properties, yet it has superior hardness and Young׳s modulus but inferior toughness as compared to the bamboo that pandas primarily feed on, highlighting the critical roles of the integration of underlying tissues in the entire tooth and the highly hydrated state of bamboo foods. Our objective is that this study can aid the understanding of the structure-mechanical property relations in the tooth enamel of mammals and further provide some insight on the food habits of the giant pandas. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Reliability for systems of degrading components with distinct component shock sets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Sanling; Coit, David W.; Feng, Qianmei

    2014-01-01

    This paper studies reliability for multi-component systems subject to dependent competing risks of degradation wear and random shocks, with distinct shock sets. In practice, many systems are exposed to distinct and different types of shocks that can be categorized according to their sizes, function, affected components, etc. Previous research primarily focuses on simple systems with independent failure processes, systems with independent component time-to-failure, or components that share the same shock set or type of shocks. In our new model, we classify random shocks into different sets based on their sizes or function. Shocks with specific sizes or function can selectively affect one or more components in the system but not necessarily all components. Additionally the shocks from the different shock sets can arrive at different rates and have different relative magnitudes. Preventive maintenance (PM) optimization is conducted for the system with different component shock sets. Decision variables for two different maintenance scheduling problems, the PM replacement time interval, and the PM inspection time interval, are determined by minimizing a defined system cost rate. Sensitivity analysis is performed to provide insight into the behavior of the proposed maintenance policies. These models can be applied directly or customized for many complex systems that experience dependent competing failure processes with different component shock sets. A MEMS (Micro-electro mechanical systems) oscillator is a typical system subject to dependent and competing failure processes, and it is used as a numerical example to illustrate our new reliability and maintenance models

  13. Neuroimaging mechanisms of change in psychotherapy for addictive behaviors: emerging translational approaches that bridge biology and behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldstein Ewing, Sarah W; Chung, Tammy

    2013-06-01

    Research on mechanisms of behavior change provides an innovative method to improve treatment for addictive behaviors. An important extension of mechanisms of change research involves the use of translational approaches, which examine how basic biological (i.e., brain-based mechanisms) and behavioral factors interact in initiating and sustaining positive behavior change as a result of psychotherapy. Articles in this special issue include integrative conceptual reviews and innovative empirical research on brain-based mechanisms that may underlie risk for addictive behaviors and response to psychotherapy from adolescence through adulthood. Review articles discuss hypothesized mechanisms of change for cognitive and behavioral therapies, mindfulness-based interventions, and neuroeconomic approaches. Empirical articles cover a range of addictive behaviors, including use of alcohol, cigarettes, marijuana, cocaine, and pathological gambling and represent a variety of imaging approaches including fMRI, magneto-encephalography, real-time fMRI, and diffusion tensor imaging. Additionally, a few empirical studies directly examine brain-based mechanisms of change, whereas others examine brain-based indicators as predictors of treatment outcome. Finally, two commentaries discuss craving as a core feature of addiction, and the importance of a developmental approach to examining mechanisms of change. Ultimately, translational research on mechanisms of behavior change holds promise for increasing understanding of how psychotherapy may modify brain structure and functioning and facilitate the initiation and maintenance of positive treatment outcomes for addictive behaviors. 2013 APA, all rights reserved

  14. Heat shock protein 70 inhibits shrinkage-induced programmed cell death via mechanisms independent of effects on cell volume-regulatory membrane transport proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nylandsted, J; Jäättelä, M; Hoffmann, E K

    2004-01-01

    Cell shrinkage is a ubiquitous feature of programmed cell death (PCD), but whether it is an obligatory signalling event in PCD is unclear. Heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) potently counteracts PCD in many cells, by mechanisms that are incompletely understood. In the present investigation, we found...... that severe hypertonic stress greatly diminished the viability of murine fibrosarcoma cells (WEHI-902) and immortalized murine embryonic fibroblasts (iMEFs). This effect was attenuated markedly by Hsp70 over-expression. To determine whether the protective effect of Hsp70 was mediated via an effect on volume...... regulatory ion transport, we compared regulatory volume decrease (RVD) and increase (RVI) in control WEHI-902 cells and after increasing Hsp70 levels by heat shock or over-expression (WEHI-912). Hsp70 levels affected neither RVD, RVI nor the relative contributions of the Na(+)/H(+)-exchanger (NHE1) and Na...

  15. Challenges in mechanical modeling of SFR fuel rod transient behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feria, F.; Herranz, L. E.

    2013-07-01

    Modeling of SFR fuel rod mechanical behavior under transient conditions entails the development of a creep law to predict cladding viscoplastic strain. In this regard, this work is focused on defining a proper clad creep law structure as the basis to set a suitable model under SFR off-normal conditions as transient overpower and loss of fluid. To do so, a review of in-codes clad creep models has been done by using SAS-SFR, SCANAIR and ASTEC. The proposed creep model has been structured in two parts: viscoplastic behaviour before the failure (primary and secondary creep) and the failure due to viscoplastic collapse (tertiary creep). In order to model the first part, Norton creep law has been proposed as a conservative option. An irradiation hardening factor should be included for best estimate calculations. The recommendation for the second part is to apply a failure criterion based on strain limit or rupture time, which allows achieving conservative results.

  16. Study of the Mechanical Behavior of a Hyperelastic Membrane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bourbaba Houaria

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The benefits in emloying plastics material in microfluidic devices manufactures are extremely attractive that include reduced cost and simplified manufacturing procedures, particularly when compared to silicon. An additional benefit is the wide range of available plastic materials which allow the manufacturer to choose materials' properties suitable for their specific application. The Polydimethylsiloxane is commonly used in a wide range of microfluidic applications due to its flexibility and low cost. In addition the properties of the Polymethyl methacrylate such as the low cost, high transparency, and good chemical properties are needed in microfluidics applications. In this paper, we have used Finit Elements method to simulate the mechanical behavior of Polydimethylsiloxane and Polymethylmethacrylate using hyper elastic and linear elastic model. Sevral parameters have been studied; such as, thickness and number of mesh in order to optimize the dimension of the membrane. Also, we have studied the impact of the mesh form on the membrane’s displacement.

  17. Mechanical behavior of nanocellulose coated jute/green epoxy composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabbar, A.; Militký, J.; Ali, A.; Usman Javed, M.

    2017-10-01

    The present study was aimed to investigate the effect of nanocellulose coating on the mechanical behavior of jute/green epoxy composites. Cellulose was purified from waste jute fibers, converted to nanocellulose by acid hydrolysis and subsequently 3, 5 and 10 wt % of nanocellulose suspensions were coated over woven jute reinforcement. The composites were prepared by hand layup and compression molding technique. The surface topologies of treated jute fibers, jute cellulose nanofibrils (CNF), nanocellulose coated jute fabrics and fractured surfaces of composites were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The prepared composites were evaluated for tensile, flexural, fatigue and fracture toughness properties. The results revealed the improvement in tensile modulus, flexural strength, flexural modulus, fatigue life and fracture toughness of composites with the increase in concentration of nanocellulose coating over jute reinforcement except the decrease in tensile strength.

  18. Mechanical behavior of multipass welded joint during stress relief annealing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueda, Yukio; Fukuda, Keiji; Nakacho, Keiji; Takahashi, Eiji; Sakamoto, Koichi.

    1978-01-01

    An investigation into mechanical behavior of a multipass welded joint of a pressure vessel during stress relief annealing was conducted. The study was performed theoretically and experimentally on idealized research models. In the theoretical analysis, the thermal elastic-plastic creep theory developed by the authors was applied. The behavior of multipass welded joints during the entire thermal cycle, from welding to stress relief annealing, was consistently analyzed by this theory. The results of the analysis show a good, fundamentally coincidence with the experimental findings. The outline of the results and conclusions is as follows. (1) In the case of the material (2 1/4Cr-1Mo steel) furnished in this study, the creep strain rate during stress relief annealing below 575 0 C obeys the strain-hardening creep law using the transient creep and the one above 575 0 C obeys the power creep law using the stational creep. (2) In the transverse residual stress (σsub(x)) distribution after annealing, the location of the largest tensile stress on the top surface is about 15 mm away from the toe of weld, and the largest at the cross section is just below the finishing bead. These features are similar to those of welding residual stresses. But the stress distribution after annealing is smoother than one from welding. (3) The effectiveness of stress relief annealing depends greatly on the annealing temperature. For example, most of residual stresses are relieved at the heating stage with a heating rate of 30 0 C/hr. to 100 0 C/hr. if the annealing temperature is 650 0 C, but if the annealing temperature is 550 0 C, the annealing is not effective even with a longer holding time. (4) In the case of multipass welding residual stresses studied in this paper, the behaviors of high stresses during annealing are approximated by ones during anisothermal relaxation. (auth.)

  19. Mechanical behavior and coupling between mechanical and oxidation in alloy 718: effect of solide solution elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Max, Bertrand

    2014-01-01

    Alloy 718 is the superalloy the most widely used in industry due to its excellent mechanical properties, as well as oxidation and corrosion resistance in wide range of temperatures and solicitation modes. Nevertheless, it is a well-known fact that this alloy is sensitive to stress corrosion cracking and oxidation assisted cracking under loading in the range of temperatures met in service. Mechanisms explaining this phenomenon are not well understood: nevertheless, it is well established that a relation exists between a change in fracture mode and the apparition of plastic instabilities phenomenon. During this study, the instability phenomenon, Portevin-Le Chatelier effect, in alloy 718 was studied by tensile tests in wide ranges of temperatures and strain rates. Different domains of plastic instabilities have been evidenced. Their characteristics suggest the existence of interactions between dislocations and different types of solute elements: interstitials for lower temperatures and substitutionals for higher testing temperatures. Mechanical spectroscopy tests have been performed on alloy 718 and various alloys which composition is comparable to that of alloy 718. These tests prove the mobility of molybdenum atoms in the alloy in the studied temperature range. Specific tests have been performed to study interaction phenomenon between plasticity and oxidation. These results highlight the strong effect of plastic strain rate on both mechanical behavior and intergranular cracking in alloy 718. The subsequent discussion leads to propose hypothesis on coupling effects between deformation mechanisms and oxidation assisted embrittlement in the observed cracking processes. (author)

  20. Mechanical behavior of aluminum-lithium alloys at cryogenic temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glazer, J.; Verzasconi, S.L.; Sawtell, R.R.; Morris, J.W. Jr.

    1987-01-01

    The cryogenic mechanical properties of aluminum-lithium alloys are of interest because these alloys are attractive candidate materials for cryogenic tankage. Previous work indicates that the strength-toughness relationship for alloy 2090-T81 (Al-2.7Cu-2.2Li-0.12Zr by weight) improves significantly as temperature decreases. The subject of this investigation is the mechanism of this improvement. Deformation behavior was studied since the fracture morphology did not change with temperature. Tensile failures in 2090-T81 and -T4 occur at plastic instability. In contrast, in the binary aluminum-lithium alloy studied here they occur well before plastic instability. For all three materials, the strain hardening rate in the longitudinal direction increases as temperature decreases. This increase is associated with an improvement in tensile elongation at low temperatures. In alloy 2090-T4, these results correlate with a decrease in planar slip at low temperatures. The improved toughness at low temperatures is believed to be due to increased stable deformation prior to fracture

  1. Patch Departure Behavior of Bumble Bees: Rules and Mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dale E. Taneyhill

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available I present an increment-decay model for the mechanism of bumble bees' decision to depart from inflorescences. The probability of departure is the consequence of a dynamic threshold level of stimuli necessary to elicit a stereotyped landing reaction. Reception of floral nectar lowers this threshold, making the bee less likely to depart. Concurrently the threshold increases, making departure from the inflorescence more probable. Increments to the probability of landing are an increasing, decelerating function of nectar volume, and are worth less, in sequence, for the same amount of nectar. The model is contrasted to threshold departure rules, which predict that bees will depart from inflorescences if the amount of nectar in the last one or two flowers visited is below a given level. Field tests comparing the two models were performed with monkshood (Aconitum columbianum. Treated flowers contained a descending series of nectar volumes (6 to 0 L of 30 % sucrose solution. The more nectar that bees encountered in the treated flowers, the more likely they were to remain within the inflorescence after subsequently visiting one to three empty flowers. I discuss the differences between rules and mechanisms in regard to cognitive models of foraging behavior.

  2. Behavior of duplex stainless steel casting defects under mechanical loadings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jayet-Gendrot, S [Electricite de France, 77 - Moret-sur-Loing (France). Dept. of Materials Study; Gilles, P; Migne, C [Societe Franco-Americaine de Constructions Atomiques (FRAMATOME), 92 - Paris-La-Defense (France)

    1997-04-01

    Several components in the primary circuit of pressurized water reactors are made of cast duplex stainless steels. This material contains small casting defects, mainly shrinkage cavities, due to the manufacturing process. In safety analyses, the structural integrity of the components is studied. In order to assess the real severity of the casting defects under mechanical loadings, an experimental program was carried out. It consisted of testing, under both cyclic and monotonic solicitations, three-point bend specimens containing either a natural defect (in the form of a localized cluster of cavities) or a machined notch having the dimensions of the cluster`s envelope. The tests are analyzed in order to develop a method that takes into account the behavior of castings defects in a more realistic fashion than by an envelope crack. Various approaches are investigated, including the search of equivalent defects or of criteria based on continuum mechanics concepts, and compared with literature data. This study shows the conservatism of current safety analyses in modelling casting defects by envelope semi-elliptical cracks and contributes to the development of alternative approaches. (author) 18 refs.

  3. Adsorption behavior and mechanism of uranium on wood fiber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Zhe; Yi Facheng; Feng Yuan

    2015-01-01

    The adsorption performance of uranium on wood fiber was studied with static experiment. The influence factors on the U(Ⅵ) removal rate such as wood fiber particle size, adsorption time, dosage, temperature, pH and initial concentration were researched, and the adsorption process was analyzed in terms of thermodynamics and kinetics. The results show that the adsorption equilibrium time is 4 hours. When the pH reaches 3 for uranium-containing wastewater, uranium can be removed with the decrease of the size of adsorbent and with the increase of adsorbent dosage and temperature. The equilibrium adsorption data fit to Langmuir isotherms. The kinetic analysis shows that the adsorption rate is mainly controlled by chemical adsorption. The adsorption process can be described by an equation of pseudo 2nd-order model. The thermodynamic data indicate that the synergistic uranium bio-sorption by wood fiber is a spontaneous and endothermal adsorption process. The adsorption mechanism was analyzed with SEM, FT-IR and EDS. The results show that the surface form of wood fiber is changed and uranium mainly chelates with active groups on the fiber-s surface and forms the complexes. These indicate that the adsorption of uranium should be of surface coordination. The analyses of EDS before and after adsorption of uranium prove that the behavior of adsorption is ion exchange. The above results indicate that the adsorption mechanism is mainly surface coordination and ion exchange adsorption, followed by physical absorption. (authors)

  4. Modeling the Mechanical Behavior of Ceramic Matrix Composite Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, William

    1998-01-01

    Ceramic matrix composites are ceramic materials, such as SiC, that have been reinforced by high strength fibers, such as carbon. Designers are interested in using ceramic matrix composites because they have the capability of withstanding significant loads while at relatively high temperatures (in excess of 1,000 C). Ceramic matrix composites retain the ceramic materials ability to withstand high temperatures, but also possess a much greater ductility and toughness. Their high strength and medium toughness is what makes them of so much interest to the aerospace community. This work concentrated on two different tasks. The first task was to do an extensive literature search into the mechanical behavior of ceramic matrix composite materials. This report contains the results of this task. The second task was to use this understanding to help interpret the ceramic matrix composite mechanical test results that had already been obtained by NASA. Since the specific details of these test results are subject to the International Traffic in Arms Regulations (ITAR), they are reported in a separate document (Jordan, 1997).

  5. Shocks near Jamming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, Leopoldo R.; Turner, Ari M.; van Hecke, Martin; Vitelli, Vincenzo

    2012-02-01

    Nonlinear sound is an extreme phenomenon typically observed in solids after violent explosions. But granular media are different. Right when they jam, these fragile and disordered solids exhibit a vanishing rigidity and sound speed, so that even tiny mechanical perturbations form supersonic shocks. Here, we perform simulations in which two-dimensional jammed granular packings are dynamically compressed and demonstrate that the elementary excitations are strongly nonlinear shocks, rather than ordinary phonons. We capture the full dependence of the shock speed on pressure and impact intensity by a surprisingly simple analytical model.

  6. Thermal hydraulic-Mechanic Integrated Simulation for Advanced Cladding Thermal Shock Fracture Analysis during Reflood Phase in LBLOCA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Son, Seong Min; Lee, You Ho; Cho, Jae Wan; Lee, Jeong Ik [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    This study suggested thermal hydraulic-mechanical integrated stress based methodology for analyzing the behavior of ATF type claddings by SiC-Duplex cladding LBLOCA simulation. Also, this paper showed that this methodology could predict real experimental result well. That concept for enhanced safety of LWR called Advanced Accident-Tolerance Fuel Cladding (ATF cladding, ATF) is researched actively. However, current nuclear fuel cladding design criteria for zircaloy cannot be apply to ATF directly because those criteria are mainly based on limiting their oxidation. So, the new methodology for ATF design criteria is necessary. In this study, stress based analysis methodology for ATF cladding design criteria is suggested. By simulating LBLOCA scenario of SiC cladding which is the one of the most promising candidate of ATF. Also we'll confirm our result briefly through comparing some facts from other experiments. This result is validating now. Some of results show good performance with 1-D failure analysis code for SiC fuel cladding that already developed and validated by Lee et al,. It will present in meeting. Furthermore, this simulation presented the possibility of understanding the behavior of cladding deeper. If designer can predict the dangerous region and the time precisely, it may be helpful for designing nuclear fuel cladding geometry and set safety criteria.

  7. Mechanical behavior and strengthening mechanisms in ultrafine grain precipitation-strengthened aluminum alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, Kaka; Wen, Haiming; Hu, Tao; Topping, Troy D.; Isheim, Dieter; Seidman, David N.; Lavernia, Enrique J.; Schoenung, Julie M.

    2014-01-01

    To provide insight into the relationships between precipitation phenomena, grain size and mechanical behavior in a complex precipitation-strengthened alloy system, Al 7075 alloy, a commonly used aluminum alloy, was selected as a model system in the present study. Ultrafine-grained (UFG) bulk materials were fabricated through cryomilling, degassing, hot isostatic pressing and extrusion, followed by a subsequent heat treatment. The mechanical behavior and microstructure of the materials were analyzed and compared directly to the coarse-grained (CG) counterpart. Three-dimensional atom-probe tomography was utilized to investigate the intermetallic precipitates and oxide dispersoids formed in the as-extruded UFG material. UFG 7075 exhibits higher strength than the CG 7075 alloy for each equivalent condition. After a T6 temper, the yield strength (YS) and ultimate tensile strength (UTS) of UFG 7075 achieved 734 and 774 MPa, respectively, which are ∼120 MPa higher than those of the CG equivalent. The strength of as-extruded UFG 7075 (YS: 583 MPa, UTS: 631 MPa) is even higher than that of commercial 7075-T6. More importantly, the strengthening mechanisms in each material were established quantitatively for the first time for this complex precipitation-strengthened system, accounting for grain-boundary, dislocation, solid-solution, precipitation and oxide dispersoid strengthening contributions. Grain-boundary strengthening was the predominant mechanism in as-extruded UFG 7075, contributing a strength increment estimated to be 242 MPa, whereas Orowan precipitation strengthening was predominant in the as-extruded CG 7075 (∼102 MPa) and in the T6-tempered materials, and was estimated to contribute 472 and 414 MPa for CG-T6 and UFG-T6, respectively

  8. Short-term mechanical circulatory support as a bridge to durable left ventricular assist device implantation in refractory cardiogenic shock: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    den Uil, Corstiaan A; Akin, Sakir; Jewbali, Lucia S; Dos Reis Miranda, Dinis; Brugts, Jasper J; Constantinescu, Alina A; Kappetein, Arie Pieter; Caliskan, Kadir

    2017-07-01

    Short-term mechanical circulatory support (MCS) is increasingly used as a bridge to decision in patients with refractory cardiogenic shock. Subsequently, these patients might be bridged to durable MCS either as a bridge to candidacy/transplantation, or as destination therapy. The aim of this study was to review support duration and clinical outcome of short-term MCS in cardiogenic shock, and to analyse application of this technology as a bridge to long-term cardiac support (left ventricular assist device, LVAD) from 2006 till June 2016. Using Cochrane Register of Trials, Embase and Medline, a systematic review was performed on patients with cardiogenic shock from acute myocardial infarction, end-stage cardiomyopathy, or acute myocarditis, receiving short-term MCS. Studies on periprocedural, post-cardiotomy and cardiopulmonary resuscitation support were excluded. Thirty-nine studies, mainly registries of heterogeneous patient populations (n = 4151 patients), were identified. Depending on the device used (intra-aortic balloon pump, TandemHeart, Impella 2.5, Impella 5.0, CentriMag and peripheral veno-arterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation), mean support duration was (range) 1.6-25 days and the mean proportion of short-term MCS patients discharged was (range) 45-66%. The mean proportion of bridge to durable LVAD was (range) 3-30%. Bridge to durable LVAD was most frequently performed in patients with end-stage cardiomyopathy (22 [12-35]%). We conclude that temporary MCS can be used to bridge patients with cardiogenic shock towards durable LVAD. Clinicians are encouraged to share their results in a large multicentre registry in order to investigate optimal device selection and best duration of support. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. All rights reserved.

  9. Shock wave interaction with turbulence: Pseudospectral simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buckingham, A.C.

    1986-01-01

    Shock waves amplify pre-existing turbulence. Shock tube and shock wave boundary layer interaction experiments provide qualitative confirmation. However, shock pressure, temperature, and rapid transit complicate direct measurement. Computational simulations supplement the experimental data base and help isolate the mechanisms responsible. Simulations and experiments, particularly under reflected shock wave conditions, significantly influence material mixing. In these pseudospectral Navier-Stokes simulations the shock wave is treated as either a moving (tracked or fitted) domain boundary. The simulations assist development of code mix models. Shock Mach number and pre-existing turbulence intensity initially emerge as key parameters. 20 refs., 8 figs

  10. Thermo-hydraulic-mechanical analysis of the SS-050 sodium loop during a thermal shock of 2000C/s

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jesus Miranda, C.A. de; Gebrin, A.N.

    1988-01-01

    An analytical thermo-hydraulic model was developed to obtain the temperature of the sodium flowing between the mixing tank TM of constant volume and the drain tank of the SS-050 sodium test facility. The piping connecting these two tanks is considered in the analysis. The sodium enters in the TM through a tube with lateral holes immersed in the TM's sodium. The model and relative computer program were tested and a typical situation was studied: a thermal shock with -200 0 C/s of thermal gradient in the test section. The sodium temperature time-histories along the piping length are presented. For the thermal shock situation, the temperature field in the TM bottom and outlet nozzle was calculated and the stresses were evaluated. The final thermal stresses will allow a detailed verification of the circuit design. (author) [pt

  11. Initial ISEE magnetometer results: shock observation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russell, C.T.

    1979-01-01

    ISEE-1 and -2 magnetic field profiles across 6 terrestrial bow shock and one interplanetary shock are examined. The inteplanetary shock illustrates the behavior of a low Mach number shock. Three examples of low or moderate β, high Mach number, quasi-perpendicular shocks are examined. These did not have upstream waves, but rather had waves growing in the field gradient. Two examples of high β shocks showed little coherence in field variation even though the two vehicles were only a few hundred kilometers apart. The authors present the joint behavior of wave, particle and field data across some of these shocks to show some of the myriad of shock features whose behavior they are now beginning to investigate. (Auth.)

  12. Behavior of duplex stainless steel casting defects under mechanical loadings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jayet-Gendrot, S.; Gilles, P.

    2000-01-01

    Several components in the primary circuit of pressurized water reactors are made of cast duplex stainless steels. This material contains small casting defects, mainly shrinkage cavities, due to the manufacturing process. In safety analyses, the structural integrity of the components is studied under the most severe assumptions: presence of a large defect, accidental loadings and end-of-life material properties accounting for its thermal aging embrittlement at the service temperature. The casting defects are idealized as semi-circular surface cracks or notches that have envelope dimensions. In order to assess the real severity of the casting defects under mechanical loadings, an experimental program was carried out. It consisted of testing, under both cyclic and monotonic solicitations, three-point bend specimens containing either a natural defect (in the form of a localized cluster of cavities) or a machined notch having the dimensions of the cluster's envelope. The results show that shrinkage cavities are far less harmful than envelope notches thanks to the metal bridges between cavities. Under fatigue loadings, the generalized initiation of a cluster of cavities (defined when the cluster becomes a crack of the same global size) is reached for a number of cycles that is much higher than the one leading to the initiation of a notch. In the case of monotonic loadings, specimens with casting defects offer a very high resistance to ductile tearing. The tests are analyzed in order to develop a method that takes into account the behavior of casting defects in a more realistic fashion than by an envelope crack. Various approaches are investigated, including the search of equivalent defects or of criteria based on continuum mechanics concepts, and compared with literature data. This study shows the conservatism of current safety analyses in modeling casting defects by envelope semi-elliptical cracks and contributes to the development of alternative approaches. (orig.)

  13. The behavior of the planetary rings under the Kozai Mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sucerquia, M. A.; Ramírez, C. V.; Zuluaga, J. I.

    2017-07-01

    Rings are one of the main feature of almost all giant planets in the Solar System. Even though thousands of exoplanets have been discovered to date, no evidence of exoplanetary rings have been found despite the effort made in the development and enhancing of techniques and methods for direct or indirect detection. In the transit of a ringed planet, the dynamic of the ring itself could play a meaningful role due to the so called Kozai Mechanism (KM) acting on each particle of it. When some specific initial conditions of the ring are fulfilled (as a ring inclination greater than ˜ 39°), KM generates short periodic changes in the inclination and eccentricity of each particle, leading to a meaningful characteristic collective behavior of the ring: it changes its width, inclination and optical depth. These changes induce periodic variations on the eclipsed area of the parent star, generating slight changes in the observed transit signal. Under this mechanism, light curves depths and shapes oscillate according to the fluctuations of the ring. To show this effect we have performed numerical simulations of the dynamic of a system of particles to asses the ring inclination and width variations over time. We have calculated the expected variations in the transit depth and finally, we have estimated the effect on the light curve of a hypothetical ringed exoplanet affected by the KM. The detection of this effect could be used as an alternative method to detect/confirm exoplanetary rings, and also it could be considered as a way to explain anomalous light curves patterns of exoplanets, as the case of KIC 8462852 star.

  14. Hyperglycemia adversely modulates endothelial nitric oxide synthase during anesthetic preconditioning through tetrahydrobiopterin- and heat shock protein 90-mediated mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amour, Julien; Brzezinska, Anna K; Jager, Zachary; Sullivan, Corbin; Weihrauch, Dorothee; Du, Jianhai; Vladic, Nikolina; Shi, Yang; Warltier, David C; Pratt, Phillip F; Kersten, Judy R

    2010-03-01

    Endothelial nitric oxide synthase activity is regulated by (6R-)5,6,7,8-tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) and heat shock protein 90. The authors tested the hypothesis that hyperglycemia abolishes anesthetic preconditioning (APC) through BH4- and heat shock protein 90-dependent pathways. Myocardial infarct size was measured in rabbits in the absence or presence of APC (30 min of isoflurane), with or without hyperglycemia, and in the presence or absence of the BH4 precursor sepiapterin. Isoflurane-dependent nitric oxide production was measured (ozone chemiluminescence) in human coronary artery endothelial cells cultured in normal (5.5 mm) or high (20 mm) glucose conditions, with or without sepiapterin (10 or 100 microm). APC decreased myocardial infarct size compared with control experiments (26 +/- 6% vs. 46 +/- 3%, respectively; P < 0.05), and this action was blocked by hyperglycemia (43 +/- 4%). Sepiapterin alone had no effect on infarct size (46 +/- 3%) but restored APC during hyperglycemia (21 +/- 3%). The beneficial actions of sepiapterin to restore APC were blocked by the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor N (G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (47 +/- 2%) and the BH4 synthesis inhibitor N-acetylserotonin (46 +/- 3%). Isoflurane increased nitric oxide production to 177 +/- 13% of baseline, and this action was attenuated by high glucose concentrations (125 +/- 6%). Isoflurane increased, whereas high glucose attenuated intracellular BH4/7,8-dihydrobiopterin (BH2) (high performance liquid chromatography), heat shock protein 90-endothelial nitric oxide synthase colocalization (confocal microscopy) and endothelial nitric oxide synthase activation (immunoblotting). Sepiapterin increased BH4/BH2 and dose-dependently restored nitric oxide production during hyperglycemic conditions (149 +/- 12% and 175 +/- 9%; 10 and 100 microm, respectively). The results indicate that tetrahydrobiopterin and heat shock protein 90-regulated endothelial nitric oxide synthase activity play a central

  15. Physical mechanism causing rapid changes in ultrarelativistic electron pitch angle distributions right after a shock arrival: Evaluation of an electron dropout event: Drift Shell Splitting on the Dayside

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, X.-J.; University of California, Los Angeles, CA; Li, W.; Boston University, MA; Thorne, R. M.

    2016-01-01

    Three mechanisms have been proposed to explain relativistic electron flux depletions (dropouts) in the Earth's outer radiation belt during storm times: adiabatic expansion of electron drift shells due to a decrease in magnetic field strength, magnetopause shadowing and subsequent outward radial diffusion, and precipitation into the atmosphere (driven by EMIC wave scattering). Which mechanism predominates in causing electron dropouts commonly observed in the outer radiation belt is still debatable. In the present study, we evaluate the physical mechanism that may be primarily responsible for causing the sudden change in relativistic electron pitch angle distributions during a dropout event observed by Van Allen Probes during the main phase of the 27 February 2014 storm. During this event, the phase space density of ultrarelativistic (>1MeV) electrons was depleted by more than 1 order of magnitude over the entire radial extent of the outer radiation belt (3 < L* < 5) in less than 6 h after the passage of an interplanetary shock. We model the electron pitch angle distribution under a compressed magnetic field topology based on actual solar wind conditions. Although these ultrarelativistic electrons exhibit highly anisotropic (peaked in 90°), energy-dependent pitch angle distributions, which appear to be associated with the typical EMIC wave scattering, comparison of the modeled electron distribution to electron measurements indicates that drift shell splitting is responsible for this rapid change in electron pitch angle distributions. This further indicates that magnetopause loss is the predominant cause of the electron dropout right after the shock arrival.

  16. High-resolution analysis of the mechanical behavior of tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudnut, Alexa W.; Armani, Andrea M.

    2017-06-01

    The mechanical behavior and properties of biomaterials, such as tissue, have been directly and indirectly connected to numerous malignant physiological states. For example, an increase in the Young's Modulus of tissue can be indicative of cancer. Due to the heterogeneity of biomaterials, it is extremely important to perform these measurements using whole or unprocessed tissue because the tissue matrix contains important information about the intercellular interactions and the structure. Thus, developing high-resolution approaches that can accurately measure the elasticity of unprocessed tissue samples is of great interest. Unfortunately, conventional elastography methods such as atomic force microscopy, compression testing, and ultrasound elastography either require sample processing or have poor resolution. In the present work, we demonstrate the characterization of unprocessed salmon muscle using an optical polarimetric elastography system. We compare the results of compression testing within different samples of salmon skeletal muscle with different numbers of collagen membranes to characterize differences in heterogeneity. Using the intrinsic collagen membranes as markers, we determine the resolution of the system when testing biomaterials. The device reproducibly measures the stiffness of the tissues at variable strains. By analyzing the amount of energy lost by the sample during compression, collagen membranes that are 500 μm in size are detected.

  17. Mechanical behavior of high strength ceramic fibers at high temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tressler, R. E.; Pysher, D. J.

    1991-01-01

    The mechanical behavior of commercially available and developmental ceramic fibers, both oxide and nonoxide, has been experimentally studied at expected use temperatures. In addition, these properties have been compared to results from the literature. Tensile strengths were measured for three SiC-based and three oxide ceramic fibers for temperatures from 25 C to 1400 C. The SiC-based fibers were stronger but less stiff than the oxide fibers at room temperature and retained more of both strength and stiffness to high temperatures. Extensive creep and creep-rupture experiments have been performed on those fibers from this group which had the best strengths above 1200 C in both single filament tests and tests of fiber bundles. The creep rates for the oxides are on the order of two orders of magnitude faster than the polymer derived nonoxide fibers. The most creep resistant filaments available are single crystal c-axis sapphire filaments. Large diameter CVD fabricated SiC fibers are the most creep and rupture resistant nonoxide polycrystalline fibers tested to date.

  18. Mechanical behavior analysis on electrostatically actuated rectangular microplates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhikang; Zhao, Libo; Jiang, Zhuangde; Ye, Zhiying; Dai, Lu; Zhao, Yulong

    2015-03-01

    Microplates are widely used in various MEMS devices based on electrostatic actuation such as MEMS switches, micro pumps and capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducers (CMUTs). Accurate predictions for the mechanical behavior of the microplate under electrostatic force are important not only for the design and optimization of these electrostatic devices but also for their operation. This paper presents a novel reduced-order model for electrostatically actuated rectangular and square microplates with a new method to treat the nonlinear electrostatic force. The model was developed using Galerkin method which turned the partial-differential equation governing the microplates into an ordinary equation system. Using this model and cosine-like deflection functions, explicit expressions were established for the deflection and pull-in voltage of the rectangular and square microplates. The theoretical results were well validated with the finite element method simulations and experimental data of literature. The expressions for the deflection analysis are able to predict the deflection up to the pull-in position with an error less than 5.0%. The expressions for the pull-in voltage analysis can determine the pull-in voltages with errors less than 1.0%. Additionally, the method to calculate the capacitance variation of the electrostatically actuated microplates was proposed. These theoretical analyses are helpful for design and optimization of electrostatically actuated microdevices.

  19. Mechanical behavior analysis on electrostatically actuated rectangular microplates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Zhikang; Zhao, Libo; Jiang, Zhuangde; Ye, Zhiying; Zhao, Yulong; Dai, Lu

    2015-01-01

    Microplates are widely used in various MEMS devices based on electrostatic actuation such as MEMS switches, micro pumps and capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducers (CMUTs). Accurate predictions for the mechanical behavior of the microplate under electrostatic force are important not only for the design and optimization of these electrostatic devices but also for their operation. This paper presents a novel reduced-order model for electrostatically actuated rectangular and square microplates with a new method to treat the nonlinear electrostatic force. The model was developed using Galerkin method which turned the partial-differential equation governing the microplates into an ordinary equation system. Using this model and cosine-like deflection functions, explicit expressions were established for the deflection and pull-in voltage of the rectangular and square microplates. The theoretical results were well validated with the finite element method simulations and experimental data of literature. The expressions for the deflection analysis are able to predict the deflection up to the pull-in position with an error less than 5.0%. The expressions for the pull-in voltage analysis can determine the pull-in voltages with errors less than 1.0%. Additionally, the method to calculate the capacitance variation of the electrostatically actuated microplates was proposed. These theoretical analyses are helpful for design and optimization of electrostatically actuated microdevices. (paper)

  20. Adsorption Behavior of Uranium and Mechanism Analysis on Banyan Leaves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia Liangshu; Tan Kaixuan; Wang Xiao; Zheng Weina

    2010-01-01

    The adsorption behavior of uranium on banyan leaves was studied with static experiments. The adsorption process was analyzed in terms of thermodynamics and kinetics, and the adsorption mechanism was analyzed with FTIR and SEM. In the studied condition, the equilibrium adsorption data fit to Freundlich isotherms, with a relation coefficient greater than 0.99. The adsorption of uranium on banyan leaves is an endothermic process. Kinetic analysis shows that the adsorption rate is mainly controlled by surface adsorption. The process of adsorption can be described by an equation of Pseudo 2nd-order model. The calculation data are in good agreement with the experimental data,and the relation coefficient is 0.9998. The thermodynamic data indicate that the synergistic uranium biosorption by banyan leaves is a spontaneous and endothermal adsorption process. The adsorption of uranium on banyan leaves changes the cell's surface form of banyan leaves.In the adsorption process, UO 2 2+ mainly chelates with -OH,C=O,P-O and Si=O etc. on the cell's surface and forms the complexes. The adsorption of uranium should be of surface coordination. (authors)

  1. Ontogeny of Odor-LiCl vs. Odor-Shock Learning: Similar Behaviors but Divergent Ages of Functional Amygdala Emergence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raineki, Charlis; Shionoya, Kiseko; Sander, Kristin; Sullivan, Regina M.

    2009-01-01

    Both odor-preference and odor-aversion learning occur in perinatal pups before the maturation of brain structures that support this learning in adults. To characterize the development of odor learning, we compared three learning paradigms: (1) odor-LiCl (0.3M; 1% body weight, ip) and (2) odor-1.2-mA shock (hindlimb, 1sec)--both of which…

  2. How Culture Shock Affects Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barna, LaRay M.

    The paper defines the term "culture shock" and discusses the changes that this state can make in a person's behavior. Culture shock refers to the emotional and physiological reaction of high activation that is brought about by sudden immersion in a new culture. Because one's own culture shields one from the unknown and reduces the need to make…

  3. Volume Shocks around Announcements in the Chinese Stock Market: An Ex-Post Earnings-Information-Based Study of Speculative Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangdong Chen

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The Second Board Market is typical stock market for high tech companies in China. This paper discusses the relationship between trading volume and price changes in the case of high-tech listed companies in the Chinese Second-Board Stock Market. By using the basic concepts proposed by Kim and Verrecchia, and Kandel and Pearson, and contrasting them with ex-post information from earnings releases, the paper provides findings on the speculative behavior of informed traders with a volume shock premium. The paper suggests that these methods may be further applied to investigating investors’ behavior in speculation, especially for the high-tech-company-based Second-Board Stock Market during announcement periods.

  4. To Invest or Not to Invest, That Is the Question: Analysis of Firm Behavior under Anticipated Shocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovac, Dejan; Vukovic, Vuk; Kleut, Nikola; Podobnik, Boris

    2016-01-01

    When companies are faced with an upcoming and expected economic shock some of them tend to react better than others. They adapt by initiating investments thus successfully weathering the storm, while others, even though they possess the same information set, fail to adopt the same business strategy and eventually succumb to the crisis. We use a unique setting of the recent financial crisis in Croatia as an exogenous shock that hit the country with a time lag, allowing the domestic firms to adapt. We perform a survival analysis on the entire population of 144,000 firms in Croatia during the period from 2003 to 2015, and test whether investment prior to the anticipated shock makes firms more likely to survive the recession. We find that small and micro firms, which decided to invest, had between 60 and 70% higher survival rates than similar firms that chose not to invest. This claim is supported by both non-parametric and parametric tests in the survival analysis. From a normative perspective this finding could be important in mitigating the negative effects on aggregate demand during strong recessionary periods. PMID:27508896

  5. Behavioral flexibility as a mechanism for coping with climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beever, Erik; Hall, L. Embere; Varner, Johanna; Loosen, Anne E.; Dunham, Jason B.; Gahl, Megan K.; Smith, Felisa A.; Lawler, Joshua J.

    2017-01-01

    Of the primary responses to contemporary climate change – “move, adapt, acclimate, or die” – that are available to organisms, “acclimate” may be effectively achieved through behavioral modification. Behavioral flexibility allows animals to rapidly cope with changing environmental conditions, and behavior represents an important component of a species’ adaptive capacity in the face of climate change. However, there is currently a lack of knowledge about the limits or constraints on behavioral responses to changing conditions. Here, we characterize the contexts in which organisms respond to climate variability through behavior. First, we quantify patterns in behavioral responses across taxa with respect to timescales, climatic stimuli, life-history traits, and ecology. Next, we identify existing knowledge gaps, research biases, and other challenges. Finally, we discuss how conservation practitioners and resource managers can incorporate an improved understanding of behavioral flexibility into natural resource management and policy decisions.

  6. Shock absorber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nemeth, J.D.

    1981-01-01

    A shock absorber for the support of piping and components in a nuclear power plant is described. It combines a high degree of stiffness under sudden shocks, e.g. seismic disturbances, with the ability to allow for thermal expansion without resistance when so required. (JIW)

  7. Risk shocks and housing markets

    OpenAIRE

    Dorofeenko, Viktor; Lee, Gabriel S.; Salyer, Kevin D.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract: This paper analyzes the role of uncertainty in a multi-sector housing model with financial frictions. We include time varying uncertainty (i.e. risk shocks) in the technology shocks that affect housing production. The analysis demonstratesthat risk shocks to the housing production sector are a quantitatively important impulse mechanism for the business cycle. Also, we demonstrate that bankruptcy costs act as an endogenous markup factor in housing prices; as a consequence, the volati...

  8. The Mechanical Behaviors of Various Dental Implant Materials under Fatigue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatma Bayata

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The selection of materials has a considerable role on long-term stability of implants. The materials having high resistance to fatigue are required for dental implant applications since these implants are subjected to cyclic loads during chewing. This study evaluates the performance of different types of materials (AISI 316L stainless steel, alumina and its porous state, CoCr alloys, yttrium-stabilized zirconia (YSZ, zirconia-toughened alumina (ZTA, and cp Ti with the nanotubular TiO2 surface by finite element analysis (FEA under real cyclic biting loads and researches the optimum material for implant applications. For the analysis, the implant design generated by our group was utilized. The mechanical behavior and the life of the implant under biting loads were estimated based on the material and surface properties. According to the condition based on ISO 14801, the FEA results showed that the equivalent von Mises stress values were in the range of 226.95 MPa and 239.05 MPa. The penetration analysis was also performed, and the calculated penetration of the models onto the bone structure ranged between 0.0037389 mm and 0.013626 mm. L-605 CoCr alloy-assigned implant model showed the least penetration, while cp Ti with the nanotubular TiO2 surface led to the most one. However, the difference was about 0.01 mm, and it may not be evaluated as a distinct difference. As the final numerical evaluation item, the fatigue life was executed, and the results were achieved in the range of 4 × 105 and 1 × 109 cycles. These results indicated that different materials showed good performance for each evaluation component, but considering the overall mechanical performance and the treatment process (implant adsorption by means of surface properties, cp Ti with the nanotubular TiO2 surface material was evaluated as the suitable one, and it may also be implied that it displayed enough performance in the designed dental implant model.

  9. Mechanical Behavior of Commercially Pure Titanium Weldments at Lower Temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, R. K.; Anil Kumar, V.; Xavier, X. Roshan

    2018-05-01

    Commercially pure titanium is used for low-temperature applications due to good toughness attributed to single-phase microstructure (α). Electron beam welding (EBW) and gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW) processes have been used for welding two grades of commercially pure titanium (Grade 2 and Grade 4). Martensitic microstructure is found to be finer in the case of EBW joint as compared to GTAW joint due to faster rate of cooling in the former process. Weldments have been characterized to study the mechanical behavior at ambient (298 K) and cryogenic temperatures (20 and 77 K). Strength of weldments increases with the decrease in temperature, which is found to be more prominent in case of Grade 4 titanium as compared to Grade 2. Weld efficiency of Grade 4 is found to be higher at all the temperatures (ambient, 77 and 20 K). However, ultimate tensile strength/yield strength ratio is higher for Grade 2 as compared to Grade 4. % Elongation is found to increase/retained at cryogenic temperatures for Grade 2, and it is found to decrease for Grade 4. Electron backscattered diffraction analysis and transmission electron microscopy of deformed samples confirmed the presence of extensive twinning in Grade 2 and the presence of finer martensitic structure in Grade 4. Fractography analysis of tested specimens revealed the presence of cleavage facets in Grade 4 and dimples in specimens of Grade 2. Higher strength in Grade 4 is attributed to higher oxygen restricting the twin-assisted slip, which is otherwise prominent in Grade 2 titanium.

  10. Mechanical properties and thermal shock performance of W-Y2O3 composite prepared by high-energy-rate forging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lian, Youyun; Liu, Xiang; Feng, Fan; Song, Jiupeng; Yan, Binyou; Wang, Yingmin; Wang, Jianbao; Chen, Jiming

    2017-12-01

    The effects of the addition of Y2O3 and hot-deformation on the mechanical properties of tungsten (W) have been studied. The processing route comprises a doping technique for the distribution of Y2O3 particles in a tungsten matrix, conventional sintering in a hydrogen environment, and high-energy-rate forging (HERF). The microstructure of the composite was characterized by using transmission electron microscopy and electron backscattering diffraction imaging technique, and its mechanical properties were studied by means of tensile testing. The thermal shock response of the HERF processed W-Y2O3 was evaluated by applying edge-localized mode-like loads (100 pulses) with a pulse duration of 1 ms and an absorbed power density of up to 1 GW m-2 at various temperatures between room temperature and 200 °C. HERF processing has produced elongated W grains with preferred orientations and a high density of structure defects in the composite. The composite material exhibits high tensile strength and good ductility, and a thermal shock cracking threshold lower than 100 °C.

  11. Effect of nano-ZrO2 addition on microstructure, mechanical property and thermal shock behaviour of dense chromic oxide refractory material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Lixia; Ding, Chunhui; Zhanga, Chi; Yanga, De'an; Di, Lizhi

    2015-01-01

    To obtain a good performance hot-face lining material in gasifier, nano-ZrO 2 , up to 5 wt %, was added into chromic oxide powder with 3 wt % TiO 2 followed by sintering at 1500°C for 2.5 h. The effect of nano-ZrO 2 addition on microstructure, mechanical property and thermal shock behaviour was studied. ZrO 2 promoted densification at contents higher than 1 wt %. Microcracks and phase transformation toughened the dense chromic oxide refractory material. The main reason for decrease of strength was the existence microcracks in specimens and weakening of intergranular fracture. Dense chromic oxide refractory material with 2∼3 wt % nano-ZrO 2 possessed good densification, uniform microstructure, normal mechanical property and proper thermal shock resistance. The rupture strength retention ratio was nearly twice than that of chromic oxide material without ZrO 2 after three cycles of quenching test from 950°C to cold water. (author)

  12. demystifying the shock of shocking

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    (with a pulse), atrial fibrillation and atrial flutter. The energy dose in cardioversion is less (0.5. - 2 J/kg) than in defibrillation (2 - 4 J/kg). In cardioversion the shock is discharged synchronously with the native R wave of the patient. Without synchronisation,. VF can be induced if a shock is delivered during the refractory period ...

  13. Tribological behavior and film formation mechanisms of carbon nanopearls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Chad Nicholas

    Carbon nanopearls (CNPs) are amorphous carbon spheres that contain concentrically-oriented nanometer-sized graphitic flakes. Because of their spherical shape, size (˜150 nm), and structure consisting of concentrically oriented nano-sized sp2 flakes, CNPs are of interest for tribological applications, in particular for use in solid lubricant coatings. These studies were focused on investigating mechanisms of CNP lubrication, development of methods to deposit CNP onto substrates, synthesizing CNP-gold hybrid films using Matrix Assisted Pulsed Laser Evaporation (MAPLE) and magnetron sputtering, and studying plasmas and other species present during film deposition using an Electrostatic Quadrupole Plasma (EQP) analyzer. CNPs deposited onto silicon using drop casting with methanol showed good lubricating properties in sliding contacts under dry conditions, where a transfer film was created in which morphology changed from nano-sized spheres to micron-sized agglomerates consisting of many highly deformed CNPs in which the nano-sized graphene flakes are sheared from the wrapped layer structure of the CNPs. The morphology of carbon nanopearl films deposited using a MAPLE system equipped with a 248 nm KrF excimer laser source was found to be influenced by multiple factors, including composition of the matrix solvent, laser energy and repetition rate, background pressure, and substrate temperature. The best parameters for depositing CNP films that are disperse, droplet-free and have the maximum amount of material deposited are as follows: toluene matrix, 700 mJ, 1 Hz, 100°C substrate temperature, and unregulated vacuum pressure. During depositions using MAPLE and sputtering in argon, electron ionization of toluene vapor generated from the MAPLE target and charge exchange reactions between toluene vapor and the argon plasma generated by the magnetron caused carbon to be deposited onto the gold sputter target. Thin films deposited under these conditions contained high

  14. Tailored Buckling Microlattices as Reusable Light-Weight Shock Absorbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frenzel, Tobias; Findeisen, Claudio; Kadic, Muamer; Gumbsch, Peter; Wegener, Martin

    2016-07-01

    Structures and materials absorbing mechanical (shock) energy commonly exploit either viscoelasticity or destructive modifications. Based on a class of uniaxial light-weight geometrically nonlinear mechanical microlattices and using buckling of inner elements, either a sequence of snap-ins followed by irreversible hysteretic - yet repeatable - self-recovery or multistability is achieved, enabling programmable behavior. Proof-of-principle experiments on three-dimensional polymer microstructures are presented. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Embedded Fiber Optic Sensors for Measuring Transient Detonation/Shock Behavior;Time-of-Arrival Detection and Waveform Determination.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chavez, Marcus Alexander; Willis, Michael David; Covert, Timothy Todd

    2014-09-01

    The miniaturization of explosive components has driven the need for a corresponding miniaturization of the current diagnostic techniques available to measure the explosive phenomena. Laser interferometry and the use of spectrally coated optical windows have proven to be an essential interrogation technique to acquire particle velocity time history data in one- dimensional gas gun and relatively large-scale explosive experiments. A new diagnostic technique described herein allows for experimental measurement of apparent particle velocity time histories in microscale explosive configurations and can be applied to shocks/non-shocks in inert materials. The diagnostic, Embedded Fiber Optic Sensors (EFOS), has been tested in challenging microscopic experimental configurations that give confidence in the technique's ability to measure the apparent particle velocity time histories of an explosive with pressure outputs in the tenths of kilobars to several kilobars. Embedded Fiber Optic Sensors also allow for several measurements to be acquired in a single experiment because they are microscopic, thus reducing the number of experiments necessary. The future of EFOS technology will focus on further miniaturization, material selection appropriate for the operating pressure regime, and extensive hydrocode and optical analysis to transform apparent particle velocity time histories into true particle velocity time histories as well as the more meaningful pressure time histories.

  16. Collisionless Electrostatic Shock Modeling and Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-21

    equations with piston -like boundary conditions gives a solution for the shock behavior. • Assumes cold upstream ions, therefore neglecting shock...temperature ratio (>10) – Wave Train Wavelength – Shock-Front Mach Number – Reflected Ion Beam Velocity Gathering Experiment Data – Double Plasma Device...experimental shock data. • Inconsistencies in published 1969 double -plasma device data hampered validation. Future Work: Extension to Moderately

  17. Health shocks and risk aversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decker, Simon; Schmitz, Hendrik

    2016-12-01

    We empirically assess whether a health shock influences individual risk aversion. We use grip strength data to obtain an objective health shock indicator. In order to account for the non-random nature of our data regression-adjusted matching is employed. Risk preferences are traditionally assumed to be constant. However, we find that a health shock increases individual risk aversion. The finding is robust to a series of sensitivity analyses and persists for at least four years after the shock. Income changes do not seem to be the driving mechanism. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Effect of molar ratios of MgO/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} on the sintering behavior and thermal shock resistance of MgOAl{sub 2}O{sub 3}SiO{sub 2} composite ceramics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, Dong, E-mail: 1078155409@qq.com [School of High Temperature Materials and Magnesium Resource Engineering, University of Science and Technology Liaoning, Anshan 114051 (China); Luo, Xudong, E-mail: luoxudongs@aliyun.com [School of High Temperature Materials and Magnesium Resource Engineering, University of Science and Technology Liaoning, Anshan 114051 (China); Key Laboratory of New Ceramics and Fine Processing, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Zhang, Guodong [School of High Temperature Materials and Magnesium Resource Engineering, University of Science and Technology Liaoning, Anshan 114051 (China); Xie, Zhipeng [Key Laboratory of New Ceramics and Fine Processing, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2017-01-01

    In order to determine the relationship between the property of MgOAl{sub 2}O{sub 3}SiO{sub 2} composite ceramics and molar ratios of MgO/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, especially the sintering behavior and thermal shock resistance, the MgOAl{sub 2}O{sub 3}SiO{sub 2} composite ceramics were fabricated with micro-size MgO, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} powder and nano-size SiO{sub 2} as main raw materials. The sample was characterized by phase analysis, densification and thermal shock times. Moreover, field emission scanning electron microscope was also conducted to study microstructure of the samples before and after thermal shock. Effect of different molar ratios of MgO/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} on the sintering behavior and thermal shock resistance of composite ceramics were investigated. The results showed that the sample possess better sintering behavior and thermal shock resistance with the molar ratio of MgO/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} equal to 2/1. Grains of periclase and spinel were directly bonded together, resulting in a dense and compact microstructure, and the bulk density of obtained sample reached 3.4 g/cm{sup 3}. The microstructure of sample after thermal shock revealed that the crack propagation path was deflected and bifurcated, the main-crack propagation was restricted and more fracture energy was consumed, the thermal shock resistance of composite ceramics was greatly improved. - Highlights: • Effect of MgO/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} on the composite ceramic was firstly researched with 1 mol% SiO{sub 2}. • Microcracks for a short distance by interlinking can eliminate the crack propagation. • The composite ceramic have optimal synthetic property with MgO/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} was 2/1.

  19. Selfsimilar time dependent shock structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beck, R.; Drury, L.O.

    1985-01-01

    Diffusive shock acceleration as an astrophysical mechanism for accelerating charged particles has the advantage of being highly efficient. This means however that the theory is of necessity nonlinear; the reaction of the accelerated particles on the shock structure and the acceleration process must be self-consistently included in any attempt to develop a complete theory of diffusive shock acceleration. Considerable effort has been invested in attempting, at least partially, to do this and it has become clear that in general either the maximum particle energy must be restricted by introducing additional loss processes into the problem or the acceleration must be treated as a time dependent problem (Drury, 1984). It is concluded that stationary modified shock structures can only exist for strong shocks if additional loss processes limit the maximum energy a particle can attain. This is certainly possible and if it occurs the energy loss from the shock will lead to much greater shock compressions. It is however equally possible that no such processes exist and we must then ask what sort of nonstationary shock structure develops. The same argument which excludes stationary structures also rules out periodic solutions and indeed any solution where the width of the shock remains bounded. It follows that the width of the shock must increase secularly with time and it is natural to examine the possibility of selfsimilar time dependent solutions

  20. Selfsimilar time dependent shock structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, R.; Drury, L. O.

    1985-01-01

    Diffusive shock acceleration as an astrophysical mechanism for accelerating charged particles has the advantage of being highly efficient. This means however that the theory is of necessity nonlinear; the reaction of the accelerated particles on the shock structure and the acceleration process must be self-consistently included in any attempt to develop a complete theory of diffusive shock acceleration. Considerable effort has been invested in attempting, at least partially, to do this and it has become clear that in general either the maximum particle energy must be restricted by introducing additional loss processes into the problem or the acceleration must be treated as a time dependent problem (Drury, 1984). It is concluded that stationary modified shock structures can only exist for strong shocks if additional loss processes limit the maximum energy a particle can attain. This is certainly possible and if it occurs the energy loss from the shock will lead to much greater shock compressions. It is however equally possible that no such processes exist and we must then ask what sort of nonstationary shock structure develops. The ame argument which excludes stationary structures also rules out periodic solutions and indeed any solution where the width of the shock remains bounded. It follows that the width of the shock must increase secularly with time and it is natural to examine the possibility of selfsimilar time dependent solutions.

  1. Mechanisms Linking Ethical Leadership to Ethical Sales Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yu-Chi

    2017-06-01

    This study investigated the relationship between ethical leadership and ethical sales behavior. A total of 248 matched surveys with participant responses from insurance agents and their customers were collected. The insurance agents were asked to rate the ethical leadership of their leaders, the ethical climate in their organization, and their individual moral identity. Customers were asked to rate the perceived ethical sales behavior of the insurance agents. This empirical study utilized moderated mediation techniques to analyze the data. Results indicated that ethical climate mediated the relationship between ethical leadership and ethical sales behavior when moral identity was high, however, did not when moral identity was low. The research framework including contextual effects (i.e., ethical climate) and individual differences in moral judgment (i.e., moral identity) can provide a comprehensive picture of how ethical leadership influences ethical sales behavior. Theoretical and practical implications of these findings are also discussed.

  2. All-acrylic superelastomers: facile synthesis and exceptional mechanical behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Wei; Goodwin, Andrew; Wang, Yangyang; Yin, Panchao; Wang, Weiyu; Zhu, Jiahua; Wu, Ting; Lu, Xinyi; Hu, Bin; Hong, Kunlun; Kang, Nam-Goo; Mays, Jimmy (Tennessee-K); (ORNL)

    2018-01-01

    All-acrylic multigraft copolymers made by a facile synthesis procedure exhibit elongation at break >1700% and strain recovery behavior far exceeding those of commercial acrylic and styrenic triblock copolymers.

  3. Hypovolemic shock

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the person's position unless they are in immediate danger. Do not give fluids by mouth. If person ... the patient with shock. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman-Cecil Medicine . 25th ed. Philadelphia, PA: ...

  4. Shock waves in weakly compressed granular media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Wildenberg, Siet; van Loo, Rogier; van Hecke, Martin

    2013-11-22

    We experimentally probe nonlinear wave propagation in weakly compressed granular media and observe a crossover from quasilinear sound waves at low impact to shock waves at high impact. We show that this crossover impact grows with the confining pressure P0, whereas the shock wave speed is independent of P0-two hallmarks of granular shocks predicted recently. The shocks exhibit surprising power law attenuation, which we model with a logarithmic law implying that shock dissipation is weak and qualitatively different from other granular dissipation mechanisms. We show that elastic and potential energy balance in the leading part of the shocks.

  5. Shock absorber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Housman, J.J.

    1978-01-01

    A shock absorber is described for use in a hostile environment at the end of a blind passage for absorbing impact loads. The shock absorber includes at least one element which occupies the passage and which is comprised of a porous brittle material which is substantially non-degradable in the hostile environment. A void volume is provided in the element to enable the element to absorb a predetermined level of energy upon being crushed due to impact loading

  6. Thermal behaviors of mechanically activated pyrites by thermogravimetry (TG)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Huiping; Chen Qiyuan; Yin Zhoulan; Zhang Pingmin

    2003-01-01

    The thermal decompositions of mechanically activated and non-activated pyrites were studied by thermogravimetry (TG) at the heating rate of 10 K min -1 in argon. Results indicate that the initial temperature of thermal decomposition (T di ) in TG curves for mechanically activated pyrites decreases gradually with increasing the grinding time. The specific granulometric surface area (S G ), the structural disorder of mechanically activated pyrites were analyzed by X-ray diffraction laser particle size analyzer, and X-ray powder diffraction analysis (XRD), respectively. The results show that the S G of mechanically activated pyrites remains almost constant after a certain grinding time, and lattice distortions (ε) rise but the crystallite sizes (D) decrease with increasing the grinding time. All these results imply that the decrease of T di in TG curves of mechanically activated pyrites is mainly caused by the increase of lattice distortions ε and the decrease of the crystallite sizes D of mechanically activated pyrite with increasing the grinding time. The differences in the reactivity between non-activated and mechanically activated pyrites were observed using characterization of the products obtained from 1 h treatment of non-activated and mechanically activated pyrites at 713 K under inert atmosphere and characterization of non-activated and mechanically activated pyrites exposed to ambient air for a certain period

  7. Exploring Managerial Mechanisms That Influence Innovative Work Behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bysted, Rune; Jespersen, Kristina Risom

    2014-01-01

    Increasing employees’ innovative work behaviour is a complex process of developing an internal climate supportive of idea generation and realization through use of financial, participative, and decentralization mechanisms. This article investigates the effectiveness of these managerial mechanisms...... as extra-role behaviour to be compensated for. Private employees recognize innovative work behaviour as necessary behaviour for career advancement....

  8. Pressurized Thermal Shock, Pts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyd, C.

    2008-01-01

    Pressurized Thermal Shock (Pts) refers to a condition that challenges the integrity of the reactor pressure vessel. The root cause of this problem is the radiation embrittlement of the reactor vessel. This embrittlement leads to an increase in the reference temperature for nil ductility transition (RTNDT). RTNDT can increase to the point where the reactor vessel material can loose fracture toughness during overcooling events. The analysis of the risk of having a Pts for a specific plant is a multi-disciplinary problem involving probabilistic risk analysis (PRA), thermal-hydraulic analysis, and ultimately a structural and fracture analysis of the vessel wall. The PRA effort involves the postulation of overcooling events and ultimately leads to an integrated risk analysis. The thermal-hydraulic effort involves the difficult task of predicting the system behavior during a postulated overcooling scenario with a special emphasis on predicting the thermal and mechanic loadings on the reactor pressure vessel wall. The structural and fracture analysis of the reactor vessel wall relies on the thermal-hydraulic conditions as boundary conditions. The US experience has indicated that medium and large diameter primary system breaks dominate the risk of Pts along with scenarios that involve a stuck open valve (and associated system cooldown) that recloses resulting in system re-pressurization while the vessel wall is cool.

  9. Effect of long-term water immersion or thermal shock on mechanical properties of high-impact acrylic denture base resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Hirono; Hamanaka, Ippei; Takahashi, Yutaka; Kawaguchi, Tomohiro

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of long-term water immersion or thermal shock on the mechanical properties of high-impact acrylic denture base resins. Two high-impact acrylic denture base resins were selected for the study. Specimens of each denture base material tested were fabricated according to the manufacturers' instructions (n=10). The flexural strength at the proportional limit, the elastic modulus and the impact strength of the specimens were evaluated. The flexural strength at the proportional limit of the high-impact acrylic denture base resins did not change after six months' water immersion or thermocycling 50,000 times. The elastic moduli of the high-impact acrylic denture base resins significantly increased after six months' water immersion or thermocycling 50,000 times. The impact strengths of the high-impact acrylic denture base resins significantly decreased after water immersion or thermocycling as described above.

  10. Mechanics of Granular Materials : Constitutive Behavior and Pattern Transformation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Göncü, F.

    2012-01-01

    From pharmaceutical to mining or traveling desert dunes to earthquakes, granular materials are at the heart of many industries and natural phenomena. Improving the efficiency of the machines handling them or, constructing safer buildings requires a critical understanding of their behavior. However,

  11. Parental Familism and Antisocial Behaviors: Development, Gender, and Potential Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morcillo, Carmen; Duarte, Cristiane S.; Shen, Sa; Blanco, Carlos; Canino, Glorisa; Bird, Hector R.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To examine the relation between parental familism (strong values of attachment to nuclear and extended family members) and youth antisocial behaviors over time. Method: Puerto Rican children 5 to 13 years of age at baseline residing in the South Bronx in New York (n = 1,138) and in the Standard Metropolitan Area in San Juan and Caguas,…

  12. Underlying mechanisms of improving physical activity behavior after rehabilitation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Ploeg, H.P.; Streppel, K.R.; van der Beek, A.J.; van der Woude, L.H.V.; van Harten, W.H.; van Mechelen, W.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Regular physical activity is beneficial for the health and functioning of people with a disability. Effective components of successful physical activity promotion interventions should be identified and disseminated. Purpose: To study the underlying mechanisms of the combined sport

  13. Underlying Mechanisms of Improving Physical Activity Behavior after Rehabilitation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Ploeg, Hidde P.; Streppel, Kitty R.M.; van der Beek, Allard J.; Woude, Luc H.V.; van Harten, Willem H.; Vollenbroek-Hutten, Miriam Marie Rosé; van Mechelen, Willem

    2008-01-01

    Background: Regular physical activity is beneficial for the health and functioning of people with a disability. Effective components of successful physical activity promotion interventions should be identified and disseminated. Purpose: To study the underlying mechanisms of the combined sport

  14. Mechanical behavior of fluoroelastomer considering long term ageing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinha, N.K., E-mail: nksinha@igcar.gov.in [Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research (IGCAR), Department of Atomic Energy (DAE), Kalpakkam, Tamilnadu 603102 (India); Mukhopadhyay, R., E-mail: rm@ktp.jkmail.com [Hari Shankar Singhania Elastomer and Tyre Research Institute (HASETRI), J. K. Tyre and Industries Ltd., Kankroli, Rajasthan 313342 (India); Raj, Baldev, E-mail: dr.baldev@psg.org.in [Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research (IGCAR), Department of Atomic Energy (DAE), Kalpakkam, Tamilnadu 603102 (India)

    2013-01-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Tensile stress-strain of aged (32 weeks; 140/170/200 Degree-Sign C) Viton A-401C specimens at RT, 110 Degree-Sign C. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Stress-softening negligible at 50/500 mm/min and RT/110 Degree-Sign C because of low black filler. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer RT relaxation at lower strain rate; 110 Degree-Sign C curve stiffening from Joule-Gough effect. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Two zone stress-elongation behavior (cross-link, ionic domains) proposed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Extendable to peroxide cured fluoroelastomers with Iodine at mid and end of chains. - Abstract: Stress-elongation behavior of a Viton A-401C based compound established for backup seals of 500 MW(e), Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor is depicted. Stress-softening effects are negligible during room temperature (RT) or 110 Degree-Sign C measurements on unaged samples at strain rates of 50 mm/min and 500 mm/min because of low filler content. Relaxation is observed during RT property determination at lower strain rate. Stiffening of behavior at 50 mm/min and 110 Degree-Sign C is attributed to Joule-Gough effect and absence of relaxation because of increased molecular chain mobility. The two zone stress-elongation behavior (determined by chemical cross-links up to {approx}85% strain and by ionic interactions beyond) propounded in the article by combining air-aged specimen data (32 weeks at 140/170/200 Degree-Sign C) provides a behavior map of bisphenol cured, low filler, fluoroelastomers made of vinylidene fluoride and hexafluoropropylene. This could be extended to peroxide cured fluorocarbon rubbers for verifications and providing qualified compounds of better grades for critical nuclear elastomeric sealing applications.

  15. Fracture behavior and deformation mechanisms under fast neutron irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boutard, J.L.; Dupouy, J.M.

    1980-09-01

    We have established the out-of-pile and in-pile deformation mechanism maps of a 316 stainless steel irradiated in a fast reactor. The knowledge of the dominating deformation mechanism either in post irradiation creep experiments or during the in-pile steady state operating conditions allows to rationalize the apparent discrepancy between the very low out-of-pile ductility and the rather high plastic diametral strains which are obtained in the fast reactor environment without fracture

  16. On the mechanical behavior of the human biliary system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaoyu Luo; Wenguang Li; Nigel Bird; Swee Boon Chin; NA Hill; Alan G Johnson

    2007-01-01

    This paper reviews the progress made in understanding the mechanical behaviour of the biliary system.Gallstones and diseases of the biliary tract affect more than 10% of the adult population. The complications of gallstones, i.e. acute pancreatitis and obstructive jandice, can be lethal, and patients with acalculous gallbladder pain often pose diagnostic difficulties and undergo repeated ultrasound scans and oral cholecystograms. Moreover, surgery to remove the gallbladder in these patients, in an attempt to relieve the symptoms, gives variable results. Extensive research has been carried out to understand the physiological and pathological functions of the biliary system, but the mechanism of the pathogenesis of gallstones and pain production still remain poorly understood. It is believed that the mechanical factors play an essential role in the mechanisms of the gallstone formation and biliary diseases. However, despite the extensive literature in clinical studies, only limited work has been carried out to study the biliary system from the mechanical point of view. In this paper, we discuss the state of art knowledge of the fluid dynamics of bile flow in the biliary tract, the solid mechanics of the gallbladder and bile ducts, recent mathematical and numerical modelling of the system,and finally the future challenges in the area.

  17. Pressurized thermal shock. CNA-I behavior when a hot leg breaks of 50 cm2 is produced

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosso, Ricardo D.; Ventura, Mirta A.

    2002-01-01

    Pressurized thermal shock (PTS) phenomena in the CNA-I pressurize heavy water reactor is analyzed in this paper. The initiating event is a hypothetical 50 cm 2 break of the line connecting the pressurizer and the primary system. The calculation procedure for obtaining the local thermal-hydraulic parameters in the reactor pressure vessel downcomer is described firstly. Results obtained lead to conclusions in different subjects. The first conclusion is that a simple tool of easy application is available to analyze PTS phenomena in cases of breaks in the primary system in cold and hot legs. This methodology is fully independent of the methodology utilized by the Utility. Another important conclusion comes from the analysis of the temperature evolution of the fluid below the cold leg level in the RPV downcomer, as a function of the T HPI temperature of the TJ system injected water from. It is also concluded that the results obtained with the methodology adopted agree with the ones obtained with the methodologies validated against experiments in the UPTF facility. It is possible to observe that when T HPI increase, the conditions suitable for PTS occurrence in a LOCA accident tend to diminish. The maximum value to the T HPI may be fixed from the maximum temperature allowed to preserve the structural integrity of the fuel cladding. (author)

  18. Influence of specimen thickness on the fatigue behavior of notched steel plates subjected to laser shock peening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granados-Alejo, V.; Rubio-González, C.; Vázquez-Jiménez, C. A.; Banderas, J. A.; Gómez-Rosas, G.

    2018-05-01

    The influence of specimen thickness on the fatigue crack initiation of 2205 duplex stainless steel notched specimens subjected to laser shock peening (LSP) was investigated. The purpose was to examine the effectiveness of LSP on flat components with different thicknesses. For the LSP treatment a Nd:YAG pulsed laser operating at 10 Hz with 1064 nm of wavelength was used; pulse density was 2500 pulses/cm2. The LSP setup was the waterjet arrangement without sample coating. Residual stress distribution as a function of depth was determined by the hole drilling method. Notched specimens 2, 3 and 4 mm thick were LSP treated on both faces and then fatigue loading was applied with R = 0.1. Experimental fatigue lives were compared with life predictions from finite element simulation. A good comparison of the predicted and experimental fatigue lives was observed. LSP finite element simulation helps in explaining the influence of thickness on fatigue lives in terms of equivalent plastic strain distribution variations associated with the change in thickness. It is demonstrated that specimen size effect is an important issue in applying LSP on real components. Reducing the specimen thickness, the fatigue life improvement induced by LSP is significantly increased. Fatigue life extension up to 300% is observed on thin specimens with LSP.

  19. Behavioral addictions in addiction medicine: from mechanisms to practical considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banz, Barbara C; Yip, Sarah W; Yau, Yvonne H C; Potenza, Marc N

    2016-01-01

    Recent progress has been made in our understanding of nonsubstance or "behavioral" addictions, although these conditions and their most appropriate classification remain debated and the knowledge basis for understanding the pathophysiology of and treatments for these conditions includes important gaps. Recent developments include the classification of gambling disorder as a "Substance-Related and Addictive Disorder" in the 5th edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) and proposed diagnostic criteria for Internet Gaming Disorder in Section 3 of DSM-5. This chapter reviews current neuroscientific understandings of behavioral addictions and the potential of neurobiological data to assist in the development of improved policy, prevention, and treatment efforts. © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Shocks in fragile matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitelli, Vincenzo

    2012-02-01

    Non-linear sound is an extreme phenomenon typically observed in solids after violent explosions. But granular media are different. Right when they unjam, these fragile and disordered solids exhibit vanishing elastic moduli and sound speed, so that even tiny mechanical perturbations form supersonic shocks. Here, we perform simulations in which two-dimensional jammed granular packings are continuously compressed, and demonstrate that the resulting excitations are strongly nonlinear shocks, rather than linear waves. We capture the full dependence of the shock speed on pressure and compression speed by a surprisingly simple analytical model. We also treat shear shocks within a simplified viscoelastic model of nearly-isostatic random networks comprised of harmonic springs. In this case, anharmonicity does not originate locally from nonlinear interactions between particles, as in granular media; instead, it emerges from the global architecture of the network. As a result, the diverging width of the shear shocks bears a nonlinear signature of the diverging isostatic length associated with the loss of rigidity in these floppy networks.

  1. Mechanical behavior of novel W alloys produced by HIP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pastor, J.Y.; Martin, A.; Llorca, J.; Monge, M.A.; Pareja, R.

    2007-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: W appears to be one of the candidate materials being considered for making plasma-facing components (PFCs) in a future fusion power reactor because of its refractory characteristics, low tritium retention and low sputtering yielding. However, its use in PFCs requires the development of W materials that, in addition to these properties, maintains good mechanical properties at high temperatures. In W, high temperature strength and creep resistance may be effectively increased by solid-solution and dispersion strengthening. Sintering could be a suitable method to produce solid-solution and dispersion strengthening in W alloys for these applications if their recrystallization temperature is high enough and the grain growth is restrained. The aim of the present work is to investigate the mechanical properties of W materials produced by liquid phase sintering using Ti as sintering activator and nanoparticles of Y 2 O 3 as strengthening dispersoids. The mechanical behaviour of pure W and W alloys, having 0.5 wt % Y 2 O 3 , X Wt % Ti and 0.5 wt % Y 2 O 3 + X wt % Ti prepared by powder metallurgy have been studied (0≤X≤4). Three point bending tests have been performed on 2 x 2 x 25 mm 3 specimens cut from ingots consolidated by a two-stage hot isostatic pressing process. The bending strength, fracture toughness and elastic modulus have been determined as a function of temperature. The fracture surfaces have been analyzed to find the fracture mode and investigate the temperature dependence of the mechanical properties and fracture mechanisms. The effect of the Y 2 O 3 dispersion and Ti content on the mechanical properties is also investigated. (authors)

  2. Mechanical behavior of novel W alloys produced by HIP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pastor, J.Y.; Martin, A.; Llorca, J. [Madrid Univ. Politecnica, Dept de Ciencia de Materiales (Spain); Monge, M.A.; Pareja, R. [Madrid Univ. Carlos 3, Dept. de Fisica (Spain)

    2007-07-01

    Full text of publication follows: W appears to be one of the candidate materials being considered for making plasma-facing components (PFCs) in a future fusion power reactor because of its refractory characteristics, low tritium retention and low sputtering yielding. However, its use in PFCs requires the development of W materials that, in addition to these properties, maintains good mechanical properties at high temperatures. In W, high temperature strength and creep resistance may be effectively increased by solid-solution and dispersion strengthening. Sintering could be a suitable method to produce solid-solution and dispersion strengthening in W alloys for these applications if their recrystallization temperature is high enough and the grain growth is restrained. The aim of the present work is to investigate the mechanical properties of W materials produced by liquid phase sintering using Ti as sintering activator and nanoparticles of Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} as strengthening dispersoids. The mechanical behaviour of pure W and W alloys, having 0.5 wt % Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}, X Wt % Ti and 0.5 wt % Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} + X wt % Ti prepared by powder metallurgy have been studied (0{<=}X{<=}4). Three point bending tests have been performed on 2 x 2 x 25 mm{sup 3} specimens cut from ingots consolidated by a two-stage hot isostatic pressing process. The bending strength, fracture toughness and elastic modulus have been determined as a function of temperature. The fracture surfaces have been analyzed to find the fracture mode and investigate the temperature dependence of the mechanical properties and fracture mechanisms. The effect of the Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} dispersion and Ti content on the mechanical properties is also investigated. (authors)

  3. Electric foot shock stress adaptation: Does it exist or not?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bali, Anjana; Jaggi, Amteshwar Singh

    2015-06-01

    Stress adaptation is a protective phenomenon against repeated stress exposure and is characterized by a decreased responsiveness to a repeated stress stimulus. The adaptation is associated with a complex cascade of events, including the changes in behavior, neurotransmitter and gene expression levels. The non-adaptation or maladaptation to stress may underlie the affective disorders, such as anxiety, depression and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Electric foot shock is a complex stressor, which includes both physical and emotional components. Unlike immobilization, restraint and cold immersion stress, the phenomenon of stress adaptation is not very well defined in response to electric foot shock. A number of preclinical studies have reported the development of adaptation to electric foot shock stress. However, evidence also reveals the non-adaptive behavior in response to foot shocks. The distinct adaptive/non-adaptive responses may be possibly influenced by the type, intensity, and duration of the stress. The present review discusses the existence or non-existence of adaptation to electric foot shock stress along with possible mechanism. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Physical mechanism causing rapid changes in ultrarelativistic electron pitch angle distributions right after a shock arrival: Evaluation of an electron dropout event

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, X.-J.; Li, W.; Thorne, R. M.; Angelopoulos, V.; Ma, Q.; Li, J.; Bortnik, J.; Nishimura, Y.; Chen, L.; Baker, D. N.; Reeves, G. D.; Spence, H. E.; Kletzing, C. A.; Kurth, W. S.; Hospodarsky, G. B.; Blake, J. B.; Fennell, J. F.

    2016-09-01

    Three mechanisms have been proposed to explain relativistic electron flux depletions (dropouts) in the Earth's outer radiation belt during storm times: adiabatic expansion of electron drift shells due to a decrease in magnetic field strength, magnetopause shadowing and subsequent outward radial diffusion, and precipitation into the atmosphere (driven by EMIC wave scattering). Which mechanism predominates in causing electron dropouts commonly observed in the outer radiation belt is still debatable. In the present study, we evaluate the physical mechanism that may be primarily responsible for causing the sudden change in relativistic electron pitch angle distributions during a dropout event observed by Van Allen Probes during the main phase of the 27 February 2014 storm. During this event, the phase space density of ultrarelativistic (>1 MeV) electrons was depleted by more than 1 order of magnitude over the entire radial extent of the outer radiation belt (3 pitch angle distribution under a compressed magnetic field topology based on actual solar wind conditions. Although these ultrarelativistic electrons exhibit highly anisotropic (peaked in 90°), energy-dependent pitch angle distributions, which appear to be associated with the typical EMIC wave scattering, comparison of the modeled electron distribution to electron measurements indicates that drift shell splitting is responsible for this rapid change in electron pitch angle distributions. This further indicates that magnetopause loss is the predominant cause of the electron dropout right after the shock arrival.

  5. 2012 THIN FILM AND SMALL SCALE MECHANICAL BEHAVIOR GRS/GRC, JULY 21-27, 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balk, Thomas

    2012-07-27

    The mechanical behavior of materials with small dimension(s) is of both fundamental scientific interest and technological relevance. The size effects and novel properties that arise from changes in deformation mechanism have important implications for modern technologies such as thin films for microelectronics and MEMS devices, thermal and tribological coatings, materials for energy production and advanced batteries, etc. The overarching goal of the 2012 Gordon Research Conference on "Thin Film and Small Scale Mechanical Behavior" is to discuss recent studies and future opportunities regarding elastic, plastic and time-dependent deformation, as well as degradation and failure mechanisms such as fatigue, fracture and wear. Specific topics of interest include, but are not limited to: fundamental studies of physical mechanisms governing small-scale mechanical behavior; advances in test techniques for materials at small length scales, such as nanotribology and high-temperature nanoindentation; in-situ mechanical testing and characterization; nanomechanics of battery materials, such as swelling-induced phenomena and chemomechanical behavior; flexible electronics; mechanical properties of graphene and carbon-based materials; mechanical behavior of small-scale biological structures and biomimetic materials. Both experimental and computational work will be included in the oral and poster presentations at this Conference.

  6. Social carry-over effects on non-social behavioral variation: mechanisms and consequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petri Toivo Niemelä

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The field of animal personality is interested in decomposing behaviors into different levels of variation, with its present focus on the ecological and evolutionary causes and consequences of expressed variation. Recently the role of the social environment, i.e. social partners, has been suggested to affect behavioral variation and induce selection on animal personality. Social partner effects exist because characters of social partners (e.g. size, behavior, affect the behavioral expression of a focal individual. Here, we 1 first review the proximate mechanisms underlying the social partner effects on behavioral expression and the timescales at which such effects might take place. We then 2 discuss how within- and among-individual variation in single behaviors and covariation between multiple behaviors, caused by social partners, can carry-over to non-social behaviors expressed outside the social context. Finally, we 3 highlight evolutionary consequences of social carry-over effects to non-social behaviors and 4 suggest study designs and statistical approaches which can be applied to study the nature and evolutionary consequences of social carry-over effects on non-social behaviors. Understanding the proximate mechanisms underpinning the social partner effects is important since it opens a door for deeper understanding of how social environments can affect behavioral variation and covariation at multiple levels, and the evolution of non-social behaviors (i.e. exploration, activity, boldness that are affected by social interactions.

  7. Size effects in the mechanical behavior of cellular materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tekoglu, C; Onck, PR

    Effective mechanical properties of cellular materials depend strongly on the specimen size to the cell size ratio. Experimental studies performed on aluminium foams show that under uniaxial compression, the stiffness of these materials falls below the corresponding bulk value, when the ratio of the

  8. Mechanical Behavior of Bio-inspired Model Suture Joints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yaning; Lin, Erica; Ortiz, Christine; Boyce, Mary

    2012-02-01

    Suture joints of varying degrees of geometric complexity are prevalent throughout nature as a means of joining structural elements while providing locally tailored mechanical performance. Here, micromechanical models of general trapezoidal waveforms of varying hierarchy are formulated to reveal the role of geometric complexity in governing stiffness, strength, toughness and corresponding deformation and failure mechanisms. Physical constructs of model composite suture systems are fabricated via multi-material 3D printing (Object Connex500). Tensile tests are conducted on samples covering a range in geometry, thus providing quantitative measures of stiffness, strength, and failure. The experiments include direct visualization of the deformation and failure mechanisms and their progression, as well as their dependence on suture geometry, showing the interplay between shear and tension/compression of the interfacial layers and tension of the skeletal teeth and the transition in failure modes with geometry. The results provide quantitative guidelines for the design and tailoring of suture geometry to achieve the desired mechanical properties and also facilitate understanding of suture growth and fusion, and evolutionary phenotype.

  9. Molecular Mechanism: ERK Signaling, Drug Addiction, and Behavioral Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wei-Lun; Quizon, Pamela M; Zhu, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Addiction to psychostimulants has been considered as a chronic psychiatric disorder characterized by craving and compulsive drug seeking and use. Over the past two decades, accumulating evidence has demonstrated that repeated drug exposure causes long-lasting neurochemical and cellular changes that result in enduring neuroadaptation in brain circuitry and underlie compulsive drug consumption and relapse. Through intercellular signaling cascades, drugs of abuse induce remodeling in the rewarding circuitry that contributes to the neuroplasticity of learning and memory associated with addiction. Here, we review the role of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), a member of the mitogen-activated protein kinase, and its related intracellular signaling pathways in drug-induced neuroadaptive changes that are associated with drug-mediated psychomotor activity, rewarding properties and relapse of drug seeking behaviors. We also discuss the neurobiological and behavioral effects of pharmacological and genetic interferences with ERK-associated molecular cascades in response to abused substances. Understanding the dynamic modulation of ERK signaling in response to drugs may provide novel molecular targets for therapeutic strategies to drug addiction. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. Mechanical behavior of a composite interface: Calcium-silicate-hydrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palkovic, Steven D.; Moeini, Sina; Büyüköztürk, Oral, E-mail: obuyuk@mit.edu [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Yip, Sidney [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States)

    2015-07-21

    The generalized stacking fault (GSF) is a conceptual procedure historically used to assess shear behavior of defect-free crystalline structures through molecular dynamics or density functional theory simulations. We apply the GSF technique to the spatially and chemically complex quasi-layered structure of calcium-silicate-hydrates (C-S-H), the fundamental nanoscale binder within cementitious materials. A failure plane is enforced to calculate the shear traction-displacement response along a composite interface containing highly confined water molecules, hydroxyl groups, and calcium ions. GSF simulations are compared with affine (homogeneous) shear simulations, which allow strain to localize naturally in response to the local atomic environment. Comparison of strength and deformation behavior for the two loading methods shows the composite interface controls bulk shear deformation. Both models indicate the maximum shear strength of C-S-H exhibits a normal-stress dependency typical of cohesive-frictional materials. These findings suggest the applicability of GSF techniques to inhomogeneous structures and bonding environments, including other layered systems such as biological materials containing organic and inorganic interfaces.

  11. Toxic shock syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staphylococcal toxic shock syndrome; Toxic shock-like syndrome; TSLS ... Toxic shock syndrome is caused by a toxin produced by some types of staphylococcus bacteria. A similar problem, called toxic shock- ...

  12. Mechanical properties and impact behavior of a microcellular structural foam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Avalle

    Full Text Available Structural foams are a relatively new class of materials with peculiar characteristics that make them very attractive in some energy absorption applications. They are currently used for packaging to protect goods from damage during transportation in the case of accidental impacts. Structural foams, in fact, have sufficient mechanical strength even with reduced weight: the balance between the two antagonist requirements demonstrates that these materials are profitable. Structural foams are generally made of microcellular materials, obtained by polymers where voids at the microscopic level are created. Although the processing technologies and some of the material properties, including mechanical, are well known, very little is established for what concerns dynamic impact properties, for the design of energy absorbing components made of microcellular foams. The paper reports a number of experimental results, in different loading conditions and loading speed, which will be a basis for the structural modeling.

  13. Mechanical behavior of chemically treated Jute/Polymer composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murali B

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Fiber which serves as a reinforcement in reinforced plastics may be synthetic or natural past studies show that only artificial fibers such as glass, carbon etc., have been used in fiber reinforced plastics. Although glass and other synthetic fiber reinforced plastics possess high specific strength, their fields of application are very limited because of their inherent higher cost of production. In this connection, an investigation has been carried out to make use of jute , a natural fiber abundantly available in India. Natural fibers are not only strong and lightweight but also relatively very cheap. In the present work, jute composites are developed and their mechanical properties are evaluated. Mechanical properties of jute/polymer and compared with glass fiber/epoxy. These results indicate that jute can be used as a potential reinforcing material for making low load bearing thermoplastic composites.

  14. Microstructure and mechanical behavior of Al-Li-Zr alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Wego; Wells, M.G.H.

    1991-01-01

    The mechanical properties of two Al-Li-Zr alloys, A and B, are determined at various heat treatment conditions. Alloy B was found to have superior mechanical properties. It shows improvements in yield strength by 31.2-56.2 MPa and in ultimate tensile strength by 14.7-40.7 MPa, and yet still has a 20-25 percent better elongation value. The microstructure and fracture surface were studied by SEM and TEM. A fracture surface with mixed ductile samples and brittle facets was observed in both tensile and notch tensile samples. The fracture was more localized in alloy A than alloy B. Both alloys exhibited good notch toughness with a notch tensile strength to yield a strength ratio larger than one for all heat treatment conditions. 32 refs

  15. Mechanical Deformation Behavior of Lean Duplex 329LA Steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Byung-Jun [Research Institute of Industrial Science and Technology, Pohang (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Jeom-Yong [POSCO Technical Research Lab., Pohang (Korea, Republic of); Park, Kyung-Tae [Hanvat National University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Ho Seong [Kyungpook National University, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-09-15

    The tensile response of Lean Duplex 329LA stainless steel was investigated over various strain rates. It was observed that the mechanical response, including in particular the total elongation of the tested alloy, was strongly affected by the strain rate. As the strain rate decreased from 10-1 s-1 to 10-4 s-1, the elongation increased. As the strain rate increased, the deformation mode in an austenite phase was dominated by dislocation glide, resulting in deterioration of the elongation. The substructure of the ferritic phase showed a dislocation cell structure, independent of the applied strain rate. The optimum mechanical properties of lean duplex stainless steel thus can be obtained by controlling the deformation mode in the austenitic phase.

  16. Mechanical Deformation Behavior of Lean Duplex 329LA Steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Byung-Jun; Choi, Jeom-Yong; Park, Kyung-Tae; Lee, Ho Seong

    2015-01-01

    The tensile response of Lean Duplex 329LA stainless steel was investigated over various strain rates. It was observed that the mechanical response, including in particular the total elongation of the tested alloy, was strongly affected by the strain rate. As the strain rate decreased from 10-1 s-1 to 10-4 s-1, the elongation increased. As the strain rate increased, the deformation mode in an austenite phase was dominated by dislocation glide, resulting in deterioration of the elongation. The substructure of the ferritic phase showed a dislocation cell structure, independent of the applied strain rate. The optimum mechanical properties of lean duplex stainless steel thus can be obtained by controlling the deformation mode in the austenitic phase.

  17. Chaotic behavior of seismic mechanisms: experiment and observation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mourad Bezzeghoud

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available

    To simulate the dynamics of earthquakes, a mechanical prototype was constructed that was inspired by the Burridge-Knopoff model and equipped with accurate instrumental devices. The data obtained by the prototype appeared to be consistent with seismic data from the San Andreas Fault, California, USA, which were analyzed using two different methodologies: seismology and modern developments of chaos theory. Perspectives for future work are also presented.

  18. A Multiscale Simulation Method and Its Application to Determine the Mechanical Behavior of Heterogeneous Geomaterials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengwei Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available To study the micro/mesomechanical behaviors of heterogeneous geomaterials, a multiscale simulation method that combines molecular simulation at the microscale, a mesoscale analysis of polished slices, and finite element numerical simulation is proposed. By processing the mesostructure images obtained from analyzing the polished slices of heterogeneous geomaterials and mapping them onto finite element meshes, a numerical model that more accurately reflects the mesostructures of heterogeneous geomaterials was established by combining the results with the microscale mechanical properties of geomaterials obtained from the molecular simulation. This model was then used to analyze the mechanical behaviors of heterogeneous materials. Because kernstone is a typical heterogeneous material that comprises many types of mineral crystals, it was used for the micro/mesoscale mechanical behavior analysis in this paper using the proposed method. The results suggest that the proposed method can be used to accurately and effectively study the mechanical behaviors of heterogeneous geomaterials at the micro/mesoscales.

  19. Inferior vena cava obstruction and shock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megri Mohammed

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Shock is one of the most challenging life-threatening conditions with high mortality and morbidity; the outcomes are highly dependent on the early detection and management of the condition. Septic shock is the most common type of shock in the Intensive Care Unit. While not as common as other subsets of shock, obstructive shock is a significant subtype due to well defined mechanical and pathological causes, including tension pneumothorax, massive pulmonary embolism, and cardiac tamponade. We are presenting a patient with obstructive shock due to inferior vena cava obstruction secondary to extensive deep venous thrombosis. Chance of survival from obstructive shock in our patient was small; however, there was complete and immediate recovery after treatment of the obstruction on recognizing the affected vessels. This case alerts the practicing intensivist and the emergency medicine physician to consider occlusion of the great vessels other than the pulmonary artery or aorta as causes of obstructive shock.

  20. Influence aqueous solutions on the mechanical behavior of argillaceous rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wakim, J.

    2005-12-01

    The hydration of the shale with an aqueous solution induces a swelling deformation which plays an important role in the behaviour of the structures excavated in this type of grounds. This deformation is marked by a three-dimensional and anisotropic character and involves several mechanisms like adsorption, osmosis or capillarity. Several researches were dedicated to swelling and were often much debated due to the complexity of the implied phenomena. The goal of this thesis is therefore to contribute to a better understanding of shale swelling when the rock is confined and hydrated with an aqueous solution. The main part of the work accomplished was related to the Lorraine shale and to the Tournemire shale. To characterize swelling and to identify the main governing parameters, it was necessary to start the issue with an experimental approach. Many apparatus were then developed to carry out tests under various conditions of swelling. In order to facilitate the interpretation of the tests and thereafter the modelling of the behaviour, the experimental procedure adopted consisted of studying first the mechanical aspect and then the chemical aspect of swelling. In the mechanical part, swelling was studied by imposing on the sample a mechanical loading while maintaining during the tests the same aqueous solution. The principal parameters which were studied are the effect of the lateral conditions on axial swelling (impeded strain or constant stress) as well as the influence of the axial stress on radial swelling. The anisotropy of swelling was studied by carrying out, for different orientations of the sample, tests of free swelling, impeded swelling and uniaxial swelling. These various mechanical tests allowed to study the three-dimensional anisotropic swelling in all the conditions and to select the most appropriate test to be used in the second phase of the research. The precise analysis performed to explain the mechanisms behind the swelling of an argillaceous rock

  1. Effect of cement fineness and polycarboxylate dosage on the rheological and mechanical behavior of a mortar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahia Didouche

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of certain organic additives in the production of mortar and concrete influences the workability and the hydration kinetic of mortar. This results in a modification of some properties, namely rheological behavior and mechanical strength. The objective of this work is to evaluate the rheological and mechanical behavior of a mortar by varying the fineness of the cement and using the superplasticizer Polycarboxylate.

  2. A multi-scale investigation of the mechanical behavior of durable sisal fiber cement composites

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Flávio de Andrade; Toledo Filho, Romildo D.; Mobasher, Barzin; Chawla, Nikhilesh

    2010-01-01

    Durable sisal fiber cement composites reinforced with long unidirectional aligned fibers were developed and their mechanical behavior was characterized in a multi-scale level. Tensile tests were performed in individual sisal fibers. Weibull statistics were used to quantify the degree of variability in fiber strength at different gage lengths. The fiber-matrix pull-out behavior was evaluated at several curing ages and embedded lengths. The composite's mechanical response was measured under dir...

  3. Defining Auditory-Visual Objects: Behavioral Tests and Physiological Mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bizley, Jennifer K; Maddox, Ross K; Lee, Adrian K C

    2016-02-01

    Crossmodal integration is a term applicable to many phenomena in which one sensory modality influences task performance or perception in another sensory modality. We distinguish the term binding as one that should be reserved specifically for the process that underpins perceptual object formation. To unambiguously differentiate binding form other types of integration, behavioral and neural studies must investigate perception of a feature orthogonal to the features that link the auditory and visual stimuli. We argue that supporting true perceptual binding (as opposed to other processes such as decision-making) is one role for cross-sensory influences in early sensory cortex. These early multisensory interactions may therefore form a physiological substrate for the bottom-up grouping of auditory and visual stimuli into auditory-visual (AV) objects. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  4. Nanoscale mechanical stimulation method for quantifying C. elegans mechanosensory behavior and memory

    OpenAIRE

    Kiso, Kaori; Sugi, Takuma; Okumura, Etsuko; Igarashi, Ryuji

    2016-01-01

    Here, we establish a novel economic system to quantify C. elegans mechanosensory behavior and memory by a controllable nanoscale mechanical stimulation. Using piezoelectric sheet speaker, we can flexibly change the vibration properties at a nanoscale displacement level and quantify behavioral responses and memory under the control of each vibration property. This system will facilitate understanding of physiological aspects of C. elegans mechanosensory behavior and memory.

  5. Feeding Behavior of Aplysia: A Model System for Comparing Cellular Mechanisms of Classical and Operant Conditioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxter, Douglas A.; Byrne, John H.

    2006-01-01

    Feeding behavior of Aplysia provides an excellent model system for analyzing and comparing mechanisms underlying appetitive classical conditioning and reward operant conditioning. Behavioral protocols have been developed for both forms of associative learning, both of which increase the occurrence of biting following training. Because the neural…

  6. Mechanical behavior of nanotwinned materials – experimental and computational approaches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yavas, Hakan [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2016-12-17

    Nanotwinned materials exhibit high strength combined with excellent thermal stability, making them potentially attractive for numerous applications. When deposited on cold substrates at high rates, for example, silver films can be prepared with a high-density of growth twins with an average twin boundary spacing of less than 10 nm. These films show a very strong {111} texture, with the twin boundaries being perpendicular to the growth direction. The origins of superior mechanical and thermal properties of nanotwinned materials, however, are not yet fully understood and need further improvements.

  7. Mechanical Behavior of an Ultrafine/Nano Grained Magnesium Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Mahmood Fatemi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The application of magnesium alloys is greatly limited because of their relatively low strength and ductility. An effective way to improve the mechanical properties of magnesium alloy is to refine the grains. As the race for better materials performance is never ending, attempts to develop viable techniques for microstructure refinement continue. Further refining of grain size requires, however, application of extreme value of plastic deformation on material. In this work, an AZ31 wrought magnesium alloy was processed by employing multipass accumulative back extrusion process. The obtained microstructure, texture, and room temperature compressive properties were characterized and discussed. The results indicated that grains of 80 nm to 1 μm size were formed during accumulative back extrusion, where the mean grain size of the experimental material was reduced by applying successive ABE passes. The fraction of DRX increased and the mean grain size of the ABEed alloy markedly lowered, as subsequent passes were applied. This helped to explain the higher yield stress govern the occurrence of twinning during compressive loading. Compressive yield and maximum compressive strengths were measured to increase by applying successive extrusion passes, while the strain-to-fracture dropped. The evolution of mechanical properties was explained relying on the grain refinement effect as well as texture change.

  8. Behavioral pattern separation and its link to the neural mechanisms of fear generalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Iris; Goossens, Liesbet; Michielse, Stijn; Bakker, Jindra; Lissek, Shmuel; Papalini, Silvia; Verhagen, Simone; Leibold, Nicole; Marcelis, Machteld; Wichers, Marieke; Lieverse, Ritsaert; van Os, Jim; van Amelsvoort, Therese; Schruers, Koen

    2017-11-01

    Fear generalization is a prominent feature of anxiety disorders and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). It is defined as enhanced fear responding to a stimulus that bears similarities, but is not identical to a threatening stimulus. Pattern separation, a hippocampal-dependent process, is critical for stimulus discrimination; it transforms similar experiences or events into non-overlapping representations. This study is the first in humans to investigate the extent to which fear generalization relies on behavioral pattern separation abilities. Participants (N = 46) completed a behavioral task taxing pattern separation, and a neuroimaging fear conditioning and generalization paradigm. Results show an association between lower behavioral pattern separation performance and increased generalization in shock expectancy scores, but not in fear ratings. Furthermore, lower behavioral pattern separation was associated with diminished recruitment of the subcallosal cortex during presentation of generalization stimuli. This region showed functional connectivity with the orbitofrontal cortex and ventromedial prefrontal cortex. Together, the data provide novel experimental evidence that pattern separation is related to generalization of threat expectancies, and reduced fear inhibition processes in frontal regions. Deficient pattern separation may be critical in overgeneralization and therefore may contribute to the pathophysiology of anxiety disorders and PTSD. © The Author (2017). Published by Oxford University Press.

  9. Protective effects of heat shock protein 70 on the acute lung injury of rats with heat stroke and its mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan GENG

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective To investigate the protective effect of heat shock protein (HSP 70 on the acute lung injury (ALI of rats with heat stroke. Methods Sixty four rats were randomly (by employing a random number table assigned into a sham-heated group (Sham group, heat stress group (HS group, and HS plus gluttamine treatment group (HS+GLN group and HS plus quercet in treatment group (HS+QU group, 16 each. All rats were housed in a artificial climate chamber, with the rats in the sham groups exposed to a temperature of 23℃ and humidity of 55%±5%, while the rats of HS, HS+GLN and HS+QU groups to an ambient temperature of 39℃ and humidity of 65%. During heat stress or sham heating, rectal temperature (Tr, systolic blood pressure (SBP and pulse rate (PR were monitored to observe the difference in heat stress response among the groups. The time point at which the SBP started to drop from the peak level was taken as the point of HS onset. At the onset of HS, heat exposure was terminated, then the rats were immediately removed from the chamber, and returned to room temperature. The rats were scarified 0h and 6h after HS onset respectively. After bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF was collected, the lungs of all animals were harvested for pathological examination of lung injury. The concentrations of IL-1β, TNF-α and IL-6 in BALF and HSP70 in lung homogenate were measured by using an enzyme linked immunosorbent assay kit. Results Compared with HS and HS+QU groups, the rats in HS+GLN group required significantly greater heat load to induce HS (P<0.001, and had longer survival time span after HS onset. Compared with Sham group, the concentration of HSP70 in lung homogenate in HS group increased in a time-dependent manner (P<0.001. In comparison with HS group, the concentration of HSP70 in lung homogenate from HS+GLN group was significantly elevated at each time point (P<0.001, while the treatment with QU significantly inhibited the expression of HSP70 (P<0

  10. The mechanical behavior of two warm-mix asphalts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. A. Rondón-Quintana

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents results stemming from a comparative experimental analysis of two warm-mix asphalts (WMA and a dense-graded hot-mix asphalt (HMA. In order to evaluate asphalt mixture behavior, physical and rheological tests were conducted, including tests on resilient modulus, resistance to moisture-induced damage, resistance to fatigue and resistance to permanent deformation. Samples studied were subjected to short (STOA and long-term (LTOA aging. As far as asphalt mixture composition is concerned, the same particle size distribution and coarse aggregate were employed for both mixture types. The control HMA mixture was produced with AC 60-70, and the WMAs used the same asphalt cement modified with two chemical additives (Rediset WMX® and Cecabase RT®. The modified mixtures exhibited better resistance to permanent deformation, aging and moisture-induced damage (versus the control mixture. Likewise, WMAs generally saw increased fatigue resistance under controlled-stress loading, which rheological characterization showed is mainly attributable to binder additives and their concomitant modifications.

  11. Mechanical properties and failure behavior of unidirectional porous ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seuba, Jordi; Deville, Sylvain; Guizard, Christian; Stevenson, Adam J.

    2016-04-01

    We show that the honeycomb out-of-plane model derived by Gibson and Ashby can be applied to describe the compressive behavior of unidirectional porous materials. Ice-templating allowed us to process samples with accurate control over pore volume, size, and morphology. These samples allowed us to evaluate the effect of this microstructural variations on the compressive strength in a porosity range of 45-80%. The maximum strength of 286 MPa was achieved in the least porous ice-templated sample (P(%) = 49.9), with the smallest pore size (3 μm). We found that the out-of-plane model only holds when buckling is the dominant failure mode, as should be expected. Furthermore, we controlled total pore volume by adjusting solids loading and sintering temperature. This strategy allows us to independently control macroporosity and densification of walls, and the compressive strength of ice-templated materials is exclusively dependent on total pore volume.

  12. Anomalous behavior of q-averages in nonextensive statistical mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abe, Sumiyoshi

    2009-01-01

    A generalized definition of average, termed the q-average, is widely employed in the field of nonextensive statistical mechanics. Recently, it has however been pointed out that such an average value may behave unphysically under specific deformations of probability distributions. Here, the following three issues are discussed and clarified. Firstly, the deformations considered are physical and may be realized experimentally. Secondly, in view of the thermostatistics, the q-average is unstable in both finite and infinite discrete systems. Thirdly, a naive generalization of the discussion to continuous systems misses a point, and a norm better than the L 1 -norm should be employed for measuring the distance between two probability distributions. Consequently, stability of the q-average is shown not to be established in all of the cases

  13. The mechanical behavior of GLARE laminates for aircraft structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Guocai; Yang, J.-M.

    2005-01-01

    GLARE (glass-reinforced aluminum laminate) is a new class of fiber metal laminates for advanced aerospace structural applications. It consists of thin aluminum sheets bonded together with unidirectional or biaxially reinforced adhesive prepreg of high-strength glass fibers. GLARE laminates offer a unique combination of properties such as outstanding fatigue resistance, high specific static properties, excellent impact resistance, good residual and blunt notch strength, flame resistance and corrosion properties, and ease of manufacture and repair. GLARE laminates can be tailored to suit a wide variety of applications by varying the fiber/resin system, the alloy type and thickness, stacking sequence, fiber orientation, surface pretreatment technique, etc. This article presents a comprehensive overview of the mechanical properties of various GLARE laminates under different loading conditions.

  14. Understanding the Personality and Behavioral Mechanisms Defining Hypersexuality in Men Who Have Sex With Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miner, Michael H; Romine, Rebecca Swinburne; Raymond, Nancy; Janssen, Erick; MacDonald, Angus; Coleman, Eli

    2016-09-01

    Hypersexuality has been conceptualized as sexual addiction, compulsivity, and impulsivity, among others, in the absence of strong empirical data in support of any specific conceptualization. To investigate personality factors and behavioral mechanisms that are relevant to hypersexuality in men who have sex with men. A sample of 242 men who have sex with men was recruited from various sites in a moderate-size mid-western city. Participants were assigned to a hypersexuality group or a control group using an interview similar to the Structured Clinical Interview for the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition. Self-report inventories were administered that measured the broad personality constructs of positive emotionality, negative emotionality, and constraint and more narrow constructs related to sexual behavioral control, behavioral activation, behavioral inhibition, sexual excitation, sexual inhibition, impulsivity, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, and sexual behavior. Hierarchical logistic regression was used to determine the relation between these personality and behavioral variables and group membership. A hierarchical logistic regression controlling for age showed a significant positive relation between hypersexuality and negative emotionality and a negative relation with constraint. None of the behavioral mechanism variables entered this equation. However, a hierarchical multiple regression analysis predicting sexual behavioral control indicated that lack of such control was positively related to sexual excitation and sexual inhibition owing to the threat of performance failure and negatively related to sexual inhibition owing to the threat of performance consequences and general behavioral inhibition Hypersexuality was found to be related to two broad personality factors that are characterized by emotional reactivity, risk taking, and impulsivity. The associated lack of sexual behavior control is influenced by sexual

  15. Stress and Memory: Behavioral Effects and Neurobiological Mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Teresa Pinelo-Nava

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Stress is a potent modulator of learning and memory processes. Although there have been a few attempts in the literature to explain the diversity of effects (including facilitating, impairing, and lack of effects described for the impact of stress on memory function according to single classification criterion, they have proved insufficient to explain the whole complexity of effects. Here, we review the literature in the field of stress and memory interactions according to five selected classifying factors (source of stress, stressor duration, stressor intensity, stressor timing with regard to memory phase, and learning type in an attempt to develop an integrative model to understand how stress affects memory function. Summarizing on those conditions in which there was enough information, we conclude that high stress levels, whether intrinsic (triggered by the cognitive challenge or extrinsic (induced by conditions completely unrelated to the cognitive task, tend to facilitate Pavlovian conditioning (in a linear-asymptotic manner, while being deleterious for spatial/explicit information processing (which with regard to intrinsic stress levels follows an inverted U-shape effect. Moreover, after reviewing the literature, we conclude that all selected factors are essential to develop an integrative model that defines the outcome of stress effects in memory processes. In parallel, we provide a brief review of the main neurobiological mechanisms proposed to account for the different effects of stress in memory function. Glucocorticoids were found as a common mediating mechanism for both the facilitating and impairing actions of stress in different memory processes and phases. Among the brain regions implicated, the hippocampus, amygdala, and prefrontal cortex were highlighted as critical for the mediation of stress effects.

  16. Zr O/sub 2/ and ZrSiO/sub 4/ addition influence in mechanical resistance and thermical shock of Al/sub 2/TiO/sub 5/

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marinho, P A; Longo, E; Varela, J A; Pandolfelli, V C

    1985-01-01

    The ZrO/sub 2/ and ZrSiO/sub 4/ addition on the Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/TiO/sub 2/ composition showed to be efficient on higher the mechanical and thermal shock resistence of the compound formed. The reactions that formed the phases and the influence of the ones on thermal and mechanical behaviour of the compound Al/sub 2/TiO/sub 5/ were discussed. (L.M.J.).

  17. Orientation Dependence in Molecular Dynamics Simulations of Shocked Single Crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Germann, Timothy C.; Holian, Brad Lee; Lomdahl, Peter S.; Ravelo, Ramon

    2000-01-01

    We use multimillion-atom molecular dynamics simulations to study shock wave propagation in fcc crystals. As shown recently, shock waves along the direction form intersecting stacking faults by slippage along {111} close-packed planes at sufficiently high shock strengths. We find even more interesting behavior of shocks propagating in other low-index directions: for the case, an elastic precursor separates the shock front from the slipped (plastic) region. Shock waves along the direction generate a leading solitary wave train, followed (at sufficiently high shock speeds) by an elastic precursor, and then a region of complex plastic deformation. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society

  18. Low-Temperature Mechanical Behavior of Super Duplex Stainless Steel with Sigma Precipitation

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Seul-Kee; Kang, Ki-Yeob; Kim, Myung-Soo; Lee, Jae-Myung

    2015-01-01

    Experimental studies in various aspects have to be conducted to maintain stable applications of super duplex stainless steels (SDSS) because the occurrence rate of sigma phase, variable temperature and growth direction of sigma phase can influence mechanical performances of SDSS. Tensile tests of precipitated SDSS were performed under various temperatures to analyze mechanical and morphological behavior.

  19. Low-Temperature Mechanical Behavior of Super Duplex Stainless Steel with Sigma Precipitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seul-Kee Kim

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Experimental studies in various aspects have to be conducted to maintain stable applications of super duplex stainless steels (SDSS because the occurrence rate of sigma phase, variable temperature and growth direction of sigma phase can influence mechanical performances of SDSS. Tensile tests of precipitated SDSS were performed under various temperatures to analyze mechanical and morphological behavior.

  20. An Examination of the Mechanisms of Action in Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Bulimia Nervosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spangler, Diane L.; Baldwin, Scott A.; Agras, W. Stewart

    2004-01-01

    Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for bulimia nervosa (BN) has received considerable empirical support for its efficacy. However, few investigators have examined the mechanisms proposed to account for the reduction of BN symptoms during CBT. The current study examined the associations between therapist interventions, client mechanisms, and…

  1. Linguistic Mechanisms Cause Rapid Behavior Change. Part Two: How Linguistic Frames Affect Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeager, Joseph; Sommer, Linda

    2007-01-01

    Written and spoken language contains inherent mechanisms driving motivation. Accessing and modifying psycholinguistic mechanisms, links language frames to changes in behavior within the context of motivational profiling. For example, holding an object like an imported apple feels safe until one is informed it was grown in a toxic waste dump.…

  2. The Effect of Nanoparticles Percentage on Mechanical Behavior of Silica-Epoxy Nanocomposites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Islam, M.S.; Masoodi, R.; Rostami, H.

    2013-01-01

    Silica-epoxy nanocomposites are very common among nanocomposites, which makes them very important. Several researchers have studied the effect of nanoparticle’s size, shape, and loading on mechanical behavior of silica-epoxy nanocomposites. This paper reviews the most important research done on the effect of nanoparticle loading on mechanical properties of silica-epoxy nanocomposites. While the main focus is the tensile behavior of nanocomposite, the compressive behavior and flexural behavior were also reviewed. Finally, some of the published experimental data were combined in the graphs, using dimensionless parameters. Later, the best fitted curves were used to derive some empirical formulas for mechanical properties of silica-epoxy nanocomposites as functions of weight or volume fraction of nanoparticles.

  3. Do oil shocks predict economic policy uncertainty?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehman, Mobeen Ur

    2018-05-01

    Oil price fluctuations have influential role in global economic policies for developed as well as emerging countries. I investigate the role of international oil prices disintegrated into structural (i) oil supply shock, (ii) aggregate demand shock and (iii) oil market specific demand shocks, based on the work of Kilian (2009) using structural VAR framework on economic policies uncertainty of sampled markets. Economic policy uncertainty, due to its non-linear behavior is modeled in a regime switching framework with disintegrated structural oil shocks. Our results highlight that Indian, Spain and Japanese economic policy uncertainty responds to the global oil price shocks, however aggregate demand shocks fail to induce any change. Oil specific demand shocks are significant only for China and India in high volatility state.

  4. Mechanical Behavior of Polymer Nano Bio Composite for Orthopedic Implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marimuthu, K., Dr.; Rajan, Sankar

    2018-04-01

    The bio-based polymer composites have been the focus of many scientific and research projects, as well as many commercial programs. In recent years, scientists and engineers have been working together to use the inherent strength and performance of the new class of bio-based composites which is compactable with human body and can act as a substitute for living cells. In this stage the polymer composites also stepped into human bone implants as a replacement for metallic implants which was problems like corrosion resistance and high cost. The polymer composite have the advantage that it can be molded to the required shape, the polymers have high corrosion resistance, less weight and low cost. The aim of this research is to develop and analyze the suitable bio compactable polymer composite for human implants. The nano particles reinforced polymer composites provides good mechanical properties and shows good tribological properties especially in the total hip and knee replacements. The graphene oxide powders are bio compactable and acts as anti biotic. GO nano powder where reinforced into High-density polyethylene in various weight percentage of 0.5% to 2%. The performance of GO nano powder shows better tribological properties. The material produced does not cause any pollution to the environment and at the same time it can be bio compactable and sustainable. The product will act environmentally friendly.

  5. Performance of mechanical behavior of kenaf fibre reinforced foamed composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahzabin, Mst. Sadia; Hock, Lim Jee; Kang, Lim Siong; Jarghouyeh, Ehsan Nikbakht

    2017-10-01

    This paper investigates the mechanical properties of lightweight foamed composite (LFC) with the inclusion of kenaf fibres and superplasticizer. NaOH treated kenaf fibre contents of 0.4%, 0.45% and 0.5% (by weight of cement) with 5cm length were used in composite. The density of 1000kg/m3 to 2000kg/m3 foamed concrete was used for all the tested specimens. The ratio of cement, sand and water used was 1:1.5:0.45. All the experiments were set up in accordance with International standard methods of testing. In reference to the results and discussion, the different percentages of fibre used were proven to have a lesser contribution towards compressive strength or might even have reduced the result. The results also showed that water absorption and density of the composite mortar increased as the volume of fiber increased from 0.4% to 0.5% However, a higher percentage of fiber inclusions had been recorded to have a positive contribution towards flexural and tensile splitting properties of composites.

  6. Mechanism based evaluation of materials behavior and reference curves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toerroenen, K.; Saario, T.; Wallin, K.; Forsten, J.

    1984-01-01

    The safety assessment of nuclear pressure vessels and piping requires a quantitative estimation of defect growth by stable and unstable manner during service. This estimation is essential for determining whether the defect detected during inspection should be repaired or whether the size of the defect even after its expected growth is small enough to leave the integrity of the vessel unaffected. The most important stable defect growth mechanism is that of environmentally assisted cyclic crack growth. Recent results indicate that it is markedly affected by sulfur content and/or manganese sulfide morphology and distribution. This implies that an essential improvement in component safety has been gained by currently applied steelmaking practices, which result in extra low sulfur content, generally below 0.01 wt%, and in round shape and small size of inclusions, through, e.g., calcium treatment, hence considerably reducing the effect of environment on crack growth rate. This further implies that the ASME Section XI reference curves for environmentally accelerated cyclic crack growth are conservative for steels produced by current steelmaking practices. (orig./WL)

  7. Multi-layer composite mechanical modeling for the inhomogeneous biofilm mechanical behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoling; Han, Jingshi; Li, Kui; Wang, Guoqing; Hao, Mudong

    2016-08-01

    Experiments showed that bacterial biofilms are heterogeneous, for example, the density, the diffusion coefficient, and mechanical properties of the biofilm are different along the biofilm thickness. In this paper, we establish a multi-layer composite model to describe the biofilm mechanical inhomogeneity based on unified multiple-component cellular automaton (UMCCA) model. By using our model, we develop finite element simulation procedure for biofilm tension experiment. The failure limit and biofilm extension displacement obtained from our model agree well with experimental measurements. This method provides an alternative theory to study the mechanical inhomogeneity in biological materials.

  8. A FOCUSED TRANSPORT APPROACH TO THE TIME-DEPENDENT SHOCK ACCELERATION OF SOLAR ENERGETIC PARTICLES AT A FAST TRAVELING SHOCK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Roux, J. A.; Webb, G. M.

    2012-01-01

    Some of the most sophisticated models for solar energetic particle (SEP) acceleration at coronal mass ejection driven shocks are based on standard diffusive shock acceleration theory. However, this theory, which only applies when SEP pitch-angle anisotropies are small, might have difficulty in describing first-order Fermi acceleration or the shock pre-heating and injection of SEPs into first-order Fermi acceleration accurately at lower SEP speeds where SEP pitch-angle anisotropies upstream near the shock can be large. To avoid this problem, we use a time-dependent focused transport model to reinvestigate first-order Fermi acceleration at planar parallel and quasi-parallel spherical traveling shocks between the Sun and Earth with high shock speeds associated with rare extreme gradual SEP events. The focused transport model is also used to investigate and compare three different shock pre-heating mechanisms associated with different aspects of the nonuniform cross-shock solar wind flow, namely, the convergence of the flow (adiabatic compression), the shear tensor of the flow, and the acceleration of the flow, and a fourth shock pre-heating mechanism associated with the cross-shock electric field, to determine which pre-heating mechanism contributes the most to injecting shock pre-heated source particles into the first-order Fermi acceleration process. The effects of variations in traveling shock conditions, such as increasing shock obliquity and shock slowdown, and variations in the SEP source with increasing shock distance from the Sun on the coupled processes of shock pre-heating, injection, and first-order Fermi acceleration are analyzed. Besides the finding that the cross-shock acceleration of the solar wind flow yields the dominant shock pre-heating mechanism at high shock speeds, we find that first-order Fermi acceleration at fast traveling shocks differs in a number of respects from the predictions and assumptions of standard steady-state diffusive shock

  9. Interactions between connected half-sarcomeres produce emergent mechanical behavior in a mathematical model of muscle.

    OpenAIRE

    Kenneth S Campbell

    2009-01-01

    Most reductionist theories of muscle attribute a fiber's mechanical properties to the scaled behavior of a single half-sarcomere. Mathematical models of this type can explain many of the known mechanical properties of muscle but have to incorporate a passive mechanical component that becomes approximately 300% stiffer in activating conditions to reproduce the force response elicited by stretching a fast mammalian muscle fiber. The available experimental data suggests that titin filaments, whi...

  10. Thermo-mechanical response and fatigue behavior of shape memory alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kusagawa, Masaki; Asada, Yasuhide; Nakamura, Toshiya

    1998-01-01

    Mechanical, thermo-mechanical and fatigue behaviors of Ni-Ti-Nb shape memory alloy (SMA) have been studied to prepare material data for a design purpose. Presented are testing devices, testing procedure and test results of monotonic tensile, recovery of inelastic deformation due to post heating (thermo-mechanical recovery) and fatigue for future use of the SMA as a structural material of nuclear incore structures. (orig.)

  11. Thermo-mechanical response and fatigue behavior of shape memory alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kusagawa, Masaki; Asada, Yasuhide; Nakamura, Toshiya [Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    1998-11-01

    Mechanical, thermo-mechanical and fatigue behaviors of Ni-Ti-Nb shape memory alloy (SMA) have been studied to prepare material data for a design purpose. Presented are testing devices, testing procedure and test results of monotonic tensile, recovery of inelastic deformation due to post heating (thermo-mechanical recovery) and fatigue for future use of the SMA as a structural material of nuclear incore structures. (orig.)

  12. Application of discrete element method to study mechanical behaviors of ceramic breeder pebble beds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An Zhiyong; Ying, Alice; Abdou, Mohamed

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, the discrete element method (DEM) approach has been applied to study mechanical behaviors of ceramic breeder pebble beds. Directly simulating the contact state of each individual particle by the physically based interaction laws, the DEM numerical program is capable of predicting the mechanical behaviors of non-standard packing structures. The program can also provide the data to trace the evolution of contact characteristics and forces as deformation proceeds, as well as the particle movement when the pebble bed is subjected to external loadings. Our numerical simulations focus on predicting the mechanical behaviors of ceramic breeder pebble beds, which include typical fusion breeder materials in solid breeder blankets. Current numerical results clearly show that the packing density and the bed geometry can have an impact on the mechanical stiffness of the pebble beds. Statistical data show that the contact forces are highly related to the contact status of the pebbles

  13. In situ tests for investigating thermal and mechanical rock behaviors at an underground research tunnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, Sangki; Cho, Won-Jin

    2013-01-01

    The understanding of the thermal and mechanical behaviors expected to be happened around an underground high-level radioactive waste (HLW) repository is important for a successful site selection, construction, operation, and closure of the repository. In this study, the thermal and mechanical behaviors of rock and rock mass were investigated from in situ borehole heater test and the studies for characterizing an excavation damaged zone (EDZ), which had been carried out at an underground research tunnel, KURT, constructed in granite for the validation of a HLW disposal concept. Thermal, mechanical, and hydraulic properties in EDZ could be predicted from various in situ and laboratory tests as well as numerical simulations. The complex thermo-mechanical coupling behavior of rock could be modeled using the rock properties. (author)

  14. The influence of electric charge transferred during electro-mechanical reshaping on mechanical behavior of cartilage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Protsenko, Dimitry E.; Lim, Amanda; Wu, Edward C.; Manuel, Cyrus; Wong, Brian J. F.

    2011-03-01

    Electromechanical reshaping (EMR) of cartilage has been suggested as an alternative to the classical surgical techniques of modifying the shape of facial cartilages. The method is based on exposure of mechanically deformed cartilaginous tissue to a low level electric field. Electro-chemical reactions within the tissue lead to reduction of internal stress, and establishment of a new equilibrium shape. The same reactions offset the electric charge balance between collagen and proteoglycan matrix and interstitial fluid responsible for maintenance of cartilage mechanical properties. The objective of this study was to investigate correlation between the electric charge transferred during EMR and equilibrium elastic modulus. We used a finite element model based on the triphasic theory of cartilage mechanical properties to study how electric charges transferred in the electro-chemical reactions in cartilage can change its mechanical responses to step displacements in unconfined compression. The concentrations of the ions, the strain field and the fluid and ion velocities within the specimen subject to an applied mechanical deformation were estimated and apparent elastic modulus (the ratio of the equilibrium axial stress to the axial strain) was calculated as a function of transferred charge. The results from numerical calculations showed that the apparent elastic modulus decreases with increase in electric charge transfer. To compare numerical model with experimental observation we measured elastic modulus of cartilage as a function of electric charge transferred in electric circuit during EMR. Good correlation between experimental and theoretical data suggests that electric charge disbalance is responsible for alteration of cartilage mechanical properties.

  15. Shock resistance testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pouard, M.

    1984-03-01

    In the framework of mechanical tests and to answer the different requests for tests, the T.C.R (Transport Conditionnement et Retraitement) laboratory got test facilities. These installations allow to carry out tests of resistance to shocks, mainly at the safety level of components of nuclear power plants, mockups of transport casks for fuel elements and transport containers for radioactive materials. They include a tower and a catapult. This paper give a decription of the facilities and explain their operation way [fr

  16. Pressurized thermal shock (PTS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosso, Ricardo D.; Ventura, Mirta A.

    2006-01-01

    In the present work, a description of Thermal Shock in Pressurized conditions (PTS), and its influence in the treatment of the integrity of the pressure vessel (RPV) of a Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) and/or of a Heavy water Pressurized water Reactor (PHWR) is made. Generally, the analysis of PTS involves a process of three stages: a-) Modeling with a System Code of relevant thermohydraulics transients in reference with the thermal shock; b-) The local distribution of temperatures in the downcomer and the heat transference coefficients from the RPV wall to the fluid, are determined; c-) The fracture mechanical analysis. These three stages are included in this work: Results with the thermohydraulics code Relap5/mod.3, are obtained, for a LOCA scenario in the hot leg of the cooling System of the Primary System of the CAN-I reactor. The method used in obtaining results is described. A study on the basis of lumped parameters of the local evolutions of the temperature of the flow is made, in the downcomer of the reactor pressure vessel. The purpose of this study is to determine how the intensification of the stress coefficient, varies in function of the emergency injected water during the thermohydraulic transients that take place under the imposed conditions in the postulated scene. Specially, it is considered a 50 cm 2 break, located in the neighborhoods of the pressurized with the corresponding hot leg connection. This size is considered like the most critical. The method used to obtain the results is described. The fracture mechanical analysis is made. From the obtained results we confirmed that we have a simple tool of easy application in order to analyze phenomena of the type PTS in the postulated scenes by break in the cold and hot legs of the primary system. This methodology of calculus is completely independent of the used ones by the Nucleoelectrica Argentina S.A. (NASA) in the analysis of the PTS phenomena in the CAN-I. The results obtained with the adopted

  17. Shock tube Multiphase Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middlebrooks, John; Allen, Roy; Paudel, Manoj; Young, Calvin; Musick, Ben; McFarland, Jacob

    2017-11-01

    Shock driven multiphase instabilities (SDMI) are unique physical phenomena that have far-reaching practical applications in engineering and science. The instability is present in high energy explosions, scramjet combustors, and supernovae events. The SDMI arises when a multiphase interface is impulsively accelerated by the passage of a shockwave. It is similar in development to the Richtmyer-Meshkov (RM) instability however, particle-to-gas coupling is the driving mechanism of the SDMI. As particle effects such as lag and phase change become more prominent, the SDMI's development begins to significantly deviate from the RM instability. We have developed an experiment for studying the SDMI in our shock tube facility. In our experiments, a multiphase interface is created using a laminar jet and flowed into the shock tube where it is accelerated by the passage of a planar shockwave. The interface development is captured using CCD cameras synchronized with planar laser illumination. This talk will give an overview of new experiments conducted to examine the development of a shocked cylindrical multiphase interface. The effects of Atwood number, particle size, and a second acceleration (reshock) of the interface will be discussed.

  18. Nanoscale Mechanical Stimulation Method for Quantifying C. elegans Mechanosensory Behavior and Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugi, Takuma; Okumura, Etsuko; Kiso, Kaori; Igarashi, Ryuji

    2016-01-01

    Withdrawal escape response of C. elegans to nonlocalized vibration is a useful behavioral paradigm to examine mechanisms underlying mechanosensory behavior and its memory-dependent change. However, there are very few methods for investigating the degree of vibration frequency, amplitude and duration needed to induce behavior and memory. Here, we establish a new system to quantify C. elegans mechanosensory behavior and memory using a piezoelectric sheet speaker. In the system, we can flexibly change the vibration properties at a nanoscale displacement level and quantify behavioral responses under each vibration property. This system is an economic setup and easily replicated in other laboratories. By using the system, we clearly detected withdrawal escape responses and confirmed habituation memory. This system will facilitate the understanding of physiological aspects of C. elegans mechanosensory behavior in the future.

  19. Evolution of mechanical behavior of 6XXX aluminium alloy due to the precipitation state during a thermo-mechanical process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bardel, Didier; Perez, Michel; Nelias, Daniel; Chaise, Thibaut; Garnier, Jerome; Bourlier, Florent

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this research is to link the microstructural state and the mechanical properties of an age hardening alloy during a fast heat treatment such as encountered during welding. A coupled model between precipitation state and mechanical properties is used to predict the yield strength and hardening behavior that can be observed experimentally. The method permits the identification of the kinematic and isotropic contributions in the hardening model. The methodology is applied to a 6061-T6 aluminium alloy which is used in the Jules Horowitz reactor vessel. The general idea of this methodology is to couple an efficient microstructural model to a mechanical one based on the dislocation theory and ad'hoc experiments. The theoretical background is based on the work of Kampmann and Wagner, known as the KWN model, to account for nucleation, growth/dissolution and coarsening of precipitates. This analysis requires transient thermo-mechanical experimental data. The efficiency of these models and their coupling are shown for a series 6XXX aluminium alloy which contains β'' and β' precipitates. Ultimately these models are coupled to a FEA model and allows to predict the distribution of precipitates within each element of the mesh, and subsequently its mechanical behavior. (authors)

  20. Modeling the Coupled Chemo-Thermo-Mechanical Behavior of Amorphous Polymer Networks.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zimmerman, Jonathan A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Nguyen, Thao D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Xiao, Rui [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-02-01

    Amorphous polymers exhibit a rich landscape of time-dependent behavior including viscoelasticity, structural relaxation, and viscoplasticity. These time-dependent mechanisms can be exploited to achieve shape-memory behavior, which allows the material to store a programmed deformed shape indefinitely and to recover entirely the undeformed shape in response to specific environmental stimulus. The shape-memory performance of amorphous polymers depends on the coordination of multiple physical mechanisms, and considerable opportunities exist to tailor the polymer structure and shape-memory programming procedure to achieve the desired performance. The goal of this project was to use a combination of theoretical, numerical and experimental methods to investigate the effect of shape memory programming, thermo-mechanical properties, and physical and environmental aging on the shape memory performance. Physical and environmental aging occurs during storage and through exposure to solvents, such as water, and can significantly alter the viscoelastic behavior and shape memory behavior of amorphous polymers. This project – executed primarily by Professor Thao Nguyen and Graduate Student Rui Xiao at Johns Hopkins University in support of a DOE/NNSA Presidential Early Career Award in Science and Engineering (PECASE) – developed a theoretical framework for chemothermo- mechanical behavior of amorphous polymers to model the effects of physical aging and solvent-induced environmental factors on their thermoviscoelastic behavior.

  1. KIAA0100 Modulates Cancer Cell Aggression Behavior of MDA-MB-231 through Microtubule and Heat Shock Proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenyu Zhong

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The KIAA0100 gene was identified in the human immature myeloid cell line cDNA library. Recent studies have shown that its expression is elevated in breast cancer and associated with more aggressive cancer types as well as poor outcomes. However, its cellular and molecular function is yet to be understood. Here we show that silencing KIAA0100 by siRNA in the breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231 significantly reduced the cancer cells’ aggressive behavior, including cell aggregation, reattachment, cell metastasis and invasion. Most importantly, silencing the expression of KIAA0100 particularly sensitized the quiescent cancer cells in suspension culture to anoikis. Immunoprecipitation, mass spectrometry and immunofluorescence analysis revealed that KIAA0100 may play multiple roles in the cancer cells, including stabilizing microtubule structure as a microtubule binding protein, and contributing to MDA-MB-231 cells Anoikis resistance by the interaction with stress protein HSPA1A. Our study also implies that the interaction between KIAA0100 and HSPA1A may be targeted for new drug development to specifically induce anoikis cell death in the cancer cell.

  2. Characterization of the anisotropic mechanical behavior of human abdominal wall connective tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astruc, Laure; De Meulaere, Maurice; Witz, Jean-François; Nováček, Vit; Turquier, Frédéric; Hoc, Thierry; Brieu, Mathias

    2018-06-01

    Abdominal wall sheathing tissues are commonly involved in hernia formation. However, there is very limited work studying mechanics of all tissues from the same donor which prevents a complete understanding of the abdominal wall behavior and the differences in these tissues. The aim of this study was to investigate the differences between the mechanical properties of the linea alba and the anterior and posterior rectus sheaths from a macroscopic point of view. Eight full-thickness human anterior abdominal walls of both genders were collected and longitudinal and transverse samples were harvested from the three sheathing connective tissues. The total of 398 uniaxial tensile tests was conducted and the mechanical characteristics of the behavior (tangent rigidities for small and large deformations) were determined. Statistical comparisons highlighted heterogeneity and non-linearity in behavior of the three tissues under both small and large deformations. High anisotropy was observed under small and large deformations with higher stress in the transverse direction. Variabilities in the mechanical properties of the linea alba according to the gender and location were also identified. Finally, data dispersion correlated with microstructure revealed that macroscopic characterization is not sufficient to fully describe behavior. Microstructure consideration is needed. These results provide a better understanding of the mechanical behavior of the abdominal wall sheathing tissues as well as the directions for microstructure-based constitutive model. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Micro-mechanical investigation of the effect of fine content on mechanical behavior of gap graded granular materials using DEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taha Habib

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present a micro-mechanical study of the effect of fine content on the behavior of gap graded granular samples by using numerical simulations performed with the Discrete Element Method. Different samples with fine content varied from 0% to 30% are simulated. The role of fine content in reinforcing the granular skeleton and in supporting the external deviatoric stress is then brought into the light.

  4. Predictors of survival and ability to wean from short-term mechanical circulatory support device following acute myocardial infarction complicated by cardiogenic shock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garan, A Reshad; Eckhardt, Christina; Takeda, Koji; Topkara, Veli K; Clerkin, Kevin; Fried, Justin; Masoumi, Amirali; Demmer, Ryan T; Trinh, Pauline; Yuzefpolskaya, Melana; Naka, Yoshifumi; Burkhoff, Dan; Kirtane, Ajay; Colombo, Paolo C; Takayama, Hiroo

    2017-11-01

    Cardiogenic shock following acute myocardial infarction (AMI-CS) portends a poor prognosis. Short-term mechanical circulatory support devices (MCSDs) provide hemodynamic support for patients with cardiogenic shock but predictors of survival and the ability to wean from short-term MCSDs remain largely unknown. All patients > 18 years old treated at our institution with extra-corporeal membrane oxygenation or short-term surgical ventricular assist device for AMI-CS were studied. We collected acute myocardial infarction details with demographic and hemodynamic variables. Primary outcomes were survival to discharge and recovery from MCSD (i.e. survival without heart replacement therapy including durable ventricular assist device or heart transplant). One hundred and twenty-four patients received extra-corporeal membrane oxygenation or short-term surgical ventricular assist device following acute myocardial infarction from 2007 to 2016; 89 received extra-corporeal membrane oxygenation and 35 short-term ventricular assist device. Fifty-five (44.4%) died in the hospital and 69 (55.6%) survived to discharge. Twenty-six (37.7%) required heart replacement therapy (four transplant, 22 durable ventricular assist device) and 43 (62.3%) were discharged without heart replacement therapy. Age and cardiac index at MCSD implantation were predictors of survival to discharge; patients over 60 years with cardiac index <1.5 l/min per m 2 had a low likelihood of survival. The angiographic result after revascularization predicted recovery from MCSD (odds ratio 9.00, 95% confidence interval 2.45-32.99, p=0.001), but 50% of those optimally revascularized still required heart replacement therapy. Cardiac index predicted recovery from MCSD among this group (odds ratio 4.06, 95% confidence interval 1.45-11.55, p=0.009). Among AMI-CS patients requiring short-term MCSDs, age and cardiac index predict survival to discharge. Angiographic result and cardiac index predict ventricular recovery but 50

  5. Mechanical behavior of mullite green disks prepared by thermal consolidation with different starches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talou, M.H.; Tomba Martinez, A.G.; Camerucci, M.A.

    2011-01-01

    Mechanical behavior of porous green disks obtained by thermal consolidation of mullite suspensions with cassava and potato starches was studied by diametral compression testing. Disks (thickness/diameter ≤ 0.25) were prepared by thermal treatment (70-80 °C, 2h) of mullite (75 vol%)/starch (25 vol%) of suspensions (40 vol%) pre-gelled at 55-60 °C, and dried (40 °C, 24 h). Samples were characterized by porosity measurements (50-55%) and microstructural analysis (SEM). Several mechanical parameters were determined: mechanical strength, Young's modulus, strain to fracture and yield stress. Typical crack patterns were analyzed and the fractographic analysis was performed by SEM. Mechanical results were related to the developed microstructures, the behavior of the starches in aqueous suspension, and the properties of the formed gels. For comparative purposes, mullite green disks obtained by burning out the starch (650 °C, 2h) were also mechanically evaluated. (author)

  6. Characterization of Bitumen Micro-Mechanical Behaviors Using AFM, Phase Dynamics Theory and MD Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue Hou

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Fundamental understanding of micro-mechanical behaviors in bitumen, including phase separation, micro-friction, micro-abrasion, etc., can help the pavement engineers better understand the bitumen mechanical performances at macroscale. Recent researches show that the microstructure evolution in bitumen will directly affect its surface structure and micro-mechanical performance. In this study, the bitumen microstructure and micro-mechanical behaviors are studied using Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM experiments, Phase Dynamics Theory and Molecular Dynamics (MD Simulation. The AFM experiment results show that different phase-structure will occur at the surface of the bitumen samples under certain thermodynamic conditions at microscale. The phenomenon can be explained using the phase dynamics theory, where the effects of stability parameter and temperature on bitumen microstructure and micro-mechanical behavior are studied combined with MD Simulation. Simulation results show that the saturates phase, in contrast to the naphthene aromatics phase, plays a major role in bitumen micro-mechanical behavior. A high stress zone occurs at the interface between the saturates phase and the naphthene aromatics phase, which may form discontinuities that further affect the bitumen frictional performance.

  7. Characterization of Bitumen Micro-Mechanical Behaviors Using AFM, Phase Dynamics Theory and MD Simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Yue; Wang, Linbing; Wang, Dawei; Guo, Meng; Liu, Pengfei; Yu, Jianxin

    2017-02-21

    Fundamental understanding of micro-mechanical behaviors in bitumen, including phase separation, micro-friction, micro-abrasion, etc., can help the pavement engineers better understand the bitumen mechanical performances at macroscale. Recent researches show that the microstructure evolution in bitumen will directly affect its surface structure and micro-mechanical performance. In this study, the bitumen microstructure and micro-mechanical behaviors are studied using Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) experiments, Phase Dynamics Theory and Molecular Dynamics (MD) Simulation. The AFM experiment results show that different phase-structure will occur at the surface of the bitumen samples under certain thermodynamic conditions at microscale. The phenomenon can be explained using the phase dynamics theory, where the effects of stability parameter and temperature on bitumen microstructure and micro-mechanical behavior are studied combined with MD Simulation. Simulation results show that the saturates phase, in contrast to the naphthene aromatics phase, plays a major role in bitumen micro-mechanical behavior. A high stress zone occurs at the interface between the saturates phase and the naphthene aromatics phase, which may form discontinuities that further affect the bitumen frictional performance.

  8. Improvement in reliability of the long-term mechanical behavior of buffer material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takaji, Kazuhiko; Shigeno, Yoshimasa; Shimogouchi, Takafumi; Hirai, Takashi; Shiratake, Toshikazu

    2005-02-01

    On the R and D of the HLW repository, it is essential that Engineered Barrier System (EBS) is stable mechanically over a long period of time for maintaining each ability required to EBS. After closing the repository, the various external forces will be affected to the buffer intricately for a long period of time. So, evaluation of mechanical behavior of the buffer is important to carry out safety assessment of EBS. In this report, the effects of mechanical behavior of the buffer to its safety performance are examined. As a result, the ability to filtrate colloids and the ability to keep diffusion-dominated environment are maintained for 100,000 years. Natural analogue of bentonite ore is also done to corroborate viscous parameter of the buffer. The results shows that the laboratory test data is reasonable compared with the analogized viscous parameters of the 15M years aged ore. Next, the mechanical parameters of the buffer under brine environment are examined. Then the mechanical behavior of the buffer is analyzed. Throughout these processes, the scheme for freshwater environment is confirmed to be valid under brine environment. At the last, the EBS field-test that is planned at Horonobe underground laboratory is analyzed. The analysis is encountered viscous behavior of the buffer and the surrounding rock under corrosion expansion of the overpack. The result offers the mechanical data to design the field test. (author)

  9. Chondrule destruction in nebular shocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacquet, Emmanuel; Thompson, Christopher, E-mail: ejacquet@mnhn.fr [Canadian Institute for Theoretical Astrophysics, University of Toronto, 60 St George Street, Toronto, ON M5S 3H8 (Canada)

    2014-12-10

    Chondrules are millimeter-sized silicate spherules ubiquitous in primitive meteorites, but whose origin remains mysterious. One of the main proposed mechanisms for producing them is melting of solids in shock waves in the gaseous protoplanetary disk. However, evidence is mounting that chondrule-forming regions were enriched in solids well above solar abundances. Given the high velocities involved in shock models, destructive collisions would be expected between differently sized grains after passage of the shock front as a result of differential drag. We investigate the probability and outcome of collisions of particles behind a one-dimensional shock using analytic methods as well as a full integration of the coupled mass, momentum, energy, and radiation equations. Destruction of protochondrules seems unavoidable for solid/gas ratios ε ≳ 0.1, and possibly even for solar abundances because of 'sandblasting' by finer dust. A flow with ε ≳ 10 requires much smaller shock velocities (∼2 versus 8 km s{sup –1}) in order to achieve chondrule-melting temperatures, and radiation trapping allows slow cooling of the shocked fragments. Initial destruction would still be extensive; although re-assembly of millimeter-sized particles would naturally occur by grain sticking afterward, the compositional heterogeneity of chondrules may be difficult to reproduce. We finally note that solids passing through small-scale bow shocks around few kilometer-sized planetesimals might experience partial melting and yet escape fragmentation.

  10. Influence of Processing Conditions on the Mechanical Behavior of MWCNT Reinforced Thermoplastic Nanocomposites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doagou Rad, Saeed; Islam, Aminul; Jensen, Jakob Søndergaard

    2017-01-01

    The influence of the processing conditions and MWCNT content on the mechanical properties of PA6,6-based nanocomposites areinvestigated. In addition to the composition of the composites, the impact of manufacturing conditions such as dilution mechanism, twin-screwextruder mixing specifications......, and injection molding parameters on the behavior of the nanocomposites are evaluated. Results show that whilethe increase in the content of MWCNTs can lead to 40.0 % enhancement in the mechanical properties, changing the processing parametersvaries the values by 30.0 % in the same content. The mechanisms...... involved in the modulation of the nanocomposites properties are alsodiscussed...

  11. Anomalous Scaling Behaviors in a Rice-Pile Model with Two Different Driving Mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Duanming; Sun Hongzhang; Li Zhihua; Pan Guijun; Yu Boming; Li Rui; Yin Yanping

    2005-01-01

    The moment analysis is applied to perform large scale simulations of the rice-pile model. We find that this model shows different scaling behavior depending on the driving mechanism used. With the noisy driving, the rice-pile model violates the finite-size scaling hypothesis, whereas, with fixed driving, it shows well defined avalanche exponents and displays good finite size scaling behavior for the avalanche size and time duration distributions.

  12. Microstructure and Mechanical Behavior of Deep Drawing DC04 Steel at Different Length Scales

    OpenAIRE

    Schreijäg, Simone

    2013-01-01

    The deformation behavior of steels is strongly influenced by their microstructure which is a result of the alloying elements and thermal treatments. In this work, the microstructure and the deformation behavior of a non-alloyed deep drawing DC04 steel was investigated. The microstructure was analyzed during heat treatment by EBSD, then microcompression experiments were performed on selected microstructural units and then bulk steel samples were mechanically tested by tensile experiments.

  13. An investigation of the mechanical behavior of initially curved microplates under electrostatic actuation

    KAUST Repository

    Saghir, Shahid

    2018-03-28

    In this article, we investigate the mechanical behavior of initially curved microplates under electrostatic actuation. Microplates are essential components of many Micro-Electro-Mechanical System devices; however, they commonly undergo an initial curvature imperfection, due to the microfabrication process. Initial curvature imperfection significantly affects the mechanical behavior of microplates. In this work, we derive a dynamic analogue of the von Kármán governing equation for such plates. These equations are then used to develop a reduced order model based on the Galerkin procedure to simulate the static and dynamic behavior of the microplate. Two profiles of initial curvature commonly encountered in microfabricated structures are considered, where one assumes a variation in shape along one dimension of the plate only (cylindrical bending shape) while the other assumes a variation in shape along both dimensions of the plate. Their effects on both the static and dynamic responses of the microplates are examined and compared. We validate the reduced order model by comparing the calculated static behavior and the fundamental natural frequency with those computed by a finite element model over a range of the initial plate rise. The static behavior of the microplate is investigated when varying the DC voltage. Then, the dynamic behavior of the microplate is examined under the application of a harmonic AC voltage superimposed to a DC voltage.

  14. Amphetamine and cocaine suppress social play behavior in rats through distinct mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achterberg, E J Marijke; Trezza, Viviana; Siviy, Stephen M; Schrama, Laurens; Schoffelmeer, Anton N M; Vanderschuren, Louk J M J

    2014-04-01

    Social play behavior is a characteristic form of social behavior displayed by juvenile and adolescent mammals. This social play behavior is highly rewarding and of major importance for social and cognitive development. Social play is known to be modulated by neurotransmitter systems involved in reward and motivation. Interestingly, psychostimulant drugs, such as amphetamine and cocaine, profoundly suppress social play, but the neural mechanisms underlying these effects remain to be elucidated. In this study, we investigated the pharmacological underpinnings of amphetamine- and cocaine-induced suppression of social play behavior in rats. The play-suppressant effects of amphetamine were antagonized by the alpha-2 adrenoreceptor antagonist RX821002 but not by the dopamine receptor antagonist alpha-flupenthixol. Remarkably, the effects of cocaine on social play were not antagonized by alpha-2 noradrenergic, dopaminergic, or serotonergic receptor antagonists, administered either alone or in combination. The effects of a subeffective dose of cocaine were enhanced by a combination of subeffective doses of the serotonin reuptake inhibitor fluoxetine, the dopamine reuptake inhibitor GBR12909, and the noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor atomoxetine. Amphetamine, like methylphenidate, exerts its play-suppressant effect through alpha-2 noradrenergic receptors. On the other hand, cocaine reduces social play by simultaneous increases in dopamine, noradrenaline, and serotonin neurotransmission. In conclusion, psychostimulant drugs with different pharmacological profiles suppress social play behavior through distinct mechanisms. These data contribute to our understanding of the neural mechanisms of social behavior during an important developmental period, and of the deleterious effects of psychostimulant exposure thereon.

  15. Shock waves in collective field theories for many particle systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oki, F; Saito, T [Kyoto Prefectural Univ. of Medicine (Japan); Shigemoto, K

    1980-10-01

    We find shock wave solutions to collective field equations for quantum mechanical many particle system. Importance of the existence of a ''tension'' working on the surface of the shock-wave front is pointed out.

  16. Analysis of mechanical behavior and hysteresis heat generating mechanism of PDM motor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi, Changshuai; Zhu, Xiaohua; Tang, Liping; Deng, Juan

    2017-01-01

    Positive displacement motor (PDM), which is prone to high temperature fatigue failure, can be weakened in its application in deep and superdeep well. In order to study the forced state, deformation regularity and thermal hysteresis of PDM motor, the paper established the three-dimensional thermal-mechanical coupled Finite element model (FEM). Based on the theoretical research, experimental study and numerical simulation, the study found that the displacement of stator lining shows a sinusoidal variation under internal pressure, when adapting the general form of sine function to fitting inner contour line deformation function. Then the paper analyzed the hysteresis heat generating mechanism of the motor, learning that hysteresis thermogenous of stator lining occurs due to the viscoelastic of rubber material and cyclic loading of stator lining. A heartburn happens gradually in the center of the thickest part of the stator lining as temperature increases, which means work efficiency and service life of PDM will be decreased when used in deep or superdeep well. In this paper, we established a theory equation for the choice of interference fit and motor line type optimization design, showing hysteresis heat generating analyzing model and method are reasonable enough to significantly improve PDM’s structure and help better use PDM in deep and surdeep well

  17. Analysis of mechanical behavior and hysteresis heat generating mechanism of PDM motor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, Changshuai; Zhu, Xiaohua; Tang, Liping [Southwest Petroleum University, Chengdu (China); Deng, Juan [Avic Chengdu Engine (Group) Co.,Ltd, Chengdu (China)

    2017-03-15

    Positive displacement motor (PDM), which is prone to high temperature fatigue failure, can be weakened in its application in deep and superdeep well. In order to study the forced state, deformation regularity and thermal hysteresis of PDM motor, the paper established the three-dimensional thermal-mechanical coupled Finite element model (FEM). Based on the theoretical research, experimental study and numerical simulation, the study found that the displacement of stator lining shows a sinusoidal variation under internal pressure, when adapting the general form of sine function to fitting inner contour line deformation function. Then the paper analyzed the hysteresis heat generating mechanism of the motor, learning that hysteresis thermogenous of stator lining occurs due to the viscoelastic of rubber material and cyclic loading of stator lining. A heartburn happens gradually in the center of the thickest part of the stator lining as temperature increases, which means work efficiency and service life of PDM will be decreased when used in deep or superdeep well. In this paper, we established a theory equation for the choice of interference fit and motor line type optimization design, showing hysteresis heat generating analyzing model and method are reasonable enough to significantly improve PDM’s structure and help better use PDM in deep and surdeep well.

  18. Plane shock wave studies of geologic media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, G.D.; Larson, D.B.

    1977-01-01

    Plane shock wave experiments have been conducted on eight geologic materials in an effort to determine the importance of time-dependent mechanical behavior. Of the eight rocks studied, only Westerly granite and nugget sandstone appear to show time independence. In the slightly porous materials (1-5 percent), Blair dolomite and sodium chloride, and in the highly porous (15 to 40 percent) rock, Mt. Helen tuff and Indiana limestone, time-dependent behavior is associated with the time required to close the available porosity. In water-saturated rocks the time dependence arises because the water that is present shows no indication of transformation to the higher pressure ice phases, thus suggesting the possibility that a metastable form of water exists under dynamic conditions

  19. Reaction effects in diffusive shock acceleration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drury, L.Oc.

    1984-01-01

    The effects of the reaction of accelerated particles back on the shock wave in the diffusive-shock-acceleration model of cosmic-ray generation are investigated theoretically. Effects examined include changes in the shock structure, modifications of the input and output spectra, scattering effects, and possible instabilities in the small-scale structure. It is pointed out that the latter two effects are applicable to any spatially localized acceleration mechanism. 14 references

  20. Mechanical properties and fracture behavior of single-layer phosphorene at finite temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sha, Zhen-Dong; Pei, Qing-Xiang; Ding, Zhiwei; Zhang, Yong-Wei; Jiang, Jin-Wu

    2015-01-01

    Phosphorene, a new two-dimensional (2D) material beyond graphene, has attracted great attention in recent years due to its superior physical and electrical properties. However, compared to graphene and other 2D materials, phosphorene has a relatively low Young’s modulus and fracture strength, which may limit its applications due to possible structure failures. For the mechanical reliability of future phosphorene-based nanodevices, it is necessary to have a deep understanding of the mechanical properties and fracture behaviors of phosphorene. Previous studies on the mechanical properties of phosphorene were based on first principles calculations at 0 K. In this work, we employ molecular dynamics simulations to explore the mechanical properties and fracture behaviors of phosphorene at finite temperatures. It is found that temperature has a significant effect on the mechanical properties of phosphorene. The fracture strength and strain reduce by more than 65% when the temperature increases from 0 K to 450 K. Moreover, the fracture strength and strain in the zigzag direction is more sensitive to the temperature rise than that in the armchair direction. More interestingly, the failure crack propagates preferably along the groove in the puckered structure when uniaxial tension is applied in the armchair direction. In contrast, when the uniaxial tension is applied in the zigzag direction, multiple cracks are observed with rough fracture surfaces. Our present work provides useful information about the mechanical properties and failure behaviors of phosphorene at finite temperatures. (paper)

  1. Reliability assessment of competing risks with generalized mixed shock models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rafiee, Koosha; Feng, Qianmei; Coit, David W.

    2017-01-01

    This paper investigates reliability modeling for systems subject to dependent competing risks considering the impact from a new generalized mixed shock model. Two dependent competing risks are soft failure due to a degradation process, and hard failure due to random shocks. The shock process contains fatal shocks that can cause hard failure instantaneously, and nonfatal shocks that impact the system in three different ways: 1) damaging the unit by immediately increasing the degradation level, 2) speeding up the deterioration by accelerating the degradation rate, and 3) weakening the unit strength by reducing the hard failure threshold. While the first impact from nonfatal shocks comes from each individual shock, the other two impacts are realized when the condition for a new generalized mixed shock model is satisfied. Unlike most existing mixed shock models that consider a combination of two shock patterns, our new generalized mixed shock model includes three classic shock patterns. According to the proposed generalized mixed shock model, the degradation rate and the hard failure threshold can simultaneously shift multiple times, whenever the condition for one of these three shock patterns is satisfied. An example using micro-electro-mechanical systems devices illustrates the effectiveness of the proposed approach with sensitivity analysis. - Highlights: • A rich reliability model for systems subject to dependent failures is proposed. • The degradation rate and the hard failure threshold can shift simultaneously. • The shift is triggered by a new generalized mixed shock model. • The shift can occur multiple times under the generalized mixed shock model.

  2. Behavioral and neurobiological mechanisms of extinction in Pavlovian and instrumental learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, Travis P; Vurbic, Drina; Bouton, Mark E

    2014-02-01

    This article reviews research on the behavioral and neural mechanisms of extinction as it is represented in both Pavlovian and instrumental learning. In Pavlovian extinction, repeated presentation of a signal without its reinforcer weakens behavior evoked by the signal; in instrumental extinction, repeated occurrence of a voluntary action without its reinforcer weakens the strength of the action. In either case, contemporary research at both the behavioral and neural levels of analysis has been guided by a set of extinction principles that were first generated by research conducted at the behavioral level. The review discusses these principles and illustrates how they have informed the study of both Pavlovian and instrumental extinction. It shows that behavioral and neurobiological research efforts have been tightly linked and that their results are readily integrated. Pavlovian and instrumental extinction are also controlled by compatible behavioral and neural processes. Since many behavioral effects observed in extinction can be multiply determined, we suggest that the current close connection between behavioral-level and neural-level analyses will need to continue. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Differential effects of ethanol on feline rage and predatory attack behavior: an underlying neural mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, K; Shaikh, M B; Han, Y; Poherecky, L; Siegel, A

    1996-08-01

    Previous studies have shown that, at certain dose levels, ethanol can exert a powerful, facilitatory effect on aggressive behavior in both animals and humans. In the cat, however, it was discovered that ethanol differentially alters two forms of aggression that are common to this species. Defensive rage behavior is significantly enhanced, whereas predatory attack behavior is suppressed by ethanol administration. One possible mechanism governing alcohol's potentiation of defensive rage behavior is that it acts on the descending pathway from the medial hypothalamus to the midbrain periaqueductal gray (PAG)-an essential pathway for the expression of defensive rage behavior that uses excitatory amino acids as a neurotransmitter. This hypothesis is supported by the finding that the excitatory effects of alcohol on defensive rage behavior are blocked by administration of the N-methyl-D-aspartate antagonist alpha-2-amino-7-phosphoheptanoic acid (AP-7) when microinjected into the periaqueductal gray, a primary neuronal target of descending fibers from the medial hypothalamus that mediate the expression of defensive rage behavior. Thus, the present study establishes for the first time a specific component of the neural circuit for defensive rage behavior over which the potentiating effects of ethanol are mediated.

  4. On the Control of Social Approach-Avoidance Behavior: Neural and Endocrine Mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaldewaij, Reinoud; Koch, Saskia B J; Volman, Inge; Toni, Ivan; Roelofs, Karin

    The ability to control our automatic action tendencies is crucial for adequate social interactions. Emotional events trigger automatic approach and avoidance tendencies. Although these actions may be generally adaptive, the capacity to override these emotional reactions may be key to flexible behavior during social interaction. The present chapter provides a review of the neuroendocrine mechanisms underlying this ability and their relation to social psychopathologies. Aberrant social behavior, such as observed in social anxiety or psychopathy, is marked by abnormalities in approach-avoidance tendencies and the ability to control them. Key neural regions involved in the regulation of approach-avoidance behavior are the amygdala, widely implicated in automatic emotional processing, and the anterior prefrontal cortex, which exerts control over the amygdala. Hormones, especially testosterone and cortisol, have been shown to affect approach-avoidance behavior and the associated neural mechanisms. The present chapter also discusses ways to directly influence social approach and avoidance behavior and will end with a research agenda to further advance this important research field. Control over approach-avoidance tendencies may serve as an exemplar of emotional action regulation and might have a great value in understanding the underlying mechanisms of the development of affective disorders.

  5. Methylphenidate and Atomoxetine Inhibit Social Play Behavior through Prefrontal and Subcortical Limbic Mechanisms in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achterberg, E.J. Marijke; van Kerkhof, Linda W.M.; Damsteegt, Ruth; Trezza, Viviana

    2015-01-01

    Positive social interactions during the juvenile and adolescent phases of life, in the form of social play behavior, are important for social and cognitive development. However, the neural mechanisms of social play behavior remain incompletely understood. We have previously shown that methylphenidate and atomoxetine, drugs widely used for the treatment of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), suppress social play in rats through a noradrenergic mechanism of action. Here, we aimed to identify the neural substrates of the play-suppressant effects of these drugs. Methylphenidate is thought to exert its effects on cognition and emotion through limbic corticostriatal systems. Therefore, methylphenidate was infused into prefrontal and orbitofrontal cortical regions as well as into several subcortical limbic areas implicated in social play. Infusion of methylphenidate into the anterior cingulate cortex, infralimbic cortex, basolateral amygdala, and habenula inhibited social play, but not social exploratory behavior or locomotor activity. Consistent with a noradrenergic mechanism of action of methylphenidate, infusion of the noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor atomoxetine into these same regions also reduced social play. Methylphenidate administration into the prelimbic, medial/ventral orbitofrontal, and ventrolateral orbitofrontal cortex, mediodorsal thalamus, or nucleus accumbens shell was ineffective. Our data show that the inhibitory effects of methylphenidate and atomoxetine on social play are mediated through a distributed network of prefrontal and limbic subcortical regions implicated in cognitive control and emotional processes. These findings increase our understanding of the neural underpinnings of this developmentally important social behavior, as well as the mechanism of action of two widely used treatments for ADHD. PMID:25568111

  6. An Overview of the Use of Mechanical Turk in Behavioral Sciences: Implications for Social Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Chitat; Holosko, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    Crowdsourcing is a process in which a firm parcels out work to a "crowd" and offers payment for anyone within the crowd who completes the task determined by that firm. A growing number of behavioral scientists have begun using the Mechanical Turk (MTurk) to facilitate their research and practice, but there is apparently not one academic…

  7. Collagen fiber alignment and biaxial mechanical behavior of porcine urinary bladder derived extracellular matrix

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gilbert, Thomas W.; Wognum, Silvia; Joyce, Erinn M.; Freytes, Donald O.; Sacks, Michael S.; Badylak, Stephen F.

    2008-01-01

    The collagen fiber alignment and biomechanical behavior of naturally occurring extracellular matrix (ECM) scaffolds are important considerations for the design of medical devices from these materials. Both should be considered in order to produce a device to meet tissue specific mechanical

  8. Impact of Conflict Management Strategies on the Generation Mechanism of Miners' Unsafe Behavior Tendency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ji-Zu; Zhang, Ya-Ping; Liu, Xiao-Guang; Liu, Yao-Long; Wang, Tian-Ri

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we examine the relationship between the generation mechanism of miners' unsafe behavior tendency and conflict management strategies, including cooperative conflict management strategy, competitive conflict management strategy and avoidant conflict management strategy. Miners from 3 collieries in Shanxi province completed a…

  9. Recent advances in behavioral addiction treatments: focusing on mechanisms of change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longabaugh, Richard; Magill, Molly

    2011-10-01

    In the latter half of the 20th century, research on behavioral treatments for addictions aimed to develop and test effective treatments. Among the treatments found to be at least moderately effective, direct comparisons failed to reveal consistent superiority of one approach over another. This ubiquitous finding held true despite underlying theories that differed markedly in their proposed causal processes related to patient change. In the 21st century, the focus of treatment research is increasingly on how treatment works for whom rather than whether it works. Studies of active treatment ingredients and mechanisms of behavioral change, while promising, have yielded inconsistent results. Simple mediation analysis may need to be expanded via inclusion of models testing for moderated mediation, mediated moderation, and conditional indirect effects. Examples are offered as to how these more complex models can lead to increased understanding of the conditions under which specific treatment interventions will be effective and mechanisms of change operative in improving behavioral treatments for addictions.

  10. Artificial neural networks in prediction of mechanical behavior of concrete at high temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukherjee, A.; Nag Biswas, S.

    1997-01-01

    The behavior of concrete structures that are exposed to extreme thermo-mechanical loading is an issue of great importance in nuclear engineering. The mechanical behavior of concrete at high temperature is non-linear. The properties that regulate its response are highly temperature dependent and extremely complex. In addition, the constituent materials, e.g. aggregates, influence the response significantly. Attempts have been made to trace the stress-strain curve through mathematical models and rheological models. However, it has been difficult to include all the contributing factors in the mathematical model. This paper examines a new programming paradigm, artificial neural networks, for the problem. Implementing a feedforward network and backpropagation algorithm the stress-strain relationship of the material is captured. The neural networks for the prediction of uniaxial behavior of concrete at high temperature has been presented here. The results of the present investigation are very encouraging. (orig.)

  11. Mechanical Behavior and Fracture Properties of NiAl Intermetallic Alloy with Different Copper Contents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao-Hsing Chen

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The deformation behavior and fracture characteristics of NiAl intermetallic alloy containing 5~7 at% Cu are investigated at room temperature under strain rates ranging from 1 × 10−3 to 5 × 103 s−1. It is shown that the copper contents and strain rate both have a significant effect on the mechanical behavior of the NiAl alloy. Specifically, the flow stress increases with an increasing copper content and strain rate. Moreover, the ductility also improves as the copper content increases. The change in the mechanical response and fracture behavior of the NiAl alloy given a higher copper content is thought to be the result of the precipitation of β-phase (Ni,CuAl and γ'-phase (Ni,Cu3Al in the NiAl matrix.

  12. Effect of Graphene Nanoplatelets (GNPs on Tribological and Mechanical Behaviors of Polyamide 6 (PA6

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Mindivan

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The effects of Graphene Nanoplatelet (GNP on mechanical and tribological properties of Polyamide 6 (PA6 were studied. The composites were blended using twin-screw extruder and subsequently injection molded for test samples. Mechanical properties were investigated in terms of microhardness, scratch hardness and Young’s modulus measurements and tensile test. The tribological behavior of composites was studied by using ball-on-disc reciprocating tribometer. Recent studies showed that the addition of GNP in PA6 matrix resulted in enhancement of mechanical and tribological properties.

  13. Corrosion behavior, mechanical properties, and long-term aging of nickel-plated uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dini, J.W.; Johnson, H.R.; Schoenfelder, C.W.

    1976-01-01

    The behavior of nickel-plated uranium upon exposure to moist nitrogen was evaluated. Plating thicknesses of 0.051 mm (2 mil) were adequate to prevent corrosion. Specimens with thinner coats showed some corrosion and some reduction in mechanical properties during subsequent testing. Plated samples exposed to dry air at ambient pressure for 10 y showed no corrosion and no degradation of mechanical properties. Surface and bulk hydrogen content, as well as free hydrogen generated during the test, were measured to determine the extent of corrosion. Results support an earlier proposed mechanism for uranium corrosion at low humidities

  14. Numerical and Experimental Investigations on Mechanical Behavior of Composite Corrugated Core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dayyani, Iman; Ziaei-Rad, Saeed; Salehi, Hamid

    2012-06-01

    Tensile and flexural characteristics of corrugated laminate panels were studied using numerical and analytical methods and compared with experimental data. Prepreg laminates of glass fiber plain woven cloth were hand-laid by use of a heat gun to ease the creation of the panel. The corrugated panels were then manufactured by using a trapezoidal machined aluminium mould. First, a series of simple tension tests were performed on standard samples to evaluate the material characteristics. Next, the corrugated panels were subjected to tensile and three-point bending tests. The force-displacement graphs were recorded. Numerical and analytical solutions were proposed to simulate the mechanical behavior of the panels. In order to model the energy dissipation due to delamination phenomenon observed in tensile tests in all members of corrugated core, plastic behavior was assigned to the whole geometry, not only to the corner regions. Contrary to the literature, it is shown that the three-stage mechanical behavior of composite corrugated core is not confined to aramid reinforced corrugated laminates and can be observed in other types such as fiber glass. The results reveal that the mechanical behavior of the core in tension is sensitive to the variation of core height. In addition, for the first time, the behavior of composite corrugated core was studied and verified in bending. Finally, the analytical and numerical results were validated by comparing them with experimental data. A good degree of correlation was observed which showed the suitability of the finite element model for predicting the mechanical behavior of corrugated laminate panels.

  15. On the Impact of Intraluminal Thrombus Mechanical Behavior in AAA Passive Mechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riveros, Fabián; Martufi, Giampaolo; Gasser, T Christian; Rodriguez-Matas, Jose F

    2015-09-01

    Intraluminal thrombus (ILT) is a pseudo-tissue that develops from coagulated blood, and is found in most abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) of clinically relevant size. A number of studies have suggested that ILT mechanical characteristics may be related to AAA risk of rupture, even though there is still great controversy in this regard. ILT is isotropic and inhomogeneous and may appear as a soft (single-layered) or stiff (multilayered fibrotic) tissue. This paper aims to investigate how ILT constitution and topology influence the magnitude and location of peak wall stress (PWS). In total 21 patient-specific AAAs (diameter 4.2-5.4 cm) were reconstructed from computer tomography images and biomechanically analyzed using state-of-the-art modeling assumptions. Results indicated that PWS correlated stronger with ILT volume (ρ = 0.44, p = 0.05) and minimum thickness of ILT layer (ρ = 0.73, p = 0.001) than with maximum AAA diameter (ρ = 0.05, p = 0.82). On average PWS was 20% (SD 12%) higher for FE models that used soft instead of stiff ILT models (p AAA diameter and was independent from ILT stiffness. In addition, ILT heterogeneity, i.e., the spatial composition of soft and stiff thrombus tissue, can considerably influence stress in the AAA wall. The present study is limited to identification of influential biomechanical factors, and how its findings translate to an AAA rupture risk assessment remains to be explored by clinical studies.

  16. Constitutive behavior and progressive mechanical failure of electrodes in lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chao; Xu, Jun; Cao, Lei; Wu, Zenan; Santhanagopalan, Shriram

    2017-07-01

    The electrodes of lithium-ion batteries (LIB) are known to be brittle and to fail earlier than the separators during an external crush event. Thus, the understanding of mechanical failure mechanism for LIB electrodes (anode and cathode) is critical for the safety design of LIB cells. In this paper, we present experimental and numerical studies on the constitutive behavior and progression of failure in LIB electrodes. Mechanical tests were designed and conducted to evaluate the constitutive properties of porous electrodes. Constitutive models were developed to describe the stress-strain response of electrodes under uniaxial tensile and compressive loads. The failure criterion and a damage model were introduced to model their unique tensile and compressive failure behavior. The failure mechanism of LIB electrodes was studied using the blunt rod test on dry electrodes, and numerical models were built to simulate progressive failure. The different failure processes were examined and analyzed in detail numerically, and correlated with experimentally observed failure phenomena. The test results and models improve our understanding of failure behavior in LIB electrodes, and provide constructive insights on future development of physics-based safety design tools for battery structures under mechanical abuse.

  17. [Individual differences in behavior and mechanisms of ecological differentiation with fishes as an example].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budaev, S V; Mikheev, V N; Pavlov, D S

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we present a review of individual differences in animal behavior exemplified by fishes. Main approaches to these differences investigation are outlined. Such terms as temperament can be used to describe consistent characteristics of individuality in animals. It should be emphasized that consistency over time and across situations is the main classification characteristic of the temperament trait. We also briefly review genetic and physiological mechanisms of individuality in fish, factors affecting their development in the ontogeny, and effects of the individual experience. Significant adaptive value of temperament is shown: in many cases the natural selection maintains alternative behavioral tactics. We also consider the main quantitative models accounting for the coexistence of individuals with different behavioral patterns. Finally, it is demonstrated that patterns of behavioral individuality may significantly affect population dynamics.

  18. Numerical Simulation of Wave Propagation and Phase Transition of Tin under Shock-Wave Loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hai-Feng, Song; Hai-Feng, Liu; Guang-Cai, Zhang; Yan-Hong, Zhao

    2009-01-01

    We undertake a numerical simulation of shock experiments on tin reported in the literature, by using a multiphase equation of state (MEOS) and a multiphase Steinberg Guinan (MSG) constitutive model for tin in the β, γ and liquid phases. In the MSG model, the Bauschinger effect is considered to better describe the unloading behavior. The phase diagram and Hugoniot of tin are calculated by MEOS, and they agree well with the experimental data. Combined with the MEOS and MSG models, hydrodynamic computer simulations are successful in reproducing the measured velocity profile of the shock wave experiment. Moreover, by analyzing the mass fraction contour as well as stress and temperature profiles of each phase for tin, we further discuss the complex behavior of tin under shock-wave loading. (condensed matter: structure, mechanical and thermal properties)

  19. Mechanical behavior of fast reactor fuel pin cladding subjected to simulated overpower transients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, G.D.; Hunter, C.W.

    1978-06-01

    Cladding mechanical property data for analysis and prediction of fuel pin transient behavior were obtained under experimental conditions in which the temperature ramps of reactor transients were simulated. All cladding specimens were 20% CW Type 316 stainless steel and were cut from EBR-II irradiated fuel pins. It was determined that irradiation degraded the cladding ductility and failure strength. Specimens that had been adjacent to the fuel exhibited the poorest properties. Correlations were developed to describe the effect of neutron fluence on the mechanical behavior of the cladding. Metallographic examinations were conducted to characterize the failure mode and to establish the nature of internal and external surface corrosion. Various mechanisms for the fuel adjacency effect were examined and results for helium concentration profiles were presented. Results from the simulated transient tests were compared with TREAT test results

  20. Shock Response of Lightweight Adobe Masonry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauer, C.; Bagusat, F.; Heine, A.; Riedel, W.

    2018-04-01

    The behavior of a low density and low-strength building material under shock loading is investigated. The considered material is lightweight adobe masonry characterized by a density of 1.2 g/cm3 and a quasi-static uniaxial compressive strength of 2.8 MPa. Planar-plate-impact (PPI) tests with velocities in between 295 and 950 m/s are performed in order to obtain Hugoniot data and to derive parameters for an equation of state (EOS) that captures the occurring phenomenology of porous compaction and subsequent unloading. The resulting EOS description is validated by comparing the experimental free surface velocity time curves with those obtained by numerical simulations of the performed PPI tests. The non-linear compression behavior, including the pore compaction mechanism, constitutes a main ingredient for modelling the response of adobe to blast and high-velocity impact loading. We hence present a modeling approach for lightweight adobe which can be applied to such high rate loading scenarios in future studies. In general, this work shows that PPI tests on lightweight and low-strength geological materials can be used to extract Hugoniot data despite significant material inhomogeneity. Furthermore, we demonstrate that a homogenous material model is able to numerically describe such a material under shock compression and release with a reasonable accuracy.

  1. Interneuronal Mechanism for Tinbergen’s Hierarchical Model of Behavioral Choice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirger, Zsolt; Crossley, Michael; László, Zita; Naskar, Souvik; Kemenes, György; O’Shea, Michael; Benjamin, Paul R.; Kemenes, Ildikó

    2014-01-01

    Summary Recent studies of behavioral choice support the notion that the decision to carry out one behavior rather than another depends on the reconfiguration of shared interneuronal networks [1]. We investigated another decision-making strategy, derived from the classical ethological literature [2, 3], which proposes that behavioral choice depends on competition between autonomous networks. According to this model, behavioral choice depends on inhibitory interactions between incompatible hierarchically organized behaviors. We provide evidence for this by investigating the interneuronal mechanisms mediating behavioral choice between two autonomous circuits that underlie whole-body withdrawal [4, 5] and feeding [6] in the pond snail Lymnaea. Whole-body withdrawal is a defensive reflex that is initiated by tactile contact with predators. As predicted by the hierarchical model, tactile stimuli that evoke whole-body withdrawal responses also inhibit ongoing feeding in the presence of feeding stimuli. By recording neurons from the feeding and withdrawal networks, we found no direct synaptic connections between the interneuronal and motoneuronal elements that generate the two behaviors. Instead, we discovered that behavioral choice depends on the interaction between two unique types of interneurons with asymmetrical synaptic connectivity that allows withdrawal to override feeding. One type of interneuron, the Pleuro-Buccal (PlB), is an extrinsic modulatory neuron of the feeding network that completely inhibits feeding when excited by touch-induced monosynaptic input from the second type of interneuron, Pedal-Dorsal12 (PeD12). PeD12 plays a critical role in behavioral choice by providing a synaptic pathway joining the two behavioral networks that underlies the competitive dominance of whole-body withdrawal over feeding. PMID:25155505

  2. Mechanisms That Link Parenting Practices to Adolescents' Risky Sexual Behavior: A Test of Six Competing Theories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, Leslie Gordon; Sutton, Tara E; Simons, Ronald L; Gibbons, Frederick X; Murry, Velma McBride

    2016-02-01

    Risky sexual behavior, particularly among adolescents, continues to be a major source of concern. In order to develop effective education and prevention programs, there is a need for research that identifies the antecedents of such behavior. This study investigated the mediators that link parenting experiences during early adolescence to subsequent risky sexual behaviors among a diverse sample of African American youth (N = 629, 55 % female). While there is ample evidence that parenting practices (e.g., supportive parenting, harsh parenting, parental management) are antecedent to risky sexual behavior, few studies have examined whether one approach to parenting is more strongly related to risky sex than others. Using a developmental approach, the current study focused on factors associated with six theories of risky sexual behavior. While past research has provided support for all of the theories, few studies have assessed the relative contribution of each while controlling for the processes proposed by the others. The current study addresses these gaps in the literature and reports results separately by gender. Longitudinal analyses using structural equation modeling revealed that the mediating mechanisms associated with social learning and attachment theories were significantly related to the risky sexual behavior of males and females. Additionally, there was support for social control and self-control theories only for females and for life history theory only for males. We did not find support for problem behavior theory, a perspective that dominates the risky sex literature, after controlling for the factors associated with the other theories. Finally, supportive parenting emerged as the parenting behavior most influential with regard to adolescents' risky sexual behavior. These results provide insight regarding efficacious approaches to education and preventative programs designed to reduce risky sexual behaviors among adolescents.

  3. Dynamic behavior of the mechanical systems from the structure of a hybrid automobile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinel, Popa; Irina, Tudor; Nicolae-Doru, Stănescu

    2017-10-01

    In introduction are presented solutions of planetary mechanisms that can be used in the construction of the hybrid automobiles where the thermal and electrical sources must be coupled. The systems have in their composition a planetary mechanism with two degrees of mobility at which are coupled a thermal engine, two revertible electrical machines, a gear transmission with four gears and a differential mechanism which transmits the motion at the driving wheels. For the study of the dynamical behavior, with numerical results, one designs such mechanisms, models the elements with solids in AutoCAD, and obtains the mechanical properties of the elements. Further on, we present and solve the equations of motion of a hybrid automotive for which one knows the dynamical parameters.

  4. Mechanism by which BMI influences leisure-time physical activity behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godin, Gaston; Bélanger-Gravel, Ariane; Nolin, Bertrand

    2008-06-01

    The objective of this prospective study was to clarify the mechanism by which BMI influences leisure-time physical activity. This was achieved in accordance with the assumptions underlying the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB), considered as one of the most useful theories to predict behavior adoption. At baseline, a sample of 1,530 respondents completed a short questionnaire to measure intention and perceived behavioral control (PBC), the two proximal determinants of behavior of TPB. Past behavior, sociodemographic variables, and weight and height were also assessed. The dependent variable, leisure-time physical activity was assessed 3 months later. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses revealed that BMI is a direct predictor of future leisure-time physical activity, not mediated by the variables of TPB. Additional hierarchical analyses indicated that BMI was not a moderator of the intention-behavior and PBC-behavior relationships. The results of this study suggest that high BMI is a significant negative determinant of leisure-time physical activity. This observation reinforces the importance of preventing weight gain as a health promotion strategy for avoiding a sedentary lifestyle.

  5. On cylindrically converging shock waves shaped by obstacles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eliasson, V; Henshaw, W D; Appelo, D

    2007-07-16

    Motivated by recent experiments, numerical simulations were performed of cylindrically converging shock waves. The converging shocks impinged upon a set of zero to sixteen regularly space obstacles. For more than two obstacles the resulting diffracted shock fronts formed polygonal shaped patterns near the point of focus. The maximum pressure and temperature as a function of number of obstacles were studied. The self-similar behavior of cylindrical, triangular and square-shaped shocks were also investigated.

  6. The Transmission of Liquidity Shocks to the Real Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dursun-de Neef, Özlem

    2012-01-01

    This paper uses the 2007-2009 financial crisis as a negative liquidity shock on banks to analyze their lending behavior and study the differences between US and euro-area banks. When faced with a negative liquidity shock, US banks transmitted liquidity shocks to the real economy by reducing...... of the Federal Reserve in the US and the ECB in the euro area has led to differences in the transmission of liquidity shocks to the real economy....

  7. Three-dimensional FE analysis of the thermal-mechanical behaviors in the nuclear fuel rods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Yijie; Cui Yi; Huo Yongzhong; Ding Shurong

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → We establish three-dimensional finite element models for nuclear fuel rods. → The thermal-mechanical behaviors at the initial stage of burnup are obtained. → Several parameters on the in-pile performances are investigated. → The parameters have remarkable effects on the in-pile behaviors. → This study lays a foundation for optimal design and irradiation safety. - Abstract: In order to implement numerical simulation of the thermal-mechanical behaviors in the nuclear fuel rods, a three-dimensional finite element model is established. The thermal-mechanical behaviors at the initial stage of burnup in both the pellet and the cladding are obtained. Comparison of the obtained numerical results with those from experiments validates the developed finite element model. The effects of the constraint conditions, several operation and structural parameters on the thermal-mechanical performances of the fuel rod are investigated. The research results indicate that: (1) with increasing the heat generation rates from 0.15 to 0.6 W/mm 3 , the maximum temperature within the pellet increases by 99.3% and the maximum radial displacement at the outer surface of the pellet increases by 94.3%. And the maximum Mises stresses in the cladding all increase; while the maximum values of the first principal stresses within the pellet decrease as a whole; (2) with increasing the heat transfer coefficients between the cladding and the coolant, the internal temperatures reduce and the temperature gradient remains similar; when the heat transfer coefficient is lower than a critical value, the temperature change is sensitive to the heat transfer coefficient. The maximum temperature increases only 7.13% when h changes from 0.5 W/mm 2 K to 0.01 W/mm 2 K, while increases up to 54.7% when h decreases from 0.01 W/mm 2 K to 0.005 W/mm 2 K; (3) the initial gap sizes between the pellet and the cladding significantly affect the thermal-mechanical behaviors in the fuel rod; when the

  8. Particle Acceleration in Two Converging Shocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Xin; Wang, Na; Shan, Hao [Xinjiang Astronomical Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Urumqi 830011 (China); Giacalone, Joe [Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, University of Arizona, Tucson AZ 85721 (United States); Yan, Yihua [CAS Key Laboratory of Solar Activity, National Astronomical Observatories, Beijing 100012 (China); Ding, Mingde, E-mail: wangxin@xao.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Modern Astronomy and Astrophysics (Nanjing University) Ministry of Education, Nanjing 210093 (China)

    2017-06-20

    Observations by spacecraft such as ACE , STEREO , and others show that there are proton spectral “breaks” with energy E {sub br} at 1–10 MeV in some large CME-driven shocks. Generally, a single shock with the diffusive acceleration mechanism would not predict the “broken” energy spectrum. The present paper focuses on two converging shocks to identify this energy spectral feature. In this case, the converging shocks comprise one forward CME-driven shock on 2006 December 13 and another backward Earth bow shock. We simulate the detailed particle acceleration processes in the region of the converging shocks using the Monte Carlo method. As a result, we not only obtain an extended energy spectrum with an energy “tail” up to a few 10 MeV higher than that in previous single shock model, but also we find an energy spectral “break” occurring on ∼5.5 MeV. The predicted energy spectral shape is consistent with observations from multiple spacecraft. The spectral “break,” then, in this case is caused by the interaction between the CME shock and Earth’s bow shock, and otherwise would not be present if Earth were not in the path of the CME.

  9. Electron velocity distributions near collisionless shocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feldman, W.C.

    1984-01-01

    Recent studies of the amount of electron heating and of the shapes of electron velocity distributions across shocks near the earth are reviewed. It is found that electron heating increases with increasing shock strength but is always less than the ion heating. The scale length of electron heating is also less than that for the ions. Electron velocity distributions show characteristic shapes which depend on the strength of the shocks. At the weaker shocks, electron heating is mostly perpendicular to the ambient magnetic field, bar B, and results in Gaussian-shaped velocity distributions at low-to-moderate energies. At the stronger shocks, parallel heating predominates resulting in flat-topped velocity distributions. A reasonable interpretation of these results indicates that at the weaker shocks electron heating is dominated by a tendency toward conservation of the magnetic moment. At the stronger fast-mode shocks, this heating is thought to be dominated by an acceleration parallel to bar B produced by the macroscopic shock electric field followed by beam driven plasma instabilities. Some contribution to the heating at the stronger shocks from conservation of the magnetic moment and cross-field current-driven instabilities cannot be ruled out. Although the heating at slow-mode shocks is also dominated by instabilities driven by magnetic field-aligned electron beams, their acceleration mechanism is not yet established

  10. Universal hydrodynamic flow in holographic planar shock collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chesler, Paul M. [Department of Physics, Harvard University,Cambridge MA 02138 (United States); Kilbertus, Niki [Institut für Theoretische Physik, Universität Regensburg,D-93040 Regensburg (Germany); Schee, Wilke van der [Center for Theoretical Physics, MIT,Cambridge MA 02139 (United States)

    2015-11-20

    We study the collision of planar shock waves in AdS{sub 5} as a function of shock profile. In the dual field theory the shock waves describe planar sheets of energy whose collision results in the formation of a plasma which behaves hydrodynamically at late times. We find that the post-collision stress tensor near the light cone exhibits transient non-universal behavior which depends on both the shock width and the precise functional form of the shock profile. However, over a large range of shock widths, including those which yield qualitative different behavior near the future light cone, and for different shock profiles, we find universal behavior in the subsequent hydrodynamic evolution. Additionally, we compute the rapidity distribution of produced particles and find it to be well described by a Gaussian.

  11. Aging and loading rate effects on the mechanical behavior of equine bone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulin, Robb M.; Jiang, Fengchun; Vecchio, Kenneth S.

    2008-06-01

    Whether due to a sporting accident, high-speed impact, fall, or other catastrophic event, the majority of clinical bone fractures occur under dynamic loading conditions. However, although extensive research has been performed on the quasi-static fracture and mechanical behavior of bone to date, few high-quality studies on the fracture behavior of bone at high strain rates have been performed. Therefore, many questions remain regarding the material behavior, including not only the loading-rate-dependent response of bone, but also how this response varies with age. In this study, tests were performed on equine femoral bone taken post-mortem from donors 6 months to 28 years of age. Quasi-static and dynamic tests were performed to determine the fracture toughness and compressive mechanical behavior as a function of age at varying loading rates. Fracture paths were then analyzed using scanning confocal and scanning-electron microscopy techniques to assess the role of various microstructural features on toughening mechanisms.

  12. How does tissue regeneration influence the mechanical behavior of additively manufactured porous biomaterials?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedayati, R; Janbaz, S; Sadighi, M; Mohammadi-Aghdam, M; Zadpoor, A A

    2017-01-01

    Although the initial mechanical properties of additively manufactured porous biomaterials are intensively studied during the last few years, almost no information is available regarding the evolution of the mechanical properties of implant-bone complex as the tissue regeneration progresses. In this paper, we studied the effects of tissue regeneration on the static and fatigue behavior of selective laser melted porous titanium structures with three different porosities (i.e. 77, 81, and 85%). The porous structures were filled with four different polymeric materials with mechanical properties in the range of those observed for de novo bone (0.7GPamanufactured and filled porous structures were then determined. The static mechanical properties and fatigue life (including endurance limit) of the porous structures were found to increase by factors 2-7, even when they were filled with polymeric materials with relatively low mechanical properties. The relative increase in the mechanical properties was much higher for the porous structures with lower porosities. Moreover, the increase in the fatigue life was more notable as compared to the increase in the static mechanical properties. Such large values of increase in the mechanical properties with the progress of bone tissue regeneration have implications in terms of mechanical stimulus for bone tissue regeneration. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Gambling behavior in Parkinson's Disease: Impulsivity, reward mechanism and cortical brain oscillations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balconi, Michela; Angioletti, Laura; Siri, Chiara; Meucci, Nicoletta; Pezzoli, Gianni

    2018-03-20

    Psychopathological components, such as reward sensitivity and impulsivity, and dopaminergic treatment are crucial characteristics related to the development of Pathological Gambling (PG) in Parkinson's Disease (PD). The aim of the present study is to investigate the differences in decision-making in PD patients with or without PG considering both neurophysiological and behavioral aspects. The IOWA Gambling Task (IGT) and electroencephalographic (EEG) activity were considered to elucidate the decision and post-feedback processes in PG. The sample included fifty-two PD patients, divided in three groups: 17 PD patients with active gambling behavior (PD Gamblers, PDG); 15 PD patients who remitted from PG (PD Non-Gamblers, PDNG); and a Control Group (CG) composed by 20 patients with PD only. EEG and IGT performance were recorded during decision and post-feedback phase. Results showed worse performance and an increase of the low frequency bands in the frontal area for the PDG group compared to the other two groups. In addition, higher BAS (Behavioral Activation System) and BIS-11 (Barratt Impulsiveness Scale) personality components were correlated to groups' behavioral response. These results show an anomalous behavioral (IGT) and cortical response of PDG patients related to their inability to use adequate control mechanisms during a decision-making task where reward mechanisms (BAS) and impulsivity (BIS-11) are relevant. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Application of progressive nucleation mechanism for the citation behavior of individual papers of different authors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangwal, Keshra

    2012-09-01

    The basic concepts and equations of the progressive nucleation mechanism (PNM) are presented first for the growth and decay of items. The mechanism is then applied to describe the cumulative citations L and citations ΔL per year of the individual most-cited papers i of four selected Polish professors as a function of citation duration t. It was found that the PNM satisfactorily describes the time dependence of cumulative citations L of the papers published by different authors with sufficiently high citations ΔL, as represented by the highest yearly citations ΔL(max) during the entire citation period t (normal citation behavior). The citation period for these papers is less than 15 years and it is even 6-8 years in several cases. However, for papers with citation periods exceeding about 15 years, the growth behavior of citations does not follow the PNM in the entire citation period (anomalous citation behavior), and there are regions of citations in which the citation data may be described by the PNM. Normal and anomalous citation behaviors are attributed, respectively, to the occurrence and nonoccurrence of stationary nucleation of citations for the papers. The PNM also explains the growth and decay of citations ΔL per year of papers exhibiting normal citation behavior.

  15. Computer simulations of collisionless shock waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leroy, M.M.

    1984-01-01

    A review of the contributions of particle computer simulations to the understanding of the physics of magnetic shock waves in collisionless plasmas is presented. The emphasis is on the relation between the computer simulation results, spacecraft observations of shocks in space, and related theories, rather than on technical aspects of the numerics. It is shown that much has been learned from the comparison of ISEE spacecraft observations of the terrestrial bow shock and particle computer simulations concerning the quasi-perpendicular, supercritical shock (ion scale structure, ion reflection mechanism and ultimate dissipation processes). Particle computer simulations have also had an appreciable prospective role in the investigation of the physics of quasi-parallel shocks, about which still little is known observationally. Moreover, these numerical techniques have helped to clarify the process of suprathermal ion rejection by the shock into the foreshock, and the subsequent evolution of the ions in the foreshock. 95 references

  16. Mechanical work as a determinant of prey-handling behavior in the tokay gecko (Gekko gecko).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, C; Bertram, J E

    1997-01-01

    In this study an in vitro analysis of the force and mechanical work required to bite prey items of different size and physical character is combined with an in vivo analysis of prey-handling behavior in the tokay gecko (Gekko gecko). The force required to bite and the work of biting increase with prey size, but the rate of increase is prey specific, with crickets (Acheta domestica) requiring substantially more force and work per bite than larvae (Galleria mellonella and Manduca sexta) for all but the smallest prey. Prey-handling behavior is also prey specific. Geckos exert more bites per feeding event on small crickets than on small insect larvae, but the number of bites increases faster with prey mass for larvae than for crickets. Combination of the in vitro mechanical measurements with the in vivo behavior analysis allows the calculation of total mechanical work per feeding event and indicates that total work increases with prey size but that the difference between prey types is far less than predicted from the differences in structural properties of the prey. This occurs because the number of bites and work per bite relationships tend to cancel the differences in the total work necessary to process each prey type. Thus, when considering the effect of prey size, a 13-fold greater rate of increase in bite force and an 18-fold greater rate of increase of work per bit for crickets over larvae was partially compensated for by a threefold increase in the number of bites used on larvae relative to crickets. These results can be interpreted in two ways. The effect of mechanical work in feeding behavior suggests that the energetics of jaw adductor musculature could play a greater role in governing the feeding behavior of this lizard than has previously been expected. Alternatively, the scaling of work in feeding over a range of prey sizes suggests distinct differences in the geometric features of the prey that determine how they are processed.

  17. Collisionless electrostatic shocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, H.K.; Andersen, S.A.; Jensen, Vagn Orla

    1970-01-01

    An attempt was made in the laboratory to observe the standing collisionless electrostatic shocks in connection with the bow shock of the earth......An attempt was made in the laboratory to observe the standing collisionless electrostatic shocks in connection with the bow shock of the earth...

  18. Characterization of mechanical behavior of an epithelial monolayer in response to epidermal growth factor stimulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Ruiguo; Chen, Jennifer Y.; Xi, Ning; Lai, King Wai Chiu; Qu, Chengeng; Fung, Carmen Kar Man; Penn, Lynn S.; Xi, Jun

    2012-01-01

    Cell signaling often causes changes in cellular mechanical properties. Knowledge of such changes can ultimately lead to insight into the complex network of cell signaling. In the current study, we employed a combination of atomic force microscopy (AFM) and quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring (QCM-D) to characterize the mechanical behavior of A431 cells in response to epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling. From AFM, which probes the upper portion of an individual cell in a monolayer of cells, we observed increases in energy dissipation, Young's modulus, and hysteresivity. Increases in hysteresivity imply a shift toward a more fluid-like mechanical ordering state in the bodies of the cells. From QCM-D, which probes the basal area of the monolayer of cells collectively, we observed decreases in energy dissipation factor. This result suggests a shift toward a more solid-like state in the basal areas of the cells. The comparative analysis of these results indicates a regionally specific mechanical behavior of the cell in response to EGFR signaling and suggests a correlation between the time-dependent mechanical responses and the dynamic process of EGFR signaling. This study also demonstrates that a combination of AFM and QCM-D is able to provide a more complete and refined mechanical profile of the cells during cell signaling. -- Highlights: ► The EGF-induced cellular mechanical response is regionally specific. ► The EGF-induced cellular mechanical response is time and dose dependent. ► A combination of AFM and QCM-D provides a more complete mechanical profile of cells.

  19. Experimental approach and micro-mechanical modeling of the mechanical behavior of irradiated zirconium alloys; Approche experimentale et modelisation micromecanique du comportement des alliages de zirconium irradies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onimus, F

    2003-12-01

    Zirconium alloys cladding tubes containing nuclear fuel of the Pressurized Water Reactors constitute the first safety barrier against the dissemination of radioactive elements. Thus, it is essential to predict the mechanical behavior of the material in-reactor conditions. This study aims, on the one hand, to identify and characterize the mechanisms of the plastic deformation of irradiated zirconium alloys and, on the other hand, to propose a micro-mechanical modeling based on these mechanisms. The experimental analysis shows that, for the irradiated material, the plastic deformation occurs by dislocation channeling. For transverse tensile test and internal pressure test this channeling occurs in the basal planes. However, for axial tensile test, the study revealed that the plastic deformation also occurs by channeling but in the prismatic and pyramidal planes. In addition, the study of the macroscopic mechanical behavior, compared to the deformation mechanisms observed by TEM, suggested that the internal stress is higher in the case of irradiated material than in the case of non-irradiated material, because of the very heterogeneous character of the plastic deformation. This analysis led to a coherent interpretation of the mechanical behavior of irradiated materials, in terms of deformation mechanisms. The mechanical behavior of irradiated materials was finally modeled by applying homogenization methods for heterogeneous materials. This model is able to reproduce adequately the mechanical behavior of the irradiated material, in agreement with the TEM observations. (author)

  20. Characterization of the mechanical behavior of sea ice as a frictional material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lade, Poul V.

    2002-12-01

    The mechanical properties of sea ice are determined by the formation process, and the consequent material behavior at the element scale exhibits viscoelastic behavior at the early loading stages, followed by brittle fracture or ductile, irrecoverable deformation that may be captured by hardening/softening plasticity models with nonassociated flow. Failure of sea ice under different loading conditions follows a pattern that demonstrates its highly cross-anisotropic nature as well as its behavior as a frictional material. The interactions between the floes in the pack ice resemble those observed in granular materials. These materials are frictional in nature, they exhibit both contractive and dilative volume changes, the plastic flow is nonassociated, and their stiffnesses and strengths increase with confining pressure, but they do not have any strength when unconfined. The overall behavior of the pack ice may be close to isotropic. Constitutive modeling of this behavior may be achieved by models used in geotechnical engineering. Formation of leads and subsequent freezing of the water results in cementation between the ice floes, and the pack ice becomes stronger. The behavior of the pack ice may now be compared with that observed in cemented soils or concrete. For these materials, increasing amounts of cementation result in increasing rates of dilation when sheared, and this accounts for the largest contribution to the increase in shear strength.

  1. Development of mechanical analysis module for simulation of SFR fuel rod behavior using finite element method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Andong; Jeong, Hyedong; Suh, Namduk [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hyochan; Yang, Yongsik [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    Korean SFR developer decided to adapt metal fuel, current study focused on the metal fuel instead of oxide fuel. The SFR metal fuel has been developed by Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) and many efforts focused on designing and manufacturing the metal fuel. Since a nuclear fuel is the first barrier to protect radioactive isotope release, the fuel's integrity must be secured during steady-state operation and accident condition within an acceptable range. Whereas the design and evaluation methodologies, code systems and test procedures of a light water reactor fuel are sufficiently established, those of the SFR fuel needs more technical advances. In the view of regulatory point, there are still many challenging issues which are required to secure the safety of fuel and reactors. For this reason, the Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety (KINS) has launched the new project to develop the regulatory technology for SFR system including a fuel area. The ALFUS code was developed by CRIEPI and employs mechanistic model for fission gas release and swelling of fuel slug. In the code system, a finite element method was introduced to analyze the fuel and cladding's mechanical behaviors. The FEAST code is more advanced code system for SFR which adopted mechanistic FGR and swelling model but still use analytical model to simulate fuel and cladding mechanical behavior. Based on the survey of the previous studies, fuel and cladding mechanical model should be improved. Analysis of mechanical behavior for fuel rod is crucial to evaluate overall rod's integrity. In addition, it is because contact between fuel slug and cladding or an over-pressure of rod internal pressure can cause rod failure during steady-state and other operation condition. The most of reference codes have simplified mechanical analysis model, so called 'analytical mode', because the detailed mechanical analysis requires large amount of calculation time and computing power. Even

  2. Development of mechanical analysis module for simulation of SFR fuel rod behavior using finite element method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Andong; Jeong, Hyedong; Suh, Namduk; Kim, Hyochan; Yang, Yongsik

    2014-01-01

    Korean SFR developer decided to adapt metal fuel, current study focused on the metal fuel instead of oxide fuel. The SFR metal fuel has been developed by Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) and many efforts focused on designing and manufacturing the metal fuel. Since a nuclear fuel is the first barrier to protect radioactive isotope release, the fuel's integrity must be secured during steady-state operation and accident condition within an acceptable range. Whereas the design and evaluation methodologies, code systems and test procedures of a light water reactor fuel are sufficiently established, those of the SFR fuel needs more technical advances. In the view of regulatory point, there are still many challenging issues which are required to secure the safety of fuel and reactors. For this reason, the Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety (KINS) has launched the new project to develop the regulatory technology for SFR system including a fuel area. The ALFUS code was developed by CRIEPI and employs mechanistic model for fission gas release and swelling of fuel slug. In the code system, a finite element method was introduced to analyze the fuel and cladding's mechanical behaviors. The FEAST code is more advanced code system for SFR which adopted mechanistic FGR and swelling model but still use analytical model to simulate fuel and cladding mechanical behavior. Based on the survey of the previous studies, fuel and cladding mechanical model should be improved. Analysis of mechanical behavior for fuel rod is crucial to evaluate overall rod's integrity. In addition, it is because contact between fuel slug and cladding or an over-pressure of rod internal pressure can cause rod failure during steady-state and other operation condition. The most of reference codes have simplified mechanical analysis model, so called 'analytical mode', because the detailed mechanical analysis requires large amount of calculation time and computing power. Even

  3. Transformational Leadership and Organizational Citizenship Behavior: A Meta-Analytic Test of Underlying Mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nohe, Christoph; Hertel, Guido

    2017-01-01

    Based on social exchange theory, we examined and contrasted attitudinal mediators (affective organizational commitment, job satisfaction) and relational mediators (trust in leader, leader-member exchange; LMX) of the positive relationship between transformational leadership and organizational citizenship behavior (OCB). Hypotheses were tested using meta-analytic path models with correlations from published meta-analyses (761 samples with 227,419 individuals overall). When testing single-mediator models, results supported our expectations that each of the mediators explained the relationship between transformational leadership and OCB. When testing a multi-mediator model, LMX was the strongest mediator. When testing a model with a latent attitudinal mechanism and a latent relational mechanism, the relational mechanism was the stronger mediator of the relationship between transformational leadership and OCB. Our findings help to better understand the underlying mechanisms of the relationship between transformational leadership and OCB.

  4. Analysis of thermal-hydrologic-mechanical behavior near an emplacement drift at Yucca Mountain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rutqvist, Jonny; Tsang, Chin-Fu

    2002-01-01

    A coupled thermal, hydrologic and mechanical (THM) analysis is conducted to evaluate the impact of coupled THM processes on the performance of a potential nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The analysis considers changes in rock mass porosity, permeability, and capillary pressure caused by rock deformations during drift excavation, as well as those caused by thermo-mechanically induced rock deformations after emplacement of the heat-generating waste. The analysis consists of a detailed calibration of coupled hydraulic-mechanical rock mass properties against field experiments, followed by a prediction of the coupled thermal, hydrologic, and mechanical behavior around a potential repository drift. For the particular problem studied and parameters used, the analysis indicates that the stress-induced permeability changes will be within one order of magnitude and that these permeability changes do not significantly impact the overall flow pattern around the repository drift

  5. Impact of mechanical stretch on the cell behaviors of bone and surrounding tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hye-Sun Yu

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Mechanical loading is recognized to play an important role in regulating the behaviors of cells in bone and surrounding tissues in vivo. Many in vitro studies have been conducted to determine the effects of mechanical loading on individual cell types of the tissues. In this review, we focus specifically on the use of the Flexercell system as a tool for studying cellular responses to mechanical stretch. We assess the literature describing the impact of mechanical stretch on different cell types from bone, muscle, tendon, ligament, and cartilage, describing individual cell phenotype responses. In addition, we review evidence regarding the mechanotransduction pathways that are activated to potentiate these phenotype responses in different cell populations.

  6. Impact of mechanical stretch on the cell behaviors of bone and surrounding tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hye-Sun; Kim, Jung-Ju; Kim, Hae-Won; Lewis, Mark P; Wall, Ivan

    2016-01-01

    Mechanical loading is recognized to play an important role in regulating the behaviors of cells in bone and surrounding tissues in vivo. Many in vitro studies have been conducted to determine the effects of mechanical loading on individual cell types of the tissues. In this review, we focus specifically on the use of the Flexercell system as a tool for studying cellular responses to mechanical stretch. We assess the literature describing the impact of mechanical stretch on different cell types from bone, muscle, tendon, ligament, and cartilage, describing individual cell phenotype responses. In addition, we review evidence regarding the mechanotransduction pathways that are activated to potentiate these phenotype responses in different cell populations. PMID:26977284

  7. Preliminary study of mechanical behavior for Cr coated Zr-4 Fuel Cladding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Do-Hyoung; Kim, Hak-Sung [Hanyang Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hyo-Chan; Yang, Yong-Sik [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    To decrease the oxidation rate of Zr-based alloy components, many concepts of accident tolerant fuel (ATF) such as Mo-Zr cladding, SiC/SiCf cladding and iron-based alloy cladding are under development. One of the promised concept is the coated cladding which can remarkably increase the corrosion and wear resistance. Recently, KAERI is developing the Cr coated Zircaloy cladding as accident tolerance cladding. To coat the Cr powder on the Zircaloy, 3D laser coating technology has been employed because it is possible to make a coated layer on the tubular cladding surface by controlling the 3-diminational axis. Therefore, for this work, the mechanical integrity of Cr coated Zircaloy should be evaluated to predict the safety of fuel cladding during the operating or accident of nuclear reactor. In this work, the mechanical behavior of the Cr coated Zircaloy cladding has been studied by using finite element analysis (FEA). The ring compression test (RCT) of fuel cladding was simulated to evaluate the validity of mechanical properties of Zr-4 and Cr, which were referred from the literatures and experimental reports. In this work, the mechanical behavior of the Cr coated Zircaloy cladding has been studied by using finite element analysis (FEA). The ring compression test (RCT) of fuel cladding was simulated to evaluate the validity of mechanical properties of Zr-4 and Cr. The pellet-clad mechanical interaction (PCMI) properties of Cr coated Zr-4 cladding were investigated by thermo-mechanical finite element analysis (FEA) simulation. The mechanical properties of Zr-4 and Cr was validated by simulation of ring compression test (RCT) of fuel cladding.

  8. Geometrical shock dynamics for magnetohydrodynamic fast shocks

    KAUST Repository

    Mostert, W.; Pullin, D. I.; Samtaney, Ravi; Wheatley, V.

    2016-01-01

    We describe a formulation of two-dimensional geometrical shock dynamics (GSD) suitable for ideal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) fast shocks under magnetic fields of general strength and orientation. The resulting area–Mach-number–shock-angle relation is then incorporated into a numerical method using pseudospectral differentiation. The MHD-GSD model is verified by comparison with results from nonlinear finite-volume solution of the complete ideal MHD equations applied to a shock implosion flow in the presence of an oblique and spatially varying magnetic field ahead of the shock. Results from application of the MHD-GSD equations to the stability of fast MHD shocks in two dimensions are presented. It is shown that the time to formation of triple points for both perturbed MHD and gas-dynamic shocks increases as (Formula presented.), where (Formula presented.) is a measure of the initial Mach-number perturbation. Symmetry breaking in the MHD case is demonstrated. In cylindrical converging geometry, in the presence of an azimuthal field produced by a line current, the MHD shock behaves in the mean as in Pullin et al. (Phys. Fluids, vol. 26, 2014, 097103), but suffers a greater relative pressure fluctuation along the shock than the gas-dynamic shock. © 2016 Cambridge University Press

  9. Geometrical shock dynamics for magnetohydrodynamic fast shocks

    KAUST Repository

    Mostert, W.

    2016-12-12

    We describe a formulation of two-dimensional geometrical shock dynamics (GSD) suitable for ideal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) fast shocks under magnetic fields of general strength and orientation. The resulting area–Mach-number–shock-angle relation is then incorporated into a numerical method using pseudospectral differentiation. The MHD-GSD model is verified by comparison with results from nonlinear finite-volume solution of the complete ideal MHD equations applied to a shock implosion flow in the presence of an oblique and spatially varying magnetic field ahead of the shock. Results from application of the MHD-GSD equations to the stability of fast MHD shocks in two dimensions are presented. It is shown that the time to formation of triple points for both perturbed MHD and gas-dynamic shocks increases as (Formula presented.), where (Formula presented.) is a measure of the initial Mach-number perturbation. Symmetry breaking in the MHD case is demonstrated. In cylindrical converging geometry, in the presence of an azimuthal field produced by a line current, the MHD shock behaves in the mean as in Pullin et al. (Phys. Fluids, vol. 26, 2014, 097103), but suffers a greater relative pressure fluctuation along the shock than the gas-dynamic shock. © 2016 Cambridge University Press

  10. Mechanical behavior of the mirror fusion test Facility superconducting magnet coils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horvath, J.A.

    1980-01-01

    The mechanical response to winding and electromagnetic loads of the Mirror Fusion Test Facility (MFTF) superconducting coil pack is presented. The 375-ton (3300 N) MFTF Yin-Yang magnet, presently the world's largest superconducting magnet, is scheduled for acceptance cold-testing in May of 1981. The assembly is made up of two identical coils which together contain over 15 miles (24 km) of superconductor wound in 58 consecutive layers of 24 turns each. Topics associated with mechanical behavior include physical properties of the coil pack and its components, winding pre-load effects, finite element analysis, magnetic load redistribution, and the design impact of predicted conductor motion

  11. Cure behavior, compression set and dynamic mechanical properties of EPDM/NBR blend vulcanizates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, C.Y. [Pukyong National Univeristy, Pusan (Korea)

    2001-03-01

    The ethylene propylene diene terpolymer (EPDM) blends with acrylonitrile butadiene rubber (NBR) were prepared by mechanical mixing method. Mooney viscosity, cure behaviors, compression set and dynamic mechanical properties were subsequently examined. Dynamic characteristics of the entire blends determined from a Rheovibron generally showed two glass transitions (T{sub g}'s), -43 deg. C and -4 deg. C for NBR and EPDM, respectively. The tan {delta} peak monotonically shifted toward the higher temperature with increasing NBR content. It was also found that the optimum cure time was significantly decreased with loading of NBR. (author). 13 refs., 4 tabs., 9 figs.

  12. Experimental study on mechanical behavior of fiber/matrix interface in metal matrix composite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Q.; Chiang, F.P.

    1994-01-01

    The technique SIEM(Speckle Interferometry with Electron Microscopy) was employed to quantitatively measure the deformation on the fiber/matrix interface in SCS-6/Ti-6-4 composite at a microscale level. The displacement field within the fiber/matrix interphase zone was determined by in-situ observation with sensitivity of 0.003(microm). The macro-mechanical properties were compared with micro-mechanical behavior. It is shown that the strength in the interphase zone is weaker than the matrix tensile strength. The deformation process can be characterized by the uniform deformation, interface strain concentration and debond, and matrix plastic deformation

  13. Mechanical and corrosion behaviors of developed copper-based metal matrix composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Manvandra Kumar; Gautam, Rakesh Kumar; Prakash, Rajiv; Ji, Gopal

    2018-03-01

    This work investigates mechanical properties and corrosion resistances of cast copper-tungsten carbide (WC) metal matrix composites (MMCs). Copper matrix composites have been developed by stir casting technique. Different sizes of micro and nano particles of WC particles are utilized as reinforcement to prepare two copper-based composites, however, nano size of WC particles are prepared by high-energy ball milling. XRD (X-rays diffraction) characterize the materials for involvement of different phases. The mechanical behavior of composites has been studied by Vickers hardness test and compression test; while the corrosion behavior of developed composites is investigated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy in 0.5 M H2SO4 solutions. The results show that hardness, compressive strength and corrosion resistance of copper matrix composites are very high in comparison to that of copper matrix, which attributed to the microstructural changes occurred during composite formation. SEM (Scanning electron microscopy) reveals the morphology of the corroded surfaces.

  14. Non-destructive thermo-mechanical behavior assessment of glass-ceramics for dental applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kordatos, E. Z.; Abdulkadhim, Z.; Feteira, A. M.

    2017-05-01

    Every year millions of people seek dental treatment to either repair damaged, unaesthetic and dysfunctional teeth or replace missing natural teeth. Several dental materials have been developed to meet the stringent requirements in terms of mechanical properties, aesthetics and chemical durability in the oral environment. Glass-ceramics exhibit a suitable combination of these properties for dental restorations. This research is focused on the assessment of the thermomechanical behavior of bio-ceramics and particularly lithium aluminosilicate glass-ceramics (LAS glass-ceramics). Specifically, methodologies based on Infrared Thermography (IRT) have been applied in order the structure - property relationship to be evaluated. Non-crystallized, partially crystallized and fully crystallized glass-ceramic samples have been non-destructively assessed in order their thermo-mechanical behavior to be associated with their micro-structural features.

  15. Influence of Rubber Powders on Foaming Behavior and Mechanical Properties of Foamed Polypropylene Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HE Yue

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Polypropylene/rubber powders composites with different kinds of rubber powders were foamed by injection molding machine equipped with volume-adjustable cavity. The effect of dispersity of rubber powders and crystallization behavior of composites on the foaming behavior and mechanical properties was investigated. The results show that the addition of rubber powders can improve the cell structure of foamed PP with fine and uniform cell distribution. And cell density and size of PP/PP-MAH/NBR foams are 7.64×106cell/cm3 and 29.78μm respectively, which are the best among these foams. Combining cell structures with mechanical properties, notch impact strength of PP/PP-MAH/CNBR composites increases approximately by 2.2 times while tensile strength is reduced just by 26% compared with those of the pure PP. This indicates that PP/PP-MAH/CNBR composites are ideal foamed materials.

  16. Toward the topology design of mechanisms that exhibit snap-through behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burns, T. E.; Sigmund, Ole

    2004-01-01

    Topology optimization has proven to be a powerful method for the conceptual design of structures and mechanisms. In previously published work, we concentrated on the development of numerical methods that accommodate the finite deformation and incorporated these analyses into the topology...... optimization. We demonstrated by relatively straightforward transversely loaded clamped-clamped beam examples that topology optimization can be used to design structures that experience snap-through behavior. Here, we focus our attention on the design problem formulation where the goal is to develop a general...... approach for the design of mechanisms that experience more complex snap-through behavior. A multiphase design strategy is outlined, numerous significant challenges to this complex design process are discussed, and several examples are presented that demonstrate progress toward this goal. (C) 2004 Elsevier...

  17. Tests on mechanical behavior of 304 L stainless steel under constant stress associated with cyclic strain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lebey, J.; Roche, R.

    1979-01-01

    Mechanical analyses of structures, to be efficient, must incorporate materials behavior data. Among the mechanisms liable to cause collapse, progressive distortion (or ratcheting) has been the subject of only a few basic experiments, most of the investigations being theoretical. In order to get meaningful results to characterize materials behavior, an experimental study on ratcheting of austenitic steels has been undertaken at the C.E.A. This paper gives the first results of tests at room temperature on thin tubes of 304L steel submitted to an axial constant stress (primary stress) to which is added a cyclic shearing strain (secondary stress). The tests cover a large combination of the two loading modes. The main results consist of curves of cumulative iso-deformation in the primary and secondary stress field (Bree type diagrams). Results are given for plastic deformations ranging from 0.1 to 2.5% up to N=100 cycles

  18. The effect of multiaxial stress state on creep behavior and fracture mechanism of P92 steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Yuan; Xu, Hong, E-mail: xuhong@ncepu.edu.cn; Ni, Yongzhong; Lan, Xiang; Li, Hongyuan

    2015-06-11

    The creep experiments on plain and double U-typed notched specimens were conducted on P92 steel at 650 °C. The notch strengthening effect was found in the notched specimens. Fracture appearance observed by scanning electron microscopy revealed that dimpled fracture for relatively blunt notched specimen, and dimpled fracture doubled with intergranular brittle fracture for relatively sharp notched specimen, which meant that fracture mechanism of P92 steel altered due to the presence of the notch. Meanwhile, based on Norton–Bailey and Kachanov–Robotnov constitutive models, a modified model was proposed. Finite element simulations were carried out to investigate the effect of multiaxial stress state on the creep behavior, fracture mechanism and damage evolvement of P92 steel. The simulation results agreed well with the fracture behaviors observed experimentally.

  19. The Mechanical Behavior of Bone Cement in THR in the Presense of Cavities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Benouis

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this work we analyze three-dimensionally using the finite element method, the level and the Von Mises stress equivalent distribution induced around a cavity and between two cavities located in the proximal and distal bone cement polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA. The effects of the position around two main axes (vertical and horizontal of the cavity with respect to these axes, of the cavity - cavity interdistance and of the type of loading (static on the mechanical behavior of cement orthopedic are highlighted. We show that the breaking strain of the cement is largely taken when the cement in its proximal-lateral part contains cavities very close adjacent to each other. This work highlights not only the effect of the density of cavities, in our case simulated by cavity-cavity interdistance, but also the nature of the activity of the patient (patient standing corresponding to static efforts on the mechanical behavior of cement.

  20. Mechanisms of odor-tracking: multiple sensors for enhanced perception and behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Gomez-Marin

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Early in evolution, the ability to sense and respond to changing environments must have provided a critical survival advantage to living organisms. From bacteria and worms to flies and vertebrates, sophisticated mechanisms have evolved to enhance odor detection and localization. Here, we review several modes of chemotaxis. We further consider the relevance of a striking and recurrent motif in the organization of invertebrate and vertebrate sensory systems, namely the existence of two symmetrical olfactory sensors. By combining our current knowledge about the olfactory circuits of larval and adult Drosophila, we examine the molecular and neural mechanisms underlying robust olfactory perception and extend these analyses to recent behavioral studies addressing the relevance and function of bilateral olfactory input for gradient detection. Finally, using a comparative theoretical approach based on Braitenberg’s vehicles, we speculate about the relationships between anatomy, circuit architecture and stereotypical orientation behaviors.

  1. Thermal and mechanical behavior of metal matrix and ceramic matrix composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, John M. (Editor); Moeller, Helen H. (Editor); Johnson, W. S. (Editor)

    1990-01-01

    The present conference discusses local stresses in metal-matrix composites (MMCs) subjected to thermal and mechanical loads, the computational simulation of high-temperature MMCs' cyclic behavior, an analysis of a ceramic-matrix composite (CMC) flexure specimen, and a plasticity analysis of fibrous composite laminates under thermomechanical loads. Also discussed are a comparison of methods for determining the fiber-matrix interface frictional stresses of CMCs, the monotonic and cyclic behavior of an SiC/calcium aluminosilicate CMC, the mechanical and thermal properties of an SiC particle-reinforced Al alloy MMC, the temperature-dependent tensile and shear response of a graphite-reinforced 6061 Al-alloy MMC, the fiber/matrix interface bonding strength of MMCs, and fatigue crack growth in an Al2O3 short fiber-reinforced Al-2Mg matrix MMC.

  2. School Shock: A Psychodynamic View of Learning Disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zitani, E. Alfredo

    Learning disability is seen to be a dissociative disorder (school shock) similar to shell shock in wartime. The shell shock model is explained to focus diagnosis and treatment of learning disabilities around the dynamics of the predisposing unconscious conflict, the dynamics in the environment, the mechanism which allows these two conditions to…

  3. Mechanism analysis of improved DLC films friction behaviors with liquid sulfidation treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeng Qunfeng; Yu Fei; Dong Guangneng; Mao Junhong

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Liquid sulfidation is applied to treat DLC films. ► Sulfur atoms are chemically bonded and the graphitization presented in the treated films. ► The treated films exhibited much lower coefficient of friction than the untreated films under dry friction condition. ► The sulfidation mechanisms are supposed as surface chemical reaction and surface diffusion. ► The presence of sulfur-containing materials and graphitization are beneficial to improve anti-friction behaviors of the treated films. - Abstract: Diamond like carbon (DLC) films were treated by liquid sulfidation to improve their friction behaviors. Friction behaviors of DLC films were experimentally evaluated in ambient air under dry friction using GCr15 steel ball sliding over DLC-coated steel flat in a ball-on-disk tribometer system. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Raman spectroscopy were applied to identify the chemical composition and structure of DLC films. It was found that the content of sp 2 carbon bond increased and G peak shifted to high wave number after sulfidation treatment. The measurement results showed that sulfur atoms were chemically bonded and the graphitization occurred in the treated DLC films. It was indicated that the treated DLC films exhibited much better friction behaviors than the untreated films, especially for DLC films deposited with high nitrogen ratio. In this paper, we proposed the possible sulfidation mechanism of sulfurized DLC films. Sulfidation mechanism is postulated that thiourea reacted with oxygen to form sulfur-containing organic compounds which included CSSC, CSOH and (NH 2 )NH=CSO 2 H and surface diffusion during sulfidation treatment. The anti-friction behaviors of the treated DLC films can be attributed to the production of the compounds containing sulfur on the DLC film surface, the reduce of oxygen content and the presence of graphitization of DLC films.

  4. Transient shocks beyond the heliopause

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fermo, R L; Pogorelov, N V; Burlaga, L F

    2015-01-01

    The heliopause is a rich, dynamic surface affected by the time-dependent solar wind. Stream interactions due to coronal mass ejections (CMEs), corotating interaction regions (CIRs), and other transient phenomena are known to merge producing global merged interaction regions (GMIRs). Numerical simulations of the solar wind interaction with the local interstellar medium (LISM) show that GMIRs, as well other time-dependent structures in the solar wind, may produce compression/rarefaction waves and shocks in the LISM behind the heliopause. These shocks may initiate wave activity observed by the Voyager spacecraft. The magnetometer onboard Voyager 1 indeed observed a few structures that may be interpreted as shocks. We present numerical simulations of such shocks in the year of 2000, when both Voyager spacecraft were in the supersonic solar wind region, and in 2012, when Voyager 1 observed traveling shocks. In the former case, Voyager observations themselves provide time- dependent boundary conditions in the solar wind. In the latter case, we use OMNI data at 1 AU to analyze the plasma and magnetic field behavior after Voyager 1 crossed the heliospheric boundary. Numerical results are compared with spacecraft observations. (paper)

  5. Thermo-mechanical behavior of power electronic packaging assemblies: From characterization to predictive simulation of lifetimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalverny, O.; Alexis, J.

    2018-02-01

    This article deals with thermo-mechanical behavior of power electronic modules used in several transportation applications as railway, aeronautic or automotive systems. Due to a multi-layered structures, involving different materials with a large variation of coefficient of thermal expansion, temperature variations originated from active or passive cycling (respectively from die dissipation or environmental constraint) induces strain and stresses field variations, giving fatigue phenomenon of the system. The analysis of the behavior of these systems and their dimensioning require the implementation of complex modeling strategies by both the multi-physical and the multi-scale character of the power modules. In this paper we present some solutions for studying the thermomechanical behavior of brazed assemblies as well as taking into account the interfaces represented by the numerous metallizations involved in the process assembly.

  6. The contributions of cognitive neuroscience and neuroimaging to understanding mechanisms of behavior change in addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgenstern, Jon; Naqvi, Nasir H; Debellis, Robert; Breiter, Hans C

    2013-06-01

    In the last decade, there has been an upsurge of interest in understanding the mechanisms of behavior change (MOBC) and effective behavioral interventions as a strategy to improve addiction-treatment efficacy. However, there remains considerable uncertainty about how treatment research should proceed to address the MOBC issue. In this article, we argue that limitations in the underlying models of addiction that inform behavioral treatment pose an obstacle to elucidating MOBC. We consider how advances in the cognitive neuroscience of addiction offer an alternative conceptual and methodological approach to studying the psychological processes that characterize addiction, and how such advances could inform treatment process research. In addition, we review neuroimaging studies that have tested aspects of neurocognitive theories as a strategy to inform addiction therapies and discuss future directions for transdisciplinary collaborations across cognitive neuroscience and MOBC research. 2013 APA, all rights reserved

  7. Simulation of Mechanical Behavior and Damage of a Large Composite Wind Turbine Blade under Critical Loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarfaoui, M.; Nachtane, M.; Khadimallah, H.; Saifaoui, D.

    2018-04-01

    Issues such as energy generation/transmission and greenhouse gas emissions are the two energy problems we face today. In this context, renewable energy sources are a necessary part of the solution essentially winds power, which is one of the most profitable sources of competition with new fossil energy facilities. This paper present the simulation of mechanical behavior and damage of a 48 m composite wind turbine blade under critical wind loads. The finite element analysis was performed by using ABAQUS code to predict the most critical damage behavior and to apprehend and obtain knowledge of the complex structural behavior of wind turbine blades. The approach developed based on the nonlinear FE analysis using mean values for the material properties and the failure criteria of Tsai-Hill to predict failure modes in large structures and to identify the sensitive zones.

  8. Cosmic ray acceleration by large scale galactic shocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cesarsky, C.J.; Lagage, P.O.

    1987-01-01

    The mechanism of diffusive shock acceleration may account for the existence of galactic cosmic rays detailed application to stellar wind shocks and especially to supernova shocks have been developed. Existing models can usually deal with the energetics or the spectral slope, but the observed energy range of cosmic rays is not explained. Therefore it seems worthwhile to examine the effect that large scale, long-lived galactic shocks may have on galactic cosmic rays, in the frame of the diffusive shock acceleration mechanism. Large scale fast shocks can only be expected to exist in the galactic halo. We consider three situations where they may arise: expansion of a supernova shock in the halo, galactic wind, galactic infall; and discuss the possible existence of these shocks and their role in accelerating cosmic rays

  9. Forecasting of mechanical - and structural behavior of 316 austenitic stainless steels by deformation charts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monteiro, S.N.

    1980-01-01

    The utilization of deformation charts applied to AISI 316 austenitic stainless steel with the purpose of foreseeing its behavior associated with structural and mechanical phenomena, is evaluated. The ocurrence of phenomena such as dynamic aging, martensite transformation, static aging, failure at creep curve, cells, subgrains and boundary slips is discussed in the different regions of the chart. A practical example of the charts' utilization for components of fast reactors is finally presented. (Author) [pt

  10. Mechanical properties, morphology, and hydrolytic degradation behavior of polylactic acid / natural rubber blends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buys, Y. F.; Aznan, A. N. A.; Anuar, H.

    2018-01-01

    Due to its biodegradability and renewability, polylactic acid (PLA) has been receiving enormous attention as a potential candidate to replace petroleum based polymers. However, PLA has limitation due to its inherent brittleness. In order to overcome this limitation, blending PLA with elastomeric materials such as natural rubber (NR) are commonly reported. In previous, several researches on PLA/NR blend had been reported, with most of them evaluated the mechanical properties. On the other hand, study of degradation behavior is significance of importance, as controlling materials degradation is required in some applications. This research studied the effect of blend composition on mechanical properties, morphology development, and hydrolytic degradation behavior of PLA/NR blends. Various compositions of PLA/NR blends were prepared by melt blending technique. Tensile test and impact test of the blends were performed to evaluate the mechanical properties. Addition of NR improved the elongation at break and impact strength of the blends, but reduced the tensile strength and stiffness of the specimens. Dynamic Mechanical Analysis (DMA) measurements of the blends displayed two peaks at temperature -70˚C which corresponded to T g of NR and 65˚C which corresponded to T g of PLA. Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FE-SEM) micrograph of 70/30 PLA/NR specimen also showed two distinct phases, which lead to indication that PLA/NR blends are immiscible. Hydrolytic degradation behavior was evaluated by measuring the remaining weight of the samples immersed in sodium hydroxide solution for a predetermined times. It was shown that the degradation behavior of PLA/NR blends is affected by composition of the blends, with 100 PLA and 70/30 PLA/NR blend showed the fastest degradation rate and 100 NR displayed the slowest one.

  11. Sensory Gain Outperforms Efficient Readout Mechanisms in Predicting Attention-Related Improvements in Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ester, Edward F.; Deering, Sean

    2014-01-01

    Spatial attention has been postulated to facilitate perceptual processing via several different mechanisms. For instance, attention can amplify neural responses in sensory areas (sensory gain), mediate neural variability (noise modulation), or alter the manner in which sensory signals are selectively read out by postsensory decision mechanisms (efficient readout). Even in the context of simple behavioral tasks, it is unclear how well each of these mechanisms can account for the relationship between attention-modulated changes in behavior and neural activity because few studies have systematically mapped changes between stimulus intensity, attentional focus, neural activity, and behavioral performance. Here, we used a combination of psychophysics, event-related potentials (ERPs), and quantitative modeling to explicitly link attention-related changes in perceptual sensitivity with changes in the ERP amplitudes recorded from human observers. Spatial attention led to a multiplicative increase in the amplitude of an early sensory ERP component (the P1, peaking ∼80–130 ms poststimulus) and in the amplitude of the late positive deflection component (peaking ∼230–330 ms poststimulus). A simple model based on signal detection theory demonstrates that these multiplicative gain changes were sufficient to account for attention-related improvements in perceptual sensitivity, without a need to invoke noise modulation. Moreover, combining the observed multiplicative gain with a postsensory readout mechanism resulted in a significantly poorer description of the observed behavioral data. We conclude that, at least in the context of relatively simple visual discrimination tasks, spatial attention modulates perceptual sensitivity primarily by modulating the gain of neural responses during early sensory processing PMID:25274817

  12. Fatigue behavior and failure mechanisms of direct laser deposited Ti–6Al–4V

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sterling, Amanda J.; Torries, Brian [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Mississippi State University, Box 9552, Mississippi State, MS 39762 (United States); Shamsaei, Nima, E-mail: shamsaei@me.msstate.edu [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Mississippi State University, Box 9552, Mississippi State, MS 39762 (United States); Center for Advanced Vehicular Systems (CAVS), Mississippi State University, Box 5405, , Mississippi State, MS 39762 (United States); Thompson, Scott M. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Mississippi State University, Box 9552, Mississippi State, MS 39762 (United States); Center for Advanced Vehicular Systems (CAVS), Mississippi State University, Box 5405, , Mississippi State, MS 39762 (United States); Seely, Denver W. [Center for Advanced Vehicular Systems (CAVS), Mississippi State University, Box 5405, , Mississippi State, MS 39762 (United States)

    2016-02-08

    In order for additive-manufactured parts to become more widely utilized and trusted in application, it is important to have their mechanical properties well-characterized and certified. The fatigue behavior and failure mechanisms of Ti–6Al–4V specimens fabricated using Laser Engineered Net Shaping (LENS), a Direct Laser Deposition (DLD) additive manufacturing (AM) process, are investigated in this study. A series of fully-reversed strain-controlled fatigue tests is conducted on Ti–6Al–4V specimens manufactured via LENS in their as-built and heat-treated conditions. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) is used to examine the fracture surfaces of fatigue specimens to qualify the failure mechanism, crack initiation sites, and defects such as porosity. Due to the relatively high localized heating and cooling rates experienced during DLD, fabricated parts are observed to possess anisotropic microstructures, and thus, different mechanical properties than those of their traditionally-manufactured wrought counterparts. The fatigue lives of the investigated LENS specimens were found to be shorter than those of wrought specimens, and porosity was found to be the primary contributor to these shorter fatigue lives, with the exception of the heat-treated LENS samples. The presence of pores promotes more unpredictable fatigue behavior, as evidenced by data scatter. Pore shape, size, location, and number were found to impact the fatigue behavior of the as-built and annealed DLD parts. As porosity seems to be the main contributor to the fatigue behavior of DLD parts, it is important to optimize the manufacturing process and design parameters to minimize and control pore generation during the build.

  13. Mechanical Behavior of Additive Manufactured Layered Materials, Part 2: Stainless Steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-30

    materials. Elsevier, Oxford; 2007: 416 -420. [19] Deng, D., Chen, R., Sun, Q. and Li, X. Microstructural study of 17-4PH stainless steel after plasma...1 Mechanical Behavior of Additive Manufactured Layered Materials, Part 2: Stainless Steels * Todd M. Mower † and Michael J. Long M.I.T. Lincoln... stainless steel alloys produced with Direct Metal Laser Sintering (DMLS) was measured and is compared to that of similar conventional materials

  14. MECHANICAL BEHAVIOR OF COLD BITUMINOUS MIXTURE UNDER EFFECTS OF STATIC AND REPEATED LOADS1

    OpenAIRE

    Tamyres Karla da Silva; Carlos Alexandre Braz de Carvalho; Geraldo Luciano de Oliveira Marques; Dario Cardoso de Lima; Taciano Oliveira da Silva; Carlos Cardoso Machado

    2017-01-01

    Abstract This paper presents the results of an experimental research aimed at analyzing the mechanical behavior of a cold bituminous mixture under effects of static and repeated loads. Initially, a Marshall mixture design was performed to determine the mixture design contents according to standard DNER (1994a). After obtaining the mixture design contents, nine bituminous specimens were molded and subjected to the following tests: resilient modulus, tensile strength by diametral compression, a...

  15. The buzz on caffeine in invertebrates: effects on behavior and molecular mechanisms

    OpenAIRE

    Mustard, Julie A.

    2013-01-01

    A number of recent studies from as diverse fields as plant-pollinator interactions, analyses of caffeine as an environmental pollutant, and the ability of caffeine to provide protection against neurodegenerative diseases have generated interest in understanding the actions of caffeine in invertebrates. This review summarizes what is currently known about the effects of caffeine on behavior and its molecular mechanisms in invertebrates. Caffeine appears to have similar effects on locomotion an...

  16. Mechanical properties and crystallization behavior of hydroxyapatite/poly(butylenes succinate) composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Wenmin; Zhang, Yihe; Zhang, Wei

    2013-09-01

    Biodegradable synthetic polymers have attracted much attention nowadays, and more and more researches have been done on biodegradable polymers due to their excellent mechanical properties, biocompatibility, and biodegradability. In this work, hydroxyapatite (HA) particles were melt-mixing with poly (butylenes succinate) (PBS) to prepare the material, which could be used in the biomedical industry. To develop high-performance PBS for cryogenic engineering applications, it is necessary to investigate the cryogenic mechanical properties and crystallization behavior of HA/PBS composites. Cryogenic mechanical behaviors of the composites were studied in terms of tensile and impact strength at the glass transition temperature (-30°C) and compared to their corresponding behaviors at room temperature. With the increase of HA content, the crystallization of HA/PBS composites decreased and crystallization onset temperature shifted to a lower temperature. The diameter of spherulites increased at first and decreased with a further HA content. At the same time, the crystallization rate became slow when the HA content was no more than 15wt% and increased when HA content reached 20wt%. In all, the results we obtained demonstrate that HA/PBS composites reveal a better tensile strength at -30°C in contrast to the strength at room temperature. HA particles with different amount affect the crystallization of PBS in different ways. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. On the mechanical behavior of a cryomilled Al-Ti-Cu alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Bing Q.; Lavernia, Enrique J.; Mohamed, Farghalli A.

    2003-01-01

    The mechanical behavior of a cryomilled Al10Ti2Cu that was later extruded was investigated in compression. The data obtained show that the strength of the extruded alloy parallel to the extrusion axis is higher than that normal to the axis. Also, a comparison between the compression behavior of the alloy and its tensile behavior reveals that there is a small asymmetry of yield strength with respect to deformation mode. Examination of the microstructure of the cryomilled alloy by means of transmission electron microscopy (TEM) indicates the presence of two phases: approximately 90% nanostructured Al(Cu) phase containing a dispersion of Al 3 Ti and 10% coarse-grained Al(Cu) phase. TEM observations indicate that as a result of the extrusion process, the larger (softer) grains of the Al(Cu) phase experience severe deformation, resulting in the development of mechanical fibering. It is suggested that the presence of coarse-grained Al(Cu) 'islands' in the matrix of the nanostructured phase and their change during extrusion into elongated bands may be responsible for the anisotropy of the mechanical properties of the extruded cryomilled Al10Ti2Cu

  18. Cyclic mechanical behavior of 316L: Uniaxial LCF and strain-controlled ratcheting tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Facheris, G.; Janssens, K.G.F.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Characterization of cyclic plastic deformation behavior of plate and tubular 316L. ► Strain-controlled ratcheting response between room temperature and 200 °C. ► Isotropic cyclic hardening is dependent on the yield criterion used. ► Ratcheting induced hardening mostly affects the kinematic hardening component. ► Ratcheting induced hardening is related to the mean strain and the ratcheting rate. -- Abstract: With the purpose of analyzing the fatigue behavior under loading conditions relevant for the primary cooling circuit of a light water nuclear reactor, a set of uniaxial low cycle fatigue and strain-controlled ratcheting tests (also named ‘cyclic tension tests’) has been performed at room temperature and at 200 °C on specimens manufactured from two different batches of stainless steel grade 316L. The experiments have been repeated varying strain amplitude, cyclic ratcheting rate and ratcheting direction in order to investigate the influence on the cyclic deformation behavior. In strain-controlled ratcheting tests, the stress response is found to be a superposition of two hardening mechanisms: the first one due to the zero mean strain cycling and the second one linked with the monotonic drifting of mean plastic strain. An approach is proposed to distinguish the effect of each mechanism and the influence of the test parameters on the hardening mechanisms is discussed

  19. Mechanical Behavior of Shale Rock under Uniaxial Cyclic Loading and Unloading Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baoyun Zhao

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate the mechanical behavior of shale rock under cyclic loading and unloading condition, two kinds of incremental cyclic loading tests were conducted. Based on the result of the short-term uniaxial incremental cyclic loading test, the permanent residual strain, modulus, and damage evolution were analyzed firstly. Results showed that the relationship between the residual strains and the cycle number can be expressed by an exponential function. The deformation modulus E50 and elastic modulus ES first increased and then decreased with the peak stress under the loading condition, and both of them increased approximately linearly with the peak stress under the unloading condition. On the basis of the energy dissipation, the damage variables showed an exponential increasing with the strain at peak stress. The creep behavior of the shale rock was also analyzed. Results showed that there are obvious instantaneous strain, decay creep, and steady creep under each stress level and the specimen appears the accelerated creep stage under the 4th stress of 51.16 MPa. Based on the characteristics of the Burgers creep model, a viscoelastic-plastic creep model was proposed through viscoplastic mechanics, which agrees very well with the experimental results and can better describe the creep behavior of shale rock better than the Burgers creep model. Results can provide some mechanics reference evidence for shale gas development.

  20. Experimental study of thermo-mechanical behavior of a thermosetting shape-memory polymer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ruoxuan; Li, Yunxin; Liu, Zishun

    2018-01-01

    The thermo-mechanical behavior of shape-memory polymers (SMPs) serves for the engineering applications of SMPs. Therefore the understanding of thermo-mechanical behavior of SMPs is of great importance. This paper investigates the influence of loading rate and loading level on the thermo-mechanical behavior of a thermosetting shape-memory polymer through experimental study. A series of cyclic tension tests and shape recovery tests at different loading conditions are performed to study the strain level and strain rate effect. The results of tension tests show that the thermosetting shape-memory polymer will behave as rubber material at temperature lower than the glass transition temperature (Tg) and it can obtain a large shape fix ratio at cyclic loading condition. The shape recovery tests exhibit that loading rate and loading level have little effect on the beginning and ending of shape recovery process of the thermosetting shape-memory polymer. Compared with the material which is deformed at temperature higher than Tg, the material deformed at temperature lower than Tg behaves a bigger recovery speed.

  1. The evolution of different forms of sociality: behavioral mechanisms and eco-evolutionary feedback.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel J van der Post

    Full Text Available Different forms of sociality have evolved via unique evolutionary trajectories. However, it remains unknown to what extent trajectories of social evolution depend on the specific characteristics of different species. Our approach to studying such trajectories is to use evolutionary case-studies, so that we can investigate how grouping co-evolves with a multitude of individual characteristics. Here we focus on anti-predator vigilance and foraging. We use an individual-based model, where behavioral mechanisms are specified, and costs and benefits are not predefined. We show that evolutionary changes in grouping alter selection pressures on vigilance, and vice versa. This eco-evolutionary feedback generates an evolutionary progression from "leader-follower" societies to "fission-fusion" societies, where cooperative vigilance in groups is maintained via a balance between within- and between-group selection. Group-level selection is generated from an assortment that arises spontaneously when vigilant and non-vigilant foragers have different grouping tendencies. The evolutionary maintenance of small groups, and cooperative vigilance in those groups, is therefore achieved simultaneously. The evolutionary phases, and the transitions between them, depend strongly on behavioral mechanisms. Thus, integrating behavioral mechanisms and eco-evolutionary feedback is critical for understanding what kinds of intermediate stages are involved during the evolution of particular forms of sociality.

  2. Cellular Mechanisms Underlying Behavioral State-Dependent Bidirectional Modulation of Motor Cortex Output

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Schiemann

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Neuronal activity in primary motor cortex (M1 correlates with behavioral state, but the cellular mechanisms underpinning behavioral state-dependent modulation of M1 output remain largely unresolved. Here, we performed in vivo patch-clamp recordings from layer 5B (L5B pyramidal neurons in awake mice during quiet wakefulness and self-paced, voluntary movement. We show that L5B output neurons display bidirectional (i.e., enhanced or suppressed firing rate changes during movement, mediated via two opposing subthreshold mechanisms: (1 a global decrease in membrane potential variability that reduced L5B firing rates (L5Bsuppressed neurons, and (2 a coincident noradrenaline-mediated increase in excitatory drive to a subpopulation of L5B neurons (L5Benhanced neurons that elevated firing rates. Blocking noradrenergic receptors in forelimb M1 abolished the bidirectional modulation of M1 output during movement and selectively impaired contralateral forelimb motor coordination. Together, our results provide a mechanism for how noradrenergic neuromodulation and network-driven input changes bidirectionally modulate M1 output during motor behavior.

  3. Mechanical behavior and modelisation of Ti-6Al-4V titanium sheet under hot stamping conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirvin, Q.; Velay, V.; Bonnaire, R.; Penazzi, L.

    2017-10-01

    The Ti-6Al-4V titanium alloy is widely used for the manufacture of aeronautical and automotive parts (solid parts). In aeronautics, this alloy is employed for its excellent mechanical behavior associated with low density, outstanding corrosion resistance and good mechanical properties up to 600°C. It is especially used for the manufacture of fuselage frames, on the pylon for carrying out the primary structure (machining forged blocks) and the secondary structure in sheet form. In this last case, the sheet metal forming can be done through various methods: at room temperature by drawing operation, at very high temperature (≃900°C) by superplastic forming (SPF) and at intermediate temperature (≥750°C) by hot forming (HF). In order to reduce production costs and environmental troubles, the cycle times reduction associated with a decrease of temperature levels are relevant. This study focuses on the behavior modelling of Ti-6Al-4V alloy at temperatures above room temperature to obtained greater formability and below SPF condition to reduce tools workshop and energy costs. The displacement field measurement obtained by Digital Image Correlation (DIC) is based on innovative surface preparation pattern adapted to high temperature exposures. Different material parameters are identified to define a model able to predict the mechanical behavior of Ti-6Al-4V alloy under hot stamping conditions. The hardening plastic model identified is introduced in FEM to simulate an omega shape forming operation.

  4. Numerical Modeling of Mechanical Behavior for Buried Steel Pipelines Crossing Subsidence Strata.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Zhang

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the mechanical behavior of buried steel pipeline crossing subsidence strata. The investigation is based on numerical simulation of the nonlinear response of the pipeline-soil system through finite element method, considering large strain and displacement, inelastic material behavior of buried pipeline and the surrounding soil, as well as contact and friction on the pipeline-soil interface. Effects of key parameters on the mechanical behavior of buried pipeline were investigated, such as strata subsidence, diameter-thickness ratio, buried depth, internal pressure, friction coefficient and soil properties. The results show that the maximum strain appears on the outer transition subsidence section of the pipeline, and its cross section is concave shaped. With the increasing of strata subsidence and diameter-thickness ratio, the out of roundness, longitudinal strain and equivalent plastic strain increase gradually. With the buried depth increasing, the deflection, out of roundness and strain of the pipeline decrease. Internal pressure and friction coefficient have little effect on the deflection of buried pipeline. Out of roundness is reduced and the strain is increased gradually with the increasing of internal pressure. The physical properties of soil have a great influence on the mechanical properties of buried pipeline. The results from the present study can be used for the development of optimization design and preventive maintenance for buried steel pipelines.

  5. Converging shocks in elastic-plastic solids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, A López; Lombardini, M; Hill, D J

    2011-11-01

    We present an approximate description of the behavior of an elastic-plastic material processed by a cylindrically or spherically symmetric converging shock, following Whitham's shock dynamics theory. Originally applied with success to various gas dynamics problems, this theory is presently derived for solid media, in both elastic and plastic regimes. The exact solutions of the shock dynamics equations obtained reproduce well the results obtained by high-resolution numerical simulations. The examined constitutive laws share a compressible neo-Hookean structure for the internal energy e=e(s)(I(1))+e(h)(ρ,ς), where e(s) accounts for shear through the first invariant of the Cauchy-Green tensor, and e(h) represents the hydrostatic contribution as a function of the density ρ and entropy ς. In the strong-shock limit, reached as the shock approaches the axis or origin r=0, we show that compression effects are dominant over shear deformations. For an isothermal constitutive law, i.e., e(h)=e(h)(ρ), with a power-law dependence e(h) is proportional to ρ(α), shock dynamics predicts that for a converging shock located at r=R(t) at time t, the Mach number increases as M is proportional to [log(1/R)](α), independently of the space index s, where s=2 in cylindrical geometry and 3 in spherical geometry. An alternative isothermal constitutive law with p(ρ) of the arctanh type, which enforces a finite density in the strong-shock limit, leads to M is proportional to R(-(s-1)) for strong shocks. A nonisothermal constitutive law, whose hydrostatic part e(h) is that of an ideal gas, is also tested, recovering the strong-shock limit M is proportional to R(-(s-1)/n(γ)) originally derived by Whitham for perfect gases, where γ is inherently related to the maximum compression ratio that the material can reach, (γ+1)/(γ-1). From these strong-shock limits, we also estimate analytically the density, radial velocity, pressure, and sound speed immediately behind the shock. While the

  6. GEOMETRICAL OPTIMIZATION OF VEHICLE SHOCK ABSORBERS WITH MR FLUID

    OpenAIRE

    ENGIN, Tahsin; PARLAK, Zekeriya; ŞAHIN, Ismail; ÇALLI, Ismail

    2016-01-01

    Magnetorheological (MR) shock absorber have received remarkable attention in the last decade due to being a potential technology to conduct semi-active control in structures and mechanical systems in order to effectively suppress vibration. To develop performance of MR shock absorbers, optimal design of the dampers should be considered. The present study deals with optimal geometrical modeling of a MR shock absorber. Optimal design of the present shock absorber was carried out by using Taguch...

  7. Plastic flow in weak shock waves in uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tonks, D.L.

    1992-01-01

    Measurements of the particle velocity in weak shock waves in metals are available for a number of materials. These measurements use the laser interferometer or VISAR technique in conjunction with a plate impact experiment. These measurements are important for determining the elastic -- plastic behavior of materials at high strain rates. Strain rates up to 10 7 /s are measurable with this technique, while more conventional mechanical testing machines, such as the Hopkinson bar, achieve rates only up to about 10 4 /s. In this paper, the VISAR measurements of Grady on uranium are analyzed using the weak shock analysis of Wallace to extract the plastic and total strains, the deviatoric and total stresses, and the plastic strain rates. A brief error analysis of the results will be given. 7 refs

  8. Anisotropic Failure Strength of Shale with Increasing Confinement: Behaviors, Factors and Mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Cheng; Li, Xiao; Qian, Haitao

    2017-11-15

    Some studies reported that the anisotropic failure strength of shale will be weakened by increasing confinement. In this paper, it is found that there are various types of anisotropic strength behaviors. Four types of anisotropic strength ratio ( S A 1 ) behaviors and three types of anisotropic strength difference ( S A 2 ) behaviors have been classified based on laboratory experiments on nine groups of different shale samples. The cohesion c w and friction angle ϕ w of the weak planes are proven to be two dominant factors according to a series of bonded-particle discrete element modelling analyses. It is observed that shale is more prone to a slight increase of S A 1 and significant increase of S A 2 with increasing confinement for higher cohesion c w and lower to medium friction angle ϕ w . This study also investigated the mechanism of the anisotropic strength behaviors with increasing confinement. Owing to different contributions of c w and ϕ w under different confinements, different combinations of c w and ϕ w may have various types of influences on the minimum failure strength with the increasing confinement; therefore, different types of anisotropic behaviors occur for different shale specimens as the confinement increases. These findings are very important to understand the stability of wellbore and underground tunneling in the shale rock mass, and should be helpful for further studies on hydraulic fracture propagations in the shale reservoir.

  9. Mechanical behavior and fatigue performance of SMA short fiber reinforced MMC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Matar, Basem Jawad

    The mechanical behavior and performance of Shape Memory Alloy (SMA) short fiber NiTi reinforced Al was experimentally investigated for monotonic and fatigue test Al 6061 NiTi-SiC T6 was superior to unreinforced materials as well as to the reinforced Al T4. Taya three-dimensional model was performed on the monotonic tensile test at room temperature. It showed good agreement with experimental results. In order to utilize the compressive criterion for SMA, the NiTi reinforced Al composite was cooled at -10°C and prestrained at 1.2%. Beyond this limit composite suffered from damage. The net enhancement of SMA effect was around 10 MPa on composite yield stress. Results showed that the elastic constant for the composite did not change with loading and unloading suggesting that the inelastic behavior is plasticity. Further investigation on the inelastic behavior model as damage and/or plasticity by evaluating Poisson's ratio during loading was carried out by Adaptive Image Correlation Technique for Full-Field Strain Measurement. Poisson's ratio increased from around 0.33 to 0.5 demonstrating that it is plasticity that is responsible for the inelastic behavior. Scanning electron microscopy was also used and confirmed model results. The overall damage-behavior was quantified in terms of the post fatigue failure strength for low-cycle fatigue tests. Power law model was best to fit experimental findings.

  10. Mechanical Behavior of Low Porosity Carbonate Rock: From Brittle Creep to Ductile Creep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolas, A.; Fortin, J.; Gueguen, Y.

    2014-12-01

    Mechanical compaction and associated porosity reduction play an important role in the diagenesis of porous rocks. They may also affect reservoir rocks during hydrocarbon production, as the pore pressure field is modified. This inelastic compaction can lead to subsidence, cause casing failure, trigger earthquake, or change the fluid transport properties. In addition, inelastic deformation can be time - dependent. In particular, brittle creep phenomena have been deeply investigated since the 90s, especially in sandstones. However knowledge of carbonates behavior is still insufficient. In this study, we focus on the mechanical behavior of a 14.7% porosity white Tavel (France) carbonate rock (>98% calcite). The samples were deformed in a triaxial cell at effective confining pressures ranging from 0 MPa to 85 MPa at room temperature and 70°C. Experiments were carried under dry and water saturated conditions in order to explore the role played by the pore fluids. Two types of experiments have been carried out: (1) a first series in order to investigate the rupture envelopes, and (2) a second series with creep experiments. During the experiments, elastic wave velocities (P and S) were measured to infer crack density evolution. Permeability was also measured during creep experiments. Our results show two different mechanical behaviors: (1) brittle behavior is observed at low confining pressures, whereas (2) ductile behavior is observed at higher confining pressures. During creep experiments, these two behaviors have a different signature in term of elastic wave velocities and permeability changes, due to two different mechanisms: development of micro-cracks at low confining pressures and competition between cracks and microplasticity at high confining pressure. The attached figure is a summary of 20 triaxial experiments performed on Tavel limestone under different conditions. Stress states C',C* and C*' and brittle strength are shown in the P-Q space: (a) 20°C and dry

  11. Evolution of fuel rod support under irradiation consequences on the mechanical behavior of fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Billerey, A.; Bouffioux, P.

    2002-01-01

    The complete paper follows. According to the fuel management policy in French PWR with respect to high burn-up, the prediction of the mechanical behavior of the irradiated fuel assembly is required as far as excessive deformations of fuel assembly might lead to incomplete Rod Cluster Control Assembly insertion (safety problems) and fretting wear lead to leaking rods (plant operation problems). One of the most important parameter is the evolution of the fuel rod support in the grid cell as it directly governs the mechanical behavior of the fuel assembly and consequently allows to predict the behavior of irradiated structure in terms of (i) axial and lateral deformation (global behavior of the assembly) and (ii) fretting wear (local behavior of the rod). Fuel rod support is provided by a spring-dimple system fixed on the grid. During irradiation, the spring force decreases and a gap between the rod and the spring might open. This phenomenon is due to (i) irradiation-induced stress relaxation for the spring and for the dimples, (ii) grid growth and (iii) reduction of rod diameter. Two models have been developed to predict the behavior of the rod in the grid cell. The first model is able to evaluate the spring force relaxation during irradiation. The second one is able to evaluate the rotation characteristic of the fuel rod in the cell, function of the spring force. The main input parameters are (i) the creep laws of the grid materials, (ii) the growth law of the grid, (iii) the evolution of rod diameter and (iv) the design of the fuel rod support. The objectives of this paper are to: (i) evaluate the consequences of grid support design modifications on the fretting sensitivity in terms of predicted maximum gap during irradiation and operational time to gap appearance; (ii) evaluate, using a non-linear Finite Element assembly model, the impact of the evolution of grid support under irradiation on the mechanical behavior of the full assembly in terms of axial and

  12. Relativistic shocks in the systems containing domains with anomalous equation of state and quark baryonic matter hadronization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bugaev, K.A.; Gorenshtejn, M.I.; Zhdanov, V.I.

    1987-01-01

    Theoretical basis for general stability criterion of relativistic shocks in baryonic matter is proposed. Different formulations of shock mechanical stability are considered and applied to the analysis of rarefaction shock hadronization transition. 13 refs.; 2 figs

  13. The buzz on caffeine in invertebrates: effects on behavior and molecular mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustard, Julie A

    2014-04-01

    A number of recent studies from as diverse fields as plant-pollinator interactions, analyses of caffeine as an environmental pollutant, and the ability of caffeine to provide protection against neurodegenerative diseases have generated interest in understanding the actions of caffeine in invertebrates. This review summarizes what is currently known about the effects of caffeine on behavior and its molecular mechanisms in invertebrates. Caffeine appears to have similar effects on locomotion and sleep in both invertebrates and mammals. Furthermore, as in mammals, caffeine appears to have complex effects on learning and memory. However, the underlying mechanisms for these effects may differ between invertebrates and vertebrates. While caffeine's ability to cause release of intracellular calcium stores via ryanodine receptors and its actions as a phosphodiesterase inhibitor have been clearly established in invertebrates, its ability to interact with invertebrate adenosine receptors remains an important open question. Initial studies in insects and mollusks suggest an interaction between caffeine and the dopamine signaling pathway; more work needs to be done to understand the mechanisms by which caffeine influences signaling via biogenic amines. As of yet, little is known about whether other actions of caffeine in vertebrates, such as its effects on GABAA and glycine receptors, are conserved. Furthermore, the pharmacokinetics of caffeine remains to be elucidated. Overall behavioral responses to caffeine appear to be conserved amongst organisms; however, we are just beginning to understand the mechanisms underlying its effects across animal phyla.

  14. Thermal behavior and mechanical properties of physically crosslinked PVA/Gelatin hydrogels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yurong; Geever, Luke M; Kennedy, James E; Higginbotham, Clement L; Cahill, Paul A; McGuinness, Garrett B

    2010-02-01

    Poly (vinyl alcohol)/Gelatin hydrogels are under active investigation as potential vascular cell culture biomaterials, tissue models and vascular implants. The PVA/Gelatin hydrogels are physically crosslinked by the freeze-thaw technique, which is followed by a coagulation bath treatment. In this study, the thermal behavior of the gels was examined by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and dynamic mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA). Rheological measurement and uniaxial tensile tests revealed key mechanical properties. The role of polymer fraction in relation to these mechanical properties is explored. Gelatin has no significant effect on the thermal behavior of PVA, which indicates that no substantial change occurs in the PVA crystallite due to the presence of gelatin. The glass transition temperature, melting temperature, degree of crystallinity, polymer fraction, storage modulus (G') and ultimate strength of one freeze-thaw cycle (1FT) hydrogels are inferior to those of 3FT hydrogels. With coagulation, both 1FT and 3FT hydrogels shifted to a lower value of T(g), melting temperature and polymer fraction are further increased and the degree of crystallinity is depressed. The mechanical properties of 1FT, but not 3FT, were strengthened with coagulation treatment. This study gives a detailed investigation of the microstructure formation of PVA/Gelatin hydrogel in each stage of physical treatments which helps us to explain the role of physical treatments in tuning their physical properties for biomechanical applications. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Effect of Thermal Environment on the Mechanical Behaviors of Building Marble

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haijian Su

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available High temperature and thermal environment can influence the mechanical properties of building materials worked in the civil engineering, for example, concrete, building rock, and steel. This paper examines standard cylindrical building marble specimens (Φ50 × 100 mm that were treated with high temperatures in two different thermal environments: vacuum (VE and airiness (AE. Uniaxial compression tests were also carried out on those specimens after heat treatment to study the effect that the thermal environment has on mechanical behaviors. With an increase in temperature, the mechanical behavior of marble in this study indicates a critical temperature of 600°C. Both the peak stress and elasticity modulus were larger for the VE than they were for the AE. The thermal environment has an obvious influence on the mechanical properties, especially at temperatures of 450∼750°C. The failure mode of marble specimens under uniaxial compression is mainly affected by the thermal environment at 600°C.

  16. Microstructural and hardness behavior of graphene-nanoplatelets/aluminum composites synthesized by mechanical alloying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pérez-Bustamante, R.; Bolaños-Morales, D.; Bonilla-Martínez, J.; Estrada-Guel, I.; Martínez-Sánchez, R.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Pure aluminum was reinforced with graphene-platelets by using mechanical milling. • The composites were studied after sintering condition. • Milling time and graphene-platelet enhance the mechanical behavior of the composites. - Abstract: Graphene can be considered as an ideal reinforcement for the production of composites due to its outstanding mechanical properties. These characteristics offer an increased opportunity for their study in the production of metal matrix composites (MMCs). In this research, the studied composites were produced by mechanical alloying (MA). The employed milling times were of 1, 3 and 5 h. GNPs were added in 0.25, 0.50 and 1.0 wt% into an aluminum powder matrix. Milled powders were cold consolidated and subsequently sintered. Composites were microstructurally characterized with Raman spectroscopy and electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The hardness behavior in composites was evaluated with a Vickers micro-hardness test. A homogeneous dispersion of graphene during MA and the proper selection of sintering conditions were considered to produce optimized composites. The obtained results with electron microscopy indicate a homogeneous dispersion of GNPs into the aluminum matrix. Analyses showed GNPs edges where the structure of the graphene layers conserved after MA is observed

  17. Examination of constitutive model for evaluating long-term mechanical behavior of buffer. 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takaji, Kazuhiko; Shigeno, Yoshimasa; Shimogouchi, Takafumi; Shiratake, Toshikazu; Tamura, Hirokuni

    2004-02-01

    On the R and D of the high-level radioactive waste repository, it is essential that Engineered Barrier System (EBS) is stable